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Sample records for automated array assembly

  1. Automated Array Assembly, Phase 2. Final technical progress report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajal, B.G.

    1979-11-01

    The 1979 phase of this Automated Array Assembly, Phase 2 contract was devoted solely to the tasks of scaling up the Tandem Junction Cell (TJC) from 2 cm x 2 cm to 6.2 cm x 6.2 cm and the assembly of several modules using these large-area TJCs. The scale-up of the TJC was based on using the existing process and doing the necessary design activities to increase the cell area to an acceptably large area. The design was carried out using available device models. The design was verified and sample large-area TJCs were fabricated. Mechanical and process problems occurred causing a schedule slippage that resulted in contract expiration before enough large-area TCs were fabricated to populate the sample Tandem Junction Modules (TJMs). A TJM design was carried out in which the module interconnects served to augment the current collecting buses on the cell. The module was made up of a 5 x 6 TJC matrix mounted on a porcelainized steel substrate with a glass cover. The TJC matrix was series-parallel connected using copper clad Invar interconnects soldered to the TJC metallization. Sample cell matrices were assembled using dummy cells. No sample TJMs were assembled due to a shortage of large-area TJCs and contract expiration.

  2. Glycan arrays and other tools produced by automated glycan assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. Seeberger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates are the dominant biopolymer on earth and play important roles ranging from building material for plants to function in many biological systems. Glycans remain poorly studied due to a lack of synthetic tools. The goal of my laboratory has been to develop a general method for the automated assembly of glycans. The general protocols we developed resulted in the commercialisation of the Glyconeer 2.1™ synthesizer as well as the building blocks and all reagents. Oligosaccharides as long as 50-mers are now accessible within days. Rapid access to defined oligosaccharides has been the foundation to many applications including synthetic tools such as glycan microarrays, glycan nanoparticles and anti-glycan antibodies. The platform technology is helping to address real-life problems by the creation of new vaccines and diagnostics. After addressing mainly mammalian glycobiology earlier, material science and plant biology are benefitting increasingly from synthetic glycans.

  3. Automated Array Assembly, Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajal, B.G.

    1979-07-01

    The Automated Array Assembly Task, Phase 2 of the Low Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project is a process development task. This contract provides for the fabrication of modules from large area Tandem Junction Cells (TJC). The key activities in this contract effort are (a) Large Area TJC including cell design, process verification and cell fabrication and (b) Tandem Junction Module (TJM) including definition of the cell-module interfaces, substrate fabrication, interconnect fabrication and module assembly. The overall goal is to advance solar cell module process technology to meet the 1986 goal of a production capability of 500 megawatts per year at a cost of less than $500 per peak kilowatt. This contract will focus on the Tandem Junction Module process. During this quarter, effort was focused on design and process verification. The large area TJC design was completed and the design verification was completed. Process variation experiments led to refinements in the baseline TJC process. Formed steel substrates were porcelainized. Cell array assembly techniques using infrared soldering are being checked out. Dummy cell arrays up to 5 cell by 5 cell have been assembled using all backside contacts.

  4. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4. Automated array assembly. Quarterly report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    1980-10-15

    Work has been divided into five phases. The first phase is to modify existing hardware and controlling computer software to: (1) improve cell-to-cell placement accuracy, (2) improve the solder joint while reducing the amount of solder and flux smear on the cell's surface, and (3) reduce the system cycle time to 10 seconds. The second phase involves expanding the existing system's capabilities to be able to reject broken cells and make post-solder electrical tests. Phase 3 involves developing new hardware to allow for the automated encapsulation of solar modules. This involves three discrete pieces of hardware: (1) a vacuum platen end effector for the robot which allows it to pick up the 1' x 4' array of 35 inter-connected cells. With this, it can also pick up the cover glass and completed module, (2) a lamination preparation station which cuts the various encapsulation components from roll storage and positions them for encapsulation, and (3) an automated encapsulation chamber which interfaces with the above two and applies the heat and vacuum to cure the encapsulants. Phase 4 involves the final assembly of the encapsulated array into a framed, edge-sealed module completed for installation. For this we are using MBA's Glass Reinforced Concrete (GRC) in panels such as those developed by MBA for JPL under contract No. 955281. The GRC panel plays the multiple role of edge frame, substrate and mounting structure. An automated method of applying the edge seal will also be developed. The final phase (5) is the fabrication of six 1' x 4' electrically active solar modules using the above developed equipment. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  5. Process development for automated solar-cell and module production. Task 4. Automated array assembly. Quarterly report No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagerty, J. J.; Gifford, M.

    1981-04-15

    The Automated Lamination Station is mechanically complete and is currently undergoing final wiring. The high current driver and isolator boards have been completed and installed, and the main interface board is under construction. The automated vacuum chamber has had a minor redesign to increase stiffness and improve the cover open/close mechanism. Design of the Final Assembly Station has been completed and construction is underway.

  6. Automated Array Assembly, Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report, fourth quarter 1977. Texas Instruments report No. 03-77-56

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajal, B.G.

