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Sample records for automated crystal screening

  1. Towards Automated Screening of Two-dimensional Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Anchi; Leung, Albert; Fellmann, Denis; Quispe, Joel; Suloway, Christian; Pulokas, James; Carragher, Bridget; Potter, Clinton S.

    2007-01-01

    Screening trials to determine the presence of two-dimensional (2D) protein crystals suitable for three-dimensional structure determination using electron crystallography is a very labor-intensive process. Methods compatible with fully automated screening have been developed for the process of crystal production by dialysis and for producing negatively stained grids of the resulting trials. Further automation via robotic handling of the EM grids, and semi-automated transmission electron micros...

  2. Automated High Throughput Protein Crystallization Screening at Nanoliter Scale and Protein Structural Study on Lactate Dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenglei Li

    2006-08-09

    The purposes of our research were: (1) To develop an economical, easy to use, automated, high throughput system for large scale protein crystallization screening. (2) To develop a new protein crystallization method with high screening efficiency, low protein consumption and complete compatibility with high throughput screening system. (3) To determine the structure of lactate dehydrogenase complexed with NADH by x-ray protein crystallography to study its inherent structural properties. Firstly, we demonstrated large scale protein crystallization screening can be performed in a high throughput manner with low cost, easy operation. The overall system integrates liquid dispensing, crystallization and detection and serves as a whole solution to protein crystallization screening. The system can dispense protein and multiple different precipitants in nanoliter scale and in parallel. A new detection scheme, native fluorescence, has been developed in this system to form a two-detector system with a visible light detector for detecting protein crystallization screening results. This detection scheme has capability of eliminating common false positives by distinguishing protein crystals from inorganic crystals in a high throughput and non-destructive manner. The entire system from liquid dispensing, crystallization to crystal detection is essentially parallel, high throughput and compatible with automation. The system was successfully demonstrated by lysozyme crystallization screening. Secondly, we developed a new crystallization method with high screening efficiency, low protein consumption and compatibility with automation and high throughput. In this crystallization method, a gas permeable membrane is employed to achieve the gentle evaporation required by protein crystallization. Protein consumption is significantly reduced to nanoliter scale for each condition and thus permits exploring more conditions in a phase diagram for given amount of protein. In addition

  3. The Stanford Automated Mounter: Enabling High-Throughput Protein Crystal Screening at SSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The macromolecular crystallography experiment lends itself perfectly to high-throughput technologies. The initial steps including the expression, purification, and crystallization of protein crystals, along with some of the later steps involving data processing and structure determination have all been automated to the point where some of the last remaining bottlenecks in the process have been crystal mounting, crystal screening, and data collection. At the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, a National User Facility that provides extremely brilliant X-ray photon beams for use in materials science, environmental science, and structural biology research, the incorporation of advanced robotics has enabled crystals to be screened in a true high-throughput fashion, thus dramatically accelerating the final steps. Up to 288 frozen crystals can be mounted by the beamline robot (the Stanford Auto-Mounting System) and screened for diffraction quality in a matter of hours without intervention. The best quality crystals can then be remounted for the collection of complete X-ray diffraction data sets. Furthermore, the entire screening and data collection experiment can be controlled from the experimenter's home laboratory by means of advanced software tools that enable network-based control of the highly automated beamlines.

  4. Automation of High-Throughput Crystal Screening and Data Collection at SSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A robotic system for auto-mounting crystals from liquid nitrogen is now operational on SSRL beamlines (Cohen et al., J. Appl. Cryst. (2002). 35, 720-726). The system uses a small industrial 4-axis robot with a custom built actuator. Once mounted, automated alignment of the sample loop to the X-ray beam readies the crystal for data collection. After data collection, samples are returned to the cassette. The beamline Dewar accommodates three compact sample cassettes (holding up to 96 samples each). During the past 4 months, the system on beamline 11-1 has been used to screen over 1000 crystals. The system has reduced both screening time and manpower. Integration of the hardware components is accomplished in the Distributed Control System architecture developed at SSRL (McPhillips et al., J. Synchrotron Rad. (2002) 9, 401-406). A crystal-screening interface has been implemented in Blu-Ice. Sample details can be uploaded from an Excel spreadsheet. The JCSG generates these spreadsheets automatically from their tracking database using standard database tools (http://www.jcsg.org). New diffraction image analysis tools are being employed to aid in extracting results. Automation also permits tele-presence. For example, samples have been changed during the night without leaving home and scientists have screened crystals 1600 miles from the beamline. The system developed on beamline 11-1 has been replicated onto 1-5, 9-1, 9-2, and 11-3 and is used by both general users and the JCSG

  5. Automation of antimicrobial activity screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forry, Samuel P; Madonna, Megan C; López-Pérez, Daneli; Lin, Nancy J; Pasco, Madeleine D

    2016-03-01

    Manual and automated methods were compared for routine screening of compounds for antimicrobial activity. Automation generally accelerated assays and required less user intervention while producing comparable results. Automated protocols were validated for planktonic, biofilm, and agar cultures of the oral microbe Streptococcus mutans that is commonly associated with tooth decay. Toxicity assays for the known antimicrobial compound cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) were validated against planktonic, biofilm forming, and 24 h biofilm culture conditions, and several commonly reported toxicity/antimicrobial activity measures were evaluated: the 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50), the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Using automated methods, three halide salts of cetylpyridinium (CPC, CPB, CPI) were rapidly screened with no detectable effect of the counter ion on antimicrobial activity. PMID:26970766

  6. Automated macromolecular crystal detection system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Allen T.; Segelke, Brent; Rupp, Bernard; Toppani, Dominique

    2007-06-05

    An automated macromolecular method and system for detecting crystals in two-dimensional images, such as light microscopy images obtained from an array of crystallization screens. Edges are detected from the images by identifying local maxima of a phase congruency-based function associated with each image. The detected edges are segmented into discrete line segments, which are subsequently geometrically evaluated with respect to each other to identify any crystal-like qualities such as, for example, parallel lines, facing each other, similarity in length, and relative proximity. And from the evaluation a determination is made as to whether crystals are present in each image.

  7. UV LED lighting for automated crystal centring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-cost light-emitting diode (LED) UV source has been developed for facilitating macromolecular sample centring in the X-ray beam. A direct outcome of the exponential growth of macromolecular crystallography is the continuously increasing demand for synchrotron beam time, both from academic and industrial users. As more and more projects entail screening a profusion of sample crystals, fully automated procedures at every level of the experiments are being implemented at all synchrotron facilities. One of the major obstacles to achieving such automation lies in the sample recognition and centring in the X-ray beam. The capacity of UV light to specifically react with aromatic residues present in proteins or with DNA base pairs is at the basis of UV-assisted crystal centring. Although very efficient, a well known side effect of illuminating biological samples with strong UV sources is the damage induced on the irradiated samples. In the present study the effectiveness of a softer UV light for crystal centring by taking advantage of low-power light-emitting diode (LED) sources has been investigated. The use of UV LEDs represents a low-cost solution for crystal centring with high specificity

  8. Approaches to automated protein crystal harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approaches to automated and robot-assisted harvesting of protein crystals are critically reviewed. While no true turn-key solutions for automation of protein crystal harvesting are currently available, systems incorporating advanced robotics and micro-electromechanical systems represent exciting developments with the potential to revolutionize the way in which protein crystals are harvested

  9. Automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have analysed the clinical symptoms and the malignization signs of pigmented skin neoplasms. We have estimated the complex of clinical parameters which could be measured for the purpose of skin screening diagnostic via digital image processing. Allowable errors of clinical parameter characterization have been calculated, and the origin of these errors has been discussed. Proposed technique for automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms should become an effective tool for early skin diagnostics

  10. Automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Matorin, Oleg V.; Reshetov, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    We have analysed the clinical symptoms and the malignization signs of pigmented skin neoplasms. We have estimated the complex of clinical parameters which could be measured for the purpose of skin screening diagnostic via digital image processing. Allowable errors of clinical parameter characterization have been calculated, and the origin of these errors has been discussed. Proposed technique for automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms should become an effective tool for early skin diagnostics.

  11. The MORPHEUS II protein crystallization screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorrec, Fabrice, E-mail: fgorrec@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-27

    MORPHEUS II is a 96-condition initial crystallization screen formulated de novo. The screen incorporates reagents selected from the Protein Data Bank to yield crystals that are not observed in traditional conditions. In addition, the formulation facilitates the optimization and cryoprotection of crystals. High-quality macromolecular crystals are a prerequisite for the process of protein structure determination by X-ray diffraction. Unfortunately, the relative yield of diffraction-quality crystals from crystallization experiments is often very low. In this context, innovative crystallization screen formulations are continuously being developed. In the past, MORPHEUS, a screen in which each condition integrates a mix of additives selected from the Protein Data Bank, a cryoprotectant and a buffer system, was developed. Here, MORPHEUS II, a follow-up to the original 96-condition initial screen, is described. Reagents were selected to yield crystals when none might be observed in traditional initial screens. Besides, the screen includes heavy atoms for experimental phasing and small polyols to ensure the cryoprotection of crystals. The suitability of the resulting novel conditions is shown by the crystallization of a broad variety of protein samples and their efficiency is compared with commercially available conditions.

  12. Automating the single crystal x-ray diffraction experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Light, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Ever decreasing data collection times and an explosion in demand present us with the situation where an automated single crystal instrument is not only advantageous but essential. With recent developments in software, instrumentation and robotics it has been possible to fully automate structure determination from mounted crystal to completed crystal structure. In Southampton we have developed a system that takes pre-mounted samples, loads them onto the diffractometer, assesses their diff...

  13. Co-Crystal Screening of Diclofenac

    OpenAIRE

    John Desper; Aakeröy, Christer B.; Grommet, Angela B.

    2011-01-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, co-crystals are becoming increasingly valuable as crystalline solids that can offer altered/improved physical properties of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) without changing its chemical identity or biological activity. In order to identify new solid forms of diclofenac—an analgesic with extremely poor aqueous solubility for which few co-crystal structures have been determined—a range of pyrazoles, pyridines, and pyrimidines were screened for co-crysta...

  14. Co-Crystal Screening of Diclofenac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Desper

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the pharmaceutical industry, co-crystals are becoming increasingly valuable as crystalline solids that can offer altered/improved physical properties of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API without changing its chemical identity or biological activity. In order to identify new solid forms of diclofenac—an analgesic with extremely poor aqueous solubility for which few co-crystal structures have been determined—a range of pyrazoles, pyridines, and pyrimidines were screened for co-crystal formation using solvent assisted grinding and infrared spectroscopy with an overall success rate of 50%. The crystal structures of three new diclofenac co-crystals are reported herein: (diclofenac∙(2-aminopyrimidine, (diclofenac∙(2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine, and (diclofenac∙(2-amino-4-chloro-6-methylpyrimidine.

  15. Co-crystal screening of diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakeröy, Christer B; Grommet, Angela B; Desper, John

    2011-01-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, co-crystals are becoming increasingly valuable as crystalline solids that can offer altered/improved physical properties of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) without changing its chemical identity or biological activity. In order to identify new solid forms of diclofenac-an analgesic with extremely poor aqueous solubility for which few co-crystal structures have been determined-a range of pyrazoles, pyridines, and pyrimidines were screened for co-crystal formation using solvent assisted grinding and infrared spectroscopy with an overall success rate of 50%. The crystal structures of three new diclofenac co-crystals are reported herein: (diclofenac)∙(2-aminopyrimidine), (diclofenac)∙(2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine), and (diclofenac)∙(2-amino-4-chloro-6-methylpyrimidine). PMID:24310599

  16. Detergent-Specific Membrane Protein Crystallization Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A suite of reagents has been developed for three-dimensional crystallization of integral membranes present in solution as protein-detergent complexes (PDCs). The compositions of these reagents have been determined in part by proximity to the phase boundaries (lower consolute boundaries) of the detergents present in the PDCs. The acquisition of some of the requisite phase-boundary data and the preliminary design of several of the detergent- specific screens was supported by a NASA contract. At the time of expiration of the contract, a partial set of preliminary screens had been developed. This work has since been extended under non-NASA sponsorship, leading to near completion of a set of 20 to 30 different and unique detergent- specific 96-condition screens.

  17. Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy

  18. Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Alan D [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Philip, Sam [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Goatman, Keith A [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Williams, Graeme J [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Olson, John A [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Sharp, Peter F [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-21

    Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy.

  19. Automated protein-DNA interaction screening of Drosophila regulatory elements

    OpenAIRE

    Hens, Korneel; Feuz, Jean-Daniel; Isakova, Alina; Iagovitina, Antonina; Massouras, Andreas; Bryois, Julien; Callaerts, Patrick; Celniker, Susan E.; Deplancke, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has one of the best characterized metazoan genomes in terms of functionally annotated regulatory elements. To explore how these elements contribute to gene regulation in the context of gene regulatory networks, we need convenient tools to identify the proteins that bind to them. Here, we present the development and validation of a highly automated protein-DNA interaction detection method, enabling the high-throughput yeast one-hybrid-based screening of DNA elements ver...

  20. A screened automated structural search with semiempirical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ota, Yukihiro; Ruiz-Barragan, Sergi; Machida, Masahiko; Shiga, Motoyuki

    2016-01-01

    We developed an interface program between a program suite for an automated search of chemical reaction pathways, GRRM, and a program package of semiempirical methods, MOPAC. A two-step structural search is proposed as an application of this interface program. A screening test is first performed by semiempirical calculations. Subsequently, a reoptimization procedure is done by ab initio or density functional calculations. We apply this approach to ion adsorption on cellulose. The computational...

  1. Evaluation of an automated method for urinocolture screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ballabio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infections are one of the most common diseases found in medical practice and are diagnosed with traditional methods of cultivation on plates. In this study we evaluated an automated instrumentation for screening of the urinocultures that can provide results quickly and guarantee traceability. The comparison of results obtained with automatic and plate methods is reported. Methods: 316 urine samples including midstream urine, urine catheter and urine bag have been analyzed by Alfred 60 (Alifax through light scattering technology that measures the replication of the bacteria. Simultaneously, the samples were sown on agar plates CPS3,Agar Cled, Mc Conkey Agar. Results:A total of 316 samples were analyzed by the automated method, 190 resulted negative, all confirmed by culture, while 126 were found positive. 82 cases were confirmed positive in culture plate, 65 with significant isolation of bacteria and 17 with polymicrobial flora with a significant charge. 44 cases were negative in culture plate but positive for the automated method. Conclusions: The absence of false negative results at low charges can represent a starting point to introduce an automated method for urinocolture screening.

  2. Microfluidic Device for Automated High-Throughput Protein Crystallization Screening by Osmotic Dewatering%基于渗透脱水的自动化蛋白质结晶高通量筛选芯片

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗娅慧; 李刚; 陈强; 赵建龙

    2012-01-01

    构建了一种基于渗透脱水模式的自动进样微流控结晶芯片.该芯片通过真空预脱气将包含蛋白质和结晶剂的液滴自动分配至结晶微腔阵列中,然后利用集成的一排包含不同浓度盐溶液的透析管道,通过渗透脱水方式经一层聚二甲基硅氧烷(PDMS)膜实现液滴的逐渐浓缩,使之趋于过饱和状态,进而形成结晶.此芯片可一次筛选较宽范围的过饱和状态,实现蛋白质结晶的快速优化.利用模式蛋白溶菌酶的结晶实验验证了该芯片的性能.%A self-dispensing and osmosis-based microfluidic crystallization device was reported. This device automatically dispenses droplets containing protein and precipitant into an array of crystallization chambers by pre-degassing, and then gradually concentrates these droplets at different rates by osmotic dewatering through a polydimethylsiboxane(PDMS) membrane using a row of integrated dialysis channels filled with different concentration of salt solution. This concentration process drives the protein/precipitant mixture into supersaturated , thus tending toward the crystallization state. This device allows for screening a wide range of supersatura-tion in one trial for rapid optimization of protein crystallization. The feasibility of this crystallization device is demonstrated using the model proteins of lysozyme.

  3. Fully automated diabetic retinopathy screening using morphological component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Elaheh; Pourreza, Hamid-Reza; Banaee, Touka

    2015-07-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the major cause of blindness in the world. It has been shown that early diagnosis can play a major role in prevention of visual loss and blindness. This diagnosis can be made through regular screening and timely treatment. Besides, automation of this process can significantly reduce the work of ophthalmologists and alleviate inter and intra observer variability. This paper provides a fully automated diabetic retinopathy screening system with the ability of retinal image quality assessment. The novelty of the proposed method lies in the use of Morphological Component Analysis (MCA) algorithm to discriminate between normal and pathological retinal structures. To this end, first a pre-screening algorithm is used to assess the quality of retinal images. If the quality of the image is not satisfactory, it is examined by an ophthalmologist and must be recaptured if necessary. Otherwise, the image is processed for diabetic retinopathy detection. In this stage, normal and pathological structures of the retinal image are separated by MCA algorithm. Finally, the normal and abnormal retinal images are distinguished by statistical features of the retinal lesions. Our proposed system achieved 92.01% sensitivity and 95.45% specificity on the Messidor dataset which is a remarkable result in comparison with previous work. PMID:25863517

  4. A screened automated structural search with semiempirical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Yukihiro; Ruiz-Barragan, Sergi; Machida, Masahiko; Shiga, Motoyuki

    2016-03-01

    We developed an interface program between a program suite for an automated search of chemical reaction pathways, GRRM, and a program package of semiempirical methods, MOPAC. A two-step structural search is proposed as an application of this interface program. A screening test is first performed by semiempirical calculations. Subsequently, a reoptimization procedure is done by ab initio or density functional calculations. We apply this approach to ion adsorption on cellulose. The computational efficiency is also shown for a GRRM search. The interface program is suitable for the structural search of large molecular systems for which semiempirical methods are applicable.

  5. A screened automated structural search with semiempirical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Ota, Yukihiro; Machida, Masahiko; Shiga, Motoyuki

    2016-01-01

    We developed an interface program between a program suite for an automated search of chemical reaction pathways, GRRM, and a program package of semiempirical methods, MOPAC. A two-step structural search is proposed as an application of this interface program. A screening test is first performed by semiempirical calculations. Subsequently, a reoptimization procedure is done by ab initio or density functional calculations. We apply this approach to ion adsorption on cellulose. The computational efficiency is also shown for a GRRM search. The interface program is suitable for the structural search of large molecular systems for which semiempirical methods are applicable.

  6. On automation of the procedure for crystal structure model refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods of automation of the procedure for crystal structure model refinement from experimental diffraction data, implemented in the ASTRA program package, are described. Such tools as statistical tests, parameter scanning, and data scanning reduce the time necessary for structural investigation. At strong correlations between parameters, especially when the data set is limited, parameter scanning has an advantage over the full-matrix refinement.

  7. An Intelligent Phonocardiography for Automated Screening of Pediatric Heart Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Amir A; Kocharian, Armen; Janani, Azin; Gharehbaghi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a robust device for automated screening of pediatric heart diseases based on our unique processing method in murmur characterization; the Arash-Band method. The present study modifies the Arash-Band method and employs output of the modified method in conjunction with the two other original techniques to extract indicative feature vectors for the screening. The extracted feature vectors are classified by using the support vector machine method. Results show that the proposed modifications significantly enhances performance of the Arash-Band in terms of the both accuracy and sensitivity as the corresponding effect sizes are sufficiently large. The proposed algorithm has been incorporated into an Android-based tablet to constitute an intelligent phonocardiogram with the automatic screening capability. In order to obtain confidence interval of the accuracy and sensitivity, an inferable statistical test is applied on our database containing the phonocardiogram signals recorded from 263 of the referrals to a hospital. The expected value of the accuracy/sensitivity is estimated to be 87.45 % / 87.29 % with a 95 % confidence interval of (80.19 % - 92.47 %) / (76.01 % - 95.78 %) exhibiting superior performance than a pediatric cardiologist who relies on conventional or even computer-assisted auscultation. PMID:26573653

  8. A Decision Support Framework for Automated Screening of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Thompson

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The early signs of diabetic retinopathy (DR are depicted by microaneurysms among other signs. A prompt diagnosis when the disease is at the early stage can help prevent irreversible damages to the diabetic eye. In this paper, we propose a decision support system (DSS for automated screening of early signs of diabetic retinopathy. Classification schemes for deducing the presence or absence of DR are developed and tested. The detection rule is based on binary-hypothesis testing problem which simplifies the problem to yes/no decisions. An analysis of the performance of the Bayes optimality criteria applied to DR is also presented. The proposed DSS is evaluated on the real-world data. The results suggest that by biasing the classifier towards DR detection, it is possible to make the classifier achieve good sensitivity.

  9. Current trends and perspectives for automated screening of cardiac murmurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marascio, Giuseppe; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    Although in high income countries rheumatic heart disease is now rare, it remains a major burden in low and middle income countries. In these world areas, physicians and expert sonographers are rare, and screening campaigns are usually performed by nomadic caregivers who can only recognise patients in an advanced phase of heart failure with high economic and social costs. Therefore, great interest exists regarding the possibility of developing a simple, low-cost procedure for screening valvular heart disease. With the development of computer science, the cardiac sound signal can be analysed in an automatic way. More precisely, a panel of features characterising the acoustic signal are extracted and sent to a decision-making software able to provide the final diagnosis. Although no system is currently available in the market, the rapid evolution of these technologies recently led to the activation of clinical trials. The aim of this note is to review the state of advancement of this technology (trends in feature selection and automatic diagnostic strategies), data available regarding performance of the technology in the clinical setting and finally what obstacles still need to be overcome before automated systems can be clinically/commercially viable. PMID:27326133

  10. Comparison of Automated Treponemal and Nontreponemal Test Algorithms as First-Line Syphilis Screening Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Hee Jin; Chung, Jae-Woo; Park, Seong Yeon; Chae, Seok Lae

    2015-01-01

    Background Automated Mediace Treponema pallidum latex agglutination (TPLA) and Mediace rapid plasma reagin (RPR) assays are used by many laboratories for syphilis diagnosis. This study compared the results of the traditional syphilis screening algorithm and a reverse algorithm using automated Mediace RPR or Mediace TPLA as first-line screening assays in subjects undergoing a health checkup. Methods Samples from 24,681 persons were included in this study. We routinely performed Mediace RPR and...

  11. An industrial engineering approach to laboratory automation for high throughput screening

    OpenAIRE

    Karl C. Menke

    2000-01-01

    Across the pharmaceutical industry, there are a variety of approaches to laboratory automation for high throughput screening. At Sphinx Pharmaceuticals, the principles of industrial engineering have been applied to systematically identify and develop those automated solutions that provide the greatest value to the scientists engaged in lead generation.

  12. Automated touch screen device for recording complex rodent behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, O.S.; Dripps, I.J.; Ramani, S.; Chang, C.; Han, J.L.; Rice, KC; Jutkiewicz, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring mouse behavior is a critical step in the development of modern pharmacotherapies. New Method Here we describe the application of a novel method that utilizes a touch display computer (tablet) and software to detect, record, and report fine motor behaviors. A consumer-grade tablet device is placed in the bottom of a specially made acrylic cage allowing the animal to walk on the device (MouseTrapp). We describe its application in open field (for general locomotor studies) which measures step lengths and velocity. The device can perform light-dark (anxiety) tests by illuminating half of the screen and keeping the other half darkened. A divider is built into the lid of the device allowing the animal free access to either side. Results Treating mice with amphetamine and the delta opioid peptide receptor agonist SNC80 stimulated locomotor activity on the device. Amphetamine increased step velocity but not step length during its peak effect (40–70 min after treatment), thus indicating detection of subtle amphetamine-induced effects. Animals showed a preference (74% of time spent) for the darkened half compared to the illuminated side. Comparison with Existing Method Animals were videotaped within the chamber to compare quadrant crosses to detected motion on the device. The slope, duration and magnitude of quadrant crosses tightly correlated with overall locomotor activity as detected by Mousetrapp. Conclusions We suggest that modern touch display devices such as MouseTrapp will be an important step toward automation of behavioral analyses for characterizing phenotypes and drug effects. PMID:24952323

  13. Automated determination of crystal orientations from electron backscattering patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Niels Christian Krieger

    1994-01-01

    pattern recognition procedure which enables 8 to 12 bands to be localized in typical EBSPs from a modern system. It will be described, how these automatically localized bands can be indexed and used for optimal estimation of the unknown crystal orientations. A necessary prerequisite for precise......The electron backscattering pattern (EBSP) technique is widely accepted as being an extremely powerful tool for measuring the crystallographic orientation of individual crystallites in polycrystalline materials. Procedures which allow crystal orientations to be calculated on the bases of the...... determination of crystallographic orientations from EBSPs is accurate knowledge of three calibration parameters which describe the position of the point from which the patterns are emitted relative to the phosphor screen on which they are recorded. This thesis will describe a novel method by which these...

  14. Screening for templates that promote crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, J.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Horst, J.H. ter; Verdoes, D.; Jansens, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    In Situ Product Recovery (ISPR) applied in fermentation processes leads to improved yield and productivity of these processes. In principle, ISPR can be achieved using Template Induced Crystallization (TIC), which is one possible ISPR technique. With TIC, templates are added to the solution as a spe

  15. Current trends and perspectives for automated screening of cardiac murmurs

    OpenAIRE

    G. Marascio; Modesti, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Although in high income countries rheumatic heart disease is now rare, it remains a major burden in low and middle income countries. In these world areas, physicians and expert sonographers are rare, and screening campaigns are usually performed by nomadic caregivers who can only recognise patients in an advanced phase of heart failure with high economic and social costs. Therefore, great interest exists regarding the possibility of developing a simple, low-cost procedure for screening valvul...

  16. Automated pipeline for rapid production and screening of HIV-specific monoclonal antibodies using pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kartik A; Clark, John J; Goods, Brittany A; Politano, Timothy J; Mozdzierz, Nicholas J; Zimnisky, Ross M; Leeson, Rachel L; Love, J Christopher; Love, Kerry R

    2015-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind and neutralize human pathogens have great therapeutic potential. Advances in automated screening and liquid handling have resulted in the ability to discover antigen-specific antibodies either directly from human blood or from various combinatorial libraries (phage, bacteria, or yeast). There remain, however, bottlenecks in the cloning, expression and evaluation of such lead antibodies identified in primary screens that hinder high-throughput screening. As such, "hit-to-lead identification" remains both expensive and time-consuming. By combining the advantages of overlap extension PCR (OE-PCR) and a genetically stable yet easily manipulatable microbial expression host Pichia pastoris, we have developed an automated pipeline for the rapid production and screening of full-length antigen-specific mAbs. Here, we demonstrate the speed, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of our approach by generating several broadly neutralizing antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). PMID:26032261

  17. Screening corrections to the Coulomb crystal elastic moduli

    CERN Document Server

    Baiko, D A

    2016-01-01

    Corrections to elastic moduli, including the effective shear modulus, of a solid neutron star crust due to electron screening are calculated. At any given mass density, the crust is modelled as a body-centred cubic Coulomb crystal of fully ionized atomic nuclei of a single type with a polarizable charge-compensating electron background. Motion of the nuclei is neglected. The electron polarization is described by a simple Thomas-Fermi model of exponential electron screening. The results of numerical calculations are fitted by convenient analytic formulae. They should be used for precise neutron star oscillation modelling, a rapidly developing branch of stellar seismology.

  18. Protein crystal screening and characterization for serial femtosecond nanocrystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmanin, Connie; Strachan, Jamie; Adda, Christopher G.; Ve, Thomas; Kobe, Bostjan; Abbey, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The recent development of X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) has spurred the development of serial femtosecond nanocrystallography (SFX) which, for the first time, is enabling structure retrieval from sub-micron protein crystals. Although there are already a growing number of structures published using SFX, the technology is still very new and presents a number of unique challenges as well as opportunities for structural biologists. One of the biggest barriers to the success of SFX experiments is the preparation and selection of suitable protein crystal samples. Here we outline a protocol for preparing and screening for suitable XFEL targets. PMID:27139248

  19. Automated Electrophysiology Makes the Pace for Cardiac Ion Channel Safety Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens eMoeller

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The field of automated patch-clamp electrophysiology has emerged from the tension between the pharmaceutical industry’s need for high-throughput compound screening versus its need to be conservative due to regulatory requirements. On the one hand, hERG channel screening was increasingly requested for new chemical entities, as the correlation between blockade of the ion channel coded by hERG and Torsades de Pointes cardiac arrhythmia gained increasing attention. On the other hand, manual patch-clamping, typically quoted as the gold-standard for understanding ion channel function and modulation, was far too slow (and, consequently, too expensive for keeping pace with the numbers of compounds submitted for hERG channel investigations from pharmaceutical R&D departments. In consequence it became more common for some pharmaceutical companies to outsource safety pharmacological investigations, with a focus on hERG channel interactions. This outsourcing has allowed those pharmaceutical companies to build up operational flexibility and greater independence from internal resources, and allowed them to obtain access to the latest technological developments that emerged in automated patch-clamp electrophysiology – much of which arose in specialized biotech companies. Assays for nearly all major cardiac ion channels are now available by automated patch-clamping using heterologous expression systems, and recently, automated action potential recordings from stem-cell derived cardiomyocytes have been demonstrated. Today, most of the large pharmaceutical companies have acquired automated electrophysiology robots and have established various automated cardiac ion channel safety screening assays on these, in addition to outsourcing parts of their needs for safety screening.

  20. AMMOS: Automated Molecular Mechanics Optimization tool for in silico Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajeva Ilza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtual or in silico ligand screening combined with other computational methods is one of the most promising methods to search for new lead compounds, thereby greatly assisting the drug discovery process. Despite considerable progresses made in virtual screening methodologies, available computer programs do not easily address problems such as: structural optimization of compounds in a screening library, receptor flexibility/induced-fit, and accurate prediction of protein-ligand interactions. It has been shown that structural optimization of chemical compounds and that post-docking optimization in multi-step structure-based virtual screening approaches help to further improve the overall efficiency of the methods. To address some of these points, we developed the program AMMOS for refining both, the 3D structures of the small molecules present in chemical libraries and the predicted receptor-ligand complexes through allowing partial to full atom flexibility through molecular mechanics optimization. Results The program AMMOS carries out an automatic procedure that allows for the structural refinement of compound collections and energy minimization of protein-ligand complexes using the open source program AMMP. The performance of our package was evaluated by comparing the structures of small chemical entities minimized by AMMOS with those minimized with the Tripos and MMFF94s force fields. Next, AMMOS was used for full flexible minimization of protein-ligands complexes obtained from a mutli-step virtual screening. Enrichment studies of the selected pre-docked complexes containing 60% of the initially added inhibitors were carried out with or without final AMMOS minimization on two protein targets having different binding pocket properties. AMMOS was able to improve the enrichment after the pre-docking stage with 40 to 60% of the initially added active compounds found in the top 3% to 5% of the entire compound collection

  1. Automated Screening for Three Inborn Metabolic Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha S

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inborn metabolic disorders (IMDs form a large group of rare, but often serious, metabolic disorders. Aims: Our objective was to construct a decision tree, based on classification algorithm for the data on three metabolic disorders, enabling us to take decisions on the screening and clinical diagnosis of a patient. Settings and Design: A non-incremental concept learning classification algorithm was applied to a set of patient data and the procedure followed to obtain a decision on a patient’s disorder. Materials and Methods: Initially a training set containing 13 cases was investigated for three inborn errors of metabolism. Results: A total of thirty test cases were investigated for the three inborn errors of metabolism. The program identified 10 cases with galactosemia, another 10 cases with fructosemia and the remaining 10 with propionic acidemia. The program successfully identified all the 30 cases. Conclusions: This kind of decision support systems can help the healthcare delivery personnel immensely for early screening of IMDs.

  2. Combined crystal structure prediction and high-pressure crystallization in rational pharmaceutical polymorph screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, M. A.; van de Streek, J.; Fabbiani, F. P. A.; Hidber, P.; Grassmann, O.

    2015-07-01

    Organic molecules, such as pharmaceuticals, agro-chemicals and pigments, frequently form several crystal polymorphs with different physicochemical properties. Finding polymorphs has long been a purely experimental game of trial-and-error. Here we utilize in silico polymorph screening in combination with rationally planned crystallization experiments to study the polymorphism of the pharmaceutical compound Dalcetrapib, with 10 torsional degrees of freedom one of the most flexible molecules ever studied computationally. The experimental crystal polymorphs are found at the bottom of the calculated lattice energy landscape, and two predicted structures are identified as candidates for a missing, thermodynamically more stable polymorph. Pressure-dependent stability calculations suggested high pressure as a means to bring these polymorphs into existence. Subsequently, one of them could indeed be crystallized in the 0.02 to 0.50 GPa pressure range and was found to be metastable at ambient pressure, effectively derisking the appearance of a more stable polymorph during late-stage development of Dalcetrapib.

  3. Designs and Concept-Reliance of a Fully Automated High Content Screening Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Radu, Constantin; Adrar, Hosna Sana; Alamir, Ab; Hatherley, Ian; Trinh, Trung; Djaballah, Hakim

    2012-01-01

    High content screening (HCS) is becoming an accepted platform in academic and industry screening labs and does require slightly different logistics for execution. To automate our stand alone HCS microscopes, namely an alpha IN Cell Analyzer 3000 (INCA3000) originally a Praelux unit hooked to a Hudson Plate Crane with a maximum capacity of 50 plates per run; and the IN Cell Analyzer 2000 (INCA2000) where up to 320 plates could be fed per run using the Thermo Fisher Scientific Orbitor, we opted...

  4. Screening and Crystallization Plates for Manual and High-throughput Protein Crystal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Robert E. (Inventor); Berejnov, Viatcheslav (Inventor); Kalinin, Yevgeniy (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    In one embodiment, a crystallization and screening plate comprises a plurality of cells open at a top and a bottom, a frame that defines the cells in the plate, and at least two films. The first film seals a top of the plate and the second film seals a bottom of the plate. At least one of the films is patterned to strongly pin the contact lines of drops dispensed onto it, fixing their position and shape. The present invention also includes methods and other devices for manual and high-throughput protein crystal growth.

  5. Automated assessment of bilateral breast volume asymmetry as a breast cancer biomarker during mammographic screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alex C.; Hitt, Austin; Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia

    2013-03-01

    The biological concept of bilateral symmetry as a marker of developmental stability and good health is well established. Although most individuals deviate slightly from perfect symmetry, humans are essentially considered bilaterally symmetrical. Consequently, increased fluctuating asymmetry of paired structures could be an indicator of disease. There are several published studies linking bilateral breast size asymmetry with increased breast cancer risk. These studies were based on radiologists' manual measurements of breast size from mammographic images. We aim to develop a computerized technique to assess fluctuating breast volume asymmetry in screening mammograms and investigate whether it correlates with the presence of breast cancer. Using a large database of screening mammograms with known ground truth we applied automated breast region segmentation and automated breast size measurements in CC and MLO views using three well established methods. All three methods confirmed that indeed patients with breast cancer have statistically significantly higher fluctuating asymmetry of their breast volumes. However, statistically significant difference between patients with cancer and benign lesions was observed only for the MLO views. The study suggests that automated assessment of global bilateral asymmetry could serve as a breast cancer risk biomarker for women undergoing mammographic screening. Such biomarker could be used to alert radiologists or computer-assisted detection (CAD) systems to exercise increased vigilance if higher than normal cancer risk is suspected.

  6. Crocodile: An automated apparatus for organic crystal growth from solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, F.; Cunisse, M.; Perigaud, A.

    CROCODILE ( CROissance de Cristaux Organiques par DIffusion Liquide dans l' Espace) is a space instrument dedicated to crystal growth from solution. The selected material N (4 nitrophenyl) (L) prolinol (NPP) is the result of studies on organic crystal in the frame of an extended program initiated by CNES for many years. The apparatus was flown aboard PHOTON, an automatic satellite, in April 1990, for a flight duration of more than 15 days. This paper describes the instrument design, with emphasis on specific and original technology well adapted to crystal growth from solution, and extendable to any space experiment on fluids. Preliminary details of the flight campaign will also be discussed.

  7. Crystallization of nepenthesin I using a low-pH crystallization screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejfarová, Karla; Kádek, Alan; Mrázek, Hynek; Hausner, Jiří; Tretyachenko, Vyacheslav; Koval', Tomáš; Man, Petr; Hašek, Jindřich; Dohnálek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Nepenthesins are aspartic proteases secreted by carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes. They significantly differ in sequence from other plant aspartic proteases. This difference, which provides more cysteine residues in the structure of nepenthesins, may contribute to their unique stability profile. Recombinantly produced nepenthesin 1 (rNep1) from N. gracilis in complex with pepstatin A was crystallized under two different crystallization conditions using a newly formulated low-pH crystallization screen. The diffraction data were processed to 2.9 and 2.8 Å resolution, respectively. The crystals belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 86.63, b = 95.90, c = 105.40 Å, α = β = γ = 90° and a = 86.28, b = 97.22, c = 103.78 Å, α = β = γ = 90°, respectively. Matthews coefficient and solvent-content calculations suggest the presence of two molecules of rNep1 in the asymmetric unit. Here, the details of the crystallization experiment and analysis of the X-ray data are reported. PMID:26750480

  8. Automated cervical precancerous cells screening system based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusman, Yessi; Mat Isa, Nor Ashidi; Ng, Siew-Cheok; Hasikin, Khairunnisa; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2016-07-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique can detect the abnormality of a cervical cell that occurs before the morphological change could be observed under the light microscope as employed in conventional techniques. This paper presents developed features extraction for an automated screening system for cervical precancerous cell based on the FTIR spectroscopy as a second opinion to pathologists. The automated system generally consists of the developed features extraction and classification stages. Signal processing techniques are used in the features extraction stage. Then, discriminant analysis and principal component analysis are employed to select dominant features for the classification process. The datasets of the cervical precancerous cells obtained from the feature selection process are classified using a hybrid multilayered perceptron network. The proposed system achieved 92% accuracy.

  9. Automated Modular High Throughput Exopolysaccharide Screening Platform Coupled with Highly Sensitive Carbohydrate Fingerprint Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühmann, Broder; Schmid, Jochen; Sieber, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Many microorganisms are capable of producing and secreting exopolysaccharides (EPS), which have important implications in medical fields, food applications or in the replacement of petro-based chemicals. We describe an analytical platform to be automated on a liquid handling system that allows the fast and reliable analysis of the type and the amount of EPS produced by microorganisms. It enables the user to identify novel natural microbial exopolysaccharide producers and to analyze the carbohydrate fingerprint of the corresponding polymers within one day in high-throughput (HT). Using this platform, strain collections as well as libraries of strain variants that might be obtained in engineering approaches can be screened. The platform has a modular setup, which allows a separation of the protocol into two major parts. First, there is an automated screening system, which combines different polysaccharide detection modules: a semi-quantitative analysis of viscosity formation via a centrifugation step, an analysis of polymer formation via alcohol precipitation and the determination of the total carbohydrate content via a phenol-sulfuric-acid transformation. Here, it is possible to screen up to 384 strains per run. The second part provides a detailed monosaccharide analysis for all the selected EPS producers identified in the first part by combining two essential modules: the analysis of the complete monomer composition via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultra violet and electrospray ionization ion trap detection (UHPLC-UV-ESI-MS) and the determination of pyruvate as a polymer substituent (presence of pyruvate ketal) via enzymatic oxidation that is coupled to a color formation. All the analytical modules of this screening platform can be combined in different ways and adjusted to individual requirements. Additionally, they can all be handled manually or performed with a liquid handling system. Thereby, the screening platform enables a huge

  10. Automated assay for screening the enzymatic release of reducing sugars from micronized biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asther Marcel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the production cost of bioethanol obtained from fermentation of the sugars provided by degradation of lignocellulosic biomass (i.e., second generation bioethanol, it is necessary to screen for new enzymes endowed with more efficient biomass degrading properties. This demands the set-up of high-throughput screening methods. Several methods have been devised all using microplates in the industrial SBS format. Although this size reduction and standardization has greatly improved the screening process, the published methods comprise one or more manual steps that seriously decrease throughput. Therefore, we worked to devise a screening method devoid of any manual steps. Results We describe a fully automated assay for measuring the amount of reducing sugars released by biomass-degrading enzymes from wheat-straw and spruce. The method comprises two independent and automated steps. The first step is the making of "substrate plates". It consists of filling 96-well microplates with slurry suspensions of micronized substrate which are then stored frozen until use. The second step is an enzymatic activity assay. After thawing, the substrate plates are supplemented by the robot with cell-wall degrading enzymes where necessary, and the whole process from addition of enzymes to quantification of released sugars is autonomously performed by the robot. We describe how critical parameters (amount of substrate, amount of enzyme, incubation duration and temperature were selected to fit with our specific use. The ability of this automated small-scale assay to discriminate among different enzymatic activities was validated using a set of commercial enzymes. Conclusions Using an automatic microplate sealer solved three main problems generally encountered during the set-up of methods for measuring the sugar-releasing activity of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes: throughput, automation, and evaporation losses. In its present set-up, the

  11. Steady-State Screening-Photovoltaic Spatial Solitons in the Biased Photorefractive-Photovoltaic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ke-Qing; ZHANG Yan-Peng; TANG Tian-Tong; LU Zhi-Xian; LIU Lin

    2001-01-01

    The theory of the screening-photovoltaic solitons is improved in biased photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals. When the photovoltaic effect is negligible, the screening-photovoltaic solitons are the screening ones, and their space-charge field is the space-charge field of the screening solitons. If the external field is absent, the screening photovoltaic solitons are the photovoltaic ones on the open- and closed-circuit conditions, and their space-charge field is of the photovoltaic solitons. We also show theoretically that the screening and the photovoltaic solitons on the open- and closed-circuit conditions may be studies together as the screening-photovoltaic solitons.

  12. INCOHERENTLY COUPLED SCREENING-PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLITON FAMILIES IN BIASED PHOTOVOLTAIC PHOTOREFRACTIVE CRYSTALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU CHUN-FENG; LI BIN; SUN XIU-DONG; JIANG YONG-YUAN; XU KE-BIN

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that the existence of incoherently coupled screening-photovoltaic soliton families is possible in biased photovoltaic photorefractive crystals under steady-state conditions. These screening-photovoltaic soliton families can be established provided the multiple incident beams have the same polarization and wavelength, and are mutually incoherent. Such soliton families reduce to screening-photovoltaic soliton pairs when they contain only two components. Relevant examples are presented where the photovoltaic photorefractive crystal is of the lithium niobate type.

