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Sample records for automated elution time

  1. Towards enhanced automated elution systems for waterborne protozoa using megasonic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B; Katzer, F; Desmulliez, M P Y; Bridle, H L

    2018-02-01

    Continuous and reliable monitoring of water sources for human consumption is imperative for public health. For protozoa, which cannot be multiplied efficiently in laboratory settings, concentration and recovery steps are key to a successful detection procedure. Recently, the use of megasonic energy was demonstrated to recover Cryptosporidium from commonly used water industry filtration procedures, forming thereby a basis for a simplified and cost effective method of elution of pathogens. In this article, we report the benefits of incorporating megasonic sonication into the current methodologies of Giardia duodenalis elution from an internationally approved filtration and elution system used within the water industry, the Filta-Max®. Megasonic energy assisted elution has many benefits over current methods since a smaller final volume of eluent allows removal of time-consuming centrifugation steps and reduces manual involvement resulting in a potentially more consistent and more cost-effective method. We also show that megasonic sonication of G. duodenalis cysts provides the option of a less damaging elution method compared to the standard Filta-Max® operation, although the elution from filter matrices is not currently fully optimised. A notable decrease in recovery of damaged cysts was observed in megasonic processed samples, potentially increasing the abilities of further genetic identification options upon isolation of the parasite from a filter sample. This work paves the way for the development of a fully automated and more cost-effective elution method of Giardia from water samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of ultrasonication time on elution of super heavy oil and its biomarkers from aging soils using a Triton X-100 micellar solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Guodong; Zhou Guohui

    2010-01-01

    An ultrasound-enhanced elution system with Triton X-100 solution was used to remediate aging soils contaminated with super heavy oil. We used GC/MS, SEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to analyze the effect of ultrasonic time (0-1800 s) on the elution of super heavy oil and its three characteristic biomarkers (C 26-34 17α 25-norhopanes, C 26-28 triaromatic steroid [TAS], and C 27-29 methyl triaromatic steroid [MTAS]). The oil and biomarkers remaining in the treated soils followed similar second-order functions with increasing ultrasonication times. Biomarker elution was closely related to carbon numbers in the marker. For C 26-34 17α 25-norhopanes, the smaller molecules were more readily eluted during 0-360 s ultrasound. This trend was reversed upon application of ultrasound during 1080-1800 s, with improved elution of larger molecules and elution followed a similar second-order function. For C 26-28 TAS, smaller molecules were more readily eluted but the elution of larger molecules followed a similar second-order function. For C 27-29 MTAS, elution of larger molecules was close to that of C 26-34 17α 25-norhopanes. Results of SEM and XRD indicated that the mineral and chemical compositions of soils eluted at ultrasonication times of 1080-1800 s closely resembled clean soils.

  3. Automation: is it really different this time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajcman, Judy

    2017-03-01

    This review examines several recent books that deal with the impact of automation and robotics on the future of jobs. Most books in this genre predict that the current phase of digital technology will create massive job loss in an unprecedented way, that is, that this wave of automation is different from previous waves. Uniquely digital technology is said to automate professional occupations for the first time. This review critically examines these claims, puncturing some of the hyperbole about automation, robotics and Artificial Intelligence. The review argues for a more nuanced analysis of the politics of technology and provides some critical distance on Silicon Valley's futurist discourse. Only by insisting that futures are always social can public bodies, rather than autonomous markets and endogenous technologies, become central to disentangling, debating and delivering those futures. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  4. Automated real-time software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Denise R.; Walker, Carrie K.; Turkovich, John J.

    1993-01-01

    A Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) system has been developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL) under the direction of the NASA Langley Research Center. The CSDL CASE tool provides an automated method of generating source code and hard copy documentation from functional application engineering specifications. The goal is to significantly reduce the cost of developing and maintaining real-time scientific and engineering software while increasing system reliability. This paper describes CSDL CASE and discusses demonstrations that used the tool to automatically generate real-time application code.

  5. Automation of Precise Time Reference Stations (PTRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, P. J.

    1985-04-01

    The U.S. Naval Observatory is presently engaged in a program of automating precise time stations (PTS) and precise time reference stations (PTBS) by using a versatile mini-computer controlled data acquisition system (DAS). The data acquisition system is configured to monitor locally available PTTI signals such as LORAN-C, OMEGA, and/or the Global Positioning System. In addition, the DAS performs local standard intercomparison. Computer telephone communications provide automatic data transfer to the Naval Observatory. Subsequently, after analysis of the data, results and information can be sent back to the precise time reference station to provide automatic control of remote station timing. The DAS configuration is designed around state of the art standard industrial high reliability modules. The system integration and software are standardized but allow considerable flexibility to satisfy special local requirements such as stability measurements, performance evaluation and printing of messages and certificates. The DAS operates completely independently and may be queried or controlled at any time with a computer or terminal device (control is protected for use by authorized personnel only). Such DAS equipped PTS are operational in Hawaii, California, Texas and Florida.

  6. Do You Automate? Saving Time and Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Christine H.

    2010-01-01

    An automated workforce management strategy can help schools save jobs, improve the job satisfaction of teachers and staff, and free up precious budget dollars for investments in critical learning resources. Automated workforce management systems can help schools control labor costs, minimize compliance risk, and improve employee satisfaction.…

  7. Time-related changes in neointimal tissue coverage of a novel Sirolimus eluting stent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secco, Gioel Gabrio, E-mail: gioel.gabrio.secco@gmail.com [Interventional Cardiology, “Santi Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo” Hospital, Alessandria (Italy); NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Mattesini, Alessio [NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Fattori, Rossella; Parisi, Rosario [Interventional Cardiology, “San Salvatore” Hospital, Pesaro (Italy); Castriota, Fausto [GVM Care and Research, Cotignola (Italy); Vercellino, Matteo [Interventional Cardiology, “Santi Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo” Hospital, Alessandria (Italy); Dall’Ara, Gianni [NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Uguccioni, Lucia; Marinucci, Lucia [Interventional Cardiology, “San Salvatore” Hospital, Pesaro (Italy); De Luca, Giuseppe; Marino, Paolo Nicola [University of Eastern Piedmont, Novara (Italy); Pistis, Gianfranco [Interventional Cardiology, “Santi Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo” Hospital, Alessandria (Italy); Di Mario, Carlo [NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Background: DES has reduced rates of restenosis compared with BMS but it has been associated with delayed healing and increase of stent thrombosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the vascular time-related changes following implantation of a new SES coated with an amorphous silicon carbide that allows faster re-endothelisation (Orsiro-Biotronik). Methods: This prospective registry enrolled STEMI-patients with multi-vessel disease, thus candidates for a two-step procedure. PCI of the culprit lesion was performed with at least one Orsiro stent that was OCT-analysed during the second-step procedure (deferred to 30,90 and 180-days). Results: 16 of the 95 patients with MVD underwent an OCT evaluation of the study device implanted in the culprit lesion during the second-step staged procedure and were enrolled in the present Registry. A total of 3060-struts were analysed. The percentage of uncovered struts was 19.6% at30-days, 1.3% at90-days and 1.8% at180-days (p < 0.001). The percentage of cross section with ≥ 1 uncovered struts were 51.3% at30-days, 6.5% at90-days and 5.7% at180-days (p < 0.001). The percentage of cross sections containing thrombus was 6.2% at30-days while no thrombus was detected both at90 and 180-days. Conclusions: Our data shows that the new Orsiro stent promotes early and persistent strut coverage with low peri-strut thrombus. This pilot OCT evaluation might suggest a low incidence of late adverse events and anticipate safe outcome after early withdrawal of dual antiplatelet therapy. - Highlights: • This is the first serial study comparing coverage at 1, 3, and 6-months in consecutive patients with STEMI; • Aim of our study was to evaluate the vascular time-related changes following implantation of a new SES coated with an amorphous silicon carbide that allows faster re-endothelisation (Orsiro-Biotronik); • The main finding of this pilot study is that the study device presented a fast pattern of intimal coverage, with a thin intimal

  8. Automated Real-Time Clearance Analyzer (ARCA), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Automated Real-Time Clearance Analyzer (ARCA) addresses the future safety need for Real-Time System-Wide Safety Assurance (RSSA) in aviation and progressively...

  9. Automated spectral and timing analysis of AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, F.; Karas, V.; Guainazzi, M.

    2006-12-01

    % We have developed an autonomous script that helps the user to automate the XMM-Newton data analysis for the purposes of extensive statistical investigations. We test this approach by examining X-ray spectra of bright AGNs pre-selected from the public database. The event lists extracted in this process were studied further by constructing their energy-resolved Fourier power-spectrum density. This analysis combines energy distributions, light-curves, and their power-spectra and it proves useful to assess the variability patterns present is the data. As another example, an automated search was based on the XSPEC package to reveal the emission features in 2-8 keV range.

  10. Real time control engineering systems and automation

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Tian Seng

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the two broad areas of the electronics and electrical aspects of control applications, highlighting the many different types of control systems of relevance to real-life control system design. The control techniques presented are state-of-the-art. In the electronics section, readers will find essential information on microprocessor, microcontroller, mechatronics and electronics control. The low-level assembly programming language performs basic input/output control techniques as well as controlling the stepper motor and PWM dc motor. In the electrical section, the book addresses the complete elevator PLC system design, neural network plant control, load flow analysis, and process control, as well as machine vision topics. Illustrative diagrams, circuits and programming examples and algorithms help to explain the details of the system function design. Readers will find a wealth of computer control and industrial automation practices and applications for modern industries, as well as the educat...

  11. Automated time series forecasting for biosurveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkom, Howard S; Murphy, Sean Patrick; Shmueli, Galit

    2007-09-30

    For robust detection performance, traditional control chart monitoring for biosurveillance is based on input data free of trends, day-of-week effects, and other systematic behaviour. Time series forecasting methods may be used to remove this behaviour by subtracting forecasts from observations to form residuals for algorithmic input. We describe three forecast methods and compare their predictive accuracy on each of 16 authentic syndromic data streams. The methods are (1) a non-adaptive regression model using a long historical baseline, (2) an adaptive regression model with a shorter, sliding baseline, and (3) the Holt-Winters method for generalized exponential smoothing. Criteria for comparing the forecasts were the root-mean-square error, the median absolute per cent error (MedAPE), and the median absolute deviation. The median-based criteria showed best overall performance for the Holt-Winters method. The MedAPE measures over the 16 test series averaged 16.5, 11.6, and 9.7 for the non-adaptive regression, adaptive regression, and Holt-Winters methods, respectively. The non-adaptive regression forecasts were degraded by changes in the data behaviour in the fixed baseline period used to compute model coefficients. The mean-based criterion was less conclusive because of the effects of poor forecasts on a small number of calendar holidays. The Holt-Winters method was also most effective at removing serial autocorrelation, with most 1-day-lag autocorrelation coefficients below 0.15. The forecast methods were compared without tuning them to the behaviour of individual series. We achieved improved predictions with such tuning of the Holt-Winters method, but practical use of such improvements for routine surveillance will require reliable data classification methods.

  12. Risk and timing of clinical events according to diabetic status of patients treated with everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffolds versus everolimus-eluting stent: 2-year results from a propensity score matched comparison of ABSORB EXTEND and SPIRIT trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Carlos M; Caixeta, Adriano; Franken, Marcelo; Bartorelli, Antonio L; Whitbourn, Robert J; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Li Paul Kao, Hsien; Rosli, Mohd Ali; Carrie, Didier; De Bruyne, Bernard; Stone, Gregg W; Serruys, Patrick W; Abizaid, Alexandre

    2018-02-15

    to compare the occurrence of clinical events in diabetics treated with the Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold (Absorb BVS; Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA) versus everolimus-eluting metal stents (EES; XIENCE V; Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA) BACKGROUND: There are limited data dedicated to clinical outcomes of diabetic patients treated with bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) at 2-year horizon. The present study included 812 patients in the ABSORB EXTEND study in which a total of 215 diabetic patients were treated with Absorb BVS. In addition, 882 diabetic patients treated with EES in pooled data from the SPIRIT clinical program (SPIRIT II, SPIRIT III and SPIRIT IV trials) were used for comparison by applying propensity score matching using 29 different variables. The primary endpoint was ischemia driven major adverse cardiac events (ID-MACE), including cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and ischemia driven target lesion revascularization (ID-TLR). After 2 years, the ID-MACE rate was 6.5% in the Absorb BVS vs. 8.9% in the Xience group (P = 0.40). There was no difference for MACE components or definite/probable device thrombosis (HR: 1.43 [0.24,8.58]; P = 0.69). The occurrence of MACE was not different for both diabetic status (insulin- and non-insulin-requiring diabetes) in all time points up to the 2-year follow-up for the Absorb and Xience groups. In this largest ever patient-level pooled comparison on the treatment of diabetic patients with BRS out to two years, individuals with diabetes treated with the Absorb BVS had a similar rate of MACE as compared with diabetics treated with the Xience EES. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. An automated quasi-continuous capillary refill timing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaxter, L L; Morris, D E; Crowe, J A; Hayes-Gill, B R; Henry, C; Hill, S; Sharkey, D; Vyas, H

    2016-01-01

    Capillary refill time (CRT) is a simple means of cardiovascular assessment which is widely used in clinical care. Currently, CRT is measured through manual assessment of the time taken for skin tone to return to normal colour following blanching of the skin surface. There is evidence to suggest that manually assessed CRT is subject to bias from ambient light conditions, a lack of standardisation of both blanching time and manually applied pressure, subjectiveness of return to normal colour, and variability in the manual assessment of time. We present a novel automated system for CRT measurement, incorporating three components: a non-invasive adhesive sensor incorporating a pneumatic actuator, a diffuse multi-wavelength reflectance measurement device, and a temperature sensor; a battery operated datalogger unit containing a self contained pneumatic supply; and PC based data analysis software for the extraction of refill time, patient skin surface temperature, and sensor signal quality. Through standardisation of the test, it is hoped that some of the shortcomings of manual CRT can be overcome. In addition, an automated system will facilitate easier integration of CRT into electronic record keeping and clinical monitoring or scoring systems, as well as reducing demands on clinicians. Summary analysis of volunteer (n  =  30) automated CRT datasets are presented, from 15 healthy adults and 15 healthy children (aged from 5 to 15 years), as their arms were cooled from ambient temperature to 5°C. A more detailed analysis of two typical datasets is also presented, demonstrating that the response of automated CRT to cooling matches that of previously published studies. (paper)

  14. Just-in-time automated counseling for physical activity promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Timothy; Gruber, Amanda; Intille, Stephen

    2008-11-06

    Preliminary results from a field study into the efficacy of automated health behavior counseling delivered at the moment of user decision-making compared to the same counseling delivered at the end of the day are reported. The study uses an animated PDA-based advisor with an integrated accelerometer that can engage users in dialogues about their physical activity throughout the day. Preliminary results indicate health counseling is more effective when delivered just-in-time than when delivered retrospectively.

  15. Real-time bioacoustics monitoring and automated species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mitchell Aide

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, animal species diversity and abundance is assessed using a variety of methods that are generally costly, limited in space and time, and most importantly, they rarely include a permanent record. Given the urgency of climate change and the loss of habitat, it is vital that we use new technologies to improve and expand global biodiversity monitoring to thousands of sites around the world. In this article, we describe the acoustical component of the Automated Remote Biodiversity Monitoring Network (ARBIMON, a novel combination of hardware and software for automating data acquisition, data management, and species identification based on audio recordings. The major components of the cyberinfrastructure include: a solar powered remote monitoring station that sends 1-min recordings every 10 min to a base station, which relays the recordings in real-time to the project server, where the recordings are processed and uploaded to the project website (arbimon.net. Along with a module for viewing, listening, and annotating recordings, the website includes a species identification interface to help users create machine learning algorithms to automate species identification. To demonstrate the system we present data on the vocal activity patterns of birds, frogs, insects, and mammals from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica.

  16. Integration of Real-Time Data Into Building Automation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark J. Stunder; Perry Sebastian; Brenda A. Chube; Michael D. Koontz

    2003-04-16

    The project goal was to investigate the possibility of using predictive real-time information from the Internet as an input to building management system algorithms. The objectives were to identify the types of information most valuable to commercial and residential building owners, managers, and system designers. To comprehensively investigate and document currently available electronic real-time information suitable for use in building management systems. Verify the reliability of the information and recommend accreditation methods for data and providers. Assess methodologies to automatically retrieve and utilize the information. Characterize equipment required to implement automated integration. Demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of using the information in building management systems. Identify evolutionary control strategies.

  17. Time-Fractional Advection-Dispersion Equation (tFADE) to Quantify Aqueous Phase Contaminant Elution from a Trichloroethene (TCE) NAPL Source Zone in Sand Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tick, G. R.; Wei, S.; Sun, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Pore-scale heterogeneity, NAPL distribution, and sorption/desorption processes can significantly affect aqueous phase elution and mass flux in porous media systems. The application of a scale-independent fractional derivative model (tFADE) was used to simulate elution curves for a series of columns (5 cm, 7 cm, 15 cm, 25 cm, and 80 cm) homogeneously packed with 20/30-mesh sand and distributed with uniform saturations (7-24%) of NAPL phase trichloroethene (TCE). An additional set of columns (7 cm and 25 cm) were packed with a heterogeneous distribution of quartz sand upon which TCE was emplaced by imbibing the immiscible liquid, under stable displacement conditions, to simulate a spill-type process. The tFADE model was able to better represent experimental elution behavior for systems that exhibited extensive long-term concentration tailing requiring much less parameters compared to typical multi-rate mass transfer models (MRMT). However, the tFADE model was not able to effectively simulate the entire elution curve for such systems with short concentration tailing periods since it assumes a power-law distribution for the dissolution rate for TCE. Such limitations may be solved using the tempered fractional derivative model, which can capture the single-rate mass transfer process and therefore the short elution concentration tailing behavior. Numerical solution for the tempered fractional-derivative model in bounded domains however remains a challenge and therefore requires further study. However, the tFADE model shows excellent promise for understanding impacts on concentration elution behavior for systems in which physical heterogeneity, non-uniform NAPL distribution, and pronounced sorption-desorption effects dominate or are present.

  18. Investigation of the elution by seawater of caesium and strontium from loaded clinoptilolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, B.R.; Mitchell, I.H.; Smyth, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    Simple investigations of the elution of caesium and strontium from loaded clinoptilolite are described. The clinoptilolite was loaded to levels expected in the British Nuclear Fuels plc SIXEP plant and contacted with seawater at approx. 15 C. (The elution time was measured until about 99% of the caesium and strontium had been eluted.) It was found that 99% of the caesium was eluted in 35 hours but the strontium (with more variable results) took at least 400 hours for 99% elution. (author)

  19. Expert Performance and Time Pressure: Implications for Automation Failures in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-30

    settled by these two studies. To help resolve the disagreement between the previous research findings, the present work used a computerized chess...communication between the automation and the pilots should also be helpful , but it is doubtful that the system designer or the real-time automation can...Performance and Time Pressure: Implications for Automation Failures in Aviation 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  20. Challenges in automated estimation of capillary refill time in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugmas, Blaž; Spigulis, Janis

    2018-02-01

    Capillary refill time (CRT) is a part of the cardiorespiratory examination in dogs. Changes in CRT can reflect pathological conditions like shock or anemia. Visual CRT estimation has low repeatability; therefore, optical systems for automated estimation have recently appeared. Since existing systems are unsuitable for use in dogs, we designed a simple, small and portable device, which could be easily used at veterinary clinic. The device was preliminarily tested on several measurement sites in two dogs. Not all measurement sites were suitable for CRT measurements due to underlying tissue optical and mechanical properties. The CRT measurements were possible on the labial mucosa, above the sternum and on the digit where CRT was in the range of values, retrieved from the color video of the visual CRT measurement. It seems that light penetration predominantly governs tissue optical response when the pressure is applied. Therefore, it is important to select a proper light, which reaches only superficial capillaries and does not penetrate deeper. Blue or green light is probably suitable for light skin or mucosa, on the other hand, red or near-infrared might be used for skin with pigmented or thick epidermis. Additionally, further improvements of the device design are considered, like adding a calibrated spring, which would insure application of consistent pressure.

  1. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  2. Workload Capacity: A Response Time-Based Measure of Automation Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani, Yusuke; McCarley, Jason S

    2016-05-01

    An experiment used the workload capacity measure C(t) to quantify the processing efficiency of human-automation teams and identify operators' automation usage strategies in a speeded decision task. Although response accuracy rates and related measures are often used to measure the influence of an automated decision aid on human performance, aids can also influence response speed. Mean response times (RTs), however, conflate the influence of the human operator and the automated aid on team performance and may mask changes in the operator's performance strategy under aided conditions. The present study used a measure of parallel processing efficiency, or workload capacity, derived from empirical RT distributions as a novel gauge of human-automation performance and automation dependence in a speeded task. Participants performed a speeded probabilistic decision task with and without the assistance of an automated aid. RT distributions were used to calculate two variants of a workload capacity measure, COR(t) and CAND(t). Capacity measures gave evidence that a diagnosis from the automated aid speeded human participants' responses, and that participants did not moderate their own decision times in anticipation of diagnoses from the aid. Workload capacity provides a sensitive and informative measure of human-automation performance and operators' automation dependence in speeded tasks. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  3. Driver Vigilance in Automated Vehicles: Hazard Detection Failures Are a Matter of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Eric T; DeLucia, Patricia R; Newton, David C

    2018-03-01

    The primary aim of the current study was to determine whether monitoring the roadway for hazards during automated driving results in a vigilance decrement. Although automated vehicles are relatively novel, the nature of human-automation interaction within them has the classic hallmarks of a vigilance task. Drivers must maintain attention for prolonged periods of time to detect and respond to rare and unpredictable events, for example, roadway hazards that automation may be ill equipped to detect. Given the similarity with traditional vigilance tasks, we predicted that drivers of a simulated automated vehicle would demonstrate a vigilance decrement in hazard detection performance. Participants "drove" a simulated automated vehicle for 40 minutes. During that time, their task was to monitor the roadway for roadway hazards. As predicted, hazard detection rate declined precipitously, and reaction times slowed as the drive progressed. Further, subjective ratings of workload and task-related stress indicated that sustained monitoring is demanding and distressing and it is a challenge to maintain task engagement. Monitoring the roadway for potential hazards during automated driving results in workload, stress, and performance decrements similar to those observed in traditional vigilance tasks. To the degree that vigilance is required of automated vehicle drivers, performance errors and associated safety risks are likely to occur as a function of time on task. Vigilance should be a focal safety concern in the development of vehicle automation.

  4. Instrument calls and real-time code for laboratory automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taber, L.; Ames, H.S.; Yamauchi, R.K.; Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    These programs are the result of a joint Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Environmental Protection Agency project to automate water quality laboratories. They form the interface between the analytical instruments and the BASIC language programs for data reduction and analysis. They operate on Data General NOVA 840's at Cincinnati and Chicago and on a Data General ECLIPSE C330 at Livermore. The operating system consists of unmodified RDOS, Data General's disk operating system, and Data General's multiuser BASIC modified to provide the instrument CALLs and other functions described. Instruments automated at various laboratories include Technicon AutoAnalyzers, atomic absorption spectrophotometers, total organic carbon analyzers, an emission spectrometer, an electronic balance, sample changers, and an optical spectrophotometer. Other instruments may be automated using these same CALLs, or new CALLs may be written as described

  5. Automated reactor protection testing saves time and avoids errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondo, E.

    1990-01-01

    When the Pressurized Water Reactor units in the French 900MWe series were designed, the instrumentation and control systems were equipped for manual periodic testing. Manual reactor protection system testing has since been successfully replaced by an automatic system, which is also applicable to other instrumentation testing. A study on the complete automation of process instrumentation testing has been carried out. (author)

  6. Time reduction and automation of routine planning activities through the use of macros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaman, C.; Perez-Alija, J.; Herrero, C.; Real, C. del; Osorio, J. L.; Almansa, J.

    2011-01-01

    The use of macros in scheduler automates Adac Pinnacle3 much of the routine activities in the planning process, from the display options and placement of beams, to, among other possibilities, systematic naming them and export of the physical and clinical dosimetry. This automation allows reduction of the times associated with the planning process and an error reduction.

  7. Analysis of co-eluted isomers of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high performance liquid chromatography fractions via solid-phase nanoextraction and time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Walter B; Campiglia, Andres D

    2011-09-28

    We present an accurate method for the determination of isomers of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons co-eluted in HPLC fractions. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated with two isomers of molecular weight 302 with identical mass fragmentation patterns, namely dibenzo[a,i]pyrene and naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene. Qualitative and quantitative analysis is carried out via laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy at liquid helium temperature. Unambiguous identification of co-eluted isomers is based on their characteristic 4.2 K line-narrowed spectra in n-octane as well as their fluorescence lifetimes. Pre-concentration of HPLC fractions prior to spectroscopic analysis is performed with the aid of gold nanoparticles via an environmentally friendly procedure. In addition to the two co-eluted isomers, the analytical figures of merit of the entire procedure were evaluated with dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]pyrene and dibenzo[a,e]pyrene. The analytical recoveries from drinking water samples varied between 98.2±5.5 (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene) and 102.7±3.2% (dibenzo[a,i]pyrene). The limits of detection ranged from 51.1 ng L(-1) (naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene) to 154 ng L(-1) (dibenzo[a,e]pyrene). The excellent analytical figures of merit associated to its HPLC compatibility makes this approach an attractive alternative for the analysis of co-eluted isomers with identical mass spectra. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Production of 99Tc generators with automatic elution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengatti, J.; Yanagawa, S.T.I.; Mazzarro, E.; Gasiglia, H.T.; Rela, P.R.; Silva, C.P.G. da; Pereira, N.P.S. de.

    1983-10-01

    The improvements performed on the routine production of sup(99m) Tc-generators at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-CNEN/SP, are described. The old model generators (manual elution of sup(99m) Tc) were substituted by automatically eluted generators (Vacuum system). The alumina column, elution system and acessories were modified; the elution time was reduced from 60 to 20-30 seconds. The new generators give 80-90% elution yields using six mililiters of sodium chloride 0,9% as sup(99m) Tc eluant instead of the 10 mililiters necessary to eluate the old generators. So, the radioactive concentrations are now 70% higher. The radioactive, radiochemical, chemical and microbiological criteria were examinated for sup(99m) Tc solutions. Like old generators, automatic generators were considered safe for medical purpose. (Author) [pt

  9. Optimization of the elution buffer and concentration method for detecting hepatitis E virus in swine liver using a nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Na Ry; Seo, Dong Joo; Lee, Min Hwa; Seo, Sheungwoo; Wang, Xiaoyu; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Lee, Jeong-Su; Joo, In-Sun; Hwang, In-Gyun; Choi, Changsun

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an optimal technique for detecting hepatitis E virus (HEV) in swine livers. Here, three elution buffers and two concentration methods were compared with respect to enhancing recovery of HEV from swine liver samples. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested RT-PCR were performed to detect HEV RNA. When phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) was used to concentrate HEV in swine liver samples using ultrafiltration, real-time RT-PCR detected HEV in 6 of the 26 samples. When threonine buffer was used to concentrate HEV using polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and ultrafiltration, real-time RT-PCR detected HEV in 1 and 3 of the 26 samples, respectively. When glycine buffer was used to concentrate HEV using ultrafiltration and PEG precipitation, real-time RT-PCR detected HEV in 1 and 3 samples of the 26 samples, respectively. When nested RT-PCR was used to detect HEV, all samples tested negative regardless of the type of elution buffer or concentration method used. Therefore, the combination of real-time RT-PCR and ultrafiltration with PBS buffer was the most sensitive and reliable method for detecting HEV in swine livers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Automated Incident Detection Using Real-Time Floating Car Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Houbraken

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of a live Automated Incident Detection (AID system using only Floating Car Data (FCD in one of the first large-scale FCD AID field trials. AID systems detect traffic events and alert upcoming drivers to improve traffic safety without human monitoring. These automated systems traditionally rely on traffic monitoring sensors embedded in the road. FCD allows for finer spatial granularity of traffic monitoring. However, low penetration rates of FCD probe vehicles and the data latency have historically hindered FCD AID deployment. We use a live country-wide FCD system monitoring an estimated 5.93% of all vehicles. An FCD AID system is presented and compared to the installed AID system (using loop sensor data on 2 different highways in Netherlands. Our results show the FCD AID can adequately monitor changing traffic conditions and follow the AID benchmark. The presented FCD AID is integrated with the road operator systems as part of an innovation project, making this, to the best of our knowledge, the first full chain technical feasibility trial of an FCD-only AID system. Additionally, FCD allows for AID on roads without installed sensors, allowing road safety improvements at low cost.

  11. Analysis of Real Time Technical Data Obtained While Shotcreting: An Approach Towards Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Ángel; Río, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Automation of shotcreting process is a key factor in both improving the working conditions and increasing productivity; as well as in increasing the quality of shotcrete. The confidence in the quality of the automation process itself and shotcrete linings can be improved by real time monitoring of pumping as well as other shotcreting machine related parameters. Prediction of how the difIerent technical parameters of application are governing the whole process is being a subject of increasing ...

  12. Decreasing Transition Times in Elementary School Classrooms: Using Computer-Assisted Instruction to Automate Intervention Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, Jeffrey F.; Ardoin, Scott P.; Foster, Tori E.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that students spend a substantial amount of time transitioning between classroom activities, which may reduce time spent academically engaged. This study used an ABAB design to evaluate the effects of a computer-assisted intervention that automated intervention components previously shown to decrease transition times. We examined…

  13. Real time fish pond monitoring and automation using Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Z.; Reda, E.; Hashim, H.

    2018-03-01

    Investment and operating costs are the biggest obstacles in modernizing fish ponds in an otherwise very lucrative industry i.e. food production, in this region. Small-scale farmers running on small ponds could not afford to hire workers to man daily operations which usually consists of monitoring water levels, temperature and feeding fish. Bigger scale enterprises usually have some kinds of automation for water monitoring and replacement. These entities have to consider employing pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) sensors to ensure the health and growth of fish, sooner or later as their farms grow. This project identifies one of the sites, located in Malacca. In this project, water, temperature, pH and DO levels are measured and integrated with aerating and water supply pumps using Arduino. User could receive information at predetermined intervals on preferred communication or display gadgets as long as they have internet. Since integrating devices are comparatively not expensive; it usually consists of Arduino board, internet and relay frames and display system, farmer could source these components easily. A sample of two days measurements of temperature, pH and DO levels show that this farm has a high-quality water. Oxygen levels increases in the day as sunshine supports photosynthesis in the pond. With this integration system, farmer need not hire worker at their site, consequently drive down operating costs and improve efficiency.

  14. Efficiency of an automated reception and turnaround time management system for the phlebotomy room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Soon Gyu; Shin, Jeong Won; Park, Eun Su; Bang, Hae In; Kang, Jung Gu

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in laboratory information systems have largely been focused on automation. However, the phlebotomy services have not been completely automated. To address this issue, we introduced an automated reception and turnaround time (TAT) management system, for the first time in Korea, whereby the patient's information is transmitted directly to the actual phlebotomy site and the TAT for each phlebotomy step can be monitored at a glance. The GNT5 system (Energium Co., Ltd., Korea) was installed in June 2013. The automated reception and TAT management system has been in operation since February 2014. Integration of the automated reception machine with the GNT5 allowed for direct transmission of laboratory order information to the GNT5 without involving any manual reception step. We used the mean TAT from reception to actual phlebotomy as the parameter for evaluating the efficiency of our system. Mean TAT decreased from 5:45 min to 2:42 min after operationalization of the system. The mean number of patients in queue decreased from 2.9 to 1.0. Further, the number of cases taking more than five minutes from reception to phlebotomy, defined as the defect rate, decreased from 20.1% to 9.7%. The use of automated reception and TAT management system was associated with a decrease of overall TAT and an improved workflow at the phlebotomy room.

  15. Takeover Time in Highly Automated Vehicles: Noncritical Transitions to and From Manual Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Alexander; Stanton, Neville A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to review existing research into driver control transitions and to determine the time it takes drivers to resume control from a highly automated vehicle in noncritical scenarios. Contemporary research has moved from an inclusive design approach to adhering only to mean/median values when designing control transitions in automated driving. Research into control transitions in highly automated driving has focused on urgent scenarios where drivers are given a relatively short time span to respond to a request to resume manual control. We found a paucity in research into more frequent scenarios for control transitions, such as planned exits from highway systems. Twenty-six drivers drove two scenarios with an automated driving feature activated. Drivers were asked to read a newspaper, or to monitor the system, and to relinquish, or resume, control from the automation when prompted by vehicle systems. Significantly longer control transition times were found between driving with and without secondary tasks. Control transition times were substantially longer than those reported in the peer-reviewed literature. We found that drivers take longer to resume control when under no time pressure compared with that reported in the literature. Moreover, we found that drivers occupied by a secondary task exhibit larger variance and slower responses to requests to resume control. Workload scores implied optimal workload. Intra- and interindividual differences need to be accommodated by vehicle manufacturers and policy makers alike to ensure inclusive design of contemporary systems and safety during control transitions.

  16. Specification and Automated Verification of Real-Time Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.H.; Andersen, J.H.; Skou, A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we sketch a method for specification and automatic verification of real-time software properties.......In this paper we sketch a method for specification and automatic verification of real-time software properties....

  17. Specification and Automated Verification of Real-Time Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.H.; Kristensen, C.H.; Skou, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we sketch a method for specification and automatic verification of real-time software properties.......In this paper we sketch a method for specification and automatic verification of real-time software properties....

  18. Elution of Monomers from Provisional Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Daniel Schulz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the elution of substances from different materials used for the manufacturing of temporary indirect restorations, after storage in saliva and ethanol 75%. 10 samples of three chemically cured materials (Protemp 3 Garant, Systemp.c&b, and Trim and one light-cured material (Clip F were stored in saliva and ethanol 75% for 24 h, 7, and days 28 days. From the storage media at each time period, samples were prepared and analysed by LC-MS/MS, in order to access the elution of monomers. The results differed among the materials (P ≤ 0.05. No monomers were detected in the samples of Protemp 3 Garant and Clip F. Substances were detected only in ethanol samples of Systemp.c&b and Trim. The amount of BisGMA, TEGDMA, and UDMA 2 released from Systemp.c&b was higher compared to Trim. Storage time affected the release of substances (P ≤ 0.05. The highest release was observed within the first 24 h. It can be concluded that provisional resin composite materials do not show high release of monomers and this release is material dependent. However, the detection of additional peaks during the analysis, suggesting the formation of by-products of the eluted substances, may not be in favour of these materials with respect to their toxicity.

  19. FPGA-Based Real-Time Motion Detection for Automated Video Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Design of automated video surveillance systems is one of the exigent missions in computer vision community because of their ability to automatically select frames of interest in incoming video streams based on motion detection. This research paper focuses on the real-time hardware implementation of a motion detection algorithm for such vision based automated surveillance systems. A dedicated VLSI architecture has been proposed and designed for clustering-based motion detection scheme. The working prototype of a complete standalone automated video surveillance system, including input camera interface, designed motion detection VLSI architecture, and output display interface, with real-time relevant motion detection capabilities, has been implemented on Xilinx ML510 (Virtex-5 FX130T FPGA platform. The prototyped system robustly detects the relevant motion in real-time in live PAL (720 × 576 resolution video streams directly coming from the camera.

  20. Automated Predicate Abstraction for Real-Time Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Badban

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a technique designed to automatically compute predicate abstractions for dense real-timed models represented as networks of timed automata. We use the CIPM algorithm in our previous work which computes new invariants for timed automata control locations and prunes the model, to compute a predicate abstraction of the model. We do so by taking information regarding control locations and their newly computed invariants into account.

  1. Automated real-time detection of tonic-clonic seizures using a wearable EMG device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Henning, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of automated detection of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) using a wearable surface EMG device. METHODS: We prospectively tested the technical performance and diagnostic accuracy of real-time seizure detection using a wearable surface EMG device....... The seizure detection algorithm and the cutoff values were prespecified. A total of 71 patients, referred to long-term video-EEG monitoring, on suspicion of GTCS, were recruited in 3 centers. Seizure detection was real-time and fully automated. The reference standard was the evaluation of video-EEG recordings...

  2. Consolidated Automated System for Time and Labor Entry(CASTLE) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — CASTLE manages a full range of Human Resources time and attendance collections for DOT employees. To accomplish this CASTLE stores and maintains HR-related personnel...

  3. Automated Feature Design for Time Series Classification by Genetic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Dustin Yewell

    2014-01-01

    Time series classification (TSC) methods discover and exploit patterns in time series and other one-dimensional signals. Although many accurate, robust classifiers exist for multivariate feature sets, general approaches are needed to extend machine learning techniques to make use of signal inputs. Numerous applications of TSC can be found in structural engineering, especially in the areas of structural health monitoring and non-destructive evaluation. Additionally, the fields of process contr...

  4. Automated real time constant-specificity surveillance for disease outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brownstein John S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For real time surveillance, detection of abnormal disease patterns is based on a difference between patterns observed, and those predicted by models of historical data. The usefulness of outbreak detection strategies depends on their specificity; the false alarm rate affects the interpretation of alarms. Results We evaluate the specificity of five traditional models: autoregressive, Serfling, trimmed seasonal, wavelet-based, and generalized linear. We apply each to 12 years of emergency department visits for respiratory infection syndromes at a pediatric hospital, finding that the specificity of the five models was almost always a non-constant function of the day of the week, month, and year of the study (p Conclusion Modeling the variance of visit patterns enables real-time detection with known, constant specificity at all times. With constant specificity, public health practitioners can better interpret the alarms and better evaluate the cost-effectiveness of surveillance systems.

  5. Automated real time constant-specificity surveillance for disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Shannon C; Brownstein, John S; Berger, Bonnie; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2007-06-13

    For real time surveillance, detection of abnormal disease patterns is based on a difference between patterns observed, and those predicted by models of historical data. The usefulness of outbreak detection strategies depends on their specificity; the false alarm rate affects the interpretation of alarms. We evaluate the specificity of five traditional models: autoregressive, Serfling, trimmed seasonal, wavelet-based, and generalized linear. We apply each to 12 years of emergency department visits for respiratory infection syndromes at a pediatric hospital, finding that the specificity of the five models was almost always a non-constant function of the day of the week, month, and year of the study (p accounting for not only the expected number of visits, but also the variance of the number of visits. The expectation-variance model achieves constant specificity on all three time scales, as well as earlier detection and improved sensitivity compared to traditional methods in most circumstances. Modeling the variance of visit patterns enables real-time detection with known, constant specificity at all times. With constant specificity, public health practitioners can better interpret the alarms and better evaluate the cost-effectiveness of surveillance systems.

  6. Diagnostic Hearing Assessment in Schools: Validity and Time Efficiency of Automated Audiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed-Asmail, Faheema; Swanepoel, De Wet; Eikelboom, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Poor follow-up compliance from school-based hearing screening typically undermines the efficacy of school-based hearing screening programs. Onsite diagnostic audiometry with automation may reduce false positives and ensure directed referrals. To investigate the validity and time efficiency of automated diagnostic air- and bone-conduction audiometry for children in a natural school environment following hearing screening. A within-subject repeated measures design was employed to compare air- and bone-conduction pure-tone thresholds (0.5-4 kHz), measured by manual and automated pure-tone audiometry. Sixty-two children, 25 males and 37 females, with an average age of 8 yr (standard deviation [SD] = 0.92; range = 6-10 yr) were recruited for this study. The participants included 30 children who failed on a hearing screening and 32 children who passed a hearing screening. Threshold comparisons were made for air- and bone-conduction thresholds across ears tested with manual and automated audiometry. To avoid a floor effect thresholds of 15 dB HL were excluded in analyses. The Wilcoxon signed ranked test was used to compare threshold correspondence for manual and automated thresholds and the paired samples t-test was used to compare test time. Statistical significance was set as p ≤ 0.05. 85.7% of air-conduction thresholds and 44.6% of bone-conduction thresholds corresponded within the normal range (15 dB HL) for manual and automated audiometry. Both manual and automated audiometry air- and bone-conduction thresholds exceeded 15 dB HL in 9.9% and 34.0% of thresholds, respectively. For these thresholds, average absolute differences for air- and bone-conduction thresholds were 6.3 (SD = 8.3) and 2.2 dB (SD = 3.6) and they corresponded within 10 dB across frequencies in 87.7% and 100.0%, respectively. There was no significant difference between manual and automated air- and bone-conduction across frequencies for these thresholds. Using onsite automated diagnostic audiometry

  7. Improving automated disturbance maps using snow-covered landsat time series stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk M. Stueve; Ian W. Housman; Patrick L. Zimmerman; Mark D. Nelson; Jeremy Webb; Charles H. Perry; Robert A. Chastain; Dale D. Gormanson; Chengquan Huang; Sean P. Healey; Warren B. Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Snow-covered winter Landsat time series stacks are used to develop a nonforest mask to enhance automated disturbance maps produced by the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT). This method exploits the enhanced spectral separability between forested and nonforested areas that occurs with sufficient snow cover. This method resulted in significant improvements in Vegetation...

  8. A time-use model for the automated vehicle-era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudāne, Baiba; Molin, Eric J.E.; Arentze, Theo A.; Maknoon, Yousef; Chorus, Caspar G.

    2018-01-01

    Automated Vehicles (AVs) offer their users a possibility to perform new non-driving activities while being on the way. The effects of this opportunity on travel choices and travel demand have mostly been conceptualised and modelled via a reduced penalty associated with (in-vehicle) travel time. This

  9. A Time-use Model for the Automated Vehicle-era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudane, B.; Molin, E.J.E.; Arentze, TA; Maknoon, M.Y.; Chorus, C.G.

    2018-01-01

    Automated Vehicles (AVs) offer their users a possibility to perform new non-driving activities while being on the way. The effects of this opportunity on travel choices and travel demand have mostly been conceptualised and modelled via a reduced penalty associated with (in-vehicle) travel time. This

  10. A time-series method for automated measurement of changes in mitotic and interphase duration from time-lapse movies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic D Sigoillot

    Full Text Available Automated time-lapse microscopy can visualize proliferation of large numbers of individual cells, enabling accurate measurement of the frequency of cell division and the duration of interphase and mitosis. However, extraction of quantitative information by manual inspection of time-lapse movies is too time-consuming to be useful for analysis of large experiments.Here we present an automated time-series approach that can measure changes in the duration of mitosis and interphase in individual cells expressing fluorescent histone 2B. The approach requires analysis of only 2 features, nuclear area and average intensity. Compared to supervised learning approaches, this method reduces processing time and does not require generation of training data sets. We demonstrate that this method is as sensitive as manual analysis in identifying small changes in interphase or mitotic duration induced by drug or siRNA treatment.This approach should facilitate automated analysis of high-throughput time-lapse data sets to identify small molecules or gene products that influence timing of cell division.

  11. Nondestructive assay technology and automated ''real-time'' materials control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keepin, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    Significant advances in nondestructive assay techniques and instrumentation now enable rapid, accurate and direct in-plant measurement of nuclear material on a continuous or ''real-time'' basis as it progresses through a nuclear facility. A variety of passive and active assay instruments are required for the broad range of materials measurement problems encountered by safeguards inspectors and facility operators in various types of nuclear plants. Representative NDA techniques and instruments are presented and reviewed with special attention to their assay capabilities and areas of applicability in the nuclear fuel cycle. An advanced system of materials control - called ''DYMAC'', for Dynamic Materials Control - is presently under development by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration; the DYMAC program integrates new nondestructive assay instrumentation and modern data-processing methods, with the overall objective of demonstrating a workable, cost-effective system of stringent safeguards and materials control in various generic types of facilities found in the nuclear fuel cycle. Throughout the program, emphasis will be placed on devloping practical solutions to generic measurement problems so that resulting techniques and instrumentation will have widespread utility. Projected levels of safeguards assurance, together with other vital - and cost-sensitive - plant operational factors such as process and quality control, criticality safety and waste management are examined in an evaluation of the impact of future advanced materials control systems on overall plant operations, efficiency and productivity. The task of implementing effective and stringent safeguards includes the transfer of new safeguards technology to the nuclear industry. Clearly the training of inspectors (both IAEA and national), plant people, etc., in the effective use of new NDA equipment is of paramount importance; thus in the United States, the Energy Research and Development

  12. Reaction Times to Consecutive Automation Failures: A Function of Working Memory and Sustained Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jipp, Meike

    2016-12-01

    This study explored whether working memory and sustained attention influence cognitive lock-up, which is a delay in the response to consecutive automation failures. Previous research has demonstrated that the information that automation provides about failures and the time pressure that is associated with a task influence cognitive lock-up. Previous research has also demonstrated considerable variability in cognitive lock-up between participants. This is why individual differences might influence cognitive lock-up. The present study tested whether working memory-including flexibility in executive functioning-and sustained attention might be crucial in this regard. Eighty-five participants were asked to monitor automated aircraft functions. The experimental manipulation consisted of whether or not an initial automation failure was followed by a consecutive failure. Reaction times to the failures were recorded. Participants' working-memory and sustained-attention abilities were assessed with standardized tests. As expected, participants' reactions to consecutive failures were slower than their reactions to initial failures. In addition, working-memory and sustained-attention abilities enhanced the speed with which participants reacted to failures, more so with regard to consecutive than to initial failures. The findings highlight that operators with better working memory and sustained attention have small advantages when initial failures occur, but their advantages increase across consecutive failures. The results stress the need to consider personnel selection strategies to mitigate cognitive lock-up in general and training procedures to enhance the performance of low ability operators. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  13. Prospective validation of a near real-time EHR-integrated automated SOFA score calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakre, Christopher; Franco, Pablo Moreno; Ferreyra, Micaela; Kitson, Jaben; Li, Man; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2017-07-01

    We created an algorithm for automated Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score calculation within the Electronic Health Record (EHR) to facilitate detection of sepsis based on the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (SEPSIS-3) clinical definition. We evaluated the accuracy of near real-time and daily automated SOFA score calculation compared with manual score calculation. Automated SOFA scoring computer programs were developed using available EHR data sources and integrated into a critical care focused patient care dashboard at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. We prospectively compared the accuracy of automated versus manual calculation for a sample of patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit at Mayo Clinic Hospitals in Rochester, Minnesota and Jacksonville, Florida. Agreement was calculated with Cohen's kappa statistic. Reason for discrepancy was tabulated during manual review. Random spot check comparisons were performed 134 times on 27 unique patients, and daily SOFA score comparisons were performed for 215 patients over a total of 1206 patient days. Agreement between automatically scored and manually scored SOFA components for both random spot checks (696 pairs, κ=0.89) and daily calculation (5972 pairs, κ=0.89) was high. The most common discrepancies were in the respiratory component (inaccurate fraction of inspired oxygen retrieval; 200/1206) and creatinine (normal creatinine in patients with no urine output on dialysis; 128/1094). 147 patients were at risk of developing sepsis after intensive care unit admission, 10 later developed sepsis confirmed by chart review. All were identified before onset of sepsis with the ΔSOFA≥2 point criterion and 46 patients were false-positives. Near real-time automated SOFA scoring was found to have strong agreement with manual score calculation and may be useful for the detection of sepsis utilizing the new SEPSIS-3 definition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. The Indicating FTA Elute Cartridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bie, Roosmarie P.; Schmeink, Channa E.; Bakkers, Judith M.J.E.; Snijders, Peter J.F.; Quint, Wim G.V.; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Bekkers, Ruud L.M.; Melchers, Willem J.G.

    2011-01-01

    The clinically validated high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and GP5+/6+-PCR assays were analyzed on an Indicating FTA Elute cartridge (FTA cartridge). The FTA cartridge is a solid dry carrier that allows safe transport of cervical samples. FTA cartridge samples were compared with liquid-based samples for hrHPV and high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) detection. One cervical sample was collected in a liquid-based medium, and one was applied to the FTA cartridge. DNA was eluted directly from the FTA cartridge by a simple elution step. HC2 and GP5+/6+-PCR assays were performed on both the liquid-based and the FTA-eluted DNA of 88 women. Overall agreement between FTA and liquid-based samples for the presence of hrHPV was 90.9% with GP5+/6+-PCR and 77.3% with HC2. The sensitivity for high-grade CIN of hrHPV testing on the FTA cartridges was 84.6% with GP5+/6+-PCR and only 53.8% with HC2. By comparison, these sensitivities on liquid-based samples were 92.3% and 100% for GP5+/6+-PCR and HC2, respectively. Therefore, the FTA cartridge shows reasonably good overall agreement for hrHPV detection with liquid-based media when using GP5+/6+-PCR but not HC2 testing. Even with GP5+/6+-PCR, the FTA cartridge is not yet capable of detecting all high-grade CIN lesions. PMID:21704269

  15. Platform for Automated Real-Time High Performance Analytics on Medical Image Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, William J; Gabr, Refaat E; Tefera, Getaneh B; Pednekar, Amol S; Vaughn, Matthew W; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2018-03-01

    Biomedical data are quickly growing in volume and in variety, providing clinicians an opportunity for better clinical decision support. Here, we demonstrate a robust platform that uses software automation and high performance computing (HPC) resources to achieve real-time analytics of clinical data, specifically magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. We used the Agave application programming interface to facilitate communication, data transfer, and job control between an MRI scanner and an off-site HPC resource. In this use case, Agave executed the graphical pipeline tool GRAphical Pipeline Environment (GRAPE) to perform automated, real-time, quantitative analysis of MRI scans. Same-session image processing will open the door for adaptive scanning and real-time quality control, potentially accelerating the discovery of pathologies and minimizing patient callbacks. We envision this platform can be adapted to other medical instruments, HPC resources, and analytics tools.

  16. Automated real-time testing (ARTT) for embedded control systems (ECS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, J; Howard, R; Nguyen, H.

    2001-01-01

    Many of today's automated real-time testing systems for embedded systems were developed using expensive custom hardware and software. In this article they describe how to use commercially available off-the-shelf hardware and software to design and develop an automated real-time test systems for Embedded Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Based Control Systems. The system development began with the implementation of the VALI/TEST Pro testing methodology as a means for structuring the testing. Using this methodology, they were able to decompose system requirement documents for a Personnel Safety System (PSS) into its high, intermediate and detail level requirements. next, the validation procedures for the PSS system were decomposed into testing units called builds, test runs and test cases. To measure the PSS system's test coverage three levels of system requirements were mapped to their respective unit level of test using a specially constructed validation matrix that was designed to handle over 150 test cases and requirements. All of the above work led to the development of an Automated Real-Time Test System (ARTTS) that is capable of performing complete black box testing in real-time for Embedded PLC Based Control Systems. Also note, that the PSS system under test and mentioned in this paper is located at the Advance Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory Basic Energy Science Facility in Argonne, Illinois

  17. Modeling Real-Time Human-Automation Collaborative Scheduling of Unmanned Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Bundle Algorithm (CBBA), a decentralized, polynomial-time, market based protocol (Choi, et al., 2009). More details on the AS can be found in (Whitten...infonned consent to panicipate in this research study. Signature oflnvesligator Date Approved on 31-0CT-2012 - MIT JRB Protocol #: 1110005179- Expires on...presented at the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Karlsruhe, Germany. Miller, C. (2004). Human-Computer Etiquette : Managing

  18. Development of a prototype real-time automated filter for operational deep space navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, W. C.; Pollmeier, V. M.

    1994-01-01

    Operational deep space navigation has been in the past, and is currently, performed using systems whose architecture requires constant human supervision and intervention. A prototype for a system which allows relatively automated processing of radio metric data received in near real-time from NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) without any redesign of the existing operational data flow has been developed. This system can allow for more rapid response as well as much reduced staffing to support mission navigation operations.

  19. Development of a Real-Time PCR Protocol Requiring Minimal Handling for Detection of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci with the Fully Automated BD Max System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalpke, Alexander H; Hofko, Marjeta; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are an important cause of health care-associated infections, resulting in significant mortality and a significant economic burden in hospitals. Active surveillance for at-risk populations contributes to the prevention of infections with VRE. The availability of a combination of automation and molecular detection procedures for rapid screening would be beneficial. Here, we report on the development of a laboratory-developed PCR for detection of VRE which runs on the fully automated Becton Dickinson (BD) Max platform, which combines DNA extraction, PCR setup, and real-time PCR amplification. We evaluated two protocols: one using a liquid master mix and the other employing commercially ordered dry-down reagents. The BD Max VRE PCR was evaluated in two rounds with 86 and 61 rectal elution swab (eSwab) samples, and the results were compared to the culture results. The sensitivities of the different PCR formats were 84 to 100% for vanA and 83.7 to 100% for vanB; specificities were 96.8 to 100% for vanA and 81.8 to 97% for vanB The use of dry-down reagents and the ExK DNA-2 kit for extraction showed that the samples were less inhibited (3.3%) than they were by the use of the liquid master mix (14.8%). Adoption of a cutoff threshold cycle of 35 for discrimination of vanB-positive samples allowed an increase of specificity to 87.9%. The performance of the BD Max VRE assay equaled that of the BD GeneOhm VanR assay, which was run in parallel. The use of dry-down reagents simplifies the assay and omits any need to handle liquid PCR reagents. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Size distribution of DNA molecules recovered from non-denaturing filter elution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloecher, D.; Iliakis, G.

    1991-01-01

    DNA fragments removed from the filter during non-denaturing filter elution were collected and loaded on top of neutral sucrose gradients. Their size distribution was determined by low-speed centrifugation in neutral sucrose gradients. The average size of eluted DNA was found to be approximately 110 S; the average size of DNA collected after short elution times was found to be slightly larger than after long elution times. It is concluded that the size of eluted DNA fragments is not correlated with elution rate, and it is proposed that shear forces generated at the filter pores cause degradation of the DNA. Comparison of sedimentation profiles of carefully prepared cellular DNA before and after elution revealed that generated shear forces during elution break down DNA to an extent equivalent to around 20 000 DNA double-strand breaks (dsb) per G 1 cell. The size of DNA fragments decreased with increasing radiation dose; five times more dsb were found than expected after exposure to radiation alone. It is proposed that excess of dsb may derive from the transformation of other radiation-induced lesions to dsb under the action of shear forces generated during elution. (author)

  1. QoS Negotiation in Real-Time Systems and its Application to Automated Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    QoS Negotiation in Real - Time Systems and Its Application to Automated Flight Control Tarek F. Abdelzaher, Member, IEEE, Ella M. Atkins, Member, IEEE...been committed to those that arrived earlier. In hard- real - time systems , a static analysis may be performed to guarantee a priori that all requests be...DATE 2000 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2000 to 00-00-2000 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE QoS Negotiation in Real - Time Systems and its

  2. Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  3. Tool-driven Design and Automated Parameterization for Real-time Generic Drivetrain Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Christina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time dynamic drivetrain modeling approaches have a great potential for development cost reduction in the automotive industry. Even though real-time drivetrain models are available, these solutions are specific to single transmission topologies. In this paper an environment for parameterization of a solution is proposed based on a generic method applicable to all types of gear transmission topologies. This enables tool-guided modeling by non- experts in the fields of mechanic engineering and control theory leading to reduced development and testing efforts. The approach is demonstrated for an exemplary automatic transmission using the environment for automated parameterization. Finally, the parameterization is validated via vehicle measurement data.

  4. Monitoring of originated polymer in pure monomer with gradient polymer elution chromatography (GPEC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, W.J.; Cools, P.J.C.H.; Herk, van A.M.; German, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    The anal. of the amt. of polymer in pure monomer with cloudpoint measurements gives only a qual. answer. Now by use of a liq. chromatograph and gradient elution a fully automated detn. the amt. of polymer can be measured and an impression of the molar mass can be achieved

  5. Automating Flood Hazard Mapping Methods for Near Real-time Storm Surge Inundation and Vulnerability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Gallagher, D.

    2015-12-01

    Storm surge has enough destructive power to damage buildings and infrastructure, erode beaches, and threaten human life across large geographic areas, hence posing the greatest threat of all the hurricane hazards. The United States Gulf of Mexico has proven vulnerable to hurricanes as it has been hit by some of the most destructive hurricanes on record. With projected rises in sea level and increases in hurricane activity, there is a need to better understand the associated risks for disaster mitigation, preparedness, and response. GIS has become a critical tool in enhancing disaster planning, risk assessment, and emergency response by communicating spatial information through a multi-layer approach. However, there is a need for a near real-time method of identifying areas with a high risk of being impacted by storm surge. Research was conducted alongside Baron, a private industry weather enterprise, to facilitate automated modeling and visualization of storm surge inundation and vulnerability on a near real-time basis. This research successfully automated current flood hazard mapping techniques using a GIS framework written in a Python programming environment, and displayed resulting data through an Application Program Interface (API). Data used for this methodology included high resolution topography, NOAA Probabilistic Surge model outputs parsed from Rich Site Summary (RSS) feeds, and the NOAA Census tract level Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI). The development process required extensive data processing and management to provide high resolution visualizations of potential flooding and population vulnerability in a timely manner. The accuracy of the developed methodology was assessed using Hurricane Isaac as a case study, which through a USGS and NOAA partnership, contained ample data for statistical analysis. This research successfully created a fully automated, near real-time method for mapping high resolution storm surge inundation and vulnerability for the

  6. Automated observatory in Antarctica: real-time data transfer on constrained networks in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bracke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 a project was started by the geophysical centre in Dourbes to install a fully automated magnetic observatory in Antarctica. This isolated place comes with specific requirements: unmanned station during 6 months, low temperatures with extreme values down to −50 °C, minimum power consumption and satellite bandwidth limited to 56 Kbit s−1. The ultimate aim is to transfer real-time magnetic data every second: vector data from a LEMI-25 vector magnetometer, absolute F measurements from a GEM Systems scalar proton magnetometer and absolute magnetic inclination–declination (DI measurements (five times a day with an automated DI-fluxgate magnetometer. Traditional file transfer protocols (for instance File Transfer Protocol (FTP, email, rsync show severe limitations when it comes to real-time capability. After evaluation of pro and cons of the available real-time Internet of things (IoT protocols and seismic software solutions, we chose to use Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT and receive the 1 s data with a negligible latency cost and no loss of data. Each individual instrument sends the magnetic data immediately after capturing, and the data arrive approximately 300 ms after being sent, which corresponds with the normal satellite latency.

  7. Automated observatory in Antarctica: real-time data transfer on constrained networks in practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracke, Stephan; Gonsette, Alexandre; Rasson, Jean; Poncelet, Antoine; Hendrickx, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    In 2013 a project was started by the geophysical centre in Dourbes to install a fully automated magnetic observatory in Antarctica. This isolated place comes with specific requirements: unmanned station during 6 months, low temperatures with extreme values down to -50 °C, minimum power consumption and satellite bandwidth limited to 56 Kbit s-1. The ultimate aim is to transfer real-time magnetic data every second: vector data from a LEMI-25 vector magnetometer, absolute F measurements from a GEM Systems scalar proton magnetometer and absolute magnetic inclination-declination (DI) measurements (five times a day) with an automated DI-fluxgate magnetometer. Traditional file transfer protocols (for instance File Transfer Protocol (FTP), email, rsync) show severe limitations when it comes to real-time capability. After evaluation of pro and cons of the available real-time Internet of things (IoT) protocols and seismic software solutions, we chose to use Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) and receive the 1 s data with a negligible latency cost and no loss of data. Each individual instrument sends the magnetic data immediately after capturing, and the data arrive approximately 300 ms after being sent, which corresponds with the normal satellite latency.

  8. Automated selection of brain regions for real-time fMRI brain-computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lührs, Michael; Sorger, Bettina; Goebel, Rainer; Esposito, Fabrizio

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) implemented with real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) use fMRI time-courses from predefined regions of interest (ROIs). To reach best performances, localizer experiments and on-site expert supervision are required for ROI definition. To automate this step, we developed two unsupervised computational techniques based on the general linear model (GLM) and independent component analysis (ICA) of rt-fMRI data, and compared their performances on a communication BCI. Approach. 3 T fMRI data of six volunteers were re-analyzed in simulated real-time. During a localizer run, participants performed three mental tasks following visual cues. During two communication runs, a letter-spelling display guided the subjects to freely encode letters by performing one of the mental tasks with a specific timing. GLM- and ICA-based procedures were used to decode each letter, respectively using compact ROIs and whole-brain distributed spatio-temporal patterns of fMRI activity, automatically defined from subject-specific or group-level maps. Main results. Letter-decoding performances were comparable to supervised methods. In combination with a similarity-based criterion, GLM- and ICA-based approaches successfully decoded more than 80% (average) of the letters. Subject-specific maps yielded optimal performances. Significance. Automated solutions for ROI selection may help accelerating the translation of rt-fMRI BCIs from research to clinical applications.

  9. A fully automated and scalable timing probe-based method for time alignment of the LabPET II scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Arnaud; Thibaudeau, Christian; Bouchard, Jonathan; Gaudin, Émilie; Paulin, Caroline; Lecomte, Roger; Fontaine, Réjean

    2018-05-01

    A fully automated time alignment method based on a positron timing probe was developed to correct the channel-to-channel coincidence time dispersion of the LabPET II avalanche photodiode-based positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. The timing probe was designed to directly detect positrons and generate an absolute time reference. The probe-to-channel coincidences are recorded and processed using firmware embedded in the scanner hardware to compute the time differences between detector channels. The time corrections are then applied in real-time to each event in every channel during PET data acquisition to align all coincidence time spectra, thus enhancing the scanner time resolution. When applied to the mouse version of the LabPET II scanner, the calibration of 6 144 channels was performed in less than 15 min and showed a 47% improvement on the overall time resolution of the scanner, decreasing from 7 ns to 3.7 ns full width at half maximum (FWHM).

  10. Knowledge based support for real time application of multiagent control and automation in electric power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Nordstrom, Lars; Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanism for developing knowledge based support for real time application of multiagent systems (MAS) in control, automation and diagnosis of electric power systems. In particular it presents a way for autonomous agents to utilize a qualitative means-ends based model...... for reasoning about control situations. The proposed mechanism has been used in different scenarios of electric power distribution system protection and control. Results show that agents can use local models of their environment and coordinate with other agents to analyze and understand a disturbance situation...

  11. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organization to find ways to reduce the costs of International Space station (ISS) console operations in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to identify projects that would help them attain a goal of a 30% reduction in operating costs by 2012. The MOD Operations and Planning organization responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve ISS console operations and reduce staffing and operating costs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the plan of eliminating two full time ISS console support positions by 2012. This will account for an overall 10 EP reduction in staffing for the Operations and Planning organization. These automation projects focused on utilizing software to automate many administrative and often repetitive tasks involved with processing ISS planning and daily operations information. This information was exchanged between the ground flight control teams in Houston and around the globe, as well as with the ISS astronaut crew. These tasks ranged from managing mission plan changes from around the globe, to uploading and downloading information to and from the ISS crew, to even more complex tasks that required multiple decision points to process the data, track approvals and deliver it to the correct recipient across network and security boundaries. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture between several planning tools; as well as a engaging a previously research level technology (TRL 2-3) developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent based system to manage and automate file traffic flow

  12. Leveraging Long-term Seismic Catalogs for Automated Real-time Event Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, L.; Draelos, T.; Pankow, K. L.; Young, C. J.; Alvarez, S.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the use of labeled event types available through reviewed seismic catalogs to produce automated event labels on new incoming data from the crustal region spanned by the cataloged events. Using events cataloged by the University of Utah Seismograph Stations between October, 2012 and June, 2017, we calculate the spectrogram for a time window that spans the duration of each event as seen on individual stations, resulting in 110k event spectrograms (50% local earthquakes examples, 50% quarry blasts examples). Using 80% of the randomized example events ( 90k), a classifier is trained to distinguish between local earthquakes and quarry blasts. We explore variations of deep learning classifiers, incorporating elements of convolutional and recurrent neural networks. Using a single-layer Long Short Term Memory recurrent neural network, we achieve 92% accuracy on the classification task on the remaining 20K test examples. Leveraging the decisions from a group of stations that detected the same event by using the median of all classifications in the group increases the model accuracy to 96%. Additional data with equivalent processing from 500 more recently cataloged events (July, 2017), achieves the same accuracy as our test data on both single-station examples and multi-station medians, suggesting that the model can maintain accurate and stable classification rates on real-time automated events local to the University of Utah Seismograph Stations, with potentially minimal levels of re-training through time.