    1978-01-01

    The Automated Array Assembly Task, Phase 2 of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array (LSSA) Project, is a process development task. This contract includes solar cell module process development activities in the areas of Surface Preparation, Plasma Processing, Diffusion, Cell Processing and Module Fabrication. In addition, a High Efficiency Cell Development Activity is included. During this quarter, effort was concentrated on wafer etching for saw damage removal, establishing a standard phosphorous diffusion process and a baseline solar cell process as a test bed, designing a large area square cell including test sites, analyzing module layouts for optimum packing efficiency and fabricating the first Tandem Junction Cells (TJC) for this contract. A TJC with backside contacts gave 15.1% efficiency at AM1.

  7. Automated High-Volume Manufacturing of Modular Photovoltaic Panel Assemblies for Space Solar Arrays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) will focus the proposed SBIR program on the creation and development of an automated robotic manufacturing infrastructure...

  8. Automated High-Volume Manufacturing of Modular Photovoltaic Panel Assemblies for Space Solar Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) will focus the proposed SBIR Phase 2 program on the development and demonstration of an automated robotic manufacturing...

  9. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4: automated array assembly. Quarterly report No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagerty, J.J.

    1980-01-31

    Construction of an automated solar cell layup and interconnect system is now complete. This system incorporates a Unimate 2000 B industrial robot with an end effector consisting of a vacuum pick up and induction heating coil. The robot interfaces with a smart cell preparation station which correctly orients the cell, applies solder paste and forms and positions the correct lengths of interconnect lead. The system is controlled and monitored by a TRS-80 micro computer. The first operational tests of the fully integrated station have been run. These tests proved the soundness of the basic design concept but also pointed to areas in which modifications are necessary. These modifications are nearly complete and the improved parts are being integrated. Development of the controlling computer program is progressing to both reflect these changes and reduce operating time.

  10. Automated optical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, John L.

    1995-08-01

    Automation and polymer science represent fundamental new technologies which can be directed toward realizing the goal of establishing a domestic, world-class, commercial optics business. Use of innovative optical designs using precision polymer optics will enable the US to play a vital role in the next generation of commercial optical products. The increased cost savings inherent in the utilization of optical-grade polymers outweighs almost every advantage of using glass for high volume situations. Optical designers must gain experience with combined refractive/diffractive designs and broaden their knowledge base regarding polymer technology beyond a cursory intellectual exercise. Implementation of a fully automated assembly system, combined with utilization of polymer optics, constitutes the type of integrated manufacturing process which will enable the US to successfully compete with the low-cost labor employed in the Far East, as well as to produce an equivalent product.

  11. Array Automated Assembly Task Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Phase 2. Annual technical report, September 20, 1977-December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Sang S.; Jones, Gregory T.; Allison, Kimberly L.

    1978-01-01

    This program was conducted to develop and demonstrate those solar cells and module process steps which have the technological readiness or capability to achieve the 1986 LSA goals. Results are reported. Seventeen process groups were investigated. Very promising results were achieved. A laserscribe computer program was developed. It demonstrated that silicon solar cells could be trimmed and holed by laser without causing mechanical defects (i.e., microcracks) nor any major degradation in solar cell electrical performance. The silicon wafer surface preparation task demonstrated a low-cost, high throughput texturizing process readily adaptable to automation. Performance verification tests of a laser scanning system showed a limited capability to detect hidden cracks or defects in solar cells. A general review of currently available thick film printing equipment provided the indication that state-of-the-art technology can adequately transform the capability of current printing machines to the elevated rate of 7200 wafers per hour. The LFE System 8000 silicon nitride plasma deposition system with the inclusion of minor equipment modifications was shown to be consistent with the 1986 LSA pricing goals. The performance verification test of the silicon nitride A.R. coating process provided the result that texturized, A.R. coated solar cells display a 14.1% improvement in electrical performance over identical solar cells without an A.R. coating. A new electroless nickel plating system was installed and demonstrated a low-cost, high throughput process readily adaptable to automation. A multiple wafer dipping method was investigated and operational parameters defined. A flux removal method consisting of a three stage D.I. water cascade rinse system with ultrasonic agitator was found to be very promising. Also, a SAMICS cost analysis was performed. (WHK)

  12. ReseqChip: Automated integration of multiple local context probe data from the MitoChip array in mitochondrial DNA sequence assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spang Rainer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Affymetrix MitoChip v2.0 is an oligonucleotide tiling array for the resequencing of the human mitochondrial (mt genome. For each of 16,569 nucleotide positions of the mt genome it holds two sets of four 25-mer probes each that match the heavy and the light strand of a reference mt genome and vary only at their central position to interrogate all four possible alleles. In addition, the MitoChip v2.0 carries alternative local context probes to account for known mtDNA variants. These probes have been neglected in most studies due to the lack of software for their automated analysis. Results We provide ReseqChip, a free software that automates the process of resequencing mtDNA using multiple local context probes on the MitoChip v2.0. ReseqChip significantly improves base call rate and sequence accuracy. ReseqChip is available at http://code.open-bio.org/svnweb/index.cgi/bioperl/browse/bioperl-live/trunk/Bio/Microarray/Tools/. Conclusions ReseqChip allows for the automated consolidation of base calls from alternative local mt genome context probes. It thereby improves the accuracy of resequencing, while reducing the number of non-called bases.

