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Sample records for automated elution time

  1. The Influence of Irradiation Time and Layer Thickness on Elution of Triethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate from SDR® Bulk-Fill Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryta Łagocka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to evaluate triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA elution from SDR bulk-fill composite. Methods. Three groups of samples were prepared, including samples polymerized in a 4 mm layer for 20 s, in a 4 mm layer for 40 s, and in a 2 mm layer for 20 s. Elution of TEGDMA into 100% ethanol, a 75% ethanol/water solution, and distilled water was studied. The TEGDMA concentration was measured using HPLC. Results. The TEGDMA concentration decreased in the following order: 100% ethanol > 75% ethanol > distilled water. Doubling the energy delivered to the 4 mm thick sample caused decrease (p<0.05 in TEGDMA elution to distilled water. In ethanol solutions, the energy increase had no influence on TEGDMA elution. Decreasing the sample thickness resulted in decrease (p<0.05 in TEGDMA elution for all the solutions. Conclusions. The concentration of eluted TEGDMA and the elution time were both strongly affected by the hydrophobicity of the solvent. Doubling the energy delivered to the 4 mm thick sample did not decrease the elution of TEGDMA but did decrease the amount of the monomer available to less aggressive solvents. Elution of TEGDMA was also correlated with the exposed sample surface area. Clinical Relevance. Decreasing the SDR layer thickness decreases TEGDMA elution.

  2. Predictive elution window stretching and shifting as a generic search strategy for automated method development for liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyteca, Eva; Liekens, Anuschka; Clicq, David; Fanigliulo, Ameriga; Debrus, Benjamin; Rudaz, Serge; Guillarme, Davy; Desmet, Gert

    2012-09-18

    We report on the possibilities of a new method development (MD) algorithm that searches the chromatographic parameter space by systematically shifting and stretching the elution window over different parts of the time-axis. In this way, the search automatically focuses on the most promising areas of the solution space. Since only the retention properties of the first and last eluting compounds of the sample need to be (approximately) known, the algorithm can be directly applied to samples with unknown composition, and the proposed solutions are not sensitive to any modeling errors. The search efficiency of the algorithm has been evaluated on an extensive set of random-generated in silico samples covering a broad range of different retention properties. Compared to a pure grid-based search, the algorithm could reduce the number of missed components by 50% and more. The algorithm has also been applied to solve three different real-world separation problems from the pharmaceutical industry. All problems could be successfully solved in a very short time (order of 12 h of instrument time).

  3. Automation: is it really different this time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajcman, Judy

    2017-03-01

    This review examines several recent books that deal with the impact of automation and robotics on the future of jobs. Most books in this genre predict that the current phase of digital technology will create massive job loss in an unprecedented way, that is, that this wave of automation is different from previous waves. Uniquely digital technology is said to automate professional occupations for the first time. This review critically examines these claims, puncturing some of the hyperbole about automation, robotics and Artificial Intelligence. The review argues for a more nuanced analysis of the politics of technology and provides some critical distance on Silicon Valley's futurist discourse. Only by insisting that futures are always social can public bodies, rather than autonomous markets and endogenous technologies, become central to disentangling, debating and delivering those futures.

  4. Accurate retention time determination of co-eluting proteins in analytical chromatography by means of spectral data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dismer, Florian; Hansen, Sigrid; Oelmeier, Stefan Alexander; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2013-03-01

    Chromatography is the method of choice for the separation of proteins, at both analytical and preparative scale. Orthogonal purification strategies for industrial use can easily be implemented by combining different modes of adsorption. Nevertheless, with flexibility comes the freedom of choice and optimal conditions for consecutive steps need to be identified in a robust and reproducible fashion. One way to address this issue is the use of mathematical models that allow for an in silico process optimization. Although this has been shown to work, model parameter estimation for complex feedstocks becomes the bottleneck in process development. An integral part of parameter assessment is the accurate measurement of retention times in a series of isocratic or gradient elution experiments. As high-resolution analytics that can differentiate between proteins are often not readily available, pure protein is mandatory for parameter determination. In this work, we present an approach that has the potential to solve this problem. Based on the uniqueness of UV absorption spectra of proteins, we were able to accurately measure retention times in systems of up to four co-eluting compounds. The presented approach is calibration-free, meaning that prior knowledge of pure component absorption spectra is not required. Actually, pure protein spectra can be determined from co-eluting proteins as part of the methodology. The approach was tested for size-exclusion chromatograms of 38 mixtures of co-eluting proteins. Retention times were determined with an average error of 0.6 s (1.6% of average peak width), approximated and measured pure component spectra showed an average coefficient of correlation of 0.992.

  5. Do You Automate? Saving Time and Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Christine H.

    2010-01-01

    An automated workforce management strategy can help schools save jobs, improve the job satisfaction of teachers and staff, and free up precious budget dollars for investments in critical learning resources. Automated workforce management systems can help schools control labor costs, minimize compliance risk, and improve employee satisfaction.…

  6. Performance of an automated solid-phase red cell adherence system compared with that of a manual gel microcolumn assay for the identification of antibodies eluted from red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, R H; Davis, R J; Teng, S; Goldfinger, D; Ziman, A F; Lu, Q; Yuan, S

    2011-01-01

    IgG antibodies coating red blood cells (RBCs) can be removed by elution procedures and their specificity determined by antibody identification studies. Although such testing is traditionally performed using the tube agglutination assay, prior studies have shown that the gel microcolumn (GMC) assay may also be used with comparable results. The purpose of this study was to compare an automated solid-phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) system with a GMC assay for the detection of antibodies eluted from RBCs. Acid eluates from 51 peripheral blood (PB) and 7 cord blood (CB) samples were evaluated by both an automated SPRCA instrument and a manual GMC assay. The concordance rate between the two systems for peripheral RBC samples was 88.2 percent (45 of 51), including cases with alloantibodies (n = 8), warm autoantibodies (n = 12), antibodies with no identifiable specificity (n = 2), and negative results (n = 23). There were six discordant cases, of which four had alloantibodies (including anti-Jka, -E, and -e) demonstrable by the SPRCA system only. In the remaining 2 cases, anti-Fya and antibodies with no identifiable specificity were demonstrable by the GMC assay only. All seven CB specimens produced concordant results, showing anti-A (n = 3), -B (n = 1), maternal anti-Jka (n = 2), or a negative result (n = 1). Automated SPRCA technology has a performance that is comparable with that of a manual GMC assay for identifying antibodies eluted from PB and CB RBCs.

  7. Automated packaging employing real-time vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chung; Wu, Chia-Hung

    2016-07-01

    Existing packaging systems rely on human operation to position a box in the packaging device perform do the packaging task. Current facilities are not capable of handling boxes with different sizes in a flexible way. In order to improve the above-mentioned problems, an eye-to-hand visual servo automated packaging approach is proposed in this paper. The system employs two cameras to observe the box and the gripper mounted on the robotic manipulator to precisely control the manipulator to complete the packaging task. The system first employs two-camera vision to determine the box pose. With appropriate task encoding, a closed-loop visual servoing controller is designed to drive a manipulator to accomplish packaging tasks. The proposed approach can be used to complete automated packaging tasks in the case of uncertain location and size of the box. The system has been successfully validated by experimenting with an industrial robotic manipulator for postal box packaging.

  8. Time-related changes in neointimal tissue coverage of a novel Sirolimus eluting stent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secco, Gioel Gabrio, E-mail: gioel.gabrio.secco@gmail.com [Interventional Cardiology, “Santi Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo” Hospital, Alessandria (Italy); NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Mattesini, Alessio [NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Fattori, Rossella; Parisi, Rosario [Interventional Cardiology, “San Salvatore” Hospital, Pesaro (Italy); Castriota, Fausto [GVM Care and Research, Cotignola (Italy); Vercellino, Matteo [Interventional Cardiology, “Santi Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo” Hospital, Alessandria (Italy); Dall’Ara, Gianni [NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Uguccioni, Lucia; Marinucci, Lucia [Interventional Cardiology, “San Salvatore” Hospital, Pesaro (Italy); De Luca, Giuseppe; Marino, Paolo Nicola [University of Eastern Piedmont, Novara (Italy); Pistis, Gianfranco [Interventional Cardiology, “Santi Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo” Hospital, Alessandria (Italy); Di Mario, Carlo [NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Background: DES has reduced rates of restenosis compared with BMS but it has been associated with delayed healing and increase of stent thrombosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the vascular time-related changes following implantation of a new SES coated with an amorphous silicon carbide that allows faster re-endothelisation (Orsiro-Biotronik). Methods: This prospective registry enrolled STEMI-patients with multi-vessel disease, thus candidates for a two-step procedure. PCI of the culprit lesion was performed with at least one Orsiro stent that was OCT-analysed during the second-step procedure (deferred to 30,90 and 180-days). Results: 16 of the 95 patients with MVD underwent an OCT evaluation of the study device implanted in the culprit lesion during the second-step staged procedure and were enrolled in the present Registry. A total of 3060-struts were analysed. The percentage of uncovered struts was 19.6% at30-days, 1.3% at90-days and 1.8% at180-days (p < 0.001). The percentage of cross section with ≥ 1 uncovered struts were 51.3% at30-days, 6.5% at90-days and 5.7% at180-days (p < 0.001). The percentage of cross sections containing thrombus was 6.2% at30-days while no thrombus was detected both at90 and 180-days. Conclusions: Our data shows that the new Orsiro stent promotes early and persistent strut coverage with low peri-strut thrombus. This pilot OCT evaluation might suggest a low incidence of late adverse events and anticipate safe outcome after early withdrawal of dual antiplatelet therapy. - Highlights: • This is the first serial study comparing coverage at 1, 3, and 6-months in consecutive patients with STEMI; • Aim of our study was to evaluate the vascular time-related changes following implantation of a new SES coated with an amorphous silicon carbide that allows faster re-endothelisation (Orsiro-Biotronik); • The main finding of this pilot study is that the study device presented a fast pattern of intimal coverage, with a thin intimal

  9. Real time control engineering systems and automation

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Tian Seng

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the two broad areas of the electronics and electrical aspects of control applications, highlighting the many different types of control systems of relevance to real-life control system design. The control techniques presented are state-of-the-art. In the electronics section, readers will find essential information on microprocessor, microcontroller, mechatronics and electronics control. The low-level assembly programming language performs basic input/output control techniques as well as controlling the stepper motor and PWM dc motor. In the electrical section, the book addresses the complete elevator PLC system design, neural network plant control, load flow analysis, and process control, as well as machine vision topics. Illustrative diagrams, circuits and programming examples and algorithms help to explain the details of the system function design. Readers will find a wealth of computer control and industrial automation practices and applications for modern industries, as well as the educat...

  10. Low cost automated precise time measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, A.; Liposchak, P.

    1973-01-01

    The Aerospace Guidance and Metrology Center (AGMC) has the responsibility for the dissemination of Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) to Air Force timing systems requiring microsecond time. In order to maintain traceability to the USNO Master Clock in Washington D.C., and accomplish efficient logging of time and frequency data on individual precision clocks, a simple automatic means of acquiring precise time has been devised. The Automatic Time Interval Measurement System (ATIMS) consists of a minicomputer (8K Memory), teletype terminal, electronic counter, Loran C receiver, time base generator and locally-manufactured relay matrix panel. During the measurement process, the computer controls the relay matrix which selects for comparison 13 atomic clocks against a reference clock and the reference versus Loran C. Through use of the system teletype, the operator is able to set the system clock (hours, minutes and seconds), examine and/or modify all clock data and constants, and set measurement intervals. This is done in a conversational manner. A logic flow diagram, system schematic, source listing and software components are included in the presentation.

  11. Automated time series forecasting for biosurveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkom, Howard S; Murphy, Sean Patrick; Shmueli, Galit

    2007-09-30

    For robust detection performance, traditional control chart monitoring for biosurveillance is based on input data free of trends, day-of-week effects, and other systematic behaviour. Time series forecasting methods may be used to remove this behaviour by subtracting forecasts from observations to form residuals for algorithmic input. We describe three forecast methods and compare their predictive accuracy on each of 16 authentic syndromic data streams. The methods are (1) a non-adaptive regression model using a long historical baseline, (2) an adaptive regression model with a shorter, sliding baseline, and (3) the Holt-Winters method for generalized exponential smoothing. Criteria for comparing the forecasts were the root-mean-square error, the median absolute per cent error (MedAPE), and the median absolute deviation. The median-based criteria showed best overall performance for the Holt-Winters method. The MedAPE measures over the 16 test series averaged 16.5, 11.6, and 9.7 for the non-adaptive regression, adaptive regression, and Holt-Winters methods, respectively. The non-adaptive regression forecasts were degraded by changes in the data behaviour in the fixed baseline period used to compute model coefficients. The mean-based criterion was less conclusive because of the effects of poor forecasts on a small number of calendar holidays. The Holt-Winters method was also most effective at removing serial autocorrelation, with most 1-day-lag autocorrelation coefficients below 0.15. The forecast methods were compared without tuning them to the behaviour of individual series. We achieved improved predictions with such tuning of the Holt-Winters method, but practical use of such improvements for routine surveillance will require reliable data classification methods.

  12. Real-time bioacoustics monitoring and automated species identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrada-Bravo, Carlos; Campos-Cerqueira, Marconi; Milan, Carlos; Vega, Giovany; Alvarez, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, animal species diversity and abundance is assessed using a variety of methods that are generally costly, limited in space and time, and most importantly, they rarely include a permanent record. Given the urgency of climate change and the loss of habitat, it is vital that we use new technologies to improve and expand global biodiversity monitoring to thousands of sites around the world. In this article, we describe the acoustical component of the Automated Remote Biodiversity Monitoring Network (ARBIMON), a novel combination of hardware and software for automating data acquisition, data management, and species identification based on audio recordings. The major components of the cyberinfrastructure include: a solar powered remote monitoring station that sends 1-min recordings every 10 min to a base station, which relays the recordings in real-time to the project server, where the recordings are processed and uploaded to the project website (arbimon.net). Along with a module for viewing, listening, and annotating recordings, the website includes a species identification interface to help users create machine learning algorithms to automate species identification. To demonstrate the system we present data on the vocal activity patterns of birds, frogs, insects, and mammals from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica. PMID:23882441

  13. Real-time bioacoustics monitoring and automated species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mitchell Aide

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, animal species diversity and abundance is assessed using a variety of methods that are generally costly, limited in space and time, and most importantly, they rarely include a permanent record. Given the urgency of climate change and the loss of habitat, it is vital that we use new technologies to improve and expand global biodiversity monitoring to thousands of sites around the world. In this article, we describe the acoustical component of the Automated Remote Biodiversity Monitoring Network (ARBIMON, a novel combination of hardware and software for automating data acquisition, data management, and species identification based on audio recordings. The major components of the cyberinfrastructure include: a solar powered remote monitoring station that sends 1-min recordings every 10 min to a base station, which relays the recordings in real-time to the project server, where the recordings are processed and uploaded to the project website (arbimon.net. Along with a module for viewing, listening, and annotating recordings, the website includes a species identification interface to help users create machine learning algorithms to automate species identification. To demonstrate the system we present data on the vocal activity patterns of birds, frogs, insects, and mammals from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica.

  14. Automated Real-Time Conjunctival Microvasculature Image Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Anthony E; Mercurio, Cesare; Wanek, Justin; Ansari, Rashid; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2016-07-01

    The bulbar conjunctiva is a thin, vascularized membrane covering the sclera of the eye. Non-invasive imaging techniques have been utilized to assess the conjunctival vasculature as a means of studying microcirculatory hemodynamics. However, eye motion often confounds quantification of these hemodynamic properties. In the current study, we present a novel optical imaging system for automated stabilization of conjunctival microvasculature images by real-time eye motion tracking and realignment of the optical path. The ability of the system to stabilize conjunctival images acquired over time by reducing image displacements and maintaining the imaging area was demonstrated.

  15. Integration of Real-Time Data Into Building Automation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark J. Stunder; Perry Sebastian; Brenda A. Chube; Michael D. Koontz

    2003-04-16

    The project goal was to investigate the possibility of using predictive real-time information from the Internet as an input to building management system algorithms. The objectives were to identify the types of information most valuable to commercial and residential building owners, managers, and system designers. To comprehensively investigate and document currently available electronic real-time information suitable for use in building management systems. Verify the reliability of the information and recommend accreditation methods for data and providers. Assess methodologies to automatically retrieve and utilize the information. Characterize equipment required to implement automated integration. Demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of using the information in building management systems. Identify evolutionary control strategies.

  16. Enhancing time-series detection algorithms for automated biosurveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokars, Jerome I; Burkom, Howard; Xing, Jian; English, Roseanne; Bloom, Steven; Cox, Kenneth; Pavlin, Julie A

    2009-04-01

    BioSense is a US national system that uses data from health information systems for automated disease surveillance. We studied 4 time-series algorithm modifications designed to improve sensitivity for detecting artificially added data. To test these modified algorithms, we used reports of daily syndrome visits from 308 Department of Defense (DoD) facilities and 340 hospital emergency departments (EDs). At a constant alert rate of 1%, sensitivity was improved for both datasets by using a minimum standard deviation (SD) of 1.0, a 14-28 day baseline duration for calculating mean and SD, and an adjustment for total clinic visits as a surrogate denominator. Stratifying baseline days into weekdays versus weekends to account for day-of-week effects increased sensitivity for the DoD data but not for the ED data. These enhanced methods may increase sensitivity without increasing the alert rate and may improve the ability to detect outbreaks by using automated surveillance system data.

  17. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry: investigations on gradient elution and influence of complex matrices on signal intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissmann, Susanne; Buchberger, Wolfgang; Hertsens, Robert; Klampfl, Christian W

    2011-08-01

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) has been tested for its suitability as a detector for gradient elution HPLC. Thereby a strong dependency of signal intensity on the amount of organic solvent present in the eluent could be observed. Adding a make-up liquid (iso-propanol) post-column to the HPLC effluent greatly enhanced detection limits for early eluting compounds. Limits of detection achieved employing this approach were in the range of 7-27 μg L(-1) for the parabene test mixture and 15-87 μg L(-1) for the pharmaceuticals. In further investigations DART ionization was compared to several other widely used atmospheric pressure ionization methods with respect to signal suppression phenomena occurring in when samples with problematic matrices are analyzed. For this purpose extracts from environmental and waste water samples were selected as model matrices which were subsequently spiked with a set of six substances commonly present in personal care products as well as six pharmaceuticals at concentration levels between 100 μg L(-1) and 500 μg L(-1) corresponding to 100 ng L(-1) and 500 ng L(-1) respectively in the original sample. With ionization suppression of less than 11% for most analytes investigated, DART ionization showed similar to even somewhat superior behavior compared to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photo ionization (APPI) for the Danube river water extract; for the more challenging matrix of the sewage plant effluent extract DART provided better results with ion suppression being less than 11% for 9 out of 12 analytes while values for APCI were lying between 20% and >90%. Electrospray ionization (ESI) was much more affected by suppression effects than DART with values between 26% and 80% for Danube river water; in combination with the sewage plant effluent matrix suppression >50% was observed for all analytes.

  18. Megasonic sonication for cost-effective and automatable elution of Cryptosporidium from filters and membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrouche, Abdelfateh; Desmulliez, Marc P Y; Bridle, Helen

    2015-11-01

    Sample processing is a highly challenging stage in the monitoring of waterborne pathogens. This step is time-consuming, requires highly trained technicians and often results in low recovery rates of pathogens. In the UK but also in other parts of the world, Cryptosporidium is the only pathogen directly tested for in routine operational monitoring. The traditional sampling process involves the filtration of 1000L of water, semi-automated elution of the filters and membranes with recovery rates of about 30-40% typically. This paper explores the use of megasonic sonication in an attempt to increase recovery rates and reduce both the time required for processing and the number of labour-intensive steps. Results demonstrate that megasonic energy assisted elution is equally effective as the traditional manual process in terms of recovery rates. Major advantages are however offered in terms of reduction of the elution volume enabling the current centrifugation stage to be avoided. This saves time, equipment and staff costs and critically removes the step in the process that would be most challenging to automate, paving the way thereby for highly effective automated solutions to pathogens monitoring.

  19. Automated nucleic acid chain tracing in real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Cowtan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The crystallographic structure solution of nucleotides and nucleotide complexes is now commonplace. The resulting electron-density maps are often poorer than for proteins, and as a result interpretation in terms of an atomic model can require significant effort, particularly in the case of large structures. While model building can be performed automatically, as with proteins, the process is time-consuming, taking minutes to days depending on the software and the size of the structure. A method is presented for the automatic building of nucleotide chains into electron density which is fast enough to be used in interactive model-building software, with extended chain fragments built around the current view position in a fraction of a second. The speed of the method arises from the determination of the `fingerprint' of the sugar and phosphate groups in terms of conserved high-density and low-density features, coupled with a highly efficient scoring algorithm. Use cases include the rapid evaluation of an initial electron-density map, addition of nucleotide fragments to prebuilt protein structures, and in favourable cases the completion of the structure while automated model-building software is still running. The method has been incorporated into the Coot software package.

  20. Automated, Real-Time Targeting and Guidance Software for Lunar Descent and Precision Landing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — he objective of this proposal is to research, design and develop an automated real-time targeting and guidance (ARTGUID) software for precision lunar landing and...

  1. Knowledge based support for real time application of multiagent control and automation in electric power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Nordstrom, Lars; Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanism for developing knowledge based support for real time application of multiagent systems (MAS) in control, automation and diagnosis of electric power systems. In particular it presents a way for autonomous agents to utilize a qualitative means-ends based model...... and choose an appropriate control action. The paper also elaborates on real time interfacing between multi-agent systems and industry standard distribution automation and control system....

  2. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  3. FPGA-Based Real-Time Motion Detection for Automated Video Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Design of automated video surveillance systems is one of the exigent missions in computer vision community because of their ability to automatically select frames of interest in incoming video streams based on motion detection. This research paper focuses on the real-time hardware implementation of a motion detection algorithm for such vision based automated surveillance systems. A dedicated VLSI architecture has been proposed and designed for clustering-based motion detection scheme. The working prototype of a complete standalone automated video surveillance system, including input camera interface, designed motion detection VLSI architecture, and output display interface, with real-time relevant motion detection capabilities, has been implemented on Xilinx ML510 (Virtex-5 FX130T FPGA platform. The prototyped system robustly detects the relevant motion in real-time in live PAL (720 × 576 resolution video streams directly coming from the camera.

  4. Automated Predicate Abstraction for Real-Time Models

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    Bahareh Badban

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a technique designed to automatically compute predicate abstractions for dense real-timed models represented as networks of timed automata. We use the CIPM algorithm in our previous work which computes new invariants for timed automata control locations and prunes the model, to compute a predicate abstraction of the model. We do so by taking information regarding control locations and their newly computed invariants into account.

  5. Consolidated Automated System for Time and Labor Entry(CASTLE) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — CASTLE manages a full range of Human Resources time and attendance collections for DOT employees. To accomplish this CASTLE stores and maintains HR-related personnel...

  6. Optimization of the elution buffer and concentration method for detecting hepatitis E virus in swine liver using a nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Na Ry; Seo, Dong Joo; Lee, Min Hwa; Seo, Sheungwoo; Wang, Xiaoyu; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Lee, Jeong-Su; Joo, In-Sun; Hwang, In-Gyun; Choi, Changsun

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an optimal technique for detecting hepatitis E virus (HEV) in swine livers. Here, three elution buffers and two concentration methods were compared with respect to enhancing recovery of HEV from swine liver samples. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested RT-PCR were performed to detect HEV RNA. When phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) was used to concentrate HEV in swine liver samples using ultrafiltration, real-time RT-PCR detected HEV in 6 of the 26 samples. When threonine buffer was used to concentrate HEV using polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and ultrafiltration, real-time RT-PCR detected HEV in 1 and 3 of the 26 samples, respectively. When glycine buffer was used to concentrate HEV using ultrafiltration and PEG precipitation, real-time RT-PCR detected HEV in 1 and 3 samples of the 26 samples, respectively. When nested RT-PCR was used to detect HEV, all samples tested negative regardless of the type of elution buffer or concentration method used. Therefore, the combination of real-time RT-PCR and ultrafiltration with PBS buffer was the most sensitive and reliable method for detecting HEV in swine livers.

  7. Automated real time constant-specificity surveillance for disease outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brownstein John S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For real time surveillance, detection of abnormal disease patterns is based on a difference between patterns observed, and those predicted by models of historical data. The usefulness of outbreak detection strategies depends on their specificity; the false alarm rate affects the interpretation of alarms. Results We evaluate the specificity of five traditional models: autoregressive, Serfling, trimmed seasonal, wavelet-based, and generalized linear. We apply each to 12 years of emergency department visits for respiratory infection syndromes at a pediatric hospital, finding that the specificity of the five models was almost always a non-constant function of the day of the week, month, and year of the study (p Conclusion Modeling the variance of visit patterns enables real-time detection with known, constant specificity at all times. With constant specificity, public health practitioners can better interpret the alarms and better evaluate the cost-effectiveness of surveillance systems.

  8. Modelling Simple Experimental Platform for In Vitro Study of Drug Elution from Drug Eluting Stents (DES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalachev, L. V.

    2016-06-01

    We present a simple model of experimental setup for in vitro study of drug release from drug eluting stents and drug propagation in artificial tissue samples representing blood vessels. The model is further reduced using the assumption on vastly different characteristic diffusion times in the stent coating and in the artificial tissue. The model is used to derive a relationship between the times at which the measurements have to be taken for two experimental platforms, with corresponding artificial tissue samples made of different materials with different drug diffusion coefficients, to properly compare the drug release characteristics of drug eluting stents.

  9. Effective acceptance conditions in real-time automated negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Baarslag, Tim; Hindriks, Koen; Jonker, Catholijn

    2014-01-01

    In every negotiation with a deadline, one of the negotiating parties must accept an offer to avoid a break off. As a break off is usually an undesirable outcome for both parties, it is important that a negotiator employs a proficient mechanism to decide under which conditions to accept. When designing such conditions, one is faced with the acceptance dilemma: accepting the current offer may be suboptimal, as better offers may still be presented before time runs out. On the other hand, accepti...

  10. Automation of a center pivot using the temperature-time-threshold method of irriation scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A center pivot was completely automated using the temperature-time-threshold (TTT) method of irrigation scheduling. An array of infrared thermometers was mounted on the center pivot and these were used to remotely determine the crop leaf temperature as an indicator of crop water stress. We describ...

  11. Automated Hierarchical Time Gain Compensation for In Vivo Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Martins, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Time gain compensation (TGC) is essential to ensure the optimal image quality of the clinical ultrasound scans. When large fluid collections are present within the scan plane, the attenuation distribution is changed drastically and TGC compensation becomes challenging. This paper presents...... tissue and the ultrasound signal strength. The proposed algorithm was applied to a set of 44 in vivo abdominal movie sequences each containing 15 frames. Matching pairs of in vivo sequences, unprocessed and processed with the proposed AHTGC were visualized side by side and evaluated by two radiologists...

  12. Temperature versus time curves for manual and automated soldering processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, M.A.

    1978-08-01

    Temperature-versus-time curves were recorded for various electronic components during pre-tinning, hand soldering, and drag soldering operations to determine the temperature ranges encountered. The component types investigated included a wide range of electronic assemblies. The data collected has been arranged by process and will help engineers to: (1) predetermine the thermal profile to which various components are subjected during the soldering operation; (2) decide--on the basis of component heat sensitivity and the need for thermal relief--where hand soldering would be more feasible than drag soldering; and (3) determine the optimum drag solder control parameters.

  13. Time Relevance of Convective Weather Forecast for Air Traffic Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, William N.

    2006-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is handling nearly 120,000 flights a day through its Air Traffic Management (ATM) system and air traffic congestion is expected to increse substantially over the next 20 years. Weather-induced impacts to throughput and efficiency are the leading cause of flight delays accounting for 70% of all delays with convective weather accounting for 60% of all weather related delays. To support the Next Generation Air Traffic System goal of operating at 3X current capacity in the NAS, ATC decision support tools are being developed to create advisories to assist controllers in all weather constraints. Initial development of these decision support tools did not integrate information regarding weather constraints such as thunderstorms and relied on an additional system to provide that information. Future Decision Support Tools should move towards an integrated system where weather constraints are factored into the advisory of a Decision Support Tool (DST). Several groups such at NASA-Ames, Lincoln Laboratories, and MITRE are integrating convective weather data with DSTs. A survey of current convective weather forecast and observation data show they span a wide range of temporal and spatial resolutions. Short range convective observations can be obtained every 5 mins with longer range forecasts out to several days updated every 6 hrs. Today, the short range forecasts of less than 2 hours have a temporal resolution of 5 mins. Beyond 2 hours, forecasts have much lower temporal. resolution of typically 1 hour. Spatial resolutions vary from 1km for short range to 40km for longer range forecasts. Improving the accuracy of long range convective forecasts is a major challenge. A report published by the National Research Council states improvements for convective forecasts for the 2 to 6 hour time frame will only be achieved for a limited set of convective phenomena in the next 5 to 10 years. Improved longer range forecasts will be probabilistic

  14. Towards Automation Design Time Testing of Web Service Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessislava Petrova-Antonova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA allows software applications to interoperate in a new way in distributed environment. Currently, web services are the most widely adopted technology for implementation of SOA. However, they bring a number of challenges to development as well as to testing. Testing web service compositions is one of the major problems in SOA domain that is due to the unknown context, absence of web service source code, multiple provider coordination,lack of tool support, etc. In such context, the paper proposes a framework, named Testing as a Service Software Architecture (TASSA, which aims to provide design time testing of both functional and nonfunctional behavior of web service compositions described with Business Process Execution Language (BPEL. TASSA consists of set of tools that can be used together with existing development environments of service based applications. The paper focuses on an approach for negative testing and unit testing of BPEL processes. The negative testing is supported by TASSA tool, called Fault Injector tool, which implements a fault injection technique providing messagedelays, wrong message data, etc. The goal of unit testing is to test a BPEL process in isolation from its dependent web services. The isolation technique is implemented in another TASSA tool, named Isolation tool.

  15. A time-series method for automated measurement of changes in mitotic and interphase duration from time-lapse movies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic D Sigoillot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Automated time-lapse microscopy can visualize proliferation of large numbers of individual cells, enabling accurate measurement of the frequency of cell division and the duration of interphase and mitosis. However, extraction of quantitative information by manual inspection of time-lapse movies is too time-consuming to be useful for analysis of large experiments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present an automated time-series approach that can measure changes in the duration of mitosis and interphase in individual cells expressing fluorescent histone 2B. The approach requires analysis of only 2 features, nuclear area and average intensity. Compared to supervised learning approaches, this method reduces processing time and does not require generation of training data sets. We demonstrate that this method is as sensitive as manual analysis in identifying small changes in interphase or mitotic duration induced by drug or siRNA treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This approach should facilitate automated analysis of high-throughput time-lapse data sets to identify small molecules or gene products that influence timing of cell division.

  16. Everolimus-eluting coronary stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Saez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Alejandro Saez, Raul MorenoDivision of Interventional Cardiology, University Hospital La Paz, Madrid, SpainAbstract: Bare metal stents enabled a reduction in the risk of early procedural complications and restenosis in comparison with balloon angioplasty alone, but introduced a new and device-specific iatrogenic condition, ie, in-stent restenosis due to increased neointimal hyperplasia. Sirolimus- and paclitaxel-eluting stents reduce restenosis and the need for new revascularizations in comparison with bare metal stents, although at the cost of a slight increase in the risk of late stent thrombosis and a need for prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy. Everolimus is an analog of sirolimus with an increased solubility. In this review, the currently available evidence for everolimus-eluting stents is revised, including randomized trials against bare metal stents, and head-to-head trials comparing this stent with other drug-eluting stents.Keywords: coronary stents, restenosis, everolimus, review

  17. Efficient parallel Levenberg-Marquardt model fitting towards real-time automated parametric imaging microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang; Zhang, Dianwen

    2013-01-01

    We present a fast, accurate and robust parallel Levenberg-Marquardt minimization optimizer, GPU-LMFit, which is implemented on graphics processing unit for high performance scalable parallel model fitting processing. GPU-LMFit can provide a dramatic speed-up in massive model fitting analyses to enable real-time automated pixel-wise parametric imaging microscopy. We demonstrate the performance of GPU-LMFit for the applications in superresolution localization microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.

  18. Efficient Parallel Levenberg-Marquardt Model Fitting towards Real-Time Automated Parametric Imaging Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Zhu; Dianwen Zhang

    2013-01-01

    We present a fast, accurate and robust parallel Levenberg-Marquardt minimization optimizer, GPU-LMFit, which is implemented on graphics processing unit for high performance scalable parallel model fitting processing. GPU-LMFit can provide a dramatic speed-up in massive model fitting analyses to enable real-time automated pixel-wise parametric imaging microscopy. We demonstrate the performance of GPU-LMFit for the applications in superresolution localization microscopy and fluorescence lifetim...

  19. Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  20. Brainstem Monitoring in the Neurocritical Care Unit: A Rationale for Real-Time, Automated Neurophysiological Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James L; Bailes, Julian E; Hassan, Ahmed N; Sindelar, Brian; Patel, Vimal; Fino, John

    2017-02-01

    Patients with severe traumatic brain injury or large intracranial space-occupying lesions (spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, infarction, or tumor) commonly present to the neurocritical care unit with an altered mental status. Many experience progressive stupor and coma from mass effects and transtentorial brain herniation compromising the ascending arousal (reticular activating) system. Yet, little progress has been made in the practicality of bedside, noninvasive, real-time, automated, neurophysiological brainstem, or cerebral hemispheric monitoring. In this critical review, we discuss the ascending arousal system, brain herniation, and shortcomings of our current management including the neurological exam, intracranial pressure monitoring, and neuroimaging. We present a rationale for the development of nurse-friendly-continuous, automated, and alarmed-evoked potential monitoring, based upon the clinical and experimental literature, advances in the prognostication of cerebral anoxia, and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring.

  1. Tool-driven Design and Automated Parameterization for Real-time Generic Drivetrain Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Christina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time dynamic drivetrain modeling approaches have a great potential for development cost reduction in the automotive industry. Even though real-time drivetrain models are available, these solutions are specific to single transmission topologies. In this paper an environment for parameterization of a solution is proposed based on a generic method applicable to all types of gear transmission topologies. This enables tool-guided modeling by non- experts in the fields of mechanic engineering and control theory leading to reduced development and testing efforts. The approach is demonstrated for an exemplary automatic transmission using the environment for automated parameterization. Finally, the parameterization is validated via vehicle measurement data.

  2. Development of a Real-Time PCR Protocol Requiring Minimal Handling for Detection of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci with the Fully Automated BD Max System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalpke, Alexander H; Hofko, Marjeta; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are an important cause of health care-associated infections, resulting in significant mortality and a significant economic burden in hospitals. Active surveillance for at-risk populations contributes to the prevention of infections with VRE. The availability of a combination of automation and molecular detection procedures for rapid screening would be beneficial. Here, we report on the development of a laboratory-developed PCR for detection of VRE which runs on the fully automated Becton Dickinson (BD) Max platform, which combines DNA extraction, PCR setup, and real-time PCR amplification. We evaluated two protocols: one using a liquid master mix and the other employing commercially ordered dry-down reagents. The BD Max VRE PCR was evaluated in two rounds with 86 and 61 rectal elution swab (eSwab) samples, and the results were compared to the culture results. The sensitivities of the different PCR formats were 84 to 100% for vanA and 83.7 to 100% for vanB; specificities were 96.8 to 100% for vanA and 81.8 to 97% for vanB The use of dry-down reagents and the ExK DNA-2 kit for extraction showed that the samples were less inhibited (3.3%) than they were by the use of the liquid master mix (14.8%). Adoption of a cutoff threshold cycle of 35 for discrimination of vanB-positive samples allowed an increase of specificity to 87.9%. The performance of the BD Max VRE assay equaled that of the BD GeneOhm VanR assay, which was run in parallel. The use of dry-down reagents simplifies the assay and omits any need to handle liquid PCR reagents.

  3. Optical tracking of embryonic vertebrates behavioural responses using automated time-resolved video-microscopy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpitagama, Milanga; Kaslin, Jan; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2016-12-01

    The fish embryo toxicity (FET) biotest performed on embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) has gained significant popularity as a rapid and inexpensive alternative approach in chemical hazard and risk assessment. The FET was designed to evaluate acute toxicity on embryonic stages of fish exposed to the test chemical. The current standard, similar to most traditional methods for evaluating aquatic toxicity provides, however, little understanding of effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of chemical stressors. We postulate that significant environmental effects such as altered motor functions, physiological alterations reflected in heart rate, effects on development and reproduction can occur at sub-lethal concentrations well below than LC10. Behavioral studies can, therefore, provide a valuable integrative link between physiological and ecological effects. Despite the advantages of behavioral analysis development of behavioral toxicity, biotests is greatly hampered by the lack of dedicated laboratory automation, in particular, user-friendly and automated video microscopy systems. In this work we present a proof-of-concept development of an optical system capable of tracking embryonic vertebrates behavioral responses using automated and vastly miniaturized time-resolved video-microscopy. We have employed miniaturized CMOS cameras to perform high definition video recording and analysis of earliest vertebrate behavioral responses. The main objective was to develop a biocompatible embryo positioning structures that were suitable for high-throughput imaging as well as video capture and video analysis algorithms. This system should support the development of sub-lethal and behavioral markers for accelerated environmental monitoring.

  4. Automating Flood Hazard Mapping Methods for Near Real-time Storm Surge Inundation and Vulnerability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Gallagher, D.

    2015-12-01

    Storm surge has enough destructive power to damage buildings and infrastructure, erode beaches, and threaten human life across large geographic areas, hence posing the greatest threat of all the hurricane hazards. The United States Gulf of Mexico has proven vulnerable to hurricanes as it has been hit by some of the most destructive hurricanes on record. With projected rises in sea level and increases in hurricane activity, there is a need to better understand the associated risks for disaster mitigation, preparedness, and response. GIS has become a critical tool in enhancing disaster planning, risk assessment, and emergency response by communicating spatial information through a multi-layer approach. However, there is a need for a near real-time method of identifying areas with a high risk of being impacted by storm surge. Research was conducted alongside Baron, a private industry weather enterprise, to facilitate automated modeling and visualization of storm surge inundation and vulnerability on a near real-time basis. This research successfully automated current flood hazard mapping techniques using a GIS framework written in a Python programming environment, and displayed resulting data through an Application Program Interface (API). Data used for this methodology included high resolution topography, NOAA Probabilistic Surge model outputs parsed from Rich Site Summary (RSS) feeds, and the NOAA Census tract level Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI). The development process required extensive data processing and management to provide high resolution visualizations of potential flooding and population vulnerability in a timely manner. The accuracy of the developed methodology was assessed using Hurricane Isaac as a case study, which through a USGS and NOAA partnership, contained ample data for statistical analysis. This research successfully created a fully automated, near real-time method for mapping high resolution storm surge inundation and vulnerability for the

  5. Automated selection of brain regions for real-time fMRI brain-computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lührs, Michael; Sorger, Bettina; Goebel, Rainer; Esposito, Fabrizio

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) implemented with real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) use fMRI time-courses from predefined regions of interest (ROIs). To reach best performances, localizer experiments and on-site expert supervision are required for ROI definition. To automate this step, we developed two unsupervised computational techniques based on the general linear model (GLM) and independent component analysis (ICA) of rt-fMRI data, and compared their performances on a communication BCI. Approach. 3 T fMRI data of six volunteers were re-analyzed in simulated real-time. During a localizer run, participants performed three mental tasks following visual cues. During two communication runs, a letter-spelling display guided the subjects to freely encode letters by performing one of the mental tasks with a specific timing. GLM- and ICA-based procedures were used to decode each letter, respectively using compact ROIs and whole-brain distributed spatio-temporal patterns of fMRI activity, automatically defined from subject-specific or group-level maps. Main results. Letter-decoding performances were comparable to supervised methods. In combination with a similarity-based criterion, GLM- and ICA-based approaches successfully decoded more than 80% (average) of the letters. Subject-specific maps yielded optimal performances. Significance. Automated solutions for ROI selection may help accelerating the translation of rt-fMRI BCIs from research to clinical applications.

  6. Methodology and planning for a microprocessor-oriented real time controller design automation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matelan, M.N.; Smith, R.J. II

    1976-11-04

    A methodology for reducing the complexity of designing dedicated real-time control systems is developed. It is shown that three areas are amenable to automation: the selection and configuration of hardware, the production of software, and the adaptation of a monitor to maintain real-time integrity of the entire system. The concept of hardware binding is introduced, and it is shown that delaying the point in the design cycle where hardware is functionally bound allows a new approach to machine independence. Concepts which allow expression of repetitive control situations are described, and a realization-independent language (CSDL), based on these concepts, is defined. Methods for automatically selecting a time-wise correct monitor are classified, and techniques for specifying the realization capabilities of digital processors are discussed. These concepts and techniques are brought together in a design automation system for the production of a complete controller design from a behavioral description. An example description is traced through the CSD System; a software listing and hardware configuration document for an actual microprocessor (the Intel 8080) is produced. This research provides a structured description of the control system design process, and allows a unified perspective in the realization of controllers for applications previously considered to be unrelated. The concepts developed define a new direction in the production of real-time control systems. 9 figures, 4 tables.

  7. Automated preparation of Kepler time series of planet hosts for asteroseismic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, R.; Lund, M. N.

    2014-01-01

    One of the tasks of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Operations Center (KASOC) is to provide asteroseismic analyses on Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs). However, asteroseismic analysis of planetary host stars presents some unique complications with respect to data preprocessing, compared to pure...... photometric time series than the original data. The methods are automated and can therefore easily be applied to a large number of stars. The application of the filter is not restricted to planetary hosts, but can be applied to any solar-like or red giant stars observed by Kepler/K2....

  8. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organization to find ways to reduce the costs of International Space station (ISS) console operations in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to identify projects that would help them attain a goal of a 30% reduction in operating costs by 2012. The MOD Operations and Planning organization responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve ISS console operations and reduce staffing and operating costs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the plan of eliminating two full time ISS console support positions by 2012. This will account for an overall 10 EP reduction in staffing for the Operations and Planning organization. These automation projects focused on utilizing software to automate many administrative and often repetitive tasks involved with processing ISS planning and daily operations information. This information was exchanged between the ground flight control teams in Houston and around the globe, as well as with the ISS astronaut crew. These tasks ranged from managing mission plan changes from around the globe, to uploading and downloading information to and from the ISS crew, to even more complex tasks that required multiple decision points to process the data, track approvals and deliver it to the correct recipient across network and security boundaries. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture between several planning tools; as well as a engaging a previously research level technology (TRL 2-3) developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent based system to manage and automate file traffic flow

  9. Optimal Geometrical Set for Automated Marker Placement to Virtualized Real-Time Facial Emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanthan Maruthapillai

    Full Text Available In recent years, real-time face recognition has been a major topic of interest in developing intelligent human-machine interaction systems. Over the past several decades, researchers have proposed different algorithms for facial expression recognition, but there has been little focus on detection in real-time scenarios. The present work proposes a new algorithmic method of automated marker placement used to classify six facial expressions: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, and surprise. Emotional facial expressions were captured using a webcam, while the proposed algorithm placed a set of eight virtual markers on each subject's face. Facial feature extraction methods, including marker distance (distance between each marker to the center of the face and change in marker distance (change in distance between the original and new marker positions, were used to extract three statistical features (mean, variance, and root mean square from the real-time video sequence. The initial position of each marker was subjected to the optical flow algorithm for marker tracking with each emotional facial expression. Finally, the extracted statistical features were mapped into corresponding emotional facial expressions using two simple non-linear classifiers, K-nearest neighbor and probabilistic neural network. The results indicate that the proposed automated marker placement algorithm effectively placed eight virtual markers on each subject's face and gave a maximum mean emotion classification rate of 96.94% using the probabilistic neural network.

  10. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy A.; Clancey, William J.; McDonald, Aaron; Toschlog, Jason; Tucker, Tyson; Khan, Ahmed; Madrid, Steven (Eric)

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organizations to find ways to reduce the cost of operations for supporting the International Space Station (ISS) in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to define and execute projects that would help them attain cost reductions by 2012. The MOD Operations Division Flight Planning Branch responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve console operations and reduce ISS console staffing and intern reduce operating costs. These tasks ranged from improving the management and integration mission plan changes, to automating the uploading and downloading of information to and from the ISS and the associated ground complex tasks that required multiple decision points. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture; as well as engaging a previously TRL 4-5 technology developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent-based system to manage and automate file traffic flow, archive data, and generate console logs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the goal of eliminating a second full time ISS console support position by 2012. The team will also reduce one long range planning console position by 2014. When complete, these Flight Planning Branch projects will account for the elimination of 3 console positions and a reduction in staffing of 11 engineering personnel (EP) for ISS.

  11. Fast detection of Noroviruses using a real-time PCR assay and automated sample preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Michael

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses (NoV have become one of the most commonly reported causative agents of large outbreaks of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide as well as sporadic gastroenteritis in the community. Currently, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays have been implemented in NoV diagnosis, but improvements that simplify and standardize sample preparation, amplification, and detection will be further needed. The combination of automated sample preparation and real-time PCR offers such refinements. Methods We have designed a new real-time RT-PCR assay on the LightCycler (LC with SYBR Green detection and melting curve analysis (Tm to detect NoV RNA in patient stool samples. The performance of the real-time PCR assay was compared with that obtained in parallel with a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (ELISA for antigen detection by testing a panel of 52 stool samples. Additionally, in a collaborative study with the Baden-Wuerttemberg State Health office, Stuttgart (Germany the real-time PCR results were blindly assessed using a previously well-established nested PCR (nPCR as the reference method, since PCR-based techniques are now considered as the "gold standard" for NoV detection in stool specimens. Results Analysis of 52 clinical stool samples by real-time PCR yielded results that were consistent with reference nPCR results, while marked differences between the two PCR-based methods and antigen ELISA were observed. Our results indicate that PCR-based procedures are more sensitive and specific than antigen ELISA for detecting NoV in stool specimens. Conclusions The combination of automated sample preparation and real-time PCR provided reliable diagnostic results in less time than conventional RT-PCR assays. These benefits make it a valuable tool for routine laboratory practice especially in terms of rapid and appropriate outbreak-control measures in health-care facilities and other settings.

  12. A plan for time-phased incorporation of automation and robotics on the US space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, R. B.; Lin, P. S.; Fisher, E. M., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A plan for the incorporation of Automation and Robotics technology on the Space Station is presented. The time phased introduction of twenty two selected candidates is set forth in accordance with a technology development forecast. Twenty candidates were chosed primarily for their potential to relieve the crew of mundane or dangerous operations and maintenance burdens, thus freeing crew time for mission duties and enhancing safety. Two candidates were chosen based on a potential for increasing the productivity of laboratory experiments and thus directly enhancing the scientific value of the Space Station. A technology assessment for each candidate investigates present state of the art, development timelines including space qualification considerations, and potential for technology transfer to earth applications. Each candidate is evaluated using a crew workload model driven by crew size, number of pressurized U.S. modules and external payloads, which makes it possible to assess the impact of automation during a growth scenario. Costs for each increment of implementation are estimated and accumulated.

  13. Automated preparation of Kepler time series of planet hosts for asteroseismic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Handberg, R

    2014-01-01

    One of the tasks of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Operations Center (KASOC) is to provide asteroseismic analyses on Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs). However, asteroseismic analysis of planetary host stars presents some unique complications with respect to data preprocessing, compared to pure asteroseismic targets. If not accounted for, the presence of planetary transits in the photometric time series often greatly complicates or even hinders these asteroseismic analyses. This drives the need for specialised methods of preprocessing data to make them suitable for asteroseismic analysis. In this paper we present the KASOC Filter, which is used to automatically prepare data from the Kepler/K2 mission for asteroseismic analyses of solar-like planet host stars. The methods are very effective at removing unwanted signals of both instrumental and planetary origins and produce significantly cleaner photometric time series than the original data. The methods are automated and can therefore easily be applied to a ...

  14. Real-time whole slide mosaicing for non-automated microscopes in histopathology analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Gherardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Mosaics of Whole Slides (WS are a valuable resource for pathologists to have the whole sample available at high resolution. The WS mosaic provides pathologists with an overview of the whole sample at a glance, helping them to make a reliable diagnosis. Despite recent solutions exist for creating WS mosaics based, for instance, on automated microscopes with motorized stages or WS scanner, most of the histopathology analysis are still performed in laboratories endowed with standard manual stage microscopes. Nowadays, there are lots of dedicated devices and hardware to achieve WS automatically and in batch, but only few of them are conceived to work tightly connected with a microscope and none of them is capable of working in real-time with common light microscopes. However, there is a need of having low-cost yet effective mosaicing applications even in small laboratories to improve routine histopathological analyses or to perform remote diagnoses. Aims: The purpose of this work is to study and develop a real-time mosaicing algorithm working even using non-automated microscopes, to enable pathologists to achieve WS while moving the holder manually, without exploiting any dedicated device. This choice enables pathologists to build WS in real-time, while browsing the sample as they are accustomed to, helping them to identify, locate, and digitally annotate lesions fast. Materials and Methods: Our method exploits fast feature tracker and frame to frame registration that we implemented on common graphics processing unit cards. The system work with common light microscopes endowed with a digital camera and connected to a commodity personal computer. Result and Conclusion: The system has been tested on several histological samples to test the effectiveness of the algorithm to work with mosaicing having different appearances as far as brightness, contrast, texture, and detail levels are concerned, attaining sub-pixel registration accuracy at real-time

  15. Widely applicable MATLAB routines for automated analysis of saccadic reaction times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Jukka M; Forssman, Linda; Kaatiala, Jussi; Yrttiaho, Santeri; Wass, Sam

    2015-06-01

    Saccadic reaction time (SRT) is a widely used dependent variable in eye-tracking studies of human cognition and its disorders. SRTs are also frequently measured in studies with special populations, such as infants and young children, who are limited in their ability to follow verbal instructions and remain in a stable position over time. In this article, we describe a library of MATLAB routines (Mathworks, Natick, MA) that are designed to (1) enable completely automated implementation of SRT analysis for multiple data sets and (2) cope with the unique challenges of analyzing SRTs from eye-tracking data collected from poorly cooperating participants. The library includes preprocessing and SRT analysis routines. The preprocessing routines (i.e., moving median filter and interpolation) are designed to remove technical artifacts and missing samples from raw eye-tracking data. The SRTs are detected by a simple algorithm that identifies the last point of gaze in the area of interest, but, critically, the extracted SRTs are further subjected to a number of postanalysis verification checks to exclude values contaminated by artifacts. Example analyses of data from 5- to 11-month-old infants demonstrated that SRTs extracted with the proposed routines were in high agreement with SRTs obtained manually from video records, robust against potential sources of artifact, and exhibited moderate to high test-retest stability. We propose that the present library has wide utility in standardizing and automating SRT-based cognitive testing in various populations. The MATLAB routines are open source and can be downloaded from http://www.uta.fi/med/icl/methods.html .

  16. Hypotonic elution, a new desorption principle in immunoadsorbent chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Sjöström, H; Norén, O

    1982-01-01

    -phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.23-62) and maltase-glucoamylase (EC 3.2.1.20). This elution method proved capable of achieving an acceptable yield (30-70%) while at the same time preserving the purified enzymes in an enzymically active state. It hereby offers a solution to the problem in immunoadsorbent chromatography...... of the enzymes but were considered unlikely on several grounds. Hypotonic elution in immunoadsorbent chromatography, therefore, may have a much broader range of applicability, and the method is recommended to be tried out by workers in other areas of protein chemistry....

  17. Automated implementation of rule-based expert systems with neural networks for time-critical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, P. A.; Huang, Song; Govind, Girish

    1991-01-01

    In fault diagnosis, control and real-time monitoring, both timing and accuracy are critical for operators or machines to reach proper solutions or appropriate actions. Expert systems are becoming more popular in the manufacturing community for dealing with such problems. In recent years, neural networks have revived and their applications have spread to many areas of science and engineering. A method of using neural networks to implement rule-based expert systems for time-critical applications is discussed here. This method can convert a given rule-based system into a neural network with fixed weights and thresholds. The rules governing the translation are presented along with some examples. We also present the results of automated machine implementation of such networks from the given rule-base. This significantly simplifies the translation process to neural network expert systems from conventional rule-based systems. Results comparing the performance of the proposed approach based on neural networks vs. the classical approach are given. The possibility of very large scale integration (VLSI) realization of such neural network expert systems is also discussed.

  18. Drug-eluting stents: current issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); A.T.L. Ong (Andrew)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractEarly stent thrombosis occurs in about 1% to 1.5% of patients with drug-eluting stents, very similar to the rate with bare-metal stents. Late stent thrombosis is more of a concern with drug-eluting stents, with an incidence of at least 0.35%. I would urge caution if you feel you have to

  19. Automated Bayesian model development for frequency detection in biological time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldroyd Giles ED

    2011-06-01

    the requirement for uniformly sampled data. Biological time series often deviate significantly from the requirements of optimality for Fourier transformation. In this paper we present an alternative approach based on Bayesian inference. We show the value of placing spectral analysis in the framework of Bayesian inference and demonstrate how model comparison can automate this procedure.

  20. Setup time reduction: SMED-balancing integrated model for manufacturing systems with automated transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Faccio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of short setup times is increasing in every type of industry. It has been known how to address this problem for about 20 years. The SMED method, originally developed by the Japanese industrial engineer Shigeo Shingo for reducing the time to exchange dies, gives a really straightforward approach to improve existing setups. On the other hand, in the case of complex manufacturing systems the simple application of the SMED methodology is not enough. Manufacturing systems composed of different working machines with automated transfer facilities are a good example. Technologicalconstraints, task precedence constraints, and synchronization between different setup tasks are just some of the influencing factors that make an improved SMED desirable. The present paper, starting from an industrial case, aims to provide a heuristics methodology that integrates the traditional SMED with the workload balancing problem that is typical of assembly systems, in order to address the setup reduction problem in the case of complex manufacturing systems. Anindustrial case is reported to validate the proposed model and to demonstrate its practical implications.

  1. A multiyear dust devil vortex survey using an automated search of pressure time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian; Lorenz, Ralph

    2015-03-01

    Dust devils occur in arid climates on the Earth and ubiquitously on Mars, where they likely dominate the supply of atmospheric dust and influence climate. Martian dust devils have been studied with a combination of orbiting and landed spacecraft, while most studies of terrestrial dust devils have involved manned monitoring of field sites, which can be costly both in time and personnel. As an alternative approach, we describe a multiyear in situ survey of terrestrial dust devils using pressure loggers deployed at El Dorado Playa in Nevada, USA, a site known for dust devil activity. Analogous to previous surveys for Martian dust devils, we conduct a posthoc analysis of the barometric data to search for putative dust devil pressure dips using a new automated detection algorithm. We investigate the completeness and false positive rates of our new algorithm and conduct several statistically robust analyses of the resulting population of dips. We also investigate possible seasonal, annual, and spatial variability of the putative dust devil dips, possible correlations with precipitation, and the influence of sample size on the derived population statistics. Our results suggest that large numbers of dips (>1000) collected over multiple seasons are probably required for accurate assessment of the underlying dust devil population. Correlating long-term barometric time series with other data streams (e.g., solar flux measurements from photovoltaic cells) can uniquely elucidate the natures and origins of dust devils, and accurately assessing their influence requires consideration of the full distribution of dust devil properties, rather than average values.

  2. Automating identification of avian vocalizations using time-frequency information extracted from the Gabor transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Edward F; Li, Shidong; Li, Steven

    2012-07-01

    Based on the Gabor transform, a metric is developed and applied to automatically identify bird species from a sample of 568 digital recordings of songs/calls from 67 species of birds. The Gabor frequency-amplitude spectrum and the Gabor time-amplitude profile are proposed as a means to characterize the frequency and time patterns of a bird song. An approach based on template matching where unknown song clips are compared to a library of known song clips is used. After adding noise to simulate the background environment and using an adaptive high-pass filter to de-noise the recordings, the successful identification rate exceeded 93% even at signal-to-noise ratios as low as 5 dB. Bird species whose songs/calls were dominated by low frequencies were more difficult to identify than species whose songs were dominated by higher frequencies. The results suggest that automated identification may be practical if comprehensive libraries of recordings that encompass the vocal variation within species can be assembled.

  3. Drug-Eluting Intraocular Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Concheiro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Notable advances in materials science and in surgical techniques make the management of cataract by replacement of the opaque crystalline with an intraocular lens (IOL, one of the most cost-effective interventions in current healthcare. The usefulness and safety of IOLs can be enhanced if they are endowed with the ability to load and to sustain drug release in the implantation site. Drug-eluting IOLs can prevent infections and untoward reactions of eye tissues (which lead to opacification and also can act as drug depots for treatment of several other ocular pathologies. Such a myriad of therapeutic possibilities has prompted the design of drug-IOL combination products. Several approaches are under study, namely combination of the IOL with an insert in a single device, soaking in drug solutions, impregnation using supercritical fluids, coating with drug/polymer layers, and covalent grafting of the drug. The advantages/limitations of each technique are discussed in the present review on selected examples. Although more in vivo data are required, the information already available proves the interest of some approaches in ocular therapeutics.

  4. Automated hierarchical time gain compensation for in-vivo ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshavegh, Ramin; Hemmsen, Martin C.; Martins, Bo; Brandt, Andreas H.; Hansen, Kristoffer L.; Nielsen, Michael B.; Jensen, Jørgen A.

    2015-03-01

    Time gain compensation (TGC) is essential to ensure the optimal image quality of the clinical ultrasound scans. When large fluid collections are present within the scan plane, the attenuation distribution is changed drastically and TGC compensation becomes challenging. This paper presents an automated hierarchical TGC (AHTGC) algorithm that accurately adapts to the large attenuation variation between different types of tissues and structures. The algorithm relies on estimates of tissue attenuation, scattering strength, and noise level to gain a more quantitative understanding of the underlying tissue and the ultrasound signal strength. The proposed algorithm was applied to a set of 44 in vivo abdominal movie sequences each containing 15 frames. Matching pairs of in vivo sequences, unprocessed and processed with the proposed AHTGC were visualized side by side and evaluated by two radiologists in terms of image quality. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to evaluate whether radiologists preferred the processed sequences or the unprocessed data. The results indicate that the average visual analogue scale (VAS) is positive ( p-value: 2.34 × 10-13) and estimated to be 1.01 (95% CI: 0.85; 1.16) favoring the processed data with the proposed AHTGC algorithm.

  5. Advanced Automation for Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry-New Opportunities for Real-Time Autonomous Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Peter T.; Wong, C. M.; Salmonson, J. D.; Yost, R. A.; Griffin, T. P.; Yates, N. A.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The utility of MS/MS for both target compound analysis and the structure elucidation of unknowns has been described in a number of references. A broader acceptance of this technique has not yet been realized as it requires large, complex, and costly instrumentation which has not been competitive with more conventional techniques. Recent advancements in ion trap mass spectrometry promise to change this situation. Although the ion trap's small size, sensitivity, and ability to perform multiple stages of mass spectrometry have made it eminently suitable for on-line, real-time monitoring applications, advance automation techniques are required to make these capabilities more accessible to non-experts. Towards this end we have developed custom software for the design and implementation of MS/MS experiments. This software allows the user to take full advantage of the ion trap's versatility with respect to ionization techniques, scan proxies, and ion accumulation/ejection methods. Additionally, expert system software has been developed for autonomous target compound analysis. This software has been linked to ion trap control software and a commercial data system to bring all of the steps in the analysis cycle under control of the expert system. These software development efforts and their utilization for a number of trace analysis applications will be described.

  6. Water monitoring: automated and real time identification and classification of algae using digital microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltelli, Primo; Barsanti, Laura; Evangelista, Valtere; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    Microalgae are unicellular photoautotrophs that grow in any habitat from fresh and saline water bodies, to hot springs and ice. Microalgae can be used as indicators to monitor water ecosystem conditions. These organisms react quickly and predictably to a broad range of environmental stressors, thus providing early signals of a changing environment. When grown extensively, microalgae may produce harmful effects on marine or freshwater ecology and fishery resources. Rapid and accurate recognition and classification of microalgae is one of the most important issues in water resource management. In this paper, a methodology for automatic and real time identification and enumeration of microalgae by means of image analysis is presented. The methodology is based on segmentation, shape feature extraction, pigment signature determination and neural network grouping; it attained 98.6% accuracy from a set of 53,869 images of 23 different microalgae representing the major algal phyla. In our opinion this methodology partly overcomes the lack of automated identification systems and is on the forefront of developing a computer-based image processing technique to automatically detect, recognize, identify and enumerate microalgae genera and species from all the divisions. This methodology could be useful for an appropriate and effective water resource management.