  13. Optimal Geometrical Set for Automated Marker Placement to Virtualized Real-Time Facial Emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanthan Maruthapillai

    Full Text Available In recent years, real-time face recognition has been a major topic of interest in developing intelligent human-machine interaction systems. Over the past several decades, researchers have proposed different algorithms for facial expression recognition, but there has been little focus on detection in real-time scenarios. The present work proposes a new algorithmic method of automated marker placement used to classify six facial expressions: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, and surprise. Emotional facial expressions were captured using a webcam, while the proposed algorithm placed a set of eight virtual markers on each subject's face. Facial feature extraction methods, including marker distance (distance between each marker to the center of the face and change in marker distance (change in distance between the original and new marker positions, were used to extract three statistical features (mean, variance, and root mean square from the real-time video sequence. The initial position of each marker was subjected to the optical flow algorithm for marker tracking with each emotional facial expression. Finally, the extracted statistical features were mapped into corresponding emotional facial expressions using two simple non-linear classifiers, K-nearest neighbor and probabilistic neural network. The results indicate that the proposed automated marker placement algorithm effectively placed eight virtual markers on each subject's face and gave a maximum mean emotion classification rate of 96.94% using the probabilistic neural network.

  14. Optimal Geometrical Set for Automated Marker Placement to Virtualized Real-Time Facial Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthapillai, Vasanthan; Murugappan, Murugappan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, real-time face recognition has been a major topic of interest in developing intelligent human-machine interaction systems. Over the past several decades, researchers have proposed different algorithms for facial expression recognition, but there has been little focus on detection in real-time scenarios. The present work proposes a new algorithmic method of automated marker placement used to classify six facial expressions: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, and surprise. Emotional facial expressions were captured using a webcam, while the proposed algorithm placed a set of eight virtual markers on each subject's face. Facial feature extraction methods, including marker distance (distance between each marker to the center of the face) and change in marker distance (change in distance between the original and new marker positions), were used to extract three statistical features (mean, variance, and root mean square) from the real-time video sequence. The initial position of each marker was subjected to the optical flow algorithm for marker tracking with each emotional facial expression. Finally, the extracted statistical features were mapped into corresponding emotional facial expressions using two simple non-linear classifiers, K-nearest neighbor and probabilistic neural network. The results indicate that the proposed automated marker placement algorithm effectively placed eight virtual markers on each subject's face and gave a maximum mean emotion classification rate of 96.94% using the probabilistic neural network.

  15. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy A.; Clancey, William J.; McDonald, Aaron; Toschlog, Jason; Tucker, Tyson; Khan, Ahmed; Madrid, Steven (Eric)

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organizations to find ways to reduce the cost of operations for supporting the International Space Station (ISS) in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to define and execute projects that would help them attain cost reductions by 2012. The MOD Operations Division Flight Planning Branch responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve console operations and reduce ISS console staffing and intern reduce operating costs. These tasks ranged from improving the management and integration mission plan changes, to automating the uploading and downloading of information to and from the ISS and the associated ground complex tasks that required multiple decision points. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture; as well as engaging a previously TRL 4-5 technology developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent-based system to manage and automate file traffic flow, archive data, and generate console logs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the goal of eliminating a second full time ISS console support position by 2012. The team will also reduce one long range planning console position by 2014. When complete, these Flight Planning Branch projects will account for the elimination of 3 console positions and a reduction in staffing of 11 engineering personnel (EP) for ISS.

  16. Automated multivariate analysis of multi-sensor data submitted online: Real-time environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Ingvar; Westad, Frank

    2018-01-01

    A pilot study demonstrating real-time environmental monitoring with automated multivariate analysis of multi-sensor data submitted online has been performed at the cabled LoVe Ocean Observatory located at 258 m depth 20 km off the coast of Lofoten-Vesterålen, Norway. The major purpose was efficient monitoring of many variables simultaneously and early detection of changes and time-trends in the overall response pattern before changes were evident in individual variables. The pilot study was performed with 12 sensors from May 16 to August 31, 2015. The sensors provided data for chlorophyll, turbidity, conductivity, temperature (three sensors), salinity (calculated from temperature and conductivity), biomass at three different depth intervals (5-50, 50-120, 120-250 m), and current speed measured in two directions (east and north) using two sensors covering different depths with overlap. A total of 88 variables were monitored, 78 from the two current speed sensors. The time-resolution varied, thus the data had to be aligned to a common time resolution. After alignment, the data were interpreted using principal component analysis (PCA). Initially, a calibration model was established using data from May 16 to July 31. The data on current speed from two sensors were subject to two separate PCA models and the score vectors from these two models were combined with the other 10 variables in a multi-block PCA model. The observations from August were projected on the calibration model consecutively one at a time and the result was visualized in a score plot. Automated PCA of multi-sensor data submitted online is illustrated with an attached time-lapse video covering the relative short time period used in the pilot study. Methods for statistical validation, and warning and alarm limits are described. Redundant sensors enable sensor diagnostics and quality assurance. In a future perspective, the concept may be used in integrated environmental monitoring.

  17. Automated multivariate analysis of multi-sensor data submitted online: Real-time environmental monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Eide

    Full Text Available A pilot study demonstrating real-time environmental monitoring with automated multivariate analysis of multi-sensor data submitted online has been performed at the cabled LoVe Ocean Observatory located at 258 m depth 20 km off the coast of Lofoten-Vesterålen, Norway. The major purpose was efficient monitoring of many variables simultaneously and early detection of changes and time-trends in the overall response pattern before changes were evident in individual variables. The pilot study was performed with 12 sensors from May 16 to August 31, 2015. The sensors provided data for chlorophyll, turbidity, conductivity, temperature (three sensors, salinity (calculated from temperature and conductivity, biomass at three different depth intervals (5-50, 50-120, 120-250 m, and current speed measured in two directions (east and north using two sensors covering different depths with overlap. A total of 88 variables were monitored, 78 from the two current speed sensors. The time-resolution varied, thus the data had to be aligned to a common time resolution. After alignment, the data were interpreted using principal component analysis (PCA. Initially, a calibration model was established using data from May 16 to July 31. The data on current speed from two sensors were subject to two separate PCA models and the score vectors from these two models were combined with the other 10 variables in a multi-block PCA model. The observations from August were projected on the calibration model consecutively one at a time and the result was visualized in a score plot. Automated PCA of multi-sensor data submitted online is illustrated with an attached time-lapse video covering the relative short time period used in the pilot study. Methods for statistical validation, and warning and alarm limits are described. Redundant sensors enable sensor diagnostics and quality assurance. In a future perspective, the concept may be used in integrated environmental monitoring.

  18. Elution behaviors of elements from the hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Junko; Fukushima, Ichiro; Imahori, Akira

    1981-01-01

    The elution of the neutron activated elements out of hair soaked in some organic solvents and EDTA solution was studied. Soakage of the hair sample, which was washed with water and acetone in advance as IAEA's proposal, in ether and acetone for 30 minutes each resulted in no elution of Hg, Zn, Co and Se. Elution of Zn and Co from the powdered hair sample soaked in 0.1 M EDTA solution was rapid, while Zn did not elute out from the cut hair (2 -- 3 mm length) on the same condition. Hg, Se and Au were not eluted out by 0.1 M EDTA solution in the both case of cut hair and of powdered hair. Br was removed by 0.1 M EDTA solution from the cut hair and from the powdered hair with equal ease. (author)

  19. A plan for time-phased incorporation of automation and robotics on the US space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, R. B.; Lin, P. S.; Fisher, E. M., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A plan for the incorporation of Automation and Robotics technology on the Space Station is presented. The time phased introduction of twenty two selected candidates is set forth in accordance with a technology development forecast. Twenty candidates were chosed primarily for their potential to relieve the crew of mundane or dangerous operations and maintenance burdens, thus freeing crew time for mission duties and enhancing safety. Two candidates were chosen based on a potential for increasing the productivity of laboratory experiments and thus directly enhancing the scientific value of the Space Station. A technology assessment for each candidate investigates present state of the art, development timelines including space qualification considerations, and potential for technology transfer to earth applications. Each candidate is evaluated using a crew workload model driven by crew size, number of pressurized U.S. modules and external payloads, which makes it possible to assess the impact of automation during a growth scenario. Costs for each increment of implementation are estimated and accumulated.

  20. Automated high-throughput flow-through real-time diagnostic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John Frederick

    2012-10-30

    An automated real-time flow-through system capable of processing multiple samples in an asynchronous, simultaneous, and parallel fashion for nucleic acid extraction and purification, followed by assay assembly, genetic amplification, multiplex detection, analysis, and decontamination. The system is able to hold and access an unlimited number of fluorescent reagents that may be used to screen samples for the presence of specific sequences. The apparatus works by associating extracted and purified sample with a series of reagent plugs that have been formed in a flow channel and delivered to a flow-through real-time amplification detector that has a multiplicity of optical windows, to which the sample-reagent plugs are placed in an operative position. The diagnostic apparatus includes sample multi-position valves, a master sample multi-position valve, a master reagent multi-position valve, reagent multi-position valves, and an optical amplification/detection system.

  1. Studing Regional Wave Source Time Functions Using A Massive Automated EGF Deconvolution Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J. "; Schaff, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    Reliably estimated source time functions (STF) from high-frequency regional waveforms, such as Lg, Pn and Pg, provide important input for seismic source studies, explosion detection, and minimization of parameter trade-off in attenuation studies. The empirical Green’s function (EGF) method can be used for estimating STF, but it requires a strict recording condition. Waveforms from pairs of events that are similar in focal mechanism, but different in magnitude must be on-scale recorded on the same stations for the method to work. Searching for such waveforms can be very time consuming, particularly for regional waves that contain complex path effects and have reduced S/N ratios due to attenuation. We have developed a massive, automated procedure to conduct inter-event waveform deconvolution calculations from many candidate event pairs. The procedure automatically evaluates the “spikiness” of the deconvolutions by calculating their “sdc”, which is defined as the peak divided by the background value. The background value is calculated as the mean absolute value of the deconvolution, excluding 10 s around the source time function. When the sdc values are about 10 or higher, the deconvolutions are found to be sufficiently spiky (pulse-like), indicating similar path Green’s functions and good estimates of the STF. We have applied this automated procedure to Lg waves and full regional wavetrains from 989 M ≥ 5 events in and around China, calculating about a million deconvolutions. Of these we found about 2700 deconvolutions with sdc greater than 9, which, if having a sufficiently broad frequency band, can be used to estimate the STF of the larger events. We are currently refining our procedure, as well as the estimated STFs. We will infer the source scaling using the STFs. We will also explore the possibility that the deconvolution procedure could complement cross-correlation in a real time event-screening process.

  2. Studies of techniques for the post-elution concentration of 99mTc obtained from gel type 99Mo/99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katia Noriko

    2009-01-01

    On average 80% of the radiopharmaceuticals used in Nuclear Medicine are labeled with 99 mTc due to its physical properties and easy attainment through of 99 Mo/ 99 mTc generators. The Directory of Radiopharmacy (DIRF) of IPEN-CNEN/SP developed a gel type chromatographic generator of MoZr with 99 Mo produced by 98 Mo(n,γ) 99 Mo reaction that occurs at the IEA-R1 Nuclear Reactor. The gel is composed of zirconium molybdate with elution volume of 12 mL with an activity of 11100 MBq (300 mCi) producing a radioactive concentration of 925 MBq (25 mCi)/mL. The fission generator gives a higher radioactive concentration around 1850 MBq (50 mCi)/mL. The aim of this work is to study a system of post-elution concentration of 99 mTc for the attainment of a high enough radioactive concentration to meet the demands of the market, with a proved quality. Two types of systems of post-elution concentration were developed: the single and the tandem. The most appropriate system for the gel generator of 99 Mo/ 99 mTc, being at the same time sterile and vacuum automated, was the tandem system using Dionex 2.5 cc/QMA cartridges. The gel generator is eluted with 10 mL of solution of 0.1% NaCl and the pertechnetate anion is retained in the QMA cartridge and further eluted with 4 mL of saline. The process takes no more than 30 minutes. The elution efficiency of the system of concentration was 90 %. At the beginning of 2009 a global crisis in the supply of 99 Mo took place making it necessary the development of alternative technologies for the production of 99 Mo/ 99 mTc generators using fission produced 99 Mo and the development of an appropriate method to extend the useful life of this generator. The results of this study showed that the same system developed for the post- concentration of the gel generator can be employed for the fission generator, using the tandem system, giving a concentration factor of 3 for the elution of 99 mTc. (author)

  3. Automated procedure for calculating time-dependent sensitivities in ORIGEN2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, B.A.; Wright, R.Q.

    1985-10-01

    ORIGEN2 is a widely used point-depletion and radioactive-decay computer code for use in simulating nuclear fuel cycles and/or spent fuel characteristics. This paper presents the application of the GRESS procedure to the ORIGEN2 code for performing a sensitivity analysis of a high-level waste disposal problem. The GRESS procedure uses computer calculus and the GRESS precompiler to automate the generation and calculation of gradients in a computer code. The GRESS version of ORIGEN2 is used to calculate the nuclide-dependent sensitivities of the decay heat and radioactivity of 1008 nuclides comprising reprocessed high-level waste to changes in data and input parameters. The sensitivities are calculated in a single execution of the revised code as compared to the conventional method of rerunning the code numerous times. The availability of sensitivity data as an option in ORIGEN2 reveals relationships not easily recognized even with reruns

  4. Automated workflows for critical time-dependent calibrations at the CMS experiment.

    CERN Document Server

    Cerminara, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Fast and efficient methods for the calibration and the alignment ofthe detector are a key asset to exploit the physics potential of theCompact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector and to ensure timely preparationof results for conferences and publications.To achieve this goal, the CMS experiment has set up a powerfulframework. This includes automated workflows in the context of a promptcalibration concept, which allows for a quick turnaround of thecalibration process following as fast as possible any change inrunning conditions.The presentation will review the design and operational experience ofthese workflows and the related monitoring system during the LHC RunIand focus on the development, deployment and commissioning in preparation of RunII.

  5. Widely applicable MATLAB routines for automated analysis of saccadic reaction times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Jukka M; Forssman, Linda; Kaatiala, Jussi; Yrttiaho, Santeri; Wass, Sam

    2015-06-01

    Saccadic reaction time (SRT) is a widely used dependent variable in eye-tracking studies of human cognition and its disorders. SRTs are also frequently measured in studies with special populations, such as infants and young children, who are limited in their ability to follow verbal instructions and remain in a stable position over time. In this article, we describe a library of MATLAB routines (Mathworks, Natick, MA) that are designed to (1) enable completely automated implementation of SRT analysis for multiple data sets and (2) cope with the unique challenges of analyzing SRTs from eye-tracking data collected from poorly cooperating participants. The library includes preprocessing and SRT analysis routines. The preprocessing routines (i.e., moving median filter and interpolation) are designed to remove technical artifacts and missing samples from raw eye-tracking data. The SRTs are detected by a simple algorithm that identifies the last point of gaze in the area of interest, but, critically, the extracted SRTs are further subjected to a number of postanalysis verification checks to exclude values contaminated by artifacts. Example analyses of data from 5- to 11-month-old infants demonstrated that SRTs extracted with the proposed routines were in high agreement with SRTs obtained manually from video records, robust against potential sources of artifact, and exhibited moderate to high test-retest stability. We propose that the present library has wide utility in standardizing and automating SRT-based cognitive testing in various populations. The MATLAB routines are open source and can be downloaded from http://www.uta.fi/med/icl/methods.html .

  6. MISENS DEVICE AS A NEW AUTOMATED BIOSENSING PLATFORM BASED ON REAL-TIME ELECTROCHEMICAL PROFILING (REP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yıldız uludağ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In various fields like health, environmental control, food security and military defense; there is an increasing demand for on-site detection, fast identification and urgent response which brings the necessity to employ laboratory detection procedures on standalone automatic devices. In response to that TUBITAK BILGEM’s Bioelectronic Devices and Systems Group has been developing portable and fully automated biosensor devices using optical and electrochemical biosensor detection techniques. Here we describe a new integrated and fully automated lab-on-a-chip based biosensor device ‘MiSens’. The key features of the MiSens include a new electrode array, an integrated microfluidic system and real-time amperometric measurements during the flow of enzyme substrate. While simple protocols can be controlled from the LCD display on the device, other main device control procedures can be run wireless by a tablet/PC using the MiCont™ software developed by the team. For the device, a new plug and play type sensor chip docking station has been designed that with one move it enables the formation of a ~ 7-10 µl capacity flow cell on the electrode array with the necessary microfluidic and electronic connections. The MiSens device has been developed by our multi-disciplinary team by integrating and automatising the earlier developed sensing platform REP™ (Real-time Electrochemical Profiling. The performance of the MiSens device has been tested using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry tests and the results were compared with an of the shelf potantiostat.

  7. Retrieval-travel-time model for free-fall-flow-rack automated storage and retrieval system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metahri, Dhiyaeddine; Hachemi, Khalid

    2018-03-01

    Automated storage and retrieval systems (AS/RSs) are material handling systems that are frequently used in manufacturing and distribution centers. The modelling of the retrieval-travel time of an AS/RS (expected product delivery time) is practically important, because it allows us to evaluate and improve the system throughput. The free-fall-flow-rack AS/RS has emerged as a new technology for drug distribution. This system is a new variation of flow-rack AS/RS that uses an operator or a single machine for storage operations, and uses a combination between the free-fall movement and a transport conveyor for retrieval operations. The main contribution of this paper is to develop an analytical model of the expected retrieval-travel time for the free-fall flow-rack under a dedicated storage assignment policy. The proposed model, which is based on a continuous approach, is compared for accuracy, via simulation, with discrete model. The obtained results show that the maximum deviation between the continuous model and the simulation is less than 5%, which shows the accuracy of our model to estimate the retrieval time. The analytical model is useful to optimise the dimensions of the rack, assess the system throughput, and evaluate different storage policies.

  8. Driver Response Times when Resuming Manual Control from Highly Automated Driving in Truck Platooning Scenarios.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Bo; Wilschut, Ellen; Willemsen, D.; Martens, Marieke

    2017-01-01

    Automated platooning of trucks is getting increasing interest for its potentially beneficial effects on fuel consumption, driver workload, traffic flow efficiency and safety. Nevertheless, one major challenge lies in the safe and comfortable transitions of control from the automated system back to

  9. Automated implementation of rule-based expert systems with neural networks for time-critical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, P. A.; Huang, Song; Govind, Girish

    1991-01-01

    In fault diagnosis, control and real-time monitoring, both timing and accuracy are critical for operators or machines to reach proper solutions or appropriate actions. Expert systems are becoming more popular in the manufacturing community for dealing with such problems. In recent years, neural networks have revived and their applications have spread to many areas of science and engineering. A method of using neural networks to implement rule-based expert systems for time-critical applications is discussed here. This method can convert a given rule-based system into a neural network with fixed weights and thresholds. The rules governing the translation are presented along with some examples. We also present the results of automated machine implementation of such networks from the given rule-base. This significantly simplifies the translation process to neural network expert systems from conventional rule-based systems. Results comparing the performance of the proposed approach based on neural networks vs. the classical approach are given. The possibility of very large scale integration (VLSI) realization of such neural network expert systems is also discussed.

  10. [Time consumption and quality of an automated fusion tool for SPECT and MRI images of the brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, E; Platsch, G; Schwarz, A; Schmiedehausen, K; Tomandl, B; Huk, W; Rupprecht, Th; Rahn, N; Kuwert, T

    2003-10-01

    Although the fusion of images from different modalities may improve diagnostic accuracy, it is rarely used in clinical routine work due to logistic problems. Therefore we evaluated performance and time needed for fusing MRI and SPECT images using a semiautomated dedicated software. PATIENTS, MATERIAL AND METHOD: In 32 patients regional cerebral blood flow was measured using (99m)Tc ethylcystein dimer (ECD) and the three-headed SPECT camera MultiSPECT 3. MRI scans of the brain were performed using either a 0,2 T Open or a 1,5 T Sonata. Twelve of the MRI data sets were acquired using a 3D-T1w MPRAGE sequence, 20 with a 2D acquisition technique and different echo sequences. Image fusion was performed on a Syngo workstation using an entropy minimizing algorithm by an experienced user of the software. The fusion results were classified. We measured the time needed for the automated fusion procedure and in case of need that for manual realignment after automated, but insufficient fusion. The mean time of the automated fusion procedure was 123 s. It was for the 2D significantly shorter than for the 3D MRI datasets. For four of the 2D data sets and two of the 3D data sets an optimal fit was reached using the automated approach. The remaining 26 data sets required manual correction. The sum of the time required for automated fusion and that needed for manual correction averaged 320 s (50-886 s). The fusion of 3D MRI data sets lasted significantly longer than that of the 2D MRI data. The automated fusion tool delivered in 20% an optimal fit, in 80% manual correction was necessary. Nevertheless, each of the 32 SPECT data sets could be merged in less than 15 min with the corresponding MRI data, which seems acceptable for clinical routine use.

  11. Time consumption and quality of an automated fusion tool for SPECT and MRI images of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, E.; Platsch, G.; Schwarz, A.; Schmiedehausen, K.; Kuwert, T.; Tomandl, B.; Huk, W.; Rupprecht, Th.; Rahn, N.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: Although the fusion of images from different modalities may improve diagnostic accuracy, it is rarely used in clinical routine work due to logistic problems. Therefore we evaluated performance and time needed for fusing MRI and SPECT images using a semiautomated dedicated software. Patients, material and method: In 32 patients regional cerebral blood flow was measured using 99m Tc ethylcystein dimer (ECD) and the three-headed SPECT camera MultiSPECT 3. MRI scans of the brain were performed using either a 0,2 T Open or a 1,5 T Sonata. Twelve of the MRI data sets were acquired using a 3 D-T1 w MPRAGE sequence, 20 with a 2D acquisition technique and different echo sequences. Image fusion was performed on a Syngo workstation using an entropy minimizing algorithm by an experienced user of the software. The fusion results were classified. We measured the time needed for the automated fusion procedure and in case of need that for manual realignment after automated, but insufficient fusion. Results: The mean time of the automated fusion procedure was 123 s. It was for the 2D significantly shorter than for the 3D MRI datasets. For four of the 2D data sets and two of the 3D data sets an optimal fit was reached using the automated approach. The remaining 26 data sets required manual correction. The sum of the time required for automated fusion and that needed for manual correction averaged 320 s (50-886 s). Conclusion: The fusion of 3D MRI data sets lasted significantly longer than that of the 2D MRI data. The automated fusion tool delivered in 20% an optimal fit, in 80% manual correction was necessary. Nevertheless, each of the 32 SPECT data sets could be merged in less than 15 min with the corresponding MRI data, which seems acceptable for clinical routine use. (orig.) [de

  12. Evaluation of electrochemical ion exchange for cesium elution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontha, J.D.; Kurath, D.E.; Surma, J.E.; Buehler, M.F.

    1996-04-01

    Electrochemical elution was investigated as an alternative method to acid elution for the desorption of cesium from loaded ion exchange resins. The approach was found to have several potential advantages over existing technologies, in particular, electrochemical elution eliminates the need for addition of chemicals to elute cesium from the ion exchange resin. Also, since, in the electrochemical elution process the eluting solution is not in direct contact with the ion exchange material, very small volumes of the eluting solution can be used in a complete recycle mode in order to minimize the total volume of the cesium elute. In addition, the cesium is eluted as an alkaline solution that does not require neutralization with caustic to meet the tank farm specifications. Other advantages include easy incorporation of the electrochemical elution process into the present cesium recovery schemes

  13. Automated Bayesian model development for frequency detection in biological time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldroyd Giles ED

    2011-06-01

    the requirement for uniformly sampled data. Biological time series often deviate significantly from the requirements of optimality for Fourier transformation. In this paper we present an alternative approach based on Bayesian inference. We show the value of placing spectral analysis in the framework of Bayesian inference and demonstrate how model comparison can automate this procedure.

  14. Automated Bayesian model development for frequency detection in biological time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granqvist, Emma; Oldroyd, Giles E D; Morris, Richard J

    2011-06-24

    A first step in building a mathematical model of a biological system is often the analysis of the temporal behaviour of key quantities. Mathematical relationships between the time and frequency domain, such as Fourier Transforms and wavelets, are commonly used to extract information about the underlying signal from a given time series. This one-to-one mapping from time points to frequencies inherently assumes that both domains contain the complete knowledge of the system. However, for truncated, noisy time series with background trends this unique mapping breaks down and the question reduces to an inference problem of identifying the most probable frequencies. In this paper we build on the method of Bayesian Spectrum Analysis and demonstrate its advantages over conventional methods by applying it to a number of test cases, including two types of biological time series. Firstly, oscillations of calcium in plant root cells in response to microbial symbionts are non-stationary and noisy, posing challenges to data analysis. Secondly, circadian rhythms in gene expression measured over only two cycles highlights the problem of time series with limited length. The results show that the Bayesian frequency detection approach can provide useful results in specific areas where Fourier analysis can be uninformative or misleading. We demonstrate further benefits of the Bayesian approach for time series analysis, such as direct comparison of different hypotheses, inherent estimation of noise levels and parameter precision, and a flexible framework for modelling the data without pre-processing. Modelling in systems biology often builds on the study of time-dependent phenomena. Fourier Transforms are a convenient tool for analysing the frequency domain of time series. However, there are well-known limitations of this method, such as the introduction of spurious frequencies when handling short and noisy time series, and the requirement for uniformly sampled data. Biological time

  15. An optimized method for elution of enteroviral RNA from a cellulose-based substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Yoshida, Hiromu; Wang, Lu; Tao, Zexin; Wang, Haiyan; Lin, Xiaojuan; Xu, Aiqiang

    2012-12-01

    The Flinders Technology Australia (FTA) Elute Card is a commercial product that facilitates the collection, transport, archiving and processing of nucleic acids from a wide variety of biological samples at room temperature. While the cards have been designed so that sterile/deionized water can elute DNA easily, they are not suitable for some less stable RNAs. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal conditions such as the buffer type, buffer pH and incubation temperature for the elution of enteroviral RNA from FTA Elute Cards prior to quantitative analysis using real-time PCR (qPCR) or consensus degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primer VP1 RT-semi nested PCR (CODEHOP VP1 RT-snPCR). TE-1 (pH 8.0), rather than sterile water, was the best buffer for high efficiency elution of enteroviral RNA at 95°C. However, as the estimated recovery rate of viral RNA eluted from the cards averaged to be only 6.1%, enterovirus assays using FTA elution should be considered qualitative, especially at low virus titers, and therefore the results of the assay should be interpreted carefully. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Zotarolimus-eluting vs. sirolimus-eluting coronary stents in patients with and without acute coronary syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thim, Troels; Maeng, Michael; Kaltoft, Anne Kjer

    2012-01-01

    To compare clinical outcomes among patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with zotarolimus-eluting and sirolimus-eluting stents in the SORT OUT III trial.......To compare clinical outcomes among patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with zotarolimus-eluting and sirolimus-eluting stents in the SORT OUT III trial....

  17. XIENCE V everolimus-eluting coronary stent system: a novel second generation drug-eluting stent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijk, Marcel A. M.; Piek, Jon J.

    2007-01-01

    Drug-eluting stents (DES) have been shown to be safe and significantly reduce clinical events and angiographic restenosis in the percutaneous treatment of coronary artery disease. Currently, three DES have been approved in Europe and Northern America: the sirolimus-eluting stent (SES), the

  18. User satisfaction with a real-time automated feedback system for general practitioners: a quantitative and qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bindels, Rianne; Hasman, Arie; Derickx, Mieke; van Wersch, Jan W. J.; Winkens, Ron A. G.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The GRIF automated feedback system produces real-time comments on the appropriateness of diagnostic tests ordered by general practitioners (GPs) based on recommendations from accepted national and regional practice guidelines. We investigated the experiences of GPs with this system and,

  19. Automated time activity classification based on global positioning system (GPS) tracking data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Jiang, Chengsheng; Houston, Douglas; Baker, Dean; Delfino, Ralph

    2011-11-14

    Air pollution epidemiological studies are increasingly using global positioning system (GPS) to collect time-location data because they offer continuous tracking, high temporal resolution, and minimum reporting burden for participants. However, substantial uncertainties in the processing and classifying of raw GPS data create challenges for reliably characterizing time activity patterns. We developed and evaluated models to classify people's major time activity patterns from continuous GPS tracking data. We developed and evaluated two automated models to classify major time activity patterns (i.e., indoor, outdoor static, outdoor walking, and in-vehicle travel) based on GPS time activity data collected under free living conditions for 47 participants (N = 131 person-days) from the Harbor Communities Time Location Study (HCTLS) in 2008 and supplemental GPS data collected from three UC-Irvine research staff (N = 21 person-days) in 2010. Time activity patterns used for model development were manually classified by research staff using information from participant GPS recordings, activity logs, and follow-up interviews. We evaluated two models: (a) a rule-based model that developed user-defined rules based on time, speed, and spatial location, and (b) a random forest decision tree model. Indoor, outdoor static, outdoor walking and in-vehicle travel activities accounted for 82.7%, 6.1%, 3.2% and 7.2% of manually-classified time activities in the HCTLS dataset, respectively. The rule-based model classified indoor and in-vehicle travel periods reasonably well (Indoor: sensitivity > 91%, specificity > 80%, and precision > 96%; in-vehicle travel: sensitivity > 71%, specificity > 99%, and precision > 88%), but the performance was moderate for outdoor static and outdoor walking predictions. No striking differences in performance were observed between the rule-based and the random forest models. The random forest model was fast and easy to execute, but was likely less robust

  20. Automated business process management – in times of digital transformation using machine learning or artificial intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschek Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous optimization of business processes is still a challenge for companies. In times of digital transformation, faster changing internal and external framework conditions and new customer expectations for fastest delivery and best quality of goods and many more, companies should set up their internal process at the best way. But what to do if framework conditions changed unexpectedly? The purpose of the paper is to analyse how the digital transformation will impact the Business Process Management (BPM while using methods like machine learning or artificial intelligence. Therefore, the core components will be explained, compared and set up in relation. To identify application areas interviews and analysis will be held up with digital companies. The finding of the paper will be recommendation for action in the field of BPM and process optimization through machine learning and artificial intelligence. The Approach of optimizing and management processes via machine learning and artificial intelligence will support companies to decide which tool will be the best for automated BPM.

  1. Automated hierarchical time gain compensation for in-vivo ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshavegh, Ramin; Hemmsen, Martin C.; Martins, Bo; Brandt, Andreas H.; Hansen, Kristoffer L.; Nielsen, Michael B.; Jensen, Jørgen A.

    2015-03-01

    Time gain compensation (TGC) is essential to ensure the optimal image quality of the clinical ultrasound scans. When large fluid collections are present within the scan plane, the attenuation distribution is changed drastically and TGC compensation becomes challenging. This paper presents an automated hierarchical TGC (AHTGC) algorithm that accurately adapts to the large attenuation variation between different types of tissues and structures. The algorithm relies on estimates of tissue attenuation, scattering strength, and noise level to gain a more quantitative understanding of the underlying tissue and the ultrasound signal strength. The proposed algorithm was applied to a set of 44 in vivo abdominal movie sequences each containing 15 frames. Matching pairs of in vivo sequences, unprocessed and processed with the proposed AHTGC were visualized side by side and evaluated by two radiologists in terms of image quality. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to evaluate whether radiologists preferred the processed sequences or the unprocessed data. The results indicate that the average visual analogue scale (VAS) is positive ( p-value: 2.34 × 10-13) and estimated to be 1.01 (95% CI: 0.85; 1.16) favoring the processed data with the proposed AHTGC algorithm.

  2. Automated and angular time-synchronized directional gamma-ray scintillation sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; Brucker, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The authors' previous research resulted in directional sensors for gamma rays and X rays that have a 4π solid angle of acceptance and, at the same time, a high angular resolution that is limited only by their ability to measure small angles. Angular resolution of ∼1 s of arc was achieved. These sensors are capable of operating and accurately detecting high and very low intensity radiation patterns. Such a system can also be used to image broad area sources and their scattering patterns. The principle of operation and design of directional sensors used in this study was described elsewhere; however, for convenience, a part of that text is repeated here. It was shown analytically that the angular distribution of radiation incident on the sensor is proportional to the first derivative of the scan data, that is, of the events' count rate versus orientation of the detector. The previously published results were obtained with a annual operating system. The detector assembly was set at a specific angle, and a pulse rate count was made. This was repeated at numerous other angles of orientation, a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. Recently, the authors automated this system, which is based on the detection of scintillations. The detector, which consists of a stack of plates of Lucite, plastic scintillator, and lead foils, rotates by means of a motor in front of a stationary photomultiplier tube (PMT). One revolution per second was chosen for the motor. At time zero, a trigger indicates that a revolution has started. The angle of orientation of the detector in the laboratory system is proportional to the time during one revolution. The process repeats itself a desired number of times. The trigger signal initiates a scan of a multichannel scalar (MCS). The detector assembly is allowed to rotate in the radiation field, and the MCS scans are repeated in an accumulated mode of operation until enough events are collected for the location of the radiation source to be

  3. Quality of closed chest compression on a manikin in ambulance vehicles and flying helicopters with a real time automated feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havel, Christof; Schreiber, Wolfgang; Trimmel, Helmut; Malzer, Reinhard; Haugk, Moritz; Richling, Nina; Riedmüller, Eva; Sterz, Fritz; Herkner, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Automated verbal and visual feedback improves quality of resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and was proven to increase short-term survival. Quality of resuscitation may be hampered in more difficult situations like emergency transportation. Currently there is no evidence if feedback devices can improve resuscitation quality during different modes of transportation. To assess the effect of real time automated feedback on the quality of resuscitation in an emergency transportation setting. Randomised cross-over trial. Medical University of Vienna, Vienna Municipal Ambulance Service and Helicopter Emergency Medical Service Unit (Christophorus Flugrettungsverein) in September 2007. European Resuscitation Council (ERC) certified health care professionals performing CPR in a flying helicopter and in a moving ambulance vehicle on a manikin with human-like chest properties. CPR sessions, with real time automated feedback as the intervention and standard CPR without feedback as control. Quality of chest compression during resuscitation. Feedback resulted in less deviation from ideal compression rate 100 min(-1) (9+/-9 min(-1), ptime. Applied work was less in the feedback group compared to controls (373+/-448 cm x compression; ptime automated feedback improves certain aspects of CPR quality in flying helicopters and moving ambulance vehicles. The effect of feedback guidance was most pronounced for chest compression rate. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Automated profiling of individual cell-cell interactions from high-throughput time-lapse imaging microscopy in nanowell grids (TIMING).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merouane, Amine; Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Lu, Yanbin; Liadi, Ivan; Romain, Gabrielle; Lu, Jennifer; Singh, Harjeet; Cooper, Laurence J N; Varadarajan, Navin; Roysam, Badrinath

    2015-10-01

    There is a need for effective automated methods for profiling dynamic cell-cell interactions with single-cell resolution from high-throughput time-lapse imaging data, especially, the interactions between immune effector cells and tumor cells in adoptive immunotherapy. Fluorescently labeled human T cells, natural killer cells (NK), and various target cells (NALM6, K562, EL4) were co-incubated on polydimethylsiloxane arrays of sub-nanoliter wells (nanowells), and imaged using multi-channel time-lapse microscopy. The proposed cell segmentation and tracking algorithms account for cell variability and exploit the nanowell confinement property to increase the yield of correctly analyzed nanowells from 45% (existing algorithms) to 98% for wells containing one effector and a single target, enabling automated quantification of cell locations, morphologies, movements, interactions, and deaths without the need for manual proofreading. Automated analysis of recordings from 12 different experiments demonstrated automated nanowell delineation accuracy >99%, automated cell segmentation accuracy >95%, and automated cell tracking accuracy of 90%, with default parameters, despite variations in illumination, staining, imaging noise, cell morphology, and cell clustering. An example analysis revealed that NK cells efficiently discriminate between live and dead targets by altering the duration of conjugation. The data also demonstrated that cytotoxic cells display higher motility than non-killers, both before and during contact. broysam@central.uh.edu or nvaradar@central.uh.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. [Drug-eluting stent thrombosis and its pharmacological prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershukov, I V; Batyraliev, T A

    2007-01-01

    The problem of drug eluting stents (DES) safety has been actively discussed throughout 2006 because of increase of frequency of development of late stent thromboses which were noted during almost 2 years after stenting. In December 2006 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advisory panel acknowledged increase of development of late stent thrombosis. At the same time FDA accepted new definition of stent-thrombosis suggested by the Academic Research Consortium. According to this definition thrombosis can be definite, probable and possible. Any unexplained death before end of follow-up in a trial should be considered thrombosis related. Recalculation of thrombosis rate using this definition caused pronounced increase of this parameter in previously conducted trials. Thrombosis rate rose from 0,6 to 3,3% for bare metal stents, from 0,8 to 3,6% for sirolimus eluting stents and from 1,3 to 3,5% for paclitaxel eluting stents. Professional cardiological and angiographical societies (ACC, AHA, SCAI) responding to FDA advisory panel published their proofs and vision of the problem of stent thrombosis. In February 2007 ACC, AHA, SCAI, American College of Surgeons and Association of Dentists published scientific bulletin in which described preventive measures aimed at lowering of risk of thrombosis development. This document contains strict recommendation to continue double antithrombotic therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel for 12 months after implantation of DES or abandonment of the use of this type of stents when long term double antithrombotic therapy is not possible.

  6. Real-time, automated characterization of surfaces for alpha and beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidi, P.V.

    1997-01-01

    A new data collection system, called ABACUS trademark, has been developed that automates and expedites the collection, conversion, and reporting of radiological survey data of surfaces. Field testing of the system by Oak Ridge National Laboratory/Environmental Technology Section is currently underway. Preliminary results are presented. The system detects, discriminates, and separately displays the results for alpha and beta contamination scans on floors and walls with a single pass. Fixed-position static counting is also possible for quantitative measuring. The system is currently configured with five 100 cm 2 dual-phosphor plastic scintillation detectors mounted in a lightweight aluminum fixture that holds the detectors in a fixed array. ABACUS trademark can be configured with other detectors if desired. Ratemeter/scalars traditionally coupled to individual detectors have been replaced by a single unit that houses the power supply and discriminator circuit boards to support up to five detectors. The system is designed to be used by a single operator. Each detector's position and data are transmitted once per second and recorded on a nearby laptop computer. The data are converted to appropriate units, color-coded, and mapped to display graphically the findings for each detector in real-time. Reports can be generated immediately following the survey. Survey data can be exported in a variety of formats. Benefits of ABACUS trademark are: (1) immediate feedback to decision makers using the observational approach to characterization or remediation, (2) thorough documentation of survey results, (3) increased statistical confidence in scans by recording counts every second, (4) reduced paperwork and elimination of transcription errors, and (5) time and cost savings for collection, conversion, mapping, evaluating, and reporting data over traditional methods

  7. Network-Based Real-time Integrated Fire Detection and Alarm (FDA) System with Building Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, F.; Boby, R. I.; Rashid, M. M.; Alam, M. M.; Shaikh, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Fire alarm systems have become increasingly an important lifesaving technology in many aspects, such as applications to detect, monitor and control any fire hazard. A large sum of money is being spent annually to install and maintain the fire alarm systems in buildings to protect property and lives from the unexpected spread of fire. Several methods are already developed and it is improving on a daily basis to reduce the cost as well as increase quality. An integrated Fire Detection and Alarm (FDA) systems with building automation was studied, to reduce cost and improve their reliability by preventing false alarm. This work proposes an improved framework for FDA system to ensure a robust intelligent network of FDA control panels in real-time. A shortest path algorithmic was chosen for series of buildings connected by fiber optic network. The framework shares information and communicates with each fire alarm panels connected in peer to peer configuration and declare the network state using network address declaration from any building connected in network. The fiber-optic connection was proposed to reduce signal noises, thus increasing large area coverage, real-time communication and long-term safety. Based on this proposed method an experimental setup was designed and a prototype system was developed to validate the performance in practice. Also, the distributed network system was proposed to connect with an optional remote monitoring terminal panel to validate proposed network performance and ensure fire survivability where the information is sequentially transmitted. The proposed FDA system is different from traditional fire alarm and detection system in terms of topology as it manages group of buildings in an optimal and efficient manner.Introduction

  8. Global real-time dose measurements using the Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, D.; Smart, D.; Shea, M.; Bailey, J.; Didkovsky, L.; Judge, K.; Garrett, H.; Atwell, W.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R.; Bell, D.; Mertens, C.; Xu, X.; Wiltberger, M.; Wiley, S.; Teets, E.; Jones, B.; Hong, S.; Yoon, K.

    2016-11-01

    The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) program has successfully deployed a fleet of six instruments measuring the ambient radiation environment at commercial aircraft altitudes. ARMAS transmits real-time data to the ground and provides quality, tissue-relevant ambient dose equivalent rates with 5 min latency for dose rates on 213 flights up to 17.3 km (56,700 ft). We show five cases from different aircraft; the source particles are dominated by galactic cosmic rays but include particle fluxes for minor radiation periods and geomagnetically disturbed conditions. The measurements from 2013 to 2016 do not cover a period of time to quantify galactic cosmic rays' dependence on solar cycle variation and their effect on aviation radiation. However, we report on small radiation "clouds" in specific magnetic latitude regions and note that active geomagnetic, variable space weather conditions may sufficiently modify the magnetospheric magnetic field that can enhance the radiation environment, particularly at high altitudes and middle to high latitudes. When there is no significant space weather, high-latitude flights produce a dose rate analogous to a chest X-ray every 12.5 h, every 25 h for midlatitudes, and every 100 h for equatorial latitudes at typical commercial flight altitudes of 37,000 ft ( 11 km). The dose rate doubles every 2 km altitude increase, suggesting a radiation event management strategy for pilots or air traffic control; i.e., where event-driven radiation regions can be identified, they can be treated like volcanic ash clouds to achieve radiation safety goals with slightly lower flight altitudes or more equatorial flight paths.

  9. Automated localization of the prostate at the time of treatment using implanted radiopaque markers: technical feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, James M.; Kwok, L. Lam; Sandler, Howard M.; Littles, J. Fred; Bree, Robert L.; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate movement is a major consideration in the formation of target volumes for conformal radiation therapy of prostate cancer. The goal of this study was to determine the technical feasibility of using implanted radiopaque markers and digital imaging to localize the prostate at the time of treatment, thus allowing for reduction of the margin required for uncertainty in target position. Methods and Materials: Radiopaque markers implanted around the prostate prior to treatment are visible on electronic radiographs generated with a portal imager or diagnostic imaging device. The locations of the images of these markers on the digital radiographs were automatically determined by a template-matching algorithm. The coordinates of the markers were found by projecting rays through the marker locations on orthogonal radiographs using a three-dimensional (3D) point-matching algorithm. Prostate and/or patient movement was inferred from the marker displacements. Images generated from known movements of a phantom with implanted markers were tested with this algorithm. Locations of markers from daily images of patients with implanted markers were determined by both manual and automatic techniques to determine the efficacy of automated localization on typical clinical images. Results: Prostate movements can be automatically detected in a phantom using low-energy photons within 30 s after image acquisition and with a precision of better than 1 mm in translation and 1 deg. in rotation (indistinguishable from the uncertainty in measuring precision). Conclusion: The studies show that on-line repositioning of the patient based on localization of the markers at the time of treatment is feasible, and may reduce the uncertainty in prostate location when combined with practical on-line repositioning techniques

  10. Specification of real-time automation systems with HybridUML; Spezifikation von Echtzeit-Automatisierungssystemen mit HybridUML

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkenkoetter, K.; Bisanz, S.; Hannemann, U.; Peleska, J. [Univ. Bremen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Complex automation systems require specification formalisms supporting the description of real-time requirements with respect to both discrete and time-continuous observables. For this purpose, the authors have designed the HybridUML specification language. Discrete events, communication, and variable assignments are specified by state machines, timers, and invariant conditions. The time-continuous aspects of system behaviour are described by associating differential equations or time-dependent algebraic conditions with system states. The complexity of large systems is controlled by decomposing the specification into parallel components and hierarchical state machines. Instead of inventing a new language syntax, HybridUML is represented as a profile of the Unified Modeling Language UML 2.0. This allows to re-use the syntactic framework of well-accepted graphical UML constructs and development support provided by various UML case tools. The profile is associated with a precise language semantics linking unambiguous meaning to all HybridUML specifications. As a consequence, HybridUML specifications can be compiled into executable code which is suitable for execution in hard realtime on multi-processor computers. This serves both for the development of automation systems and for specification-based testing in real-time. This paper contains an introduction to HybridUML which is illustrated by an example from the field of automated train control. (orig.)

  11. Radioactive cesium elution speed in dried wild Mushrooms collected in 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Toshiro; Arai, Hirotsugu; Ohnuma, Tohru; Arai, Hiromu; Takyu, Sodai; Matsuyama, Tetsuo; Ishii, Keizo

    2016-01-01

    Dried wild mushrooms (12 species, 13 samples) collected in Nagano, Fukushima, and Miyagi Prefectures, Japan, in 2015 were immersed in water for 1,440 min. The elution rate of radioactive cesium (Cs) was calculated based on its radioactivity, which was measured with a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector (GX2018; CANBERRA Industries, Meriden, CT, USA) before and after immersion for each mushroom. Immersion fluid was sampled after 10, 30, 60, 180, 360, and 1,440 min of immersion and dried on aluminum foil. Then, imaging plates (BAS-III, Fujifilm, Tokyo, Japan) exposed to the dried immersion fluid were measured with a Bio-imaging Analyzer System-1800 II (Fujifilm). The 50% elution time of each wild mushroom was calculated based on the photo stimulated luminescence density of the autoradiographs. The radioactive Cs elution rate was > 80% for 11 samples (84% of total) comprising 11 mushroom species. Moreover, the 50% elution time was < 30 min for 9 samples (69% of total) comprising 9 species. This shows that the radioactive Cs elution rate and elution speed were not constant among mushroom species. Based on these results, immersing the mushrooms, which were dried, in water for at least 120 min is an effective method for removing radioactive Cs from wild mushrooms. (author)

  12. Softening and elution of monomers in ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Asmussen, Erik; Munksgaard, E Christian

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of light-curing protocol on softening and elution of monomers in ethanol as measured on a model polymer. It was a further aim to correlate the measured values with previously reported data on degree of conversion and glass transition...

  13. Regional Landslide Mapping Aided by Automated Classification of SqueeSAR™ Time Series (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannacone, J.; Berti, M.; Allievi, J.; Del Conte, S.; Corsini, A.

    2013-12-01

    Space borne InSAR has proven to be very valuable for landslides detection. In particular, extremely slow landslides (Cruden and Varnes, 1996) can be now clearly identified, thanks to the millimetric precision reached by recent multi-interferometric algorithms. The typical approach in radar interpretation for landslides mapping is based on average annual velocity of the deformation which is calculated over the entire times series. The Hotspot and Cluster Analysis (Lu et al., 2012) and the PSI-based matrix approach (Cigna et al., 2013) are examples of landslides mapping techniques based on average annual velocities. However, slope movements can be affected by non-linear deformation trends, (i.e. reactivation of dormant landslides, deceleration due to natural or man-made slope stabilization, seasonal activity, etc). Therefore, analyzing deformation time series is crucial in order to fully characterize slope dynamics. While this is relatively simple to be carried out manually when dealing with small dataset, the time series analysis over regional scale dataset requires automated classification procedures. Berti et al. (2013) developed an automatic procedure for the analysis of InSAR time series based on a sequence of statistical tests. The analysis allows to classify the time series into six distinctive target trends (0=uncorrelated; 1=linear; 2=quadratic; 3=bilinear; 4=discontinuous without constant velocity; 5=discontinuous with change in velocity) which are likely to represent different slope processes. The analysis also provides a series of descriptive parameters which can be used to characterize the temporal changes of ground motion. All the classification algorithms were integrated into a Graphical User Interface called PSTime. We investigated an area of about 2000 km2 in the Northern Apennines of Italy by using SqueeSAR™ algorithm (Ferretti et al., 2011). Two Radarsat-1 data stack, comprising of 112 scenes in descending orbit and 124 scenes in ascending orbit

  14. Designing and evaluating an automated system for real-time medication administration error detection in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yizhao; Lingren, Todd; Hall, Eric S; Leonard, Matthew; Melton, Kristin; Kirkendall, Eric S

    2018-05-01

    Timely identification of medication administration errors (MAEs) promises great benefits for mitigating medication errors and associated harm. Despite previous efforts utilizing computerized methods to monitor medication errors, sustaining effective and accurate detection of MAEs remains challenging. In this study, we developed a real-time MAE detection system and evaluated its performance prior to system integration into institutional workflows. Our prospective observational study included automated MAE detection of 10 high-risk medications and fluids for patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center during a 4-month period. The automated system extracted real-time medication use information from the institutional electronic health records and identified MAEs using logic-based rules and natural language processing techniques. The MAE summary was delivered via a real-time messaging platform to promote reduction of patient exposure to potential harm. System performance was validated using a physician-generated gold standard of MAE events, and results were compared with those of current practice (incident reporting and trigger tools). Physicians identified 116 MAEs from 10 104 medication administrations during the study period. Compared to current practice, the sensitivity with automated MAE detection was improved significantly from 4.3% to 85.3% (P = .009), with a positive predictive value of 78.0%. Furthermore, the system showed potential to reduce patient exposure to harm, from 256 min to 35 min (P patient exposure to potential harm following MAE events.

  15. Automated classification of Permanent Scatterers time-series based on statistical characterization tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Matteo; Corsini, Alessandro; Franceschini, Silvia; Iannacone, Jean Pascal

    2013-04-01

    time series are typically affected by a significant noise to signal ratio. The results of the analysis show that even with such a rough-quality dataset, our automated classification procedure can greatly improve radar interpretation of mass movements. In general, uncorrelated PS (type 0) are concentrated in flat areas such as fluvial terraces and valley bottoms, and along stable watershed divides; linear PS (type 1) are mainly located on slopes (both inside or outside mapped landslides) or near the edge of scarps or steep slopes; non-linear PS (types 2 to 5) typically fall inside landslide deposits or in the surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of classified PS allows to detect deformation phenomena not visible by considering the average velocity alone, and provide important information on the temporal evolution of the phenomena such as acceleration, deceleration, seasonal fluctuations, abrupt or continuous changes of the displacement rate. Based on these encouraging results we integrated all the classification algorithms into a Graphical User Interface (called PSTime) which is freely available as a standalone application.

  16. Time efficiency and diagnostic accuracy of new automated myocardial perfusion analysis software in 320-row CT cardiac imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rief, Matthias; Stenzei, Fabian; Kranz, Anisha; Schlattmann, Peter; Dewey, Marc [Dept. of Radiology, Charite - Universiteitsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Greece)

    2013-01-15

    We aimed to evaluate the time efficiency and diagnostic accuracy of automated myocardial computed tomography perfusion (CTP) image analysis software. 320-row CTP was performed in 30 patients, and analyses were conducted independently by three different blinded readers by the use of two recent software releases (version 4.6 and novel version 4.71GR001, Toshiba, Tokyo, Japan). Analysis times were compared, and automated epi- and endocardial contour detection was subjectively rated in five categories (excellent, good, fair, poor and very poor). As semi-quantitative perfusion parameters, myocardial attenuation and transmural perfusion ratio (TPR) were calculated for each myocardial segment and agreement was tested by using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Conventional coronary angiography served as reference standard. The analysis time was significantly reduced with the novel automated software version as compared with the former release (Reader 1: 43:08 ± 11:39 min vs. 09:47 ± 04:51 min, Reader 2: 42:07 ± 06:44 min vs. 09:42 ± 02:50 min and Reader 3: 21:38 ± 3:44 min vs. 07:34 ± 02:12 min; p < 0.001 for all). Epi- and endocardial contour detection for the novel software was rated to be significantly better (p < 0.001) than with the former software. ICCs demonstrated strong agreement (≥ 0.75) for myocardial attenuation in 93% and for TPR in 82%. Diagnostic accuracy for the two software versions was not significantly different (p 0.169) as compared with conventional coronary angiography. The novel automated CTP analysis software offers enhanced time efficiency with an improvement by a factor of about four, while maintaining diagnostic accuracy.

  17. Development of an elution device for ViroCap virus filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagnant, Christine Susan; Toles, Matthew; Zhou, Nicolette Angela; Powell, Jacob; Adolphsen, John; Guan, Yifei; Ockerman, Byron; Shirai, Jeffry Hiroshi; Boyle, David S; Novosselov, Igor; Meschke, John Scott

    2017-10-19

    Environmental surveillance of waterborne pathogens is vital for monitoring the spread of diseases, and electropositive filters are frequently used for sampling wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water. Viruses adsorbed to electropositive filters require elution prior to detection or quantification. Elution is typically facilitated by a peristaltic pump, although this requires a significant startup cost and does not include biosafety or cross-contamination considerations. These factors may pose a barrier for low-resource laboratories that aim to conduct environmental surveillance of viruses. The objective of this study was to develop a biologically enclosed, manually powered, low-cost device for effectively eluting from electropositive ViroCap™ virus filters. The elution device described here utilizes a non-electric bilge pump, instead of an electric peristaltic pump or a positive pressure vessel. The elution device also fully encloses liquids and aerosols that could contain biological organisms, thereby increasing biosafety. Moreover, all elution device components that are used in the biosafety cabinet are autoclavable, reducing cross-contamination potential. This device reduces costs of materials while maintaining convenience in terms of size and weight. With this new device, there is little sample volume loss due to device inefficiency, similar virus yields were demonstrated during seeded studies with poliovirus type 1, and the time to elute filters is similar to that required with the peristaltic pump. The efforts described here resulted in a novel, low-cost, manually powered elution device that can facilitate environmental surveillance of pathogens through effective virus recovery from ViroCap filters while maintaining the potential for adaptability to other cartridge filters.

  18. Snow-covered Landsat time series stacks improve automated disturbance mapping accuracy in forested landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk M. Stueve; Ian W. Housman; Patrick L. Zimmerman; Mark D. Nelson; Jeremy B. Webb; Charles H. Perry; Robert A. Chastain; Dale D. Gormanson; Chengquan Huang; Sean P. Healey; Warren B. Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Accurate landscape-scale maps of forests and associated disturbances are critical to augment studies on biodiversity, ecosystem services, and the carbon cycle, especially in terms of understanding how the spatial and temporal complexities of damage sustained from disturbances influence forest structure and function. Vegetation change tracker (VCT) is a highly automated...

  19. Automated daily breath hold stability measurements by real-time imaging in radiotherapy of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, Hans C J; Van Den Bongard, Desirée J G; van Asselen, B

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Breath hold is increasingly used for cardiac sparing in left-sided breast cancer irradiation. We have developed a fast automated method to verify breath hold stability in each treatment fraction. Material and methods We evaluated 504 patients treated with breath hold. Moderate

  20. Flexible automated systems of real time mining operation management: concepts, architecture, models of network engineering for data transmission and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markhasin, A.B.

    1987-11-01

    Since the mid 1960's considerable effort has been invested by the mining industry and its research institutions and by universities to create real time mining management automation systems. Some of the shortcomings which still persist in realizing the efficiency such systems can offer are due to objective and subjective factors within and outside the management systems: the creation of the component base, automation equipment, and computer technology, on the one hand, and the organization, process, engineering, and coordination of mining work on the other. This review addresses several of these shortcomings with recommendations for their solution in a primary and systematic way and suggests methods for the implementation of microprocessors and a network of flexible data transmission and processing facilities for both surface and underground mining.

  1. Matrix Failure Modes and Effects Analysis as a Knowledge Base for a Real Time Automated Diagnosis Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Stephanie; Iverson, David; Spukovska, Lilly; Souza, Kenneth A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Failure Modes and Effects Analysis contain a wealth of information that can be used to create the knowledge base required for building automated diagnostic Expert systems. A real time monitoring and diagnosis expert system based on an actual NASA project's matrix failure modes and effects analysis was developed. This Expert system Was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. This system was first used as a case study to monitor the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), a Space Shuttle payload that is used to house and monitor animals in orbit so the effects of space flight and microgravity can be studied. The techniques developed for the RAHF monitoring and diagnosis Expert system are general enough to be used for monitoring and diagnosis of a variety of other systems that undergo a Matrix FMEA. This automated diagnosis system was successfully used on-line and validated on the Space Shuttle flight STS-58, mission SLS-2 in October 1993.

  2. Automated Data Aggregation for Time-Series Analysis: Study Case on Anaesthesia Data Warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, Antoine; Jeanne, Mathieu; Ficheur, Grégoire; Marcilly, Romaric

    2016-01-01

    Data stored in operational databases are not reusable directly. Aggregation modules are necessary to facilitate secondary use. They decrease volume of data while increasing the number of available information. In this paper, we present four automated engines of aggregation, integrated into an anaesthesia data warehouse. Four instances of clinical questions illustrate the use of those engines for various improvements of quality of care: duration of procedure, drug administration, assessment of hypotension and its related treatment.

  3. Consistent Automation Solutions for Electrohydraulic Drives in Times of Industry 4.0

    OpenAIRE

    Köckemann, Albert; Birke, Benno

    2016-01-01

    Electrohydraulic drives are primarily used whenever a low power/weight ratio, a compact build and/or large forces are required for individual applications. These drives are often used together with electric drive technology in machines. However, in terms of automation, unlike electric drives, electrohydraulic drives are still largely connected via analog interfaces and centralized closed control loops today. To compensate for this competitive disadvantage of hydraulic drive technology and, at...

  4. A real-time automated quality control of rain gauge data based on multiple sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    qi, Y.; Zhang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Precipitation is one of the most important meteorological and hydrological variables. Automated rain gauge networks provide direct measurements of precipitation and have been used for numerous applications such as generating regional and national precipitation maps, calibrating remote sensing data, and validating hydrological and meteorological model predictions. Automated gauge observations are prone to a variety of error sources (instrument malfunction, transmission errors, format changes), and require careful quality controls (QC). Many previous gauge QC techniques were based on neighborhood checks within the gauge network itself and the effectiveness is dependent on gauge densities and precipitation regimes. The current study takes advantage of the multi-sensor data sources in the National Mosaic and Multi-Sensor QPE (NMQ/Q2) system and developes an automated gauge QC scheme based the consistency of radar hourly QPEs and gauge observations. Error characteristics of radar and gauge as a function of the radar sampling geometry, precipitation regimes, and the freezing level height are considered. The new scheme was evaluated by comparing an NMQ national gauge-based precipitation product with independent manual gauge observations. Twelve heavy rainfall events from different seasons and areas of the United States are selected for the evaluation, and the results show that the new NMQ product with QC'ed gauges has a more physically spatial distribution than the old product. And the new product agrees much better statistically with the independent gauges.

  5. Elution of monomer from different bulk fill dental composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebe, Mehmet Ata; Cebe, Fatma; Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Cetin, Ali Rıza; Arpag, Osman Fatih; Ozturk, Bora

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the elution of Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, HEMA, and Bis-EMA monomers from six bulk fill composite resins over four different time periods, using HPLC. Six different composite resin materials were used in the present study: Tetric Evo Ceram Bulk Fill (Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY), X-tra Fill (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany), Sonic Fill (Kerr, Orange, CA, USA), Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE Dental Product, St. Paul, MN), SDR (Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany), EQUIA (GC America INC, Alsip, IL). The samples (4mm thickness, 5mm diameter) were prepared and polymerized for 20s with a light emitted diode unit. After fabrication, each sample was immediately immersed in 75wt% ethanol/water solution used as extraction fluid and stored in the amber colored bottles at room temperature. Ethanol/water samples were taken (0.5mL) at predefined time intervals:10m (T1), 1h (T2), 24h (T3) and 30 days (T4). These samples were analyzed by HPLC. The obtained data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD at significance level of pcomposites (pcomposite resins in all time periods and the amount of eluted monomers was increased with time. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Three Experiments Examining the Use of Electroencephalogram,Event-Related Potentials, and Heart-Rate Variability for Real-Time Human-Centered Adaptive Automation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Parasuraman, Raja; Freeman, Frederick G.; Scerbo, Mark W.; Mikulka, Peter J.; Pope, Alan T.

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive automation represents an advanced form of human-centered automation design. The approach to automation provides for real-time and model-based assessments of human-automation interaction, determines whether the human has entered into a hazardous state of awareness and then modulates the task environment to keep the operator in-the-loop , while maintaining an optimal state of task engagement and mental alertness. Because adaptive automation has not matured, numerous challenges remain, including what the criteria are, for determining when adaptive aiding and adaptive function allocation should take place. Human factors experts in the area have suggested a number of measures including the use of psychophysiology. This NASA Technical Paper reports on three experiments that examined the psychophysiological measures of event-related potentials, electroencephalogram, and heart-rate variability for real-time adaptive automation. The results of the experiments confirm the efficacy of these measures for use in both a developmental and operational role for adaptive automation design. The implications of these results and future directions for psychophysiology and human-centered automation design are discussed.

  7. Establishing conditions for the storage and elution of rabies virus RNA using FTA® cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAKAI, Takeo; ISHII, Ayako; SEGAWA, Takao; TAKAGI, Yukihiko; KOBAYASHI, Yuki; ITOU, Takuya

    2014-01-01

    The Flinders Technology Associates filter paper cards (FTA® cards) can be used to store nucleic acid from various samples and are easily portable. However, RNA is physicochemically unstable compared with DNA, and appropriate methods have not been established for storage and extraction of RNA from FTA® cards. The present study investigated the optimum conditions for storage and elution of viral RNA (vRNA) using rabies virus (RABV) applied to FTA® cards. When TE buffer was used, the elution rates of vRNA increased with the length of the elution time. When the cards were stored at −80°C or −20°C, vRNA was stable over 3 months. Degradation of vRNAs occurred following storage at 4°C and room temperature, suggesting that RNA should be extracted from cards as soon as possible if no freezer is available. When we tried to amplify vRNA from RABV-infected animal brains applied to FTA® cards and stored at −80°C for 6 months, we did not detect any amplified products with the primer set for 964 bp of RABV N gene. However, we were able to detect amplified products by increasing the elution time of vRNA from FTA® cards from 30 min to 24 hr or by changing the primer sets to amplify 290 bp of N gene. Thus, we recommend extending the elution time for damaged or low concentration samples in FTA® cards. PMID:25648208

  8. High throughput detection of Coxiella burnetii by real-time PCR with internal control system and automated DNA preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramme Stefanie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q-fever, a widespread zoonosis. Due to its high environmental stability and infectivity it is regarded as a category B biological weapon agent. In domestic animals infection remains either asymptomatic or presents as infertility or abortion. Clinical presentation in humans can range from mild flu-like illness to acute pneumonia and hepatitis. Endocarditis represents the most common form of chronic Q-fever. In humans serology is the gold standard for diagnosis but is inadequate for early case detection. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool in an eventual biological weapon attack or in local epidemics we developed a real-time 5'nuclease based PCR assay with an internal control system. To facilitate high-throughput an automated extraction procedure was evaluated. Results To determine the minimum number of copies that are detectable at 95% chance probit analysis was used. Limit of detection in blood was 2,881 copies/ml [95%CI, 2,188–4,745 copies/ml] with a manual extraction procedure and 4,235 copies/ml [95%CI, 3,143–7,428 copies/ml] with a fully automated extraction procedure, respectively. To demonstrate clinical application a total of 72 specimens of animal origin were compared with respect to manual and automated extraction. A strong correlation between both methods was observed rendering both methods suitable. Testing of 247 follow up specimens of animal origin from a local Q-fever epidemic rendered real-time PCR more sensitive than conventional PCR. Conclusion A sensitive and thoroughly evaluated real-time PCR was established. Its high-throughput mode may show a useful approach to rapidly screen samples in local outbreaks for other organisms relevant for humans or animals. Compared to a conventional PCR assay sensitivity of real-time PCR was higher after testing samples from a local Q-fever outbreak.