  13. Thermal battery automated assembly station conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D

    1988-08-01

    Thermal battery assembly involves many operations which are labor- intense. In August 1986, a project team was formed at GE Neutron Devices to investigate and evaluate more efficient and productive battery assembly techniques through the use of automation. The result of this study was the acceptance of a plan to automate the piece part pellet fabrication and battery stacking operations by using computerized pellet presses and robots which would be integrated by a main computer. This report details the conceptual design and development plan to be followed in the fabrication, development, and implementation of a thermal battery automated assembly station. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Automated phased array ultrasonic inspection system for rail wheel sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosser, Paul; Weiland, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the design, system automation, calibration and validation of an automated ultrasonic system for the inspection of new and in service wheel set assemblies from diesel-electric locomotives and gondola cars. This system uses Phased Array (PA) transducers for flaw detection and Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMAT) for the measurement of residual stress. The system collects, analyses, evaluates and categorizes the wheel sets automatically. This data is archived for future comparison and trending. It is also available for export to a portal lathe for increased efficiency and accuracy of machining, therefore allowing prolonged wheel life.

  15. Automated installation methods for photovoltaic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, R.; Daniels, A.; Greenaway, R.; Oster, J., Jr.; Racki, D.; Stoeltzing, R.

    1982-11-01

    Since installation expenses constitute a substantial portion of the cost of a large photovoltaic power system, methods for reduction of these costs were investigated. The installation of the photovoltaic arrays includes all areas, starting with site preparation (i.e., trenching, wiring, drainage, foundation installation, lightning protection, grounding and installation of the panel) and concluding with the termination of the bus at the power conditioner building. To identify the optimum combination of standard installation procedures and automated/mechanized techniques, the installation process was investigated including the equipment and hardware available, the photovoltaic array structure systems and interfaces, and the array field and site characteristics. Preliminary designs of hardware for both the standard installation method, the automated/mechanized method, and a mix of standard installation procedures and mechanized procedures were identified to determine which process effectively reduced installation costs. In addition, costs associated with each type of installation method and with the design, development and fabrication of new installation hardware were generated.

  16. Biologically Assembled Quantum Electronic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    Koh , Faxian Xiu, Xingchen Ye, Dong-Kyun Ko, Kang L. Wang, Cherie R. Kagan, Christopher B. Murray. Multiscale Periodic Assembly of Striped Nanocrystal...study is the LlM method (See M. T. Raman et al, Applied . Physics L etters 94, 042507, 2009). This method is a type of first-order reversal...Demonstrated graphene field- effect transistor: (top) optical Image of transferred graphene, (middle) Raman spectrum, (bottom) current voltage

  17. Algorithms for Automated DNA Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    known results. The total number of possible assembly graphs for a single goal part is (2n 1)!/(n 1)!n! [also known as the Catalan number (20...correct theoretical construction scheme is de- veloped manually, it is likely to be suboptimal by any number of cost metrics. Modular, robust and...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number . 1. REPORT DATE 23 MAR 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED

  18. Self-assembled biomimetic superhydrophobic hierarchical arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongta; Dou, Xuan; Fang, Yin; Jiang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    Here, we report a simple and inexpensive bottom-up technology for fabricating superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical micro-/nano-structures, which are inspired by the binary periodic structure found on the superhydrophobic compound eyes of some insects (e.g., mosquitoes and moths). Binary colloidal arrays consisting of exemplary large (4 and 30 μm) and small (300 nm) silica spheres are first assembled by a scalable Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technology in a layer-by-layer manner. After surface modification with fluorosilanes, the self-assembled hierarchical particle arrays become superhydrophobic with an apparent water contact angle (CA) larger than 150°. The throughput of the resulting superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical structures can be significantly improved by templating the binary periodic structures of the LB-assembled colloidal arrays into UV-curable fluoropolymers by a soft lithography approach. Superhydrophobic perfluoroether acrylate hierarchical arrays with large CAs and small CA hysteresis can be faithfully replicated onto various substrates. Both experiments and theoretical calculations based on the Cassie's dewetting model demonstrate the importance of the hierarchical structure in achieving the final superhydrophobic surface states. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The simulation of automated leading edge assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Qingming

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft manufacturers are experiencing a fierce competition worldwide. Improving productivity, increasing throughput and reducing costs are influencing aircraft manufacturer’s future development. In order to improve competitiveness and provide sufficient and high quality products, it should reduce operations of aircraft assembly,majority of which are still in manual process, which limit production output. In contrast, these processes can be automated to replace manual opera...