  7. Total Automation for the Core Laboratory: Improving the Turnaround Time Helps to Reduce the Volume of Ordered STAT Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ialongo, Cristiano; Porzio, Ottavia; Giambini, Ilio; Bernardini, Sergio

    2016-06-01

    The transition to total automation represents the greatest leap for a clinical laboratory, characterized by a totally new philosophy of process management. We have investigated the impact of total automation on core laboratory efficiency and its effects on the clinical services related to STAT tests. For this purpose, a 47-month retrospective study based on the analysis of 44,212 records of STAT cardiac troponin I (CTNI) tests was performed. The core laboratory reached a new efficiency level 3 months after the implementation of total automation. Median turnaround time (TAT) was reduced by 14.9±1.5 min for the emergency department (p < 0.01), reaching 41.6±1.2 min. In non-emergency departments, median TAT was reduced by 19.8±2.2 min (p < 0.01), reaching 52±1.3 min. There was no change in the volume of ordered STAT CTNI tests by the emergency department (p = 0.811), whereas for non-emergency departments there was a reduction of 115.7±50 monthly requests on average (p = 0.026). The volume of ordered tests decreased only in time frames of the regular shift following the morning round. Thus, total automation significantly improves the core laboratory efficiency in terms of TAT. As a consequence, the volume of STAT tests ordered by hospital departments (except for the emergency department) decreased due to reduced duplicated requests.

  8. Global real-time dose measurements using the Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, D.; Smart, D.; Shea, M.; Bailey, J.; Didkovsky, L.; Judge, K.; Garrett, H.; Atwell, W.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R.; Bell, D.; Mertens, C.; Xu, X.; Wiltberger, M.; Wiley, S.; Teets, E.; Jones, B.; Hong, S.; Yoon, K.

    2016-11-01

    The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) program has successfully deployed a fleet of six instruments measuring the ambient radiation environment at commercial aircraft altitudes. ARMAS transmits real-time data to the ground and provides quality, tissue-relevant ambient dose equivalent rates with 5 min latency for dose rates on 213 flights up to 17.3 km (56,700 ft). We show five cases from different aircraft; the source particles are dominated by galactic cosmic rays but include particle fluxes for minor radiation periods and geomagnetically disturbed conditions. The measurements from 2013 to 2016 do not cover a period of time to quantify galactic cosmic rays' dependence on solar cycle variation and their effect on aviation radiation. However, we report on small radiation "clouds" in specific magnetic latitude regions and note that active geomagnetic, variable space weather conditions may sufficiently modify the magnetospheric magnetic field that can enhance the radiation environment, particularly at high altitudes and middle to high latitudes. When there is no significant space weather, high-latitude flights produce a dose rate analogous to a chest X-ray every 12.5 h, every 25 h for midlatitudes, and every 100 h for equatorial latitudes at typical commercial flight altitudes of 37,000 ft ( 11 km). The dose rate doubles every 2 km altitude increase, suggesting a radiation event management strategy for pilots or air traffic control; i.e., where event-driven radiation regions can be identified, they can be treated like volcanic ash clouds to achieve radiation safety goals with slightly lower flight altitudes or more equatorial flight paths.

  9. Blood compatibility of a ferulic acid (FA)-eluting PHBHHx system for biodegradable magnesium stent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Erlin; Shen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium stent has shown potential application as a new biodegradable stent. However, the fast degradation of magnesium stent limited its clinic application. Recently, a biodegradable and drug-eluting coating system was designed to prevent magnesium from fast degradation by adding ferulic acid (FA) in poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) by a physical method. In vitro study has demonstrated that the FA-eluting system exhibited strong promotion to the endothelialization, which might be a choice for the stent application. In this paper, the hemolysis rate, the plasma recalcification time (PRT), the plasma prothrombin time (PT) and the kinetic clotting time of the FA-eluting films were investigated and the platelet adhesion was observed in order to assess the blood compatibility of the FA-eluting PHBHHx films in comparison with PHBHHx film. The results have shown that the addition of FA had no influence on the hemolysis, but prolonged PRT, PT and the clotting time and reduced the platelet adhesion and activation, displaying that the FA-eluting PHBHHx exhibited better blood compatibility than PHBHHx. In addition, the effect of alkali treatment on the blood compatibility of FA-eluting PHBHHx was also studied. It was indicated that alkali treatment had no effect on the hemolysis and the coagulation time, but enhanced slightly the platelet adhesion. All these demonstrated that FA-eluting PHBHHx film had good blood compatibility and might be a candidate surface coating for the biodegradable magnesium stent.

  10. Deadlock handling for real-time control of AGVs at automated container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, M.; Grunow, M.; Günther, H.O.

    2006-01-01

    In automated container terminals, situations occur where quay cranes, stacking cranes, and automated guided vehicles (AGVs), directly or indirectly request each other to start a specific process. Hence, all of the affected resources are blocked, possibly leading to the complete deadlock of indivi......In automated container terminals, situations occur where quay cranes, stacking cranes, and automated guided vehicles (AGVs), directly or indirectly request each other to start a specific process. Hence, all of the affected resources are blocked, possibly leading to the complete deadlock...... of individual cranes or AGVs. Particularly, AGVs are liable to deadlocks because they always need a secondary resource, either a quay crane or a stacking crane, to perform the pick-up and drop-off operations. Because usually no buffering of containers takes place at the interfaces between AGVs and cranes......, the consequences of deadlocks are rather severe. Two different methods for the detection of deadlocks are presented. One is based on a matrix representation of the terminal system. The other directly traces the requests for the individual resources. To resolve deadlock situations arising in an automated container...

  11. Deadlock handling for real-time control of AGV's at automated container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, M.; Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.

    2007-01-01

    In automated container terminals, situations occur where quay cranes, stacking cranes, and automated guided vehicles (AGVs), directly or indirectly request each other to start a specific process. Hence, all of the affected resources are blocked, possibly leading to the complete deadlock of indivi......In automated container terminals, situations occur where quay cranes, stacking cranes, and automated guided vehicles (AGVs), directly or indirectly request each other to start a specific process. Hence, all of the affected resources are blocked, possibly leading to the complete deadlock...... of individual cranes or AGVs. Particularly, AGVs are liable to deadlocks because they always need a secondary resource, either a quay crane or a stacking crane, to perform the pick-up and drop-off operations. Because usually no buffering of containers takes place at the interfaces between AGVs and cranes......, the consequences of deadlocks are rather severe. Two different methods for the detection of deadlocks are presented. One is based on a matrix representation of the terminal system. The other directly traces the requests for the individual resources. To resolve deadlock situations arising in an automated container...

  12. Full automation of {sup 68}Ga labelling of DOTA-peptides including cation exchange prepurification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocak, M. [Clinical Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Pharmacy Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Antretter, M. [Clinical Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Knopp, R.; Kunkel, F. [Eckert and Ziegler Eurotope GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Petrik, M. [Clinical Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Bergisadi, N. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Pharmacy Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Decristoforo, C. [Clinical Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: Clemens.Decristoforo@uki.at

    2010-02-15

    Here we describe a fully automated approach for the synthesis of {sup 68}Ga-labelled DOTA-peptides based on pre-concentration and purification of the generator eluate by using a cation exchange-cartridge and its comparison with fully automated direct labelling applying fractionated elution. Pre-concentration of the eluate on a cation exchange cartridge both using a resin-based and a disposable cation-exchange cartridge efficiently removed {sup 68}Ge as well as major metal contaminations with Fe and Zn. This resulted in a high labelling efficiency of DOTA-peptides at high specific activity (SA) with short synthesis times.

  13. Nanoporous titanium surfaces for sustained elution of proteins and antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhossein Ketabchi

    Full Text Available Current medically relevant metals for prosthetic reconstructions enjoy a relatively good success rate, but their performance drops significantly in patients with compromised health status, and post-surgical infections still remain an important challenge. To address these problems, different nanotechnology-based strategies have been exploited to create implantable metals with an enhanced bioactivity and antibacterial capacities. Among these, oxidative nanopatterning has emerged as a very effective approach to engender nanoporous surfaces that stimulate and guide the activity of adhering cells. The resulting nanoporosity is also attractive because it offers nanoconfined volumes that can be exploited to load bioactive compounds and modulate their release over time. Such extended elution is needed since a single exposure to growth factors and/or antibiotics, for instance, may not be adequate to further sustain bone regeneration and/or to counteract bacterial colonization. In this article, we assessed the capacities of nanoporous titanium surfaces generated by oxidative nanopatterning to provide controlled and sustained elution of proteins and antibiotic molecules. To this end, we have selected bovine serum albumin (BSA and vancomycin to reflect commonly used compounds, and investigated their adsorption and elution by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR and ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS spectroscopy. Our results demonstrate that while the elution of albumin is not significantly affected by the nanoporosity, in the case of vancomycin, nanoporous surfaces provided an extended release. These findings were successively correlated to the establishment of interactions with the surface and physical-entrapment effects exerted by the nanopores, ultimately highlighting their synergistic contribution to the release profiles and thus their importance in the design of nanostructured eluting platforms for applications in medicine.

  14. Precision-controlled elution of a 82Sr/82Rb generator for cardiac perfusion imaging with positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R.; Adler, A.; Beanlands, R. S.; de Kemp, R. A.

    2007-02-01

    A rubidium-82 (82Rb) elution system is described for use with positron emission tomography. Due to the short half-life of 82Rb (76 s), the system physics must be modelled precisely to account for transport delay and the associated activity decay and dispersion. Saline flow is switched between a 82Sr/82Rb generator and a bypass line to achieve a constant-activity elution of 82Rb. Pulse width modulation (PWM) of a solenoid valve is compared to simple threshold control as a means to simulate a proportional valve. A predictive-corrective control (PCC) algorithm is developed which produces a constant-activity elution within the constraints of long feedback delay and short elution time. The system model parameters are adjusted through a self-tuning algorithm to minimize error versus the requested time-activity profile. The system is self-calibrating with 2.5% repeatability, independent of generator activity and elution flow rate. Accurate 30 s constant-activity elutions of 10-70% of the total generator activity are achieved using both control methods. The combined PWM-PCC method provides significant improvement in precision and accuracy of the requested elution profiles. The 82Rb elution system produces accurate and reproducible constant-activity elution profiles of 82Rb activity, independent of parent 82Sr activity in the generator. More reproducible elution profiles may improve the quality of clinical and research PET perfusion studies using 82Rb.

  15. Ecological Momentary Assessments and Automated Time Series Analysis to Promote Tailored Health Care: A Proof-of-Principle Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerencia, Ando C; Bos, Elisabeth H; Rosmalen, Judith GM; Riese, Harriëtte; Aiello, Marco; Sytema, Sjoerd; de Jonge, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Health promotion can be tailored by combining ecological momentary assessments (EMA) with time series analysis. This combined method allows for studying the temporal order of dynamic relationships among variables, which may provide concrete indications for intervention. However, application of this method in health care practice is hampered because analyses are conducted manually and advanced statistical expertise is required. Objective This study aims to show how this limitation can be overcome by introducing automated vector autoregressive modeling (VAR) of EMA data and to evaluate its feasibility through comparisons with results of previously published manual analyses. Methods We developed a Web-based open source application, called AutoVAR, which automates time series analyses of EMA data and provides output that is intended to be interpretable by nonexperts. The statistical technique we used was VAR. AutoVAR tests and evaluates all possible VAR models within a given combinatorial search space and summarizes their results, thereby replacing the researcher’s tasks of conducting the analysis, making an informed selection of models, and choosing the best model. We compared the output of AutoVAR to the output of a previously published manual analysis (n=4). Results An illustrative example consisting of 4 analyses was provided. Compared to the manual output, the AutoVAR output presents similar model characteristics and statistical results in terms of the Akaike information criterion, the Bayesian information criterion, and the test statistic of the Granger causality test. Conclusions Results suggest that automated analysis and interpretation of times series is feasible. Compared to a manual procedure, the automated procedure is more robust and can save days of time. These findings may pave the way for using time series analysis for health promotion on a larger scale. AutoVAR was evaluated using the results of a previously conducted manual analysis

  16. An engineered approach to stem cell culture: automating the decision process for real-time adaptive subculture of stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Dai Fei Elmer; Weiss, Lee E; Junkers, Silvina N; Chen, Mei; Yin, Zhaozheng; Sandbothe, Michael F; Huh, Seung-il; Eom, Sungeun; Bise, Ryoma; Osuna-Highley, Elvira; Kanade, Takeo; Campbell, Phil G

    2011-01-01

    Current cell culture practices are dependent upon human operators and remain laborious and highly subjective, resulting in large variations and inconsistent outcomes, especially when using visual assessments of cell confluency to determine the appropriate time to subculture cells. Although efforts to automate cell culture with robotic systems are underway, the majority of such systems still require human intervention to determine when to subculture. Thus, it is necessary to accurately and objectively determine the appropriate time for cell passaging. Optimal stem cell culturing that maintains cell pluripotency while maximizing cell yields will be especially important for efficient, cost-effective stem cell-based therapies. Toward this goal we developed a real-time computer vision-based system that monitors the degree of cell confluency with a precision of 0.791±0.031 and recall of 0.559±0.043. The system consists of an automated phase-contrast time-lapse microscope and a server. Multiple dishes are sequentially imaged and the data is uploaded to the server that performs computer vision processing, predicts when cells will exceed a pre-defined threshold for optimal cell confluency, and provides a Web-based interface for remote cell culture monitoring. Human operators are also notified via text messaging and e-mail 4 hours prior to reaching this threshold and immediately upon reaching this threshold. This system was successfully used to direct the expansion of a paradigm stem cell population, C2C12 cells. Computer-directed and human-directed control subcultures required 3 serial cultures to achieve the theoretical target cell yield of 50 million C2C12 cells and showed no difference for myogenic and osteogenic differentiation. This automated vision-based system has potential as a tool toward adaptive real-time control of subculturing, cell culture optimization and quality assurance/quality control, and it could be integrated with current and developing robotic cell

  17. Percentage recovery of dioxin homologue through power-prep according to the eluting solvents and their amounts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Tae-Uk [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea). Division of Applied Life Science]|[National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (Korea). Busan Regional Office; Kim, Dong-Gyu [National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (Korea). Seoul Regional Office; Choi, Si-Weon [National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (Korea). Busan Regional Office; Seo, Dong-Cheol; Jeo, Jong-Soo [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea). Division of Applied Life Science; Lee, Hong-Jae [Jinju National Univ. (Korea). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2004-09-15

    Because of the persistence and accumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins(PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo furans(PCDFs) in the environment, dioxins contamination is regarded as a global issue. And various methods for analyzing PCDDs and PCDFs have been developed and improved. According to US EPA method, cleanup method was very various. Conventional cleanup methods are very dependable, but are time consuming and use large volumes of organic solvents. To increase the efficiency of cleanup for the analysis of PCDDs and PCDFs, we used high speed automated sample cleanup system for dioxins which is called Power-Prep trademark (Fluid Management System Inc., USA). Power- Prep trademark gave us swift analysis of dioxin and its precision and accuracy. This system was designed to cleanup of toxic compound such as dioxins, PCBs, pesticides and PAHs using silica, alumina and carbon column. Using this system, it is possible to conduct several samples in less than 1.5 hours, thereby, achieving high recoveries and excellent precision and accuracy for all dioxin congeners. In this experiment, we carried out PCDDs and PCDFs analysis by FMS(Fluid Management System Inc.) with 3 eluting solvents such as toluene, hexane and dichloromethane to find out the best eluting solvent and its amounts.

  18. Matrix Failure Modes and Effects Analysis as a Knowledge Base for a Real Time Automated Diagnosis Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Stephanie; Iverson, David; Spukovska, Lilly; Souza, Kenneth A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Failure Modes and Effects Analysis contain a wealth of information that can be used to create the knowledge base required for building automated diagnostic Expert systems. A real time monitoring and diagnosis expert system based on an actual NASA project's matrix failure modes and effects analysis was developed. This Expert system Was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. This system was first used as a case study to monitor the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), a Space Shuttle payload that is used to house and monitor animals in orbit so the effects of space flight and microgravity can be studied. The techniques developed for the RAHF monitoring and diagnosis Expert system are general enough to be used for monitoring and diagnosis of a variety of other systems that undergo a Matrix FMEA. This automated diagnosis system was successfully used on-line and validated on the Space Shuttle flight STS-58, mission SLS-2 in October 1993.

  19. Target lesion revascularisation in patients treated with a sirolimus-eluting or paclitaxel-eluting stent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeng, Michael; Okkels Jensen, Lisette; Rasmussen, Klaus;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for clinical-driven target lesion revascularisation (TLR) in patients treated with sirolimus-eluting (Cypher) or paclitaxel-eluting (Taxus) stents in a real-world scenario. DESIGN: From 1 January 2003 to 18 May 2005, all patients treated with a Cypher or Taxus ...

  20. Elution of leachable components from composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracane, J L

    1994-07-01

    A significant amount of residual monomer or short chain polymers remain unbound in set composite material. Due to its potential impact on both the biocompatibility and the structural stability of the restoration, many investigators have studied the elution of these unbound molecules into aqueous media. The results of these studies suggest that elution of leachable components from composites is rapid, with the majority being released within a matter of hours. Weight losses of up to 2% of the mass of the composite have been reported under certain conditions. The studies have also shown that the extent and rate of elution of components from composites is dependent upon several factors. The quantity of leachables has been correlated to the degree of cure of the polymer network. The composition and solubility characteristics of the extraction solvent influence the kinetics and mechanism of the elution process. Elution is generally thought to occur via diffusion of molecules through the resin matrix, and is therefore dependent upon the size and chemical characteristics of the leachable species.

  1. Automated Data Aggregation for Time-Series Analysis: Study Case on Anaesthesia Data Warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, Antoine; Jeanne, Mathieu; Ficheur, Grégoire; Marcilly, Romaric

    2016-01-01

    Data stored in operational databases are not reusable directly. Aggregation modules are necessary to facilitate secondary use. They decrease volume of data while increasing the number of available information. In this paper, we present four automated engines of aggregation, integrated into an anaesthesia data warehouse. Four instances of clinical questions illustrate the use of those engines for various improvements of quality of care: duration of procedure, drug administration, assessment of hypotension and its related treatment.

  2. Integrating Electrochemical Detection with Centrifugal Microfluidics for Real-Time and Fully Automated Sample Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Sune Zoëga; Kwasny, Dorota; Amato, Letizia

    2015-01-01

    experiments, even when the microfluidic disc is spinning at high velocities. Automated sample handling is achieved by designing a microfluidic system to release analyte sequentially, utilizing on-disc passive valving. In addition, the microfluidic system is designed to trap and keep the liquid sample...... electrochemical experiment, including all intermediate sample handling steps, is demonstrated by amperometric detection of on-disc mixing of analytes (PBS and ferricyanide)....

  3. Late stent malapposition and marked positive vessel remodeling after sirolimus-eluting coronary stent implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng; QIAN Ju-ying; GE Jun-bo

    2006-01-01

    @@ It has been reported that positive remodeling, regression of neointimal hyperplasia, and late malapposition are associated with brachytherapy, one of the approaches to prevent first-time and recurrent in-stent restenosis.1,2 Recently, some drug-eluting stents have been demonstrated to dramatically reduce restenosis rates.3,4 Despite these promising results, these drug-eluting stents may have the same potential risks as brachytherapy, with some similarities between the 2 technologies in anti- proliferative effects on vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. We reported a case of late stent malapposition and marked positive vessel remodeling after sirolimus-eluting coronary stent implantation.

  4. Three Experiments Examining the Use of Electroencephalogram,Event-Related Potentials, and Heart-Rate Variability for Real-Time Human-Centered Adaptive Automation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Parasuraman, Raja; Freeman, Frederick G.; Scerbo, Mark W.; Mikulka, Peter J.; Pope, Alan T.

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive automation represents an advanced form of human-centered automation design. The approach to automation provides for real-time and model-based assessments of human-automation interaction, determines whether the human has entered into a hazardous state of awareness and then modulates the task environment to keep the operator in-the-loop , while maintaining an optimal state of task engagement and mental alertness. Because adaptive automation has not matured, numerous challenges remain, including what the criteria are, for determining when adaptive aiding and adaptive function allocation should take place. Human factors experts in the area have suggested a number of measures including the use of psychophysiology. This NASA Technical Paper reports on three experiments that examined the psychophysiological measures of event-related potentials, electroencephalogram, and heart-rate variability for real-time adaptive automation. The results of the experiments confirm the efficacy of these measures for use in both a developmental and operational role for adaptive automation design. The implications of these results and future directions for psychophysiology and human-centered automation design are discussed.

  5. Elution of lead from vermiculite with environmentally benign reagents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The elution of lead from vermiculite was investigated by using a novel biodegradable chelating reagent, L-asparagic-N,N-diacetic acid (ASDA) and water soluble depolymerized pectic acid and comparing with a conventional chelating reagent, EDTA, as well as acetic acid. The influences of the reagent concentration, equilibrium pH and the suspension contact time on Pb extraction were examined. It is concluded that the acetic acid is not effective for Pb removal in any case due to its weak complexing ability with Pb. Although Pb is easier to be released by EDTA with stoichiometric amount, it is by no means the preferable alternative for the purpose because of its low biodegradability. On the other hand, ASDA and depolymerized pectic acid have the potential application because they are not only effective for Pb elution but also environmentally friendly.

  6. Laboratory Automation and Intra-Laboratory Turnaround Time: Experience at the University Hospital Campus Bio-Medico of Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, Silvia; De Cesaris, Marina; Hart, Jonathan George; Urbano, Michele; Vitali, Massimiliano Andrea; Fragliasso, Fulvio; Dicuonzo, Giordano

    2015-12-01

    Intra-laboratory turnaround time (TAT) is a key indicator of laboratory performance. Improving TAT is a complex task requiring staff education, equipment acquisition, and adequate TAT monitoring. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intra-laboratory TAT after laboratory automation implementation (June 2013-June 2014) and to compare it to that in the preautomation period (July 2012-May 2013). Intra-laboratory TAT was evaluated both as the mean TAT registered and the percentage of outlier (OP) exams. The mean TAT was 36, 38, and 34 min during the study periods, respectively. These values respected the goal TAT established at 45 min. The OP, calculated at 45 min as well as at 60 min, decreased from 26 to 21 and from 11 to 5, respectively. From a focused analysis on blood count cell, troponin I, and prothrombin (PT) test, TAT improvement was more evident for tests requiring longer preanalytical process. The follow-up of TAT from June 2013 to June 2014 revealed the reduction of the mean TAT as well as of the OP exams after automation implementation and that automation more strongly affects the test in the preanalytical phase including centrifugation of the sample, such as troponin I and PT.

  7. High throughput detection of Coxiella burnetii by real-time PCR with internal control system and automated DNA preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramme Stefanie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q-fever, a widespread zoonosis. Due to its high environmental stability and infectivity it is regarded as a category B biological weapon agent. In domestic animals infection remains either asymptomatic or presents as infertility or abortion. Clinical presentation in humans can range from mild flu-like illness to acute pneumonia and hepatitis. Endocarditis represents the most common form of chronic Q-fever. In humans serology is the gold standard for diagnosis but is inadequate for early case detection. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool in an eventual biological weapon attack or in local epidemics we developed a real-time 5'nuclease based PCR assay with an internal control system. To facilitate high-throughput an automated extraction procedure was evaluated. Results To determine the minimum number of copies that are detectable at 95% chance probit analysis was used. Limit of detection in blood was 2,881 copies/ml [95%CI, 2,188–4,745 copies/ml] with a manual extraction procedure and 4,235 copies/ml [95%CI, 3,143–7,428 copies/ml] with a fully automated extraction procedure, respectively. To demonstrate clinical application a total of 72 specimens of animal origin were compared with respect to manual and automated extraction. A strong correlation between both methods was observed rendering both methods suitable. Testing of 247 follow up specimens of animal origin from a local Q-fever epidemic rendered real-time PCR more sensitive than conventional PCR. Conclusion A sensitive and thoroughly evaluated real-time PCR was established. Its high-throughput mode may show a useful approach to rapidly screen samples in local outbreaks for other organisms relevant for humans or animals. Compared to a conventional PCR assay sensitivity of real-time PCR was higher after testing samples from a local Q-fever outbreak.

  8. Automated drop-on-demand system with real-time gravimetric control for precise dosage formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, A; Brown, M; Muzzio, F; Takhistov, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Many of the therapies for personalized medicine have few dosage options, and the successful translation of these therapies to the clinic is significantly dependent on the drug/formulation delivery platform. We have developed a lab-scale integrated system for microdosing of drug formulations with high accuracy and precision that is capable of feedback control. The designed modular drug dispensing system includes a microdispensing valve unit and is fully automated with a LabVIEW-controlled computer interface. The designed system is capable of dispensing drug droplets with volumes ranging from nanoliters to microliters with high accuracy (relative standard deviation gravimetric control.

  9. Real Time Fuzzy Based Speed and Direction Angle Control of an Automated Guided Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Başçı

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a fuzzy controller is applied to velocity and direction angle control of a certain type of wheeled mobile robots called Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs. The velocity and direction angle of the AGV are controlled to keep the vehicle on desired path. A PI controller is also applied to AGV in order to show the robustness of the fuzzy controller. Experimental results prove that the fuzzy controller shows better tracking performance than the PI controller in terms of robustness, smoothness and fast dynamics. Results are also given for sudden disturbance and extra load conditions and satisfied results are obtained.

  10. Suppression of scarring in peripheral nerve implants by drug elution

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, James J.

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Medical implants made of non-biological materials provoke a chronic inflammatory response, resulting in the deposition of a collagenous scar tissue (ST) layer on their surface, that gradually thickens over time. This is a critical problem for neural interfaces. Scar build-up on electrodes results in a progressive decline in signal level because the scar tissue gradually separates axons away from the recording contacts. In regenerative sieves and microchannel electrodes, progressive scar deposition will constrict and may eventually choke off the sieve hole or channel lumen. Interface designs need to address this issue if they are to be fit for long term use. This study examines a novel method of inhibiting the formation and thickening of the fibrous scar. Approach. Research to date has mainly focused on methods of preventing stimulation of the foreign body response by implant surface modification. In this paper a pharmacological approach using drug elution to suppress chronic inflammation is introduced. Microchannel implants made of silicone doped with the steroid drug dexamethasone were implanted in the rat sciatic nerve for periods of up to a year. Tissue from within the microchannels was compared to that from control devices that did not release any drug. Main results. In the drug eluting implants the scar layer was significantly thinner at all timepoints, and unlike the controls it did not continue to thicken after 6 months. Control implants supported axon regeneration well initially, but axon counts fell rapidly at later timepoints as scar thickened. Axon counts in drug eluting devices were initially much lower, but increased rather than declined and by one year were significantly higher than in controls. Significance. Drug elution offers a potential long term solution to the problem of performance degradation due to scarring around neural implants.

  11. An engineered approach to stem cell culture: automating the decision process for real-time adaptive subculture of stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Fei Elmer Ker

    Full Text Available Current cell culture practices are dependent upon human operators and remain laborious and highly subjective, resulting in large variations and inconsistent outcomes, especially when using visual assessments of cell confluency to determine the appropriate time to subculture cells. Although efforts to automate cell culture with robotic systems are underway, the majority of such systems still require human intervention to determine when to subculture. Thus, it is necessary to accurately and objectively determine the appropriate time for cell passaging. Optimal stem cell culturing that maintains cell pluripotency while maximizing cell yields will be especially important for efficient, cost-effective stem cell-based therapies. Toward this goal we developed a real-time computer vision-based system that monitors the degree of cell confluency with a precision of 0.791±0.031 and recall of 0.559±0.043. The system consists of an automated phase-contrast time-lapse microscope and a server. Multiple dishes are sequentially imaged and the data is uploaded to the server that performs computer vision processing, predicts when cells will exceed a pre-defined threshold for optimal cell confluency, and provides a Web-based interface for remote cell culture monitoring. Human operators are also notified via text messaging and e-mail 4 hours prior to reaching this threshold and immediately upon reaching this threshold. This system was successfully used to direct the expansion of a paradigm stem cell population, C2C12 cells. Computer-directed and human-directed control subcultures required 3 serial cultures to achieve the theoretical target cell yield of 50 million C2C12 cells and showed no difference for myogenic and osteogenic differentiation. This automated vision-based system has potential as a tool toward adaptive real-time control of subculturing, cell culture optimization and quality assurance/quality control, and it could be integrated with current and

  12. Softening and elution of monomers in ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Asmussen, Erik; Munksgaard, E Christian;

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of light-curing protocol on softening and elution of monomers in ethanol as measured on a model polymer. It was a further aim to correlate the measured values with previously reported data on degree of conversion and glass transition tempera...

  13. A time-table organizer for the planning and implementation of screenings in manual or semi-automation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goktug, Asli N.; Chai, Sergio C.; Chen, Taosheng

    2013-01-01

    We have designed a software to facilitate the planning and execution of screenings performed manually or in semi-automation mode, which follow a sequential sequence of events. Many assays involve multiple steps, often including time-sensitive stages, thus complicating the proper implementation to ensure that all plates are treated equally in order to achieve reliable outcomes. The Excel Macro-Enabled Workbook presented in this study analyzes and breaks down the timings for all tasks, calculates the maximum number of plates that suit the desired parameters, and allows for optimization based on tolerance of time delay and equal treatment of plates when possible. The generated Gantt charts allow for visual inspection of the screening process, and provide timings in tabulated form to assist the user to conduct the experiments as projected by the software. The program can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/sams-hts/. PMID:23653394

  14. Improved blood compatibility of rapamycin-eluting stent by incorporating curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, C J; Tang, J J; Shao, Z Y; Wang, J; Huang, N

    2007-09-01

    This paper dealt with improving the blood compatibility of the rapamycin-eluting stent by incorporating curcumin. The rapamycin- and rapamycin/curcumin-loaded PLGA (poly(d,l-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)) coatings were fabricated onto the surface of the stainless steel stents using an ultrasonic atomization spray method. The structure of the coating films was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the drug-eluting stents indicated that the surface of all drug-eluting stents was very smooth and uniform, and there were not webbings and "bridges" between struts. There were not any cracks and delaminations on stent surface after expanded by the angioplasty balloon. The in vitro platelet adhesion and activation were investigated by static platelet adhesion test and GMP140 (P-selection), respectively. The clotting time was examined by activated partially prothromplastin time (APTT) test. The fibrinogen adsorption on the drug-loaded PLGA films was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All obtained data showed that incorporating curcumin in rapamycin-loaded PLGA coating can significantly decrease platelet adhesion and activation, prolong APTT clotting time as well as decrease the fibrinogen adsorption. All results indicated that incorporating curcumin in rapamycin-eluting coating obviously improve the blood compatibility of rapamycin-eluting stents. It was suggested that it may be possible to develop a drug-eluting stent which had the characteristics of not only good anti-proliferation but also improved anticoagulation.

  15. Improved single pellet grasping using automated ad libitum full-time training robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenrich, Keith K; May, Zacnicte; Hurd, Caitlin; Boychuk, Carolyn E; Kowalczewski, Jan; Bennett, David J; Whishaw, Ian Q; Fouad, Karim

    2015-03-15

    The single pellet grasping (SPG) task is a skilled forelimb motor task commonly used to evaluate reaching and grasp kinematics and recovery of forelimb function in rodent models of CNS injuries and diseases. To train rats in the SPG task, the animals are usually food restricted then placed in an SPG task enclosure and presented food pellets on a platform located beyond a slit located at the front of the task enclosure for 10-30 min, normally every weekday for several weeks. When the SPG task is applied in studies involving various experimental groups, training quickly becomes labor intensive, and can yield results with significant day-to-day variability. Furthermore, training is frequently done during the animals' light-cycle, which for nocturnal rodents such as mice and rats could affect performance. Here we describe an automated pellet presentation (APP) robotic system to train and test rats in the SPG task that reduces some of the procedural weaknesses of manual training. We found that APP trained rats performed significantly more trials per 24 h period, and had higher success rates with less daily and weekly variability than manually trained rats. Moreover, the results show that success rates are positively correlated with the number of dark-cycle trials, suggesting that dark-cycle training has a positive effect on success rates. These results demonstrate that automated training is an effective method for evaluating and training skilled reaching performance of rats, opening up the possibility for new approaches to investigating the role of motor systems in enabling skilled forelimb use and new approaches to investigating rehabilitation following CNS injury.

  16. Automated segmentation and tracking of non-rigid objects in time-lapse microscopy videos of polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Susanne; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Essig, Fabian; Hünniger, Kerstin; Kurzai, Oliver; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2015-02-01

    Time-lapse microscopy is an important technique to study the dynamics of various biological processes. The labor-intensive manual analysis of microscopy videos is increasingly replaced by automated segmentation and tracking methods. These methods are often limited to certain cell morphologies and/or cell stainings. In this paper, we present an automated segmentation and tracking framework that does not have these restrictions. In particular, our framework handles highly variable cell shapes and does not rely on any cell stainings. Our segmentation approach is based on a combination of spatial and temporal image variations to detect moving cells in microscopy videos. This method yields a sensitivity of 99% and a precision of 95% in object detection. The tracking of cells consists of different steps, starting from single-cell tracking based on a nearest-neighbor-approach, detection of cell-cell interactions and splitting of cell clusters, and finally combining tracklets using methods from graph theory. The segmentation and tracking framework was applied to synthetic as well as experimental datasets with varying cell densities implying different numbers of cell-cell interactions. We established a validation framework to measure the performance of our tracking technique. The cell tracking accuracy was found to be >99% for all datasets indicating a high accuracy for connecting the detected cells between different time points.

  17. Single pellet grasping following cervical spinal cord injury in adult rat using an automated full-time training robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenrich, Keith K; May, Zacincte; Torres-Espín, Abel; Forero, Juan; Bennett, David J; Fouad, Karim

    2016-02-15

    Task specific motor training is a common form of rehabilitation therapy in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The single pellet grasping (SPG) task is a skilled forelimb motor task used to evaluate recovery of forelimb function in rodent models of SCI. The task requires animals to obtain food pellets located on a shelf beyond a slit at the front of an enclosure. Manually training and testing rats in the SPG task requires extensive time and often yields results with high outcome variability and small therapeutic windows (i.e., the difference between pre- and post-SCI success rates). Recent advances in automated SPG training using automated pellet presentation (APP) systems allow rats to train ad libitum 24h a day, 7 days a week. APP trained rats have improved success rates, require less researcher time, and have lower outcome variability compared to manually trained rats. However, it is unclear whether APP trained rats can perform the SPG task using the APP system after SCI. Here we show that rats with cervical SCI can successfully perform the SPG task using the APP system. We found that SCI rats with APP training performed significantly more attempts, had slightly lower and less variable final score success rates, and larger therapeutic windows than SCI rats with manual training. These results demonstrate that APP training has clear advantages over manual training for evaluating reaching performance of SCI rats and represents a new tool for investigating rehabilitative motor training following CNS injury.

  18. Real-time automated spectral assessment of the BOLD response for neurofeedback at 3 and 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koush, Yury; Elliott, Mark A; Scharnowski, Frank; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-09-15

    Echo-planar imaging is the dominant functional MRI data acquisition scheme for evaluating the BOLD signal. To date, it remains the only approach providing neurofeedback from spatially localized brain activity. Real-time functional single-voxel proton spectroscopy (fSVPS) may be an alternative for spatially specific BOLD neurofeedback at 7T because it allows for a precise estimation of the local T2* signal, EPI-specific artifacts may be avoided, and the signal contrast may increase. In order to explore and optimize this alternative neurofeedback approach, we tested fully automated real-time fSVPS spectral estimation procedures to approximate T2* BOLD signal changes from the unsuppressed water peak, i.e. lorentzian non-linear complex spectral fit (LNLCSF) in frequency and frequency-time domain. The proposed approaches do not require additional spectroscopic localizers in contrast to conventional T2* approximation based on linear regression of the free induction decay (FID). For methods comparison, we evaluated quality measures for signals from the motor and the visual cortex as well as a real-time feedback condition at high (3T) and at ultra-high (7T) magnetic field strengths. Using these methods, we achieved reliable and fast water peak spectral parameter estimations. At 7T, we observed an absolute increase of spectra line narrowing due to the BOLD effect, but quality measures did not improve due to artifactual line broadening. Overall, the automated fSVPS approach can be used to assess dynamic spectral changes in real-time, and to provide localized T2* neurofeedback at 3 and 7T.

  19. A comparison of timed artificial insemination and automated activity monitoring with hormone intervention in 3 commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolecheck, K A; Silvia, W J; Heersche, G; Wood, C L; McQuerry, K J; Bewley, J M

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the reproductive performance of cows inseminated based on automated activity monitoring with hormone intervention (AAM) to cows from the same herds inseminated using only an intensive timed artificial insemination (TAI) program. Cows (n=523) from 3 commercial dairy herds participated in this study. To be considered eligible for participation, cows must have been classified with a body condition score of at least 2.50, but no more than 3.50, passed a reproductive tract examination, and experienced no incidences of clinical, recorded metabolic diseases in the current lactation. Within each herd, cows were balanced for parity and predicted milk yield, then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: TAI or AAM. Cows assigned to the TAI group were subjected to an ovulation synchronization protocol consisting of presynchronization, Ovsynch, and Resynch for up to 3 inseminations. Cows assigned to the AAM treatment were fitted with a leg-mounted accelerometer (AfiAct Pedometer Plus, Afimilk, Kibbutz Afikim, Israel) at least 10 d before the end of the herd voluntary waiting period (VWP). Cows in the AAM treatment were inseminated at times indicated by the automated alert system for up to 90 d after the VWP. If an open cow experienced no AAM alert for a 39±7-d period (beginning at the end of the VWP), hormone intervention in the form of a single injection of either PGF2α or GnRH (no TAI) was permitted as directed by the herd veterinarian. Subsequent to hormone intervention, cows were inseminated when alerted in estrus by the AAM system. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasound 33 to 46 d after insemination. Pregnancy loss was determined via a second ultrasound after 60 d pregnant. Timed artificial insemination cows experienced a median 11.0 d shorter time to first service. Automated activity-monitored cows experienced a median 17.5-d shorter service interval. No treatment difference in probability of pregnancy to first AI, probability

  20. Fully Automated Portable Comprehensive 2-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiwon; Zhou, Menglian; Zhu, Hongbo; Nidetz, Robert; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Fan, Xudong

    2016-10-06

    We developed a fully automated portable 2-dimensional (2-D) gas chromatography (GC x GC) device, which had a dimension of 60 cm × 50 cm × 10 cm and weight less than 5 kg. The device incorporated a micropreconcentrator/injector, commercial columns, micro-Deans switches, microthermal injectors, microphotoionization detectors, data acquisition cards, and power supplies, as well as computer control and user interface. It employed multiple channels (4 channels) in the second dimension ((2)D) to increase the (2)D separation time (up to 32 s) and hence (2)D peak capacity. In addition, a nondestructive flow-through vapor detector was installed at the end of the (1)D column to monitor the eluent from (1)D and assist in reconstructing (1)D elution peaks. With the information obtained jointly from the (1)D and (2)D detectors, (1)D elution peaks could be reconstructed with significantly improved (1)D resolution. In this Article, we first discuss the details of the system operating principle and the algorithm to reconstruct (1)D elution peaks, followed by the description and characterization of each component. Finally, 2-D separation of 50 analytes, including alkane (C6-C12), alkene, alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, cycloalkane, and aromatic hydrocarbon, in 14 min is demonstrated, showing the peak capacity of 430-530 and the peak capacity production of 40-80/min.

  1. Oral factors affecting titanium elution and corrosion: an in vitro study using simulated body fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Suito

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Ti, which is biocompatible and resistant to corrosion, is widely used for dental implants, particularly in patients allergic to other materials. However, numerous studies have reported on Ti allergy and the in vitro corrosion of Ti. This study investigated the conditions that promote the elution of Ti ions from Ti implants. METHODS: Specimens of commercially pure Ti, pure nickel, a magnetic alloy, and a gold alloy were tested. Each specimen was immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF whose pH value was controlled (2.0, 3.0, 5.0, 7.4, and 9.0 using either hydrochloric or lactic acid. The parameters investigated were the following: duration of immersion, pH of the SBF, contact with a dissimilar metal, and mechanical stimulus. The amounts of Ti ions eluted were measured using a polarized Zeeman atomic absorption spectrophotometer. RESULTS: Eluted Ti ions were detected after 24 h (pH of 2.0 and 3.0 and after 48 h (pH of 9.0. However, even after 4 weeks, eluted Ti ions were not detected in SBF solutions with pH values of 5.0 and 7.4. Ti elution was affected by immersion time, pH, acid type, mechanical stimulus, and contact with a dissimilar metal. Elution of Ti ions in a Candida albicans culture medium was observed after 72 h. SIGNIFICANCE: Elution of Ti ions in the SBF was influenced by its pH and by crevice corrosion. The results of this study elucidate the conditions that lead to the elution of Ti ions in humans, which results in implant corrosion and Ti allergy.

  2. Application of Hybrid Real-Time Power System Simulator for Designing and Researching of Relay Protection and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovikov, Yu S.; Sulaymanov, A. O.; Andreev, M. V.

    2015-10-01

    Development, research and operation of smart grids (SG) with active-adaptive networks (AAS) are actual tasks for today. Planned integration of high-speed FACTS devices greatly complicates complex dynamic properties of power systems. As a result the operating conditions of equipment of power systems are significantly changing. Such situation creates the new actual problem of development and research of relay protection and automation (RPA) which will be able to adequately operate in the SGs and adapt to its regimes. Effectiveness of solution of the problem depends on using tools - different simulators of electric power systems. Analysis of the most famous and widely exploited simulators led to the conclusion about the impossibility of using them for solution of the mentioned problem. In Tomsk Polytechnic University developed the prototype of hybrid multiprocessor software and hardware system - Hybrid Real-Time Power System Simulator (HRTSim). Because of its unique features this simulator can be used for solution of mentioned tasks. This article introduces the concept of development and research of relay protection and automation with usage of HRTSim.

  3. The Supralimus sirolimus-eluting stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Pedro A; Bienert, Igor

    2013-05-01

    The use of biodegradable polymeric coatings has emerged as a potential bioengineering target to improve the vascular compatibility of coronary drug-eluting stents (DESs). This review summarizes the main features and scientific facts about the Supralimus sirolimus-eluting stent (Sahajanand Medical Technologies Ltd, Surat, India), which is a biodegradable polymer-based, sirolimus-eluting metallic stent that was recently introduced for routine use in Europe. The novel stent is built on a stainless steel platform, coated with a blend of biodegradable polymers (poly-l-lactide, poly-dl-lactide-co-glycolide and polyvinyl pyrrolidone; coating thickness is 4-5 µm). The active agent is the antiproliferative sirolimus in a dose load of 1.4 µg/mm(2), which is released within 48 days. The Supralimus stent was initially evaluated in the single-arm SERIES-I study, which showed binary angiographic restenosis rates of 0% (in-stent) and 1.7% (in-segment) and an in-stent late lumen loss of 0.09 ± 0.28 mm. The multicenter randomized PAINT trial compared two DESs with identical metallic platforms and biodegradable polymer carriers, but different agents (Infinnium [Sahajanand Medical Technologies Pvt Ltd] paclitaxel-eluting stent or Supralimus sirolimus-eluting stent) against bare stents. After 3 years, the pooled DES population had similar rates of cardiac death or myocardial infarction (9 vs 7.1%; p = 0.6), but a lower risk of repeat interventions (10 vs 29.9%; p < 0.01) than controls with bare stents. The incidence of definite or probable stent thrombosis in the pooled DES group was 2.3% (1st year: 1.8%; 2nd year: 0.4% and 3rd year: 0%). These results demonstrate that the novel Supralimus stents are effective in reducing reintervention, while potentially improving the safety profile by decreasing the risk of late-term thrombosis, even though further studies would be necessary to confirm these findings.

  4. Evaluation of automated sample preparation, retention time locked gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and data analysis methods for the metabolomic study of Arabidopsis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qun; David, Frank; Lynen, Frédéric; Rumpel, Klaus; Dugardeyn, Jasper; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Xu, Guowang; Sandra, Pat

    2011-05-27

    In this paper, automated sample preparation, retention time locked gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and data analysis methods for the metabolomics study were evaluated. A miniaturized and automated derivatisation method using sequential oximation and silylation was applied to a polar extract of 4 types (2 types×2 ages) of Arabidopsis thaliana, a popular model organism often used in plant sciences and genetics. Automation of the derivatisation process offers excellent repeatability, and the time between sample preparation and analysis was short and constant, reducing artifact formation. Retention time locked (RTL) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used, resulting in reproducible retention times and GC-MS profiles. Two approaches were used for data analysis. XCMS followed by principal component analysis (approach 1) and AMDIS deconvolution combined with a commercially available program (Mass Profiler Professional) followed by principal component analysis (approach 2) were compared. Several features that were up- or down-regulated in the different types were detected.

  5. IQMNMR: Open source software using time-domain NMR data for automated identification and quantification of metabolites in batches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most promising aspects of metabolomics is metabolic modeling and simulation. Central to such applications is automated high-throughput identification and quantification of metabolites. NMR spectroscopy is a reproducible, nondestructive, and nonselective method that has served as the foundation of metabolomics studies. However, the automated high-throughput identification and quantification of metabolites in NMR spectroscopy is limited by severe spectral overlap. Although numerous software programs have been developed for resolving overlapping resonances, as well as for identifying and quantifying metabolites, most of these programs are frequency-domain methods, considerably influenced by phase shifts and baseline distortions, and effective only in small-scale studies. Almost all these programs require multiple spectra for each application, and do not automatically identify and quantify metabolites in batches. Results We created IQMNMR, an R package that integrates a relaxation algorithm, digital filter, and similarity search algorithm. It differs from existing software in that it is a time-domain method; it uses not only frequency to resolve overlapping resonances but also relaxation time constants; it requires only one NMR spectrum per application; is uninfluenced by phase shifts and baseline distortions; and most important, yields a batch of quantified metabolites. Conclusions IQMNMR provides a solution that can automatically identify and quantify metabolites by one-dimensional proton NMR spectroscopy. Its time-domain nature, stability against phase shifts and baseline distortions, requirement for only one NMR spectrum, and capability to output a batch of quantified metabolites are of considerable significance to metabolic modeling and simulation. IQMNMR is available at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/IQMNMR/.

  6. Endovascular Gene Delivery from a Stent Platform: Gene- Eluting Stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Ilia; Chorny, Michael; Adamo, Richard F; Forbes, Scott P; Corrales, Ricardo A; Alferiev, Ivan S; Levy, Robert J

    A synergistic impact of research in the fields of post-angioplasty restenosis, drug-eluting stents and vascular gene therapy over the past 15 years has shaped the concept of gene-eluting stents. Gene-eluting stents hold promise of overcoming some biological and technical problems inherent to drug-eluting stent technology. As the field of gene-eluting stents matures it becomes evident that all three main design modules of a gene-eluting stent: a therapeutic transgene, a vector and a delivery system are equally important for accomplishing sustained inhibition of neointimal formation in arteries treated with gene delivery stents. This review summarizes prior work on stent-based gene delivery and discusses the main optimization strategies required to move the field of gene-eluting stents to clinical translation.

  7. Technical Note: Semi-automated effective width extraction from time-lapse RGB imagery of a remote, braided Greenlandic river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, C. J.; Smith, L. C.; Finnegan, D. C.; LeWinter, A. L.; Pitcher, L. H.; Chu, V. W.

    2015-06-01

    River systems in remote environments are often challenging to monitor and understand where traditional gauging apparatus are difficult to install or where safety concerns prohibit field measurements. In such cases, remote sensing, especially terrestrial time-lapse imaging platforms, offer a means to better understand these fluvial systems. One such environment is found at the proglacial Isortoq River in southwestern Greenland, a river with a constantly shifting floodplain and remote Arctic location that make gauging and in situ measurements all but impossible. In order to derive relevant hydraulic parameters for this river, two true color (RGB) cameras were installed in July 2011, and these cameras collected over 10 000 half hourly time-lapse images of the river by September of 2012. Existing approaches for extracting hydraulic parameters from RGB imagery require manual or supervised classification of images into water and non-water areas, a task that was impractical for the volume of data in this study. As such, automated image filters were developed that removed images with environmental obstacles (e.g., shadows, sun glint, snow) from the processing stream. Further image filtering was accomplished via a novel automated histogram similarity filtering process. This similarity filtering allowed successful (mean accuracy 79.6 %) supervised classification of filtered images from training data collected from just 10 % of those images. Effective width, a hydraulic parameter highly correlated with discharge in braided rivers, was extracted from these classified images, producing a hydrograph proxy for the Isortoq River between 2011 and 2012. This hydrograph proxy shows agreement with historic flooding observed in other parts of Greenland in July 2012 and offers promise that the imaging platform and processing methodology presented here will be useful for future monitoring studies of remote rivers.

  8. Innovative Elution Processes for Recovering Uranium from Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wai, Chien [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Tian, Guoxin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Janke, Christopher [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-05-29

    Utilizing amidoxime-based polymer sorbents for extraction of uranium from seawater has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Uranium collected in the sorbent is recovered typically by elution with an acid. One drawback of acid elution is deterioration of the sorbent which is a significant factor that limits the economic competitiveness of the amidoxime-based sorbent systems for sequestering uranium from seawater. Developing innovative elution processes to improve efficiency and to minimize loss of sorbent capacity become essential in order to make this technology economically feasible for large-scale industrial applications. This project has evaluated several elution processes including acid elution, carbonate elution, and supercritical fluid elution for recovering uranium from amidoxime-based polymer sorbents. The elution efficiency, durability and sorbent regeneration for repeated uranium adsorption- desorption cycles in simulated seawater have been studied. Spectroscopic techniques are used to evaluate chemical nature of the sorbent before and after elution. A sodium carbonate-hydrogen peroxide elution process for effective removal of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is developed. The cause of this sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide synergistic leaching of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is attributed to the formation of an extremely stable uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex. The efficiency of uranium elution by the carbonate-hydrogen peroxide method is comparable to that of the hydrochloric acid elution but damage to the sorbent material is much less for the former. The carbonate- hydrogen peroxide elution also does not need any elaborate step to regenerate the sorbent as those required for hydrochloric acid leaching. Several CO2-soluble ligands have been tested for extraction of uranium from the sorbent in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. A mixture of hexafluoroacetylacetone and tri-n-butylphosphate shows the best result but uranium

  9. Automation Security

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzoev, Dr. Timur

    2014-01-01

    Web-based Automated Process Control systems are a new type of applications that use the Internet to control industrial processes with the access to the real-time data. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks contain computers and applications that perform key functions in providing essential services and commodities (e.g., electricity, natural gas, gasoline, water, waste treatment, transportation) to all Americans. As such, they are part of the nation s critical infrastructu...

  10. OGLE‐2008‐BLG‐510: first automated real‐time detection of a weak microlensing anomaly – brown dwarf or stellar binary?★

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozza, V.; Dominik, M.; Rattenbury, N. J.

    2012-01-01

    The microlensing event OGLE‐2008‐BLG‐510 is characterized by an evident asymmetric shape of the peak, promptly detected by the Automated Robotic Terrestrial Exoplanet Microlensing Search (ARTEMiS) system in real time. The skewness of the light curve appears to be compatible both with binary......‐lens and binary‐source models, including the possibility that the lens system consists of an M dwarf orbited by a brown dwarf. The detection of this microlensing anomaly and our analysis demonstrate that: (1) automated real‐time detection of weak microlensing anomalies with immediate feedback is feasible...

  11. Isochronous wireless network for real-time communication in industrial automation

    CERN Document Server

    Trsek, Henning

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation proposes and investigates an isochronous wireless network for industrial control applications with guaranteed latencies and jitter. Based on a requirements analysis of real industrial applications and the characterisation of the wireless channel, the solution approach is developed. It consists of a TDMA-based medium access control, a dynamic resource allocation and the provision of a global time base for the wired and the wireless network. Due to the global time base, the solution approach allows a seamless and synchronous integration into existing wired Real-time Ethernet systems.

  12. Automated real time peg and tool detection for the FLS trainer box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemani, Arun; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a method that effectively tracks trocar tool and peg positions in real time to allow real time assessment of the peg transfer task of the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS). By utilizing custom code along with OpenCV libraries, tool and peg positions can be accurately tracked without altering the original setup conditions of the FLS trainer box. This is achieved via a series of image filtration sequences, thresholding functions, and Haar training methods.

  13. Feasibility of real-time satisfaction surveys through automated analysis of patients' unstructured comments and sentiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, Farrokh; Torii, Manabu; Clementz, Laura; Aron, David C

    2012-01-01

    This article shows how sentiment analysis (an artificial intelligence procedure that classifies opinions expressed within the text) can be used to design real-time satisfaction surveys. To improve participation, real-time surveys must be radically short. The shortest possible survey is a comment card. Patients' comments can be found online at sites organized for rating clinical care, within e-mails, in hospital complaint registries, or through simplified satisfaction surveys such as "Minute Survey." Sentiment analysis uses patterns among words to classify a comment into a complaint, or praise. It further classifies complaints into specific reasons for dissatisfaction, similar to broad categories found in longer surveys such as Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems. In this manner, sentiment analysis allows one to re-create responses to longer satisfaction surveys from a list of comments. To demonstrate, this article provides an analysis of sentiments expressed in 995 online comments made at the RateMDs.com Web site. We focused on pediatrician and obstetrician/gynecologist physicians in District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia. We were able to classify patients' reasons for dissatisfaction and the analysis provided information on how practices can improve their care. This article reports the accuracy of classifications of comments. Accuracy will improve as the number of comments received increases. In addition, we ranked physicians using the concept of time-to-next complaint. A time-between control chart was used to assess whether time-to-next complaint exceeded historical patterns and therefore suggested a departure from norms. These findings suggest that (1) patients' comments are easily available, (2) sentiment analysis can classify these comments into complaints/praise, and (3) time-to-next complaint can turn these classifications into numerical benchmarks that can trace impact of improvements over time. The procedures described in the

  14. Using dual-energy x-ray imaging to enhance automated lung tumor tracking during real-time adaptive radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menten, Martin J., E-mail: martin.menten@icr.ac.uk; Fast, Martin F.; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.oelfke@icr.ac.uk [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Real-time, markerless localization of lung tumors with kV imaging is often inhibited by ribs obscuring the tumor and poor soft-tissue contrast. This study investigates the use of dual-energy imaging, which can generate radiographs with reduced bone visibility, to enhance automated lung tumor tracking for real-time adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: kV images of an anthropomorphic breathing chest phantom were experimentally acquired and radiographs of actual lung cancer patients were Monte-Carlo-simulated at three imaging settings: low-energy (70 kVp, 1.5 mAs), high-energy (140 kVp, 2.5 mAs, 1 mm additional tin filtration), and clinical (120 kVp, 0.25 mAs). Regular dual-energy images were calculated by weighted logarithmic subtraction of high- and low-energy images and filter-free dual-energy images were generated from clinical and low-energy radiographs. The weighting factor to calculate the dual-energy images was determined by means of a novel objective score. The usefulness of dual-energy imaging for real-time tracking with an automated template matching algorithm was investigated. Results: Regular dual-energy imaging was able to increase tracking accuracy in left–right images of the anthropomorphic phantom as well as in 7 out of 24 investigated patient cases. Tracking accuracy remained comparable in three cases and decreased in five cases. Filter-free dual-energy imaging was only able to increase accuracy in 2 out of 24 cases. In four cases no change in accuracy was observed and tracking accuracy worsened in nine cases. In 9 out of 24 cases, it was not possible to define a tracking template due to poor soft-tissue contrast regardless of input images. The mean localization errors using clinical, regular dual-energy, and filter-free dual-energy radiographs were 3.85, 3.32, and 5.24 mm, respectively. Tracking success was dependent on tumor position, tumor size, imaging beam angle, and patient size. Conclusions: This study has highlighted the influence of

  15. A Permanent Automated Real-Time Passive Acoustic Monitoring System for Bottlenose Dolphin Conservation in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Brunoldi

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the EU Life+ project named LIFE09 NAT/IT/000190 ARION, a permanent automated real-time passive acoustic monitoring system for the improvement of the conservation status of the transient and resident population of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus has been implemented and installed in the Portofino Marine Protected Area (MPA, Ligurian Sea. The system is able to detect the simultaneous presence of dolphins and boats in the area and to give their position in real time. This information is used to prevent collisions by diffusing warning messages to all the categories involved (tourists, professional fishermen and so on. The system consists of two gps-synchronized acoustic units, based on a particular type of marine buoy (elastic beacon, deployed about 1 km off the Portofino headland. Each one is equipped with a four-hydrophone array and an onboard acquisition system which can record the typical social communication whistles emitted by the dolphins and the sound emitted by boat engines. Signals are pre-filtered, digitized and then broadcast to the ground station via wi-fi. The raw data are elaborated to get the direction of the acoustic target to each unit, and hence the position of dolphins and boats in real time by triangulation.

  16. Modeling Real-Time Human-Automation Collaborative Scheduling of Unmanned Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    situation with unbounded indeterminacy (Russell & Norvig , 2003), depending on the problem formulation, where the set of possible preconditions or...find an optimal solution in polynomial time (Russell & Norvig , 2003). Also, the objective function for this optimization may be non-convex, meaning...environments are likely situations with unbounded indeterminacy (Russell & Norvig , 2003). The set of possible preconditions or effects either is unknown

  17. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory.

  18. More Benefits of Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Malcolm

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study that measured the benefits of an automated catalog and automated circulation system from the library user's point of view in terms of the value of time saved. Topics discussed include patterns of use, access time, availability of information, search behaviors, and the effectiveness of the measures used. (seven references)…

  19. Application of intrinsic time-scale decomposition (ITD) to EEG signals for automated seizure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Roshan Joy; Acharya, U Rajendra; Tan, Jen Hong; Petznick, Andrea; Tong, Louis; Chua, Chua Kuang; Ng, Eddie Yin Kwee

    2013-10-01

    Intrinsic time-scale decomposition (ITD) is a new nonlinear method of time-frequency representation which can decipher the minute changes in the nonlinear EEG signals. In this work, we have automatically classified normal, interictal and ictal EEG signals using the features derived from the ITD representation. The energy, fractal dimension and sample entropy features computed on ITD representation coupled with decision tree classifier has yielded an average classification accuracy of 95.67%, sensitivity and specificity of 99% and 99.5%, respectively using 10-fold cross validation scheme. With application of the nonlinear ITD representation, along with conceptual advancement and improvement of the accuracy, the developed system is clinically ready for mass screening in resource constrained and emerging economy scenarios.

  20. Automated Real-Time Classification and Decision Making in Massive Data Streams from Synoptic Sky Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Djorgovski, S G; Donalek, C; Graham, M J; Drake, A J; Turmon, M; Fuchs, T

    2014-01-01

    The nature of scientific and technological data collection is evolving rapidly: data volumes and rates grow exponentially, with increasing complexity and information content, and there has been a transition from static data sets to data streams that must be analyzed in real time. Interesting or anomalous phenomena must be quickly characterized and followed up with additional measurements via optimal deployment of limited assets. Modern astronomy presents a variety of such phenomena in the form of transient events in digital synoptic sky surveys, including cosmic explosions (supernovae, gamma ray bursts), relativistic phenomena (black hole formation, jets), potentially hazardous asteroids, etc. We have been developing a set of machine learning tools to detect, classify and plan a response to transient events for astronomy applications, using the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS) as a scientific and methodological testbed. The ability to respond rapidly to the potentially most interesting events is a k...

  1. Mass transfer coefficients determination from linear gradient elution experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, David; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2015-01-02

    A procedure to estimate mass transfer coefficients in linear gradient elution chromatography is presented and validated by comparison with experimental data. Mass transfer coefficients are traditionally estimated experimentally through the van Deemter plot, which represents the HETP as a function of the fluid velocity. Up to now, the HETP was obtained under isocratic elution conditions. Unfortunately, isocratic elution experiments are often not suitable for large biomolecules which suffer from severe mass transfer hindrances. Yamamoto et al. were the first to propose a semi-empirical equation to relate HETPs measured from linear gradient elution experiments to those obtained under isocratic conditions [7]. Based on his pioneering work, the approach presented in this work aims at providing an experimental procedure supported by simple equations to estimate reliable mass transfer parameters from linear gradient elution chromatographic experiments. From the resolution of the transport model, we derived a rigorous analytical expression for the HETP in linear gradient elution chromatography.