  9. Innovative Elution Processes for Recovering Uranium from Seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai, Chien; Tian, Guoxin; Janke, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing amidoxime-based polymer sorbents for extraction of uranium from seawater has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Uranium collected in the sorbent is recovered typically by elution with an acid. One drawback of acid elution is deterioration of the sorbent which is a significant factor that limits the economic competitiveness of the amidoxime-based sorbent systems for sequestering uranium from seawater. Developing innovative elution processes to improve efficiency and to minimize loss of sorbent capacity become essential in order to make this technology economically feasible for large-scale industrial applications. This project has evaluated several elution processes including acid elution, carbonate elution, and supercritical fluid elution for recovering uranium from amidoxime-based polymer sorbents. The elution efficiency, durability and sorbent regeneration for repeated uranium adsorption- desorption cycles in simulated seawater have been studied. Spectroscopic techniques are used to evaluate chemical nature of the sorbent before and after elution. A sodium carbonate-hydrogen peroxide elution process for effective removal of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is developed. The cause of this sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide synergistic leaching of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is attributed to the formation of an extremely stable uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex. The efficiency of uranium elution by the carbonate-hydrogen peroxide method is comparable to that of the hydrochloric acid elution but damage to the sorbent material is much less for the former. The carbonate- hydrogen peroxide elution also does not need any elaborate step to regenerate the sorbent as those required for hydrochloric acid leaching. Several CO2-soluble ligands have been tested for extraction of uranium from the sorbent in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. A mixture of hexafluoroacetylacetone and tri-n-butylphosphate shows the best result but uranium

  10. Innovative Elution Processes for Recovering Uranium from Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wai, Chien [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Tian, Guoxin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Janke, Christopher [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-05-29

    Utilizing amidoxime-based polymer sorbents for extraction of uranium from seawater has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Uranium collected in the sorbent is recovered typically by elution with an acid. One drawback of acid elution is deterioration of the sorbent which is a significant factor that limits the economic competitiveness of the amidoxime-based sorbent systems for sequestering uranium from seawater. Developing innovative elution processes to improve efficiency and to minimize loss of sorbent capacity become essential in order to make this technology economically feasible for large-scale industrial applications. This project has evaluated several elution processes including acid elution, carbonate elution, and supercritical fluid elution for recovering uranium from amidoxime-based polymer sorbents. The elution efficiency, durability and sorbent regeneration for repeated uranium adsorption- desorption cycles in simulated seawater have been studied. Spectroscopic techniques are used to evaluate chemical nature of the sorbent before and after elution. A sodium carbonate-hydrogen peroxide elution process for effective removal of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is developed. The cause of this sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide synergistic leaching of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is attributed to the formation of an extremely stable uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex. The efficiency of uranium elution by the carbonate-hydrogen peroxide method is comparable to that of the hydrochloric acid elution but damage to the sorbent material is much less for the former. The carbonate- hydrogen peroxide elution also does not need any elaborate step to regenerate the sorbent as those required for hydrochloric acid leaching. Several CO2-soluble ligands have been tested for extraction of uranium from the sorbent in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. A mixture of hexafluoroacetylacetone and tri-n-butylphosphate shows the best result but uranium

  11. Quest for automated land cover change detection using satellite time series data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salmon, BP

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available and surface climate in the next fifty years,” Global Change Biology, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 438–458, May 2002. [3] J. A. Foley et al., “Global consequences of land use,” Science, vol. 309, no. 5734, pp. 570–574, July 2005. [4] R. S. Lunetta et al., “Land... (class 1). These four subsets were used to produce a confusion matrix to test if the operational MLP can detect change reliably in an automated fashion on subsets 1 and 2, while not falsely detecting change for subsets 3 and 4. This particular splic...

  12. Comparison of QIAsymphony Automated and QIAamp Manual DNA Extraction Systems for Measuring Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Load in Whole Blood Using Real-Time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Laus, Stella; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Green, Michael; Wadowsky, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Automated and manual extraction systems have been used with real-time PCR for quantification of Epstein-Barr virus [human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4)] DNA in whole blood, but few studies have evaluated relative performances. In the present study, the automated QIAsymphony and manual QIAamp extraction systems (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) were assessed using paired aliquots derived from clinical whole-blood specimens and an in-house, real-time PCR assay. The detection limits using the QIAsymphony and QIAam...

  13. An engineered approach to stem cell culture: automating the decision process for real-time adaptive subculture of stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Fei Elmer Ker

    Full Text Available Current cell culture practices are dependent upon human operators and remain laborious and highly subjective, resulting in large variations and inconsistent outcomes, especially when using visual assessments of cell confluency to determine the appropriate time to subculture cells. Although efforts to automate cell culture with robotic systems are underway, the majority of such systems still require human intervention to determine when to subculture. Thus, it is necessary to accurately and objectively determine the appropriate time for cell passaging. Optimal stem cell culturing that maintains cell pluripotency while maximizing cell yields will be especially important for efficient, cost-effective stem cell-based therapies. Toward this goal we developed a real-time computer vision-based system that monitors the degree of cell confluency with a precision of 0.791±0.031 and recall of 0.559±0.043. The system consists of an automated phase-contrast time-lapse microscope and a server. Multiple dishes are sequentially imaged and the data is uploaded to the server that performs computer vision processing, predicts when cells will exceed a pre-defined threshold for optimal cell confluency, and provides a Web-based interface for remote cell culture monitoring. Human operators are also notified via text messaging and e-mail 4 hours prior to reaching this threshold and immediately upon reaching this threshold. This system was successfully used to direct the expansion of a paradigm stem cell population, C2C12 cells. Computer-directed and human-directed control subcultures required 3 serial cultures to achieve the theoretical target cell yield of 50 million C2C12 cells and showed no difference for myogenic and osteogenic differentiation. This automated vision-based system has potential as a tool toward adaptive real-time control of subculturing, cell culture optimization and quality assurance/quality control, and it could be integrated with current and

  14. Factors that influence standard automated perimetry test results in glaucoma: test reliability, technician experience, time of day, and season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junoy Montolio, Francisco G; Wesselink, Christiaan; Gordijn, Marijke; Jansonius, Nomdo M

    2012-10-09

    To determine the influence of several factors on standard automated perimetry test results in glaucoma. Longitudinal Humphrey field analyzer 30-2 Swedish interactive threshold algorithm data from 160 eyes of 160 glaucoma patients were used. The influence of technician experience, time of day, and season on the mean deviation (MD) was determined by performing linear regression analysis of MD against time on a series of visual fields and subsequently performing a multiple linear regression analysis with the MD residuals as dependent variable and the factors mentioned above as independent variables. Analyses were performed with and without adjustment for the test reliability (fixation losses and false-positive and false-negative answers) and with and without stratification according to disease stage (baseline MD). Mean follow-up was 9.4 years, with on average 10.8 tests per patient. Technician experience, time of day, and season were associated with the MD. Approximately 0.2 dB lower MD values were found for inexperienced technicians (P Technician experience, time of day, season, and the percentage of false-positive answers have a significant influence on the MD of standard automated perimetry.

  15. Does the Location of Bruch's Membrane Opening Change Over Time? Longitudinal Analysis Using San Diego Automated Layer Segmentation Algorithm (SALSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghith, Akram; Bowd, Christopher; Medeiros, Felipe A; Hammel, Naama; Yang, Zhiyong; Weinreb, Robert N; Zangwill, Linda M

    2016-02-01

    We determined if the Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) location changes over time in healthy eyes and eyes with progressing glaucoma, and validated an automated segmentation algorithm for identifying the BMO in Cirrus high-definition coherence tomography (HD-OCT) images. We followed 95 eyes (35 progressing glaucoma and 60 healthy) for an average of 3.7 ± 1.1 years. A stable group of 50 eyes had repeated tests over a short period. In each B-scan of the stable group, the BMO points were delineated manually and automatically to assess the reproducibility of both segmentation methods. Moreover, the BMO location variation over time was assessed longitudinally on the aligned images in 3D space point by point in x, y, and z directions. Mean visual field mean deviation at baseline of the progressing glaucoma group was -7.7 dB. Mixed-effects models revealed small nonsignificant changes in BMO location over time for all directions in healthy eyes (the smallest P value was 0.39) and in the progressing glaucoma eyes (the smallest P value was 0.30). In the stable group, the overall intervisit-intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV) were 98.4% and 2.1%, respectively, for the manual segmentation and 98.1% and 1.9%, respectively, for the automated algorithm. Bruch's membrane opening location was stable in normal and progressing glaucoma eyes with follow-up between 3 and 4 years indicating that it can be used as reference point in monitoring glaucoma progression. The BMO location estimation with Cirrus HD-OCT using manual and automated segmentation showed excellent reproducibility.

  16. Prediction of take-over time in highly automated driving by two psychometric tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Korber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se investigó la capacidad del conductor para to mar el control del vehículo, en una tarea secundaria puede pred ecirse por la habilidad multitarea del sujeto y la reacción inmediata. Partic iparon 23 personas ejecutando una prueba de tareas múltiples y una de simple respuesta , conduciendo durante 38 min de forma altamente autom atizada, encontrándose cinco situaciones de toma de posesión. Los datos revelaron una correlación signifi cativa entre el rendimiento mu ltitarea y la toma del tiempo, así como la distribución de la situación 1 y 2, aunque el tiempo de reacción se c ontroló. Esta relación disminu ye comenzando con la situación 3, persistiendo una diferencia e stable en la toma en el tiempo entre los peores y los mejores. El tiempo de reacción no fue un predictor significativo. Los resultados p ueden ser vistos como evidencia de las diferencias individuales estables en situaciones de doble tarea respecto a la conducción automática.

  17. Deadlock handling for real-time control of AGVs at automated container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, M.; Grunow, M.; Günther, H.O.

    2006-01-01

    of individual cranes or AGVs. Particularly, AGVs are liable to deadlocks because they always need a secondary resource, either a quay crane or a stacking crane, to perform the pick-up and drop-off operations. Because usually no buffering of containers takes place at the interfaces between AGVs and cranes......, the consequences of deadlocks are rather severe. Two different methods for the detection of deadlocks are presented. One is based on a matrix representation of the terminal system. The other directly traces the requests for the individual resources. To resolve deadlock situations arising in an automated container...... terminal, three different procedures are proposed. These procedures aim to modify the sequence of handling operations or to assign them to alternative resources so that conflicts between concurrent processes are resolved. The suitability of the concept is demonstrated in an extensive simulation study....

  18. Deadlock handling for real-time control of AGV's at automated container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, M.; Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.

    2007-01-01

    of individual cranes or AGVs. Particularly, AGVs are liable to deadlocks because they always need a secondary resource, either a quay crane or a stacking crane, to perform the pick-up and drop-off operations. Because usually no buffering of containers takes place at the interfaces between AGVs and cranes......, the consequences of deadlocks are rather severe. Two different methods for the detection of deadlocks are presented. One is based on a matrix representation of the terminal system. The other directly traces the requests for the individual resources. To resolve deadlock situations arising in an automated container...... terminal, three different procedures are proposed. These procedures aim to modify the sequence of handling operations or to assign them to alternative resources so that conflicts between concurrent processes are resolved. The suitability of the concept is demonstrated in an extensive simulation study....

  19. Automated four-dimensional Monte Carlo workflow using log files and real-time motion monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibolt, P; Andersen, C E; Cronholm, R O; Heath, E; Behrens, C F

    2017-01-01

    With emerging techniques for tracking and gating methods in radiotherapy of lung cancer patients, there is an increasing need for efficient four-dimensional Monte Carlo (4DMC) based quality assurance (QA). An automated and flexible workflow for 4DMC QA, based on the 4DdefDOSXYZnrc user code, has been developed in python. The workflow has been tested and verified using an in-house developed dosimetry system comprised of a dynamic thorax phantom constructed for plastic scintillator dosimetry. The workflow is directly compatible with any treatment planning system and can also be triggered by the appearance of linac log files. It has minimum user interaction and, with the use of linac log files, it provides a method for verification of the actually delivered dose in the patient geometry. (paper)

  20. Transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hee Chul; Jang, Bohyun; Song, Myeong Jun

    2016-01-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a widely used standard treatment for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who are not suitable candidates for curative treatments. The rationale for TACE is that intra-arterial chemotherapy using lipiodol and chemotherapeutic agents, followed by selective vascular embolization, results in a strong cytotoxic effect as well as ischemia (conventional TACE). Recently, drug-eluting beads (DC Beads®) have been developed for transcatheter treatment of HCC to deliver higher doses of the chemotherapeutic agent and to prolong contact time with the tumor. DC Beads® can actively sequester doxorubicin hydrochloride from solution and release it in a controlled sustained fashion. Treatment with DC Beads® substantially reduced the amount of chemotherapeutic agent that reached the systemic circulation compared with conventional, lipiodol-based regimens, significantly reducing drug-related adverse events. In this article, we describe the treatment response, survival, and safety of TACE used with drug-eluting beads for the treatment of HCC and discuss future therapeutic possibilities. PMID:27833376

  1. Dynamics of silver elution from functionalised antimicrobial nanofiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, S; Habimana, O; Hannon, J; Allen, A; Cummins, E; Casey, E

    2017-07-01

    In an effort to mitigate biofouling on thin film composite membranes such as nanofiltration and reverse osmosis, a myriad of different surface modification strategies has been published. The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) has emerged as being particularly promising. Nevertheless, the stability of these surface modifications is still poorly understood, particularly under permeate flux conditions. Leaching or elution of Ag-NPs from the membrane surface can not only affect the antimicrobial characteristics of the membrane, but could also potentially present an environmental liability when applied in industrial-scale systems. This study sought to investigate the dynamics of silver elution and the bactericidal effect of an Ag-NP functionalised NF270 membrane. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy was used to show that the bulk of leached silver occurred at the start of experimental runs, and was found to be independent of salt or permeate conditions used. Cumulative amounts of leached silver did, however, stabilise following the initial release, and were shown to have maintained the biocidal characteristics of the modified membrane, as observed by a higher fraction of structurally damaged Pseudomonas fluorescens cells. These results highlight the need to comprehensively assess the time-dependent nature of bactericidal membranes.

  2. Elution of Artificial Sputum from Swab by Rotating Magnetic Field-Induced Mechanical Impingement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Banik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cotton-tipped applicator swabs are used as a collection device for many biological samples and its complete elution is a desired step for clinical and forensic diagnostics. Swabs are used to collect infectious body fluids, where the concentration of pathogens can range from 1 × 104 CFU/mL (colony forming units/mL in respiratory-tract infections and 1 × 105 in urinary-tract infections, to up to 1 × 109 CFU/mL in salivary samples. These samples are then eluted and lysed, prior to DNA (De-oxy Ribonucleic Acid analysis. The recovery of micro-organisms from a matrix of swab fibres depends on the nature of the body fluid, the type of the swab fibres, and the process of elution. Various methods to elute samples from swab include chemical digestion of fibres (~20% recovery, centrifugation (~58% recovery, piezoelectric vibration, or pressurized fluid-flow (~60% recovery. This study reports a magnetically-actuated physical impingement method for elution and recovery of artificial sputum samples from cotton fibres. A device has been fabricated to induce a rotating magnetic field on smaller magnetic particles in a vial that strikes the swab within a confined gap. Elution from the swab in this device was characterized using 2% Methyl cellulose in deionised water, loaded with fluorescent-tagged polystyrene beads and E. coli at various concentrations. The recovery efficiency was found to increase with both rotational speed and elution time, but plateaus after 400 RPM (Revolutions per minute and 120 s, respectively. At a higher concentration of polystyrene beads (5 × 108 particles/mL, a maximum recovery of ~85% was achieved. With lower concentration, (1 × 105 particles/mL the maximum efficiency (~92.8% was found to be almost twice of passive elution (46.7%. In the case of E. coli, the corresponding recovery efficiency at 3.35 × 105 CFU/mL is 90.4% at 500 RPM and 120 s. This elution method is expected to have a wide applicability in clinical diagnostics.

  3. Stent Coating Integrity of Durable and Biodegradable Coated Drug Eluting Stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Saami K; Sheehy, Alexander; Pacetti, Stephen; Rittlemeyer, Brandon; Kolodgie, Frank D; Virmani, Renu

    2016-10-01

    Coatings consisting of a polymer and drug are widely used in drug-eluting stents (DES) and are essential in providing programmable drug release kinetics. Among other factors, stent coating technologies can influence blood compatibility, affect acute and sub-acute healing, and potentially trigger a chronic inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term (7 and 28 days) and long-term (90 and 180 days) coating integrity of the Xience Prime Everolimus-Eluting Stent (EES), Resolute Zotarolimus-Eluting Stent (ZES), Taxus Paclitaxel-Eluting Stent (PES), and Nobori Biolimus A9-Eluting Stent (BES) in a rabbit ilio-femoral stent model. Stented arteries (n = 48) were harvested and the tissue surrounding the implanted stents digested away with an enzymatic solution. Results demonstrated that the majority of struts of EES were without any coating defects with a few struts showing minor defects. Similarly, for the ZES, most of the struts were without coating defects at all time points except at 180 days. The majority of PES demonstrated mostly webbing and uneven coating. In the BES group, the majority of strut coating showed polymer cracking. Overall, the EES and ZES had fewer coating defects than the PES and BES. Coating defects, however increase over time for the ZES, whereas the percent of coating irregularities remained constant for the EES. These results provide, for the first time, a comparison of the long-term durability of these drug-eluting stent coatings in vivo. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Virtual automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casis, E; Garrido, A; Uranga, B; Vives, A; Zufiaurre, C

    2001-01-01

    Total laboratory automation (TLA) can be substituted in mid-size laboratories by a computer sample workflow control (virtual automation). Such a solution has been implemented in our laboratory using PSM, software developed in cooperation with Roche Diagnostics (Barcelona, Spain), to this purpose. This software is connected to the online analyzers and to the laboratory information system and is able to control and direct the samples working as an intermediate station. The only difference with TLA is the replacement of transport belts by personnel of the laboratory. The implementation of this virtual automation system has allowed us the achievement of the main advantages of TLA: workload increase (64%) with reduction in the cost per test (43%), significant reduction in the number of biochemistry primary tubes (from 8 to 2), less aliquoting (from 600 to 100 samples/day), automation of functional testing, drastic reduction of preanalytical errors (from 11.7 to 0.4% of the tubes) and better total response time for both inpatients (from up to 48 hours to up to 4 hours) and outpatients (from up to 10 days to up to 48 hours). As an additional advantage, virtual automation could be implemented without hardware investment and significant headcount reduction (15% in our lab).

  5. study on 113 Sn-113m In generator of the chromatographic column elution mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Halim, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    this work has been carried out to study the optimum conditions required for local preparation of 113 Sn- 113m In radioisotope generator based on 12- molybdocerate- 113 Sn column matrix. this work was directed to: 1- investigate the optimum conditions of the tin target irradiation and dissolution processes. 2- study the different preparative conditions which affect the loading of 113 Sn radionuclide onto 12- molybdocerate (IV) columns and the elution of the generated 113m In radionuclide. 3- study the effect of generator life- time on the elution performance and quality control of the generated 113m In radionuclide over a period of 190 days

  6. Automated analysis of art object surfaces using time-averaged digital speckle pattern interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukomski, Michal; Krzemien, Leszek

    2013-05-01

    Technical development and practical evaluation of a laboratory built, out-of-plane digital speckle pattern interferometer (DSPI) are reported. The instrument was used for non-invasive, non-contact detection and characterization of early-stage damage, like fracturing and layer separation, of painted objects of art. A fully automated algorithm was developed for recording and analysis of vibrating objects utilizing continuous-wave laser light. The algorithm uses direct, numerical fitting or Hilbert transformation for an independent, quantitative evaluation of the Bessel function at every point of the investigated surface. The procedure does not require phase modulation and thus can be implemented within any, even the simplest, DSPI apparatus. The proposed deformation analysis is fast and computationally inexpensive. Diagnosis of physical state of the surface of a panel painting attributed to Nicolaus Haberschrack (a late-mediaeval painter active in Krakow) from the collection of the National Museum in Krakow is presented as an example of an in situ application of the developed methodology. It has allowed the effectiveness of the deformation analysis to be evaluated for the surface of a real painting (heterogeneous colour and texture) in a conservation studio where vibration level was considerably higher than in the laboratory. It has been established that the methodology, which offers automatic analysis of the interferometric fringe patterns, has a considerable potential to facilitate and render more precise the condition surveys of works of art.

  7. Gravity-Assist Trajectories to the Ice Giants: An Automated Method to Catalog Mass-or Time-Optimal Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kyle M.; Knittel, Jeremy M.; Englander, Jacob A.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents an automated method of calculating mass (or time) optimal gravity-assist trajectories without a priori knowledge of the flyby-body combination. Since gravity assists are particularly crucial for reaching the outer Solar System, we use the Ice Giants, Uranus and Neptune, as example destinations for this work. Catalogs are also provided that list the most attractive trajectories found over launch dates ranging from 2024 to 2038. The tool developed to implement this method, called the Python EMTG Automated Trade Study Application (PEATSA), iteratively runs the Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG), a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in-house trajectory optimization tool. EMTG finds gravity-assist trajectories with impulsive maneuvers using a multiple-shooting structure along with stochastic methods (such as monotonic basin hopping) and may be run with or without an initial guess provided. PEATSA runs instances of EMTG in parallel over a grid of launch dates. After each set of runs completes, the best results within a neighborhood of launch dates are used to seed all other cases in that neighborhood---allowing the solutions across the range of launch dates to improve over each iteration. The results here are compared against trajectories found using a grid-search technique, and PEATSA is found to outperform the grid-search results for most launch years considered.

  8. Impaired health status in Type D patients following PCI in the drug-eluting stent era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan; Ong, Andrew T L

    2007-01-01

    Drug-eluting stenting reduces restenosis post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but subgroups of patients may not benefit optimally from this procedure. We examined the impact of Type D personality on health status over time and the clinical relevance of Type D as a predictor of impaired...... health status at 12 months in unselected post-PCI patients....

  9. Urinalysis: The Automated Versus Manual Techniques; Is It Time To Change?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asmaa Ismail; Baz, Heba; Lotfy, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Urinalysis is the third major test in clinical laboratory. Manual technique imprecision urges the need for a rapid reliable automated test. We evaluated the H800-FUSIOO automatic urine sediment analyzer and compared it to the manual urinalysis technique to determine if it may be a competitive substitute in laboratories of central hospitals. 1000 urine samples were examined by the two methods in parallel. Agreement, precision, carryover, drift, sensitivity, specificity, and practicability criteria were tested. Agreement ranged from excellent to good for all urine semi-quantitative components (K > 0.4, p = 0.000), except for granular casts (K = 0.317, p = 0.000). Specific gravity results correlated well between the two methods (r = 0.884, p = 0.000). RBCS and WBCs showed moderate correlation (r = 0.42, p = 0.000) and (r = 0.44, p = 0.000), respectively. The auto-analyzer's within-run precision was > 75% for all semi-quantitative components except for proteins (50% precision). This finding in addition to the granular casts poor agreement indicate the necessity of operator interference at the critical cutoff values. As regards quantitative contents, RBCs showed a mean of 69.8 +/- 3.95, C.V. = 5.7, WBCs showed a mean of 38.9 +/- 1.9, C.V. = 4.9). Specific gravity, pH, microalbumin, and creatinine also showed good precision results with C.Vs of 0.000, 2.6, 9.1, and 0.00 respectively. In the between run precision, positive control showed good precision (C.V. = 2.9), while negative control's C.V. was strikingly high (C.V. = 127). Carryover and drift studies were satisfactory. Manual examination of inter-observer results showed major discrepancies (urinalysis decreases observer-associated variation and offers prompt competitive results when standardized for screening away from the borderline cutoffs.

  10. Multiple dual mode counter-current chromatography with variable duration of alternating phase elution steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanyan, Artak E; Erastov, Andrey A; Shishilov, Oleg N

    2014-06-20

    The multiple dual mode (MDM) counter-current chromatography separation processes consist of a succession of two isocratic counter-current steps and are characterized by the shuttle (forward and back) transport of the sample in chromatographic columns. In this paper, the improved MDM method based on variable duration of alternating phase elution steps has been developed and validated. The MDM separation processes with variable duration of phase elution steps are analyzed. Basing on the cell model, analytical solutions are developed for impulse and non-impulse sample loading at the beginning of the column. Using the analytical solutions, a calculation program is presented to facilitate the simulation of MDM with variable duration of phase elution steps, which can be used to select optimal process conditions for the separation of a given feed mixture. Two options of the MDM separation are analyzed: 1 - with one-step solute elution: the separation is conducted so, that the sample is transferred forward and back with upper and lower phases inside the column until the desired separation of the components is reached, and then each individual component elutes entirely within one step; 2 - with multi-step solute elution, when the fractions of individual components are collected in over several steps. It is demonstrated that proper selection of the duration of individual cycles (phase flow times) can greatly increase the separation efficiency of CCC columns. Experiments were carried out using model mixtures of compounds from the GUESSmix with solvent systems hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water. The experimental results are compared to the predictions of the theory. A good agreement between theory and experiment has been demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Drug elution from high-dose antibiotic-loaded acrylic cement: a comparative, in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Giorgio; De Gori, Marco; Calonego, Giovanni; Della Bora, Tommaso; Caroleo, Benedetto; Galasso, Olimpio

    2014-11-01

    High-dose antibiotic-loaded acrylic cement (ALAC) is used for managing peri-prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). The marked increase in resistant high-virulence bacteria is drawing the attention of physicians toward alternative antimicrobial formulations loaded into acrylic bone cement. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the elution kinetics of 14 different high-dose ALACs. All ALAC samples showed a burst release of antibiotics in the first hour, progressively decreasing over time, and elution curves strictly adhered to a nonlinear regression analysis formula. Among aminoglycosides, commonly seen as the most appropriate antibiotics to be loaded into the bone cement, the highest elution rate was that of tobramycin. Among the glycopeptides, a class of antibiotics that should be considered to treat PJIs because of the prevalence of aminoglycoside resistance, vancomycin showed better elution than teicoplanin. Clindamycin, which can be associated with aminoglycosides to prepare ALACs and represents a useful option against the most common pathogens responsible for PJIs, showed the highest absolute and relative elutions among all the tested formulations. A noticeable elution was also detected for colistin, an antibiotic of last resort for treating multidrug-resistant bacteria. The current study demonstrates theoretical advantages in the preparation of ALAC for some antibiotics not routinely used in the clinical setting for PJIs. The use of these antibiotics based on the infecting bacteria sensitivity may represent a useful option for physicians to eradicate PJIs. In vivo testing should be considered in the future to confirm the results of this study. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Real-time direct cell concentration and viability determination using a fully automated microfluidic platform for standalone process monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues de Sousa Nunes, Pedro André; Kjaerulff, S.; Dufva, Martin

    2015-01-01

    system performance by monitoring in real time the cell concentration and viability of yeast extracted directly from an in-house made bioreactor. This is the first demonstration of using the Dean drag force, generated due to the implementation of a curved microchannel geometry in conjunction with high...... flow rates, to promote passive mixing of cell samples and thus homogenization of the diluted cell plug. The autonomous operation of the fluidics furthermore allows implementation of intelligent protocols for administering air bubbles from the bioreactor in the microfluidic system, so...... and thereby ensure optimal cell production, by prolonging the fermentation cycle and increasing the bioreactor output. In this work, we report on the development of a fully automated microfluidic system capable of extracting samples directly from a bioreactor, diluting the sample, staining the cells...

  13. Hypotonic elution, a new desorption principle in immunoadsorbent chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Sjöström, H; Norén, O

    1982-01-01

    of finding an efficient means of elution which is not denaturing to neither the purified enzyme nor the immunoadsorbent column. Common properties of the microvillar enzymes with regard to amphiphilicity, glycosylation or subunit composition could hypothetically account for the similar elution properties...

  14. On the automation of periodic hard real-time processes: a graph-theoretical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Boode, Antoon Hendrik

    2018-01-01

    Summary In certain single-core mono-processor configurations, e.g. embedded control systems like robotic applications comprising many short processes, process context switches may consume a considerable amount of the available processing power. Reducing the number of context switches decreases the execution time and thereby increases the performance of the application. Furthermore, the end-to-end processing time suffers from the idle time of the processor, because, for example, processes have...

  15. A semi-automated approach to derive elevation time-series and calculate glacier mass balance from historical aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorton, E.; Headman, A.; Shean, D. E.; McCann, E.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the implications of glacier recession on water resources in the western U.S. requires quantifying glacier mass change across large regions over several decades. Very few glaciers in North America have long-term continuous field measurements of glacier mass balance. However, systematic aerial photography campaigns began in 1957 on many glaciers in the western U.S. and Alaska. These historical, vertical aerial stereo-photographs documenting glacier evolution have recently become publically available. Digital elevation models (DEM) of the transient glacier surface preserved in each imagery timestamp can be derived, then differenced to calculate glacier volume and mass change to improve regional geodetic solutions of glacier mass balance. In order to batch process these data, we use Python-based algorithms and Agisoft Photoscan structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry software to semi-automate DEM creation, and orthorectify and co-register historical aerial imagery in a high-performance computing environment. Scanned photographs are rotated to reduce scaling issues, cropped to the same size to remove fiducials, and batch histogram equalization is applied to improve image quality and aid pixel-matching algorithms using the Python library OpenCV. Processed photographs are then passed to Photoscan through the Photoscan Python library to create DEMs and orthoimagery. To extend the period of record, the elevation products are co-registered to each other, airborne LiDAR data, and DEMs derived from sub-meter commercial satellite imagery. With the exception of the placement of ground control points, the process is entirely automated with Python. Current research is focused on: one, applying these algorithms to create geodetic mass balance time series for the 90 photographed glaciers in Washington State and two, evaluating the minimal amount of positional information required in Photoscan to prevent distortion effects that cannot be addressed during co

  16. Biolimus-eluting biodegradable polymer-coated stent versus durable polymer-coated sirolimus-eluting stent in unselected patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (SORT OUT V)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Evald Høj; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per

    2013-01-01

    Third-generation biodegradable polymer drug-eluting stents might reduce the risk of stent thrombosis compared with first-generation permanent polymer drug-eluting stents. We aimed to further investigate the effects of a biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stent compared with a durable polymer......-coated sirolimus-eluting stent in a population-based setting....

  17. Time-Motion Analysis of Four Automated Systems for the Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James A; Eddleman, Laura; Pantone, Amy; Martinez, Regina; Young, Stephen; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    Next-generation diagnostics for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are available on semi- or fully-automated platforms. These systems require less hands-on time than older platforms and are user friendly. Four automated systems, the ABBOTT m2000 system, Becton Dickinson Viper System with XTR Technology, Gen-Probe Tigris DTS system, and Roche cobas 4800 system, were evaluated for total run time, hands-on time, and walk-away time. All of the systems evaluated in this time-motion study were able to complete a diagnostic test run within an 8-h work shift, instrument setup and operation were straightforward and uncomplicated, and walk-away time ranged from approximately 90 to 270 min in a head-to-head comparison of each system. All of the automated systems provide technical staff with increased time to perform other tasks during the run, offer easy expansion of the diagnostic test menu, and have the ability to increase specimen throughput. © 2013 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  18. hctsa: A Computational Framework for Automated Time-Series Phenotyping Using Massive Feature Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Ben D; Jones, Nick S

    2017-11-22

    Phenotype measurements frequently take the form of time series, but we currently lack a systematic method for relating these complex data streams to scientifically meaningful outcomes, such as relating the movement dynamics of organisms to their genotype or measurements of brain dynamics of a patient to their disease diagnosis. Previous work addressed this problem by comparing implementations of thousands of diverse scientific time-series analysis methods in an approach termed highly comparative time-series analysis. Here, we introduce hctsa, a software tool for applying this methodological approach to data. hctsa includes an architecture for computing over 7,700 time-series features and a suite of analysis and visualization algorithms to automatically select useful and interpretable time-series features for a given application. Using exemplar applications to high-throughput phenotyping experiments, we show how hctsa allows researchers to leverage decades of time-series research to quantify and understand informative structure in time-series data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Isochronous wireless network for real-time communication in industrial automation

    CERN Document Server

    Trsek, Henning

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation proposes and investigates an isochronous wireless network for industrial control applications with guaranteed latencies and jitter. Based on a requirements analysis of real industrial applications and the characterisation of the wireless channel, the solution approach is developed. It consists of a TDMA-based medium access control, a dynamic resource allocation and the provision of a global time base for the wired and the wireless network. Due to the global time base, the solution approach allows a seamless and synchronous integration into existing wired Real-time Ethernet systems.

  20. AUTOMATED CONTROL AND REAL-TIME DATA PROCESSING OF WIRE SCANNER/HALO SCRAPER MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, L.A.; Gilpatrick, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), assembled and operating at Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides the platform for obtaining measurements of high-power proton beam-halo formation. Control system software and hardware have been integrated and customized to enable the production of real-time beam-halo profiles. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) hosted on a VXI platform, Interactive Data Language (IDL) programs hosted on UNIX platforms, and LabVIEW (LV) Virtual Instruments hosted on a PC platform have been integrated and customized to provide real-time, synchronous motor control, data acquisition, and data analysis of data acquired through specialized DSP instrumentation. These modules communicate through EPICS Channel Access (CA) communication protocol extensions to control and manage execution flow ensuring synchronous data acquisition and real-time processing of measurement data. This paper describes the software integration and management scheme implemented to produce these real-time beam profiles

  1. Automated real time peg and tool detection for the FLS trainer box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemani, Arun; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a method that effectively tracks trocar tool and peg positions in real time to allow real time assessment of the peg transfer task of the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS). By utilizing custom code along with OpenCV libraries, tool and peg positions can be accurately tracked without altering the original setup conditions of the FLS trainer box. This is achieved via a series of image filtration sequences, thresholding functions, and Haar training methods.

  2. Activities of daily living measured by the Harvard Automated Phone Task track with cognitive decline over time in non-demented elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gad A.; Aghjayan, Sarah L.; Dekhtyar, Maria; Locascio, Joseph J.; Jethwani, Kamal; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden to both patients and caregivers. Mild impairment in instrumental activities of daily living is often seen at the stage of mild cognitive impairment. The field of Alzheimer’s disease is moving toward earlier diagnosis and intervention and more sensitive and ecologically valid assessments of instrumental or complex activities of daily living are needed. The Harvard Automated Phone Task, a novel performance-based activities of daily living instrument, has the potential to fill this gap. Objective To further validate the Harvard Automated Phone Task by assessing its longitudinal relationship to global cognition and specific cognitive domains in clinically normal elderly and individuals with mild cognitive impairment. Design In a longitudinal study, the Harvard Automated Phone Task was associated with cognitive measures using mixed effects models. The Harvard Automated Phone Task’s ability to discriminate across diagnostic groups at baseline was also assessed. Setting Academic clinical research center. Participants Two hundred and seven participants (45 young normal, 141 clinically normal elderly, and 21 mild cognitive impairment) were recruited from the community and the memory disorders clinics at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital. Measurements Participants performed the three tasks of the Harvard Automated Phone Task, which consist of navigating an interactive voice response system to refill a prescription (APT-Script), select a new primary care physician (APT-PCP), and make a bank account transfer and payment (APT-Bank). The 3 tasks were scored based on time, errors, repetitions, and correct completion of the task. The primary outcome measure used for each of the tasks was total time adjusted for correct completion. Results The Harvard Automated Phone Task discriminated well between young normal, clinically normal elderly, and mild cognitive impairment

  3. Using dual-energy x-ray imaging to enhance automated lung tumor tracking during real-time adaptive radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menten, Martin J., E-mail: martin.menten@icr.ac.uk; Fast, Martin F.; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.oelfke@icr.ac.uk [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Real-time, markerless localization of lung tumors with kV imaging is often inhibited by ribs obscuring the tumor and poor soft-tissue contrast. This study investigates the use of dual-energy imaging, which can generate radiographs with reduced bone visibility, to enhance automated lung tumor tracking for real-time adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: kV images of an anthropomorphic breathing chest phantom were experimentally acquired and radiographs of actual lung cancer patients were Monte-Carlo-simulated at three imaging settings: low-energy (70 kVp, 1.5 mAs), high-energy (140 kVp, 2.5 mAs, 1 mm additional tin filtration), and clinical (120 kVp, 0.25 mAs). Regular dual-energy images were calculated by weighted logarithmic subtraction of high- and low-energy images and filter-free dual-energy images were generated from clinical and low-energy radiographs. The weighting factor to calculate the dual-energy images was determined by means of a novel objective score. The usefulness of dual-energy imaging for real-time tracking with an automated template matching algorithm was investigated. Results: Regular dual-energy imaging was able to increase tracking accuracy in left–right images of the anthropomorphic phantom as well as in 7 out of 24 investigated patient cases. Tracking accuracy remained comparable in three cases and decreased in five cases. Filter-free dual-energy imaging was only able to increase accuracy in 2 out of 24 cases. In four cases no change in accuracy was observed and tracking accuracy worsened in nine cases. In 9 out of 24 cases, it was not possible to define a tracking template due to poor soft-tissue contrast regardless of input images. The mean localization errors using clinical, regular dual-energy, and filter-free dual-energy radiographs were 3.85, 3.32, and 5.24 mm, respectively. Tracking success was dependent on tumor position, tumor size, imaging beam angle, and patient size. Conclusions: This study has highlighted the influence of

  4. Using dual-energy x-ray imaging to enhance automated lung tumor tracking during real-time adaptive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menten, Martin J.; Fast, Martin F.; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Real-time, markerless localization of lung tumors with kV imaging is often inhibited by ribs obscuring the tumor and poor soft-tissue contrast. This study investigates the use of dual-energy imaging, which can generate radiographs with reduced bone visibility, to enhance automated lung tumor tracking for real-time adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: kV images of an anthropomorphic breathing chest phantom were experimentally acquired and radiographs of actual lung cancer patients were Monte-Carlo-simulated at three imaging settings: low-energy (70 kVp, 1.5 mAs), high-energy (140 kVp, 2.5 mAs, 1 mm additional tin filtration), and clinical (120 kVp, 0.25 mAs). Regular dual-energy images were calculated by weighted logarithmic subtraction of high- and low-energy images and filter-free dual-energy images were generated from clinical and low-energy radiographs. The weighting factor to calculate the dual-energy images was determined by means of a novel objective score. The usefulness of dual-energy imaging for real-time tracking with an automated template matching algorithm was investigated. Results: Regular dual-energy imaging was able to increase tracking accuracy in left–right images of the anthropomorphic phantom as well as in 7 out of 24 investigated patient cases. Tracking accuracy remained comparable in three cases and decreased in five cases. Filter-free dual-energy imaging was only able to increase accuracy in 2 out of 24 cases. In four cases no change in accuracy was observed and tracking accuracy worsened in nine cases. In 9 out of 24 cases, it was not possible to define a tracking template due to poor soft-tissue contrast regardless of input images. The mean localization errors using clinical, regular dual-energy, and filter-free dual-energy radiographs were 3.85, 3.32, and 5.24 mm, respectively. Tracking success was dependent on tumor position, tumor size, imaging beam angle, and patient size. Conclusions: This study has highlighted the influence of

  5. Using dual-energy x-ray imaging to enhance automated lung tumor tracking during real-time adaptive radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menten, Martin J; Fast, Martin F; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe

    2015-12-01

    Real-time, markerless localization of lung tumors with kV imaging is often inhibited by ribs obscuring the tumor and poor soft-tissue contrast. This study investigates the use of dual-energy imaging, which can generate radiographs with reduced bone visibility, to enhance automated lung tumor tracking for real-time adaptive radiotherapy. kV images of an anthropomorphic breathing chest phantom were experimentally acquired and radiographs of actual lung cancer patients were Monte-Carlo-simulated at three imaging settings: low-energy (70 kVp, 1.5 mAs), high-energy (140 kVp, 2.5 mAs, 1 mm additional tin filtration), and clinical (120 kVp, 0.25 mAs). Regular dual-energy images were calculated by weighted logarithmic subtraction of high- and low-energy images and filter-free dual-energy images were generated from clinical and low-energy radiographs. The weighting factor to calculate the dual-energy images was determined by means of a novel objective score. The usefulness of dual-energy imaging for real-time tracking with an automated template matching algorithm was investigated. Regular dual-energy imaging was able to increase tracking accuracy in left-right images of the anthropomorphic phantom as well as in 7 out of 24 investigated patient cases. Tracking accuracy remained comparable in three cases and decreased in five cases. Filter-free dual-energy imaging was only able to increase accuracy in 2 out of 24 cases. In four cases no change in accuracy was observed and tracking accuracy worsened in nine cases. In 9 out of 24 cases, it was not possible to define a tracking template due to poor soft-tissue contrast regardless of input images. The mean localization errors using clinical, regular dual-energy, and filter-free dual-energy radiographs were 3.85, 3.32, and 5.24 mm, respectively. Tracking success was dependent on tumor position, tumor size, imaging beam angle, and patient size. This study has highlighted the influence of patient anatomy on the success rate of real-time

  6. Real time monitoring automation of dose rate absorbed in air due to environmental gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Ley, Orlando; Capote Ferrera, Eduardo; Carrazana Gonzalez, Jorge A.; Manzano de Armas, Jose F.; Alonso Abad, Dolores; Prendes Alonso, Miguel; Tomas Zerquera, Juan; Caveda Ramos, Celia A.; Kalber, Olof; Fabelo Bonet, Orlando; Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Cartas Aguila, Hector; Leyva Fernandez, Julio C.

    2005-01-01

    The Center of Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) as the head institution of the National Radiological Environmental Surveillance Network (RNVRA) has strengthened its detection and response capacity for a radiological emergency situation. The measurements of gamma dose rate at the main point of the RNVRA are obtained in real time and the CPHR receives the data coming from those points in a short time. To achieve the operability of the RNVRA it was necessary to complete the existent monitoring facilities using 4 automatic gamma probes, implementing in this way a real time measurement system. The software, GenitronProbe for obtaining the data automatically from the probe, Data Mail , for sending the data via e-mail, and Gamma Red , for receiving and processing the data in the head institution ,were developed

  7. Inertial Microfluidic Cell Stretcher (iMCS): Fully Automated, High-Throughput, and Near Real-Time Cell Mechanotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yanxiang; Davis, Steven P; Yang, Fan; Paulsen, Kevin S; Kumar, Maneesh; Sinnott DeVaux, Rebecca; Wang, Xianhui; Conklin, Douglas S; Oberai, Assad; Herschkowitz, Jason I; Chung, Aram J

    2017-07-01

    Mechanical biomarkers associated with cytoskeletal structures have been reported as powerful label-free cell state identifiers. In order to measure cell mechanical properties, traditional biophysical (e.g., atomic force microscopy, micropipette aspiration, optical stretchers) and microfluidic approaches were mainly employed; however, they critically suffer from low-throughput, low-sensitivity, and/or time-consuming and labor-intensive processes, not allowing techniques to be practically used for cell biology research applications. Here, a novel inertial microfluidic cell stretcher (iMCS) capable of characterizing large populations of single-cell deformability near real-time is presented. The platform inertially controls cell positions in microchannels and deforms cells upon collision at a T-junction with large strain. The cell elongation motions are recorded, and thousands of cell deformability information is visualized near real-time similar to traditional flow cytometry. With a full automation, the entire cell mechanotyping process runs without any human intervention, realizing a user friendly and robust operation. Through iMCS, distinct cell stiffness changes in breast cancer progression and epithelial mesenchymal transition are reported, and the use of the platform for rapid cancer drug discovery is shown as well. The platform returns large populations of single-cell quantitative mechanical properties (e.g., shear modulus) on-the-fly with high statistical significances, enabling actual usages in clinical and biophysical studies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Extending laboratory automation to the wards: effect of an innovative pneumatic tube system on diagnostic samples and transport time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchsland, Juliane; Winter, Theresa; Greiser, Anne; Streichert, Thomas; Otto, Benjamin; Mayerle, Julia; Runge, Sören; Kallner, Anders; Nauck, Matthias; Petersmann, Astrid

    2017-02-01

    The innovative pneumatic tube system (iPTS) transports one sample at a time without the use of cartridges and allows rapid sending of samples directly into the bulk loader of a laboratory automation system (LAS). We investigated effects of the iPTS on samples and turn-around time (TAT). During transport, a mini data logger recorded the accelerations in three dimensions and reported them in arbitrary area under the curve (AUC) units. In addition representative quantities of clinical chemistry, hematology and coagulation were measured and compared in 20 blood sample pairs transported by iPTS and courier. Samples transported by iPTS were brought to the laboratory (300 m) within 30 s without adverse effects on the samples. The information retrieved from the data logger showed a median AUC of 7 and 310 arbitrary units for courier and iPTS transport, respectively. This is considerably below the reported limit for noticeable hemolysis of 500 arbitrary units. iPTS reduces TAT by reducing the hands-on time and a fast transport. No differences in the measurement results were found for any of the investigated 36 analytes between courier and iPTS transport. Based on these findings the iPTS was cleared for clinical use in our hospital.

  9. A Permanent Automated Real-Time Passive Acoustic Monitoring System for Bottlenose Dolphin Conservation in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Brunoldi

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the EU Life+ project named LIFE09 NAT/IT/000190 ARION, a permanent automated real-time passive acoustic monitoring system for the improvement of the conservation status of the transient and resident population of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus has been implemented and installed in the Portofino Marine Protected Area (MPA, Ligurian Sea. The system is able to detect the simultaneous presence of dolphins and boats in the area and to give their position in real time. This information is used to prevent collisions by diffusing warning messages to all the categories involved (tourists, professional fishermen and so on. The system consists of two gps-synchronized acoustic units, based on a particular type of marine buoy (elastic beacon, deployed about 1 km off the Portofino headland. Each one is equipped with a four-hydrophone array and an onboard acquisition system which can record the typical social communication whistles emitted by the dolphins and the sound emitted by boat engines. Signals are pre-filtered, digitized and then broadcast to the ground station via wi-fi. The raw data are elaborated to get the direction of the acoustic target to each unit, and hence the position of dolphins and boats in real time by triangulation.

  10. Establishing conditions for the storage and elution of rabies virus RNA using FTA(®) cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takeo; Ishii, Ayako; Segawa, Takao; Takagi, Yukihiko; Kobayashi, Yuki; Itou, Takuya

    2015-04-01

    The Flinders Technology Associates filter paper cards (FTA(®) cards) can be used to store nucleic acid from various samples and are easily portable. However, RNA is physicochemically unstable compared with DNA, and appropriate methods have not been established for storage and extraction of RNA from FTA(®) cards. The present study investigated the optimum conditions for storage and elution of viral RNA (vRNA) using rabies virus (RABV) applied to FTA(®) cards. When TE buffer was used, the elution rates of vRNA increased with the length of the elution time. When the cards were stored at -80 °C or -20 °C, vRNA was stable over 3 months. Degradation of vRNAs occurred following storage at 4 °C and room temperature, suggesting that RNA should be extracted from cards as soon as possible if no freezer is available. When we tried to amplify vRNA from RABV-infected animal brains applied to FTA(®) cards and stored at -80 °C for 6 months, we did not detect any amplified products with the primer set for 964 bp of RABV N gene. However, we were able to detect amplified products by increasing the elution time of vRNA from FTA(®) cards from 30 min to 24 hr or by changing the primer sets to amplify 290 bp of N gene. Thus, we recommend extending the elution time for damaged or low concentration samples in FTA(®) cards.

  11. Paradoxical results of two automated real-time PCR assays in the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya E. Morales-López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a major cause of worldwide mortality. We report the case of a non-HIV-infected woman with clinical suspicion of pleural tuberculosis and contradictory results between Xpert® MTB/RIF and Abbott RealTime MTB assays from pleural fluid specimen. Liquid and solid cultures for tuberculosis were performed with negative results. The patient received treatment, and clinical improvement was observed. Both techniques detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, but they have different targets and limits of detection. Abbott RealTime MTB results correlated well with the clinical findings of the patient.

  12. Paradoxical results of two automated real-time PCR assays in the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-López, Soraya E; Yepes, Jayr A; Anzola, Irina; Aponte, Hernán; Llerena-Polo, Claudia R

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of worldwide mortality. We report the case of a non-HIV-infected woman with clinical suspicion of pleural tuberculosis and contradictory results between Xpert ® MTB/RIF and Abbott RealTime MTB assays from pleural fluid specimen. Liquid and solid cultures for tuberculosis were performed with negative results. The patient received treatment, and clinical improvement was observed. Both techniques detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, but they have different targets and limits of detection. Abbott RealTime MTB results correlated well with the clinical findings of the patient. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Automated Detection of Short Optical Transients of Astrophysical Origin in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Sokołowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of short optical transients of astrophysical origin in real time is an important task for existing robotic telescopes. The faster a new optical transient is detected, the earlier follow-up observations can be started. The sooner the object is identified, the more data can be collected before the source fades away, particularly in the most interesting early period of the transient. In this the real-time pipeline designed for identification of optical flashes with the “Pi of the Sky” project will be presented in detail together with solutions used by other experiments.

  14. ICARES: a real-time automated detection tool for clusters of infectious diseases in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, Geert H; Dalhuijsen, Anton; Kara-Zaïtri, Chakib; Hamilton, Bob; de Waal, Margot W; van Dissel, Jaap T; van Steenbergen, Jim E

    2017-01-01

    Clusters of infectious diseases are frequently detected late. Real-time, detailed information about an evolving cluster and possible associated conditions is essential for local policy makers, travelers planning to visit the area, and the local population. This is currently illustrated in the Zika

  15. Navigation Operations with Prototype Components of an Automated Real-Time Spacecraft Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangahuala, L.; Drain, T. R.

    1999-01-01

    At present, ground navigation support for interplanetary spacecraft requires human intervention for data pre-processing, filtering, and post-processing activities; these actions must be repeated each time a new batch of data is collected by the ground data system.

  16. Time efficient method for automated antenna design for wireless energy harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The rectifier circuit in a rectenna (rectifying antenna) is analyzed employing a fast, efficient time-marching algorithm. The thus found complex input impedance dictates the antenna design. To maximize RF-to-DC conversion efficiency we do not want to employ an impedance matching and filtering

  17. Increasing accuracy of pulse transit time measurements by automated elimination of distorted photoplethysmography waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.N. van Velzen (M. H N); A.J. Loeve (Arjo J.); S.P. Niehof (Sjoerd); E.G. Mik (Egbert)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPhotoplethysmography (PPG) is a widely available non-invasive optical technique to visualize pressure pulse waves (PWs). Pulse transit time (PTT) is a physiological parameter that is often derived from calculations on ECG and PPG signals and is based on tightly defined characteristics of

  18. Increasing accuracy of pulse transit time measurements by automated elimination of distorted photoplethysmography waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, M.H.N.; Loeve, A.J.; Niehof, S.P.; Mik, E.G.

    2017-01-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a widely available non-invasive optical technique to visualize pressure pulse waves (PWs). Pulse transit time (PTT) is a physiological parameter that is often derived from calculations on ECG and PPG signals and is based on tightly defined characteristics of the PW

  19. A Novel Methodology for Characterizing Cell Subpopulations in Automated Time-lapse Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Hattab

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Time-lapse imaging of cell colonies in microfluidic chambers provides time series of bioimages, i.e., biomovies. They show the behavior of cells over time under controlled conditions. One of the main remaining bottlenecks in this area of research is the analysis of experimental data and the extraction of cell growth characteristics, such as lineage information. The extraction of the cell line by human observers is time-consuming and error-prone. Previously proposed methods often fail because of their reliance on the accurate detection of a single cell, which is not possible for high density, high diversity of cell shapes and numbers, and high-resolution images with high noise. Our task is to characterize subpopulations in biomovies. In order to shift the analysis of the data from individual cell level to cellular groups with similar fluorescence or even subpopulations, we propose to represent the cells by two new abstractions: the particle and the patch. We use a three-step framework: preprocessing, particle tracking, and construction of the patch lineage. First, preprocessing improves the signal-to-noise ratio and spatially aligns the biomovie frames. Second, cell sampling is performed by assuming particles, which represent a part of a cell, cell or group of contiguous cells in space. Particle analysis includes the following: particle tracking, trajectory linking, filtering, and color information, respectively. Particle tracking consists of following the spatiotemporal position of a particle and gives rise to coherent particle trajectories over time. Typical tracking problems may occur (e.g., appearance or disappearance of cells, spurious artifacts. They are effectively processed using trajectory linking and filtering. Third, the construction of the patch lineage consists in joining particle trajectories that share common attributes (i.e., proximity and fluorescence intensity and feature common ancestry. This step is based on patch finding

  20. SU-G-201-03: Automation of High Dose Rate Brachytherapy Quality Assurance: Development of a Radioluminescent Detection System for Simultaneous Detection of Activity, Timing, and Positioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C; Xing, L; Fahimian, B [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Accuracy of positioning, timing and activity is of critical importance for High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy delivery. Respective measurements via film autoradiography, stop-watches and well chambers can be cumbersome, crude or lack dynamic source evaluation capabilities. To address such limitations, a single device radioluminescent detection system enabling automated real-time quantification of activity, position and timing accuracy is presented and experimentally evaluated. Methods: A radioluminescent sheet was fabricated by mixing Gd?O?S:Tb with PDMS and incorporated into a 3D printed device where it was fixated below a CMOS digital camera. An Ir-192 HDR source (VS2000, VariSource iX) with an effective active length of 5 mm was introduced using a 17-gauge stainless steel needle below the sheet. Pixel intensity values for determining activity were taken from an ROI centered on the source location. A calibration curve relating intensity values to activity was generated and used to evaluate automated activity determination with data gathered over 6 weeks. Positioning measurements were performed by integrating images for an entire delivery and fitting peaks to the resulting profile. Timing measurements were performed by evaluating source location and timestamps from individual images. Results: Average predicted activity error over 6 weeks was .35 ± .5%. The distance between four dwell positions was determined by the automated system to be 1.99 ± .02 cm. The result from autoradiography was 2.00 ± .03 cm. The system achieved a time resolution of 10 msec and determined the dwell time to be 1.01 sec ± .02 sec. Conclusion: The system was able to successfully perform automated detection of activity, positioning and timing concurrently under a single setup. Relative to radiochromic and radiographic film-based autoradiography, which can only provide a static evaluation positioning, optical detection of temporary radiation induced luminescence enables dynamic

  1. Functional Nanoarchitectures For Enhanced Drug Eluting Stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Yomna E.; Gepreel, Mohamed A.; Allam, Nageh K.

    2017-01-01

    Different strategies have been investigated to allow for optimum duration and conditions for endothelium healing through the enhancement of coronary stents. In this study, a nanoarchitectured system is proposed as a surface modification for drug eluting stents. Highly oriented nanotubes were vertically grown on the surface of a new Ni-free biocompatible Ti-based alloy, as a potential material for self-expandable stents. The fabricated nanotubes were self-grown from the potential stent substrate, which are also proposed to enhance endothelial proliferation while acting as drug reservoir to hinder Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMC) proliferation. Two morphologies were synthesized to investigate the effect of structure homogeneity on the intended application. The material was characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Nanoindentation technique was used to study the mechanical properties of the fabricated material. Cytotoxicity and proliferation studies were performed and compared for the two fabricated nanoarchitectures, versus smooth untextured samples, using in-vitro cultured endothelial cells. Finally, the drug loading capacity was experimentally studied and further supported by computational modeling of the release profile.

  2. Discrete events simulation of a route with traffic lights through automated control in real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo César Teixeira Baptista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the integration and communication in real-time of a discrete event simulation model with an automatic control system. The simulation model of an intersection with roads having traffic lights was built in the Arena environment. The integration and communication have been made via network, and the control system was operated by a programmable logic controller. Scenarios were simulated for the free, regular and congested traffic situations. The results showed the average number of vehicles that entered in the system and that were retained and also the total average time of the crossing of the vehicles on the road. In general, the model allowed evaluating the behavior of the traffic in each of the ways and the commands from the controller to activation and deactivation of the traffic lights.

  3. Automated business process management – in times of digital transformation using machine learning or artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Paschek Daniel; Luminosu Caius Tudor; Draghici Anca

    2017-01-01

    The continuous optimization of business processes is still a challenge for companies. In times of digital transformation, faster changing internal and external framework conditions and new customer expectations for fastest delivery and best quality of goods and many more, companies should set up their internal process at the best way. But what to do if framework conditions changed unexpectedly? The purpose of the paper is to analyse how the digital transformation will impact the Business Proc...

  4. Three-dimensional, automated, real-time video system for tracking limb motion in brain-machine interface studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peikon, Ian D; Fitzsimmons, Nathan A; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2009-06-15

    Collection and analysis of limb kinematic data are essential components of the study of biological motion, including research into biomechanics, kinesiology, neurophysiology and brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). In particular, BMI research requires advanced, real-time systems capable of sampling limb kinematics with minimal contact to the subject's body. To answer this demand, we have developed an automated video tracking system for real-time tracking of multiple body parts in freely behaving primates. The system employs high-contrast markers painted on the animal's joints to continuously track the three-dimensional positions of their limbs during activity. Two-dimensional coordinates captured by each video camera are combined and converted to three-dimensional coordinates using a quadratic fitting algorithm. Real-time operation of the system is accomplished using direct memory access (DMA). The system tracks the markers at a rate of 52 frames per second (fps) in real-time and up to 100fps if video recordings are captured to be later analyzed off-line. The system has been tested in several BMI primate experiments, in which limb position was sampled simultaneously with chronic recordings of the extracellular activity of hundreds of cortical cells. During these recordings, multiple computational models were employed to extract a series of kinematic parameters from neuronal ensemble activity in real-time. The system operated reliably under these experimental conditions and was able to compensate for marker occlusions that occurred during natural movements. We propose that this system could also be extended to applications that include other classes of biological motion.

  5. Automated on-line L-edge measurement of SNM concentration for near-real-time accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, P.A.; Marks, T. Jr.; Stephens, M.M.; Hsue, S.T.; Baker, A.L.; Cobb, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    The L-edge densitometer developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been modified, tested, and demonstrated for on-line assay of special nuclear material concentration in flowing solution streams. The demonstration was part of a larger demonstration of near-real-time nuclear materials accounting during a continuous, week-long, cold operation of the Allied General Nuclear Services facility in Barnwell, South Carolina. The L-edge data were automatically analyzed and the results were transmitted to the materials accounting computer once every 5.5 min for the duration of the cold run. This report compares the results of the L-edge analyses with the delayed results obtained from destructive analysis of samples withdrawn from the same process line. Comparisons are also made with the results obtained in near real time from an automated process control instrument installed in series with the L-edge densitometer. The performance of the L-edge instrument was reliable throughout the continous operation. The assay precision was consistent with that predicted by the counting statistics of the measurement. The results of the L-edge assays show good agreement with those of the destructive assays. A gradually varying discrepancy (of a few percent) between the L-edge and the process control results remains unexplained. 9 figures

  6. Automated on-line L-edge measurement of SNM concentration for near-real-time accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, P.A.; Marks, T. Jr.; Stephens, M.M.; Baker, A.L.; Cobb, D.D.

    1982-09-01

    An L-edge densitometer has been modified, tested, and demonstrated for on-line assay of special nuclear material concentration in flowing solution streams. The demonstration was part of a larger demonstration of near-real-time nuclear materials accounting during a continuous, week-long, cold operation of the Barnwell facility. The L-edge data were automatically analyzed and the results were transmitted to the materials accounting computer once every 5.5 min for the duration of the cold run. This report compares the results of the L-edge analyses with the delayed results obtained from destructive analysis of samples withdrawn from the same process line. Comparisons are also made with the results obtained in near real time from an automated process control instrument installed in series with the L-edge densitometer. The performance of the L-edge instrument was reliable throughout the continuous operation. The assay precision was consistent with that predicted by the counting statistics of the measurement. The results of the L-edge assays show good agreement with those of the destructive assays. A gradually varying discrepancy (of a few percent) between the L-edge and the process control results remains unexplained

  7. Automated land cover change detection: the quest for meaningful high temporal time series extraction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salmon, BP

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available and methodologies on sequential time series extracted from satellite data. 5. REFERENCES [1] R. S. DeFries, L. Bounoua, and G. J. Collatz, “Human modification of the landscape and surface climate in the next fifty years,” Global Change Biology, vol. 8, no. 5... was extracted for only the first two spectral bands from the 8-day composite MODIS MCD43A4 data set (tile H20V11) (year 2000–2008) as it was shown to have considerable class separation when the features are analyzed [6]. 2.3. Data sets: Validation...

  8. Five years of testing using the simi-automated ultrasonic time of flight diffraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a brief description of the Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) test system and also describes a couple of case histories where the system has been successfully applied. The T.O.F.D. system has been contrasted with the conventional manual ultrasonic technique. Whilst the T.O.F.D. system has proven potential, and is without doubt a valuable tool that will continue to gain market share in the inspection industry, conventional manual ultrasonics still has its part to play and will survive for some time to come. One of the outstanding issues facing the T.O.F.D. systems is the question of acceptance testing which is still the predominant convention specified in most standards. Training for a T.O.F.D. system technician is particularly important and the author suggests there are more traps for the unwary than with the conventional manual ultrasonic systems. The overall judgement of the T.O.F.D. system is that it is a most welcome and powerful tool in the hands of the right operator and will do much to boost the prominence of Non-Destructive Testing

  9. Increasing accuracy of pulse transit time measurements by automated elimination of distorted photoplethysmography waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Marit H N; Loeve, Arjo J; Niehof, Sjoerd P; Mik, Egbert G

    2017-11-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a widely available non-invasive optical technique to visualize pressure pulse waves (PWs). Pulse transit time (PTT) is a physiological parameter that is often derived from calculations on ECG and PPG signals and is based on tightly defined characteristics of the PW shape. PPG signals are sensitive to artefacts. Coughing or movement of the subject can affect PW shapes that much that the PWs become unsuitable for further analysis. The aim of this study was to develop an algorithm that automatically and objectively eliminates unsuitable PWs. In order to develop a proper algorithm for eliminating unsuitable PWs, a literature study was conducted. Next, a '7Step PW-Filter' algorithm was developed that applies seven criteria to determine whether a PW matches the characteristics required to allow PTT calculation. To validate whether the '7Step PW-Filter' eliminates only and all unsuitable PWs, its elimination results were compared to the outcome of manual elimination of unsuitable PWs. The '7Step PW-Filter' had a sensitivity of 96.3% and a specificity of 99.3%. The overall accuracy of the '7Step PW-Filter' for detection of unsuitable PWs was 99.3%. Compared to manual elimination, using the '7Step PW-Filter' reduces PW elimination times from hours to minutes and helps to increase the validity, reliability and reproducibility of PTT data.