  20. Engineering of automated assembly of beam-shaping optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Sebastian; Sinhoff, Volker; Müller, Tobias; Brecher, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Beam-shaping is essential for any kind of laser application. Assembly technologies for beam-shaping subassemblies are subject to intense research and development activities and their technical feasibility has been proven in recent years while economic viability requires more efficient engineering tools for process planning and production ramp up of complex assembly tasks for micro-optical systems. The work presented in this paper aims for significant reduction of process development and production ramp up times for the automated assembly of micro-optical subassemblies for beam-collimation and beam-tilting. The approach proposed bridges the gap between the product development phase and the realization of automation control through integration of established software tools such as optics simulation and CAD modeling as well as through introduction of novel software tools and methods to efficiently describe active alignment strategies. The focus of the paper is put on the methodological approach regarding the engineering of assembly processes for beam-shaping micro-optics and the formal representation of assembly objectives similar to representation in mechanical assemblies. Main topic of the paper is the engineering methodology for active alignment processes based on the classification of optical functions for beam-shaping optics and corresponding standardized measurement setups including adaptable alignment algorithms. The concepts are applied to industrial use-cases: (1) integrated collimation module for fast- and slow-axis and (2) beam-tilting subassembly consisting of a fast-axis collimator and micro-lens array. The paper concludes with an overview of current limitations as well as an outlook on the next development steps considering adhesive bonding processes.

  1. Automated assembly of micro mechanical parts in a Microfactory setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gegeckaite, Asta

    2006-01-01

    Many micro products in use today are manufactured using semi-automatic assembly. Handling, assembly and transport of the parts are especially labour intense processes. Automation of these processes holds a large potential, especially if flexible, modular microfactories can be developed. This paper...... focuses on the issues that have to be taken into consideration in order to go from a semi-automatic production into an automated microfactory. The application in this study is a switch consisting of 7 parts. The development of a microfactory setup to take care of the automated assembly of the switch...

  2. Integrating Test-Form Formatting into Automated Test Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Qi; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2013-01-01

    Automated test assembly uses the methodology of mixed integer programming to select an optimal set of items from an item bank. Automated test-form generation uses the same methodology to optimally order the items and format the test form. From an optimization point of view, production of fully formatted test forms directly from the item pool using…

  3. Functionalization and Self-Assembly of DNA Bidimensional Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Eritja

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligonucleotides carrying amino, thiol groups, as well as fluorescein, c-myc peptide sequence and nanogold at internal positions were prepared and used for the assembly of bidimensional DNA arrays.

  4. Automated ensemble assembly and validation of microbial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The continued democratization of DNA sequencing has sparked a new wave of development of genome assembly and assembly validation methods. As individual research labs, rather than centralized centers, begin to sequence the majority of new genomes, it is important to establish best practices for genome assembly. However, recent evaluations such as GAGE and the Assemblathon have concluded that there is no single best approach to genome assembly. Instead, it is preferable to generate multiple assemblies and validate them to determine which is most useful for the desired analysis; this is a labor-intensive process that is often impossible or unfeasible. Results To encourage best practices supported by the community, we present iMetAMOS, an automated ensemble assembly pipeline; iMetAMOS encapsulates the process of running, validating, and selecting a single assembly from multiple assemblies. iMetAMOS packages several leading open-source tools into a single binary that automates parameter selection and execution of multiple assemblers, scores the resulting assemblies based on multiple validation metrics, and annotates the assemblies for genes and contaminants. We demonstrate the utility of the ensemble process on 225 previously unassembled Mycobacterium tuberculosis genomes as well as a Rhodobacter sphaeroides benchmark dataset. On these real data, iMetAMOS reliably produces validated assemblies and identifies potential contamination without user intervention. In addition, intelligent parameter selection produces assemblies of R. sphaeroides comparable to or exceeding the quality of those from the GAGE-B evaluation, affecting the relative ranking of some assemblers. Conclusions Ensemble assembly with iMetAMOS provides users with multiple, validated assemblies for each genome. Although computationally limited to small or mid-sized genomes, this approach is the most effective and reproducible means for generating high-quality assemblies and enables users to

  5. 3D Assembly Group Analysis for Cognitive Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Brecher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept that allows the cognitive automation of robotic assembly processes is introduced. An assembly cell comprised of two robots was designed to verify the concept. For the purpose of validation a customer-defined part group consisting of Hubelino bricks is assembled. One of the key aspects for this process is the verification of the assembly group. Hence a software component was designed that utilizes the Microsoft Kinect to perceive both depth and color data in the assembly area. This information is used to determine the current state of the assembly group and is compared to a CAD model for validation purposes. In order to efficiently resolve erroneous situations, the results are interactively accessible to a human expert. The implications for an industrial application are demonstrated by transferring the developed concepts to an assembly scenario for switch-cabinet systems.

  6. Automated Non-Destructive Testing Array Evaluation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, T.; Zavaljevski, N.; Bakhtiari, S.; Miron, A.; Jupperman, D.

    2004-12-31

    Utilities perform eddy current tests on nuclear power plant steam generator (SG) tubes to detect degradation. This report summarizes the status of ongoing research to develop signal processing algorithms that automate analysis of eddy current test data. The research focuses on analyzing array probe data for detecting, classifying, and characterizing degradation in SG tubes.

  7. Automated Non-Destructive Testing Array Evaluation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, T.; Zavaljevski, N.; Bakhtiari, S.; Miron, A.; Kupperman, D.