  13. Automated solvent system screening for the preparative countercurrent chromatography of pharmaceutical discovery compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradow, James; Riley, Frank; Philippe, Laurence; Yan, Qi; Schuff, Brandon; Harris, Guy H

    2015-12-01

    A fully automated countercurrent chromatography system has been constructed to rapidly screen the commonly used heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water solvent system series and translate the results to preparative scale separations. The system utilizes "on-demand" preparation of the heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water solvent system upper and lower phases. Elution-extrusion countercurrent chromatography was combined with non-dynamic equilibrium injection reducing the screening time for each heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water system to 17 min. The result enabled solvent system development to be reduced to under 2 h. The countercurrent chromatography system was interfaced with a mass spectrometer to allow selective detection of target components in crude medicinal chemistry reaction mixtures. Mass-directed preparative countercurrent chromatography purification was demonstrated for the first time using a synthetic tetrazole epoxide derived from a routine medicinal chemistry support workflow. PMID:26428946

  14. Automated Triplex (HBV, HCV and HIV) NAT Assay Systems for Blood Screening in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This review is confined to triplex nucleic acid testing (NAT) assays to be used on fully automated platform. Around the world, these assays are being used at various transfusion medicine centres or blood banks to screen blood units for HBV, HCV and HIV. These assay systems can screen up to 1000 blood units for HBV, HCV and HIV simultaneously in a day. This area has been dominated by mainly two manufacturers: M/s Gen-Probe-Novartis and M/s Roche Molecular Systems. The triplex NAT assay systems of both manufacturers are licensed by United States Food and Drug Administration. There is not much awareness about the technology and procedures used in these assays. The main objective of this review is to create awareness about the technology and procedure of these assays. PMID:27042485

  15. The application and use of chemical space mapping to interpret crystallization screening results

    OpenAIRE

    Snell, Edward H.; Nagel, Ray M.; Wojtaszcyk, Ann; O’Neill, Hugh; Wolfley, Jennifer L.; Joseph R Luft

    2008-01-01

    Macromolecular crystallization screening is an empirical process. It often begins by setting up experiments with a number of chemically diverse cocktails designed to sample chemical space known to promote crystallization. Where a potential crystal is seen a refined screen is set up, optimizing around that condition. By using an incomplete factorial sampling of chemical space to formulate the cocktails and presenting the results graphically, it is possible to readily identify trends relevant t...

  16. Designs and concept reliance of a fully automated high-content screening platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Constantin; Adrar, Hosna Sana; Alamir, Ab; Hatherley, Ian; Trinh, Trung; Djaballah, Hakim

    2012-10-01

    High-content screening (HCS) is becoming an accepted platform in academic and industry screening labs and does require slightly different logistics for execution. To automate our stand-alone HCS microscopes, namely, an alpha IN Cell Analyzer 3000 (INCA3000), originally a Praelux unit hooked to a Hudson Plate Crane with a maximum capacity of 50 plates per run, and the IN Cell Analyzer 2000 (INCA2000), in which up to 320 plates could be fed per run using the Thermo Fisher Scientific Orbitor, we opted for a 4 m linear track system harboring both microscopes, plate washer, bulk dispensers, and a high-capacity incubator allowing us to perform both live and fixed cell-based assays while accessing both microscopes on deck. Considerations in design were given to the integration of the alpha INCA3000, a new gripper concept to access the onboard nest, and peripheral locations on deck to ensure a self-reliant system capable of achieving higher throughput. The resulting system, referred to as Hestia, has been fully operational since the new year, has an onboard capacity of 504 plates, and harbors the only fully automated alpha INCA3000 unit in the world. PMID:22797489

  17. Automated identification of elemental ions in macromolecular crystal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvent-picking procedure in phenix.refine has been extended and combined with Phaser anomalous substructure completion and analysis of coordination geometry to identify and place elemental ions. Many macromolecular model-building and refinement programs can automatically place solvent atoms in electron density at moderate-to-high resolution. This process frequently builds water molecules in place of elemental ions, the identification of which must be performed manually. The solvent-picking algorithms in phenix.refine have been extended to build common ions based on an analysis of the chemical environment as well as physical properties such as occupancy, B factor and anomalous scattering. The method is most effective for heavier elements such as calcium and zinc, for which a majority of sites can be placed with few false positives in a diverse test set of structures. At atomic resolution, it is observed that it can also be possible to identify tightly bound sodium and magnesium ions. A number of challenges that contribute to the difficulty of completely automating the process of structure completion are discussed

  18. A cell-based high-throughput screening assay for radiation susceptibility using automated cell counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is one of the mainstays in the treatment for cancer, but its success can be limited due to inherent or acquired resistance. Mechanisms underlying radioresistance in various cancers are poorly understood and available radiosensitizers have shown only modest clinical benefit. There is thus a need to identify new targets and drugs for more effective sensitization of cancer cells to irradiation. Compound and RNA interference high-throughput screening technologies allow comprehensive enterprises to identify new agents and targets for radiosensitization. However, the gold standard assay to investigate radiosensitivity of cancer cells in vitro, the colony formation assay (CFA), is unsuitable for high-throughput screening. We developed a new high-throughput screening method for determining radiation susceptibility. Fast and uniform irradiation of batches up to 30 microplates was achieved using a Perspex container and a clinically employed linear accelerator. The readout was done by automated counting of fluorescently stained nuclei using the Acumen eX3 laser scanning cytometer. Assay performance was compared to that of the CFA and the CellTiter-Blue homogeneous uniform-well cell viability assay. The assay was validated in a whole-genome siRNA library screening setting using PC-3 prostate cancer cells. On 4 different cancer cell lines, the automated cell counting assay produced radiation dose response curves that followed a linear-quadratic equation and that exhibited a better correlation to the results of the CFA than did the cell viability assay. Moreover, the cell counting assay could be used to detect radiosensitization by silencing DNA-PKcs or by adding caffeine. In a high-throughput screening setting, using 4 Gy irradiated and control PC-3 cells, the effects of DNA-PKcs siRNA and non-targeting control siRNA could be clearly discriminated. We developed a simple assay for radiation susceptibility that can be used for high-throughput screening. This will aid

  19. A Fully Automated Small Molecule Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction System: poster

    OpenAIRE

    Light, Mark E.; Michael B. Hursthouse; Li, Yang

    2003-01-01

    Ever decreasing data collection times and an explosion in demand present us with the situation where an automated single crystal instrument is not only desirous but essential. This poster presents our new system that has been developed around a Bruker Nonius Kappa CCD diffractometer and a Mitsubishi Movemaster RV-1A industrial robot, affectionately know as BruNo. The Bruker Nonius control software, COLLECT[1], supports access to its methods and functions and along with its programmers doc...

  20. Automated high-throughput in vitro screening of the acetylcholine esterase inhibiting potential of environmental samples, mixtures and single compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froment, Jean; Thomas, Kevin V; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2016-08-01

    A high-throughput and automated assay for testing the presence of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibiting compounds was developed, validated and applied to screen different types of environmental samples. Automation involved using the assay in 96-well plates and adapting it for the use with an automated workstation. Validation was performed by comparing the results of the automated assay with that of a previously validated and standardised assay for two known AChE inhibitors (paraoxon and dichlorvos). The results show that the assay provides similar concentration-response curves (CRCs) when run according to the manual and automated protocol. Automation of the assay resulted in a reduction in assay run time as well as in intra- and inter-assay variations. High-quality CRCs were obtained for both of the model AChE inhibitors (dichlorvos IC50=120µM and paraoxon IC50=0.56µM) when tested alone. The effect of co-exposure of an equipotent binary mixture of the two chemicals were consistent with predictions of additivity and best described by the concentration addition model for combined toxicity. Extracts of different environmental samples (landfill leachate, wastewater treatment plant effluent, and road tunnel construction run-off) were then screened for AChE inhibiting activity using the automated bioassay, with only landfill leachate shown to contain potential AChE inhibitors. Potential uses and limitations of the assay were discussed based on the present results. PMID:27085000

  1. DG-AMMOS: A New tool to generate 3D conformation of small molecules using Distance Geometry and Automated Molecular Mechanics Optimization for in silico Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villoutreix Bruno O

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discovery of new bioactive molecules that could enter drug discovery programs or that could serve as chemical probes is a very complex and costly endeavor. Structure-based and ligand-based in silico screening approaches are nowadays extensively used to complement experimental screening approaches in order to increase the effectiveness of the process and facilitating the screening of thousands or millions of small molecules against a biomolecular target. Both in silico screening methods require as input a suitable chemical compound collection and most often the 3D structure of the small molecules has to be generated since compounds are usually delivered in 1D SMILES, CANSMILES or in 2D SDF formats. Results Here, we describe the new open source program DG-AMMOS which allows the generation of the 3D conformation of small molecules using Distance Geometry and their energy minimization via Automated Molecular Mechanics Optimization. The program is validated on the Astex dataset, the ChemBridge Diversity database and on a number of small molecules with known crystal structures extracted from the Cambridge Structural Database. A comparison with the free program Balloon and the well-known commercial program Omega generating the 3D of small molecules is carried out. The results show that the new free program DG-AMMOS is a very efficient 3D structure generator engine. Conclusion DG-AMMOS provides fast, automated and reliable access to the generation of 3D conformation of small molecules and facilitates the preparation of a compound collection prior to high-throughput virtual screening computations. The validation of DG-AMMOS on several different datasets proves that generated structures are generally of equal quality or sometimes better than structures obtained by other tested methods.

  2. Automated screening for small organic ligands using DNA-encoded chemical libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decurtins, Willy; Wichert, Moreno; Franzini, Raphael M; Buller, Fabian; Stravs, Michael A; Zhang, Yixin; Neri, Dario; Scheuermann, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DECLs) are collections of organic compounds that are individually linked to different oligonucleotides, serving as amplifiable identification barcodes. As all compounds in the library can be identified by their DNA tags, they can be mixed and used in affinity-capture experiments on target proteins of interest. In this protocol, we describe the screening process that allows the identification of the few binding molecules within the multiplicity of library members. First, the automated affinity selection process physically isolates binding library members. Second, the DNA codes of the isolated binders are PCR-amplified and subjected to high-throughput DNA sequencing. Third, the obtained sequencing data are evaluated using a C++ program and the results are displayed using MATLAB software. The resulting selection fingerprints facilitate the discrimination of binding from nonbinding library members. The described procedures allow the identification of small organic ligands to biological targets from a DECL within 10 d. PMID:26985574

  3. Low-amplitude Screening-photovoltaic Spatial Solitons in Biased Photovoltaic Photorefractive Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Chunfeng; LI Yan; YUAN Baohong; SUN Xiudong

    2000-01-01

    The low-amplitude spatial solitons in biased photovoltaic photorefractive crystals are investigated theoretically. The analytical solutions for both the bright and the dark low-amplitude screening-photovoltaic spatial solitons in photorefractive crystals are obtained. The expressions for the width of these solitons are given. The explicit expressions for the spatial deflection and angular deviation of the bright low-amplitude screening-photovoltaic spatial soliton are also presented by taking into account the effect of diffusion.

  4. Towards an automated virtual slide screening: theoretical considerations and practical experiences of automated tissue-based virtual diagnosis to be implemented in the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Bzdyl Piotr; Radziszowski Dominik; Kayser Klaus; Sommer Rainer; Kayser Gian

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Aims To develop and implement an automated virtual slide screening system that distinguishes normal histological findings and several tissue – based crude (texture – based) diagnoses. Theoretical considerations Virtual slide technology has to handle and transfer images of GB Bytes in size. The performance of tissue based diagnosis can be separated into a) a sampling procedure to allocate the slide area containing the most significant diagnostic information, and b) the evaluation of t...

  5. Acoustic transfer of protein crystals from agarose pedestals to micromeshes for high-throughput screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttitta, Christina M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); The City University of New York, 2800 Victory Boulevard, Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States); Ericson, Daniel L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); University at Buffalo, SUNY, 12 Capen Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Scalia, Alexander [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Binghamton University, 4400 Vestal Parkway East, Binghamton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Roessler, Christian G. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Teplitsky, Ella [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5215 (United States); Joshi, Karan [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh (India); Campos, Olven [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33414 (United States); Agarwal, Rakhi; Allaire, Marc [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Orville, Allen M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Sweet, Robert M.; Soares, Alexei S., E-mail: soares@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    An acoustic high-throughput screening method is described for harvesting protein crystals and combining the protein crystals with chemicals such as a fragment library. Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) is an emerging technology with broad applications in serial crystallography such as growing, improving and manipulating protein crystals. One application of this technology is to gently transfer crystals onto MiTeGen micromeshes with minimal solvent. Once mounted on a micromesh, each crystal can be combined with different chemicals such as crystal-improving additives or a fragment library. Acoustic crystal mounting is fast (2.33 transfers s{sup −1}) and all transfers occur in a sealed environment that is in vapor equilibrium with the mother liquor. Here, a system is presented to retain crystals near the ejection point and away from the inaccessible dead volume at the bottom of the well by placing the crystals on a concave agarose pedestal (CAP) with the same chemical composition as the crystal mother liquor. The bowl-shaped CAP is impenetrable to crystals. Consequently, gravity will gently move the crystals into the optimal location for acoustic ejection. It is demonstrated that an agarose pedestal of this type is compatible with most commercially available crystallization conditions and that protein crystals are readily transferred from the agarose pedestal onto micromeshes with no loss in diffraction quality. It is also shown that crystals can be grown directly on CAPs, which avoids the need to transfer the crystals from the hanging drop to a CAP. This technology has been used to combine thermolysin and lysozyme crystals with an assortment of anomalously scattering heavy atoms. The results point towards a fast nanolitre method for crystal mounting and high-throughput screening.

  6. Neonatal hearing screening of high-risk infants using automated auditory brainstem response: a retrospective analysis of referral rates.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGurgan, I J

    2013-10-07

    The past decade has seen the widespread introduction of universal neonatal hearing screening (UNHS) programmes worldwide. Regrettably, such a programme is only now in the process of nationwide implementation in the Republic of Ireland and has been largely restricted to one screening modality for initial testing; namely transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE). The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of employing a different screening protocol which utilises an alternative initial test, automated auditory brainstem response (AABR), on referral rates to specialist audiology services.

  7. Soap, science, and flat-screen TVs a history of liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Dunmur, David

    2011-01-01

    The terms 'liquid crystal' or 'liquid crystal display' (LCD) are well-known in the context of flat-screen televisions, but the properties and history of liquid crystals are little understood. This book tells the story of liquid crystals, from their controversial discovery at the end of the nineteenth century, to their eventual acceptance as another state of matter to rank alongside gases, liquids and solids. As their story unfolds, the scientists involved and their works are put into illuminating broader socio-political contexts. In recent years, liquid crystals have had a major impact on the display industry, culminating in the now widely available flat-screen televisions; this development is described in detail over three chapters, and the basic science behind it is explained in simple terms accessible to a general reader. New applications of liquid crystals in materials, bio-systems, medicine and technology are also explained.

  8. Automated screening system for retinal health using bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition and integrated index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Mookiah, Muthu Rama Krishnan; Koh, Joel E W; Tan, Jen Hong; Bhandary, Sulatha V; Rao, A Krishna; Fujita, Hamido; Hagiwara, Yuki; Chua, Chua Kuang; Laude, Augustinus

    2016-08-01

    Posterior Segment Eye Diseases (PSED) namely Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), glaucoma and Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) are the prime causes of vision loss globally. Vision loss can be prevented, if these diseases are detected at an early stage. Structural abnormalities such as changes in cup-to-disc ratio, Hard Exudates (HE), drusen, Microaneurysms (MA), Cotton Wool Spots (CWS), Haemorrhages (HA), Geographic Atrophy (GA) and Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV) in PSED can be identified by manual examination of fundus images by clinicians. However, manual screening is labour-intensive, tiresome and time consuming. Hence, there is a need to automate the eye screening. In this work Bi-dimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD) technique is used to decompose fundus images into 2D Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) to capture variations in the pixels due to morphological changes. Further, various entropy namely Renyi, Fuzzy, Shannon, Vajda, Kapur and Yager and energy features are extracted from IMFs. These extracted features are ranked using Chernoff Bound and Bhattacharyya Distance (CBBD), Kullback-Leibler Divergence (KLD), Fuzzy-minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (FmRMR), Wilcoxon, Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve (ROC) and t-test methods. Further, these ranked features are fed to Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to classify normal and abnormal (DR, AMD and glaucoma) classes. The performance of the proposed eye screening system is evaluated using 800 (Normal=400 and Abnormal=400) digital fundus images and 10-fold cross validation method. Our proposed system automatically identifies normal and abnormal classes with an average accuracy of 88.63%, sensitivity of 86.25% and specificity of 91% using 17 optimal features ranked using CBBD and SVM-Radial Basis Function (RBF) classifier. Moreover, a novel Retinal Risk Index (RRI) is developed using two significant features to distinguish two classes using single number. Such a system helps to reduce eye

  9. Establish an automated flow injection ESI-MS method for the screening of fragment based libraries: Application to Hsp90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi Sirtori, Federico; Caronni, Dannica; Colombo, Maristella; Dalvit, Claudio; Paolucci, Mauro; Regazzoni, Luca; Visco, Carlo; Fogliatto, Gianpaolo

    2015-08-30

    ESI-MS is a well established technique for the study of biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins) and their non covalent adducts, due to its capacity to detect ligand-target complexes in the gas phase and allows inference of ligand-target binding in solution. In this article we used this approach to investigate the interaction of ligands to the Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90). This enzyme is a molecular chaperone involved in the folding and maturation of several proteins which has been subjected in the last years to intensive drug discovery efforts due to its key role in cancer. In particular, reference compounds, with a broad range of dissociation constants from 40pM to 100μM, were tested to assess the reliability of ESI-MS for the study of protein-ligand complexes. A good agreement was found between the values measured with a fluorescence polarization displacement assay and those determined by mass spectrometry. After this validation step we describe the setup of a medium throughput screening method, based on ESI-MS, suitable to explore interactions of therapeutic relevance biopolymers with chemical libraries. Our approach is based on an automated flow injection ESI-MS method (AFI-MS) and has been applied to screen the Nerviano Medical Sciences proprietary fragment library of about 2000 fragments against Hsp90. In order to discard false positive hits and to discriminate those of them interacting with the N-terminal ATP binding site, competition experiments were performed using a reference inhibitor. Gratifyingly, this group of hits matches with the ligands previously identified by NMR FAXS techniques and confirmed by X-ray co-crystallization experiments. These results support the use of AFI-MS for the screening of medium size libraries, including libraries of small molecules with low affinity typically used in fragment based drug discovery. AFI-MS is a valid alternative to other techniques with the additional opportunities to identify compounds interacting with

  10. Improved success of sparse matrix protein crystallization screening with heterogeneous nucleating agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil S Thakur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crystallization is a major bottleneck in the process of macromolecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography. Successful crystallization requires the formation of nuclei and their subsequent growth to crystals of suitable size. Crystal growth generally occurs spontaneously in a supersaturated solution as a result of homogenous nucleation. However, in a typical sparse matrix screening experiment, precipitant and protein concentration are not sampled extensively, and supersaturation conditions suitable for nucleation are often missed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested the effect of nine potential heterogenous nucleating agents on crystallization of ten test proteins in a sparse matrix screen. Several nucleating agents induced crystal formation under conditions where no crystallization occurred in the absence of the nucleating agent. Four nucleating agents: dried seaweed; horse hair; cellulose and hydroxyapatite, had a considerable overall positive effect on crystallization success. This effect was further enhanced when these nucleating agents were used in combination with each other. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that the addition of heterogeneous nucleating agents increases the chances of crystal formation when using sparse matrix screens.

  11. Pi sampling: a methodical and flexible approach to initial macromolecular crystallization screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pi sampling, derived from the incomplete factorial approach, is an effort to maximize the diversity of macromolecular crystallization conditions and to facilitate the preparation of 96-condition initial screens. The Pi sampling method is derived from the incomplete factorial approach to macromolecular crystallization screen design. The resulting ‘Pi screens’ have a modular distribution of a given set of up to 36 stock solutions. Maximally diverse conditions can be produced by taking into account the properties of the chemicals used in the formulation and the concentrations of the corresponding solutions. The Pi sampling method has been implemented in a web-based application that generates screen formulations and recipes. It is particularly adapted to screens consisting of 96 different conditions. The flexibility and efficiency of Pi sampling is demonstrated by the crystallization of soluble proteins and of an integral membrane-protein sample

  12. Automated, quantitative cognitive/behavioral screening of mice: for genetics, pharmacology, animal cognition and undergraduate instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Balci, Fuat; Freestone, David; Kheifets, Aaron; King, Adam

    2014-01-01

    We describe a high-throughput, high-volume, fully automated, live-in 24/7 behavioral testing system for assessing the effects of genetic and pharmacological manipulations on basic mechanisms of cognition and learning in mice. A standard polypropylene mouse housing tub is connected through an acrylic tube to a standard commercial mouse test box. The test box has 3 hoppers, 2 of which are connected to pellet feeders. All are internally illuminable with an LED and monitored for head entries by infrared (IR) beams. Mice live in the environment, which eliminates handling during screening. They obtain their food during two or more daily feeding periods by performing in operant (instrumental) and Pavlovian (classical) protocols, for which we have written protocol-control software and quasi-real-time data analysis and graphing software. The data analysis and graphing routines are written in a MATLAB-based language created to simplify greatly the analysis of large time-stamped behavioral and physiological event records and to preserve a full data trail from raw data through all intermediate analyses to the published graphs and statistics within a single data structure. The data-analysis code harvests the data several times a day and subjects it to statistical and graphical analyses, which are automatically stored in the "cloud" and on in-lab computers. Thus, the progress of individual mice is visualized and quantified daily. The data-analysis code talks to the protocol-control code, permitting the automated advance from protocol to protocol of individual subjects. The behavioral protocols implemented are matching, autoshaping, timed hopper-switching, risk assessment in timed hopper-switching, impulsivity measurement, and the circadian anticipation of food availability. Open-source protocol-control and data-analysis code makes the addition of new protocols simple. Eight test environments fit in a 48 in x 24 in x 78 in cabinet; two such cabinets (16 environments) may be

  13. Effects of Secondary Task Modality and Processing Code on Automation Trust and Utilization During Simulated Airline Luggage Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Rachel; Madhavan, Poornima

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of environmental distractions on human trust and utilization of automation during the process of visual search. Participants performed a computer-simulated airline luggage screening task with the assistance of a 70% reliable automated decision aid (called DETECTOR) both with and without environmental distractions. The distraction was implemented as a secondary task in either a competing modality (visual) or non-competing modality (auditory). The secondary task processing code either competed with the luggage screening task (spatial code) or with the automation's textual directives (verbal code). We measured participants' system trust, perceived reliability of the system (when a target weapon was present and absent), compliance, reliance, and confidence when agreeing and disagreeing with the system under both distracted and undistracted conditions. Results revealed that system trust was lower in the visual-spatial and auditory-verbal conditions than in the visual-verbal and auditory-spatial conditions. Perceived reliability of the system (when the target was present) was significantly higher when the secondary task was visual rather than auditory. Compliance with the aid increased in all conditions except for the auditory-verbal condition, where it decreased. Similar to the pattern for trust, reliance on the automation was lower in the visual-spatial and auditory-verbal conditions than in the visual-verbal and auditory-spatial conditions. Confidence when agreeing with the system decreased with the addition of any kind of distraction; however, confidence when disagreeing increased with the addition of an auditory secondary task but decreased with the addition of a visual task. A model was developed to represent the research findings and demonstrate the relationship between secondary task modality, processing code, and automation use. Results suggest that the nature of environmental distractions influence

  14. Improvement of an automated protein crystal exchange system PAM for high-throughput data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A special liquid-nitrogen Dewar with double capacity for the sample-exchange robot has been created at AR-NE3A at the Photon Factory, allowing continuous fully automated data collection. In this work, this new system is described and the stability of its calibration is discussed. Photon Factory Automated Mounting system (PAM) protein crystal exchange systems are available at the following Photon Factory macromolecular beamlines: BL-1A, BL-5A, BL-17A, AR-NW12A and AR-NE3A. The beamline AR-NE3A has been constructed for high-throughput macromolecular crystallography and is dedicated to structure-based drug design. The PAM liquid-nitrogen Dewar can store a maximum of three SSRL cassettes. Therefore, users have to interrupt their experiments and replace the cassettes when using four or more of them during their beam time. As a result of investigation, four or more cassettes were used in AR-NE3A alone. For continuous automated data collection, the size of the liquid-nitrogen Dewar for the AR-NE3A PAM was increased, doubling the capacity. In order to check the calibration with the new Dewar and the cassette stand, calibration experiments were repeatedly performed. Compared with the current system, the parameters of the novel system are shown to be stable

  15. Separate holographic screening soliton pairs in a biased series photorefractive crystal circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holographic dark (bright) screening solitons are predicted in one dimension for a series circuit consisting of two photorefractive crystals connected electronically by electrode leads in a chain with a voltage source. Each crystal can support a holographic screening soliton. The two solitons are known collectively as a separate holographic screening soliton pair with three types: bright–bright, bright–dark and dark–dark. The numerical results show that the two solitons in a soliton pair can affect each other through a light-induced current and their coupling can affect their spatial profiles under the limit in which the optical wave has a spatial extent much less than the width of the crystal. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  16. Shotgun crystallization strategy for structural genomics: an optimized two-tiered crystallization screen against the Thermotoga maritima proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Rebecca; Grzechnik, Slawomir K; Canaves, Jaume M; Spraggon, Glen; Kreusch, Andreas; Kuhn, Peter; Stevens, Raymond C; Lesley, Scott A

    2003-06-01

    As the field of structural genomics continues to grow and new technologies are developed, novel strategies are needed to efficiently crystallize large numbers of protein targets, thus increasing output, not just throughput [Chayen & Saridakis (2002). Acta Cryst. D58, 921-927]. One strategy, developed for the high-throughput structure determination of the Thermotoga maritima proteome, is to quickly determine which proteins have a propensity for crystal formation followed by focused SeMet-incorporated protein crystallization attempts. This experimental effort has resulted in over 320 000 individual crystallization experiments. As such, it has provided one of the most extensive systematic data sets of commonly used crystallization conditions against a wide range of proteins to date. Analysis of this data shows that many of the original screening conditions are redundant, as all of the T. maritima proteins that crystallize readily could be identified using just 23% of the original conditions. It also shows that proteins that contain selenomethionine and are more extensively purified often crystallize in distinctly different conditions from those of their native less pure counterparts. Most importantly, it shows that the two-tiered strategy employed here is extremely successful for predicting which proteins will readily crystallize, as greater than 99% of the proteins identified as having a propensity to crystallize under non-optimal native conditions did so again as selenomethionine derivatives during the focused crystallization trials. This crystallization strategy can be adopted for both large-scale genomics programs and individual protein studies with multiple constructs and has the potential to significantly accelerate future crystallographic efforts. PMID:12777766

  17. Hitting the target: fragment screening with acoustic in situ co-crystallization of proteins plus fragment libraries on pin-mounted data-collection micromeshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is presented for screening fragment libraries using acoustic droplet ejection to co-crystallize proteins and chemicals directly on micromeshes with as little as 2.5 nl of each component. This method was used to identify previously unreported fragments that bind to lysozyme, thermolysin, and trypsin. Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) is a powerful technology that supports crystallographic applications such as growing, improving and manipulating protein crystals. A fragment-screening strategy is described that uses ADE to co-crystallize proteins with fragment libraries directly on MiTeGen MicroMeshes. Co-crystallization trials can be prepared rapidly and economically. The high speed of specimen preparation and the low consumption of fragment and protein allow the use of individual rather than pooled fragments. The Echo 550 liquid-handling instrument (Labcyte Inc., Sunnyvale, California, USA) generates droplets with accurate trajectories, which allows multiple co-crystallization experiments to be discretely positioned on a single data-collection micromesh. This accuracy also allows all components to be transferred through small apertures. Consequently, the crystallization tray is in equilibrium with the reservoir before, during and after the transfer of protein, precipitant and fragment to the micromesh on which crystallization will occur. This strict control of the specimen environment means that the crystallography experiments remain identical as the working volumes are decreased from the few microlitres level to the few nanolitres level. Using this system, lysozyme, thermolysin, trypsin and stachydrine demethylase crystals were co-crystallized with a small 33-compound mini-library to search for fragment hits. This technology pushes towards a much faster, more automated and more flexible strategy for structure-based drug discovery using as little as 2.5 nl of each major component

  18. Hitting the target: fragment screening with acoustic in situ co-crystallization of proteins plus fragment libraries on pin-mounted data-collection micromeshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Xingyu [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Stony Brook University, NY 11794-5215 (United States); Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Scalia, Alexander [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Binghamton University, 4400 Vestal Parkway East, NY 13902 (United States); Leroy, Ludmila [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Ministry of Education of Brazil, 70040-020 Brasilia-DF (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 6627 Av. Antonio Carlos, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte-MG (Brazil); Cuttitta, Christina M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); The City University of New York, 2800 Victory Boulevard, Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States); Polizzo, Gina M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); St Joseph’s College, 155 West Roe Boulevard, East Patchogue, NY 11772 (United States); Ericson, Daniel L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); University at Buffalo, SUNY, 12 Capen Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Roessler, Christian G. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Campos, Olven [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33414 (United States); Ma, Millie Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Comsewogue High School, 565 Bicycle Path, Port Jefferson Station, NY 11776 (United States); Agarwal, Rakhi; Jackimowicz, Rick; Allaire, Marc [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Orville, Allen M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Sweet, Robert M.; Soares, Alexei S., E-mail: soares@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    A method is presented for screening fragment libraries using acoustic droplet ejection to co-crystallize proteins and chemicals directly on micromeshes with as little as 2.5 nl of each component. This method was used to identify previously unreported fragments that bind to lysozyme, thermolysin, and trypsin. Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) is a powerful technology that supports crystallographic applications such as growing, improving and manipulating protein crystals. A fragment-screening strategy is described that uses ADE to co-crystallize proteins with fragment libraries directly on MiTeGen MicroMeshes. Co-crystallization trials can be prepared rapidly and economically. The high speed of specimen preparation and the low consumption of fragment and protein allow the use of individual rather than pooled fragments. The Echo 550 liquid-handling instrument (Labcyte Inc., Sunnyvale, California, USA) generates droplets with accurate trajectories, which allows multiple co-crystallization experiments to be discretely positioned on a single data-collection micromesh. This accuracy also allows all components to be transferred through small apertures. Consequently, the crystallization tray is in equilibrium with the reservoir before, during and after the transfer of protein, precipitant and fragment to the micromesh on which crystallization will occur. This strict control of the specimen environment means that the crystallography experiments remain identical as the working volumes are decreased from the few microlitres level to the few nanolitres level. Using this system, lysozyme, thermolysin, trypsin and stachydrine demethylase crystals were co-crystallized with a small 33-compound mini-library to search for fragment hits. This technology pushes towards a much faster, more automated and more flexible strategy for structure-based drug discovery using as little as 2.5 nl of each major component.

  19. High-throughput screening for thermoelectric sulphides by using crystal structure features as descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruizhi; Du, Baoli; Chen, Kan; Reece, Mike; Materials Research Insititute Team

    With the increasing computational power and reliable databases, high-throughput screening is playing a more and more important role in the search of new thermoelectric materials. Rather than the well established density functional theory (DFT) calculation based methods, we propose an alternative approach to screen for new TE materials: using crystal structural features as 'descriptors'. We show that a non-distorted transition metal sulphide polyhedral network can be a good descriptor for high power factor according to crystal filed theory. By using Cu/S containing compounds as an example, 1600+ Cu/S containing entries in the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) were screened, and of those 84 phases are identified as promising thermoelectric materials. The screening results are validated by both electronic structure calculations and experimental results from the literature. We also fabricated some new compounds to test our screening results. Another advantage of using crystal structure features as descriptors is that we can easily establish structural relationships between the identified phases. Based on this, two material design approaches are discussed: 1) High-pressure synthesis of metastable phase; 2) In-situ 2-phase composites with coherent interface. This work was supported by a Marie Curie International Incoming Fellowship of the European Community Human Potential Program.

  20. Automated detection and characterization of microstructural features: application to eutectic particles in single crystal Ni-based superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, M. A.; Groeber, M. A.; Fahringer, R.; Simmons, J. P.; Rosenberger, A. H.; Woodward, C.

    2010-03-01

    Serial sectioning methods continue to produce an abundant amount of image data for quantifying the three-dimensional nature of material microstructures. Here, we discuss a methodology to automate detecting and characterizing eutectic particles taken from serial images of a production turbine blade made of a heat-treated single crystal Ni-based superalloy (PWA 1484). This method includes two important steps for unassisted eutectic particle characterization: automatically identifying a seed point within each particle and segmenting the particle using a region growing algorithm with an automated stop point. Once detected, the segmented eutectic particles are used to calculate microstructural statistics for characterizing and reconstructing statistically representative synthetic microstructures for single crystal Ni-based superalloys. The significance of this work is its ability to automate characterization for analysing the 3D nature of eutectic particles.

  1. Automated detection and characterization of microstructural features: application to eutectic particles in single crystal Ni-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serial sectioning methods continue to produce an abundant amount of image data for quantifying the three-dimensional nature of material microstructures. Here, we discuss a methodology to automate detecting and characterizing eutectic particles taken from serial images of a production turbine blade made of a heat-treated single crystal Ni-based superalloy (PWA 1484). This method includes two important steps for unassisted eutectic particle characterization: automatically identifying a seed point within each particle and segmenting the particle using a region growing algorithm with an automated stop point. Once detected, the segmented eutectic particles are used to calculate microstructural statistics for characterizing and reconstructing statistically representative synthetic microstructures for single crystal Ni-based superalloys. The significance of this work is its ability to automate characterization for analysing the 3D nature of eutectic particles

  2. Design and Development of a Robot-Based Automation System for Cryogenic Crystal Sample Mounting at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray crystallography is the primary method to determine the 3D structures of complex macromolecules at high resolution. In the years to come, the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and similar 3rd-generation synchrotron sources elsewhere will become the most powerful tools for studying atomic structures of biological molecules. One of the major bottlenecks in the x-ray data collection process is the constant need to change and realign the crystal sample. This is a very time- and manpower-consuming task. An automated sample mounting system will help to solve this bottleneck problem. We have developed a novel robot-based automation system for cryogenic crystal sample mounting at the APS. Design of the robot-based automation system, as well as its on-line test results at the Argonne Structural Biology Center (SBC) 19-BM experimental station, are presented in this paper

  3. From screen to structure with a harvestable microfluidic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microfluidic crystallization using the Crystal Former improves the identification of initial crystallization conditions relative to screening via vapour diffusion. Advances in automation have facilitated the widespread adoption of high-throughput vapour-diffusion methods for initial crystallization screening. However, for many proteins, screening thousands of crystallization conditions fails to yield crystals of sufficient quality for structural characterization. Here, the rates of crystal identification for thaumatin, catalase and myoglobin using microfluidic Crystal Former devices and sitting-drop vapour-diffusion plates are compared. It is shown that the Crystal Former results in a greater number of identified initial crystallization conditions compared with vapour diffusion. Furthermore, crystals of thaumatin and lysozyme obtained in the Crystal Former were used directly for structure determination both in situ and upon harvesting and cryocooling. On the basis of these results, a crystallization strategy is proposed that uses multiple methods with distinct kinetic trajectories through the protein phase diagram to increase the output of crystallization pipelines

  4. Development of a web-based tool for automated processing and cataloging of a unique combinatorial drug screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecki, Alex G; Wolschendorf, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Facing totally resistant bacteria, traditional drug discovery efforts have proven to be of limited use in replenishing our depleted arsenal of therapeutic antibiotics. Recently, the natural anti-bacterial properties of metal ions in synergy with metal-coordinating ligands have shown potential for generating new molecule candidates with potential therapeutic downstream applications. We recently developed a novel combinatorial screening approach to identify compounds with copper-dependent anti-bacterial properties. Through a parallel screening technique, the assay distinguishes between copper-dependent and independent activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with hits being defined as compounds with copper-dependent activities. These activities must then be linked to a compound master list to process and analyze the data and to identify the hit molecules, a labor intensive and mistake-prone analysis. Here, we describe a software program built to automate this analysis in order to streamline our workflow significantly. We conducted a small, 1440 compound screen against M. tuberculosis and used it as an example framework to build and optimize the software. Though specifically adapted to our own needs, it can be readily expanded for any small- to medium-throughput screening effort, parallel or conventional. Further, by virtue of the underlying Linux server, it can be easily adapted for chemoinformatic analysis of screens through packages such as OpenBabel. Overall, this setup represents an easy-to-use solution for streamlining processing and analysis of biological screening data, as well as offering a scaffold for ready functionality expansion. PMID:27117032

  5. More than lung cancer: Automated analysis of low-dose screening CT scans

    OpenAIRE

    Mets, O.M.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a major health care problem and is projected to cause over 8 million deaths per year worldwide in the coming decades. To reduce lung cancer mortality in heavy smokers, several randomized screening trials were initiated in the past years using screening with low-dose Computed Tomography (CT). Recently, the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), which was performed in the United States of America and compared about 25,000 participants screened with CT against 25,000 participants scree...

  6. Kinetics analysis and automated online screening of aminocarbonylation of aryl halides in flow

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Jason S.; Smith, Christopher D; Jensen, Klavs F.

    2016-01-01

    Temperature, pressure, gas stoichiometry, and residence time were varied to control the yield and product distribution of the palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation of aromatic bromides in both a silicon microreactor and a packed-bed tubular reactor. Automation of the system set points and product sampling enabled facile and repeatable reaction analysis with minimal operator supervision. It was observed that the reaction was divided into two temperature regimes. An automated system was used t...

  7. Evaluation of an Automated Information Extraction Tool for Imaging Data Elements to Populate a Breast Cancer Screening Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacson, Ronilda; Harris, Kimberly; Brawarsky, Phyllis; Tosteson, Tor D; Onega, Tracy; Tosteson, Anna N A; Kaye, Abby; Gonzalez, Irina; Birdwell, Robyn; Haas, Jennifer S

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer screening is central to early breast cancer detection. Identifying and monitoring process measures for screening is a focus of the National Cancer Institute's Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) initiative, which requires participating centers to report structured data across the cancer screening continuum. We evaluate the accuracy of automated information extraction of imaging findings from radiology reports, which are available as unstructured text. We present prevalence estimates of imaging findings for breast imaging received by women who obtained care in a primary care network participating in PROSPR (n = 139,953 radiology reports) and compared automatically extracted data elements to a "gold standard" based on manual review for a validation sample of 941 randomly selected radiology reports, including mammograms, digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The prevalence of imaging findings vary by data element and modality (e.g., suspicious calcification noted in 2.6% of screening mammograms, 12.1% of diagnostic mammograms, and 9.4% of tomosynthesis exams). In the validation sample, the accuracy of identifying imaging findings, including suspicious calcifications, masses, and architectural distortion (on mammogram and tomosynthesis); masses, cysts, non-mass enhancement, and enhancing foci (on MRI); and masses and cysts (on ultrasound), range from 0.8 to1.0 for recall, precision, and F-measure. Information extraction tools can be used for accurate documentation of imaging findings as structured data elements from text reports for a variety of breast imaging modalities. These data can be used to populate screening registries to help elucidate more effective breast cancer screening processes. PMID:25561069

  8. Bright-Dark Vector Screening-Photovoltaic Spatial Solitons in Biased Photorefractive-Photovoltaic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢克清; 钱士雄; 窦春升; 吴振森

    2002-01-01

    We show that the vector beam evolution equations in properly oriented biased photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals can exhibit bright-dark vector solitons, which result from both the bulk photovoltaic effect and the spatially non-uniform screening of the external bias field. By adjusting the polarization of the incident beam to obtain the appropriate ratio of two orthogonal components, these vector solitons can be established. When the bulk photovoltaic effect is negligible, these vector solitons are bright-dark vector screening solitons. When the external field is absent, these vector solitons predict bright-dark vector photovoltaic solitons.

  9. The application of the Escherichia coli giant spheroplast for drug screening with automated planar patch clamp system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Kikuchi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kv2.1, the voltage-gated ion channel, is ubiquitously expressed in variety of tissues and dysfunction of this ion channel is responsible for multiple diseases. Electrophysiological properties of ion channels are so far characterized with eukaryotic cells using the manual patch clamp which requires skilful operators and expensive equipments. In this research, we created a simple and sensitive drug screen method using bacterial giant spheroplasts and the automated patch clamp which does not require special skills. We expressed a eukaryotic voltage-gated ion channel Kv2.1 in Escherichia coli using prokaryotic codon, and prepared giant spheroplasts large enough for the patch clamp. Human Kv2.1 currents were successfully recorded from giant spheroplasts with the automated system, and Kv2.1-expressed E. coli spheroplasts could steadily reacted to the dose–response assay with TEA and 4-AP. Collectively, our results indicate for the first time that the bacterial giant spheroplast can be applied for practical pharmaceutical assay using the automated patch clamp.

  10. Automated high-content live animal drug screening using C. elegans expressing the aggregation prone serpin α1-antitrypsin Z.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosai, Sager J; Kwak, Joon Hyeok; Luke, Cliff J; Long, Olivia S; King, Dale E; Kovatch, Kevin J; Johnston, Paul A; Shun, Tong Ying; Lazo, John S; Perlmutter, David H; Silverman, Gary A; Pak, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    The development of preclinical models amenable to live animal bioactive compound screening is an attractive approach to discovering effective pharmacological therapies for disorders caused by misfolded and aggregation-prone proteins. In general, however, live animal drug screening is labor and resource intensive, and has been hampered by the lack of robust assay designs and high throughput work-flows. Based on their small size, tissue transparency and ease of cultivation, the use of C. elegans should obviate many of the technical impediments associated with live animal drug screening. Moreover, their genetic tractability and accomplished record for providing insights into the molecular and cellular basis of human disease, should make C. elegans an ideal model system for in vivo drug discovery campaigns. The goal of this study was to determine whether C. elegans could be adapted to high-throughput and high-content drug screening strategies analogous to those developed for cell-based systems. Using transgenic animals expressing fluorescently-tagged proteins, we first developed a high-quality, high-throughput work-flow utilizing an automated fluorescence microscopy platform with integrated image acquisition and data analysis modules to qualitatively assess different biological processes including, growth, tissue development, cell viability and autophagy. We next adapted this technology to conduct a small molecule screen and identified compounds that altered the intracellular accumulation of the human aggregation prone mutant that causes liver disease in α1-antitrypsin deficiency. This study provides powerful validation for advancement in preclinical drug discovery campaigns by screening live C. elegans modeling α1-antitrypsin deficiency and other complex disease phenotypes on high-content imaging platforms. PMID:21103396

  11. Automated high-content live animal drug screening using C. elegans expressing the aggregation prone serpin α1-antitrypsin Z.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sager J Gosai

    Full Text Available The development of preclinical models amenable to live animal bioactive compound screening is an attractive approach to discovering effective pharmacological therapies for disorders caused by misfolded and aggregation-prone proteins. In general, however, live animal drug screening is labor and resource intensive, and has been hampered by the lack of robust assay designs and high throughput work-flows. Based on their small size, tissue transparency and ease of cultivation, the use of C. elegans should obviate many of the technical impediments associated with live animal drug screening. Moreover, their genetic tractability and accomplished record for providing insights into the molecular and cellular basis of human disease, should make C. elegans an ideal model system for in vivo drug discovery campaigns. The goal of this study was to determine whether C. elegans could be adapted to high-throughput and high-content drug screening strategies analogous to those developed for cell-based systems. Using transgenic animals expressing fluorescently-tagged proteins, we first developed a high-quality, high-throughput work-flow utilizing an automated fluorescence microscopy platform with integrated image acquisition and data analysis modules to qualitatively assess different biological processes including, growth, tissue development, cell viability and autophagy. We next adapted this technology to conduct a small molecule screen and identified compounds that altered the intracellular accumulation of the human aggregation prone mutant that causes liver disease in α1-antitrypsin deficiency. This study provides powerful validation for advancement in preclinical drug discovery campaigns by screening live C. elegans modeling α1-antitrypsin deficiency and other complex disease phenotypes on high-content imaging platforms.