  10. Dynamic autofocus for continuous-scanning time-delay-and-integration image acquisition in automated microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Zanoguera, Miguel E; Laris, Casey A; Nguyen, Lam K; Oliva, Mike; Price, Jeffrey H

    2007-01-01

    Efficient image cytometry of a conventional microscope slide means rapid acquisition and analysis of 20 gigapixels of image data (at 0.3-microm sampling). The voluminous data motivate increased acquisition speed to enable many biomedical applications. Continuous-motion time-delay-and-integrate (TDI) scanning has the potential to speed image acquisition while retaining sensitivity, but the challenge of implementing high-resolution autofocus operating simultaneously with acquisition has limited its adoption. We develop a dynamic autofocus system for this need using: 1. a "volume camera," consisting of nine fiber optic imaging conduits to charge-coupled device (CCD) sensors, that acquires images in parallel from different focal planes, 2. an array of mixed analog-digital processing circuits that measure the high spatial frequencies of the multiple image streams to create focus indices, and 3. a software system that reads and analyzes the focus data streams and calculates best focus for closed feedback loop control. Our system updates autofocus at 56 Hz (or once every 21 microm of stage travel) to collect sharply focused images sampled at 0.3x0.3 microm(2)/pixel at a stage speed of 2.3 mms. The system, tested by focusing in phase contrast and imaging long fluorescence strips, achieves high-performance closed-loop image-content-based autofocus in continuous scanning for the first time.

  11. Automated methods for real-time analysis of spent-fuel measurement data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosler, G.E.; Rinard, P.M.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Painter, J.

    1988-01-01

    Software has been developed for ''real-time'' analysis of neutron and gamma data from GRAND-1/fork measurements on spent-fuel assemblies. Three modules compose the software package. The modules are linked through a database system of files. The first module is part of a general data-base processing code. This module prepares input data files with inventory and correction-factor information for the second module. The second module, called OLAF, operates on a computer attached to the GRAND-1 electronics unit. In this second module, neutron and gamma data from spent-fuel assemblies are analyzed to verify consistency in the facility operator declarations for exposure (burnup) and cooling time. From the analysis, potential discrepancies in the measurement data are questioned while equipment is still installed at the facility and is available for additional measurements. During the measurements, data are written to an output file, called a results file, which can be processed by the third module of the software package. In the third module, printed reports summarizing the data and results are prepared, and neutron and gamma data are written to files that are process by the Deming curve-fitting code

  12. The SARVIEWS Project: Automated SAR Processing in Support of Operational Near Real-time Volcano Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.; Arko, S. A.; McAlpin, D. B.; Gong, W.

    2016-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are among the most significant hazards to human society, capable of triggering natural disasters on regional to global scales. In the last decade, remote sensing has become established in operational volcano monitoring. Centers like the Alaska Volcano Observatory rely heavily on remote sensing data from optical and thermal sensors to provide time-critical hazard information. Despite this high use of remote sensing data, the presence of clouds and a dependence on solar illumination often limit their impact on decision making. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems are widely considered superior to optical sensors in operational monitoring situations, due to their weather and illumination independence. Still, the contribution of SAR to operational volcano monitoring has been limited in the past due to high data costs, long processing times, and low temporal sampling rates of most SAR systems. In this study, we introduce the automatic SAR processing system SARVIEWS, whose advanced data analysis and data integration techniques allow, for the first time, a meaningful integration of SAR into operational monitoring systems. We will introduce the SARVIEWS database interface that allows for automatic, rapid, and seamless access to the data holdings of the Alaska Satellite Facility. We will also present a set of processing techniques designed to automatically generate a set of SAR-based hazard products (e.g. change detection maps, interferograms, geocoded images). The techniques take advantage of modern signal processing and radiometric normalization schemes, enabling the combination of data from different geometries. Finally, we will show how SAR-based hazard information is integrated in existing multi-sensor decision support tools to enable joint hazard analysis with data from optical and thermal sensors. We will showcase the SAR processing system using a set of recent natural disasters (both earthquakes and volcanic eruptions) to demonstrate its

  13. Automated preparation of Kepler time series of planet hosts for asteroseismic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, R.; Lund, M. N.

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper we present the KASOC Filter, which is used to automatically prepare data from the Kepler/K2 mission for asteroseismic analyses of solar-like planet host stars. The methods are very effective at removing unwanted signals of both instrumental and planetary origins and produce significantly cleaner......One of the tasks of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Operations Center (KASOC) is to provide asteroseismic analyses on Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs). However, asteroseismic analysis of planetary host stars presents some unique complications with respect to data preprocessing, compared to pure...... asteroseismic targets. If not accounted for, the presence of planetary transits in the photometric time series often greatly complicates or even hinders these asteroseismic analyses. This drives the need for specialised methods of preprocessing data to make them suitable for asteroseismic analysis...

  14. Real time corrosion monitoring in atmosphere using automated battery driven corrosion loggers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prosek, T.; Kouril, M.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2008-01-01

    diminishes due to corrosion. Zinc, iron, copper and nickel sensors at several thicknesses are available. Sensitivity of the corrosion measurement varies from 1 to 10 nm depending on the type and thickness of the sensor. Changes in the air corrosivity can be thus detected within hours or even tens of minutes......A logger enabling continuous measurement of corrosion rate of selected metals in indoor and outdoor atmospheres has been developed. Principle of the measurement method is based on the increasing electrical resistance of a measuring element made of the material concerned as its cross-sectional area....... The logger lifetime in medium corrosive environments is designed to be 2 years with full autonomy. Data on the sensor corrosion rate are available any time through GPRS connection or by a non-contact inductive reading without the need of retracting the logger from the exposure site....

  15. Double point source W-phase inversion: Real-time implementation and automated model selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealy, Jennifer; Hayes, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and accurate characterization of an earthquake source is an extremely important and ever evolving field of research. Within this field, source inversion of the W-phase has recently been shown to be an effective technique, which can be efficiently implemented in real-time. An extension to the W-phase source inversion is presented in which two point sources are derived to better characterize complex earthquakes. A single source inversion followed by a double point source inversion with centroid locations fixed at the single source solution location can be efficiently run as part of earthquake monitoring network operational procedures. In order to determine the most appropriate solution, i.e., whether an earthquake is most appropriately described by a single source or a double source, an Akaike information criterion (AIC) test is performed. Analyses of all earthquakes of magnitude 7.5 and greater occurring since January 2000 were performed with extended analyses of the September 29, 2009 magnitude 8.1 Samoa earthquake and the April 19, 2014 magnitude 7.5 Papua New Guinea earthquake. The AIC test is shown to be able to accurately select the most appropriate model and the selected W-phase inversion is shown to yield reliable solutions that match published analyses of the same events.

  16. Automated reasoning with dynamic event trees: a real-time, knowledge-based decision aide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touchton, R.A.; Gunter, A.D.; Subramanyan, N.

    1988-01-01

    The models and data contained in a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) Event Sequence Analysis represent a wealth of information that can be used for dynamic calculation of event sequence likelihood. In this paper we report a new and unique computerization methodology which utilizes these data. This sub-system (referred to as PREDICTOR) has been developed and tested as part of a larger system. PREDICTOR performs a real-time (re)calculation of the estimated likelihood of core-melt as a function of plant status. This methodology uses object-oriented programming techniques from the artificial intelligence discipline that enable one to codify event tree and fault tree logic models and associated probabilities developed in a PRA study. Existence of off-normal conditions is reported to PREDICTOR, which then updates the relevant failure probabilities throughout the event tree and fault tree models by dynamically replacing the off-the-shelf (or prior) probabilities with new probabilities based on the current situation. The new event probabilities are immediately propagated through the models (using 'demons') and an updated core-melt probability is calculated. Along the way, the dominant non-success path of each event tree is determined and highlighted. (author)

  17. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Earth Observation Monitor - Automated monitoring and alerting for spatial time-series data based on OGC web services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, J.; Hüttich, C.; Schmullius, C.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial time series data are freely available around the globe from earth observation satellites and meteorological stations for many years until now. They provide useful and important information to detect ongoing changes of the environment; but for end-users it is often too complex to extract this information out of the original time series datasets. This issue led to the development of the Earth Observation Monitor (EOM), an operational framework and research project to provide simple access, analysis and monitoring tools for global spatial time series data. A multi-source data processing middleware in the backend is linked to MODIS data from Land Processes Distributed Archive Center (LP DAAC) and Google Earth Engine as well as daily climate station data from NOAA National Climatic Data Center. OGC Web Processing Services are used to integrate datasets from linked data providers or external OGC-compliant interfaces to the EOM. Users can either use the web portal (webEOM) or the mobile application (mobileEOM) to execute these processing services and to retrieve the requested data for a given point or polygon in userfriendly file formats (CSV, GeoTiff). Beside providing just data access tools, users can also do further time series analyses like trend calculations, breakpoint detections or the derivation of phenological parameters from vegetation time series data. Furthermore data from climate stations can be aggregated over a given time interval. Calculated results can be visualized in the client and downloaded for offline usage. Automated monitoring and alerting of the time series data integrated by the user is provided by an OGC Sensor Observation Service with a coupled OGC Web Notification Service. Users can decide which datasets and parameters are monitored with a given filter expression (e.g., precipitation value higher than x millimeter per day, occurrence of a MODIS Fire point, detection of a time series anomaly). Datasets integrated in the SOS service are

  19. Production and setting of fractional elution facility for recovery of useful rare metals from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seko, Noriaki; Kasai, Noboru; Tamada, Masao; Hasegawa, Shin; Katakai, Akio

    2005-01-01

    In September 1999, we have soaked 200 kg of fibrous amidoxime absorbents, synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization, into seawater to evaluate their performance. Fractional elution facility was set effectively to elute the rare metals on adsorbents in Mutsu-Establishment. This facility consists of two parts of pre-washing and elution. The present report dealt with planning, manufacture and setting of fractional facility. Marine organism and slime on adsorbent cassette (290 x 295 x 160 mm) were washed out and every 72 cassettes were set in elution unit (1210 x 1210 x H1460 mm) with nonwoven materials as a packing to avoid elution loss. In the elution process alkaline and alkaline earth metals were eluted with low concentration hydrochloric acid (0.01M) and rare metals were eluted with high concentration (0.5 M) after the packing of elution unit into fractional elution facility. Adsorbent cassettes were regenerated with alkaline solution after elution procedure. (author)

  20. Design and Operation of Automated Ice-Tethered Profilers for Real-Time Seawater Observations in the Polar Oceans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toole, J; Proshutinsky, A; Krishfield, R; Doherty, K; Frye, Daniel E; Hammar, T; Kemp, J; Peters, D; Heydt, K. von der

    2006-01-01

    An automated, easily-deployed Ice-Tethered Profiler (ITP) has been developed for deployment on perennial sea ice in polar oceans to measure changes in upper ocean temperature and salinity in all seasons...

  1. Evaluation on elution feature of bentonite buffer materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Hirohisa; Kanno, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro

    1997-09-01

    In order to evaluate long term physical stability of artificial barrier in land disposal of high level radioactive wastes, it is necessary to know quantitatively elution behavior of buffering materials from disposal road (or cavity) to circumferential rock crack. When elution of the buffer material occurs on large scale, amount of bentonite in the disposal road (or cavity) reduces and reduction of various functions expected to the buffer materials is presumed. According to specification examples of road transverse arrangement and disposal vertical arrangement systems, evaluation on elution amount of the buffer materials at disposal environment was conducted. Opening width of rock crack in the disposal environment was supposed to be 0.5 mm. As a result, obtained mass elution ratios of the buffer materials due to extrusion phenomenon were 0.04 to 0.2% after 10,000 year and 2 to 12% after 1,000,000 years. (G.K.)

  2. Characterization of CRUDE OILS and petroleum products: (i) elution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of CRUDE OILS and petroleum products: (i) elution liquid chromatographic separation and gas chromatographic analysis of crude oils and petroleum products. E.O. Odebunmi, E.A. Ogunsakin, P.E.P. Ilukhor ...

  3. Kuldkaru elutöö eest / Endel Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Endel

    2001-01-01

    Ameerika näitleja Kirk Douglas (1916), kellele seekordsel Berlinalel antakse elutöö eest Kuldkaru. Austamisõhtul näidatakse teda Stanley Kubricku kaua keelu all olnud filmis "Tee kuulsusele " ("Paths of Glory") : 1957

  4. Quality assurance of automated emission measurement systems - long time evaluation; Kvalitetssaekring av automatiska emissionsmaetsystem - analys och laangtidsutvaerdering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnevie, Henrik; Andersson, Magnus [Swedpower, Stockholm (Sweden); Gustavsson, Lennart [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    As a consequence of the waste incineration directive and the EG-directive of large combustion plant, standards to meet the requirements in those directives had been worked out within CEN. Among those standards a standard concerning 'quality assurance of automated measurement system' is of major importance (SS-EN 14181). All automated emission monitoring systems (AMS) used to verify the requirements in the EC combustion directives should follow the procedures in SS-EN 14181. The standard both handle different types of controls (as function controls and parallel measurements) and documentation of data and journals. To make it easier for their members to implement the standard this Vaermeforsk study had been realized. SEPA (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency) and Vattenfall have also financed the work. SEPAs interest of the standard is to receive information of which parts in the standard that are in conflict with their present legislation. The main objectives of this project had been to document and explain the separate parts in the standard (QAL2, QAL3 and AST). Especially how the standard affects the situation and the routines on the plants. Other objectives have been to identify differences between other Swedish legislation and explain the consequences of such differences. In this project the standard also has been used to evaluate an existing AMS for measurement of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and dust. In most cases the analyzers succeed to fulfill the criteria mentioned in the standard. During QAL2 only the dust analyzer failed the controls. The results of the AST gave better results for the dust analyzer but the SO{sub 2}-analyzer failed the requirements. Differences and consequences of such differences between the standard and the current Swedish legislation are also described. Finally, the report gives recommendations to the plant owners how to handle the standard. The standard is already valid. However, the use of it will be regulated by the

  5. Automated terrestrial laser scanning with near-real-time change detection – monitoring of the Séchilienne landslide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Kromer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an automated terrestrial laser scanning (ATLS system with automatic near-real-time change detection processing. The ATLS system was tested on the Séchilienne landslide in France for a 6-week period with data collected at 30 min intervals. The purpose of developing the system was to fill the gap of high-temporal-resolution TLS monitoring studies of earth surface processes and to offer a cost-effective, light, portable alternative to ground-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (GB-InSAR deformation monitoring. During the study, we detected the flux of talus, displacement of the landslide and pre-failure deformation of discrete rockfall events. Additionally, we found the ATLS system to be an effective tool in monitoring landslide and rockfall processes despite missing points due to poor atmospheric conditions or rainfall. Furthermore, such a system has the potential to help us better understand a wide variety of slope processes at high levels of temporal detail.

  6. Automated Seat Cushion for Pressure Ulcer Prevention Using Real-Time Mapping, Offloading, and Redistribution of Interface Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    of MATLAB image processing routines to identify, sort, and track the location of the intended points (markers), Fig. 12(c). Further, magnification...testing as well as finite element simulation . Automation and control testing has been completed on a 5x5 array of bubble actuators to verify pressure...ulcer prevention, automated seat cushion, bubble actuator, pressure modulation , pressure offloading, wheelchair cushion, spinal cord injury 16. SECURITY

  7. A Multi-Year Dust Devil Vortex Survey Using an Automated Search of Pressure Time-Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian K.; Lorenz, Ralph

    2014-11-01

    Dust devils occur in arid climates on the Earth and ubiquitously on Mars, where they likely dominate the supply of atmospheric dust and influence climate. Martian dust devils have been studied with a combination of orbiting and landed spacecraft, while most studies of terrestrial dust devils have involved manned monitoring of field sites, which can be costly both in time and personnel. As an alternative approach, we describe a multi-year in-situ survey of terrestrial dust devils using pressure loggers deployed at El Dorado Playa in Nevada, USA, a site known for dust devil activity. Analogous to previous surveys for Martian dust devils, we conduct a post-hoc analysis of the barometric data to search for putative dust devil pressure dips using a new automated detection algorithm. We investigate the completeness and false positive rates of our new algorithm and conduct several statistically robust analyses of the resulting population of dips. We also investigate seasonal, annual, and spatial variability of the putative dust devil dips, possible correlations with precipitation, and the influence of sample size on the derived population statistics. Our results suggest that large numbers of dips (> 1,000) collected over multiple seasons are probably required for accurate assessment of the underlying dust devil population. Correlating long-term barometric time-series with other data streams (e.g., solar flux measurements from photovoltaic cells) can uniquely elucidate the natures and origins of dust devils, and accurately assessing their influence requires consideration of the full distribution of dust devil properties, rather than average values. For example, our results suggest the dust flux from the average terrestrial devil is nearly 1,000 times smaller than the (more representative) population-weighted average flux. If applicable to Martian dust devils, such corrections may help resolve purported discrepancies between the dust fluxes estimated from dust devil studies

  8. Nickel elution properties of contemporary interatrial shunt closure devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Divya Ratan; Khan, Muhammad F; Tandar, Anwar; Rajasekaran, Namakkal S; Neuharth, Renée; Patel, Amit N; Muhlestein, Joseph B; Badger, Rodney S

    2015-02-01

    We sought to compare nickel elution properties of contemporary interatrial shunt closure devices in vitro. There are two United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved devices for percutaneous closure of secundum atrial septal defect: the Amplatzer septal occluder (ASO; St Jude Medical Corporation) and Gore Helex septal occluder (HSO; W.L. Gore & Associates). The new Gore septal occluder (GSO) device is in clinical trials. These are also used off-label for patent foramen ovale closure in highly selected patients. These devices have high nickel content. Nickel allergy is the most common reason for surgical device explantation. Nickel elution properties of contemporary devices remain unknown. We compared nickel elution properties of 4 devices - ASO, GSO, HSO, and sternal wire (SW) - while Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) served as control. Three samples of each device were submerged in DPBS. Nickel content was measured at 14 intervals over 90 days. Nickel elution at 24 hours, compared to control (0.005 ± 0.0 mg/L), was significantly higher for ASO (2.98 ± 1.65 mg/L; P=.04) and SW (0.03 ± 0.014 mg/L; P=.03). Nickel levels at 90 days, compared to control (0.005 ± 0.0 mg/L) and adjusting for multiple comparisons, were significantly higher for ASO (19.80 ± 2.30 mg/L; P=.01) and similar for HSO (P=.34), GSO (P=.34), and SW (P=.34). ASO had significantly higher nickel elution compared to HSO, GSO, and SW (P=.01). There is substantial variability in nickel elution; devices with less exposed nickel (HSO and GSO) have minimal elution. The safety of low nickel elution devices in patients with nickel allergy needs to be evaluated in prospective trials.

  9. Automated forms processing - An alternative to time-consuming manual double entry of data in arthroplasty registries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Aksel

    2012-01-01

    , there was no statistical difference compared to single-key data entry (error proportion=0.007 (95% CI: 0.001-0.024), (p= 0.656)), as well as double-key data entry (error proportion=0.003 (95% CI: 0.000-0.019), (p= 0.319)). Discussion and conclusion: Automated forms processing is a valid alternative to double manual data......Background: The clinical and scientific usage of patient-reported outcome measures is increasing in the health services. Often paper forms are used. Manual double entry of data is defined as the definitive gold standard for transferring data to an electronic format, but the process is laborious....... Automated forms processing may be an alternative, but further validation is warranted. Materials and Methods: 200 patients were randomly selected from a cohort of 5777 patients who had previously answered two different questionnaires. The questionnaires were scanned using an automated forms processing...

  10. Shifting nitrous oxide source/sink behaviour in a subtropical estuary revealed by automated time series observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, Michael J.; Santos, Isaac R.; Maher, Damien T.; Jeffrey, Luke C.; Tait, Douglas R.

    2017-07-01

    The oceans are a major source of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. However, little information is available on how estuaries and the coastal ocean may contribute to N2O budgets, and on the drivers of N2O in aquatic environments. This study utilised five time series stations along the freshwater to marine continuum in a sub-tropical estuary in Australia (Coffs Creek, Australia). Each time series station captured N2O, radon (222Rn, a natural submarine groundwater discharge tracer), dissolved nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations for a minimum of 25 h. The use of automated time series observations enabled spatial and tidal-scale variability of N2O to be captured. Groundwater was highly enriched in N2O (up to 306 nM) compared to the receiving surface water. Dissolved N2O supersaturation as high as 386% (27.4 nM) was observed in the upstream freshwater and brackish water areas which represented only a small (∼13%) proportion of the total estuary area. A large area of N2O undersaturation (as low as 53% or 3.9 nM) was observed in the mangrove-dominated lower estuary. This undersaturated area likely resulted from N2O consumption due to nitrate/nitrite (NOx) limitation in mangrove sediments subject to shallow porewater exchange. Overall, the estuary was a minor source of N2O to the atmosphere as the lower mangrove-dominated estuary sink of N2O counteracted groundwater-dominated source of N2O in the upper estuary. Average area-weighted N2O fluxes at the water-air interface approached zero (0.2-0.7 μmol m-2 d-1, depending on piston velocity model used), and were much lower than nitrogen-rich Northern Hemisphere estuaries that are considered large sources of N2O to the atmosphere. This study revealed a temporally and spatially diverse estuary, with areas of N2O production and consumption related to oxygen and total dissolved nitrogen availability, submarine groundwater discharge, and uptake within mangroves.

  11. Bioresorbable polymer coated drug eluting stent: a model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Filippo; Casalini, Tommaso; Raffa, Edoardo; Masi, Maurizio; Perale, Giuseppe

    2012-07-02

    In drug eluting stent technologies, an increased demand for better control, higher reliability, and enhanced performances of drug delivery systems emerged in the last years and thus offered the opportunity to introduce model-based approaches aimed to overcome the remarkable limits of trial-and-error methods. In this context a mathematical model was studied, based on detailed conservation equations and taking into account the main physical-chemical mechanisms involved in polymeric coating degradation, drug release, and restenosis inhibition. It allowed highlighting the interdependence between factors affecting each of these phenomena and, in particular, the influence of stent design parameters on drug antirestenotic efficacy. Therefore, the here-proposed model is aimed to simulate the diffusional release, for both in vitro and the in vivo conditions: results were verified against various literature data, confirming the reliability of the parameter estimation procedure. The hierarchical structure of this model also allows easily modifying the set of equations describing restenosis evolution to enhance model reliability and taking advantage of the deep understanding of physiological mechanisms governing the different stages of smooth muscle cell growth and proliferation. In addition, thanks to its simplicity and to the very low system requirements and central processing unit (CPU) time, our model allows obtaining immediate views of system behavior.

  12. Advantages of novel BioMimeTM Sirolimus Eluting Coronary Stent system. Moving towards biomimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upendra, K; Sanjeev, B

    2012-02-01

    Since the first reported use of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), advancements in interventional cardiology arena have been fast paced. Within the last ten years, these developments have been exponential. Developers & clinicians are fast adapting from the learning curve awarded by the time course of DES evolution. In that light BioMimeTM Sirolimus Eluting Coronary Stent comes as a fresh thought in taking stents towards a biomimicry concept. The stent is built on an ultra-low strut thickness (65 µm) cobalt chromium stent platform, using an intelligent hybrid of close and open cells allowing for morphology mediated expansion, employs a well known anti-proliferative - Sirolimus that elutes from a biodegradable co-polymer formulation in 30 days and ensures high coating integrity and low coating thickness of 2 µm. The resultant stent demonstrates almost 100% endothelialization at 30 days in preclinical model and zero percent MACE >18 months in the primary efficacy and safety clinical study.

  13. Transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads for hepatocellular carcinoma: its research progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yan; Han Guohong; Bai Wei; Fan Daiming

    2012-01-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) has been the main treatment for patients with intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the clinical application of TACE is limited due to the technical deficiencies, such as uncontrolled local drug delivery and systemic toxicity. Recently, the new drug-eluting beads (DEB), loading with doxorubicin, have be used in the TACE procedures. This new technique can not only maintain the local drug level for quite a long time and thus get a higher objective response, but also decrease the systemic toxicity. Transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads (DEB-TACE) have already been widely used abroad, and more related clinical trials are underway to clarify its advantages. This paper aims to make a comprehensive review in the respects of its characteristics and the latest research progress in DEB-TACE. (authors)

  14. Efficacy and safety of zotarolimus-eluting and sirolimus-eluting coronary stents in routine clinical care (SORT OUT III): a randomised controlled superiority trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Klaus; Maeng, Michael; Kaltoft, Anne

    2010-01-01

    In low-risk patients, the zotarolimus-eluting stent has been shown to reduce rates of restenosis without increasing the risk of stent thrombosis. We compared the efficacy and safety of the zotarolimus-eluting stent versus the sirolimus-eluting stent in patients with coronary artery disease who we...

  15. Factors That Influence Standard Automated Perimetry Test Results in Glaucoma : Test Reliability, Technician Experience, Time of Day, and Season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montolio, Francisco G. Junoy; Wesselink, Christiaan; Gordijn, Marijke; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE. To determine the influence of several factors on standard automated perimetry test results in glaucoma. METHODS. Longitudinal Humphrey field analyzer 30-2 Swedish interactive threshold algorithm data from 160 eyes of 160 glaucoma patients were used. The influence of technician experience,

  16. Factors that influence standard automated perimetry test results in glaucoma: Test reliability, technician experience, time of day, and season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.G.J. Montolio (Francisco G. Junoy); C. Wesselink (Christiaan); M.C.M. Gordijn (Marijke); N.M. Jansonius (Nomdo)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE. To determine the influence of several factors on standard automated perimetry test results in glaucoma. METHODS. Longitudinal Humphrey field analyzer 30-2 Swedish interactive threshold algorithm data from 160 eyes of 160 glaucoma patients were used. The influence of technician

  17. Time reduction and automation of routine planning activities through the use of macros; Reduccion de tiempo y automatizacion de las actividades rutinarias de planificacion mediante el uso de macros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaman, C.; Perez-Alija, J.; Herrero, C.; Real, C. del; Osorio, J. L.; Almansa, J.

    2011-07-01

    The use of macros in scheduler automates Adac Pinnacle3 much of the routine activities in the planning process, from the display options and placement of beams, to, among other possibilities, systematic naming them and export of the physical and clinical dosimetry. This automation allows reduction of the times associated with the planning process and an error reduction.

  18. How does a collision warning system shape driver's brake response time? The influence of expectancy and automation complacency on real-life emergency braking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, Daniele; Ciceri, Maria Rita; Biassoni, Federica

    2015-04-01

    Brake Reaction Time (BRT) is an important parameter for road safety. Previous research has shown that drivers' expectations can impact RT when facing hazardous situations, but driving with advanced driver assistance systems, can change the way BRT are considered. The interaction with a collision warning system can help faster more efficient responses, but at the same time can require a monitoring task and evaluation process that may lead to automation complacency. The aims of the present study are to test in a real-life setting whether automation compliancy can be generated by a collision warning system and what component of expectancy can impact the different tasks involved in an assisted BRT process. More specifically four component of expectancy were investigated: presence/absence of anticipatory information, previous direct experience, reliability of the device, and predictability of the hazard determined by repeated use of the warning system. Results supply indication on perception time and mental elaboration of the collision warning system alerts. In particular reliable warning quickened the decision making process, misleading warnings generated automation complacency slowing visual search for hazard detection, lack of directed experienced slowed the overall response while unexpected failure of the device lead to inattentional blindness and potential pseudo-accidents with surprise obstacle intrusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Histologic Assessment of Drug-Eluting Grafts Related to Implantation Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Tille

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug-eluting vascular prostheses represent a new direction in vascular surgery to reduce early thrombosis and late intimal hyperplasia for small calibre grafts. Subcutaneous implantation in rats is a rapid and cost-effective screening model to assess the drug-elution effect and could, to some extent, be useful to forecast results for vascular prostheses. We compared biological and histological responses to scaffolds in different implantation sites. Polycaprolactone (PCL, paclitaxel-loaded PCL (PCL-PTX and dexamethasone-loaded PCL (PCL-DXM electrospun scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously and in an infrarenal abdominal aortic model in rats for up to 12 weeks. At the conclusion of the study, a histological analysis was performed. Cellular graft invasion revealed differences in the progression of cellular infiltration between PCL-PTX and PCL/PCL-DXM groups in both models. Cell infiltration increased over time in the aortic model compared to the subcutaneous model for all groups. Cell counting revealed major differences in fibroblast, macrophage and giant cell graft colonisation in all groups and models over time. Macrophages and giant cells increased in the PCL aortic model; whereas in the subcutaneous model these cell types increased only after three weeks or even decreased in the drug-eluting PCL groups. Other major findings were observed only in the aortic replacement such as extracellular matrix deposition and neo-angiogenesis. The subcutaneous implant model can be used for screening, especially when drug-eluting effects are studied. However, major histological differences were observed in cell type reaction and depth of cell penetration compared to the aortic model. Our results demonstrate that the implantation site is a critical determinant of the biological response.

  20. AmeriFlux Data Processing: Integrating automated and manual data management across software technologies and an international network to generate timely data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, D. S.; Beekwilder, N.; Chan, S.; Cheah, Y. W.; Chu, H.; Dengel, S.; O'Brien, F.; Pastorello, G.; Sandesh, M.; Torn, M. S.; Agarwal, D.

    2017-12-01

    AmeriFlux is a network of scientists who independently collect eddy covariance and related environmental observations at over 250 locations across the Americas. As part of the AmeriFlux Management Project, the AmeriFlux Data Team manages standardization, collection, quality assurance / quality control (QA/QC), and distribution of data submitted by network members. To generate data products that are timely, QA/QC'd, and repeatable, and have traceable provenance, we developed a semi-automated data processing pipeline. The new pipeline consists of semi-automated format and data QA/QC checks. Results are communicated via on-line reports as well as an issue-tracking system. Data processing time has been reduced from 2-3 days to a few hours of manual review time, resulting in faster data availability from the time of data submission. The pipeline is scalable to the network level and has the following key features. (1) On-line results of the format QA/QC checks are available immediately for data provider review. This enables data providers to correct and resubmit data quickly. (2) The format QA/QC assessment includes an automated attempt to fix minor format errors. Data submissions that are formatted in the new AmeriFlux FP-In standard can be queued for the data QA/QC assessment, often with minimal delay. (3) Automated data QA/QC checks identify and communicate potentially erroneous data via online, graphical quick views that highlight observations with unexpected values, incorrect units, time drifts, invalid multivariate correlations, and/or radiation shadows. (4) Progress through the pipeline is integrated with an issue-tracking system that facilitates communications between data providers and the data processing team in an organized and searchable fashion. Through development of these and other features of the pipeline, we present solutions to challenges that include optimizing automated with manual processing, bridging legacy data management infrastructure with

  1. Development of a fully automated open-column chemical-separation system—COLUMNSPIDER—and its application to Sr-Nd-Pb isotope analyses of igneous rock samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takashi; Vaglarov, Bogdan Stefanov; Takei, Masakazu; Suzuki, Masahiro; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Ohsawa, Kouzou; Chang, Qing; Takahashi, Toshiro; Hirahara, Yuka; Hanyu, Takeshi; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

    A fully automated open-column resin-bed chemical-separation system, named COLUMNSPIDER, has been developed. The system consists of a programmable micropipetting robot that dispenses chemical reagents and sample solutions into an open-column resin bed for elemental separation. After the initial set up of resin columns, chemical reagents, and beakers for the separated chemical components, all separation procedures are automated. As many as ten samples can be eluted in parallel in a single automated run. Many separation procedures, such as radiogenic isotope ratio analyses for Sr and Nd, involve the use of multiple column separations with different resin columns, chemical reagents, and beakers of various volumes. COLUMNSPIDER completes these separations using multiple runs. Programmable functions, including the positioning of the micropipetter, reagent volume, and elution time, enable flexible operation. Optimized movements for solution take-up and high-efficiency column flushing allow the system to perform as precisely as when carried out manually by a skilled operator. Procedural blanks, examined for COLUMNSPIDER separations of Sr, Nd, and Pb, are low and negligible. The measured Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope ratios for JB-2 and Nd isotope ratios for JB-3 and BCR-2 rock standards all fall within the ranges reported previously in high-accuracy analyses. COLUMNSPIDER is a versatile tool for the efficient elemental separation of igneous rock samples, a process that is both labor intensive and time consuming.

  2. Hepatic Arterial Chemoembolization Using Drug-Eluting Beads in Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumor Metastatic to the Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, Shantanu K.; Friese, Jeremy L.; Sadow, Cheryl A.; Ayyagari, Rajasekhara; Binkert, Christoph A.; Schenker, Matthew P.; Kulke, Matthew; Baum, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate short ( 3 months) follow-up in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumor to the liver who underwent hepatic arterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads at a single institution. Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective review. All patients who were treated with 100–300 or 300–500 μm drug-eluting LC Beads (Biocompatibles, UK) preloaded with doxorubicin (range, 50–100 mg) for GI neuroendocrine tumor metastatic to the liver from June 2004 to June 2009 were included. CT and MRI were evaluated for progression using Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) or European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria. Short-term ( 3 months) imaging response was determined and Kaplan–Meier survival curves were plotted. Results: Thirty-eight drug-eluting bead chemoembolization procedures were performed on 32 hepatic lobes, comprising 21 treatment cycles in 18 patients. All procedures were technically successful with two major complications (biliary injuries). At short-term follow-up (<3 months), 22 of 38 (58%) procedures and 10 of 21 (48%) treatment cycles produced an objective response (OR) with the remainder having stable disease (SD). At intermediate-term follow-up (mean, 445 days; range, 163–1247), 17 of 26 (65%) procedures and 8 of 14 (57%) treatment cycles produced an OR. Probability of progressing was approximately 52% at 1 year with a median time to progression of 419 days. Conclusions: Drug-eluting bead chemoembolization is a reasonable alternative to hepatic arterial embolization and chemoembolization for the treatment of metastatic neuroendocrine tumor to the liver.

  3. The elution of certain protein affinity tags with millimolar concentrations of diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliova, Martina; Juhasova, Anna; Jursky, Frantisek

    2015-12-01

    Diclofenac (2-[(2, 6-dichlorophenyl)amino] benzeneacetic acid) is a sparingly soluble, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapeutically acting at low micromolar concentrations. In pH range from 8 to 11, its aqueous solubility can be increased up to 200 times by the presence of counter ions such as sodium. Our protein interaction studies revealed that a millimolar concentration of sodium diclofenac is able to elute glutathione S-transferase (GST), cellulose binding protein (CBD), and maltose binding protein (MBP) but not histidine-tagged or PDZ-tagged proteins from their affinity resins. The elution efficiency of diclofenac is comparable with the eluting agents normally used at similar concentrations. Native gel electrophoresis of sodium diclofenac-treated proteins showed that the interaction is non-covalent and non-denaturing. These results suggest that sodium diclofenac, in addition to its pharmaceutical applications, can also be exploited as a lead for the development of new proteomics reagents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Local perivascular delivery of anti-restenotic agents from a drug-eluting poly(ε-caprolactone) stent cuff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pires, N.M.M.; Hoeven, B.L. van der; Vries, M.R. de; Havekes, L.M.; Vlijmen, B.J. van; Hennink, W.E.; Quax, P.H.A.; Jukema, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents (DES) to prevent in-stent restenosis is one of the major advances in interventional cardiology. Currently many types of DES are under evaluation for effectiveness and safety, a time-consuming and difficult procedure in humans. An animal model that allows rapid

  5. Automation in Immunohematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Bajpai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  6. Controlled Substance Reconciliation Accuracy Improvement Using Near Real-Time Drug Transaction Capture from Automated Dispensing Cabinets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard H; Dexter, Franklin; Gratch, David M; Perino, Michael; Magrann, Jerry

    2016-06-01

    Accurate accounting of controlled drug transactions by inpatient hospital pharmacies is a requirement in the United States under the Controlled Substances Act. At many hospitals, manual distribution of controlled substances from pharmacies is being replaced by automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) at the point of care. Despite the promise of improved accountability, a high prevalence (15%) of controlled substance discrepancies between ADC records and anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) has been published, with a similar incidence (15.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 15.3% to 16.2%) noted at our institution. Most reconciliation errors are clerical. In this study, we describe a method to capture drug transactions in near real-time from our ADCs, compare them with documentation in our AIMS, and evaluate subsequent improvement in reconciliation accuracy. ADC-controlled substance transactions are transmitted to a hospital interface server, parsed, reformatted, and sent to a software script written in Perl. The script extracts the data and writes them to a SQL Server database. Concurrently, controlled drug totals for each patient having care are documented in the AIMS and compared with the balance of the ADC transactions (i.e., vending, transferring, wasting, and returning drug). Every minute, a reconciliation report is available to anesthesia providers over the hospital Intranet from AIMS workstations. The report lists all patients, the current provider, the balance of ADC transactions, the totals from the AIMS, the difference, and whether the case is still ongoing or had concluded. Accuracy and latency of the ADC transaction capture process were assessed via simulation and by comparison with pharmacy database records, maintained by the vendor on a central server located remotely from the hospital network. For assessment of reconciliation accuracy over time, data were collected from our AIMS from January 2012 to June 2013 (Baseline), July 2013 to April 2014

  7. Marketing automation supporting sales

    OpenAIRE

    Sandell, Niko

    2016-01-01

    The past couple of decades has been a time of major changes in marketing. Digitalization has become a permanent part of marketing and at the same time enabled efficient collection of data. Personalization and customization of content are playing a crucial role in marketing when new customers are acquired. This has also created a need for automation to facilitate the distribution of targeted content. As a result of successful marketing automation more information of the customers is gathered ...

  8. Current manufacturing processes of drug-eluting sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champeau, Mathilde; Thomassin, Jean-Michel; Tassaing, Thierry; Jérôme, Christine

    2017-11-01

    Drug-eluting sutures represent the next generation of surgical sutures since they fulfill their mechanical functions but also deliver the drug in their vicinity after implantation. These implants are produced by a variety of manufacturing processes. Drug-eluting sutures represent the next generation of surgical sutures since they fulfill their mechanical functions but also deliver the drug in their vicinity after implantation. These implants are produced by a variety of manufacturing processes. Two general approaches can be followed: (i) the ones that add the API into the material during the manufacturing process of the suture and (ii) the ones that load the API to an already manufactured suture. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the current manufacturing processes for drug-eluting suture production and discusses their benefits and drawbacks depending on the type of drugs. The mechanical properties and the drug delivery profile of drug-eluting sutures are highlighted since these implants must fulfill both criteria. Expert opinion: For limited drug contents, melt extrusion and electrospinning are the emerging processes since the drug is added during the suture manufacture process. Advantageously, the drug release profile can be tuned by controlling the processing parameters specific to each process and the composition of the drug-containing polymer. If high drug content is targeted, the coating or grafting of a drug layer on a pre-manufactured suture allows for preservation of the tensile strength requirements of the suture.

  9. Development of a pheromone elution rate physical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Teske; H.W. Thistle; B.L. Strom; H. Zhu

    2015-01-01

    A first principle modeling approach has been applied to available data describing the elution of semiochemicals from pheromone dispensers. These data included field data for 27 products developed by several manufacturers, including homemade devices, as well as environmental chamber data collected on three semiochemical products. The goal of this effort was to...

  10. A Microfluidic Device for Preparing Next Generation DNA Sequencing Libraries and for Automating Other Laboratory Protocols That Require One or More Column Chromatography Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Swee Jin; Phan, Huan; Gerry, Benjamin Michael; Kuhn, Alexandre; Hong, Lewis Zuocheng; Min Ong, Yao; Poon, Polly Suk Yean; Unger, Marc Alexander; Jones, Robert C.; Quake, Stephen R.; Burkholder, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Library preparation for next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) remains a key bottleneck in the sequencing process which can be relieved through improved automation and miniaturization. We describe a microfluidic device for automating laboratory protocols that require one or more column chromatography steps and demonstrate its utility for preparing Next Generation sequencing libraries for the Illumina and Ion Torrent platforms. Sixteen different libraries can be generated simultaneously with significantly reduced reagent cost and hands-on time compared to manual library preparation. Using an appropriate column matrix and buffers, size selection can be performed on-chip following end-repair, dA tailing, and linker ligation, so that the libraries eluted from the chip are ready for sequencing. The core architecture of the device ensures uniform, reproducible column packing without user supervision and accommodates multiple routine protocol steps in any sequence, such as reagent mixing and incubation; column packing, loading, washing, elution, and regeneration; capture of eluted material for use as a substrate in a later step of the protocol; and removal of one column matrix so that two or more column matrices with different functional properties can be used in the same protocol. The microfluidic device is mounted on a plastic carrier so that reagents and products can be aliquoted and recovered using standard pipettors and liquid handling robots. The carrier-mounted device is operated using a benchtop controller that seals and operates the device with programmable temperature control, eliminating any requirement for the user to manually attach tubing or connectors. In addition to NGS library preparation, the device and controller are suitable for automating other time-consuming and error-prone laboratory protocols requiring column chromatography steps, such as chromatin immunoprecipitation. PMID:23894273

  11. A microfluidic device for preparing next generation DNA sequencing libraries and for automating other laboratory protocols that require one or more column chromatography steps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Jin Tan

    Full Text Available Library preparation for next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS remains a key bottleneck in the sequencing process which can be relieved through improved automation and miniaturization. We describe a microfluidic device for automating laboratory protocols that require one or more column chromatography steps and demonstrate its utility for preparing Next Generation sequencing libraries for the Illumina and Ion Torrent platforms. Sixteen different libraries can be generated simultaneously with significantly reduced reagent cost and hands-on time compared to manual library preparation. Using an appropriate column matrix and buffers, size selection can be performed on-chip following end-repair, dA tailing, and linker ligation, so that the libraries eluted from the chip are ready for sequencing. The core architecture of the device ensures uniform, reproducible column packing without user supervision and accommodates multiple routine protocol steps in any sequence, such as reagent mixing and incubation; column packing, loading, washing, elution, and regeneration; capture of eluted material for use as a substrate in a later step of the protocol; and removal of one column matrix so that two or more column matrices with different functional properties can be used in the same protocol. The microfluidic device is mounted on a plastic carrier so that reagents and products can be aliquoted and recovered using standard pipettors and liquid handling robots. The carrier-mounted device is operated using a benchtop controller that seals and operates the device with programmable temperature control, eliminating any requirement for the user to manually attach tubing or connectors. In addition to NGS library preparation, the device and controller are suitable for automating other time-consuming and error-prone laboratory protocols requiring column chromatography steps, such as chromatin immunoprecipitation.

  12. Automation of radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Chisato; Yamada, Hideo; Iio, Masahiro

    1974-01-01

    Automation systems for measuring Australian antigen by radioimmunoassay under development were discussed. Samples were processed as follows: blood serum being dispensed by automated sampler to the test tube, and then incubated under controlled time and temperature; first counting being omitted; labelled antibody being dispensed to the serum after washing; samples being incubated and then centrifuged; radioactivities in the precipitate being counted by auto-well counter; measurements being tabulated by automated typewriter. Not only well-type counter but also position counter was studied. (Kanao, N.)

  13. Sirolimus-eluting versus bare-metal stent implantation in patients with ostial lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Erik; Kelbæk, Henning; Kløvgaard, Lene

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of implantation of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) in the ostium of coronary arteries.......To investigate the efficacy of implantation of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) in the ostium of coronary arteries....

  14. Fully-automated identification of fish species based on otolith contour: using short-time Fourier transform and discriminant analysis (STFT-DA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Nima; Loh, Kar Hoe; Kaur Dhillon, Sarinder; Chong, Ving Ching

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fish species may be identified based on their unique otolith shape or contour. Several pattern recognition methods have been proposed to classify fish species through morphological features of the otolith contours. However, there has been no fully-automated species identification model with the accuracy higher than 80%. The purpose of the current study is to develop a fully-automated model, based on the otolith contours, to identify the fish species with the high classification accuracy. Methods. Images of the right sagittal otoliths of 14 fish species from three families namely Sciaenidae, Ariidae, and Engraulidae were used to develop the proposed identification model. Short-time Fourier transform (STFT) was used, for the first time in the area of otolith shape analysis, to extract important features of the otolith contours. Discriminant Analysis (DA), as a classification technique, was used to train and test the model based on the extracted features. Results. Performance of the model was demonstrated using species from three families separately, as well as all species combined. Overall classification accuracy of the model was greater than 90% for all cases. In addition, effects of STFT variables on the performance of the identification model were explored in this study. Conclusions. Short-time Fourier transform could determine important features of the otolith outlines. The fully-automated model proposed in this study (STFT-DA) could predict species of an unknown specimen with acceptable identification accuracy. The model codes can be accessed at http://mybiodiversityontologies.um.edu.my/Otolith/ and https://peerj.com/preprints/1517/. The current model has flexibility to be used for more species and families in future studies.

  15. Direct blood culturing on solid medium outperforms an automated continuously monitored broth-based blood culture system in terms of time to identification and susceptibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Idelevich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST should be available as soon as possible for patients with bloodstream infections. We investigated whether a lysis-centrifugation (LC blood culture (BC method, combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS identification and Vitek 2 AST, provides a time advantage in comparison with the currently used automated broth-based BC system. Seven bacterial reference strains were added each to 10 mL human blood in final concentrations of 100, 10 and 1 CFU/mL. Inoculated blood was added to the Isolator 10 tube and centrifuged at 3000 g for 30 min, then 1.5 mL sediment was distributed onto five 150-mm agar plates. Growth was observed hourly and microcolonies were subjected to MALDI-TOF MS and Vitek 2 as soon as possible. For comparison, seeded blood was introduced into an aerobic BC bottle and incubated in the BACTEC 9240 automated BC system. For all species/concentration combinations except one, successful identification and Vitek 2 inoculation were achieved even before growth detection by BACTEC. The fastest identification and inoculation for AST were achieved with Escherichia coli in concentrations of 100 CFU/mL and 10 CFU/mL (after 7 h each, while BACTEC flagged respective samples positive after 9.5 h and 10 h. Use of the LC-BC method allows skipping of incubation in automated BC systems and, used in combination with rapid diagnostics from microcolonies, provides a considerable advantage in time to result. This suggests that the usefulness of direct BC on solid medium should be re-evaluated in the era of rapid microbiology.

  16. THE BEHAVIOR OF SOLUBLE METALS ELUTED FROM Ni/Fe-BASED ALLOY REACTORS AFTER HIGH-TEMPERATURE AND HIGH-PRESSURE WATER PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faisal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of heavy metals eluted from the wall of Ni/Fe-based alloy reactors after high-temperature and high-pressure water reaction were studied at temperatures ranging from 250 to 400oC. For this purpose, water and cysteic acid were heated in two reactor materials which are SUS 316 and Inconel 625. Under the tested conditions, the erratic behaviors of soluble metals eluted from the wall of Ni/Fe-based alloy in high temperature water were observed. Results showed that metals could be eluted even at a short contact time. The presence of air also promotes elution at sub-critical conditions. At sub-critical conditions, a significant amount of Cr was extracted from SUS 316, while only traces of Ni, Fe, Mo and Mn were eluted. In contrast, Ni was removed in significant amounts compared to Cr when Inconel 625 was tested. It was observed that eluted metals tend to increased under acidic conditions and most of those metals were over the limit of WHO guideline for drinking water. The results are significant both on the viewpoint of environmental regulation on disposal of wastes containing heavy metals, toxicity of resulting product and catalytic effect on a particular reaction.

  17. High-throughput microfluidics automated cytogenetic processing for effectively lowering biological process time and aid triage during radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, Adarsh

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear or radiation mass casualties require individual, rapid, and accurate dose-based triage of exposed subjects for cytokine therapy and supportive care, to save life. Radiation mass casualties will demand high-throughput individual diagnostic dose assessment for medical management of exposed subjects. Cytogenetic techniques are widely used for triage and definitive radiation biodosimetry. Prototype platform to demonstrate high-throughput microfluidic micro incubation to support the logistics of sample in miniaturized incubators from the site of accident to analytical labs has been developed. Efforts have been made, both at the level of developing concepts and advanced system for higher throughput in processing the samples and also implementing better and efficient methods of logistics leading to performance of lab-on-chip analyses. Automated high-throughput platform with automated feature extraction, storage, cross platform data linkage, cross platform validation and inclusion of multi-parametric biomarker approaches will provide the first generation high-throughput platform systems for effective medical management, particularly during radiation mass casualty events

  18. OGLE‐2008‐BLG‐510: first automated real‐time detection of a weak microlensing anomaly – brown dwarf or stellar binary?★

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozza, V.; Dominik, M.; Rattenbury, N. J.

    2012-01-01

    , efficient and sensitive, (2) rather common weak features intrinsically come with ambiguities that are not easily resolved from photometric light curves, (3) a modelling approach that finds all features of parameter space rather than just the ‘favourite model’ is required and (4) the data quality is most......The microlensing event OGLE‐2008‐BLG‐510 is characterized by an evident asymmetric shape of the peak, promptly detected by the Automated Robotic Terrestrial Exoplanet Microlensing Search (ARTEMiS) system in real time. The skewness of the light curve appears to be compatible both with binary...

  19. Retention prediction and separation optimization under multilinear gradient elution in liquid chromatography with Microsoft Excel macros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoula, S; Zisi, Ch; Gika, H; Pappa-Louisi, A; Nikitas, P

    2015-05-22

    A package of Excel VBA macros have been developed for modeling multilinear gradient retention data obtained in single or double gradient elution mode by changing organic modifier(s) content and/or eluent pH. For this purpose, ten chromatographic models were used and four methods were adopted for their application. The methods were based on (a) the analytical expression of the retention time, provided that this expression is available, (b) the retention times estimated using the Nikitas-Pappa approach, (c) the stepwise approximation, and (d) a simple numerical approximation involving the trapezoid rule for integration of the fundamental equation for gradient elution. For all these methods, Excel VBA macros have been written and implemented using two different platforms; the fitting and the optimization platform. The fitting platform calculates not only the adjustable parameters of the chromatographic models, but also the significance of these parameters and furthermore predicts the analyte elution times. The optimization platform determines the gradient conditions that lead to the optimum separation of a mixture of analytes by using the Solver evolutionary mode, provided that proper constraints are set in order to obtain the optimum gradient profile in the minimum gradient time. The performance of the two platforms was tested using experimental and artificial data. It was found that using the proposed spreadsheets, fitting, prediction, and optimization can be performed easily and effectively under all conditions. Overall, the best performance is exhibited by the analytical and Nikitas-Pappa's methods, although the former cannot be used under all circumstances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A prospective, randomized evaluation of a novel everolimus-eluting coronary stent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stone, Gregg W; Teirstein, Paul S; Meredith, Ian T

    2011-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the clinical outcomes with a novel platinum chromium everolimus-eluting stent (PtCr-EES) compared with a predicate cobalt chromium everolimus-eluting stent (CoCr-EES) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).......We sought to evaluate the clinical outcomes with a novel platinum chromium everolimus-eluting stent (PtCr-EES) compared with a predicate cobalt chromium everolimus-eluting stent (CoCr-EES) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)....

  1. Oak ridge national laboratory automated clean chemistry for bulk analysis of environmental swipe samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, Debra A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hexel, Cole R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ticknor, Brian W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tevepaugh, Kayron N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Metzger, Shalina C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    To shorten the lengthy and costly manual chemical purification procedures, sample preparation methods for mass spectrometry are being automated using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment. This addresses a serious need in the nuclear safeguards community to debottleneck the separation of U and Pu in environmental samples—currently performed by overburdened chemists—with a method that allows unattended, overnight operation. In collaboration with Elemental Scientific Inc., the prepFAST-MC2 was designed based on current COTS equipment that was modified for U/Pu separations utilizing Eichrom™ TEVA and UTEVA resins. Initial verification of individual columns yielded small elution volumes with consistent elution profiles and good recovery. Combined column calibration demonstrated ample separation without crosscontamination of the eluent. Automated packing and unpacking of the built-in columns initially showed >15% deviation in resin loading by weight, which can lead to inconsistent separations. Optimization of the packing and unpacking methods led to a reduction in the variability of the packed resin to less than 5% daily. The reproducibility of the automated system was tested with samples containing 30 ng U and 15 pg Pu, which were separated in a series with alternating reagent blanks. These experiments showed very good washout of both the resin and the sample from the columns as evidenced by low blank values. Analysis of the major and minor isotope ratios for U and Pu provided values well within data quality limits for the International Atomic Energy Agency. Additionally, system process blanks spiked with 233U and 244Pu tracers were separated using the automated system after it was moved outside of a clean room and yielded levels equivalent to clean room blanks, confirming that the system can produce high quality results without the need for expensive clean room infrastructure. Comparison of the amount of personnel time necessary for successful manual vs

  2. From drug eluting stents to bioresorbable scaffolds; to new horizons in PCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Bourantas, Christos; Abdelghani, Mohammad; Zeng, Yaping; Silva, Rafael Cavalcante; Tateishi, Hiroki; Sotomi, Yohei; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Yılmaz, Mustafa; Serruys, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Drug eluting stents and particularly the fully bioresorbable drug-eluting scaffolds herald a new era in percutaneous treatment of coronary artery disease. There has been tremendous progress in drug eluting stents with fully biodegradable coating polymers and polymer-free devices with reservoir

  3. Comparison of Durable-Polymer Zotarolimus-Eluting and Biodegradable-Polymer Biolimus-Eluting Coronary Stents in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raungaard, Bent; Christiansen, Evald H; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    2017-01-01

    artery disease or acute coronary syndromes and at least 1 coronary artery lesion requiring treatment with a drug-eluting stent. Endpoints included major adverse cardiac events (MACE), a composite of safety (cardiac death and myocardial infarction not clearly attributable to a non-target lesion......OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to compare the safety and efficacy of the biocompatible durable-polymer zotarolimus-eluting stent with the biodegradable-polymer biolimus-eluting stent in unselected coronary patients. BACKGROUND: Biodegradable-polymer biolimus-eluting stents are superior to first......-generation durable-polymer drug-eluting stents in long-term randomized all-comer trials. Long-term data comparing them to second-generation durable-polymer drug-eluting stents are lacking. METHODS: The study was a randomized, multicenter, all-comer, noninferiority trial in patients with chronic stable coronary...

  4. Evaluating an Automated Approach for Monitoring Forest Disturbances in the Pacific Northwest from Logging, Fire and Insect Outbreaks with Landsat Time Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.Neigh, Christopher S.; Bolton, Douglas K.; Williams, Jennifer J.; Diabate, Mouhamad

    2014-01-01

    Forests are the largest aboveground sink for atmospheric carbon (C), and understanding how they change through time is critical to reduce our C-cycle uncertainties. We investigated a strong decline in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from 1982 to 1991 in Pacific Northwest forests, observed with the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRRs). To understand the causal factors of this decline, we evaluated an automated classification method developed for Landsat time series stacks (LTSS) to map forest change. This method included: (1) multiple disturbance index thresholds; and (2) a spectral trajectory-based image analysis with multiple confidence thresholds. We produced 48 maps and verified their accuracy with air photos, monitoring trends in burn severity data and insect aerial detection survey data. Area-based accuracy estimates for change in forest cover resulted in producer's and user's accuracies of 0.21 +/- 0.06 to 0.38 +/- 0.05 for insect disturbance, 0.23 +/- 0.07 to 1 +/- 0 for burned area and 0.74 +/- 0.03 to 0.76 +/- 0.03 for logging. We believe that accuracy was low for insect disturbance because air photo reference data were temporally sparse, hence missing some outbreaks, and the annual anniversary time step is not dense enough to track defoliation and progressive stand mortality. Producer's and user's accuracy for burned area was low due to the temporally abrupt nature of fire and harvest with a similar response of spectral indices between the disturbance index and normalized burn ratio. We conclude that the spectral trajectory approach also captures multi-year stress that could be caused by climate, acid deposition, pathogens, partial harvest, thinning, etc. Our study focused on understanding the transferability of previously successful methods to new ecosystems and found that this automated method does not perform with the same accuracy in Pacific Northwest forests

  5. Systematic review automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  6. Determination of 99Mo contamination in 99mTc elute obtained from 99Mo/99mTc- generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momennezhad, M.; Zakavi, S. R.; Sadeghi, R.

    2010-01-01

    99m Tc is a widely used radioisotope in nuclear medicine centers which is obtained by elution from Mo-99/Tc-99m generators. Usually the generators are either supplied by the Iran Atomic Energy Agency or by private companies from foreign countries. In this study we have measured 99 Mo contamination in 99m Tc elute from different generators in a period of one year. Materials and Methods: The radionuclide impurity of the 99m Tc elute were studied in two types of radionuclide generators (A: produced in Iran and B: Imported from other country). In-vitro measurements were performed using dose calibrator. Direct measurements were made, using a standard canister at the time of milking of the generators and also in Subsequent hours after milking. Results: The results showed a mean of 99 Mo impurity in generators A and B to be 0.00932±0.0043 and 0.0170±0.0127 respectively. Although the results showed that the 99 Mo contamination in 99 mTc elute was lesser than the maximum accepted activity limit of 0.015%, the difference in these two types may reflect different methods of productions of generator, as well as the quality control procedures. Conclusion: The mean of 99 Mo contamination in generators produced in Iran Atomic Energy Organization was lesser than generators imported from foreign origin.

  7. X-ray induced DNA double strand break production and repair in mammalian cells as measured by neutral filter elution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, M O; Kohn, K W [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA)

    1979-10-01

    A neutral filter elution method was used for detecting DNA double strand breaks in mouse L1210 cells after X-ray. The assay detected the number of double strand breaks induced by as little as 1000 rad of X-ray. The rate of DNA elution through the filters under neutral conditions increased with X-ray dose. Certain conditions for deproteinization, pH, and filter type were shown to increase the assay's sensitivity. Hydrogen peroxide and Bleomycin also induced apparent DNA double strand breaks, although the ratios of double to single strand breaks varied from those produced by X-ray. The introduction of double strand cuts by HpA I restriction endonuclease in DNA lysed on filters resulted in a rapid rate of elution under neutral conditions, implying that the method can detect double strand breaks if they exist in the DNA. The eluted DNA banded with a double stranded DNA marker in cesium chloride. This evidence suggested that the assay detected DNA double strand breaks. L1210 cells were shown to rejoin most of the DNA double strand breaks induced by 5-10 krad of X-ray with a half-time of about 40 minutes. (author).

  8. Code it rite the first time : automated invoice processing solution designed to ensure validity to field ticket coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, G.

    2010-03-15

    An entrepreneur who ran 55 rigs for a major oilfield operator in Calgary has developed a solution for the oil industry that reduces field ticketing errors from 40 per cent to almost none. The Code-Rite not only simplifies field ticketing but can eliminate weeks of trying to balance authorization for expenditure (AFE) numbers. A service provider who wants a field ticket signed for billing purposes following a service call to a well site receives all pertinent information on a barcode that includes AFE number, location, routing, approval authority and mailing address. Attaching the label to the field ticket provides all the invoicing information needed. This article described the job profile, education and life experiences and opportunities that led the innovator to develop this technology that solves an industry-wide problem. Code-Rite is currently being used by 3 large upstream oil and gas operators and plans are underway to automate the entire invoice processing system. 1 fig.

  9. Automation, Performance and International Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Lene; Sørensen, Anders

    This paper presents new evidence on trade‐induced automation in manufacturing firms using unique data combining a retrospective survey that we have assembled with register data for 2005‐2010. In particular, we establish a causal effect where firms that have specialized in product types for which...... the Chinese exports to the world market has risen sharply invest more in automated capital compared to firms that have specialized in other product types. We also study the relationship between automation and firm performance and find that firms with high increases in scale and scope of automation have faster...... productivity growth than other firms. Moreover, automation improves the efficiency of all stages of the production process by reducing setup time, run time, and inspection time and increasing uptime and quantity produced per worker. The efficiency improvement varies by type of automation....

  10. Differential clinical outcomes after 1 year versus 5 years in a randomised comparison of zotarolimus-eluting and sirolimus-eluting coronary stents (the SORT OUT III study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeng, Michael; Tilsted, Hans Henrik; Jensen, Lisette Okkels

    2014-01-01

    received two different types of drug-eluting stents. METHODS: We undertook this multicentre, open-label, randomised superiority trial at five percutaneous coronary intervention centres in Denmark. We randomly allocated 2332 eligible adult patients (≥18 years of age) with an indication for drug......-eluting stent implantation to the zotarolimus-eluting Endeavor Sprint stent (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, CA, USA) or the sirolimus-eluting Cypher Select Plus stent (Cordis, Johnson & Johnson, Warren, NJ, USA). Randomisation of participants was achieved by computer-generated block randomisation and a telephone...

  11. Closed-Loop Real-Time Imaging Enables Fully Automated Cell-Targeted Patch-Clamp Neural Recording In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Ho-Jun; van Welie, Ingrid; Kodandaramaiah, Suhasa B; Allen, Brian; Forest, Craig R; Boyden, Edward S

    2017-08-30

    Targeted patch-clamp recording is a powerful method for characterizing visually identified cells in intact neural circuits, but it requires skill to perform. We previously developed an algorithm that automates "blind" patching in vivo, but full automation of visually guided, targeted in vivo patching has not been demonstrated, with currently available approaches requiring human intervention to compensate for cell movement as a patch pipette approaches a targeted neuron. Here we present a closed-loop real-time imaging strategy that automatically compensates for cell movement by tracking cell position and adjusting pipette motion while approaching a target. We demonstrate our system's ability to adaptively patch, under continuous two-photon imaging and real-time analysis, fluorophore-expressing neurons of multiple types in the living mouse cortex, without human intervention, with yields comparable to skilled human experimenters. Our "imagepatching" robot is easy to implement and will help enable scalable characterization of identified cell types in intact neural circuits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Automated Air Traffic Control Operations with Weather and Time-Constraints: A First Look at (Simulated) Far-Term Control Room Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Thomas; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Martin, Lynne H.; Mercer, Joey S.; Cabrall, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss results from a recent high fidelity simulation of air traffic control operations with automated separation assurance in the presence of weather and time-constraints. We report findings from a human-in-the-loop study conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center. During four afternoons in early 2010, fifteen active and recently retired air traffic controllers and supervisors controlled high levels of traffic in a highly automated environment during three-hour long scenarios, For each scenario, twelve air traffic controllers operated eight sector positions in two air traffic control areas and were supervised by three front line managers, Controllers worked one-hour shifts, were relieved by other controllers, took a 3D-minute break, and worked another one-hour shift. On average, twice today's traffic density was simulated with more than 2200 aircraft per traffic scenario. The scenarios were designed to create peaks and valleys in traffic density, growing and decaying convective weather areas, and expose controllers to heavy and light metering conditions. This design enabled an initial look at a broad spectrum of workload, challenge, boredom, and fatigue in an otherwise uncharted territory of future operations. In this paper we report human/system integration aspects, safety and efficiency results as well as airspace throughput, workload, and operational acceptability. We conclude that, with further refinements. air traffic control operations with ground-based automated separation assurance can be an effective and acceptable means to routinely provide very high traffic throughput in the en route airspace.