  2. Automated SVD filtering of time-frequency distribution for enhancing the SNR of microseismic/microquake events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Naveed; Zerguine, Azzedine; Kaka, SanLinn; Al-Shuhail, Abdullatif

    2016-12-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest in continuous passive recording of passive microseismic experiments during reservoir fluid-injection monitoring, hydraulic-fracture monitoring and fault-movement monitoring, to name a few. The ability to accurately detect and analyze microseismic events generated by these activities is valuable in monitoring them. However, microseismic events usually have very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), especially when monitoring sensors (receivers) are located at the surface where coherent and non-coherent noise sources are overwhelming. Therefore, enhancing the SNR of the microseismic event will improve the localization process over the reservoir. In this study, a new method of enhancing the microseismic event is presented which relies on one trace per receiver record unlike other methods. The proposed method relies on a time-frequency representation and noise eliminating process which uses the singular-value decomposition (SVD) technique. Furthermore, the SVD is applied on the matrix representing the time-frequency decomposition of a trace. More importantly, an automated SVD filtering is proposed, so the SVD filtering becomes observation-driven instead of user-defined. Finally, it is shown that the proposed technique gives promising results with very low SNR, making it suitable to locate passive microseismic events even if the sensors are located on the surface.

  3. Digital Automation and Real-Time Monitoring of an Original Installation for "Wet Combustion" of Organic Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Yegor; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Saltykov, Mikhail; Trifonov, Sergey V.; Kudenko, D.. Yurii A.

    2016-07-01

    An original method for "wet combustion" of organic wastes, which is being developed at the IBP SB RAS, is a very promising approach for regeneration of nutrient solutions for plants in future spacecraft closed Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS). The method is quick, ecofriendly, does not require special conditions such as high pressure and temperature, and the resulting nitrogen stays in forms easy for further preparation of the fertilizer. An experimental testbed of a new-generation closed ecosystem is being currently run at the IBP SB RAS to examine compatibility of the latest technologies for accelerating the cycling. Integration of "wet combustion" of organic wastes into the information system of closed ecosystem experimental testbed has been studied as part of preparatory work. Digital automation and real-time monitoring of original "wet combustion" installation operation parameters have been implemented. The new system enabled remotely controlled or automatic work of the installation. Data are stored in standard easily processed formats, allowing further mathematical processing where necessary. During ongoing experiments on improving "wet combustion" of organic wastes, automatic monitoring can notice slight changes in process parameters and record them in more detail. The ultimate goal of the study is to include the "wet combustion" installation into future full-scale experiment with humans, thus reducing the time spent by the crew on life support issues while living in the BLSS. The work was carried out with the financial support of the Russian Scientific Foundation (project 14-14-00599).

  4. Use of automated real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to monitor experimental swine vesicular disease virus infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, S.M.; Paton, D.J.; Wilsden, G.;

    2004-01-01

    of the template extraction method was required to counteract the effects of RT-PCR inhibitors in faeces. It was concluded that the automated real-time RT-PCR is a useful diagnostic method for SVD in clinically or subclinically affected pigs and contributed to the study of the pathogenesis of SVD in the pigs....

  5. Automated detection of instantaneous gait events using time frequency analysis and manifold embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Min S H; Thies, Sibylle B; Kenney, Laurence P J; Howard, David; Selles, Ruud W; Findlow, Andrew H; Goulermas, John Y

    2013-11-01

    Accelerometry is a widely used sensing modality in human biomechanics due to its portability, non-invasiveness, and accuracy. However, difficulties lie in signal variability and interpretation in relation to biomechanical events. In walking, heel strike and toe off are primary gait events where robust and accurate detection is essential for gait-related applications. This paper describes a novel and generic event detection algorithm applicable to signals from tri-axial accelerometers placed on the foot, ankle, shank or waist. Data from healthy subjects undergoing multiple walking trials on flat and inclined, as well as smooth and tactile paving surfaces is acquired for experimentation. The benchmark timings at which heel strike and toe off occur, are determined using kinematic data recorded from a motion capture system. The algorithm extracts features from each of the acceleration signals using a continuous wavelet transform over a wide range of scales. A locality preserving embedding method is then applied to reduce the high dimensionality caused by the multiple scales while preserving salient features for classification. A simple Gaussian mixture model is then trained to classify each of the time samples into heel strike, toe off or no event categories. Results show good detection and temporal accuracies for different sensor locations and different walking terrains.

  6. An Automated Real-Time System for Opinion Mining using a Hybrid Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrajit Mukherjee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel idea is being presented to perform Opinion Mining in a very simple and efficient manner with the help of the One-Level-Tree (OLT based approach. To recognize opinions specific for features in customer reviews having a variety of features commingled with diverse emotions. Unlike some previous ventures entirely using one-time structured or filtered data but this is solely based on unstructured data obtained in real-time from Twitter. The hybrid approach utilizes the associations defined in Dependency Parsing Grammar and fully employs Double Propagation to extract new features and related new opinions within the review. The Dictionary based approach is used to expand the Opinion Lexicon. Within the dependency parsing relations a new relation is being proposed to more effectively catch the associations between opinions and features. The three new methods are being proposed, termed as Double Positive Double Negative (DPDN, Catch-Phrase Method (CPM & Negation Check (NC, for performing criteria specific evaluations. The OLT approach conveniently displays the relationship between the features and their opinions in an elementary fashion in the form of a graph. The proposed system achieves splendid accuracy across all domains and also performs better than the state-of-the-art systems.

  7. Warehouse automation

    OpenAIRE

    Pogačnik, Jure

    2017-01-01

    An automated high bay warehouse is commonly used for storing large number of material with a high throughput. In an automated warehouse pallet movements are mainly performed by a number of automated devices like conveyors systems, trolleys, and stacker cranes. From the introduction of the material to the automated warehouse system to its dispatch the system requires no operator input or intervention since all material movements are done automatically. This allows the automated warehouse to op...

  8. Real-time automated failure analysis for on-orbit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sarah; Lauritsen, Janet; Pack, Ginger; Ha, Anhhoang; Jowers, Steven; Mcnenny, Robert; Truong, The; Dell, James

    1993-01-01

    A system which is to provide real-time failure analysis support to controllers at the NASA Johnson Space Center Control Center Complex (CCC) for both Space Station and Space Shuttle on-orbit operations is described. The system employs monitored systems' models of failure behavior and model evaluation algorithms which are domain-independent. These failure models are viewed as a stepping stone to more robust algorithms operating over models of intended function. The described system is designed to meet two sets of requirements. It must provide a useful failure analysis capability enhancement to the mission controller. It must satisfy CCC operational environment constraints such as cost, computer resource requirements, verification, and validation. The underlying technology and how it may be used to support operations is also discussed.

  9. Real time corrosion monitoring in atmosphere using automated battery driven corrosion loggers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prosek, T.; Kouril, M.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2008-01-01

    A logger enabling continuous measurement of corrosion rate of selected metals in indoor and outdoor atmospheres has been developed. Principle of the measurement method is based on the increasing electrical resistance of a measuring element made of the material concerned as its cross-sectional area...... diminishes due to corrosion. Zinc, iron, copper and nickel sensors at several thicknesses are available. Sensitivity of the corrosion measurement varies from 1 to 10 nm depending on the type and thickness of the sensor. Changes in the air corrosivity can be thus detected within hours or even tens of minutes....... The logger lifetime in medium corrosive environments is designed to be 2 years with full autonomy. Data on the sensor corrosion rate are available any time through GPRS connection or by a non-contact inductive reading without the need of retracting the logger from the exposure site....

  10. Automated Rain Sampler for Real time pH and Conductivity Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Weerasinghe, R; Jayananda, M K; Sonnadara, D U J

    2015-01-01

    To monitor the acidity of rain water in real time, a rain water sampling system was developed. The rain sampler detects the initial rain after a dry spell and collects a water sample. Before performing the measurements, the pH probe is calibrated using a standard buffer solution whereas the conductivity probe is calibrated using deionized water. After calibrating the probes the pH and the conductivity of the collected rain water sample are measured using the pH and the conductivity probe. Weather parameters such as air temperature, humidity and pressure are also recorded simultaneously. The pH and conductivity measurement data including weather parameters are transmitted to central station using a GSM modem for further analysis. The collected rain water sample is preserved at the remote monitoring station for post chemical analysis. A programmable logic controller controls the entire process.

  11. An automated time and hand motion analysis based on planar motion capture extended to a virtual environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Hector A.; Ovalle, Alex M.; Vargas, Carlos A.; Cardona, María J.

    2015-03-01

    In the context of industrial engineering, the predetermined time systems (PTS) play an important role in workplaces because inefficiencies are found in assembly processes that require manual manipulations. In this study, an approach is proposed with the aim to analyze time and motions in a manual process using a capture motion system embedded to a virtual environment. Capture motion system tracks IR passive markers located on the hands to take the positions of each one. For our purpose, a real workplace is virtually represented by domains to create a virtual workplace based on basic geometries. Motion captured data are combined with the virtual workplace to simulate operations carried out on it, and a time and motion analysis is completed by means of an algorithm. To test the methodology of analysis, a case study was intentionally designed using and violating the principles of motion economy. In the results, it was possible to observe where the hands never crossed as well as where the hands passed by the same place. In addition, the activities done in each zone were observed and some known deficiencies were identified in the distribution of the workplace by computational analysis. Using a frequency analysis of hand velocities, errors in the chosen assembly method were revealed showing differences in the hand velocities. An opportunity is seen to classify some quantifiable aspects that are not identified easily in a traditional time and motion analysis. The automated analysis is considered as the main contribution in this study. In the industrial context, a great application is perceived in terms of monitoring the workplace to analyze repeatability, PTS, workplace and labor activities redistribution using the proposed methodology.

  12. Drug-eluting stents below the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosiers, M; Deloose, K; Callaert, J; Keirse, K; Verbist, J; Peeters, P

    2011-04-01

    The fear that early thrombosis and late luminal loss due to intimal hyperplasia formation potentially leads to insufficient long-term patency rates can explain the reluctance on implanting stents in small diameter below-the-knee (BTK) arteries. Drug-eluting stent (DES) technology was developed to prevent early thrombosis and late luminal loss to potentially improve long-term patency rates. Currently, the first level 1 evidence from prospective, randomized, controlled DESTINY and ACHILLES studies indicate that the implantation of DES in short lesion lenghts in the infrapopliteal vasculature leads to favorable outcomes with high primary patency rates. This makes that primary DES placement can be recommended as treatment strategy in short BTK-lesions.

  13. Automated Method for Estimating Nutation Time Constant Model Parameters for Spacecraft Spinning on Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Calculating an accurate nutation time constant (NTC), or nutation rate of growth, for a spinning upper stage is important for ensuring mission success. Spacecraft nutation, or wobble, is caused by energy dissipation anywhere in the system. Propellant slosh in the spacecraft fuel tanks is the primary source for this dissipation and, if it is in a state of resonance, the NTC can become short enough to violate mission constraints. The Spinning Slosh Test Rig (SSTR) is a forced-motion spin table where fluid dynamic effects in full-scale fuel tanks can be tested in order to obtain key parameters used to calculate the NTC. We accomplish this by independently varying nutation frequency versus the spin rate and measuring force and torque responses on the tank. This method was used to predict parameters for the Genesis, Contour, and Stereo missions, whose tanks were mounted outboard from the spin axis. These parameters are incorporated into a mathematical model that uses mechanical analogs, such as pendulums and rotors, to simulate the force and torque resonances associated with fluid slosh.

  14. Quality assurance of automated emission measurement systems - long time evaluation; Kvalitetssaekring av automatiska emissionsmaetsystem - analys och laangtidsutvaerdering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnevie, Henrik; Andersson, Magnus [Swedpower, Stockholm (Sweden); Gustavsson, Lennart [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    As a consequence of the waste incineration directive and the EG-directive of large combustion plant, standards to meet the requirements in those directives had been worked out within CEN. Among those standards a standard concerning 'quality assurance of automated measurement system' is of major importance (SS-EN 14181). All automated emission monitoring systems (AMS) used to verify the requirements in the EC combustion directives should follow the procedures in SS-EN 14181. The standard both handle different types of controls (as function controls and parallel measurements) and documentation of data and journals. To make it easier for their members to implement the standard this Vaermeforsk study had been realized. SEPA (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency) and Vattenfall have also financed the work. SEPAs interest of the standard is to receive information of which parts in the standard that are in conflict with their present legislation. The main objectives of this project had been to document and explain the separate parts in the standard (QAL2, QAL3 and AST). Especially how the standard affects the situation and the routines on the plants. Other objectives have been to identify differences between other Swedish legislation and explain the consequences of such differences. In this project the standard also has been used to evaluate an existing AMS for measurement of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and dust. In most cases the analyzers succeed to fulfill the criteria mentioned in the standard. During QAL2 only the dust analyzer failed the controls. The results of the AST gave better results for the dust analyzer but the SO{sub 2}-analyzer failed the requirements. Differences and consequences of such differences between the standard and the current Swedish legislation are also described. Finally, the report gives recommendations to the plant owners how to handle the standard. The standard is already valid. However, the use of it will be regulated by the

  15. Estimating the joint disease outbreak-detection time when an automated biosurveillance system is augmenting traditional clinical case finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanna; Adamou, Christina; Dowling, John N; Cooper, Gregory F

    2008-04-01

    The goals of automated biosurveillance systems are to detect disease outbreaks early, while exhibiting few false positives. Evaluation measures currently exist to estimate the expected detection time of biosurveillance systems. Researchers also have developed models that estimate clinician detection of cases of outbreak diseases, which is a process known as clinical case finding. However, little research has been done on estimating how well biosurveillance systems augment traditional outbreak detection that is carried out by clinicians. In this paper, we introduce a general approach for doing so for non-endemic disease outbreaks, which are characteristic of bioterrorist induced diseases, such as respiratory anthrax. We first layout the basic framework, which makes minimal assumptions, and then we specialize it in several ways. We illustrate the method using a Bayesian outbreak detection algorithm called PANDA, a model of clinician outbreak detection, and simulated cases of a windborne anthrax release. This analysis derives a bound on how well we would expect PANDA to augment clinician detection of an anthrax outbreak. The results support that such analyses are useful in assessing the extent to which computer-based outbreak detection systems are expected to augment traditional clinician outbreak detection.

  16. Automated recognition of bird song elements from continuous recordings using dynamic time warping and hidden Markov models: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, J A; Margoliash, D

    1998-04-01

    The performance of two techniques is compared for automated recognition of bird song units from continuous recordings. The advantages and limitations of dynamic time warping (DTW) and hidden Markov models (HMMs) are evaluated on a large database of male songs of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea), which have different types of vocalizations and have been recorded under different laboratory conditions. Depending on the quality of recordings and complexity of song, the DTW-based technique gives excellent to satisfactory performance. Under challenging conditions such as noisy recordings or presence of confusing short-duration calls, good performance of the DTW-based technique requires careful selection of templates that may demand expert knowledge. Because HMMs are trained, equivalent or even better performance of HMMs can be achieved based only on segmentation and labeling of constituent vocalizations, albeit with many more training examples than DTW templates. One weakness in HMM performance is the misclassification of short-duration vocalizations or song units with more variable structure (e.g., some calls, and syllables of plastic songs). To address these and other limitations, new approaches for analyzing bird vocalizations are discussed.

  17. A Multi-Year Dust Devil Vortex Survey Using an Automated Search of Pressure Time-Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian K.; Lorenz, Ralph

    2014-11-01

    Dust devils occur in arid climates on the Earth and ubiquitously on Mars, where they likely dominate the supply of atmospheric dust and influence climate. Martian dust devils have been studied with a combination of orbiting and landed spacecraft, while most studies of terrestrial dust devils have involved manned monitoring of field sites, which can be costly both in time and personnel. As an alternative approach, we describe a multi-year in-situ survey of terrestrial dust devils using pressure loggers deployed at El Dorado Playa in Nevada, USA, a site known for dust devil activity. Analogous to previous surveys for Martian dust devils, we conduct a post-hoc analysis of the barometric data to search for putative dust devil pressure dips using a new automated detection algorithm. We investigate the completeness and false positive rates of our new algorithm and conduct several statistically robust analyses of the resulting population of dips. We also investigate seasonal, annual, and spatial variability of the putative dust devil dips, possible correlations with precipitation, and the influence of sample size on the derived population statistics. Our results suggest that large numbers of dips (> 1,000) collected over multiple seasons are probably required for accurate assessment of the underlying dust devil population. Correlating long-term barometric time-series with other data streams (e.g., solar flux measurements from photovoltaic cells) can uniquely elucidate the natures and origins of dust devils, and accurately assessing their influence requires consideration of the full distribution of dust devil properties, rather than average values. For example, our results suggest the dust flux from the average terrestrial devil is nearly 1,000 times smaller than the (more representative) population-weighted average flux. If applicable to Martian dust devils, such corrections may help resolve purported discrepancies between the dust fluxes estimated from dust devil studies

  18. Improving Laboratory Efficiency by Automation of Preanalytic Processing of ThinPrep Specimens for Real-Time PCR High-Risk HPV Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Daniela; Venturoli, Simona; Costa, Silvano; Landini, Maria Paola

    2016-06-01

    Cervical specimens collected in liquid-based cytology (LBC) media are the most common sample type used for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Since preanalytic steps such as vortexing and decapping vials, liquid transfer to a sample input tube with matching unique identifier, and recapping the original vials are required for processing LBC samples prior to running the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay (Abbott, Wiesbaden, Germany), a full manual execution can be complicated, especially in high-throughput diagnostic contexts. Here, a custom-configured worktable setup for the Tecan Freedom EVO (Tecan, Männedorf, Switzerland) designed to automate and control preanalytic steps for ThinPrep (Hologic, Marlborough, MA) samples was used to evaluate the impact of automated versus manual preanalytics. Archival results for manual processing of 226 samples were compared with those obtained with the Tecan protocol, observing a very good overall concordance for final assay interpretation (95.6%). High overall agreement (100%) resulted also from retesting 99 samples by both the preanalytical protocols. High reproducibility was observed analyzing 23 randomly selected samples by automated preprocessing in triplicate. Hence, the new configuration of the Tecan platform translates the manual steps required to process ThinPrep specimens into automated operations, controls sample identification, and allows for saving hands-on time, while maintaining assay reproducibility and ensuring reliability of results, making it suitable for screening settings.

  19. Impaired health status in Type D patients following PCI in the drug-eluting stent era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan; Ong, Andrew T L

    2007-01-01

    Drug-eluting stenting reduces restenosis post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but subgroups of patients may not benefit optimally from this procedure. We examined the impact of Type D personality on health status over time and the clinical relevance of Type D as a predictor of impaired ...

  20. UNIFIED THEORETICAL MOMENT EXPRESSIONS FOR ELUTION CHROMATOGRAPHY AND FRONTAL CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGGengliang; TAOZuyi

    1992-01-01

    The unified theoretical moment expressions for elution chromatography and frontal chromatography when the sorption process is described by a linear model were derived. The moment expressions derived by previous authors can be obtained from these unified theoretical moment expressions. In this paper, a mathematical analysis has been carried out so as to set up a unified theoretical basis for elution and frontal chromatography.

  1. Accounting Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril1

    2017-01-01

    Accounting Automation   Click Link Below To Buy:   http://hwcampus.com/shop/accounting-automation/  Or Visit www.hwcampus.com Accounting Automation” Please respond to the following: Imagine you are a consultant hired to convert a manual accounting system to an automated system. Suggest the key advantages and disadvantages of automating a manual accounting system. Identify the most important step in the conversion process. Provide a rationale for your response. ...

  2. Evaluation of automated flow-through time-resolved analysis of foraminifera for Mg/Ca paleothermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkhammer, G. P.; Haley, B. A.; Mix, A. C.; Benway, H. M.; Cheseby, M.

    2004-12-01

    The primary Mg/Ca ratio of foraminiferal shells is a potentially valuable paleoproxy for sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions. However, the reliable extraction of this ratio from sedimentary calcite assumes that we can overcome artifacts related to foraminiferal ecology and partial dissolution, as well as contamination by secondary calcite and clay. The standard batch method for Mg/Ca analysis involves cracking, sonicating, and rinsing the tests to remove clay, followed by chemical cleaning, and finally acid-digestion and single-point measurement. This laborious procedure often results in substantial loss of sample (typically 30-60%). We find that even the earliest steps of this procedure can fractionate Mg from Ca, thus biasing the result toward a more variable and often anomalously low Mg/Ca ratio. Moreover, the more rigorous the cleaning, the more calcite is lost, and the more likely it becomes that any residual clay that has not been removed by physical cleaning will increase the ratio. These potentially significant sources of error can be overcome with a flow-through (FT) sequential leaching method that makes time- and labor-intensive pretreatments unnecessary. When combined with time-resolved analysis (FT-TRA) flow-through, performed with a gradually increasing and highly regulated acid strength, produces continuous records of Mg, Sr, Al, and Ca concentrations in the leachate sorted by dissolution susceptibility of the reacting material. Flow-through separates secondary calcite from less susceptible biogenic calcite and clay, and further resolves the biogenic component into primary and more resistant fractions. FT-TRA reliably separates secondary calcite (which is not representative of original life habitats) from the more resistant biogenic calcite (the desired signal) and clay (a contaminant of high Mg/Ca, which also contains Al), and further resolves the biogenic component into primary and more resistant fractions that may reflect habitat or other

  3. One year clinical follow up of paclitaxel eluting stents for acute myocardial infarction compared with sirolimus eluting stents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.H. Hofma (Sjoerd); M. Valgimigli (Marco); C.A.G. van Mieghem (Carlos); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); W.J. van der Giessen (Wim); P.P.T. de Jaegere (Peter); E.S. Regar (Eveline); G. Sianos (Georgios); J. Aoki (Jiro); G.A. Rodriguez-Granillo (Gaston); E.P. McFadden (Eugene); A.T.L. Ong (Andrew); R.T. van Domburg (Ron)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To compare clinical outcome of paclitaxel eluting stents (PES) versus sirolimus eluting stents (SES) for the treatment of acute ST elevation myocardial infarction. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: The first 136 consecutive patients treated exclusively with PES in the setting of primary pe

  4. How much time do drivers need to obtain situation awareness? A laboratory-based study of automated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenji; Coster, Xander; de Winter, Joost

    2017-04-01

    Drivers of automated cars may occasionally need to take back manual control after a period of inattentiveness. At present, it is unknown how long it takes to build up situation awareness of a traffic situation. In this study, 34 participants were presented with animated video clips of traffic situations on a three-lane road, from an egocentric viewpoint on a monitor equipped with eye tracker. Each participant viewed 24 videos of different durations (1, 3, 7, 9, 12, or 20 s). After each video, participants reproduced the end of the video by placing cars in a top-down view, and indicated the relative speeds of the placed cars with respect to the ego-vehicle. Results showed that the longer the video length, the lower the absolute error of the number of placed cars, the lower the total distance error between the placed cars and actual cars, and the lower the geometric difference between the placed cars and the actual cars. These effects appeared to be saturated at video lengths of 7-12 s. The total speed error between placed and actual cars also reduced with video length, but showed no saturation up to 20 s. Glance frequencies to the mirrors decreased with observation time, which is consistent with the notion that participants first estimated the spatial pattern of cars after which they directed their attention to individual cars. In conclusion, observers are able to reproduce the layout of a situation quickly, but the assessment of relative speeds takes 20 s or more.

  5. Evaluation of a rapid and completely automated real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay for diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Frederick S; Rogers, Beverly B; Tang, Yi-Wei; Oberste, M Steven; Robinson, Christine C; Kehl, K Sue; Rand, Kenneth A; Rotbart, Harley A; Romero, Jose R; Nyquist, Ann-Christine; Persing, David H

    2011-02-01

    Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for enterovirus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have emerged as the new gold standard for diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis, and their use can improve the management and decrease the costs for caring for children with enteroviral meningitis. The Xpert EV assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) is a rapid, fully automated real-time PCR test for the detection of enterovirus RNA that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for in vitro diagnostic use in March 2007. In this multicenter trial we established the clinical performance characteristics of the Xpert EV assay in patients presenting with meningitis symptoms relative to clinical truth. Clinical truth for enteroviral meningitis was defined as clinical evidence of meningitis, the absence of another detectable pathogen in CSF, and detection of enterovirus in CSF either by two reference NAATs or by viral culture. A total of 199 prospectively and 235 retrospectively collected specimens were eligible for inclusion in this study. The overall prevalence of enteroviral meningitis was 26.04%. The Xpert EV assay had a sensitivity of 94.69% (90% confidence interval [CI] = 89.79 to 97.66%), specificity of 100% (90% CI = 99.07 to 100%), positive predictive value of 100%, negative predictive value of 98.17, and an accuracy of 98.62% relative to clinical truth. The Xpert EV assay demonstrated a high degree of accuracy for diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis. The simplicity and on-demand capability of the Xpert EV assay should prove to be a valuable adjunct to the evaluation of suspected meningitis cases.

  6. Elution of labile fluorescent dye from nanoparticles during biological use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Tenuta

    Full Text Available Cells act as extremely efficient filters for elution of unbound fluorescent tags or impurities associated with nanoparticles, including those that cannot be removed by extensive cleaning. This has consequences for quantification of nanoparticle uptake and sub-cellular localization in vitro and in vivo as a result of the presence of significant amount of labile dye even following extensive cleaning by dialysis. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE can be used to monitor the elution of unbound fluorescent probes from nanoparticles, either commercially available or synthesized in-house, and to ensure their complete purification for biological studies, including cellular uptake and sub-cellular localisation. Very different fluorescence distribution within cells is observed after short dialysis times versus following extensive dialysis against a solvent in which the free dye is more soluble, due to the contribution from free dye. In the absence of an understanding of the presence of residual free dye in (most labeled nanoparticle solutions, the total fluorescence intensity in cells following exposure to nanoparticle solutions could be mis-ascribed to the presence of nanoparticles through the cell, rather than correctly assigned to either a combination of free-dye and nanoparticle-bound dye, or even entirely to free dye depending on the exposure conditions (i.e. aggregation of the particles etc. Where all of the dye is nanoparticle-bound, the particles are highly localized in sub-cellular organelles, likely lysosomes, whereas in a system containing significant amounts of free dye, the fluorescence is distributed through the cell due to the free diffusion of the molecule dye across all cellular barriers and into the cytoplasm.

  7. Drug-eluting stents, restenosis and revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramcharitar, Steve; Gaster, Anne Louise; Daemen, Joost; Serruys, Patrick

    2007-06-01

    Several meta-analyses have demonstrated the superiority of drug-eluting stents (DES) in reducing the incidence of restenosis, target vessel revascularization and target lesion revascularization compared to their predecessor, the bare-metal stent. In comparing Cypher and Taxus stents, the two most recent meta-analyses have given the edge to the Cypher. However, it must be stressed that the superiority of one DES over another remains debatable due to ever changing "real-world data" compared to those attained from randomized trials. The newer sirolimus analogs and selective inhibitors are challenging the old guard in their quest to further limit restenosis. So too are the newer "high-tech" polymers and additionally by using more biodegradable material in the stent's design. Stents aimed at targeting lesions are a new armament in the battle against restenosis and together with combination therapies are exciting key areas to watch. The ideal way to treat a DES in-stent restenosis is still a challenge and hence the impetus is to avoid it from happening in the first place.

  8. Functional Nanoarchitectures For Enhanced Drug Eluting Stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Yomna E.; Gepreel, Mohamed A.; Allam, Nageh K.

    2017-01-01

    Different strategies have been investigated to allow for optimum duration and conditions for endothelium healing through the enhancement of coronary stents. In this study, a nanoarchitectured system is proposed as a surface modification for drug eluting stents. Highly oriented nanotubes were vertically grown on the surface of a new Ni-free biocompatible Ti-based alloy, as a potential material for self-expandable stents. The fabricated nanotubes were self-grown from the potential stent substrate, which are also proposed to enhance endothelial proliferation while acting as drug reservoir to hinder Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMC) proliferation. Two morphologies were synthesized to investigate the effect of structure homogeneity on the intended application. The material was characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Nanoindentation technique was used to study the mechanical properties of the fabricated material. Cytotoxicity and proliferation studies were performed and compared for the two fabricated nanoarchitectures, versus smooth untextured samples, using in-vitro cultured endothelial cells. Finally, the drug loading capacity was experimentally studied and further supported by computational modeling of the release profile.

  9. Differential clinical outcomes after 1 year versus 5 years in a randomised comparison of zotarolimus-eluting and sirolimus-eluting coronary stents (the SORT OUT III study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeng, Michael; Tilsted, Hans-Henrik; Jensen, Lisette Okkels

    2014-01-01

    -eluting stent implantation to the zotarolimus-eluting Endeavor Sprint stent (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, CA, USA) or the sirolimus-eluting Cypher Select Plus stent (Cordis, Johnson & Johnson, Warren, NJ, USA). Randomisation of participants was achieved by computer-generated block randomisation and a telephone...... with coronary drug-eluting stent implantation. FUNDING: Cordis and Medtronic....

  10. A new mixed-mode model for interpreting and predicting protein elution during isoelectric chromatofocusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Derek Y C; Creagh, A Louise; von Lieres, Eric; Haynes, Charles

    2014-05-01

    Experimental data are combined with classic theories describing electrolytes in solution and at surfaces to define the primary mechanisms influencing protein retention and elution during isoelectric chromatofocusing (ICF) of proteins and protein mixtures. Those fundamental findings are used to derive a new model to understand and predict elution times of proteins during ICF. The model uses a modified form of the steric mass action (SMA) isotherm to account for both ion exchange and isoelectric focusing contributions to protein partitioning. The dependence of partitioning on pH is accounted for through the characteristic charge parameter m of the SMA isotherm and the application of Gouy-Chapman theory to define the dependence of the equilibrium binding constant Kbi on both m and ionic strength. Finally, the effects of changes in matrix surface pH on protein retention are quantified through a Donnan equilibrium type model. By accounting for isoelectric focusing, ion binding and exchange, and surface pH contributions to protein retention and elution, the model is shown to accurately capture the dependence of protein elution times on column operating conditions.

  11. Automated screening versus manual screening: a comparison of the ThinPrep imaging system and manual screening in a time study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schledermann, Doris; Hyldebrandt, Tina; Ejersbo, Dorthe; Hoelund, Berit

    2007-06-01

    The ThinPrep Imaging System (TIS) is an automated system that assists cytotechnologists in the primary screening of ThinPrep liquid based cervical samples. Between June 1, 2004, and April 1, 2005, four experienced cytotechnologists participated in the study in which the duration of the screening procedure was timed for each of the 11,354 slides included. In every slide 22 fields of view were reviewed, and the samples that contained potentially abnormal cells were fully screened. The screening time was reduced by 42% (mean) (p < 0.001). By manual rescreening of the negative TIS samples, abnormal cells were found in 10 samples (false negative rate 0.14%). In every case the abnormal cells had been identified by the scanner, but misinterpreted by the cytotechnologist. These findings stressed the importance of carefulness in the interpretation of the marked fields and beyond that helped the cytotechnologists and pathologists to have more confidence in the automated system.

  12. Time reduction and automation of routine planning activities through the use of macros; Reduccion de tiempo y automatizacion de las actividades rutinarias de planificacion mediante el uso de macros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaman, C.; Perez-Alija, J.; Herrero, C.; Real, C. del; Osorio, J. L.; Almansa, J.

    2011-07-01

    The use of macros in scheduler automates Adac Pinnacle3 much of the routine activities in the planning process, from the display options and placement of beams, to, among other possibilities, systematic naming them and export of the physical and clinical dosimetry. This automation allows reduction of the times associated with the planning process and an error reduction.

  13. How does a collision warning system shape driver's brake response time? The influence of expectancy and automation complacency on real-life emergency braking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, Daniele; Ciceri, Maria Rita; Biassoni, Federica

    2015-04-01

    Brake Reaction Time (BRT) is an important parameter for road safety. Previous research has shown that drivers' expectations can impact RT when facing hazardous situations, but driving with advanced driver assistance systems, can change the way BRT are considered. The interaction with a collision warning system can help faster more efficient responses, but at the same time can require a monitoring task and evaluation process that may lead to automation complacency. The aims of the present study are to test in a real-life setting whether automation compliancy can be generated by a collision warning system and what component of expectancy can impact the different tasks involved in an assisted BRT process. More specifically four component of expectancy were investigated: presence/absence of anticipatory information, previous direct experience, reliability of the device, and predictability of the hazard determined by repeated use of the warning system. Results supply indication on perception time and mental elaboration of the collision warning system alerts. In particular reliable warning quickened the decision making process, misleading warnings generated automation complacency slowing visual search for hazard detection, lack of directed experienced slowed the overall response while unexpected failure of the device lead to inattentional blindness and potential pseudo-accidents with surprise obstacle intrusion.

  14. 药物洗脱支架的研究进展%Progress in Reserch of Drug-eluting Stents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯小丽; 张家梁

    2014-01-01

    药物洗脱支架的出现是冠心病患者介入治疗的新的里程碑,具有重要的临床应用价值。本文主要阐述了药物洗脱支架出现的背景、雷帕霉素洗脱支架和紫杉醇洗脱支架的作用机制及临床应用;同时对于新型的药物洗脱支架及其作用机制进行了论述,进一步指出了药物洗脱支架在临床应用中出现的问题及进一步研发的方向。%The review expounds the background of drug eluting stents, the mechanism of action and clinical application of sirolimus-eluting stents and paclitaxel-eluting stents, and discusses at the same time some neotypes of eluting stents and their mechanism of action, and points out the problems of drug eluting stents in clinicaluse and the direction of further research. It also reviews the progress in drug eluting stent study and research in treatment of coronary artery disease.

  15. Automation in immunohematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta

    2012-07-01

    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  16. Automation in Immunohematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Bajpai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  17. An automated sleep-state classification algorithm for quantifying sleep timing and sleep-dependent dynamics of electroencephalographic and cerebral metabolic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rempe MJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Rempe,1,2 William C Clegern,2 Jonathan P Wisor2 1Mathematics and Computer Science, Whitworth University, Spokane, WA, USA; 2College of Medical Sciences and Sleep and Performance Research Center, Washington State University, Spokane, WA, USAIntroduction: Rodent sleep research uses electroencephalography (EEG and electromyography (EMG to determine the sleep state of an animal at any given time. EEG and EMG signals, typically sampled at >100 Hz, are segmented arbitrarily into epochs of equal duration (usually 2–10 seconds, and each epoch is scored as wake, slow-wave sleep (SWS, or rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS, on the basis of visual inspection. Automated state scoring can minimize the burden associated with state and thereby facilitate the use of shorter epoch durations.Methods: We developed a semiautomated state-scoring procedure that uses a combination of principal component analysis and naïve Bayes classification, with the EEG and EMG as inputs. We validated this algorithm against human-scored sleep-state scoring of data from C57BL/6J and BALB/CJ mice. We then applied a general homeostatic model to characterize the state-dependent dynamics of sleep slow-wave activity and cerebral glycolytic flux, measured as lactate concentration.Results: More than 89% of epochs scored as wake or SWS by the human were scored as the same state by the machine, whether scoring in 2-second or 10-second epochs. The majority of epochs scored as REMS by the human were also scored as REMS by the machine. However, of epochs scored as REMS by the human, more than 10% were scored as SWS by the machine and 18 (10-second epochs to 28% (2-second epochs were scored as wake. These biases were not strain-specific, as strain differences in sleep-state timing relative to the light/dark cycle, EEG power spectral profiles, and the homeostatic dynamics of both slow waves and lactate were detected equally effectively with the automated method or the manual scoring

  18. Prime time for drug eluting balloons in SFA interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, M

    2014-08-01

    Peripheral arterial disease most commonly affects the femoropopliteal segment. Despite enormous improvements in device and treatment technology the long-term patency rate and clinical benefit of endovascular treatment in the respective vascular bed is not satisfying. Drug coated balloon technology as a treatment option in femoropopliteal disease has shown encouraging results in first-in-man trials, which have now been proven in large randomized controlled trials.

  19. Marketing automation supporting sales

    OpenAIRE

    Sandell, Niko

    2016-01-01

    The past couple of decades has been a time of major changes in marketing. Digitalization has become a permanent part of marketing and at the same time enabled efficient collection of data. Personalization and customization of content are playing a crucial role in marketing when new customers are acquired. This has also created a need for automation to facilitate the distribution of targeted content. As a result of successful marketing automation more information of the customers is gathered ...

  20. Drug-eluting technologies in femoral artery lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, K; Lauwers, K; Callaert, J; Maene, L; Keirse, K; Verbist, J; Peeters, P; Bosiers, M

    2013-04-01

    The treatment of femoropopliteal lesions has known an important evolution in the last years. An important limitation of current endovascular therapy remains the occurrence of restenosis. In order to minimize restenosis rates, drug eluting technologies are evolving. The use of drug-eluting stents (DES) in coronary arteries shows beneficial results, leading to investigation of DES in femoropopliteal arteries. In this article, we give an overview of current available data on treatment with drug eluting technologies in the superficial femoral artery (SFA). This paper summarizes also the current available data of the use of drug-coated balloons (DCB) in the femoropopliteal tract. Currently, no data are available on the use of DCB in long lesions. A drug eluting bioresorbable scaffold seems to be very promising in coronary arteries. The transfer to the peripheral area is nowadays ongoing. Which technique and device for which lesion and patient requires further investigation to build up a real evidence based SFA treatment strategy.

  1. Kuldkaru elutöö eest / Endel Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Endel

    2001-01-01

    Ameerika näitleja Kirk Douglas (1916), kellele seekordsel Berlinalel antakse elutöö eest Kuldkaru. Austamisõhtul näidatakse teda Stanley Kubricku kaua keelu all olnud filmis "Tee kuulsusele " ("Paths of Glory") : 1957

  2. Double-peak elution profile of a monoclonal antibody in cation exchange chromatography is caused by histidine-protonation-based charge variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haibin; Cao, Mingyan; Newell, Kelcy; Afdahl, Christopher; Wang, Jihong; Wang, William K; Li, Yuling

    2015-12-11

    We have systemically investigated unusual elution behaviors of an IgG4 (mAb A) in cation exchange chromatography (CEX). This mAb A exhibited two elution peaks under certain conditions when being purified by several strong CEX columns. When either of the two peaks was isolated and re-injected on the same column, the similar pattern was observed again during elution. The protein distribution between the two peaks could be altered by NaCl concentration in the feed, or NaCl concentration in wash buffer, or elution pH, suggesting two pH-associated strong-and-weak binding configurations. The protein distributions under different pH values showed good correlation with protonated/un-protonated fractions of a histidine residue. These results suggest that the double-peak elution profile associates with histidine-protonation-based charge variants. By conducting pepsin digestion, amino-acid specific chemical modifications, peptide mapping, and measuring the effects of elution residence time, a histidine in the variable fragment (Fab) was identified to be the root cause. Besides double-peak pattern, mAb A can also exhibit peak-shouldering or single elution peak on different CEX resins, reflecting different resins' resolving capability on protonated/un-protonated forms. This work characterizes a novel cause for unusual elution behaviors in CEX and also provides alternative avenues of purification development for mAbs with similar behaviors.

  3. Modeling the elution of organic chemicals from a melting homogeneous snow pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Torsten; Wania, Frank

    2011-06-01

    Organic chemicals are often released in peak concentrations from melting snow packs. A simple, mechanistic snowmelt model was developed to simulate and predict the elution of organic substances from melting, homogeneous snow, as influenced by chemical properties and snow pack characteristics. The model calculates stepwise the chemical transport along with the melt water flow in a multi-layered snow pack, based on chemical equilibrium partitioning between the individual bulk snow phases. The model succeeds in reproducing the elution behavior of several organic contaminants observed in previously conducted cold room experiments. The model aided in identifying four different types of enrichment of organic substances during snowmelt. Water soluble substances experience peak releases early during a melt period (type 1), whereas chemicals that strongly sorb to particulate matter (PM) or snow grain surfaces elute at the end of melting (type 2). Substances that are somewhat water soluble and at the same time have a high affinity for snow grain surfaces may exhibit increasing concentrations in the melt water (type 3). Finally, elution sequences involving peak loads both at the beginning and the end of melting are simulated for chemicals that are partially dissolved in the aqueous melt water phase and partially sorbed to PM (type 4). The extent of type 1 enrichment mainly depends on the snow depth, whereby deeper snow generates more pronounced concentration peaks. PM influences the elution behavior of organic chemicals strongly because of the very large natural variability in the type and amount of particles present in snow. Urban and road-side snow rich in PM can generate type 2 concentration peaks at the end of the melt period for even relatively water soluble substances. From a clean, melting snow pack typical for remote regions, even fairly hydrophobic chemicals can be released in type 1 mode while being almost completely dissolved in the aqueous melt water phase. The

  4. Elution of platinum from carboplatin-impregnated calcium sulfate hemihydrate beads in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipan, Rachel J; Phillips, Heidi; Garrett, Laura D; Dirikolu, Levent; Mitchell, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the elution of platinum from carboplatin-impregnated calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) beads in vitro. SAMPLE 60 carboplatin-impregnated CSH beads and 9 CSH beads without added carboplatin (controls). PROCEDURES Carboplatin-impregnated CSH beads (each containing 4.6 mg of carboplatin [2.4 mg of platinum]) were placed into separate 10-mL plastic tubes containing 5 mL of PBSS in groups of 1, 3, 6, or 10; 3 control beads were placed into a single tube of PBSS at the same volume. Experiments were conducted in triplicate at 37°C and a pH of 7.4 with constant agitation. Eluent samples were collected at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 72 hours. Samples were analyzed for platinum content by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. RESULTS The mean concentration of platinum released per carboplatin-impregnated bead over 72 hours was 445.3 mg/L. Cumulative concentrations of platinum eluted increased as the number of beads per tube increased. There was a significant difference in platinum concentrations over time, with values increasing over the first 12 hours and then declining for all tubes. There was also a significant difference in percentage of total incorporated platinum released into tubes with different numbers of beads: the percentage of eluted platinum was higher in tubes containing 1 or 3 beads than in those containing 6 or 10 beads. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Carboplatin-impregnated CSH beads eluted platinum over 72 hours. Further studies are needed to determine whether implantation of carboplatin-impregnated CSH beads results in detectable levels of platinum systemically and whether the platinum concentrations eluted locally are toxic to tumor cells.

  5. Library Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakne, B. N.; Giri, V. V.; Waghmode, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    New technologies library provides several new materials, media and mode of storing and communicating the information. Library Automation reduces the drudgery of repeated manual efforts in library routine. By use of library automation collection, Storage, Administration, Processing, Preservation and communication etc.

  6. Systematic review automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  7. Retention prediction and separation optimization under multilinear gradient elution in liquid chromatography with Microsoft Excel macros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoula, S; Zisi, Ch; Gika, H; Pappa-Louisi, A; Nikitas, P

    2015-05-22

    A package of Excel VBA macros have been developed for modeling multilinear gradient retention data obtained in single or double gradient elution mode by changing organic modifier(s) content and/or eluent pH. For this purpose, ten chromatographic models were used and four methods were adopted for their application. The methods were based on (a) the analytical expression of the retention time, provided that this expression is available, (b) the retention times estimated using the Nikitas-Pappa approach, (c) the stepwise approximation, and (d) a simple numerical approximation involving the trapezoid rule for integration of the fundamental equation for gradient elution. For all these methods, Excel VBA macros have been written and implemented using two different platforms; the fitting and the optimization platform. The fitting platform calculates not only the adjustable parameters of the chromatographic models, but also the significance of these parameters and furthermore predicts the analyte elution times. The optimization platform determines the gradient conditions that lead to the optimum separation of a mixture of analytes by using the Solver evolutionary mode, provided that proper constraints are set in order to obtain the optimum gradient profile in the minimum gradient time. The performance of the two platforms was tested using experimental and artificial data. It was found that using the proposed spreadsheets, fitting, prediction, and optimization can be performed easily and effectively under all conditions. Overall, the best performance is exhibited by the analytical and Nikitas-Pappa's methods, although the former cannot be used under all circumstances.

  8. Webbing and Delamination of Drug Eluting Stent Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, C; Sweeney, C A; O'Connor, C; McHugh, P E; McGarry, J P

    2016-02-01

    The advancement of the drug-eluting stent technology raises the significant challenge of safe mechanical design of polymer coated stent systems. Experimental images of stent coatings undergoing significant damage during deployment have been reported; such coating damage and delamination can lead to complications such as restenosis and increased thrombogenicity. In the current study a cohesive zone modeling framework is developed to predict coating delamination and buckling due to hinge deformation during stent deployment. Models are then extended to analyze, for the first time, stent-coating damage due to webbing defects. Webbing defects occur when a bond forms between coating layers on adjacent struts, resulting in extensive delamination of the coating from the strut surfaces. The analyzes presented in this paper uncover the mechanical factors that govern webbing induced coating damage. Finally, an experimental fracture test of a commercially available stent coating material is performed and results demonstrate that the high cohesive strength of the coating material will prevent web fracture, resulting in significant coating delamination during stent deployment.

  9. Characteristics of elution profile in radial chromatography under linear conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Weibing; SHAN; Yichu; Andreas; Seidel-Morgenster

    2005-01-01

    Based on the mass balance equations of solute transfer in the radial chromatographic column, the theoretical expression to describe the column efficiency and shape of elution profile is obtained under linear isotherm case.Moreover, the tendency for the variation of column efficiency and symmetry of peak profile is systematically discussed.The results showed that in radial chromatography the relationship between the column efficiency and volumetric flow rate is similar with that relationship in axial chromatography; relatively high column efficiency still can be obtained under high flow rate in radial chromatography.Accompanying the increase of retention factor of solutes and injection time, the column efficiency decreases monotonously.The effect of column diameter and column length on the column efficiency interfere with each other.It is more advantageous to increase the column efficiency by applying columns with larger column diameter and shorter column length.According to the discussion of the effect of diffusion on the column efficiency, radial chromatography is proved to be suitable for the separation of samples with relatively high diffusion coefficient, which predicts its obvious advantage in the preparative separation of samples such as proteins and DNA.

  10. Bioresorbable polymer coated drug eluting stent: a model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Filippo; Casalini, Tommaso; Raffa, Edoardo; Masi, Maurizio; Perale, Giuseppe

    2012-07-01

    In drug eluting stent technologies, an increased demand for better control, higher reliability, and enhanced performances of drug delivery systems emerged in the last years and thus offered the opportunity to introduce model-based approaches aimed to overcome the remarkable limits of trial-and-error methods. In this context a mathematical model was studied, based on detailed conservation equations and taking into account the main physical-chemical mechanisms involved in polymeric coating degradation, drug release, and restenosis inhibition. It allowed highlighting the interdependence between factors affecting each of these phenomena and, in particular, the influence of stent design parameters on drug antirestenotic efficacy. Therefore, the here-proposed model is aimed to simulate the diffusional release, for both in vitro and the in vivo conditions: results were verified against various literature data, confirming the reliability of the parameter estimation procedure. The hierarchical structure of this model also allows easily modifying the set of equations describing restenosis evolution to enhance model reliability and taking advantage of the deep understanding of physiological mechanisms governing the different stages of smooth muscle cell growth and proliferation. In addition, thanks to its simplicity and to the very low system requirements and central processing unit (CPU) time, our model allows obtaining immediate views of system behavior.

  11. Detection of Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica in clinical stool samples by using multiplex real-time PCR after automated DNA isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lint, P; Rossen, J W; Vermeiren, S; Ver Elst, K; Weekx, S; Van Schaeren, J; Jeurissen, A

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of intestinal parasites in stool samples is generally still carried out by microscopy; however, this technique is known to suffer from a low sensitivity and is unable to discriminate between certain protozoa. In order to overcome these limitations, a real-time multiplex PCR was evaluated as an alternative approach for diagnosing Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica in stool samples.Therefore, a total of 631 faecal samples were analysed both by microscopy as well as by real-time PCR following automated DNA extraction. Results showed that real-time PCR exhibited sensitivity and specificity of both 100%, whereas traditional microscopy exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 37.5% and 99.8% respectively. As real-time PCR provides simple, sensitive and specific detection of these three important pathogenic protozoan parasites, this technique, rather than microscopy, has become our diagnostic method of choice for the detection of enteric protozoan parasites for the majority of patients.

  12. Automation or De-automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlach, Igor; Wessel, Oliver

    2008-09-01

    In the global automotive industry, for decades, vehicle manufacturers have continually increased the level of automation of production systems in order to be competitive. However, there is a new trend to decrease the level of automation, especially in final car assembly, for reasons of economy and flexibility. In this research, the final car assembly lines at three production sites of Volkswagen are analysed in order to determine the best level of automation for each, in terms of manufacturing costs, productivity, quality and flexibility. The case study is based on the methodology proposed by the Fraunhofer Institute. The results of the analysis indicate that fully automated assembly systems are not necessarily the best option in terms of cost, productivity and quality combined, which is attributed to high complexity of final car assembly systems; some de-automation is therefore recommended. On the other hand, the analysis shows that low automation can result in poor product quality due to reasons related to plant location, such as inadequate workers' skills, motivation, etc. Hence, the automation strategy should be formulated on the basis of analysis of all relevant aspects of the manufacturing process, such as costs, quality, productivity and flexibility in relation to the local context. A more balanced combination of automated and manual assembly operations provides better utilisation of equipment, reduces production costs and improves throughput.

  13. Everolimus-eluting stents: update on current clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allocco DJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dominic J Allocco, Anita A Joshi, Keith D DawkinsBoston Scientific Corporation, Natick, MA, USAAbstract: Everolimus-eluting stents (EES have become the most commonly implanted coronary stents worldwide. This review describes and analyzes the clinical data supporting the use of EES, focusing primarily on published, randomized, controlled trials. Everolimuseluting stents have been shown to have less restenosis, stent thrombosis, and periprocedural myocardial infarction compared with earlier generation paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES. Lower rates of adverse events for EES compared with PES were generally seen in all subgroups, with the notable exception of patients with diabetes mellitus. There have been fewer, randomized, clinical trials comparing EES with either sirolimus-eluting stents or zotarolimus-eluting stents, although very good results with EES have been observed in the trials that have been performed. Recent clinical trial data suggest that this excellent safety and efficacy profile is maintained in a next-generation EES designed to have improved mechanical properties and radiopacity.Keywords: drug-eluting stents, everolimus, Xience V, Promus, Promus ElementVideo Abstract:  http://dvpr.es/allocco  

  14. THE APPLICATION OF AUTOMATED CORRELATION OPTIMIZED WARPING TO THE QUALITY EVALUATION OF Radix Puerariae thomsonii: CORRECTING RETENTION TIME SHIFT IN THE CHROMATOGRAPHIC FINGERPRINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of automated correlation optimized warping (ACOW to the correction of retention time shift in the chromatographic fingerprints of Radix Puerariae thomsonii (RPT was investigated. Twenty-seven samples were extracted from 9 batches of RPT products. The fingerprints of the 27 samples were established by the HPLC method. Because there is a retention time shift in the established fingerprints, the quality of these samples cannot be correctly evaluated by using similarity estimation and principal component analysis (PCA. Thus, the ACOW method was used to align these fingerprints. In the ACOW procedure, the warping parameters, which have a significant influence on the alignment result, were optimized by an automated algorithm. After correcting the retention time shift, the quality of these RPT samples was correctly evaluated by similarity estimation and PCA. It is demonstrated that ACOW is a practical method for aligning the chromatographic fingerprints of RPT. The combination of ACOW, similarity estimation, and PCA is shown to be a promising method for evaluating the quality of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

  15. Benchmarks on automated system and software generation higher flexibility increased productivity and shorter time-to-market by ScaPable software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlich, Rainer

    2002-07-01

    "ScaPable" is an acronym derived from "scalable" and "portable". The attribute "scalable" indicates that specific application software can automatically be built from scratch and verified without writing any statement in a programming language like C, thereby covering a large variety of embedded and/or distributed applications. The term "portable" addresses the capability to automatically port parts of such an application from one physical node to another one - the processor and operating system type may change - only requiring the names of the nodes, their processor type and operating system. This way the infrastructure of an embedded / distributed system can be built just by provision of literals and figures which define the system interaction, communication, topology and performance. Moreover, dedicated application software like needed for on-board command handling, data acquisition and processing, and telemetry handling can be built from generic templates. The generation time range from less than one second up to about twenty minutes on a PC/Linux platform (800 MHz). By this extremely short generation time risks can be identified early because the executable application is immediately available for validation. A rough estimation shows that one hour of automated system and software generation is equivalent to about 5 .. 50 man years. Currently, about 50% of a typical space embedded system can be covered by the available automated approach. However, the more it is applied, the more can be covered by automation. A system is constructed by applying a formal transformation to the few information as delivered by the user. This approach is not limited to the space domain, although the first industrial application was a space project. Quite different domains can take advantage of such principles of system construction. This paper explains the approach, compares it with other approaches, and provides figures on productivity, duration of system generation and reliability.

  16. Evaluating an Automated Approach for Monitoring Forest Disturbances in the Pacific Northwest from Logging, Fire and Insect Outbreaks with Landsat Time Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. R. Neigh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Forests are the largest aboveground sink for atmospheric carbon (C, and understanding how they change through time is critical to reduce our C-cycle uncertainties. We investigated a strong decline in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI from 1982 to 1991 in Pacific Northwest forests, observed with the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRRs. To understand the causal factors of this decline, we evaluated an automated classification method developed for Landsat time series stacks (LTSS to map forest change. This method included: (1 multiple disturbance index thresholds; and (2 a spectral trajectory-based image analysis with multiple confidence thresholds. We produced 48 maps and verified their accuracy with air photos, monitoring trends in burn severity data and insect aerial detection survey data. Area-based accuracy estimates for change in forest cover resulted in producer’s and user’s accuracies of 0.21 ± 0.06 to 0.38 ± 0.05 for insect disturbance, 0.23 ± 0.07 to 1 ± 0 for burned area and 0.74 ± 0.03 to 0.76 ± 0.03 for logging. We believe that accuracy was low for insect disturbance because air photo reference data were temporally sparse, hence missing some outbreaks, and the annual anniversary time step is not dense enough to track defoliation and progressive stand mortality. Producer’s and user’s accuracy for burned area was low due to the temporally abrupt nature of fire and harvest with a similar response of spectral indices between the disturbance index and normalized burn ratio. We conclude that the spectral trajectory approach also captures multi-year stress that could be caused by climate, acid deposition, pathogens, partial harvest, thinning, etc. Our study focused on understanding the transferability of previously successful methods to new ecosystems and found that this automated method does not perform with the same accuracy in Pacific

  17. Evaluating an Automated Approach for Monitoring Forest Disturbances in the Pacific Northwest from Logging, Fire and Insect Outbreaks with Landsat Time Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.Neigh, Christopher S.; Bolton, Douglas K.; Williams, Jennifer J.; Diabate, Mouhamad

    2014-01-01

    Forests are the largest aboveground sink for atmospheric carbon (C), and understanding how they change through time is critical to reduce our C-cycle uncertainties. We investigated a strong decline in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from 1982 to 1991 in Pacific Northwest forests, observed with the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRRs). To understand the causal factors of this decline, we evaluated an automated classification method developed for Landsat time series stacks (LTSS) to map forest change. This method included: (1) multiple disturbance index thresholds; and (2) a spectral trajectory-based image analysis with multiple confidence thresholds. We produced 48 maps and verified their accuracy with air photos, monitoring trends in burn severity data and insect aerial detection survey data. Area-based accuracy estimates for change in forest cover resulted in producer's and user's accuracies of 0.21 +/- 0.06 to 0.38 +/- 0.05 for insect disturbance, 0.23 +/- 0.07 to 1 +/- 0 for burned area and 0.74 +/- 0.03 to 0.76 +/- 0.03 for logging. We believe that accuracy was low for insect disturbance because air photo reference data were temporally sparse, hence missing some outbreaks, and the annual anniversary time step is not dense enough to track defoliation and progressive stand mortality. Producer's and user's accuracy for burned area was low due to the temporally abrupt nature of fire and harvest with a similar response of spectral indices between the disturbance index and normalized burn ratio. We conclude that the spectral trajectory approach also captures multi-year stress that could be caused by climate, acid deposition, pathogens, partial harvest, thinning, etc. Our study focused on understanding the transferability of previously successful methods to new ecosystems and found that this automated method does not perform with the same accuracy in Pacific Northwest forests

  18. A Swiss Watch Running on Chilean Time: A Progress Report on Two New Automated CORALIE RV Pipelines

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, James S

    2010-01-01

    We present the current status of two new fully automated reduction and analysis pipelines, built for the Euler telescope and the CORALIE spectrograph. Both pipelines have been designed and built independently at the Universidad de Chile and Universidad Catolica by the two authors. Each pipeline has also been written on two different platforms, IDL and Python, and both can run fully automatically through full reduction and analysis of CORALIE datasets. The reduction goes through all standard steps from bias subtraction, flat-fielding, scattered light removal, optimal extraction and full wavelength calibration of the data using well exposed ThAr arc lamps. The reduced data are then cross-correlated with a binary template matched to the spectral type of each star and the cross-correlation functions are fit with a Gaussian to extract precision radial-velocities. For error analysis we are currently testing bootstrap, jackknifing and cross validation methods to properly determine uncertainties directly from the dat...

  19. Code it rite the first time : automated invoice processing solution designed to ensure validity to field ticket coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, G.

    2010-03-15

    An entrepreneur who ran 55 rigs for a major oilfield operator in Calgary has developed a solution for the oil industry that reduces field ticketing errors from 40 per cent to almost none. The Code-Rite not only simplifies field ticketing but can eliminate weeks of trying to balance authorization for expenditure (AFE) numbers. A service provider who wants a field ticket signed for billing purposes following a service call to a well site receives all pertinent information on a barcode that includes AFE number, location, routing, approval authority and mailing address. Attaching the label to the field ticket provides all the invoicing information needed. This article described the job profile, education and life experiences and opportunities that led the innovator to develop this technology that solves an industry-wide problem. Code-Rite is currently being used by 3 large upstream oil and gas operators and plans are underway to automate the entire invoice processing system. 1 fig.

  20. Linear isotherm determination from linear gradient elution experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, David; Steinebach, Fabian; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2015-01-02

    A procedure to estimate equilibrium adsorption parameters as a function of the modifier concentration in linear gradient elution chromatography is proposed and its reliability is investigated by comparison with experimental data. Over the past decades, analytical solutions of the so-called equilibrium model under linear gradient elution conditions were derived assuming that proteins and modifier molecules access the same fraction of the pore size distribution of the porous particles. The present approach developed in this work accounts for the size exclusion effect resulting in different exclusions for proteins and modifier. A new analytical solution was derived by applying perturbation theory for differential equations, and the 1st-order approximated solution is presented in this work. Eventually, a turnkey and reliable procedure to efficiently estimate isotherm parameters as a function of modifier concentration from linear gradient elution experiments is proposed.

  1. Stent Fracture after Everolimus-Eluting Stent Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali S. Almasood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with bare-metal stents, drug-eluting stents (DES have greatly reduced the risk of in-stent restenosis (ISR by inhibiting neointimal growth. Nevertheless, DES are still prone to device failure, which may lead to cardiac events. Recently, stent fracture (SF has emerged as a potential mechanism of DES failure that is associated with ISR. Stent fracture is strongly related to stent type, and prior reports suggest that deployment of sirolimus eluting stents (SES may be associated with a higher risk of SF compared to other DES. Everolimus eluting stents (EESs represent a new generation of DES with promising results. The occurrence of SF with EES has not been well established. The present paper describes two cases of EES fracture associated with ISR.

  2. The Automated Dynamic Directed Evolution Chamber: A Tool for Studying Extremophile-Environment Interactions in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, N.; Grace, J. M.; Liang, J.; Owyang, S.; Storrs, A.; Zhou, J.; Rothschild, L. J.; Gentry, D.

    2014-12-01

    Life acclimated to harsh conditions is frequently difficult to study using normal lab techniques and conventional equipment. Simplified studies using in-lab 'simulated' extreme environments, such as UV bulbs or cold blocks, are manually intensive, error-prone, and lose many complexities of the microbe/environment interaction. We have built a prototype instrument to address this dilemma by allowing automated iterations of microbial cultures to be subject to combinations of modular environmental pressures such as heat, radiation, and chemical exposure. The presence of multiple sensors allows the state of the culture and internal environment to be continuously monitored and adjusted in response.Our first prototype showed successful iterations of microbial growth and thermal exposure. Our second prototype, presented here, performs an demonstration of repeated exposure of Escherichia coli to ultraviolet radiation, a well-established procedure. As the E. coli becomes more resistant to ultraviolet radiation, the device detects their increased survival and growth and increases the dosage accordingly. Calibration data for the instrument was generated by performing the same proof-of-concept exposure experiment, at a smaller scale, by hand. Current performance data indicates that our finalized instrument will have the ability to run hundreds of iterations with multiple selection pressures. The automated sensing and adaptive exposure that the device provides will inform the challenges of managing and culturing life tailored to uncommon environmental stresses. We have designed this device to be flexible, extensible, low-cost and easy to reproduce. We hope that it enter wide use as a tool for conducting scalable studies of the interaction between extremophiles and multiple environmental stresses, and potentially for generating artificial extremophiles as analogues for life we might find in extreme environments here on Earth or elsewhere.