  12. Validation of an automated screening method for persistent organic contaminants in fats and oils by GC×GC-ToFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Patricia; Tienstra, Marc; Lommen, Arjen; Mol, Hans G J

    2016-11-15

    An screening method, comprised of straightforward sample treatment based on silica clean-up, GC×GC-ToFMS detection and automated data processing with the non-proprietary free downloadable software MetAlignID, has been successfully validated with respect to false negatives for the sum PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180), for the sum of BDE 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154 and 183, for the four markers of PAHs and for a number of emerging brominated flame retardants. A screening detection limit (SDL) equal to or lower than the maximum regulatory level was always achieved. MetAlignID considerably decreased the time needed for data treatment from 20 to 5min/file. Automated identification of the signature mass spectral patterns was applied to identify chlorinated- and brominated-containing substances with more than two halogen atoms, and PAH derivates. Although the success rate was variable and needs to be further improved, the tool was considered to be of added value. PMID:27283679

  13. Fully automated screening of veterinary drugs in milk by turbulent flow chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Peters, R.J.B.; Zuiderent, R.; DiBussolo, J.M.; Martins, C.P.B.

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in screening methods for quick and sensitive analysis of various classes of veterinary drugs with limited sample pre-treatment. Turbulent flow chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometry has been applied for the first time as an efficient screening met

  14. Defined PEG smears as an alternative approach to enhance the search for crystallization conditions and crystal-quality improvement in reduced screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikuad, Apirat; Knapp, Stefan; von Delft, Frank

    2015-08-01

    The quest for an optimal limited set of effective crystallization conditions remains a challenge in macromolecular crystallography, an issue that is complicated by the large number of chemicals which have been deemed to be suitable for promoting crystal growth. The lack of rational approaches towards the selection of successful chemical space and representative combinations has led to significant overlapping conditions, which are currently present in a multitude of commercially available crystallization screens. Here, an alternative approach to the sampling of widely used PEG precipitants is suggested through the use of PEG smears, which are mixtures of different PEGs with a requirement of either neutral or cooperatively positive effects of each component on crystal growth. Four newly defined smears were classified by molecular-weight groups and enabled the preservation of specific properties related to different polymer sizes. These smears not only allowed a wide coverage of properties of these polymers, but also reduced PEG variables, enabling greater sampling of other parameters such as buffers and additives. The efficiency of the smear-based screens was evaluated on more than 220 diverse recombinant human proteins, which overall revealed a good initial crystallization success rate of nearly 50%. In addition, in several cases successful crystallizations were only obtained using PEG smears, while various commercial screens failed to yield crystals. The defined smears therefore offer an alternative approach towards PEG sampling, which will benefit the design of crystallization screens sampling a wide chemical space of this key precipitant. PMID:26249344

  15. Upscaling and automation of electrophysiology: toward high throughput screening in ion channel drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Margit; Oswald, Nicholas; Krzywkowski, Karen M;

    2003-01-01

    Effective screening of large compound libraries in ion channel drug discovery requires the development of new electrophysiological techniques with substantially increased throughputs compared to the conventional patch clamp technique. Sophion Bioscience is aiming to meet this challenge by...

  16. Towards an automated virtual slide screening: theoretical considerations and practical experiences of automated tissue-based virtual diagnosis to be implemented in the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bzdyl Piotr

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To develop and implement an automated virtual slide screening system that distinguishes normal histological findings and several tissue – based crude (texture – based diagnoses. Theoretical considerations Virtual slide technology has to handle and transfer images of GB Bytes in size. The performance of tissue based diagnosis can be separated into a a sampling procedure to allocate the slide area containing the most significant diagnostic information, and b the evaluation of the diagnosis obtained from the information present in the selected area. Nyquist's theorem that is broadly applied in acoustics, can also serve for quality assurance in image information analysis, especially to preset the accuracy of sampling. Texture – based diagnosis can be performed with recursive formulas that do not require a detailed segmentation procedure. The obtained results will then be transferred into a "self-learning" discrimination system that adjusts itself to changes of image parameters such as brightness, shading, or contrast. Methods Non-overlapping compartments of the original virtual slide (image will be chosen at random and according to Nyquist's theorem (predefined error-rate. The compartments will be standardized by local filter operations, and are subject for texture analysis. The texture analysis is performed on the basis of a recursive formula that computes the median gray value and the local noise distribution. The computations will be performed at different magnifications that are adjusted to the most frequently used objectives (*2, *4.5, *10, *20, *40. The obtained data are statistically analyzed in a hierarchical sequence, and in relation to the clinical significance of the diagnosis. Results The system has been tested with a total of 896 lung cancer cases that include the diagnoses groups: cohort (1 normal lung – cancer; cancer subdivided: cohort (2 small cell lung cancer – non small cell lung cancer; non small cell lung

  17. High throughput automated chromatin immunoprecipitation as a platform for drug screening and antibody validation†,‡

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Angela R.; Tiara L A Kawahara; Rapicavoli, Nicole A; van Riggelen, Jan; Shroff, Emelyn H.; Xu, Liwen; Felsher, Dean W.; Chang, Howard Y.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is an assay for interrogating protein–DNA interactions that is increasingly being used for drug target discovery and screening applications. Currently the complexity of the protocol and the amount of hands-on time required for this assay limits its use to low throughput applications; furthermore, variability in antibody quality poses an additional obstacle in scaling up ChIP for large scale screening purposes. To address these challenges, we report HTChIP,...

  18. Automated high-throughput dense matrix protein folding screen using a liquid handling robot combined with microfluidic capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Philip; Winters, Dwight; Walker, Kenneth W

    2016-04-01

    Modern molecular genetics technology has made it possible to swiftly sequence, clone and mass-produce recombinant DNA for the purpose of expressing heterologous genes of interest; however, recombinant protein production systems have struggled to keep pace. Mammalian expression systems are typically favored for their ability to produce and secrete proteins in their native state, but bacterial systems benefit from rapid cell line development and robust growth. The primary drawback to prokaryotic expression systems are that recombinant proteins are generally not secreted at high levels or correctly folded, and are often insoluble, necessitating post-expression protein folding to obtain the active product. In order to harness the advantages of prokaryotic expression, high-throughput methods for executing protein folding screens and the subsequent analytics to identify lead conditions are required. Both of these tasks can be accomplished using a Biomek 3000 liquid handling robot to prepare the folding screen and to subsequently prepare the reactions for assessment using Caliper microfluidic capillary electrophoresis. By augmenting a protein folding screen with automation, the primary disadvantage of Escherichia coli expression has been mitigated, namely the labor intensive identification of the required protein folding conditions. Furthermore, a rigorous, quantitative method for identifying optimal protein folding buffer aids in the rapid development of an optimal production process. PMID:26678961

  19. An automated tuberculosis screening strategy combining X-ray-based computer-aided detection and clinical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Jaime; Sánchez, Clara I.; Philipsen, Rick H. H. M.; Maduskar, Pragnya; Dawson, Rodney; Theron, Grant; Dheda, Keertan; van Ginneken, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Lack of human resources and radiological interpretation expertise impair tuberculosis (TB) screening programmes in TB-endemic countries. Computer-aided detection (CAD) constitutes a viable alternative for chest radiograph (CXR) reading. However, no automated techniques that exploit the additional clinical information typically available during screening exist. To address this issue and optimally exploit this information, a machine learning-based combination framework is introduced. We have evaluated this framework on a database containing 392 patient records from suspected TB subjects prospectively recruited in Cape Town, South Africa. Each record comprised a CAD score, automatically computed from a CXR, and 12 clinical features. Comparisons with strategies relying on either CAD scores or clinical information alone were performed. Our results indicate that the combination framework outperforms the individual strategies in terms of the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (0.84 versus 0.78 and 0.72), specificity at 95% sensitivity (49% versus 24% and 31%) and negative predictive value (98% versus 95% and 96%). Thus, it is believed that combining CAD and clinical information to estimate the risk of active disease is a promising tool for TB screening. PMID:27126741

  20. Defined PEG smears as an alternative approach to enhance the search for crystallization conditions and crystal-quality improvement in reduced screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaikuad, Apirat, E-mail: apirat.chaikuad@sgc.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Knapp, Stefan [University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Building N240 Room 3.03, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Delft, Frank von, E-mail: apirat.chaikuad@sgc.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-28

    An alternative strategy for PEG sampling is suggested through the use of four newly defined PEG smears to enhance chemical space in reduced screens with a benefit towards protein crystallization. The quest for an optimal limited set of effective crystallization conditions remains a challenge in macromolecular crystallography, an issue that is complicated by the large number of chemicals which have been deemed to be suitable for promoting crystal growth. The lack of rational approaches towards the selection of successful chemical space and representative combinations has led to significant overlapping conditions, which are currently present in a multitude of commercially available crystallization screens. Here, an alternative approach to the sampling of widely used PEG precipitants is suggested through the use of PEG smears, which are mixtures of different PEGs with a requirement of either neutral or cooperatively positive effects of each component on crystal growth. Four newly defined smears were classified by molecular-weight groups and enabled the preservation of specific properties related to different polymer sizes. These smears not only allowed a wide coverage of properties of these polymers, but also reduced PEG variables, enabling greater sampling of other parameters such as buffers and additives. The efficiency of the smear-based screens was evaluated on more than 220 diverse recombinant human proteins, which overall revealed a good initial crystallization success rate of nearly 50%. In addition, in several cases successful crystallizations were only obtained using PEG smears, while various commercial screens failed to yield crystals. The defined smears therefore offer an alternative approach towards PEG sampling, which will benefit the design of crystallization screens sampling a wide chemical space of this key precipitant.

  1. Screening for Anabolic Steroids in Urine of Forensic Cases Using Fully Automated Solid Phase Extraction and LC–MS-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, David Wederkinck; Linnet, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A screening method for 18 frequently measured exogenous anabolic steroids and the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio in forensic cases has been developed and validated. The method involves a fully automated sample preparation including enzyme treatment, addition of internal standards...... and solid phase extraction followed by analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) using electrospray ionization with adduct formation for two compounds. Urine samples from 580 forensic cases were analyzed to determine the T/E ratio and occurrence of exogenous anabolic steroids...... steroids. Only seven different steroids including testosterone were found in the material, suggesting that only a small number of common steroids are likely to occur in a forensic context. The steroids were often in high concentrations (>100 ng/mL), and a combination of steroids and/or other drugs of abuse...

  2. Integrated Automation of High-Throughput Screening and Reverse Phase Protein Array Sample Preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marlene Lemvig; Block, Ines; List, Markus; Christiansen, Helle; Schmidt, Steffen; Mollenhauer, Jan

    multiplexing readouts, but this has a natural limitation. High-content screening via image acquisition and analysis allows multiplexing of few parameters, but is connected to substantial time consumption and complex logistics. We report on integration of Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA)-based readouts into...

  3. Screening of multicomponent crystals of L-tryptophan with three isomers of pyridinedicarboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Babulal

    2016-08-01

    Multicomponent crystallization of L-tryptophan with three different isomers of pyridinedicarboxylic acids, namely, 2,3-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,3-PDA), 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,5-PDA) and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,6-PDA), were screened using conventional solution cocrystallization technique. Whereas the new phases derived from the amino acid with 2,3-PDA or 2,5-PDA were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques, the crystalline phase synthesized from 2,6-substituted isomer was further characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Structural analysis revealed that the amino acid exists in the zwitterionic form interacting with the neutral 2,6-PDA by strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The components in the co-crystal self-assemble leading to a three dimensional hydrogen bonded closed packed network structure. Isothermal calorimetric titration showed that among the three isomers, 2,6-PDA showed relatively strong binding interaction towards the amino acid in water at 298 K. All the crystals exhibit marginal quenching of fluorescence properties of L-tryptophan in the solid state.

  4. Fully Automated One-Step Production of Functional 3D Tumor Spheroids for High-Content Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjaret, François; Fernandes, Mathieu; Duchemin-Pelletier, Eve; Argento, Amelie; Degot, Sébastien; Young, Joanne

    2016-04-01

    Adoption of spheroids within high-content screening (HCS) has lagged behind high-throughput screening (HTS) due to issues with running complex assays on large three-dimensional (3D) structures.To enable multiplexed imaging and analysis of spheroids, different cancer cell lines were grown in 3D on micropatterned 96-well plates with automated production of nine uniform spheroids per well. Spheroids achieve diameters of up to 600 µm, and reproducibility was experimentally validated (interwell and interplate CV(diameter) imaging confirmed that micropatterned spheroids exhibit characteristic cell heterogeneity with distinct microregions. Furthermore, central necrosis appears at a consistent spheroid size, suggesting standardized growth.Using three reference compounds (fluorouracil, irinotecan, and staurosporine), we validated HT-29 micropatterned spheroids on an HCS platform, benchmarking against hanging-drop spheroids. Spheroid formation and imaging in a single plate accelerate assay workflow, and fixed positioning prevents structures from overlapping or sticking to the well wall, augmenting image processing reliability. Furthermore, multiple spheroids per well increase the statistical confidence sufficiently to discriminate compound mechanisms of action and generate EC50 values for endpoints of cell death, architectural change, and size within a single-pass read. Higher quality data and a more efficient HCS work chain should encourage integration of micropatterned spheroid models within fundamental research and drug discovery applications. PMID:26385905

  5. Comparison of Clinical and Automated Breast Density Measurements: Implications for Risk Prediction and Supplemental Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Kathleen R; Scott, Christopher G; Ma, Lin; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir P; Jensen, Matthew R; Whaley, Dana H; Wu, Fang Fang; Malkov, Serghei; Hruska, Carrie B; Norman, Aaron D; Heine, John; Shepherd, John; Pankratz, V Shane; Kerlikowske, Karla; Vachon, Celine M

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To compare the classification of breast density with two automated methods, Volpara (version 1.5.0; Matakina Technology, Wellington, New Zealand) and Quantra (version 2.0; Hologic, Bedford, Mass), with clinical Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) density classifications and to examine associations of these measures with breast cancer risk. Materials and Methods In this study, 1911 patients with breast cancer and 4170 control subjects matched for age, race, examination date, and mammography machine were evaluated. Participants underwent mammography at Mayo Clinic or one of four sites within the San Francisco Mammography Registry between 2006 and 2012 and provided informed consent or a waiver for research, in compliance with HIPAA regulations and institutional review board approval. Digital mammograms were retrieved a mean of 2.1 years (range, 6 months to 6 years) before cancer diagnosis, with the corresponding clinical BI-RADS density classifications, and Volpara and Quantra density estimates were generated. Agreement was assessed with weighted κ statistics among control subjects. Breast cancer associations were evaluated with conditional logistic regression, adjusted for age and body mass index. Odds ratios, C statistics, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Results Agreement between clinical BI-RADS density classifications and Volpara and Quantra BI-RADS estimates was moderate, with κ values of 0.57 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.59) and 0.46 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.47), respectively. Differences of up to 14% in dense tissue classification were found, with Volpara classifying 51% of women as having dense breasts, Quantra classifying 37%, and clinical BI-RADS assessment used to classify 43%. Clinical and automated measures showed similar breast cancer associations; odds ratios for extremely dense breasts versus scattered fibroglandular densities were 1.8 (95% CI: 1.5, 2.2), 1.9 (95% CI: 1.5, 2.5), and 2.3 (95% CI: 1.9, 2.8) for Volpara, Quantra

  6. Integrated chip-based physiometer for automated fish embryo toxicity biotests in pharmaceutical screening and ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Jin; Zhu, Feng; Hall, Chris J; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2014-06-01

    Transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) models of human diseases have recently emerged as innovative experimental systems in drug discovery and molecular pathology. None of the currently available technologies, however, allow for automated immobilization and treatment of large numbers of spatially encoded transgenic embryos during real-time developmental analysis. This work describes the proof-of-concept design and validation of an integrated 3D microfluidic chip-based system fabricated directly in the poly(methyl methacrylate) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining. At its core, the device utilizes an array of 3D micromechanical traps to actively capture and immobilize single embryos using a low-pressure suction. It also features built-in piezoelectric microdiaphragm pumps, embryo-trapping suction manifold, drug delivery manifold, and optically transparent indium tin oxide heating element to provide optimal temperature during embryo development. Furthermore, we present design of the proof-of-concept off-chip electronic interface equipped with robotic servo actuator driven stage, innovative servomotor-actuated pinch valves, and embedded miniaturized fluorescent USB microscope. Our results showed that the innovative device has 100% embryo-trapping efficiency while supporting normal embryo development for up to 72 hr in a confined microfluidic environment. We also showed data that this microfluidic system can be readily applied to kinetic analysis of a panel of investigational antiangiogenic agents in transgenic zebrafish lines. The optical transparency and embryo immobilization allow for convenient visualization of developing vasculature patterns in response to drug treatment without the need for specimen re-positioning. The integrated electronic interfaces bring the lab-on-a-chip systems a step closer to realization of complete analytical automation. PMID:24664821

  7. Multiparameter Screening on SlipChip Used for Nanoliter Protein Crystallization Combining Free Interface Diffusion and Microbatch Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liang; Du, Wenbin; Ismagilov, Rustem F. (UC)

    2010-08-04

    This paper describes two SlipChip-based approaches to protein crystallization: a SlipChip-based free interface diffusion (FID) method and a SlipChip-based composite method that simultaneously performs microbatch and FID crystallization methods in a single device. The FID SlipChip was designed to screen multiple reagents, each at multiple diffusion equilibration times, and was validated by screening conditions for crystallization of two proteins, enoyl-CoA hydratase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and dihydrofolate reductase/thymidylate synthase from Babesia bovis, against 48 different reagents at five different equilibration times each, consuming 12 {micro}L of each protein for a total of 480 experiments using three SlipChips. The composite SlipChip was designed to screen multiple reagents, each at multiple mixing ratios and multiple equilibration times, and was validated by screening conditions for crystallization of two proteins, enoyl-CoA hydratase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and dihydrofolate reductase/thymidylate synthase from Babesia bovis. To prevent cross-contamination while keeping the solution in the neck channels for FID stable, the plates of the SlipChip were etched with a pattern of nanowells. This nanopattern was used to increase the contact angle of aqueous solutions on the surface of the silanized glass. The composite SlipChip increased the number of successful crystallization conditions and identified more conditions for crystallization than separate FID and microbatch screenings. Crystallization experiments were scaled up in well plates using conditions identified during the SlipChip screenings, and X-ray diffraction data were obtained to yield the protein structure of dihydrofolate reductase/thymidylate synthase at 1.95 {angstrom} resolution. This free-interface diffusion approach provides a convenient and high-throughput method of setting up gradients in microfluidic devices and may find additional applications in cell-based assays.

  8. Cells Cultured on Core-Shell Photonic Crystal Barcodes for Drug Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Fanfan; Shang, Luoran; Zheng, Fuyin; Chen, Zhuoyue; Wang, Huan; Wang, Jie; Gu, Zhongze; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2016-06-01

    The development of effective drug screening platforms is an important task for biomedical engineering. Here, a novel methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) hydrogel-encapsulated core-shell photonic crystal (PhC) barcode particle was developed for three-dimensional cell aggregation culture and drug screening. The GelMA shells of the barcode particles enable creation of a three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment for cell adhesion and growth, while the PhC cores of the barcode particles provide stable diffraction peaks that can encode different cell spheroids during culture and distinguish their biological response during drug testing. The applicability of this cell spheroids-on-barcodes platform was investigated by testing the cytotoxic effect of tegafur (TF), a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), on barcode particle-loaded liver HepG2 and HCT-116 colonic tumor cell spheroids. The cytotoxicity of TF against the HCT-116 tumor cell spheroids was enhanced in systems using cocultures of HepG2 and NIH-3T3 cells, indicating the effectiveness of this multiple cell spheroids-on-barcodes platform for drug screening. PMID:27214156

  9. Fully automated screening of immunocytochemically stained specimens for early cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, André A.; Schneider, Timna E.; Müller-Frank, Dirk A. C.; Meyer-Ebrecht, Dietrich; Böcking, Alfred; Aach, Til

    2007-03-01

    Cytopathological cancer diagnoses can be obtained less invasive than histopathological investigations. Cells containing specimens can be obtained without pain or discomfort, bloody biopsies are avoided, and the diagnosis can, in some cases, even be made earlier. Since no tissue biopsies are necessary these methods can also be used in screening applications, e.g., for cervical cancer. Among the cytopathological methods a diagnosis based on the analysis of the amount of DNA in individual cells achieves high sensitivity and specificity. Yet this analysis is time consuming, which is prohibitive for a screening application. Hence, it will be advantageous to retain, by a preceding selection step, only a subset of suspicious specimens. This can be achieved using highly sensitive immunocytochemical markers like p16 ink4a for preselection of suspicious cells and specimens. We present a method to fully automatically acquire images at distinct positions at cytological specimens using a conventional computer controlled microscope and an autofocus algorithm. Based on the thus obtained images we automatically detect p16 ink4a-positive objects. This detection in turn is based on an analysis of the color distribution of the p16 ink4a marker in the Lab-colorspace. A Gaussian-mixture-model is used to describe this distribution and the method described in this paper so far achieves a sensitivity of up to 90%.

  10. Lipid Monolayer and Sparse Matrix Screening for Growing Two-Dimensional Crystals for Electron Crystallography: Methods and Examples

    OpenAIRE

    Yeager, Mark; Dryden, Kelly A.; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K.

    2013-01-01

    Electron microscopy provides an efficient method for rapidly assessing whether a solution of macromolecules is homogeneous and monodisperse. If the macromolecules can be induced to form two-dimensional crystals that are a single layer in thickness, then electron crystallography of frozen-hydrated crystals has the potential of achieving three-dimensional density maps at sub-nanometer or even atomic resolution. Here we describe the lipid monolayer and sparse matrix screening methods for growing...

  11. Automated screening of reversed-phase stationary phases for small-molecule separations using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appulage, Dananjaya K; Wang, Evelyn H; Carroll, Frances; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-05-01

    There are various reversed-phase stationary phases that offer significant differences in selectivity and retention. To investigate different reversed-phase stationary phases (aqueous stable C18 , biphenyl, pentafluorophenyl propyl, and polar-embedded alkyl) in an automated fashion, commercial software and associated hardware for mobile phase and column selection were used in conjunction with liquid chromatography and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer detector. A model analyte mixture was prepared using a combination of standards from varying classes of analytes (including drugs, drugs of abuse, amino acids, nicotine, and nicotine-like compounds). Chromatographic results revealed diverse variations in selectivity and peak shape. Differences in the elution order of analytes on the polar-embedded alkyl phase for several analytes showed distinct selectivity differences compared to the aqueous C18 phase. The electron-rich pentafluorophenyl propyl phase showed unique selectivity toward protonated amines. The biphenyl phase provided further changes in selectivity relative to C18 with a methanolic phase, but it behaved very similarly to a C18 when an acetonitrile-based mobile phase was evaluated. This study shows the value of rapid column screening as an alternative to excessive mobile phase variation to obtain suitable chromatographic settings for analyte separation. PMID:26959840

  12. Utilization of oriented crystal growth for screening of aromatic carboxylic acids cocrystallization with urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyłek, Maciej; Ziółkowska, Dorota; Kobierski, Mirosław; Mroczyńska, Karina; Cysewski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of molecular complex formation in the solid state of urea with benzoic acid analogues was measured directly on the crystallite films deposited on the glass surface using powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD). Obtained solid mixtures were also analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The simple droplet evaporation method was found to be efficient, robust, fast and cost-preserving approach for first stage cocrystal screening. Additionally, the application of orientation effect to cocrystal screening simplifies the analysis due to damping of majority of diffraction signals coming from coformers. During validation phase the proposed approach successfully reproduced both positive cases of cocrystallization (urea:salicylic acid and urea:4-hydroxy benzoic acid) as well as pairs of co-formers immiscible in the solid state (urea:benzoic acid and urea:acetylsalicylic acids). Based on validated approach new cocrystals of urea were identified in complexes with 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. In all cases formation of multicomponent crystal phase was confirmed by the appearance of new reflexes on the diffraction patterns and FTIR absorption band shifts of O-H and N-H groups.

  13. Screening and many-body effects in two-dimensional crystals: Monolayer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Diana Y.; da Jornada, Felipe H.; Louie, Steven G.

    2016-06-01

    We present a systematic study of the variables affecting the electronic and optical properties of two-dimensional (2D) crystals within ab initio G W and G W plus Bethe-Salpeter equation (G W -BSE) calculations. As a prototypical 2D transition metal dichalcogenide material, we focus our study on monolayer MoS2. We find that the reported variations in G W -BSE results in the literature for monolayer MoS2 and related systems arise from different treatments of the long-range Coulomb interaction in supercell calculations and convergence of k -grid sampling and cutoffs for various quantities such as the dielectric screening. In particular, the quasi-2D nature of the system gives rise to fast spatial variations in the screening environment, which are computationally challenging to resolve. We also show that common numerical treatments to remove the divergence in the Coulomb interaction can shift the exciton continuum leading to false convergence with respect to k -point sampling. Our findings apply to G W -BSE calculations on any low-dimensional semiconductors.

  14. Automated two-point dixon screening for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis and siderosis: comparison with R2*-relaxometry and chemical shift-based sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the automated two-point Dixon screening sequence for the detection and estimated quantification of hepatic iron and fat compared with standard sequences as a reference. One hundred and two patients with suspected diffuse liver disease were included in this prospective study. The following MRI protocol was used: 3D-T1-weighted opposed- and in-phase gradient echo with two-point Dixon reconstruction and dual-ratio signal discrimination algorithm (''screening'' sequence); fat-saturated, multi-gradient-echo sequence with 12 echoes; gradient-echo T1 FLASH opposed- and in-phase. Bland-Altman plots were generated and correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the sequences. The screening sequence diagnosed fat in 33, iron in 35 and a combination of both in 4 patients. Correlation between R2* values of the screening sequence and the standard relaxometry was excellent (r = 0.988). A slightly lower correlation (r = 0.978) was found between the fat fraction of the screening sequence and the standard sequence. Bland-Altman revealed systematically lower R2* values obtained from the screening sequence and higher fat fraction values obtained with the standard sequence with a rather high variability in agreement. The screening sequence is a promising method with fast diagnosis of the predominant liver disease. It is capable of estimating the amount of hepatic fat and iron comparable to standard methods. (orig.)

  15. Automated two-point dixon screening for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis and siderosis: comparison with R2*-relaxometry and chemical shift-based sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henninger, B.; Rauch, S.; Schocke, M.; Jaschke, W.; Kremser, C. [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Zoller, H. [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Internal Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Kannengiesser, S. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, MR Applications Development, Erlangen (Germany); Zhong, X. [Siemens Healthcare, MR R and D Collaborations, Atlanta, GA (United States); Reiter, G. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, MR R and D Collaborations, Graz (Austria)

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the automated two-point Dixon screening sequence for the detection and estimated quantification of hepatic iron and fat compared with standard sequences as a reference. One hundred and two patients with suspected diffuse liver disease were included in this prospective study. The following MRI protocol was used: 3D-T1-weighted opposed- and in-phase gradient echo with two-point Dixon reconstruction and dual-ratio signal discrimination algorithm (''screening'' sequence); fat-saturated, multi-gradient-echo sequence with 12 echoes; gradient-echo T1 FLASH opposed- and in-phase. Bland-Altman plots were generated and correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the sequences. The screening sequence diagnosed fat in 33, iron in 35 and a combination of both in 4 patients. Correlation between R2* values of the screening sequence and the standard relaxometry was excellent (r = 0.988). A slightly lower correlation (r = 0.978) was found between the fat fraction of the screening sequence and the standard sequence. Bland-Altman revealed systematically lower R2* values obtained from the screening sequence and higher fat fraction values obtained with the standard sequence with a rather high variability in agreement. The screening sequence is a promising method with fast diagnosis of the predominant liver disease. It is capable of estimating the amount of hepatic fat and iron comparable to standard methods. (orig.)

  16. The plug-based nanovolume Microcapillary Protein Crystallization System (MPCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Microcapillary Protein Crystallization System (MPCS) is a new protein-crystallization technology used to generate nanolitre-sized crystallization experiments for crystal screening and optimization. Using the MPCS, diffraction-ready crystals were grown in the plastic MPCS CrystalCard and were used to solve the structure of methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase. The Microcapillary Protein Crystallization System (MPCS) embodies a new semi-automated plug-based crystallization technology which enables nanolitre-volume screening of crystallization conditions in a plasticware format that allows crystals to be easily removed for traditional cryoprotection and X-ray diffraction data collection. Protein crystals grown in these plastic devices can be directly subjected to in situ X-ray diffraction studies. The MPCS integrates the formulation of crystallization cocktails with the preparation of the crystallization experiments. Within microfluidic Teflon tubing or the microfluidic circuitry of a plastic CrystalCard, ∼10–20 nl volume droplets are generated, each representing a microbatch-style crystallization experiment with a different chemical composition. The entire protein sample is utilized in crystallization experiments. Sparse-matrix screening and chemical gradient screening can be combined in one comprehensive ‘hybrid’ crystallization trial. The technology lends itself well to optimization by high-granularity gradient screening using optimization reagents such as precipitation agents, ligands or cryoprotectants

  17. Evaluation of the SediMax automated microscopy sediment analyzer and the Sysmex UF-1000i flow cytometer as screening tools to rule out negative urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Íñigo, Melania; Coello, Andreu; Fernández-Rivas, Gema; Carrasco, María; Marcó, Clara; Fernández, Anabel; Casamajor, Teresa; Ausina, Vicente

    2016-05-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are highly prevalent in nosocomial and community settings, and their diagnosis is costly and time-consuming. Screening methods represent an important advance towards the final UTI diagnosis, diminishing inappropriate treatment or clinical complications. Automated analyzers have been developed and commercialized to screen and rule out negative urine samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate two of these automated analyzers (SediMax, an automatic sediment analyzer and UF-1000i a flow cytometer) to predict negative urine cultures. A total of 1934 urine samples were analyzed. A very strong correlation for white blood cells (WBC) (rs: 0.928) and a strong correlation for bacteria (BAC) (rs: 0.693) were obtained. We also calculated optimal cut-off points for both autoanalyzers: 18WBC/μL and 97BAC/μL for SediMax (sensitivity=96.25%, specificity=63.04%, negative predictive value=97.97%), and 40WBC/μL and 460BAC/μL for UF-1000i (sensitivity=98.13%, specificity=79.16%, negative predictive value=99.18%). The use of SediMax and UF-1000i resulted in a 46.33% and 57.19% reduction of all samples cultured, respectively. In conclusion, both analyzers are good UTI screening tools in our setting. PMID:26921459

  18. [Non-target screening of organic pollutants in sediments and sludges using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and automated mass spectral deconvolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Ma, Huilian; Wang, Longxing; Chen, Jiping; Hou, Xiaohong

    2015-12-01

    A screening method in the combination of ultrasonic extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection and automated mass spectrometry deconvolution technique was developed for non-target screening of non-polar and weak polar pollutants in sediments and sludges. The samples were extracted by ultrasonication for 20 min using dichloromethane for three times. The extraction solutions were cleaned-up by gel permeation chromatography and a silica gel column, and then 3 g of copper powder was used to remove the sulfur by ultrasonication for 10 min. Parallel experiments were carried out for 5 times and the RSDs were ranged from 5.8% to 14.9%. Automated mass spectral deconvolution & identification system (AMDIS) would improve the resolution of overlapping peaks, and identify the pure mass spectrum of the analytes in the cases of stronger background interference and co-extracted substances covering. Standard spectrum databases, such as NISTDRUG, NISTEPA, NISTFDA, Mass Spectral Library, etc, would qualitatively identify the organic pollutants in the samples. As a result, a total of 290 organic pollutants were identified, of which 190 and 153 pollutants were found in sediments and sludges, respectively. The identified pollutants included the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) priority pollutants, pharmaceuticals, herbicides, antioxidants, intermediates, organic solvents and chemical raw materials. The proposed method is proved to be a promising one for non-target screening of complex matrix samples with the advantages of higher sensitivity and better repeatability. PMID:27097463

  19. Automation of NMR measurements and data evaluation for systematically screening interactions of small molecules with target proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this technical note we describe the setup and application of automated sample preparation and usage of flow-through NMR equipment for the characterization of ligand binding on proteins. In addition, we focus on the perspectives of automated analysis of 2D HSQC spectra to identify changes in patterns indicative for ligand binding or changes of sample conditions. In this context we discuss a combination of statistical and non-statistical data analysis

  20. Automated Fast Screening Method for Cocaine Identification in Seized Drug Samples Using a Portable Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainali, Dipak; Seelenbinder, John

    2016-05-01

    Quick and presumptive identification of seized drug samples without destroying evidence is necessary for law enforcement officials to control the trafficking and abuse of drugs. This work reports an automated screening method to detect the presence of cocaine in seized samples using portable Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometers. The method is based on the identification of well-defined characteristic vibrational frequencies related to the functional group of the cocaine molecule and is fully automated through the use of an expert system. Traditionally, analysts look for key functional group bands in the infrared spectra and characterization of the molecules present is dependent on user interpretation. This implies the need for user expertise, especially in samples that likely are mixtures. As such, this approach is biased and also not suitable for non-experts. The method proposed in this work uses the well-established "center of gravity" peak picking mathematical algorithm and combines it with the conditional reporting feature in MicroLab software to provide an automated method that can be successfully employed by users with varied experience levels. The method reports the confidence level of cocaine present only when a certain number of cocaine related peaks are identified by the automated method. Unlike library search and chemometric methods that are dependent on the library database or the training set samples used to build the calibration model, the proposed method is relatively independent of adulterants and diluents present in the seized mixture. This automated method in combination with a portable FT-IR spectrometer provides law enforcement officials, criminal investigators, or forensic experts a quick field-based prescreening capability for the presence of cocaine in seized drug samples. PMID:27006022

  1. Crystallization of the Membrane-Associated Annexin B1: Roles of Additive Screen, Dynamic Light Scattering, and Bioactivity Assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, F.; Xu, Y; Azzi, A; Zhu, D; Rehse, D; Chen, C; Sun, S; Lin, S

    2010-01-01

    Annexin B1 (AnxB1) is a calcium-dependent phospholipid binding protein from Taenia solium cysticercus and has been reported to possess anticoagulant activity, to inhibit phospholipase A{sub 2}, and to regulate membrane transport. Native AnxB1 and its selenomethionyl derivative have been overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified. The results of dynamic light scattering analysis showed that Hepes buffer combined with low concentration salts (NaCl or CaCl{sub 2}) was beneficial for preventing aggregation and for AnxB1 stabilization in the storage. After the additive screen, crystals have been yielded in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride (Gn-HCl). We determined that a low concentration of Gn-HCl significantly delayed clotting time and increased anticoagulant activity. Analysis of the crystal showed that in the presence of Gn-HCl, AnxB1 crystallizes in orthorhombic space group, which is modified from the cubic space group for crystals grown in the absence of Gn-HCl. A high quality data set (at 1.9 {angstrom}) has been collected successfully for crystals of L-selenomethionine labeled protein in the presence of Gn-HCl, to solve the structure with the single anomalous dispersion method (SAD). The unit cell parameters are a = 102.35 {angstrom}, b = 103.59 {angstrom}, c = 114.60 {angstrom}, {alpha} = {beta} = {gamma} = 90.00{sup o}.

  2. High-throughput screening of cellulase F mutants from multiplexed plasmid sets using an automated plate assay on a functional proteomic robotic workcell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Nasib

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The field of plasmid-based functional proteomics requires the rapid assay of proteins expressed from plasmid libraries. Automation is essential since large sets of mutant open reading frames are being cloned for evaluation. To date no integrated automated platform is available to carry out the entire process including production of plasmid libraries, expression of cloned genes, and functional testing of expressed proteins. Results We used a functional proteomic assay in a multiplexed setting on an integrated plasmid-based robotic workcell for high-throughput screening of mutants of cellulase F, an endoglucanase from the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces PC-2. This allowed us to identify plasmids containing optimized clones expressing mutants with improved activity at lower pH. A plasmid library of mutagenized clones of the celF gene with targeted variations in the last four codons was constructed by site-directed PCR mutagenesis and transformed into Escherichia coli. A robotic picker integrated into the workcell was used to inoculate medium in a 96-well deep well plate, combining the transformants into a multiplexed set in each well, and the plate was incubated on the workcell. Plasmids were prepared from the multiplexed culture on the liquid handler component of the workcell and used for in vitro transcription/translation. The multiplexed expressed recombinant proteins were screened for improved activity and stability in an azo-carboxymethylcellulose plate assay. The multiplexed wells containing mutants with improved activity were identified and linked back to the corresponding multiplexed cultures stored in glycerol. Spread plates were prepared from the glycerol stocks and the workcell was used to pick single colonies from the spread plates, prepare plasmid, produce recombinant protein, and assay for activity. The screening assay and subsequent deconvolution of the multiplexed wells resulted in identification of improved Cel

  3. Automated High-Content Live Animal Drug Screening Using C. elegans Expressing the Aggregation Prone Serpin α1-antitrypsin Z

    OpenAIRE

    Gosai, Sager J.; Joon Hyeok Kwak; Cliff J Luke; Long, Olivia S.; King, Dale E.; Kovatch, Kevin J.; Johnston, Paul A.; Tong Ying Shun; Lazo, John S.; Perlmutter, David H.; Silverman, Gary A.; Pak, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    The development of preclinical models amenable to live animal bioactive compound screening is an attractive approach to discovering effective pharmacological therapies for disorders caused by misfolded and aggregation-prone proteins. In general, however, live animal drug screening is labor and resource intensive, and has been hampered by the lack of robust assay designs and high throughput work-flows. Based on their small size, tissue transparency and ease of cultivation, the use of C. elegan...

  4. Ibuprofen-Amino Acids Co-Crystal Screening Via Co-Grinding Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Muhamad Fitri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of pharmaceutical co-crystals now has been recognized in order to improve the research and development in pharmaceutical industries. Low solubility of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API has led to the growth of new pharmaceutical co-crystals formation as it enhances the physicochemical properties of the API. In this works, preparation of new co-crystal formation between ibuprofen (IBP with selected amino acid compounds were performed by using dry grinding and liquid assisted grinding (LAG techniques. Ibuprofen (IBP was selected as the API meanwhile glycine (GLY, L-alanine (ALA and L-proline (PRO were selected as co-crystal former (CCF agents. The products of IBP-co-former from grinding experiments for the formation of co-crystals were characterized and verified using X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR. The finding reveals that the IBP-PRO co-crystals have successfully formed. For IBP-PRO system, new crystalline peaks from XRPD were recorded at 2θ values of 4.374°, 5.436° and 10.944° from dry grinding technique and 4.41°, 5.436° and 10.962° for liquid assisted grinding (LAG technique. A new melting point of 257.49 °C was discovered for IBP-ALA indicates the possibility of co-crystals formation. On the other hand, the analysis for IBP-GLY shows that no co-crystals formed in the system.