  13. Enhancing cognate target elution efficiency in gel-free chemical proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Radic-Sarikas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gel-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry coupled to chemical proteomics is a powerful approach for characterizing cellular target profiles of small molecules. We have previously described a fast and efficient elution protocol; however, altered target profiles were observed. We hypothesised that elution conditions critically impact the effectiveness of disrupting drug-protein interactions. Thus, a number of elution conditions were systematically assessed with the aim of improving the recovery of all classes of proteins whilst maintaining compatibility with immunoblotting procedures. A double elution with formic acid combined with urea emerged as the most efficient and generically applicable elution method for chemical proteomics

  14. A rapid and accurate approach for prediction of interactomes from co-elution data (PrInCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, R Greg; Skinnider, Michael A; Scott, Nichollas E; Foster, Leonard J

    2017-10-23

    An organism's protein interactome, or complete network of protein-protein interactions, defines the protein complexes that drive cellular processes. Techniques for studying protein complexes have traditionally applied targeted strategies such as yeast two-hybrid or affinity purification-mass spectrometry to assess protein interactions. However, given the vast number of protein complexes, more scalable methods are necessary to accelerate interaction discovery and to construct whole interactomes. We recently developed a complementary technique based on the use of protein correlation profiling (PCP) and stable isotope labeling in amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to assess chromatographic co-elution as evidence of interacting proteins. Importantly, PCP-SILAC is also capable of measuring protein interactions simultaneously under multiple biological conditions, allowing the detection of treatment-specific changes to an interactome. Given the uniqueness and high dimensionality of co-elution data, new tools are needed to compare protein elution profiles, control false discovery rates, and construct an accurate interactome. Here we describe a freely available bioinformatics pipeline, PrInCE, for the analysis of co-elution data. PrInCE is a modular, open-source library that is computationally inexpensive, able to use label and label-free data, and capable of detecting tens of thousands of protein-protein interactions. Using a machine learning approach, PrInCE offers greatly reduced run time, more predicted interactions at the same stringency, prediction of protein complexes, and greater ease of use over previous bioinformatics tools for co-elution data. PrInCE is implemented in Matlab (version R2017a). Source code and standalone executable programs for Windows and Mac OSX are available at https://github.com/fosterlab/PrInCE , where usage instructions can be found. An example dataset and output are also provided for testing purposes. PrInCE is the first fast and easy

  15. Process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs

  16. Automated sample preparation using membrane microtiter extraction for bioanalytical mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewski, J; Schneider, P; Hoffmaster, K; Swyden, M; Wells, D; Fouda, H

    1997-01-01

    The development and application of membrane solid phase extraction (SPE) in 96-well microtiter plate format is described for the automated analysis of drugs in biological fluids. The small bed volume of the membrane allows elution of the analyte in a very small solvent volume, permitting direct HPLC injection and negating the need for the time consuming solvent evaporation step. A programmable liquid handling station (Quadra 96) was modified to automate all SPE steps. To avoid drying of the SPE bed and to enhance the analytical precision a novel protocol for performing the condition, load and wash steps in rapid succession was utilized. A block of 96 samples can now be extracted in 10 min., about 30 times faster than manual solvent extraction or single cartridge SPE methods. This processing speed complements the high-throughput speed of contemporary high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) analysis. The quantitative analysis of a test analyte (Ziprasidone) in plasma demonstrates the utility and throughput of membrane SPE in combination with HPLC/MS. The results obtained with the current automated procedure compare favorably with those obtained using solvent and traditional solid phase extraction methods. The method has been used for the analysis of numerous drug prototypes in biological fluids to support drug discovery efforts.

  17. Near real-time automated dose restoration in IMPT to compensate for daily tissue density variations in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagt, Thyrza; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; van de Water, Steven; Heijmen, Ben; Hoogeman, Mischa

    2017-06-01

    Proton therapy is very sensitive to daily density changes along the pencil beam paths. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate an automated method for adaptation of IMPT plans to compensate for these daily tissue density variations. A two-step restoration method for ‘densities-of-the-day’ was created: (1) restoration of spot positions (Bragg peaks) by adapting the energy of each pencil beam to the new water equivalent path length; and (2) re-optimization of pencil beam weights by minimizing the dosimetric difference with the planned dose distribution, using a fast and exact quadratic solver. The method was developed and evaluated using 8-10 repeat CT scans of 10 prostate cancer patients. Experiments demonstrated that giving a high weight to the PTV in the re-optimization resulted in clinically acceptable restorations. For all scans we obtained V 95%  ⩾  98% and V 107%  ⩽  2%. For the bladder, the differences between the restored and the intended treatment plan were below  +2 Gy and  +2%-point. The rectum differences were below  +2 Gy and  +2%-point for 90% of the scans. In the remaining scans the rectum was filled with air, which partly overlapped with the PTV. The air cavity distorted the Bragg peak resulting in less favorable rectum doses.

  18. A Customizable Flow Injection System for Automated, High Throughput, and Time Sensitive Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Mass Spectrometry Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Daniel J; Tfaily, Malak M; Moore, Ronald J; LaMarche, Brian L; Zheng, Xueyun; Fillmore, Thomas L; Chu, Rosalie K; Weitz, Karl K; Monroe, Matthew E; Kelly, Ryan T; Smith, Richard D; Baker, Erin S

    2018-01-02

    To better understand disease conditions and environmental perturbations, multiomic studies combining proteomic, lipidomic, and metabolomic analyses are vastly increasing in popularity. In a multiomic study, a single sample is typically extracted in multiple ways, and various analyses are performed using different instruments, most often based upon mass spectrometry (MS). Thus, one sample becomes many measurements, making high throughput and reproducible evaluations a necessity. One way to address the numerous samples and varying instrumental conditions is to utilize a flow injection analysis (FIA) system for rapid sample injections. While some FIA systems have been created to address these challenges, many have limitations such as costly consumables, low pressure capabilities, limited pressure monitoring, and fixed flow rates. To address these limitations, we created an automated, customizable FIA system capable of operating at a range of flow rates (∼50 nL/min to 500 μL/min) to accommodate both low- and high-flow MS ionization sources. This system also functions at varying analytical throughputs from 24 to 1200 samples per day to enable different MS analysis approaches. Applications ranging from native protein analyses to molecular library construction were performed using the FIA system, and results showed a highly robust and reproducible platform capable of providing consistent performance over many days without carryover, as long as washing buffers specific to each molecular analysis were utilized.

  19. A Customizable Flow Injection System for Automated, High Throughput, and Time Sensitive Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Mass Spectrometry Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Daniel J. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States; Tfaily, Malak M. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States; Moore, Ronald J. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States; LaMarche, Brian L. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States; Zheng, Xueyun [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States; Fillmore, Thomas L. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States; Chu, Rosalie K. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States; Weitz, Karl K. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States; Monroe, Matthew E. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States; Kelly, Ryan T. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States; Smith, Richard D. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States; Baker, Erin S. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States

    2017-12-13

    To better understand disease conditions and environmental perturbations, multi-omic studies (i.e. proteomic, lipidomic, metabolomic, etc. analyses) are vastly increasing in popularity. In a multi-omic study, a single sample is typically extracted in multiple ways and numerous analyses are performed using different instruments. Thus, one sample becomes many analyses, making high throughput and reproducible evaluations a necessity. One way to address the numerous samples and varying instrumental conditions is to utilize a flow injection analysis (FIA) system for rapid sample injection. While some FIA systems have been created to address these challenges, many have limitations such as high consumable costs, low pressure capabilities, limited pressure monitoring and fixed flow rates. To address these limitations, we created an automated, customizable FIA system capable of operating at diverse flow rates (~50 nL/min to 500 µL/min) to accommodate low- and high-flow instrument sources. This system can also operate at varying analytical throughputs from 24 to 1200 samples per day to enable different MS analysis approaches. Applications ranging from native protein analyses to molecular library construction were performed using the FIA system. The results from these studies showed a highly robust platform, providing consistent performance over many days without carryover as long as washing buffers specific to each molecular analysis were utilized.

  20. An automated, broad-based, near real-time public health surveillance system using presentations to hospital Emergency Departments in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Clayton

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a climate of concern over bioterrorism threats and emergent diseases, public health authorities are trialling more timely surveillance systems. The 2003 Rugby World Cup (RWC provided an opportunity to test the viability of a near real-time syndromic surveillance system in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. We describe the development and early results of this largely automated system that used data routinely collected in Emergency Departments (EDs. Methods Twelve of 49 EDs in the Sydney metropolitan area automatically transmitted surveillance data from their existing information systems to a central database in near real-time. Information captured for each ED visit included patient demographic details, presenting problem and nursing assessment entered as free-text at triage time, physician-assigned provisional diagnosis codes, and status at departure from the ED. Both diagnoses from the EDs and triage text were used to assign syndrome categories. The text information was automatically classified into one or more of 26 syndrome categories using automated "naïve Bayes" text categorisation techniques. Automated processes were used to analyse both diagnosis and free text-based syndrome data and to produce web-based statistical summaries for daily review. An adjusted cumulative sum (cusum was used to assess the statistical significance of trends. Results During the RWC the system did not identify any major public health threats associated with the tournament, mass gatherings or the influx of visitors. This was consistent with evidence from other sources, although two known outbreaks were already in progress before the tournament. Limited baseline in early monitoring prevented the system from automatically identifying these ongoing outbreaks. Data capture was invisible to clinical staff in EDs and did not add to their workload. Conclusion We have demonstrated the feasibility and potential utility of syndromic surveillance using

  1. Performance of the new automated Abbott RealTime MTB assay for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J H K; She, K K K; Kwong, T-C; Wong, O-Y; Siu, G K H; Leung, C-C; Chang, K-C; Tam, C-M; Ho, P-L; Cheng, V C C; Yuen, K-Y; Yam, W-C

    2015-09-01

    The automated high-throughput Abbott RealTime MTB real-time PCR assay has been recently launched for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical diagnosis. This study would like to evaluate its performance. We first compared its diagnostic performance with the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB assay on 214 clinical respiratory specimens. Prospective analysis of a total 520 specimens was then performed to further evaluate the Abbott assay. The Abbott assay showed a lower limit of detection at 22.5 AFB/ml, which was more sensitive than the Cobas assay (167.5 AFB/ml). The two assays demonstrated a significant difference in diagnostic performance (McNemar's test; P = 0.0034), in which the Abbott assay presented significantly higher area under curve (AUC) than the Cobas assay (1.000 vs 0.880; P = 0.0002). The Abbott assay demonstrated extremely low PCR inhibition on clinical respiratory specimens. The automated Abbott assay required only very short manual handling time (0.5 h), which could help to improve the laboratory management. In the prospective analysis, the overall estimates for sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott assay were both 100 % among smear-positive specimens, whereas the smear-negative specimens were 96.7 and 96.1 %, respectively. No cross-reactivity with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial species was observed. The superiority in sensitivity of the Abbott assay for detecting MTBC in smear-negative specimens could further minimize the risk in MTBC false-negative detection. The new Abbott RealTime MTB assay has good diagnostic performance which can be a useful diagnostic tool for rapid MTBC detection in clinical laboratories.

  2. Evaluation of three automated nucleic acid extraction systems for identification of respiratory viruses in clinical specimens by multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonjung; Han, Mi-Soon; Kim, Juwon; Kwon, Aerin; Lee, Kyung-A

    2014-01-01

    A total of 84 nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected from 84 patients. Viral nucleic acid was extracted by three automated extraction systems: QIAcube (Qiagen, Germany), EZ1 Advanced XL (Qiagen), and MICROLAB Nimbus IVD (Hamilton, USA). Fourteen RNA viruses and two DNA viruses were detected using the Anyplex II RV16 Detection kit (Seegene, Republic of Korea). The EZ1 Advanced XL system demonstrated the best analytical sensitivity for all the three viral strains. The nucleic acids extracted by EZ1 Advanced XL showed higher positive rates for virus detection than the others. Meanwhile, the MICROLAB Nimbus IVD system was comprised of fully automated steps from nucleic extraction to PCR setup function that could reduce human errors. For the nucleic acids recovered from nasopharyngeal swab specimens, the QIAcube system showed the fewest false negative results and the best concordance rate, and it may be more suitable for detecting various viruses including RNA and DNA virus strains. Each system showed different sensitivity and specificity for detection of certain viral pathogens and demonstrated different characteristics such as turnaround time and sample capacity. Therefore, these factors should be considered when new nucleic acid extraction systems are introduced to the laboratory.

  3. Elution of Clindamycin and Enrofloxacin From Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate Beads In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Heidi; Boothe, Dawn M; Bennett, R Avery

    2015-11-01

    To compare the in vitro elution characteristics of clindamycin and enrofloxacin from calcium sulfate hemihydrate beads containing a single antibiotic, both antibiotics, and each antibiotic incubated in the same eluent well. Experimental in vitro study. Calcium sulfate hemihydrate beads were formed by mixing with clindamycin and/or enrofloxacin to create 4 study groups: (1) 160 mg clindamycin/10 beads; (2) 160 mg enrofloxacin/10 beads; (3) 160 mg clindamycin + 160 mg enrofloxacin/10 beads; and (4) 160 mg clindamycin/5 beads and 160 mg enrofloxacin/5 beads. Chains of beads were formed in triplicate and placed in 5 mL phosphate buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.4 and room temperature) with constant agitation. Antibiotic-conditioned PBS was sampled at 14 time points from 1 hour to 30 days. Clindamycin and enrofloxacin concentrations in PBS were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Eluent concentrations from clindamycin-impregnated beads failed to remain sufficiently above minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for common infecting bacteria over the study period. Enrofloxacin eluent concentrations remained sufficiently above MIC for common wound pathogens of dogs and cats and demonstrated an atypical biphasic release pattern. No significant differences in elution occurred as a result of copolymerization of the antibiotics into a single bead or from individual beads co-eluting in the same eluent well. Clindamycin-impregnated beads cannot be recommended for treatment of infection at the studied doses; however, use of enrofloxacin-impregnated beads may be justified when susceptible bacteria are cultured. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  4. pH-zone-refining elution-extrusion countercurrent chromatography: Separation of hydroxyanthraquinones from Cassiae semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Zhisi; Lv, Liqiong; Li, Xingnuo; Chu, Chu; Tong, Shengqiang

    2017-11-01

    Seven hydroxyanthraquinones were successfully separated from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Cassiae semen by conventional and pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography with an environmentally friendly biphasic solvent system, in which elution-extrusion mode was investigated for pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography for the first time. A two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (5:3:4:4, v/v/v/v) was used for the conventional countercurrent chromatography while the same system with a different volume ratio n-hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (3:5:2:6, v/v/v/v) was used for pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography, in which 20 mmol/L of trifluoroacetic acid was added in the organic phase as a retainer and 15 mmol/L of ammonia was added to the aqueous phase as an eluter. A 400 mg crude sample could be well separated by pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography, yielding 53 mg of aurantio-obtusin, 40 mg of chryso-obtusin, 18 mg of obtusin, 24 mg of obtusifolin, 10 mg of emodin, and 105 mg of the mixture of chrysophanol and physcion with a purity of over 95.8, 95.7, 96.9, 93.5, 97.4, 77.1, and 19.8%, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, the difference in elution sequence between conventional and pH-zone-refining mode was observed and discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Distribution automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenemeyer, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a Distribution Automation (DA) System enhances the efficiency and productivity of a utility. It also provides intangible benefits such as improved public image and market advantages. A utility should evaluate the benefits and costs of such a system before committing funds. The expenditure for distribution automation is economical when justified by the deferral of a capacity increase, a decrease in peak power demand, or a reduction in O and M requirements

  6. Unfolding and aggregation of a glycosylated monoclonal antibody on a cation exchange column. Part I. Chromatographic elution and batch adsorption behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Zhang, Shaojie; Carta, Giorgio

    2014-08-22

    A glycosylated IgG2 monoclonal antibody exhibits a two-peak elution behavior when loaded on a strong cation exchange column and eluted with either a linear salt gradient or two salt steps at increasing salt concentrations. The two-peak behavior is more pronounced for conditions where the initial antibody binding is stronger, i.e. at lower pH and buffer concentration, where the hold time prior to elution is longer, where the protein mass load is lower, and where the load flow rate is higher. The effect is also dependent on the resin type, being prominent for the polymer-functionalized resin Fractogel EMD SO₃(-) and virtually absent for a macroporous resin with similar backbone but no grafted polymers. Size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering show that the early eluting peak consists exclusively of the native monomeric species while the late eluting peak is a mixture of monomeric and aggregated species. Batch adsorption/desorption experiments show that the bound protein can be desorbed in two steps, with a fraction desorbed in 0.33 M NaCl, corresponding to native monomer, and a second fraction desorbed in 1M NaCl. The latter fraction decreases with protein mass load and becomes almost negligible when the resin is initially completely saturated with protein. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that the two-peak elution/desorption behavior is related to the unique kinetics of protein binding in the Fractogel resin. Following partial loading of the resin, the bound protein migrates toward the center of the particles during a hold step and is redistributed across the particle volume attaining low local bound protein concentrations. For these conditions the protein is apparently destabilized forming a strongly-bound unfolded intermediate that, in turn, generates aggregates upon elution in high salt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of an everolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffold with an everolimus-eluting metallic stent for the treatment of coronary artery stenosis (ABSORB II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serruys, Patrick W; Chevalier, Bernard; Sotomi, Yohei

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No medium-term data are available on the random comparison between everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffolds and everolimus-eluting metallic stents. The study aims to demonstrate two mechanistic properties of the bioresorbable scaffold: increase in luminal dimensions as a re...

  8. Effect of Post-Dilatation Following Primary PCI With Everolimus-Eluting Bioresorbable Scaffold Versus Everolimus-Eluting Metallic Stent Implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamaji, Kyohei; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Sabaté, Manel

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the effect of post-dilatation on angiographic and intracoronary imaging parameters in the setting of primary percutaneous coronary intervention comparing the everolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) with the everolimus-eluting metallic stent (EE...

  9. Automated Nucleic Acid Extraction Systems for Detecting Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr Virus Using Real-Time PCR: A Comparison Study Between the QIAsymphony RGQ and QIAcube Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanah; Hur, Mina; Kim, Ji Young; Moon, Hee Won; Yun, Yeo Min; Cho, Hyun Chan

    2017-03-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are increasingly important in immunocompromised patients. Nucleic acid extraction methods could affect the results of viral nucleic acid amplification tests. We compared two automated nucleic acid extraction systems for detecting CMV and EBV using real-time PCR assays. One hundred and fifty-three whole blood (WB) samples were tested for CMV detection, and 117 WB samples were tested for EBV detection. Viral nucleic acid was extracted in parallel by using QIAsymphony RGQ and QIAcube (Qiagen GmbH, Germany), and real-time PCR assays for CMV and EBV were performed with a Rotor-Gene Q real-time PCR cycler (Qiagen). Detection rates for CMV and EBV were compared, and agreements between the two systems were analyzed. The detection rate of CMV and EBV differed significantly between the QIAsymphony RGQ and QIAcube systems (CMV, 59.5% [91/153] vs 43.8% [67/153], P=0.0005; EBV, 59.0% [69/117] vs 42.7% [50/117], P=0.0008). The two systems showed moderate agreement for CMV and EBV detection (kappa=0.43 and 0.52, respectively). QIAsymphony RGQ showed a negligible correlation with QIAcube for quantitative EBV detection. QIAcube exhibited EBV PCR inhibition in 23.9% (28/117) of samples. Automated nucleic acid extraction systems have different performances and significantly affect the detection of viral pathogens. The QIAsymphony RGQ system appears to be superior to the QIAcube system for detecting CMV and EBV. A suitable sample preparation system should be considered for optimized nucleic acid amplification in clinical laboratories.

  10. [Automated analyzer of enzyme immunoassay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, S

    1995-09-01

    Automated analyzers for enzyme immunoassay can be classified by several points of view: the kind of labeled antibodies or enzymes, detection methods, the number of tests per unit time, analytical time and speed per run. In practice, it is important for us consider the several points such as detection limits, the number of tests per unit time, analytical range, and precision. Most of the automated analyzers on the market can randomly access and measure samples. I will describe the recent advance of automated analyzers reviewing their labeling antibodies and enzymes, the detection methods, the number of test per unit time and analytical time and speed per test.

  11. Simulation of elution profiles in liquid chromatography - II: Investigation of injection volume overload under gradient elution conditions applied to second dimension separations in two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Dwight R; Sajulga, Ray W; Voigt, Bryan N; Larson, Eli J; Jeong, Lena N; Rutan, Sarah C

    2017-11-10

    An important research direction in the continued development of two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) is to improve the detection sensitivity of the method. This is especially important in applications where injection of large volumes of effluent from the first dimension ( 1 D) column into the second dimension ( 2 D) column leads to severe 2 D peak broadening and peak shape distortion. For example, this is common when coupling two reversed-phase columns and the organic solvent content of the 1 D mobile phase overwhelms the 2 D column with each injection of 1 D effluent, leading to low resolution in the second dimension. In a previous study we validated a simulation approach based on the Craig distribution model and adapted from the work of Czok and Guiochon [1] that enabled accurate simulation of simple isocratic and gradient separations with very small injection volumes, and isocratic separations with mismatched injection and mobile phase solvents [2]. In the present study we have extended this simulation approach to simulate separations relevant to 2D-LC. Specifically, we have focused on simulating 2 D separations where gradient elution conditions are used, there is mismatch between the sample solvent and the starting point in the gradient elution program, injection volumes approach or even exceed the dead volume of the 2 D column, and the extent of sample loop filling is varied. To validate this simulation we have compared results from simulations and experiments for 101 different conditions, including variation in injection volume (0.4-80μL), loop filling level (25-100%), and degree of mismatch between sample organic solvent and the starting point in the gradient elution program (-20 to +20% ACN). We find that that the simulation is accurate enough (median errors in retention time and peak width of -1.0 and -4.9%, without corrections for extra-column dispersion) to be useful in guiding optimization of 2D-LC separations. However, this requires that real

  12. Zotarolimus-eluting durable-polymer-coated stent versus a biolimus-eluting biodegradable-polymer-coated stent in unselected patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (SORT OUT VI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raungaard, Bent; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Tilsted, Hans-Henrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New-generation drug-eluting coronary stents have reduced the risk of coronary events, especially in patients with complex disease or lesions. To what extent different stent platforms, polymers, and antiproliferative drugs affect outcomes, however, is unclear. We investigated the safety...... and efficacy of a third-generation stent by comparing a highly biocompatible durable-polymer-coated zotarolimus-eluting stent with a biodegradable-polymer-coated biolimus-eluting stent. METHODS: This open-label, randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority trial was done at three sites across western Denmark. All......-polymer zotarolimus-eluting stent or the biodegradable-polymer biolimus-eluting stent. The primary endpoint was a composite of safety (cardiac death and myocardial infarction not clearly attributable to a non-target lesion) and efficacy (target-lesion revascularisation) at 12 months, analysed by intention to treat...

  13. Biodegradable-Polymer Biolimus-Eluting Stents versus Durable-Polymer Everolimus-Eluting Stents at One-Year Follow-Up: A Registry-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Ehsan; Saroukhani, Sepideh; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Poorhosseini, Hamidreza; Lofti-Tokaldany, Masoumeh; Jalali, Arash; Salarifar, Mojtaba; Nematipour, Ebrahim; Alidoosti, Mohammad; Aghajani, Hassan; Amirzadegan, Alireza; Kassaian, Seyed Ebrahim

    2016-04-01

    We compared outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention patients who received biodegradable-polymer biolimus-eluting stents with those who received durable-polymer everolimus-eluting stents. At Tehran Heart Center, we performed a retrospective analysis of the data from January 2007 through December 2011 on 3,270 consecutive patients with coronary artery disease who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with the biodegradable-polymer biolimus-eluting stent or the durable-polymer everolimus-eluting stent. We excluded patients with histories of coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous coronary intervention, acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, or the implantation of 2 different stent types. Patients were monitored for 12 months. The primary endpoint was a major adverse cardiac event, defined as a composite of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and target-vessel and target-lesion revascularization. Durable-polymer everolimus-eluting stents were implanted in 2,648 (81%) and biodegradable-polymer biolimus-eluting stents in 622 (19%) of the study population. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups (2.7% vs 2.7%; P=0.984) in the incidence of major adverse cardiac events. The cumulative adjusted probability of major adverse cardiac events in the biodegradable-polymer biolimus-eluting stent group did not differ from that of such events in the durable-polymer everolimus-eluting stent group (hazard ratio=0.768; 95% confidence interval, 0.421-1.44; P=0.388). We conclude that in our patients the biodegradable-polymer biolimus-eluting stent was as effective and safe, during the 12-month follow-up period, as was the durable-polymer everolimus-eluting stent.

  14. Semi-automated 86Y purification using a three-column system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Luke S.; Szajek, Lawrence P.; Wong, Karen J.; Plascjak, Paul S.; Garmestani, Kayhan; Googins, Shawn; Eckelman, William C.; Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Paik, Chang H.

    2004-01-01

    The separation of 86 Y from 86 Sr was optimized by a semi-automated purification system involving the passage of the target sample through three sequential columns. The target material was dissolved in 4 N HNO 3 and loaded onto a Sr-selective (Sr-Spec) column to retain the 86 Sr. The yttrium was eluted with 4 N HNO 3 onto the second Y-selective (RE-Spec) column with quantitative retention. The RE-Spec column was eluted with a stepwise decreasing concentration of HNO 3 to wash out potential metallic impurities to a waste container. The eluate was then pumped onto an Aminex A5 column with 0.1 N HCl and finally with 3 N HCl to collect the radioyttrium in 0.6-0.8 mL with a >80% recovery. This method enabled us to decontaminate Sr by 250,000 times and label 30 μ g of DOTA-Biotin with a >95% yield

  15. A real-time data acquisition and processing system for the analytical laboratory automation of a HTR spent fuel reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzlawik, K.H.

    1979-12-01

    A real-time data acquisition and processing system for the analytical laboratory of an experimental HTR spent fuel reprocessing facility is presented. The on-line open-loop system combines in-line and off-line analytical measurement procedures including data acquisition and evaluation as well as analytical laboratory organisation under the control of a computer-supported laboratory automation system. In-line measurements are performed for density, volume and temperature in process tanks and registration of samples for off-line measurements. Off-line computer-coupled experiments are potentiometric titration, gas chromatography and X-ray fluorescence analysis. Organisational sections like sample registration, magazining, distribution and identification, multiple data assignment and especially calibrations of analytical devices are performed by the data processing system. (orig.) [de

  16. Optimization of Drug Delivery by Drug-Eluting Stents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Bozsak

    Full Text Available Drug-eluting stents (DES, which release anti-proliferative drugs into the arterial wall in a controlled manner, have drastically reduced the rate of in-stent restenosis and revolutionized the treatment of atherosclerosis. However, late stent thrombosis remains a safety concern in DES, mainly due to delayed healing of the endothelial wound inflicted during DES implantation. We present a framework to optimize DES design such that restenosis is inhibited without affecting the endothelial healing process. To this end, we have developed a computational model of fluid flow and drug transport in stented arteries and have used this model to establish a metric for quantifying DES performance. The model takes into account the multi-layered structure of the arterial wall and incorporates a reversible binding model to describe drug interaction with the cells of the arterial wall. The model is coupled to a novel optimization algorithm that allows identification of optimal DES designs. We show that optimizing the period of drug release from DES and the initial drug concentration within the coating has a drastic effect on DES performance. Paclitaxel-eluting stents perform optimally by releasing their drug either very rapidly (within a few hours or very slowly (over periods of several months up to one year at concentrations considerably lower than current DES. In contrast, sirolimus-eluting stents perform optimally only when drug release is slow. The results offer explanations for recent trends in the development of DES and demonstrate the potential for large improvements in DES design relative to the current state of commercial devices.

  17. Automating data analysis for two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry non-targeted analysis of comparative samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, Ivan A; Ogba, O Maduka; Chibwe, Leah; Hoh, Eunha; Cheong, Paul H-Y; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    2018-03-16

    Non-targeted analysis of environmental samples, using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/ToF-MS), poses significant data analysis challenges due to the large number of possible analytes. Non-targeted data analysis of complex mixtures is prone to human bias and is laborious, particularly for comparative environmental samples such as contaminated soil pre- and post-bioremediation. To address this research bottleneck, we developed OCTpy, a Python™ script that acts as a data reduction filter to automate GC × GC/ToF-MS data analysis from LECO ® ChromaTOF ® software and facilitates selection of analytes of interest based on peak area comparison between comparative samples. We used data from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil, pre- and post-bioremediation, to assess the effectiveness of OCTpy in facilitating the selection of analytes that have formed or degraded following treatment. Using datasets from the soil extracts pre- and post-bioremediation, OCTpy selected, on average, 18% of the initial suggested analytes generated by the LECO ® ChromaTOF ® software Statistical Compare feature. Based on this list, 63-100% of the candidate analytes identified by a highly trained individual were also selected by OCTpy. This process was accomplished in several minutes per sample, whereas manual data analysis took several hours per sample. OCTpy automates the analysis of complex mixtures of comparative samples, reduces the potential for human error during heavy data handling and decreases data analysis time by at least tenfold. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of QIAsymphony automated and QIAamp manual DNA extraction systems for measuring Epstein-Barr virus DNA load in whole blood using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laus, Stella; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Green, Michael; Wadowsky, Robert M

    2011-11-01

    Automated and manual extraction systems have been used with real-time PCR for quantification of Epstein-Barr virus [human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4)] DNA in whole blood, but few studies have evaluated relative performances. In the present study, the automated QIAsymphony and manual QIAamp extraction systems (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) were assessed using paired aliquots derived from clinical whole-blood specimens and an in-house, real-time PCR assay. The detection limits using the QIAsymphony and QIAamp systems were similar (270 and 560 copies/mL, respectively). For samples estimated as having ≥10,000 copies/mL, the intrarun and interrun variations were significantly lower using QIAsymphony (10.0% and 6.8%, respectively), compared with QIAamp (18.6% and 15.2%, respectively); for samples having ≤1000 copies/mL, the two variations ranged from 27.9% to 43.9% and were not significantly different between the two systems. Among 68 paired clinical samples, 48 pairs yielded viral loads ≥1000 copies/mL under both extraction systems. Although the logarithmic linear correlation from these positive samples was high (r(2) = 0.957), the values obtained using QIAsymphony were on average 0.2 log copies/mL higher than those obtained using QIAamp. Thus, the QIAsymphony and QIAamp systems provide similar EBV DNA load values in whole blood. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Drug-eluting Ti wires with titania nanotube arrays for bone fixation and reduced bone infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Karan; Aw, Moom Sinn; Losic, Dusan

    2011-10-01

    Current bone fixation technology which uses stainless steel wires known as Kirschner wires for fracture fixing often causes infection and reduced skeletal load resulting in implant failure. Creating new wires with drug-eluting properties to locally deliver drugs is an appealing approach to address some of these problems. This study presents the use of titanium [Ti] wires with titania nanotube [TNT] arrays formed with a drug delivery capability to design alternative bone fixation tools for orthopaedic applications. A titania layer with an array of nanotube structures was synthesised on the surface of a Ti wire by electrochemical anodisation and loaded with antibiotic (gentamicin) used as a model of bone anti-bacterial drug. Successful fabrication of TNT structures with pore diameters of approximately 170 nm and length of 70 μm is demonstrated for the first time in the form of wires. The drug release characteristics of TNT-Ti wires were evaluated, showing a two-phase release, with a burst release (37%) and a slow release with zero-order kinetics over 11 days. These results confirmed our system's ability to be applied as a drug-eluting tool for orthopaedic applications. The established biocompatibility of TNT structures, closer modulus of elasticity to natural bones and possible inclusion of desired drugs, proteins or growth factors make this system a promising alternative to replace conventional bone implants to prevent bone infection and to be used for targeted treatment of bone cancer, osteomyelitis and other orthopaedic diseases.

  20. Correlating cytotoxicity to elution behaviors of composite resins in term of curing kinetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Junquan; Yang, Huichuan; Cao, Man; Li, Lei; Cai, Qing

    2017-09-01

    Cytotoxicity of photocurable composite resins is a key issue for their safe use in dental restoration. Curing kinetic and elution behaviors of the composite resin would have decisive effects on its cytotoxicity. In this study, composite resins composed of bisphenol-glycidyl dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA), triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), camphorquinone (CQ), N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and barium glass powders were prepared by setting the photoinitiators CQ/DMAEMA at 0.5wt%, 1wt% or 3wt% of the total weight of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA. The ratio of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA was 6:4, the ratio of CQ/DMAEMA was 1:1, and the incorporated inorganic powder was 75wt%. Then, curing kinetics were studied by using real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and photo-DSC (differential scanning calorimeter). Elution behaviors in both ethanol solution and deionized water were monitored by using liquid chromatogram/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Cytotoxicity was evaluated by in vitro culture of L929 fibroblasts. Finally, they were all analyzed and correlated in terms of initiator contents. It was found that the commonly used 0.5wt% of photoinitiators was somewhat insufficient in obtaining composite resin with low cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Automated ultrafast kilovoltage-megavoltage cone-beam CT for image guided radiotherapy of lung cancer: System description and real-time results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessing, Manuel; Arns, Anna; Wertz, Hansjoerg; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Hesser, Juergen; Wenz, Frederik; Lohr, Frank

    2018-04-01

    To establish a fully automated kV-MV CBCT imaging method on a clinical linear accelerator that allows image acquisition of thoracic targets for patient positioning within one breath-hold (∼15s) under realistic clinical conditions. Our previously developed FPGA-based hardware unit which allows synchronized kV-MV CBCT projection acquisition is connected to a clinical linear accelerator system via a multi-pin switch; i.e. either kV-MV imaging or conventional clinical mode can be selected. An application program was developed to control the relevant linac parameters automatically and to manage the MV detector readout as well as the gantry angle capture for each MV projection. The kV projections are acquired with the conventional CBCT system. GPU-accelerated filtered backprojection is performed separately for both data sets. After appropriate grayscale normalization both modalities are combined and the final kV-MV volume is re-imported in the CBCT system to enable image matching. To demonstrate adequate geometrical accuracy of the novel imaging system the Penta-Guide phantom QA procedure is performed. Furthermore, a human plastinate and different tumor shapes in a thorax phantom are scanned. Diameters of the known tumor shapes are measured in the kV-MV reconstruction. An automated kV-MV CBCT workflow was successfully established in a clinical environment. The overall procedure, from starting the data acquisition until the reconstructed volume is available for registration, requires ∼90s including 17s acquisition time for 100° rotation. It is very simple and allows target positioning in the same way as for conventional CBCT. Registration accuracy of the QA phantom is within ±1mm. The average deviation from the known tumor dimensions measured in the thorax phantom was 0.7mm which corresponds to an improvement of 36% compared to our previous kV-MV imaging system. Due to automation the kV-MV CBCT workflow is speeded up by a factor of >10 compared to the manual

  2. Intelligent automation of high-performance liquid chromatography method development by means of a real-time knowledge-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    I, Ting-Po; Smith, Randy; Guhan, Sam; Taksen, Ken; Vavra, Mark; Myers, Douglas; Hearn, Milton T W

    2002-09-27

    We describe the development, attributes and capabilities of a novel type of artificial intelligence system, called LabExpert, for automation of HPLC method development. Unlike other computerised method development systems, LabExpert operates in real-time, using an artificial intelligence system and design engine to provide experimental decision outcomes relevant to the optimisation of complex separations as well as the control of the instrumentation, column selection, mobile phase choice and other experimental parameters. LabExpert manages every input parameter to a HPLC data station and evaluates each output parameter of the HPLC data station in real-time as part of its decision process. Based on a combination of inherent and user-defined evaluation criteria, the artificial intelligence system programs use a reasoning process, applying chromatographic principles and acquired experimental observations to iteratively provide a regime for a priori development of an acceptable HPLC separation method. Because remote monitoring and control are also functions of LabExpert, the system allows full-time utilisation of analytical instrumentation and associated laboratory resources. Based on our experience with LabExpert with a wide range of analyte mixtures, this artificial intelligence system consistently identified in a similar or faster time-frame preferred sets of analytical conditions that are equal in resolution, efficiency and throughput to those empirically determined by highly experienced chromatographic scientists. An illustrative example, demonstrating the potential of LabExpert in the process of method development of drug substances, is provided.

  3. Robust Automated Image Co-Registration of Optical Multi-Sensor Time Series Data: Database Generation for Multi-Temporal Landslide Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Behling

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Reliable multi-temporal landslide detection over longer periods of time requires multi-sensor time series data characterized by high internal geometric stability, as well as high relative and absolute accuracy. For this purpose, a new methodology for fully automated co-registration has been developed allowing efficient and robust spatial alignment of standard orthorectified data products originating from a multitude of optical satellite remote sensing data of varying spatial resolution. Correlation-based co-registration uses world-wide available terrain corrected Landsat Level 1T time series data as the spatial reference, ensuring global applicability. The developed approach has been applied to a multi-sensor time series of 592 remote sensing datasets covering an approximately 12,000 km2 area in Southern Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia strongly affected by landslides. The database contains images acquired during the last 26 years by Landsat (ETM, ASTER, SPOT and RapidEye sensors. Analysis of the spatial shifts obtained from co-registration has revealed sensor-specific alignments ranging between 5 m and more than 400 m. Overall accuracy assessment of these alignments has resulted in a high relative image-to-image accuracy of 17 m (RMSE and a high absolute accuracy of 23 m (RMSE for the whole co-registered database, making it suitable for multi-temporal landslide detection at a regional scale in Southern Kyrgyzstan.

  4. Studies of post-elution concentration of 99m-Tc eluted from a gel type chromatographic generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katia N.; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals most used in Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine are those labeled with the metastable technetium ( 99m Tc) due to its ideal physical properties of decay (t 1/2 6.01 h, Eγ 140 keV), low cost and availability facilitated through the commercial generator 99 Mo / 99m Tc. This radionuclide is formed by the β - decay of 99 Mo adsorbed on an alumina column of the generator and collected in the form of sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 ) by elution with saline solution (0.9%). The Radiopharmacy Center (CR) of the IPEN-CNEN/SP developed a gel type chromatographic generator of MoZr with 99 Mo produced by 98 Mo(n, γ) 99 Mo reaction that occurs in IEA-R1 Nuclear Reactor. The gel is composed of zirconium molybdate with elution volume of 12 ml with an activity of 11100 MBq (300 mCi) producing a radioactive concentration of 925 MBq (34 mCi) / ml. The fission generator gives a higher radioactive concentration around 1850 MBq (69 mCi) / ml. The aim of this work is to study a system of post-elution concentration using ion exchange cartridges in tandem (cation - anion) for the attainment of a high enough radioactive concentration to meet the demand of market, with a proved quality. This system of concentration will be made based in the technique of solid phase extraction (SPE) using commercial cartridges of extraction, which contains the solid phase and eluent saline solution (0.9%). As the eluent results of this system used in the gel generator of MoZr will be compared with the fission generator currently produced by IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)

  5. Studies of post-elution concentration of {sup 99m}-Tc eluted from a gel type chromatographic generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Katia N.; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: norisuzuki6@yahoo.com.br; jaosso@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals most used in Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine are those labeled with the metastable technetium ({sup 99m}Tc) due to its ideal physical properties of decay (t{sub 1/2} 6.01 h, E{gamma} 140 keV), low cost and availability facilitated through the commercial generator {sup 99}Mo /{sup 99m}Tc. This radionuclide is formed by the {beta}{sup -} decay of {sup 99}Mo adsorbed on an alumina column of the generator and collected in the form of sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) by elution with saline solution (0.9%). The Radiopharmacy Center (CR) of the IPEN-CNEN/SP developed a gel type chromatographic generator of MoZr with {sup 99}Mo produced by {sup 98}Mo(n, {gamma}){sup 99}Mo reaction that occurs in IEA-R1 Nuclear Reactor. The gel is composed of zirconium molybdate with elution volume of 12 ml with an activity of 11100 MBq (300 mCi) producing a radioactive concentration of 925 MBq (34 mCi) / ml. The fission generator gives a higher radioactive concentration around 1850 MBq (69 mCi) / ml. The aim of this work is to study a system of post-elution concentration using ion exchange cartridges in tandem (cation - anion) for the attainment of a high enough radioactive concentration to meet the demand of market, with a proved quality. This system of concentration will be made based in the technique of solid phase extraction (SPE) using commercial cartridges of extraction, which contains the solid phase and eluent saline solution (0.9%). As the eluent results of this system used in the gel generator of MoZr will be compared with the fission generator currently produced by IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)

  6. Safety and efficacy of limus-eluting stents and balloon angioplasty for sirolimus-eluting in-stent restenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Hideaki [Division of Interventional Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Mahmoudi, Michael [University of Surrey, Guildford Road, Surrey, GU2-7XH (United Kingdom); Kitabata, Hironori; Torguson, Rebecca; Chen, Fang; Satler, Lowell F.; Suddath, William O.; Pichard, Augusto D. [Division of Interventional Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Waksman, Ron, E-mail: ron.waksman@medstar.net [Division of Interventional Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of everolimus-eluting stent (EES), sirolimus-eluting stent (SES), and plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA) for the treatment of SES in-stent restenosis (S-ISR). Background: The optimal treatment for drug-eluting in-stent restenosis remains controversial. Methods: The study cohort comprised 310 consecutive patients (444 lesions) who presented with S-ISR to our institution and underwent treatment with EES (43 patients), SES (102), or POBA (165). The analyzed clinical parameters were the 1-year rates of death, Q-wave myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR), target vessel revascularization (TVR), definite stent thrombosis (ST) and major adverse cardiac event (MACE) defined as the composite of death, MI, or TLR at 1-year. Results: The three groups were well matched for the conventional risk factors for coronary artery disease except for smoking. The 1-year analyzed clinical parameters were similar in the three groups: MACE (EES = 14%, SES = 18%, POBA = 20%; p = 0.65), death (EES = 2.3%, SES = 6.2%, POBA = 6.1%; p = 0.61), MI (EES = 4.8%, SES = 2.1%, POBA = 2.5%; p = 0.69), TLR (EES = 11.9%, SES = 12.1%, POBA = 24%; p = 0.78), and TVR (EES = 11.9%, SES = 24.8%, POBA = 22.2%; p = 0.23). There were no cases of definite ST. MACE-free rate was significantly lower in patients with recurrent in-stent restenosis (log-rank p = 0.006). Presentation with acute MI, number of treated lesions and a previous history of MI were found to be independent predictors of MACE. Conclusions: In patients presenting with S-ISR, treatment with implantation of an EES, SES, or POBA is associated with similar clinical outcomes. Patients presenting with recurrent ISR may have a poorer clinical outcome.

  7. Honeywell experts on building automation 'Do it right, just the first time'. Honeywell-Fachleute zum Thema Gebaeudeautomation: 'Do it right, just the first time'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haltiner, E.W.

    1992-11-01

    Non-experts often have problems with the terms building automation and building management system as they often do not know their exact meaning. Building automation means services and products as a whole and a building management system is a particular part of automation. The article shows that building automation can also be sensibly used for smaller buildings. Centrepiece is the central control station with which all building services can be monitored and controlled. (BWI).

  8. Advantages and disadvantages of biodegradable platforms in drug eluting stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Granillo, Agustina; Rubilar, Bibiana; Rodriguez-Granillo, Gaston; Rodriguez, Alfredo E

    2011-03-26

    Coronary angioplasty with drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is currently the most common stent procedure worldwide. Since the introduction of DES, coronary restenosis as well as the incidence of target vessel and target lesion revascularization have been significantly reduced. However, the incidence of very late stent thrombosis beyond the first year after stent deployment has more commonly been linked to DES than to bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation. Several factors have been associated with very late stent thrombosis after DES implantation, such as delayed healing, inflammation, stent mal-apposition and endothelial dysfunction. Some of these adverse events were associated with the presence of durable polymers, which were essential to allow the elution of the immunosuppressive drug in the first DES designs. The introduction of erodable polymers in DES technology has provided the potential to complete the degradation of the polymer simultaneously or immediately after the release of the immunosuppressive drug, after which a BMS remains in place. Several DES designs with biodegradable (BIO) polymers have been introduced in preclinical and clinical studies, including randomized trials. In this review, we analyze the clinical results from 6 observational and randomized studies with BIO polymers and discuss advantages and disadvantages of this new technology.

  9. Recent developments in drug eluting devices with tailored interfacial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Rexach, Eva; Meaurio, Emilio; Sarasua, Jose-Ramon

    2017-11-01

    Drug eluting devices have greatly evolved during past years to become fundamental products of great marketing importance in the biomedical field. There is currently a large diversity of highly specialized devices for specific applications, making the development of these devices an exciting field of research. The replacement of the former bare metal devices by devices loaded with drugs allowed the sustained and controlled release of drugs, to achieve the desired local therapeutic concentration of drug. The newer devices have been "engineered" with surfaces containing micro- and nanoscale features in a well-controlled manner, that have shown to significantly affect cellular and subcellular function of various biological systems. For example, the topography can be structured to form an antifouling surface mimicking the defense mechanisms found in nature, like the skin of the shark. In the case of bone implants, well-controlled nanostructured interfaces can promote osteoblast differentiation and matrix production, and enhance short-term and long-term osteointegration. In any case, the goal of current research is to design implants that induce controlled, guided, and rapid healing. This article reviews recent trends in the development of drug eluting devices, as well as recent developments on the micro/nanotechnology scales, and their future challenges. For this purpose medical devices have been divided according to the different systems of the body they are focused to: orthopedic devices, breathing stents, gastrointestinal and urinary systems, devices for cardiovascular diseases, neuronal implants, and wound dressings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ecological Momentary Assessments and Automated Time Series Analysis to Promote Tailored Health Care : A Proof-of-Principle Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Krieke, Lian; Emerencia, Ando C; Bos, Elisabeth H; Rosmalen, Judith Gm; Riese, Harriëtte; Aiello, Marco; Sytema, Sjoerd; de Jonge, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health promotion can be tailored by combining ecological momentary assessments (EMA) with time series analysis. This combined method allows for studying the temporal order of dynamic relationships among variables, which may provide concrete indications for intervention. However,

  11. Intimal hyperplasia and vascular remodeling after everolimus-eluting and sirolimus-eluting stent implantation in diabetic patients the randomized diabetes and drug-eluting stent (DiabeDES) IV intravascular ultrasound trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Lisbeth; Maeng, Michael; Thayssen, Per

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the everolimus-eluting Xience™/Promus™ stent (EES) and the sirolimus-eluting Cypher™ stent (SES) on intimal hyperplasia (IH) in diabetic patients. BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes mellitus have increased risk of in-stent restenosis after coronary stent...... implantation due to intimal hyperplasia (IH). METHODS: In a sub study of the Randomized Comparison of Everolimus-Eluting and Sirolimus-Eluting Stents in Patients Treated with Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (SORT OUT IV trial), serial intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) 10-month follow-up data were available...... in 88 patients, including 48 EES and 40 SES treated patients. IVUS endpoints included IH volume, in-stent % volume obstruction and changes in external elastic membrane (EEM) volume. RESULTS: Compared with the SES group, IH volume was increased in the EES group [median (interquartile range): 2.8 mm(3) (0...

  12. Separation of light lanthanons by ion exchange with ammonium acetate. Pt. 2. The influence of the conditions of elution on separation efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubicka, H.; Hubicki, W.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of concentration, pH of ammonium acetate, reaction rate, temperature, the way of chromatogram development and composition of being separated mixture upon effective distribution of light lanthanons were studied. The elution for pH 6.8 - 7.0 gives the maximum of eluent concentrations. The decrease of pH and of the initial eluent concentration may give better distributions at longer time of elution. The elution by means of ammonium acetate without yttrium in the light lanthanons concentrate may give Nd 2 O 3 of purity 99,9%. The increase of temperature (70 - 80 0 C) and the addition of ammonium salts to eluent influence unprofitably the distribution. (author)

  13. Fast Gradient Elution Reversed-Phase HPLC with Diode-Array Detection as a High Throughput Screening Method for Drugs of Abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter W. Carr; K.M. Fuller; D.R. Stoll; L.D. Steinkraus; M.S. Pasha; Glenn G. Hardin

    2005-12-30

    A new approach has been developed by modifying a conventional gradient elution liquid chromatograph for the high throughput screening of biological samples to detect the presence of regulated intoxicants. The goal of this work was to improve the speed of a gradient elution screening method over current approaches by optimizing the operational parameters of both the column and the instrument without compromising the reproducibility of the retention times, which are the basis for the identification. Most importantly, the novel instrument configuration substantially reduces the time needed to re-equilibrate the column between gradient runs, thereby reducing the total time for each analysis. The total analysis time for each gradient elution run is only 2.8 minutes, including 0.3 minutes for column reequilibration between analyses. Retention times standard calibration solutes are reproducible to better than 0.002 minutes in consecutive runs. A corrected retention index was adopted to account for day-to-day and column-to-column variations in retention time. The discriminating power and mean list length were calculated for a library of 47 intoxicants and compared with previous work from other laboratories to evaluate fast gradient elution HPLC as a screening tool.

  14. Late lumen loss and intima hyperplasia after sirolimus-eluting and zotarolimus-eluting stent implantation in diabetic patients: the diabetes and drug-eluting stent (DiabeDES III) angiography and intravascular ultrasound trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Mæng, Michael; Thayssen, Per

    2011-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus have increased risk of in-stent restenosis after coronary stent implantation due to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH). The aim of this study was to use quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and volumetric intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to evaluate the effects...... of the sirolimus-eluting Cypher® stent (SES) and the zotarolimus-eluting Endeavor® stent (ZES) on angiographic late lumen loss and intima hyperplasia in diabetic patients....

  15. D-MSR: A Distributed Network Management Scheme for Real-Time Monitoring and Process Control Applications in Wireless Industrial Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Pouria; Dilo, Arta; Havinga, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Current wireless technologies for industrial applications, such as WirelessHART and ISA100.11a, use a centralized management approach where a central network manager handles the requirements of the static network. However, such a centralized approach has several drawbacks. For example, it cannot cope with dynamicity/disturbance in large-scale networks in a real-time manner and it incurs a high communication overhead and latency for exchanging management traffic. In this paper, we therefore propose a distributed network management scheme, D-MSR. It enables the network devices to join the network, schedule their communications, establish end-to-end connections by reserving the communication resources for addressing real-time requirements, and cope with network dynamicity (e.g., node/edge failures) in a distributed manner. According to our knowledge, this is the first distributed management scheme based on IEEE 802.15.4e standard, which guides the nodes in different phases from joining until publishing their sensor data in the network. We demonstrate via simulation that D-MSR can address real-time and reliable communication as well as the high throughput requirements of industrial automation wireless networks, while also achieving higher efficiency in network management than WirelessHART, in terms of delay and overhead. PMID:23807687

  16. D-MSR: a distributed network management scheme for real-time monitoring and process control applications in wireless industrial automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Pouria; Dilo, Arta; Havinga, Paul

    2013-06-27

    Current wireless technologies for industrial applications, such as WirelessHART and ISA100.11a, use a centralized management approach where a central network manager handles the requirements of the static network. However, such a centralized approach has several drawbacks. For example, it cannot cope with dynamicity/disturbance in large-scale networks in a real-time manner and it incurs a high communication overhead and latency for exchanging management traffic. In this paper, we therefore propose a distributed network management scheme, D-MSR. It enables the network devices to join the network, schedule their communications, establish end-to-end connections by reserving the communication resources for addressing real-time requirements, and cope with network dynamicity (e.g., node/edge failures) in a distributed manner. According to our knowledge, this is the first distributed management scheme based on IEEE 802.15.4e standard, which guides the nodes in different phases from joining until publishing their sensor data in the network. We demonstrate via simulation that D-MSR can address real-time and reliable communication as well as the high throughput requirements of industrial automation wireless networks, while also achieving higher efficiency in network management than WirelessHART, in terms of delay and overhead.

  17. The stenting strategy of drug-eluting stents for coronary artery disease in patients on dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fujita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reports regarding the relationship between the length and diameter of implanted drug-eluting stents and clinical and angiographic outcomes in dialysis patients are limited. Aim: We investigated the efficiency of drug-eluting stents for coronary artery disease in patients on dialysis from the viewpoint of stent sizing. Methods: Sirolimus-eluting stents were implanted in 88 lesions and bare metal stents were implanted in 43 lesions. We compared stenting strategy, major adverse cardiac events, and angiographic results between sirolimus-eluting stent and bare metal stent groups. Results: Stent diameter was smaller and stent length was longer in the sirolimus-eluting stent group than in the bare metal stent group in our routine practices. There was no significant between-group difference in late diameter loss. Rates of angiographic restenosis and target lesion revascularization were significantly higher in the sirolimus-eluting stent group than in the bare metal stent group. Although stent length was significantly longer and stent diameter was smaller in the sirolimus-eluting stent group, sirolimus-eluting stents did not improve the subsequent clinical and angiographic results compared with bare metal stents in dialysis patients. Conclusion: In dialysis patients, a longer length and/or smaller diameter sirolimus-eluting stent implantation was associated with high rates of restenosis and target lesion revascularization compared with bare metal stents.

  18. Programmable Automated Welding System (PAWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Martin D.

    1994-01-01

    An ambitious project to develop an advanced, automated welding system is being funded as part of the Navy Joining Center with Babcock & Wilcox as the prime integrator. This program, the Programmable Automated Welding System (PAWS), involves the integration of both planning and real-time control activities. Planning functions include the development of a graphical decision support system within a standard, portable environment. Real-time control functions include the development of a modular, intelligent, real-time control system and the integration of a number of welding process sensors. This paper presents each of these components of the PAWS and discusses how they can be utilized to automate the welding operation.

  19. Radiolabeling of DOTA-like conjugated peptides with generator-produced 68Ga and using NaCl-based cationic elution method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Dirk; Breeman, Wouter A P; Klette, Ingo; Gottschaldt, Michael; Odparlik, Andreas; Baehre, Manfred; Tworowska, Izabela; Schultz, Michael K

    2017-01-01

    Gallium-68 (68Ga) is a generator-produced radionuclide with a short half-life (t½ = 68 min) that is particularly well suited for molecular imaging by positron emission tomography (PET). Methods have been developed to synthesize 68Ga-labeled imaging agents possessing certain drawbacks, such as longer synthesis time because of a required final purification step, the use of organic solvents or concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl). In our manuscript, we provide a detailed protocol for the use of an advantageous sodium chloride (NaCl)-based method for radiolabeling of chelator-modified peptides for molecular imaging. By working in a lead-shielded hot-cell system, 68Ga3+ of the generator eluate is trapped on a cation exchanger cartridge (100 mg, ∼8 mm long and 5 mm diameter) and then eluted with acidified 5 M NaCl solution directly into a sodium acetate-buffered solution containing a DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) or DOTA-like chelator-modified peptide. The main advantages of this procedure are the high efficiency and the absence of organic solvents. It can be applied to a variety of peptides, which are stable in 1 M NaCl solution at a pH value of 3–4 during reaction. After labeling, neutralization, sterile filtration and quality control (instant thin-layer chromatography (iTLC), HPLC and pH), the radiopharmaceutical can be directly administered to patients, without determination of organic solvents, which reduces the overall synthesis-to-release time. This procedure has been adapted easily to automated synthesis modules, which leads to a rapid preparation of 68Ga radiopharmaceuticals (12–16 min). PMID:27172166

  20. Selecting automation for the clinical chemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Stacy E F; Lindeman, Neal I; Jarolim, Petr

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory automation proposes to improve the quality and efficiency of laboratory operations, and may provide a solution to the quality demands and staff shortages faced by today's clinical laboratories. Several vendors offer automation systems in the United States, with both subtle and obvious differences. Arriving at a decision to automate, and the ensuing evaluation of available products, can be time-consuming and challenging. Although considerable discussion concerning the decision to automate has been published, relatively little attention has been paid to the process of evaluating and selecting automation systems. To outline a process for evaluating and selecting automation systems as a reference for laboratories contemplating laboratory automation. Our Clinical Chemistry Laboratory staff recently evaluated all major laboratory automation systems in the United States, with their respective chemistry and immunochemistry analyzers. Our experience is described and organized according to the selection process, the important considerations in clinical chemistry automation, decisions and implementation, and we give conclusions pertaining to this experience. Including the formation of a committee, workflow analysis, submitting a request for proposal, site visits, and making a final decision, the process of selecting chemistry automation took approximately 14 months. We outline important considerations in automation design, preanalytical processing, analyzer selection, postanalytical storage, and data management. Selecting clinical chemistry laboratory automation is a complex, time-consuming process. Laboratories considering laboratory automation may benefit from the concise overview and narrative and tabular suggestions provided.

  1. Evaluation of an Automated Keywording System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Linda C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of automated indexing techniques focuses on ways to statistically document improvements in the development of an automated keywording system over time. The system developed by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to automate the storage, categorization, and retrieval of information from military exercises is explained, and performance measures are…

  2. The SSABLE system - Automated archive, catalog, browse and distribution of satellite data in near-real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, James J.; Harkins, Daniel N.

    1993-01-01

    Historically, locating and browsing satellite data has been a cumbersome and expensive process. This has impeded the efficient and effective use of satellite data in the geosciences. SSABLE is a new interactive tool for the archive, browse, order, and distribution of satellite date based upon X Window, high bandwidth networks, and digital image rendering techniques. SSABLE provides for automatically constructing relational database queries to archived image datasets based on time, data, geographical location, and other selection criteria. SSABLE also provides a visual representation of the selected archived data for viewing on the user's X terminal. SSABLE is a near real-time system; for example, data are added to SSABLE's database within 10 min after capture. SSABLE is network and machine independent; it will run identically on any machine which satisfies the following three requirements: 1) has a bitmapped display (monochrome or greater); 2) is running the X Window system; and 3) is on a network directly reachable by the SSABLE system. SSABLE has been evaluated at over 100 international sites. Network response time in the United States and Canada varies between 4 and 7 s for browse image updates; reported transmission times to Europe and Australia typically are 20-25 s.

  3. Automating Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John

    2007-01-01

    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  4. Library Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Ole

    1990-01-01

    The challenges and potential benefits of automating university libraries are reviewed, with special attention given to cooperative systems. Aspects discussed include database size, the role of the university computer center, storage modes, multi-institutional systems, resource sharing, cooperative system management, networking, and intelligent…

  5. Outcome of everolimus eluting bioabsorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) compared to non BVS drug eluting stent in the management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) — A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Rabin; Patra, Soumya, E-mail: dr_soumyapatra@rediffmail.com; Banerjee, Suvro; Pande, Arindam; Khan, Aftab; Mandol, Prakash Chandra; Ghosh, Debashish; De, Swapan Kumar; Das, Sankha Subhro; Nag, Raja

    2016-04-15

    Background: The safety and efficacy of everolimus eluting bioabsorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) in the management of “ST” segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are yet to be established. Aims: To evaluate immediate and short term safety and efficacy of the everolimus-eluting ABSORB BVS compared with non BVS drug eluting stent (DES) in patients with STEMI. Methods: From December 2013 to December 2014, 220 patients with STEMI were included in this study. Among them, 35 patients treated with BVS were compared with a control group composed of 180 patients who underwent non BVS DES implantation in the same time period. The incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE: stent thrombosis: death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or target vessel/lesion revascularization) before discharge and up to six months was evaluated. Results: 1 vessel disease was more frequent whereas, 2 and 3 vessel disease was less frequent in BVS group. Procedural characteristics were also similar between groups, except for the use of post dilation (p = 0.04). Procedural success, in-hospital, and up to six-month MACE rates were similar between both groups. Definite or probable stent thrombosis did not occur (according to the ARC criteria) in BVS patients, though two patients during the index admission and another two patients in the first month after DES implantation had stent thrombosis. Conclusion: The use of the ABSORB BVS for STEMI is feasible and associated with good procedural safety, and angiographic success rate.

  6. Outcome of everolimus eluting bioabsorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) compared to non BVS drug eluting stent in the management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) — A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Rabin; Patra, Soumya; Banerjee, Suvro; Pande, Arindam; Khan, Aftab; Mandol, Prakash Chandra; Ghosh, Debashish; De, Swapan Kumar; Das, Sankha Subhro; Nag, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Background: The safety and efficacy of everolimus eluting bioabsorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) in the management of “ST” segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are yet to be established. Aims: To evaluate immediate and short term safety and efficacy of the everolimus-eluting ABSORB BVS compared with non BVS drug eluting stent (DES) in patients with STEMI. Methods: From December 2013 to December 2014, 220 patients with STEMI were included in this study. Among them, 35 patients treated with BVS were compared with a control group composed of 180 patients who underwent non BVS DES implantation in the same time period. The incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE: stent thrombosis: death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or target vessel/lesion revascularization) before discharge and up to six months was evaluated. Results: 1 vessel disease was more frequent whereas, 2 and 3 vessel disease was less frequent in BVS group. Procedural characteristics were also similar between groups, except for the use of post dilation (p = 0.04). Procedural success, in-hospital, and up to six-month MACE rates were similar between both groups. Definite or probable stent thrombosis did not occur (according to the ARC criteria) in BVS patients, though two patients during the index admission and another two patients in the first month after DES implantation had stent thrombosis. Conclusion: The use of the ABSORB BVS for STEMI is feasible and associated with good procedural safety, and angiographic success rate.

  7. Exploring the time-frequency content of high frequency oscillations for automated identification of seizure onset zone in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Sha, Zhiyi; Sencer, Altay; Aydoseli, Aydin; Bebek, Nerse; Abosch, Aviva; Henry, Thomas; Gurses, Candan; Ince, Nuri Firat

    2016-04-01

    High frequency oscillations (HFOs) in intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) recordings are considered as promising clinical biomarkers of epileptogenic regions in the brain. The aim of this study is to improve and automatize the detection of HFOs by exploring the time-frequency content of iEEG and to investigate the seizure onset zone (SOZ) detection accuracy during the sleep, awake and pre-ictal states in patients with epilepsy, for the purpose of assisting the localization of SOZ in clinical practice. Ten-minute iEEG segments were defined during different states in eight patients with refractory epilepsy. A three-stage algorithm was implemented to detect HFOs in these segments. First, an amplitude based initial detection threshold was used to generate a large pool of HFO candidates. Then distinguishing features were extracted from the time and time-frequency domain of the raw iEEG and used with a Gaussian mixture model clustering to isolate HFO events from other activities. The spatial distribution of HFO clusters was correlated with the seizure onset channels identified by neurologists in seven patient with good surgical outcome. The overlapping rates of localized channels and seizure onset locations were high in all states. The best result was obtained using the iEEG data during sleep, achieving a sensitivity of 81%, and a specificity of 96%. The channels with maximum number of HFOs identified epileptogenic areas where the seizures occurred more frequently. The current study was conducted using iEEG data collected in realistic clinical conditions without channel pre-exclusion. HFOs were investigated with novel features extracted from the entire frequency band, and were correlated with SOZ in different states. The results indicate that automatic HFO detection with unsupervised clustering methods exploring the time-frequency content of raw iEEG can be efficiently used to identify the epileptogenic zone with an accurate and efficient manner.

  8. Classification of Automated Search Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrer, Greg; Stokes, Jack W.; Chellapilla, Kumar; Platt, John C.

    As web search providers seek to improve both relevance and response times, they are challenged by the ever-increasing tax of automated search query traffic. Third party systems interact with search engines for a variety of reasons, such as monitoring a web site’s rank, augmenting online games, or possibly to maliciously alter click-through rates. In this paper, we investigate automated traffic (sometimes referred to as bot traffic) in the query stream of a large search engine provider. We define automated traffic as any search query not generated by a human in real time. We first provide examples of different categories of query logs generated by automated means. We then develop many different features that distinguish between queries generated by people searching for information, and those generated by automated processes. We categorize these features into two classes, either an interpretation of the physical model of human interactions, or as behavioral patterns of automated interactions. Using the these detection features, we next classify the query stream using multiple binary classifiers. In addition, a multiclass classifier is then developed to identify subclasses of both normal and automated traffic. An active learning algorithm is used to suggest which user sessions to label to improve the accuracy of the multiclass classifier, while also seeking to discover new classes of automated traffic. Performance analysis are then provided. Finally, the multiclass classifier is used to predict the subclass distribution for the search query stream.