  3. Biolimus-eluting biodegradable polymer-coated stent versus durable polymer-coated sirolimus-eluting stent in unselected patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (SORT OUT V)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Evald Høj; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per

    2013-01-01

    Third-generation biodegradable polymer drug-eluting stents might reduce the risk of stent thrombosis compared with first-generation permanent polymer drug-eluting stents. We aimed to further investigate the effects of a biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stent compared with a durable polymer...

  4. Efficacy and safety of zotarolimus-eluting and sirolimus-eluting coronary stents in routine clinical care (SORT OUT III): a randomised controlled superiority trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Klaus; Maeng, Michael; Kaltoft, Anne

    2010-01-01

    In low-risk patients, the zotarolimus-eluting stent has been shown to reduce rates of restenosis without increasing the risk of stent thrombosis. We compared the efficacy and safety of the zotarolimus-eluting stent versus the sirolimus-eluting stent in patients with coronary artery disease who we...

  5. Modeling of dual gradient elution in ion exchange and mixed-mode chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi Feng; Schmidt, Michael; Graalfs, Heiner; Hafner, Mathias; Frech, Christian

    2015-10-23

    Protein retention using dual gradient elution in ion exchange- and mixed-mode chromatography can be modeled using the combination of a modified Yamamoto's LGE model and a conversion term to correlate the elution salt concentration and pH at any given gradient slope. Incorporation of the pH dependence of the binding charges into the model also provides some insights on the dual effects of salt and pH in protein-ligand interaction. The fitted thermodynamic parameters (ΔGP(0)/RT, ΔGS(0)/RT, number of charged amino acids involved in binding) of the dual gradient elution data using lysozyme and mAbs on SP Sepharose(®) FF, Eshmuno(®) HCX, and Capto(®) MMC ImpRes were consistent to the results of mono gradient data. This gives rise to an approach to perform thermodynamic modeling of protein retention in ion exchange- and mixed-mode chromatography by combining both salt and pH gradient into a single run of dual gradient elution which will increase time and cost efficiency. The dual gradients used in this study encompassed a wide range of pH (4-8) and NaCl concentrations (0-1M). Curve fits showed that ΔGP(0)/RT is protein type and ligand dependent. ΔGS(0)/RT is strongly dependent on the stationary phase but not the protein. For mAb04 on mixed-mode resin Capto(®) MMC, ΔGS(0)/RT is 5-6 times higher than the result reported for the same protein on cation exchanger Fractogel(®) EMD SO3(-) (S).

  6. Histologic Assessment of Drug-Eluting Grafts Related to Implantation Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Tille

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug-eluting vascular prostheses represent a new direction in vascular surgery to reduce early thrombosis and late intimal hyperplasia for small calibre grafts. Subcutaneous implantation in rats is a rapid and cost-effective screening model to assess the drug-elution effect and could, to some extent, be useful to forecast results for vascular prostheses. We compared biological and histological responses to scaffolds in different implantation sites. Polycaprolactone (PCL, paclitaxel-loaded PCL (PCL-PTX and dexamethasone-loaded PCL (PCL-DXM electrospun scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously and in an infrarenal abdominal aortic model in rats for up to 12 weeks. At the conclusion of the study, a histological analysis was performed. Cellular graft invasion revealed differences in the progression of cellular infiltration between PCL-PTX and PCL/PCL-DXM groups in both models. Cell infiltration increased over time in the aortic model compared to the subcutaneous model for all groups. Cell counting revealed major differences in fibroblast, macrophage and giant cell graft colonisation in all groups and models over time. Macrophages and giant cells increased in the PCL aortic model; whereas in the subcutaneous model these cell types increased only after three weeks or even decreased in the drug-eluting PCL groups. Other major findings were observed only in the aortic replacement such as extracellular matrix deposition and neo-angiogenesis. The subcutaneous implant model can be used for screening, especially when drug-eluting effects are studied. However, major histological differences were observed in cell type reaction and depth of cell penetration compared to the aortic model. Our results demonstrate that the implantation site is a critical determinant of the biological response.

  7. Automated Air Traffic Control Operations with Weather and Time-Constraints: A First Look at (Simulated) Far-Term Control Room Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Thomas; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Martin, Lynne H.; Mercer, Joey S.; Cabrall, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss results from a recent high fidelity simulation of air traffic control operations with automated separation assurance in the presence of weather and time-constraints. We report findings from a human-in-the-loop study conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center. During four afternoons in early 2010, fifteen active and recently retired air traffic controllers and supervisors controlled high levels of traffic in a highly automated environment during three-hour long scenarios, For each scenario, twelve air traffic controllers operated eight sector positions in two air traffic control areas and were supervised by three front line managers, Controllers worked one-hour shifts, were relieved by other controllers, took a 3D-minute break, and worked another one-hour shift. On average, twice today's traffic density was simulated with more than 2200 aircraft per traffic scenario. The scenarios were designed to create peaks and valleys in traffic density, growing and decaying convective weather areas, and expose controllers to heavy and light metering conditions. This design enabled an initial look at a broad spectrum of workload, challenge, boredom, and fatigue in an otherwise uncharted territory of future operations. In this paper we report human/system integration aspects, safety and efficiency results as well as airspace throughput, workload, and operational acceptability. We conclude that, with further refinements. air traffic control operations with ground-based automated separation assurance can be an effective and acceptable means to routinely provide very high traffic throughput in the en route airspace.

  8. Rapid development of late stent malappositon and coronary aneurysm following implantation of a paclitaxel-eluting coronary stent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng; QIAN Ju-ying; GE Jun-bo

    2007-01-01

    @@ Late stent malapposition (LSM), an unusual intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) finding at follow-up, has been reported to be more common after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation than after bare metal stent(BMS) implantation.1-3 However, there has been no clear elucidation of time course and mechanism. We reported a case who developed LSM and coronary aneurysm very early after paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) implantation. A review of the literature reveals no previous report describing rapid development of LSM and coronary aneurysm after PES implantation.

  9. Protein adsorption to poly(ethylenimine)-modified Sepharose FF. IV. Dynamic adsorption and elution behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Yu, Lin-Ling; Sun, Yan

    2014-10-03

    We have previously investigated bovine serum albumin (BSA) uptake to poly(ethylenimine) (PEI)-grafted Sepharose FF. It was found that there was a critical ionic capacity (cIC; 600mmol/L) for BSA, above which the protein adsorption capacity and uptake kinetics increased drastically. In this work, two poly(ethylenimine) (PEI)-grafted resins with IC values of 271mmol/L (FF-PEI-L270) and 683mmol/L (FF-PEI-L680), which were below and above the cIC, respectively, were chosen to investigate the breakthrough and linear gradient elution (LGE) behaviors of BSA. Commercially available anion exchanger, Q Sepharose FF, was used for comparison. The DBC values of FF-PEI-L680 were much higher in the entire residence time range (2-10min) than the other two resins due to its high static adsorption capacity and uptake kinetics. At a residence time of 5.0min, the DBC of FF-PEI-L680 (104mg/mL) was about seven times that of FF-PEI-L270 and three times that of Q Sepharose FF. A rise-fall trend of the DBCs with increasing ionic strength (IS) was found for all the three resins studied, indicating the presence of electrostatic exclusion for protein uptake at low IS. With increasing NaCl concentration from 20 to 200mmol/L, FF-PEI-L680 kept very high DBC values (64-114mg/mL). In addition, FF-PEI-L270 showed more favorable adsorption properties than Q Sepharose FF at 100-300mmol/L NaCl. These results proved that the three-dimensional grafting ion exchange layer on the PEI resins enhanced their tolerance to IS. In the study of LGE, the three resins showed similar elution behaviors and no distinct peak tailings were observed. The salt concentrations at the elution peaks (IR) were in the order of FF-PEI-L680>FF-PEI-L270>Q Sepharose FF, indicating that the elution for the PEI resins needed higher salt concentrations, which was also an appearance of the salt-tolerant feature of the PEI resins. When protein loading amount was increased to the value equivalent to the DBC at 10% breakthrough, the

  10. Randomized Comparison of Everolimus-Eluting and Sirolimus-Eluting Stents in Patients Treated with Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (The SORT OUT IV Trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Hansen, Henrik Steen

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among drug-eluting stents released to date, the sirolimus-eluting stent has demonstrated the least amount of late lumen loss, but its efficacy and safety have not been compared head-to-head with the next-generation everolimus-eluting stent. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Scandinavian Organi.......9%]; hazard ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.88). CONCLUSION: The everolimus-eluting stent was found to be noninferior to the sirolimus-eluting stent. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00552877....

  11. An automated, broad-based, near real-time public health surveillance system using presentations to hospital Emergency Departments in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Clayton

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a climate of concern over bioterrorism threats and emergent diseases, public health authorities are trialling more timely surveillance systems. The 2003 Rugby World Cup (RWC provided an opportunity to test the viability of a near real-time syndromic surveillance system in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. We describe the development and early results of this largely automated system that used data routinely collected in Emergency Departments (EDs. Methods Twelve of 49 EDs in the Sydney metropolitan area automatically transmitted surveillance data from their existing information systems to a central database in near real-time. Information captured for each ED visit included patient demographic details, presenting problem and nursing assessment entered as free-text at triage time, physician-assigned provisional diagnosis codes, and status at departure from the ED. Both diagnoses from the EDs and triage text were used to assign syndrome categories. The text information was automatically classified into one or more of 26 syndrome categories using automated "naïve Bayes" text categorisation techniques. Automated processes were used to analyse both diagnosis and free text-based syndrome data and to produce web-based statistical summaries for daily review. An adjusted cumulative sum (cusum was used to assess the statistical significance of trends. Results During the RWC the system did not identify any major public health threats associated with the tournament, mass gatherings or the influx of visitors. This was consistent with evidence from other sources, although two known outbreaks were already in progress before the tournament. Limited baseline in early monitoring prevented the system from automatically identifying these ongoing outbreaks. Data capture was invisible to clinical staff in EDs and did not add to their workload. Conclusion We have demonstrated the feasibility and potential utility of syndromic surveillance using

  12. Performance of the new automated Abbott RealTime MTB assay for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J H K; She, K K K; Kwong, T-C; Wong, O-Y; Siu, G K H; Leung, C-C; Chang, K-C; Tam, C-M; Ho, P-L; Cheng, V C C; Yuen, K-Y; Yam, W-C

    2015-09-01

    The automated high-throughput Abbott RealTime MTB real-time PCR assay has been recently launched for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical diagnosis. This study would like to evaluate its performance. We first compared its diagnostic performance with the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB assay on 214 clinical respiratory specimens. Prospective analysis of a total 520 specimens was then performed to further evaluate the Abbott assay. The Abbott assay showed a lower limit of detection at 22.5 AFB/ml, which was more sensitive than the Cobas assay (167.5 AFB/ml). The two assays demonstrated a significant difference in diagnostic performance (McNemar's test; P = 0.0034), in which the Abbott assay presented significantly higher area under curve (AUC) than the Cobas assay (1.000 vs 0.880; P = 0.0002). The Abbott assay demonstrated extremely low PCR inhibition on clinical respiratory specimens. The automated Abbott assay required only very short manual handling time (0.5 h), which could help to improve the laboratory management. In the prospective analysis, the overall estimates for sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott assay were both 100 % among smear-positive specimens, whereas the smear-negative specimens were 96.7 and 96.1 %, respectively. No cross-reactivity with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial species was observed. The superiority in sensitivity of the Abbott assay for detecting MTBC in smear-negative specimens could further minimize the risk in MTBC false-negative detection. The new Abbott RealTime MTB assay has good diagnostic performance which can be a useful diagnostic tool for rapid MTBC detection in clinical laboratories.

  13. A Swiss Watch Running on Chilean Time: A Progress Report on Two New Automated CORALIE RV Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J. S.; Jordán, A.

    2011-12-01

    We present the current status of two new fully automated reduction and analysis pipelines, built for the Euler telescope and the CORALIE spectrograph. Both pipelines have been designed and built independently at the Universidad de Chile and Universidad Catolica by the two authors. Each pipeline has also been written on two different platforms, IDL and Python, and both can run fully automatically through full reduction and analysis of CORALIE datasets. The reduction goes through all standard steps from bias subtraction, flat-fielding, scattered light removal, optimal extraction and full wavelength calibration of the data using well exposed ThAr arc lamps. The reduced data are then cross-correlated with a binary template matched to the spectral type of each star and the cross-correlation functions are fit with a Gaussian to extract precision radial-velocities. For error analysis we are currently testing bootstrap, jackknifing and cross validation methods to properly determine uncertainties directly from the data. Our pipelines currently show long term stability at the 12-15m/s level, measured by observations of two known radial-velocity standard stars. In the near future we plan to get the stability down to the 5-6m/s level and also transfer these pipelines to other instruments like HARPS.

  14. Contaminant analysis automation demonstration proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, M.G.; Schur, A.; Heubach, J.G.

    1993-10-01

    The nation-wide and global need for environmental restoration and waste remediation (ER&WR) presents significant challenges to the analytical chemistry laboratory. The expansion of ER&WR programs forces an increase in the volume of samples processed and the demand for analysis data. To handle this expanding volume, productivity must be increased. However. The need for significantly increased productivity, faces contaminant analysis process which is costly in time, labor, equipment, and safety protection. Laboratory automation offers a cost effective approach to meeting current and future contaminant analytical laboratory needs. The proposed demonstration will present a proof-of-concept automated laboratory conducting varied sample preparations. This automated process also highlights a graphical user interface that provides supervisory, control and monitoring of the automated process. The demonstration provides affirming answers to the following questions about laboratory automation: Can preparation of contaminants be successfully automated?; Can a full-scale working proof-of-concept automated laboratory be developed that is capable of preparing contaminant and hazardous chemical samples?; Can the automated processes be seamlessly integrated and controlled?; Can the automated laboratory be customized through readily convertible design? and Can automated sample preparation concepts be extended to the other phases of the sample analysis process? To fully reap the benefits of automation, four human factors areas should be studied and the outputs used to increase the efficiency of laboratory automation. These areas include: (1) laboratory configuration, (2) procedures, (3) receptacles and fixtures, and (4) human-computer interface for the full automated system and complex laboratory information management systems.

  15. Crush stenting in treating coronary bifurcate lesions: paclitaxel eluting stents versus sirolimus eluting stents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shao-liang; SUN Xue-wen; HU Da-yi; Tak W. Kwan; ZHANG Jun-jie; YE Fei; CHEN Yun-dai; ZHU Zhong-sheng; LIN Song; TIAN Nai-liang; LIU Zhi-zhong; FANG Wei-yi

    2008-01-01

    Background Because no data regarding the comparison of crush stenting with pactitaxel(PES)or sirolimus eluting stents(SES)for coronary bifurcate lesions have been reported,we compared the clinical outcomes of these two types of stents.Methods Two hundred and thirty patients with 242 bifurcate lesions were enrolled in a prospective,nonrandomized trial.Primary endpoints included myocardial infarction,cardiac death and target vessel revascularization at 8 months.Results All patients were followed up clinically and 82%angiographically at 8 months.Final kissing balloon inflation was performed in 72%in the PES and 75%in the SES groups(P>0.05).Compared to the SES group,PES group had a higher late loss and incidence of restenosis(P=0.04)in the prebifurcation vessel segment.The postbifurcation vessel segment in the PES group had a greater late loss((0.7+0.6)mm vs(0.3±0.4)mm,P<0.001)and higher restenosis in the side branch(25.5%vs 15.6%,P=0.04)when compared to the SES group.There was significant difference of insegment restenosis in the entire main vessel between PES and SES groups (P=0.004).Target lesion revascularization was more frequently seen in the PES group as compared to the SES group(P=0.01).There was significant difference in the accumulative MACE between these two groups(P=0.01).The survival rate free from target lesion revascularization was significantly higher in the SES group when compared to the PES group(P<0.001).Conclusion SES is superior to PES in reducing restenosis and target lesion revascularization by 8-month follow-up after crush stenting for bifurcate lesions.

  16. Drug eluting stents: Current status and new developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ertaş; H.M.M. van Beusekom (Heleen)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractDespite the favorable impact of drug eluting stents on stent restenosis, their long-term reliability is considered worrisome by some because of stent thrombosis. Often attributed to adverse reactions to the stent platform, both the drugs and polymer characteristics have been further adva

  17. Development of a pheromone elution rate physical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    A first principle modeling approach is applied to available data describing the elution of semiochemicals from pheromone dispensers. These data include field data for 27 products developed by several manufacturers, including homemade devices, as well as laboratory data collected on three semiochemi...

  18. Concentration effects on peptide elution from pendant PEO layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangming; Ryder, Matthew P; McGuire, Joseph; Schilke, Karl F

    2014-06-01

    In earlier work, we have provided direction for development of responsive drug delivery systems based on modulation of structure and amphiphilicity of bioactive peptides entrapped within pendant polyethylene oxide (PEO) brush layers. Amphiphilicity promotes retention of the peptides within the hydrophobic inner region of the PEO brush layer. In this work, we describe the effects of peptide surface density on the conformational changes caused by peptide-peptide interactions, and show that this phenomenon substantially affects the rate and extent of peptide elution from PEO brush layers. Three cationic peptides were used in this study: the arginine-rich amphiphilic peptide WLBU2, the chemically identical but scrambled peptide S-WLBU2, and the non-amphiphilic homopolymer poly-l-arginine (PLR). Circular dichroism (CD) was used to evaluate surface density effects on the structure of these peptides at uncoated (hydrophobic) and PEO-coated silica nanoparticles. UV spectroscopy and a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) were used to quantify changes in the extent of peptide elution caused by those conformational changes. For amphiphilic peptides at sufficiently high surface density, peptide-peptide interactions result in conformational changes which compromise their resistance to elution. In contrast, elution of a non-amphiphilic peptide is substantially independent of its surface density, presumably due to the absence of peptide-peptide interactions. The results presented here provide a strategy to control the rate and extent of release of bioactive peptides from PEO layers, based on modulation of their amphiphilicity and surface density.

  19. Drug-eluting stents in octogenarians : Early and intermediate outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaar, Pieter J.; Lennon, Ryan J.; Rihal, Charanjit S.; Singh, Mandeep; Ting, Henry H.; Bresnahan, John F.; Holmes, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Large randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that percutaneous coronary intervention with the routine use of drug-eluting stents is safe and effective. However, octogenarians are usually excluded from these trials. Methods We analyzed 2453 consecutive patients who underwent DES im

  20. Real-time automated measurement of Xenopus leavis tadpole behavior and behavioral responses following triphenyltin exposure using the multispecies freshwater biomonitor (MFB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriks, Merijn; van Hoorn, Melissa K; Faassen, Elisabeth J; van Dam, Joost W; Murk, Albertinka J

    2006-05-10

    The present study examines whether behavior of Xenopus laevis tadpoles, when measured with the multispecies freshwater biomonitor (MFB), can be a sensitive and practical parameter for quantification of behavioral effects induced by toxic compounds. The MFB system is capable of automated simultaneous recording and integration of different types of movement over time. Basic tadpole behavior was studied under standard ambient temperature and colder conditions. At lower temperatures the time spent on low frequency behavior such as swimming and ventilation decreased, while at higher frequency movements associated with subtle tail tip oscillations it increased. Changes in behavior were also studied during the process of metamorphosis when both the morphology and physiology of tadpoles change. In the course of metamorphosis the tadpoles decreased the time spent on swimming and increased tail tip oscillations, especially in the period shortly before and during metamorphic climax. Additional experiments were performed to investigate whether the MFB could be used to quantify behavioral effects of exposure to a toxic compound. A 48 h exposure to a sublethal concentration of 1.25 microg L(-1) triphenyltin (TPT) significantly increased low frequency behavior, whereas 5 microg L(-1) TPT significantly reduced this type of behavior while the number of periods of total inactivity increased. One week after transferring the animals to clean water, registered behavior of tadpoles in the highest TPT group (5 microg L(-1)) was normal again for this developmental stage. The results show that the MFB can be used as a new tool for automated registration of sublethal toxic effects on tadpole behavior including recovery.

  1. Automation of a mass flow controller for application in time-multiplex SF{sub 6}+CH{sub 4} plasma etching of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tezani, L.L.; Moraes, R.S.; Medeiros, H.S.; Petraconi Filho, G.; Massi, M.; Silva Sobrinho, A.S. da [Laboratorio de Plasmas e Processos, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, 12228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos-SP (Brazil); Pessoa, R.S.; Maciel, H.S. [Laboratorio de Plasmas e Processos, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, 12228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos-SP (Brazil); IP and D, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, 12244-000, Sao Jose dos Campos-SP (Brazil); Martins, C.A. [Laboratorio de Combustao, Propulsao e Energia, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, 12228-900, Sao Jos dos Campos-SP (Brazil)

    2012-10-15

    In this work is proposed the automation of a gas injection (mass flow) system in order to generate timemultiplex SF{sub 6}/CH{sub 4} radiofrequency plasma applied for silicon (Si) etching process. The control of the gas injection system is important in order to better control the process anisotropy, i.e., the high-aspect-ratio of mask pattern transfer to substrate surface. In other words, this control allows the attainment of deep Si etching process. Here, the automation of the gas injection system was realized through the interface between a computer and a data acquisition board. The automation software developed allows controlling the gas flow rate switching it on and off during whole process through the use of a square waveform routine, intermittent flow, beyond the conventional condition of a fixed value for gas flow rate, continuous flow. In order to investigate the time-multiplex SF{sub 6}/CH{sub 4} plasma etching of Si, the residual gas analysis was performed. The investigations were made keeping the following process parameters: flow of SF{sub 6}: 10 sccm, flow of CH{sub 4}: 6 sccm, 100 W rf power, wave period: 20 sec. It were monitored the partial pressure of SF{sup +} {sub 5} (parent neutral specie: SF{sub 6}), CH{sup +}{sub 4} (CH4) and SiF+{sub 3} (SiF4) species as a function of time for different gas flow switching and duty cycle. The results showed that with the generation of plasma occurs a drastic change in behavior of partial pressures of SF{sup +} {sub 5} and CH{sup +}{sub 4} species. Moreover, it is evidenced that the interactions between the SF{sub 6} and CH{sub 4} fragments promotes a high production rate of HF molecule and consequently a decrease of atomic fluorine, mainly when plasma is on. Finally, the behavior of partial pressure of SiF{sup +} {sub 3} specie for alternatively intermittent SF{sub 6} and CH{sub 4} flow operation shows us that both the etching processes and the deposition of a polymer passivation layer are occurring

  2. Drug-eluting bioabsorbable magnesium stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mario, Carlo; Griffiths, Huw; Goktekin, Omer; Peeters, Nicolas; Verbist, Jan; Bosiers, Marc; Deloose, Koen; Heublein, Bernhard; Rohde, Roland; Kasese, Victor; Ilsley, Charles; Erbel, Raimund

    2004-12-01

    Current stent technology is based on the use of permanent implants that remain life long in the vessel wall, far beyond the time required for the prosthesis to accomplish its main goals of sealing dissection and preventing wall recoil. With the possibility to implant long vessel segments using antiproliferative drugs to prevent restenosis, the practice of transforming the coronary vessels into stiff tubes with a full metal jacket covering all side branches and being unable to adjust to the long-term wall changes, including wall remodeling with lumen ectasia becomes a serious concern. In this article, we describe the first biodegradable stent based on a magnesium alloy that allows controlled corrosion with release to the vessel wall and the blood stream of a natural body component such as magnesium with beneficial antithrombotic, antiarrhythmic, and antiproliferative properties. We also discuss the animal experiments and the initial clinical applications in 20 patients with implants below the knee, with final results soon to be released, and the plans for the first coronary study. The results of these last two studies will indicate whether the absence of a permanent implant and the antiproliferative properties shown in animals are sufficient to prevent the restenotic process in humans or whether the prosthesis must be modified by adding the biodegradable coating with conventional antiproliferative drugs.

  3. Drug-eluting stents in percutaneous coronary intervention: a benefit-risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Robert A; Sarafoff, Nikolaus; Kastrati, Adnan; Schömig, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Drug-eluting stent (DES) therapy has represented a very significant milestone in the evolution of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) therapy. This review attempts to provide a balanced overview of the unprecedented wealth of data generated on this new technology, by examining the evidence bases for anti-restenotic efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness. The performance of a DES may be related to each of its three components: stent backbone; carrier polymer (to control drug-release kinetics); and active drug. In terms of anti-restenotic efficacy, the most appropriate parameters to examine are target lesion revascularization, angiographic restenosis and late luminal loss. The principal safety parameters are overall mortality, myocardial infarction (MI) and stent thrombosis. Anti-restenotic superiority of DES over bare metal stents (BMS) has been demonstrated across a spectrum of disease from straightforward 'vanilla lesions' through higher disease complexity in pivotal clinical trials to phase IV studies of efficacy in 'off-label' populations. The treatment effect of DES versus BMS is consistent in terms of a reduction in the need for repeat intervention of the order of 35-70%. Regarding differential efficacy of first-generation DES, a benefit may exist in favour of the Cypher (sirolimus-eluting) stent over Taxus (paclitaxel-eluting), particularly in high-risk lesion subsets. The second-generation approved devices are the Endeavor (zotarolimus-eluting) and Xience (everolimus-eluting) DES. While all four of these stents are permanent polymer-based, the current focus of development is towards DES platforms that are devoid of durable polymer, the presence of which has been implicated in late adverse events. In terms of safety concerns raised in relation to DES therapy, it is reasonable to conclude the following at 4- to 5-year post-stent implantation: (i) that there is no increased risk of death or MI with DES (neither is there a general signal of mortality

  4. Automating Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John

    2007-01-01

    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  5. Paclitaxel Drug-eluting Tracheal Stent Could Reduce Granulation Tissue Formation in a Canine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The paclitaxel-eluting stent could safely reduce the granulation tissue formation after stent implantation in vivo, suggesting that the paclitaxel-eluting tracheal stent might be considered for potential use in humans in the future.

  6. Sirolimus-eluting versus bare-metal stent implantation in patients with ostial lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Erik; Kelbæk, Henning; Kløvgaard, Lene;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of implantation of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) in the ostium of coronary arteries.......To investigate the efficacy of implantation of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) in the ostium of coronary arteries....

  7. Simulation of elution profiles in liquid chromatography-I: Gradient elution conditions, and with mismatched injection and mobile phase solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Lena N; Sajulga, Ray; Forte, Steven G; Stoll, Dwight R; Rutan, Sarah C

    2016-07-29

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) simulators are effective method development tools. The goal of the present work was to design and implement a simple algorithm for simulation of liquid chromatographic separations that allows for characterization of the effect of injection solvent mismatch and injection solvent volume overload. The simulations yield full analyte profiles during solute migration and at elution, which enable a thorough physical understanding of the effects of method variables on chromatographic performance. The Craig counter-current distribution model (the plate model) is used as the basis for simulation, where a local retention factor is assigned for each spatial and temporal element within the simulation. The algorithm, which is an adaptation of an approach originally described by Czok and Guiochon (Ref. [10]), is sufficiently flexible to allow the use of either linear (e.g., Linear Solvent Strength Theory) or non-linear models of solute retention (e.g., Neue-Kuss (Ref. [36])). In this study, both types of models were used, one for simulating separations of a homologous series of alkylbenzenes, and the other for separations of selected amphetamines. The simulation program was validated first by comparison of simulated retention times and peak widths for five amphetamines to predictions obtained using linear solvent strength (LSS) theory, and to results from experimental separations of these compounds. The simulated retention times for the amphetamines agreed within 0.02% and 2.5% compared to theory and experiment, respectively. Secondly, the program was evaluated for simulating the case where there is a compositional mismatch between the mobile phase at the column inlet and the injection solvent (i.e., the sample matrix). This work involved alkylbenzenes, and retention time and peak width predictions from simulations were within 1.5 and 6.0% of experimental values, respectively, even without correction for extra-column dispersion. The

  8. Robust Automated Image Co-Registration of Optical Multi-Sensor Time Series Data: Database Generation for Multi-Temporal Landslide Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Behling

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Reliable multi-temporal landslide detection over longer periods of time requires multi-sensor time series data characterized by high internal geometric stability, as well as high relative and absolute accuracy. For this purpose, a new methodology for fully automated co-registration has been developed allowing efficient and robust spatial alignment of standard orthorectified data products originating from a multitude of optical satellite remote sensing data of varying spatial resolution. Correlation-based co-registration uses world-wide available terrain corrected Landsat Level 1T time series data as the spatial reference, ensuring global applicability. The developed approach has been applied to a multi-sensor time series of 592 remote sensing datasets covering an approximately 12,000 km2 area in Southern Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia strongly affected by landslides. The database contains images acquired during the last 26 years by Landsat (ETM, ASTER, SPOT and RapidEye sensors. Analysis of the spatial shifts obtained from co-registration has revealed sensor-specific alignments ranging between 5 m and more than 400 m. Overall accuracy assessment of these alignments has resulted in a high relative image-to-image accuracy of 17 m (RMSE and a high absolute accuracy of 23 m (RMSE for the whole co-registered database, making it suitable for multi-temporal landslide detection at a regional scale in Southern Kyrgyzstan.

  9. Drug-eluting stents in renal artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaehringer, M. [Marienhospital Stuttgart, Department of Radiology, Stuttgart (Germany); Pattynama, P.M.T. [Erasmus MC-University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Talen, A. [genae associates nv, Antwerp (Belgium); Sapoval, M. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Service de Radiologie Cardio-Vasculaire, Paris (France); Inserm U 780 epidemiologie Cardio Vasculaire, Paris (France)

    2008-04-15

    Because of higher acute and long-term success rates compared with balloon angioplasty alone, percutaneous stent implantation has become an accepted therapy for the treatment of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. Restenosis rates after successful renal stent placement vary from 6 up to 40%, depending on the definition of restenosis, the diameter of the treated vessel segment and comorbidities. The safety and efficacy of drug-eluting stents for the treatment of renal-artery stenosis is poorly defined. The recently published GREAT study is the only prospective study, comparing bare-metal and sirolimus-coated low profile stent systems in renal artery stenosis, showing a relative risk reduction of angiographic binary in-stent restenosis by 50%. This is an opinion paper on indications, current treatment options and restenosis rates following renal artery stenting and the potential use of drug-eluting stents for this indication. (orig.)

  10. Classification of Automated Search Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrer, Greg; Stokes, Jack W.; Chellapilla, Kumar; Platt, John C.

    As web search providers seek to improve both relevance and response times, they are challenged by the ever-increasing tax of automated search query traffic. Third party systems interact with search engines for a variety of reasons, such as monitoring a web site’s rank, augmenting online games, or possibly to maliciously alter click-through rates. In this paper, we investigate automated traffic (sometimes referred to as bot traffic) in the query stream of a large search engine provider. We define automated traffic as any search query not generated by a human in real time. We first provide examples of different categories of query logs generated by automated means. We then develop many different features that distinguish between queries generated by people searching for information, and those generated by automated processes. We categorize these features into two classes, either an interpretation of the physical model of human interactions, or as behavioral patterns of automated interactions. Using the these detection features, we next classify the query stream using multiple binary classifiers. In addition, a multiclass classifier is then developed to identify subclasses of both normal and automated traffic. An active learning algorithm is used to suggest which user sessions to label to improve the accuracy of the multiclass classifier, while also seeking to discover new classes of automated traffic. Performance analysis are then provided. Finally, the multiclass classifier is used to predict the subclass distribution for the search query stream.

  11. Fully bioresorbable drug-eluting coronary scaffolds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Emmanuel; Barna, Alexandre; Guillevin, Loïc; Juliard, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Following the development of stents, then drug-eluting stents (DES), bioresorbable scaffolds are proposed as a third evolution in coronary angioplasty, aiming to reduce the incidence of restenosis and stent thrombosis and to restore vascular physiology. At least 16 such devices are currently under development, but published clinical data were available for only three of them in September 2014. The first device is Abbott's BVS(®), a poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA)-based everolimus-eluting device, which has been tested in a registry and two non-randomized trials. Clinical results seem close to what is expected from a modern DES, but possibly with more post-procedural side-effects. Two randomized trials versus DES are underway. This device is already marketed in many European countries. The second device is Elixir's DESolve(®), a PLLA-based novolimus-eluting device, which has been evaluated in two single-arm trials. Results are not widely different from those expected from a DES. The third device is Biotronik's DREAMS(®), a metallic magnesium-based paclitaxel-eluting device, which has been assessed in an encouraging single-arm trial; its second version is currently undergoing evaluation in a single-arm trial. The available results suggest that the technological and clinical development of bioresorbable scaffolds is not yet complete: their possible clinical benefits are still unclear compared with third-generation DES; the impact of arterial physiology restoration has to be assessed over the long term; and their cost-effectiveness has to be established. From the perspective of a health technology assessment, there is no compelling reason to hasten the clinical use of these devices before the results of ongoing randomized controlled trials become available.

  12. Preliminary clinical experience in application of rapamycin eluting coronary stent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Ya-ling; WANG Xiao-zeng; JING Quan-min; WANG Shou-li; MA Ying-yan

    2003-01-01

    @@ Objective To evaluate the safety and feasibility of rapamycin eluting coronary stent(Cypther). Methods From 2001.12 to 2003.8, there were 80 patients received Cypher stent implantation in our hospital. The 68 males and 12 females were aged from 34 to 75 (average 58.2 ± 10.7)years old, with AMI in 13 patients, unstable angina pectoris in 43patients and stable angina pectoris in 24 patients.

  13. Elution of Energetic Compounds from Propellant and Composition B Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    respective aqueous solubilities (Table 2). In contrast, TNT and the two AmDNTs attained only about 21% and 1% of their respective aque - ous solubilities...sarily the case for TNT and the AmDNTs, the latter of which can covalently bond to organic matter (Thorne and Leggett 1997 ). The percentages relative...55: 357–367. Elution of Energetic Compounds 23 Thorne, P.G., and D.C. Leggett ( 1997 ) Hydrolyic release of bound residues from composted soil

  14. Real time observation and automated measurement of red blood cells agglutination inside a passive microfluidic biochip containing embedded reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Maxime; Cubizolles, Myriam; Buhot, Arnaud

    2016-09-20

    The process of agglutination is commonly used for the detection of biomarkers like proteins or viruses. The multiple bindings between micrometer sized particles, either latex beads or red blood cells (RBCs), create aggregates that are easily detectable and give qualitative information about the presence of the biomarkers. In most cases, the detection is made by simple naked-eye observation of agglutinates without any access to the kinetics of agglutination. In this study, we address the development of a real-time time observation of RBCs agglutination. Using ABO blood typing as a proof-of-concept, we developed i) an integrated biological protocol suitable for further use as point-of-care (POC) analysis and ii) two dedicated image processing algorithms for the real-time and quantitative measurement of agglutination. Anti-A or anti-B typing reagents were dried inside the microchannel of a passive microfluidic chip designed to enhance capillary flow. A blood drop deposit at the tip of the biochip established a simple biological protocol. In situ agglutination of autologous RBCs was achieved by means of embedded reagents and real time agglutination process was monitored by video recording. Using a training set of 24 experiments, two real-time indicators based on correlation and variance of gray levels were optimized and then further confirmed on a validation set. 100% correct discrimination between positive and negative agglutinations was performed within less than 2min by measuring real-time evolution of both correlation and variance indicators.

  15. THE BEHAVIOR OF SOLUBLE METALS ELUTED FROM Ni/Fe-BASED ALLOY REACTORS AFTER HIGH-TEMPERATURE AND HIGH-PRESSURE WATER PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faisal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of heavy metals eluted from the wall of Ni/Fe-based alloy reactors after high-temperature and high-pressure water reaction were studied at temperatures ranging from 250 to 400oC. For this purpose, water and cysteic acid were heated in two reactor materials which are SUS 316 and Inconel 625. Under the tested conditions, the erratic behaviors of soluble metals eluted from the wall of Ni/Fe-based alloy in high temperature water were observed. Results showed that metals could be eluted even at a short contact time. The presence of air also promotes elution at sub-critical conditions. At sub-critical conditions, a significant amount of Cr was extracted from SUS 316, while only traces of Ni, Fe, Mo and Mn were eluted. In contrast, Ni was removed in significant amounts compared to Cr when Inconel 625 was tested. It was observed that eluted metals tend to increased under acidic conditions and most of those metals were over the limit of WHO guideline for drinking water. The results are significant both on the viewpoint of environmental regulation on disposal of wastes containing heavy metals, toxicity of resulting product and catalytic effect on a particular reaction.

  16. D-MSR: a distributed network management scheme for real-time monitoring and process control applications in wireless industrial automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Pouria; Dilo, Arta; Havinga, Paul

    2013-06-27

    Current wireless technologies for industrial applications, such as WirelessHART and ISA100.11a, use a centralized management approach where a central network manager handles the requirements of the static network. However, such a centralized approach has several drawbacks. For example, it cannot cope with dynamicity/disturbance in large-scale networks in a real-time manner and it incurs a high communication overhead and latency for exchanging management traffic. In this paper, we therefore propose a distributed network management scheme, D-MSR. It enables the network devices to join the network, schedule their communications, establish end-to-end connections by reserving the communication resources for addressing real-time requirements, and cope with network dynamicity (e.g., node/edge failures) in a distributed manner. According to our knowledge, this is the first distributed management scheme based on IEEE 802.15.4e standard, which guides the nodes in different phases from joining until publishing their sensor data in the network. We demonstrate via simulation that D-MSR can address real-time and reliable communication as well as the high throughput requirements of industrial automation wireless networks, while also achieving higher efficiency in network management than WirelessHART, in terms of delay and overhead.

  17. Reduction of burn scar formation by halofuginone-eluting silicone gel sheets: a controlled study on nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeplin, Philip H

    2012-03-01

    Burn scar formations can cause disfiguration and loss of dermal function. The purpose of this study was to examine whether application of modified silicone gel sheets with an antifibrotic drug halofuginone-eluting hybrid surface produce an effect on scar development. There were a total of 2 animal groups. The athymic nude mice (nu/nu) of both groups underwent transplantation of full-thickness human skin grafts onto their backs and setting of partial thickness burn injury. The status of local scar development was observed over a period of 3 months after the application of silicone gel sheets and also after application of surface-modified halofuginone-eluting silicone gel sheets. Subsequently, via real-time polymerase chain reaction, the cDNA levels from key mediators of scar formation (transforming growth factor beta, COL1A1, connective tissue growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 2, matrix metalloproteinase 2, matrix metalloproteinase 9) were established and statistically evaluated. In comparison with uncoated silicone gel sheets, the application of halofuginone-eluting silicone gel sheets lead to a significant difference in gene expression activity in scar tissue. Halofuginone-eluting hybrid surface silicone gel sheets significantly increase the antiscarring effect of adhesive silicone gel sheets by deceleration and downregulation of scar development by normalization of the expression activity.

  18. Automated system for near-real time modelling and prediction of altimeter-derived sea level anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Miziński, Bartłomiej

    2013-08-01

    This paper serves as a presentation of a novel geoinformation system and a dedicated service, jointly named as Prognocean and based at the University of Wrocław (Poland), that aim to predict Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) maps and publish them online. The system works in near-real time and is updated daily. The data are provided by the Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic data (AVISO), and the time series processed by Prognocean is delivered by various altimetric satellites. The emphasis is put on gridded SLA maps, also known as MSLA, which are provided as Delayed Time (DT) and Near-Real Time (NRT) daily products. The daily sampling interval, however, does not coincide with typical repeat cycles of altimetric satellites and is obtained through reprocessing produced by AVISO. The two-module infrastructure forms the system. The first module is responsible for the near-real time communication with AVISO to download the most recent MSLA data and acquire the corrected data when the geophysical corrections have been available. The second module forms the main engine which does data processing, modelling, forecasting, statistical quality control and finally generates products as maps. The online service, however, publishes the products online every day. The above-mentioned components and infrastructure are described in detail. The performance of the system was evaluated using at least 150 predicted MSLA maps, available after half year of computations carried out in near-real time. We identified a few regions of imperfect performance of our prognoses and found that they spatially correspond to the mouth of the Amazon River and locations of key mesoscale eddies, the vast majority of which being nonlinear and hence unmodelled in our experiment.

  19. Real-time direct cell concentration and viability determination using a fully automated microfluidic platform for standalone process monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues de Sousa Nunes, Pedro André; Kjaerulff, S.; Dufva, Martin

    2015-01-01

    , and determining the total cell and dead cells concentrations, within a time frame of 10.3 min. The platform consists of custom made stepper motor actuated peristaltic pumps and valves, fluidic interconnections, sample to waste liquid management and image cytometry-based detection. The total concentration of cells...

  20. A time-to-event pharmacodynamic model describing treatment response in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis using days to positivity in automated liquid mycobacterial culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigutsa, Emmanuel; Patel, Kashyap; Denti, Paolo; Visser, Marianne; Maartens, Gary; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J; McIlleron, Helen; Karlsson, Mats O

    2013-02-01

    Days to positivity in automated liquid mycobacterial culture have been shown to correlate with mycobacterial load and have been proposed as a useful biomarker for treatment responses in tuberculosis. However, there is currently no quantitative method or model to analyze the change in days to positivity with time on treatment. The objectives of this study were to describe the decline in numbers of mycobacteria in sputum collected once weekly for 8 weeks from patients on treatment for tuberculosis using days to positivity in liquid culture. One hundred forty-four patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis were recruited from a tuberculosis clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. A nonlinear mixed-effects repeated-time-to-event modeling approach was used to analyze the time-to-positivity data. A biexponential model described the decline in the estimated number of bacteria in patients' sputum samples, while a logistic model with a lag time described the growth of the bacteria in liquid culture. At baseline, the estimated number of rapidly killed bacteria is typically 41 times higher than that of those that are killed slowly. The time to kill half of the rapidly killed bacteria was about 1.8 days, while it was 39 days for slowly killed bacteria. Patients with lung cavitation had higher bacterial loads than patients without lung cavitation. The model successfully described the increase in days to positivity as treatment progressed, differentiating between bacteria that are killed rapidly and those that are killed slowly. Our model can be used to analyze similar data from studies testing new drug regimens.

  1. Heating automation

    OpenAIRE

    Tomažič, Tomaž

    2013-01-01

    This degree paper presents usage and operation of peripheral devices with microcontroller for heating automation. The main goal is to make a quality system control for heating three house floors and with that, increase efficiency of heating devices and lower heating expenses. Heat pump, furnace, boiler pump, two floor-heating pumps and two radiator pumps need to be controlled by this system. For work, we have chosen a development kit stm32f4 - discovery with five temperature sensors, LCD disp...

  2. Marketing automation

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Dania TODOR

    2017-01-01

    The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the...

  3. Enhancing cognate target elution efficiency in gel-free chemical proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Radic-Sarikas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gel-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry coupled to chemical proteomics is a powerful approach for characterizing cellular target profiles of small molecules. We have previously described a fast and efficient elution protocol; however, altered target profiles were observed. We hypothesised that elution conditions critically impact the effectiveness of disrupting drug-protein interactions. Thus, a number of elution conditions were systematically assessed with the aim of improving the recovery of all classes of proteins whilst maintaining compatibility with immunoblotting procedures. A double elution with formic acid combined with urea emerged as the most efficient and generically applicable elution method for chemical proteomics

  4. Application of Real-Time Automated Traffic Incident Response Plan Management System: A Web Structure for the Regional Highway Network in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic incidents, caused by various factors, may lead to heavy traffic delay and be harmful to traffic capacity of downstream sections. Traffic incident management (TIM systems have been developed widely to respond to traffic incidents intelligently and reduce the losses. Traffic incident response plans, as an important component of TIM, can effectively guide responders as to what and how to do in traffic incidents. In the paper, a real-time automated traffic incident response plan management system was developed, which could generate and manage traffic incident response plans timely and automatically. A web application structure and a physical structure were designed to implement and show these functions. A standard framework of data storage was also developed to save information about traffic incidents and generated response plans. Furthermore, a conformation survey and case-based reasoning (CBR were introduced to identify traffic incident and generate traffic incident response plans automatically, respectively. Twenty-three traffic crash-related incidents were selected and three indicators were used to measure the system performance. Results showed that 20 of 23 cases could be retrieved effectively and accurately. The system is practicable to generate traffic incident response plans and has been implemented in China.

  5. Automated Ground-based Time-lapse Camera Monitoring of West Greenland ice sheet outlet Glaciers: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Y.; Box, J. E.; Balog, J.; Lewinter, A.

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring Greenland outlet glaciers using remotely sensed data has drawn a great attention in earth science communities for decades and time series analysis of sensory data has provided important variability information of glacier flow by detecting speed and thickness changes, tracking features and acquiring model input. Thanks to advancements of commercial digital camera technology and increased solid state storage, we activated automatic ground-based time-lapse camera stations with high spatial/temporal resolution in west Greenland outlet and collected one-hour interval data continuous for more than one year at some but not all sites. We believe that important information of ice dynamics are contained in these data and that terrestrial mono-/stereo-photogrammetry can provide theoretical/practical fundamentals in data processing along with digital image processing techniques. Time-lapse images over periods in west Greenland indicate various phenomenon. Problematic is rain, snow, fog, shadows, freezing of water on camera enclosure window, image over-exposure, camera motion, sensor platform drift, and fox chewing of instrument cables, and the pecking of plastic window by ravens. Other problems include: feature identification, camera orientation, image registration, feature matching in image pairs, and feature tracking. Another obstacle is that non-metric digital camera contains large distortion to be compensated for precise photogrammetric use. Further, a massive number of images need to be processed in a way that is sufficiently computationally efficient. We meet these challenges by 1) identifying problems in possible photogrammetric processes, 2) categorizing them based on feasibility, and 3) clarifying limitation and alternatives, while emphasizing displacement computation and analyzing regional/temporal variability. We experiment with mono and stereo photogrammetric techniques in the aide of automatic correlation matching for efficiently handling the enormous

  6. Cytomegalovirus DNA quantification using an automated platform for nucleic acid extraction and real-time PCR assay setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Michael; Wilson, Andy; Valsamakis, Alexandra

    2011-07-01

    Analytical performance characteristics of the QIAsymphony RGQ system with artus cytomegalovirus (CMV) reagents were determined. Measurable range spanned 2.0 to ≥ 7.0 log(10) copies/ml. The detection limit was 23 copies/ml. Intrarun and interrun coefficients of variation were ≤ 2.1% at 3.0 and 5.0 log(10) copies/ml. In clinical specimens, RGQ values were ~0.2 log(10) copies/ml higher than those in an assay using a BioRobot M48 extraction/manual reaction setup/7500 Real-Time PCR instrument. No cross-contamination was observed.

  7. Development and evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii on the fully automated BD MAX platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalpke, Alexander H; Hofko, Marjeta; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised and AIDS patients. Detection by quantitative PCR is faster and more sensitive than microscopic diagnosis yet requires specific infrastructure. We adapted a real-time PCR amplifying the major surface glycoprotein (MSG) target from Pneumocystis jirovecii for use on the new BD MAX platform. The assay allowed fully automated DNA extraction and multiplex real-time PCR. The BD MAX assay was evaluated against manual DNA extraction and conventional real-time PCR. The BD MAX was used in the research mode running a multiplex PCR (MSG, internal control, and sample process control). The assay had a detection limit of 10 copies of an MSG-encoding plasmid per PCR that equated to 500 copies/ml in respiratory specimens. We observed accurate quantification of MSG targets over a 7- to 8-log range. Prealiquoting and sealing of the complete PCR reagents in conical tubes allowed easy and convenient handling of the BD MAX PCR. In a retrospective analysis of 54 positive samples, the BD MAX assay showed good quantitative correlation with the reference PCR method (R(2) = 0.82). Cross-contamination was not observed. Prospectively, 278 respiratory samples were analyzed by both molecular assays. The positivity rate overall was 18.3%. The BD MAX assay identified 46 positive samples, compared to 40 by the reference PCR. The BD MAX assay required liquefaction of highly viscous samples with dithiothreitol as the only manual step, thus offering advantages for timely availability of molecular-based detection assays.

  8. Myths in test automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmine Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myths in automation of software testing is an issue of discussion that echoes about the areas of service in validation of software industry. Probably, the first though that appears in knowledgeable reader would be Why this old topic again? What's New to discuss the matter? But, for the first time everyone agrees that undoubtedly automation testing today is not today what it used to be ten or fifteen years ago, because it has evolved in scope and magnitude. What began as a simple linear scripts for web applications today has a complex architecture and a hybrid framework to facilitate the implementation of testing applications developed with various platforms and technologies. Undoubtedly automation has advanced, but so did the myths associated with it. The change in perspective and knowledge of people on automation has altered the terrain. This article reflects the points of views and experience of the author in what has to do with the transformation of the original myths in new versions, and how they are derived; also provides his thoughts on the new generation of myths.

  9. Impact of diabetes on the benefits from everolimus-eluting stent as compared to first-generation drug-eluting stent in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luca, G. De; Sauro, R.; Capasso, M.; Lanzillo, T.; Manganelli, F.; Carbone, G.; Lanni, F.; Pagliuca, M.R.; Palmieri, V.; Serino, V.; Rosato, G.; Suryapranata, H.; Lorenzo, E. Di

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug-eluting stent has been shown to reduce the risk of repeated revascularization. However, as shown for first-generation drug-eluting stent, they may be counterbalanced by a potential higher risk of stent thrombosis, especially among ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients.

  10. Sequential injection analysis for automation of the Winkler methodology, with real-time SIMPLEX optimization and shipboard application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horstkotte, Burkhard; Tovar Sanchez, Antonio; Duarte, Carlos M. [Department of Global Change Research, IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB) Institut Mediterrani d' Estudis Avancats, Miquel Marques 21, 07190 Esporles (Spain); Cerda, Victor, E-mail: Victor.Cerda@uib.es [University of the Balearic Islands, Department of Chemistry Carreterra de Valldemossa km 7.5, 07011 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2010-01-25

    A multipurpose analyzer system based on sequential injection analysis (SIA) for the determination of dissolved oxygen (DO) in seawater is presented. Three operation modes were established and successfully applied onboard during a research cruise in the Southern ocean: 1st, in-line execution of the entire Winkler method including precipitation of manganese (II) hydroxide, fixation of DO, precipitate dissolution by confluent acidification, and spectrophotometric quantification of the generated iodine/tri-iodide (I{sub 2}/I{sub 3}{sup -}), 2nd, spectrophotometric quantification of I{sub 2}/I{sub 3}{sup -} in samples prepared according the classical Winkler protocol, and 3rd, accurate batch-wise titration of I{sub 2}/I{sub 3}{sup -} with thiosulfate using one syringe pump of the analyzer as automatic burette. In the first mode, the zone stacking principle was applied to achieve high dispersion of the reagent solutions in the sample zone. Spectrophotometric detection was done at the isobestic wavelength 466 nm of I{sub 2}/I{sub 3}{sup -}. Highly reduced consumption of reagents and sample compared to the classical Winkler protocol, linear response up to 16 mg L{sup -1} DO, and an injection frequency of 30 per hour were achieved. It is noteworthy that for the offline protocol, sample metering and quantification with a potentiometric titrator lasts in general over 5 min without counting sample fixation, incubation, and glassware cleaning. The modified SIMPLEX methodology was used for the simultaneous optimization of four volumetric and two chemical variables. Vertex calculation and consequent application including in-line preparation of one reagent was carried out in real-time using the software AutoAnalysis. The analytical system featured high signal stability, robustness, and a repeatability of 3% RSD (1st mode) and 0.8% (2nd mode) during shipboard application.

  11. WE-G-BRE-08: Radiosensitization by Olaparib Eluting Nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangutoori, S; Kumar, R; Sridhar, S [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States); Korideck, H; Makrigiorgos, G [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Cormack, R [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Permanent prostate brachytherapy often uses inert bio-absorbable spacers to achieve the desired geometric distribution of sources within the prostate. Transforming these spacers into implantable nanoplatforms for chemo-radiation therapy (INCeRT) provides a means of providing sustained in-situ release of radiosensitizers in the prostate to enhance the therapeutic ratio of the procedure. Olaparib, a PARP inhibitor, suppresses DNA repair processes present during low dose rate continuous irradiation. This work investigates the radiosensitizing/DNA damage repair inhibition by NanoOlaparib eluting nanospheres. Methods: Human cell line PC3 (from ATCC), was maintained in F12-k medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum. Clonogenic assay kit (from Fischer Scientific) was used to fix and stain the cells to determine the long term effects of irradiation. Nanoparticle size and zeta potential of nanospheres were determined using a Zeta particle size analyzer. The incorporation of Olaparib in nanospheres was evaluated by HPLC. Irradiation was performed in a small animal irradiator operating at 220 KeV.The long term effects of radio-sensitization with olaparib and nanoolaparib was determined using the clonogenic assay at 2 Gy and 4 Gy doses. The cells were allowed to grow for around 10 doubling cycles, The colonies were fixed and stained using clonogenic assay kit. The excess stain was washed off using DI water and the images were taken using a digital camera. Results: Radiosensitization studies were carried out in prostate cancer cell line, PC3 radiation at 0, 2 and 4Gy doses. Strongest dose response was observed with nanoolaparib treated cells compared to untreated cells. Conclusion: A two stage drug release of drug eluting nanospheres from a biodegradable spacer has been suggested for sustained in-situ release of Olaparib to suppress DNA repair processes during prostate brachytherapy. The Olaparib eluting nanospheres had the same in-vitro radiosensitizing effect as

  12. Quasi-experimental trial of diabetes Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support (SMARTSteps in a Medicaid managed care plan: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratanawongsa Neda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health information technology can enhance self-management and quality of life for patients with chronic disease and overcome healthcare barriers for patients with limited English proficiency. After a randomized controlled trial of a multilingual automated telephone self-management support program (ATSM improved patient-centered dimensions of diabetes care in safety net clinics, we collaborated with a nonprofit Medicaid managed care plan to translate research into practice, offering ATSM as a covered benefit and augmenting ATSM to promote medication activation. This paper describes the protocol of the Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support Project (SMARTSteps. Methods/Design This controlled quasi-experimental trial used a wait-list variant of a stepped wedge design to enroll 362 adult health plan members with diabetes who speak English, Cantonese, or Spanish and receive care at 4 publicly-funded clinics. Through language-stratified randomization, participants were assigned to four intervention statuses: SMARTSteps-ONLY, SMARTSteps-PLUS, or wait-list for either intervention. In addition to usual primary care, intervention participants received 27 weekly calls in their preferred language with rotating queries and response-triggered education about self-care, medication adherence, safety concerns, psychological issues, and preventive services. Health coaches from the health plan called patients with out-of-range responses for collaborative goal setting and action planning. SMARTSteps-PLUS also included health coach calls to promote medication activation, adherence and intensification, if triggered by ATSM-reported non-adherence, refill non-adherence from pharmacy claims, or suboptimal cardiometabolic indicators. Wait-list patients crossed-over to SMARTSteps-ONLY or -PLUS at 6 months. For participants who agreed to structured telephone interviews at baseline and 6 months (n = 252, primary outcomes will be

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Infrapopliteal Drug-Eluting Stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsanos, Konstantinos, E-mail: katsanos@med.upatras.gr; Karnabatidis, Dimitris; Diamantopoulos, Athanasios; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Siablis, Dimitris [Patras University Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology, School of Medicine (Greece)

    2013-02-15

    IntroductionThere are no cost-utility data about below-the-knee placement of drug-eluting stents. The authors determined the cost-effectiveness of infrapopliteal drug-eluting stents for critical limb ischemia (CLI) treatment. The event-free individual survival outcomes defined by the absence of any major events, including death, major amputation, and target limb repeat procedures, were reconstructed on the basis of two published infrapopliteal series. The first included spot Bail-out use of Sirolimus-eluting stents versus bare metal stents after suboptimal balloon angioplasty (Bail-out SES).The second was full-lesion Primary Everolimus-eluting stenting versus plain balloon angioplasty and bail-out bare metal stenting as necessary (primary EES). The number-needed-to-treat (NNT) to avoid one major event and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated for a 3-year postprocedural period for both strategies. Overall event-free survival was significantly improved in both strategies (hazard ratio (HR) [confidence interval (CI)]: 0.68 [0.41-1.12] in Bail-out SES and HR [CI]: 0.53 [0.29-0.99] in Primary EES). Event-free survival gain per patient was 0.89 (range, 0.11-3.0) years in Bail-out SES with an NNT of 4.6 (CI: 2.5-25.6) and a corresponding ICER of 6,518 Euro-Sign (range 1,685-10,112 Euro-Sign ). Survival gain was 0.91 (range 0.25-3.0) years in Primary EES with an NNT of 2.7 (CI: 1.7-5.8) and an ICER of 11,581 Euro-Sign (range, 4,945-21,428 Euro-Sign ) per event-free life-year gained. Two-way sensitivity analysis showed that stented lesion length >10 cm and/or DES list price >1000 Euro-Sign were associated with the least economically favorable scenario in both strategies. Both strategies of bail-out SES and primary EES placement in the infrapopliteal arteries for CLI treatment exhibit single-digit NNT and relatively low corresponding ICERs.

  14. Domestic coronary drug-eluting stents on a new horizon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Wei-feng

    2012-01-01

    Supported by growing evidence from randomized clinical trials and observational or registry studies,percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with implantation of drug-eluting stents (DES) has become the standard of care for coronary artery disease,because of reduced repeat intervention and improved clinical outcomes in comparison with bare metal stent.1-3Currently,majority of coronary artery disease patients with complicated lesion subsets or clinical conditions can be successfully treated with DES-based PCI with favorable results.4-6 In 2011,around 300000 PCI procedures have been performed in China,with the penetration rate of DES reaching beyond 90% in most of the centers.

  15. Percutaneous drug-eluting stent implantation in dextrocardia: case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi; ZHANG Rui-yan; HU Jian; SHEN Wei-feng

    2007-01-01

    @@ Although situs inversus with dextrocardia is a rare clinical phenomenon, the association with coronary artery disease(CAD) is at the same frequency as in the general population.1,2 Few cases of dextrocardia complicated with CAD was reported before. The feasibility and prognosis of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in such case still remains unclear because of the uncommon anatomical abnormality,especially in the drug-eluting stent (DES) era. Here we report a female case with dextrocardia and CAD was successfully treated by DES implantation.

  16. Biodegradable-Polymer Biolimus-Eluting Stents versus Durable-Polymer Everolimus-Eluting Stents at One-Year Follow-Up: A Registry-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Ehsan; Saroukhani, Sepideh; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Poorhosseini, Hamidreza; Lofti-Tokaldany, Masoumeh; Jalali, Arash; Salarifar, Mojtaba; Nematipour, Ebrahim; Alidoosti, Mohammad; Aghajani, Hassan; Amirzadegan, Alireza; Kassaian, Seyed Ebrahim

    2016-04-01

    We compared outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention patients who received biodegradable-polymer biolimus-eluting stents with those who received durable-polymer everolimus-eluting stents. At Tehran Heart Center, we performed a retrospective analysis of the data from January 2007 through December 2011 on 3,270 consecutive patients with coronary artery disease who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with the biodegradable-polymer biolimus-eluting stent or the durable-polymer everolimus-eluting stent. We excluded patients with histories of coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous coronary intervention, acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, or the implantation of 2 different stent types. Patients were monitored for 12 months. The primary endpoint was a major adverse cardiac event, defined as a composite of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and target-vessel and target-lesion revascularization. Durable-polymer everolimus-eluting stents were implanted in 2,648 (81%) and biodegradable-polymer biolimus-eluting stents in 622 (19%) of the study population. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups (2.7% vs 2.7%; P=0.984) in the incidence of major adverse cardiac events. The cumulative adjusted probability of major adverse cardiac events in the biodegradable-polymer biolimus-eluting stent group did not differ from that of such events in the durable-polymer everolimus-eluting stent group (hazard ratio=0.768; 95% confidence interval, 0.421-1.44; P=0.388). We conclude that in our patients the biodegradable-polymer biolimus-eluting stent was as effective and safe, during the 12-month follow-up period, as was the durable-polymer everolimus-eluting stent.