  5. Automated storage of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data in a relational database to facilitate compound screening and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staeb, J A; Epema, O J; van Duijn, P; Steevens, J; Klap, V A; Freriks, I L

    2002-10-18

    This paper describes a database containing massspectra from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) measurements as a tool for easy screening for multiple compounds. In this way additional compounds can be reported from the same run together with routine pesticide monitoring with little effort. The relevant analytical data from the GC-MS measurements are transferred automatically to a database. Search algorithms in the database, containing the US EPA and Dutch NEN GC-MS identification criteria as standard settings, are used to identify compounds in the data. Screening of samples analysed in our laboratory show the ubiquitous presence of--up until now in monitoring largely overlooked--compounds in surface waters in The Netherlands. Most frequently found compounds include TAED (complexing agent), 2-methyl quinoline (industrial solvent), atrazin and desethylatrazin (pesticide and degradation product), caffeine (human consumption), surfinol-104 (anti foaming agent), HHCB (Galaxolide) and AHTN (Tonalide; fragrances). The database can also be used to quickly search a large number of datafiles for rare contaminants. This way, some interesting compounds such as pentoxifilin (a pharmaceutical) and Irgarol 1051 (an antifouling compound) were found. PMID:12458939

  6. A medium-throughput crystallization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzenbacher, Gerlind; Gruez, Arnaud; Roig-Zamboni, Véronique; Spinelli, Silvia; Valencia, Christel; Pagot, Fabienne; Vincentelli, Renaud; Bignon, Christophe; Salomoni, Aurelia; Grisel, Sacha; Maurin, Damien; Huyghe, Céline; Johansson, Kent; Grassick, Alice; Roussel, Alain; Bourne, Yves; Perrier, Sophie; Miallau, Linda; Cantau, Phillippe; Blanc, Eric; Genevois, Michel; Grossi, Alain; Zenatti, André; Campanacci, Valérie; Cambillau, Christian

    2002-12-01

    The first results of a medium-scale structural genomics program clearly demonstrate the value of using a medium-throughput crystallization approach based on a two-step procedure: a large screening step employing robotics, followed by manual or automated optimization of the crystallization conditions. The structural genomics program was based on cloning in the Gateway vectors pDEST17, introducing a long 21-residue tail at the N-terminus. So far, this tail has not appeared to hamper crystallization. In ten months, 25 proteins were subjected to crystallization; 13 yielded crystals, of which ten led to usable data sets and five to structures. Furthermore, the results using a robot dispensing 50-200 nl drops indicate that smaller protein samples can be used for crystallization. These still partial results might indicate present and future directions for those who have to make crucial choices concerning their crystallization platform in structural genomics programs. PMID:12454472

  7. Nonlinear longitudinal waves in a two-dimensional screened Coulomb crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonlinear interactions of longitudinal waves were observed in a two-dimensional plasma crystal, i.e., a lattice composed of highly charged microspheres immersed in a plasma. The waves were launched by radiation pressure of a laser, and wave spectra in ω-k space were analyzed at various amplitudes of waves. At a sufficiently large amplitude of wave, the second and third wave harmonics satisfying a dispersion relation were observed. As the second harmonic propagates from the excitation region, it was amplified for a small distance, and then damped. The experimental results were compared to a nonlinear wave theory and to a molecular dynamic simulation

  8. Automated preparation method for colloidal crystal arrays of monodisperse and binary colloid mixtures by contact printing with a pintool plotter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert, Klaus; Neumann, Thomas; Wang, Jianjun; Jonas, Ulrich; Knoll, Wolfgang; Ottleben, Holger

    2007-03-13

    Photonic crystals and photonic band gap materials with periodic variation of the dielectric constant in the submicrometer range exhibit unique optical properties such as opalescence, optical stop bands, and photonic band gaps. As such, they represent attractive materials for the active elements in sensor arrays. Colloidal crystals, which are 3D gratings leading to Bragg diffraction, are one potential precursor of such optical materials. They have gained particular interest in many technological areas as a result of their specific properties and ease of fabrication. Although basic techniques for the preparation of regular patterns of colloidal crystals on structured substrates by self-assembly of mesoscopic particles are known, the efficient fabrication of colloidal crystal arrays by simple contact printing has not yet been reported. In this article, we present a spotting technique used to produce a microarray comprising up to 9600 single addressable sensor fields of colloidal crystal structures with dimensions down to 100 mum on a microfabricated substrate in different formats. Both monodisperse colloidal crystals and binary colloidal crystal systems were prepared by contact printing of polystyrene particles in aqueous suspension. The array morphology was characterized by optical light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, which revealed regularly ordered crystalline structures for both systems. In the case of binary crystals, the influence of the concentration ratio of the large and small particles in the printing suspension on the obtained crystal structure was investigated. The optical properties of the colloidal crystal arrays were characterized by reflection spectroscopy. To examine the stop bands of the colloidal crystal arrays in a high-throughput fashion, an optical setup based on a CCD camera was realized that allowed the simultaneous readout of all of the reflection spectra of several thousand sensor fields per array in parallel. In agreement with

  9. Automated high-throughput RNAi screening in human cells combined with reporter mRNA transfection to identify novel regulators of translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M Casanova

    Full Text Available Proteins that promote angiogenesis, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, are major targets for cancer therapy. Accordingly, proteins that specifically activate expression of factors like VEGF are potential alternative therapeutic targets and may help to combat evasive resistance to angiogenesis inhibitors. VEGF mRNA contains two internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs that enable selective activation of VEGF protein synthesis under hypoxic conditions that trigger angiogenesis. To identify novel regulators of VEGF IRES-driven translation in human cells, we have developed a high-throughput screening approach that combines siRNA treatment with transfection of a VEGF-IRES reporter mRNA. We identified the kinase MAPK3 as a novel positive regulator of VEGF IRES-driven translation and have validated its regulatory effect on endogenous VEGF. Our automated method is scalable and readily adapted for use with other mRNA regulatory elements. Consequently, it should be a generally useful approach for high-throughput identification of novel regulators of mRNA translation.

  10. Energy efficiency by use of automated energy-saving windows with heat-reflective screens and solar battery for power supply systems of European and Russian buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, V. M.; Smirnov, N. N.; Tyutikov, V. V.; Flament, B.

    2015-10-01

    The new energy saving windows with heat-reflecting shields have been developed, and for their practical use they need to be integrated into the automated system for controlling heat supply in buildings and the efficiency of their use together with the existing energy-saving measures must be determined. The study was based on the results of field tests of windows with heat-reflective shields in a certified climate chamber. The method to determine the minimum indoor air temperature under standby heating using heat-reflective shields in the windows and multifunctional energy-efficient shutter with solar battery have been developed. Annual energy saving for the conditions of different regions of Russia and France was determined. Using windows with heat-reflecting screens and a solar battery results in a triple power effect: reduced heat losses during the heating season due to increased window resistance; lower cost of heating buildings due to lowering of indoor ambient temperature; also electric power generation.

  11. Macromolecular Crystallization with Microfluidic Free-Interface Diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segelke, B

    2005-02-24

    Fluidigm released the Topaz 1.96 and 4.96 crystallization chips in the fall of 2004. Topaz 1.96 and 4.96 are the latest evolution of Fluidigm's microfluidics crystallization technologies that enable ultra low volume rapid screening for macromolecular crystallization. Topaz 1.96 and 4.96 are similar to each other but represent a major redesign of the Topaz system and have of substantially improved ease of automation and ease of use, improved efficiency and even further reduced amount of material needed. With the release of the new Topaz system, Fluidigm continues to set the standard in low volume crystallization screening which is having an increasing impact in the field of structural genomics, and structural biology more generally. In to the future we are likely to see further optimization and increased utility of the Topaz crystallization system, but we are also likely to see further innovation and the emergence of competing technologies.

  12. High-throughput screening of cellulase F mutants from multiplexed plasmid sets using an automated plate assay on a functional proteomic robotic workcell

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi Nasib; Bischoff Kenneth M; Li Xin-Liang; Riedmuller Steven B; Mertens Jeffrey A; Hughes Stephen R; Cotta Michael A; Farrelly Philip J

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The field of plasmid-based functional proteomics requires the rapid assay of proteins expressed from plasmid libraries. Automation is essential since large sets of mutant open reading frames are being cloned for evaluation. To date no integrated automated platform is available to carry out the entire process including production of plasmid libraries, expression of cloned genes, and functional testing of expressed proteins. Results We used a functional proteomic assay in a ...

  13. A novel way to grow hemozoin-like crystals in vitro and its use to screen for hemozoin inhibiting antimalarial compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Thomas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemozoin crystals are normally formed in vivo by Plasmodium parasites to detoxify free heme released after hemoglobin digestion during its intraerythrocytic stage. Inhibition of hemozoin formation by various drugs results in free heme concentration toxic for the parasites. As a consequence, in vitro assays have been developed to screen and select candidate antimalarial drugs based on their capacity to inhibit hemozoin formation. In this report we describe new ways to form hemozoin-like crystals that were incidentally discovered during research in the field of prion inactivation. METHODS: We investigated the use of a new assay based on naturally occurring "self-replicating" particles and previously described as presenting resistance to decontamination comparable to prions. The nature of these particles was determined using electron microscopy, Maldi-Tof analysis and X-ray diffraction. They were compared to synthetic hemozoin and to hemozoin obtained from Plasmodium falciparum. We then used the assay to evaluate the capacity of various antimalarial and anti-prion compounds to inhibit "self-replication" (crystallisation of these particles. RESULTS: We identified these particles as being similar to ferriprotoporphyrin IX crystal and confirmed the ability of these particles to serve as nuclei for growth of new hemozoin-like crystals (HLC. HLC are morphologically similar to natural and synthetic hemozoin. Growth of HLC in a simple assay format confirmed inhibition by quinolines antimalarials at potencies described in the literature. Interestingly, artemisinins and tetracyclines also seemed to inhibit HLC growth. CONCLUSIONS: The described HLC assay is simple and easy to perform and may have the potential to be used as an additional tool to screen antimalarial drugs for their hemozoin inhibiting activity. As already described by others, drugs that inhibit hemozoin crystal formation have also the potential to inhibit misfolded proteins

  14. Detection of Onchocerca volvulus in Latin American black flies for pool screening PCR using high-throughput automated DNA isolation for transmission surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Gopal, Hemavathi; Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; De Luna-Santillana, Erick Jesús; Gurrola-Reyes, J Natividad; Guo, Xianwu

    2013-11-01

    The posttreatment entomological surveillance (ES) of onchocerciasis in Latin America requires quite large numbers of flies to be examined for parasite infection to prove that the control strategies have worked and that the infection is on the path of elimination. Here, we report a high-throughput automated DNA isolation of Onchocerca volvulus for PCR using a major Latin American black fly vector of onchocerciasis. The sensitivity and relative effectiveness of silica-coated paramagnetic beads was evaluated in comparison with phenol chloroform (PC) method which is known as the gold standard of DNA extraction for ES in Latin America. The automated method was optimized in the laboratory and validated in the field to detect parasite DNA in Simulium ochraceum sensu lato flies in comparison with PC. The optimization of the automated method showed that it is sensitive to detect O. volvulus with a pool size of 100 flies as compared with PC which utilizes 50 flies pool size. The validation of the automated method in comparison with PC in an endemic community showed that 5/67 and 3/134 heads pools were positive for the two methods, respectively. There was no statistical variation (P < 0.05) in the estimation of transmission indices generated by automated method when compared with PC method. The fact that the automated method is sensitive to pool size up to 100 confers advantage over PC method and can, therefore, be employed in large-scale ES of onchocerciasis transmission in endemic areas of Latin America. PMID:24030195

  15. 药物共晶筛选与理化性质研究进展%Progress in Screening Methods and Physicochemical Properties of Pharmaceutical Co-crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学文; 宋菊; 唐海谊; 郑颖

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) can influence manufactory process and quality of final products so that they are the important part of performulation study. Salts formation, solvation and polymorphism screening are traditional methods to improve physicochemical properties of slightly soluble compound. Recently, co-crystal, which is designed by crystal engineering, attracts more attention on improving physicochemical properties and patent protection of API. The screening methods, physicochemical properties, industrial production and prospects of co-crystals are reviewed in this paper.%药物的理化性质是制剂前研究的重要内容,可影响制剂的生产工艺及最终产品质量.对于难溶性药物,常使用成盐、溶剂化和多晶型筛选等方法来改善理化性质.近年共晶技术得到迅速发展,通过晶体工程学设计的共晶,不但可改善药物的理化性质,并可申请专利保护,受到广泛关注.本文综述了共晶的筛选方法及其理化性质的研究进展,并对共晶的工业化生产及未来发展作了展望.

  16. Use of Chromophoric Ligands to Visually Screen Co-crystals of Putative Protein-Nucleic Acid Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Xiaohua; Egli, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Distinguishing between crystals of protein-nucleic acid complexes and those containing protein alone is a common problem in structural studies of protein-nucleic acid interactions. Currently there are several methods available for detecting nucleic acid in crystals, including gel electrophoresis, SYBR Gold fluorescence dye staining and methyl violet staining. However, they require either that the crystals be sacrificed or access to a fluorescence microscope. In this protocol, we describe an a...

  17. Real-time and sensitive detection of Salmonella Typhimurium using an automated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) instrument with nanoparticles amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Faridah; Uludag, Yildiz; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2013-10-15

    The accidental contamination of Salmonella in raw and processed foods is a major problem for the food industry worldwide. At present many of the currently used methods for Salmonella detection are time and labour intensive. Therefore, rapid detection is a key to the prevention and identification of problems related to health and safety. This paper describes the application of a new quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) instrument with a microfluidic system for the rapid and real time detection of Salmonella Typhimurim. The QCMA-1 bare gold sensor chip which contain two sensing array was modified by covalently immobilising the monoclonal capture antibody on the active spot and a mouse IgG antibody on the control spot using a conventional amine coupling chemistry (EDC-NHS). The binding of the Salmonella cells onto the immobilised anti-Salmonella antibody alters the sensor frequency which was correlated to cells concentration in the buffer samples. Salmonella cells were detected using direct, sandwich, and sandwich assay with antibody conjugated gold-nanoparticles. The performance of the QCM immunosensor developed with gold-nanoparticles gave the highest sensitivity with a limit of detection (LOD) ~10-20 colony forming unit (CFU) ml(-1) compared to direct and sandwich assay (1.83 × 10(2) CFU ml(-1) and 1.01 × 10(2) CFU ml(-1), respectively). The sensor showed good sensitivity and selectivity for Salmonella in the presence of other bacteria in real food samples and helped in reducing the pre-enrichment step, hence, demonstrating the potential of this technology for the rapid and sensitive microbial analysis. PMID:24054660

  18. Screening of subfertile men for testicular carcinoma in situ by an automated image analysis-based cytological test of the ejaculate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, K; Lippert, Marianne; Mogensen, Hanne O; Nielsen, J E; Hansen, J D; Daugaard, G; Jørgensen, N; Foged, Niels; Skakkebæk, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    slightly lower sensitivity (0.51), possibly because of obstruction. We conclude that this novel non-invasive test combining automated immunocytochemistry and advanced image analysis allows identification of TC at the CIS stage with a high specificity, but a negative test does not completely exclude CIS. On...... detected in ejaculates with specific CIS markers. We have built a high throughput framework involving automated immunocytochemical staining, scanning microscopy and in silico image analysis allowing automated detection and grading of CIS-like stained objects in semen samples. In this study, 1175 ejaculates...... from 765 subfertile men were tested using this framework. In 5/765 (0.65%) cases, CIS-like cells were identified in the ejaculate. Three of these had bilateral testicular biopsies performed and CIS was histologically confirmed in two. In total, 63 bilateral testicular biopsy were performed in...

  19. The Virtual Screening of the Drug Protein with a Few Crystal Structures Based on the Adaboost-SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng-yu; Li, Peng; Qiao, Pei-li

    2016-01-01

    Using the theory of machine learning to assist the virtual screening (VS) has been an effective plan. However, the quality of the training set may reduce because of mixing with the wrong docking poses and it will affect the screening efficiencies. To solve this problem, we present a method using the ensemble learning to improve the support vector machine to process the generated protein-ligand interaction fingerprint (IFP). By combining multiple classifiers, ensemble learning is able to avoid the limitations of the single classifier's performance and obtain better generalization. According to the research of virtual screening experiment with SRC and Cathepsin K as the target, the results show that the ensemble learning method can effectively reduce the error because the sample quality is not high and improve the effect of the whole virtual screening process.

  20. Automated patch-clamp technique: increased throughput in functional characterization and in pharmacological screening of small-conductance Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Rikke L; Friis, Søren; Sunesen, Morten;

    2008-01-01

    require high signal-to-noise ratios obtained by high seal resistances. Automated whole-cell establishment resulted in membrane resistances of 1728 +/- 226 MOmega (n = 44). CRAC channels were activated by a number of methods that raise intracellular calcium concentration, including EGTA, ionomycin, Ins(1...

  1. Development of an automated mass spectrometry system for the quantitative analysis of liver microsomal incubation samples: a tool for rapid screening of new compounds for metabolic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfmacher, W A; Palmer, C A; Nardo, C; Dunn-Meynell, K; Grotz, D; Cox, K; Lin, C C; Elicone, C; Liu, C; Duchoslav, E

    1999-01-01

    There is a continuing need for increased throughput in the evaluation of new drug entities in terms of their pharmacokinetic parameters. One useful parameter that can be measured in vitro using liver microsomal preparations is metabolic stability. In this report, we describe an automated system that can be used for unattended quantitative analysis of liver microsomal samples for a series of compounds. This system is based on the Sciex API 150 (single quadrupole) liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry system and utilizes 96-well plate autosampler technology as well as a custom-designed AppleScript which executes the on-line data processing and report generation. It has the capability of analyzing at least 75 compounds per week or 300 compounds per month in an automated fashion. PMID:10353225

  2. Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  3. Automation of the BD GeneOhm Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Assay for High-Throughput Screening of Nasal Swab Specimens▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xue-Ping; Ginocchio, Christine C.

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrated that an automated version of the BD-GeneOhm methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) assay (BD-MRSA), using achromopeptidase sample lysis and PCR setup performed on the Hamilton MICROLAB STARlet (Auto-MRSA), gave results comparable to those obtained with BD-MRSA. The positive- and negative-result concordance rates and overall concordance of BD-MRSA and Auto-MRSA were 98.2, 97.7, and 97.6%, respectively. Auto-MRSA required 60% less technical time than BD-MRSA,...

  4. Routine Self-administered, Touch-Screen Computer Based Suicidal Ideation Assessment Linked to Automated Response Team Notification in an HIV Primary Care Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Sarah T.; Willig, James H.; Crane, Heidi M; Ye, Jiatao; Aban, Inmaculada; Lober, William; Nevin, Christa R.; Batey, D. Scott; Mugavero, Michael J.; McCullumsmith, Cheryl; Wright, Charles; Kitahata, Mari; Raper, James L.; Saag, Micheal S.; Schumacher, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of routine computer-based screening for suicidal ideation and other psychosocial domains through standardized patient reported outcome instruments in two high volume urban HIV clinics is described. Factors associated with an increased risk of self-reported suicidal ideation were determined.

  5. Utilization of an Automated Pipetting System in the Cell Line-Based Screening of the Activity of a DNA-Damaging Anti-Tumour Drug

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchánková, Tereza; Ovesná, P.; Samadder, P.; Souček, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2014), s. 50-55. ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0030 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : cell line screen * drug treatment * liquid handling station Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2014

  6. Protein Crystal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In order to rapidly and efficiently grow crystals, tools were needed to automatically identify and analyze the growing process of protein crystals. To meet this need, Diversified Scientific, Inc. (DSI), with the support of a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center, developed CrystalScore(trademark), the first automated image acquisition, analysis, and archiving system designed specifically for the macromolecular crystal growing community. It offers automated hardware control, image and data archiving, image processing, a searchable database, and surface plotting of experimental data. CrystalScore is currently being used by numerous pharmaceutical companies and academic and nonprofit research centers. DSI, located in Birmingham, Alabama, was awarded the patent Method for acquiring, storing, and analyzing crystal images on March 4, 2003. Another DSI product made possible by Marshall SBIR funding is VaporPro(trademark), a unique, comprehensive system that allows for the automated control of vapor diffusion for crystallization experiments.

  7. Automation of cell line development

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Kristina; Salmén, Andréa; Lundgren, Mats; Bylund, Lovisa; Ebler, Åsa; Fäldt, Eric; Sörvik, Lina; Fenge, Christel; Skoging-Nyberg, Ulrica

    2009-01-01

    An automated platform for development of high producing cell lines for biopharmaceutical production has been established in order to increase throughput and reduce development costs. The concept is based on the Cello robotic system (The Automation Partnership) and covers screening for colonies and expansion of static cultures. In this study, the glutamine synthetase expression system (Lonza Biologics) for production of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in Chinese hamster ovary cells was used ...

  8. Scintillating screens for micro-imaging based on the Ce-Tb doped LuAP single crystal films

    OpenAIRE

    Douissard, Paul-Antoine; Martin, Thierry; Riva, Federica; Mathieu, Eric; Zorenko, Yuriy; Savchyn, Volodymyr; Zorenko, Tetyana; Fedorov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Single Crystal Film (SCF) scintillators are key-components of today's high-resolution 2D X-ray detectors used at synchrotrons for applications such as X-ray Radiography, Computed Tomography (CT), laminography, full-field XANES, and topography. Due to its high density and effective atomic number, LuAlO3 (LuAP) perovskite has a great potential to replace or complement the currently used Eu-doped Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG:Eu) and Tb-doped Lu2SiO5 (LSO:Tb) SCFs. In this article we present the growth of LuAP...

  9. Screening for illicit and medicinal drugs in whole blood using fully automated SPE and UHPLC-TOF-MS with data-independent acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Just; Dalsgaard, Petur Weihe; Rode, Andrej Jaroslav;

    2013-01-01

    . Of these, 992 cases (74%) were positive for one or more traffic relevant drugs above the Danish legal limits. Commonly abused drugs such as amphetamine, cocaine, and frequent types of benzodiazepines were the major findings. Nineteen less frequently encountered drugs were detected e.g., buprenorphine......, butylone, cathine, fentanyl, LSD, mCPP, MDPV, mephedrone, 4-methylamphetamine, p-fluoroamphetamine, and PMMA. In conclusion, using UHPLC-TOF-MS screening with data-independent acquisition resulted in detection of common drugs of abuse as well as new designer-drugs and more rarely occurring drugs. Thus, TOF...

  10. Library Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakne, B. N.; Giri, V. V; Waghmode, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    New technologies library provides several new materials, media and mode of storing and communicating the information. Library Automation reduces the drudgery of repeated manual efforts in library routine. By use of library automation collection, Storage, Administration, Processing, Preservation and communication etc.

  11. Computational crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Irem; Charbonneau, Patrick; Snell, Edward H

    2016-07-15

    Crystallization is a key step in macromolecular structure determination by crystallography. While a robust theoretical treatment of the process is available, due to the complexity of the system, the experimental process is still largely one of trial and error. In this article, efforts in the field are discussed together with a theoretical underpinning using a solubility phase diagram. Prior knowledge has been used to develop tools that computationally predict the crystallization outcome and define mutational approaches that enhance the likelihood of crystallization. For the most part these tools are based on binary outcomes (crystal or no crystal), and the full information contained in an assembly of crystallization screening experiments is lost. The potential of this additional information is illustrated by examples where new biological knowledge can be obtained and where a target can be sub-categorized to predict which class of reagents provides the crystallization driving force. Computational analysis of crystallization requires complete and correctly formatted data. While massive crystallization screening efforts are under way, the data available from many of these studies are sparse. The potential for this data and the steps needed to realize this potential are discussed. PMID:26792536

  12. Process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs

  13. New concepts for chip-supported multi-well-plates: realization of a 24-well-plate with integrated impedance-sensors for functional cellular screening applications and automated microscope aided cell-based assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressler, J; Grothe, H; Motrescu, E; Wolf, B

    2004-01-01

    Based on the experience with multiparametric bioelectronic sensor chips for the monitoring of living cells, we have combined the established multi-well-format with the advantages of microelectronic sensors. The result is a 24-well-plate where the bottom of the wells is replaced by glass-based chips with integrated IDES (interdigital electrode structure). By using IDES it is possible to detect adhesion and morphological changes of adherent growing cell cultures. Up to now these measurements were inaccessible in conjunction with multi-well-plates, especially in high throughput applications. If microscopic monitoring of the cell culture is required, the IDES can be fabricated using transparent conductor materials like ITO (indium tin oxide). Both the transparent material for the sensors and the sensor-carrier make the multi-well-plate also applicable for all kinds of fluorescence and luminescence biological tests. In addition to the impedance-sensors optical read-out sensor layers for pH and pO2 can be integrated. For this reason there are many possible fields of application in biological and biomedical areas such as drug screening, chemosensitive testing and environmental toxicology as well as in biosensing for biological and chemical warfare. Especially the possibility of using this multi-well-plate together with automated imaging-systems has the great advantage of combining optical and sensory monitoring accessible to high-throughput-applications. PMID:17272129

  14. Neuroblastoma Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Neuroblastoma Treatment Neuroblastoma Screening Research Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to Health Professional Version Screening is looking ...

  15. Design and Application for Automated Network system of Single-crystal Furnace%全自动网络单晶炉系统设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李润源; 何茂栋; 杨伟

    2011-01-01

    单晶炉是生产单晶硅的核心设备,其控制系统分析模型的建立有两种方法。一是以单晶直径外形尺寸为目标建立模型;二是以电气控制系统变量为目标建立模型。两种方法均未考虑到单晶生长工艺影响与单晶工艺指标。提出一种以固液交界面热场动态平衡分析为基础的方法,建立单晶炉控制系统变量分析模型,并据此辅以直径形状控制变量的工艺性制约因素考虑,采用工业以太网技术构成全自动网络单晶炉系统设计方案。%Single crystal furnace is a core equipment for production single-crystal silicon.there are two methods to establish analysis model of the control system.one is based on diameter dimensions of single crystal,the other is based on variables of electrical control system.Both methods were not considered the effect of the crystal growth process and crystal technology indicators.In this thesis,it is proposed to establish a variable analysis model of single-crystal furnace controlling system based on thermal field dynamic balance of solid-liquid interface,hereby take account of the constraints of diameter controlling variable's technics,and use industry enternet technology to construct fully antomatic network single crystal furnace's design.

  16. Colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramona M McLoughlin; Colm A O'Morain

    2006-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide.There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use.Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing.The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests.In addition,their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can be accommodated within individual health care systems.

  17. AutoDrug: fully automated macromolecular crystallography workflows for fragment-based drug discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New software has been developed for automating the experimental and data-processing stages of fragment-based drug discovery at a macromolecular crystallography beamline. A new workflow-automation framework orchestrates beamline-control and data-analysis software while organizing results from multiple samples. AutoDrug is software based upon the scientific workflow paradigm that integrates the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource macromolecular crystallography beamlines and third-party processing software to automate the crystallography steps of the fragment-based drug-discovery process. AutoDrug screens a cassette of fragment-soaked crystals, selects crystals for data collection based on screening results and user-specified criteria and determines optimal data-collection strategies. It then collects and processes diffraction data, performs molecular replacement using provided models and detects electron density that is likely to arise from bound fragments. All processes are fully automated, i.e. are performed without user interaction or supervision. Samples can be screened in groups corresponding to particular proteins, crystal forms and/or soaking conditions. A single AutoDrug run is only limited by the capacity of the sample-storage dewar at the beamline: currently 288 samples. AutoDrug was developed in conjunction with RestFlow, a new scientific workflow-automation framework. RestFlow simplifies the design of AutoDrug by managing the flow of data and the organization of results and by orchestrating the execution of computational pipeline steps. It also simplifies the execution and interaction of third-party programs and the beamline-control system. Modeling AutoDrug as a scientific workflow enables multiple variants that meet the requirements of different user groups to be developed and supported. A workflow tailored to mimic the crystallography stages comprising the drug-discovery pipeline of CoCrystal Discovery Inc. has been deployed and successfully

  18. AutoDrug: fully automated macromolecular crystallography workflows for fragment-based drug discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yingssu [Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Stanford University, 333 Campus Drive, Mudd Building, Stanford, CA 94305-5080 (United States); McPhillips, Scott E.; González, Ana; McPhillips, Timothy M. [Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Zinn, Daniel [LogicBlox Inc., 1349 West Peachtree Street NW, Atlanta, GA 30309 (United States); Cohen, Aina E. [Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Feese, Michael D.; Bushnell, David [Cocrystal Discovery Inc., 19805 North Creek Parkway, Bothell, WA 98011 (United States); Tiefenbrunn, Theresa; Stout, C. David [The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Ludaescher, Bertram [University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O. [Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Stanford University, 333 Campus Drive, Mudd Building, Stanford, CA 94305-5080 (United States); Soltis, S. Michael, E-mail: soltis@slac.stanford.edu [Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    New software has been developed for automating the experimental and data-processing stages of fragment-based drug discovery at a macromolecular crystallography beamline. A new workflow-automation framework orchestrates beamline-control and data-analysis software while organizing results from multiple samples. AutoDrug is software based upon the scientific workflow paradigm that integrates the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource macromolecular crystallography beamlines and third-party processing software to automate the crystallography steps of the fragment-based drug-discovery process. AutoDrug screens a cassette of fragment-soaked crystals, selects crystals for data collection based on screening results and user-specified criteria and determines optimal data-collection strategies. It then collects and processes diffraction data, performs molecular replacement using provided models and detects electron density that is likely to arise from bound fragments. All processes are fully automated, i.e. are performed without user interaction or supervision. Samples can be screened in groups corresponding to particular proteins, crystal forms and/or soaking conditions. A single AutoDrug run is only limited by the capacity of the sample-storage dewar at the beamline: currently 288 samples. AutoDrug was developed in conjunction with RestFlow, a new scientific workflow-automation framework. RestFlow simplifies the design of AutoDrug by managing the flow of data and the organization of results and by orchestrating the execution of computational pipeline steps. It also simplifies the execution and interaction of third-party programs and the beamline-control system. Modeling AutoDrug as a scientific workflow enables multiple variants that meet the requirements of different user groups to be developed and supported. A workflow tailored to mimic the crystallography stages comprising the drug-discovery pipeline of CoCrystal Discovery Inc. has been deployed and successfully

  19. Advanced behavioural screening: automated home cage ethology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt, Berry M; DeVisser, Leonie

    2006-01-01

    Animal behaviour has been studied using two approaches, (1) well-controlled experiments focusing on specific responses and (2) those with natural - fuzzy - but biologically relevant conditions. Ideally, one behavioural test should be able to address both. The home cage provided with various stimuli is proposed as an all-in-one possibility. This, however, results in an exponential increase in complexity regarding observation and analysis tools. It seems difficult to accept that behavioural expressions need a mathematical approach to unravel its organisation and meaning. Developments in artificial intelligence and data mining are essential to accelerate this necessary evolution in behavioural sciences.: PMID:24980412

  20. Automation Security

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzoev, Dr. Timur

    2014-01-01

    Web-based Automated Process Control systems are a new type of applications that use the Internet to control industrial processes with the access to the real-time data. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks contain computers and applications that perform key functions in providing essential services and commodities (e.g., electricity, natural gas, gasoline, water, waste treatment, transportation) to all Americans. As such, they are part of the nation s critical infrastructu...

  1. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offer vision screening programs for children. At what age should a child have his or her vision screened? Vision screening ... a child fails a vision screening at any age, the child should be referred for a comprehensive eye examination. ...

  2. Newborn Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Role of Laboratories Meet the Scientist Newborn Screening: Family Stories Newborn Screening: Public Health Stories Screening Newborns for Critical ... Quality Assurance Program Newborn Screening Translation Research Initiative Newborn ... Stay Connected Twitter Facebook ...

  3. Screening of detergents for solubilization, purification and crystallization of membrane proteins: a case study on succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Hironari; Nihei, Coh-ichi; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Mogi, Tatushi; Kita, Kiyoshi; Harada, Shigeharu

    2008-01-01

    Succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase was solubilized and purified from E. coli inner membranes using several different detergents and the phospholipid content of each preparation was analyzed. The preparation with the lowest phospholipid content crystallized in two different crystal forms using detergent mixtures composed of n-alkyl-oligoethylene glycol monoether and n-alkyl-maltoside.

  4. High-density grids for efficient data collection from multiple crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Aguila, Laura; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Barnes, Christopher O.; Bonagura, Christopher A.; Brehmer, Winnie; Brunger, Axel T.; Calero, Guillermo; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Degrado, William F.; Fraser, James S.; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Kern, Jan; Kobilka, Brian K.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Larsson, Karl M.; Lemke, Heinrik T.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Manglik, Aashish; McPhillips, Scott E.; Norgren, Erik; Pang, Siew S.; Soltis, S. M.; Song, Jinhu; Thomaston, Jessica; Tsai, Yingssu; Weis, William I.; Woldeyes, Rahel A.; Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko; Zouni, Athina; Cohen, Aina E.

    2016-01-01

    Higher throughput methods to mount and collect data from multiple small and radiation-sensitive crystals are important to support challenging structural investigations using microfocus synchrotron beamlines. Furthermore, efficient sample-delivery methods are essential to carry out productive femtosecond crystallography experiments at X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). To address these needs, a high-density sample grid useful as a scaffold for both crystal growth and diffraction data collection has been developed and utilized for efficient goniometer-based sample delivery at synchrotron and XFEL sources. A single grid contains 75 mounting ports and fits inside an SSRL cassette or uni-puck storage container. The use of grids with an SSRL cassette expands the cassette capacity up to 7200 samples. Grids may also be covered with a polymer film or sleeve for efficient room-temperature data collection from multiple samples. New automated routines have been incorporated into theBlu-Ice/DCSSexperimental control system to support grids, including semi-automated grid alignment, fully automated positioning of grid ports, rastering and automated data collection. Specialized tools have been developed to support crystallization experiments on grids, including a universal adaptor, which allows grids to be filled by commercial liquid-handling robots, as well as incubation chambers, which support vapor-diffusion and lipidic cubic phase crystallization experiments. Experiments in which crystals were loaded into grids or grown on grids using liquid-handling robots and incubation chambers are described. Crystals were screened at LCLS-XPP and SSRL BL12-2 at room temperature and cryogenic temperatures.

  5. [From automation to robotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The introduction of automation into the laboratory of biology seems to be unavoidable. But at which cost, if it is necessary to purchase a new machine for every new application? Fortunately the same image processing techniques, belonging to a theoretic framework called Mathematical Morphology, may be used in visual inspection tasks, both in car industry and in the biology lab. Since the market for industrial robotics applications is much higher than the market of biomedical applications, the price of image processing devices drops, and becomes sometimes less than the price of a complete microscope equipment. The power of the image processing methods of Mathematical Morphology will be illustrated by various examples, as automatic silver grain counting in autoradiography, determination of HLA genotype, electrophoretic gels analysis, automatic screening of cervical smears... Thus several heterogeneous applications may share the same image processing device, provided there is a separate and devoted work station for each of them. PMID:4091303

  6. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  7. Health Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screenings are tests that look for diseases before you have symptoms. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they're easier to treat. You can get some screenings in your doctor's office. Others need special equipment, ...

  8. Protein crystallization with paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Miki; Kakinouchi, Keisuke; Adachi, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Mihoko; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Sano, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y.; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Yoshimura, Masashi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Takano, Kazufumi

    2016-05-01

    We developed a new protein crystallization method that incorporates paper. A small piece of paper, such as facial tissue or KimWipes, was added to a drop of protein solution in the traditional sitting drop vapor diffusion technique, and protein crystals grew by incorporating paper. By this method, we achieved the growth of protein crystals with reducing osmotic shock. Because the technique is very simple and the materials are easy to obtain, this method will come into wide use for protein crystallization. In the future, it could be applied to nanoliter-scale crystallization screening on a paper sheet such as in inkjet printing.

  9. Electrophoresis Gel Quantification with a Flatbed Scanner and Versatile Lighting from a Screen Scavenged from a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Brendan; Ng, Tuck Wah; Tan, Han Yen; Liew, Oi Wah

    2012-01-01

    The use of different types of stains in the quantification of proteins separated on gels using electrophoresis offers the capability of deriving good outcomes in terms of linear dynamic range, sensitivity, and compatibility with specific proteins. An inexpensive, simple, and versatile lighting system based on liquid crystal display backlighting is…

  10. Manufacturing and automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Córdoba Nieto

    2010-01-01

    The article presents concepts and definitions from different sources concerning automation. The work approaches automation by virtue of the author’s experience in manufacturing production; why and how automation prolects are embarked upon is considered. Technological reflection regarding the progressive advances or stages of automation in the production area is stressed. Coriat and Freyssenet’s thoughts about and approaches to the problem of automation and its current state are taken and e...

  11. Robotic CCD microscope for enhanced crystal recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segelke, Brent W.; Toppani, Dominique

    2007-11-06

    A robotic CCD microscope and procedures to automate crystal recognition. The robotic CCD microscope and procedures enables more accurate crystal recognition, leading to fewer false negative and fewer false positives, and enable detection of smaller crystals compared to other methods available today.

  12. Image analysis and platform development for automated phenotyping in cytomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Kuan

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the empirical study of image analysis in HT/HC screen study. Often a HT/HC screening produces extensive amounts that cannot be manually analyzed. Thus, an automated image analysis solution is prior to an objective understanding of the raw image data. Compared to general a

  13. Ion channel screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, John; Bowlby, Mark; Peri, Ravikumar; Tawa, Gregory; LaRocque, James; Soloveva, Veronica; Morin, John

    2008-08-01

    Ion channels are attractive targets for drug discovery with recent estimates indicating that voltage and ligand-gated channels account for the third and fourth largest gene families represented in company portfolios after the G protein coupled and nuclear hormone receptor families. A historical limitation on ion channel targeted drug discovery in the form of the extremely low throughput nature of the gold standard assay for assessing functional activity, patch clamp electrophysiology in mammalian cells, has been overcome by the implementation of multi-well plate format cell-based screening strategies for ion channels. These have taken advantage of various approaches to monitor ion flux or membrane potential using radioactive, non-radioactive, spectroscopic and fluorescence measurements and have significantly impacted both high-throughput screening and lead optimization efforts. In addition, major advances have been made in the development of automated electrophysiological platforms to increase capacity for cell-based screening using formats aimed at recapitulating the gold standard assay. This review addresses the options available for cell-based screening of ion channels with examples of their utility and presents case studies on the successful implementation of high-throughput screening campaigns for a ligand-gated ion channel using a fluorescent calcium indicator, and a voltage-gated ion channel using a fluorescent membrane potential sensitive dye. PMID:18694388

  14. X-CHIP: an integrated platform for high-throughput protein crystallization and on-the-chip X-ray diffraction data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-CHIP (X-ray Crystallography High-throughput Integrated Platform) is a novel microchip that has been developed to combine multiple steps of the crystallographic pipeline from crystallization to diffraction data collection on a single device to streamline the entire process. The X-CHIP (X-ray Crystallization High-throughput Integrated Platform) is a novel microchip that has been developed to combine multiple steps of the crystallographic pipeline from crystallization to diffraction data collection on a single device to streamline the entire process. The system has been designed for crystallization condition screening, visual crystal inspection, initial X-ray screening and data collection in a high-throughput fashion. X-ray diffraction data acquisition can be performed directly on-the-chip at room temperature using an in situ approach. The capabilities of the chip eliminate the necessity for manual crystal handling and cryoprotection of crystal samples, while allowing data collection from multiple crystals in the same drop. This technology would be especially beneficial for projects with large volumes of data, such as protein-complex studies and fragment-based screening. The platform employs hydrophilic and hydrophobic concentric ring surfaces on a miniature plate transparent to visible light and X-rays to create a well defined and stable microbatch crystallization environment. The results of crystallization and data-collection experiments demonstrate that high-quality well diffracting crystals can be grown and high-resolution diffraction data sets can be collected using this technology. Furthermore, the quality of a single-wavelength anomalous dispersion data set collected with the X-CHIP at room temperature was sufficient to generate interpretable electron-density maps. This technology is highly resource-efficient owing to the use of nanolitre-scale drop volumes. It does not require any modification for most in-house and synchrotron beamline systems and offers

  15. Manufacturing and automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Córdoba Nieto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents concepts and definitions from different sources concerning automation. The work approaches automation by virtue of the author’s experience in manufacturing production; why and how automation prolects are embarked upon is considered. Technological reflection regarding the progressive advances or stages of automation in the production area is stressed. Coriat and Freyssenet’s thoughts about and approaches to the problem of automation and its current state are taken and examined, especially that referring to the problem’s relationship with reconciling the level of automation with the flexibility and productivity demanded by competitive, worldwide manufacturing.

  16. MRSA Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? MRSA Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening Related tests: Wound Culture At a Glance Test ...

  17. Cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad

    1987-01-01

    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  18. The Protein Maker: an automated system for high-throughput parallel purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Protein Maker instrument addresses a critical bottleneck in structural genomics by allowing automated purification and buffer testing of multiple protein targets in parallel with a single instrument. Here, the use of this instrument to (i) purify multiple influenza-virus proteins in parallel for crystallization trials and (ii) identify optimal lysis-buffer conditions prior to large-scale protein purification is described. The Protein Maker is an automated purification system developed by Emerald BioSystems for high-throughput parallel purification of proteins and antibodies. This instrument allows multiple load, wash and elution buffers to be used in parallel along independent lines for up to 24 individual samples. To demonstrate its utility, its use in the purification of five recombinant PB2 C-terminal domains from various subtypes of the influenza A virus is described. Three of these constructs crystallized and one diffracted X-rays to sufficient resolution for structure determination and deposition in the Protein Data Bank. Methods for screening lysis buffers for a cytochrome P450 from a pathogenic fungus prior to upscaling expression and purification are also described. The Protein Maker has become a valuable asset within the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) and hence is a potentially valuable tool for a variety of high-throughput protein-purification applications

  19. Crystallization of a novel metal-containing cupin from Acidobacterium sp. and preliminary diffraction data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recombinant AciX9-0562 from Acidobacterium sp. MP5ACTX9 containing sequence motifs characteristic of the RmlC-type cupins superfamily and containing Pfam motif PF07883 has been successfully cloned, expressed and purified, and crystallized in a number of conditions from the Morpheus protein crystallization screen. Recombinant AciX9-0562 from Acidobacterium sp. MP5ACTX9 (UniProt ID E8WYN5) containing sequence motifs characteristic of the RmlC-type cupins superfamily and containing Pfam motif PF07883 has been successfully cloned, expressed and purified. AciX9-0562 crystallized in a number of conditions from the Morpheus protein crystallization screen. The best crystal diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution (space group C2221; unit-cell parameters a = 125.29, b = 254.63, c = 82.99 Å). Structure solution was facilitated by the automated molecular-replacement pipeline BALBES. The initial solution was automatically rebuilt using the PHENIX AutoBuild wizard, with final R and Rfree values of 0.23 and 0.26, respectively. The structure is currently undergoing manual refinement

  20. An automated swimming respirometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    STEFFENSEN, JF; JOHANSEN, K; BUSHNELL, PG

    1984-01-01

    An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks.......An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks....

  1. Configuration Management Automation (CMA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Configuration Management Automation (CMA) will provide an automated, integrated enterprise solution to support CM of FAA NAS and Non-NAS assets and investments. CMA...

  2. Photonic crystal-encoded suspension array and its application in screening malignant tumors%光子晶体编码液相芯片技术与肿瘤筛查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨子学; 陈宝安; 顾忠泽

    2014-01-01

    肿瘤筛查中通常采用多种肿瘤标志物的联合检测以提高诊断率。因此,为了提高筛查效率,亟需一种多元分析技术应用于肿瘤筛查。液相芯片技术是由基因微阵列生物芯片技术演变而来的多元分析技术。它由编码微球、探针分子、目标分子和报告分子四部分组成,可用于目标物的定量分析。微球编码技术是液相芯片技术的研究热点,本文中涉及的光子晶体编码是光学编码策略的一种,具有良好的稳定性和解码性能。长期研究表明,光子晶体编码液相芯片在肿瘤筛查、诊断中应用前景广阔。本文综述了光子晶体编码液相芯片技术的基本原理、技术特点及在肿瘤筛查中的应用现状。%Multiple tumor makers are needed to improve the diagnostic rate of the simultaneously detection of malignant tumors through screening. Therefore, multiplex detection technology is urgently required to improve the screening efficiency. Suspension arrays are multiplex detection method based on gene microarrays. It consists of encoded microbeads, probes, targets, and report molecules are applied to analyze targets quantitatively. The microbead encoding strategy is a hotspot in suspension array research. The photonic crystal encoding mentioned in this review is a type of optical encoding that is very stable and easily decoded. Photonic suspension arrays have broad prospects in the screening and diagnosis of malignant tumors through long-term studies. This review summarizes the basic principle, classification, and characteristics of photonic suspension arrays and their application in the screening of malignant tumors.