    2004-01-01

    Utilities perform eddy current tests on nuclear power plant steam generator (SG) tubes to detect degradation. This report summarizes the status of ongoing research to develop signal processing algorithms that automate analysis of eddy current test data. The research focuses on analyzing array probe data for detecting, classifying, and characterizing degradation in SG tubes

  8. Equipment development for automated assembly of solar modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Prototype equipment was developed which allows for totally automated assembly in the three major areas of module manufacture: cell stringing, encapsulant layup and cure and edge sealing. The equipment is designed to be used in conjunction with a standard Unimate 2000B industrial robot although the design is adaptable to other transport systems.

  9. Virtual commissioning of automated micro-optical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlette, Christian; Losch, Daniel; Haag, Sebastian; Zontar, Daniel; Roßmann, Jürgen; Brecher, Christian

    2015-02-01

    In this contribution, we present a novel approach to enable virtual commissioning for process developers in micro-optical assembly. Our approach aims at supporting micro-optics experts to effectively develop assisted or fully automated assembly solutions without detailed prior experience in programming while at the same time enabling them to easily implement their own libraries of expert schemes and algorithms for handling optical components. Virtual commissioning is enabled by a 3D simulation and visualization system in which the functionalities and properties of automated systems are modeled, simulated and controlled based on multi-agent systems. For process development, our approach supports event-, state- and time-based visual programming techniques for the agents and allows for their kinematic motion simulation in combination with looped-in simulation results for the optical components. First results have been achieved for simply switching the agents to command the real hardware setup after successful process implementation and validation in the virtual environment. We evaluated and adapted our system to meet the requirements set by industrial partners-- laser manufacturers as well as hardware suppliers of assembly platforms. The concept is applied to the automated assembly of optical components for optically pumped semiconductor lasers and positioning of optical components for beam-shaping

  10. Verification Test of Automated Robotic Assembly of Space Truss Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marvin D.; Will, Ralph W.; Quach, Cuong C.

    1995-01-01

    A multidisciplinary program has been conducted at the Langley Research Center to develop operational procedures for supervised autonomous assembly of truss structures suitable for large-aperture antennas. The hardware and operations required to assemble a 102-member tetrahedral truss and attach 12 hexagonal panels were developed and evaluated. A brute-force automation approach was used to develop baseline assembly hardware and software techniques. However, as the system matured and operations were proven, upgrades were incorporated and assessed against the baseline test results. These upgrades included the use of distributed microprocessors to control dedicated end-effector operations, machine vision guidance for strut installation, and the use of an expert system-based executive-control program. This paper summarizes the developmental phases of the program, the results of several assembly tests, and a series of proposed enhancements. No problems that would preclude automated in-space assembly or truss structures have been encountered. The test system was developed at a breadboard level and continued development at an enhanced level is warranted.

  11. Self-assembled ordered carbon-nanotube arrays and membranes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overmyer, Donald L.; Siegal, Michael P.; Yelton, William Graham

    2004-11-01

    Imagine free-standing flexible membranes with highly-aligned arrays of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) running through their thickness. Perhaps with both ends of the CNTs open for highly controlled nanofiltration? Or CNTs at heights uniformly above a polymer membrane for a flexible array of nanoelectrodes or field-emitters? How about CNT films with incredible amounts of accessible surface area for analyte adsorption? These self-assembled crystalline nanotubes consist of multiple layers of graphene sheets rolled into concentric cylinders. Tube diameters (3-300 nm), inner-bore diameters (2-15 nm), and lengths (nanometers - microns) are controlled to tailor physical, mechanical, and chemical properties. We proposed to explore growth and characterize nanotube arrays to help determine their exciting functionality for Sandia applications. Thermal chemical vapor deposition growth in a furnace nucleates from a metal catalyst. Ordered arrays grow using templates from self-assembled hexagonal arrays of nanopores in anodized-aluminum oxide. Polymeric-binders can mechanically hold the CNTs in place for polishing, lift-off, and membrane formation. The stiffness, electrical and thermal conductivities of CNTs make them ideally suited for a wide-variety of possible applications. Large-area, highly-accessible gas-adsorbing carbon surfaces, superb cold-cathode field-emission, and unique nanoscale geometries can lead to advanced microsensors using analyte adsorption, arrays of functionalized nanoelectrodes for enhanced electrochemical detection of biological/explosive compounds, or mass-ionizers for gas-phase detection. Materials studies involving membrane formation may lead to exciting breakthroughs in nanofiltration/nanochromatography for the separation of chemical and biological agents. With controlled nanofilter sizes, ultrafiltration will be viable to separate and preconcentrate viruses and many strains of bacteria for 'down-stream' analysis.