  17. Long-term effectiveness and safety of sirolimus drug-eluting stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikkina M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mahesh Bikkina, Jayanth KoneruSt Joseph Regional Medical Center, Paterson, Seton Hall University, NJ, USAAbstract: The root cause of coronary artery disease is atherosclerosis, ie, intraluminal narrowing (stenosis of the arteries that supply blood to tissues of the heart. The introduction of the drug-eluting stent over the past decade has revolutionized the field of interventional cardiology. It is used extensively in clinical practice for the treatment of coronary artery disease. The first drug-eluting stent to receive US Food and Drug Administration approval was the sirolimus-eluting stent. Recently, two other stent analogs of sirolimus were approved, ie, the zotarolimus-eluting stent and the everolimus-eluting stent. However, concern has arisen in recent years about the long-term safety and efficacy of drug-eluting stents, due to the occurrence of late adverse clinical events, such as stent thrombosis. This review focuses on clinical studies that have been performed with the sirolimus-eluting stent or its analogs. We discuss the pharmacology, safety, and various therapeutic options that exist when choosing stents for coronary artery disease. Our aim is to provide a thorough review of the long-term efficacy and safety of sirolimus drug-eluting stents, and also to discuss currently approved and promising investigational drug-eluting stents, in an effort to provide insight into how these stents are currently evolving and generate further investigation in this area.Keywords: drug-eluting stent, long-term safety, sirolimus 

  18. Safety and efficacy of limus-eluting stents and balloon angioplasty for sirolimus-eluting in-stent restenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Hideaki [Division of Interventional Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Mahmoudi, Michael [University of Surrey, Guildford Road, Surrey, GU2-7XH (United Kingdom); Kitabata, Hironori; Torguson, Rebecca; Chen, Fang; Satler, Lowell F.; Suddath, William O.; Pichard, Augusto D. [Division of Interventional Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Waksman, Ron, E-mail: ron.waksman@medstar.net [Division of Interventional Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of everolimus-eluting stent (EES), sirolimus-eluting stent (SES), and plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA) for the treatment of SES in-stent restenosis (S-ISR). Background: The optimal treatment for drug-eluting in-stent restenosis remains controversial. Methods: The study cohort comprised 310 consecutive patients (444 lesions) who presented with S-ISR to our institution and underwent treatment with EES (43 patients), SES (102), or POBA (165). The analyzed clinical parameters were the 1-year rates of death, Q-wave myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR), target vessel revascularization (TVR), definite stent thrombosis (ST) and major adverse cardiac event (MACE) defined as the composite of death, MI, or TLR at 1-year. Results: The three groups were well matched for the conventional risk factors for coronary artery disease except for smoking. The 1-year analyzed clinical parameters were similar in the three groups: MACE (EES = 14%, SES = 18%, POBA = 20%; p = 0.65), death (EES = 2.3%, SES = 6.2%, POBA = 6.1%; p = 0.61), MI (EES = 4.8%, SES = 2.1%, POBA = 2.5%; p = 0.69), TLR (EES = 11.9%, SES = 12.1%, POBA = 24%; p = 0.78), and TVR (EES = 11.9%, SES = 24.8%, POBA = 22.2%; p = 0.23). There were no cases of definite ST. MACE-free rate was significantly lower in patients with recurrent in-stent restenosis (log-rank p = 0.006). Presentation with acute MI, number of treated lesions and a previous history of MI were found to be independent predictors of MACE. Conclusions: In patients presenting with S-ISR, treatment with implantation of an EES, SES, or POBA is associated with similar clinical outcomes. Patients presenting with recurrent ISR may have a poorer clinical outcome.

  19. Outcome of overlapping heterogenous drug-eluting stents and of overlapping drug-eluting and bare metal stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzotta, Francesco; Siviglia, Massimo; Altamura, Luca; Trani, Carlo; Leone, Antonio Maria; Romagnoli, Enrico; Mazzari, Mario Attilio; Mongiardo, Rocco; Niccoli, Giampaolo; Brancati, Marta; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Rebuzzi, Antonio Giuseppe; Schiavoni, Giovanni; Crea, Filippo

    2007-02-01

    Overlapping homogenous drug-eluting stents (DESs) may be used instead of overlapping bare metal stents (BMSs) to treat coronary lesions longer than available stents. Yet, no data are available on patients treated with overlapping heterogenous DESs or DESs and BMSs. We prospectively assessed 9-month clinical outcome and 6-month angiographic late loss (evaluated at 5 different lesion segments) in a consecutive series of 40 patients who received overlapping homogenous DESs (sirolimus-eluting stent [SES] or paclitaxel-eluting stent [PES]), heterogenous DESs (SES + PES), or overlapping DESs and BMSs. In 8 patients (7 with angiographic follow-up) with overlapping heterogenous DESs, no angiographic or clinical adverse event was observed. Moreover, in-segment late loss was similar to that of patients who received homogenous DESs. In 8 patients (7 with angiographic follow-up) with overlapping DESs and BMSs, there was a higher incidence of major adverse events (3 repeat percutaneous coronary interventions and 1 death, 50% adverse event rate) and worse in-segment binary restenosis rate compared with patients treated with homogenous or heterogenous DESs (p = 0.02 and 0.012, respectively). Late lumen loss at the site of stent overlap showed significant differences according to type of overlapped stent (1.00 +/- 0.76 mm in DES-BMS overlap, 0.32 +/- 0.55 mm in PES-PES overlap, 0.13 +/- 0.11 in SES-PES overlap, and 0.08 +/- 0.10 mm in SES-SES overlap, p = 0.005). In conclusion, the present study suggests that overlap of DESs and BMSs should be avoided because the antirestenotic effect of DESs is skewed by contiguous BMS implantation. Overlap between SESs and PESs in this very preliminary report was associated with no specific adverse event.

  20. Drug- and Gene-eluting Stents for Preventing Coronary Restenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekshmi, Kamali Manickavasagam; Che, Hui-Lian; Cho, Chong-Su

    2017-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) has been reported to be a major cause of death worldwide. Current treatment methods include atherectomy, coronary angioplasty (as a percutaneous coronary intervention), and coronary artery bypass. Among them, the insertion of stents into the coronary artery is one of the commonly used methods for CAD, although the formation of in-stent restenosis (ISR) is a major drawback, demanding improvement in stent technology. Stents can be improved using the delivery of DNA, siRNA, and miRNA rather than anti-inflammatory/anti-thrombotic drugs. In particular, genes that could interfere with the development of plaque around infected regions are conjugated on the stent surface to inhibit neointimal formation. Despite their potential benefits, it is necessary to explore the various properties of gene-eluting stents. Furthermore, multifunctional electronic stents that can be used as a biosensor and deliver drug- or gene-based on physiological condition will be a very promising way to the successful treatment of ISR. In this review, we have discussed the molecular mechanism of restenosis, the use of drug- and gene-eluting stents, and the possible roles that these stents have in the prevention and treatment of coronary restenosis. Further, we have explained how multifunctional electronic stents could be used as a biosensor and deliver drugs based on physiological conditions. PMID:28184335

  1. Repeated exposure of male mice to low doses of lipopolysaccharide: dose and time dependent development of behavioral sensitization and tolerance in an automated light-dark anxiety test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasikowski, Tomek J; Cloutier, Caylen J; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter; Kavaliers, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Although lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is widely used to examine immune behavior relationships there has been little consideration of the effects of low doses and the roles of sensitization and, or tolerance. Here low doses of LPS (1.0, 5.0 and 25.0 μg/kg) were peripherally administered to male mice on Days 1, 4, 28 and 32 after a baseline recording of anxiety-like behaviors in an automated light-dark apparatus (total time in the light chamber, number of light-dark transitions, nose pokes into the light chamber). LPS at 1.0 μg/kg, while having no significant effects on anxiety-like behaviors in the light-dark test on Days 1 and 4, displayed sensitization with the mice exhibiting significantly enhanced anxiety-like responses on Days 28 and 32. LPS at 5.0 μg/kg had no consistent significant effects on anxiety-like behavior on Days 1 and 4, with sensitization and enhanced anxiety-like behaviors on Day 28 followed by tolerance on Day 32. LPS at 25 μg/kg significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors on Day 1, followed by tolerance on Day 4, which was not evident by Day 28 and re-emerged on Day 32. There was a similar overall pattern of sensitization and tolerance for LPS-induced decreases in locomotor activity in the safe dark chamber, without, however, any significant effects on activity in the riskier light chamber. This shows that low doses of LPS induce anxiety-like behavior and these effects are subject to sensitization and tolerance in a dose, context, and time related manner.

  2. Automated simulation and evaluation of autostereoscopic multiview 3D display designs by time-sequential and wavelength-selective filter barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmey, Mathias; Jurk, Silvio; Duckstein, Bernd; de la Barré, René

    2015-09-01

    A novel simulation tool has been developed for spatial multiplexed 3D displays. Main purpose of our software is the 3D display design with optical image splitter in particular lenticular grids or wavelength-selective barriers. As a result of interaction of image splitter with ray emitting displays a spatial light-modulator generating the autostereoscopic image representation was modeled. Based on the simulation model the interaction of optoelectronic devices with the defined spatial planes is described. Time-sequential multiplexing enables increasing the resolution of such 3D displays. On that reason the program was extended with an intermediate data cumulating component. The simulation program represents a stepwise quasi-static functionality and control of the arrangement. It calculates and renders the whole display ray emission and luminance distribution on viewing distance. The degree of result complexity will increase by using wavelength-selective barriers. Visible images at the viewer's eye positon were determined by simulation after every switching operation of optical image splitter. The summation and evaluation of the resulting data is processed in correspondence to the equivalent time sequence. Hereby the simulation was expanded by a complex algorithm for automated search and validation of possible solutions in the multi-dimensional parameter space. For the multiview 3D display design a combination of ray-tracing and 3D rendering was used. Therefore the emitted light intensity distribution of each subpixel will be evaluated by researching in terms of color, luminance and visible area by using different content distribution on subpixel plane. The analysis of the accumulated data will deliver different solutions distinguished by standards of evaluation.

  3. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  4. Automation 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Zieliński, Cezary; Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    This book consists of papers presented at Automation 2017, an international conference held in Warsaw from March 15 to 17, 2017. It discusses research findings associated with the concepts behind INDUSTRY 4.0, with a focus on offering a better understanding of and promoting participation in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Each chapter presents a detailed analysis of a specific technical problem, in most cases followed by a numerical analysis, simulation and description of the results of implementing the solution in a real-world context. The theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines presented are valuable for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and practitioners looking for solutions to industrial problems. .

  5. Marketing automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODOR Raluca Dania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the technical progress, the marketing fragmentation, demand for customized products and services on one side and the need to achieve constructive dialogue with the customers, immediate and flexible response and the necessity to measure the investments and the results on the other side, the classical marketing approached had changed continue to improve substantially.

  6. Intimal hyperplasia and vascular remodeling after everolimus-eluting and sirolimus-eluting stent implantation in diabetic patients the randomized diabetes and drug-eluting stent (DiabeDES) IV intravascular ultrasound trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Lisbeth; Maeng, Michael; Thayssen, Per;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the everolimus-eluting Xience™/Promus™ stent (EES) and the sirolimus-eluting Cypher™ stent (SES) on intimal hyperplasia (IH) in diabetic patients. BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes mellitus have increased risk of in-stent restenosis after coronary stent...... implantation due to intimal hyperplasia (IH). METHODS: In a sub study of the Randomized Comparison of Everolimus-Eluting and Sirolimus-Eluting Stents in Patients Treated with Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (SORT OUT IV trial), serial intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) 10-month follow-up data were available...... in 88 patients, including 48 EES and 40 SES treated patients. IVUS endpoints included IH volume, in-stent % volume obstruction and changes in external elastic membrane (EEM) volume. RESULTS: Compared with the SES group, IH volume was increased in the EES group [median (interquartile range): 2.8 mm(3) (0...

  7. Improved time window based conflict-free automated guided vehicle system routing%基于改进时间窗的AGVs避碰路径规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔岩; 钱晓明; 楼佩煌

    2012-01-01

    针对柔性制造系统中的自动导引车在动态不稳定环境下不能按照时间窗规划好的既定路径运行的问题,提出通过实时改变自动导引车通过节点的优先级,调整相应节点的自动导引车的通过顺序来更新自动导引车运行路径,对时间窗算法进行改进,从而实现多自动导引车动态环境下的路径规划。以含有8台自动导引车的淋雨线系统为应用案例进行仿真实验,对改进前的时间窗算法和改进后的时间窗算法进行对比,说明了算法的实现过程。通过仿真证明了该算法能减少冲突数目,有效实现多自动导引车避碰,具有更好的鲁棒性和柔性,同时能够提高系统效率。%In flexible manufacturing system, Automated Guided Vehicles(AGV)could not operate in planned routes of time window under dynamic uncertain environment. Aiming at this problem, the updating AGV operating pass was proposed by changing the priority of AGV passing through the nodes and adjusting the passing sequences of corresponding nodes. Meanwhile, time-window algorithm was improved to realize multiple AGV route planning in dynamic environment. In simulation experiment, rain line system with eight AGV was used to compare the unimproved time-window algorithm with the improved time-window algorithm, and the realization process of the algorithms was illustrated. Through the simulation, the proposed algorithm was proved to have better robustness and flexibility, and could reduce the number of conflicts, realize conflict-free effectively and improve system efficiency.

  8. Long-term effectiveness and safety of sirolimus drug-eluting stents

    OpenAIRE

    Bikkina, Mahesh; Koneru, Jayanth

    2011-01-01

    The root cause of coronary artery disease is atherosclerosis, ie, intraluminal narrowing (stenosis) of the arteries that supply blood to tissues of the heart. The introduction of the drug-eluting stent over the past decade has revolutionized the field of interventional cardiology. It is used extensively in clinical practice for the treatment of coronary artery disease. The first drug-eluting stent to receive US Food and Drug Administration approval was the sirolimus-eluting stent. Recently, t...

  9. Building Automation Using Wired Communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Supriya Gund*,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a building automation system where communication technology LAN has been used. This paper mainly focuses on the controlling of home appliances remotely and providing security when the user is away from the place. This system provides ideal solution to the problems faced by home owners in daily life. This system provides security against intrusion as well as automates various home appliances using LAN. To demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system, the device such as fire sensor, gas sensor, panic switch, intruder switch along with the smartcard have been developed and evaluated with the building automation system. These techniques are successfully merged in a single building automation system. This system offers a complete, low cost powerful and user friendly way of real-time monitoring and remote control of a building.

  10. Evolution of Home Automation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Rihan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern society home and office automation has becomeincreasingly important, providing ways to interconnectvarious home appliances. This interconnection results infaster transfer of information within home/offices leading tobetter home management and improved user experience.Home Automation, in essence, is a technology thatintegrates various electrical systems of a home to provideenhanced comfort and security. Users are grantedconvenient and complete control over all the electrical homeappliances and they are relieved from the tasks thatpreviously required manual control. This paper tracks thedevelopment of home automation technology over the lasttwo decades. Various home automation technologies havebeen explained briefly, giving a chronological account of theevolution of one of the most talked about technologies ofrecent times.

  11. Experimental characterization of the transport phenomena, adsorption, and elution in a protein A affinity monolithic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herigstad, M Omon; Dimartino, Simone; Boi, Cristiana; Sarti, Giulio C

    2015-08-14

    A commercially available convective interaction media (CIM) Protein A monolithic column was fully characterized in view of its application for the affinity capture of IgG in monoclonal antibody production processes. By means of moment analysis, the interstitial porosity and axial dispersion coefficient were determined. The frontal analysis method of characteristic points was employed, for the first time with monolithic media, to determine the dynamic binding capacity. The effects of the flow rate and pH on the total recovery of polyclonal IgG and elution profile were evaluated. A comparison with literature data for Protein A chromatography beads demonstrate the superior bed utilization of monolithic media, which gave better performance at lower residence times.

  12. Long-term effectiveness and safety of sirolimus drug-eluting stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikkina, Mahesh; Koneru, Jayanth

    2011-01-01

    The root cause of coronary artery disease is atherosclerosis, ie, intraluminal narrowing (stenosis) of the arteries that supply blood to tissues of the heart. The introduction of the drug-eluting stent over the past decade has revolutionized the field of interventional cardiology. It is used extensively in clinical practice for the treatment of coronary artery disease. The first drug-eluting stent to receive US Food and Drug Administration approval was the sirolimus-eluting stent. Recently, two other stent analogs of sirolimus were approved, ie, the zotarolimus-eluting stent and the everolimus-eluting stent. However, concern has arisen in recent years about the long-term safety and efficacy of drug-eluting stents, due to the occurrence of late adverse clinical events, such as stent thrombosis. This review focuses on clinical studies that have been performed with the sirolimus-eluting stent or its analogs. We discuss the pharmacology, safety, and various therapeutic options that exist when choosing stents for coronary artery disease. Our aim is to provide a thorough review of the long-term efficacy and safety of sirolimus drug-eluting stents, and also to discuss currently approved and promising investigational drug-eluting stents, in an effort to provide insight into how these stents are currently evolving and generate further investigation in this area. PMID:22915938

  13. Fast Gradient Elution Reversed-Phase HPLC with Diode-Array Detection as a High Throughput Screening Method for Drugs of Abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter W. Carr; K.M. Fuller; D.R. Stoll; L.D. Steinkraus; M.S. Pasha; Glenn G. Hardin

    2005-12-30

    A new approach has been developed by modifying a conventional gradient elution liquid chromatograph for the high throughput screening of biological samples to detect the presence of regulated intoxicants. The goal of this work was to improve the speed of a gradient elution screening method over current approaches by optimizing the operational parameters of both the column and the instrument without compromising the reproducibility of the retention times, which are the basis for the identification. Most importantly, the novel instrument configuration substantially reduces the time needed to re-equilibrate the column between gradient runs, thereby reducing the total time for each analysis. The total analysis time for each gradient elution run is only 2.8 minutes, including 0.3 minutes for column reequilibration between analyses. Retention times standard calibration solutes are reproducible to better than 0.002 minutes in consecutive runs. A corrected retention index was adopted to account for day-to-day and column-to-column variations in retention time. The discriminating power and mean list length were calculated for a library of 47 intoxicants and compared with previous work from other laboratories to evaluate fast gradient elution HPLC as a screening tool.

  14. Are drug-eluting stents the future of SFA treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosiers, M; Deloose, K; Keirse, K; Verbist, J; Peeters, P

    2010-02-01

    Drug-eluting stent (DES) technology was developed to prevent early thrombosis and late luminal loss to potentially improve long-term patency rates. Although favorable DES results have recently become available with the Zilver PTX and STRIDES studies, the high price of DES is a major drawback for this technology to become the golden standard for peripheral endovascular therapy in de novo femoro-popliteal (FP) lesions. Nevertheless, DES has the potential to make the difference and to establish itself as an important treatment option in patients presenting with TASC C&D FP lesions who are at high-risk for surgery and for the treatment of in-stent restenosis, where until now, no valuable treatment option has proven to be beneficial.

  15. Drug-eluting stents to prevent stent thrombosis and restenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eui; Hong, Myeong-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Although first-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) have significantly reduced the risk of in-stent restenosis, they have also increased the long-term risk of stent thrombosis. This safety concern directly triggered the development of new generation DES, with innovations in stent platforms, polymers, and anti-proliferative drugs. Stent platform materials have evolved from stainless steel to cobalt or platinum-chromium alloys with an improved strut design. Drug-carrying polymers have become biocompatible or biodegradable and even polymer-free DES were introduced. New limus-family drugs (such as everolimus, zotarolimus or biolimus) were adopted to enhance stent performances. As a result, these new DES demonstrated superior vascular healing responses on intracoronary imaging studies and lower stent thrombotic events in actual patients. Recently, fully-bioresorbable stents (scaffolds) have been introduced, and expanding their applications. In this article, the important concepts and clinical results of new generation DES and bioresorbable scaffolds are described.

  16. An Overview of Moonlight Applications Test Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appasami Govindasamy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days web applications are developed by new technologies like Moonlight, Silverlight, JAVAFX, FLEX, etc. Silverlight is Microsoft's cross platform runtime and development technology for running Web-based multimedia applications in windows platform. Moonlight is an open-source implementation of the Silverlight development platform for Linux and other Unix/X11-based operating systems. It is a new technology in .Net 4.0 to develop rich interactive and attractive platform independent web applications. User Interface Test Automation is very essential for Software industries to reduce test time, cost and man power. Moonlight is new .NET technology to develop rich interactive Internet applications with the collaboration of Novel Corporation. Testing these kinds of applications are not so easy to test, especially the User interface test automation is very difficult. Software test automation has the capability to decrease the overall cost of testing and improve software quality, but most testing organizations have not been able to achieve the full potential of test automation. Many groups that implement test automation programs run into a number of common pitfalls. These problems can lead to test automation plans being completely scrapped, with the tools purchased for test automation becoming expensive. Often teams continue their automation effort, burdened with huge costs in maintaining large suites of automated test scripts. This paper will first discuss some of the key benefits of software test automation, and then examine the most common techniques used to implement software test automation of Moonlight Applications Test Automation. It will then discuss test automation and their potential. Finally, it will do test automation.

  17. In vivo Evaluation of Cenderitide-Eluting Stent (CES) II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yingying; Ng, Xu Wen; Lim, Soon Ghim; Chen, Horng Haur; Burnett, John C; Boey, Yin Chiang Freddy; Venkatraman, Subbu S

    2016-02-01

    The use of drug-eluting coronary stents has led to significant reduction in in-stent restenosis (ISR), but led to delayed endothelialization, necessitating the prolonged use of expensive anti-thrombotic drugs with their side-effects. Cenderitide (CD-NP) is a novel anti-proliferative chimeric peptide of semi-endothelial origin. Our previous work in vitro has demonstrated; that the smooth muscle cells were inhibited significantly more than endothelial cells which is the desirable feature of an anti-restenosis drug. This work reports the effects of implantation of a centeritide-eluting stent (CES) on ISR and endothelialization in an in vivo model. CESs were produced by coating bare metallic stents with CD-NP entrapped in biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone) using an ultrasonic spray coater. A total of 32 stents were successfully implanted into 16 pigs, and all animal survived for 28 days. The plasma levels of CD-NP were significantly higher in the CES group than in the control group (bare metal stents and polymer-coated stent) at post-stenting, indicating the successful release of CD-NP from the stent in vivo. Furthermore, SEM analysis results showed the greater endothelial coverage of the stent struts, as well as between the struts in CES group. Moreover, histological results showed mild inflammation, and low fibrin score at 28 days. However, plasma cGMP (second messenger, cyclic 3',5' guanosine monophosphate) does not show a significant difference, and the CES is also unable to show significant difference in terms on neointimal area and stenosis, in comparison to BMS at 28 days.

  18. Development of Absorbable, Antibiotic-Eluting Sutures for Ophthalmic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwabuchi, Fabiana; Parikh, Kunal S.; Omiadze, Revaz; Zhang, Shuming; Luo, Lixia; Patel, Himatkumar V.; Xu, Qingguo; Ensign, Laura M.; Mao, Hai-Quan; Hanes, Justin; McDonnell, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop and evaluate an antibiotic-eluting suture for ophthalmic surgery. Methods Wet electrospinning was used to manufacture sutures composed of poly(L-lactide), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and levofloxacin. Size, morphology, and mechanical strength were evaluated via scanning electron microscopy and tensile strength, respectively. In vitro drug release was quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. In vitro suture activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis was investigated through bacterial inhibition studies. Biocompatibility was determined via histological analysis of tissue sections surrounding sutures implanted into Sprague-Dawley rat corneas. Results Sutures manufactured via wet electrospinning were 45.1 ± 7.7 μm in diameter and 0.099 ± 0.007 newtons (N) in breaking strength. The antibiotic release profile demonstrated a burst followed by sustained release for greater than 60 days. Increasing PEG in the polymer formulation, from 1% to 4% by weight, improved drug release without negatively affecting tensile strength. Sutures maintained a bacterial zone of inhibition for at least 1 week in vitro and elicited an in vivo tissue reaction comparable to a nylon suture. Conclusions There is a need for local, postoperative delivery of antibiotics following ophthalmic procedures. Wet electrospinning provides a suitable platform for the development of sutures that meet size requirements for ophthalmic surgery and are capable of sustained drug release; however, tensile strength must be improved prior to clinical use. Translational Relevance No antibiotic-eluting suture exists for ophthalmic surgery. A biocompatible, high strength suture capable of sustained antibiotic release could prevent ocular infection and preclude compliance issues with topical eye drops. PMID:28083445

  19. Operator versus computer control of adaptive automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Brian; Molloy, Robert; Wong, Dick; Parasuraman, Raja

    1993-01-01

    Adaptive automation refers to real-time allocation of functions between the human operator and automated subsystems. The article reports the results of a series of experiments whose aim is to examine the effects of adaptive automation on operator performance during multi-task flight simulation, and to provide an empirical basis for evaluations of different forms of adaptive logic. The combined results of these studies suggest several things. First, it appears that either excessively long, or excessively short, adaptation cycles can limit the effectiveness of adaptive automation in enhancing operator performance of both primary flight and monitoring tasks. Second, occasional brief reversions to manual control can counter some of the monitoring inefficiency typically associated with long cycle automation, and further, that benefits of such reversions can be sustained for some time after return to automated control. Third, no evidence was found that the benefits of such reversions depend on the adaptive logic by which long-cycle adaptive switches are triggered.

  20. Outcome of everolimus eluting bioabsorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) compared to non BVS drug eluting stent in the management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) — A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Rabin; Patra, Soumya, E-mail: dr_soumyapatra@rediffmail.com; Banerjee, Suvro; Pande, Arindam; Khan, Aftab; Mandol, Prakash Chandra; Ghosh, Debashish; De, Swapan Kumar; Das, Sankha Subhro; Nag, Raja

    2016-04-15

    Background: The safety and efficacy of everolimus eluting bioabsorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) in the management of “ST” segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are yet to be established. Aims: To evaluate immediate and short term safety and efficacy of the everolimus-eluting ABSORB BVS compared with non BVS drug eluting stent (DES) in patients with STEMI. Methods: From December 2013 to December 2014, 220 patients with STEMI were included in this study. Among them, 35 patients treated with BVS were compared with a control group composed of 180 patients who underwent non BVS DES implantation in the same time period. The incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE: stent thrombosis: death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or target vessel/lesion revascularization) before discharge and up to six months was evaluated. Results: 1 vessel disease was more frequent whereas, 2 and 3 vessel disease was less frequent in BVS group. Procedural characteristics were also similar between groups, except for the use of post dilation (p = 0.04). Procedural success, in-hospital, and up to six-month MACE rates were similar between both groups. Definite or probable stent thrombosis did not occur (according to the ARC criteria) in BVS patients, though two patients during the index admission and another two patients in the first month after DES implantation had stent thrombosis. Conclusion: The use of the ABSORB BVS for STEMI is feasible and associated with good procedural safety, and angiographic success rate.

  1. AUTOMATED API TESTING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNIL L. BANGARE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. With the help of software testing we can verify or validate the software product. Normally testing will be done after development of software but we can perform the software testing at the time of development process also. This paper will give you a brief introduction about Automated API Testing Tool. This tool of testing will reduce lots of headache after the whole development of software. It saves time as well as money. Such type of testing is helpful in the Industries & Colleges also.

  2. Real-time automated measurement of Xenopus leavis tadpole behavior and behavioral response following triphenyltin exposure using the multispecies freshwater biomonitor (MFB)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schriks, M.; Hoorn, van M.K.; Faassen, E.J.; Dam, van J.W.; Murk, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines whether behavior of Xenopus laevis tadpoles, when measured with the multispecies freshwater biomonitor (MFB), can be a sensitive and practical parameter for quantification of behavioral effects induced by toxic compounds. The MFB system is capable of automated simultaneous

  3. Automated screening versus manual screening: a comparison of the ThinPrep imaging system and manual screening in a time study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schledermann, Doris; Hyldebrandt, Tina; Ejersbo, Dorthe;

    2007-01-01

    The ThinPrep Imaging System (TIS) is an automated system that assists cytotechnologists in the primary screening of ThinPrep liquid based cervical samples. Between June 1, 2004, and April 1, 2005, four experienced cytotechnologists participated in the study in which the duration of the screening ...

  4. Automation in biological crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patrick Shaw; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given.

  5. Automation in biological crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw Stewart, Patrick; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given. PMID:24915074

  6. A randomized, prospective, two-center comparison of sirolimus-eluting stent and zotarolimus-eluting stent in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: The SEZE trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woo-Young Chung; Sang-Hyun Kim; In-Ho Chae; Joo-Hee Zo; Myung-A Kim; Dong-Ju Choi; Jeehoon Kang; Young-Seok Cho; Hae-Jun Park; Han-Mo Yang; Jae-Bin Seo; Jung-Won Suh; Kwang-Il Kim; Tae-Jin Youn

    2012-01-01

    Background The zotarolimus-eluting stent has shown larger in-stent late lumen loss compared to sirolimus-eluting stents in previous studies.However,this has not been thoroughly evaluated in ST elevation myocardial infarction.Methods This was a prospective,randomized,controlled trial evaluating angiographic outcomes in patients presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarction,treated with zotarolimus-eluting stents or sirolimus-eluting stents.From March 2007 to February 2009,122 patients were randomized to zotarolimus-eluting stents or sirolimus-eluting stents in a 1:1 fashion.The primary endpoint was 9-month in-stent late lumen loss confirmed by coronary angiography,and secondary endpoints were percent diameter stenosis,binary restenosis rate,major adverse cardiac events (a composite of cardiac death,non-fatal myocardial infarction,and target vessel revascularization),and late-acquired incomplete stent apposition.Results Angiographic in-stent late lumen loss was significantly higher in the zotarolimus-eluting stent group compared to the sirolimus-eluting stent group ((0.49±0.65) mm vs.(0.10±0.46) mm,P=0.001).Percent diameter stenosis at 9-month follow-up was also larger in the zotarolimus-eluting stent group ((30.0±17.9)% vs.(17.6±14.0)%,P <0.001).In-segment analysis showed similar findings.There were no significant differences in binary restenosis rate,major adverse cardiac events,and late-acquired incomplete stent apposition.Conclusions Compared to sirolimus-eluting stents,the zotarolimus-eluting stent is associated with significantly higher in-stent late lumen loss at 9-month angiographic follow-up in the treatment of ST elevation myocardial infarction.Although there was no significant difference in 1-year clinical outcomes,the clinical implication of increased late lumen loss should be further studied.

  7. Determinants of protein elution rates from preparative ion-exchange adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, James M; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2016-04-01

    The rate processes involved in elution in preparative chromatography can affect both peak resolution and hence selectivity as well as practical factors such as facility fit. These processes depend on the physical structure of the adsorbent particles, the amount of bound solute, the solution conditions for operation or some combination of these factors. Ion-exchange adsorbents modified with covalently attached or grafted polymer layers have become widely used in preparative chromatography. Their often easily accessible microstructures offer substantial binding capacities for biomolecules, but elution has sometimes been observed to be undesirably slow. In order to determine which physicochemical phenomena control elution behavior, commercially available cellulosic, dextran-grafted and unmodified agarose materials were characterized here by their elution profiles at various conditions, including different degrees of loading. Elution data were analyzed under the assumption of purely diffusion-limited control, including the role of pore structure properties such as porosity and tortuosity. In general, effective elution rates decreased with the reduction of accessible pore volume, but differences among different proteins indicated the roles of additional factors. Additional measurements and analysis, including the use of confocal laser scanning microscopy to observe elution within single chromatographic particles, indicated the importance of protein association within the particle during elution. The use of protein stabilizing agents was explored in systems presenting atypical elution behavior, and l-arginine and disaccharide excipients were shown to alleviate the effects for one protein, lysozyme, in the presence of sodium chloride. Incorporation of these excipients into eluent buffer gave rise to faster elution and significantly lower pool volumes in elution from polymer-modified adsorbents.

  8. Novel algorithm and MATLAB-based program for automated power law analysis of single particle, time-dependent mean-square displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umansky, Moti; Weihs, Daphne

    2012-08-01

    parameters and quality of fit are provided. After all single trajectory time-averaged MSDs are fit, we obtain cutoffs from the user to categorize and segment the power laws into groups; cutoff are either in exponents of the power laws, time of appearance of the fits, or both together. The trajectories are sorted according to the cutoffs and the time- and ensemble-averaged MSD of each group is provided, with histograms of the distributions of the exponents in each group. The program then allows the user to generate new trajectory files with trajectories segmented according to the determined groups, for any further required analysis. Additional comments: README file giving the names and a brief description of all the files that make-up the package and clear instructions on the installation and execution of the program is included in the distribution package. Running time: On an i5 Windows 7 machine with 4 GB RAM the automated parts of the run (excluding data loading and user input) take less than 45 minutes to analyze and save all stages for an 844 trajectory file, including optional PDF save. Trajectory length did not affect run time (tested up to 3600 frames/trajectory), which was on average 3.2±0.4 seconds per trajectory.

  9. Randomized clinical trial comparing abluminal biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents with durable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Xiangfei; Deng, Wei; Wang, Shenguo; Ge, Junbo; Toft, Egon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The biodegradable polymer drug-eluting stents (DES) were developed to improve vascular healing. However, further data and longer-term follow-up are needed to confirm safety and efficacy of these stents. This randomized clinical trial aimed to compare safety and efficacy of 2 sirolimus-eluting stents (SES): Cordimax—a novel abluminal biodegradable polymer SES and Cypher Select—a durable polymer SES, at 9 months angiographic and 5-year clinical follow-up. Methods: We randomized 402 patients with coronary artery disease to percutaneous coronary intervention with Cordimax (n = 202) or Cypher select (n = 200). Angiographic follow-up was performed at 9 months after the index procedure and clinical follow-up annually up to 5 years. The primary endpoint was angiographic in-stent late luminal loss (LLL). Secondary endpoints included angiographic restenosis rate, target vessel revascularization (TVR), and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs; defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or TVR) at 5-year follow-up. Results: Cordimax was noninferior to Cypher select for in-stent LLL (0.25 ± 0.47 vs 0.18 ± 0.49 mm; P = 0.587) and in-stent mean diameter stenosis (22.19 ± 12.21% vs 19.89 ± 10.79%; P = 0.064) at 9 months angiographic follow-up. The MACE rates were not different at 1 year (5.9% vs 4.0%, P = 0.376); however, MACE rates from 2 to 5 years were lower in the Cordimax group (6.8% vs 13.1%; P = 0.039). Conclusion: Abluminal biodegradable polymer SES is noninferior to durable polymer SES at 9-month angiographic and 1-year clinical follow-up. However, MACE rates from 2 to 5 years were less in the abluminal biodegradable polymer group. PMID:27661023

  10. Nobori-Biolimus-Eluting Stents versus Resolute Zotarolimus-Eluting Stents in Patients Undergoing Coronary Intervention: A Propensity Score Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawy, Ayman; Ahn, Chul-Min; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Jung-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yangsoo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare the 1-year outcomes of a durable polymer Zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES) versus a biodegradable polymer Biolimus-eluting stent (BES) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Materials and Methods A total of 2083 patients from 2 different registries, 1125 treated with BES in NOBORI registry and 858 received ZES in CONSTANT registry were included in this study. Clinical outcomes were compared with the use of propensity score matching (PSM). The primary endpoint was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, clinically driven target lesion revascularization and stroke. Secondary end points were individual components of MACCEs as well as the incidence of stent thrombosis at 1-year follow-up. Results After PSM, 699 matched pairs of patients (n=1398) showed no significant difference between BES and ZES in the risk of composite MACCEs at 1 year (2.6% vs. 1.7%; p=0.36). Cardiac death was not statistically different between groups (0.7% vs. 0.4%, p=0.73). Target lesion revascularization rate was also similar between BES and ZES (1.1% vs. 0.7%, p=0.579). Non-Q wave myocardial infarction, as well as target-vessel revascularization rate, was similar between the two groups (0.14% for BES and 0.72% for ZES). Both stent types were excellent with no cases of stent thrombosis and rate of Q wave myocardial infarction reported during the follow-up period. Conclusion In this cohort of patients treated with BES or ZES, the rate of MACCEs at 1 year was low and significantly not different between both groups. PMID:28120558

  11. Automated Aflatoxin Analysis Using Inline Reusable Immunoaffinity Column Cleanup and LC-Fluorescence Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhemrev, Ria; Pazdanska, Monika; Marley, Elaine; Biselli, Scarlett; Staiger, Simone

    2015-01-01

    A novel reusable immunoaffinity cartridge containing monoclonal antibodies to aflatoxins coupled to a pressure resistant polymer has been developed. The cartridge is used in conjunction with a handling system inline to LC with fluorescence detection to provide fully automated aflatoxin analysis for routine monitoring of a variety of food matrixes. The handling system selects an immunoaffinity cartridge from a tray and automatically applies the sample extract. The cartridge is washed, then aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 are eluted and transferred inline to the LC system for quantitative analysis using fluorescence detection with postcolumn derivatization using a KOBRA® cell. Each immunoaffinity cartridge can be used up to 15 times without loss in performance, offering increased sample throughput and reduced costs compared to conventional manual sample preparation and cleanup. The system was validated in two independent laboratories using samples of peanuts and maize spiked at 2, 8, and 40 μg/kg total aflatoxins, and paprika, nutmeg, and dried figs spiked at 5, 20, and 100 μg/kg total aflatoxins. Recoveries exceeded 80% for both aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxins. The between-day repeatability ranged from 2.1 to 9.6% for aflatoxin B1 for the six levels and five matrixes. Satisfactory Z-scores were obtained with this automated system when used for participation in proficiency testing (FAPAS®) for samples of chilli powder and hazelnut paste containing aflatoxins.

  12. Drug release kinetics from a drug-eluting stent with asymmetrical coat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Haijun; Li, Xiaodong; Deng, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the drug release profiles of biodegradable polymer sirolimus- or paclitaxel-eluting stents with asymmetrical coating (BPSES-A or BPPES-A) both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the drug release profile was characterized by measuring the drug concentration...... by HPLC over a time-course. In vivo, a porcine aorta stenting model was employed. The results showed that the drug release rates of BPSES-A and BPPES-A were slower, more stable and less burst releasing than those of conventionally coated stents (BPSES-C and BPPES-C respectively), both in vitro and in vivo...... demonstrated the effectiveness of both sirolimus and paclitaxel as stent coating agents, and revealed the favorable drug release kinetics and pharmacokinetics of asymmetrical coated stents compared with conventional coated stents....

  13. Silica xerogel-chitosan nano-hybrids for use as drug eluting bone replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Jun, Shin-Hee; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Kim, Hae-Won; Koh, Young-Hag; Jang, Jun-Hyeog

    2010-01-01

    Silica xerogel-chitosan hybrids containing vancomycin were fabricated by the sol-gel process at room temperature and their potential as a drug eluting bone replacement was evaluated in terms of their mechanical properties and drug release behaviors. Regardless of the content of chitosan, all of the prepared hybrids had a uniform mesoporous structure, which would allow the effectual loading of vancomycin. As the content of chitosan was increased, the strength, strain to failure, and work of fracture of the hybrids were significantly enhanced, while the elastic modulus was decreased. These changes in the mechanical properties were mainly attributed to the mitigation of the brittleness of the silica xerogel through its hybridization with the flexible chitosan phase. In addition, the initial burst-effect was remarkably reduced by increasing the content of chitosan. The hybrids with more than 30% chitosan could release the vancomycin for an extended period of time in a controlled manner.

  14. A system for accurate and automated injection of hyperpolarized substrate with minimal dead time and scalable volumes over a large range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Steven; Bucur, Adriana; Port, Michael; Alizadeh, Tooba; Kazan, Samira M.; Tozer, Gillian M.; Paley, Martyn N. J.

    2014-02-01

    Over recent years hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization has become an established technique for studying metabolism in vivo in animal models. Temporal signal plots obtained from the injected metabolite and daughter products, e.g. pyruvate and lactate, can be fitted to compartmental models to estimate kinetic rate constants. Modeling and physiological parameter estimation can be made more robust by consistent and reproducible injections through automation. An injection system previously developed by us was limited in the injectable volume to between 0.6 and 2.4 ml and injection was delayed due to a required syringe filling step. An improved MR-compatible injector system has been developed that measures the pH of injected substrate, uses flow control to reduce dead volume within the injection cannula and can be operated over a larger volume range. The delay time to injection has been minimized by removing the syringe filling step by use of a peristaltic pump. For 100 μl to 10.000 ml, the volume range typically used for mice to rabbits, the average delivered volume was 97.8% of the demand volume. The standard deviation of delivered volumes was 7 μl for 100 μl and 20 μl for 10.000 ml demand volumes (mean S.D. was 9 ul in this range). In three repeat injections through a fixed 0.96 mm O.D. tube the coefficient of variation for the area under the curve was 2%. For in vivo injections of hyperpolarized pyruvate in tumor-bearing rats, signal was first detected in the input femoral vein cannula at 3-4 s post-injection trigger signal and at 9-12 s in tumor tissue. The pH of the injected pyruvate was 7.1 ± 0.3 (mean ± S.D., n = 10). For small injection volumes, e.g. less than 100 μl, the internal diameter of the tubing contained within the peristaltic pump could be reduced to improve accuracy. Larger injection volumes are limited only by the size of the receiving vessel connected to the pump.

  15. A system for accurate and automated injection of hyperpolarized substrate with minimal dead time and scalable volumes over a large range☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Steven; Bucur, Adriana; Port, Michael; Alizadeh, Tooba; Kazan, Samira M.; Tozer, Gillian M.; Paley, Martyn N.J.

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization has become an established technique for studying metabolism in vivo in animal models. Temporal signal plots obtained from the injected metabolite and daughter products, e.g. pyruvate and lactate, can be fitted to compartmental models to estimate kinetic rate constants. Modeling and physiological parameter estimation can be made more robust by consistent and reproducible injections through automation. An injection system previously developed by us was limited in the injectable volume to between 0.6 and 2.4 ml and injection was delayed due to a required syringe filling step. An improved MR-compatible injector system has been developed that measures the pH of injected substrate, uses flow control to reduce dead volume within the injection cannula and can be operated over a larger volume range. The delay time to injection has been minimized by removing the syringe filling step by use of a peristaltic pump. For 100 μl to 10.000 ml, the volume range typically used for mice to rabbits, the average delivered volume was 97.8% of the demand volume. The standard deviation of delivered volumes was 7 μl for 100 μl and 20 μl for 10.000 ml demand volumes (mean S.D. was 9 ul in this range). In three repeat injections through a fixed 0.96 mm O.D. tube the coefficient of variation for the area under the curve was 2%. For in vivo injections of hyperpolarized pyruvate in tumor-bearing rats, signal was first detected in the input femoral vein cannula at 3–4 s post-injection trigger signal and at 9–12 s in tumor tissue. The pH of the injected pyruvate was 7.1 ± 0.3 (mean ± S.D., n = 10). For small injection volumes, e.g. less than 100 μl, the internal diameter of the tubing contained within the peristaltic pump could be reduced to improve accuracy. Larger injection volumes are limited only by the size of the receiving vessel connected to the pump. PMID:24355621

  16. A prospective, randomized evaluation of a novel everolimus-eluting coronary stent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stone, Gregg W; Teirstein, Paul S; Meredith, Ian T

    2011-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the clinical outcomes with a novel platinum chromium everolimus-eluting stent (PtCr-EES) compared with a predicate cobalt chromium everolimus-eluting stent (CoCr-EES) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)....

  17. An Anatomy of Automation Business Opportunity in China in Times of High Wages: Taiwanese Businessmen Invested in China as a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Mei Tai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s “The Twelfth Five-Year Plan” sets a tone to turn China “from a strong nation to a nation with wealthy people” in its national development policy.  This policy is expected to increase hiring cost to foreign investors in China and indirectly creates potential business opportunities for automation.  This research surveys a score of Taiwanese businessmen in China and finds their primary motivation for investing in China is to gain access to labor force.  A majority of Taiwanese factories have longer working hours. Their needs for automation are mainly in quality control and testing, information system, and material handling and storage.

  18. [Automated anesthesia record system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Liu, Jin

    2005-12-01

    Based on Client/Server architecture, a software of automated anesthesia record system running under Windows operation system and networks has been developed and programmed with Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0, Visual Basic 6.0 and SQL Server. The system can deal with patient's information throughout the anesthesia. It can collect and integrate the data from several kinds of medical equipment such as monitor, infusion pump and anesthesia machine automatically and real-time. After that, the system presents the anesthesia sheets automatically. The record system makes the anesthesia record more accurate and integral and can raise the anesthesiologist's working efficiency.

  19. Manufacturing and automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Córdoba Nieto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents concepts and definitions from different sources concerning automation. The work approaches automation by virtue of the author’s experience in manufacturing production; why and how automation prolects are embarked upon is considered. Technological reflection regarding the progressive advances or stages of automation in the production area is stressed. Coriat and Freyssenet’s thoughts about and approaches to the problem of automation and its current state are taken and examined, especially that referring to the problem’s relationship with reconciling the level of automation with the flexibility and productivity demanded by competitive, worldwide manufacturing.

  20. Perspective on Automation: Three Talks to Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Robert; And Others

    These papers take the view that automation impinges upon our socio-psychological as well as economic existence and we must take drastic measures to survive. Robert Theobald, presenting evidence that automation brings job displacement, suggests that we face the choice of trying to insure enough jobs, or of taking advantage of the new free time to…

  1. Degree of Conversion and BisGMA, TEGDMA, UDMA Elution from Flowable Bulk Fill Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempel, Edina; Czibulya, Zsuzsanna; Kovács, Bálint; Szalma, József; Tóth, Ákos; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor; Varga, Zoltán; Böddi, Katalin

    2016-05-20

    The degree of conversion (DC) and the released bisphenol A diglycidyl ether dimethacrylate (BisGMA), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) monomers of bulk-fill composites compared to that of conventional flowable ones were assessed using micro-Raman spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Four millimeter-thick samples were prepared from SureFil SDR Flow (SDR), X-tra Base (XB), Filtek Bulk Fill (FBF) and two and four millimeter samples from Filtek Ultimate Flow (FUF). They were measured with micro-Raman spectroscopy to determine the DC% of the top and the bottom surfaces. The amount of released monomers in 75% ethanol extraction media was measured with HPLC. The differences between the top and bottom DC% were significant for each material. The mean DC values were in the following order for the bottom surfaces: SDR_4mm_20s > FUF_2mm_20s > XB_4mm_20s > FBF_4mm_20s > XB_4mm_10s > FBF_4mm_10s > FUF_4mm_20s. The highest rate in the amount of released BisGMA and TEGDMA was found from the 4 mm-thick conventional flowable FUF. Among bulk-fills, FBF showed a twenty times higher amount of eluted UDMA and twice more BisGMA; meanwhile, SDR released a significantly higher amount of TEGDMA. SDR bulk-fill showed significantly higher DC%; meanwhile XB, FBF did not reach the same level DC, as that of the 2 mm-thick conventional composite at the bottom surface. Conventional flowable composites showed a higher rate of monomer elution compared to the bulk-fills, except FBF, which showed a high amount of UDMA release.

  2. Ketoprofen-eluting biodegradable ureteral stents by CO2 impregnation: In vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Alexandre A; Oliveira, Carlos; Reis, Rui L; Lima, Estevão; Duarte, Ana Rita C

    2015-11-30

    Ureteral stents are indispensable tools in urologic practice. The main complications associated with ureteral stents are dislocation, infection, pain and encrustation. Biodegradable ureteral stents are one of the most attractive designs with the potential to eliminate several complications associated with the stenting procedure. In this work we hypothesize the impregnation of ketoprofen, by CO2-impregnation in a patented biodegradable ureteral stent previously developed in our group. The biodegradable ureteral stents with each formulation: alginate-based, gellan gum-based were impregnated with ketoprofen and the impregnation conditions tested were 100 bar, 2 h and three different temperatures (35 °C, 40 °C and 50 °C). The impregnation was confirmed by FTIR and DSC demonstrated the amorphization of the drug upon impregnation. The in vitro elution profile in artificial urine solution (AUS) during degradation of a biodegradable ureteral stent loaded with ketoprofen was evaluated. According to the kinetics results these systems have shown to be very promising for the release ketoprofen in the first 72 h, which is the necessary time for anti-inflammatory delivery after the surgical procedure. The in vitro release studied revealed an influence of the temperature on the impregnation yield, with a higher impregnation yield at 40 °C. Higher yields were also obtained for gellan gum-based stents. The non-cytotoxicity characteristic of the developed ketoprofen-eluting biodegradable ureteral stents was evaluated in L929 cell line by MTS assay which demonstrated the feasibility of this product as a medical device.

  3. Effects of fluid flow on elution of hydrophilic modifier from dialysis membrane surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Masato; Sato, Mika; Sakata, Hiroki; Ogawa, Takahisa; Yamamoto, Ken-ichiro; Yakushiji, Taiji; Fukuda, Makoto; Miyasaka, Takehiro; Sakai, Kiyotaka

    2008-01-01

    When uremic blood flows through dialyzers during hemodialysis, dialysis membrane surfaces are exposed to shear stress and internal filtration, which may affect the surface characteristics of the dialysis membranes. In the present study, we evaluated changes in the characteristics of membrane surfaces caused by shear stress and internal filtration using blood substitutes: water purified by reverse osmosis and 6.7 wt% dextran70 solution. We focused on the levels of a hydrophilic modifier, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), on the membrane surface measured by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Experiments involving 4 h dialysis, 0-144 h shear-stress loading, and 4 h dead-end filtration were performed using polyester-polymer alloy (PEPA) and polysulfone (PS) membranes. After the dialysis experiments with accompanying internal filtration, average PVP retention on the PEPA membrane surface was 93.7% in all areas, whereas that on the PS membrane surface was 98.9% in all areas. After the shear-stress loading experiments, PVP retention on the PEPA membrane surface decreased as shear-stress loading time and the magnitude of shear stress increased. However, with the PS membrane, PVP retention scarcely changed. After the dead-end filtration experiments, PVP retention decreased in all areas for both PEPA and PS membranes, but PVP retention on the PEPA membrane surface was lower than that on the PS membrane surface. PVP on the PEPA membrane surface was eluted by both shear stress and internal filtration, while that on the PS membrane surface was eluted only by internal filtration.

  4. Role of minerals properties on leaching process of weathered crust elution-deposited rare earth ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖燕飞; 刘向生; 冯宗玉; 黄小卫; 黄莉; 陈迎迎; 吴文远

    2015-01-01

    Granite belonged to intrusive rock and volcanic was extrusive rock. There may be many differences in their degree of weathering and mineral chemical composition. The present study investigated the minerals properties and the leaching mechanism of the granitic weathered crust elution-deposited rare earth ore from Longnan Rare Earth Mine area (LN ores) and volcanic weathered crust elution-deposited rare earth ore from Liutang Rare Earth Mine area (LT ores). The X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to characterize the phase of rare earth ores. The particle size distributions and main composition of the ore were also presented in this paper. The leaching mechanisms of two kinds of rare earth ores were analyzed with different kinetics models and could be described by the shrinking-core model. They were all inner diffusion-controlled leaching processes. The leaching equation of the kinetics of the LN ores could be expressed as:4 LN LN 1.096 10 2/3 0.377 8.314 0 2 3=0.1061 (1 ) Tr e tη η×−−− − −, leaching equation of kinetics of LT ores was 3 LT LT 4.640 10 2/3 0.411 8.314 0 32 3=8.33 101 (1 ) Tr e tη η×−− −×− − −. The rare earth leaching rate of LT ores was always lower in the same condition, and it would need more time and more (NH4)2SO4 consump-tion to achieve the same rare earth leaching efficiency, which would lead to more serious ammonia-nitrogen pollution. Therefore, magnesium salt was proposed as the leaching agent to eliminate ammonia-nitrogen pollution and further studies would be taken in the future.

  5. Degree of Conversion and BisGMA, TEGDMA, UDMA Elution from Flowable Bulk Fill Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempel, Edina; Czibulya, Zsuzsanna; Kovács, Bálint; Szalma, József; Tóth, Ákos; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor; Varga, Zoltán; Böddi, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    The degree of conversion (DC) and the released bisphenol A diglycidyl ether dimethacrylate (BisGMA), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) monomers of bulk-fill composites compared to that of conventional flowable ones were assessed using micro-Raman spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Four millimeter-thick samples were prepared from SureFil SDR Flow (SDR), X-tra Base (XB), Filtek Bulk Fill (FBF) and two and four millimeter samples from Filtek Ultimate Flow (FUF). They were measured with micro-Raman spectroscopy to determine the DC% of the top and the bottom surfaces. The amount of released monomers in 75% ethanol extraction media was measured with HPLC. The differences between the top and bottom DC% were significant for each material. The mean DC values were in the following order for the bottom surfaces: SDR_4mm_20s > FUF_2mm_20s > XB_4mm_20s > FBF_4mm_20s > XB_4mm_10s > FBF_4mm_10s > FUF_4mm_20s. The highest rate in the amount of released BisGMA and TEGDMA was found from the 4 mm-thick conventional flowable FUF. Among bulk-fills, FBF showed a twenty times higher amount of eluted UDMA and twice more BisGMA; meanwhile, SDR released a significantly higher amount of TEGDMA. SDR bulk-fill showed significantly higher DC%; meanwhile XB, FBF did not reach the same level DC, as that of the 2 mm-thick conventional composite at the bottom surface. Conventional flowable composites showed a higher rate of monomer elution compared to the bulk-fills, except FBF, which showed a high amount of UDMA release. PMID:27213361

  6. Degree of Conversion and BisGMA, TEGDMA, UDMA Elution from Flowable Bulk Fill Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Lempel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The degree of conversion (DC and the released bisphenol A diglycidyl ether dimethacrylate (BisGMA, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA and urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA monomers of bulk-fill composites compared to that of conventional flowable ones were assessed using micro-Raman spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Four millimeter-thick samples were prepared from SureFil SDR Flow (SDR, X-tra Base (XB, Filtek Bulk Fill (FBF and two and four millimeter samples from Filtek Ultimate Flow (FUF. They were measured with micro-Raman spectroscopy to determine the DC% of the top and the bottom surfaces. The amount of released monomers in 75% ethanol extraction media was measured with HPLC. The differences between the top and bottom DC% were significant for each material. The mean DC values were in the following order for the bottom surfaces: SDR_4mm_20s > FUF_2mm_20s > XB_4mm_20s > FBF_4mm_20s > XB_4mm_10s > FBF_4mm_10s > FUF_4mm_20s. The highest rate in the amount of released BisGMA and TEGDMA was found from the 4 mm-thick conventional flowable FUF. Among bulk-fills, FBF showed a twenty times higher amount of eluted UDMA and twice more BisGMA; meanwhile, SDR released a significantly higher amount of TEGDMA. SDR bulk-fill showed significantly higher DC%; meanwhile XB, FBF did not reach the same level DC, as that of the 2 mm-thick conventional composite at the bottom surface. Conventional flowable composites showed a higher rate of monomer elution compared to the bulk-fills, except FBF, which showed a high amount of UDMA release.

  7. Drug-eluting Stents - Grundlagen, Indikationen und klinische Ergebnisse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt AM

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Wiederverengung eines Koronargefäßes nach zunächst erfolgreicher Ballondilatation (Restenose ist ein häufiges, bislang unzureichend gelöstes Problem der interventionellen Kardiologie mit bedeutenden gesundheitsökonomischen Auswirkungen. Die sogenannten drug-eluting Stents (DES stellen diesbezüglich ein erfolgversprechendes Therapiekonzept dar: Solche meist mit einer Polymermatrix überzogenen endovaskulären Prothesen setzen nach ihrer Implantation Substanzen frei, die bekannte Mechanismen der Restenoseentstehung - zelluläre Proliferation, Migration, Inflammation und Zellteilung - hemmen und somit einer Wiederverengung des Interventionsbereiches entgegenwirken. Mit Taxol und seinen Derivaten sowie mit dem Immunsuppressivum Rapamycin (Sirolimus und Analoga stehen heute bereits zwei Substanzgruppen zur Auswahl, deren Nutzen hinsichtlich angiographischer Restenoserate und klinischem Verlauf für ausgewählte Indikationen im Rahmen kontrollierter klinischer Studien nachgewiesen werden konnte. Weitere, z. T. bereits laufende Studien werden zeigen, welcher Stellenwert dieser erfolgversprechenden neuen Technologie tatsächlich zukommt und ob die therapeutischen Vorteile der DES - angesichts limitierter finanzieller Ressourcen - ihren höheren Preis rechtfertigen.

  8. Leaching hydrodynamics of weathered elution-deposited rare earth ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Both porosity (φ) and permeability (k) of the weathered elution-deposited rare earth ores are basic hydrodynamic parameters for RE leaching. The relationship between k and φ of two typical rare earth ores of South China in the packed bed was investigated by measuring the flow (Q) under various leaching pressure difference (Δp). The experimental results show that the relationship between k and φ is unique, moreover the relationship between Q and Δp is in accord with the Darcy's law. The effects of the type of ores, the leaching reagents and its concentration, the granule ore size on the leaching permeability have also been investigated. It is demonstrated that kH (for heavy RE ore, kH=35.98 mm2)>kM-H (for middle-heavy RE ore,kM-H=28.50 mm2), whereas k(NH4NO3)>k(NH4Cl)>k[(NH4)2SO4], and the k value increases with increasing leaching reagents concentration and granule ore size(k0.60~0.75 mm=99.96 mm2,k0.125~0.60 mm=11.83 mm2, k0.074~0.125 mm=0.84 mm2).

  9. Recent developments in drug-eluting coronary stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Yildiz, Banu Sahin; Gursoy, Mustafa Ozan; Akin, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The interventional treatment of coronary artery disease was introduced in 1970`s by Andreas Grüntzig. The initial treatment strategy with plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA) was associated with high restenosis rates. The introduction of coronary stents, especially drug-eluting stents (DES) in 2002 has improved the results by lowering the rate of in-stent restenosis from 20-40% in the era of bare-metal stent (BMS) to 6-8%. However, in 2006 with the observation of late stent thrombosis the reputations of DES have decreased. However, improvements in stent design especially antiproliferative agents, polymeric agents as well as stent platforms improved newer generation DES. In controlled trials as well as registries the use of second-generation DES as compared to bare-metal stents (BMS) was associated with better clinical and angiographic results. A further development of these stents with use of biodegradable polymers, polymer-free stents, and biodegradable stents on the basis of poly L-lactide (PLLA) or magnesium resulted in third-generation DES and has been evaluated in preclinical and first clinical trials. However, to date, there is a lack of data comparing these third-generation DES with first- and second-generatrion DES in a large scale.

  10. Evaluating misoprostol content in pregnant women with hourly oral administration during labor induction by microElution solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Cheng-Han; Cheng, Shi-Yann; Chan, Tzu-Min; Lee, Maw-Rong

    2015-09-01

    Misoprostol is a widely used alternative of prostaglandin for labor induction. Based on previous studies, we envision that small and frequent oral dosage of misoprostol is an effective method for labor induction. To monitor the misoprostol content during labor induction, a rapid, sensitive, and selective microElution solid phase extraction (μElution SPE) combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. Using μElution SPE could minimize the sample consumption and elution volume in order to maximize the sample enrichment and throughput. The misoprostol acid, a metabolite of misoprostol, was gradient separated in a Bidentate C18 column, then quantified by highly-selective reaction monitoring (H-SRM) in a total run time of 6min. The developed method was optimized and validated in human plasma, and showed linear range of 0.01-10ng/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.001ng/mL. The recovery ranged from 89.0 to 96.0%, and no significant matrix effect or carryover was observed. The precision, accuracy and stability were met with the criteria of U.S. FDA guidance. The developed method was successfully applied to evaluate misoprostol concentration during labor induction in pregnant women. The concentration-time profiles approves that hourly oral administration of misoprostol is a safe and effective method without drug accumulation for labor induction.

  11. An automated swimming respirometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    STEFFENSEN, JF; JOHANSEN, K; BUSHNELL, PG

    1984-01-01

    An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks.......An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks....

  12. Configuration Management Automation (CMA) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Configuration Management Automation (CMA) will provide an automated, integrated enterprise solution to support CM of FAA NAS and Non-NAS assets and investments. CMA...