  3. Workflow automation architecture standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  4. Ab initio LCAO-MO cluster-type calculation of the self-consistent electronic screening charge density around a single hydrogen impurity in a nickel crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic structure for a Ni atom cluster embedded in bulk Ni by use of a spin-averaged local exchange SCF Ni crystal potential is calculated with an ab initio LCAO-Mo variational method. A single hydrogen impurity is added at the cluster center (fcc octahedral interstitial site) and the electronic structure computed iteratively until the change in electron density from the pure Ni cluster density is self-consistent. The H-Ni6 self-consistent density change is compared to the charge density around a free hydrogen atom and to the initial-response density change in H-Ni14 and H-Ni38 clusters. 14 references

  5. Shoe-String Automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, M.L.

    2001-07-30

    Faced with a downsizing organization, serious budget reductions and retirement of key metrology personnel, maintaining capabilities to provide necessary services to our customers was becoming increasingly difficult. It appeared that the only solution was to automate some of our more personnel-intensive processes; however, it was crucial that the most personnel-intensive candidate process be automated, at the lowest price possible and with the lowest risk of failure. This discussion relates factors in the selection of the Standard Leak Calibration System for automation, the methods of automation used to provide the lowest-cost solution and the benefits realized as a result of the automation.

  6. Optoelectronic image processing for cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Sharpe, John P.; Johnson, Kristina M.

    1994-05-01

    Automation of the Pap-smear cervical screening method is highly desirable as it relieves tedium for the human operators, reduces cost and should increase accuracy and provide repeatability. We present here the design for a high-throughput optoelectronic system which forms the first stage of a two stage system to automate pap-smear screening. We use a mathematical morphological technique called the hit-or-miss transform to identify the suspicious areas on a pap-smear slide. This algorithm is implemented using a VanderLugt architecture and a time-sequential ANDing smart pixel array.

  7. Automated diabetic retinopathy imaging in Indian eyes: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupak Roy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of an automated retinal image grading system in diabetic retinopathy (DR screening. Materials and Methods: Color fundus images of patients of a DR screening project were analyzed for the purpose of the study. For each eye two set of images were acquired, one centerd on the disk and the other centerd on the macula. All images were processed by automated DR screening software (Retmarker. The results were compared to ophthalmologist grading of the same set of photographs. Results: 5780 images of 1445 patients were analyzed. Patients were screened into two categories DR or no DR. Image quality was high, medium and low in 71 (4.91%, 1117 (77.30% and 257 (17.78% patients respectively. Specificity and sensitivity for detecting DR in the high, medium and low group were (0.59, 0.91; (0.11, 0.95 and (0.93, 0.14. Conclusion: Automated retinal image screening system for DR had a high sensitivity in high and medium quality images. Automated DR grading software′s hold promise in future screening programs.

  8. Automated License Plate Recognition for Toll Booth Application

    OpenAIRE

    Ketan S. Shevale

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the Smart Vehicle Screening System, which can be installed into a tollbooth for automated recognition of vehicle license plate information using a photograph of a vehicle. An automated system could then be implemented to control the payment of fees, parking areas, highways, bridges or tunnels, etc. There are considered an approach to identify vehicle through recognizing of it license plate using image fusion, neural networks and threshold techniques as wel...

  9. Automation of the Analysis of Moessbauer Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present report we propose the automation of least square fitting of Moessbauer spectra, the identification of the substance, its crystal structure and the access to the references with the help of a genetic algorith, Fuzzy logic, and the artificial neural network associated with a databank of Moessbauer parameters and references. This system could be useful for specialists and non-specialists, in industry as well as in research laboratories

  10. Automated stopcock actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Vandehey, N. T.; O'Neil, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We have developed a low-cost stopcock valve actuator for radiochemistry automation built using a stepper motor and an Arduino, an open-source single-board microcontroller. The con-troller hardware can be programmed to run by serial communication or via two 5–24 V digital lines for simple integration into any automation control system. This valve actuator allows for automated use of a single, disposable stopcock, providing a number of advantages over stopcock manifold systems ...

  11. The Adaptive Automation Design

    OpenAIRE

    Calefato, Caterina; Montanari, Roberto; TESAURI, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    After considering the positive effects of adaptive automation implementation, this chapter focuses on two partly overlapping phenomena: on the one hand, the role of trust in automation is considered, particularly as to the effects of overtrust and mistrust in automation's reliability; on the other hand, long-term lack of exercise on specific operation may lead users to skill deterioration. As a future work, it will be interesting and challenging to explore the conjunction of adaptive automati...

  12. Service functional test automation

    OpenAIRE

    Hillah, Lom Messan; Maesano, Ariele-Paolo; Rosa, Fabio; Maesano, Libero; Lettere, Marco; Fontanelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the automation of the functional test of services (black-box testing) and services architectures (grey-box testing) that has been developed by the MIDAS project and is accessible on the MIDAS SaaS. In particular, the paper illustrates the solutions of tough functional test automation problems such as: (i) the configuration of the automated test execution system against large and complex services architectures, (ii) the constraint-based test input generation, (iii) the spec...

  13. Characterization of Endogenous Sodium Channels in the ND7-23 Neuroblastoma Cell Line: Implications for Use as a Heterologous Ion Channel Expression System Suitable for Automated Patch Clamp Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Marc; Zidar, Nace; Kikelj, Danijel; Kirby, Robert W

    2016-03-01

    The rodent neuroblastoma cell line, ND7-23, is used to express voltage-dependent sodium (Nav) and other neuronal ion channels resistant to heterologous expression in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) or human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Their advantage is that they provide endogenous factors and signaling pathways to promote ion channel peptide folding, expression, and function at the cell surface and are also amenable to automated patch clamping. However, ND7-23 cells exhibit endogenous tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive Nav currents, and molecular profiling has revealed the presence of Nav1.2, Nav1.3, Nav1.6, and Nav1.7 transcripts, but no study has determined which subtypes contribute to functional channels at the cell surface. We profiled the repertoire of functional Nav channels endogenously expressed in ND7-23 cells using the QPatch automated patch clamp platform and selective toxins and small molecules. The potency and subtype selectivity of the ligands (Icagen compound 68 from patent US-20060025415-A1-20060202, 4,9 anhydro TTX, and Protoxin-II) were established in human Nav1.3, Nav1.6, and Nav1.7 channel cell lines before application of selective concentrations to ND7-23 cells. Our data confirm previous studies that >97% of macroscopic Nav current in ND7-23 cells is carried by TTX-sensitive channels (300 nM TTX) and that Nav1.7 is the predominant channel contributing to this response (65% of peak inward current), followed by Nav1.6 (∼20%) and negligible Nav1.3 currents (∼2%). In addition, our data are the first to assess the Nav1.6 potency (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] of 33 nM) and selectivity (50-fold over Nav1.7) of 4,9 anhydro TTX in human Nav channels expressed in mammalian cells, confirming previous studies of rodent Nav channels expressed in oocytes and HEK cells. PMID:26991361

  14. Automated Weather Observing System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS) is a suite of sensors, which measure, collect, and disseminate weather data to help meteorologists, pilots, and flight...

  15. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory. PMID:26065792

  16. Automated cloning methods.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne has developed a series of automated protocols to generate bacterial expression clones by using a robotic system designed to be used in procedures associated with molecular biology. The system provides plate storage, temperature control from 4 to 37 C at various locations, and Biomek and Multimek pipetting stations. The automated system consists of a robot that transports sources from the active station on the automation system. Protocols for the automated generation of bacterial expression clones can be grouped into three categories (Figure 1). Fragment generation protocols are initiated on day one of the expression cloning procedure and encompass those protocols involved in generating purified coding region (PCR)

  17. Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  18. The Johns Hopkins Hospital Asthma Clinic - An Automated System

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols, Karen J.

    1985-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins Asthma room was chosen for automation in order to act as a prototype for the new Johns Hopkins Hospital Automated Emergency Room. The system is designed to act as a stand alone station. It will provide valuable information in regards to the design, implementation and training of the whole E.R. project. The new system will consist of a series of seven screens that will totally replace the paper form currently being used by the E.R. The screens will be password protected in or...

  19. Space station automation study: Automation requriements derived from space manufacturing concepts,volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Automation reuirements were developed for two manufacturing concepts: (1) Gallium Arsenide Electroepitaxial Crystal Production and Wafer Manufacturing Facility, and (2) Gallium Arsenide VLSI Microelectronics Chip Processing Facility. A functional overview of the ultimate design concept incoporating the two manufacturing facilities on the space station are provided. The concepts were selected to facilitate an in-depth analysis of manufacturing automation requirements in the form of process mechanization, teleoperation and robotics, sensors, and artificial intelligence. While the cost-effectiveness of these facilities was not analyzed, both appear entirely feasible for the year 2000 timeframe.

  20. Screening for Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Panic Disorder Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...

  1. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  2. Airport Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ionizing radiation for security screening individuals [online]. Health Physics Society Position Statement. 2009. Available at http: / / hps. org/ documents/ securityscreening_ ps017- 1. pdf. Accessed 7 January 2011. Interagency Steering Committee on ...

  3. Library Automation Style Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  4. Automation in Warehouse Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg, R.; Verriet, J.

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and support

  5. Automate functional testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kalindri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, software engineers are increasingly turning to the option of automating functional tests, but not always have successful in this endeavor. Reasons range from low planning until over cost in the process. Some principles that can guide teams in automating these tests are described in this article.

  6. Automation in Immunohematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Bajpai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  7. Automated model building

    CERN Document Server

    Caferra, Ricardo; Peltier, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book on automated model building, a discipline of automated deduction that is of growing importance Although models and their construction are important per se, automated model building has appeared as a natural enrichment of automated deduction, especially in the attempt to capture the human way of reasoning The book provides an historical overview of the field of automated deduction, and presents the foundations of different existing approaches to model construction, in particular those developed by the authors Finite and infinite model building techniques are presented The main emphasis is on calculi-based methods, and relevant practical results are provided The book is of interest to researchers and graduate students in computer science, computational logic and artificial intelligence It can also be used as a textbook in advanced undergraduate courses

  8. Automation in Warehouse Development

    CERN Document Server

    Verriet, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and supports the quality of picking processes. Secondly, the development of models to simulate and analyse warehouse designs and their components facilitates the challenging task of developing warehouses that take into account each customer’s individual requirements and logistic processes. Automation in Warehouse Development addresses both types of automation from the innovative perspective of applied science. In particular, it describes the outcomes of the Falcon project, a joint endeavour by a consortium of industrial and academic partners. The results include a model-based approach to automate warehouse control design, analysis models for warehouse design, concepts for robotic item handling and computer vision, and auton...

  9. Advances in inspection automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

  10. Automated Indirect Immunofluorescence Evaluation of Antinuclear Autoantibodies on HEp-2 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jörn Voigt; Christopher Krause; Edda Rohwäder; Sandra Saschenbrecker; Melanie Hahn; Maick Danckwardt; Christian Feirer; Konstantin Ens; Kai Fechner; Erhardt Barth; Thomas Martinetz; Winfried Stöcker

    2012-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on human epithelial (HEp-2) cells is considered as the gold standard screening method for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA). However, in terms of automation and standardization, it has not been able to keep pace with most other analytical techniques used in diagnostic laboratories. Although there are already some automation solutions for IIF incubation in the market, the automation of result evaluation is still in its infancy. Therefore, the E...

  11. HCC screening; HCC-Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, T. [Charite-Unversitaetsmedizin,Freie Universitaet und Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Klinik und Hochschulambulanz fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin,Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed tumour diseases throughout the world. In the vast majority of cases those affected are high-risk patients with chronic viral hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis, which means there is a clearly identifiable target group for HCC screening. With resection, transplantation, and interventional procedures for local ablation, following early diagnosis curative treatment options are available with which 5-year survival rates of over 60% can be reached. Such early diagnosis is a reality only in a minority of patients, however, and in the majority of cases the disease is already in an advanced stage at diagnosis. One of the objects of HCC screening is diagnosis in an early stage when curative treatment is still possible. Precisely this is achieved by screening, so that the proportion of patients treated with curative intent is decisively higher. There is not yet any clear evidence as to whether this leads to a lowering of the mortality of HCC. As lower mortality is the decisive indicator of success for a screening programme the benefit of HCC screening has so far been neither documented nor refuted. Nonetheless, in large regions of the world it is the practice for high-risk patients to undergo HCC screening in the form of twice-yearly ultrasound examination and determination of AFP. (orig.) [German] Das hepatozellulaere Karzinom (HCC) ist eine der weltweit haeufigsten Tumorerkrankungen. Es tritt in der grossen Mehrzahl der Faelle bei Hochrisikopatienten mit chronischer Virushepatitis bzw. Leberzirrhose auf, woraus sich eine klar identifizierbare Zielgruppe fuer das HCC-Screening ergibt. Mit der Resektion, der Transplantation und interventionellen lokal ablativen Verfahren stehen bei rechtzeitiger Diagnosestellung kurative Therapieoptionen zur Verfuegung, die 5-Jahres-Ueberlebensraten von >60% erreichen. Diese rechtzeitige Diagnosestellung erfolgt jedoch nur bei einer Minderzahl der Patienten, waehrend die

  12. Improvement of Test Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Räsänen, Timo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose for this study was to find out how to ensure that the automated testing of MME in the Network Verification will continue smooth and reliable while using the in-house developed test automation framework. The goal of this thesis was to reveal the reasons of the currently challenging situation and to find the key elements to be improved in the MME testing carried by the test automation. Also a reason for the study was to get solutions as to how to change the current procedures and wa...

  13. Chef infrastructure automation cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marschall, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Chef Infrastructure Automation Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to automate your infrastructure using Chef. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to automate your server and cloud infrastructure.The book first shows you the simplest way to achieve a certain task. Then it explains every step in detail, so that you can build your knowledge about how things work. Eventually, the book shows you additional things to consider for each approach. That way, you can learn step-by-step and build profound knowledge on how to go about your configuration management

  14. Non-target screening of organic pollutants in sediments and sludges using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and automated mass spectral deconvolution%气相色谱-质谱-自动质谱解卷积技术在沉积物和污泥中有机污染物非靶标筛查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 马慧莲; 王龙星; 陈吉平; 侯晓虹

    2015-01-01

    A screening method in the combination of ultrasonic extraction,gas chromatogra-phy-mass spectrometry detection and automated mass spectrometry deconvolution technique was developed for non-target screening of non-polar and weak polar pollutants in sediments and sludges. The samples were extracted by ultrasonication for 20 min using dichloromethane for three times. The extraction solutions were cleaned-up by gel permeation chromatography and a silica gel column,and then 3 g of copper powder was used to remove the sulfur by ultrasonica-tion for 10 min. Parallel experiments were carried out for 5 times and the RSDs were ranged from 5. 8% to 14. 9%. Automated mass spectral deconvolution &identification system( AMDIS) would improve the resolution of overlapping peaks,and identify the pure mass spectrum of the analytes in the cases of stronger background interference and co-extracted substances covering. Standard spectrum databases,such as NISTDRUG,NISTEPA,NISTFDA,Mass Spectral Library, etc,would qualitatively identify the organic pollutants in the samples. As a result,a total of 290 organic pollutants were identified,of which 190 and 153 pollutants were found in sediments and sludges,respectively. The identified pollutants included the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)priority pollutants,pharmaceuticals,herbicides,antioxidants,intermediates,organic solvents and chemical raw materials. The proposed method is proved to be a promising one for non-target screening of complex matrix samples with the advantages of higher sensitivity and better repeatability.%以沉积物和污泥中非极性和弱极性有机污染物的非靶标筛查为目的,建立了一种超声波辅助提取-气相色谱-质谱结合自动解卷积技术的筛查方法。以二氯甲烷为溶剂超声波辅助提取样品3次,每次20 min,提取液经凝胶渗透色谱( GPC)和硅胶层析柱净化,再用3 g铜粉超声10 min除硫。前处理方法的重复性( RSD,n=5)为5.8

  15. 气相色谱-质谱-自动质谱解卷积技术在沉积物和污泥中有机污染物非靶标筛查中的应用%Non-target screening of organic pollutants in sediments and sludges using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and automated mass spectral deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 马慧莲; 王龙星; 陈吉平; 侯晓虹

    2015-01-01

    A screening method in the combination of ultrasonic extraction,gas chromatogra-phy-mass spectrometry detection and automated mass spectrometry deconvolution technique was developed for non-target screening of non-polar and weak polar pollutants in sediments and sludges. The samples were extracted by ultrasonication for 20 min using dichloromethane for three times. The extraction solutions were cleaned-up by gel permeation chromatography and a silica gel column,and then 3 g of copper powder was used to remove the sulfur by ultrasonica-tion for 10 min. Parallel experiments were carried out for 5 times and the RSDs were ranged from 5. 8% to 14. 9%. Automated mass spectral deconvolution &identification system( AMDIS) would improve the resolution of overlapping peaks,and identify the pure mass spectrum of the analytes in the cases of stronger background interference and co-extracted substances covering. Standard spectrum databases,such as NISTDRUG,NISTEPA,NISTFDA,Mass Spectral Library, etc,would qualitatively identify the organic pollutants in the samples. As a result,a total of 290 organic pollutants were identified,of which 190 and 153 pollutants were found in sediments and sludges,respectively. The identified pollutants included the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)priority pollutants,pharmaceuticals,herbicides,antioxidants,intermediates,organic solvents and chemical raw materials. The proposed method is proved to be a promising one for non-target screening of complex matrix samples with the advantages of higher sensitivity and better repeatability.%以沉积物和污泥中非极性和弱极性有机污染物的非靶标筛查为目的,建立了一种超声波辅助提取-气相色谱-质谱结合自动解卷积技术的筛查方法。以二氯甲烷为溶剂超声波辅助提取样品3次,每次20 min,提取液经凝胶渗透色谱( GPC)和硅胶层析柱净化,再用3 g铜粉超声10 min除硫。前处理方法的重复性( RSD,n=5)为5.8

  16. Carotid Artery Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Carotid Artery Screening What is carotid artery screening? Who should consider ... about carotid artery screening? What is carotid artery screening? Screening examinations are tests performed to find disease ...

  17. Preconception Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preconception Carrier Screening Home For Patients Search FAQs Preconception Carrier Screening ... Screening FAQ179, August 2012 PDF Format Preconception Carrier Screening Pregnancy What is preconception carrier screening? What is ...

  18. Screening for Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screening for Social Anxiety Disorder Screening for Specific Phobias Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Children Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Family Member Self- ...

  19. Luminescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminescent screens which are useful for such purposes as intensifying screens for radiographs are comprised of a support bearing a layer of finely divided particles of a phosphor dispersed in a cross-linked polymeric matrix formed by heat-curing of a coating composition comprising an unsaturated cross-linkable polymer, a polymerizable acrylic monomer, a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer, and a heat-activatable polymerization initiator. The phosphor layer includes voids formed by evaporation of an evaporable component which is present in the coating composition from which such layer is formed. (author)

  20. Automated sorting of glabrous versus pubescent annual canarygrass seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    An automated imaging system was developed to identify and sort annual canarygrass seeds with the glabrous trait in order to screen bulk amounts of seed to segregate populations for this desirable trait. Glabrous seed is preferred since it does not have the irritating silica hairs that pubescent see...

  1. Automated drawing system of quantum energy levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to derive an automated system that provides advantageous drawings of energy spectra for quantum systems (nuclei, atoms, molecules, etc.) required in various physical sciences. The automation involves the development of appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system based on raw data insertion, theoretical calculations and experimental or bibliographic data insertion. The system determines the appropriate scale to depict graphically with the best possible way in the available space. The presently developed code operates locally and the results are displayed on the screen and can be exported to a PostScript file. We note its main features to arrange and visualize in the available space the energy levels with their identity, taking care the existence in the final diagram the least auxiliary deviations. Future improvements can be the use of Java and the availability on the Internet. The work involves the automated plotting of energy levels in molecules, atoms, nuclei and other types of quantized energy spectra. The automation involves the development of an appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system

  2. RCrane: semi-automated RNA model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RCrane is a new tool for the partially automated building of RNA crystallographic models into electron-density maps of low or intermediate resolution. This tool helps crystallographers to place phosphates and bases into electron density and then automatically predicts and builds the detailed all-atom structure of the traced nucleotides. RNA crystals typically diffract to much lower resolutions than protein crystals. This low-resolution diffraction results in unclear density maps, which cause considerable difficulties during the model-building process. These difficulties are exacerbated by the lack of computational tools for RNA modeling. Here, RCrane, a tool for the partially automated building of RNA into electron-density maps of low or intermediate resolution, is presented. This tool works within Coot, a common program for macromolecular model building. RCrane helps crystallographers to place phosphates and bases into electron density and then automatically predicts and builds the detailed all-atom structure of the traced nucleotides. RCrane then allows the crystallographer to review the newly built structure and select alternative backbone conformations where desired. This tool can also be used to automatically correct the backbone structure of previously built nucleotides. These automated corrections can fix incorrect sugar puckers, steric clashes and other structural problems

  3. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  4. I-94 Automation FAQs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — In order to increase efficiency, reduce operating costs and streamline the admissions process, U.S. Customs and Border Protection has automated Form I-94 at air and...

  5. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  6. Hydrometeorological Automated Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of Hydrologic Development of the National Weather Service operates HADS, the Hydrometeorological Automated Data System. This data set contains the last...

  7. An automated Certification Authority

    CERN Document Server

    Shamardin, L V

    2002-01-01

    This note describe an approach to building an automated Certification Authority. It is compatible with basic requirements of RFC2527. It also supports Registration Authorities and Globus Toolkit grid-cert-renew automatic certificate renewal.

  8. Disassembly automation automated systems with cognitive abilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vongbunyong, Supachai

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a number of aspects to be considered in the development of disassembly automation, including the mechanical system, vision system and intelligent planner. The implementation of cognitive robotics increases the flexibility and degree of autonomy of the disassembly system. Disassembly, as a step in the treatment of end-of-life products, can allow the recovery of embodied value left within disposed products, as well as the appropriate separation of potentially-hazardous components. In the end-of-life treatment industry, disassembly has largely been limited to manual labor, which is expensive in developed countries. Automation is one possible solution for economic feasibility. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  9. Automated security management

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Shaer, Ehab; Xie, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    In this contributed volume, leading international researchers explore configuration modeling and checking, vulnerability and risk assessment, configuration analysis, and diagnostics and discovery. The authors equip readers to understand automated security management systems and techniques that increase overall network assurability and usability. These constantly changing networks defend against cyber attacks by integrating hundreds of security devices such as firewalls, IPSec gateways, IDS/IPS, authentication servers, authorization/RBAC servers, and crypto systems. Automated Security Managemen

  10. Automating Supplier Selection Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Davidrajuh, Reggie

    2001-01-01

    This dissertation describes a methodology, tools, and implementation techniques of automating supplier selection procedures of a small and medium-sized agile virtual enterprise. Firstly, a modeling approach is devised that can be used to model the supplier selection procedures of an enterprise. This modeling approach divides the supplier selection procedures broadly into three stages, the pre-selection, selection, and post-selection stages. Secondly, a methodology is presented for automating ...

  11. Taiwan Automated Telescope Network

    OpenAIRE

    Shuhrat Ehgamberdiev; Alexander Serebryanskiy; Antonio Jimenez; Li-Han Wang; Ming-Tsung Sun; Javier Fernandez Fernandez; Dean-Yi Chou

    2010-01-01

    A global network of small automated telescopes, the Taiwan Automated Telescope (TAT) network, dedicated to photometric measurements of stellar pulsations, is under construction. Two telescopes have been installed in Teide Observatory, Tenerife, Spain and Maidanak Observatory, Uzbekistan. The third telescope will be installed at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, USA. Each system uses a 9-cm Maksutov-type telescope. The effective focal length is 225 cm, corresponding to an f-ratio of 25. The field...

  12. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  13. Automated functional software testing

    OpenAIRE

    Jelnikar, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    The following work describes an approach to software test automation of functional testing. In the introductory part we are introducing what testing problems development companies are facing. The second chapter describes some testing methods, what role does testing have in software development, some approaches to software development and the meaning of testing environment. Chapter 3 is all about test automation. After a brief historical presentation, we are demonstrating through s...

  14. Instant Sikuli test automation

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to follow style using the Starter guide approach.This book is aimed at automation and testing professionals who want to use Sikuli to automate GUI. Some Python programming experience is assumed.

  15. Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  16. Automated structure solution with the PHENIX suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zwart, Peter H [LBNL; Afonine, Pavel V [LBNL; Grosse - Kunstleve, Ralf W [LBNL

    2008-01-01

    Significant time and effort are often required to solve and complete a macromolecular crystal structure. The development of automated computational methods for the analysis, solution, and completion of crystallographic structures has the potential to produce minimally biased models in a short time without the need for manual intervention. The PHENIX software suite is a highly automated system for macromolecular structure determination that can rapidly arrive at an initial partial model of a structure without significant human intervention, given moderate resolution, and good quality data. This achievement has been made possible by the development of new algorithms for structure determination, maximum-likelihood molecular replacement (PHASER), heavy-atom search (HySS), template- and pattern-based automated model-building (RESOLVE, TEXTAL), automated macromolecular refinement (phenix. refine), and iterative model-building, density modification and refinement that can operate at moderate resolution (RESOLVE, AutoBuild). These algorithms are based on a highly integrated and comprehensive set of crystallographic libraries that have been built and made available to the community. The algorithms are tightly linked and made easily accessible to users through the PHENIX Wizards and the PHENIX GUI.

  17. Automated Structure Solution with the PHENIX Suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwart, Peter H.; Zwart, Peter H.; Afonine, Pavel; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Hung, Li-Wei; Ioerger, Tom R.; McCoy, A.J.; McKee, Eric; Moriarty, Nigel; Read, Randy J.; Sacchettini, James C.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Storoni, L.C.; Terwilliger, Tomas C.; Adams, Paul D.

    2008-06-09

    Significant time and effort are often required to solve and complete a macromolecular crystal structure. The development of automated computational methods for the analysis, solution and completion of crystallographic structures has the potential to produce minimally biased models in a short time without the need for manual intervention. The PHENIX software suite is a highly automated system for macromolecular structure determination that can rapidly arrive at an initial partial model of a structure without significant human intervention, given moderate resolution and good quality data. This achievement has been made possible by the development of new algorithms for structure determination, maximum-likelihood molecular replacement (PHASER), heavy-atom search (HySS), template and pattern-based automated model-building (RESOLVE, TEXTAL), automated macromolecular refinement (phenix.refine), and iterative model-building, density modification and refinement that can operate at moderate resolution (RESOLVE, AutoBuild). These algorithms are based on a highly integrated and comprehensive set of crystallographic libraries that have been built and made available to the community. The algorithms are tightly linked and made easily accessible to users through the PHENIX Wizards and the PHENIX GUI.

  18. The construction of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter: crystal assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    This photogallery describes the whole sequence of crystal assembly up to the so-called supermodules of 1700 PWO crystals each. Figures 1-6: submodule (10 crystals + their APDs) assembly with alveola structures. Figs. 7-11: module assembly. Each module is composed by 400 or 500 crystals. Figs. 13-17: supermodule assembly, thermal screen and monitoring, transport.

  19. An automated approach to configuration baseline documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents Public Service Electric and Gas Company's (PSE and G's) automated approach to configuration base-line documentation (CBD) for Salem units 1 and 2 and Hope Creek. The CBD project is a proactive project, similar to what is commonly termed a design basis documentation program in the nuclear utility industry. The data information management system (DIMS) element of the CBD project is expected to automate the CBD development, review/approval, control, maintenance, and distribution of CBD and the subsequent integration of the CBD into the day-to-day design processes of PSE and G's nuclear engineering department. The DIMS project scope emphasizes streamlined, swift, and accurate design information retrieval system hardware and software; proper and controlled screening of stored design information; legible storage of design information; and more efficient and user-friendly information handling. This paper discusses the selection and implementation of an integrated optical imaging and textual search technology

  20. Automated diagnostic kiosk for diagnosing diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John Frederick; Birch, James Michael

    2014-02-11

    An automated and autonomous diagnostic apparatus that is capable of dispensing collection vials and collections kits to users interesting in collecting a biological sample and submitting their collected sample contained within a collection vial into the apparatus for automated diagnostic services. The user communicates with the apparatus through a touch-screen monitor. A user is able to enter personnel information into the apparatus including medical history, insurance information, co-payment, and answer a series of questions regarding their illness, which is used to determine the assay most likely to yield a positive result. Remotely-located physicians can communicate with users of the apparatus using video tele-medicine and request specific assays to be performed. The apparatus archives submitted samples for additional testing. Users may receive their assay results electronically. Users may allow the uploading of their diagnoses into a central databank for disease surveillance purposes.

  1. Crystal Meth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for: Navigation Home / Stories of Hope / Crystal meth Crystal meth Story Of Hope By giovanni January 3rd, ... about my drug addiction having to deal with Crystal meth. I am now in recovery and fighting ...

  2. Environmental impact assessment screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental assessment and impact planning software, SCREENER, was tested at a pilot project at the Cameco site (Port Hope). SCREENER was used to screen the impacts of a new construction project in accordance with the process and reporting requirements laid out in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The software test concentrated on the activities that are directly involved with the structure construction and site preparation activities. In addition, a two and one half day training course was given to three AECB staff using the test case as a hands on example. The conclusion of this project is that an automated tool such as SCREENER (or Calyx, the new generation of environmental assessment tools from ESSA Software Ltd.), will help the AECB to standardize the approach to environmental assessment, assist in project planning, and save resources in the screening process. The new approach could allow to allocate AECB limited resources to the detailed assessments required for maximum impact activities

  3. Automated Camera Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siqi; Cheng, Yang; Willson, Reg

    2006-01-01

    Automated Camera Calibration (ACAL) is a computer program that automates the generation of calibration data for camera models used in machine vision systems. Machine vision camera models describe the mapping between points in three-dimensional (3D) space in front of the camera and the corresponding points in two-dimensional (2D) space in the camera s image. Calibrating a camera model requires a set of calibration data containing known 3D-to-2D point correspondences for the given camera system. Generating calibration data typically involves taking images of a calibration target where the 3D locations of the target s fiducial marks are known, and then measuring the 2D locations of the fiducial marks in the images. ACAL automates the analysis of calibration target images and greatly speeds the overall calibration process.

  4. Automated telescope scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-08-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  5. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen ... This test is most often done between the 15th and 22nd weeks of the pregnancy. It is most accurate ...

  6. Autism Screening and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Websites About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Screening and Diagnosis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... two steps: Developmental Screening Comprehensive Diagnostic Evaluation Developmental Screening Developmental screening is a short test to tell ...

  7. Myths in test automation

    OpenAIRE

    Jazmine Francis

    2015-01-01

    Myths in automation of software testing is an issue of discussion that echoes about the areas of service in validation of software industry. Probably, the first though that appears in knowledgeable reader would be Why this old topic again? What's New to discuss the matter? But, for the first time everyone agrees that undoubtedly automation testing today is not today what it used to be ten or fifteen years ago, because it has evolved in scope and magnitude. What began as a simple linear script...

  8. Automated phantom assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an automated phantom assay system developed for assaying phantoms spiked with minute quantities of radionuclides. The system includes a computer-controlled linear-translation table that positions the phantom at exact distances from a spectrometer. A multichannel analyzer (MCA) interfaces with a computer to collect gamma spectral data. Signals transmitted between the controller and MCA synchronize data collection and phantom positioning. Measured data are then stored on disk for subsequent analysis. The automated system allows continuous unattended operation and ensures reproducible results

  9. Screening neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Urbón Artero, Alfonso; Reig del Moral, Celia

    2006-01-01

    Los autores de este artículo revisan el screening neonatal, desde la descripción por Wilson y Jungner en 1968 de los criterios que hansido aplicados en la detección precoz de enfermedades enel recién nacido, hasta los avances actuales en la medicina genómica que han modificado sustancialmente estas bases. Se comentan los métodos diagnósticos prenatales más utilizados como los analíticos y ultrasonografia prenatal. Se describen los procedimientos que se aplican en la actualidad y se describen ...

  10. Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) with the Experimental Apparatus Container (EAC) attached flew during the USMP-2 mission. This assembly consists of a furnace module, a muffle tube assembly and a translation mechanism which are enclosed in the EAC. During USMP-2, the AADSF was used to study the growth of mercury cadmium telluride crystals in microgravity by directional solidification, a process commonly used on earth to process metals and grow crystals. The furnace is tubular and has three independently controlled temperature zone . The sample travels from the hot zone of the furnace (1600 degrees F) where the material solidifies as it cools. The solidification region, known as the solid/liquid interface, moves from one end of the sample to the other at a controlled rate, thus the term directional solidification.

  11. Automated License Plate Recognition for Toll Booth Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan S. Shevale

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Smart Vehicle Screening System, which can be installed into a tollbooth for automated recognition of vehicle license plate information using a photograph of a vehicle. An automated system could then be implemented to control the payment of fees, parking areas, highways, bridges or tunnels, etc. There are considered an approach to identify vehicle through recognizing of it license plate using image fusion, neural networks and threshold techniques as well as some experimental results to recognize the license plate successfully.

  12. Dynamically controlled crystal growth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Terry L. (Inventor); Kim, Larry J. (Inventor); Harrington, Michael (Inventor); DeLucas, Lawrence J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Crystal growth can be initiated and controlled by dynamically controlled vapor diffusion or temperature change. In one aspect, the present invention uses a precisely controlled vapor diffusion approach to monitor and control protein crystal growth. The system utilizes a humidity sensor and various interfaces under computer control to effect virtually any evaporation rate from a number of different growth solutions simultaneously by means of an evaporative gas flow. A static laser light scattering sensor can be used to detect aggregation events and trigger a change in the evaporation rate for a growth solution. A control/follower configuration can be used to actively monitor one chamber and accurately control replicate chambers relative to the control chamber. In a second aspect, the invention exploits the varying solubility of proteins versus temperature to control the growth of protein crystals. This system contains miniature thermoelectric devices under microcomputer control that change temperature as needed to grow crystals of a given protein. Complex temperature ramps are possible using this approach. A static laser light scattering probe also can be used in this system as a non-invasive probe for detection of aggregation events. The automated dynamic control system provides systematic and predictable responses with regard to crystal size. These systems can be used for microgravity crystallization projects, for example in a space shuttle, and for crystallization work under terrestial conditions. The present invention is particularly useful for macromolecular crystallization, e.g. for proteins, polypeptides, nucleic acids, viruses and virus particles.

  13. Image analysis in high-content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederlein, Antje; Meyenhofer, Felix; White, Daniel; Bickle, Marc

    2009-11-01

    The field of High Content Screening (HCS) has evolved from a technology used exclusively by the pharmaceutical industry for secondary drug screening, to a technology used for primary drug screening and basic research in academia. The size and the complexity of the screens have been steadily increasing. This is reflected in the fact that the major challenges facing the field at the present are data mining and data storage due to the large amount of data generated during HCS. On the one hand, technological progress of fully automated image acquisition platforms, and on the other hand advances in the field of automated image analysis have made this technology more powerful and more accessible to less specialized users. Image analysis solutions for many biological problems exist and more are being developed to increase both the quality and the quantity of data extracted from the images acquired during the screens. We highlight in this review some of the major challenges facing automatic high throughput image analysis and present some of the software solutions available on the market or from academic open source solutions. PMID:19531001

  14. Automated conflict resolution issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  15. Protokoller til Home Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kristian Ellebæk

    2008-01-01

    computer, der kan skifte mellem foruddefinerede indstillinger. Nogle gange kan computeren fjernstyres over internettet, så man kan se hjemmets status fra en computer eller måske endda fra en mobiltelefon. Mens nævnte anvendelser er klassiske indenfor home automation, er yderligere funktionalitet dukket op...

  16. Myths in test automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmine Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myths in automation of software testing is an issue of discussion that echoes about the areas of service in validation of software industry. Probably, the first though that appears in knowledgeable reader would be Why this old topic again? What's New to discuss the matter? But, for the first time everyone agrees that undoubtedly automation testing today is not today what it used to be ten or fifteen years ago, because it has evolved in scope and magnitude. What began as a simple linear scripts for web applications today has a complex architecture and a hybrid framework to facilitate the implementation of testing applications developed with various platforms and technologies. Undoubtedly automation has advanced, but so did the myths associated with it. The change in perspective and knowledge of people on automation has altered the terrain. This article reflects the points of views and experience of the author in what has to do with the transformation of the original myths in new versions, and how they are derived; also provides his thoughts on the new generation of myths.

  17. Automated data model evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modeling process is essential phase within information systems development and implementation. This paper presents methods and techniques for analysis and evaluation of data model correctness. Recent methodologies and development results regarding automation of the process of model correctness analysis and relations with ontology tools has been presented. Key words: Database modeling, Data model correctness, Evaluation

  18. Automated solvent concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J. S.; Stuart, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Designed for automated drug identification system (AUDRI), device increases concentration by 100. Sample is first filtered, removing particulate contaminants and reducing water content of sample. Sample is extracted from filtered residue by specific solvent. Concentrator provides input material to analysis subsystem.

  19. ELECTROPNEUMATIC AUTOMATION EDUCATIONAL LABORATORY

    OpenAIRE

    Dolgorukov, S. O.; National Aviation University; Roman, B. V.; National Aviation University

    2013-01-01

    The article reflects current situation in education regarding mechatronics learning difficulties. Com-plex of laboratory test benches on electropneumatic automation are considered as a tool in advancing through technical science. Course of laboratory works developed to meet the requirement of efficient and reliable way of practical skills acquisition is regarded the simplest way for students to learn the ba-sics of mechatronics.

  20. Home Automation System Using Capacitive Touchscreen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Inaniya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Technology has been constantly evolving and with the advent of touchscreen in human life , devices are much easier and simple to operate. This work is mainly focused on building home automation system which is more user friendly and thus can be operated by anyone. Earlier home automation systems were completely mechanically operated and thus required a lot of maintenance and were costly also. Now that human and computer interaction has been developed into a more wide and sophisticated field , designing and operating of intelligence system has been more user friendly than ever. Home automation is a system that helps a user to operate switching various appliances and lighting devices from a single input. The touchscreen used as input is much simpler to operate. Touchscreen has been widely accepted as the most comfortable input to be provided to the user. Not only they are easy to operate but they also give a sense of personal involvement which the user always appreciate. The materials used in this system are easily available in the local market so that the touch screen sytem is cost effective .

  1. Automating spectral measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Fred T.

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses the architecture of software utilized in spectroscopic measurements. As optical coatings become more sophisticated, there is mounting need to automate data acquisition (DAQ) from spectrophotometers. Such need is exacerbated when 100% inspection is required, ancillary devices are utilized, cost reduction is crucial, or security is vital. While instrument manufacturers normally provide point-and-click DAQ software, an application programming interface (API) may be missing. In such cases automation is impossible or expensive. An API is typically provided in libraries (*.dll, *.ocx) which may be embedded in user-developed applications. Users can thereby implement DAQ automation in several Windows languages. Another possibility, developed by FTG as an alternative to instrument manufacturers' software, is the ActiveX application (*.exe). ActiveX, a component of many Windows applications, provides means for programming and interoperability. This architecture permits a point-and-click program to act as automation client and server. Excel, for example, can control and be controlled by DAQ applications. Most importantly, ActiveX permits ancillary devices such as barcode readers and XY-stages to be easily and economically integrated into scanning procedures. Since an ActiveX application has its own user-interface, it can be independently tested. The ActiveX application then runs (visibly or invisibly) under DAQ software control. Automation capabilities are accessed via a built-in spectro-BASIC language with industry-standard (VBA-compatible) syntax. Supplementing ActiveX, spectro-BASIC also includes auxiliary serial port commands for interfacing programmable logic controllers (PLC). A typical application is automatic filter handling.

  2. Data Quality Screening Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strub, Richard; Lynnes, Christopher; Hearty, Thomas; Won, Young-In; Fox, Peter; Zednik, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    A report describes the Data Quality Screening Service (DQSS), which is designed to help automate the filtering of remote sensing data on behalf of science users. Whereas this process often involves much research through quality documents followed by laborious coding, the DQSS is a Web Service that provides data users with data pre-filtered to their particular criteria, while at the same time guiding the user with filtering recommendations of the cognizant data experts. The DQSS design is based on a formal semantic Web ontology that describes data fields and the quality fields for applying quality control within a data product. The accompanying code base handles several remote sensing datasets and quality control schemes for data products stored in Hierarchical Data Format (HDF), a common format for NASA remote sensing data. Together, the ontology and code support a variety of quality control schemes through the implementation of the Boolean expression with simple, reusable conditional expressions as operands. Additional datasets are added to the DQSS simply by registering instances in the ontology if they follow a quality scheme that is already modeled in the ontology. New quality schemes are added by extending the ontology and adding code for each new scheme.

  3. [Toxicologic blood emergency screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sabine; Manat, Aurélie; Dumont, Benoit; Bévalot, Fabien; Manchon, Monique; Berny, Claudette

    2010-01-01

    In order to overcome the stop marketing by Biorad company of automated high performance liquid chromatograph with UV detection (Remedi), we developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect and to give an approximation of the overdose of molecules frequently encountered in drug intoxications. Therefore two hundred eighty seventeen blood samples were collected over a period of one year and allowed us to evaluate and compare the performance of these two techniques. As identification, GC-MS does not identify all molecules detected by Remedi in 24.2% of cases; there is a lack of sensitivity for opiates and the systematic absence of certain molecules such as betablockers. However, in 75.8% of cases the GC-MS detects all molecules found by Remedi and other molecules such as meprobamate, paracetamol, benzodiazepines and phenobarbital. The concentrations obtained are interpreted in terms of overdose showed 15.7% of discrepancy and 84.3% of concordance between the two techniques. The GC-MS technique described here is robust, fast and relatively simple to implement; the identification is facilitated by macro commands and the semi quantification remains manual. Despite a sequence of cleaning the column after each sample, carryover of a sample to the next remains possible. This technique can be used for toxicologic screening in acute intoxications. Nevertheless it must be supplemented by a HPLC with UV detection if molecules such as betablockers are suspected. PMID:20348049

  4. Crystals in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.; Carlsson, A.;

    2005-01-01

    the outer surface of the zeolite particles, particularly after thermal treatment. When using mesoporous zeolites, the particles were evenly distributed throughout the mesopore system of the zeolitic support, even after calcination, leading to nanocrystals within mesoporous zeolite single crystals........ As representative examples, a metal (Pt), an alloy (PtSn), and a metal carbide (beta-Mo2C) were supported on conventional and mesoporous zeolite carriers, respectively, and the degree of particle dispersion was compared by TEM imaging. On conventional zeolites, the supported material aggregated on...