  12. Automated and model-based assembly of an anamorphic telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holters, Martin; Dirks, Sebastian; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Loosen, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Since the first usage of optical glasses there has been an increasing demand for optical systems which are highly customized for a wide field of applications. To meet the challenge of the production of so many unique systems, the development of new techniques and approaches has risen in importance. However, the assembly of precision optical systems with lot sizes of one up to a few tens of systems is still dominated by manual labor. In contrast, highly adaptive and model-based approaches may offer a solution for manufacturing with a high degree of automation and high throughput while maintaining high precision. In this work a model-based automated assembly approach based on ray-tracing is presented. This process runs autonomously, and accounts for a wide range of functionality. It firstly identifies the sequence for an optimized assembly and secondly, generates and matches intermediate figures of merit to predict the overall optical functionality of the optical system. This process also takes into account the generation of a digital twin of the optical system, by mapping key-performance-indicators like the first and the second momentum of intensity into the optical model. This approach is verified by the automatic assembly of an anamorphic telescope within an assembly cell. By continuous measuring and mapping the key-performance-indicators into the optical model, the quality of the digital twin is determined. Moreover, by measuring the optical quality and geometrical parameters of the telescope, the precision of this approach is determined. Finally, the productivity of the process is evaluated by monitoring the speed of the different steps of the process.

  13. Flexible Automation for Final Assembly of Blanket Arrays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Topic Z1.01, NASA seeks advanced photovoltaic technologies that can deliver cost, reliability, mass, volume and efficiency gains over current solutions. Future...

  14. Duplex-imprinted nano well arrays for promising nanoparticle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangping; Manz, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    A large area nano-duplex-imprint technique is presented in this contribution using natural cicada wings as stamps. The glassy wings of the cicada, which are abundant in nature, exhibit strikingly interesting nanopillar structures over their membrane. This technique, with excellent performance despite the nonplanar surface of the wings, combines both top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication techniques. It transitions micro-nanofabrication from a cleanroom environment to the bench. Two different materials, dicing tape with an acrylic layer and a UV optical adhesive, are used to make replications at the same time, thus achieving duplex imprinting. The promise of a large volume of commercial manufacturing of these nanostructure elements can be envisaged through this contribution to speeding up the fabrication process and achieving a higher throughput. The contact angle of the replicated nanowell arrays before and after oxygen plasma was measured. Gold nanoparticles (50 nm) were used to test how the nanoparticles behaved on the untreated and plasma-treated replica surface. The experiments show that promising nanoparticle self-assembly can be obtained.

  15. An optimized routing algorithm for the automated assembly of standard multimode ribbon fibers in a full-mesh optical backplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Vito; Guadagno, Gianluca; Ferrario, Maddalena; Fassi, Irene

    2018-03-01

    In this paper a parametric, modular and scalable algorithm allowing a fully automated assembly of a backplane fiber-optic interconnection circuit is presented. This approach guarantees the optimization of the optical fiber routing inside the backplane with respect to specific criteria (i.e. bending power losses), addressing both transmission performance and overall costs issues. Graph theory has been exploited to simplify the complexity of the NxN full-mesh backplane interconnection topology, firstly, into N independent sub-circuits and then, recursively, into a limited number of loops easier to be generated. Afterwards, the proposed algorithm selects a set of geometrical and architectural parameters whose optimization allows to identify the optimal fiber optic routing for each sub-circuit of the backplane. The topological and numerical information provided by the algorithm are then exploited to control a robot which performs the automated assembly of the backplane sub-circuits. The proposed routing algorithm can be extended to any array architecture and number of connections thanks to its modularity and scalability. Finally, the algorithm has been exploited for the automated assembly of an 8x8 optical backplane realized with standard multimode (MM) 12-fiber ribbons.

  16. The Automated Assembly Team contributions to the APRIMED Agile Manufacturing Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.E.; Ames, A.L.; Calton, T.L.

    1995-06-01

    The Automated Assembly Team of the APRIMED Project (abbreviated as A') consists of two parts: the Archimedes Project, which is an ongoing project developing automated assembly technology, and the A' Robot Team. Archimedes is a second generation assembly planning system that both provides a general high-level assembly sequencing capability and, for a smaller class of products, facilitates automatic programming of a robotic workcell to assemble them. The A' robot team designed, developed, and implemented a flexible robot workcell which served as the automated factory of the A' project. In this document we briefly describe the role of automated assembly planning in agile manufacturing, and specifically describe the contributions of the Archimedes project and the A' robot team to the A' project. We introduce the concepts of the Archimedes automated assembly planning project, and discuss the enhancements to Archimedes which were developed in response to the needs of the A' project. We also present the work of the A' robot team in designing and developing the A' robot workcell, including all tooling and programming to support assembly of the A' discriminator devices. Finally, we discuss the process changes which these technologies have enabled in the A' project

  17. Development and verification testing of automation and robotics for assembly of space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marvin D.; Will, Ralph W.; Quach, Cuong C.

    1993-01-01

    A program was initiated within the past several years to develop operational procedures for automated assembly of truss structures suitable for large-aperture antennas. The assembly operations require the use of a robotic manipulator and are based on the principle of supervised autonomy to minimize crew resources. A hardware testbed was established to support development and evaluation testing. A brute-force automation approach was used to develop the baseline assembly hardware and software techniques. As the system matured and an operation was proven, upgrades were incorprated and assessed against the baseline test results. This paper summarizes the developmental phases of the program, the results of several assembly tests, the current status, and a series of proposed developments for additional hardware and software control capability. No problems that would preclude automated in-space assembly of truss structures have been encountered. The current system was developed at a breadboard level and continued development at an enhanced level is warranted.