  9. Neutron activation analysis of trace metallic elements eluted from molecular sieves in the dehydration process of safflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasago, Masahisa; Kobayashi, Koichi; Taru, Yasunori; Takaoka, Kyo (Musashi Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-11-01

    Dissolved water in safflower oil affects the autoxidation of this oil significantly. Molecular sieves were used to remove the dissolved water from the oil. This method is much simpler than that of distillation, and dissolved water can be removed to the same extent as that by distillation. But, due to the elution of many kinds of trace metallic elements in the oil dehydrated with molecular sieves, these elements were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. For a data comparison trace amounts of metallic elements in the oil dehydrated by distillation were also analyzed. Since the intensity of the [gamma] ray-photoelectric peak of nuclide [sup 28]Al was largest among the detected elements, this element was analyzed quantitatively and the other elements qualitatively. In safflower oil dehydrated with molecular sieves, 14 kinds of the elements (I, Br, Al, Mg, Si, V, Cl, Nd, Ta, Cr, Sb, Cs, Co, Na) were detected. Also, I, Br, Cl, Cr, Ta, Sb, and Al elements were detected in the oil dehydrated by distillation. The intensity of the photoelectric peak of nuclide except [sup 28]Al was essentially the same as that in the oil dehydrated by distillation, but the intensity of [sup 28]Al in the oil with molecular sieves was about 28 times stronger than that in distillation oil. In the molecular sieves, 19 impure elements in addition to the original constituents (Na, K, Al, si, O) were detected. It was Al, Na, Si, Nd, Cs, and Co along with impure elements may possibly have been eluted in the oil. Al element in safflower oil dehydrated with molecular sieves was analyzed quantitatively. 0.91 ppm of Al was detected in safflower oil. The eluted amount of Al in safflower oil dehydrated by distillation was 0.032 ppm. A larger amount of Al element was thus eluted into the oil dehydrated with molecular sieves than by distillation. (author).

  10. Neutron activation analysis of trace metallic elements eluted from molecular sieves in the dehydration process of safflower oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasago, Masahisa; Kobayashi, Koichi; Taru, Yasunori; Takaoka, Kyo

    1992-01-01

    Dissolved water in safflower oil affects the autoxidation of this oil significantly. Molecular sieves were used to remove the dissolved water from the oil. This method is much simpler than that of distillation, and dissolved water can be removed to the same extent as that by distillation. But, due to the elution of many kinds of trace metallic elements in the oil dehydrated with molecular sieves, these elements were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. For a data comparison trace amounts of metallic elements in the oil dehydrated by distillation were also analyzed. Since the intensity of the γ ray-photoelectric peak of nuclide 28 Al was largest among the detected elements, this element was analyzed quantitatively and the other elements qualitatively. In safflower oil dehydrated with molecular sieves, 14 kinds of the elements (I, Br, Al, Mg, Si, V, Cl, Nd, Ta, Cr, Sb, Cs, Co, Na) were detected. Also, I, Br, Cl, Cr, Ta, Sb, and Al elements were detected in the oil dehydrated by distillation. The intensity of the photoelectric peak of nuclide except 28 Al was essentially the same as that in the oil dehydrated by distillation, but the intensity of 28 Al in the oil with molecular sieves was about 28 times stronger than that in distillation oil. In the molecular sieves, 19 impure elements in addition to the original constituents (Na, K, Al, si, O) were detected. It was Al, Na, Si, Nd, Cs, and Co along with impure elements may possibly have been eluted in the oil. Al element in safflower oil dehydrated with molecular sieves was analyzed quantitatively. 0.91 ppm of Al was detected in safflower oil. The eluted amount of Al in safflower oil dehydrated by distillation was 0.032 ppm. A larger amount of Al element was thus eluted into the oil dehydrated with molecular sieves than by distillation. (author)

  11. Automated real-time search and analysis algorithms for a non-contact 3D profiling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Mark; Wu, Chih-Hang John; Beck, B. Terry; Peterman, Robert J.

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a new means of identifying and extracting geometrical feature statistics from a non-contact precision-measurement 3D profilometer. Autonomous algorithms have been developed to search through large-scale Cartesian point clouds to identify and extract geometrical features. These algorithms are developed with the intent of providing real-time production quality control of cold-rolled steel wires. The steel wires in question are prestressing steel reinforcement wires for concrete members. The geometry of the wire is critical in the performance of the overall concrete structure. For this research a custom 3D non-contact profilometry system has been developed that utilizes laser displacement sensors for submicron resolution surface profiling. Optimizations in the control and sensory system allow for data points to be collected at up to an approximate 400,000 points per second. In order to achieve geometrical feature extraction and tolerancing with this large volume of data, the algorithms employed are optimized for parsing large data quantities. The methods used provide a unique means of maintaining high resolution data of the surface profiles while keeping algorithm running times within practical bounds for industrial application. By a combination of regional sampling, iterative search, spatial filtering, frequency filtering, spatial clustering, and template matching a robust feature identification method has been developed. These algorithms provide an autonomous means of verifying tolerances in geometrical features. The key method of identifying the features is through a combination of downhill simplex and geometrical feature templates. By performing downhill simplex through several procedural programming layers of different search and filtering techniques, very specific geometrical features can be identified within the point cloud and analyzed for proper tolerancing. Being able to perform this quality control in real time

  12. Automated Ground-based Time-lapse Camera Monitoring of West Greenland ice sheet outlet Glaciers: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Y.; Box, J. E.; Balog, J.; Lewinter, A.

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring Greenland outlet glaciers using remotely sensed data has drawn a great attention in earth science communities for decades and time series analysis of sensory data has provided important variability information of glacier flow by detecting speed and thickness changes, tracking features and acquiring model input. Thanks to advancements of commercial digital camera technology and increased solid state storage, we activated automatic ground-based time-lapse camera stations with high spatial/temporal resolution in west Greenland outlet and collected one-hour interval data continuous for more than one year at some but not all sites. We believe that important information of ice dynamics are contained in these data and that terrestrial mono-/stereo-photogrammetry can provide theoretical/practical fundamentals in data processing along with digital image processing techniques. Time-lapse images over periods in west Greenland indicate various phenomenon. Problematic is rain, snow, fog, shadows, freezing of water on camera enclosure window, image over-exposure, camera motion, sensor platform drift, and fox chewing of instrument cables, and the pecking of plastic window by ravens. Other problems include: feature identification, camera orientation, image registration, feature matching in image pairs, and feature tracking. Another obstacle is that non-metric digital camera contains large distortion to be compensated for precise photogrammetric use. Further, a massive number of images need to be processed in a way that is sufficiently computationally efficient. We meet these challenges by 1) identifying problems in possible photogrammetric processes, 2) categorizing them based on feasibility, and 3) clarifying limitation and alternatives, while emphasizing displacement computation and analyzing regional/temporal variability. We experiment with mono and stereo photogrammetric techniques in the aide of automatic correlation matching for efficiently handling the enormous

  13. Application of Real-Time Automated Traffic Incident Response Plan Management System: A Web Structure for the Regional Highway Network in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic incidents, caused by various factors, may lead to heavy traffic delay and be harmful to traffic capacity of downstream sections. Traffic incident management (TIM systems have been developed widely to respond to traffic incidents intelligently and reduce the losses. Traffic incident response plans, as an important component of TIM, can effectively guide responders as to what and how to do in traffic incidents. In the paper, a real-time automated traffic incident response plan management system was developed, which could generate and manage traffic incident response plans timely and automatically. A web application structure and a physical structure were designed to implement and show these functions. A standard framework of data storage was also developed to save information about traffic incidents and generated response plans. Furthermore, a conformation survey and case-based reasoning (CBR were introduced to identify traffic incident and generate traffic incident response plans automatically, respectively. Twenty-three traffic crash-related incidents were selected and three indicators were used to measure the system performance. Results showed that 20 of 23 cases could be retrieved effectively and accurately. The system is practicable to generate traffic incident response plans and has been implemented in China.

  14. Elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography for the separation of two pairs of isomeric monoterpenes from Paeoniae Alba Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chu; Zhang, Shidi; Tong, Shengqiang; Li, Xingnuo; Li, Qingyong; Yan, Jizhong

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a simple and efficient protocol for the rapid separation of two pairs of isomeric monoterpenes from Paeoniae Alba Radix was developed by combining macroporous resin and elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography. The crude extract was firstly subjected to a D101 macroporous resin column eluted with water and a series of different concentrations of ethanol. Then, effluents of 30 and 95% ethanol were collected as sample 1 and sample 2 for further counter-current chromatography purification. Finally, a pair of isomers, 96 mg of compound 1 and 48 mg of compound 2 with purities of 91.1 and 96.2%, respectively, was isolated from 200 mg of sample 1. The other pair of isomers, 14 mg of compound 3 and 8 mg of compound 4 with purities of 93.6 and 88.9%, respectively, was isolated from 48 mg of sample 2. Their purities were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were identified by mass spectrometry and (1) H NMR spectroscopy. Compared to a normal counter-current chromatography separation, the separation time and solvent consumption of elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography were reduced while the resolutions were still good. The established protocol is promising for the separation of natural products with great disparity of content in herbal medicines. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Study of the elution {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Paula Regina Corain [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: corain.lopes@uol.com.br; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Over the last years {sup 99m}Tc has become a very important asset in modern nuclear medicine, due to the emission of gamma ray of optimal energy (140 keV) and a suitable half-life (6.04 h). A further attribute of {sup 99m}Tc is its formation from the decay of {sup 99}Mo and the availability from {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator systems. The most common and practical generator types consist of a chromatographic column packed with aluminium oxide, onto which the highly purified fission product {sup 99}Mo (imported from Canada) is adsorbed in the form of molybdate. {sup 99m}Tc is further eluted with saline solution. The objective of this work is to study the performance and the elution profile of {sup 99m}Tc from high activity generators in order to decrease molybdenum and aluminium concentration. The experiments involved the use of paper filters and Sep Pak columns and also the changing in the time interval between elutions. {sup 99}Mo breakthrough was measured using a dose calibrator and aluminium by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The best results were achieved using a Sep Pak column containing neutral aluminium oxide. (author)

  16. Study of the elution 99Mo-99mTc generators produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Paula Regina Corain; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Over the last years 99m Tc has become a very important asset in modern nuclear medicine, due to the emission of gamma ray of optimal energy (140 keV) and a suitable half-life (6.04 h). A further attribute of 99m Tc is its formation from the decay of 99 Mo and the availability from 99 Mo- 99m Tc generator systems. The most common and practical generator types consist of a chromatographic column packed with aluminium oxide, onto which the highly purified fission product 99 Mo (imported from Canada) is adsorbed in the form of molybdate. 99m Tc is further eluted with saline solution. The objective of this work is to study the performance and the elution profile of 99m Tc from high activity generators in order to decrease molybdenum and aluminium concentration. The experiments involved the use of paper filters and Sep Pak columns and also the changing in the time interval between elutions. 99 Mo breakthrough was measured using a dose calibrator and aluminium by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The best results were achieved using a Sep Pak column containing neutral aluminium oxide. (author)

  17. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Paraffin-Embedded Tissues by the New Automated Abbott RealTime MTB Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yung-Chieh; Liao, I-Chuang; Chen, Hung-Mo; Yan, Jing-Jou

    2016-07-01

    The Abbott RealTime MTB assay, launched in June 2014, has been shown to have a competitive performance in the detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex in respiratory specimens. The present study was conducted to investigate the usefulness of the Abbott MTB Realtime assay in the detection of MTB in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. A total of 96 FFPE specimens obtained from microbiologically proven MTB cases (N=60) and nontuberculous Mycobacterium cases (N=36) were analyzed. The performance of the Abbott MTB Realtime assay was compared with that of the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB assay. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott assay were 63.3% and 97.2%, respectively, compared with 11.7% and 100% for the Cobas assay. The detection rate of the Abbott assay was much higher among 37 acid-fast-positive specimens than among 23 acid-fast-negative specimens (89.3% versus 21.7%, respectively). The detection rate of the assay was higher among 29 resection specimens than among 31 small biopsy specimens (86.2% versus 41.9%, respectively). Our results suggest that the Abbott RealTime MTB assay can be used to differentiate MTB from nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in acid-fast-positive FFPE tissues. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  18. Automated Land Cover Change Detection and Mapping from Hidden Parameter Estimates of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Time-Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, S.; Banerjee, A.; Gupta, S. K. S.; Christensen, P. R.; Papandreou-Suppappola, A.

    2017-12-01

    Multitemporal observations acquired frequently by satellites with short revisit periods such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), is an important source for modeling land cover. Due to the inherent seasonality of the land cover, harmonic modeling reveals hidden state parameters characteristic to it, which is used in classifying different land cover types and in detecting changes due to natural or anthropogenic factors. In this work, we use an eight day MODIS composite to create a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time-series of ten years. Improved hidden parameter estimates of the nonlinear harmonic NDVI model are obtained using the Particle Filter (PF), a sequential Monte Carlo estimator. The nonlinear estimation based on PF is shown to improve parameter estimation for different land cover types compared to existing techniques that use the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), due to linearization of the harmonic model. As these parameters are representative of a given land cover, its applicability in near real-time detection of land cover change is also studied by formulating a metric that captures parameter deviation due to change. The detection methodology is evaluated by considering change as a rare class problem. This approach is shown to detect change with minimum delay. Additionally, the degree of change within the change perimeter is non-uniform. By clustering the deviation in parameters due to change, this spatial variation in change severity is effectively mapped and validated with high spatial resolution change maps of the given regions.

  19. Determinants of protein elution rates from preparative ion-exchange adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, James M; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2016-04-01

    The rate processes involved in elution in preparative chromatography can affect both peak resolution and hence selectivity as well as practical factors such as facility fit. These processes depend on the physical structure of the adsorbent particles, the amount of bound solute, the solution conditions for operation or some combination of these factors. Ion-exchange adsorbents modified with covalently attached or grafted polymer layers have become widely used in preparative chromatography. Their often easily accessible microstructures offer substantial binding capacities for biomolecules, but elution has sometimes been observed to be undesirably slow. In order to determine which physicochemical phenomena control elution behavior, commercially available cellulosic, dextran-grafted and unmodified agarose materials were characterized here by their elution profiles at various conditions, including different degrees of loading. Elution data were analyzed under the assumption of purely diffusion-limited control, including the role of pore structure properties such as porosity and tortuosity. In general, effective elution rates decreased with the reduction of accessible pore volume, but differences among different proteins indicated the roles of additional factors. Additional measurements and analysis, including the use of confocal laser scanning microscopy to observe elution within single chromatographic particles, indicated the importance of protein association within the particle during elution. The use of protein stabilizing agents was explored in systems presenting atypical elution behavior, and l-arginine and disaccharide excipients were shown to alleviate the effects for one protein, lysozyme, in the presence of sodium chloride. Incorporation of these excipients into eluent buffer gave rise to faster elution and significantly lower pool volumes in elution from polymer-modified adsorbents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 2-year clinical outcomes after implantation of sirolimus-eluting, paclitaxel-eluting, and bare-metal coronary stents: results from the WDHR (Western Denmark Heart Registry)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Anne; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Maeng, Michael

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This registry study assessed the safety and efficacy of the 2 types of drug-eluting stents (DES), sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) and paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES), compared with bare-metal stents (BMS). BACKGROUND: Drug-eluting stents may increase the risk of stent thrombosis (ST...... databases. We used Cox regression analysis to control for confounding. RESULTS: The 2-year incidence of definite ST was 0.64% in BMS patients, 0.79% in DES patients (adjusted relative risk [RR]: 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.72 to 1.65), 0.50% in SES patients (adjusted RR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.35 to 1...

  1. Development of DNA elution method to detect irradiated foodstuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copin, M.P.; Bourgeois, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the work is to develop a reliable method to detect whether a fresh and frozen foodstuff has been irradiated. The molecule of DNA is one of the targets of ionizing radiation. The induction of three major classes of lesion have been shown. Double strand breaks, single strand breaks and base damage. Among the different techniques used to observe and quantify the strand breaks, techniques of elution are very interesting. The method proposed consisted of a filtration of the DNA at the atmospheric pressure and in non denaturing conditions. The amount of DNA retained on the filter is measured after being suitably labelled by microfluorometry. A difference in the amount of DNA retained on a filter of 2 μm from a lysed muscular tissue sample between a frozen Norway lobster which has been irradiated and one which has not, is observed. 7 refs

  2. Alkaline elution of uranium and molybdenum and their recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Wenlan; Wu Peisheng; Zhao Pinzhi; Tao Dening; Xie Chaoyan

    1987-01-01

    The uranium and molybdenum can be simultaneously eluted by using eluant (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 + (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 from resin loaded uranium and molybdenum. The ADU is precipitated from eluant by volatilization of ammonia. The molybdenum is extracted by TFA-TBP-kerosene from the filtrate at pH 3.0-3.2 with molybdenum extraction > 98%. Uranium is nearly not extracted. The precipitation of Mo is reached by sulphuric acid after stripping and the ammonium multimolybdate is obtained. This process can give the total recovery more than 99% for U and 90% for Mo. Because of the use of sulphate salt system, the hazard of NO 3 - can be avoided

  3. Quantitation of radiolabeled compounds eluting from the HPLC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Three techniques are compared for the quantitation of various radiolabeled compounds eluting in the high performance liquid chromatography system. The first technique requires fraction-collecting the effluent from the HPLC, removing an aliquot to scintillation vials, and counting each fraction in a liquid scintillation counter. The second uses direct interface of the HPLC effluent to a flow-through radioactivity detector. The third involves quantitation of various radiolabeled compounds (proteins, steroids, and nucleotides) by splitting the effluent from the HPLC with an electronic steam splitter, thus diverting a present portion to the fraction collector for further chemical characterization and the remainder to the radioactivity flow detector for direct quantitation. A direct comparison of the chromatograms and the radioactivity counting efficiencies of these three techniques is presented

  4. Drug-eluting stents to prevent stent thrombosis and restenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eui; Hong, Myeong-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Although first-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) have significantly reduced the risk of in-stent restenosis, they have also increased the long-term risk of stent thrombosis. This safety concern directly triggered the development of new generation DES, with innovations in stent platforms, polymers, and anti-proliferative drugs. Stent platform materials have evolved from stainless steel to cobalt or platinum-chromium alloys with an improved strut design. Drug-carrying polymers have become biocompatible or biodegradable and even polymer-free DES were introduced. New limus-family drugs (such as everolimus, zotarolimus or biolimus) were adopted to enhance stent performances. As a result, these new DES demonstrated superior vascular healing responses on intracoronary imaging studies and lower stent thrombotic events in actual patients. Recently, fully-bioresorbable stents (scaffolds) have been introduced, and expanding their applications. In this article, the important concepts and clinical results of new generation DES and bioresorbable scaffolds are described.

  5. Spectral matching techniques (SMTs) and automated cropland classification algorithms (ACCAs) for mapping croplands of Australia using MODIS 250-m time-series (2000–2015) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Xiong, Jun N.; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Congalton, Russell G.; Oliphant, Adam; Poehnelt, Justin; Yadav, Kamini; Rao, Mahesh N.; Massey, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Mapping croplands, including fallow areas, are an important measure to determine the quantity of food that is produced, where they are produced, and when they are produced (e.g. seasonality). Furthermore, croplands are known as water guzzlers by consuming anywhere between 70% and 90% of all human water use globally. Given these facts and the increase in global population to nearly 10 billion by the year 2050, the need for routine, rapid, and automated cropland mapping year-after-year and/or season-after-season is of great importance. The overarching goal of this study was to generate standard and routine cropland products, year-after-year, over very large areas through the use of two novel methods: (a) quantitative spectral matching techniques (QSMTs) applied at continental level and (b) rule-based Automated Cropland Classification Algorithm (ACCA) with the ability to hind-cast, now-cast, and future-cast. Australia was chosen for the study given its extensive croplands, rich history of agriculture, and yet nonexistent routine yearly generated cropland products using multi-temporal remote sensing. This research produced three distinct cropland products using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250-m normalized difference vegetation index 16-day composite time-series data for 16 years: 2000 through 2015. The products consisted of: (1) cropland extent/areas versus cropland fallow areas, (2) irrigated versus rainfed croplands, and (3) cropping intensities: single, double, and continuous cropping. An accurate reference cropland product (RCP) for the year 2014 (RCP2014) produced using QSMT was used as a knowledge base to train and develop the ACCA algorithm that was then applied to the MODIS time-series data for the years 2000–2015. A comparison between the ACCA-derived cropland products (ACPs) for the year 2014 (ACP2014) versus RCP2014 provided an overall agreement of 89.4% (kappa = 0.814) with six classes: (a) producer’s accuracies varying

  6. Automated Inadvertent Intruder Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koffman, Larry D.; Lee, Patricia L.; Cook, James R.; Wilhite, Elmer L.

    2008-01-01

    The Environmental Analysis and Performance Modeling group of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducts performance assessments of the Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level waste facilities to meet the requirements of DOE Order 435.1. These performance assessments, which result in limits on the amounts of radiological substances that can be placed in the waste disposal facilities, consider numerous potential exposure pathways that could occur in the future. One set of exposure scenarios, known as inadvertent intruder analysis, considers the impact on hypothetical individuals who are assumed to inadvertently intrude onto the waste disposal site. Inadvertent intruder analysis considers three distinct scenarios for exposure referred to as the agriculture scenario, the resident scenario, and the post-drilling scenario. Each of these scenarios has specific exposure pathways that contribute to the overall dose for the scenario. For the inadvertent intruder analysis, the calculation of dose for the exposure pathways is a relatively straightforward algebraic calculation that utilizes dose conversion factors. Prior to 2004, these calculations were performed using an Excel spreadsheet. However, design checks of the spreadsheet calculations revealed that errors could be introduced inadvertently when copying spreadsheet formulas cell by cell and finding these errors was tedious and time consuming. This weakness led to the specification of functional requirements to create a software application that would automate the calculations for inadvertent intruder analysis using a controlled source of input parameters. This software application, named the Automated Inadvertent Intruder Application, has undergone rigorous testing of the internal calculations and meets software QA requirements. The Automated Inadvertent Intruder Application was intended to replace the previous spreadsheet analyses with an automated application that was verified to produce the same calculations and

  7. A Smartphone Application to Reduce the Time to Automated External Defibrillator Delivery After a Witnessed Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Randomized Simulation-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Toshihiro; Nishiyama, Chika; Shimamoto, Tomonari; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Kiguchi, Takeyuki; Chida, Izumi; Izawa, Junichi; Matsuyama, Tasuku; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kawamura, Takashi; Iwami, Taku

    2018-04-13

    We developed a new smartphone application to deliver an automated external defibrillator (AED) to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest scene. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an AED could be delivered earlier with or without an application in a simulated randomized controlled trial. Participants, who were asked to work as bystanders, were randomly assigned to either an application group or control group and were asked to bring an AED in both groups. The bystanders in the application group sent a signal notification using the application to two responders, who were stationed within 200 meters of the arrest scene, to carry an AED. The primary outcome was the AED delivery time by either the bystander or his/her responder. In total, 61 bystanders were eligible and randomized to either the application group (32) or the control group (29). The 52 with time data were available and analyzed. The AED delivery time by either the bystander or his/her responder was significantly shorter in the application group than in the control group [133.6 (44.4) seconds vs. 202.2 (122.2) seconds, P = 0.01]. In this simulation-based trial, AED delivery time was shortened by our newly developed smartphone application for the bystander to ask nearby responders to find and bring an AED to the cardiac arrest scene (UMIN-Clinical Trials Registry 000016506).This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  8. Global, Persistent, Real-time Multi-sensor Automated Satellite Image Analysis and Crop Forecasting in Commercial Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumby, S. P.; Warren, M. S.; Keisler, R.; Chartrand, R.; Skillman, S.; Franco, E.; Kontgis, C.; Moody, D.; Kelton, T.; Mathis, M.

    2016-12-01

    Cloud computing, combined with recent advances in machine learning for computer vision, is enabling understanding of the world at a scale and at a level of space and time granularity never before feasible. Multi-decadal Earth remote sensing datasets at the petabyte scale (8×10^15 bits) are now available in commercial cloud, and new satellite constellations will generate daily global coverage at a few meters per pixel. Public and commercial satellite observations now provide a wide range of sensor modalities, from traditional visible/infrared to dual-polarity synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This provides the opportunity to build a continuously updated map of the world supporting the academic community and decision-makers in government, finanace and industry. We report on work demonstrating country-scale agricultural forecasting, and global-scale land cover/land, use mapping using a range of public and commercial satellite imagery. We describe processing over a petabyte of compressed raw data from 2.8 quadrillion pixels (2.8 petapixels) acquired by the US Landsat and MODIS programs over the past 40 years. Using commodity cloud computing resources, we convert the imagery to a calibrated, georeferenced, multiresolution tiled format suited for machine-learning analysis. We believe ours is the first application to process, in less than a day, on generally available resources, over a petabyte of scientific image data. We report on work combining this imagery with time-series SAR collected by ESA Sentinel 1. We report on work using this reprocessed dataset for experiments demonstrating country-scale food production monitoring, an indicator for famine early warning. We apply remote sensing science and machine learning algorithms to detect and classify agricultural crops and then estimate crop yields and detect threats to food security (e.g., flooding, drought). The software platform and analysis methodology also support monitoring water resources, forests and other general

  9. Real-Time Analysis of a Sensor's Data for Automated Decision Making in an IoT-Based Smart Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nida Saddaf; Ghani, Sayeed; Haider, Sajjad

    2018-05-25

    IoT devices frequently generate large volumes of streaming data and in order to take advantage of this data, their temporal patterns must be learned and identified. Streaming data analysis has become popular after being successfully used in many applications including forecasting electricity load, stock market prices, weather conditions, etc. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been successfully utilized in understanding the embedded interesting patterns/behaviors in the data and forecasting the future values based on it. One such pattern is modelled and learned in the present study to identify the occurrence of a specific pattern in a Water Management System (WMS). This prediction aids in making an automatic decision support system, to switch OFF a hydraulic suction pump at the appropriate time. Three types of ANN, namely Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO), Multi-Input Single-Output (MISO), and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) have been compared, for multi-step-ahead forecasting, on a sensor's streaming data. Experiments have shown that RNN has the best performance among three models and based on its prediction, a system can be implemented to make the best decision with 86% accuracy.

  10. Sequential injection analysis for automation of the Winkler methodology, with real-time SIMPLEX optimization and shipboard application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horstkotte, Burkhard; Tovar Sanchez, Antonio; Duarte, Carlos M. [Department of Global Change Research, IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB) Institut Mediterrani d' Estudis Avancats, Miquel Marques 21, 07190 Esporles (Spain); Cerda, Victor, E-mail: Victor.Cerda@uib.es [University of the Balearic Islands, Department of Chemistry Carreterra de Valldemossa km 7.5, 07011 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2010-01-25

    A multipurpose analyzer system based on sequential injection analysis (SIA) for the determination of dissolved oxygen (DO) in seawater is presented. Three operation modes were established and successfully applied onboard during a research cruise in the Southern ocean: 1st, in-line execution of the entire Winkler method including precipitation of manganese (II) hydroxide, fixation of DO, precipitate dissolution by confluent acidification, and spectrophotometric quantification of the generated iodine/tri-iodide (I{sub 2}/I{sub 3}{sup -}), 2nd, spectrophotometric quantification of I{sub 2}/I{sub 3}{sup -} in samples prepared according the classical Winkler protocol, and 3rd, accurate batch-wise titration of I{sub 2}/I{sub 3}{sup -} with thiosulfate using one syringe pump of the analyzer as automatic burette. In the first mode, the zone stacking principle was applied to achieve high dispersion of the reagent solutions in the sample zone. Spectrophotometric detection was done at the isobestic wavelength 466 nm of I{sub 2}/I{sub 3}{sup -}. Highly reduced consumption of reagents and sample compared to the classical Winkler protocol, linear response up to 16 mg L{sup -1} DO, and an injection frequency of 30 per hour were achieved. It is noteworthy that for the offline protocol, sample metering and quantification with a potentiometric titrator lasts in general over 5 min without counting sample fixation, incubation, and glassware cleaning. The modified SIMPLEX methodology was used for the simultaneous optimization of four volumetric and two chemical variables. Vertex calculation and consequent application including in-line preparation of one reagent was carried out in real-time using the software AutoAnalysis. The analytical system featured high signal stability, robustness, and a repeatability of 3% RSD (1st mode) and 0.8% (2nd mode) during shipboard application.

  11. Sequential injection analysis for automation of the Winkler methodology, with real-time SIMPLEX optimization and shipboard application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstkotte, Burkhard; Tovar Sanchez, Antonio; Duarte, Carlos M.; Cerda, Victor

    2010-01-01

    A multipurpose analyzer system based on sequential injection analysis (SIA) for the determination of dissolved oxygen (DO) in seawater is presented. Three operation modes were established and successfully applied onboard during a research cruise in the Southern ocean: 1st, in-line execution of the entire Winkler method including precipitation of manganese (II) hydroxide, fixation of DO, precipitate dissolution by confluent acidification, and spectrophotometric quantification of the generated iodine/tri-iodide (I 2 /I 3 - ), 2nd, spectrophotometric quantification of I 2 /I 3 - in samples prepared according the classical Winkler protocol, and 3rd, accurate batch-wise titration of I 2 /I 3 - with thiosulfate using one syringe pump of the analyzer as automatic burette. In the first mode, the zone stacking principle was applied to achieve high dispersion of the reagent solutions in the sample zone. Spectrophotometric detection was done at the isobestic wavelength 466 nm of I 2 /I 3 - . Highly reduced consumption of reagents and sample compared to the classical Winkler protocol, linear response up to 16 mg L -1 DO, and an injection frequency of 30 per hour were achieved. It is noteworthy that for the offline protocol, sample metering and quantification with a potentiometric titrator lasts in general over 5 min without counting sample fixation, incubation, and glassware cleaning. The modified SIMPLEX methodology was used for the simultaneous optimization of four volumetric and two chemical variables. Vertex calculation and consequent application including in-line preparation of one reagent was carried out in real-time using the software AutoAnalysis. The analytical system featured high signal stability, robustness, and a repeatability of 3% RSD (1st mode) and 0.8% (2nd mode) during shipboard application.

  12. Drug-eluting stents studies in mice: Do we need atherosclerosis to study restenosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pires, N.M.M.; Jukema, J.W.; Daemen, M.J.A.P.; Quax, P.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, the first human study with drug-eluting stents (DES) was published showing a nearly complete abolition of restenosis by using a sirolimus-eluting stent. This success was very encouraging to test new compounds in combination with the DES platform. Nevertheless, several other anti-restenotic

  13. Possibility of obtaining enriched americium-242g by the elution of recoil atoms from zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiev, A I; Vityutnev, V M; Ivanov, V M; Yakovlev, G N

    1974-12-31

    On the example of production the possibility of obtaining enriched actinide isotopes by the elution of recotl atoms with the use of a zeolite- americium-241 target was shown. The enrichment factor and the recoil atoms of / sup 242g/Am yield depend on preliminary target treatment and solution composition used for elution. (auth)

  14. Elution behavior of heavy metals from cement solidified products of incinerated ash waste - 59102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, Yoshihiro; Kawato, Yoshimi; Nakayama, Takuya; Tomioka, Osamu; Mitsuda, Motoyuki

    2012-01-01

    A method, in which incinerated ash is solidified with a cement material, has been developed to dispose radioactive incinerated ash waste. In order to bury the solidified product, it is required that elution of hazardous heavy metals included in the ash from the solidified products is inhibited. In this study, the elution behavior of the heavy metals from the synthetic solidified products, which included Pb(II), Cd(II), and Cr(VI) and were prepared using ordinary portland cement (OPC), blast furnace slag cement (BFS), or a cement material that showed low alkalinity (LA-Cement), was investigated. Several chemicals and materials were added as additive agents to prevent the elution of the heavy metals. When OPC was used, Cd elution was inhibited, but Pb and Cr were not enough even using the additive agent examined. FeSO 4 and Na 2 S additive agents worked effective to inhibit elution of Cr. When BFS was used, the elution of Pb, Cd and Cr was inhibited for the all products prepared. In the case of LA-Cement, the elution of Pb and Cd was inhibited for the all products, but only the product that was added FeSO 4 showed good result of the elution of Cr. (authors)

  15. Cefoperazone and cefoperazone-sulbactam susceptibility tests with anaerobic bacteria by the thioglycolate disk elution method.

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, A L; Packer, R R; Jones, R N

    1985-01-01

    Tests were performed with 104 anaerobic microorganisms to evaluate the thioglycolate disk elution technique for the detection of resistance to cefoperazone and cefoperazone-sulbactam. An unacceptably high false-resistance rate and a poor reproducibility record make the disk elution procedure unsatisfactory for routine testing of this drug or combination of drugs.

  16. Alternative sample-introduction technique to avoid breakthrough in gradient-elution liquid chromatography of polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reingruber, E.; Bedani, F.; Buchberger, W.; Schoenmakers, P.

    2010-01-01

    Gradient-elution liquid chromatography (GELC) is a powerful tool for the characterization of synthetic polymers. However, gradient-elution chromatograms often suffer from breakthrough phenomena. Breakthrough can be averted by using a sample solvent as weak as the mobile phase. However, this approach

  17. Patient-rated health status predicts prognosis following percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Versteeg, Henneke; Denollet, Johan

    2011-01-01

    In patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with the paclitaxel-eluting stent, we examined whether patient-rated health status predicts adverse clinical events.......In patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with the paclitaxel-eluting stent, we examined whether patient-rated health status predicts adverse clinical events....

  18. Quasi-experimental trial of diabetes Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support (SMARTSteps in a Medicaid managed care plan: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratanawongsa Neda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health information technology can enhance self-management and quality of life for patients with chronic disease and overcome healthcare barriers for patients with limited English proficiency. After a randomized controlled trial of a multilingual automated telephone self-management support program (ATSM improved patient-centered dimensions of diabetes care in safety net clinics, we collaborated with a nonprofit Medicaid managed care plan to translate research into practice, offering ATSM as a covered benefit and augmenting ATSM to promote medication activation. This paper describes the protocol of the Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support Project (SMARTSteps. Methods/Design This controlled quasi-experimental trial used a wait-list variant of a stepped wedge design to enroll 362 adult health plan members with diabetes who speak English, Cantonese, or Spanish and receive care at 4 publicly-funded clinics. Through language-stratified randomization, participants were assigned to four intervention statuses: SMARTSteps-ONLY, SMARTSteps-PLUS, or wait-list for either intervention. In addition to usual primary care, intervention participants received 27 weekly calls in their preferred language with rotating queries and response-triggered education about self-care, medication adherence, safety concerns, psychological issues, and preventive services. Health coaches from the health plan called patients with out-of-range responses for collaborative goal setting and action planning. SMARTSteps-PLUS also included health coach calls to promote medication activation, adherence and intensification, if triggered by ATSM-reported non-adherence, refill non-adherence from pharmacy claims, or suboptimal cardiometabolic indicators. Wait-list patients crossed-over to SMARTSteps-ONLY or -PLUS at 6 months. For participants who agreed to structured telephone interviews at baseline and 6 months (n = 252, primary outcomes will be

  19. Quasi-experimental trial of diabetes Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support (SMARTSteps) in a Medicaid managed care plan: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Health information technology can enhance self-management and quality of life for patients with chronic disease and overcome healthcare barriers for patients with limited English proficiency. After a randomized controlled trial of a multilingual automated telephone self-management support program (ATSM) improved patient-centered dimensions of diabetes care in safety net clinics, we collaborated with a nonprofit Medicaid managed care plan to translate research into practice, offering ATSM as a covered benefit and augmenting ATSM to promote medication activation. This paper describes the protocol of the Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support Project (SMARTSteps). Methods/Design This controlled quasi-experimental trial used a wait-list variant of a stepped wedge design to enroll 362 adult health plan members with diabetes who speak English, Cantonese, or Spanish and receive care at 4 publicly-funded clinics. Through language-stratified randomization, participants were assigned to four intervention statuses: SMARTSteps-ONLY, SMARTSteps-PLUS, or wait-list for either intervention. In addition to usual primary care, intervention participants received 27 weekly calls in their preferred language with rotating queries and response-triggered education about self-care, medication adherence, safety concerns, psychological issues, and preventive services. Health coaches from the health plan called patients with out-of-range responses for collaborative goal setting and action planning. SMARTSteps-PLUS also included health coach calls to promote medication activation, adherence and intensification, if triggered by ATSM-reported non-adherence, refill non-adherence from pharmacy claims, or suboptimal cardiometabolic indicators. Wait-list patients crossed-over to SMARTSteps-ONLY or -PLUS at 6 months. For participants who agreed to structured telephone interviews at baseline and 6 months (n = 252), primary outcomes will be changes in quality of life and

  20. Quasi-experimental trial of diabetes Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support (SMARTSteps) in a Medicaid managed care plan: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanawongsa, Neda; Handley, Margaret A; Quan, Judy; Sarkar, Urmimala; Pfeifer, Kelly; Soria, Catalina; Schillinger, Dean

    2012-01-26

    Health information technology can enhance self-management and quality of life for patients with chronic disease and overcome healthcare barriers for patients with limited English proficiency. After a randomized controlled trial of a multilingual automated telephone self-management support program (ATSM) improved patient-centered dimensions of diabetes care in safety net clinics, we collaborated with a nonprofit Medicaid managed care plan to translate research into practice, offering ATSM as a covered benefit and augmenting ATSM to promote medication activation. This paper describes the protocol of the Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support Project (SMARTSteps). This controlled quasi-experimental trial used a wait-list variant of a stepped wedge design to enroll 362 adult health plan members with diabetes who speak English, Cantonese, or Spanish and receive care at 4 publicly-funded clinics. Through language-stratified randomization, participants were assigned to four intervention statuses: SMARTSteps-ONLY, SMARTSteps-PLUS, or wait-list for either intervention. In addition to usual primary care, intervention participants received 27 weekly calls in their preferred language with rotating queries and response-triggered education about self-care, medication adherence, safety concerns, psychological issues, and preventive services. Health coaches from the health plan called patients with out-of-range responses for collaborative goal setting and action planning. SMARTSteps-PLUS also included health coach calls to promote medication activation, adherence and intensification, if triggered by ATSM-reported non-adherence, refill non-adherence from pharmacy claims, or suboptimal cardiometabolic indicators. Wait-list patients crossed-over to SMARTSteps-ONLY or -PLUS at 6 months. For participants who agreed to structured telephone interviews at baseline and 6 months (n = 252), primary outcomes will be changes in quality of life and functional status with

  1. Quantification of Parvovirus B19 DNA Using COBAS AmpliPrep Automated Sample Preparation and LightCycler Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorling, Stefan; Schalasta, Gunnar; Enders, Gisela; Zauke, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The COBAS AmpliPrep instrument (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, D-68305 Mannheim, Germany) automates the entire sample preparation process of nucleic acid isolation from serum or plasma for polymerase chain reaction analysis. We report the analytical performance of the LightCycler Parvovirus B19 Quantification Kit (Roche Diagnostics) using nucleic acids isolated with the COBAS AmpliPrep instrument. Nucleic acids were extracted using the Total Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit (Roche Diagnostics) and amplified with the LightCycler Parvovirus B19 Quantification Kit. The kit combination processes 72 samples per 8-hour shift. The lower detection limit is 234 IU/ml at a 95% hit-rate, linear range approximately 104-1010 IU/ml, and overall precision 16 to 40%. Relative sensitivity and specificity in routine samples from pregnant women are 100% and 93%, respectively. Identification of a persistent parvovirus B19-infected individual by the polymerase chain reaction among 51 anti-parvovirus B19 IgM-negative samples underlines the importance of additional nucleic acid testing in pregnancy and its superiority to serology in identifying the risk of parvovirus B19 transmission via blood or blood products. Combination of the Total Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit on the COBAS AmpliPrep instrument with the LightCycler Parvovirus B19 Quantification Kit provides a reliable and time-saving tool for sensitive and accurate detection of parvovirus B19 DNA. PMID:14736825

  2. Remote-Sensing and Automated Water Resources Tracking: Near Real-Time Decision Support for Water Managers Facing Drought and Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M. E.; Elliott, N.; Veloz, S.; Love, F.; Moody, D.; Hickey, C.; Fitzgibbon, M.; Reynolds, M.; Esralew, R.

    2016-12-01

    Innovative approaches for tracking the Earth's natural resources, especially water which is essential for all living things, are essential during a time of rapid environmental change. The Central Valley is a nexus for water resources in California, draining the Sacramento and San Joaquin River watersheds. The distribution of water throughout California and the Central Valley, while dynamic, is highly managed through an extensive regional network of canals, levees, and pumps. Water allocation and delivery is determined through a complex set of rules based on water contracts, historic priority, and other California water policies. Furthermore, urban centers, agriculture, and the environment throughout the state are already competing for water, particularly during drought. Competition for water is likely to intensify as California is projected to experience continued increases in demand due to population growth and more arid growing conditions, while also having reduced or modified water supply due to climate change. As a result, it is difficult to understand or predict how water will be used to fulfill wildlife and wetland conservation needs. A better understanding of the spatial distribution of water in near real-time can facilitate adaptation of water resource management to changing conditions on the landscape, both over the near- and long-term. The Landsat satellite mission delivers imagery every 16-days from nearly every place on the earth at a high spatial resolution. We have integrated remote sensing of satellite data, classification modeling, bioinformatics, optimization, and ecological analyses to develop an automated near real-time water resources tracking and decision-support system for the Central Valley of California. Our innovative system has applications for coordinated water management in the Central Valley to support people, places, and wildlife and is being used to understand the factors that drive variation in the distribution and abundance of water

  3. Selective elution of HLA antigens and beta 2-microglobulin from human platelets by chloroquine diphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    To determine whether chloroquine can specifically elute HLA antigens and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) from the platelet surface, quantitative immunofluorescence flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies were used to show that HLA antigens and beta 2-M were proportionally eluted from the platelet surface without affecting the membrane glycoproteins IIb and IIIa. Second, an autoradiogram of electrophoresed I-125-labeled platelets showed that only beta 2-M but not other I-125-labeled membrane proteins could be eluted. Although HLA antigens were poorly labeled by I-125 and could not be detected on the autoradiogram, the eluted HLA antigens could be detected by anti-HLA monoclonal antibody and immunoblotting techniques. No loss of plasma membrane integrity was observed by transmission electron microscopy after chloroquine treatment of platelets. The results indicate that chloroquine selectively elutes HLA antigens and their noncovalently associated beta 2-M without affecting other integral platelet membrane proteins

  4. Long-Term Safety of Drug-Eluting and Bare-Metal Stents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmerini, Tullio; Benedetto, Umberto; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous meta-analyses have investigated the relative safety and efficacy profiles of different types of drug-eluting stents (DES) and bare-metal stents (BMS); however, most prior trials in these meta-analyses reported follow-up to only 1 year, and as such, the relative long-term safety....... RESULTS: Fifty-one trials that included a total of 52,158 randomized patients with follow-up duration ≥3 years were analyzed. At a median follow-up of 3.8 years, cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents (EES) were associated with lower rates of mortality, definite stent thrombosis (ST), and myocardial...... infarction than BMS, paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES), and sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) and less ST than BES. Phosphorylcholine-based zotarolimus-eluting stents had lower rates of definite ST than SES and lower rates of myocardial infarction than BMS and PES. The late rates of target...

  5. Optimization of automation: III. Development of optimization method for determining automation rate in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Man Cheol; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose an appropriate automation rate that enables the best human performance. • We analyze the shortest working time considering Situation Awareness Recovery (SAR). • The optimized automation rate is estimated by integrating the automation and ostracism rate estimation methods. • The process to derive the optimized automation rate is demonstrated through case studies. - Abstract: Automation has been introduced in various industries, including the nuclear field, because it is commonly believed that automation promises greater efficiency, lower workloads, and fewer operator errors through reducing operator errors and enhancing operator and system performance. However, the excessive introduction of automation has deteriorated operator performance due to the side effects of automation, which are referred to as Out-of-the-Loop (OOTL), and this is critical issue that must be resolved. Thus, in order to determine the optimal level of automation introduction that assures the best human operator performance, a quantitative method of optimizing the automation is proposed in this paper. In order to propose the optimization method for determining appropriate automation levels that enable the best human performance, the automation rate and ostracism rate, which are estimation methods that quantitatively analyze the positive and negative effects of automation, respectively, are integrated. The integration was conducted in order to derive the shortest working time through considering the concept of situation awareness recovery (SAR), which states that the automation rate with the shortest working time assures the best human performance. The process to derive the optimized automation rate is demonstrated through an emergency operation scenario-based case study. In this case study, four types of procedures are assumed through redesigning the original emergency operating procedure according to the introduced automation and ostracism levels. Using the

  6. Interpretation Time Using a Concurrent-Read Computer-Aided Detection System for Automated Breast Ultrasound in Breast Cancer Screening of Women With Dense Breast Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yulei; Inciardi, Marc F; Edwards, Alexandra V; Papaioannou, John

    2018-05-24

    The purpose of this study was to compare diagnostic accuracy and interpretation time of screening automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) for women with dense breast tissue without and with use of a recently U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved computer-aided detection (CAD) system for concurrent read. In a retrospective observer performance study, 18 radiologists interpreted a cancer-enriched set (i.e., cancer prevalence higher than in the original screening cohort) of 185 screening ABUS studies (52 with and 133 without breast cancer). These studies were from a large cohort of ABUS screened patients interpreted as BI-RADS density C or D. Each reader interpreted each case twice in a counterbalanced study, once without the CAD system and once with it, separated by 4 weeks. For each case, each reader identified abnormal findings and reported BI-RADS assessment category and level of suspicion for breast cancer. Interpretation time was recorded. Level of suspicion data were compared to evaluate diagnostic accuracy by means of the Dorfman-Berbaum-Metz method of jackknife with ANOVA ROC analysis. Interpretation times were compared by ANOVA. The ROC AUC was 0.848 with the CAD system, compared with 0.828 without it, for a difference of 0.020 (95% CI, -0.011 to 0.051) and was statistically noninferior to the AUC without the CAD system with respect to a margin of -0.05 (p = 0.000086). The mean interpretation time was 3 minutes 33 seconds per case without the CAD system and 2 minutes 24 seconds with it, for a difference of 1 minute 9 seconds saved (95% CI, 44-93 seconds; p = 0.000014), or a reduction in interpretation time to 67% of the time without the CAD system. Use of the concurrent-read CAD system for interpretation of screening ABUS studies of women with dense breast tissue who do not have symptoms is expected to make interpretation significantly faster and produce noninferior diagnostic accuracy compared with interpretation without the CAD system.

  7. Improving the driver-automation interaction: an approach using automation uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Johannes; Heesen, Matthias; Vollrath, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether communicating automation uncertainty improves the driver-automation interaction. A false system understanding of infallibility may provoke automation misuse and can lead to severe consequences in case of automation failure. The presentation of automation uncertainty may prevent this false system understanding and, as was shown by previous studies, may have numerous benefits. Few studies, however, have clearly shown the potential of communicating uncertainty information in driving. The current study fills this gap. We conducted a driving simulator experiment, varying the presented uncertainty information between participants (no uncertainty information vs. uncertainty information) and the automation reliability (high vs.low) within participants. Participants interacted with a highly automated driving system while engaging in secondary tasks and were required to cooperate with the automation to drive safely. Quantile regressions and multilevel modeling showed that the presentation of uncertainty information increases the time to collision in the case of automation failure. Furthermore, the data indicated improved situation awareness and better knowledge of fallibility for the experimental group. Consequently, the automation with the uncertainty symbol received higher trust ratings and increased acceptance. The presentation of automation uncertaintythrough a symbol improves overall driver-automation cooperation. Most automated systems in driving could benefit from displaying reliability information. This display might improve the acceptance of fallible systems and further enhances driver-automation cooperation.

  8. Evaluation of hand hygiene compliance and associated factors with a radio-frequency-identification-based real-time continuous automated monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, J-C; Reynier, P; Boudjema, S; Soto Aladro, A; Giorgi, R; Brouqui, P

    2017-04-01

    Hand hygiene is a major means for preventing healthcare-associated infections. One critical point in understanding poor compliance is the lack of relevant markers used to monitor practices systematically. This study analysed hand hygiene compliance and associated factors with a radio-frequency-identification-based real-time continuous automated monitoring system in an infectious disease ward with 17 single bedrooms. Healthcare workers (HCWs) were tracked while performing routine care over 171 days. A multi-level multi-variate logistics model was used for data analysis. The main outcome measures were hand disinfection before entering the bedroom (outside use) and before entering the patient care zone, defined as the zone surrounding the patient's bed (inside/bedside use). Variables analysed included HCWs' characteristics and behaviour, patients, room layouts, path chains and duration of HCWs' paths. In total, 4629 paths with initial hand hygiene opportunities when entering the patient care zone were selected, of which 763 (16.5%), 285 (6.1%) and 3581 (77.4%) were associated with outside use, inside/bedside use and no use, respectively. Hand hygiene is caregiver-dependent. The shorter the duration of the HCW's path, the worse the bedside hand hygiene. Bedside hand hygiene is improved when one or two extra HCWs are present in the room. Hand hygiene compliance at the bedside, as analysed using the continuous monitoring system, depended upon the HCW's occupation and personal behaviour, number of HCWs, time spent in the room and (potentially) dispenser location. Meal tray distribution was a possible factor in the case of failure to disinfect hands. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Science of Home Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian Louis

    Smart home technologies and the concept of home automation have become more popular in recent years. This popularity has been accompanied by social acceptance of passive sensors installed throughout the home. The subsequent increase in smart homes facilitates the creation of home automation strategies. We believe that home automation strategies can be generated intelligently by utilizing smart home sensors and activity learning. In this dissertation, we hypothesize that home automation can benefit from activity awareness. To test this, we develop our activity-aware smart automation system, CARL (CASAS Activity-aware Resource Learning). CARL learns the associations between activities and device usage from historical data and utilizes the activity-aware capabilities to control the devices. To help validate CARL we deploy and test three different versions of the automation system in a real-world smart environment. To provide a foundation of activity learning, we integrate existing activity recognition and activity forecasting into CARL home automation. We also explore two alternatives to using human-labeled data to train the activity learning models. The first unsupervised method is Activity Detection, and the second is a modified DBSCAN algorithm that utilizes Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) as a distance metric. We compare the performance of activity learning with human-defined labels and with automatically-discovered activity categories. To provide evidence in support of our hypothesis, we evaluate CARL automation in a smart home testbed. Our results indicate that home automation can be boosted through activity awareness. We also find that the resulting automation has a high degree of usability and comfort for the smart home resident.

  10. Myths in test automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmine Francis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Myths in automation of software testing is an issue of discussion that echoes about the areas of service in validation of software industry. Probably, the first though that appears in knowledgeable reader would be Why this old topic again? What's New to discuss the matter? But, for the first time everyone agrees that undoubtedly automation testing today is not today what it used to be ten or fifteen years ago, because it has evolved in scope and magnitude. What began as a simple linear scripts for web applications today has a complex architecture and a hybrid framework to facilitate the implementation of testing applications developed with various platforms and technologies. Undoubtedly automation has advanced, but so did the myths associated with it. The change in perspective and knowledge of people on automation has altered the terrain. This article reflects the points of views and experience of the author in what has to do with the transformation of the original myths in new versions, and how they are derived; also provides his thoughts on the new generation of myths.

  11. Myths in test automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmine Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myths in automation of software testing is an issue of discussion that echoes about the areas of service in validation of software industry. Probably, the first though that appears in knowledgeable reader would be Why this old topic again? What's New to discuss the matter? But, for the first time everyone agrees that undoubtedly automation testing today is not today what it used to be ten or fifteen years ago, because it has evolved in scope and magnitude. What began as a simple linear scripts for web applications today has a complex architecture and a hybrid framework to facilitate the implementation of testing applications developed with various platforms and technologies. Undoubtedly automation has advanced, but so did the myths associated with it. The change in perspective and knowledge of people on automation has altered the terrain. This article reflects the points of views and experience of the author in what has to do with the transformation of the original myths in new versions, and how they are derived; also provides his thoughts on the new generation of myths.

  12. A sirolimus-eluting bioabsorbable polymer-coated stent (MiStent) versus an everolimus-eluting durable polymer stent (Xience) after percutaneous coronary intervention (DESSOLVE III): a randomised, single-blind, multicentre, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Robbert J.; Katagiri, Yuki; Asano, Taku; Milewski, Krzysztof P.; Lurz, Philipp; Buszman, Pawel; Jessurun, Gillian A. J.; Koch, Karel T.; Troquay, Roland P. T.; Hamer, Bas J. B.; Ophuis, Ton Oude; Wöhrle, Jochen; Wyderka, Rafał; Cayla, Guillaume; Hofma, Sjoerd H.; Levesque, Sébastien; Żurakowski, Aleksander; Fischer, Dieter; Kośmider, Maciej; Goube, Pascal; Arkenbout, E. Karin; Noutsias, Michel; Ferrari, Markus W.; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Wijns, William; Serruys, Patrick W.

    2018-01-01

    Background MiStent is a drug-eluting stent with a fully absorbable polymer coating containing and embedding a microcrystalline form of sirolimus into the vessel wall. It was developed to overcome the limitation of current durable polymer drug-eluting stents eluting amorphous sirolimus. The clinical

  13. Plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, L.J.; Sackett, J.I.; Dayal, Y.; Wagner, W.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes work at EBR-II in the development and demonstration of new control equipment and methods and associated schemes for plant prognosis, diagnosis, and automation. The development work has attracted the interest of other national laboratories, universities, and commercial companies. New initiatives include use of new control strategies, expert systems, advanced diagnostics, and operator displays. The unique opportunity offered by EBR-II is as a test bed where a total integrated approach to automatic reactor control can be directly tested under real power plant conditions

  14. Automated drawing generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Toshiaki; Kawahata, Junichi; Yoshida, Naoto; Ono, Satoru

    1991-01-01

    Since automated CAD drawing generation systems still require human intervention, improvements were focussed on an interactive processing section (data input and correcting operation) which necessitates a vast amount of work. As a result, human intervention was eliminated, the original objective of a computerized system. This is the first step taken towards complete automation. The effects of development and commercialization of the system are as described below. (1) The interactive processing time required for generating drawings was improved. It was determined that introduction of the CAD system has reduced the time required for generating drawings. (2) The difference in skills between workers preparing drawings has been eliminated and the quality of drawings has been made uniform. (3) The extent of knowledge and experience demanded of workers has been reduced. (author)

  15. Alkaline elution of DNA from mammalian cells on cellulose triacetate filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, A.J. Jr.; Nagle, W.A.; Henle, K.J.; Prior, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The alkaline elution technique is widely used for the estimation of cellular DNA damage because of its sensitivity in the biologically relevant dose range. The authors have extended the original studies and provide additional characterization of the cellulose triacetate alkaline elution method. This filter material permits the elution of approximately 80 percent of cellular DNA from untreated V79 cells. the total radioactivity in the system was compartmentalized with respect to 1) lysing solution, 2) washing solution, 3) elution fractions, and 4) membrane retained activity. In these studies [/sup 3/H]-thymidine labeled untreated internal control cells were co-eluted with X-irradiated [/sup 14/C]-thymidine labeled cells. For the estimation of DNA damage, elution profiles for treated cells were directly compared with untreated internal control cells. The quantity of DNA eluting in excess of the labeled internal control per fraction is directly proportional to the extent of DNA damage in the treated sample. Using the technique the necessity of an irradiated internal control is eliminated

  16. Towards Hypoxia-responsive Drug-eluting Embolization Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Koorosh; Heaysman, Clare L; Phillips, Gary J; Lloyd, Andrew W; Lewis, Andrew L

    2017-05-30

    Drug release from chemoembolization microspheres stimulated by the presence of a chemically reducing environment may provide benefits for targeting drug resistant and metastatic hypoxic tumours. A water-soluble disulfide-based bifunctional cross-linker bis(acryloyl)-(l)-cystine (BALC) was synthesised, characterised and incorporated into a modified poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) hydrogel beads at varying concentrations using reverse suspension polymerisation. The beads were characterised to confirm the amount of cross-linker within each formulation and its effects on the bead properties. Elemental and UV/visible spectroscopic analysis confirmed the incorporation of BALC within the beads and sizing studies showed that in the presence of a reducing agent, all bead formulations increased in mean diameter. The BALC beads could be loaded with doxorubicin hydrochloride and amounts in excess of 300mg of drug per mL of hydrated beads could be achieved but required conversion of the carboxylic acid groups of the BALC to their sodium carboxylate salt forms. Elution of doxorubicin from the beads demonstrated a controlled release via ionic exchange. Some formulations exhibited an increase in size and release of drug in the presence of a reducing agent, and therefore demonstrated the ability to respond to an in vitro reducing environment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Differentiated analysis of an everolimus-eluting stent and a paclitaxel-eluting stent among higher risk subgroups for restenosis: results from the SPIRIT II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ahmed A; Richardt, Gert; Verin, Vitali; Kelbaek, Henning; Macaya, Carlos; Berland, Jacques; Miquel-Hebert, Karine; Dorange, Cécile; Serruys, Patrick W

    2008-03-01

    Restenosis is higher among certain subpopulations when subjected to percutaneous coronary interventions even when using drug-eluting stents. The randomised SPIRIT II trial demonstrated the superiority of the XIENCE V Everolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System over the TAXUS Paclitaxel-Eluting Stent System in terms of in-stent late loss at six months among 300 patients treated for de novo native coronary artery lesions. In this post-hoc analysis of SPIRIT II we focused on six-month angiographic outcomes of diabetic patients (n=69), left anterior descending arteries (n=149), long lesions >20 mm (n=43), small vessels B2 and C lesions (n=233). In-stent late loss was consistently less among all subgroups when treated by everolimus-eluting stents compared to paclitaxel-eluting stents: diabetics 0.15+/-0.26 mm versus 0.39+/-0.34 mm, p=0.006; LAD 0.12+/-0.23 mm versus 0.44+/-0.37 mm, pB2/C lesions 0.12+/-0.31 mm versus 0.36+/-0.36 mm, pSPIRIT II trial population.

  18. Automation and Mankind

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-08-07

    limited by the cap- abilities of the human organism in the matter of control of its processes. In our time, the speeds of technological processes are...in many cases limited by conditions of control. The speed of human reaction is limited and therefore, at pre- sent, only processes of a relatively...forwiard, It can e foreseer thast automIation will comp~letely free Mans -Pn work unler conlitions’ of high texpemratures pressures,, anid nollutA-: or

  19. WIDAFELS flexible automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shende, P.S.; Chander, K.P.; Ramadas, P.

    1990-01-01

    After discussing the various aspects of automation, some typical examples of various levels of automation are given. One of the examples is of automated production line for ceramic fuel pellets. (M.G.B.)

  20. An Automation Planning Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Marion

    1988-01-01

    This brief planning guide for library automation incorporates needs assessment and evaluation of options to meet those needs. A bibliography of materials on automation planning and software reviews, library software directories, and library automation journals is included. (CLB)

  1. Structure-function correlations in glaucoma using matrix and standard automated perimetry versus time-domain and spectral-domain OCT devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Luciano Moreira; Costa, Elaine Fiod; Melo, Luiz Alberto S; Gross, Paula Blasco; Sato, Eduardo Toshio; Almeida, Andrea Pereira; Maia, Andre; Paranhos, Augusto

    2014-04-10

    We examined the structure-function relationship between two perimetric tests, the frequency doubling technology (FDT) matrix and standard automated perimetry (SAP), and two optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices (time-domain and spectral-domain). This cross-sectional study included 97 eyes from 29 healthy individuals, and 68 individuals with early, moderate, or advanced primary open-angle glaucoma. The correlations between overall and sectorial parameters of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) measured with Stratus and Spectralis OCT, and the visual field sensitivity obtained with FDT matrix and SAP were assessed. The relationship also was evaluated using a previously described linear model. The correlation coefficients for the threshold sensitivity measured with SAP and Stratus OCT ranged from 0.44 to 0.79, and those for Spectralis OCT ranged from 0.30 to 0.75. Regarding FDT matrix, the correlation ranged from 0.40 to 0.79 with Stratus OCT and from 0.39 to 0.79 with Spectralis OCT. Stronger correlations were found in the overall measurements and the arcuate sectors for both visual fields and OCT devices. A linear relationship was observed between FDT matrix sensitivity and the OCT devices. The previously described linear model fit the data from SAP and the OCT devices well, particularly in the inferotemporal sector. The FDT matrix and SAP visual sensitivities were related strongly to the RNFL thickness measured with the Stratus and Spectralis OCT devices, particularly in the overall and arcuate sectors. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  2. All-cause mortality after drug-eluting stent implantation in African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poludasu, Shyam; Cavusoglu, Erdal; Khan, Waqas; Marmur, Jonathan D

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies have questioned the safety of drug-eluting stents because of a higher incidence of late stent thrombosis, raising the possibility that drug-eluting stents may be associated with an increased mortality. The effect of drug-eluting stents on mortality in African-Americans is unknown. We evaluated 628 African-American patients (354 patients treated with drug-eluting stents and 274 patients treated with bare metal stents) between January 2003 and August 2005, using data from our bolus-only platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor database. The primary end point was all-cause mortality obtained using social security death index. After a mean follow-up of 3+/-0.9 years, the mortality rate in the bare metal stents group was 12.8% compared with 7.1% in the drug-eluting stents group [adjusted P value=0.19; hazard ratio (HR) for bare metal stents group compared with drug-eluting stents group for death=1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8-2.4]. In a subgroup analysis, patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome had a higher mortality when treated with bare metal stents compared with drug-eluting stents (17.1 vs. 6.3%, P=0.022; HR=2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.4). Patients with chronic kidney disease (all patients with creatinine >1.5 mg/dl) also had a higher mortality with bare metal stents compared with drug-eluting stents (36.7 vs. 20.4%, P=0.044; HR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.02-5.2). Drug-eluting stents seem to be safe in African-Americans and may improve survival in certain subgroups such as patients with acute coronary syndromes and chronic kidney disease.

  3. Home Automation and Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Surinder Kaur,; Rashmi Singh; Neha Khairwal; Pratyk Jain

    2016-01-01

    Easy Home or Home automation plays a very important role in modern era because of its flexibility in using it at different places with high precision which will save money and time by decreasing human hard work. Prime focus of this technology is to control the household equipment’s like light, fan, door, AC etc. automatically. This research paper has detailed information on Home Automation and Security System using Arduino, GSM and how we can control home appliances using Android application....

  4. Low cost automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    This book indicates method of building of automation plan, design of automation facilities, automation and CHIP process like basics of cutting, NC processing machine and CHIP handling, automation unit, such as drilling unit, tapping unit, boring unit, milling unit and slide unit, application of oil pressure on characteristics and basic oil pressure circuit, application of pneumatic, automation kinds and application of process, assembly, transportation, automatic machine and factory automation.

  5. Porous Polymer Drug-Eluting Coating Prepared by Radiation Induced Polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veres, M.; Tóth, S.; Koós, M.; Beiler, B.