  5. Virtual Crystallizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, T A; Dylla-Spears, R; Thorsness, C B

    2006-08-29

    Large dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are grown in large crystallizers to provide raw material for the manufacture of optical components for large laser systems. It is a challenge to grow crystal with sufficient mass and geometric properties to allow large optical plates to be cut from them. In addition, KDP has long been the canonical solution crystal for study of growth processes. To assist in the production of the crystals and the understanding of crystal growth phenomena, analysis of growth habits of large KDP crystals has been studied, small scale kinetic experiments have been performed, mass transfer rates in model systems have been measured, and computational-fluid-mechanics tools have been used to develop an engineering model of the crystal growth process. The model has been tested by looking at its ability to simulate the growth of nine KDP boules that all weighed more than 200 kg.

  6. Retinal Imaging Techniques for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, James Kang Hao; Cheung, Carol Y; Sim, Shaun Sebastian; Tan, Pok Chien; Tan, Gavin Siew Wei; Wong, Tien Yin

    2016-03-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, demand for diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening platforms is steeply increasing. Early detection and treatment of DR are key public health interventions that can greatly reduce the likelihood of vision loss. Current DR screening programs typically employ retinal fundus photography, which relies on skilled readers for manual DR assessment. However, this is labor-intensive and suffers from inconsistency across sites. Hence, there has been a recent proliferation of automated retinal image analysis software that may potentially alleviate this burden cost-effectively. Furthermore, current screening programs based on 2-dimensional fundus photography do not effectively screen for diabetic macular edema (DME). Optical coherence tomography is becoming increasingly recognized as the reference standard for DME assessment and can potentially provide a cost-effective solution for improving DME detection in large-scale DR screening programs. Current screening techniques are also unable to image the peripheral retina and require pharmacological pupil dilation; ultra-widefield imaging and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, which address these drawbacks, possess great potential. In this review, we summarize the current DR screening methods using various retinal imaging techniques, and also outline future possibilities. Advances in retinal imaging techniques can potentially transform the management of patients with diabetes, providing savings in health care costs and resources. PMID:26830491

  7. Automated Preferences Elicitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Guy, Tatiana Valentine

    Prague : Institute of Information Theory and Automation, 2011, s. 20-25. ISBN 978-80-903834-6-3. [The 2nd International Workshop od Decision Making with Multiple Imperfect Decision Makers. Held in Conjunction with the 25th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS 2011). Sierra Nevada (ES), 16.12.2011-16.12.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : elicitation * decision making * Bayesian decision making * fully probabilistic design Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/AS/karny-automated preferences elicitation.pdf

  8. Automated drawing generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since automated CAD drawing generation systems still require human intervention, improvements were focussed on an interactive processing section (data input and correcting operation) which necessitates a vast amount of work. As a result, human intervention was eliminated, the original objective of a computerized system. This is the first step taken towards complete automation. The effects of development and commercialization of the system are as described below. (1) The interactive processing time required for generating drawings was improved. It was determined that introduction of the CAD system has reduced the time required for generating drawings. (2) The difference in skills between workers preparing drawings has been eliminated and the quality of drawings has been made uniform. (3) The extent of knowledge and experience demanded of workers has been reduced. (author)

  9. Terminal automation system maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffelt, D.; Hewitt, J. [Engineered Systems Inc., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Nothing has improved petroleum product loading in recent years more than terminal automation systems. The presence of terminal automation systems (TAS) at loading racks has increased operational efficiency and safety and enhanced their accounting and management capabilities. However, like all finite systems, they occasionally malfunction or fail. Proper servicing and maintenance can minimize this. And in the unlikely event a TAS breakdown does occur, prompt and effective troubleshooting can reduce its impact on terminal productivity. To accommodate around-the-clock loading at racks, increasingly unattended by terminal personnel, TAS maintenance, servicing and troubleshooting has become increasingly demanding. It has also become increasingly important. After 15 years of trial and error at petroleum and petrochemical storage and transfer terminals, a number of successful troubleshooting programs have been developed. These include 24-hour {open_quotes}help hotlines,{close_quotes} internal (terminal company) and external (supplier) support staff, and {open_quotes}layered{close_quotes} support. These programs are described.

  10. ATLAS Distributed Computing Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Borrego, C; Campana, S; Di Girolamo, A; Elmsheuser, J; Hejbal, J; Kouba, T; Legger, F; Magradze, E; Medrano Llamas, R; Negri, G; Rinaldi, L; Sciacca, G; Serfon, C; Van Der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment benefits from computing resources distributed worldwide at more than 100 WLCG sites. The ATLAS Grid sites provide over 100k CPU job slots, over 100 PB of storage space on disk or tape. Monitoring of status of such a complex infrastructure is essential. The ATLAS Grid infrastructure is monitored 24/7 by two teams of shifters distributed world-wide, by the ATLAS Distributed Computing experts, and by site administrators. In this paper we summarize automation efforts performed within the ATLAS Distributed Computing team in order to reduce manpower costs and improve the reliability of the system. Different aspects of the automation process are described: from the ATLAS Grid site topology provided by the ATLAS Grid Information System, via automatic site testing by the HammerCloud, to automatic exclusion from production or analysis activities.

  11. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  12. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-05-31

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC.

  13. Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Development of the automated microbial metabolism laboratory (AMML) concept is reported. The focus of effort of AMML was on the advanced labeled release experiment. Labeled substrates, inhibitors, and temperatures were investigated to establish a comparative biochemical profile. Profiles at three time intervals on soil and pure cultures of bacteria isolated from soil were prepared to establish a complete library. The development of a strategy for the return of a soil sample from Mars is also reported.

  14. Components for automated microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determann, H.; Hartmann, H.; Schade, K. H.; Stankewitz, H. W.

    1980-12-01

    A number of devices, aiming at automated analysis of microscopic objects as regards their morphometrical parameters or their photometrical values, were developed. These comprise: (1) a device for automatic focusing tuned on maximum contrast; (2) a feedback system for automatic optimization of microscope illumination; and (3) microscope lenses with adjustable pupil distances for usage in the two previous devices. An extensive test program on histological and zytological applications proves the wide application possibilities of the autofocusing device.

  15. Automation of dissolution tests

    OpenAIRE

    Rolf Rolli

    2003-01-01

    Dissolution testing of drug formulations was introduced in the 1960s and accepted by health regulatory authorities in the 1970s. Since then, the importance of dissolution has grown rapidly as have the number of tests and demands in quality-control laboratories. Recent research works lead to the development of in-vitro dissolution tests as replacements for human and animal bioequivalence studies. For many years, a lot of time and effort has been invested in automation of dissolution tests. The...

  16. Automated uranium assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precise, timely inventories of enriched uranium stocks are vital to help prevent the loss, theft, or diversion of this material for illicit use. A wet-chemistry analyzer has been developed at LLL to assist in these inventories by performing automated analyses of uranium samples from different stages in the nuclear fuel cycle. These assays offer improved accuracy, reduced costs, significant savings in manpower, and lower radiation exposure for personnel compared with present techniques

  17. Construction Automation and Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Bock, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Due to the high complexity of the construction process and the stagnating technological development a long-term preparation is necessary to adapt it to advanced construction methods. Architects, engineers and all other participants of the construction process have to be integrated in this adaptation process. The short- and long-term development of automation will take place step-by-step and will be oriented to the respective application and requirements. In the initial phase existing building...

  18. Shielded cells transfer automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear waste from shielded cells is removed, packaged, and transferred manually in many nuclear facilities. To reduce radiation exposure to operators, technological advances in remote handling and automation were employed. An industrial robot and a specially designed end effector, access port, and sealing machine were used to remotely bag waste containers out of a glove box. The system is operated from a control panel outside the work area via television cameras

  19. Integrated Microreactors for Reaction Automation: New Approaches to Reaction Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Jonathan P.; Jensen, Klavs F.

    2010-07-01

    Applications of microsystems (microreactors) in continuous-flow chemistry have expanded rapidly over the past two decades, with numerous reports of higher conversions and yields compared to conventional batch benchtop equipment. Synthesis applications are enhanced by chemical information gained from integrating microreactor components with sensors, actuators, and automated fluid handling. Moreover, miniaturized systems allow experiments on well-defined samples at conditions not easily accessed by conventional means, such as reactions at high pressure and temperatures. The wealth of synthesis information that could potentially be acquired through use of microreactors integrated with physical sensors and analytical chemistry techniques for online reaction monitoring has not yet been well explored. The increased efficiency resulting from use of continuous-flow microreactor platforms to automate reaction screening and optimization encourages a shift from current batchwise chemical reaction development to this new approach. We review advances in this new area and provide application examples of online monitoring and automation.

  20. Pilot Initiatives of Adult Hearing Screening in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglialonga, A; Tognola, G; Grandori, F

    2011-05-10

    A series of pilot initiatives of adult hearing screening programs were organized in eight large and small-size cities in Italy in the past two years. The screening initiatives were held in public places, supermarkets, drugstores, and in some universities of the third age, and involved an overall population of 2,278 screened subjects with age ranging from 13 to 93 years. Three different screening tests were used to assess hearing ability in the participants, i.e.: screening pure tone audiometry (PTA), an automated speech-in-noise screening test (the SUN-test), and a screening questionnaire of self-perceived hearing handicap (the HHIE-S). This paper describes the organization and management of these screening initiatives and reviews the main results obtained in the screened population, using the three different screening tests. Results obtained in these pilot initiatives showed that screening adults for hearing problems might be feasible, on a local level, in non clinical settings and can be performed quite easily with the support of local coordinators and partners, such as associations or local authorities. It is recognized that further initiatives and studies will have to be performed to better define the key aspects related to the organization and management of adult hearing screening programs, either at a local, regional, or national level. PMID:26557301

  1. Pilot initiatives of adult hearing screening in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paglialonga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of pilot initiatives of adult hearing screening programs were organized in eight large and small-size cities in Italy in the past two years. The screening initiatives were held in public places, supermarkets, drugstores, and in some universities of the third age, and involved an overall population of 2,278 screened subjects with age ranging from 13 to 93 years. Three different screening tests were used to assess hearing ability in the participants, i.e.: screening pure tone audiometry (PTA, an automated speech-in-noise screening test (the SUN-test, and a screening questionnaire of self-perceived hearing handicap (the HHIE-S. This paper describes the organization and management of these screening initiatives and reviews the main results obtained in the screened population, using the three different screening tests. Results obtained in these pilot initiatives showed that screening adults for hearing problems might be feasible, on a local level, in non clinical settings and can be performed quite easily with the support of local coordinators and partners, such as associations or local authorities. It is recognized that further initiatives and studies will have to be performed to better define the key aspects related to the organization and management of adult hearing screening programs, either at a local, regional, or national level.

  2. LINAC control automation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 7 MeV Electron Beam Linear Accelerator (LINAC) being used for pulse radiolysis experiments at RC and CDD, B.A.R.C. has been automated with a PLC based control panel designed and developed by Computer Division, B.A.R.C.. The control panel after power on switches ON various units in a pre-defined sequence and intervals on a single turn of START key from OFF to ON position. The control panel also generates various ramp signals in a pre-defined sequence and rate and steady values and feeds to the LINAC bringing it to the ready for experiment condition. Similarly on a single turn of STOP key from OFF to ON position, the panel ramps down the various signals in pre-defined manners and makes OFF the various units in predefined sequence and timing providing safety to the machine. The steady values for various signals are on line settable as and when required so. This automation system relieves the operator from fatigue of time consuming manual ramping up or down of various signals and running around in four rooms for switching ON or OFF the various units enhancing efficiency and safety. This also facilitates the user scientist to do start up and shutdown operation in the absence of skilled operators and thus adds flexibility for working up to extended timing. This unit has been working satisfactorily since August 2002. For extraordinary condition automation to manual or vice versa change over has been provided. (author)

  3. Neonatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pàmpols, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    Neonatal screening (NS) is a medical act in the context of preventive medicine aimed at the early identification of infants affected by certain conditions that threaten their life and long-term health, for which a timely intervention can lead to a significant reduction of morbidity, mortality and associated disabilities. It emerged three decades ago in the context of prevention of mental retardation. Since then, around 600 inborn metabolic disorders have been described and technological progress has been impressive; nevertheless only around 5% of the disorders have been the object of NS. The most frequently cited reasons for the limitation are low prevalence and the lack of treatment. The tandem mass spectrometry has come in place in recent years across the globe, expanding NS to include several disorders of intermediary metabolism. This has shown, in addition to a prevalence much higher than previously thought, the benefits of early detection. The present work is a review of NS, not only from the point of view of technological/medical achievements, but also considering other factors which will affect specific disease selection, according to the social and organizational infrastructure that may expand the borders of NS. PMID:12921292

  4. Control System and Simulator of Automated Warehouse System

    OpenAIRE

    Lončar, Jovan

    2008-01-01

    Today, fo r the purpose of warehousing, companies are more and more building fully automated high-bay warehouses. In the thesis design and development of supervisory and control system is presented. Special attention was given to the user friendly user interface, which comprehends simple but informative graphical screens together with logging and notification of user in case of unusual events. For the purpose of intervention in the warehouse, a mobile panel was designed and developed in the s...

  5. Screen time and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    "Screen time" is a term used for activities done in front of a screen, such as watching TV, working on a computer, or playing video games. Screen time is sedentary activity, meaning you are being physically ...

  6. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  7. What Is Carrier Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Carrier screening You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Carrier Screening? Carrier screening checks if a person is a " ...

  8. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  9. Automated Detection of Soma Location and Morphology in Neuronal Network Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Burcin Ozcan; Pooran Negi; Fernanda Laezza; Manos Papadakis; Demetrio Labate

    2015-01-01

    Automated identification of the primary components of a neuron and extraction of its sub-cellular features are essential steps in many quantitative studies of neuronal networks. The focus of this paper is the development of an algorithm for the automated detection of the location and morphology of somas in confocal images of neuronal network cultures. This problem is motivated by applications in high-content screenings (HCS), where the extraction of multiple morphological features of neurons ...

  10. M2m Automation: Matlab-To-Map Reduce Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana C S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- MapReduce is a very popular parallel programming model for cloud computing platforms, and has become an effective method for processing massive data by using a cluster of computers. Program language -to-MapReduce Automator is a possible solution to help traditional programmers easily deploy an application to cloud systems through translating sequential codes to MapReduce codes.M2M Automation mainly focuses on automating numerical computations by using hadoop at the back end. M2M automates Hadoop, for faster execution of Matlab commands using MapReduce code.

  11. Hyphenated spectroscopy as a polymorph screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, Jaakko; Strachan, Clare J; Pöllänen, Kati; Yliruusi, Jouko; Rantanen, Jukka

    2007-06-28

    Polymorph screening of a model compound (nitrofurantoin) was performed. Nitrofurantoin was crystallized from acetone-water mixtures with varying process parameters. Two anhydrate forms (alpha and beta) and one monohydrate form (II) were crystallized in the polymorph screen. The solid forms were analyzed with three complementary spectroscopic techniques: near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and terahertz pulsed spectroscopy (TPS), and the results of the solid phase analysis were verified with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). NIR and Raman spectroscopy were coupled to achieve a rapid and comprehensive method of solid phase analysis. The hyphenated NIR/Raman spectroscopic data were analyzed with a multivariate method, principal component analysis (PCA). The combination was found effective in screening solid forms due to the complementary characteristics of the methods. NIR spectroscopy is powerful in differentiating between anhydrate and hydrate forms and intermolecular features, whereas Raman spectroscopy is sensitive to intramolecular alterations in the molecular backbone. PMID:17367979

  12. Crystallization and crystal manipulation of the Pterocarpus angolensis seed lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loris, Remy; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Buts, Lieven; Bouckaert, Julie; Beeckmans, Sonia; De Greve, Henri; Wyns, Lode

    2005-06-01

    The Man/Glc-specific legume lectin from the seeds of the African bloodwood tree (Pterocarpus angolensis) was crystallized in the presence of the disaccharide ligand Man(alpha1-3)ManMe. Small crystals initially appeared from a preliminary screen, but proved difficult to reproduce. The initial crystals were used to prepare microseeds, leading to a reproducible crystallization protocol. All attempts to obtain crystals directly of the ligand-free protein or of other carbohydrate complexes failed. However, the Man(alpha1-3)ManMe co-crystals withstand soaking with ten other carbohydrates known to bind to the lectin. Soaking for 15 min in 100 mM carbohydrate typically resulted in complete replacement of Man(alpha1-3)ManMe by the desired carbohydrate despite the involvement of lattice contacts at the binding site. Transferring the crystals for two weeks in carbohydrate-free artificial mother liquor resulted in the complete removal of the sugar from one of the two monomers in the asymmetric unit. Additional treatment of these crystals with 100 mM EDTA for two weeks resulted in removal of the structural calcium and manganese ions, which is accompanied by significant structural rearrangements of the loops that constitute the carbohydrate-binding site. PMID:15930620

  13. High-throughput protein crystallization on the World Community Grid and the GPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed CPU and GPU versions of an automated image analysis and classification system for protein crystallization trial images from the Hauptman Woodward Institute's High-Throughput Screening lab. The analysis step computes 12,375 numerical features per image. Using these features, we have trained a classifier that distinguishes 11 different crystallization outcomes, recognizing 80% of all crystals, 94% of clear drops, 94% of precipitates. The computing requirements for this analysis system are large. The complete HWI archive of 120 million images is being processed by the donated CPU cycles on World Community Grid, with a GPU phase launching in early 2012. The main computational burden of the analysis is the measure of textural (GLCM) features within the image at multiple neighbourhoods, distances, and at multiple greyscale intensity resolutions. CPU runtime averages 4,092 seconds (single threaded) on an Intel Xeon, but only 65 seconds on an NVIDIA Tesla C2050. We report on the process of adapting the C++ code to OpenCL, optimized for multiple platforms.

  14. Automated Assessment, Face to Face

    OpenAIRE

    Rizik M. H. Al-Sayyed; Amjad Hudaib; Muhannad AL-Shboul; Yousef Majdalawi; Mohammed Bataineh

    2010-01-01

    This research paper evaluates the usability of automated exams and compares them with the paper-and-pencil traditional ones. It presents the results of a detailed study conducted at The University of Jordan (UoJ) that comprised students from 15 faculties. A set of 613 students were asked about their opinions concerning automated exams; and their opinions were deeply analyzed. The results indicate that most students reported that they are satisfied with using automated exams but they have sugg...

  15. Automation System Products and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rintala, Mikko; Sormunen, Jussi; Kuisma, Petri; Rahkala, Matti

    2014-01-01

    Automation systems are used in most buildings nowadays. In the past they were mainly used in industry to control and monitor critical systems. During the past few decades the automation systems have become more common and are used today from big industrial solutions to homes of private customers. With the growing need for ecologic and cost-efficient management systems, home and building automation systems are becoming a standard way of controlling lighting, ventilation, heating etc. Auto...

  16. Software Testing and Documenting Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsybin, Anton; Lyadova, Lyudmila

    2008-01-01

    This article describes some approaches to problem of testing and documenting automation in information systems with graphical user interface. Combination of data mining methods and theory of finite state machines is used for testing automation. Automated creation of software documentation is based on using metadata in documented system. Metadata is built on graph model. Described approaches improve performance and quality of testing and documenting processes.

  17. Embedded system for building automation

    OpenAIRE

    Rolih, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Home automation is a fast developing field of computer science and electronics. Companies are offering many different products for home automation. Ranging anywhere from complete systems for building management and control, to simple smart lights that can be connected to the internet. These products offer the user greater living comfort and lower their expenses by reducing the energy usage. This thesis shows the development of a simple home automation system that focuses mainly on the enhance...

  18. In situ X-ray data collection and structure phasing of protein crystals at Structural Biology Center 19-ID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalska, Karolina; Tan, Kemin; Chang, Changsoo; Li, Hui; Hatzos-Skintges, Catherine; Molitsky, Michael; Alkire, Randy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2015-10-15

    A prototype of a 96-well plate scanner forin situdata collection has been developed at the Structural Biology Center (SBC) beamline 19-ID, located at the Advanced Photon Source, USA. The applicability of this instrument for protein crystal diffraction screening and data collection at ambient temperature has been demonstrated. Several different protein crystals, including selenium-labeled, were used for data collection and successful SAD phasing. Without the common procedure of crystal handling and subsequent cryo-cooling for data collection atT= 100 K, crystals in a crystallization buffer show remarkably low mosaicity (<0.1°) until deterioration by radiation damage occurs. Data presented here show that cryo-cooling can cause some unexpected structural changes. Based on the results of this study, the integration of the plate scanner into the 19-ID end-station with automated controls is being prepared. With improvement of hardware and software,in situdata collection will become available for the SBC user program including remote access.

  19. World-wide distribution automation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.

  20. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T;

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  1. Protein Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  2. AUTOMATED API TESTING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNIL L. BANGARE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. With the help of software testing we can verify or validate the software product. Normally testing will be done after development of software but we can perform the software testing at the time of development process also. This paper will give you a brief introduction about Automated API Testing Tool. This tool of testing will reduce lots of headache after the whole development of software. It saves time as well as money. Such type of testing is helpful in the Industries & Colleges also.

  3. Automated radioimmunoassay of nicotine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have developed an automated nonequilibrium procedure for the radioimmunoassay of nicotine. The use of a unique iodinated nicotine derivative in this procedure gave a sensitivity of 10 μg/l for nicotine with a between-run precision of 7.4% and within-run precision of 6.0%. Nicotine levels of 60 to 67 μg/l were found in subjects 15 min after smoking one standard cigarette. The technique herein reported is a very rapid, and sensitive radioimmunoassay for nicotine and facilitates the determination of nicotine in smoking subjects during the actual process of smoking. (Auth.)

  4. Automated Motivic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lartillot, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Motivic analysis provides very detailed understanding of musical composi- tions, but is also particularly difficult to formalize and systematize. A computational automation of the discovery of motivic patterns cannot be reduced to a mere extraction of all possible sequences of descriptions....... The systematic approach inexorably leads to a proliferation of redundant structures that needs to be addressed properly. Global filtering techniques cause a drastic elimination of interesting structures that damages the quality of the analysis. On the other hand, a selection of closed patterns allows...

  5. Mechatronic Design Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun

    This book proposes a novel design method that combines both genetic programming (GP) to automatically explore the open-ended design space and bond graphs (BG) to unify design representations of multi-domain Mechatronic systems. Results show that the method, formally called GPBG method, can...... successfully design analogue filters, vibration absorbers, micro-electro-mechanical systems, and vehicle suspension systems, all in an automatic or semi-automatic way. It also investigates the very important issue of co-designing plant-structures and dynamic controllers in automated design of Mechatronic...

  6. Macromolecular Crystal Growth by Means of Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderWoerd, Mark; Ferree, Darren; Spearing, Scott; Monaco, Lisa; Molho, Josh; Spaid, Michael; Brasseur, Mike; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have performed a feasibility study in which we show that chip-based, microfluidic (LabChip(TM)) technology is suitable for protein crystal growth. This technology allows for accurate and reliable dispensing and mixing of very small volumes while minimizing bubble formation in the crystallization mixture. The amount of (protein) solution remaining after completion of an experiment is minimal, which makes this technique efficient and attractive for use with proteins, which are difficult or expensive to obtain. The nature of LabChip(TM) technology renders it highly amenable to automation. Protein crystals obtained in our initial feasibility studies were of excellent quality as determined by X-ray diffraction. Subsequent to the feasibility study, we designed and produced the first LabChip(TM) device specifically for protein crystallization in batch mode. It can reliably dispense and mix from a range of solution constituents into two independent growth wells. We are currently testing this design to prove its efficacy for protein crystallization optimization experiments. In the near future we will expand our design to incorporate up to 10 growth wells per LabChip(TM) device. Upon completion, additional crystallization techniques such as vapor diffusion and liquid-liquid diffusion will be accommodated. Macromolecular crystallization using microfluidic technology is envisioned as a fully automated system, which will use the 'tele-science' concept of remote operation and will be developed into a research facility for the International Space Station as well as on the ground.

  7. Laser schlieren crystal monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Robert B. (Inventor); Johnston, Mary H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring the state of a crystal which is suspended in a solution is described which includes providing a light source for emitting a beam of light along an optical axis. A collimating lens is arranged along the optical axis for collimating the emitted beam to provide a first collimated light beam consisting of parallel light rays. By passing the first collimated light beam through a transparent container, a number of the parallel light rays are deflected off the surfaces of said crystal being monitored according to the refractive index gradient to provide a deflected beam of deflected light rays. A focusing lens is arranged along optical axis for focusing the deflected rays towards a desired focal point. A knife edge is arranged in a predetermined orientation at the focal point; and a screen is provided. A portion of the deflected beam is blocked with the knife edge to project only a portion of the deflected beam. A band is created at one edge of the image of the crystal which indicates the state of change of the surface of the crystal being monitored.

  8. Maneuver Automation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uffelman, Hal; Goodson, Troy; Pellegrin, Michael; Stavert, Lynn; Burk, Thomas; Beach, David; Signorelli, Joel; Jones, Jeremy; Hahn, Yungsun; Attiyah, Ahlam; Illsley, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    The Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) automates the process of generating commands for maneuvers to keep the spacecraft of the Cassini-Huygens mission on a predetermined prime mission trajectory. Before MAS became available, a team of approximately 10 members had to work about two weeks to design, test, and implement each maneuver in a process that involved running many maneuver-related application programs and then serially handing off data products to other parts of the team. MAS enables a three-member team to design, test, and implement a maneuver in about one-half hour after Navigation has process-tracking data. MAS accepts more than 60 parameters and 22 files as input directly from users. MAS consists of Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) scripts that link, sequence, and execute the maneuver- related application programs: "Pushing a single button" on a graphical user interface causes MAS to run navigation programs that design a maneuver; programs that create sequences of commands to execute the maneuver on the spacecraft; and a program that generates predictions about maneuver performance and generates reports and other files that enable users to quickly review and verify the maneuver design. MAS can also generate presentation materials, initiate electronic command request forms, and archive all data products for future reference.

  9. Automated Test Case Generation

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I would like to present the concept of automated test case generation. I work on it as part of my PhD and I think it would be interesting also for other people. It is also the topic of a workshop paper that I am introducing in Paris. (abstract below) Please note that the talk itself would be more general and not about the specifics of my PhD, but about the broad field of Automated Test Case Generation. I would introduce the main approaches (combinatorial testing, symbolic execution, adaptive random testing) and their advantages and problems. (oracle problem, combinatorial explosion, ...) Abstract of the paper: Over the last decade code-based test case generation techniques such as combinatorial testing or dynamic symbolic execution have seen growing research popularity. Most algorithms and tool implementations are based on finding assignments for input parameter values in order to maximise the execution branch coverage. Only few of them consider dependencies from outside the Code Under Test’s scope such...

  10. Automation from pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state transition diagram (STD) model has been helpful in the design of real time software, especially with the emergence of graphical computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools. Nevertheless, the translation of the STD to real time code has in the past been primarily a manual task. At Los Alamos we have automated this process. The designer constructs the STD using a CASE tool (Cadre Teamwork) using a special notation for events and actions. A translator converts the STD into an intermediate state notation language (SNL), and this SNL is compiled directly into C code (a state program). Execution of the state program is driven by external events, allowing multiple state programs to effectively share the resources of the host processor. Since the design and the code are tightly integrated through the CASE tool, the design and code never diverge, and we avoid design obsolescence. Furthermore, the CASE tool automates the production of formal technical documents from the graphic description encapsulated by the CASE tool. (author)

  11. Automated digital magnetofluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J; Garcia, A A; Marquez, M [Harrington Department of Bioengineering Arizona State University, Tempe AZ 85287-9709 (United States)], E-mail: tony.garcia@asu.edu

    2008-08-15

    Drops can be moved in complex patterns on superhydrophobic surfaces using a reconfigured computer-controlled x-y metrology stage with a high degree of accuracy, flexibility, and reconfigurability. The stage employs a DMC-4030 controller which has a RISC-based, clock multiplying processor with DSP functions, accepting encoder inputs up to 22 MHz, provides servo update rates as high as 32 kHz, and processes commands at rates as fast as 40 milliseconds. A 6.35 mm diameter cylindrical NdFeB magnet is translated by the stage causing water drops to move by the action of induced magnetization of coated iron microspheres that remain in the drop and are attracted to the rare earth magnet through digital magnetofluidics. Water drops are easily moved in complex patterns in automated digital magnetofluidics at an average speed of 2.8 cm/s over a superhydrophobic polyethylene surface created by solvent casting. With additional components, some potential uses for this automated microfluidic system include characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces, water quality analysis, and medical diagnostics.

  12. Automated Postediting of Documents

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, K; Knight, Kevin; Chander, Ishwar

    1994-01-01

    Large amounts of low- to medium-quality English texts are now being produced by machine translation (MT) systems, optical character readers (OCR), and non-native speakers of English. Most of this text must be postedited by hand before it sees the light of day. Improving text quality is tedious work, but its automation has not received much research attention. Anyone who has postedited a technical report or thesis written by a non-native speaker of English knows the potential of an automated postediting system. For the case of MT-generated text, we argue for the construction of postediting modules that are portable across MT systems, as an alternative to hardcoding improvements inside any one system. As an example, we have built a complete self-contained postediting module for the task of article selection (a, an, the) for English noun phrases. This is a notoriously difficult problem for Japanese-English MT. Our system contains over 200,000 rules derived automatically from online text resources. We report on l...

  13. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we exami

  14. Testing automation of projects in telecommunication domain

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey, Veselov; Vsevolod, Kotlyarov

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated approach to testing automation of telecommunication projects along with proposals to automation of conformance testing. The underlying idea is to benefit from combining formal verification and testing automation techniques in order to improve product quality.

  15. Crystal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 3 NIST Crystal Data (PC database for purchase)   NIST Crystal Data contains chemical, physical, and crystallographic information useful to characterize more than 237,671 inorganic and organic crystalline materials. The data include the standard cell parameters, cell volume, space group number and symbol, calculated density, chemical formula, chemical name, and classification by chemical type.

  16. Automated Methods of Corrosion Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    . Mechanical control, recording, and data processing must therefore be automated to a high level of precision and reliability. These general techniques and the apparatus involved have been described extensively. The automated methods of such high-resolution microscopy coordinated with computerized...

  17. Opening up Library Automation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of library automation, the author has seen a steady advancement toward more open systems. In the early days of library automation, when proprietary systems dominated, the need for standards was paramount since other means of inter-operability and data exchange weren't possible. Today's focus on Application Programming…

  18. Automation, Performance and International Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Lene; Sørensen, Anders

    productivity growth than other firms. Moreover, automation improves the efficiency of all stages of the production process by reducing setup time, run time, and inspection time and increasing uptime and quantity produced per worker. The efficiency improvement varies by type of automation....

  19. Automated separation for heterogeneous immunoassays

    OpenAIRE

    Truchaud, A.; Barclay, J; Yvert, J. P.; Capolaghi, B.

    1991-01-01

    Beside general requirements for modern automated systems, immunoassay automation involves specific requirements as a separation step for heterogeneous immunoassays. Systems are designed according to the solid phase selected: dedicated or open robots for coated tubes and wells, systems nearly similar to chemistry analysers in the case of magnetic particles, and a completely original design for those using porous and film materials.

  20. Automated Test-Form Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Diao, Qi

    2011-01-01

    In automated test assembly (ATA), the methodology of mixed-integer programming is used to select test items from an item bank to meet the specifications for a desired test form and optimize its measurement accuracy. The same methodology can be used to automate the formatting of the set of selected items into the actual test form. Three different…

  1. Automated Methods Of Corrosion Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Reeve, John Ch;

    1997-01-01

    The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell.......The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell....

  2. HCS-Neurons: identifying phenotypic changes in multi-neuron images upon drug treatments of high-content screening

    OpenAIRE

    Charoenkwan, Phasit; Hwang, Eric; Cutler, Robert W; Lee, Hua-Chin; Ko, Li-Wei; Huang, Hui-Ling; Ho, Shinn-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Background High-content screening (HCS) has become a powerful tool for drug discovery. However, the discovery of drugs targeting neurons is still hampered by the inability to accurately identify and quantify the phenotypic changes of multiple neurons in a single image (named multi-neuron image) of a high-content screen. Therefore, it is desirable to develop an automated image analysis method for analyzing multi-neuron images. Results We propose an automated analysis method with novel descript...

  3. Automated Standard Hazard Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebler, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

  4. Expedition automated flow fluorometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikun, V. A.; Salyuk, P. A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes an apparatus and operation of automated flow-through dual-channel fluorometer for studying the fluorescence of dissolved organic matter, and the fluorescence of phytoplankton cells with open and closed reaction centers in sea areas with oligotrophic and eutrophic water type. The step-by step excitation by two semiconductor lasers or two light-emitting diodes is realized in the current device. The excitation wavelengths are 405nm and 532nm in the default configuration. Excitation radiation of each light source can be changed with different durations, intensities and repetition rate. Registration of the fluorescence signal carried out by two photo-multipliers with different optical filters of 580-600 nm and 680-700 nm band pass diapasons. The configuration of excitation sources and spectral diapasons of registered radiation can be changed due to decided tasks.

  5. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  6. Berkeley automated supernova search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Berkeley automated supernova search employs a computer controlled 36-inch telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to image 2500 galaxies per night. A dedicated minicomputer compares each galaxy image with stored reference data to identify supernovae in real time. The threshold for detection is m/sub v/ = 18.8. We plan to monitor roughly 500 galaxies in Virgo and closer every night, and an additional 6000 galaxies out to 70 Mpc on a three night cycle. This should yield very early detection of several supernovae per year for detailed study, and reliable premaximum detection of roughly 100 supernovae per year for statistical studies. The search should be operational in mid-1982

  7. Automated synthetic scene generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Ryan N.

    Physics-based simulations generate synthetic imagery to help organizations anticipate system performance of proposed remote sensing systems. However, manually constructing synthetic scenes which are sophisticated enough to capture the complexity of real-world sites can take days to months depending on the size of the site and desired fidelity of the scene. This research, sponsored by the Air Force Research Laboratory's Sensors Directorate, successfully developed an automated approach to fuse high-resolution RGB imagery, lidar data, and hyperspectral imagery and then extract the necessary scene components. The method greatly reduces the time and money required to generate realistic synthetic scenes and developed new approaches to improve material identification using information from all three of the input datasets.

  8. Automated Electrostatics Environmental Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos; Lewis, Dean C.; Buchanan, Randy K.; Buchanan, Aubri

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Electrostatics Chamber (MEC) is an environmental chamber designed primarily to create atmospheric conditions like those at the surface of Mars to support experiments on electrostatic effects in the Martian environment. The chamber is equipped with a vacuum system, a cryogenic cooling system, an atmospheric-gas replenishing and analysis system, and a computerized control system that can be programmed by the user and that provides both automation and options for manual control. The control system can be set to maintain steady Mars-like conditions or to impose temperature and pressure variations of a Mars diurnal cycle at any given season and latitude. In addition, the MEC can be used in other areas of research because it can create steady or varying atmospheric conditions anywhere within the wide temperature, pressure, and composition ranges between the extremes of Mars-like and Earth-like conditions.

  9. Automating the multiprocessing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpasi, Dale J.

    1989-01-01

    An approach to automate the programming and operation of tree-structured networks of multiprocessor systems is discussed. A conceptual, knowledge-based operating environment is presented, and requirements for two major technology elements are identified as follows: (1) An intelligent information translator is proposed for implementating information transfer between dissimilar hardware and software, thereby enabling independent and modular development of future systems and promoting a language-independence of codes and information; (2) A resident system activity manager, which recognizes the systems capabilities and monitors the status of all systems within the environment, is proposed for integrating dissimilar systems into effective parallel processing resources to optimally meet user needs. Finally, key computational capabilities which must be provided before the environment can be realized are identified.

  10. Liquid crystal tunable photonic crystal dye laser

    OpenAIRE

    Buss, Thomas; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron; Kristensen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium.

  11. Molecular Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John D.

    1995-02-01

    This book describes the chemical and physical structure of molecular crystals, their optical and electronic properties, and the reactions between neighboring molecules in crystals. In the second edition, the author has taken into account research that has undergone extremely rapid development since the first edition was published in 1987. For instance, he gives extensive coverage to the applications of molecular materials in high-technology devices (e.g. optical communications, laser printers, photocopiers, liquid crystal displays, solar cells, and more). There is also an entirely new chapter on the recently discovered Buckminsterfullerene carbon molecule (C60) and organic non-linear optic materials.

  12. Liquid crystal tunable photonic crystal dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron;

    2010-01-01

    We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium.......We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium....

  13. Automating the radiographic NDT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automation, the removal of the human element in inspection, has not been generally applied to film radiographic NDT. The justication for automating is not only productivity but also reliability of results. Film remains in the automated system of the future because of its extremely high image content, approximately 8 x 109 bits per 14 x 17. The equivalent to 2200 computer floppy discs. Parts handling systems and robotics applied for manufacturing and some NDT modalities, should now be applied to film radiographic NDT systems. Automatic film handling can be achieved with the daylight NDT film handling system. Automatic film processing is becoming the standard in industry and can be coupled to the daylight system. Robots offer the opportunity to automate fully the exposure step. Finally, computer aided interpretation appears on the horizon. A unit which laser scans a 14 x 17 (inch) film in 6 - 8 seconds can digitize film information for further manipulation and possible automatic interrogations (computer aided interpretation). The system called FDRS (for Film Digital Radiography System) is moving toward 50 micron (*approx* 16 lines/mm) resolution. This is believed to meet the need of the majority of image content needs. We expect the automated system to appear first in parts (modules) as certain operations are automated. The future will see it all come together in an automated film radiographic NDT system (author)

  14. Automating the radiographic ndt process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automation, the removal of the human element in inspection, has not been generally applied to film radiographic NDT. The justification for automating is not only productivity but also reliability of results. Film remains in the automated system of the future because of its extremely high image content, approximately 8 x 109 bits per 14 x 17. This is equivalent to 2200 computer floppy discs. Parts handling systems and robotics applied for manufacturing and some NDT modalities, should now be applied to film radiographic NDT systems. Automatic film handling can be achieved with the daylight NDT film handling system. Automatic film processing is becoming the standard in industry and can be coupled to the daylight system. Robots offer the opportunity to automate fully the exposure step. Finally, computer aided interpretation appears on the horizon. A unit which laser scans a 14 x 17 inch film in 6 - 8 seconds can digitize film information for further manipulation and possible automatic interrogations (computer aided interpretation). The system called FDRS (for Film Digital Radiography System) is moving toward 50 micron (16 lines/mm) resolution. This is believed to meet the need of the majority of image content needs. We expect the automated system to appear first in separate parts (modules) as certain operations are automated. The future will see it all come together in an automated film radiographic NDT system

  15. Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Automated remote fluid servicing will be necessary for future space missions, as future satellites will be designed for on-orbit consumable replenishment. In order to develop an on-orbit remote servicing capability, a standard interface between a tanker and the receiving satellite is needed. The objective of the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) program is to design, fabricate, and functionally demonstrate compliance with all design requirements for an automated fluid interface system. A description and documentation of the Fairchild AFIS design is provided.

  16. Flexible End2End Workflow Automation of Hit-Discovery Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmüller-Laue, Silke; Göde, Bernd; Thurow, Kerstin

    2014-08-01

    The article considers a new approach of more complex laboratory automation at the workflow layer. The authors purpose the automation of end2end workflows. The combination of all relevant subprocesses-whether automated or manually performed, independently, and in which organizational unit-results in end2end processes that include all result dependencies. The end2end approach focuses on not only the classical experiments in synthesis or screening, but also on auxiliary processes such as the production and storage of chemicals, cell culturing, and maintenance as well as preparatory activities and analyses of experiments. Furthermore, the connection of control flow and data flow in the same process model leads to reducing of effort of the data transfer between the involved systems, including the necessary data transformations. This end2end laboratory automation can be realized effectively with the modern methods of business process management (BPM). This approach is based on a new standardization of the process-modeling notation Business Process Model and Notation 2.0. In drug discovery, several scientific disciplines act together with manifold modern methods, technologies, and a wide range of automated instruments for the discovery and design of target-based drugs. The article discusses the novel BPM-based automation concept with an implemented example of a high-throughput screening of previously synthesized compound libraries. PMID:24464814

  17. Automated Sputum Cytometry for Detection of Intraepithelial Neoplasias in the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the benefits of early lung cancer detection, no effective strategy for early screening and treatment exists, partly due to a lack of effective surrogate biomarkers. Our novel sputum biomarker, the Combined Score (CS, uses automated image cytometric analysis of ploidy and nuclear morphology to detect subtle intraepithelial changes that often precede lung tumours.

  18. Prostate cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000846.htm Prostate cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this ... Intern Med . 2011;155(11):762-71. National Cancer Institute. Prostate Cancer Screening -- for health professionals. Revised April 2, ...

  19. Screening for hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomson, P R V

    1983-01-01

    In an open access screening campaign for hypertension lasting six weeks 6259 individuals were screened with a Vita-Stat blood pressure computer and an estimated 4.2% to 5.4% of new cases were detected.

  20. Breast cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  1. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test ... called the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and stool DNA test (sDNA). Sigmoidoscopy : This test uses a small flexible ...

  2. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ... Physicians The full report is titled “Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ...

  3. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases HPV-Associated Cancers Gynecologic Cancers Redirect CDC - Screening Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You are being redirected to the HPV Cancer Screening page. Please update your bookmarks to the link ...

  4. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Cancer screening is looking for cancer before you have any ... be easier to treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different ...

  5. Screen Practice in Curating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    During the past one and a half decade, a curatorial orientation towards "screen practice" has expanded the moving image and digital art into the public domain, exploring alternative artistic uses of the screen. The emergence of urban LED screens in the late 1990s provided a new venue that allowed...... for digital art to expand into public space. It also offered a political point of departure, inviting for confrontation with the Spectacle and with the politics and ideology of the screen as a mass communication medium that instrumentalized spectator positions. In this article I propose that screen...... practice in curating has emerged from a critical discourse in response to a particular "screen topos", which has relied on a Foucauldian, apparatus-theoretical mechanism of the screen as a broadcasting medium of mass entertainment. This topos, I argue, has transferred the dispositif of the screen apparatus...

  6. Screening for Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Ovarian Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Ovarian Cancer . This recommendation is ...