  13. Autonomy and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2017-01-01

    A significant level of debate and confusion has surrounded the meaning of the terms autonomy and automation. Automation is a multi-dimensional concept, and we propose that Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) automation should be described with reference to the specific system and task that has been automated, the context in which the automation functions, and other relevant dimensions. In this paper, we present definitions of automation, pilot in the loop, pilot on the loop and pilot out of the loop. We further propose that in future, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) RPAS Panel avoids the use of the terms autonomy and autonomous when referring to automated systems on board RPA. Work Group 7 proposes to develop, in consultation with other workgroups, a taxonomy of Levels of Automation for RPAS.

  14. Five-year outcomes of chronic total occlusion treatment with a biolimus A9-eluting biodegradable polymer stent versus a sirolimus-eluting permanent polymer stent in the LEADERS all-comers trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ghione (Matteo); J.J. Wykrzykowska (Joanna); S. Windecker (Stephan); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); P.E. Buszman (Pawel); A. Linke (Axel); H.Y. Sohn (Hae Y); R. Corti (Roberto); M.L. Antoni (Louisa); W. Wijns (William); Estevez-Loureiro, R. (Rodrigo); M-C. Morice (Marie-Claude); G.A. van Es (Gerrit Anne); R.J.M. van Geuns (Robert Jan); P. Jùni (Peter); P. Eerdmans (Pedro); T. de Vries (Ton); Konik, S. (Stéphanie); C. di Mario (Carlo)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Few data are available on long-term follow-up of drug-eluting stents in the treatment of chronic total occlusion (CTO). The LEADERS CTO sub-study compared the long-term results in CTO and non-CTO lesions of a Biolimus A9™-eluting stent (BES) with a sirolimus-eluting stent (SE

  15. Finite Automation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This self-paced narrated tutorial covers the following about Finite Automata: Uses, Examples, Alphabet, strings, concatenation, powers of an alphabet, Languages (automata and formal languages), Deterministic finite automata (DFA) SW4600 Automata, Formal Specification and Run-time Verification

  16. Automating quantum experiment control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kelly E.; Amini, Jason M.; Doret, S. Charles; Mohler, Greg; Volin, Curtis; Harter, Alexa W.

    2017-03-01

    The field of quantum information processing is rapidly advancing. As the control of quantum systems approaches the level needed for useful computation, the physical hardware underlying the quantum systems is becoming increasingly complex. It is already becoming impractical to manually code control for the larger hardware implementations. In this chapter, we will employ an approach to the problem of system control that parallels compiler design for a classical computer. We will start with a candidate quantum computing technology, the surface electrode ion trap, and build a system instruction language which can be generated from a simple machine-independent programming language via compilation. We incorporate compile time generation of ion routing that separates the algorithm description from the physical geometry of the hardware. Extending this approach to automatic routing at run time allows for automated initialization of qubit number and placement and additionally allows for automated recovery after catastrophic events such as qubit loss. To show that these systems can handle real hardware, we present a simple demonstration system that routes two ions around a multi-zone ion trap and handles ion loss and ion placement. While we will mainly use examples from transport-based ion trap quantum computing, many of the issues and solutions are applicable to other architectures.

  17. Agile Data: Automating database refactorings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an automated approach to database change management throughout the companies’ development workflow. By using automated tools, companies can avoid common issues related to manual database deployments. This work was motivated by analyzing usual problems within organizations, mostly originated from manual interventions that may result in systems disruptions and production incidents. In addition to practices of continuous integration and continuous delivery, the current paper describes a case study in which a suggested pipeline is implemented in order to reduce the deployment times and decrease incidents due to ineffective data controlling.

  18. Automation of Space Inventory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Ngo, Phong; Wagner, Raymond; Barton, Richard; Gifford, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the utilization of automated space-based inventory management through handheld RFID readers and BioNet Middleware. The contents include: 1) Space-Based INventory Management; 2) Real-Time RFID Location and Tracking; 3) Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) RFID; and 4) BioNet Middleware.

  19. Workflow automation architecture standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  20. Flexible automation and the loss of pooling synergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, Jannes; Zee, Durk-Jouke van der

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effects of flexible automation on the performance of a job shop. Flexible automated machines may significantly improve the delivery performance and the flow time of jobs. The insertion of a flexible automated system in a job shop, however, also has a counter effect on the m

  1. Elution strategies for reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of sucrose alkanoate regioisomers with charged aerosol detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Aleksander; Pedersen, Lars Haastrup

    2013-01-01

    , isocratic elutions with increased flow, and gradient elutions with step-down profiles and step-up profiles were performed and the chromatographic parameters of the different elution strategies were described by suitable variables. Based on peak resolutions general resolution deviation for multiple peaks...

  2. Effects of sirolimus-eluting stent on calcified coronary lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-jun; WU Yong-jian; YUAN Jin-qing; CHEN Jue; YOU Shi-jie; DAI Jun; XIA Ran; GAO Run-lin; XU Bo; YANG Yue-jin; CHEN Ji-lin; QIAO Shu-bing; MA Wei-hua; QIN Xue-wen; YAO Min; LIU Hai-bo

    2008-01-01

    Background Calcified coronary lesions carry the risk of suboptimal stent expansion, subsequently leading to restenosis. The effectiveness of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) for the treatment of calcified lesion has not been fully investigated. In the present study, therefore, we evaluated the effectiveness of SES Implantation for the treatment of calcified coronary lesions.Mothods A total of 333 consecutive patients with 453 lesions were enrolled in this study. They were divided into two groups according to whether the lesion treated with SES was calcified or not; no calcification group (n=264) and calcification group (n=189). Lesions treated with SES were subjected to quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) immediately and 8 months following stenting.Results Baseline clinical, demographic or angiographic characteristics were well balanced in both groups. Angiographic follow-up at 8 months, the in-stent restenosis and in-segment restenosis rates were not significantly different between the two groups; in-stent restenosis: 3.8% vs 4.2%; P=0.081; in-segment restenosis: 8.7% vs 10.6%, P=0.503. The target lesion revascularization (TLR) was also not significantly different between the two groups; 4.9% vs 6.9%, P=0.378. In addition, the in-stent late loss was similar in both groups; (0.16±0.40) mm vs (0.17±0.33) mm, P>0.05. Meantime, overall thrombosis rates were also similar in both groups; 1.6% vs 1.6%, P>0.05.Conclusion Although calcified coronary lesion was hard to stent, successful percutaneous coronary intervention with SES stenting for calcified lesions was conferred by the similar favorable results that were seen when comparing non-calcified and calcified coronary lesions.

  3. Purification of Pseudomonas sp. Lipase by Continuous Elution Electrophoresis Based on Pb2+ Precipitation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hua-li; WANG Zhi; LIU Bin; WANG Xue-li; CAO Shu-gui; LI Zheng-qiang

    2005-01-01

    A Pb2+ precipitation method was designed to get rid of the impure proteins in a lipase. The results show that it was a simple way in the primary treatment of the crude samples and about 20% impure proteins were removed in the precipitation step. Further, continuous elution electrophoresis was also applied as a preparative technique for attaining the highly pure lipase. During the continuous elution electrophoresis, the enzyme was eluted as a single peak and 5.7-fold purification was achieved in a yield of 54.3%. The two steps finally yielded an electrophoretically homogeneous enzyme.

  4. Drug-eluting stents and acute myocardial infarction:A lethal combination or friends?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuji; Otsuki; Manel; Sabaté

    2014-01-01

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the preferred reperfusion strategy for patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction(STEMI). First generation drug-eluting stents(DES),(sirolimus drug-eluting stents and paclitaxel drug-eluting stents), reduce the risk of restenosis and target vessel revascularization compared to bare metal stents. However, stent thrombosis emerged as a major safety concern with first generation DES. In response to these safety issues, second generation DES were developed with different drugs, improved stent platforms and more biocompatible durable or bioabsorbable polymeric coating. This article presents an overview of safety and efficacy of the first and second generation DES in STEMI.

  5. Gradient elution in counter-current chromatography: a new layout for an old path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Svetlana; Sumner, Neil; Colclough, Nicola; Sutherland, Ian

    2011-09-09

    Gradient elution in CCC is a powerful tool, which needs further systematic development to become robust and easy to use. The first attempt to build a correlation between gradient elution profile and distribution ratio (K(D)) values for model mixtures containing typical representatives of pharmaceutical compounds is presented in this paper. The three step estimation of the solvent system composition of a heptane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (HEMWat) series is described. The estimation is based on simple measurements of initial and final stationary phase retention for gradient elution run, calculating gradient distribution ratio and correlating it with static K(D) against HEMWat number.

  6. Automated sample preparation for radiogenic and non-traditional metal isotope analysis by MC-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, M. P.; Romaniello, S. J.; Gordon, G. W.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    High throughput analysis is becoming increasingly important for many applications of radiogenic and non-traditional metal isotopes. While MC-ICP-MS instruments offer the potential for very high sample throughout, the requirement for labor-intensive sample preparation and purification procedures remains a substantial bottleneck. Current purification protocols require manually feeding gravity-driven separation columns, a process that is both costly and time consuming. This bottleneck is eliminated with the prepFAST-MC™, an automated, low-pressure ion exchange chromatography system that can process from 1 to 60 samples in unattended operation. The syringe-driven system allows sample loading, multiple acid washes, column conditioning and elution cycles necessary to isolate elements of interest and automatically collect up to 3 discrete eluent fractions at user-defined intervals (time, volume and flow rate). Newly developed protocols for automated purification of uranium illustrates high throughput (>30 per run), multiple samples processed per column (>30), complete (>99%) matrix removal, high recovery (> 98%, n=25), and excellent precision (2 sigma =0.03 permil, n=10). The prepFAST-MC™ maximizes sample throughput and minimizes costs associated with personnel and consumables providing an opportunity to greatly expand research horizons in fields where large isotopic data sets are required, including archeology, geochemistry, and climate/environmental science

  7. Cooperative Control and Active Interfaces for Vehicle Assitsance and Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Flemisch, Frank; Kelsch, Johann; Löper, Christan; Schieben, Anna; Schindler, Julian; Heesen, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Enabled by scientific, technological and societal progress, and pulled by human demands, more and more aspects of our life can be assisted or automated by technical artefacts. One example is the transportation domain, where in the sky commercial aircraft are flying highly automated most of the times and where on the roads a gradual revolution takes place towards assisted, highly automated or even fully automated cars and trucks. Automobiles and mobility are changing gradually t...

  8. Flexible automation and the loss of pooling synergy

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effects of flexible automation on the performance of a job shop. Flexible automated machines may significantly improve the delivery performance and the flow time of jobs. The insertion of a flexible automated system in a job shop, however, also has a counter effect on the manufacturing performance. This is caused by the reduction of pooling synergy due to the dedication implied by flexible automated machines. This paper investigates by means of a simulation study to ...

  9. Zotarolimus-eluting durable-polymer-coated stent versus a biolimus-eluting biodegradable-polymer-coated stent in unselected patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (SORT OUT VI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raungaard, Bent; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Tilsted, Hans-Henrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New-generation drug-eluting coronary stents have reduced the risk of coronary events, especially in patients with complex disease or lesions. To what extent different stent platforms, polymers, and antiproliferative drugs affect outcomes, however, is unclear. We investigated the safety...... and efficacy of a third-generation stent by comparing a highly biocompatible durable-polymer-coated zotarolimus-eluting stent with a biodegradable-polymer-coated biolimus-eluting stent. METHODS: This open-label, randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority trial was done at three sites across western Denmark. All...... patients who presented with stable coronary artery disease or acute coronary syndromes and at least one coronary artery lesion (more than 50% stenosis) from March, 2011, to August, 2012, were assessed for eligibility. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either the durable-polymer...

  10. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  11. Method and Apparatus for Automated Isolation of Nucleic Acids from Small Cell Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Shivshankar; Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar; Pant, Kapil; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    RNA isolation is a ubiquitous need, driven by current emphasis on microarrays and miniaturization. With commercial systems requiring 100,000 to 1,000,000 cells for successful isolation, there is a growing need for a small-footprint, easy-to-use device that can harvest nucleic acids from much smaller cell samples (1,000 to 10,000 cells). The process of extraction of RNA from cell cultures is a complex, multi-step one, and requires timed, asynchronous operations with multiple reagents/buffers. An added complexity is the fragility of RNA (subject to degradation) and its reactivity to surface. A novel, microfluidics-based, integrated cartridge has been developed that can fully automate the complex process of RNA isolation (lyse, capture, and elute RNA) from small cell culture samples. On-cartridge cell lysis is achieved using either reagents or high-strength electric fields made possible by the miniaturized format. Traditionally, silica-based, porous-membrane formats have been used for RNA capture, requiring slow perfusion for effective capture. In this design, high efficiency capture/elution are achieved using a microsphere-based "microfluidized" format. Electrokinetic phenomena are harnessed to actively mix microspheres with the cell lysate and capture/elution buffer, providing important advantages in extraction efficiency, processing time, and operational flexibility. Successful RNA isolation was demonstrated using both suspension (HL-60) and adherent (BHK-21) cells. Novel features associated with this development are twofold. First, novel designs that execute needed processes with improved speed and efficiency were developed. These primarily encompass electric-field-driven lysis of cells. The configurations include electrode-containing constructs, or an "electrode-less" chip design, which is easy to fabricate and mitigates fouling at the electrode surface; and the "fluidized" extraction format based on electrokinetically assisted mixing and contacting of microbeads

  12. Centrifugal LabTube platform for fully automated DNA purification and LAMP amplification based on an integrated, low-cost heating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehl, Melanie M; Weißert, Michael; Dannenberg, Arne; Nesch, Thomas; Paust, Nils; von Stetten, Felix; Zengerle, Roland; Slocum, Alexander H; Steigert, Juergen

    2014-06-01

    This paper introduces a disposable battery-driven heating system for loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) inside a centrifugally-driven DNA purification platform (LabTube). We demonstrate LabTube-based fully automated DNA purification of as low as 100 cell-equivalents of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in water, milk and apple juice in a laboratory centrifuge, followed by integrated and automated LAMP amplification with a reduction of hands-on time from 45 to 1 min. The heating system consists of two parallel SMD thick film resistors and a NTC as heating and temperature sensing elements. They are driven by a 3 V battery and controlled by a microcontroller. The LAMP reagents are stored in the elution chamber and the amplification starts immediately after the eluate is purged into the chamber. The LabTube, including a microcontroller-based heating system, demonstrates contamination-free and automated sample-to-answer nucleic acid testing within a laboratory centrifuge. The heating system can be easily parallelized within one LabTube and it is deployable for a variety of heating and electrical applications.

  13. Scheduling Algorithm for Automated Mixed Production Line with Time Window Constraint%带时间窗口的自动化混流生产线调度方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷卫东; 车阿大

    2011-01-01

    研究了一类带时间窗口的自动化混流生产线调度问题,其中包括工件排序和机器人搬运作业排序两类问题.在对问题进行系统分析的基础上,考虑处理时间窗口约束、机器人搬运能力约束和工作站能力约束,使用混合整数规划方法建立了此类问题的通用数学模型,并采用CPLEX软件求解模型,以印刷电路板电镀生产线为实例并通过随机算例验证该方法的有效性.%The scheduling problem for a class of automated mixed production line with time window constraint is discussed. For such a system, it should sequence both the jobs and the robot movements. Based on a systematic analysis, in considering time window constraint on job processing times, robot availability constraint, and resource capability constraint, the problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming model. Then, the commercial software CPLEX is used to solve it. Computational results on benchmark and randomly generated instances show that the proposed MIP approach is very efficient in scheduling the automated mixed production line.

  14. metAlignID: a high-throughput software tool set for automated detection of trace level contaminants in comprehensive LECO two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommen, Arjen; van der Kamp, Henk J; Kools, Harrie J; van der Lee, Martijn K; van der Weg, Guido; Mol, Hans G J

    2012-11-09

    A new alternative data processing tool set, metAlignID, is developed for automated pre-processing and library-based identification and concentration estimation of target compounds after analysis by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. The tool set has been developed for and tested on LECO data. The software is developed to run multi-threaded (one thread per processor core) on a standard PC (personal computer) under different operating systems and is as such capable of processing multiple data sets simultaneously. Raw data files are converted into netCDF (network Common Data Form) format using a fast conversion tool. They are then preprocessed using previously developed algorithms originating from metAlign software. Next, the resulting reduced data files are searched against a user-composed library (derived from user or commercial NIST-compatible libraries) (NIST=National Institute of Standards and Technology) and the identified compounds, including an indicative concentration, are reported in Excel format. Data can be processed batch wise. The overall time needed for conversion together with processing and searching of 30 raw data sets for 560 compounds is routinely within an hour. The screening performance is evaluated for detection of pesticides and contaminants in raw data obtained after analysis of soil and plant samples. Results are compared to the existing data-handling routine based on proprietary software (LECO, ChromaTOF). The developed software tool set, which is freely downloadable at www.metalign.nl, greatly accelerates data-analysis and offers more options for fine-tuning automated identification toward specific application needs. The quality of the results obtained is slightly better than the standard processing and also adds a quantitative estimate. The software tool set in combination with two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry shows great potential as a highly-automated

  15. Drug-eluting stents in superficial femoral artery treatment: could they be the standard of care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosiers, Marc; Deloose, Koen; Callaert, Joren; Peeters, Patrick; Bosiers, Michel

    2016-12-01

    Endovascular techniques have improved markedly over the past several decades. Plain old balloon angioplasty can only reach patencies around 40% after 1 year. Scaffolding stents have resulted in improved short-term results but encountered limitations for longer-term durability. With the introduction of drug-eluting technologies the process of intimal hyperplasia might be slowed, resulting in improved long-term patency results. At first, limus-eluting technologies were not able to transfer the enthusiasm from the coronaries to the infrainguinal vascular bed. However, the newer generation paclitaxel-eluting technologies perform significantly better in femoropopliteal arteries than their non-eluting or non-coated counterparts. The results of a prospective randomized trial comparing DES versus DCB is eagerly awaited. For the moment there seems, based on the meta-analysis, no difference between the two treatment modalities. Although, we need to keep in mind that DCB perform worse in long calcified lesions.

  16. Boron removal from aqueous solutions by ion-exchange resin: column sorption-elution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, T Ennil; Oztürk, Neşe

    2008-04-01

    A column sorption-elution study was carried out by using a strong base anion-exchange resin (Dowex 2 x 8) for the removal of boron from aqueous solutions. The breakthrough curve was obtained as a function of feed flow rate and the total and breakthrough capacity values of the resin were calculated. The boron on the resin was quantitatively eluted with 0.5M HCl solution at different flow rates. Three consecutive sorption-elution-washing-regeneration-washing cycles were applied to the resin in order to investigate the reusability of the ion-exchange resin. Total capacity values remained almost the same after three sorption-elution-regeneration cycles. The Thomas and the Yoon-Nelson models were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic column parameters required for process design. The results proved that the models would describe the breakthrough curves well.

  17. Clinicians' perspectives on the use of drug-eluting contact lenses for the treatment of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Elise V; Kalout, Patricia; Pasquale, Louis R; Kohane, Daniel S; Ciolino, Joseph B

    2014-10-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The perspective of clinicians who treat the disease is important and may ultimately dictate the adoption of new treatment modalities, such as drug-eluting contact lenses. Recent advances have enabled contact lenses to serve as a sustained-release drug-delivery platform capable of treating glaucoma. This review covers the medical treatment of glaucoma, suboptimal adherence rates to treatment, and factors that may influence the clinical applicability of drug-eluting contact lenses. Ophthalmologists who treat glaucoma were surveyed to determine their perspective on treatment adherence, bandage contact lens use and the use of a drug-eluting contact lens to treat glaucoma. Given the challenge of treating glaucoma and the clinical need for improved drug delivery, drug-eluting contact lenses appear to be a promising treatment option.

  18. Alendronate-Eluting Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP Scaffolds Stimulate Osteogenic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Eun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP scaffolds have been widely used in orthopedic and dental fields as osteoconductive bone substitutes. However, BCP scaffolds are not satisfactory for the stimulation of osteogenic differentiation and maturation. To enhance osteogenic differentiation, we prepared alendronate- (ALN- eluting BCP scaffolds. The coating of ALN on BCP scaffolds was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. An in vitro release study showed that release of ALN from ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds was sustained for up to 28 days. In vitro results revealed that MG-63 cells grown on ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds exhibited increased ALP activity and calcium deposition and upregulated gene expression of Runx2, ALP, OCN, and OPN compared with the BCP scaffold alone. Therefore, this study suggests that ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds have the potential to effectively stimulate osteogenic differentiation.

  19. Purification of proteins specifically binding human endogenous retrovirus K long terminal repeat by affinity elution chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, D O; Zavalova, L L; Akopov, S B; Nikolaev, L G

    2002-11-01

    A novel affinity elution procedure for purification of DNA-binding proteins was developed and employed to purify to near homogeneity the proteins recognizing a 21 base pair sequence within the long terminal repeat of human endogenous retroviruses K. The approach involves loading the initial protein mixture on a heparin-agarose column and elution of protein(s) of interest with a solution of double-stranded oligonucleotide containing binding sites of the protein(s). The affinity elution has several advantages over conventional DNA-affinity chromatography: (i) it is easier and faster, permitting to isolate proteins in a 1 day-one stage procedure; (ii) yield of a target protein is severalfold higher than that in DNA-affinity chromatography; (iii) it is not necessary to prepare a special affinity support for each factor to be isolated. Theaffinity elution could be a useful alternative to conventional DNA-affinity chromatography.

  20. Biolimus-eluting stents with biodegradable polymer versus bare-metal stents in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räber, Lorenz; Kelbæk, Henning; Taniwaki, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study sought to determine whether the 1-year differences in major adverse cardiac event between a stent eluting biolimus from a biodegradable polymer and bare-metal stents (BMSs) in the COMFORTABLE trial (Comparison of Biolimus Eluted From an Erodible Stent Coating With Bare Meta...... to improve cardiovascular events compared with BMS beyond 1 year. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NTC00962416....

  1. Drivers anticipate lead-vehicle conflicts during automated longitudinal control: Sensory cues capture driver attention and promote appropriate and timely responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morando, Alberto; Victor, Trent; Dozza, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) has been shown to reduce the exposure to critical situations by maintaining a safe speed and headway. It has also been shown that drivers adapt their visual behavior in response to the driving task demand with ACC, anticipating an impending lead vehicle conflict by directing their eyes to the forward path before a situation becomes critical. The purpose of this paper is to identify the causes related to this anticipatory mechanism, by investigating drivers' visual behavior while driving with ACC when a potential critical situation is encountered, identified as a forward collision warning (FCW) onset (including false positive warnings). This paper discusses how sensory cues capture attention to the forward path in anticipation of the FCW onset. The analysis used the naturalistic database EuroFOT to examine visual behavior with respect to two manually-coded metrics, glance location and glance eccentricity, and then related the findings to vehicle data (such as speed, acceleration, and radar information). Three sensory cues (longitudinal deceleration, looming, and brake lights) were found to be relevant for capturing driver attention and increase glances to the forward path in anticipation of the threat; the deceleration cue seems to be dominant. The results also show that the FCW acts as an effective attention-orienting mechanism when no threat anticipation is present. These findings, relevant to the study of automation, provide additional information about drivers' response to potential lead-vehicle conflicts when longitudinal control is automated. Moreover, these results suggest that sensory cues are important for alerting drivers to an impending critical situation, allowing for a prompt reaction.

  2. Nonspecific native elution of proteins and mumps virus in immunoaffinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brgles, Marija; Sviben, Dora; Forčić, Dubravko; Halassy, Beata

    2016-05-20

    Immunoaffinity chromatography, based on the antigen-antibody recognition, enables specific purification of any antigen (protein, virus) by its antibody. The problem with immunoaffinity chromatography is the harsh elution conditions required for disrupting strong antigen-antibody interactions, such as low pH buffers, which are often deleterious for the immobilized protein and the protein to be isolated since they can also disrupt the intramolecular forces. Therefore, immunoaffinity chromatography can only be partially used for protein and virus purification. Here we report on a nonspecific elution in immunoaffinity chromatography using native conditions by elution with amino acid solution at physiological pH for which we suppose possible competing mechanism of action. Elution potential of various amino acid solutions was tested using immunoaffinity columns specific for ovalbumin and mumps virus, and protein G affinity column. Results have shown that the most successful elution solutions were those containing imidazole and arginine of high molarity. Imidazole represents aromatic residues readily found at the antigen-antibody interaction surface and arginine is most frequently found on protein surface in general. Therefore, results on their eluting power in immunoaffinity chromatography, which increases with increasing molarity, are in line with the competing mechanism of action. Virus immunoaffinity chromatography resulted in removal on nonviable virus particles, which is important for research and biotechnology purposes. In addition, amino acids are proven stabilizers for proteins and viruses making approach presented in this work a very convenient purification method.

  3. Study on elution ability of salicylic acid on ion exchange resins in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping YUAN; Jianguo CAI; Junjie GONG; Xiu DENG

    2009-01-01

    The elution ability of salicylic acid on ion exchange resins in supercritical carbon dioxide has been studied. Some factors influencing elution recovery,including entrainer, temperature, pressure and the flow rate of supercritical fluid CO2 are discussed in this work.The addition of a small amount of entrainer, such as ethanol, triethanolamine and their mixture to supercritical CO2 can cause dramatic effects on the elution ability. The results show that the salicylic acid can be only slightly eluted from the resin with supercritical CO2 alone with temperatures ranging from 307.15 to 323.15K and pressures ranging from 10 to 30MPa. Meanwhile, with the same T, P conditions, 40.58% and 73.08% salicylic acid can be eluted from the ion exchange resin with ethanol and ethanol + triethanolamine as the entrainer, respec-tively. An improved PR equation of state with VDWl mixing rules is used to calculate the elution recovery of salicylic acid in supercritical CO2 and the results agree well with the experimental data.

  4. Modeling of salt and pH gradient elution in ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael; Hafner, Mathias; Frech, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The separation of proteins by internally and externally generated pH gradients in chromatofocusing on ion-exchange columns is a well-established analytical method with a large number of applications. In this work, a stoichiometric displacement model was used to describe the retention behavior of lysozyme on SP Sepharose FF and a monoclonal antibody on Fractogel SO3 (S) in linear salt and pH gradient elution. The pH dependence of the binding charge B in the linear gradient elution model is introduced using a protein net charge model, while the pH dependence of the equilibrium constant is based on a thermodynamic approach. The model parameter and pH dependences are calculated from linear salt gradient elutions at different pH values as well as from linear pH gradient elutions at different fixed salt concentrations. The application of the model for the well-characterized protein lysozyme resulted in almost identical model parameters based on either linear salt or pH gradient elution data. For the antibody, only the approach based on linear pH gradients is feasible because of the limited pH range useful for salt gradient elution. The application of the model for the separation of an acid variant of the antibody from the major monomeric form is discussed.

  5. Automated DNA Sequencing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Ekkebus, C.P.; Hauser, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Mural, R.J.

    1999-04-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a core DNA sequencing facility to support biological research endeavors at ORNL and to conduct basic sequencing automation research. This facility is novel because its development is based on existing standard biology laboratory equipment; thus, the development process is of interest to the many small laboratories trying to use automation to control costs and increase throughput. Before automation, biology Laboratory personnel purified DNA, completed cycle sequencing, and prepared 96-well sample plates with commercially available hardware designed specifically for each step in the process. Following purification and thermal cycling, an automated sequencing machine was used for the sequencing. A technician handled all movement of the 96-well sample plates between machines. To automate the process, ORNL is adding a CRS Robotics A- 465 arm, ABI 377 sequencing machine, automated centrifuge, automated refrigerator, and possibly an automated SpeedVac. The entire system will be integrated with one central controller that will direct each machine and the robot. The goal of this system is to completely automate the sequencing procedure from bacterial cell samples through ready-to-be-sequenced DNA and ultimately to completed sequence. The system will be flexible and will accommodate different chemistries than existing automated sequencing lines. The system will be expanded in the future to include colony picking and/or actual sequencing. This discrete event, DNA sequencing system will demonstrate that smaller sequencing labs can achieve cost-effective the laboratory grow.

  6. Brachytherapy Application With In Situ Dose Painting Administered by Gold Nanoparticle Eluters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Neeharika [Department of Sciences, Wentworth Institute of Technology, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Cifter, Gizem [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sajo, Erno [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts (United States); Kumar, Rajiv; Sridhar, Srinivas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Electronic Materials Research Institute and Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Nguyen, Paul L.; Cormack, Robert A.; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ngwa, Wilfred, E-mail: wngwa@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Recent studies show promise that administering gold nanoparticles (GNP) to tumor cells during brachytherapy could significantly enhance radiation damage to the tumor. A new strategy proposed for sustained administration of the GNP in prostate tumors is to load them into routinely used brachytherapy spacers for customizable in situ release after implantation. This in silico study investigated the intratumor biodistribution and corresponding dose enhancement over time due to GNP released from such GNP-loaded brachytherapy spacers (GBS). Method and Materials: An experimentally determined intratumoral diffusion coefficient (D) for 10-nm nanoparticles was used to estimate D for other sizes by using the Stokes-Einstein equation. GNP concentration profiles, obtained using D, were then used to calculate the corresponding dose enhancement factor (DEF) for each tumor voxel, using dose painting-by-numbers approach, for times relevant to the considered brachytherapy sources' lifetimes. The investigation was carried out as a function of GNP size for the clinically applicable low-dose-rate brachytherapy sources iodine-125 (I-125), palladium-103 (Pd-103), and cesium-131 (Cs-131). Results: Results showed that dose enhancement to tumor voxels and subvolumes during brachytherapy can be customized by varying the size of GNP released or eluted from the GBS. For example, using a concentration of 7 mg/g GNP, significant DEF (>20%) could be achieved 5 mm from a GBS after 5, 12, 25, 46, 72, 120, and 195 days, respectively, for GNP sizes of 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 nm and for 80 nm when treating with I-125. Conclusions: Analyses showed that using Cs-131 provides the highest dose enhancement to tumor voxels. However, given its relatively longer half-life, I-125 presents the most flexibility for customizing the dose enhancement as a function of GNP size. These findings provide a useful reference for further work toward development of potential new brachytherapy application

  7. Outcome of Sirolimus-Eluting Versus Zotarolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent Implantation in Patients With and Without Diabetes Mellitus (a SORT OUT III Substudy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeng, Michael; Jensen, Lisette O; Tilsted, Hans-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of major adverse cardiac events after percutaneous coronary intervention. We compared clinical outcomes in patients with and without diabetes mellitus treated with the second-generation Endeavor zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES) or the first-generation ...

  8. Automated method for simultaneous lead and strontium isotopic analysis applied to rainwater samples and airborne particulate filters (PM10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Blanca; Avivar, Jessica; Mola, Montserrat; Ferrer, Laura; Cerdà, Víctor; Leal, Luz O

    2013-09-03

    A new automated, sensitive, and fast system for the simultaneous online isolation and preconcentration of lead and strontium by sorption on a microcolumn packed with Sr-resin using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detector was developed, hyphenating lab-on-valve (LOV) and multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA). Pb and Sr are directly retained on the sorbent column and eluted with a solution of 0.05 mol L(-1) ammonium oxalate. The detection limits achieved were 0.04 ng for lead and 0.03 ng for strontium. Mass calibration curves were used since the proposed system allows the use of different sample volumes for preconcentration. Mass linear working ranges were between 0.13 and 50 ng and 0.1 and 50 ng for lead and strontium, respectively. The repeatability of the method, expressed as RSD, was 2.1% and 2.7% for Pb and Sr, respectively. Environmental samples such as rainwater and airborne particulate (PM10) filters as well as a certified reference material SLRS-4 (river water) were satisfactorily analyzed obtaining recoveries between 90 and 110% for both elements. The main features of the LOV-MSFIA-ICP-MS system proposed are the capability to renew solid phase extraction at will in a fully automated way, the remarkable stability of the column which can be reused up to 160 times, and the potential to perform isotopic analysis.

  9. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  10. Automated Essay Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semire DIKLI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated Essay Scoring Semire DIKLI Florida State University Tallahassee, FL, USA ABSTRACT The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali, 2004. AES is defined as the computer technology that evaluates and scores the written prose (Shermis & Barrera, 2002; Shermis & Burstein, 2003; Shermis, Raymat, & Barrera, 2003. Revision and feedback are essential aspects of the writing process. Students need to receive feedback in order to increase their writing quality. However, responding to student papers can be a burden for teachers. Particularly if they have large number of students and if they assign frequent writing assignments, providing individual feedback to student essays might be quite time consuming. AES systems can be very useful because they can provide the student with a score as well as feedback within seconds (Page, 2003. Four types of AES systems, which are widely used by testing companies, universities, and public schools: Project Essay Grader (PEG, Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA, E-rater, and IntelliMetric. AES is a developing technology. Many AES systems are used to overcome time, cost, and generalizability issues in writing assessment. The accuracy and reliability of these systems have been proven to be high. The search for excellence in machine scoring of essays is continuing and numerous studies are being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the AES systems.

  11. Cockpit Adaptive Automation and Pilot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuraman, Raja

    2001-01-01

    The introduction of high-level automated systems in the aircraft cockpit has provided several benefits, e.g., new capabilities, enhanced operational efficiency, and reduced crew workload. At the same time, conventional 'static' automation has sometimes degraded human operator monitoring performance, increased workload, and reduced situation awareness. Adaptive automation represents an alternative to static automation. In this approach, task allocation between human operators and computer systems is flexible and context-dependent rather than static. Adaptive automation, or adaptive task allocation, is thought to provide for regulation of operator workload and performance, while preserving the benefits of static automation. In previous research we have reported beneficial effects of adaptive automation on the performance of both pilots and non-pilots of flight-related tasks. For adaptive systems to be viable, however, such benefits need to be examined jointly in the context of a single set of tasks. The studies carried out under this project evaluated a systematic method for combining different forms of adaptive automation. A model for effective combination of different forms of adaptive automation, based on matching adaptation to operator workload was proposed and tested. The model was evaluated in studies using IFR-rated pilots flying a general-aviation simulator. Performance, subjective, and physiological (heart rate variability, eye scan-paths) measures of workload were recorded. The studies compared workload-based adaptation to to non-adaptive control conditions and found evidence for systematic benefits of adaptive automation. The research provides an empirical basis for evaluating the effectiveness of adaptive automation in the cockpit. The results contribute to the development of design principles and guidelines for the implementation of adaptive automation in the cockpit, particularly in general aviation, and in other human-machine systems. Project goals

  12. Neointimal hyperplasia after sirolimus-eluting and paclitaxel-eluting stent implantation in diabetic patients: the Randomized Diabetes and Drug-Eluting Stent (DiabeDES) Intravascular Ultrasound Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.O.; Maeng, M.; Thayssen, P.;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Patients with diabetes have increased risk of in-stent restenosis after coronary stent implantation owing to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH). The aim of the study was to evaluate the extent and distribution of NIH with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) after coronary artery stenting with sirolimus......-eluting (Cypher) or paclitaxel-eluting (Taxus) stents in diabetic patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred and thirty diabetic patients were randomized to Cypher or Taxus stent implantation. IVUS was performed at 8 month follow-up. NIH volume was significantly reduced in the Cypher group when compared...... with the Taxus group: median (inter-quartile range) 0.0 (0.0-0.0) vs. 8.0 mm(3) (0.1-33.0), P stents compared with Taxus stents: median (inter-quartile range) 0.0 (0.0-0.0) vs. 7.5% (0.1-27.0), P stent...

  13. Comparison of the sirolimus-eluting versus paclitaxel-eluting coronary stent in patients with diabetes mellitus: the diabetes and drug-eluting stent (DiabeDES) randomized angiography trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeng, Michael; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Galloe, Anders Michael;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate angiographic late luminal loss after the implantation of sirolimus-eluting Cypher stents and paclitaxel-eluting Taxus stents in patients with diabetes. The study was a Danish multicenter, open-label, randomized trial. One hundred fifty-three patients...... with diabetes with coronary artery disease were randomized to Cypher (n = 76) or Taxus (n = 77) stent implantation. All patients were followed for 8 months. The primary end point was 8-month angiographic in-stent late luminal loss. This primary end point was reduced in the Cypher group compared with the Taxus.......8%) in the Cypher and Taxus groups, respectively (p = 0.25). Definite stent thrombosis was observed in 2 patients (in the Taxus group), no patients had probable stent thrombosis, and 1 patient in each group had possible stent thrombosis. Major adverse cardiac events (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, definite...

  14. Characterization of eleutheroside B metabolites derived from an extract of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms by high-resolution liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and automated data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang; Sun, Qiang; Bai, Yun; Bao, Shunru; Li, Xuzhao; Yan, Guangli; Liu, Shumin

    2012-10-01

    We elucidated the structure and metabolite profile of eleutheroside B, a component derived from the extract of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms, after oral administration of the extract in rats. Samples of rat plasma were collected and analyzed by selective high-resolution liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) automated data analysis method. A total of 11 metabolites were detected: four were identified, and three of those four are reported for the first time here. The three new plasma metabolites were identified on the basis of mass fragmentation patterns and literature reports. The major in vivo metabolic processes associated with eleutheroside B in A. senticosus include demethylation, acetylation, oxidation and glucuronidation after deglycosylation. A fairly comprehensive metabolic pathway was proposed for eleutheroside B. Our results provide a meaningful basis for drug discovery, design and clinical applications related to A. senticosus in traditional Chinese medicine.

  15. Assessing the performance of novel software Strain Solution on automated discrimination of Escherichia coli serotypes and their mixtures using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima-Kato, Teruyo; Yamamoto, Naomi; Iijima, Yoshio; Tamura, Hiroto

    2015-12-01

    O157, O26, and O111 are the most important O serogroups of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli worldwide. Recently we reported a strategy for discriminating these serotypes from the others using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) based on the S10-spc-alpha operon gene-encoded ribosomal protein mass spectrum (S10-GERMS) method. To realize the fully automated identification of microorganisms at species- or serotype-level with the concept of S10-GERMS method, novel software named Strain Solution for MALDI-TOF MS was developed. In this study, the Strain Solution was evaluated with a total of 45 E. coli isolates including O26, O91, O103, O111, O115, O121, O128, O145, O157, O159, and untyped serotypes. The Strain Solution could accurately discriminate 92% (11/12) of O157 strains, 100% (13/13) of O26 and O111 strains from the others with three biomarkers in an automated manner. In addition, this software could identify 2 different E. coli strains (K-12 as a non-O157 representative and O157) in mixed samples. The results suggest that Strain Solution will be useful for species- or serotype-level classification of microorganisms in the fields of food safety and diagnostics.

  16. Gradient Elution Moving Boundary Electrophoresis Enables Rapid Analysis of Acids in Complex Biomass-Derived Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Matthew S.; Karp, Eric M.; Nimlos, Claire T.; Salit, Marc; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-12-05

    Biomass conversion processes such as pretreatment, liquefaction, and pyrolysis often produce complex mixtures of intermediates that are a substantial challenge to analyze rapidly and reliably. To characterize these streams more comprehensively and efficiently, new techniques are needed to track species through biomass deconstruction and conversion processes. Here, we present the application of an emerging analytical method, gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis (GEMBE), to quantify a suite of acids in a complex, biomass-derived streams from alkaline pretreatment of corn stover. GEMBE offers distinct advantages over common chromatography-spectrometry analytical approaches in terms of analysis time, sample preparation requirements, and cost of equipment. As demonstrated here, GEMBE is able to track 17 distinct compounds (oxalate, formate, succinate, malate, acetate, glycolate, protocatechuate, 3-hydroxypropanoate, lactate, glycerate, 2-hydroxybutanoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, vanillate, p-coumarate, ferulate, sinapate, and acetovanillone). The lower limit of detection was compound dependent and ranged between 0.9 and 3.5 umol/L. Results from GEMBE were similar to recent results from an orthogonal method based on GCxGC-TOF/MS. Overall, GEMBE offers a rapid, robust approach to analyze complex biomass-derived samples, and given the ease and convenience of deployment, may offer an analytical solution for online tracking of multiple types of biomass streams.

  17. Determination of adsorption isotherm parameters for minor whey proteins by gradient elution preparative liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Naeimeh; Zhang, Yan; Ray, Ajay K

    2015-09-18

    Ion-Exchange Chromatography (IEC) techniques have been extensively investigated in protein purification processes, due to the more selective and milder separation steps. To date, existing studies of minor whey proteins fractionation in IEC have primarily been conducted as batch uptake studies, which require more experimental search space, time and materials. In this work, the selected resin's (SP Sepharose FF) equilibrium and dynamic binding capacity were first investigated. Next, adsorption of the pure binary mixture of lactoperoxidase and lactoferrin was studied to calibrate steric mass action (SMA) model using a simplified approach with data from single column experiments. The calibrated model was then verified by performing factorial-design based experiments for various process operating conditions assessing process performance on a larger bed height column. The model predicted results demonstrated a realistic agreement with the experiments providing reproducible column elution profile and reduced experimental work. Finally, whey protein isolate was used to evaluate model parameters in real conditions. Results obtained herein are suitable for future large scale applications.

  18. ABO blood grouping from hard and soft tissues of teeth by modified absorption-elution technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B K Ramnarayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teeth have always been known as stable tissue that can be preserved both physically and chemically for long periods of time. Blood group substances have been known to be present in both the hard and soft tissues of the teeth. Objectives: This study aimed at detection of ABO blood group substances from soft and hard tissues of teeth and also to evaluate the reliability of teeth stored for a relatively long period as a source of blood group substances by absorption-elution technique with some modifications. Results: Blood group obtained from the teeth was compared with those obtained from the blood sample. Pulp showed a very large correlation in both fresh and long-standing teeth though it decreased slightly in the latter. Hard tissue showed a large correlation in both the groups indicating that hard tissue is quite reliable to detect blood group and that there is no much difference in the reliability in both the groups. However, combining pulp and hard tissue, correlation is moderate. Correlation of blood grouping with the age, sex, and jaw distribution was carried out. Conclusion: Blood group identification from hard and soft tissues of teeth aids in the identification of an individual.

  19. Antibiotic-eluting hydrophilized PMMA bone cement with prolonged bactericidal effect for the treatment of osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eun Jo; Oh, Se Heang; Lee, In Soo; Kwon, Oh Soo; Lee, Jin Ho

    2016-05-01

    Osteomyelitis is still considered to be one of the major challenges for orthopedic surgeons despite advanced antiseptic surgical procedures and pharmaceutical therapeutics. In this study, hydrophilized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cements containing Pluronic F68 (EG79PG28EG79) as a hydrophilic additive and vancomycin (F68-VAcements) were prepared to allow the sustained release of the antibiotic for adequate periods of time without any significant loss of mechanical properties. The compressive strengths of the bone cements with Pluronic F68 compositions less than 7 wt% were not significantly different compared with the control vancomycin-loaded bone cement (VAcement). TheF68 (7 wt%)-VAcement showed sustained release of the antibiotic for up to 11 weeks and almost 100% release from the bone cement. It also prohibited the growth ofS. aureus(zone of inhibition) over six weeks (the required period to treat osteomyelitis), and it did not show any notable cytotoxicity. From an animal study using a femoral osteomyelitis rat model, it was observed that theF68 (7 wt%)-VAcement was effective for the treatment of osteomyelitis, probably as a result of the prolonged release of antibiotic from the PMMA bone cement. On the basis of these findings, it can be suggested that the use of Pluronic F68 as a hydrophilic additive for antibiotic-eluting PMMA bone cement can be a promising strategy for the treatment of osteomyelitis.

  20. The prognostic utility of the SYNTAX score on 1-year outcomes after revascularization with zotarolimus- and everolimus-eluting stents: a substudy of the RESOLUTE All Comers Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, Scot; Serruys, Patrick W; Silber, Sigmund

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of the SYNTAX score (SXscore) to stratify risk in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using zotarolimus-eluting or everolimus-eluting stents.......This study assessed the ability of the SYNTAX score (SXscore) to stratify risk in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using zotarolimus-eluting or everolimus-eluting stents....

  1. Process evaluation of an open architecture real-time molecular laboratory platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Robin A; Jackson, Keith D; Walter, Adam M

    2014-10-01

    The needs of molecular diagnostic laboratories that perform both Food and Drug Administration-cleared as well as laboratory-developed tests are usually not met on a single analytical platform. Furthermore, little information is available about the direct impact of molecular automation on labor costs and efficiency in clinical laboratories. We performed a process impact analysis from time and motion studies of a novel molecular diagnostic robotic system designed to automate sample preparation, extraction, and analysis. All 27 preanalytical tasks were quantified for the amount of time spent preparing 24 specimens for analysis. These steps were completed in 899 s (14 min, 59 s) followed by 7887 s (131 min, 27 s) of instrument operation independent of operator control (walk-away time). Postanalytical results evaluation required 1 min per specimen. The instrument automatically extracted the nucleic acid from the specimen, added the eluted DNA to the amplification reagents, and performed the analysis. Only 12% of the total instrument operations required relatively unskilled human labor. Thus, the availability of automated molecular diagnostic instruments will facilitate the expansion of molecular testing in the clinical laboratory because they reduce operator costs with respect to time and complexity of the tasks they are asked to perform.

  2. Quantification of 31 illicit and medicinal drugs and metabolites in whole blood by fully automated solid-phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Marie Kjærgaard; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Andersen, David Wederkinck

    2013-01-01

    An efficient method for analyzing illegal and medicinal drugs in whole blood using fully automated sample preparation and short ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) run time is presented. A selection of 31 drugs, including amphetamines, cocaine, opioids......-phase extraction was performed using Strata X-C plates. Extraction time for 96 samples was less than 3 h. Chromatography was performed using an ACQUITY UPLC system (Waters Corporation, Milford, USA). Analytes were separated on a 100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm Acquity UPLC CSH C18 column using a 6.5 min 0.1 % ammonia (25...... %) in water/0.1 % ammonia (25 %) in methanol gradient and quantified by MS/MS (Waters Quattro Premier XE) in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. Full validation, including linearity, precision and trueness, matrix effect, ion suppression/enhancement of co-eluting analytes, recovery, and specificity...

  3. Smart Home Automation Based On 555 Timer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Sarath Chandra Kotcherlakota

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Technology is growing rapidly and gone are the days when we had to wake up in the middle of the night to adjust our fan speed or times when we had to turn on the light each time we walk into a room and turn them off whenever we walk out. These works are no longer done by humans instead performed by machines through automation, which is one of the popular trends in the world of technology. Automation used for home appliances is referred as HOME AUTOMATION. This paper describes a system for efficient home automation without programming by using a 555 timer. It turns on electrical lights and fan whenever a person enters a room using PIR sensor and adjusts the speed of the fan according to room temperature.

  4. A tool for selective inline quantification of co-eluting proteins in chromatography using spectral analysis and partial least squares regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brestrich, Nina; Briskot, Till; Osberghaus, Anna; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2014-07-01

    Selective quantification of co-eluting proteins in chromatography is usually performed by offline analytics. This is time-consuming and can lead to late detection of irregularities in chromatography processes. To overcome this analytical bottleneck, a methodology for selective protein quantification in multicomponent mixtures by means of spectral data and partial least squares regression was presented in two previous studies. In this paper, a powerful integration of software and chromatography hardware will be introduced that enables the applicability of this methodology for a selective inline quantification of co-eluting proteins in chromatography. A specific setup consisting of a conventional liquid chromatography system, a diode array detector, and a software interface to Matlab® was developed. The established tool for selective inline quantification was successfully applied for a peak deconvolution of a co-eluting ternary protein mixture consisting of lysozyme, ribonuclease A, and cytochrome c on SP Sepharose FF. Compared to common offline analytics based on collected fractions, no loss of information regarding the retention volumes and peak flanks was observed. A comparison between the mass balances of both analytical methods showed, that the inline quantification tool can be applied for a rapid determination of pool yields. Finally, the achieved inline peak deconvolution was successfully applied to make product purity-based real-time pooling decisions. This makes the established tool for selective inline quantification a valuable approach for inline monitoring and control of chromatographic purification steps and just in time reaction on process irregularities.

  5. ELUTION OF TUNGSTEN BY SODIUM COMPOUNDS AND ACCELERATION EFFECTS OF COEXISTENT COUNTER IONS IN MIXED ELUANT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WanLinsheng; DengZuoGuo

    1995-01-01

    The elution of WO42- ions by NaOH、NaNO3、NaCl and NH4Cl on strong basic anion exchange resins in quaternary ammonium form I and the adsorption properties after elution were studied.In addition,the elution curve,the permeation curve and the exchange capacities of operation were presented.The eluate containing tungsten with high content and excessive eluant of low content were obtained by employing the process of eluting using mixed solution of NaCl and NaOH.It′s possible to obtain Na2WO4·2H2O with high purity by evaporating and crystallizing the eluate.The results of mixed elution showed that the diffusion coefficients of Cl-、OH- and WO42- ions in solution or exchange agent varied due to the coexistence of counter ions and then the exchange velocity of WO42-→Cl- and WO42-→OH- was accelerated.

  6. Aluminum elution and precipitation in glass vials: effect of pH and buffer species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Toru; Miyajima, Makoto; Wakiyama, Naoki; Terada, Katsuhide

    2015-02-01

    Inorganic extractables from glass vials may cause particle formation in the drug solution. In this study, the ability of eluting Al ion from borosilicate glass vials, and tendencies of precipitation containing Al were investigated using various pHs of phosphate, citrate, acetate and histidine buffer. Through heating, all of the buffers showed that Si and Al were eluted from glass vials in ratios almost the same as the composition of borosilicate glass, and the amounts of Al and Si from various buffer solutions at pH 7 were in the following order: citrate > phosphate > acetate > histidine. In addition, during storage after heating, the Al concentration at certain pHs of phosphate and acetate buffer solution decreased, suggesting the formation of particles containing Al. In citrate buffer, Al did not decrease in spite of the high elution amount. Considering that the solubility profile of aluminum oxide and the Al eluting profile of borosilicate glass were different, it is speculated that Al ion may be forced to leach into the buffer solution according to Si elution on the surface of glass vials. When Al ions were added to the buffer solutions, phosphate, acetate and histidine buffer showed a decrease of Al concentration during storage at a neutral range of pHs, indicating the formation of particles containing Al. In conclusion, it is suggested that phosphate buffer solution has higher possibility of forming particles containing Al than other buffer solutions.

  7. Automating checks of plan check automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Tarek; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2014-07-08

    While a few physicists have designed new plan check automation solutions for their clinics, fewer, if any, managed to adapt existing solutions. As complex and varied as the systems they check, these programs must gain the full confidence of those who would run them on countless patient plans. The present automation effort, planCheck, therefore focuses on versatility and ease of implementation and verification. To demonstrate this, we apply planCheck to proton gantry, stereotactic proton gantry, stereotactic proton fixed beam (STAR), and IMRT treatments.

  8. Automation in Warehouse Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg, R.; Verriet, J.

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and support

  9. Automate functional testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kalindri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, software engineers are increasingly turning to the option of automating functional tests, but not always have successful in this endeavor. Reasons range from low planning until over cost in the process. Some principles that can guide teams in automating these tests are described in this article.

  10. Value-based distribution feeder automation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Jen-Hao [Department of Electrical Engineering, I-Shou University, No. 1, Section 1, Syuecheng Road, Dashu Township, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan (Taiwan); Lu, Chan-Nan [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (Taiwan)

    2006-03-15

    In a competitive electric energy market, service quality and reliability are two of the essential issues of the business. Distribution automation has been chosen by many utilities around the world as one of the most reliable measures for reducing outage time in their distribution networks. Considering network reliability data and the customer interruption costs, a value-based planning method is proposed in this paper to find the optimal numbers and locations of switches in feeder automation systems. The proposed method takes reliability costs, maintenance and investment costs into account to obtain a feeder automation plan that has a maximum benefit and a proper system reliability requirement. Three stages are involved in the search for optimal solution. Using minimum feeder data and assume equally distributed feeder loads, stage 1 gives initial estimates of reliability indices and costs, and benefit/cost ratios of different feeder automation options. To gain the maximum benefits from feeder automation with reasonable costs, results of stage 1 are used to select feeders with highest priorities for automations. Stage 2 determines the optimum locations of switches that minimize feeder outage costs, and in stage 3, the best locations for tie switches in the automated network are determined. Numerical processing procedure is described and the solution efficiency and results are compared with those obtained from a genetic algorithm. (author)

  11. Determination of the Optimized Automation Rate considering Effects of Automation on Human Operators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Seosaeng (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Cheol [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Automation refers to the use of a device or a system to perform a function previously performed by a human operator. It is introduced to reduce the human errors and to enhance the performance in various industrial fields, including the nuclear industry. However, these positive effects are not always achieved in complex systems such as nuclear power plants (NPPs). An excessive introduction of automation can generate new roles for human operators and change activities in unexpected ways. As more automation systems are accepted, the ability of human operators to detect automation failures and resume manual control is diminished. This disadvantage of automation is called the Out-of-the- Loop (OOTL) problem. We should consider the positive and negative effects of automation at the same time to determine the appropriate level of the introduction of automation. Thus, in this paper, we suggest an estimation method to consider the positive and negative effects of automation at the same time to determine the appropriate introduction of automation. This concept is limited in that it does not consider the effects of automation on human operators. Thus, a new estimation method for automation rate was suggested to overcome this problem.

  12. Advances in inspection automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

  13. Automated model building

    CERN Document Server

    Caferra, Ricardo; Peltier, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book on automated model building, a discipline of automated deduction that is of growing importance Although models and their construction are important per se, automated model building has appeared as a natural enrichment of automated deduction, especially in the attempt to capture the human way of reasoning The book provides an historical overview of the field of automated deduction, and presents the foundations of different existing approaches to model construction, in particular those developed by the authors Finite and infinite model building techniques are presented The main emphasis is on calculi-based methods, and relevant practical results are provided The book is of interest to researchers and graduate students in computer science, computational logic and artificial intelligence It can also be used as a textbook in advanced undergraduate courses

  14. Automation in Warehouse Development

    CERN Document Server

    Verriet, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and supports the quality of picking processes. Secondly, the development of models to simulate and analyse warehouse designs and their components facilitates the challenging task of developing warehouses that take into account each customer’s individual requirements and logistic processes. Automation in Warehouse Development addresses both types of automation from the innovative perspective of applied science. In particular, it describes the outcomes of the Falcon project, a joint endeavour by a consortium of industrial and academic partners. The results include a model-based approach to automate warehouse control design, analysis models for warehouse design, concepts for robotic item handling and computer vision, and auton...

  15. An automated image analysis framework for segmentation and division plane detection of single live Staphylococcus aureus cells which can operate at millisecond sampling time scales using bespoke Slimfield microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Wollman, Adam J M; Foster, Simon; Leake, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen, giving rise to antimicrobial resistance in cell strains such as Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Here we report an image analysis framework for automated detection and image segmentation of cells in S. aureus cell clusters, and explicit identification of their cell division planes. We use a new combination of several existing analytical tools of image analysis to detect cellular and subcellular morphological features relevant to cell division from millisecond time scale sampled images of live pathogens at a detection precision of single molecules. We demonstrate this approach using a fluorescent reporter GFP fused to the protein EzrA that localises to a mid-cell plane during division and is involved in regulation of cell size and division. This image analysis framework presents a valuable platform from which to study candidate new antimicrobials which target the cell division machinery, but may also have more general application in detecting morphological...

  16. Safety and efficacy of everolimus-eluting stents compared with first-generation drug-eluting stents in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escárcega, Ricardo O.; Baker, Nevin C.; Magalhaes, Marco A.; Lipinski, Michael J.; Minha, Sa’ar; Torguson, Rebecca; Satler, Lowell F.; Pichard, Augusto D.; Suddath, William O.; Waksman, Ron, E-mail: ron.waksman@medstar.net

    2014-09-15

    Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy everolimus-eluting stents (EES) compared with first-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Background: EES have been associated with improved clinical outcomes compared to paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) and with similar outcomes compared to sirolimus-eluting stents (SES). Methods: A total of 520 patients who presented with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) from 2003 to 2013, who underwent primary PCI with DES, were retrospectively analyzed. Of these, 247 received SES, 136 PES, and 137 EES. Patients were followed up to 2 years for major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Univariate and multivariate models detected correlates to outcome. Results: EES implantation, compared with PES and SES, resulted in comparable rates of MACE (8.8% vs. 16.2%, p = 0.06 and 8.8% vs. 12.6%, respectively, p = 0.26), stent thrombosis, MI, and target lesion revascularization. Patients who received EES had lower rates of all-cause mortality (3.7% vs. 12.6% vs. 9.4%, p = 0.03) at 1-year follow up. However, in the univariate and multivariate analyses, stent type was not independently associated with the primary outcome or with all-cause mortality. Diabetes mellitus and number of stents implanted were independently associated with the primary outcome. Conclusion: While EES seem to be associated with better outcome when compared to PES, the main correlates of STEMI patients are the presence of diabetes and number of stents implanted, and not the type of stent used for intervention.

  17. Drug-eluting stents in the management of peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bosiers

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Marc Bosiers1, Catherine Cagiannos1, Koen Deloose1, Jürgen Verbist2, Patrick Peeters21Department of Vascular Surgery, AZ St-Blasius, Dendermonde, Belgium; 2Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Imelda Hospital, Bonheiden, BelgiumAbstract: Since major meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials in interventional cardiology showed the potential of drug-eluting stents in decreasing restenosis and reintervention rates after coronary artery stenting, one of the next steps in the treatment of arterial occlusive disease is the transfer of the active coating technology towards peripheral arterial interventions. In this manuscript, we aim to provide a literature overview on available peripheral (lower limb, renal, and supra-aortic drug-eluting stent applications, debate the cost implications, and give recommendations for future treatment strategies.Keywords: critical limb ischemia, drug-eluting stent, below the knee, infrapopliteal, crural, limb salvage

  18. Protein biomarker enrichment by biomarker antibody complex elution for immunoassay biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatte, Gwenola; Feitsma, Harma; Evers, Toon H; Prins, Menno W J

    2011-11-15

    It is very challenging to perform sample enrichment for protein biomarkers because proteins can easily change conformation and denature. In this paper we demonstrate protein enrichment suited for high-sensitivity integrated immuno-biosensing. The method enhances the concentration of the biomarkers and simultaneously removes matrix components that could interfere with the immunoassay. Biomarkers are captured using antibody coated magnetic particles and the biomarker antibody complexes are released by enzymatic elution. The eluted complexes are subsequently detected in a sandwich immunoassay biosensor. A scaling study of the enrichment process demonstrates an enrichment factor of 15 in buffer and plasma. We analyze the enrichment factor in terms of the three basic steps of the assay (capture, concentration, elution) and we quantify their respective efficiencies. The process is suited for integration into bio-analytical tools.

  19. Description of the Retention and Peak Profile for Chromolith Columns in Isocratic and Gradient Elution Using Mobile Phase Composition and Flow Rate as Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Cabo-Calvet

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the modifier concentration and flow rate on the chromatographic performance of a second generation Chromolith® RP-18e column, under isocratic and gradient elution with acetonitrile-water mixtures, was examined using four sulphonamides as probe compounds. The acetonitrile concentration was varied between 5 and 55% (v/v, and the flow rate between 0.1 and 5.0 mL/min, keeping the other factors constant. The changes in both retention and peak profile were modelled, and used to build simple plots, where the logarithm of the retention factor was represented against the modifier concentration (in gradient elution, against the initial modifier concentration, and the half-widths or widths against the retention time (in gradient elution, against the time at the column outlet. A particular plot was needed for describing the retention of each sulphonamide, but due to the similar interaction kinetics, a unique plot described the changes in the half-widths for all four sulphonamides. The changes in retention with the flow showed that allegedly in the second generation Chromolith, the column deformation observed for the first generation Chromolith, with the applied pressure at increasing flow, is decreased.