    2009-01-01

    Drug-eluting stents have several advantages over bare metal implants. They eliminate restenosis, the main drawback of bare metal stents. In addition the locally delivered drug is more effective and causes less side-effects. However in some cases dangerous stent thrombosis, inflammatory and allergy reactions were observed after their implantation, which first of all related to the drug-eluting coating. This project is aimed to develop a novel biocompatible nanoporous polymer layer by radiation induced polymerization that is capable of holding and eluting drugs and promotes endothelization after the release of the drug. (author)

  6. Increasing flexibility in two-dimensional liquid chromatography by pulsed elution of the first dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Simon S.; Christensen, Jan H.; Verdier, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates the development of an online two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) method where the first dimension column is eluted by a sequence of pulses of increasing eluotropic strength generated by the LC pumps (pulsed-elution 2D-LC). Between the pulses, the first dimension...... online comprehensive 2D-LC: undersampling, difficulties in refocusing, and lack of flexibility in the selection of column dimensions and flow rates because the two dimensions constrain each other. The pulsed-elution 2D-LC was applied for the analysis of a basic fraction of vacuum gas oil. Peak capacity...

  7. Porous Polymer Drug-Eluting Coating Prepared by Radiation Induced Polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veres, M.; Tóth, S.; Koós, M. [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Budapest (Hungary); Beiler, B. [Institute of Isotopes, HAS, Budapest (Hungary)

    2009-07-01

    Drug-eluting stents have several advantages over bare metal implants. They eliminate restenosis, the main drawback of bare metal stents. In addition the locally delivered drug is more effective and causes less side-effects. However in some cases dangerous stent thrombosis, inflammatory and allergy reactions were observed after their implantation, which first of all related to the drug-eluting coating. This project is aimed to develop a novel biocompatible nanoporous polymer layer by radiation induced polymerization that is capable of holding and eluting drugs and promotes endothelization after the release of the drug. (author)

  8. Automated Budget System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  9. Efficacy and safety of zotarolimus-eluting and sirolimus-eluting coronary stents in routine clinical care (SORT OUT III): a randomised controlled superiority trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Klaus; Maeng, Michael; Kaltoft, Anne

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In low-risk patients, the zotarolimus-eluting stent has been shown to reduce rates of restenosis without increasing the risk of stent thrombosis. We compared the efficacy and safety of the zotarolimus-eluting stent versus the sirolimus-eluting stent in patients with coronary artery...... disease who were receiving routine clinical care with no direct follow-up. METHODS: We did a single-blind, all-comer superiority trial in adult patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease or acute coronary syndromes, and at least one target lesion. Patients were treated at one of five...... Danish administrative and health-care registries. The primary endpoint was a composite of major adverse cardiac events within 9 months: cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularisation. Intention-to-treat analyses were done at 9-month and 18-month follow-up. This trial...

  10. Randomised comparison of a bioresorbable everolimus-eluting scaffold with a metallic everolimus-eluting stent for ischaemic heart disease caused by de novo native coronary artery lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chevalier, Bernard; Onuma, Yoshinobu; van Boven, Ad J

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The one-year randomised data of the ABSORB II trial showed that the everolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffold and the everolimus-eluting metallic stent were comparable for the composite secondary clinical outcomes of patient-oriented composite endpoint (PoCE) and device-oriented composite...... Clara, CA, USA) or treatment with an everolimus-eluting metallic stent (XIENCE; Abbott Vascular). The trial enrolled 501 patients. Clinical follow-up at two years was available in 320 patients in the Absorb BVS arm and 160 patients in the XIENCE arm. At two years, the PoCE for the Absorb and XIENCE arms......-six percent and 34% of patients remained on DAPT at two years, respectively. Ninety-two percent of patients in both arms remained on aspirin. CONCLUSIONS: Two-year clinical results demonstrate sustained low rates of PoCE, MACE, DoCE and TVF with the Absorb BVS as compared to the XIENCE stent....

  11. Automation 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Zieliński, Cezary; Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    This book consists of papers presented at Automation 2017, an international conference held in Warsaw from March 15 to 17, 2017. It discusses research findings associated with the concepts behind INDUSTRY 4.0, with a focus on offering a better understanding of and promoting participation in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Each chapter presents a detailed analysis of a specific technical problem, in most cases followed by a numerical analysis, simulation and description of the results of implementing the solution in a real-world context. The theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines presented are valuable for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and practitioners looking for solutions to industrial problems. .

  12. Marketing automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODOR Raluca Dania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the technical progress, the marketing fragmentation, demand for customized products and services on one side and the need to achieve constructive dialogue with the customers, immediate and flexible response and the necessity to measure the investments and the results on the other side, the classical marketing approached had changed continue to improve substantially.

  13. Optimization of elution salt concentration in stepwise elution of protein chromatography using linear gradient elution data. Reducing residual protein A by cation-exchange chromatography in monoclonal antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Takashi; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Endo, Naomi; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2006-05-05

    Our simple method for optimization of the elution salt concentration in stepwise elution was applied to the actual protein separation system, which involves several difficulties such as detection of the target. As a model separation system, reducing residual protein A by cation-exchange chromatography in human monoclonal antibody (hMab) purification was chosen. We carried out linear gradient elution experiments and obtained the data for the peak salt concentration of hMab and residual protein A, respectively. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied to the measurement of the residual protein A. From these data, we calculated the distribution coefficient of the hMab and the residual protein A as a function of salt concentration. The optimal salt concentration of stepwise elution to reduce the residual protein A from the hMab was determined based on the relationship between the distribution coefficient and the salt concentration. Using the optimized condition, we successfully performed the separation, resulting in high recovery of hMab and the elimination of residual protein A.

  14. Automated breeder fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H.; Frederickson, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Project is to develop remotely operated equipment for the processing and manufacturing of breeder reactor fuel pins. The SAF line will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The FMEF is presently under construction at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington, and is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The fabrication and support systems of the SAF line are designed for computer-controlled operation from a centralized control room. Remote and automated fuel fabriction operations will result in: reduced radiation exposure to workers; enhanced safeguards; improved product quality; near real-time accountability, and increased productivity. The present schedule calls for installation of SAF line equipment in the FMEF beginning in 1984, with qualifying runs starting in 1986 and production commencing in 1987. 5 figures

  15. Use of drug-eluting stents in Victorian public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bryan P; Ajani, Andrew E; Duffy, Stephen J; New, Gishel; Horrigan, Mark; Szto, Gregory; Walton, Antony; Eccleston, David; Lefkovits, Jeffery; Black, Alexander; Sebastian, Martin; Brennan, Angela L; Reid, Christopher M; Clark, David J

    2006-10-02

    We aimed to assess the pattern of use of drug-eluting stents (DESs) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) in Victorian public hospitals. Prospective study comparing the use of one or more DESs versus bare-metal stents (BMSs) only, in consecutive patients undergoing 2428 PCIs with stent implantation from 1 April 2004 to 31 December 2005 at seven Victorian public hospitals. Adherence to current Victorian Department of Human Services guidelines which recommend DES use in patients with high-risk features for restenosis (diabetes, small vessels, long lesions, in-stent restenotic lesions, chronic total occlusions and bifurcation lesions). Of the 2428 PCIs performed, at least one DES was implanted in 1101 (45.3%) and BMSs only were implanted in 1327 (54.7%). In 87.7% (966/1101) of PCI with DESs, there was at least one criterion for high risk of restenosis. DESs were more likely to be used in patients with diabetes (risk ratio [RR], 2.45; 95% CI, 2.02-2.97), small vessels (RR, 3.35; 95%CI, 2.35-4.76), long lesions (RR, 3.87; 95% CI, 3.23-4.65), in-stent restenotic lesions (RR, 3.98; 95%CI, 2.67-6.06), chronic total occlusions (RR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.51-2.88) and bifurcation lesions (RR, 2.23; 95%CI, 1.57-3.17). However, 66.2% (1608/2428) of all PCIs were in patients eligible for DESs according to Victorian guidelines, and in 39.9% (642/1608) of these PCIs, a BMS was used. In Victorian public hospitals, DESs have been largely reserved for patients at high risk of restenosis in accordance with Department of Human Services guidelines. However, many patients with high-risk criteria for restenosis did not receive DESs. Greater use of DESs in these patients may improve outcomes by reducing the need for repeat revascularisation.

  16. Novel algorithm and MATLAB-based program for automated power law analysis of single particle, time-dependent mean-square displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umansky, Moti; Weihs, Daphne

    2012-08-01

    parameters and quality of fit are provided. After all single trajectory time-averaged MSDs are fit, we obtain cutoffs from the user to categorize and segment the power laws into groups; cutoff are either in exponents of the power laws, time of appearance of the fits, or both together. The trajectories are sorted according to the cutoffs and the time- and ensemble-averaged MSD of each group is provided, with histograms of the distributions of the exponents in each group. The program then allows the user to generate new trajectory files with trajectories segmented according to the determined groups, for any further required analysis. Additional comments: README file giving the names and a brief description of all the files that make-up the package and clear instructions on the installation and execution of the program is included in the distribution package. Running time: On an i5 Windows 7 machine with 4 GB RAM the automated parts of the run (excluding data loading and user input) take less than 45 minutes to analyze and save all stages for an 844 trajectory file, including optional PDF save. Trajectory length did not affect run time (tested up to 3600 frames/trajectory), which was on average 3.2±0.4 seconds per trajectory.

  17. Bicarbonate Elution of Uranium from Amidoxime-Based Polymer Adsorbents for Sequestering Uranium from Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Horng-Bin [Department of Chemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 USA; Wai, Chien M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 USA; Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, Washington 98382 USA; Gill, Gary [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, Washington 98382 USA; Tian, Guoxin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 USA; Rao, Linfeng [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 USA; Das, Sadananda [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 USA; Mayes, Richard T. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 USA; Janke, Christopher J. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 USA

    2017-05-02

    Uranium adsorbed on amidoxime-based polyethylene fibers in simulated seawater can be quantitatively eluted using 3 M KHCO3 at 40°C. Thermodynamic calculations are in agreement with the experimental observation that at high bicarbonate concentrations (3 M) uranyl ions bound to amidoxime molecules are converted to uranyl tris-carbonato complex in the aqueous solution. The elution process is basically the reverse reaction of the uranium adsorption process which occurs at a very low bicarbonate concentration (~10-3 M) in seawater. In real seawater experiments, the bicarbonate elution is followed by a NaOH treatment to remove natural organic matter adsorbed on the polymer adsorbent. Using the sequential bicarbonate and NaOH elution, the adsorbent is reusable after rinsing with deionized water and the recycled adsorbent shows no loss of uranium loading capacity based on real seawater experiments.

  18. The application of PLC automatic control system for resin transfer in pulsed elution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Maoxiong

    2001-01-01

    An application of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) in automatic control system for resin transfer in pulsed elution column is described. The design principle as well as hardware and software are also described in detail

  19. Mechanisms of Very Late Drug-Eluting Stent Thrombosis Assessed by Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Masanori; Radu, Maria D; Zaugg, Serge

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathomechanisms underlying very late stent thrombosis (VLST) after implantation of drug-eluting stents (DES) are incompletely understood. Using optical coherence tomography, we investigated potential causes of this adverse event. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between August 2010 and Decemb...

  20. REUSABILITY OF BOND ELUT CERTIFY COLUMNS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF DRUGS FROM PLASMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CHEN, XH; FRANKE, JP; WIJSBEEK, J; DEZEEUW, RA

    1993-01-01

    The reusability of Bond Elut Certify columns for the extraction of toxicologically relevant drugs from plasma has been evaluated. Pentobarbital, hexobarbital, mepivacaine, trimipramine and clonazepam were selected as test drugs to represent various classes of drugs. The columns were regenerated

  1. Alendronate-Eluting Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP Scaffolds Stimulate Osteogenic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Eun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP scaffolds have been widely used in orthopedic and dental fields as osteoconductive bone substitutes. However, BCP scaffolds are not satisfactory for the stimulation of osteogenic differentiation and maturation. To enhance osteogenic differentiation, we prepared alendronate- (ALN- eluting BCP scaffolds. The coating of ALN on BCP scaffolds was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. An in vitro release study showed that release of ALN from ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds was sustained for up to 28 days. In vitro results revealed that MG-63 cells grown on ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds exhibited increased ALP activity and calcium deposition and upregulated gene expression of Runx2, ALP, OCN, and OPN compared with the BCP scaffold alone. Therefore, this study suggests that ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds have the potential to effectively stimulate osteogenic differentiation.

  2. Boron removal from aqueous solutions by ion-exchange resin: Column sorption-elution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koese, T. Ennil; Oztuerk, Nese

    2008-01-01

    A column sorption-elution study was carried out by using a strong base anion-exchange resin (Dowex 2 x 8) for the removal of boron from aqueous solutions. The breakthrough curve was obtained as a function of feed flow rate and the total and breakthrough capacity values of the resin were calculated. The boron on the resin was quantitatively eluted with 0.5 M HCl solution at different flow rates. Three consecutive sorption-elution-washing-regeneration-washing cycles were applied to the resin in order to investigate the reusability of the ion-exchange resin. Total capacity values remained almost the same after three sorption-elution-regeneration cycles. The Thomas and the Yoon-Nelson models were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic column parameters required for process design. The results proved that the models would describe the breakthrough curves well

  3. AUTOMATED INADVERTENT INTRUDER APPLICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koffman, L; Patricia Lee, P; Jim Cook, J; Elmer Wilhite, E

    2007-01-01

    The Environmental Analysis and Performance Modeling group of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducts performance assessments of the Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level waste facilities to meet the requirements of DOE Order 435.1. These performance assessments, which result in limits on the amounts of radiological substances that can be placed in the waste disposal facilities, consider numerous potential exposure pathways that could occur in the future. One set of exposure scenarios, known as inadvertent intruder analysis, considers the impact on hypothetical individuals who are assumed to inadvertently intrude onto the waste disposal site. Inadvertent intruder analysis considers three distinct scenarios for exposure referred to as the agriculture scenario, the resident scenario, and the post-drilling scenario. Each of these scenarios has specific exposure pathways that contribute to the overall dose for the scenario. For the inadvertent intruder analysis, the calculation of dose for the exposure pathways is a relatively straightforward algebraic calculation that utilizes dose conversion factors. Prior to 2004, these calculations were performed using an Excel spreadsheet. However, design checks of the spreadsheet calculations revealed that errors could be introduced inadvertently when copying spreadsheet formulas cell by cell and finding these errors was tedious and time consuming. This weakness led to the specification of functional requirements to create a software application that would automate the calculations for inadvertent intruder analysis using a controlled source of input parameters. This software application, named the Automated Inadvertent Intruder Application, has undergone rigorous testing of the internal calculations and meets software QA requirements. The Automated Inadvertent Intruder Application was intended to replace the previous spreadsheet analyses with an automated application that was verified to produce the same calculations and

  4. Elution of lead from lead zirconate titanate ceramics to acid rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumi, Takaaki; Takezawa, Shuhei; Hoshina, Takuya; Takeda, Hiroaki

    2017-10-01

    The amount of lead that eluted from lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics to artificial acid rain was evaluated. Four kinds of PZT ceramics, namely, pure PZT at MPB composition, CuO-added PZT, PZT with 10 mol % substitution of Ba for Pb, and CuO-added PZT with 10 mol % substitution of Ba for Pb, were used as samples of the elution test. These PZT ceramics of 8 mm2 and 1.1-1.2 mm thickness were suspended in 300 ml of H2SO4 solution of pH 4.0. The concentration of lead eluted from PZT was in the range from 0.2 to 0.8 ppm. It was found that both liquid phase formation by the addition of CuO and the substitution of Ba for Pb were effective to reduce the amount of lead that eluted. By fitting the leaching out curve with a classical equation, a master curve assuming no sampling effect was obtained. The lead concentration evaluated from the amount of lead that eluted from a commercial PZT plate to H2SO4 solution of pH 5.3 was almost the same as the limit in city water. It is concluded that PZT is not harmful to health and the environment and the amount of lead that eluted from PZT can be controlled by modifying PZT composition.

  5. Power of automated algorithms for combining time-line follow-back and urine drug screening test results in stimulant-abuse clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Neal L; VanVeldhuisen, Paul C; Wakim, Paul G; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Somoza, Eugene; Lewis, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    In clinical trials of treatment for stimulant abuse, researchers commonly record both Time-Line Follow-Back (TLFB) self-reports and urine drug screen (UDS) results. To compare the power of self-report, qualitative (use vs. no use) UDS assessment, and various algorithms to generate self-report-UDS composite measures to detect treatment differences via t-test in simulated clinical trial data. We performed Monte Carlo simulations patterned in part on real data to model self-report reliability, UDS errors, dropout, informatively missing UDS reports, incomplete adherence to a urine donation schedule, temporal correlation of drug use, number of days in the study period, number of patients per arm, and distribution of drug-use probabilities. Investigated algorithms include maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimates, self-report alone, UDS alone, and several simple modifications of self-report (referred to here as ELCON algorithms) which eliminate perceived contradictions between it and UDS. Among the algorithms investigated, simple ELCON algorithms gave rise to the most powerful t-tests to detect mean group differences in stimulant drug use. Further investigation is needed to determine if simple, naïve procedures such as the ELCON algorithms are optimal for comparing clinical study treatment arms. But researchers who currently require an automated algorithm in scenarios similar to those simulated for combining TLFB and UDS to test group differences in stimulant use should consider one of the ELCON algorithms. This analysis continues a line of inquiry which could determine how best to measure outpatient stimulant use in clinical trials (NIDA. NIDA Monograph-57: Self-Report Methods of Estimating Drug Abuse: Meeting Current Challenges to Validity. NTIS PB 88248083. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1985; NIDA. NIDA Research Monograph 73: Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NTIS PB 89151971. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1987; NIDA. NIDA Research

  6. Millisecond single-molecule localization microscopy combined with convolution analysis and automated image segmentation to determine protein concentrations in complexly structured, functional cells, one cell at a time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollman, Adam J M; Leake, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    We present a single-molecule tool called the CoPro (concentration of proteins) method that uses millisecond imaging with convolution analysis, automated image segmentation and super-resolution localization microscopy to generate robust estimates for protein concentration in different compartments of single living cells, validated using realistic simulations of complex multiple compartment cell types. We demonstrate its utility experimentally on model Escherichia coli bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae budding yeast cells, and use it to address the biological question of how signals are transduced in cells. Cells in all domains of life dynamically sense their environment through signal transduction mechanisms, many involving gene regulation. The glucose sensing mechanism of S. cerevisiae is a model system for studying gene regulatory signal transduction. It uses the multi-copy expression inhibitor of the GAL gene family, Mig1, to repress unwanted genes in the presence of elevated extracellular glucose concentrations. We fluorescently labelled Mig1 molecules with green fluorescent protein (GFP) via chromosomal integration at physiological expression levels in living S. cerevisiae cells, in addition to the RNA polymerase protein Nrd1 with the fluorescent protein reporter mCherry. Using CoPro we make quantitative estimates of Mig1 and Nrd1 protein concentrations in the cytoplasm and nucleus compartments on a cell-by-cell basis under physiological conditions. These estimates indicate a ∼4-fold shift towards higher values in the concentration of diffusive Mig1 in the nucleus if the external glucose concentration is raised, whereas equivalent levels in the cytoplasm shift to smaller values with a relative change an order of magnitude smaller. This compares with Nrd1 which is not involved directly in glucose sensing, and which is almost exclusively localized in the nucleus under high and low external glucose levels. CoPro facilitates time-resolved quantification of

  7. A system for accurate and automated injection of hyperpolarized substrate with minimal dead time and scalable volumes over a large range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Steven; Bucur, Adriana; Port, Michael; Alizadeh, Tooba; Kazan, Samira M.; Tozer, Gillian M.; Paley, Martyn N. J.

    2014-02-01

    Over recent years hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization has become an established technique for studying metabolism in vivo in animal models. Temporal signal plots obtained from the injected metabolite and daughter products, e.g. pyruvate and lactate, can be fitted to compartmental models to estimate kinetic rate constants. Modeling and physiological parameter estimation can be made more robust by consistent and reproducible injections through automation. An injection system previously developed by us was limited in the injectable volume to between 0.6 and 2.4 ml and injection was delayed due to a required syringe filling step. An improved MR-compatible injector system has been developed that measures the pH of injected substrate, uses flow control to reduce dead volume within the injection cannula and can be operated over a larger volume range. The delay time to injection has been minimized by removing the syringe filling step by use of a peristaltic pump. For 100 μl to 10.000 ml, the volume range typically used for mice to rabbits, the average delivered volume was 97.8% of the demand volume. The standard deviation of delivered volumes was 7 μl for 100 μl and 20 μl for 10.000 ml demand volumes (mean S.D. was 9 ul in this range). In three repeat injections through a fixed 0.96 mm O.D. tube the coefficient of variation for the area under the curve was 2%. For in vivo injections of hyperpolarized pyruvate in tumor-bearing rats, signal was first detected in the input femoral vein cannula at 3-4 s post-injection trigger signal and at 9-12 s in tumor tissue. The pH of the injected pyruvate was 7.1 ± 0.3 (mean ± S.D., n = 10). For small injection volumes, e.g. less than 100 μl, the internal diameter of the tubing contained within the peristaltic pump could be reduced to improve accuracy. Larger injection volumes are limited only by the size of the receiving vessel connected to the pump.

  8. Both Automation and Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Royal

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the concept of a paperless society and the current situation in library automation. Various applications of automation and telecommunications are addressed, and future library automation is considered. Automation at the Monroe County Public Library in Bloomington, Indiana, is described as an example. (MES)

  9. Brachytherapy Application With In Situ Dose Painting Administered by Gold Nanoparticle Eluters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Neeharika; Cifter, Gizem; Sajo, Erno; Kumar, Rajiv; Sridhar, Srinivas; Nguyen, Paul L.; Cormack, Robert A.; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike; Ngwa, Wilfred

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Recent studies show promise that administering gold nanoparticles (GNP) to tumor cells during brachytherapy could significantly enhance radiation damage to the tumor. A new strategy proposed for sustained administration of the GNP in prostate tumors is to load them into routinely used brachytherapy spacers for customizable in situ release after implantation. This in silico study investigated the intratumor biodistribution and corresponding dose enhancement over time due to GNP released from such GNP-loaded brachytherapy spacers (GBS). Method and Materials: An experimentally determined intratumoral diffusion coefficient (D) for 10-nm nanoparticles was used to estimate D for other sizes by using the Stokes-Einstein equation. GNP concentration profiles, obtained using D, were then used to calculate the corresponding dose enhancement factor (DEF) for each tumor voxel, using dose painting-by-numbers approach, for times relevant to the considered brachytherapy sources' lifetimes. The investigation was carried out as a function of GNP size for the clinically applicable low-dose-rate brachytherapy sources iodine-125 (I-125), palladium-103 (Pd-103), and cesium-131 (Cs-131). Results: Results showed that dose enhancement to tumor voxels and subvolumes during brachytherapy can be customized by varying the size of GNP released or eluted from the GBS. For example, using a concentration of 7 mg/g GNP, significant DEF (>20%) could be achieved 5 mm from a GBS after 5, 12, 25, 46, 72, 120, and 195 days, respectively, for GNP sizes of 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 nm and for 80 nm when treating with I-125. Conclusions: Analyses showed that using Cs-131 provides the highest dose enhancement to tumor voxels. However, given its relatively longer half-life, I-125 presents the most flexibility for customizing the dose enhancement as a function of GNP size. These findings provide a useful reference for further work toward development of potential new brachytherapy application

  10. Brachytherapy Application With In Situ Dose Painting Administered by Gold Nanoparticle Eluters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Neeharika [Department of Sciences, Wentworth Institute of Technology, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Cifter, Gizem [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sajo, Erno [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts (United States); Kumar, Rajiv; Sridhar, Srinivas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Electronic Materials Research Institute and Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Nguyen, Paul L.; Cormack, Robert A.; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ngwa, Wilfred, E-mail: wngwa@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Recent studies show promise that administering gold nanoparticles (GNP) to tumor cells during brachytherapy could significantly enhance radiation damage to the tumor. A new strategy proposed for sustained administration of the GNP in prostate tumors is to load them into routinely used brachytherapy spacers for customizable in situ release after implantation. This in silico study investigated the intratumor biodistribution and corresponding dose enhancement over time due to GNP released from such GNP-loaded brachytherapy spacers (GBS). Method and Materials: An experimentally determined intratumoral diffusion coefficient (D) for 10-nm nanoparticles was used to estimate D for other sizes by using the Stokes-Einstein equation. GNP concentration profiles, obtained using D, were then used to calculate the corresponding dose enhancement factor (DEF) for each tumor voxel, using dose painting-by-numbers approach, for times relevant to the considered brachytherapy sources' lifetimes. The investigation was carried out as a function of GNP size for the clinically applicable low-dose-rate brachytherapy sources iodine-125 (I-125), palladium-103 (Pd-103), and cesium-131 (Cs-131). Results: Results showed that dose enhancement to tumor voxels and subvolumes during brachytherapy can be customized by varying the size of GNP released or eluted from the GBS. For example, using a concentration of 7 mg/g GNP, significant DEF (>20%) could be achieved 5 mm from a GBS after 5, 12, 25, 46, 72, 120, and 195 days, respectively, for GNP sizes of 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 nm and for 80 nm when treating with I-125. Conclusions: Analyses showed that using Cs-131 provides the highest dose enhancement to tumor voxels. However, given its relatively longer half-life, I-125 presents the most flexibility for customizing the dose enhancement as a function of GNP size. These findings provide a useful reference for further work toward development of potential new brachytherapy application

  11. Automation in biological crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patrick Shaw; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given.

  12. Endeavour zotarolimus-eluting stent reduces stent thrombosis and improves clinical outcomes compared with cypher sirolimus-eluting stent : 4-year results of the PROTECT randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijns, William; Steg, Ph. Gabriel; Mauri, Laura; Kurowski, Volkhard; Parikh, Keyur; Gao, Runlin; Bode, Christoph; Greenwood, John P.; Lipsic, Erik; Alamgir, Farqad; Rademaker-Havinga, Tessa; Boersma, Eric; Radke, Peter; van Leeuwen, Frank; Camenzind, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Aims To compare the long-term clinical safety between two drug-eluting stents with different healing characteristics in the Patient Related Outcomes with Endeavour (E-ZES) vs. Cypher (C-SES) Stenting Trial (PROTECT). At 3 years, there was no difference in the primary outcome of definite or probable

  13. A randomised comparison of an everolimus-eluting coronary stent with a paclitaxel-eluting coronary stent:the SPIRIT II trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serruys, Patrick W.; Ruygrok, Peter; Neuzner, Jörg; Piek, Jan J.; Seth, Ashok; Schofer, Joachim J.; Richardt, Gert; Wiemer, Marcus; Carrié, Didier; Thuesen, Leif; Boone, Els; Miquel-Herbert, Karine; Daemen, Joost

    2006-01-01

    Background: Everolimus has been successfully tested in humans using both an erodable and a durable polymer in small previous studies.Methods: This single blind multi-centre non-inferiority randomised (3:1) controlled trial evaluated the safety and performance of the XIENCE V Everolimus Eluting

  14. Integrating Standard Operating Procedures with Spacecraft Automation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft automation can be used to greatly reduce the demands on crew member and flight controllers time and attention. Automation can monitor critical resources,...

  15. The prognostic utility of the SYNTAX score on 1-year outcomes after revascularization with zotarolimus- and everolimus-eluting stents: a substudy of the RESOLUTE All Comers Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, Scot; Serruys, Patrick W; Silber, Sigmund

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of the SYNTAX score (SXscore) to stratify risk in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using zotarolimus-eluting or everolimus-eluting stents.......This study assessed the ability of the SYNTAX score (SXscore) to stratify risk in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using zotarolimus-eluting or everolimus-eluting stents....

  16. The Automation-by-Expertise-by-Training Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Barry

    2017-03-01

    I introduce the automation-by-expertise-by-training interaction in automated systems and discuss its influence on operator performance. Transportation accidents that, across a 30-year interval demonstrated identical automation-related operator errors, suggest a need to reexamine traditional views of automation. I review accident investigation reports, regulator studies, and literature on human computer interaction, expertise, and training and discuss how failing to attend to the interaction of automation, expertise level, and training has enabled operators to commit identical automation-related errors. Automated systems continue to provide capabilities exceeding operators' need for effective system operation and provide interfaces that can hinder, rather than enhance, operator automation-related situation awareness. Because of limitations in time and resources, training programs do not provide operators the expertise needed to effectively operate these automated systems, requiring them to obtain the expertise ad hoc during system operations. As a result, many do not acquire necessary automation-related system expertise. Integrating automation with expected operator expertise levels, and within training programs that provide operators the necessary automation expertise, can reduce opportunities for automation-related operator errors. Research to address the automation-by-expertise-by-training interaction is needed. However, such research must meet challenges inherent to examining realistic sociotechnical system automation features with representative samples of operators, perhaps by using observational and ethnographic research. Research in this domain should improve the integration of design and training and, it is hoped, enhance operator performance.

  17. Centrifugal LabTube platform for fully automated DNA purification and LAMP amplification based on an integrated, low-cost heating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehl, Melanie M; Weißert, Michael; Dannenberg, Arne; Nesch, Thomas; Paust, Nils; von Stetten, Felix; Zengerle, Roland; Slocum, Alexander H; Steigert, Juergen

    2014-06-01

    This paper introduces a disposable battery-driven heating system for loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) inside a centrifugally-driven DNA purification platform (LabTube). We demonstrate LabTube-based fully automated DNA purification of as low as 100 cell-equivalents of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in water, milk and apple juice in a laboratory centrifuge, followed by integrated and automated LAMP amplification with a reduction of hands-on time from 45 to 1 min. The heating system consists of two parallel SMD thick film resistors and a NTC as heating and temperature sensing elements. They are driven by a 3 V battery and controlled by a microcontroller. The LAMP reagents are stored in the elution chamber and the amplification starts immediately after the eluate is purged into the chamber. The LabTube, including a microcontroller-based heating system, demonstrates contamination-free and automated sample-to-answer nucleic acid testing within a laboratory centrifuge. The heating system can be easily parallelized within one LabTube and it is deployable for a variety of heating and electrical applications.

  18. Offline coupling of low-pressure anion-exchange chromatography with MALDI-MS to determine the elution order of human milk oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, B; Mank, M; Daniel, H; Stahl, B

    2000-09-10

    Pooled human milk oligosaccharides were separated into neutral and several acidic oligosaccharide fractions by preparative anion-exchange chromatography (AEC) using AG 1-X2. The oligosaccharides were eluted stepwise using deionized water and three different concentrations of ammonium acetate buffer, pH 6.8. The elution order of the compounds was determined directly by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) analysis of the AEC effluent without any cleanup or concentration steps. Up to a concentration of 500 mM ammonium acetate, the masses of acidic oligosaccharides could be detected by screening the fractions in an automated mode. The combination of the improved chromatographic procedure, the applied MALDI matrices, and operating parameters is suitable for the detection of neutral oligosaccharides as well as acidic oligosaccharides. The method provides high sensitivity and mass accuracy, including for the high-molecular-weight monosialylated oligosaccharides up to 2751.5 Da. The applied ionic strength of the anion-exchange eluents enables a rapid and an unambiguous composition assignment by MALDI-MS for neutral, monosialylated, and disialylated oligosaccharides from human milk. The acidic fractions have to be desalted by electrodialysis and were finally analyzed by HPAEC-PAD to get a high-resolution "fingerprint" of structures present in each fraction. From these analyses, it can be concluded that the isomeric variety of monosialylated oligosaccharides occurring in human milk is higher than estimated before. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. High-affinity RNA aptamers to C-reactive protein (CRP): newly developed pre-elution methods for aptamer selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orito, N; Umekage, S; Sakai, E; Tanaka, T; Kikuchi, Y; Sato, K; Kawauchi, S; Tanaka, H

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a modified SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) method to obtain RNA aptamers with high affinity to C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP is a clinical biomarker present in plasma, the level of which increases in response to infections and noninfectious inflammation. The CRP level is also an important prognostic indicator in patients with several syndromes. At present, CRP content in blood is measured immunochemically using antibodies. To develop a more sensitive method using RNA aptamers, we have attempted to obtain high-affinity RNA aptamers to CRP. We succeeded in obtaining an RNA aptamer with high affinity to CRP using a CRP-immobilized Sepharose column and pre-elution procedure. Pre-elution is a method that removes the weak binding portion from a selected RNA population by washing for a short time with buffer containing CRP. By surface plasmon-resonance (SPR) analysis, the affinity constant of this aptamer for CRP was calculated to be K D = 2.25x10 -9 (M). The secondary structure, contact sites with CRP protein, and application of this aptamer will be described.

  20. Disappearing and reappearing differences in drug-eluting stent use by race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federspiel, Jerome J; Stearns, Sally C; Reiter, Kristin L; Geissler, Kimberley H; Triplette, Matthew A; D'Arcy, Laura P; Sheridan, Brett C; Rossi, Joseph S

    2013-04-01

    Drug-eluting coronary stents (DES) rapidly dominated the marketplace in the United States after approval in 2003, but utilization rates were initially lower among African American patients. We assess whether racial differences persisted as DES diffused into practice. Medicare claims data were used to identify coronary stenting procedures among elderly patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Regression models of the choice of DES versus bare mental stent controlled for demographics, ACS type, co-morbidities and hospital characteristics. Diffusion was assessed in the short run (2003-2004) and long run (2007), with the effect of race calculated to allow for time-varying effects. The sample included 381,887 Medicare beneficiaries treated with stent insertion; approximately 5% were African American. Initially (May 2003-February 2004), African American race was associated with lower DES use compared to other races (44.3% versus 46.5%, P differences were not significant (79.8% versus 80.3%, P = 0.45). Subsequent concerns regarding DES safety caused reductions in DES use, with African Americans having lower use than other racial groups in 2007 (63.1% versus 65.2%, P differences in race reflect decisions regarding treatment appropriateness. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Antibiotic-eluting hydrophilized PMMA bone cement with prolonged bactericidal effect for the treatment of osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eun Jo; Oh, Se Heang; Lee, In Soo; Kwon, Oh Soo; Lee, Jin Ho

    2016-05-01

    Osteomyelitis is still considered to be one of the major challenges for orthopedic surgeons despite advanced antiseptic surgical procedures and pharmaceutical therapeutics. In this study, hydrophilized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cements containing Pluronic F68 (EG79PG28EG79) as a hydrophilic additive and vancomycin (F68-VAcements) were prepared to allow the sustained release of the antibiotic for adequate periods of time without any significant loss of mechanical properties. The compressive strengths of the bone cements with Pluronic F68 compositions less than 7 wt% were not significantly different compared with the control vancomycin-loaded bone cement (VAcement). TheF68 (7 wt%)-VAcement showed sustained release of the antibiotic for up to 11 weeks and almost 100% release from the bone cement. It also prohibited the growth ofS. aureus(zone of inhibition) over six weeks (the required period to treat osteomyelitis), and it did not show any notable cytotoxicity. From an animal study using a femoral osteomyelitis rat model, it was observed that theF68 (7 wt%)-VAcement was effective for the treatment of osteomyelitis, probably as a result of the prolonged release of antibiotic from the PMMA bone cement. On the basis of these findings, it can be suggested that the use of Pluronic F68 as a hydrophilic additive for antibiotic-eluting PMMA bone cement can be a promising strategy for the treatment of osteomyelitis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Sustained multiple organ ischaemia after transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Woon; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Nam, Soon Woo; Jang, Jeong Won; Jung, Hyun Suk; Shin, Yu Ri; Park, Eun Su; Shim, Dong Jae

    2018-02-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with drug-eluting beads (DC beads) may enhance drug delivery to tumours and reduce systemic toxicity. TACE with DC beads leads to significantly fewer serious side-effects compared with conventional TACE. A 66-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) complained of continuous abdominal pain 1 month after TACE with DC beads. At the time of TACE, angiography revealed severe stenosis of both hepatic arteries. The diagnostic work up on admission suggested severe bile duct injury with regional bile duct dilatation, segmental liver and spleen infarction, necrotizing pancreatitis, as well as gastric and duodenal ulcers. The pathology specimens of the duodenum contained DC beads that had passed through small vessels in the connective tissue. The patient's condition appeared to improve after 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment and supportive care, but new multifocal liver and spleen infarction subsequently developed. After 2 months, he was well enough to be discharged. His HCC partially responded to the TACE with DC beads but eventually progressed and he died after 11 months. The present case report highlights unexpected ongoing multiple organ ischaemia in a 66-year-old man treated for HCC using TACE with DC beads. The use of TACE with DC beads should be carefully considered in patients with vascular strictures or aberrant blood supply.

  3. Computerized automated remote inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automated inspection system utilizes a computer to control the location of the ultrasonic transducer, the actual inspection process, the display of the data, and the storage of the data on IBM magnetic tape. This automated inspection equipment provides two major advantages. First, it provides a cost savings, because of the reduced inspection time, made possible by the automation of the data acquisition, processing, and storage equipment. This reduced inspection time is also made possible by a computerized data evaluation aid which speeds data interpretation. In addition, the computer control of the transducer location drive allows the exact duplication of a previously located position or flaw. The second major advantage is that the use of automated inspection equipment also allows a higher-quality inspection, because of the automated data acquisition, processing, and storage. This storage of data, in accurate digital form on IBM magnetic tape, for example, facilitates retrieval for comparison with previous inspection data. The equipment provides a multiplicity of scan data which will provide statistical information on any questionable volume or flaw. An automatic alarm for location of all reportable flaws reduces the probability of operator error. This system has the ability to present data on a cathode ray tube as numerical information, a three-dimensional picture, or ''hard-copy'' sheet. One important advantage of this system is the ability to store large amounts of data in compact magnetic tape reels

  4. Equipment available for automating rig operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNair, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    Several manufacturers are producing automated rig equipment, from complete systems to individual functions for existing drilling rigs. Significant improvements in well site time, costs of operations, and improved drilling performance have led drilling contractors to install this equipment on their rigs. This paper details some of the equipment available for automating rigs

  5. Perspective on Automation: Three Talks to Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Robert; And Others

    These papers take the view that automation impinges upon our socio-psychological as well as economic existence and we must take drastic measures to survive. Robert Theobald, presenting evidence that automation brings job displacement, suggests that we face the choice of trying to insure enough jobs, or of taking advantage of the new free time to…

  6. Gradient elution behavior of proteins in hydrophobic interaction chromatography with U-shaped retention factor curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasy, Arch; Lomino, Joseph; Barker, Gregory; Khetan, Anurag; Carta, Giorgio

    2018-04-27

    Protein retention in hydrophobic interaction chromatography is described by the solvophobic theory as a function of the kosmostropic salt concentration. In general, an increase in salt concentration drives protein partitioning to the hydrophobic surface while a decrease reduces it. In some cases, however, protein retention also increases at low salt concentrations resulting in a U-shaped retention factor curve. During gradient elution the salt concentration is gradually decreased from a high value thereby reducing the retention factor and increasing the protein chromatographic velocity. For these conditions, a steep gradient can overtake the protein in the column, causing it to rebind. Two dynamic models, one based on the local equilibrium theory and the other based on the linear driving force approximation, are presented. We show that the normalized gradient slope determines whether the protein elutes in the gradient, partially elutes, or is trapped in the column. Experimental results are presented for two different monoclonal antibodies and for lysozyme on Capto Phenyl (High Sub) resin. One of the mAbs and lysozyme exhibit U-shaped retention factor curves and for each, we determine the critical gradient slope beyond which 100% recovery is no longer possible. Elution with a reverse gradient is also demonstrated at low salt concentrations for these proteins. Understanding this behavior has implications in the design of gradient elution since the gradient slope impacts protein recovery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Aluminum elution and precipitation in glass vials: effect of pH and buffer species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Toru; Miyajima, Makoto; Wakiyama, Naoki; Terada, Katsuhide

    2015-02-01

    Inorganic extractables from glass vials may cause particle formation in the drug solution. In this study, the ability of eluting Al ion from borosilicate glass vials, and tendencies of precipitation containing Al were investigated using various pHs of phosphate, citrate, acetate and histidine buffer. Through heating, all of the buffers showed that Si and Al were eluted from glass vials in ratios almost the same as the composition of borosilicate glass, and the amounts of Al and Si from various buffer solutions at pH 7 were in the following order: citrate > phosphate > acetate > histidine. In addition, during storage after heating, the Al concentration at certain pHs of phosphate and acetate buffer solution decreased, suggesting the formation of particles containing Al. In citrate buffer, Al did not decrease in spite of the high elution amount. Considering that the solubility profile of aluminum oxide and the Al eluting profile of borosilicate glass were different, it is speculated that Al ion may be forced to leach into the buffer solution according to Si elution on the surface of glass vials. When Al ions were added to the buffer solutions, phosphate, acetate and histidine buffer showed a decrease of Al concentration during storage at a neutral range of pHs, indicating the formation of particles containing Al. In conclusion, it is suggested that phosphate buffer solution has higher possibility of forming particles containing Al than other buffer solutions.

  8. Innovative Elution Processes for Recovering Uranium and Transition Metals from Amidoxime-based Adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wai, Chien M. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-04-18

    Amidoxime-based polymer fibers are considered one of the most promising materials for sequestering uranium from seawater. The high-surface-area polymer fibers containing amidoxime and carboxylate groups synthesized by Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL-AF1) show very high uranium adsorption capacities known in the literature. Effective elution of uranium and repeated use of the adsorbent are important factors affecting the cost of producing uranium from seawater using this material. Traditional acid leaching of uranium followed by KOH conditioning of the fiber causes chemical changes and physical damage to the ORNL-AF1 adsorbent. Two alkaline solution leaching methods were developed by this project, one uses a highly concentrated (3 M) potassium bicarbonate solution at pH 8.3 and 40 °C; the other uses a mixture of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide at pH 10.4. Both elution methods do not require KOH conditioning prior to reusing the fiber adsorbent. The conditions of eluting uranium from the amidoxime-based adsorbent using these alkaline solutions are confirmed by thermodynamic calculations. The bicarbonate elution method is selective for uranium recovery compared to other elution methods and causes no chemical change to the fiber material based on FTIR spectroscopy

  9. Characterization of crude oils and petroleum products: (I Elution liquid chromatographic separation and gas chromatographic analysis of crude oils and petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Odebunmi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Some physical and chemical properties of samples of light, medium and heavy Nigerian crude oils and petroleum products including gasoline, kerosene and engine oil have been measured and are reported in this paper. The crude oils and petroleum products have also been characterized by fractional distillation and elution liquid chromatography. The fractions obtained from elution liquid chromatography were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC. The GC fractions were identified by comparing the retention time of peaks in the unknown samples with those of components of calibration standard mixtures. The importance of the physico-chemical properties and the significance of the fractional distillation and chromatographic separation methods to industrial process operations have been discussed.

  10. Automated Synthesis of 68Ga-DOTA-TOC: Methodological Aspects and Suitable Technical Solutions for a Cationic Purification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccelli, Licia; Boschi, Alessandra; Cittanti, Corrado; Martini, Petra; Lodi, Luca; Zappaterra, Elisa; Romani, Simona; Zaccaria, Samanta; Cecconi, Davide; Rambaldi, Ilaria; Santi, Ivan; Panareo, Stefano; Giganti, Melchiore; Bartolomei, Mirco

    2018-05-08

    The PET Gallium-68 isotope has the advantage of being produced from a generator, so it is also available in nuclear medicine departments without a cyclotron. The preparation of Ga-68 DOTA-labelled compounds is actually performed by remotely controlled automated systems developed in order to assure production efficiency, reproducibility of the results, guarantee fast reaction time, to facilitate the synthesis and minimize the radiation exposure. Many automatic synthesis systems are available on the radiopharmaceutical market, and each of these requires the realization of some technical adaptations for routine use. We reported the Ga-68 DOTATOC production by automated cassette-based theranostic synthesizer system used in combination with a disposable GMP grade cassette system for cationic purification. The synthesizer is integrated with the 68Ge/68Ga generator systems and it allows to perform elution, eluate purification and radiolabeling in about 38 minutes. We have performed between January 2016 and January 2017 over 100 [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC preparation and of these only three have failed. The average synthesis yield of radiopharmaceutical production was 54.4 ± 2.3 % and the average radiochemical purity was 96.94 ± 0.74 %. The methodology and the technical solutions adopted have allowed to obtain a high quality radiopharmaceutical product as required by the European Pharmacopoeia. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Automated method for simultaneous lead and strontium isotopic analysis applied to rainwater samples and airborne particulate filters (PM10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Blanca; Avivar, Jessica; Mola, Montserrat; Ferrer, Laura; Cerdà, Víctor; Leal, Luz O

    2013-09-03

    A new automated, sensitive, and fast system for the simultaneous online isolation and preconcentration of lead and strontium by sorption on a microcolumn packed with Sr-resin using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detector was developed, hyphenating lab-on-valve (LOV) and multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA). Pb and Sr are directly retained on the sorbent column and eluted with a solution of 0.05 mol L(-1) ammonium oxalate. The detection limits achieved were 0.04 ng for lead and 0.03 ng for strontium. Mass calibration curves were used since the proposed system allows the use of different sample volumes for preconcentration. Mass linear working ranges were between 0.13 and 50 ng and 0.1 and 50 ng for lead and strontium, respectively. The repeatability of the method, expressed as RSD, was 2.1% and 2.7% for Pb and Sr, respectively. Environmental samples such as rainwater and airborne particulate (PM10) filters as well as a certified reference material SLRS-4 (river water) were satisfactorily analyzed obtaining recoveries between 90 and 110% for both elements. The main features of the LOV-MSFIA-ICP-MS system proposed are the capability to renew solid phase extraction at will in a fully automated way, the remarkable stability of the column which can be reused up to 160 times, and the potential to perform isotopic analysis.

  12. Description of the Retention and Peak Profile for Chromolith Columns in Isocratic and Gradient Elution Using Mobile Phase Composition and Flow Rate as Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Cabo-Calvet

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the modifier concentration and flow rate on the chromatographic performance of a second generation Chromolith® RP-18e column, under isocratic and gradient elution with acetonitrile-water mixtures, was examined using four sulphonamides as probe compounds. The acetonitrile concentration was varied between 5 and 55% (v/v, and the flow rate between 0.1 and 5.0 mL/min, keeping the other factors constant. The changes in both retention and peak profile were modelled, and used to build simple plots, where the logarithm of the retention factor was represented against the modifier concentration (in gradient elution, against the initial modifier concentration, and the half-widths or widths against the retention time (in gradient elution, against the time at the column outlet. A particular plot was needed for describing the retention of each sulphonamide, but due to the similar interaction kinetics, a unique plot described the changes in the half-widths for all four sulphonamides. The changes in retention with the flow showed that allegedly in the second generation Chromolith, the column deformation observed for the first generation Chromolith, with the applied pressure at increasing flow, is decreased.

  13. Optimization of automation: I. Estimation method of cognitive automation rates reflecting the effects of automation on human operators in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose an estimation method of the automation rate by taking the advantages of automation as the estimation measures. • We conduct the experiments to examine the validity of the suggested method. • The higher the cognitive automation rate is, the greater the decreased rate of the working time will be. • The usefulness of the suggested estimation method is proved by statistical analyses. - Abstract: Since automation was introduced in various industrial fields, the concept of the automation rate has been used to indicate the inclusion proportion of automation among all work processes or facilities. Expressions of the inclusion proportion of automation are predictable, as is the ability to express the degree of the enhancement of human performance. However, many researchers have found that a high automation rate does not guarantee high performance. Therefore, to reflect the effects of automation on human performance, this paper proposes a new estimation method of the automation rate that considers the effects of automation on human operators in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Automation in NPPs can be divided into two types: system automation and cognitive automation. Some general descriptions and characteristics of each type of automation are provided, and the advantages of automation are investigated. The advantages of each type of automation are used as measures of the estimation method of the automation rate. One advantage was found to be a reduction in the number of tasks, and another was a reduction in human cognitive task loads. The system and the cognitive automation rate were proposed as quantitative measures by taking advantage of the aforementioned benefits. To quantify the required human cognitive task loads and thus suggest the cognitive automation rate, Conant’s information-theory-based model was applied. The validity of the suggested method, especially as regards the cognitive automation rate, was proven by conducting

  14. Research on deeply purifying effluent from uranium mining and metallurgy to remove uranium by ion exchange. Pt.2: Elution uranium from lower loaded uranium resin by the intense fractionation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianguo; Chen Shaoqiang; Qi Jing

    2002-01-01

    Developing macroporous resin for purifying uranium effluent from uranium mining and metallurgy is presented. The Intense Fractionation Process is employed to elute uranium from lower loaded uranium resin by the eluent of sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate. The result is indicated that the uranium concentration in the rich elutriant is greatly increased, and the rich liquor is only one bed column volume, uranium concentration in the elutriant is increased two times which concentration is 10.1 g/L. The eluent is saved about 50% compared with the conventional fixed bed elution operation. And also the acidity in the rich elutriant is of benefit to the later precipitation process in uranium recovery

  15. An automated swimming respirometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    STEFFENSEN, JF; JOHANSEN, K; BUSHNELL, PG

    1984-01-01

    An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks.......An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks....

  16. Autonomy and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2017-01-01

    A significant level of debate and confusion has surrounded the meaning of the terms autonomy and automation. Automation is a multi-dimensional concept, and we propose that Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) automation should be described with reference to the specific system and task that has been automated, the context in which the automation functions, and other relevant dimensions. In this paper, we present definitions of automation, pilot in the loop, pilot on the loop and pilot out of the loop. We further propose that in future, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) RPAS Panel avoids the use of the terms autonomy and autonomous when referring to automated systems on board RPA. Work Group 7 proposes to develop, in consultation with other workgroups, a taxonomy of Levels of Automation for RPAS.

  17. Configuration Management Automation (CMA) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Configuration Management Automation (CMA) will provide an automated, integrated enterprise solution to support CM of FAA NAS and Non-NAS assets and investments. CMA...

  18. Randomized comparison of a sirolimus-eluting Orsiro stent with a biolimus-eluting Nobori stent in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Maeng, Michael

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Third-generation coronary drug-eluting stents (DES) with biodegradable polymers have been designed to improve safety and efficacy. We designed a large scale registry-based randomized clinical trial to compare 2 third-generation DES: a thin strut, cobalt-chromium DES with silicon carbide......-coating releasing sirolimus from a biodegradable polymer (O-SES, Orsiro; Biotronik, Bülach, Switzerland) with the stainless steel biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting Nobori stents (N-BES, Nobori; Terumo, Tokyo, Japan) in an all-comer patient population. DESIGN: The multicenter SORT OUT VII trial (NCT01879358...... will be used. An event rate of 6.5% is assumed in each stent group. With a sample size of 1,157 patients in each treatment arm, a 2-group large-sample normal approximation test of proportions with a 1-sided 5% significance level will have 90% power to detect noninferiority of the O-SES compared with the N...

  19. Analysis of the role of elution buffers on the separation capabilities of dielectrophoretic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Di Martino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field flow fractionation dielectrophoretic (FFF-DEP devices are currently used, among the others, for the separation of tumor cells from healthy blood cells. To this end specific suspension/elution buffers (EBs, with reduced conductivity (with respect to that of the cell cytoplasm are generally used. In this paper we investigate the long-term alterations of the cells and elution buffers. We find that the EB conductivity is critically modified within few minutes after cells suspension. In turn, this modification results in a change the ideal separation frequency of the FFF-DEP device. On the other hand we prove that DEP manipulation is preserved for more than three hours for cells suspended in the considered EBs. Keywords: Dielectrophoresis, Elution buffer, Circulating tumor cells, Cell motility

  20. Sample preparation automation for dosing plutonium in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, Lucien; Ballada, Jean; Ridelle Berger, Ariane

    1969-06-01

    After having indicated that dosing urinary plutonium by using the Henry technique can be divided into three stages (plutonium concentration by precipitation, passing the solution on an anionic resin column and plutonium elution, and eluate evaporation to obtain a source of which the radioactivity is measured), and recalled that the automation of the second stage has been reported in another document, this document describes the automation of the first stage, i.e. obtaining from urine a residue containing the plutonium, and sufficiently mineralized to be analyzed by means of ion exchanging resins. Two techniques are proposed, leading to slightly different devices. The different operations to be performed are indicated. The different components of the apparatus are described: beakers, hot plate stirrers, reagent circuits, a system for supernatant suction, and a control-command circuit. The operation and use are then described, and results are given

  1. Automating quantum experiment control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kelly E.; Amini, Jason M.; Doret, S. Charles; Mohler, Greg; Volin, Curtis; Harter, Alexa W.

    2017-03-01

    The field of quantum information processing is rapidly advancing. As the control of quantum systems approaches the level needed for useful computation, the physical hardware underlying the quantum systems is becoming increasingly complex. It is already becoming impractical to manually code control for the larger hardware implementations. In this chapter, we will employ an approach to the problem of system control that parallels compiler design for a classical computer. We will start with a candidate quantum computing technology, the surface electrode ion trap, and build a system instruction language which can be generated from a simple machine-independent programming language via compilation. We incorporate compile time generation of ion routing that separates the algorithm description from the physical geometry of the hardware. Extending this approach to automatic routing at run time allows for automated initialization of qubit number and placement and additionally allows for automated recovery after catastrophic events such as qubit loss. To show that these systems can handle real hardware, we present a simple demonstration system that routes two ions around a multi-zone ion trap and handles ion loss and ion placement. While we will mainly use examples from transport-based ion trap quantum computing, many of the issues and solutions are applicable to other architectures.

  2. Automation from pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubal, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The state transition diagram (STD) model has been helpful in the design of real time software, especially with the emergence of graphical computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools. Nevertheless, the translation of the STD to real time code has in the past been primarily a manual task. At Los Alamos we have automated this process. The designer constructs the STD using a CASE tool (Cadre Teamwork) using a special notation for events and actions. A translator converts the STD into an intermediate state notation language (SNL), and this SNL is compiled directly into C code (a state program). Execution of the state program is driven by external events, allowing multiple state programs to effectively share the resources of the host processor. Since the design and the code are tightly integrated through the CASE tool, the design and code never diverge, and we avoid design obsolescence. Furthermore, the CASE tool automates the production of formal technical documents from the graphic description encapsulated by the CASE tool. (author)

  3. Computer automation in veterinary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, H

    1996-05-01

    Computers have been used to automate complex and repetitive tasks in veterinary hospitals since the 1960s. Early systems were expensive, but their use was justified because they performed jobs which would have been impossible or which would have required greater resources in terms of time and personnel had they been performed by other methods. Systems found in most veterinary hospitals today are less costly, magnitudes more capable, and often underused. Modern multitasking operating systems and graphical interfaces bring many opportunities for automation. Commercial and custom programs developed and used in a typical multidoctor mixed species veterinary practice are described.

  4. Automated Behavior Property Verification Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leo, John K

    2008-01-01

    .... A type of CGF in which the entities have limited autonomy is semi-automated forces (SAF). The SAF system for this thesis research is OneSAF, a near real-time SAF that offers raw data collection of the entities in a particular simulation scenario...

  5. Automation of Space Inventory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Ngo, Phong; Wagner, Raymond; Barton, Richard; Gifford, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the utilization of automated space-based inventory management through handheld RFID readers and BioNet Middleware. The contents include: 1) Space-Based INventory Management; 2) Real-Time RFID Location and Tracking; 3) Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) RFID; and 4) BioNet Middleware.

  6. An everolimus-eluting stent versus a paclitaxel-eluting stent in small vessel coronary artery disease: a pooled analysis from the SPIRIT II and SPIRIT III trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartorelli, Antonio L; Serruys, Patrick W; Miquel-Hébert, Karine; Yu, Shui; Pierson, Wes; Stone, Gregg W

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the XIENCE V everolimus-eluting stent compared to the TAXUS paclitaxel-eluting stent in small vessels. The XIENCE V everolimus-eluting stent (EES) has been shown to improve angiographic and clinical outcomes after percutaneous myocardial revascularization, but its performance in small coronary arteries has not been investigated. In this pooled analysis, we studied a cohort of 541 patients with small coronary vessels (reference diameter SPIRIT II and SPIRIT III studies. TAXUS Express (73% of lesions) and TAXUS Liberté (27% of lesions) paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) were used as controls in SPIRIT II. In SPIRIT III, Taxus Express(2) PES was the control. Mean angiographic in-stent and in-segment late loss was significantly less in the EES group compared with the PES group, (0.15 +/- 0.37 mm vs. 0.30 +/- 0.44 mm; P = 0.011 for in-stent; 0.10 +/- 0.38 mm vs. 0.21 +/- 0.34 mm; P = 0.034 for in-segment). EES also resulted in a significant reduction in composite major adverse cardiac events at 1 year (19/366 [5.2%] vs. 17/159 [10.7%]; P = 0.037), due to fewer non-Q-wave myocardial infarctions and target lesion revascularizations. At 1 year, the rate of non-Q-wave myocardial infarction was significantly lower in the EES group compared with that of the PES group (6/366 [1.6%] vs. 8/159 [5.0%]; P = 0.037). In patients with small vessel coronary arteries, the XIENCE V EES was superior to the TAXUS PES. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Paclitaxel-eluting versus sirolimus-eluting stents in diabetes mellitus: a report from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Dynamic Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, William M; Vlachos, Helen A; Marroquin, Oscar C; Lee, Joon S; Smith, Conrad; Anderson, William D; Schindler, John T; Holper, Elizabeth M; Abbott, J Dawn; Williams, David O; Laskey, Warren K; Kip, Kevin E; Kelsey, Sheryl F; Mulukutla, Suresh R

    2010-02-01

    Diabetes is a powerful predictor of adverse events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Drug-eluting stents reduce restenosis rates compared with bare metal stents; however, controversy remains regarding which drug-eluting stents provides greater benefit in patients with diabetes. Accordingly, we compared the safety and efficacy of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) with paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) among diabetic patients in a contemporary registry. Using the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Dynamic Registry, we evaluated 2-year outcomes of diabetic patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions with SES (n=677) and PES (n=328). Clinical and demographic characteristics, including age, body mass index, insulin use, left ventricular function, and aspirin/clopidogrel use postprocedure, did not differ significantly between the groups except that PES-treated patients had a greater frequency of hypertension and hyperlipidemia. At the 2-year follow-up, no significant differences were observed between PES and SES with regard to safety or efficacy end points. PES- and SES-treated patients had similar rates of death (10.7% versus 8.2%, P=0.20), death and myocardial infarction (14.9% versus 13.6%, P=0.55), repeat revascularization (14.8% versus 17.8%, P=0.36), and stent thrombosis (1.3% versus 1.3%, P=0.95). After adjustment, no significant differences between the 2 stent types in any outcome were observed. PES and SES are equally efficacious and have similar safety profiles in diabetic patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions in clinical practice.

  8. Safety and efficacy of everolimus-eluting stents compared with first-generation drug-eluting stents in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escárcega, Ricardo O.; Baker, Nevin C.; Magalhaes, Marco A.; Lipinski, Michael J.; Minha, Sa’ar; Torguson, Rebecca; Satler, Lowell F.; Pichard, Augusto D.; Suddath, William O.; Waksman, Ron, E-mail: ron.waksman@medstar.net

    2014-09-15

    Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy everolimus-eluting stents (EES) compared with first-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Background: EES have been associated with improved clinical outcomes compared to paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) and with similar outcomes compared to sirolimus-eluting stents (SES). Methods: A total of 520 patients who presented with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) from 2003 to 2013, who underwent primary PCI with DES, were retrospectively analyzed. Of these, 247 received SES, 136 PES, and 137 EES. Patients were followed up to 2 years for major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Univariate and multivariate models detected correlates to outcome. Results: EES implantation, compared with PES and SES, resulted in comparable rates of MACE (8.8% vs. 16.2%, p = 0.06 and 8.8% vs. 12.6%, respectively, p = 0.26), stent thrombosis, MI, and target lesion revascularization. Patients who received EES had lower rates of all-cause mortality (3.7% vs. 12.6% vs. 9.4%, p = 0.03) at 1-year follow up. However, in the univariate and multivariate analyses, stent type was not independently associated with the primary outcome or with all-cause mortality. Diabetes mellitus and number of stents implanted were independently associated with the primary outcome. Conclusion: While EES seem to be associated with better outcome when compared to PES, the main correlates of STEMI patients are the presence of diabetes and number of stents implanted, and not the type of stent used for intervention.

  9. Standard IEC 61850 substation automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bricchi, A.; Mezzadri, D. [Selta, Tortoreto (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61850 standard is the reference communication protocol for all electrical substations protection and control systems. It creates models of all the elements and functionalities of an electrical substation, including physical elements such as switches or circuit breakers, as well as protection, control and monitoring functionalities. Network managers need to renew power substation automation and control systems in order to improve the efficiency and quality of services offered by electric utilities. Selta has proposed a new integrated solution for the automation of power substations which is fully compliant with the IEC 61850 norms. The solution involves the integration of control, automation, protection, monitoring and maintenance functions and applies leading edge technology to its systems, particularly for the TERNA network. The system is based on the use of many electronic devices at a power plant, each one with a specialized function, and all interconnected via a Station LAN. This solution, was tested on the TERNA network in Italy, in VHV and HV stations. It was shown to offer many advantages, such as an architecture based on full interoperability between control, monitoring and protection equipment; centralized and distributed automation; a LAN station that allows full interoperability between different bay units and protection relays in order to integrate equipment from various suppliers; the integration of automation systems in existing bay units and protection relays equipped with standard communication buses or with proprietary interfaces; and time synchronization for the entire system through a station GPS reception system. 10 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  10. Space power subsystem automation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, J. R. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    The technology issues involved in power subsystem automation and the reasonable objectives to be sought in such a program were discussed. The complexities, uncertainties, and alternatives of power subsystem automation, along with the advantages from both an economic and a technological perspective were considered. Whereas most spacecraft power subsystems now use certain automated functions, the idea of complete autonomy for long periods of time is almost inconceivable. Thus, it seems prudent that the technology program for power subsystem automation be based upon a growth scenario which should provide a structured framework of deliberate steps to enable the evolution of space power subsystems from the current practice of limited autonomy to a greater use of automation with each step being justified on a cost/benefit basis. Each accomplishment should move toward the objectives of decreased requirement for ground control, increased system reliability through onboard management, and ultimately lower energy cost through longer life systems that require fewer resources to operate and maintain. This approach seems well-suited to the evolution of more sophisticated algorithms and eventually perhaps even the use of some sort of artificial intelligence. Multi-hundred kilowatt systems of the future will probably require an advanced level of autonomy if they are to be affordable and manageable.

  11. Flexible automation and the loss of pooling synergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, Jannes; Zee, Durk-Jouke van der

    This paper focuses on the effects of flexible automation on the performance of a job shop. Flexible automated machines may significantly improve the delivery performance and the flow time of jobs. The insertion of a flexible automated system in a job shop, however, also has a counter effect on the

  12. Study to modify the elution system in a sup(99m)Tc generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado S, Baldomero.