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  8. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  9. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  10. Automated Eddy Current Inspection on Space Shuttle Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, John; Felker, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Over the life time of the Space Shuttle program, metal parts used for the Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRMs) have been nondestructively inspected for cracks and surface breaking discontinuities using magnetic particle (steel) and penetrant methods. Although these inspections adequately screened for critical sized cracks in most regions of the hardware, it became apparent after detection of several sub-critical flaws that the processes were very dependent on operator attentiveness and training. Throughout the 1990's, eddy current inspections were added to areas that had either limited visual access or were more fracture critical. In the late 1990's. a project was initiated to upgrade NDE inspections with the overall objective of improving inspection reliability and control. An automated eddy current inspection system was installed in 2001. A figure shows one of the inspection bays with the robotic axis of the system highlighted. The system was programmed to inspect the various case, nozzle, and igniter metal components that make up an RSRM. both steel and aluminum. For the past few years, the automated inspection system has been a part of the baseline inspection process for steel components. Although the majority of the RSRM metal part inventory ts free of detectable surface flaws, a few small, sub-critical manufacturing defects have been detected with the automated system. This paper will summarize the benefits that have been realized with the current automated eddy current system, as well as the flaws that have been detected.

  11. Contribution of Automated Technologies to Ion Channel Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picones, Arturo; Loza-Huerta, Arlet; Segura-Chama, Pedro; Lara-Figueroa, Cesar O

    2016-01-01

    Automated technologies are now resolving the historical relegation that ion channels have endured as targets for the new drug discovery and development global efforts. The richness and adequacy of functional assay methodologies, remarkably fluorescence-based detection of ions fluxes and patch-clamp electrophysiology recording of ionic currents, are now automated and increasingly employed for the analysis of ion channel activity. While the former is currently the most commonly applied, the latter is finally reaching the throughput capacity to be engaged in the primary screening of chemical libraries conformed by hundreds of thousands of compounds. The use of automated instrumentation for the study of ion channel functionality (and dysfunctionality), particularly in the search for novel pharmacological agents with therapeutic purposes, has now reached out beyond the industrial setting, its original natural enclave, and is making its way into a growing number of academic labs and core facilities. The present chapter reviews the increasing contributions accomplished by a variety of different key automated technologies which have revolutionized the strategies to approach the discovery and development of new drugs targeting ion channels. PMID:27038379

  12. The contribution of polystyrene nanospheres towards the crystallization of proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Kallio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein crystallization is a slow process of trial and error and limits the amount of solved protein structures. Search of a universal heterogeneous nucleant is an effort to facilitate crystallizability of proteins. METHODOLOGY: The effect of polystyrene nanospheres on protein crystallization were tested with three commercial proteins: lysozyme, xylanase, xylose isomerase, and with five research target proteins: hydrophobins HFBI and HFBII, laccase, sarcosine dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase (SDMT, and anti-testosterone Fab fragment 5F2. The use of nanospheres both in screening and as an additive for known crystallization conditions was studied. In screening, the addition of an aqueous solution of nanosphere to the crystallization drop had a significant positive effect on crystallization success in comparison to the control screen. As an additive in hydrophobin crystallization, the nanospheres altered the crystal packing, most likely due to the amphiphilic nature of hydrophobins. In the case of laccase, nanospheres could be used as an alternative for streak-seeding, which insofar had remained the only technique to produce high-diffracting crystals. With methyltransferase SDMT the nanospheres, used also as an additive, produced fewer, larger crystals in less time. Nanospheres, combined with the streak-seeding method, produced single 5F2 Fab crystals in shorter equilibration times. CONCLUSIONS: All in all, the use of nanospheres in protein crystallization proved to be beneficial, both when screening new crystallization conditions to promote nucleation and when used as an additive to produce better quality crystals, faster. The polystyrene nanospheres are easy to use, commercially available and close to being inert, as even with amphiphilic proteins only the crystal packing is altered and the nanospheres do not interfere with the structure and function of the protein.

  13. National Automated Conformity Inspection Process

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Automated Conformity Inspection Process (NACIP) Application is intended to expedite the workflow process as it pertains to the FAA Form 81 0-10 Request...

  14. Automating the Purple Crow Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Shannon; Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    The Purple Crow LiDAR (PCL) was built to measure short and long term coupling between the lower, middle, and upper atmosphere. The initial component of my MSc. project is to automate two key elements of the PCL: the rotating liquid mercury mirror and the Zaber alignment mirror. In addition to the automation of the Zaber alignment mirror, it is also necessary to describe the mirror's movement and positioning errors. Its properties will then be added into the alignment software. Once the alignment software has been completed, we will compare the new alignment method with the previous manual procedure. This is the first among several projects that will culminate in a fully-automated lidar. Eventually, we will be able to work remotely, thereby increasing the amount of data we collect. This paper will describe the motivation for automation, the methods we propose, preliminary results for the Zaber alignment error analysis, and future work.

  15. Fully automated parallel oligonucleotide synthesizer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebl, M.; Burger, Ch.; Ellman, B.; Heiner, D.; Ibrahim, G.; Jones, A.; Nibbe, M.; Thompson, J.; Mudra, Petr; Pokorný, Vít; Poncar, Pavel; Ženíšek, Karel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 8 (2001), s. 1299-1314. ISSN 0010-0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : automated oligonucleotide synthesizer Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.778, year: 2001

  16. Home automation with Intel Galileo

    CERN Document Server

    Dundar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    This book is for anyone who wants to learn Intel Galileo for home automation and cross-platform software development. No knowledge of programming with Intel Galileo is assumed, but knowledge of the C programming language is essential.

  17. Trace fluorescent labeling for protein crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusey, Marc, E-mail: marc.pusey@ixpressgenes.com; Barcena, Jorge; Morris, Michelle; Singhal, Anuj; Yuan, Qunying; Ng, Joseph [iXpressGenes Inc., 601 Genome Way, Huntsville, AL 35810 (United States)

    2015-06-27

    The presence of a covalently bound fluorescent probe at a concentration of <0.5% does not affect the outcome of macromolecule crystallization screening experiments. Additionally, the fluorescence can be used to determine new, not immediately apparent, lead crystallization conditions. Fluorescence can be a powerful tool to aid in the crystallization of proteins. In the trace-labeling approach, the protein is covalently derivatized with a high-quantum-yield visible-wavelength fluorescent probe. The final probe concentration typically labels ≤0.20% of the protein molecules, which has been shown to not affect the crystal nucleation or diffraction quality. The labeled protein is then used in a plate-screening experiment in the usual manner. As the most densely packed state of the protein is the crystalline form, then crystals show as the brightest objects in the well under fluorescent illumination. A study has been carried out on the effects of trace fluorescent labeling on the screening results obtained compared with nonlabeled protein, and it was found that considering the stochastic nature of the crystal nucleation process the presence of the probe did not affect the outcomes obtained. Other effects are realised when using fluorescence. Crystals are clearly seen even when buried in precipitate. This approach also finds ‘hidden’ leads, in the form of bright spots, with ∼30% of the leads found being optimized to crystals in a single-pass optimization trial. The use of visible fluorescence also enables the selection of colors that bypass interfering substances, and the screening materials do not have to be UV-transparent.

  18. DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO CRYSTALLIZATION OF MEMBRANE PROTEINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash G. Doiphode

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystallography is more like an art than science. Crystallizing membrane proteins are a big challenge; membrane proteins are present in the cell membrane and serve as cell support. The most important feature of membrane protein is that it contains both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions on its surface. They are generally much more difficult to study than soluble proteins. The problem becomes more difficult when trying to obtain crystals to determine the high resolution structures of membrane proteins. We want to utilize this opportunity to briefly examine various approaches for crystallization of membrane proteins. The important factors for determining the success of crystallization experiments for membrane proteins lies in the purification, preparation of membrane samples, the environment in which the crystals are grown and the technique used to grow the crystals. All the X-ray structures of membrane protein are grown from preparations of detergents by different methods developed to crystallize. In this review different techniques for the crystallization of membrane proteins are being described. The cubic phase method also known as in meso method is discussed along with other methods to understand about the crystallization of membrane proteins, its general applicability, salt, detergent and screening effects on crystallization. Low volumes as nano-liter of samples can be used for crystallization. The effects of different detergents on the crystallization of membrane protein, as well as the use of surfactants like polyoxyethylene. Approach based on the detergent complexation to prove the ability of cyclodextrins to remove detergent from ternary mixtures in order to get 2D crystals. Crystallization of membrane proteins using non-ionic surfactants as well as Lipidic sponge phase and with swollen lipidic mesophases is discussed to better understand the crystallization of membrane proteins.

  19. Towards automated traceability maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäder, Patrick; Gotel, Orlena

    2012-10-01

    Traceability relations support stakeholders in understanding the dependencies between artifacts created during the development of a software system and thus enable many development-related tasks. To ensure that the anticipated benefits of these tasks can be realized, it is necessary to have an up-to-date set of traceability relations between the established artifacts. This goal requires the creation of traceability relations during the initial development process. Furthermore, the goal also requires the maintenance of traceability relations over time as the software system evolves in order to prevent their decay. In this paper, an approach is discussed that supports the (semi-) automated update of traceability relations between requirements, analysis and design models of software systems expressed in the UML. This is made possible by analyzing change events that have been captured while working within a third-party UML modeling tool. Within the captured flow of events, development activities comprised of several events are recognized. These are matched with predefined rules that direct the update of impacted traceability relations. The overall approach is supported by a prototype tool and empirical results on the effectiveness of tool-supported traceability maintenance are provided. PMID:23471308

  20. Automated document analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jeffrey D.; Dietzel, Robert; Hartnett, David

    2002-08-01

    A software application has been developed to aid law enforcement and government intelligence gathering organizations in the translation and analysis of foreign language documents with potential intelligence content. The Automated Document Analysis System (ADAS) provides the capability to search (data or text mine) documents in English and the most commonly encountered foreign languages, including Arabic. Hardcopy documents are scanned by a high-speed scanner and are optical character recognized (OCR). Documents obtained in an electronic format bypass the OCR and are copied directly to a working directory. For translation and analysis, the script and the language of the documents are first determined. If the document is not in English, the document is machine translated to English. The documents are searched for keywords and key features in either the native language or translated English. The user can quickly review the document to determine if it has any intelligence content and whether detailed, verbatim human translation is required. The documents and document content are cataloged for potential future analysis. The system allows non-linguists to evaluate foreign language documents and allows for the quick analysis of a large quantity of documents. All document processing can be performed manually or automatically on a single document or a batch of documents.

  1. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  2. Automated Stellar Spectral Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailer-Jones, Coryn; Irwin, Mike; von Hippel, Ted

    1996-05-01

    Stellar classification has long been a useful tool for probing important astrophysical phenomena. Beyond simply categorizing stars it yields fundamental stellar parameters, acts as a probe of galactic abundance distributions and gives a first foothold on the cosmological distance ladder. The MK system in particular has survived on account of its robustness to changes in the calibrations of the physical parameters. Nonetheless, if stellar classification is to continue as a useful tool in stellar surveys, then it must adapt to keep pace with the large amounts of data which will be acquired as magnitude limits are pushed ever deeper. We are working on a project to automate the multi-parameter classification of visual stellar spectra, using artificial neural networks and other techniques. Our techniques have been developed with 10,000 spectra (B Analysis as a front-end compression of the data. Our continuing work also looks at the application of synthetic spectra to the direct classification of spectra in terms of the physical parameters of Teff, log g, and [Fe/H].

  3. Genetic circuit design automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Alec A K; Der, Bryan S; Shin, Jonghyeon; Vaidyanathan, Prashant; Paralanov, Vanya; Strychalski, Elizabeth A; Ross, David; Densmore, Douglas; Voigt, Christopher A

    2016-04-01

    Computation can be performed in living cells by DNA-encoded circuits that process sensory information and control biological functions. Their construction is time-intensive, requiring manual part assembly and balancing of regulator expression. We describe a design environment, Cello, in which a user writes Verilog code that is automatically transformed into a DNA sequence. Algorithms build a circuit diagram, assign and connect gates, and simulate performance. Reliable circuit design requires the insulation of gates from genetic context, so that they function identically when used in different circuits. We used Cello to design 60 circuits forEscherichia coli(880,000 base pairs of DNA), for which each DNA sequence was built as predicted by the software with no additional tuning. Of these, 45 circuits performed correctly in every output state (up to 10 regulators and 55 parts), and across all circuits 92% of the output states functioned as predicted. Design automation simplifies the incorporation of genetic circuits into biotechnology projects that require decision-making, control, sensing, or spatial organization. PMID:27034378

  4. Virtual Machine in Automation Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Xiaoyuan

    2010-01-01

    Virtual machine, as an engineering tool, has recently been introduced into automation projects in Tetra Pak Processing System AB. The goal of this paper is to examine how to better utilize virtual machine for the automation projects. This paper designs different project scenarios using virtual machine. It analyzes installability, performance and stability of virtual machine from the test results. Technical solutions concerning virtual machine are discussed such as the conversion with physical...

  5. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’15, held in Fuzhou, China. The topics include adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, reconfigurable control, etc. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into interdisciplinary solutions in the field of intelligent automation.

  6. Aprendizaje automático

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    En este libro se introducen los conceptos básicos en una de las ramas más estudiadas actualmente dentro de la inteligencia artificial: el aprendizaje automático. Se estudian temas como el aprendizaje inductivo, el razonamiento analógico, el aprendizaje basado en explicaciones, las redes neuronales, los algoritmos genéticos, el razonamiento basado en casos o las aproximaciones teóricas al aprendizaje automático.

  7. A test matrix sequencer for research test facility automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccartney, Timothy P.; Emery, Edward F.

    1990-01-01

    The hardware and software configuration of a Test Matrix Sequencer, a general purpose test matrix profiler that was developed for research test facility automation at the NASA Lewis Research Center, is described. The system provides set points to controllers and contact closures to data systems during the course of a test. The Test Matrix Sequencer consists of a microprocessor controlled system which is operated from a personal computer. The software program, which is the main element of the overall system is interactive and menu driven with pop-up windows and help screens. Analog and digital input/output channels can be controlled from a personal computer using the software program. The Test Matrix Sequencer provides more efficient use of aeronautics test facilities by automating repetitive tasks that were once done manually.

  8. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test. PMID:21954677

  9. Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

  10. Screened Coulomb interactions in metallic alloys. I. Universal screening in the atomic-sphere approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    2002-01-01

    of the alloy composition, lattice spacing, and crystal structure. A formalism which allows a consistent treatment of the screened Coulomb interactions within the single-site mean-field approximation is outlined. We also derive the contribution of the screened Coulomb interactions to the S-(2) formalism...... the Madelung potential energy of a random alloy in the single-site, mean-field approximation. The Madelung potential makes density-functional calculations by the conventional single-site, coherent potential approximation practically identical to the more rigorous LSGF supercell results obtained with a single......-site local interaction zone. We demonstrate that the basic mechanism that governs the charge distribution is the screening of the net charges of the alloy components that makes the direct Coulomb interactions short ranged. In the atomic-sphere approximation, this screening appears to be almost independent...

  11. Automated saccharification assay for determination of digestibility in plant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halpin Claire

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell wall resistance represents the main barrier for the production of second generation biofuels. The deconstruction of lignocellulose can provide sugars for the production of fuels or other industrial products through fermentation. Understanding the biochemical basis of the recalcitrance of cell walls to digestion will allow development of more effective and cost efficient ways to produce sugars from biomass. One approach is to identify plant genes that play a role in biomass recalcitrance, using association genetics. Such an approach requires a robust and reliable high throughput (HT assay for biomass digestibility, which can be used to screen the large numbers of samples involved in such studies. Results We developed a HT saccharification assay based on a robotic platform that can carry out in a 96-well plate format the enzymatic digestion and quantification of the released sugars. The handling of the biomass powder for weighing and formatting into 96 wells is performed by a robotic station, where the plant material is ground, delivered to the desired well in the plates and weighed with a precision of 0.1 mg. Once the plates are loaded, an automated liquid handling platform delivers an optional mild pretreatment ( Conclusions The automated assay systems are sensitive, robust and reliable. The system can reliably detect differences in the saccharification of plant tissues, and is able to process large number of samples with a minimum amount of human intervention. The automated system uncovered significant increases in the digestibility of certain lignin modified lines in a manner compatible with known effects of lignin modification on cell wall properties. We conclude that this automated assay platform is of sufficient sensitivity and reliability to undertake the screening of the large populations of plants necessary for mutant identification and genetic association studies.

  12. Development of an automated updated selvester QRS scoring system using SWT-based QRS fractionation detection and classification

    OpenAIRE

    Bono, Valentina; Mazomenos, Evangelos B.; Chen, Taihai; Rosengarten, James; Acharyya, Amit; Maharatna, Koushik; Morgan, John M.; Curzen, Nick

    2014-01-01

    The Selvester score is an effective means for estimating the extent of myocardial scar in a patient from lowcost ECG recordings. Automation of such a system is deemed to help implementing low-cost high-volume screening mechanisms of scar in the primary care. This article describes, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, an automated implementation of the updated Selvester scoring system for that purpose, where fractionated QRS morphologies and patterns are identified and classified ...

  13. The Correlation of Spurious Eosinophilia in Automated Hematological Analyzer Sysmex Xs-800i with Plasmodium Infection Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shashikant Adlekha; Ram Mohan Jaiswal; Tandra Chadha; Ashina Singla

    2011-01-01

    Context: Automated analyzers based on flow cytometry have evolved as an effective adjuvant diagnostic tool in malaria diagnosis. Aim: To find out the correlation of interpretive (IP) message from automated hematology analyzer XS-800i and Plasmodium infection diagnosed in peripheral smear. Settings and Design: Prospective study carried over a period of 2 years (July 2010 to June 2012). Materials and Methods: All cases with IP message of eosinophilia in Sysmex XS-800i analyzer were screened for...

  14. High-Efficiency Screening of Monoclonal Antibodies for Membrane Protein Crystallography

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Hyun-Ho; Fang, Yiling; Williams, Carole

    2011-01-01

    Determination of crystal structures of membrane proteins is often limited by difficulties obtaining crystals diffracting to high resolution. Co-crystallization with Fab fragments of monoclonal antibodies has been reported to improve diffraction of membrane proteins crystals. However, it is not simple to generate useful monoclonal antibodies for membrane protein crystallography. In this report, we present an optimized process for efficient screening from immunization to final validation of mon...

  15. Automated ship image acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, T. R.

    2008-04-01

    The experimental Automated Ship Image Acquisition System (ASIA) collects high-resolution ship photographs at a shore-based laboratory, with minimal human intervention. The system uses Automatic Identification System (AIS) data to direct a high-resolution SLR digital camera to ship targets and to identify the ships in the resulting photographs. The photo database is then searchable using the rich data fields from AIS, which include the name, type, call sign and various vessel identification numbers. The high-resolution images from ASIA are intended to provide information that can corroborate AIS reports (e.g., extract identification from the name on the hull) or provide information that has been omitted from the AIS reports (e.g., missing or incorrect hull dimensions, cargo, etc). Once assembled into a searchable image database, the images can be used for a wide variety of marine safety and security applications. This paper documents the author's experience with the practicality of composing photographs based on AIS reports alone, describing a number of ways in which this can go wrong, from errors in the AIS reports, to fixed and mobile obstructions and multiple ships in the shot. The frequency with which various errors occurred in automatically-composed photographs collected in Halifax harbour in winter time were determined by manual examination of the images. 45% of the images examined were considered of a quality sufficient to read identification markings, numbers and text off the entire ship. One of the main technical challenges for ASIA lies in automatically differentiating good and bad photographs, so that few bad ones would be shown to human users. Initial attempts at automatic photo rating showed 75% agreement with manual assessments.

  16. AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF BREAKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Farhadzade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakers relate to Electric Power Systems’ equipment, the reliability of which influence, to a great extend, on reliability of Power Plants. In particular, the breakers determine structural reliability of switchgear circuit of Power Stations and network substations. Failure in short-circuit switching off by breaker with further failure of reservation unit or system of long-distance protection lead quite often to system emergency.The problem of breakers’ reliability improvement and the reduction of maintenance expenses is becoming ever more urgent in conditions of systematic increasing of maintenance cost and repair expenses of oil circuit and air-break circuit breakers. The main direction of this problem solution is the improvement of diagnostic control methods and organization of on-condition maintenance. But this demands to use a great amount of statistic information about nameplate data of breakers and their operating conditions, about their failures, testing and repairing, advanced developments (software of computer technologies and specific automated information system (AIS.The new AIS with AISV logo was developed at the department: “Reliability of power equipment” of AzRDSI of Energy. The main features of AISV are:· to provide the security and data base accuracy;· to carry out systematic control of breakers conformity with operating conditions;· to make the estimation of individual  reliability’s value and characteristics of its changing for given combination of characteristics variety;· to provide personnel, who is responsible for technical maintenance of breakers, not only with information but also with methodological support, including recommendations for the given problem solving  and advanced methods for its realization.

  17. Rapid crystallization from acoustically levitated droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui-Ling; Yin, Da-Chuan; Guo, Yun-Zhu; Ma, Xiao-Liang; He, Jin; Guo, Wei-Hong; Xie, Xu-Zhuo; Zhou, Bo-Ru

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports on an ultrasonic levitation system developed for crystallization from solution in a containerless condition. The system has been proven to be able to levitate droplets stably and grow crystals rapidly and freely from a levitated droplet. Crystals of four samples, including NaCl, NH(4)Cl, lysozyme, and proteinase K, were obtained successfully utilizing the system. The studies showed that the crystals obtained from the acoustically levitated droplets all exhibited higher growth rates, larger sizes, better shapes, fewer crystals, as well as fewer twins and shards, compared with the control on a vessel wall. The results indicated that containerless ultrasonic levitation could play a key role in improving the crystallization of both inorganic salts and proteins. The ultrasonic levitation system could be used as a ground-based microgravity simulation platform, which could swiftly perform crystallization and screening of crystallization conditions for space crystallization and other ground-based containerless techniques. Moreover, the approach could also be conveniently applied to researching the dynamics and mechanism of crystallization. In addition, the device could be used for the preparation of high-purity materials, analysis of minute or poisonous samples, study of living cells, environmental monitoring, and so on. PMID:22501088

  18. Effect of temperature on the evolution of bright and dark screening-photovoltaic spatial solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘劲松; 郝中华

    2002-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the temperature effects on the evolution of both bright and dark screening-photovoltaicoptical spatial solitons in biased photovoltaic-photorefractive crystals in the case of neglecting the diffusion process. Fora stable bright or dark screening-photovoltaic soliton originally formed in a crystal at a given temperature, when thecrystal temperature changes, it will evolve into another stable screening-photovoltaic soliton if the change is quite small,whereas it will become unstable or break down if the temperature change is large enough. The spatial shape of a stablescreening-photovoltaic soliton can be reshaped by appropriately adjusting the crystal temperature.

  19. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Cervical Cancer Key Points Cervical cancer is a disease in ...

  20. Photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Kurt; Wehrspohn, Ralf B; Föll, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the contributions in this topically edited book stems from the priority program SPP 1113 ""Photonische Kristalle"" run by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), resulting in a survey of the current state of photonic crystal research in Germany. The first part of the book describes methods for the theoretical analysis of their optical properties as well as the results. The main part is dedicated to the fabrication, characterization and modeling of two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals, while the final section presents a wide spectrum of applications: gas sensors, micr

  1. High-Throughput Secondary Screening at the Single-Cell Level

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, J. Paul; Patsekin, Valery; Holdman, Cheryl; Ragheb, Kathy; Sturgis, Jennifer; Fatig, Ray; Avramova, Larisa V.; Rajwa, Bartek; Davisson, V. Jo; Lewis, Nicole; Narayanan, Padma; Li, Nianyu; Qualls, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an automated system for drug screening using a single-cell–multiple functional response technology. The approach uses a semiautomated preparatory system, high-speed sample collection, and a unique analytical tool that provides instantaneous results for compound dilutions using 384-well plates. The combination of automation and rapid robotic sampling increases quality control and robustness. High-speed flow cytometry is used to collect single-cell results together with a newl...

  2. On increasing protein-crystallization throughput for X-ray diffraction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashit K; Liu, Zhi Jie; Stewart, Patrick D; Schubot, Florian D; Rose, John P; Newton, M Gary; Wang, Bi Cheng

    2005-02-01

    Two recent developments, a novel screening/optimization strategy that considerably reduces the number of trials required to produce diffraction-size crystals and a simple modification that doubles the screening capacity of the Douglas Instruments ORYX 1-6 protein-crystallization robot, have been implemented into a structural genomics project. The new two-step screening/optimization strategy yields diffraction-quality crystals directly from the screening process, reducing the need for further optimization. The ORYX modification involves the addition of extensions to the sample- and oil-delivery arms and software modifications that allow two plates to be set up simultaneously. PMID:15681862

  3. Towards protein-crystal centering using second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy for automated crystal centering to guide synchrotron X-ray diffraction of protein crystals has been explored. The potential of second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy for automated crystal centering to guide synchrotron X-ray diffraction of protein crystals was explored. These studies included (i) comparison of microcrystal positions in cryoloops as determined by SHG imaging and by X-ray diffraction rastering and (ii) X-ray structure determinations of selected proteins to investigate the potential for laser-induced damage from SHG imaging. In studies using β2 adrenergic receptor membrane-protein crystals prepared in lipidic mesophase, the crystal locations identified by SHG images obtained in transmission mode were found to correlate well with the crystal locations identified by raster scanning using an X-ray minibeam. SHG imaging was found to provide about 2 µm spatial resolution and shorter image-acquisition times. The general insensitivity of SHG images to optical scatter enabled the reliable identification of microcrystals within opaque cryocooled lipidic mesophases that were not identified by conventional bright-field imaging. The potential impact of extended exposure of protein crystals to five times a typical imaging dose from an ultrafast laser source was also assessed. Measurements of myoglobin and thaumatin crystals resulted in no statistically significant differences between structures obtained from diffraction data acquired from exposed and unexposed regions of single crystals. Practical constraints for integrating SHG imaging into an active beamline for routine automated crystal centering are discussed

  4. An automated miniaturized Haploscope for testing binocular visual function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, T. A.; Williams, R. E.; Kuether, C. L.; Wyman-Cornsweet, D.

    1976-01-01

    A computer-controlled binocular vision testing device has been developed as one part of a system designed for NASA to test the vision of astronauts during spaceflight. The device, called the Mark III Haploscope, utilizes semi-automated psychophysical test procedures to measure visual acuity, stereopsis, phorias, fixation disparity and accommodation/convergence relationships. All tests are self-administered, yield quantitative data and may be used repeatedly without subject memorization. Future applications of this programmable, compact device include its use as a clinical instrument to perform routine eye examinations or vision screening, and as a research tool to examine the effects of environment or work-cycle upon visual function.

  5. AUTOMATION OF GLASS TEMPERING FURNACE BY USING PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah BÜYÜKYILDIZ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a furnace which is used for observation of environments under high temperature, and also used for manufacturing of glasses which are resisted to high temperature has been designed and implemented. Automation of this system has been done by using PLC. Operating parameters of furnace such as materials entering, the furnace, the local temperature control of furnace, cooling control and materials outing have been sensed with Hall Effect Sensor. Furthermore, the observation of parameters of furnace on screen has been provided with SCADA software. Obtained products have been shown the system works successfully.

  6. Towards an automated checked baggage inspection system augmented with robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDonato, Matthew P.; Dimitrov, Velin; Padır, Taskin

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel system for enhancing the efficiency and accuracy of checked baggage screening process at airports. The system requirements address the identification and retrieval of objects of interest that are prohibited in a checked luggage. The automated testbed is comprised of a Baxter research robot designed by Rethink Robotics for luggage and object manipulation, and a down-looking overhead RGB-D sensor for inspection and detection. We discuss an overview of current system implementations, areas of opportunity for improvements, robot system integration challenges, details of the proposed software architecture and experimental results from a case study for identifying various kinds of lighters in checked bags.

  7. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients. PMID:27306387

  8. Automated measurement of cell motility and proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goff Julie

    2005-04-01

    -cell objects, and uncertainty in the outlining and positioning of cells by automated image analysis. Exponential growth, as monitored by total cell area, did not linearly correlate with absolute cell number, but proved valuable for selection of reliable tracking data and for disclosing between-experiment variations in cell growth. Conclusion These results demonstrate the applicability of a system that uses fully automated image acquisition and analysis to study cell motility and growth. Cellular motility response is determined in an unbiased and comparatively high throughput manner. Abundant ancillary data provide opportunities for uniform filtering according to criteria that select for biological relevance and for providing insight into features of system performance. Data quality measures have been developed that can serve as a basis for the design and quality control of experiments that are facilitated by automation and the 384 well plate format. This system is applicable to large-scale studies such as drug screening and research into effects of complex combinations of factors and matrices on cell phenotype.

  9. Screening in liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Poggio, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Marzio

    2006-09-01

    A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines, although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors, such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction, is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation. PMID:16981254

  10. Screening in liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paolo Del Poggio; Marzio Mazzoleni

    2006-01-01

    A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines,although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors,such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction,is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation.

  11. Programmable automation systems in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Finnish safety authority (STUK) requires plant specific PSAs, and quantitative safety goals are set on different levels. The reliability analysis is more problematic when critical safety functions are realized by applying programmable automation systems. Conventional modeling techniques do not necessarily apply to the analysis of these systems, and the quantification seems to be impossible. However, it is important to analyze contribution of programmable automation systems to the plant safety and PSA is the only method with system analytical view over the safety. This report discusses the applicability of PSA methodology (fault tree analyses, failure modes and effects analyses) in the analysis of programmable automation systems. The problem of how to decompose programmable automation systems for reliability modeling purposes is discussed. In addition to the qualitative analysis and structural reliability modeling issues, the possibility to evaluate failure probabilities of programmable automation systems is considered. One solution to the quantification issue is the use of expert judgements, and the principles to apply expert judgements is discussed in the paper. A framework to apply expert judgements is outlined. Further, the impacts of subjective estimates on the interpretation of PSA results are discussed. (orig.) (13 refs.)

  12. International Conference Automation : Challenges in Automation, Robotics and Measurement Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Zieliński, Cezary; Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the set of papers accepted for presentation at the International Conference Automation, held in Warsaw, 2-4 March of 2016. It presents the research results presented by top experts in the fields of industrial automation, control, robotics and measurement techniques. Each chapter presents a thorough analysis of a specific technical problem which is usually followed by numerical analysis, simulation, and description of results of implementation of the solution of a real world problem. The presented theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines will be valuable for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and for practitioners solving industrial problems. .

  13. Pholcodine monohydrate: Crystal structure and polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruševski, Gjorgji; Zbačnik, Marija; Kajdžanoska, Marina; Ugarkovic, Sonja; Trimčeski, Vase; Kaitner, Branko; Jovanovski, Gligor; Makreski, Petre

    2013-07-01

    The first crystal structure elucidation of pholcodine monohydrate, an important antitussive active pharmaceutical ingredient is reported herein. The studied compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system in the space group P212121. Each H2O molecule is shared by two pholcodine molecules via three strong hydrogen bonds. The detailed crystallization screening from several different organic solvents afforded single crystals with various quality, all exhibiting prism-to-needlelike micro morphology. The investigation of the obtained single crystals by means of several physico-chemical, solid-state instrumental techniques (FT-IR, DSC, TG/DTG and XRPD) proved that pholcodine monohydrate exists in a single crystalline modification, identical to the commercial form of the compound.

  14. Photonic crystals principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionPrimary Properties of Photonic CrystalsFabrication of Photonic CrystalsPhotonic Crystal All-Optical SwitchingTunable Photonic Crystal FilterPhotonic Crystal LaserPhotonic Crystal Logic DevicesPhotonic Crystal Sensors

  15. High throughput screening of physicochemical properties and in vitro ADME profiling in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hong; Holmén, Anders G

    2009-03-01

    Current advances of new technologies with robotic automated assays combined with highly selective and sensitive LC-MS enable high-speed screening of lead series libraries in many in vitro assays. In this review, we summarize state of the art high throughput assays for screening of key physicochemical properties such as solubility, lipophilicity, pKa, drug-plasma protein binding and brain tissue binding as well as in vitro ADME profiling. We discuss two primary approaches for high throughput screening of solubility, i.e. an automated 96-well plate assay integrated with LC-MS and a rapid multi-wavelength UV plate reader. We address the advantages of newly developed miniaturized techniques for high throughput pKa screening by capillary electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry (CE-MS) with automated data analysis flow. Several new lipophilicity approaches other than octanol-water partitioning are critically reviewed, including rapid liquid chromatographic retention based approach, immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) partitioning and liposome, and potential microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) for accurate screening of LogP. We highlight the sample pooling (namely cassette dosing, all-in-one, cocktail) as an efficient approach for high throughput screening of physicochemical properties and in vitro ADME profiling with emphasis on the benefit of on-line quality control. This cassette dosing approach has been widely adapted in drug discovery for rapid screening of in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters with significantly increased capacity and dramatically reduced animal usage. PMID:19275537

  16. Computer automation and artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid advances in computing, resulting from micro chip revolution has increased its application manifold particularly for computer automation. Yet the level of automation available, has limited its application to more complex and dynamic systems which require an intelligent computer control. In this paper a review of Artificial intelligence techniques used to augment automation is presented. The current sequential processing approach usually adopted in artificial intelligence has succeeded in emulating the symbolic processing part of intelligence, but the processing power required to get more elusive aspects of intelligence leads towards parallel processing. An overview of parallel processing with emphasis on transputer is also provided. A Fuzzy knowledge based controller for amination drug delivery in muscle relaxant anesthesia on transputer is described. 4 figs. (author)

  17. Manual versus automated blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, A C; Kalliokoski, Otto; Sørensen, Dorte B;

    2014-01-01

    corticosterone metabolites, and expressed more anxious behavior than did the mice of the other groups. Plasma corticosterone levels of mice subjected to tail blood sampling were also elevated, although less significantly. Mice subjected to automated blood sampling were less affected with regard to the parameters......Facial vein (cheek blood) and caudal vein (tail blood) phlebotomy are two commonly used techniques for obtaining blood samples from laboratory mice, while automated blood sampling through a permanent catheter is a relatively new technique in mice. The present study compared physiological parameters......, glucocorticoid dynamics as well as the behavior of mice sampled repeatedly for 24 h by cheek blood, tail blood or automated blood sampling from the carotid artery. Mice subjected to cheek blood sampling lost significantly more body weight, had elevated levels of plasma corticosterone, excreted more fecal...

  18. Unmet needs in automated cytogenetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though some, at least, of the goals of automation systems for analysis of clinical cytogenetic material seem either at hand, like automatic metaphase finding, or at least likely to be met in the near future, like operator-assisted semi-automatic analysis of banded metaphase spreads, important areas of cytogenetic analsis, most importantly the determination of chromosomal aberration frequencies in populations of cells or in samples of cells from people exposed to environmental mutagens, await practical methods of automation. Important as are the clinical diagnostic applications, it is apparent that increasing concern over the clastogenic effects of the multitude of potentially clastogenic chemical and physical agents to which human populations are being increasingly exposed, and the resulting emergence of extensive cytogenetic testing protocols, makes the development of automation not only economically feasible but almost mandatory. The nature of the problems involved, and acutal of possible approaches to their solution, are discussed

  19. Network based automation for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahabeddini Parizi, Mohammad; Radziwon, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of appropriate automation concepts which increase productivity in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) requires a lot of effort, due to their limited resources. Therefore, it is strongly recommended for small firms to open up for the external sources of knowledge, which...... could be obtained through network interaction. Based on two extreme cases of SMEs representing low-tech industry and an in-depth analysis of their manufacturing facilities this paper presents how collaboration between firms embedded in a regional ecosystem could result in implementation of new...... other members of the same regional ecosystem. The findings highlight two main automation related areas where manufacturing SMEs could leverage on external sources on knowledge – these are assistance in defining automation problem as well as appropriate solution and provider selection. Consequently, this...

  20. Design automation for integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, S. B.; de Geus, A. J.; Rohrer, R. A.

    1983-04-01

    Consideration is given to the development status of the use of computers in automated integrated circuit design methods, which promise the minimization of both design time and design error incidence. Integrated circuit design encompasses two major tasks: error specification, in which the goal is a logic diagram that accurately represents the desired electronic function, and physical specification, in which the goal is an exact description of the physical locations of all circuit elements and their interconnections on the chip. Design automation not only saves money by reducing design and fabrication time, but also helps the community of systems and logic designers to work more innovatively. Attention is given to established design automation methodologies, programmable logic arrays, and design shortcuts.

  1. Metal based drugs: design, synthesis and in-vitro antimicrobial screening of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes with some new carboxamide derived compounds: crystal structures of N-[ethyl(propan-2-yl)carbamothioyl]thiophene-2-carboxamide and its copper(II) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrra, Sajjad H; Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H; Akram, Muhammad Safwan; Akhtar, Javeed; Al-Shehri, Saad M

    2016-08-01

    A new series of compounds derived from thiophene-2-carboxamide were synthesized and characterized by IR, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. These compounds were further used to prepare their Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) metal complexes. All metal(II) complexes were air and moisture stable. Physical, spectral and analytical data have shown the Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes to exhibit distorted square-planar and Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes tetrahedral geometries. The ligand (L(1)) and its Cu(II) complex were characterized by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. All the ligands and their metal(II) complexes were screened for their in-vitro antimicrobial activity. The antibacterial and antifungal bioactivity data showed that the metal(II) complexes were found to be more potent than the parent ligands against one or more bacterial and fungal strains. PMID:26067080

  2. Diabetes Screening Among Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Creatore, Maria I.; Gillian L Booth; Manuel, Douglas G.; Moineddin, Rahim; Glazier, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine diabetes screening, predictors of screening, and the burden of undiagnosed diabetes in the immigrant population and whether these estimates differ by ethnicity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A population-based retrospective cohort linking administrative health data to immigration files was used to follow the entire diabetes-free population aged 40 years and up in Ontario, Canada (N = 3,484,222) for 3 years (2004–2007) to determine whether individuals were screened for diabe...

  3. In-bead screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to screening of one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial libraries which is useful for the discovery of compounds displaying molecular interactions with a biological or a physicochemical system, such as substrates and inhibitors of enzymes and the like. The invention...... provides a method for screening a library of compounds for their interaction with a physico- chemical or biological system and a corresponding kit for performing the method of screening a one-bead-one-compound library of compounds....

  4. The Kondo Screening Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Affleck, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Renormalization group theory of the Kondo effect predicts that an impurity spin is screened by a conduction electron spread over a large distance of order >.1 to 1 micron. This review has the following sections: 1. The Kondo effect and the screening cloud, 2. Non-observation of the Kondo cloud in conventional experiments, 3. Kondo effect in transmission through a quantum dot, 4. Observing the screening cloud in persistent current experiments, 5. Side-coupled quantum dot, 6. Conclusions

  5. High-throughput cultivation and screening platform for unicellular phototrophs

    OpenAIRE

    Tillich, Ulrich M; Wolter, Nick; Schulze, Katja; Kramer, Dan; Brödel, Oliver; Frohme, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Background High-throughput cultivation and screening methods allow a parallel, miniaturized and cost efficient processing of many samples. These methods however, have not been generally established for phototrophic organisms such as microalgae or cyanobacteria. Results In this work we describe and test high-throughput methods with the model organism Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. The required technical automation for these processes was achieved with a Tecan Freedom Evo 200 pipetting robot. The c...

  6. Breast cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Skrabanek, P

    1988-01-01

    Consensus is still lacking on guidelines for breast-cancer screening with mammography: who should be screened, how frequently at what age, to what benefits and at what risks. American, Dutch, Swedish and Italian studies spanning the 1960s to the 1980s reveal a benefit from screening (reduced mortality from breast cancer) that occurs unambiguously only in women 50 years of age and over. Physicians who choose to screen mammographically their over-49-year-old female patients must do so with the ...

  7. Colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Frederico Ferreira Novaes de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in the world, and mortality has remained the same for the past 50 years, despite advances in diagnosis and treatment. Because significant numbers of patients present with advanced or incurable stages, patients with pre-malignant lesions (adenomatous polyps that occur as result of genetic inheritance or age should be screened, and patients with long-standing inflammatory bowel disease should undergo surveillance. There are different risk groups for CRC, as well as different screening strategies. It remains to be determined which screening protocol is the most cost-effective for each risk catagory. The objective of screening is to reduce morbidity and mortality in a target population. The purpose of this review is to analyze the results of the published CRC screening studies, with regard to the measured reduction of morbidity and mortality, due to CRC in the studied populations, following various screening procedures. The main screening techniques, used in combination or alone, include fecal occult blood tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy. Evidence from the published literature on screening methods for specific risk groups is scanty and frequently does not arise from controlled studies. Nevertheless, data from these studies, combined with recent advances in molecular genetics, certainly lead the way to greater efficacy and lower cost of CRC screening.

  8. ScreenOS Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Stefan; Delcourt, David

    2008-01-01

    In the only book that completely covers ScreenOS, six key members of Juniper Network's ScreenOS development team help you troubleshoot secure networks using ScreenOS firewall appliances. Over 200 recipes address a wide range of security issues, provide step-by-step solutions, and include discussions of why the recipes work, so you can easily set up and keep ScreenOS systems on track. The easy-to-follow format enables you to find the topic and specific recipe you need right away.

  9. Mammography screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality, but it...... is not possible to evaluate the effect on mortality until several years later, and continuously monitoring of the quality of all aspects of a screening programme is necessary. Based on other European guidelines, 11 quality indicators have been defined, and guidelines concerning organizational...... requirements for a Danish screening programme as well as recommendations for the radiographic and radiological work have been drawn up....

  10. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J; Jakobsen, Karen V; Christensen, Ib J;

    2011-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...... procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest....

  11. Automated synthesis of sialylated oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Esposito

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sialic acid-containing glycans play a major role in cell-surface interactions with external partners such as cells and viruses. Straightforward access to sialosides is required in order to study their biological functions on a molecular level. Here, automated oligosaccharide synthesis was used to facilitate the preparation of this class of biomolecules. Our strategy relies on novel sialyl α-(2→3 and α-(2→6 galactosyl imidates, which, used in combination with the automated platform, provided rapid access to a small library of conjugation-ready sialosides of biological relevance.

  12. Agile Data: Automating database refactorings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an automated approach to database change management throughout the companies’ development workflow. By using automated tools, companies can avoid common issues related to manual database deployments. This work was motivated by analyzing usual problems within organizations, mostly originated from manual interventions that may result in systems disruptions and production incidents. In addition to practices of continuous integration and continuous delivery, the current paper describes a case study in which a suggested pipeline is implemented in order to reduce the deployment times and decrease incidents due to ineffective data controlling.