  20. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    During my internship at NASA Johnson Space Center, I worked in the Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), where I was tasked with a number of projects focused on the automation of tasks and activities related to the operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As I worked on a number of projects, I have written short sections below to give a description for each, followed by more general remarks on the internship experience. My first project is titled "General Exposure Representation EVADOSE", also known as "GEnEVADOSE". This project involved the design and development of a C++/ ROOT framework focused on radiation exposure for extravehicular activity (EVA) planning for the ISS. The utility helps mission managers plan EVAs by displaying information on the cumulative radiation doses that crew will receive during an EVA as a function of the egress time and duration of the activity. SRAG uses a utility called EVADOSE, employing a model of the space radiation environment in low Earth orbit to predict these doses, as while outside the ISS the astronauts will have less shielding from charged particles such as electrons and protons. However, EVADOSE output is cumbersome to work with, and prior to GEnEVADOSE, querying data and producing graphs of ISS trajectories and cumulative doses versus egress time required manual work in Microsoft Excel. GEnEVADOSE automates all this work, reading in EVADOSE output file(s) along with a plaintext file input by the user providing input parameters. GEnEVADOSE will output a text file containing all the necessary dosimetry for each proposed EVA egress time, for each specified EVADOSE file. It also plots cumulative dose versus egress time and the ISS trajectory, and displays all of this information in an auto-generated presentation made in LaTeX. New features have also been added, such as best-case scenarios (egress times corresponding to the least dose), interpolated curves for trajectories, and the ability to query any time in the

  1. Clinical outcomes and prognosis of patients with stent fracture after successful drug-eluting stent implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Soo [Cadiovascular center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jae Bok; Jang, Seong Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Many studies have suggested that in the era of Drug Eluting Stents (DES) are one of the causes of In-Stent Restenosis (ISR) of Stent Fracture (SF). The present study sought to evaluate clinical characteristics of patients with stent fracture after successful DES implantation. The 4,701 patients were selected for analysis who underwent a follow-up coronary angiography irrespective of ischemic symptoms. The overall incidence of SF was 32 patients(male:female=19:13, Av. age 62.44±9.8 year, 0.68%). Fractures of Sirolimus-Eluting Stents (SES), Paclitaxel-Eluting Stents (PES), Biolimus A9-Eluting Stents (BES), Everolimus-Eluting Etents (EES), Endothelial Progenitor Cell Capture Stent (EPC) and Zotarolimus-Eluting Stents (ZES) are accounted for 19 (59.4%), 9 (28.1%), 2 (6.3%), 1 (3.1%), 1 (3.1%) and 0 (0%) respectively. SF developed in the left Anterior Dscending (LAD) artery in 16 patients (50%) and in complex(type B2, C) lesions in 25 patients (69.4%). Ten patients were treated with heterogenous DES, the rest being treated with either homogenous DES (3 patients), plain old balloon angioplasty (3 patients), or conservative medical treatment (17 patients). None of the patients with SF suffered from cardiac death during a follow-up period of 32.9±12.4 months. The overall rate of DES fracture over up to 3.7 years of follow-up was 0.68% with higher incidence in SES than in PES. SF frequently occurred in the LAD artery and in complex lesions. Of the patients with SF, coronary intervention was performed only when the binary restenosis lesion was significant. During the follow-up, patients with SF have continued on combination antiplatelet therapy. There is a very low rate of major adverse cardiac events(post-detection of SF), especially cardiac death associated with SF.

  2. Advances in inline quantification of co-eluting proteins in chromatography: Process-data-based model calibration and application towards real-life separation issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brestrich, Nina; Sanden, Adrian; Kraft, Axel; McCann, Karl; Bertolini, Joseph; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Pooling decisions in preparative liquid chromatography for protein purification are usually based on univariate UV absorption measurements that are not able to differentiate between product and co-eluting contaminants. This can result in inconsistent pool purities or yields, if there is a batch-to-batch variability of the feedstock. To overcome this analytical bottleneck, a tool for selective inline quantification of co-eluting model proteins using mid-UV absorption spectra and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) was presented in a previous study and applied for real-time pooling decisions. In this paper, a process-data-based method for the PLS model calibration will be introduced that allows the application of the tool towards chromatography steps of real-life processes. The process-data-based calibration method uses recorded inline mid-UV absorption spectra that are correlated with offline fraction analytics to calibrate PLS models. In order to generate average spectra from the inline data, a Visual Basic for Application macro was successfully developed. The process-data-based model calibration was established using a ternary model protein system. Afterwards, it was successfully demonstrated in two case studies that the calibration method is applicable towards real-life separation issues. The calibrated PLS models allowed a successful quantification of the co-eluting species in a cation-exchange-based aggregate and fraction removal during the purification of monoclonal antibodies and of co-eluting serum proteins in an anion-exchange-based purification of Cohn supernatant I. Consequently, the presented process-data-based PLS model calibration in combination with the tool for selective inline quantification has a great potential for the monitoring of future chromatography steps and may contribute to manage batch-to-batch variability by real-time pooling decisions.

  3. Drug-eluting stents in the management of peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosiers, Marc; Cagiannos, Catherine; Deloose, Koen; Verbist, Jürgen; Peeters, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Since major meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials in interventional cardiology showed the potential of drug-eluting stents in decreasing restenosis and reintervention rates after coronary artery stenting, one of the next steps in the treatment of arterial occlusive disease is the transfer of the active coating technology towards peripheral arterial interventions. In this manuscript, we aim to provide a literature overview on available peripheral (lower limb, renal, and supra-aortic) drug-eluting stent applications, debate the cost implications, and give recommendations for future treatment strategies.

  4. Balloon Angioplasty and Drug Eluting Stenting for Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akın İzgi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral arterial disease is one of the manifestations of systemic atherosclerosis. In the last decade, remarkable technological advances, especially in the stent area, have shifted revascularization strategies from traditional open surgical approaches toward less morbide percutaneous endovascular treatments. However, even with new designed nitinol bare stents, restenosis remains as the major obstacle of this procedures. More recently, drug eluting stent platforms have been used to treat atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease. In this article, we reviewed new studies relevant to drug eluting stents for lower extremity peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

  5. Peri-stent contrast staining, major evaginations and severe malapposition after biolimus-eluting stent implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Lisbeth; Thayssen, Per; Jensen, Lisette Okkels

    2014-01-01

    Peri-stent contrast staining and late acquired malapposition represent pathological vessel wall healing patterns following percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation. Earlier studies have described these abnormal vessel wall responses commonly present after implantation of first......-generation drug-eluting stents. These coronary vascular changes can cause flow disturbance and thereby dispose for later thrombotic events. This case report, based on coronary optical frequency domain imaging, describes peri-stent contrast staining, major evaginations and severe malapposition occurring 18months...... after third-generation biolimus-eluting stent implantation....

  6. Drug eluting biliary stents to decrease stent failure rates: Areview of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Biliary stenting is clinically effective in relieving bothmalignant and non-malignant obstructions. However, thereare high failure rates associated with tumor ingrowth andepithelial overgrowth as well as internally from biofilmdevelopment and subsequent clogging. Within the lastdecade, the use of prophylactic drug eluting stents as ameans to reduce stent failure has been investigated. Inthis review we provide an overview of the current researchon drug eluting biliary stents. While there is limited humantrial data regarding the clinical benefit of drug elutingbiliary stents in preventing stent obstruction, recentresearch suggests promise regarding their safety andpotential efficacy.

  7. Very late coronary aneurysm formation with subsequent stent thrombosis secondary to drug-eluting stent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim Akin,; Stephan Kische; Tim C Rehders; Henrik Schneider; G(o)kmen R Turan; Tilo Kleinfeldt; Jasmin Ortak; Christoph A. Nienaber; Hüseyin Ince

    2011-01-01

    Drug-eluting stents have changed the practice in interventional cardiology.With the widespread use of these stents important safety concerns regarding stent thrombosis and formation of coronary artery aneurysm have been expressed.While the majority of attention was focused on stent thrombosis,the formation of coronary aneurysm was only described in anecdotal reports.We report on a patient who suffered from very late stent thrombosis in association with coronary artery aneurysm formation secondary to drug-eluting stent but not to bare-metal stent.

  8. Bare metal or drug-eluting stent implantation in last remaining vessel PCI? A serious dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Jianhua; Kiemeneij, Ferdinand

    2009-04-01

    This case report describes the treatment of an old male diabetic patient with last remaining vessel coronary artery disease and poor left ventricular function. In presence of an old occlusion of the left main coronary artery, a subtotal stenosis of a dominant right coronary artery required angioplasty. After ample consideration it was decided to implant a bare metal stent (BMS) instead of a drug-eluting stent (DES). The major reason was the fear for early discontinuation of clopidogrel in case a drug-eluting stent was placed. The procedure and follow-up are described followed by an overview of current literature concerning similar pathology.

  9. Automated Gas Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Allen; Clark, Henry

    2012-10-01

    The cyclotron of Texas A&M University is one of the few and prized cyclotrons in the country. Behind the scenes of the cyclotron is a confusing, and dangerous setup of the ion sources that supplies the cyclotron with particles for acceleration. To use this machine there is a time consuming, and even wasteful step by step process of switching gases, purging, and other important features that must be done manually to keep the system functioning properly, while also trying to maintain the safety of the working environment. Developing a new gas distribution system to the ion source prevents many of the problems generated by the older manually setup process. This developed system can be controlled manually in an easier fashion than before, but like most of the technology and machines in the cyclotron now, is mainly operated based on software programming developed through graphical coding environment Labview. The automated gas distribution system provides multi-ports for a selection of different gases to decrease the amount of gas wasted through switching gases, and a port for the vacuum to decrease the amount of time spent purging the manifold. The Labview software makes the operation of the cyclotron and ion sources easier, and safer for anyone to use.

  10. Automated illustration of patients instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Duy; Nakamura, Carlos; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2012-01-01

    A picture can be a powerful communication tool. However, creating pictures to illustrate patient instructions can be a costly and time-consuming task. Building on our prior research in this area, we developed a computer application that automatically converts text to pictures using natural language processing and computer graphics techniques. After iterative testing, the automated illustration system was evaluated using 49 previously unseen cardiology discharge instructions. The completeness of the system-generated illustrations was assessed by three raters using a three-level scale. The average inter-rater agreement for text correctly represented in the pictograph was about 66 percent. Since illustration in this context is intended to enhance rather than replace text, these results support the feasibility of conducting automated illustration.

  11. Generic Automated Multi-function Finger Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarpardaz, M.; Tarkian, M.; Sirkett, D.; Ölvander, J.; Feng, X.; Elf, J.; Sjögren, R.

    2016-11-01

    Multi-function fingers that are able to handle multiple workpieces are crucial in improvement of a robot workcell. Design automation of multi-function fingers is highly demanded by robot industries to overcome the current iterative, time consuming and complex manual design process. However, the existing approaches for the multi-function finger design automation are unable to entirely meet the robot industries’ need. This paper proposes a generic approach for design automation of multi-function fingers. The proposed approach completely automates the design process and requires no expert skill. In addition, this approach executes the design process much faster than the current manual process. To validate the approach, multi-function fingers are successfully designed for two case studies. Further, the results are discussed and benchmarked with existing approaches.

  12. A FRAMEWORK FOR AUTOMATED CHANGE DETECTION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To enhance the ability of remote sensing system to provide accurate,timely,and c omplete geo_spatial information at regional or global scale,an automated change detection system has been and will continue to be one of the important and chall enging problems in remote sensing.In this paper,the authors propose a framework for auto mated change detection system at landscape level using various geo_spatial data sources including multi_sensor remotely sensed imagery and ancillary data layers .In this framework,database is the central part and some associated techniques a re discussed.These techniques includes five subsystems:automated feature_based i mage registration,automated change finding,automated change feature extraction a nd identification,intelligent change recognition,change accuracy assessment and database updating and visualization.

  13. A microfluidics-based technique for automated and rapid labeling of cells for flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patibandla, Phani K.; Estrada, Rosendo; Kannan, Manasaa; Sethu, Palaniappan

    2014-03-01

    Flow cytometry is a powerful technique capable of simultaneous multi-parametric analysis of heterogeneous cell populations for research and clinical applications. In recent years, the flow cytometer has been miniaturized and made portable for application in clinical- and resource-limited settings. The sample preparation procedure, i.e. labeling of cells with antibodies conjugated to fluorescent labels, is a time consuming (˜45 min) and labor-intensive procedure. Microfluidics provides enabling technologies to accomplish rapid and automated sample preparation. Using an integrated microfluidic device consisting of a labeling and washing module, we demonstrate a new protocol that can eliminate sample handling and accomplish sample and reagent metering, high-efficiency mixing, labeling and washing in rapid automated fashion. The labeling module consists of a long microfluidic channel with an integrated chaotic mixer. Samples and reagents are precisely metered into this device to accomplish rapid and high-efficiency mixing. The mixed sample and reagents are collected in a holding syringe and held for up to 8 min following which the mixture is introduced into an inertial washing module to obtain ‘analysis-ready’ samples. The washing module consists of a high aspect ratio channel capable of focusing cells to equilibrium positions close to the channel walls. By introducing the cells and labeling reagents in a narrow stream at the center of the channel flanked on both sides by a wash buffer, the elution of cells into the wash buffer away from the free unbound antibodies is accomplished. After initial calibration experiments to determine appropriate ‘holding time’ to allow antibody binding, both modules were used in conjunction to label MOLT-3 cells (T lymphoblast cell line) with three different antibodies simultaneously. Results confirm no significant difference in mean fluorescence intensity values for all three antibodies labels (p < 0.01) between the

  14. Usefulness of Drug-Eluting Balloons for Bare-Metal and Drug-Eluting In-Stent Restenosis (from the RIBS IV and V Randomized Trials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Fernando; Pérez-Vizcayno, María José; García Del Blanco, Bruno; García-Touchard, Arturo; López-Mínguez, José-Ramón; Sabaté, Manel; Zueco, Javier; Melgares, Rafael; Hernández, Rosana; Moreno, Raul; Domínguez, Antonio; Sanchís, Juan; Moris, Cesar; Moreu, José; Cequier, Angel; Romaguera, Rafael; Rivero, Fernando; Cuesta, Javier; Gonzalo, Nieves; Jiménez-Quevedo, Pilar; Cárdenas, Alberto; Fernández, Cristina

    2017-01-05

    Treatment of patients with drug-eluting stent (DES) in-stent restenosis (ISR) is particularly challenging. We sought to compare results of drug-eluting balloons in patients with DES-ISR with those in patients with bare-metal stent (BMS) ISR. A pooled analysis of the Restenosis Intra-Stent: Drug-Eluting Balloon versus Everolimus-Eluting Stent IV and V randomized trials was performed. Both trials had identical inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results of drug-eluting balloons in 95 patients with BMS-ISR and 154 patients with DES-ISR were compared. Patients with DES-ISR were more frequently diabetics, presented more often as an acute coronary syndrome and had more severe lesions and more frequently a focal pattern, including edge-ISR. Late angiographic findings (92% of eligible patients), including minimal lumen diameter (1.80 ± 0.6 vs 2.01 ± 0.6 mm, p = 0.001; absolute mean difference 0.21 mm; 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.38; p = 0.014) and restenosis rate (19% vs 9.5%, p ISR. Results were consistent across 10 prespecified subgroups. Moreover, on multiple linear regression analysis, minimal lumen diameter at follow-up remained significantly smaller in patients with DES-ISR after adjusting for potential confounders (adjusted absolute mean difference 0.17 mm; 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.41; p = 0.019). Finally, at 1-year clinical follow-up (100% of patients), rates of target vessel revascularization (16% vs 6%, p = 0.02) and of the main combined clinical end point (18% vs 8%, p = 0.03) were significantly higher in patients treated for DES-ISR. In conclusion, this study confirms the efficacy of DEB for patients with ISR. However, the long-term clinical and angiographic results of DEB are poorer in patients with DES-ISR than in those with BMS-ISR. (ClinicalTrials.govIdentifier:NCT01239953&NCT01239940).

  15. Chef infrastructure automation cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marschall, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Chef Infrastructure Automation Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to automate your infrastructure using Chef. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to automate your server and cloud infrastructure.The book first shows you the simplest way to achieve a certain task. Then it explains every step in detail, so that you can build your knowledge about how things work. Eventually, the book shows you additional things to consider for each approach. That way, you can learn step-by-step and build profound knowledge on how to go about your configuration management

  16. An automated method for the determination of deoxyribonuclease activity as exemplified by fractionation of the components of the medicament Varidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, I C; Ramsey, M P; Hill, S S; Carpenter, B G

    1993-01-01

    The activity of most deoxyribonuclease enzymes can be monitored by measuring the change in absorbance at 260 nm which accompanies the breakdown of the double-stranded structure of native DNA. An automated method for determining deoxyribonuclease activity, based on such an absorbance change, which can overcome problems of inhibition arising from the presence of inorganic cations, is described. Variations in inorganic cation concentration is a particular problem when measuring the activity of chromatographic fractions eluted via a salt gradient. A comparison is made between the automated and a manual method for the assay of deoxyribonuclease active constituents, of the medicament 'Varidase', eluted from a Cellex-D (Bio-Rad Laboratories Ltd) anionic exchange resin using a 0.05-1.0 M sodium chloride gradient.

  17. Scheduling vehicles in automated transportation systems : algorithms and case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der Matthieu; Ebben, Mark; Gademann, Noud; Harten, van Aart

    2000-01-01

    One of the major planning issues in large scale automated transportation systems is so-called empty vehicle management, the timely supply of vehicles to terminals in order to reduce cargo waiting times. Motivated by a Dutch pilot project on an underground cargo transportation system using Automated

  18. Detection of BRAF Mutations Using a Fully Automated Platform and Comparison with High Resolution Melting, Real-Time Allele Specific Amplification, Immunohistochemistry and Next Generation Sequencing Assays, for Patients with Metastatic Melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Harlé

    Full Text Available Metastatic melanoma is a severe disease with one of the highest mortality rate in skin diseases. Overall survival has significantly improved with immunotherapy and targeted therapies. Kinase inhibitors targeting BRAF V600 showed promising results. BRAF genotyping is mandatory for the prescription of anti-BRAF therapies.Fifty-nine formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanoma samples were assessed using High-Resolution-Melting (HRM PCR, Real-time allele-specific amplification (RT-ASA PCR, Next generation sequencing (NGS, immunohistochemistry (IHC and the fully-automated molecular diagnostics platform IdyllaTM. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated using NGS as the reference standard to compare the different assays.BRAF mutations were found in 28(47.5%, 29(49.2%, 31(52.5%, 29(49.2% and 27(45.8% samples with HRM, RT-ASA, NGS, IdyllaTM and IHC respectively. Twenty-six (81.2% samples were found bearing a c.1799T>A (p.Val600Glu mutation, three (9.4% with a c.1798_1799delinsAA (p.Val600Lys mutation and one with c.1789_1790delinsTC (p.Leu597Ser mutation. Two samples were found bearing complex mutations.HRM appears the less sensitive assay for the detection of BRAF V600 mutations. The RT-ASA, IdyllaTM and IHC assays are suitable for routine molecular diagnostics aiming at the prescription of anti-BRAF therapies. IdyllaTM assay is fully-automated and requires less than 2 minutes for samples preparation and is the fastest of the tested assays.

  19. Influence of a dexamethasone-eluting covered stent on tissue reaction: an experimental study in a canine bronchial model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Choi, Gi Bok; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Suh, Ji-Yeon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Seo, Tae-Seok [Gachon Medical School, Department of Radiology, Gil Medical Center, Inchon (Korea); Yuk, Soon Hong [Hannam University, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Daejeon (Korea); Kim, Young-Hwa [Soonchunhyang University Chonan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Chonan (Korea); Cho, Yong-Mee [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a dexamethasone (DXM)-eluting, covered, self-expanding metallic stent to reduce tissue reaction following stent placement in a canine bronchial model. We placed a DXM-eluting, polyurethane-covered, self-expanding metallic stent (drug stent, DS) and a polyurethane-covered, self-expanding metallic stent (control stent, CS) alternately in each left main bronchus and left lower lobe bronchus in 12 dogs. The stents were 20 mm in diameter and length when fully expanded. The dose of DXM was approximately 36.7 mg in each DS, but was absent in the CS. The dogs were euthanased 1 week (n=4), 2 weeks (n=4) or 4 weeks (n=4) after stent placement. Histologic findings, such as epithelial erosion/ulcer or granulation tissue thickness, were obtained from the mid-portion of the bronchus, where the stent had been placed, and evaluated between DS and CS. There were no procedure-related complications or malpositioning of any of the bronchial stents. Stent migration was detected in one dog just before euthanasia 1 week following stent placement. Stent patency was maintained until euthanasia in all dogs. Epithelial erosion/ulcer (%) was significantly less in the DS (mean{+-}standard deviation, 46.88{+-}23.75) than in the CS (73.75{+-}14.08) (P=0.026) for all time-points. There was a decrease in epithelial erosion/ulcer as the follow-up period increased in both DS and CS. The granulation tissue thickness (mm) was less in DS (2.63{+-}2.05) than in CS (3.49{+-}2.95), although the difference was not significant (P=0.751) for all time-points. There was a tendency toward an increase in granulation tissue thickness and chronic lymphocytic infiltration as the follow-up period increased in both DS and CS. In conclusion, DXM-eluting, covered, self-expanding metallic stent seems to be effective in reducing tissue reaction secondary to stent placement in a canine bronchial model. (orig.)

  20. Application of a chromatography model with linear gradient elution experimental data to the rapid scale-up in ion-exchange process chromatography of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Takashi; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2007-08-24

    We applied the model described in our previous paper to the rapid scale-up in the ion exchange chromatography of proteins, in which linear flow velocity, column length and gradient slope were changed. We carried out linear gradient elution experiments, and obtained data for the peak salt concentration and peak width. From these data, the plate height (HETP) was calculated as a function of the mobile phase velocity and iso-resolution curve (the separation time and elution volume relationship for the same resolution) was calculated. The scale-up chromatography conditions were determined by the iso-resolution curve. The scale-up of the linear gradient elution from 5 to 100mL and 2.5L column sizes was performed both by the separation of beta-lactoglobulin A and beta-lactoglobulin B with anion-exchange chromatography and by the purification of a recombinant protein with cation-exchange chromatography. Resolution, recovery and purity were examined in order to verify the proposed method.

  1. Tissue coverage of a hydrophilic polymer-coated zotarolimus-eluting stent vs. a fluoropolymer-coated everolimus-eluting stent at 13-month follow-up: an optical coherence tomography substudy from the RESOLUTE All Comers trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutiérrez-Chico, Juan Luis; van Geuns, Robert Jan; Regar, Evelyn;

    2011-01-01

    To compare the tissue coverage of a hydrophilic polymer-coated zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES) vs. a fluoropolymer-coated everolimus-eluting stent (EES) at 13 months, using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in an 'all-comers' population of patients, in order to clarify the mechanism of eventual ...

  2. A 10-month angiographic and 4-year clinical outcome of everolimus-eluting versus sirolimus-eluting coronary stents in patients with diabetes mellitus (the diabedES IV randomized angiography trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeng, Michael; Baranauskas, Arvydas; Christiansen, Evald H J;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare angiographic and clinical outcomes after the implantation of everolimus-eluting (EES) and sirolimus-eluting (SES) stents in patients with diabetes. BACKGROUND: There are limited data on long-term outcome after EES vs SES implantation in diabetic patients. METHODS: W...

  3. Incidence and Potential Mechanism(s) of Post-Procedural Rise of Cardiac Biomarker in Patients With Coronary Artery Narrowing After Implantation of an Everolimus-Eluting Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold or Everolimus-Eluting Metallic Stent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishibashi, Yuki; Muramatsu, Takashi; Nakatani, Shimpei;

    2015-01-01

    to Compare the Safety, Efficacy, and Performance of Absorb Everolimus Eluting Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold System Against Xience Everolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System in the Treatment of Subjects With Ischemic Heart Disease Caused by De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions [ABSORB II]; NCT01425281)....

  4. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  5. I-94 Automation FAQs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — In order to increase efficiency, reduce operating costs and streamline the admissions process, U.S. Customs and Border Protection has automated Form I-94 at air and...

  6. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  7. Hydrometeorological Automated Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of Hydrologic Development of the National Weather Service operates HADS, the Hydrometeorological Automated Data System. This data set contains the last 48...

  8. Automating the Media Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Mary A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need to develop more efficient information retrieval skills by the use of new technology. Lists four stages used in automating the media center. Describes North Carolina's pilot programs. Proposes benefits and looks at the media center's future. (MVL)

  9. Disassembly automation automated systems with cognitive abilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vongbunyong, Supachai

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a number of aspects to be considered in the development of disassembly automation, including the mechanical system, vision system and intelligent planner. The implementation of cognitive robotics increases the flexibility and degree of autonomy of the disassembly system. Disassembly, as a step in the treatment of end-of-life products, can allow the recovery of embodied value left within disposed products, as well as the appropriate separation of potentially-hazardous components. In the end-of-life treatment industry, disassembly has largely been limited to manual labor, which is expensive in developed countries. Automation is one possible solution for economic feasibility. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  10. Selective arsenic speciation analysis of human urine reference materials using gradient elution ion-exchange HPLC-ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Julshamn, K.

    2004-01-01

    Arsenic speciation analysis was performed in two human urine certified reference materials (NIES No. 18 and NIST SRM2670a) and three human urine control materials (Seronorm, Medisafe and Lyphocheck). The samples were diluted 1 + 3 prior to analysis by gradient elution anion or cation exchange high-performance...... liquid chromatography ( HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Nine arsenic species, including arsenic acid, arsenous acid, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenobetaine, trimethylarsine oxide, dimethylarsinoylacetic acid, trimethylarsoniopropionate...... and dimethylarsinoylethanol, were determined in the urines. Additionally, several unknown arsenicals were detected. This is the first time that dimethylarsinoylacetic acid and trimethylarsoniopropionate have been reported in human urine. The sums of the species concentrations determined by the chromatographic approaches were...

  11. ACCOUNTING AUTOMATIONS RISKS

    OpenAIRE

    Муравський, В. В.; Хома, Н. Г.

    2015-01-01

    Accountant accepts active voice in organization of the automated account in the conditions of the informative systems introduction in enterprise activity. Effective accounting automation needs identification and warning of organizational risks. Authors researched, classified and generalized the risks of introduction of the informative accounting systems. The ways of liquidation of the organizational risks sources andminimization of their consequences are gives. The method of the effective con...

  12. Instant Sikuli test automation

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to follow style using the Starter guide approach.This book is aimed at automation and testing professionals who want to use Sikuli to automate GUI. Some Python programming experience is assumed.

  13. Automated security management

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Shaer, Ehab; Xie, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    In this contributed volume, leading international researchers explore configuration modeling and checking, vulnerability and risk assessment, configuration analysis, and diagnostics and discovery. The authors equip readers to understand automated security management systems and techniques that increase overall network assurability and usability. These constantly changing networks defend against cyber attacks by integrating hundreds of security devices such as firewalls, IPSec gateways, IDS/IPS, authentication servers, authorization/RBAC servers, and crypto systems. Automated Security Managemen

  14. Automation of Diagrammatic Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Jamnik, Mateja; Bundy, Alan; Green, Ian

    1997-01-01

    Theorems in automated theorem proving are usually proved by logical formal proofs. However, there is a subset of problems which humans can prove in a different way by the use of geometric operations on diagrams, so called diagrammatic proofs. Insight is more clearly perceived in these than in the corresponding algebraic proofs: they capture an intuitive notion of truthfulness that humans find easy to see and understand. We are identifying and automating this diagrammatic reasoning on mathemat...

  15. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  16. Drug-eluting stents and bare metal stents in patients with NSTE-ACS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune Haahr; Pfisterer, Matthias; Kaiser, Christoph;

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The use of drug-eluting stents (DES) in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) is controversial and not yet endorsed in clinical guidelines. Methods and results: This was an a priori planned post hoc analysis involving 754 NSTE-ACS patients from the random...

  17. The next generation of drug-eluting stents: What's on the horizon?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Ramcharitar (Steve); S. Vaina (Sophia); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractDrug-eluting stents have radically changed the way we treat coronary artery disease. They offer lower restenotic rates compared with the bare metal stents and this enables more challenging and complex lesions to be treated. However, there are still limitations as restenosis has not been

  18. Effectiveness of sirolimus-eluting stent implantation for the treatment of coronary artery disease in octogenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Maniyal; Lemos, Pedro A; Hoye, Angela; Ong, Andrew T L; Aoki, Jiro; Granillo, Gaston Rodriguez; McFadden, Eugene P; Sianos, Georgios; Hofma, Sjoerd H; Smits, Pieter C; van der Giessen, Willem J; de Feyter, Pim; van Domburg, Ron T; Cummins, Paul A; Serruys, Patrick W

    2004-10-01

    Sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) implantation has been shown to reduce repeat revascularization in various randomized trials. The present study evaluated the outcomes after SES implantation in 46 octogenarian patients. SES implantation in octogenarians appears to be feasible and is associated with very small subsequent need for repeat target vessel revascularization at 1 year.

  19. Percutaneous radial intervention for complex bilateral renal artery stenosis using paclitaxel eluting stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granillo, Gastón A Rodriguez; van Dijk, Lukas C; McFadden, Eugène P; Serruys, Patrick W

    2005-01-01

    Techniques used in the coronary circulation may be useful in peripheral intervention. We report a case of bilateral renal artery stenosis treated via a radial approach by direct stenting with distal protection at a right ostial lesion and modified crush stenting at a left renal bifurcation lesion using paclitaxel-eluting stents.

  20. REUSABILITY OF BOND ELUT CERTIFY COLUMNS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF DRUGS FROM PLASMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CHEN, XH; FRANKE, JP; WIJSBEEK, J; DEZEEUW, RA

    1993-01-01

    The reusability of Bond Elut Certify columns for the extraction of toxicologically relevant drugs from plasma has been evaluated. Pentobarbital, hexobarbital, mepivacaine, trimipramine and clonazepam were selected as test drugs to represent various classes of drugs. The columns were regenerated imme

  1. Coronary aneurysm and very late stent thrombosis formation associated with sirolimus-eluting stent implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hong-zhi; ZHANG Shu-yang; ZENG Yong; SHEN Zhu-jun; FANG Quan

    2009-01-01

    @@ Since drug-eluting stents (DES) can significantly reduce the risk of instant restenosis compared with bare-metal stents, they have been widely used in interventional therapy for coronary heart disease. With bare-metal stents being rapidly replaced by DES there is a great concern about the safety of DES due to stent thrombosis.~(1,2)

  2. Late stent thrombosis: a not negligible issue after drug-eluting stent implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Run-lin

    2007-01-01

    @@ Drug-eluting stent (DES) has markedly reduced restenosis and the need for target lesion revascularization (TLR). The safety profile of DES does not seem to differ from that of bare metal stent in the acute and subacute phases following coronary intervention.

  3. Bioresorbable drug-eluting magnesium-alloy scaffold for treatment of coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A.M. Campos (Carlos); T. Muramatsu (Takashi); A. Iqbal (Anwarul); Y.-J. Zhang (Ya-Jun); Y. Onuma (Yoshinobu); H.M. Garcia-Garcia (Hector); M. Haude; P.A. Lemos Neto (Pedro); B. Warnack (Boris); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe introduction of metallic drug-eluting stents has reduced the risk of restenosis and widened the indications of percutaneous coronary intervention in treatment of coronary artery disease. However, this medical device can induce hypersensitive reaction that interferes with the endothel

  4. A bioengineered drug-Eluting scaffold accelerated cutaneous wound healing In diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Ding, Guoshan; Shi, Xiaoming; Guo, Wenyuan; Ni, Zhijia; Fu, Hong; Fu, Zhiren

    2016-09-01

    Hyperglycemia in diabetic patients can greatly hinder the wound healing process. In this study we investigated if the engagement of F4/80(+) murine macrophages could accelerate the cutaneous wound healing in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. To facilitate the engagement of macrophages, we engineered a drug-eluting electrospun scaffold with a payload of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). MCP-1 could be readily released from the scaffold within 3 days. The electrospun scaffold showed no cytotoxic effects on human keratinocytes in vitro. Full-thickness excisional cutaneous wound was created in diabetic mice. The wound fully recovered within 10 days in mice treated with the drug-eluting scaffold. In contrast, the wound took 14 days to fully recover in control groups. The use of drug-eluting scaffold also improved the re-epithelialization. Furthermore, we observed a larger population of F4/80(+) macrophages in the wound bed of mice treated with drug-eluting scaffolds on day 3. This marked increase of macrophages in the wound bed could have contributed to the accelerated wound healing. Our study shed new light on an immuno-engineering solution for wound healing management in diabetic patients.

  5. AN ALTERNATIVE ELUENT TO BEEF EXTRACT FOR ELUTING POLIOVIRUS FROM ELECTROPOSITIVE FILTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional methods for enteric virus removal from waters involve filtering the water through a positively charged filter followed by elution with beef extract, second step concentration by flocculation, and assay in cell culture. Two of the problems associated with this method ...

  6. Long-Term Safety of Drug-Eluting and Bare-Metal Stents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmerini, Tullio; Benedetto, Umberto; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous meta-analyses have investigated the relative safety and efficacy profiles of different types of drug-eluting stents (DES) and bare-metal stents (BMS); however, most prior trials in these meta-analyses reported follow-up to only 1 year, and as such, the relative long-term safe...

  7. Drug-eluting versus bare-metal stents in large coronary arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Christoph; Galatius, Soeren; Erne, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Recent data have suggested that patients with coronary disease in large arteries are at increased risk for late cardiac events after percutaneous intervention with first-generation drug-eluting stents, as compared with bare-metal stents. We sought to confirm this observation and to assess whether...

  8. Hypersensitivity to drug-eluting stent and stent thrombosis: Kounis or not Kounis syndrome?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Wei; CHENG Kang-lin; CHEN Qiu-xiong

    2009-01-01

    @@ With the utilization of coronary-stents, coronary remodeling and restenosis were reduced compared with balloon angioplasty alone.~1 However, the risk of restenosis is still in the range of 15% to 20%. Drug-eluting stents (DES), which could release antiproliferative pharmacological agents after deployment. were designed to inhibit the response to injury reaction after bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation.

  9. Clinical assessment of drug-eluting stents: Twente trial and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tandjung, K.

    2014-01-01

    Stents have revolutionized the treatment of obstructive coronary disease by improving the safety of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and reducing the need for repeat revascularization. First-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) were highly efficacious, as they further reduced the need for re

  10. Genetic circuit design automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Alec A K; Der, Bryan S; Shin, Jonghyeon; Vaidyanathan, Prashant; Paralanov, Vanya; Strychalski, Elizabeth A; Ross, David; Densmore, Douglas; Voigt, Christopher A

    2016-04-01

    Computation can be performed in living cells by DNA-encoded circuits that process sensory information and control biological functions. Their construction is time-intensive, requiring manual part assembly and balancing of regulator expression. We describe a design environment, Cello, in which a user writes Verilog code that is automatically transformed into a DNA sequence. Algorithms build a circuit diagram, assign and connect gates, and simulate performance. Reliable circuit design requires the insulation of gates from genetic context, so that they function identically when used in different circuits. We used Cello to design 60 circuits forEscherichia coli(880,000 base pairs of DNA), for which each DNA sequence was built as predicted by the software with no additional tuning. Of these, 45 circuits performed correctly in every output state (up to 10 regulators and 55 parts), and across all circuits 92% of the output states functioned as predicted. Design automation simplifies the incorporation of genetic circuits into biotechnology projects that require decision-making, control, sensing, or spatial organization.

  11. Automated bioacoustic identification of species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chesmore

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into the automated identification of animals by bioacoustics is becoming more widespread mainly due to difficulties in carrying out manual surveys. This paper describes automated recognition of insects (Orthoptera using time domain signal coding and artificial neural networks. Results of field recordings made in the UK in 2002 are presented which show that it is possible to accurately recognize 4 British Orthoptera species in natural conditions under high levels of interference. Work is under way to increase the number of species recognized.Pesquisas sobre a identificação automatizada de animais através da bioacústica estão se ampliando, principalmente em vista das dificuldades para realizar levantamentos diretos. Este artigo descreve o reconhecimento automático de insetos Orthoptera utilizando a codificação de sinal no domínio temporal e redes neurais artificiais. Resultados de registros sonoros feitos no campo no Reino Unido em 2002 são apresentados, mostrando ser possível reconhecer corretamente 4 espécies britânicas de Orthoptera em condições naturais com altos níveis de interferências. Estão em andamento trabalhos para aumentar o número de espécies identificadas.

  12. Extensible automated dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Songqing; Hu, Lu; Chen, Ketao; Gao, Haixiang, E-mail: hxgao@cau.edu.cn

    2015-05-04

    Highlights: • An extensible automated dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction was developed. • A fully automatic SPE workstation with a modified operation program was used. • Ionic liquid-based in situ DLLME was used as model method. • SPE columns packed with nonwoven polypropylene fiber was used for phase separation. • The approach was applied to the determination of benzoylurea insecticides in water. - Abstract: In this study, a convenient and extensible automated ionic liquid-based in situ dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (automated IL-based in situ DLLME) was developed. 1-Octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl]imide ([C{sub 8}MIM]NTf{sub 2}) is formed through the reaction between [C{sub 8}MIM]Cl and lithium bis[(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl]imide (LiNTf{sub 2}) to extract the analytes. Using a fully automatic SPE workstation, special SPE columns packed with nonwoven polypropylene (NWPP) fiber, and a modified operation program, the procedures of the IL-based in situ DLLME, including the collection of a water sample, injection of an ion exchange solvent, phase separation of the emulsified solution, elution of the retained extraction phase, and collection of the eluent into vials, can be performed automatically. The developed approach, coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection (HPLC–DAD), was successfully applied to the detection and concentration determination of benzoylurea (BU) insecticides in water samples. Parameters affecting the extraction performance were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method achieved extraction recoveries of 80% to 89% for water samples. The limits of detection (LODs) of the method were in the range of 0.16–0.45 ng mL{sup −1}. The intra-column and inter-column relative standard deviations (RSDs) were <8.6%. Good linearity (r > 0.9986) was obtained over the calibration range from 2 to 500 ng mL{sup −1}. The proposed

  13. Paclitaxel Drug-eluting Tracheal Stent Could Reduce Granulation Tissue Formation in a Canine Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Wang; Jie Zhang; Juan Wang; Ying-Hua Pei; Xiao-Jian Qiu; Yu-Ling Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Currently available silicone and metallic stents for tracheal stenosis are associated with many problems.Granulation proliferation is one of the main complications.The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of paclitaxel drug-eluting tracheal stent in reducing granulation tissue formation in a canine model,as well as the pharmacokinetic features and safety profiles of the coated drug.Methods:Eight beagles were randomly divided into a control group (bare-metal stent group,n =4) and an experimental group (paclitaxel-eluting stent group,n =4).The observation period was 5 months.One beagle in both groups was sacrificed at the end of the 1st and 3rd months,respectively.The last two beagles in both groups were sacrificed at the end of 5th month.The proliferation of granulation tissue and changes in tracheal mucosa were compared between the two groups.Blood routine and liver and kidney function were monitored to evaluate the safety of the paclitaxel-eluting stent.The elution method and high-performance liquid chromatography were used to characterize the rate of in vivo release of paclitaxel from the stent.Results:Compared with the control group,the proliferation of granulation tissue in the experimental group was significantly reduced.The drug release of paclitaxel-eluting stent was the fastest in the 1st month after implantation (up to 70.9%).Then,the release slowed down gradually.By the 54 month,the release reached up to 98.5%.During the observation period,a high concentration of the drug in the trachea (in the stented and adjacent unstented areas) and lung tissue was not noted,and the blood test showed no side effect.Conclusions:The paclitaxel-eluting stent could safely reduce the granulation tissue formation after stent implantation in vivo,suggesting that the paclitaxel-eluting tracheal stent might be considered for potential use in humans in the future.

  14. Elements of EAF automation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Dragna, E. C.

    2017-01-01

    Our article presents elements of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) automation. So, we present and analyze detailed two automation schemes: the scheme of electrical EAF automation system; the scheme of thermic EAF automation system. The application results of these scheme of automation consists in: the sensitive reduction of specific consummation of electrical energy of Electric Arc Furnace, increasing the productivity of Electric Arc Furnace, increase the quality of the developed steel, increasing the durability of the building elements of Electric Arc Furnace.

  15. Detection of Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica in clinical stool samples by using multiplex real-time PCR after automated DNA isolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lint, P; Rossen, J W; Vermeiren, S; Ver Elst, K; Weekx, S; Van Schaeren, J; Jeurissen, A

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of intestinal parasites in stool samples is generally still carried out by microscopy; however, this technique is known to suffer from a low sensitivity and is unable to discriminate between certain protozoa. In order to overcome these limitations, a real-time multiplex PCR was evaluated a

  16. Outcomes after revascularisation with everolimus- and sirolimus-eluting stents in patients with acute coronary syndromes and stable angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Lisbeth; Thayssen, Per; Hansen, Henrik S

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this substudy of the SORT OUT IV trial was to compare clinical outcomes among patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and stable angina pectoris (SAP) treated with everolimus-eluting stents (EES) or sirolimus-eluting stents (SES). Methods and results: We performed a post hoc...

  17. SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION OF MORPHINE FROM WHOLE-BLOOD BY MEANS OF BOND ELUT CERTIFY COLUMNS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CHEN, XH; HOMMERSON, ALC; ZWEIPFENNING, PGM; FRANKE, JP; HARMENBOVERHOF, CW; ENSING, K; DEZEEUW, RA

    1993-01-01

    The use of Bond Elut Certify columns for the isolation of morphine from whole blood was evaluated. In order to monitor possible losses and the elution profile of morphine, a small amount of the tritiated analogue was added to the samples. Four sample pretreatment methods, three protein precipitation

  18. Small-Column Cesium Ion Exchange Elution Testing of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Garrett N.; Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-10-21

    This report summarizes the work performed to evaluate multiple, cesium loading, and elution cycles for small columns containing SRF resin using a simple, high-level waste (HLW) simulant. Cesium ion exchange loading and elution curves were generated for a nominal 5 M Na, 2.4E-05 M Cs, 0.115 M Al loading solution traced with 134Cs followed by elution with variable HNO3 (0.02, 0.07, 0.15, 0.23, and 0.28 M) containing variable CsNO3 (5.0E-09, 5.0E-08, and 5.0E-07 M) and traced with 137Cs. The ion exchange system consisted of a pump, tubing, process solutions, and a single, small ({approx}15.7 mL) bed of SRF resin with a water-jacketed column for temperature-control. The columns were loaded with approximately 250 bed volumes (BVs) of feed solution at 45 C and at 1.5 to 12 BV per hour (0.15 to 1.2 cm/min). The columns were then eluted with 29+ BVs of HNO3 processed at 25 C and at 1.4 BV/h. The two independent tracers allowed analysis of the on-column cesium interaction between the loading and elution solutions. The objective of these tests was to improve the correlation between the spent resin cesium content and cesium leached out of the resin in subsequent loading cycles (cesium leakage) to help establish acid strength and purity requirements.

  19. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin production genes from patient samples using an automated extraction platform and multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiefari, Amy K; Perry, Michael J; Kelly-Cirino, Cassandra; Egan, Christina T

    2015-12-01

    To minimize specimen volume, handling and testing time, we have developed two TaqMan(®) multiplex real-time PCR (rtPCR) assays to detect staphylococcal enterotoxins A-E and Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin production genes directly from clinical patient stool specimens utilizing a novel lysis extraction process in parallel with the Roche MagNA Pure Compact. These assays are specific, sensitive and reliable for the detection of the staphylococcal enterotoxin encoding genes and the tst1 gene from known toxin producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Specificity was determined by testing a total of 47 microorganism strains, including 8 previously characterized staphylococcal enterotoxin producing strains against each rtPCR target. Sensitivity for these assays range from 1 to 25 cfu per rtPCR reaction for cultured isolates and 8-20 cfu per rtPCR for the clinical stool matrix.

  20. Early vascular healing with rapid breakdown biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting versus durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents assessed by optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Tomohisa, E-mail: tomohisa@dhm.mhn.de [Deutsches Herzzentrum, Technische Universität, München (Germany); Byrne, Robert A. [Deutsches Herzzentrum, Technische Universität, München (Germany); Schuster, Tibor [Institut für Medizinische Statistik und Epidemiologie, München (Germany); Cuni, Rezarta [Deutsches Herzzentrum, Technische Universität, München (Germany); Kitabata, Hironori [Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama (Japan); Tiroch, Klaus [Deutsches Herzzentrum, Technische Universität, München (Germany); Dirninger, Alfred; Gratze, Franz; Kaspar, Klaus; Zenker, Gerald [Landeskrankenhaus Bruck/Mur (Austria); Joner, Michael; Schömig, Albert; Kastrati, Adnan [Deutsches Herzzentrum, Technische Universität, München (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Background: Differences in early arterial healing patterns after stent implantation between biodegradable and durable polymer based new generation drug-eluting stents are not well understood. The aim of this study was to compare the healing patterns of a novel rapid breakdown (≤ 8 weeks) biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent (BP-SES) with a durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent (EES) using intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) at 4 months. Methods: A total of 20 patients were randomly assigned to stenting with BP-SES (n = 11) or EES (n = 9). Overall intravascular imaging was available for 15 (75%) patients. The primary endpoint was the difference in rate of uncovered struts between BP-SES and EES. To account for strut-level clustering, the results in both treatment groups were compared using a generalized linear mixed model approach. Results: Regarding the primary endpoint, BP-SES as compared to EES showed similar rates of uncovered struts (37 [6.8%] versus 167 [17.5%], odds ratio (OR) 0.45 (95% CI 0.09-2.24), p = 0.33). There were no malapposed struts in BP-SES group and 14 malapposed struts in EES group (p = 0.97). No difference in percent neointimal volume (14.1 ± 8.2% vs. 11.4 ± 6.4%, p = 0.56) was observed. Conclusions: Although rapid-breakdown BP-SES as compared to EES showed signs of improved early tissue coverage, after adjustment for strut-level clustering these differences were not statistically significant. No differences in ability to suppress neointimal hyperplasia after stent implantation between 2 stents were observed.

  1. Size- and density-dependent elution of normal and pathological red blood cells by gravitational field-flow fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardot, P J; Elgéa, C; Guernet, M; Godet, D; Andreux, J P

    1994-04-01

    Elution of normal and pathological human red blood cells (RBCs) was performed by gravitational field-flow fractionation (GFFF). The reproducibility of the retention factor was lower than 10% and elution at high and low flow-rates confirmed the existence of "lifting forces". No direct correlation between size and retention was observed for normal RBCs in the absence of density information. Elution of pathological human RBCs, known to be modified in shape, density and rigidity, was performed. The elution parameters confirmed that the retention mechanism of RBCs is at least density dependent but that other factors can be involved, such as shape or deformity. Moreover, peak profile description parameters (standard deviation and asymmetry) can be qualitatively related to some biophysical parameters. Numerous elution characteristics can be linked to cell properties described in the literature and although GFFF appeared to have limited capabilities in terms of size analysis it appeared to be a versatile tool for studying cell biophysical characteristics.

  2. Efficacy and safety of drug-eluting stent implantation for the treatment of in-stent restenosis occurring within bare-metal stent and drug-eluting stent*

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Heng; Zhang, Qing; Zhou, Wei; He, Qing; Han, Zhi-hua; He, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is the primary treatment modality for bare-metal stent (BMS) in-stent restenosis (ISR), little is known about the efficacy and safety profile of DES in the treatment of DES-ISR. The goal of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes following DES treatment for BMS-ISR and DES-ISR. Methods: Rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were compared in 97 consecutive patients who underwent DES implantation for the treatment of ISR (...

  3. An Automated Approach to Map the History of Forest Disturbance from Insect Mortality and Harvest with Landsat Time-Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill-Neigh, Christopher S.; Bolton, Douglas K.; Diabate, Mouhamad; Williams, Jennifer J.; Carvalhais, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    Forests contain a majority of the aboveground carbon (C) found in ecosystems, and understanding biomass lost from disturbance is essential to improve our C-cycle knowledge. Our study region in the Wisconsin and Minnesota Laurentian Forest had a strong decline in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from 1982 to 2007, observed with the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). To understand the potential role of disturbances in the terrestrial C-cycle, we developed an algorithm to map forest disturbances from either harvest or insect outbreak for Landsat time-series stacks. We merged two image analysis approaches into one algorithm to monitor forest change that included: (1) multiple disturbance index thresholds to capture clear-cut harvest; and (2) a spectral trajectory-based image analysis with multiple confidence interval thresholds to map insect outbreak. We produced 20 maps and evaluated classification accuracy with air-photos and insect air-survey data to understand the performance of our algorithm. We achieved overall accuracies ranging from 65% to 75%, with an average accuracy of 72%. The producer's and user's accuracy ranged from a maximum of 32% to 70% for insect disturbance, 60% to 76% for insect mortality and 82% to 88% for harvested forest, which was the dominant disturbance agent. Forest disturbances accounted for 22% of total forested area (7349 km2). Our algorithm provides a basic approach to map disturbance history where large impacts to forest stands have occurred and highlights the limited spectral sensitivity of Landsat time-series to outbreaks of defoliating insects. We found that only harvest and insect mortality events can be mapped with adequate accuracy with a non-annual Landsat time-series. This limited our land cover understanding of NDVI decline drivers. We demonstrate that to capture more subtle disturbances with spectral trajectories, future observations

  4. Method to predict the bandwidth of elution profile under the linear gradient elution in reversed-phase HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Weon; Row, Kyung Ho

    2009-01-01

    Solute migration in a chromatographic column is an important consideration when designing batch or continuous chromatographic separation processes. Most design methods for the chromatographic processes are based on the equilibrium theory which concerns only the migration velocity of the solute. However, in real cases, it is important to predict the zone spreading which occurs by axial dispersion and mass transfer resistance. To predict the actual solute profiles in the column or effluent stream, numerical methods to solve nonlinear partial differential equations have been used. However, these methods involve much time and expense. In this work, two different rate factors are considered to predict the characteristics of the solute profiles. The first is solute migration velocity and the second is the zone spreading rate. The zone spreading rate can be estimated by the apparent axial dispersion coefficient which is obtained from the height of the equivalent theoretical plate in particular. Four benzene derivatives (benzene, toluene, p-xylene, and acetophenone) were used as model solutes, and two mobile phase systems, water/methanol and water/ACN, were used in RP-HPLC. The bandwidths and retention times of the solutes were predicted under several linear gradient conditions. The predicted and experimental bandwidths and retention times showed good agreement.

  5. A system-level approach to automation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, F. W.; Orlando, N. E.

    1984-01-01

    Automation is the application of self-regulating mechanical and electronic devices to processes that can be accomplished with the human organs of perception, decision, and actuation. The successful application of automation to a system process should reduce man/system interaction and the perceived complexity of the system, or should increase affordability, productivity, quality control, and safety. The expense, time constraints, and risk factors associated with extravehicular activities have led the Automation Technology Branch (ATB), as part of the NASA Automation Research and Technology Program, to investigate the use of robots and teleoperators as automation aids in the context of space operations. The ATB program addresses three major areas: (1) basic research in autonomous operations, (2) human factors research on man-machine interfaces with remote systems, and (3) the integration and analysis of automated systems. This paper reviews the current ATB research in the area of robotics and teleoperators.

  6. Cassini Tour Atlas Automated Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kevin R.; Roumeliotis, Chris; Lange, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    During the Cassini spacecraft s cruise phase and nominal mission, the Cassini Science Planning Team developed and maintained an online database of geometric and timing information called the Cassini Tour Atlas. The Tour Atlas consisted of several hundreds of megabytes of EVENTS mission planning software outputs, tables, plots, and images used by mission scientists for observation planning. Each time the nominal mission trajectory was altered or tweaked, a new Tour Atlas had to be regenerated manually. In the early phases of Cassini s Equinox Mission planning, an a priori estimate suggested that mission tour designers would develop approximately 30 candidate tours within a short period of time. So that Cassini scientists could properly analyze the science opportunities in each candidate tour quickly and thoroughly so that the optimal series of orbits for science return could be selected, a separate Tour Atlas was required for each trajectory. The task of manually generating the number of trajectory analyses in the allotted time would have been impossible, so the entire task was automated using code written in five different programming languages. This software automates the generation of the Cassini Tour Atlas database. It performs with one UNIX command what previously took a day or two of human labor.

  7. Development and validation of a real-time reduced field of view imaging driven by automated needle detection for MRI-guided interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görlitz, Roland A.; Tokuda, Junichi; Hoge, Scott W.; Chu, Renxin; Panych, Lawrence P.; Tempany, Clare; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2010-02-01

    Automatic tracking and scan plane control in MRI-guided therapy is an active area of research. However, there has been little research on tracking needles without the use of external markers. Current methods also do not account for possible needle bending, because the tip does not get tracked explicitly. In this paper, we present a preliminary method to track a biopsy needle in real-time MR images based on its visible susceptibility artifact and automatically adjust the next scan plane in a closed loop to keep the needle's tip in the field of view. The images were acquired with a Single Shot Fast Spin Echo (SSFSE) sequence combined with a reduced field of view (rFOV) technique using 2D RF pulses, which allows a reduction in scan time without compromising spatial resolution. The needle tracking software was implemented as a plug-in module for open-source medical image visualization software 3D Slicer to display the current scan plane with the highlighted needle. Tests using a gel phantom and an ex vivo tissue sample are reported and evaluated in respect to performance and accuracy. The results proved that the method allows an image update rate of one frame per second with a root mean squared error within 4 mm. The proposed method may therefore be feasible in MRI-guided targeted therapy, such as prostate biopsies.

  8. Automated Linear Function Submission-Based Double Auction as Bottom-up Real-Time Pricing in a Regional Prosumers’ Electricity Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Taniguchi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A linear function submission-based double auction (LFS-DA mechanism for a regional electricity network is proposed in this paper. Each agent in the network is equipped with a battery and a generator. Each agent simultaneously becomes a producer and consumer of electricity, i.e., a prosumer, and trades electricity in the regional market at a variable price. In the LFS-DA, each agent uses linear demand and supply functions when they submit bids and asks to an auctioneer in the regional market. The LFS-DA can achieve an exact balance between electricity demand and supply for each time slot throughout the learning phase and was shown capable of solving the primal problem of maximizing the social welfare of the network without any central price setter, e.g., a utility or a large electricity company, in contrast with conventional real-time pricing (RTP. This paper presents a clarification of the relationship between the RTP algorithm derived on the basis of a dual decomposition framework and LFS-DA. Specifically, we proved that the changes in the price profile of the LFS-DA mechanism are equal to those achieved by the RTP mechanism derived from the dual decomposition framework, except for a constant factor.

  9. A Post-Occupancy Monitored Evaluation of the Dimmable Lighting, Automated Shading, and Underfloor Air Distribution System in The New York Times Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fernandes, L. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffey, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Clear, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Webster, T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bauman, F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Heinzerling, D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoyt, T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    With aggressive goals to reduce national energy use and carbon emissions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will be looking to exemplary buildings that have already invested in new approaches to achieving the energy performance goals now needed at a national level. The New York Times Building, in New York, New York, incorporates a number of innovative technologies, systems and processes and could become model for widespread replication in new and existing buildings. A year-long monitored study was conducted to verify energy performance, assess occupant comfort and satisfaction with the indoor environment, and evaluate impact on maintenance and operations. Lessons learned were derived from the analysis; these lessons could help identify and shape policy, financial, or supporting strategies to accelerate diffusion in the commercial building market.

  10. A post-occupancy monitored evaluation of the dimmable lighting, automated shading, and underfloor air distribution system in The New York Times Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fernandes, Luis L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffey, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Clear, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Webster, Tom [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bauman, Fred [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, Darryl [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Heinzerling, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoyt, Tyler [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    With aggressive goals to reduce national energy use and carbon emissions, the US Department of Energy will be looking to exemplary buildings that have already invested in new approaches to achieving the energy performance goals now needed at a national level. The New York Times Building, in New York, New York, incorporates a number of innovative technologies, systems and processes and could become a model for widespread replication in new and existing buildings. Post-occupancy data are invaluable in establishing confidence in innovation. A year-long monitored study was conducted to verify energy performance, assess occupant comfort and satisfaction with the indoor environment, and evaluate impacts on maintenance and operations. Lessons learned were derived from the analysis; these lessons could help identify and shape policy, financial, or supporting strategies to accelerate diffusion in the commercial building market.

  11. Measurements of CO2 exchange with an automated chamber system throughout the year: challenges in measuring night-time respiration on porous peat soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koskinen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We built an automatic chamber system to measure greenhouse gas (GHG exchange in forested peatland ecosystems. We aimed to build a system robust enough which would work throughout the year and could measure through a changing snowpack in addition to producing annual GHG fluxes by integrating the measurements without the need of using models. The system worked rather well throughout the year, but it was not service free. Gap filling of data was still necessary. We observed problems in carbon dioxide (CO2 respiration flux estimation during calm summer nights, when a CO2 concentration gradient from soil/moss system to atmosphere builds up. Chambers greatly overestimated the night-time respiration. This was due to the disturbance caused by the chamber to the soil-moss CO2 gradient and consequent initial pulse of CO2 to the chamber headspace. We tested different flux calculation and measurement methods to solve this problem. The estimated flux was strongly dependent on (1 the starting point of the fit after closing the chamber, (2 the length of the fit, (3 the type of the fit (linear and polynomial, (4 the speed of the fan mixing the air inside the chamber, and (5 atmospheric turbulence (friction velocity, u*. The best fitting method (the most robust, least random variation for respiration measurements on our sites was linear fitting with the period of 120–240 s after chamber closure. Furthermore, the fan should be adjusted to spin at minimum speed to avoid the pulse-effect, but it should be kept on to ensure mixing. If night-time problems cannot be solved, emissions can be estimated using daytime data from opaque chambers.

  12. An automated SO2 camera system for continuous, real-time monitoring of gas emissions from Kīlauea Volcano's summit Overlook Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Christoph; Sutton, Jeff; Elias, Tamar; Lee, Robert Lopaka; Kamibayashi, Kevan P.; Antolik, Loren; Werner, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    SO2 camera systems allow rapid two-dimensional imaging of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted from volcanic vents. Here, we describe the development of an SO2 camera system specifically designed for semi-permanent field installation and continuous use. The integration of innovative but largely “off-the-shelf” components allowed us to assemble a robust and highly customizable instrument capable of continuous, long-term deployment at Kīlauea Volcano's summit Overlook Crater. Recorded imagery is telemetered to the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) where a novel automatic retrieval algorithm derives SO2 column densities and emission rates in real-time. Imagery and corresponding emission rates displayed in the HVO operations center and on the internal observatory website provide HVO staff with useful information for assessing the volcano's current activity. The ever-growing archive of continuous imagery and high-resolution emission rates in combination with continuous data from other monitoring techniques provides insight into shallow volcanic processes occurring at the Overlook Crater. An exemplary dataset from September 2013 is discussed in which a variation in the efficiency of shallow circulation and convection, the processes that transport volatile-rich magma to the surface of the summit lava lake, appears to have caused two distinctly different phases of lake activity and degassing. This first successful deployment of an SO2 camera for continuous, real-time volcano monitoring shows how this versatile technique might soon be adapted and applied to monitor SO2 degassing at other volcanoes around the world.

  13. Home automation on the move:

    OpenAIRE

    Imperl, Bojan; Jeřabek, Boro; Šoštarič, Andrej

    2003-01-01

    In this article we would like to show how an arbitrary home and building electronic system based on the home automation standards such as Xl0 might be addressed and controlled by an appropriate mobile technology. Urge for mobility of users, which may be at the same time either the inhabitants of these homes or even administrators and supporters, is growing. The possibility to control and observe the status of home appliances while being on the move away from home using our mobile phones is be...

  14. Automations influence on nuclear power plants: a look at three accidents and how automation played a role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power is one of the ways that we can design an efficient sustainable future. Automation is the primary system used to assist operators in the task of monitoring and controlling nuclear power plants (NPP). Automation performs tasks such as assessing the status of the plant's operations as well as making real time life critical situational specific decisions. While the advantages and disadvantages of automation are well studied in variety of domains, accidents remind us that there is still vulnerability to unknown variables. This paper will look at the effects of automation within three NPP accidents and incidents and will consider why automation failed in preventing these accidents from occurring. It will also review the accidents at the Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima Daiichi NPP's in order to determine where better use of automation could have resulted in a more desirable outcome.

  15. Automated DNA extraction from pollen in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples.

  16. Efficacy of drug-eluting stents for treating in-stent restenosis of drug-eluting stents (from the Korean DES ISR multicenter registry study [KISS]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young-Guk; Kim, Jung-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Choi, Donghoon; Hong, Myeong-Ki; Jeon, Dong Woon; Yang, Joo-Young; Ahn, Young Keun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Yu, Cheol Woong; Yun, Kyeong-Ho; Lim, Do-Sun; Jang, Yangsoo

    2012-03-01

    There is currently no established standard treatment for in-stent restenosis (ISR) after the implantation of a drug-eluting stent (DES). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of DES versus balloon angioplasty (BA) for the treatment of DES ISR in a multicenter registry cohort. After matching propensity scores of 805 patients with DES ISR treated with either DES (n = 422) or BA (n = 383), 268 matched pairs were selected and analyzed for major adverse cardiac events, a composite of death, myocardial infarction, and target-vessel revascularization, as the primary end point. Baseline clinical and lesion characteristics of the matched pairs were similar. Survival free of major adverse cardiac events at 2 years was higher with DES compared to BA (88.9% vs 78.7%, p ISR, and previous implantation of a sirolimus-eluting stent. Survival free of death, myocardial infarction, or stent thrombosis did not differ between the 2 groups. Whereas there was no significant difference in survival free of target vessel revascularization between DES and BA for focal ISR lesions, DES was superior to BA in diffuse ISR lesions (94.3% vs 75.2% at 2 years, p ISR.