    1979-01-01

    The sup(99m)Tc generator is a system that allows us to obtain sup(99m)Tc through the radioactive desintegration of 99 Mo, a radionuclide absorbed in an alumine chromatographic column, the sup(99m)Tc extraction is accomplished by elution and the 99 Mo remains at the column. In this work we try to modify the elution procedure of the generator. At present after eluating the generator, it must be dried with air, in order to support the column in an oxidant atmosphere to avoid the reduction of the technetiate. This reduction causes a low yield of elution, since the reduced species of the technetium can not be eluated. The drying of the column with air complicates a little the elution procedure, and we look to simplify it, the employed methods to resolve the problem were: a) adding an oxidant agent to the elution saline solution, b) adsorbing an oxidant in the alumina chromatographic column, after that the 99 Mo was settled. In the case a) the used oxidant agents were KMnO 4 , K 2 Cr 2 O 7 , NaNo 2 , etc. At concentration rates of 10 -7 M the obtained yields in high activity generators were of the 25-30%. In the case b) variable amounts of a disolution of 2.5 mg/ml of K 2 CrO 4 were adsorbed, the obtained yields in high activity generators were about 85-90%, this second procedure was better, it lets us keep the column wet and it is not necessary to dry it with air, and in this way it can be carried out more easily and efficiently the elution procedure. (author)

  13. Drug-eluting stents and bare metal stents in patients with NSTE-ACS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune Haahr; Pfisterer, Matthias; Kaiser, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    the randomised BASKET-PROVE trial (sirolimus-eluting stent vs. everolimus-eluting stent vs. bare metal stent in large-vessel stenting). The primary endpoint was the combined two-year rate of cardiovascular death or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI). Secondary endpoints were each component of the primary...... implantation in large vessels was associated with a reduction in both TVR and the combined endpoint consisting of cardiovascular death/MI. Thus, DES use improves both efficacy and safety. These findings support the use of DES in NSTE-ACS patients....

  14. Involvement of COX-2 in nickel elution from a wire implanted subcutaneously in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Taiki; Kishimoto, Yu; Asakawa, Sanki; Mizuno, Natsumi; Hiratsuka, Masahiro; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2016-07-01

    Many types of medical alloys include nickel (Ni), and the elution of Ni ions from these materials causes toxicities and inflammation. We have previously reported that inflammation enhances Ni elution, although the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. In this study, we investigated how inflammatory responses enhanced Ni elution in a wire-implantation mouse model. Subcutaneous implantation of Ni wire induced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) mRNA in the surrounding tissues. Immunostaining analysis showed that cells expressing COX-2 were mainly fibroblast-like cells 8h after implantation of a Ni wire, but were mainly infiltrated leukocytes at 24h. NiCl2 induced the expression of COX-2 mRNA in primary fibroblasts, neutrophils, RAW 264 cells, and THP-1 cells, indicating that Ni ions can induce COX-2 expression in various types of cells. The elution of Ni ions from the implanted Ni wire at 8h was reduced by dexamethasone (Dex), indomethacin (Ind), or celecoxib (Cel) treatment. Ni wire implantation induced an increase in mRNA levels for anaerobic glycolytic pathway components glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), hexokinase 2 (HK2), lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), and monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4); the expression of these genes was also inhibited by Dex, Ind, and Cel. In primary fibroblasts, the expression of these mRNAs and the production of lactate were induced by NiCl2 and further potentiated by PGE2. Furthermore, Ni wire-induced infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes was significantly reduced by Dex, Ind, or Cel. Depletion of neutrophils with a specific antibody caused reduction of both leukocyte infiltration and Ni elution. These results indicate that Ni ions eluted from wire induced COX-2 expression, which further promoted elution of Ni ions by increasing lactate production and leukocyte infiltration. Since COX inhibitors and Dex reduced the elution of Ni ions, these drugs may be

  15. Cation exchange assisted binding-elution strategy for enzymatic synthesis of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hailiang; Wu, Zhigang; Gadi, Madhusudhan Reddy; Wang, Shuaishuai; Guo, Yuxi; Edmunds, Garrett; Guan, Wanyi; Fang, Junqiang

    2017-09-15

    A cation exchange assisted binding-elution (BE) strategy for enzymatic synthesis of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) was developed. An amino linker was used to provide the cation ion under acidic condition which can be readily bound to cation exchange resin and then eluted off by saturated ammonium bicarbonate. Ammonium bicarbonate in the collections was easily removed by vacuum evaporation. This strategy circumvented the incompatible issue between glycosyltransferases and solid support or large polymers, and no purification was needed for intermediate products. With current approach, polyLacNAc backbones of HMOs and fucosylated HMOs were synthesized smoothly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Home Automation and Security System Using Android ADK

    OpenAIRE

    Deepali Javale; Mohd. Mohsin; Shreerang Nandanwar; Mayur Shingate

    2013-01-01

    Today we are living in 21st century where automation is playing important role in human life. Home automation allows us to control household appliances like light, door, fan, AC etc. It also provides home security and emergency system to be activated. Home automation not only refers to reduce human efforts but also energy efficiency and time saving. The main objective of home automation and security is to help handicapped and old aged people which will enable them to control home appliances a...

  17. Flexible automation and the loss of pooling synergy

    OpenAIRE

    Slomp, Jannes; Zee, Durk-Jouke van der

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effects of flexible automation on the performance of a job shop. Flexible automated machines may significantly improve the delivery performance and the flow time of jobs. The insertion of a flexible automated system in a job shop, however, also has a counter effect on the manufacturing performance. This is caused by the reduction of pooling synergy due to the dedication implied by flexible automated machines. This paper investigates by means of a simulation study to ...

  18. Is high automation a dead end? Cutbacks in production overengineering

    OpenAIRE

    Lay, Gunter; Schirrmeister, Elna

    2001-01-01

    For quite some time it seemed the trend towards high automation in the wage-intensive German economy showed no signs of slowing down. However, in practice it turns out that more than a third of companies which have chosen automated solutions have not had their expectations fulfilled. Many of these companies have already made reductions in automation levels for particular subsystems. The most important reason for dissatisfaction is the lack of flexibility in highly automated systems. Flexibili...

  19. Randomized comparison between intracoronary β-radiation brachytherapy and implantation of paclitaxel-eluting stents for the treatment of diffuse in-stent restenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schukro, Christoph; Syeda, Bonni; Kirisits, Christian; Schmid, Rainer; Pichler, Philipp; Pokrajac, Boris; Lang, Irene; Poetter, Richard; Glogar, Dietmar

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Intracoronary brachytherapy was the primary therapeutic option for the treatment of in-stent restenosis (ISR) during the last years. Especially for the treatment of diffuse ISR (lesions >10 mm), β-source brachytherapy was significantly superior to singular balloon angioplasty. Despite lacking clinical database, the implantation of drug eluting stents recently became a common procedure for the treatment of ISR. This randomized trial aimed to compare the efficacy of β-brachytherapy with β-radioisotopes 90 Sr/ 90 Y and paclitaxel-eluting stent implantation for the treatment of diffuse ISR. Material and methods: Thirty-seven patients with diffuse ISR were randomly assigned to β-brachytherapy after balloon angioplasty (Beta-Cath TM in 17 patients) or paclitaxel-eluting stent implantation (Taxus-Express2 TM in 20 patients). Six-month clinical follow-up was obtained for all patients, while angiographic follow-up was available for 30 patients. Results: Binary ISR (restenosis >50%) within target segment was observed in three patients treated with Beta-Cath TM , of which one needed target segment revascularisation for recurrent ISR, whereas no significant restenosis occurred in the patients treated with Taxus-Express2 TM (P = 0.037). No further major adverse cardiac (target segment revascularisation, myocardial infarction, death) was found in either group (P = NS). Stent implantation was the more time-saving (31 ± 11 min versus 60 ± 23 min, P TM arm, we found no difference in clinical outcome after implantation of paclitaxel-eluting stents for the treatment of diffuse ISR when compared to β-brachytherapy

  20. Preparation and characterization of iron(III) {sup 99}Mo-molybdate(VI) gels for the assessment of {sup 99m}Tc elution performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Mahmoud; Fasih, Tharwat W.; El-Absy, Mohamed A. [Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2018-04-01

    New iron(III) {sup 99}Mo-molybdate(VI) gels (Fe{sup 99}Mo) of high Mo content were prepared by the precipitation/filtration method. {sup 99}Mo-MoO{sub 3} dissolved in NaOH was added to aqueous solutions of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} at Mo/Fe mole fractions ∝2.21 and 1.99 with continuous stirring at ambient room temperature. Two different Fe{sup 99}Mo were precipitated from the mixed solutions adjusted at pH 2 and 4.7. The amount of water of hydration increased with the increasing the gel settling time and pH of the mixed solution. The matrices were characterized by radiometric, XRD, SEM, XRF, FT-IR, TGA, and DTA measurements. Small chromatographic columns of 2.0 g Fe{sup 99}Mo containing ≥800 mg Mo tagged with 740 MBq {sup 99}Mo were eluted with 5 mL saline solution. Highly reproducible {sup 99m}Tc elution indices suitable for preparation of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators were achieved from generator supported with 0.5 g Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} filter. Elution performance of {sup 99m}Tc radionuclide was highly dependent on the gel structural properties.

  1. Preparation and characterization of iron(III) 99Mo-molybdate(VI) gels for the assessment of 99mTc elution performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Mahmoud; Fasih, Tharwat W.; El-Absy, Mohamed A.

    2018-01-01

    New iron(III) 99 Mo-molybdate(VI) gels (Fe 99 Mo) of high Mo content were prepared by the precipitation/filtration method. 99 Mo-MoO 3 dissolved in NaOH was added to aqueous solutions of Fe(NO 3 ) 3 at Mo/Fe mole fractions ∝2.21 and 1.99 with continuous stirring at ambient room temperature. Two different Fe 99 Mo were precipitated from the mixed solutions adjusted at pH 2 and 4.7. The amount of water of hydration increased with the increasing the gel settling time and pH of the mixed solution. The matrices were characterized by radiometric, XRD, SEM, XRF, FT-IR, TGA, and DTA measurements. Small chromatographic columns of 2.0 g Fe 99 Mo containing ≥800 mg Mo tagged with 740 MBq 99 Mo were eluted with 5 mL saline solution. Highly reproducible 99m Tc elution indices suitable for preparation of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators were achieved from generator supported with 0.5 g Al 2 O 3 filter. Elution performance of 99m Tc radionuclide was highly dependent on the gel structural properties.

  2. Drivers anticipate lead-vehicle conflicts during automated longitudinal control: Sensory cues capture driver attention and promote appropriate and timely responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morando, Alberto; Victor, Trent; Dozza, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) has been shown to reduce the exposure to critical situations by maintaining a safe speed and headway. It has also been shown that drivers adapt their visual behavior in response to the driving task demand with ACC, anticipating an impending lead vehicle conflict by directing their eyes to the forward path before a situation becomes critical. The purpose of this paper is to identify the causes related to this anticipatory mechanism, by investigating drivers' visual behavior while driving with ACC when a potential critical situation is encountered, identified as a forward collision warning (FCW) onset (including false positive warnings). This paper discusses how sensory cues capture attention to the forward path in anticipation of the FCW onset. The analysis used the naturalistic database EuroFOT to examine visual behavior with respect to two manually-coded metrics, glance location and glance eccentricity, and then related the findings to vehicle data (such as speed, acceleration, and radar information). Three sensory cues (longitudinal deceleration, looming, and brake lights) were found to be relevant for capturing driver attention and increase glances to the forward path in anticipation of the threat; the deceleration cue seems to be dominant. The results also show that the FCW acts as an effective attention-orienting mechanism when no threat anticipation is present. These findings, relevant to the study of automation, provide additional information about drivers' response to potential lead-vehicle conflicts when longitudinal control is automated. Moreover, these results suggest that sensory cues are important for alerting drivers to an impending critical situation, allowing for a prompt reaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. AUTOMATING ASSET KNOWLEDGE WITH MTCONNECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Sid; Ly, Sidney; Manning, Martin; Michaloski, John; Proctor, Fred

    2016-01-01

    In order to maximize assets, manufacturers should use real-time knowledge garnered from ongoing and continuous collection and evaluation of factory-floor machine status data. In discrete parts manufacturing, factory machine monitoring has been difficult, due primarily to closed, proprietary automation equipment that make integration difficult. Recently, there has been a push in applying the data acquisition concepts of MTConnect to the real-time acquisition of machine status data. MTConnect is an open, free specification aimed at overcoming the "Islands of Automation" dilemma on the shop floor. With automated asset analysis, manufacturers can improve production to become lean, efficient, and effective. The focus of this paper will be on the deployment of MTConnect to collect real-time machine status to automate asset management. In addition, we will leverage the ISO 22400 standard, which defines an asset and quantifies asset performance metrics. In conjunction with these goals, the deployment of MTConnect in a large aerospace manufacturing facility will be studied with emphasis on asset management and understanding the impact of machine Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) on manufacturing.

  4. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  5. Automated Negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, NR; Parsons, S; Sierra, C; Faratin, P

    2000-01-01

    Interactions are a core part of all multi-agent systems. They occur because of the inter-dependencies that inevitably exist between the agents and they manifest themselves in many different forms—including cooperation, coordination, and collaboration. However, perhaps the most fundamental and powerful mechanism for managing these inter-agent dependencies at run-time is negotiation—the process by which a group of agents communicate with one to try and come to a mutually acceptable agreement on...

  6. Influence of a dexamethasone-eluting covered stent on tissue reaction: an experimental study in a canine bronchial model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Choi, Gi Bok; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Suh, Ji-Yeon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Seo, Tae-Seok [Gachon Medical School, Department of Radiology, Gil Medical Center, Inchon (Korea); Yuk, Soon Hong [Hannam University, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Daejeon (Korea); Kim, Young-Hwa [Soonchunhyang University Chonan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Chonan (Korea); Cho, Yong-Mee [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a dexamethasone (DXM)-eluting, covered, self-expanding metallic stent to reduce tissue reaction following stent placement in a canine bronchial model. We placed a DXM-eluting, polyurethane-covered, self-expanding metallic stent (drug stent, DS) and a polyurethane-covered, self-expanding metallic stent (control stent, CS) alternately in each left main bronchus and left lower lobe bronchus in 12 dogs. The stents were 20 mm in diameter and length when fully expanded. The dose of DXM was approximately 36.7 mg in each DS, but was absent in the CS. The dogs were euthanased 1 week (n=4), 2 weeks (n=4) or 4 weeks (n=4) after stent placement. Histologic findings, such as epithelial erosion/ulcer or granulation tissue thickness, were obtained from the mid-portion of the bronchus, where the stent had been placed, and evaluated between DS and CS. There were no procedure-related complications or malpositioning of any of the bronchial stents. Stent migration was detected in one dog just before euthanasia 1 week following stent placement. Stent patency was maintained until euthanasia in all dogs. Epithelial erosion/ulcer (%) was significantly less in the DS (mean{+-}standard deviation, 46.88{+-}23.75) than in the CS (73.75{+-}14.08) (P=0.026) for all time-points. There was a decrease in epithelial erosion/ulcer as the follow-up period increased in both DS and CS. The granulation tissue thickness (mm) was less in DS (2.63{+-}2.05) than in CS (3.49{+-}2.95), although the difference was not significant (P=0.751) for all time-points. There was a tendency toward an increase in granulation tissue thickness and chronic lymphocytic infiltration as the follow-up period increased in both DS and CS. In conclusion, DXM-eluting, covered, self-expanding metallic stent seems to be effective in reducing tissue reaction secondary to stent placement in a canine bronchial model. (orig.)

  7. Influence of a dexamethasone-eluting covered stent on tissue reaction: an experimental study in a canine bronchial model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ji Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Choi, Gi Bok; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Suh, Ji-Yeon; Seo, Tae-Seok; Yuk, Soon Hong; Kim, Young-Hwa; Cho, Yong-Mee

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a dexamethasone (DXM)-eluting, covered, self-expanding metallic stent to reduce tissue reaction following stent placement in a canine bronchial model. We placed a DXM-eluting, polyurethane-covered, self-expanding metallic stent (drug stent, DS) and a polyurethane-covered, self-expanding metallic stent (control stent, CS) alternately in each left main bronchus and left lower lobe bronchus in 12 dogs. The stents were 20 mm in diameter and length when fully expanded. The dose of DXM was approximately 36.7 mg in each DS, but was absent in the CS. The dogs were euthanased 1 week (n=4), 2 weeks (n=4) or 4 weeks (n=4) after stent placement. Histologic findings, such as epithelial erosion/ulcer or granulation tissue thickness, were obtained from the mid-portion of the bronchus, where the stent had been placed, and evaluated between DS and CS. There were no procedure-related complications or malpositioning of any of the bronchial stents. Stent migration was detected in one dog just before euthanasia 1 week following stent placement. Stent patency was maintained until euthanasia in all dogs. Epithelial erosion/ulcer (%) was significantly less in the DS (mean±standard deviation, 46.88±23.75) than in the CS (73.75±14.08) (P=0.026) for all time-points. There was a decrease in epithelial erosion/ulcer as the follow-up period increased in both DS and CS. The granulation tissue thickness (mm) was less in DS (2.63±2.05) than in CS (3.49±2.95), although the difference was not significant (P=0.751) for all time-points. There was a tendency toward an increase in granulation tissue thickness and chronic lymphocytic infiltration as the follow-up period increased in both DS and CS. In conclusion, DXM-eluting, covered, self-expanding metallic stent seems to be effective in reducing tissue reaction secondary to stent placement in a canine bronchial model. (orig.)

  8. Rationale and Design of a Randomized Clinical Comparison of Everolimus-Eluting (Xience V/Promus) and Sirolimus-Eluting (Cypher Select+) Coronary Stents in Unselected Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Tilsted, Hans Henrik

    2010-01-01

    with Clinical Outcome (SORT OUT) IV trial was designed as a prospective, multi-center, open-label, all-comer, two-arm, randomized, non-inferiority study comparing the everolimus-eluting stent with the sirolimus-eluting stent in the treatment of atherosclerotic coronary artery lesions. Based on a non...

  9. Comparison of an everolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffold with an everolimus-eluting metallic stent for the treatment of coronary artery stenosis (ABSORB II): a 3 year, randomised, controlled, single-blind, multicentre clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serruys, Patrick W.; Chevalier, Bernard; Sotomi, Yohei; Cequier, Angel; Carrié, Didier; Piek, Jan J.; van Boven, Ad J.; Dominici, Marcello; Dudek, Dariusz; McClean, Dougal; Helqvist, Steffen; Haude, Michael; Reith, Sebastian; de Sousa Almeida, Manuel; Campo, Gianluca; Iñiguez, Andrés; Sabaté, Manel; Windecker, Stephan; Onuma, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    No medium-term data are available on the random comparison between everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffolds and everolimus-eluting metallic stents. The study aims to demonstrate two mechanistic properties of the bioresorbable scaffold: increase in luminal dimensions as a result of

  10. Tissue coverage of a hydrophilic polymer-coated zotarolimus-eluting stent vs. a fluoropolymer-coated everolimus-eluting stent at 13-month follow-up: an optical coherence tomography substudy from the RESOLUTE All Comers trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutiérrez-Chico, Juan Luis; van Geuns, Robert Jan; Regar, Evelyn

    2011-01-01

    To compare the tissue coverage of a hydrophilic polymer-coated zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES) vs. a fluoropolymer-coated everolimus-eluting stent (EES) at 13 months, using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in an 'all-comers' population of patients, in order to clarify the mechanism of eventual...

  11. Comparison between sensitivity of a viscometric method and sensitivity of the alkaline elution assay for the determination of DNA damage induced by dimethylsulfate in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, S; Balbi, C; Taningher, M; Abelmoschi, M L; Pala, M; Parodi, G; Santi, L

    1982-03-01

    DNA damage induced by dimethylsulfate (DMS) was measured with a new oscillating crucible viscometer, having a U-shaped circular channel. Rat liver nuclei were treated in vitro. Viscosity was measured by lysing nuclei in an aklaline lysing solution (pH 12.5; 25 degrees C). Nuclei were lysed immediately in the viscometer and released DNA started to uncoil. In control samples the viscosity increased very slowly with time, reaching a maximum only after about 8 h. A progressively more rapid increase in viscosity was seen with increasing concentrations of DMS. The time of DNA disentanglement was sensitive to about 30 times less breaks than the alkaline elution assay.

  12. Flow injection analysis: Emerging tool for laboratory automation in radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, O.; Ruzicka, J.; Grate, J.W.; Janata, J.

    1996-01-01

    Automation of routine and serial assays is a common practice of modern analytical laboratory, while it is virtually nonexistent in the field of radiochemistry. Flow injection analysis (FIA) is a general solution handling methodology that has been extensively used for automation of routine assays in many areas of analytical chemistry. Reproducible automated solution handling and on-line separation capabilities are among several distinctive features that make FI a very promising, yet under utilized tool for automation in analytical radiochemistry. The potential of the technique is demonstrated through the development of an automated 90 Sr analyzer and its application in the analysis of tank waste samples from the Hanford site. Sequential injection (SI), the latest generation of FIA, is used to rapidly separate 90 Sr from interfering radionuclides and deliver separated Sr zone to a flow-through liquid scintillation detector. The separation is performed on a mini column containing Sr-specific sorbent extraction material, which selectively retains Sr under acidic conditions. The 90 Sr is eluted with water, mixed with scintillation cocktail, and sent through the flow cell of a flow through counter, where 90 Sr radioactivity is detected as a transient signal. Both peak area and peak height can be used for quantification of sample radioactivity. Alternatively, stopped flow detection can be performed to improve detection precision for low activity samples. The authors current research activities are focused on expansion of radiochemical applications of FIA methodology, with an ultimate goal of creating a set of automated methods that will cover the basic needs of radiochemical analysis at the Hanford site. The results of preliminary experiments indicate that FIA is a highly suitable technique for the automation of chemically more challenging separations, such as separation of actinide elements

  13. Spaceport Command and Control System Automation Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) launch control system for the Orion capsule and Space Launch System, the next generation manned rocket currently in development. This large system requires high quality testing that will properly measure the capabilities of the system. Automating the test procedures would save the project time and money. Therefore, the Electrical Engineering Division at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has recruited interns for the past two years to work alongside full-time engineers to develop these automated tests, as well as innovate upon the current automation process.

  14. Spaceport Command and Control System Automated Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Meriel

    2017-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) launch control system for the Orion capsule and Space Launch System, the next generation manned rocket currently in development. This large system requires high quality testing that will properly measure the capabilities of the system. Automating the test procedures would save the project time and money. Therefore, the Electrical Engineering Division at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has recruited interns for the past two years to work alongside full-time engineers to develop these automated tests, as well as innovate upon the current automation process.

  15. Quality by Design in the development of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography method with gradient elution for the analysis of olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumpa, Anja; Stajić, Ana; Jančić-Stojanović, Biljana; Medenica, Mirjana

    2017-02-05

    This paper deals with the development of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method with gradient elution, in accordance with Analytical Quality by Design (AQbD) methodology, for the first time. The method is developed for olanzapine and its seven related substances. Following step by step AQbD methodology, firstly as critical process parameters (CPPs) temperature, starting content of aqueous phase and duration of linear gradient are recognized, and as critical quality attributes (CQAs) separation criterion S of critical pairs of substances are investigated. Rechtschaffen design is used for the creation of models that describe the dependence between CPPs and CQAs. The design space that is obtained at the end is used for choosing the optimal conditions (set point). The method is fully validated at the end to verify the adequacy of the chosen optimal conditions and applied to real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Automated Robust Maneuver Design and Optimization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is seeking improvements to the current technologies related to Position, Navigation and Timing. In particular, it is desired to automate precise maneuver...

  17. Lighting Automation - Flying an Earthlike Habit Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falker, Jay; Howard, Ricky; Culbert, Christopher; Clark, Toni Anne; Kolomenski, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Our proposal will enable the development of automated spacecraft habitats for long duration missions. Majority of spacecraft lighting systems employ lamps or zone specific switches and dimmers. Automation is not in the "picture". If we are to build long duration environments, which provide earth-like habitats, minimize crew time, and optimize spacecraft power reserves, innovation in lighting automation is a must. To transform how spacecraft lighting environments are automated, we will provide performance data on a standard lighting communication protocol. We will investigate utilization and application of an industry accepted lighting control protocol, DMX512. We will demonstrate how lighting automation can conserve power, assist with lighting countermeasures, and utilize spatial body tracking. By using DMX512 we will prove the "wheel" does not need to be reinvented in terms of smart lighting and future spacecraft can use a standard lighting protocol to produce an effective, optimized and potentially earthlike habitat.

  18. Radiographic examination takes on an automated image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, J.

    1988-01-01

    Automation can be effectively applied to nondestructive testing (NDT). Until recently, film radiography used in NDT was largely a manual process, involving the shooting of a series of x-rays, manually positioned and manually processed. In other words, much radiographic work is being done the way it was over 50 years ago. Significant advances in automation have changed the face of manufacturing, and industry has shared in the benefits brought by such progress. The handling of parts, which was once responsible for a large measure of labor costs, is now assigned to robotic equipment. In nondestructive testing processes, some progress has been achieved in automation - for example, in real-time imaging systems. However, only recently have truly automated NDT begun to emerge. There are two major reasons to introduce automation into NDT - reliability and productivity. Any process or technique that can improve the reliability of parts testing could easily justify the capital investments required

  19. SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION OF MORPHINE FROM WHOLE-BLOOD BY MEANS OF BOND ELUT CERTIFY COLUMNS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CHEN, XH; HOMMERSON, ALC; ZWEIPFENNING, PGM; FRANKE, JP; HARMENBOVERHOF, CW; ENSING, K; DEZEEUW, RA

    The use of Bond Elut Certify columns for the isolation of morphine from whole blood was evaluated. In order to monitor possible losses and the elution profile of morphine, a small amount of the tritiated analogue was added to the samples. Four sample pretreatment methods, three protein precipitation

  20. Comparison of paclitaxel- and sirolimus-eluting stents in everyday clinical practice: the SORT OUT II randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galløe, Anders M; Thuesen, Leif; Kelbaek, Henning

    2008-01-01

    Approval of drug-eluting coronary stents was based on results of relatively small trials of selected patients; however, in routine practice, stents are used in a broader spectrum of patients.......Approval of drug-eluting coronary stents was based on results of relatively small trials of selected patients; however, in routine practice, stents are used in a broader spectrum of patients....

  1. Elution strategies for reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of sucrose alkanoate regioisomers with charged aerosol detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Aleksander; Pedersen, Lars Haastrup

    2013-01-01

    A broad range of elution strategies for RP-HPLC analysis of sucrose alkanoate regioisomers with CAD was systematically evaluated. The HPLC analyses were investigated using design-of-experiments methodology and analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression modelling. Isocratic elutions, ...

  2. Drug-eluting versus bare-metal stents in large coronary arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Christoph; Galatius, Soeren; Erne, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Recent data have suggested that patients with coronary disease in large arteries are at increased risk for late cardiac events after percutaneous intervention with first-generation drug-eluting stents, as compared with bare-metal stents. We sought to confirm this observation and to assess whether...

  3. AN ALTERNATIVE ELUENT TO BEEF EXTRACT FOR ELUTING POLIOVIRUS FROM ELECTROPOSITIVE FILTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional methods for enteric virus removal from waters involve filtering the water through a positively charged filter followed by elution with beef extract, second step concentration by flocculation, and assay in cell culture. Two of the problems associated with this method ...

  4. Drug-eluting stents: from bench-top to clinical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basalus, Mounir Welson Zakhary

    2013-01-01

    The development of drug-eluting stents (DES) has improved the invasive treatment of obstructive coronary artery disease by reducing both, restenosis rate and need for reinterventions. This success resulted in a widespread utilization of DES in clinical practice and entailed many clinical research

  5. Drug-Eluting Balloons in the Treatment of Coronary De Novo Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richelsen, Rasmus Kapalu Broge; Overvad, Thure Filskov; Jensen, Svend Eggert

    2016-01-01

    Drug-eluting balloons (DEBs) have emerged as a new application in percutaneous coronary intervention. DEBs have proven successful in the treatment of in-stent restenosis, but their role in de novo lesions is less clear. This paper provides a review of the current studies where DEBs have been used...

  6. Enhanced performance of magnesium alloy for drug-eluting vascular scaffold application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongzhou; Li, Daikun; Mao, Daoyong; Bai, Ningning; Chen, Yashi; Li, Qing

    2018-03-01

    Bio-absorbable magnesium alloys drug-eluting vascular scaffold was developed to resolve the defect of permanent metal and drug-eluting stents, most notably a chronic vessel wall inflammation and the risk of stent thrombosis. Nevertheless, violent chemical reaction and rapid degradation under physiological conditions limits their application. Furthermore, multifunctional drug-eluting stents which could reduce the formation of thrombus and repair the damaged vessels need more attention to fundamentally cure the coronary artery disease. Herein, a drug delivery system (Mg/MgO/PLA-FA) which can realize sustainable release of ferulaic acid was designed via anodic oxidation process and dip coating process. Electrochemical tests and immersion experiments showed that the superior anticorrosion behavior, it is due to the dense MgO-PLA composite layer. The released ferulaic acid can effectively decrease platelets adhesion and aggregation during the early stage of implantation. Besides, hemolysis tests showed that the composite coatings endowed the Mg alloy with a low hemolysis ratio. The Mg/MgO/PLA-FA composite materials may be appropriate for applications on biodegradable Mg alloys drug-eluting stents.

  7. Studies on the production of technetium-99m generators based on gel elution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, M.

    1993-12-01

    Technetium-99m generator based on Ti Mo elution has been carried out. The gel matrix was prepared by mixing non-irradiated molybdate with Titanium Chloride solution. Conditions of preparing and drying Ti Mo were evaluated as a function of elution yield. Thus, pH and water content were found highly critical for reproductiveness of the results. Non-elutable form of Tc-99m can be oxidized treating the target after irradiation with K 2 Cr 2 O 7 0.001M solution. During several experiments the columns were soaked with this oxidizing solution for one hour and afterwards the Ti Mo was washed with 150 ml physiological saline. Daily elutions were done with 10 ml of NaCl 0.9%. Cooling water reactor during irradiation quartz ampoules has been studied. To study this effect, one group of samples were irradiated in aluminium caps air-tight screw and another one was irradiated in drilled caps with six holes to permit water reactor recirculation around quartz ampoules. By combination K 2 Cr 2 O 7 target treatment and cooling Ti Mo during irradiation is possible to get yields of Tc-99m near to 76%. The radiochemical purity was > 99% and Al content < 10ppm , Cr < 0.05ppm , Mo <20ppm, Ti was no detected. Biological scans practiced in animals have been considered satisfactory. (author). 8 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Clopidogrel discontinuation within the first year after coronary drug-eluting stent implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thim, Troels; Johansen, Martin Berg; Chisholm, Gro Egholm

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of adherence to the recommended duration of dual antiplatelet therapy after first generation drug-eluting stent implantation is difficult to assess in real-world settings and limited data are available. METHODS: We followed 4,154 patients treated with coronary drug-eluting ......BACKGROUND: The impact of adherence to the recommended duration of dual antiplatelet therapy after first generation drug-eluting stent implantation is difficult to assess in real-world settings and limited data are available. METHODS: We followed 4,154 patients treated with coronary drug......-eluting stents in Western Denmark for 1 year and obtained data on redeemed clopidogrel prescriptions and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, i.e., cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or stent thrombosis) from medical databases. RESULTS: Discontinuation of clopidogrel within the first 3 months after...... stent implantation was associated with a significantly increased rate of MACE at 1-year follow-up (hazard ratio (HR) 2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-3.93). Discontinuation 3-6 months (HR 1.29; 95% CI: 0.70-2.41) and 6-12 months (HR 1.29; 95% CI: 0.54-3.07) after stent implantation were...

  9. Optimized pH method for DNA elution from buccal cells collected in Whatman FTA cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, Carolina; Kohl-White, Kendra; Lewis, Laurie R; Dao, Dat D

    2006-01-01

    DNA is the most accessible biologic material for obtaining information from the human genome because of its molecular stability and its presence in every nucleated cell. Currently, single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and DNA methylation are the main DNA-based approaches to deriving genomic and epigenomic disease biomarkers. Upon the discontinuation of the Schleicher & Schuell IsoCode product (Dassel, Germany), which was a treated paper system to elute DNA from several biologic sources for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, a high-yielding DNA elution method was imperative. We describe here an improved procedure of the not fully validated Whatman pH-based elution protocol. Our DNA elution procedure from buccal cells collected in Whatman FTA cards (Whatman Inc., Florham Park, NJ) yielded approximately 4 microg of DNA from a 6-mm FTA card punch and was successfully applied for HLA-DQB1 genotyping. The genotypes showed complete concordance with data obtained from blood of the same subjects. The achieved high DNA yield from buccal cells suggests a potential cost-effective tool for genomic and epigenomic disease biomarkers development.

  10. Investigations on the elution behaviour of TOPO complexes of uranium and thorium using supercritical fluid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Sivaraman, N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2004-01-01

    In summary uranium and thorium could be separated by supercritical fluid chromatography technique as their TOPO complexes. The elution profiles with pre-complexation of the metal nitrate indicate a better separation than the in-situ complexation. The technique can also be employed for the assay of uranium and thorium at low levels

  11. Effect of Opalescence(®) bleaching gels on the elution of bulk-fill composite components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Lena; Reichl, Franz-Xaver; Rothmund, Lena; He, Xiuli; Yang, Yang; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Kehe, Kai; Polydorou, Olga; Hickel, Reinhard; Högg, Christof

    2016-02-01

    Bleaching treatments can affect release of components from conventional composites. In this continuing study the influence of two different bleaching gels on the elution of bulk-fill composite components was investigated. The composites Tetric EvoCeram(®) Bulk Fill, QuiXFil™ and X-tra fil were treated with the bleaching gels Opalescence PF 15% (PF 15%) for 5 h and PF 35% (PF 35%) for 30 min and then stored in methanol and water for 24 h and 7 d. The eluates were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Unbleached specimens were used as control group. A total of 7 different elutable substances have been identified from the investigated composites after bleaching-treatment. Three of them were methacrylates: 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA). Compared to the unbleached controls an increase in elution after PF 15%-treatment of following compounds was found: HEMA (Tetric EvoCeram(®) Bulk Fill), TEGDMA (QuiXFil™, X-tra fil) and 4-N,N-dimethylaminobenzoic acid butyl ethoxy ester (DMABEE) (Tetric EvoCeram(®) Bulk Fill, QuiXFil™, X-tra fil). Following compounds showed a reduction in elution after PF 35%-treatment compared to controls: TEGDMA (QuiXFil™) and DMABEE (Tetric EvoCeram(®) Bulk Fill). The highest concentration of HEMA was 0.22 mmol/l (Tetric EvoCeram(®) Bulk Fill, methanol, 7 d, PF 15%), the highest concentration of TEGDMA was 0.3 mmol/l (X-tra fil, water, 7 d, PF 15%) and the highest concentration of DMABEE was 0.05 mmol/l (QuiXFil™, water, 7 d, PF 35%). PF 15% and PF 35% can lead to reduced and/or increased elution of some bulk-fill components, compared to unbleached bulk-fill composites. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Hybrid Model for Safety Pharmacology on an Automated Patch Clamp Platform: Using Dynamic Clamp to Join iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes and Simulations of Ik1 Ion Channels in Real-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Goversen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of the Comprehensive In Vitro Proarrhythmia Assay (CiPA proposal is the use of human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and the confirmation of their predictive power in drug safety assays. The benefits of this cell source are clear; drugs can be tested in vitro on human cardiomyocytes, with patient-specific genotypes if needed, and differentiation efficiencies are generally excellent, resulting in a virtually limitless supply of cardiomyocytes. There are, however, several challenges that will have to be surmounted before successful establishment of hSC-CMs as an all-round predictive model for drug safety assays. An important factor is the relative electrophysiological immaturity of hSC-CMs, which limits arrhythmic responses to unsafe drugs that are pro-arrhythmic in humans. Potentially, immaturity may be improved functionally by creation of hybrid models, in which the dynamic clamp technique joins simulations of lacking cardiac ion channels (e.g., IK1 with hSC-CMs in real-time during patch clamp experiments. This approach has been used successfully in manual patch clamp experiments, but throughput is low. In this study, we combined dynamic clamp with automated patch clamp of iPSC-CMs in current clamp mode, and demonstrate that IK1 conductance can be added to iPSC-CMs on an automated patch clamp platform, resulting in an improved electrophysiological maturity.

  13. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  14. Berkeley automated supernova search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kare, J.T.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Muller, R.A.; Mast, T.S.; Crawford, F.S.; Burns, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Berkeley automated supernova search employs a computer controlled 36-inch telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to image 2500 galaxies per night. A dedicated minicomputer compares each galaxy image with stored reference data to identify supernovae in real time. The threshold for detection is m/sub v/ = 18.8. We plan to monitor roughly 500 galaxies in Virgo and closer every night, and an additional 6000 galaxies out to 70 Mpc on a three night cycle. This should yield very early detection of several supernovae per year for detailed study, and reliable premaximum detection of roughly 100 supernovae per year for statistical studies. The search should be operational in mid-1982.

  15. Berkeley automated supernova search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kare, J.T.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Muller, R.A.; Mast, T.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Berkeley automated supernova search employs a computer controlled 36-inch telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to image 2500 galaxies per night. A dedicated minicomputer compares each galaxy image with stored reference data to identify supernovae in real time. The threshold for detection is m/sub v/ = 18.8. We plan to monitor roughly 500 galaxies in Virgo and closer every night, and an additional 6000 galaxies out to 70 Mpc on a three night cycle. This should yield very early detection of several supernovae per year for detailed study, and reliable premaximum detection of roughly 100 supernovae per year for statistical studies. The search should be operational in mid-1982

  16. Comparison of elution efficiency of 99Mo/99mTc generator using theoretical and a free web based software method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran Kumar, J.K.; Sharma, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Singh, B.; Bhattacharaya, A.; Mittal, B.R.; Gayana, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Generator is constructed on the principle of decay growth relationship between a long lived parent radionuclide and short lived daughter radionuclide. Difference in chemical properties of daughter and parent radionuclide helps in efficient separation of the two radionuclides. Aim and Objectives: The present study was designed to calculate the elution efficiency of the generator using the traditional formula based method and free web based software method. Materials and Methods: 99 Mo/ 99m Tc MON.TEK (Monrol, Gebze) generator and sterile 0.9% NaCl vial and vacuum vial in the lead shield were used for the elution. A new 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator (calibrated activity 30GBq) calibrated for thursday was received on monday morning in our department. Generator was placed behind lead bricks in fume hood. The rubber plugs of both vacuum and 0.9% NaCl vial were wiped with 70% isopropyl alcohol swabs. Vacuum vial placed inside the lead shield was inserted in the vacuum position simultaneously 10 ml NaCl vial was inserted in the second slot. After 1-2 min vacuum vial was removed without moving the emptied 0.9%NaCl vial. The vacuum slot was covered with another sterile vial to maintain sterility. The RAC was measured in the calibrated dose calibrator (Capintec, 15 CRC). The elution efficiency was calculated theoretically and using free web based software (Apache Web server (www.apache.org) and PHP (www.php.net). Web site of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (www.aimn.it). Results: The mean elution efficiency calculated by theoretical method was 93.95% +0.61. The mean elution efficiency as calculated by the software was 92.85% + 0.89. There was no statistical difference in both the methods. Conclusion: The free web based software provides precise and reproducible results and thus saves time and mathematical calculation steps. This enables a rational use of available activity and also enabling a selection of the type and number of

  17. Percutaneous coronary intervention with second-generation paclitaxel-eluting stents versus everolimus-eluting stents in United States contemporary practice (REWARDS TLX Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waksman, Ron; Ghali, Magdi; Goodroe, Randy; Ryan, Thomas; Turco, Mark; Ring, Michael; McGarry, Thomas; Dobies, David; Shammas, Nicolas; Steinberg, Daniel H; Swymelar, Stacy; Kaneshige, Kimberly; Torguson, Rebecca

    2012-10-15

    Registry Experience at the Washington Hospital Center, DES - Taxus Liberte Versus Xience V (REWARDS TLX) is a physician-initiated, retrospective, real-world, multicenter, observational study for all patients >18 years of age subjected to percutaneous coronary intervention with everolimus-eluting stents (EESs) or paclitaxel-eluting stents (PESs). Outcomes of patients receiving a TAXUS Liberté or XIENCE V drug-eluting stent were compared. Baseline clinical, procedural, and follow-up data at 12 months were collected from 10 clinical centers by an electronic data capture system. The study's primary end point was major adverse cardiac events: a composite of all-cause death, Q-wave myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization, and stent thrombosis. The trial is registered with http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01134159). Data were entered for 1,195 patients (PES, n = 595; EES, n = 600). Baseline clinical characteristics were similar except for higher dyslipidemia, systemic hypertension, and family history of coronary artery disease in the EES group. In-hospital outcome was similar between groups, with an overall in-hospital stent thrombosis rate of 0.2%. The primary end point at 12 months was similar (EES 7.8% vs 10.8%, p = 0.082). Overall stent thrombosis rate was lower in the EES group (0.3% vs 1.2%, respectively, p = 0.107); however, target lesion revascularization was similar (PES, hazard ratio 1.46, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 2.19, p = 0.064). There was no difference in overall mortality between groups. In conclusion, second-generation EESs and PESs demonstrated similar efficacy and safety profiles for broadened patient and lesion subsets compared to a selected population from the pivotal trials. However, for composite efficacy and safety end points, EESs outperformed second-generation PESs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Automated synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of [{sup 68}Ga]Ga-AMBA, and the synthesis and characterization of {sup nat}Ga-AMBA and [{sup 67}Ga]Ga-AMBA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagnolini, Aldo; Chen Jianqing; Ramos, Kimberly; Marie Skedzielewski, Tina; Lantry, Laura E.; Nunn, Adrian D.; Swenson, Rolf E. [Ernst Felder Laboratories, Bracco Research USA Inc., 305 College Road East, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Linder, Karen E., E-mail: karen.e.linder@gmail.co [Ernst Felder Laboratories, Bracco Research USA Inc., 305 College Road East, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Ga-AMBA (Ga-DO3A-CH{sub 2}CO-G-[4-aminobenzoyl]-QWAVGHLM-NH{sub 2}) is a bombesin-like agonist with high affinity for gastrin releasing peptide receptors (GRP-R). Syntheses for {sup nat}Ga-AMBA, [{sup 67}Ga]Ga-AMBA and [{sup 68}Ga]Ga-AMBA were developed. The preparation of HPLC-purified and Sep-Pak purified [{sup 68}Ga]Ga-AMBA were fully automated, using the built-in radiodetector of the Tracerlab FX F-N synthesizer to monitor fractionated {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga generator elution and purification. The total synthesis time, including the fractional elution of the generator, was 20 min for Sep-Pak purified material and 40 min for HPLC-purified [{sup 68}Ga]Ga-AMBA. Both [{sup 67}Ga]Ga-AMBA and [{sup 177}Lu]Lu-AMBA showed comparable high affinity for GRP-R in the human prostate cancer cell line PC-3 in vitro (k{sub D}=0.46{+-}0.07; 0.44{+-}0.08 nM), high internalization (78; 77%) and low efflux from cells at 2 h (2.4{+-}0.7; 2.9{+-}1.8%). Biodistribution results in PC-3 tumor-bearing male nude mice showed comparable uptake for [{sup 177}Lu]Lu-, [{sup 111}In]In-, [{sup 67}Ga]Ga- and [{sup 68}Ga]Ga-AMBA.

  19. A microfluidics-based technique for automated and rapid labeling of cells for flow cytometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patibandla, Phani K; Estrada, Rosendo; Kannan, Manasaa; Sethu, Palaniappan

    2014-01-01

    Flow cytometry is a powerful technique capable of simultaneous multi-parametric analysis of heterogeneous cell populations for research and clinical applications. In recent years, the flow cytometer has been miniaturized and made portable for application in clinical- and resource-limited settings. The sample preparation procedure, i.e. labeling of cells with antibodies conjugated to fluorescent labels, is a time consuming (∼45 min) and labor-intensive procedure. Microfluidics provides enabling technologies to accomplish rapid and automated sample preparation. Using an integrated microfluidic device consisting of a labeling and washing module, we demonstrate a new protocol that can eliminate sample handling and accomplish sample and reagent metering, high-efficiency mixing, labeling and washing in rapid automated fashion. The labeling module consists of a long microfluidic channel with an integrated chaotic mixer. Samples and reagents are precisely metered into this device to accomplish rapid and high-efficiency mixing. The mixed sample and reagents are collected in a holding syringe and held for up to 8 min following which the mixture is introduced into an inertial washing module to obtain ‘analysis-ready’ samples. The washing module consists of a high aspect ratio channel capable of focusing cells to equilibrium positions close to the channel walls. By introducing the cells and labeling reagents in a narrow stream at the center of the channel flanked on both sides by a wash buffer, the elution of cells into the wash buffer away from the free unbound antibodies is accomplished. After initial calibration experiments to determine appropriate ‘holding time’ to allow antibody binding, both modules were used in conjunction to label MOLT-3 cells (T lymphoblast cell line) with three different antibodies simultaneously. Results confirm no significant difference in mean fluorescence intensity values for all three antibodies labels (p < 0.01) between the

  20. Automation systems for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Paul

    1974-01-01

    The application of automation systems for radioimmunoassay (RIA) was discussed. Automated systems could be useful in the second step, of the four basic processes in the course of RIA, i.e., preparation of sample for reaction. There were two types of instrumentation, a semi-automatic pipete, and a fully automated pipete station, both providing for fast and accurate dispensing of the reagent or for the diluting of sample with reagent. Illustrations of the instruments were shown. (Mukohata, S.)

  1. Comparison of everolimus- and paclitaxel-eluting stents in patients with acute and stable coronary syndromes: pooled results from the SPIRIT (A Clinical Evaluation of the XIENCE V Everolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System) and COMPARE (A Trial of Everolimus-Eluting Stents and Paclitaxel-Eluting Stents for Coronary Revascularization in Daily Practice) Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planer, David; Smits, Pieter C; Kereiakes, Dean J; Kedhi, Elvin; Fahy, Martin; Xu, Ke; Serruys, Patrick W; Stone, Gregg W

    2011-10-01

    This study sought to compare the clinical outcomes of everolimus-eluting stents (EES) versus paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Although randomized trials have shown superiority of EES to PES, the safety and efficacy of EES in ACS is unknown. We performed a patient-level pooled analysis from the prospective, randomized SPIRIT (Clinical Evaluation of the XIENCE V Everolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System) II, III, IV, and COMPARE (A Trial of Everolimus-Eluting Stents and Paclitaxel-Eluting Stents for Coronary Revascularization in Daily Practice) trials in which 2,381 patients with ACS and 4,404 patients with stable CAD were randomized to EES or to PES. Kaplan-Meier estimates of death, myocardial infarction (MI), ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization, and stent thrombosis were assessed at 2 years and stratified by clinical presentation (ACS vs. stable CAD). At 2 years, patients with ACS compared with stable CAD had higher rates of death (3.2% vs. 2.4%, hazard ratio [HR]: 1.37 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02 to 1.85], p = 0.04) and MI (4.9% vs. 3.4%, HR: 1.45 [95% CI: 1.14 to 1.85], p = 0.02). In patients with ACS, EES versus PES reduced the rate of death or MI (6.6% vs. 9.3%, HR: 0.70 [95% CI: 0.52 to 0.94], p = 0.02), stent thrombosis (0.7% vs. 2.9%, HR: 0.25 [95% CI: 0.12 to 0.52], p = 0.0002), and ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization (4.7% vs. 6.2%, HR: 0.69 [95% CI: 0.48 to 0.99], p = 0.04). In patients with stable CAD, EES reduced the rate of death or MI (4.5% vs. 7.1%, HR: 0.62 [95% CI: 0.48 to 0.80], p = 0.0002), stent thrombosis (0.7% vs. 1.8%, HR: 0.34 [95% CI: 0.19 to 0.62], p = 0.0002), and ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization (3.9% vs. 6.9%, HR: 0.55 [95% CI: 0.42 to 0.73], p SPIRIT II]; NCT00180310; SPIRIT III: A Clinical Evaluation of the Investigational Device XIENCE V Everolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System [EECSS] in the

  2. Automated cloning methods.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collart, F.

    2001-01-01

    Argonne has developed a series of automated protocols to generate bacterial expression clones by using a robotic system designed to be used in procedures associated with molecular biology. The system provides plate storage, temperature control from 4 to 37 C at various locations, and Biomek and Multimek pipetting stations. The automated system consists of a robot that transports sources from the active station on the automation system. Protocols for the automated generation of bacterial expression clones can be grouped into three categories (Figure 1). Fragment generation protocols are initiated on day one of the expression cloning procedure and encompass those protocols involved in generating purified coding region (PCR)

  3. Complacency and Automation Bias in the Use of Imperfect Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher D; Clegg, Benjamin A; Vieane, Alex Z; Sebok, Angelia L

    2015-08-01

    We examine the effects of two different kinds of decision-aiding automation errors on human-automation interaction (HAI), occurring at the first failure following repeated exposure to correctly functioning automation. The two errors are incorrect advice, triggering the automation bias, and missing advice, reflecting complacency. Contrasts between analogous automation errors in alerting systems, rather than decision aiding, have revealed that alerting false alarms are more problematic to HAI than alerting misses are. Prior research in decision aiding, although contrasting the two aiding errors (incorrect vs. missing), has confounded error expectancy. Participants performed an environmental process control simulation with and without decision aiding. For those with the aid, automation dependence was created through several trials of perfect aiding performance, and an unexpected automation error was then imposed in which automation was either gone (one group) or wrong (a second group). A control group received no automation support. The correct aid supported faster and more accurate diagnosis and lower workload. The aid failure degraded all three variables, but "automation wrong" had a much greater effect on accuracy, reflecting the automation bias, than did "automation gone," reflecting the impact of complacency. Some complacency was manifested for automation gone, by a longer latency and more modest reduction in accuracy. Automation wrong, creating the automation bias, appears to be a more problematic form of automation error than automation gone, reflecting complacency. Decision-aiding automation should indicate its lower degree of confidence in uncertain environments to avoid the automation bias. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  4. Procedure automation: the effect of automated procedure execution on situation awareness and human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Gisle; Svengren, Haakan; Heimdal, Jan O.; Nilsen, Svein; Hulsund, John-Einar; Bisio, Rossella; Debroise, Xavier

    2004-04-01

    As advised by the procedure workshop convened in Halden in 2000, the Halden Project conducted an experiment on the effect of automation of Computerised Procedure Systems (CPS) on situation awareness and human performance. The expected outcome of the study was to provide input for guidance on CPS design, and to support the Halden Project's ongoing research on human reliability analysis. The experiment was performed in HAMMLAB using the HAMBO BWR simulator and the COPMA-III CPS. Eight crews of operators from Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3 participated. Three research questions were investigated: 1) Does procedure automation create Out-Of-The-Loop (OOTL) performance problems? 2) Does procedure automation affect situation awareness? 3) Does procedure automation affect crew performance? The independent variable, 'procedure configuration', had four levels: paper procedures, manual CPS, automation with breaks, and full automation. The results showed that the operators experienced OOTL problems in full automation, but that situation awareness and crew performance (response time) were not affected. One possible explanation for this is that the operators monitored the automated procedure execution conscientiously, something which may have prevented the OOTL problems from having negative effects on situation awareness and crew performance. In a debriefing session, the operators clearly expressed their dislike for the full automation condition, but that automation with breaks could be suitable for some tasks. The main reason why the operators did not like the full automation was that they did not feel being in control. A qualitative analysis addressing factors contributing to response time delays revealed that OOTL problems did not seem to cause delays, but that some delays could be explained by the operators having problems with the freeze function of the CPS. Also other factors such as teamwork and operator tendencies were of importance. Several design implications were drawn

  5. Degree of conversion and monomer elution of CQ/amine and TPO adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongprueksa, Pong; Miletic, Vesna; Janssens, Henriette; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; De Munck, Jan; Godderis, Lode; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of photo-initiator on the degree of conversion (DC) and elution of Bis-GMA and HEMA for 8 one-step adhesive formulations. We used Scotchbond Universal ('SBU-CQ/amine_4.0', 3M ESPE), containing about 2wt% camphorquinone (CQ) and 2wt% ethyl-4-dimethylamino benzoate (EDMAB), an experimental 'SBU-TPO_2.1' version, containing 2.1wt% diphenyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide (TPO), and 6 experimental LUB adhesives (Kuraray Noritake), namely 'LUB-CQ/amine_0.7', 'LUB-CQ/amine_1.4', 'LUB-CQ/amine_4.0', 'LUB-TPO_0.35', 'LUB-TPO_0.7' and 'LUB-TPO_2.0', respectively containing 0.35wt% CQ and 0.35wt% EDMAB, 0.7wt% CQ and 0.7wt% EDMAB, 2.0wt% CQ and 2.0wt% EDMAB, 0.35wt% TPO, 0.7wt% TPO, and 2.0wt% TPO. DC was measured using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Additional specimens were immersed in ethanol for 24h to determine the elution of Bis-GMA and HEMA using HPLC. DC of the respective SBU and LUB adhesives was alike at high photo-initiator concentration. At low concentration, TPO was significantly more efficient than CQ/amine (LUB adhesives only). A statistically significant positive photo-initiator concentration effect on DC was noted for both CQ/amine and TPO (LUB adhesives only). A statistically significant inverse photo-initiator concentration effect on HEMA elution was noted for both the CQ/amine- and TPO-containing LUB adhesives. A significantly strong correlation was found between DC and Bis-GMA elution (R(2)=0.744, p=0.026), and between DC and HEMA elution (R(2)=0.913, p=0.002) for the LUB adhesives. The photo-initiator kind and concentration affect DC and the Bis-GMA/HEMA elution. TPO can be used as an alternative photo-initiator for CQ/amine. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term Outcomes of Paclitaxel-Eluting Versus Sirolimus-Eluting Stent for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Meta-Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, J.; Liu, P.; Fan, X.; Wen, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhen, Y.; Li, J.; Cui, Y.; Zheng, X.; Ye, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The relative long-term efficacy and safety of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) compared with paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) in multiple comparative studies remains controversial. This report evaluates 29 randomized trials with 18,379 patients in whom long-term (more than 1 year) outcomes were evaluated. The primary outcomes were target lesion revascularization (TLR) and the secondary end points were death, cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), target vessel revascularization (TVR)and stent thrombosis (ST). In comparison with PES, SES significantly reduced the long-term risk of TLR (RR=0.68; 95% CI=0.57 to 0.80, p<0.001), TVR (RR=0.69; 95% CI= 0.60 to 0.79, p<0.001) and MACE (RR=0.82; 95% CI= 0.77 to 0.88, p<0.001), while there were no significant difference with respect to death, cardiac death, MI and ST between the two groups. SES performance was significantly better for reducing the former three outcomes and comparable for the majority of the secondary end points when compared against PES. (author)

  7. [Automated anesthesia record systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, W; Mönk, S; Eberle, B

    1997-07-01

    The introduction of electronic anaesthesia documentation systems was attempted as early as in 1979, although their efficient application has become reality only in the past few years. The advantages of the electronic protocol are apparent: Continuous high quality documentation, comparability of data due to the availability of a data bank, reduction in the workload of the anaesthetist and availability of additional data. Disadvantages of the electronic protocol have also been discussed in the literature. By going through the process of entering data on the course of the anaesthetic procedure on the protocol sheet, the information is mentally absorbed and evaluated by the anaesthetist. This information may, however, be lost when the data are recorded fully automatically-without active involvement on the part of the anaesthetist. Recent publications state that by using intelligent alarms and/or integrated displays manual record keeping is no longer necessary for anaesthesia vigilance. The technical design of automated anaesthesia records depends on an integration of network technology into the hospital. It will be appropriate to connect the systems to the internet, but safety requirements have to be followed strictly. Concerning the database, client server architecture as well as language standards like SQL should be used. Object oriented databases will be available in the near future. Another future goal of automated anaesthesia record systems will be using knowledge based technologies within these systems. Drug interactions, disease related anaesthetic techniques and other information sources can be integrated. At this time, almost none of the commercially available systems has matured to a point where their purchase can be recommended without reservation. There is still a lack of standards for the subsequent exchange of data and a solution to a number of ergonomic problems still remains to be found. Nevertheless, electronic anaesthesia protocols will be required in

  8. Automation of radiochemical analysis by flow injection techniques. Am-Pu separation using TRU-resinTM sorbent extraction column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, O.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA; Grate, J.W.; Ruzicka, J.

    1998-01-01

    A rapid automated flow injection analysis (FIA) procedure was developed for efficient separation of Am and Pu from each other and from interfering matrix and radionuclide components using a TRU-resin TM column. Selective Pu elution is enabled via on-column reduction. The separation was developed using on-line radioactivity detection. After the separation had been developed, fraction collection was used to obtain the separated fractions. In this manner, a FIA instrument functions as an automated separation workstation capable of unattended operation. (author)

  9. Sport Tournament Automated Scheduling System

    OpenAIRE

    Raof R. A. A; Sudin S.; Mahrom N.; Rosli A. N. C

    2018-01-01

    The organizer of sport events often facing problems such as wrong calculations of marks and scores, as well as difficult to create a good and reliable schedule. Most of the time, the issues about the level of integrity of committee members and also issues about errors made by human came into the picture. Therefore, the development of sport tournament automated scheduling system is proposed. The system will be able to automatically generate the tournament schedule as well as automatically calc...

  10. Delineated Analysis of Robotic Process Automation Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Ruchi Isaac; Riya Muni; Kenali Desai

    2017-01-01

    In this age and time when celerity is expected out of all the sectors of the country, the speed of execution of various processes and hence efficiency, becomes a prominent factor. To facilitate the speeding demands of these diverse platforms, Robotic Process Automation (RPA) is used. Robotic Process Automation can expedite back-office tasks in commercial industries, remote management tasks in IT industries and conservation of resources in multiple sectors. To implement RPA, many software ...

  11. Automated algorithms for detecting sleep period time using a multi-sensor pattern-recognition activity monitor from 24 h free-living data in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanas-Sánchez, Verónica; Higueras-Fresnillo, Sara; De la Cámara, Miguel Ángel; Veiga, Oscar L; Martinez-Gomez, David

    2018-05-16

    The aims of the present study were (i) to develop automated algorithms to identify the sleep period time in 24 h data from the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) in older adults, and (ii) to analyze the agreement between these algorithms to identify the sleep period time as compared to self-reported data and expert visual analysis of accelerometer raw data. This study comprised 50 participants, aged 65-85 years. Fourteen automated algorithms were developed. Participants reported their bedtime and waking time on the days on which they wore the device. A well-trained expert reviewed each IDEEA file in order to visually identify bedtime and waking time on each day. To explore the agreement between methods, Pearson correlations, mean differences, mean percentage errors, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, and the Bland-Altman method were calculated. With 87 d of valid data, algorithms 6, 7, 11 and 12 achieved higher levels of agreement in determining sleep period time when compared to self-reported data (mean difference  =  -0.34 to 0.01 h d -1 ; mean absolute error  =  10.66%-11.44%; r  =  0.515-0.686; accuracy  =  95.0%-95.6%; sensitivity  =  93.0%-95.8%; specificity  =  95.7%-96.4%) and expert visual analysis (mean difference  =  -0.04 to 0.31 h d -1 ; mean absolute error  =  5.0%-6.97%; r  =  0.620-0.766; accuracy  =  97.2%-98.0%; sensitivity  =  94.5%-97.6%; specificity  =  98.4%-98.8%). Bland-Altman plots showed no systematic biases in these comparisons (all p  >  0.05). Differences between methods did not vary significantly by gender, age, obesity, self-rated health, or the presence of chronic conditions. These four algorithms can be used to identify easily and with adequate accuracy the sleep period time using the IDEEA activity monitor from 24 h free-living data in older adults.

  12. Determination of the Optimized Automation Rate considering Effects of Automation on Human Operators in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun; Kim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Man Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Automation refers to the use of a device or a system to perform a function previously performed by a human operator. It is introduced to reduce the human errors and to enhance the performance in various industrial fields, including the nuclear industry. However, these positive effects are not always achieved in complex systems such as nuclear power plants (NPPs). An excessive introduction of automation can generate new roles for human operators and change activities in unexpected ways. As more automation systems are accepted, the ability of human operators to detect automation failures and resume manual control is diminished. This disadvantage of automation is called the Out-of-the- Loop (OOTL) problem. We should consider the positive and negative effects of automation at the same time to determine the appropriate level of the introduction of automation. Thus, in this paper, we suggest an estimation method to consider the positive and negative effects of automation at the same time to determine the appropriate introduction of automation. This concept is limited in that it does not consider the effects of automation on human operators. Thus, a new estimation method for automation rate was suggested to overcome this problem

  13. Automated System Marketplace 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jose-Marie; Kertis, Kimberly

    1994-01-01

    Reports results of the 1994 Automated System Marketplace survey based on responses from 60 vendors. Highlights include changes in the library automation marketplace; estimated library systems revenues; minicomputer and microcomputer-based systems; marketplace trends; global markets and mergers; research needs; new purchase processes; and profiles…

  14. Automation in Warehouse Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg, R.; Verriet, J.

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and

  15. Order Division Automated System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniemeyer, Justin M.; And Others

    This publication was prepared by the Order Division Automation Project staff to fulfill the Library of Congress' requirement to document all automation efforts. The report was originally intended for internal use only and not for distribution outside the Library. It is now felt that the library community at-large may have an interest in the…

  16. Automate functional testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kalindri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, software engineers are increasingly turning to the option of automating functional tests, but not always have successful in this endeavor. Reasons range from low planning until over cost in the process. Some principles that can guide teams in automating these tests are described in this article.

  17. Automation and robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemerlo, Melvin

    1988-01-01

    The Autonomous Systems focus on the automation of control systems for the Space Station and mission operations. Telerobotics focuses on automation for in-space servicing, assembly, and repair. The Autonomous Systems and Telerobotics each have a planned sequence of integrated demonstrations showing the evolutionary advance of the state-of-the-art. Progress is briefly described for each area of concern.

  18. Automating the Small Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapura, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of microcomputers for automating school libraries, both for entire systems and for specific library tasks. Highlights include available library management software, newsletters that evaluate software, constructing an evaluation matrix, steps to consider in library automation, and a brief discussion of computerized card catalogs.…

  19. Progress in the study of drug-eluting intra-stent thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhifu; Zheng Xing; Qin Yongwen

    2007-01-01

    Durg-eluting stent has been regarded as the milestone in the history of PCI for their efficiency in the prevention of coronary arterial restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. But unfortunately intra-stent thrombosis continues to be a serious complication of contemporary DES use. The incidence of drug-eluting stents thrombosis is at least not lower than that of bare metal stents at present. The clinical consequences of stent thrombosis are frequently catastrophic, including death in 40% to 50% of the cases or major myocardial infarction in 60% to 70%. Premature discontinuation of standard antiplatelet therapy is by far the most important predictor of stent thrombosis with DES and other predictors included renal failure, diabetes, bifurcation lesions, multiple lesions or multivessel disease, long stents, female, advanced age, stent underexpansion and residual stenosis etc. The delayed endothelialization may be the underling mechanism of DES thrombosis. (authors)

  20. Safety and Efficacy of Everolimus- Versus Sirolimus-Eluting Stents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Christiansen, Evald Høj

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term safety and efficacy for everolimus-eluting stents (EES) versus those of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) are unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study compared 5-year outcomes for EES with those for SES from the SORT OUT IV (Scandinavian Organization for Randomized Trials with Clinical...... rate was lower with EES (HR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.90; p = 0.006; p interaction = 0.12). Definite stent thrombosis was lower with EES (0.4%) than with SES (2.0%; HR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.46), with a lower risk of very late definite stent thrombosis in the EES group (0.2% vs. 1.4%, respectively; HR...... in Non-selected Patients With Coronary Heart Disease [SORT OUT IV]; NCT00552877)....