  13. Automation system for experiment control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated multi-level system designed for acquisition, accumulation, sorting and processing of information obtained in the course of an experiment is discussed. Intelligent terminals are established at each nuclear installation, which are interconnected with measuring equipment of the corresponding installation. The intelligent terminals operating in the interactive real-time mode permit to use through data links computing facilities and storage of the processing centre. On the top level of the automated system the third generation M4030 computer with 256 Kbyte internal memory is employed. The intelligent terminals are created on the basis of the Ryad-1010 and M-400 computers

  14. Status of automated tensile machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to develop the Monbusho Automated Tensile machine (MATRON) and install and operate it at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The machine is designed to provide rapid, automated testing of irradiated miniature tensile specimen in a vacuum at elevated temperatures. The MATRON was successfully developed and shipped to PNL for installation in a hot facility. The original installation plan was modified to simplify the current and subsequent installations, and the installation was completed. Detailed procedures governing the operation of the system were written. Testing on irradiated miniature tensile specimen should begin in the near future

  15. Design automation, languages, and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    As the complexity of electronic systems continues to increase, the micro-electronic industry depends upon automation and simulations to adapt quickly to market changes and new technologies. Compiled from chapters contributed to CRC's best-selling VLSI Handbook, this volume covers a broad range of topics relevant to design automation, languages, and simulations. These include a collaborative framework that coordinates distributed design activities through the Internet, an overview of the Verilog hardware description language and its use in a design environment, hardware/software co-design, syst

  16. Automated Podcasting System for Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ypatios Grigoriadis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results achieved at Graz University of Technology (TU Graz in the field of automating the process of recording and publishing university lectures in a very new way. It outlines cornerstones of the development and integration of an automated recording system such as the lecture hall setup, the recording hardware and software architecture as well as the development of a text-based search for the final product by method of indexing video podcasts. Furthermore, the paper takes a look at didactical aspects, evaluations done in this context and future outlook.

  17. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation.   Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  18. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation. Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  19. Toward designing for trust in database automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appropriate reliance on system automation is imperative for safe and productive work, especially in safety-critical systems. It is unsafe to rely on automation beyond its designed use; conversely, it can be both unproductive and unsafe to manually perform tasks that are better relegated to automated tools. Operator trust in automated tools mediates reliance, and trust appears to affect how operators use technology. As automated agents become more complex, the question of trust in automation is increasingly important. In order to achieve proper use of automation, we must engender an appropriate degree of trust that is sensitive to changes in operating functions and context. In this paper, we present research concerning trust in automation in the domain of automated tools for relational databases. Lee and See have provided models of trust in automation. One model developed by Lee and See identifies three key categories of information about the automation that lie along a continuum of attributional abstraction. Purpose-, process-and performance-related information serve, both individually and through inferences between them, to describe automation in such a way as to engender r properly-calibrated trust. Thus, one can look at information from different levels of attributional abstraction as a general requirements analysis for information key to appropriate trust in automation. The model of information necessary to engender appropriate trust in automation [1] is a general one. Although it describes categories of information, it does not provide insight on how to determine the specific information elements required for a given automated tool. We have applied the Abstraction Hierarchy (AH) to this problem in the domain of relational databases. The AH serves as a formal description of the automation at several levels of abstraction, ranging from a very abstract purpose-oriented description to a more concrete description of the resources involved in the automated process

  20. Crystal design approaches for the synthesis of paracetamol co-crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Srirambhatla, V. K.; Kraft, A; Watt, S.; Powell, Anthony V.

    2012-01-01

    Crystal engineering principles were used to design three new co-crystals of paracetamol. A variety of potential cocrystal formers were initially identified from a search of the Cambridge Structural Database for molecules with complementary hydrogen-bond forming functionalities. Subsequent screening by powder X-ray diffraction of the products of the reaction of this library of molecules with paracetamol led to the discovery of new binary crystalline phases of paracetamol with trans-1,4- diamin...

  1. LiNbO_3晶体中屏蔽光伏孤子自偏转的时空演化与可控因素%Temporal evolution and controllable factors for self-deflection of screening photovoltaic solitons in LiNbO_3 crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文慧; 忽满利; 马志博; 种兰祥; 万云

    2012-01-01

    According to the band transport model theory,we establish the temporal evolution for dynamic equations concerning screening photovoltaic solitons in LiNbO_3 crystal in this paper.By using the finite difference method,we find that there exist large self-deflection bright and dark screening photovoltaic solitons in LiNbO_3 crystal,where the shape of the solitons becomes asymmetry ic with the increase of time.In addition,the absolute value of slope of the curve in deflection direction turns larger,while it tends to be smaller in the opposite direction as time increases.On the other hand,analysis shows that the factors related to the degree of self-deflection and deformation include acceptor concentration N_a,dark radiation I_d and applied electric field Eg.When N_A rises,the self-deflection degree and the deformation of bright soliton become smaller and the counterpart of dark soliton has opposite tendency while I_d and E_0 keep invariant.Moreover,for the bright and dark solitons,the space charge field induced in crystals is easier to reach saturation as I_d diminishes and there is no saturation phenomenon in both cases when the ratio between center light intensity and dark radiation intensity is 10~(-1).With the E_0 increases,the bright soliton self-deflection degree and deformation decrease,while the dark soliton self-deflection degree and deformation increase.%基于带输运模型理论建立了LiNbO_3晶体屏蔽光伏孤子的时空演化动力学方程,用有限差分方法求解发现,LiNbO_3晶体中明、暗屏蔽光伏孤子存在大的自偏转,并且光孤子形状变得具有不对称性,偏转方向的曲线斜率绝对值变大,偏转反方向的曲线斜率绝对值变小.分析研究表明影响其自偏转度和形变的因素包括受主浓度N_A,暗辐射强度I_d和外加电场E_0.其他条件不变的情况下N_A越大,明孤子的自偏转度与形变越小,暗孤子的自偏转度与形变反而越大;对于I_d,它对明暗孤子的影响

  2. Automatic detection of retinal anatomy to assist diabetic retinopathy screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Alan D [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Goatman, Keith A [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Philip, Sam [Grampian Diabetes Retinal Screening Programme, Woolmanhill Hospital, Aberdeen, AB25 1LD (United Kingdom); Olson, John A [Grampian Diabetes Retinal Screening Programme, Woolmanhill Hospital, Aberdeen, AB25 1LD (United Kingdom); Sharp, Peter F [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-21

    Screening programmes for diabetic retinopathy are being introduced in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. These require large numbers of retinal images to be manually graded for the presence of disease. Automation of image grading would have a number of benefits. However, an important prerequisite for automation is the accurate location of the main anatomical features in the image, notably the optic disc and the fovea. The locations of these features are necessary so that lesion significance, image field of view and image clarity can be assessed. This paper describes methods for the robust location of the optic disc and fovea. The elliptical form of the major retinal blood vessels is used to obtain approximate locations, which are refined based on the circular edge of the optic disc and the local darkening at the fovea. The methods have been tested on 1056 sequential images from a retinal screening programme. Positional accuracy was better than 0.5 of a disc diameter in 98.4% of cases for optic disc location, and in 96.5% of cases for fovea location. The methods are sufficiently accurate to form an important and effective component of an automated image grading system for diabetic retinopathy screening.

  3. Automatic detection of retinal anatomy to assist diabetic retinopathy screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening programmes for diabetic retinopathy are being introduced in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. These require large numbers of retinal images to be manually graded for the presence of disease. Automation of image grading would have a number of benefits. However, an important prerequisite for automation is the accurate location of the main anatomical features in the image, notably the optic disc and the fovea. The locations of these features are necessary so that lesion significance, image field of view and image clarity can be assessed. This paper describes methods for the robust location of the optic disc and fovea. The elliptical form of the major retinal blood vessels is used to obtain approximate locations, which are refined based on the circular edge of the optic disc and the local darkening at the fovea. The methods have been tested on 1056 sequential images from a retinal screening programme. Positional accuracy was better than 0.5 of a disc diameter in 98.4% of cases for optic disc location, and in 96.5% of cases for fovea location. The methods are sufficiently accurate to form an important and effective component of an automated image grading system for diabetic retinopathy screening

  4. Double screening tests of the CMS ECAL avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specially developed avalanche photodiodes (APDs) will be used to measure the light from the 61,200 lead tungstate crystals in the barrel part of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter. To ensure the reliability over the lifetime of the detector, every APD is screened by irradiation and burn-in before it is accepted for CMS. As part of the establishment of the screening procedure and to determine its effectiveness, a large number of APDs were screened twice. The results of these tests suggest that the required reliability will be achieved

  5. Double Screening Tests of the CMS ECAL Avalanche Photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Deiters, Konrad; Renker, Dieter; Sakhelashvili, Tariel; Britvitch, Ilia; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Musienko, Yuri; Singovsky, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Specially developed avalanche photo-diodes (APDs) will be used to measure the light from the 61,200 lead tungstate crystals in the barrel part of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter. To ensure the reliability over the lifetime of the detector, every APD is screened by irradiation and burn-in before it is accepted for CMS. As part of the establishment of the screening procedure and to determine its effectiveness, a large number of APDs were screened twice. The results of these tests suggest that the required reliability will be achieved.

  6. Automated Ply Inspection (API) for AFP Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Automated Ply Inspection (API) system autonomously inspects layups created by high speed automated fiber placement (AFP) machines. API comprises a high accuracy...

  7. Laboratory automation and LIMS in forensics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Morling, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of laboratory automation and LIMS in a forensic laboratory enables the laboratory, to standardize sample processing. Automated liquid handlers can increase throughput and eliminate manual repetitive pipetting operations, known to result in occupational injuries to the technical staff...

  8. Application of Imaging-Based Assays in Microplate Formats for High-Content Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Adam I; Martin, Scott E; Hasson, Samuel A

    2016-01-01

    The use of multiparametric microscopy-based screens with automated analysis has enabled the large-scale study of biological phenomena that are currently not measurable by any other method. Collectively referred to as high-content screening (HCS), or high-content analysis (HCA), these methods rely on an expanding array of imaging hardware and software automation. Coupled with an ever-growing amount of diverse chemical matter and functional genomic tools, HCS has helped open the door to a new frontier of understanding cell biology through phenotype-driven screening. With the ability to interrogate biology on a cell-by-cell basis in highly parallel microplate-based platforms, the utility of HCS continues to grow as advancements are made in acquisition speed, model system complexity, data management, and analysis systems. This chapter uses an example of screening for genetic factors regulating mitochondrial quality control to exemplify the practical considerations in developing and executing high-content campaigns. PMID:27317002

  9. Towards Automated System Synthesis Using SCIDUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Susmit Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Automated synthesis of systems that are correct by construction has been a long-standing goal of computer science. Synthesis is a creative task and requires human intuition and skill. Its complete automation is currently beyond the capacity of programs that do automated reasoning. However, there is a pressing need for tools and techniques that can automate non-intuitive and error-prone synthesis tasks. This thesis proposes a novel synthesis approach to solve such tasks in the synthesis of pro...

  10. GUI test automation for Qt application

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    GUI test automation is a popular and interesting subject in the testing industry. Many companies plan to start test automation projects in order to implement efficient, less expensive software testing. However, there are challenges for the testing team who lack experience performing GUI tests automation. Many GUI test automation projects have ended in failure due to mistakes made during the early stages of the project. The major work of this thesis is to find a solution to the challenges of e...

  11. Automated Integrated Analog Filter Design Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Karolis Kiela; Romualdas Navickas

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of modern automated integrated analog circuits design methods and their use in integrated filter design is done. Current modern analog circuits automated tools are based on optimization algorithms and/or new circuit generation methods. Most automated integrated filter design methods are only suited to gmC and switched current filter topologies. Here, an algorithm for an active RC integrated filter design is proposed, that can be used in automated filter designs. The algorithm is t...

  12. Secure automated canning and identification task (SACIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many nuclear facilities manually remove and package, or bagout, radioactive materials from a glove box. Up to four operators are involved in removing the can and sealing it in a plastic bag, sealing it in a second can and placing it on a cart for transport. This paper reports that a major objective of the Secure Automated Canning and Identification Task (SACIT) is to provide protection from an insider threat at bagout stations where nuclear materials are vulnerable to diversion and substitution. The SACIT system consists of a robot system, an inner glove box transfer device, a shrink wrap heat ring, specialized robot end effectors, supervisory computer systems, and an operator's control station. The robot performs functions such as removing and weighing the can, separating the bagged can from the rest of the bag after it is sealed, transferring it into a second can, and setting up the application of a shrink wrap seal to the second can. The computer performs real time monitoring of the robots movements while screening the operator's input for validity and safety

  13. Automated activation-analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. The system and its mode of operation for a large reconnaissance survey are described

  14. Automated Analysis of Infinite Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael

    The security of a network protocol crucially relies on the scenario in which the protocol is deployed. This paper describes syntactic constructs for modelling network scenarios and presents an automated analysis tool, which can guarantee that security properties hold in all of the (infinitely many...

  15. Automated visual inspection of textile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Fisker; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    A method for automated inspection of two types of textile is presented. The goal of the inspection is to determine defects in the textile. A prototype is constructed for simulating the textile production line. At the prototype the images of the textile are acquired by a high speed line scan camera...

  16. Automation of Space Inventory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Ngo, Phong; Wagner, Raymond; Barton, Richard; Gifford, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the utilization of automated space-based inventory management through handheld RFID readers and BioNet Middleware. The contents include: 1) Space-Based INventory Management; 2) Real-Time RFID Location and Tracking; 3) Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) RFID; and 4) BioNet Middleware.

  17. Distribution system analysis and automation

    CERN Document Server

    Gers, Juan

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to techniques that allow engineers to simulate, analyse and optimise power distribution systems which combined with automation, underpin the emerging concept of the "smart grid". This book is supported by theoretical concepts with real-world applications and MATLAB exercises.

  18. Automating the conflict resolution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to initiate a discussion of how the conflict resolution process at the Network Control Center can be made more efficient. Described here are how resource conflicts are currently resolved as well as the impacts of automating conflict resolution in the ATDRSS era. A variety of conflict resolution strategies are presented.

  19. Automated Clustering of Similar Amendments

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The Italian Senate is clogged by computer-generated amendments. This talk will describe a simple strategy to cluster them in an automated fashion, so that the appropriate Senate procedures can be used to get rid of them in one sweep.

  20. Feasibility Analysis of Crane Automation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Ming-xiao; MEI Xue-song; JIANG Ge-dong; ZHANG Gui-qing

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the modeling methods, open-loop control and closed-loop control techniques of various forms of cranes, worldwide, and discusses their feasibilities and limitations in engineering. Then the dynamic behaviors of cranes are analyzed. Finally, we propose applied modeling methods and feasible control techniques and demonstrate the feasibilities of crane automation.

  1. Automation; The New Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnstein, George E.

    Automation is a word that describes the workings of computers and the innovations of automatic transfer machines in the factory. As the hallmark of the new industrial revolution, computers displace workers and create a need for new skills and retraining programs. With improved communication between industry and the educational community to…

  2. Automation of Feynman diagram evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A C-program DIANA (DIagram ANAlyser) for the automation of Feynman diagram evaluations is presented. It consists of two parts: the analyzer of diagrams and the interpreter of a special text manipulating language. This language can be used to create a source code for analytical or numerical evaluations and to keep the control of the process in general

  3. Automated methods of corrosion measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Reeve, John Ch;

    1997-01-01

    to revise assumptions regarding the basis of the method, which sometimes leads to the discovery of as-yet unnoticed phenomena. The present selection of automated methods for corrosion measurements is not motivated simply by the fact that a certain measurement can be performed automatically...

  4. Teacherbot: Interventions in Automated Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Sian

    2015-01-01

    Promises of "teacher-light" tuition and of enhanced "efficiency" via the automation of teaching have been with us since the early days of digital education, sometimes embraced by academics and institutions, and sometimes resisted as a set of moves which are damaging to teacher professionalism and to the humanistic values of…

  5. Automation, Labor Productivity and Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Lene; Rose Skaksen, Jan; Sørensen, Anders

    CEBR fremlægger nu den første rapport i AIM-projektet. Rapporten viser, at der er gode muligheder for yderligere automation i en stor del af de danske fremstillingsvirksomheder. For i dag er gennemsnitligt kun omkring 30 % af virksomhedernes produktionsprocesser automatiserede. Navnlig procesområ...

  6. CCD characterization and measurements automation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotov, I.V.; Frank, J.; Kotov, A.I.; Kubánek, Petr; O´Connor, P.; Prouza, Michael; Radeka, V.; Takacs, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 695, Dec (2012), 188-192. ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : CCD * characterization * test automation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2012

  7. Adaptation : A Partially Automated Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manjing, Tham; Bukhsh, F.A.; Weigand, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper showcases the possibility of creating an adaptive auditing system. Adaptation in an audit environment need human intervention at some point. Based on a case study this paper focuses on automation of adaptation process. It is divided into solution design and validation parts. The artifact

  8. Automating the radiographic NDT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automation, the removal of the human element in inspection has not been generally applied to film radiographic NDT. The justification for automation is not only productivity but also reliability of results. Film remains in the automated system of the future because of its extremely high image content, approximately 3x10 (to the power of nine) bits per 14x17. This is equivalent to 2200 computer floppy disks parts handling systems and robotics applied for manufacturing and some NDT modalities, should now be applied to film radiographic NDT systems. Automatic film handling can be achieved with the daylight NDT film handling system. Automatic film processing is becoming the standard in industry and can be coupled to the daylight system. Robots offer the opportunity to automate fully the exposure step. Finally, a computer aided interpretation appears on the horizon. A unit which laser scans a 14x27 (inch) film in 6-8 seconds can digitize film in information for further manipulation and possible automatic interrogations (computer aided interpretation). The system called FDRS (for film digital radiography system) is moving toward 50 micron (16 lines/mm) resolution. This is believed to meet the need of the majority of image content needs. (Author). 4 refs.; 21 figs

  9. Mammography screening in denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse Merete Munk; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality...

  10. Mammography screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality...

  11. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laxatives to clear the colon, shows polyps clearly. DNA stool test This test checks DNA in stool cells for genetic changes that may be a sign of colorectal cancer. Screening clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the ... Screening tests have risks. False-negative test results can occur. ...

  12. EIA screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eskild Holm; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2005-01-01

    The article points out that EIA screening is effectively a regulatory instrument and it can be a cost-effective instrument with environmental benefits.......The article points out that EIA screening is effectively a regulatory instrument and it can be a cost-effective instrument with environmental benefits....

  13. Touch screens go optical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Pedersen, Henrik Chresten

    2012-01-01

    A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide.......A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide....

  14. Automated volumetric breast density estimation: A comparison with visual assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To compare automated volumetric breast density (VBD) measurement with visual assessment according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS), and to determine the factors influencing the agreement between them. Materials and methods: One hundred and ninety-three consecutive screening mammograms reported as negative were included in the study. Three radiologists assigned qualitative BI-RADS density categories to the mammograms. An automated volumetric breast-density method was used to measure VBD (% breast density) and density grade (VDG). Each case was classified into an agreement or disagreement group according to the comparison between visual assessment and VDG. The correlation between visual assessment and VDG was obtained. Various physical factors were compared between the two groups. Results: Agreement between visual assessment by the radiologists and VDG was good (ICC value = 0.757). VBD showed a highly significant positive correlation with visual assessment (Spearman's ρ = 0.754, p < 0.001). VBD and the x-ray tube target was significantly different between the agreement group and the disagreement groups (p = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively). Conclusion: Automated VBD is a reliable objective method to measure breast density. The agreement between VDG and visual assessment by radiologist might be influenced by physical factors

  15. Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steeples, Don W.

    2004-12-09

    This seven-year, shallow-seismic reflection research project had the aim of improving geophysical imaging of possible contaminant flow paths. Thousands of chemically contaminated sites exist in the United States, including at least 3,700 at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Imaging technologies such as shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sometimes are capable of identifying geologic conditions that might indicate preferential contaminant-flow paths. Historically, SSR has been used very little at depths shallower than 30 m, and even more rarely at depths of 10 m or less. Conversely, GPR is rarely useful at depths greater than 10 m, especially in areas where clay or other electrically conductive materials are present near the surface. Efforts to image the cone of depression around a pumping well using seismic methods were only partially successful (for complete references of all research results, see the full Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/14826-F), but peripheral results included development of SSR methods for depths shallower than one meter, a depth range that had not been achieved before. Imaging at such shallow depths, however, requires geophone intervals of the order of 10 cm or less, which makes such surveys very expensive in terms of human time and effort. We also showed that SSR and GPR could be used in a complementary fashion to image the same volume of earth at very shallow depths. The primary research focus of the second three-year period of funding was to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2D) shallow-seismic surveys with the goal of saving time, effort, and money. Tests involving the second generation of the hydraulic geophone-planting device dubbed the ''Autojuggie'' showed that large numbers of geophones can be placed quickly and automatically and can acquire high-quality data, although not under rough topographic conditions. In some easy

  16. You're a What? Automation Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, John

    2010-01-01

    Many people think of automation as laborsaving technology, but it sure keeps Jim Duffell busy. Defined simply, automation is a technique for making a device run or a process occur with minimal direct human intervention. But the functions and technologies involved in automated manufacturing are complex. Nearly all functions, from orders coming in…

  17. Library Automation : Change for Productivity in Service

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Gopinath

    1995-01-01

    Library operations, in the context of the automation necessitate for an integrated approach and change in the perception of library's work. It examines the functional aspects, social aspects and system dynamics of library automation. Some strategies for library automation are suggested.

  18. High-content screening of yeast mutant libraries by shotgun lipidomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarasov, Kirill; Stefanko, Adam; Casanovas, Albert;

    2014-01-01

    To identify proteins with a functional role in lipid metabolism and homeostasis we designed a high-throughput platform for high-content lipidomic screening of yeast mutant libraries. To this end, we combined culturing and lipid extraction in 96-well format, automated direct infusion...... factor KAR4 precipitated distinct lipid metabolic phenotypes. These results demonstrate that the high-throughput shotgun lipidomics platform is a valid and complementary proxy for high-content screening of yeast mutant libraries....

  19. A BSL-4 High-Throughput Screen Identifies Sulfonamide Inhibitors of Nipah Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Tigabu, Bersabeh; Rasmussen, Lynn; White, E. Lucile; Tower, Nichole; Saeed, Mohammad; Bukreyev, Alexander; Rockx, Barry; LeDuc, James W.; Noah, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Nipah virus is a biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) pathogen that causes severe respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans. To identify novel small molecules that target Nipah virus replication as potential therapeutics, Southern Research Institute and Galveston National Laboratory jointly developed an automated high-throughput screening platform that is capable of testing 10,000 compounds per day within BSL-4 biocontainment. Using this platform, we screened a 10,080-compound library using a cell-...

  20. Establishment of automated culture system for murine induced pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koike Hiroyuki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells can differentiate into any cell type, which makes them an attractive resource in fields such as regenerative medicine, drug screening, or in vitro toxicology. The most important prerequisite for these industrial applications is stable supply and uniform quality of iPS cells. Variation in quality largely results from differences in handling skills between operators in laboratories. To minimize these differences, establishment of an automated iPS cell culture system is necessary. Results We developed a standardized mouse iPS cell maintenance culture, using an automated cell culture system housed in a CO2 incubator commonly used in many laboratories. The iPS cells propagated in a chamber uniquely designed for automated culture and showed specific colony morphology, as for manual culture. A cell detachment device in the system passaged iPS cells automatically by dispersing colonies to single cells. In addition, iPS cells were passaged without any change in colony morphology or expression of undifferentiated stem cell markers during the 4 weeks of automated culture. Conclusions Our results show that use of this compact, automated cell culture system facilitates stable iPS cell culture without obvious effects on iPS cell pluripotency or colony-forming ability. The feasibility of iPS cell culture automation may greatly facilitate the use of this versatile cell source for a variety of biomedical applications.

  1. EddyOne automated analysis of PWR/WWER steam generator tubes eddy current data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INETEC Institute for Nuclear Technology developed software package called Eddy One which has option of automated analysis of bobbin coil eddy current data. During its development and on site use, many valuable lessons were learned which are described in this article. In accordance with previous, the following topics are covered: General requirements for automated analysis of bobbin coil eddy current data; Main approaches to automated analysis; Multi rule algorithms for data screening; Landmark detection algorithms as prerequisite for automated analysis (threshold algorithms and algorithms based on neural network principles); Field experience with Eddy One software; Development directions (use of artificial intelligence with self learning abilities for indication detection and sizing); Automated analysis software qualification; Conclusions. Special emphasis is given on results obtained on different types of steam generators, condensers and heat exchangers. Such results are then compared with results obtained by other automated software vendors giving clear advantage to INETEC approach. It has to be pointed out that INETEC field experience was collected also on WWER steam generators what is for now unique experience.(author)

  2. Screening protein refolding using surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel B; Hutchinson, Matthew H; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2004-04-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements were used to screen refolding conditions to identify a physicochemical environment which gives an acceptable refolding yield for samples of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) denatured in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride and 32 mM dithiothreitol. The SPR measurements were performed on carboxymethylcellulose coated chips that could accommodate two separate flow paths. One side of the chip was derivatized with immobilized glutathione and the other with goat anti-GST antibody. This created a dual-derivatized chip capable of showing both the presence of GST and providing a measure of enzyme activity. The dual-derivatized chip could be regenerated using a two-step washing procedure and reused to analyze multiple samples from a screening study of protein refolding conditions. SPR measurements have been shown to be suitable for screening protein refolding conditions due to the high sensitivity, ease of chip regeneration and the ability to incorporate a control in the experimental design. The combination of such advantages with the high-throughput automated SPR systems currently available may be a valuable approach to determine conditions suitable for protein refolding following insoluble expression in a bacterial host. PMID:15048982

  3. Ribbon Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Markvorsen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    A repetitive crystal-like pattern is spontaneously formed upon the twisting of straight ribbons. The pattern is akin to a tessellation with isosceles triangles, and it can easily be demonstrated with ribbons cut from an overhead transparency. We give a general description of developable ribbons...... using planar triangles and cylindrical arcs, and the ribbon structure is shown to arise from a maximization of the end-to-end length of the ribbon, i.e. from an optimal use of ribbon length. The phenomenon is discussed in the perspectives of incompatible intrinsic geometries and of the emergence of long...

  4. Optical Response of a Liquid Crystal modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress in liquid crystal device technology has led to the development of different electro-optical displays from simple digital watchs to high information content computer screens. In these electro-optical systems modulation of light by means of a liquid crystal device is very important subject both from the point of fundamental physics and for possible technological applications. In this study we describe a liquid crystal modulator which consists of a thin film of liquid crystal contained between parallel conductive glass plates. The surfaces of the plates are treated so that the liquid crystal molecules are parallel to the surfaces but twists about an axis normal to the surfaces by an angle of 90 degree from one substrate to the other. In a liquid crystal modulator the dielectric and optical anisotropies are used to modulate a laser beam passing through the film. If an electric field is applied across the film the molecules realign parallel to the electric field to form the homeotropic structure which has no optical modulation effect. Thus, the electric field-dependent transmission of the liquid crystal modulator is characterized. We also analyze the response behavior of the liquid crystal modulator

  5. Automation for a base station stability testing

    OpenAIRE

    Punnek, Elvis

    2016-01-01

    This Batchelor’s thesis was commissioned by Oy LM Ericsson Ab Oulu. The aim of it was to help to investigate and create a test automation solution for the stability testing of the LTE base station. The main objective was to create a test automation for a predefined test set. This test automation solution had to be created for specific environments and equipment. This work included creating the automation for the test cases and putting them to daily test automation jobs. The key factor...

  6. Screening and diagnosis for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV testing; HIV screening; HIV screening test; HIV confirmatory test ... A positive result on a screening test does not confirm that the person has HIV infection. More tests are needed to confirm HIV infection. A negative test ...

  7. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  8. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  9. Controversies in Screening Mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Monique; Jeudy, Myrlene; Pearlman, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    The utility and effectiveness of screening mammography in diagnosing breast cancer at earlier stages and reducing disease-specific mortality remain controversial especially as to when to start and stop routine mammographic screening, and whether mammograms should be performed annually or biennially in average-risk women. This manuscript will analyze the available moderate and high-quality data to analyze both the benefits (lives saved and life-years saved) and inconveniences/harms (additional views, extra biopsies/overdiagnosis, and overtreatment of ductal carcinoma in situ) of different mammography screening guidelines to assist the practitioner in counseling their patients in clinical practice. PMID:27101240

  10. Screening for asbestbetingede sygdomme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, Charlotte; Baandrup, Ulrik; Jacobsen, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    Screening programs for early detection of asbestos-related cancer have been considered. Conventional X-ray, computed tomography of the thorax, and the biomarkers osteopontin and mesothelin have been critically reviewed in the literature, together with survival data from screening programs in...... asbestos-exposed populations. Data do not currently support implementation of screening programs for asbestos-exposed persons in Denmark. Since mesothelioma is most often an occupational disease, these patients should be admitted to an occupational clinic for aetiological evaluation. Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  11. Screening for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Brendon M; Pua, Bradley; Altorki, Nasser K

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer is a global health burden and is among the most common and deadliest of all malignancies worldwide. The goal of screening programs is to detect tumors in earlier, curable stages, consequently reducing disease-specific mortality. The issue of screening has great relevance to thoracic surgeons, who should play a leading role in the debate over screening and its consequences. The burden is on thoracic surgeons to work in a multidisciplinary setting to guide and treat these patients safely and responsibly, ensuring low morbidity and mortality of potential diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. PMID:27261909

  12. Content adaptive screen image scaling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Yao; Wang, Qifei; Lu, Yan; Li, Shipeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient content adaptive screen image scaling scheme for the real-time screen applications like remote desktop and screen sharing. In the proposed screen scaling scheme, a screen content classification step is first introduced to classify the screen image into text and pictorial regions. Afterward, we propose an adaptive shift linear interpolation algorithm to predict the new pixel values with the shift offset adapted to the content type of each pixel. The shift offse...

  13. Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...

  14. Automation of a phospho-STAT5 staining procedure for flow cytometry for application in drug discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malergue, Fabrice; van Agthoven, Andreas; Scifo, Caroline; Egan, Dave; Strous, Ger J

    2015-01-01

    Drug discovery often requires the screening of compound libraries on tissue cultured cells. Some major targets in drug discovery belong to signal transduction pathways, and PerFix EXPOSE* allows easy flow cytometry phospho assays. We thus investigated the possibility to further simplify and automate

  15. An Overview of Moonlight Applications Test Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appasami Govindasamy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days web applications are developed by new technologies like Moonlight, Silverlight, JAVAFX, FLEX, etc. Silverlight is Microsoft's cross platform runtime and development technology for running Web-based multimedia applications in windows platform. Moonlight is an open-source implementation of the Silverlight development platform for Linux and other Unix/X11-based operating systems. It is a new technology in .Net 4.0 to develop rich interactive and attractive platform independent web applications. User Interface Test Automation is very essential for Software industries to reduce test time, cost and man power. Moonlight is new .NET technology to develop rich interactive Internet applications with the collaboration of Novel Corporation. Testing these kinds of applications are not so easy to test, especially the User interface test automation is very difficult. Software test automation has the capability to decrease the overall cost of testing and improve software quality, but most testing organizations have not been able to achieve the full potential of test automation. Many groups that implement test automation programs run into a number of common pitfalls. These problems can lead to test automation plans being completely scrapped, with the tools purchased for test automation becoming expensive. Often teams continue their automation effort, burdened with huge costs in maintaining large suites of automated test scripts. This paper will first discuss some of the key benefits of software test automation, and then examine the most common techniques used to implement software test automation of Moonlight Applications Test Automation. It will then discuss test automation and their potential. Finally, it will do test automation.

  16. Crystallization of protein–ligand complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods presented for growing protein–ligand complexes fall into the categories of co-expression of the protein with the ligands of interest, use of the ligands during protein purification, cocrystallization and soaking the ligands into existing crystals. Obtaining diffraction-quality crystals has long been a bottleneck in solving the three-dimensional structures of proteins. Often proteins may be stabilized when they are complexed with a substrate, nucleic acid, cofactor or small molecule. These ligands, on the other hand, have the potential to induce significant conformational changes to the protein and ab initio screening may be required to find a new crystal form. This paper presents an overview of strategies in the following areas for obtaining crystals of protein–ligand complexes: (i) co-expression of the protein with the ligands of interest, (ii) use of the ligands during protein purification, (iii) cocrystallization and (iv) soaks

  17. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  18. Newborn hearing screening: a regional example for national care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Adelola, O A

    2010-05-01

    Congenital Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment (PCHI) is known to have a negative effect on language acquisition, cognitive development and social integration. Since 2000 our department has implemented a UNHS program in the West of Ireland. We describe our experience and detail our results to date. All neonates born from October 2000 to November 2007 were screened using a 2-stage protocol. Transient evoked oto-acoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were used to screen all neonates, followed by automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) in those who did not pass TEOAE, and all neonates at audiological risk. 26,281 babies were born over the eight year period. 25,742 underwent the screening process, achieving a coverage rate of 98%. The prevalence of PCHI in the population tested was 1.21\\/1000 live births (31\\/25,731). Our results show that a hospital based 2-stage UNHS protocol using TEOAEs and AABR is accurate, feasible and effective.

  19. Towards high throughput screening of nanoparticle flotation collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, Carla; Yang, Songtao; Pelton, Robert H

    2015-12-15

    To function as flotation collectors for mineral processing, polymeric nanoparticles require a delicate balance of surface properties to give mineral-specific deposition and colloidal stability in high ionic strength alkaline media, while remaining sufficiently hydrophobic to promote flotation. Combinatorial nanoparticle surface modification, in conjunction with high throughput screening, is a promising approach for nanoparticle development. However, efficient automated screening assays are required to reject ineffective particles without having to undergo time consuming flotation testing. Herein we demonstrate that determining critical coagulation concentrations of sodium carbonate in combination with measuring the advancing water contact angle of nanoparticle-saturated glass surfaces can be used to screen ineffective nanoparticles. Finally, none of our first nanoparticle library based on poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEG-methacrylate) were effective flotation collectors because the nanoparticles were too hydrophilic. PMID:26319325

  20. Peripheral DSA with automated stepping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripheral digital angiography can now be applied with automated stepping to evaluate the complete lower extremity, with one single injection of contrast medium. In general, good-quality images have been obtained. In some cases, a stationary run had to be carried out with a digital subtraction angiographic (DSA) technique. The authors report a further improvement of this method: it allows angiographic evaluation of the complete lower extremity with DSA technique after a single contrast medium injection of 60 mL. Altogether, 25 examinations were evaluated and compared with results of the nonsubtracted technique. With the DSA-technique, additional series could be reduced to only those where significant differences in flow between the extremities necessitated different timing, as known from conventional angiography as well. In conclusion, the use of DSA technique with automated stepping may totally replace conventional angiography of the peripheral arteries

  1. Automated nanomanipulation for nanodevice construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanowire field-effect transistors (nano-FETs) are nanodevices capable of highly sensitive, label-free sensing of molecules. However, significant variations in sensitivity across devices can result from poor control over device parameters, such as nanowire diameter and the number of electrode-bridging nanowires. This paper presents a fabrication approach that uses wafer-scale nanowire contact printing for throughput and uses automated nanomanipulation for precision control of nanowire number and diameter. The process requires only one photolithography mask. Using nanowire contact printing and post-processing (i.e. nanomanipulation inside a scanning electron microscope), we are able to produce devices all with a single-nanowire and similar diameters at a speed of ∼1 min/device with a success rate of 95% (n = 500). This technology represents a seamless integration of wafer-scale microfabrication and automated nanorobotic manipulation for producing nano-FET sensors with consistent response across devices. (paper)

  2. CCD characterization and measurements automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern mosaic cameras have grown both in size and in number of sensors. The required volume of sensor testing and characterization has grown accordingly. For camera projects as large as the LSST, test automation becomes a necessity. A CCD testing and characterization laboratory was built and is in operation for the LSST project. Characterization of LSST study contract sensors has been performed. The characterization process and its automation are discussed, and results are presented. Our system automatically acquires images, populates a database with metadata information, and runs express analysis. This approach is illustrated on 55Fe data analysis. 55Fe data are used to measure gain, charge transfer efficiency and charge diffusion. Examples of express analysis results are presented and discussed.

  3. Automating occupational protection records systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational protection records have traditionally been generated by field and laboratory personnel, assembled into files in the safety office, and eventually stored in a warehouse or other facility. Until recently, these records have been primarily paper copies, often handwritten. Sometimes, the paper is microfilmed for storage. However, electronic records are beginning to replace these traditional methods. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance for making the transition to automated record keeping and retrieval using modern computer equipment. This paper describes the types of records most readily converted to electronic record keeping and a methodology for implementing an automated record system. The process of conversion is based on a requirements analysis to assess program needs and a high level of user involvement during the development. The importance of indexing the hard copy records for easy retrieval is also discussed. The concept of linkage between related records and its importance relative to reporting, research, and litigation will be addressed. 2 figs

  4. A software architecture for automating operations processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kevin J.

    1994-01-01

    The Operations Engineering Lab (OEL) at JPL has developed a software architecture based on an integrated toolkit approach for simplifying and automating mission operations tasks. The toolkit approach is based on building adaptable, reusable graphical tools that are integrated through a combination of libraries, scripts, and system-level user interface shells. The graphical interface shells are designed to integrate and visually guide a user through the complex steps in an operations process. They provide a user with an integrated system-level picture of an overall process, defining the required inputs and possible output through interactive on-screen graphics. The OEL has developed the software for building these process-oriented graphical user interface (GUI) shells. The OEL Shell development system (OEL Shell) is an extension of JPL's Widget Creation Library (WCL). The OEL Shell system can be used to easily build user interfaces for running complex processes, applications with extensive command-line interfaces, and tool-integration tasks. The interface shells display a logical process flow using arrows and box graphics. They also allow a user to select which output products are desired and which input sources are needed, eliminating the need to know which program and its associated command-line parameters must be executed in each case. The shells have also proved valuable for use as operations training tools because of the OEL Shell hypertext help environment. The OEL toolkit approach is guided by several principles, including the use of ASCII text file interfaces with a multimission format, Perl scripts for mission-specific adaptation code, and programs that include a simple command-line interface for batch mode processing. Projects can adapt the interface shells by simple changes to the resources configuration file. This approach has allowed the development of sophisticated, automated software systems that are easy, cheap, and fast to build. This paper will

  5. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Rapid Lead Screening Test Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reducing the need for a follow-up visit. Lead Risk Links Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  6. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects of the spinal column and brain (called neural tube defects). This test is a screening test, so it ... Absence of part of the brain and skull (anencephaly) Defect in the baby's intestines or other nearby ...

  7. Congenital hypothyroidism: Screening dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena P Desai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary sporadic congenital hypothyroidism (CH is the most common cause of hypothyroidism infancy early childhood in iodine sufficient region. Screening for neonatal CH began in 1970s. The rationale and reason for neonatal screening for CH (NSCH are well established. It is mandatory in most developed countries along with the screen for metabolic disorder. The possibility of measuring TSH and thyroid hormones in cord blood paved the way for newborn screening (NS for CH. Worldwide it is estimated that 25% of the live born population of 130 million babies undergo NSCH. Klein et al., by 1972 had shown improved CNS prognosis in CH treated by age 3 months. NSCH has largely eradicated the severe irreversible neurodevelopmental damage and reversed the chances of growth failure in infancy and early childhood.

  8. Health Screenings at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blackboard may not know that she is seeing differently from anyone else. Nevertheless, even mild deficiencies of sight can significantly affect a child's ability to learn. In some states these screening tests are mandated ...

  9. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  10. Screen time and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... watching TV, working on a computer, or playing video games. Screen time is sedentary activity, meaning you are ... over. Suggest other activities, such as family board games, puzzles, ... active. Be a good role model as a parent. Decrease your own ...

  11. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  12. Anal screening cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiman Gladwyn

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This issue of CytoJournal contains an article on screening for anal intraepithelial neoplasia in high-risk male patients. This accompanying Editorial focuses on current understanding of this relatively new disease entity, with insights as to the potential role of screening cytopathology in the epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical management of this HIV and HPV related anal lesion, which predominates in male patients living long-term with AIDS. Mention is made of techniques of obtaining samples, methods of preparation, and morphologic classification. Issues of anoscopic confirmation, as well as topical and surgical management are emphasized. The similarity of initial experiences in anal screening to problems encountered early in cervical cancer screening programs several decades ago, are highlighted.

  13. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... absolute reduction in mortal- ity. Preliminary results from PIVOT (Prostate Cancer In- tervention Versus Observation Trial), in ... early PSA screening era, prelim- inary findings from PIVOT show that, after 12 years, in- tention to ...

  14. Endometrial Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may detect (find) endometrial cancer are being studied: Pap test A Pap test is a procedure to collect cells from ... are abnormal . This procedure is also called a Pap smear. Pap tests are not used to screen ...

  15. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervical cancer: • Cytology: This test, also called a Pap test or Pap smear, looks for abnormal changes in cells in ... women ages 21 to 65, screening with a Pap test every 3 years has the highest benefits ...

  16. Screening for Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t know which people with early signs of disease will develop serious vision problems or blindness. There are two major ... for advice about glaucoma screening. Glaucoma is a serious disease that affects the health and quality of life ...

  17. GUI test automation with SWTBot

    OpenAIRE

    Mazurkiewicz, Milosz

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis the author presents theoretical background of GUI test automation as well as technologies, tools and methodologies required to fully understand the test program written in SWTBot. Practical part of the thesis was to implement a program testing File Menu options of Pegasus RCP application developed in Nokia Siemens Networks. Concluding this dissertation, in the author’s opinion test programs written using SWTBot are relatively easy to read and intuitive for people familiar w...

  18. Automated Periodontal Diseases Classification System

    OpenAIRE

    Aliaa A. A. Youssif; Abeer Saad Gawish,; Mohammed Elsaid Moussa

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient and innovative system for automated classification of periodontal diseases, The strength of our technique lies in the fact that it incorporates knowledge from the patients' clinical data, along with the features automatically extracted from the Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained microscopic images. Our system uses image processing techniques based on color deconvolution, morphological operations, and watershed transforms for epithelium & connective tissue se...

  19. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  20. System of automated map design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preprint 'System of automated map design' contains information about the program shell for construction of territory map, performing level line drawing of arbitrary two-dimension field (in particular, the radionuclide concentration field). The work schedule and data structures are supplied, as well as data on system performance. The preprint can become useful for experts in radioecology and for all persons involved in territory pollution mapping or multi-purpose geochemical mapping. (author)