  17. An Automated Method for Annual Cropland Mapping along the Season for Various Globally-Distributed Agrosystems Using High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Matton

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cropland mapping relies heavily on field data for algorithm calibration, making it, in many cases, applicable only at the field campaign scale. While the recently launched Sentinel-2 satellite will be able to deliver time series over large regions, it will not really be compatible with the current mapping approach or the available in situ data. This research introduces a generic methodology for mapping annual cropland along the season at high spatial resolution with the use of globally available baseline land cover and no need for field data. The methodology is based on cropland-specific temporal features, which are able to cope with the diversity of agricultural systems, prior information from which mislabeled pixels have been removed and a cost-effective classifier. Thanks to the JECAM network, eight sites across the world were selected for global cropland mapping benchmarking. Accurate cropland maps were produced at the end of the season, showing an overall accuracy of more than 85%. Early cropland maps were also obtained at three-month intervals after the beginning of the growing season, and these showed reasonable accuracy at the three-month stage (>70% overall accuracy and progressive improvement along the season. The trimming-based method was found to be key for using spatially coarse baseline land cover information and, thus, avoiding costly field campaigns for prior information retrieval. The accuracy and timeliness of the proposed approach shows that it has substantial potential for operational agriculture monitoring programs.

  18. Automation, consolidation, and integration in autoimmune diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzoli, Renato; D'Aurizio, Federica; Villalta, Danilo; Bizzaro, Nicola

    2015-08-01

    Over the past two decades, we have witnessed an extraordinary change in autoimmune diagnostics, characterized by the progressive evolution of analytical technologies, the availability of new tests, and the explosive growth of molecular biology and proteomics. Aside from these huge improvements, organizational changes have also occurred which brought about a more modern vision of the autoimmune laboratory. The introduction of automation (for harmonization of testing, reduction of human error, reduction of handling steps, increase of productivity, decrease of turnaround time, improvement of safety), consolidation (combining different analytical technologies or strategies on one instrument or on one group of connected instruments) and integration (linking analytical instruments or group of instruments with pre- and post-analytical devices) opened a new era in immunodiagnostics. In this article, we review the most important changes that have occurred in autoimmune diagnostics and present some models related to the introduction of automation in the autoimmunology laboratory, such as automated indirect immunofluorescence and changes in the two-step strategy for detection of autoantibodies; automated monoplex immunoassays and reduction of turnaround time; and automated multiplex immunoassays for autoantibody profiling.

  19. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  20. Materials Testing and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Wayne D.; Zweigoron, Ronald B.

    1980-07-01

    The advent of automation in materials testing has been in large part responsible for recent radical changes in the materials testing field: Tests virtually impossible to perform without a computer have become more straightforward to conduct. In addition, standardized tests may be performed with enhanced efficiency and repeatability. A typical automated system is described in terms of its primary subsystems — an analog station, a digital computer, and a processor interface. The processor interface links the analog functions with the digital computer; it includes data acquisition, command function generation, and test control functions. Features of automated testing are described with emphasis on calculated variable control, control of a variable that is computed by the processor and cannot be read directly from a transducer. Three calculated variable tests are described: a yield surface probe test, a thermomechanical fatigue test, and a constant-stress-intensity range crack-growth test. Future developments are discussed.

  1. Automation of Taxiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Bursík

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the possibility of automation of taxiing, which is the part of a flight, which, under adverse weather conditions, greatly reduces the operational usability of an airport, and is the only part of a flight that has not been affected by automation, yet. Taxiing is currently handled manually by the pilot, who controls the airplane based on information from visual perception. The article primarily deals with possible ways of obtaining navigational information, and its automatic transfer to the controls. Analyzed wand assessed were currently available technologies such as computer vision, Light Detection and Ranging and Global Navigation Satellite System, which are useful for navigation and their general implementation into an airplane was designed. Obstacles to the implementation were identified, too. The result is a proposed combination of systems along with their installation into airplane’s systems so that it is possible to use the automated taxiing.

  2. An automated image analysis framework for segmentation and division plane detection of single live Staphylococcus aureus cells which can operate at millisecond sampling time scales using bespoke Slimfield microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollman, Adam J. M.; Miller, Helen; Foster, Simon; Leake, Mark C.

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen, giving rise to antimicrobial resistance in cell strains such as Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Here we report an image analysis framework for automated detection and image segmentation of cells in S. aureus cell clusters, and explicit identification of their cell division planes. We use a new combination of several existing analytical tools of image analysis to detect cellular and subcellular morphological features relevant to cell division from millisecond time scale sampled images of live pathogens at a detection precision of single molecules. We demonstrate this approach using a fluorescent reporter GFP fused to the protein EzrA that localises to a mid-cell plane during division and is involved in regulation of cell size and division. This image analysis framework presents a valuable platform from which to study candidate new antimicrobials which target the cell division machinery, but may also have more general application in detecting morphologically complex structures of fluorescently labelled proteins present in clusters of other types of cells.

  3. Automating the CMS DAQ

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Behrens, Ulf; Branson, James; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen Guido; Holzner, Andre Georg; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Morovic, Srecko; Nunez Barranco Fernandez, Carlos; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Ozga, Wojciech Andrzej; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Spataru, Andrei Cristian; Stieger, Benjamin Bastian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Veverka, Jan; Wakefield, Christopher Colin; Zejdl, Petr

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90\\% and to even improve it to 95\\% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  4. Automating the CMS DAQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.; et al.

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90% and to even improve it to 95% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  5. Analysis of the role of elution buffers on the separation capabilities of dielectrophoretic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Di Martino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field flow fractionation dielectrophoretic (FFF-DEP devices are currently used, among the others, for the separation of tumor cells from healthy blood cells. To this end specific suspension/elution buffers (EBs, with reduced conductivity (with respect to that of the cell cytoplasm are generally used. In this paper we investigate the long-term alterations of the cells and elution buffers. We find that the EB conductivity is critically modified within few minutes after cells suspension. In turn, this modification results in a change the ideal separation frequency of the FFF-DEP device. On the other hand we prove that DEP manipulation is preserved for more than three hours for cells suspended in the considered EBs.

  6. The Ultimaster Biodegradable-Polymer Sirolimus-Eluting Stent: An Updated Review of Clinical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisari, Alberto; Pistritto, Anna Maria; Piccolo, Raffaele; La Manna, Alessio; Danzi, Gian Battista

    2016-09-06

    The Ultimaster coronary stent system (Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) represents a new iteration in drug-eluting stent (DES) technology that has recently received the Conformité Européenne (CE) mark approval for clinical use. The Ultimaster is a thin-strut, cobalt chromium, biodegradable-polymer, sirolimus-eluting coronary stent. The high elasticity of the biodegradable-polymer (PDLLA-PCL) and the abluminal gradient coating technology are additional novel features of this coronary device. The Ultimaster DES has undergone extensive clinical evaluation in two studies: The CENTURY I and II trials. Results from these two landmark studies suggested an excellent efficacy and safety profile of the Ultimaster DES across several lesion and patient subsets, with similar clinical outcomes to contemporary, new-generation DES. The aim of this review is to summarize the rationale behind this novel DES technology and to provide an update of available evidence about the clinical performance of the Ultimaster DES.

  7. Altering user' acceptance of automation through prior automation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekier, Marek; Molesworth, Brett R C

    2016-08-22

    Air navigation service providers worldwide see increased use of automation as one solution to overcome the capacity constraints imbedded in the present air traffic management (ATM) system. However, increased use of automation within any system is dependent on user acceptance. The present research sought to determine if the point at which an individual is no longer willing to accept or cooperate with automation can be manipulated. Forty participants underwent training on a computer-based air traffic control programme, followed by two ATM exercises (order counterbalanced), one with and one without the aid of automation. Results revealed after exposure to a task with automation assistance, user acceptance of high(er) levels of automation ('tipping point') decreased; suggesting it is indeed possible to alter automation acceptance. Practitioner Summary: This paper investigates whether the point at which a user of automation rejects automation (i.e. 'tipping point') is constant or can be manipulated. The results revealed after exposure to a task with automation assistance, user acceptance of high(er) levels of automation decreased; suggesting it is possible to alter automation acceptance.

  8. Novel automated biomarker discovery work flow for urinary peptidomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balog, Crina I.; Hensbergen, Paul J.; Derks, Rico

    2009-01-01

    eluted peptides using MALDI-TOF, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, and liquid chromatography-iontrap mass spectrometry. We determined qualitative and quantitative reproducibility of the system and robustness of the method using BSA digests and urine samples, and we used a selected set of urine...... numbers of urine samples, resulting in a broad spectrum of native peptides, as a tool to be used for biomarker discovery. METHODS: Peptide samples were trapped, desalted, pH-normalized, and fractionated on a miniaturized automatic reverse-phase strong cation exchange (RP-SCX) cartridge system. We analyzed...... samples from Schistosoma haematobium-infected individuals to evaluate clinical applicability. RESULTS: The automated RP-SCX sample cleanup and fractionation system exhibits a high qualitative and quantitative reproducibility, with both BSA standards and urine samples. Because of the relatively high...

  9. Everolimus-induced Pneumonitis after Drug-eluting Stent Implantation: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Susumu, E-mail: susumu1029@gmail.com; Kikuchi, Naoshi; Ichikawa, Atsuo; Sano, Go; Satoh, Keita; Sugino, Keishi; Isobe, Kazutoshi; Takai, Yujiro [Toho University School of Medicine, Department of Respiratory Medicine (Japan); Shibuya, Kazutoshi [Toho University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology (Japan); Homma, Sakae [Toho University School of Medicine, Department of Respiratory Medicine (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    Despite the wide use of everolimus as an antineoplastic coating agent for coronary stents to reduce the rate of restenosis, little is known about the health hazards of everolimus-eluting stents (EES). We describe a case of pneumonitis that developed 2 months after EES implantation for angina. Lung pathology demonstrated an organizing pneumonia pattern that responded to corticosteroid therapy. Although the efficacy of EES for ischemic heart disease is well established, EES carries a risk of pneumonitis.

  10. Bioresorbable Drug-Eluting Magnesium-Alloy Scaffold for Treatment of Coronary Artery Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Carlos M.; Takashi Muramatsu; Javaid Iqbal; Ya-Jun Zhang; Yoshinobu Onuma; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M.; Michael Haude; Lemos, Pedro A.; Boris Warnack; Serruys, Patrick W.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of metallic drug-eluting stents has reduced the risk of restenosis and widened the indications of percutaneous coronary intervention in treatment of coronary artery disease. However, this medical device can induce hypersensitive reaction that interferes with the endothelialization and healing process resulting in late persistent or acquired malapposition of the permanent metallic implant. Delayed endotheliaization and malapposition may lead to late and very late stent thrombo...

  11. Development of epigallocatechin gallate-eluting polymeric stent and its physicochemical, biomechanical and biological evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dong-Wook [Department of Nanomedical Engineering, College of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Jae [Division of Advanced Fibro-Science, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Jung, Duk-Young [Senior Products Industrial Center, Busan Techno-Park, Busan-617-030 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Chul [Cellbiocontrol Laboratory, Department of Medical Engineering, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Hyon, Suong-Hyu, E-mail: nanohan@pusan.ac.k, E-mail: biogen@frontier.kyoto-u.ac.j [Department of Medical Simulation Engineering, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    Localized drug delivery from drug-eluting stents has been accepted as one of the most promising treatment methods for preventing restenosis after stenting. However, hypersensitivity reactions caused by their nonresorbable polymer coatings and bare-metal stents may result in serious clinical sequelae. Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), the predominant catechin from tea, has been shown to exert anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. In this study, it was hypothesized that sustainedly released EGCG from biodegradable poly(lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone, PLCL) would suppress the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). EGCG-releasing PLCL (E-PLCL) was prepared by blending PLCL with EGCG. The surface morphology, roughness and melting temperature of PLCL were not changed despite EGCG addition. EGCG was uniformly dispersed into E-PLCL and sustainedly released for periods up to 7 days by controlled diffusion rather than PLCL degradation. Moreover, EGCG did not affect tensile strength at break, but significantly increased the elastic modulus of PLCL. The proliferation of VSMCs onto E-PLCL was significantly suppressed although the cell attachment onto E-PLCL had been higher than that onto PLCL. On the other hand, EGCG-eluting polymeric stents were prepared with neither cracks nor webbings between struts, and their structural integrity was maintained without delamination or destruction. These results suggest that E-PLCL can be potentially applied for fabricating an EGCG-eluting vascular stent, namely an EGCG-eluting polymeric stent, or even an EGCG-releasing polymer-coated metal stent, to prevent thrombosis, inflammation and in-stent restenosis.

  12. Long-term effectiveness and safety of sirolimus drug-eluting stents

    OpenAIRE

    Bikkina, Mahesh; Koneru, Jayanth

    2011-01-01

    Mahesh Bikkina, Jayanth KoneruSt Joseph Regional Medical Center, Paterson, Seton Hall University, NJ, USAAbstract: The root cause of coronary artery disease is atherosclerosis, ie, intraluminal narrowing (stenosis) of the arteries that supply blood to tissues of the heart. The introduction of the drug-eluting stent over the past decade has revolutionized the field of interventional cardiology. It is used extensively in clinical practice for the treatment of coronary artery disease. The first ...

  13. Study of restenosis in drug eluting stents: new insights from greyscale intravascular ultrasound and virtual histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; Shen, Zhujun; Piazza, Nicolo

    2009-05-01

    In current cardiology practice, many patients undergo secondary revascularisation due to reduced long-term vein graft patency or in-stent restenosis. In this report, we describe causes of drug-eluting stent restenosis identifiable by intravascular ultrasound imaging (IVUS) and variables related to restenosis used for reporting greyscale IVUS. In addition, IVUS findings in bypass grafts and the long-term results after stent implantation are provided. Finally, the usefulness of IVUS virtual histology for the study of restenosis is described.

  14. In vitro hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of dexamethasone-eluting PLGA stent coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiang; Liu, Yang; Luo, Rifang; Chen, Si; Li, Xin; Yuan, Shuheng; Wang, Jin, E-mail: jinxxwang@263.net; Huang, Nan

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Biodegradable dexamethasone-eluting PLGA stent coatings were developed. • Stent coatings can withstand the compressive and tensile strains without cracking. • Stent coatings presented favorable release kinetic for the lesion site. • Stent coatings can effectively inhibit the adhesion and activation of platelets. • Stent coatings can effectively inhibit the proliferation of SMC. - Abstract: Drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been an important breakthrough for interventional cardiology applications since 2002. Though successful in reducing restenosis, some adverse clinical problems still emerged, which were mostly caused by the bare-metal stents and non-biodegradable polymer coatings, associated with the delayed endothelialization process. In this study, dexamethasone-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) coatings were developed to explore the potential application of dexamethasone-eluting stents. Dexamethasone-eluting PLGA stents were prepared using ultrasonic atomization spray method. For other tests like stability and cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility tests, dexamethasone loaded coatings were deposited on 316L SS wafers. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) results demonstrated that there was no chemical reaction between PLGA and dexamethasone. The balloon expansion experiment and surface morphology observation suggested that the stent coatings were smooth and uniform, and could also withstand the compressive and tensile strains imparted without cracking after stent expansion. The drug release behavior in vitro indicated that dexamethasone existed burst release within 1 day, but it presented linear release characteristics after 6 days. In vitro platelets adhesion, activation test and APTT test were also done, which showed that after blending dexamethasone into PLGA, the hemocompatibility was improved. Besides, dexamethasone and dexamethasone-loaded PLGA coatings could significantly inhibit the attachment and

  15. Blood compatibility assessment of polymers used in drug eluting stent coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szott, Luisa Mayorga; Irvin, Colleen A; Trollsas, Mikael; Hossainy, Syed; Ratner, Buddy D

    2016-06-15

    Differences in thrombosis rates have been observed clinically between different drug eluting stents. Such differences have been attributed to numerous factors, including stent design, injury created by the catheter delivery system, coating application technologies, and the degree of thrombogenicity of the polymer. The relative contributions of these factors are generally unknown. This work focuses on understanding the thrombogenicity of the polymer by examining mechanistic interactions with proteins, human platelets, and human monocytes of a number of polymers used in drug eluting stent coatings, in vitro. The importance for blood interactions of adsorbed albumin and the retention of albumin was suggested by the data. Microscopic imaging and immunostaining enhanced the interpretation of results from the lactate dehydrogenase cell counting assay and provided insight into platelet interactions, total quantification, and morphometry. In particular, highly spread platelets may be surface-passivating, possibly inhibiting ongoing thrombotic events. In many of the assays used here, poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) showed a differentiated protein deposition pattern that may contribute to the explanation of the consistently thromboresistant blood-materials interaction for fluororpolymers cited in literature. These results are supportive of one of several possible factors contributing to the good thromboresistant clinical safety performance of PVDF-HFP coated drug eluting stents.

  16. Reversal of elution order for profen acid enantiomers in packed-column SFC on Chiralpak AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenhaal, Olle; Stefansson, Morgan

    2005-05-15

    Enantiomeric separations of four 2-substituted propionic acid drugs have been studied using packed-column supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) coated on silica as support (Chiralpak AD). Under standard conditions (i.e., flow rate, 1.5 ml/min; column temperature, 30 degrees C; back-pressure, 150 bar), the order of elution could be reversed when the polar alcohol modifier methanol in carbon dioxide was replaced by 2-propanol for ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen. For flurbiprofen, with the highest selectivity factor, no reversal was observed, although selectivity was reduced significantly with higher alcohols. Naproxen and flurbiprofen were also investigated with 2-butanol and 2-pentanol. The former showed reversal of elution order but not the latter. For higher alcohol modifiers, including 2-propanol, the peak symmetry was poor but could be improved by addition of citric acid in the alcohol modifier. These results stress the importance to investigate enantiomer elution order during the development of enantioselective methods and when chromatographic conditions are optimized. Preliminary experiments with column temperatures over the range of -15 to 45 degrees C revealed that, in a few cases, reversal took place with a change in temperature only.

  17. Second- and third-generation drug-eluting coronary stents: progress and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, I; Schneider, H; Ince, H; Kische, S; Rehders, T C; Chatterjee, T; Nienaber, C A

    2011-05-01

    Drug-eluting stents (DES) have revolutionized the treatment of coronary artery disease by reducing the rate of in-stent restenosis from 20-40% with bare-metal stent (BMS) to 6-8% with DES. However, with widespread use of DES, safety concerns have risen due to the observation of late stent thrombosis. With this in mind and better understanding of mechanism and pathophysiology of stent thrombosis, the technological platform, especially innovative anti-restenotic agents, polymeric coatings, and stent platforms, improved with newer DES. Two second-generation DES, the Endeavor zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES) and the Xience-V everolimus-eluting stent (EES), have provided promising results in both randomized controlled trials (SPIRIT and ENDEAVOR) and registries (E-Five, COMPARE) compared with bare-metal stents (BMS) and first-generation DES. Newer third-generation stent technology, especially biodegradable polymers, polymer-free stents, and biodegradable stents on the basis of poly-L-lactide (PLLA) or magnesium, has been evaluated in preclinical and initial clinical trials. However, despite encouraging initial results, long-term data of large-scale randomized trials as well as registries comparing them to currently approved first- and second-generation DES are still lacking.

  18. The everolimus-eluting Xience stent in small vessel disease: bench, clinical, and pathology view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez OD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oscar D Sanchez, Kazuyuki Yahagi, Tobias Koppara, Renu Virmani, Michael Joner CVPath Institute, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, USA Abstract: Coronary artery disease (CAD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pathogenesis of CAD relates to the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries, which are most frequently treated today by percutaneous coronary intervention. Small vessel disease treatment represents one-third of all percutaneous coronary interventions with higher rates of restenosis and major adverse cardiac events. Initially, drug-eluting stents (DES were developed to reduce in-stent restenosis, improving clinical outcomes and reducing the need for target vessel revascularization. However, late and very late stent thrombosis emerged as a new problem compromising DES's long-term results. The cobalt–chromium everolimus-eluting stent (CoCr-EES represents the results of an evolutionary process in DES technology aimed at improving the shortcomings of first-generation DES. Small vessel CAD has historically been an obstacle to long-term patency following implantation of DES. Antirestenotic efficacy has been shown to be of high relevance in small vessels. Therefore, stent selection may play an important role in determining outcomes in this subgroup of patients. This article will review the performance of CoCr-EES in the treatment of small vessel CAD from preclinical, clinical, and pathology perspectives, and it will highlight the most important findings in this regard. Keywords: small vessel, cobalt–chromiun everolimus-eluting stent, Xience V, pathology

  19. In vitro hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of dexamethasone-eluting PLGA stent coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiang; Liu, Yang; Luo, Rifang; Chen, Si; Li, Xin; Yuan, Shuheng; Wang, Jin; Huang, Nan

    2015-02-01

    Drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been an important breakthrough for interventional cardiology applications since 2002. Though successful in reducing restenosis, some adverse clinical problems still emerged, which were mostly caused by the bare-metal stents and non-biodegradable polymer coatings, associated with the delayed endothelialization process. In this study, dexamethasone-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) coatings were developed to explore the potential application of dexamethasone-eluting stents. Dexamethasone-eluting PLGA stents were prepared using ultrasonic atomization spray method. For other tests like stability and cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility tests, dexamethasone loaded coatings were deposited on 316L SS wafers. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) results demonstrated that there was no chemical reaction between PLGA and dexamethasone. The balloon expansion experiment and surface morphology observation suggested that the stent coatings were smooth and uniform, and could also withstand the compressive and tensile strains imparted without cracking after stent expansion. The drug release behavior in vitro indicated that dexamethasone existed burst release within 1 day, but it presented linear release characteristics after 6 days. In vitro platelets adhesion, activation test and APTT test were also done, which showed that after blending dexamethasone into PLGA, the hemocompatibility was improved. Besides, dexamethasone and dexamethasone-loaded PLGA coatings could significantly inhibit the attachment and proliferation of smooth muscle cells.

  20. Aliphatic carboxylic acids and alcohols as efficiency and elution strength enhancers in micellar liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boichenko, Alexander P; Berthod, Alain

    2010-09-03

    Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) uses surfactant solutions as mobile phases with added organic additives to enhance both the elution strength and the chromatographic efficiency. Two aliphatic carboxylic acids (1-butanoic and 1-pentanoic) were used as MLC additives and compared with the two corresponding alcohols (1-butanol, 1-pentanol) in terms of elution strength, efficiency and selectivity. A set of 11 phenol derivatives was used as probe compounds. All micellar mobile phases were prepared with sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) with concentration ranging from 0.05 to 0.15M and the modifier content within 1.0 and 5.0% (v/v). The elution strength of different mobile phases containing a constant amount of SDS and different amounts of modifiers; and mobile phases containing a constant amount of modifier and different SDS concentration were determined and discussed. The effect of the acid modifiers on efficiency was studied constructing van Deemter plots that showed no minimum within the 0.01-0.7mL/min flow rate range studied. Temperature effects were also studied constructing the classical van't Hoff plots. The slight curvature of the plots in the 25-70 degrees C range may indicate some modification of the surfactant-bonded moiety layer on the stationary phase surface. Since no definitive advantage of the use of aliphatic acids were established compared to their alcohol counterpart, their terrible smell will probably preclude their use as MLC organic modifiers.

  1. Analysis of the Positive Pathogenic Bacteria and the Alarm Time by Automated Blood Culture System%全自动血培养仪阳性病原菌种类及报警时间分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖忠; 叶杰; 陈振南

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyse the positive pathogenic bacteria of the blood culture and the alarm time.Method:A total of 2180 blood specimens were collected from April 2010 to April 2012 in our hospital and the specimens were detected by BD BACTEC 9120 automated blood culture system.Analyse the bacterial species and alarm time of the blood specimens in aerobic and anaerobic bottles.Result:282 blood culture positive samples were isolated from the 2180 blood culture samples,which was true positive in 263 cases.The positive rate of the blood culture was 12.1%,which 269 strains of pathogens were isolated,including Gram-positive cocci accounted for 40.1%,gram negative bacilli 57.2%,fungi 2.6%.However the positive rate was just 15.6% only from aerobic bottles and 5.7% only from anaerobic ones,and 20.9% from both of the two bottles.The fastest positive time was 5.02 h, during the test,the number of positive reactions accounted for 69.1% in 24 hours,92.5% in 48 hours,and 97% in 72 hours.The false positive rate was 0.87%, and the false negative rate was 0.52%.Conclusion:Application of both aerobic and anaerobic cultivation detected by BD BACTEC 9120 automated blood culture system can improve the blood culture positive rate,shorten the positive detection time.%  目的:分析血培养阳性病原菌种类及仪器报警时间.方法:用 BD BACTEC 9120全自动血培养仪检测笔者所在医院2010年4月-2012年4月共计2180份血标本,分析血标本在需氧瓶和厌氧瓶中生长细菌的种类及仪器报警时间.结果:2180例血培养标本中报警阳性282例,其中真阳性263例,阳性率为12.1%.分离出细菌269株,其中革兰阳性球菌占40.1%,革兰阴性杆菌占57.2%,真菌占2.6%.其中仅需氧瓶报阳的阳性率为6.3%,仅厌氧瓶报阳的阳性率为2.8%,需氧瓶及厌氧瓶均报阳的阳性率为2.9%;最快阳性检出时间为5.02 h,24 h内检出的阳性数占69.1%,48 h 检出的阳性数占92.5%,72 h 检出的阳性数占97.0%

  2. Irinotecan Loaded in Eluting Beads: Preclinical Assessment in a Rabbit VX2 Liver Tumor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Pramod P.; Pascale, Florentina [Institute Gustave Roussy, Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Seck, Atman [Institute Gustave Roussy, UPRES EA 3535, Pharmacologie et Nouveaux Traitements du Cancer (France); Auperin, Anne [Institute Gustave Roussy, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology (France); Drouard-Troalen, Laurence [Institute Gustave Roussy, Department of Biology and Pathology (France); Deschamps, Frederic; Teriitheau, Christophe [Institute Gustave Roussy, Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Paci, Angelo [Institute Gustave Roussy, UPRES EA 3535, Pharmacologie et Nouveaux Traitements du Cancer (France); Denys, Alban; Bize, Pierre [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Interventional Radiology (Switzerland); Baere, Thierry de, E-mail: debaere@igr.fr [Institute Gustave Roussy, Department of Interventional Radiology (France)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to study the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan injected intravenously, intra-arterially, or loaded onto a delivery platform. Material and Methods: Fifty-four New Zealand White rabbits with VX2 liver tumor, divided in 3 groups of 17 rabbits, each received irinotecan either by intravenous (IV) route, intra-arterial hepatic (IA) route, or loaded on drug-eluting beads (DEBIRI). Animals were killed at 1, 6, and 24 h. Irinotecan and SN-38 concentrations were measured at different time points in serum, tumor, and normal liver.ResultsTwelve milligrams of irinotecan were injected IV and IA, whereas 6-16.5 mg were injected loaded onto DEBIRI. Normalized serum irinotecan reached a peak of 333 ng/ml (range 198.8-502.5) for IV, 327.1 ng/ml (range 277.1-495.6) for IA, and 189.7 ng/ml (range 111.1-261.9) for DEBIRI (P < 0.001) delivery. The area-under-the-curve value from 10 to 60 min of serum irinotecan concentration was significantly lower for DEBIRI (P = 0.0009). Tumor irinotecan levels for IV, IA, and DEBIRI (in ng/200 mg of tissue followed by ranges in parentheses) were, respectively, 23.6 (0.3-24.9), 36.5 (7.7-1914.1), and 20.2 (2.9-319) at 1 h; 4.2 (1-27.9), 99.3 (46.6-159.5), and 42.1 (11.3-189) at 6 h; and 2.7 (2.5-6.9), 18.3 (1.5-369.1), and 174.4 (3.4-5147.3) at 24 h (P = 0.02). At 24 h, tumor necrosis was 25% (10-30), 60% (40-91.25), and 95% (76.25-95) for IV, IA, and DEBIRI, respectively (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Compared with IV or IA, DEBIRI induces lower early serum levels of irinotecan, a high and prolonged intratumoral level of irinotecan, and a greater rate of tumor necrosis at 24 h. Further evaluation of the clinical benefit of DEBIRI is warranted.

  3. Microcontroller for automation application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The description of a microcontroller currently being developed for automation application was given. It is basically an 8-bit microcomputer with a 40K byte random access memory/read only memory, and can control a maximum of 12 devices through standard 15-line interface ports.

  4. Automated Composite Column Wrapping

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    The Automated Composite Column Wrapping is performed by a patented machine known as Robo-Wrapper. Currently there are three versions of the machine available for bridge retrofit work depending on the size of the columns being wrapped. Composite column retrofit jacket systems can be structurally just as effective as conventional steel jacketing in improving the seismic response characteristics of substandard reinforced concrete columns.

  5. Automated Web Applications Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan CĂPRIŢĂ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unit tests are a vital part of several software development practicesand processes such as Test-First Programming, Extreme Programming andTest-Driven Development. This article shortly presents the software quality andtesting concepts as well as an introduction to an automated unit testingframework for PHP web based applications.

  6. Automated Student Model Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A.; Stamper, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Student modeling plays a critical role in developing and improving instruction and instructional technologies. We present a technique for automated improvement of student models that leverages the DataShop repository, crowd sourcing, and a version of the Learning Factors Analysis algorithm. We demonstrate this method on eleven educational…

  7. Automated Accounting. Instructor Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Duane R.

    This curriculum guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting College Edition Version 2.0 software in their accounting programs. The module consists of four units containing assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting. The first…

  8. ERGONOMICS AND PROCESS AUTOMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión Muñoz, Rolando; Docente de la FII - UNMSM

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the role that ergonomics in automation of processes, and the importance for Industrial Engineering.  El artículo nos muestra el papel que tiene la ergonomía en la automatización de los procesos, y la importancia para la Ingeniería Industrial.

  9. Mechatronic Design Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun

    successfully design analogue filters, vibration absorbers, micro-electro-mechanical systems, and vehicle suspension systems, all in an automatic or semi-automatic way. It also investigates the very important issue of co-designing plant-structures and dynamic controllers in automated design of Mechatronic...

  10. Protokoller til Home Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kristian Ellebæk

    2008-01-01

    computer, der kan skifte mellem foruddefinerede indstillinger. Nogle gange kan computeren fjernstyres over internettet, så man kan se hjemmets status fra en computer eller måske endda fra en mobiltelefon. Mens nævnte anvendelser er klassiske indenfor home automation, er yderligere funktionalitet dukket op...

  11. Improving treatment plan evaluation with automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, Elizabeth L; Chen, Xiaoping; Younge, Kelly C; Lee, Choonik; Matuszak, Martha M; Kessler, Marc L; Keranen, Wayne; Acosta, Eduardo; Dougherty, Ashley M; Filpansick, Stephanie E; Moran, Jean M

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of Plan-Checker Tool (PCT) which was created to improve first-time plan quality, reduce patient delays, increase the efficiency of our electronic workflow, and standardize and automate the physics plan review in the treatment planning system (TPS). PCT uses an application programming interface to check and compare data from the TPS and treatment management system (TMS). PCT includes a comprehensive checklist of automated and manual checks that are documented when performed by the user as part of a plan readiness check for treatment. Prior to and during PCT development, errors identified during the physics review and causes of patient treatment start delays were tracked to prioritize which checks should be automated. Nineteen of 33 checklist items were automated, with data extracted with PCT. There was a 60% reduction in the number of patient delays in the six months after PCT release. PCT was successfully implemented for use on all external beam treatment plans in our clinic. While the number of errors found during the physics check did not decrease, automation of checks increased visibility of errors during the physics check, which led to decreased patient delays. The methods used here can be applied to any TMS and TPS that allows queries of the database. PACS number(s): 87.55.-x, 87.55.N-, 87.55.Qr, 87.55.tm, 89.20.Bb.

  12. Human and automation: a matter of cooperation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoc, Jean-Michel

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Most of the time, machine design should be considered as human-machine system design in order to solve human-machine cooperation problems. The traditional levels of automation should be re-interpreted in terms of cooperation requirements. A framework is proposed in order to categorise car-driving assistance devices on the basis of human-machine cooperation.

  13. Feasibility of automated target centralization in colonoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stap, N.; Rozeboom, E. D.; Pullens, H. J M; van der Heijden, F.; Broeders, I. A M J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Early detection of colorectal cancer is key to full recovery. This urged governments to start population screening programs for colorectal cancer, often using flexible endoscopes. Flexible endoscopy is difficult to learn and time-consuming. Automation of flexible endoscopes may increase the

  14. Automated analysis of 3D echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stralen, Marijn van

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we aim at automating the analysis of 3D echocardiography, mainly targeting the functional analysis of the left ventricle. Manual analysis of these data is cumbersome, time-consuming and is associated with inter-observer and inter-institutional variability. Methods for reconstruction o

  15. Saving Time with Automated Account Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Business Affairs, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Thanks to intelligent solutions, schools, colleges, and universities no longer need to manage user account life cycles by using scripts or tedious manual procedures. The solutions house the scripts and manual procedures. Accounts can be automatically created, modified, or deleted in all applications within the school. This article describes how an…

  16. Automating spectral measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Fred T.

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses the architecture of software utilized in spectroscopic measurements. As optical coatings become more sophisticated, there is mounting need to automate data acquisition (DAQ) from spectrophotometers. Such need is exacerbated when 100% inspection is required, ancillary devices are utilized, cost reduction is crucial, or security is vital. While instrument manufacturers normally provide point-and-click DAQ software, an application programming interface (API) may be missing. In such cases automation is impossible or expensive. An API is typically provided in libraries (*.dll, *.ocx) which may be embedded in user-developed applications. Users can thereby implement DAQ automation in several Windows languages. Another possibility, developed by FTG as an alternative to instrument manufacturers' software, is the ActiveX application (*.exe). ActiveX, a component of many Windows applications, provides means for programming and interoperability. This architecture permits a point-and-click program to act as automation client and server. Excel, for example, can control and be controlled by DAQ applications. Most importantly, ActiveX permits ancillary devices such as barcode readers and XY-stages to be easily and economically integrated into scanning procedures. Since an ActiveX application has its own user-interface, it can be independently tested. The ActiveX application then runs (visibly or invisibly) under DAQ software control. Automation capabilities are accessed via a built-in spectro-BASIC language with industry-standard (VBA-compatible) syntax. Supplementing ActiveX, spectro-BASIC also includes auxiliary serial port commands for interfacing programmable logic controllers (PLC). A typical application is automatic filter handling.

  17. Drug-eluting stents for acute coronary syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Wang

    Full Text Available Drug-eluting stents (DES are increasingly used for treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS. However, clinical efficacy and safety of various types of DES is not well established in these subjects. We therefore evaluated clinical utility of second-generation and first-generation DES in patients with ACS by conducting a meta-analysis.A search of Medline, Embase, the Cochrane databases, and Web of Science was made. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs which compared second-generation DES (everolimus-eluting stents [EES] or zotarolimus-eluting stents [ZES] versus first-generation DES (sirolimus-eluting stents [SES] or paclitaxe-eluting stents [PES] in patients with ACS and provided data on clinical efficacy or safety endpoints were included. Pooled estimates were calculated using random-effects model.A total of 2,757 participants with ACS in 6 RCTs were included. Compared with first-generation one, second-generation DES trended to be associated with the decreased incidence of definite or probable stent thrombosis in ACS patients (risk ratio [RR]  = 0.60, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.33 to 1.07, p = 0.09. However, the rate of target lesion revascularization (TLR significantly increased in second-generation DES (RR = 2.08, 95%CI 1.25 to 3.47, p = 0.005. There were no significant differences in the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs, all-cause death, cardiac death, and recurrent myocardial infarction between the two arms (all p>0.10. The second-generation EES showed a tendency towards lower risk of MACEs (p = 0.06 and a beneficial effect on reducing stent thrombosis episodes (p = 0.009, while the second-generation ZES presented an increased occurrence of MACEs (p = 0.02 and TLR (p = 0.003.Second-generation DES, especially EES, appeared to present a lower risk of stent thrombosis, whereas second-generation ZES might increase the need for repeat revascularization in ACS patients. During coronary

  18. Comparison of the Efficacy of Everolimus-Eluting Stents Versus Drug-Eluting Balloons in Patients With In-Stent Restenosis (from the RIBS IV and V Randomized Clinical Trials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Fernando; Pérez-Vizcayno, María José; García Del Blanco, Bruno; García-Touchard, Arturo; Masotti, Mónica; López-Minguez, José R; Iñiguez, Andrés; Zueco, Javier; Velazquez, Maite; Cequier, Angel; Lázaro-García, Rosa; Martí, Vicens; Moris, César; Urbano-Carrillo, Cristobal; Bastante, Teresa; Rivero, Fernando; Cárdenas, Alberto; Gonzalo, Nieves; Jiménez-Quevedo, Pilar; Fernández, Cristina

    2016-02-15

    Treatment of patients with in-stent restenosis (ISR) remains a challenge. This study sought to compare the efficacy of everolimus-eluting stents (EESs) and drug-eluting balloons (DEBs) with paclitaxel in patients with ISR. A pooled analysis of the Restenosis Intra-Stent of Drug-Eluting Stents: Drug-Eluting Balloon vs Everolimus-Eluting Stent (RIBS IV) and Restenosis Intra-Stent of Bare-Metal Stents: Drug-Eluting Balloon vs Everolimus-Eluting Stent (RIBS V) randomized trials was performed using patient-level data. In both trials, EESs were compared with DEBs in patients with ISR (RIBS V included 189 patients with bare-metal ISR; RIBS IV included 309 patients with drug-eluting ISR). Inclusion and exclusion criteria were identical in both trials. A total of 249 patients were allocated to EES and 249 to DEB. Clinical follow-up at 1 year was obtained in all (100%) patients and late angiography (median 249 days) in 91% of eligible patients. Compared with patients treated with DEBs, patients treated with EESs obtained better short-term results (postprocedural minimal lumen diameter 2.28 ± 0.5 vs 2.12 ± 0.4 mm, p stent type and treatment effects. At 1-year clinical follow-up, the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization was significantly reduced in the EES arm (8.8% vs 14.5%, p = 0.03; hazard ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.94) mainly driven by a lower need for target vessel revascularization (6% vs 12.4%, p = 0.01, hazard ratio 0.46, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.86). This pooled analysis of the RIBS IV and RIBS V randomized trials demonstrates the superiority of EES over DEB in the treatment of patients with ISR.

  19. Everolimus-eluting bioresorbable stent vs. durable polymer everolimus-eluting metallic stent in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaté, Manel; Windecker, Stephan; Iñiguez, Andres

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) feature thrombus-rich lesions with large necrotic core, which are usually associated with delayed arterial healing and impaired stent-related outcomes. The use of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (Absorb) has the potential...... to overcome these limitations owing to restoration of native vessel lumen and physiology at long term. The purpose of this randomized trial was to compare the arterial healing response at short term, as a surrogate for safety and efficacy, between the Absorb and the metallic everolimus-eluting stent (EES......) in patients with STEMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: ABSORB-STEMI TROFI II was a multicentre, single-blind, non-inferiority, randomized controlled trial. Patients with STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention were randomly allocated 1:1 to treatment with the Absorb or EES. The primary endpoint...

  20. Sirolimus-eluting stents for treatment of drug-eluting versus bare-metal stents restenosis: 42-month clinical outcomes from a Chinese single center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Rong-qiang; LIU Hai-bo; WU Yong-jian; YUAN Jin-qing; CHEN Jue; YOU Shi-jie; DAI Jun; GAO Run-lin; CHEN Ji-lin; GAO Li-jian; YANG Yue-jin; LI Jian-jun; QIAO Shu-bin; XU Bo; YAO Min; QIN Xue-wen

    2012-01-01

    Background Restenosis of bare-metal stents (BMS) and drug-eluting stents (DES) has been increasingly treated with sirolimus-eluting stents (SES),but the long-term outcomes are unknown.Methods In our study,388 consecutive patients (144 DES restenosis and 244 BMS restenosis) with 400 lesions (147 DES restenosis and 253 BMS restenosis) treated with SES were included.The rates of target lesion revascularization (TLR) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 42 months were analyzed.Results At the mean follow-up of 42 months,the rates of death (3.5% vs.3.3%,P=1.000) and myocardial infarction (2.8% vs.1.2%,P=0.431) in the DES group and BMS group were comparable.Compared with the BMS group,ischemia-driven TLR occurred with a higher frequency in the DES group (18.8% vs.10.7%,P=0.024).This translated into an increased rate of MACE in the DES group (22.2% vs.14.0%,P=0.034).Stent thrombosis occurred with a similar frequency in both groups (2.8% vs.1.6%,P=0.475).Multivariate analysis showed that DES restenosis (OR=1.907,95%Cl 1.108-3.285,P=0.020) and smoking (OR=2.069; 95% C/ 1.188-3.605; P=0.010) were independent predictors of MACE.Conclusions Although SES implantation appears to be safe and effective,it was associated with higher TLR recurrence for DES than BMS restenosis.

  1. Efficacy and safety of biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stents versus durable polymer drug-eluting stents: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicong Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS: Drug-eluting stents (DES with biodegradable polymers have been developed to address the risk of thrombosis associated with first-generation DES. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stents (BES versus durable polymer DES. METHODS: Systematic database searches of MEDLINE (1950 to June 2013, EMBASE (1966 to June 2013, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 6 of 12, June 2013, and a review of related literature were conducted. All randomized controlled trials comparing biodegradable polymer BES versus durable polymer DES were included. RESULTS: Eight randomized controlled trials investigating 11,015 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions were included in the meta-analysis. The risk of major adverse cardiac events did not differ significantly between the patients treated with the biodegradable polymer BES and the durable polymer DES (Relative risk [RR], 0.970; 95% CI, 0.848-1.111; p = 0.662. However, biodegradable polymer BES was associated with reduced risk of very late ST compared with the durable polymer DES, while the risk of early or late ST was similar (RR for early or late ST, 1.167; 95% CI 0.755-1.802; p = 0.487; RR 0.273; 95% CI 0.115-0.652; p = 0.003; p for interaction = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, treatments with biodegradable polymer BES did not significantly reduce the risk of major adverse cardiac events, but demonstrated a significantly lower risk of very late ST when compared to durable polymer DES. This conclusion requires confirmation by further studies with long-term follow-up. PROSPERO REGISTER NUMBER: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42013004364#.UnM2lfmsj6J.

  2. 自动固相萃取-液相色谱-飞行时间质谱法快速筛查与确证血液中抗抑郁类药物%Rapid screening and confirmation of antidepressants in blood using automated solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石银涛; 郭璟琦; 王绘军; 段杰; 喻洪江; 郑经; 王俊伟

    2014-01-01

    A high-throughput method was developed for screening antidepressants in blood by automated solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography with high resolution quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry( ASPE-LC-Q-TOF/MS). The samples were cleaned up by an HLB solid phase extraction cartridge and analyzed by LC-Q-TOF/MS under electrospray ionization( ESI)mode with scanning range of m/z 50-1 000 Da. The chromatographic separa-tion was performed on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column(50 mm×2. 1 mm,1. 8 μm)with gra-dient elution using methanol and 5 mmol/L ammonium formate aqueous solution( containing 0. 2% formic acid)as mobile phases. Rapid screening and confirmation can be achieved using MS matching scores,deviation of retention time,measured mass,isotopic abundance matching scores,isotope space matching scores and MS/MS matching scores. The quantitative analysis was carried out by correlating the extracting peak area with accurate mass. Good linearities were observed in the range of 1-500 μg/L with the correlation coefficients from 0. 997 6 to 0. 999 7. The limits of detection were 0. 01-0. 5 μg/L. The spiked recoveries were 79. 6%-96. 4%with the relative standard deviations of 4. 1%-6. 4%. The result screening database was built using Agilent MassHunter PCDL Manager software and then used for the analysis of spiked sam-ples. MS matching scores,isotopic abundance matching scores,isotope space matching scores ( all ﹥ 95 points)and MS/MS matching scores(﹥ 70 points)were applied to identify the ana-lytes. The results showed that all the spiked antidepressants could be correctly identified with low deviation of retention time(﹤ 0. 1 min)and mass(﹤ 1 mDa). The developed method was further applied for the analysis of poisoning cases,and amitriptyline,carbamazepine,doxepin were detected. In brief,the method is rapid,sensitive,simple,reliable,and suitable for the screening and confirmation of antidepressants in forensic and clinical analytical toxicology.%

  3. Clinical outcomes with drug-eluting and bare-metal stents in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmerini, Tullio; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Della Riva, Diego;

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the relative safety and efficacy of different drug-eluting stents (DES) and bare metal stents (BMS) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) using a network meta-analysis....

  4. Sequential elution of multiply and singly phosphorylated peptides with polar-copolymerized mixed-mode RP18/SCX material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuling; Guo, Zhimou; Sheng, Qianying; Xue, Xingya; Liang, Xinmiao

    2012-06-21

    Novel polar-copolymerized mixed-mode RP18/SCX material was developed for feasible phosphopeptide enrichment, in which multiply and singly phosphorylated peptides could be sequentially eluted and separated with high selectivity.

  5. Ball Bearing Stacking Automation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafeequerrahman S . Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This document is an effort to introduce the concept of automation in small scale industries and or small workshops that are involved in the manufacturing of small objects such as nuts, bolts and ball bearing in this case. This an electromechanical system which includes certain mechanical parts that involves one base stand on which one vertical metallic frame is mounted and hinged to this vertical stand is an in humanized effort seems inadequate in this era making necessary the use of Electronics, Computer in the manufacturing processes leading to the concept of Automated Manufacturing System (AMS.The ball bearing stack automation is an effort in this regard. In our project we go for stack automation for any object for example a ball bearing, be that is still a manual system there. It will be microcontroller based project control system equipped with microcontroller 89C51 from any manufacturer like Atmel or Philips. This could have been easily implemented if a PLC could be used for manufacturing the staking unit but I adopted the microcontroller based system so that some more modification in the system can be effected at will as to use the same hardware .Although a very small object i.e. ball bearig or small nut and fixture will be tried to be stacked, the system with more precision and more power handling capacity could be built for various requirements of the industry. For increasing more control capacity, we can use another module of this series. When the bearing is ready, it will be sent for packing. This is sensed by an inductive sensor. The output will be proceeds by PLC and microcontroller card which will be driving the assembly in order to put it into pads or flaps. This project will also count the total number of bearings to be packed and will display it on a LCD for real time reference and a provision is made using a higher level language using hyper terminal of the computer

  6. Local drug-delivery balloon for proliferative occlusive in-stent restenosis after drug-eluting stent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gianluca Rigatelli; Paolo Cardaioli; Fabio Dell'Avvocata; Massimo Giordan

    2011-01-01

    Drug-coated balloon has been developed as an alternative to drug-eluting stents for in-stent restenosis but the performance of drug infusion balloon in such setting has not been previously described. We present a case of particularly aggressive in-stent restenosis after drug eluting stent implantation treated with a new kind of drug infusion balloon developed in order to overcome the impossibility to inflate regular drug-coated balloon for several dilatation.

  7. Automated online optical biosensing system for continuous real-time determination of microcystin-LR with high sensitivity and specificity: early warning for cyanotoxin risk in drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Han-Chang; Song, Bao-Dong; Long, Feng; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; He, Miao; Lv, Qing; Yang, Hai-Yang

    2013-05-07

    The accelerated eutrophication of surface water sources and climate change have led to an annual occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms in many drinking water resources. To minimize the health risks to the public, cyanotoxin detection methods that are rapid, sensitive, real time, and high frequency must be established. In this study, an innovative automated online optical biosensing system (AOBS) was developed for the rapid detection and early warning of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), one of the most toxic cyanotoxins and most frequently detected in environmental water. In this system, the capturing molecular MC-LR-ovalbumin (MC-LR-OVA) was covalently immobilized onto a biochip surface. By an indirect competitive detection mode, samples containing different concentrations of MC-LR were premixed with a certain concentration of fluorescence-labeled anti-MC-LR-mAb, which binds to MC-LR with high specificity. Then, the sample mixture was pumped onto the biochip surface, and a higher concentration of MC-LR led to less fluorescence-labeled antibody bound onto the biochip surface and thus to lower fluorescence signal. The quantification of MC-LR ranges from 0.2 to 4 μg/L, with a detection limit determined as 0.09 μg/L. The high specificity and selectivity of the sensor were evaluated in terms of its response to a number of potentially interfering cyanotoxins. Potential interference of the environmental sample matrix was assessed by spiked samples, and the recovery of MC-LR ranged from 90 to 120% with relative standard deviation values online analysis that satisfies the high demand for ensuring the safety of drinking water sources. The AOBS can also serve as early warning system for accidental or intentional water pollution.

  8. An Automated Biological Dosimetry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, T.; Bille, J.; Frieben, M.; Stephan, G.

    1986-04-01

    The scoring of structural chromosome aberrations in peripheral human blood lymphocytes can be used in biological dosimetry to estimate the radiation dose which an individual has received. Especially the dicentric chromosome is a rather specific indicator for an exposure to ionizing radiation. For statistical reasons, in the low dose range a great number of cells must be analysed, which is a very tedious task. The resulting high cost of a biological dose estimation limits the application of this method to cases of suspected irradiation for which physical dosimetry is not possible or not sufficient. Therefore an automated system has been designed to do the major part of the routine work. It uses a standard light microscope with motorized scanning stage, a Plumbicon TV-camera, a real-time hardware preprocessor, a binary and a grey level image buffer system. All computations are performed by a very powerful multi-microprocessor-system (POLYP) based on a MIMD-architecture. The task of the automated system can be split in finding the metaphases (see Figure 1) at low microscope magnification and scoring dicentrics at high magnification. The metaphase finding part has been completed and is now in routine use giving good results. The dicentric scoring part is still under development.

  9. A case of Z/E-isomers elution order inversion caused by cosolvent percentage change in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskiy, Oleg I; Ustinovich, Konstantin B; Usovich, Oleg I; Parenago, Olga O; Lunin, Valeriy V; Ovchinnikov, Denis V; Kosyakov, Dmitry S

    2017-01-06

    A case of elution order inversion caused by cosolvent percentage change in supercritical fluid chromatography was observed and investigated in some detail. Z- and E-isomers of phenylisobutylketone oxime experience an elution order reversal on most columns if the mobile phase consists of CO2 and alcohol. At lower percentages of alcohol Z-oxime is retained less, somewhere at 2-5% coelution occurs and at larger cosolvent volume elution order reverses - Z-oxime is eluted later than E-oxime. We suppose inversion with CO2-ROH phases happens due to a shift in balance between two main interactions governing retention. At low ROH percentages stationary phase surface is only slightly covered by ROH molecules so oximes primarily interact with adsorption sites via hydrogen bond formation. Due to intramolecular sterical hindrance Z-oxime is less able to form hydrogen bonds and consequently is eluted first. At higher percentages alcohols occupy most of strong hydrogen bonding sites on silica surface thus leaving non-specific electrostatic interactions predominantly responsible for Z/E selectivity. Z-oxime has a much larger dipole moment than E-oxime and at these conditions it is eluted later. Additional experimental data with CO2-CH3CN, hexane-iPrOH and CHF3-ROH mobile phases supporting this explanation are presented.

  10. Application of quality by design (QbD) approach to ultrasonic atomization spray coating of drug-eluting stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Martin; Chatterjee, Sharmista; Hu, Xiaoli; Ash-Shakoor, Ariel; Avery, Reginald; Belyaeva, Anastasiya; Cruz, Celia; Hughes, Minerva; Leadbetter, Joanne; Merkle, Conrad; Moot, Taylor; Parvinian, Sepideh; Patwardhan, Dinesh; Saylor, David; Tang, Nancy; Zhang, Tina

    2015-08-01

    The drug coating process for coated drug-eluting stents (DES) has been identified as a key source of inter- and intra-batch variability in drug elution rates. Quality-by-design (QbD) principles were applied to gain an understanding of the ultrasonic spray coating process of DES. Statistically based design of experiments (DOE) were used to understand the relationship between ultrasonic atomization spray coating parameters and dependent variables such as coating mass ratio, roughness, drug solid state composite microstructure, and elution kinetics. Defect-free DES coatings composed of 70% 85:15 poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and 30% everolimus were fabricated with a constant coating mass. The drug elution profile was characterized by a mathematical model describing biphasic release kinetics. Model coefficients were analyzed as a DOE response. Changes in ultrasonic coating processing conditions resulted in substantial changes in roughness and elution kinetics. Based on the outcome from the DOE study, a design space was defined in terms of the critical coating process parameters resulting in optimum coating roughness and drug elution. This QbD methodology can be useful to enhance the quality of coated DES.

  11. Aspiration Thrombectomy and Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation Decrease the Occurrence of Angina Pectoris One Year After Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Chieh; Fang, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Huang-Chung; Hsueh, Shu-Kai; Chen, Chien-Jen; Yang, Cheng-Hsu; Yip, Hon-Kan; Hang, Chi-Ling; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Fang, Hsiu-Yu

    2016-04-01

    Angina pectoris is a treatable symptom that is associated with mortality and decreased quality of life. Angina eradication is a primary care goal of care after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Our aim was to evaluate factors influencing angina pectoris 1 year after an AMI.From January 2005 to December 2013, 1547 patient received primary percutaneous intervention in our hospital for an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI). Of these patients, 1336 patients did not experience post-MI angina during a 1-year follow-up, and 211 patients did. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the factors influencing angina pectoris 1 year after an AMI. Propensity score matched analyses were performed for subgroups analyses.The average age of the patients was 61.08 ± 12.77 years, with a range of 25 to 97 years, and 82.9% of the patients were male. During 1-year follow-up, 13.6% of the patients experienced post-MI angina. There was a longer chest pain-to-reperfusion time in the post-MI angina group (P = 0.01), as well as a higher fasting sugar level, glycohemoglobin (HbA1C), serum creatinine, troponin-I and creatine kinase MB (CK-MB). The post-MI angina group also had a higher prevalence of multiple-vessel disease. Manual thrombectomy, and distal protective device and intracoronary glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor injection were used frequently in the no post-MI angina group. Antiplatelet agents and post-MI medication usage were similar between the 2 groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that prior MI was a positive independent predictor of occurrence of post-MI angina. Manual thrombectomy use and drug-eluting stent implantation were negative independent predictors of post-MI angina. Higher troponin-I and longer chest pain-to-reperfusion time exhibited a trend toward predicting post-MI angina.Prior MIs were strong, independent predictors of post-MI angina. Manual thrombectomy and drug-eluting

  12. ATLAS Distributed Computing Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Borrego, C; Campana, S; Di Girolamo, A; Elmsheuser, J; Hejbal, J; Kouba, T; Legger, F; Magradze, E; Medrano Llamas, R; Negri, G; Rinaldi, L; Sciacca, G; Serfon, C; Van Der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment benefits from computing resources distributed worldwide at more than 100 WLCG sites. The ATLAS Grid sites provide over 100k CPU job slots, over 100 PB of storage space on disk or tape. Monitoring of status of such a complex infrastructure is essential. The ATLAS Grid infrastructure is monitored 24/7 by two teams of shifters distributed world-wide, by the ATLAS Distributed Computing experts, and by site administrators. In this paper we summarize automation efforts performed within the ATLAS Distributed Computing team in order to reduce manpower costs and improve the reliability of the system. Different aspects of the automation process are described: from the ATLAS Grid site topology provided by the ATLAS Grid Information System, via automatic site testing by the HammerCloud, to automatic exclusion from production or analysis activities.

  13. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-05-31

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC.

  14. The automation of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ross D; Rowland, Jem; Oliver, Stephen G; Young, Michael; Aubrey, Wayne; Byrne, Emma; Liakata, Maria; Markham, Magdalena; Pir, Pinar; Soldatova, Larisa N; Sparkes, Andrew; Whelan, Kenneth E; Clare, Amanda

    2009-04-03

    The basis of science is the hypothetico-deductive method and the recording of experiments in sufficient detail to enable reproducibility. We report the development of Robot Scientist "Adam," which advances the automation of both. Adam has autonomously generated functional genomics hypotheses about the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and experimentally tested these hypotheses by using laboratory automation. We have confirmed Adam's conclusions through manual experiments. To describe Adam's research, we have developed an ontology and logical language. The resulting formalization involves over 10,000 different research units in a nested treelike structure, 10 levels deep, that relates the 6.6 million biomass measurements to their logical description. This formalization describes how a machine contributed to scientific knowledge.

  15. Elution of Endosulfan from Contaminated Soil by Surfactants and Their Combination%表面活性剂及其组合洗脱污染土壤中的硫丹

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊佰炼; 郑国灿; 张进忠; 邢赜; 徐卫红

    2013-01-01

    The elution efficiency and dynamic characteristic of endosulfan from the contaminated soil were studied using non-ionic surfactants and anionic/non-ionic surfactants in the presence or absence of Na2SiO3 with batch experiment and parallel desorption experiment.The results showed that the elution percents of α-,β-endosulfan followed a decreasing order of Tween 80/SDS,Tween 80 and Triton X-100 in the absence of Na2SiO3,while that by Triton X-100/SDS at low concentration (100-500 mg·L-1) and high concentration (800-1000 mg·L-1) were lower and higher than those by the corresponding concentrations of Triton X-100,respectively.The elution efficiencies for four elution modes obviously increased in the presence of Na2SiO3,and the elution percents of α-,β-endosulfan followed a decreasing order of Tween 80/SDS,Tween 80,Triton X-100/SDS and Triton X-100,and that of α-endosulfan were as 1.17-2.73,1.87-4.02,1.85-6.56 and 1.87-2.85 times as that in the absence of Na2SiO3.The elution process of endosulfan could be described by a 4-parameter biphasic first-order kinetic model,and obviously showed a rapid elution phase and a slow elution phase.Both of the elution percent and elution rate ofβ-endosulfan were lower than those of α-endosulfan,which indicated that β-endosulfan was difficult to be eluted from soil.The addition of Na2SiO3 could increase the rate constants of rapid elution and slow elution,and decrease the slow elution percent.Compared with other elution modes,Tween 80/SDS in the presence of Na2SiO3 could elute endosulfan from soil more effectively and rapidly,and shown as a fine mixed eluent for endosulfan.%采用序批实验和并行解吸法,研究了添加和不添加Na2SiO3两种情况下,非离子表面活性剂和阴/非离子混合表面活性剂对污染老化土壤中α-、β-硫丹的洗脱效果与动力学特征.结果表明,不添加Na2SiO3时,α-、β-硫丹的洗脱率顺序为Tween 80/SDS> Tween 80> Triton X-100.Triton X-100/SDS在100~500

  16. Debug automation from pre-silicon to post-silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Dehbashi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes automated debugging approaches for the bugs and the faults which appear in different abstraction levels of a hardware system. The authors employ a transaction-based debug approach to systems at the transaction-level, asserting the correct relation of transactions. The automated debug approach for design bugs finds the potential fault candidates at RTL and gate-level of a circuit. Debug techniques for logic bugs and synchronization bugs are demonstrated, enabling readers to localize the most difficult bugs. Debug automation for electrical faults (delay faults)finds the potentially failing speedpaths in a circuit at gate-level. The various debug approaches described achieve high diagnosis accuracy and reduce the debugging time, shortening the IC development cycle and increasing the productivity of designers. Describes a unified framework for debug automation used at both pre-silicon and post-silicon stages; Provides approaches for debug automation of a hardware system at different levels of ...

  17. Automated Periodicals System at a Community College Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Harp

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available Automated systems need not be extensive to save time and improve efficiency. Moraine Valley's off-line operation, based on a file of 715 periodical titles, generates renewal orders, sends claims, and records subscription histories.

  18. The Automated Medical Office

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    With shock and surprise many physicians learned in the 1980s that they must change the way they do business. Competition for patients, increasing government regulation, and the rapidly escalating risk of litigation forces physicians to seek modern remedies in office management. The author describes a medical clinic that strives to be paperless using electronic innovation to solve the problems of medical practice management. A computer software program to automate information management in a c...

  19. Automation of printing machine

    OpenAIRE

    Sušil, David

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is focused on the automation of the printing machine and comparing the two types of printing machines. The first chapter deals with the history of printing, typesettings, printing techniques and various kinds of bookbinding. The second chapter describes the difference between sheet-fed printing machines and offset printing machines, the difference between two representatives of rotary machines, technological process of the products on these machines, the description of the mac...

  20. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.