  18. Uncertainties in the Item Parameter Estimates and Robust Automated Test Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Matteucci, Mariagiulia; de Jong, Martijn G.

    2013-01-01

    Item response theory parameters have to be estimated, and because of the estimation process, they do have uncertainty in them. In most large-scale testing programs, the parameters are stored in item banks, and automated test assembly algorithms are applied to assemble operational test forms. These algorithms treat item parameters as fixed values,…

  19. One-Dimensional Multichromophor Arrays Based on DNA: From Self-Assembly to Light-Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensslen, Philipp; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2015-10-20

    Light-harvesting complexes collect light energy and deliver it by a cascade of energy and electron transfer processes to the reaction center where charge separation leads to storage as chemical energy. The design of artificial light-harvesting assemblies faces enormous challenges because several antenna chromophores need to be kept in close proximity but self-quenching needs to be avoided. Double stranded DNA as a supramolecular scaffold plays a promising role due to its characteristic structural properties. Automated DNA synthesis allows incorporation of artificial chromophore-modified building blocks, and sequence design allows precise control of the distances and orientations between the chromophores. The helical twist between the chromophores, which is induced by the DNA framework, controls energy and electron transfer and thereby reduces the self-quenching that is typically observed in chromophore aggregates. This Account summarizes covalently multichromophore-modified DNA and describes how such multichromophore arrays were achieved by Watson-Crick-specific and DNA-templated self-assembly. The covalent DNA systems were prepared by incorporation of chromophores as DNA base substitutions (either as C-nucleosides or with acyclic linkers as substitutes for the 2'-deoxyribofuranoside) and as DNA base modifications. Studies with DNA base substitutions revealed that distances but more importantly relative orientations of the chromophores govern the energy transfer efficiencies and thereby the light-harvesting properties. With DNA base substitutions, duplex stabilization was faced and could be overcome, for instance, by zipper-like placement of the chromophores in both strands. For both principal structural approaches, DNA-based light-harvesting antenna could be realized. The major disadvantages, however, for covalent multichromophore DNA conjugates are the poor yields of synthesis and the solubility issues for oligonucleotides with more than 5-10 chromophore

  20. EzArray: A web-based highly automated Affymetrix expression array data management and analysis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yuelin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though microarray experiments are very popular in life science research, managing and analyzing microarray data are still challenging tasks for many biologists. Most microarray programs require users to have sophisticated knowledge of mathematics, statistics and computer skills for usage. With accumulating microarray data deposited in public databases, easy-to-use programs to re-analyze previously published microarray data are in high demand. Results EzArray is a web-based Affymetrix expression array data management and analysis system for researchers who need to organize microarray data efficiently and get data analyzed instantly. EzArray organizes microarray data into projects that can be analyzed online with predefined or custom procedures. EzArray performs data preprocessing and detection of differentially expressed genes with statistical methods. All analysis procedures are optimized and highly automated so that even novice users with limited pre-knowledge of microarray data analysis can complete initial analysis quickly. Since all input files, analysis parameters, and executed scripts can be downloaded, EzArray provides maximum reproducibility for each analysis. In addition, EzArray integrates with Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO and allows instantaneous re-analysis of published array data. Conclusion EzArray is a novel Affymetrix expression array data analysis and sharing system. EzArray provides easy-to-use tools for re-analyzing published microarray data and will help both novice and experienced users perform initial analysis of their microarray data from the location of data storage. We believe EzArray will be a useful system for facilities with microarray services and laboratories with multiple members involved in microarray data analysis. EzArray is freely available from http://www.ezarray.com/.

  1. Vortex pinning in superconductors laterally modulated by nanoscale self-assembled arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanacken, J.; Vinckx, W.; Moshchalkov, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    Being the exponent of the so-called "bottom-up" approach, self-assembled structures are now-a-days attracting a lot of attention in the fields of science and technology. In this work, we show that nanoscale self-assembled arrays used as templates can provide periodic modulation in superconducting...

  2. Engineering Mathematical Analysis Method for Productivity Rate in Linear Arrangement Serial Structure Automated Flow Assembly Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chan Sin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Productivity rate (Q or production rate is one of the important indicator criteria for industrial engineer to improve the system and finish good output in production or assembly line. Mathematical and statistical analysis method is required to be applied for productivity rate in industry visual overviews of the failure factors and further improvement within the production line especially for automated flow line since it is complicated. Mathematical model of productivity rate in linear arrangement serial structure automated flow line with different failure rate and bottleneck machining time parameters becomes the basic model for this productivity analysis. This paper presents the engineering mathematical analysis method which is applied in an automotive company which possesses automated flow assembly line in final assembly line to produce motorcycle in Malaysia. DCAS engineering and mathematical analysis method that consists of four stages known as data collection, calculation and comparison, analysis, and sustainable improvement is used to analyze productivity in automated flow assembly line based on particular mathematical model. Variety of failure rate that causes loss of productivity and bottleneck machining time is shown specifically in mathematic figure and presents the sustainable solution for productivity improvement for this final assembly automated flow line.

  3. Scar-less multi-part DNA assembly design automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillson, Nathan J.

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides a method of a method of designing an implementation of a DNA assembly. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) receiving a list of DNA sequence fragments to be assembled together and an order in which to assemble the DNA sequence fragments, (2) designing DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) for each of the DNA sequence fragments, and (3) creating a plan for adding flanking homology sequences to each of the DNA oligos. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) receiving a list of DNA sequence fragments to be assembled together and an order in which to assemble the DNA sequence fragments, (2) designing DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) for each of the DNA sequence fragments, and (3) creating a plan for adding optimized overhang sequences to each of the DNA oligos.

  4. Testing and assembly of the detectors for the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera on ACT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriage, T.A.; Chervenak, J.A.; Doriese, W.B.

    2006-01-01

    The Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera (MBAC) for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope consists of three Transition Edge Sensor (TES) arrays to make simultaneous observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background in three frequency bands. MBAC TESs are NASA Goddard Pop-Up Detectors (PUD) which are read-out by NIST time-domain multiplexers. MBAC is constructed by stacking 1x32 TES columns to form the 32x32 element arrays. The arrays are modular (connectorized) at the 1x32 column level such that array assembly is reversible and camera repair possible. Prior to assembly, each column is tested in a quick (2h) cycling 4 He/ 3 He adsorption refrigerator. Tests include measurements of TES current-voltage curves and TES complex impedance

  5. Testing and assembly of the detectors for the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera on ACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriage, T.A. [Physics Department, Princeton University, Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)]. E-mail: marriage@princeton.edu; Chervenak, J.A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Doriese, W.B. [National Institute of Standards, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    The Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera (MBAC) for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope consists of three Transition Edge Sensor (TES) arrays to make simultaneous observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background in three frequency bands. MBAC TESs are NASA Goddard Pop-Up Detectors (PUD) which are read-out by NIST time-domain multiplexers. MBAC is constructed by stacking 1x32 TES columns to form the 32x32 element arrays. The arrays are modular (connectorized) at the 1x32 column level such that array assembly is reversible and camera repair possible. Prior to assembly, each column is tested in a quick (2h) cycling {sup 4}He/{sup 3}He adsorption refrigerator. Tests include measurements of TES current-voltage curves and TES complex impedance.

  6. Square and Rectangular Arrays from Directed Assembly of Sphere-forming Diblock Copolymers in Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shengxiang; Nagpal, Umang; Liao, Wen; de Pablo, Juan; Nealey, Paul

    2010-03-01

    Patterns of square and rectangular arrays with nanoscale dimensions are scientifically and technologically important. Fabrication of square array patterns in thin films has been demonstrated by directed assembly of cylinder-forming diblock copolymers on chemically patterned substrates, supramolecular assembly of diblock copolymers, and self-assembly of triblock terpolymers. However, a macroscopic area of square array patterns with long-range order has not been achieved, and the fabrication of rectangular arrays has not been reported so far. Here we report a facile approach for fabricating patterns of square and rectangular arrays by directing the assembly of sphere-forming diblock copolymers on chemically patterned substrates. On stripe patterns, a square arrangement of half spheres, corresponding to the (100) plane of the body-centred cubic (BCC) lattice, formed on film surfaces. When the underlying pattern periods mismatched with the copolymer period, the square pattern could be stretched (up to ˜60%) or compressed (˜15%) to form rectangular arrays. Monte Carlo simulations have been further used to verify the experimental results and the 3-dimensional arrangements of spheres.

  7. Automated Eukaryotic Gene Structure Annotation Using EVidenceModeler and the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, B J; Salzberg, S L; Zhu, W; Pertea, M; Allen, J E; Orvis, J; White, O; Buell, C R; Wortman, J R

    2007-12-10

    EVidenceModeler (EVM) is presented as an automated eukaryotic gene structure annotation tool that reports eukaryotic gene structures as a weighted consensus of all available evidence. EVM, when combined with the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments (PASA), yields a comprehensive, configurable annotation system that predicts protein-coding genes and alternatively spliced isoforms. Our experiments on both rice and human genome sequences demonstrate that EVM produces automated gene structure annotation approaching the quality of manual curation.

  8. Opal-like Multicolor Appearance of Self-Assembled Photonic Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Zohar A; Pinotsi, Dorothea; Schmidt, Matthias; Gilead, Sharon; Guterman, Tom; Sadhanala, Aditya; Ahmad, Shahab; Levin, Aviad; Walther, Paul; Kaminski, Clemens F; Fändrich, Marcus; Kaminski Schierle, Gabriele S; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Shimon, Linda J W; Gazit, Ehud

    2018-06-20

    Molecular self-assembly of short peptide building blocks leads to the formation of various material architectures that may possess unique physical properties. Recent studies had confirmed the key role of biaromaticity in peptide self-assembly, with the diphenylalanine (FF) structural family as an archetypal model. Another significant direction in the molecular engineering of peptide building blocks is the use of fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) modification, which promotes the assembly process and may result in nanostructures with distinctive features and macroscopic hydrogel with supramolecular features and nanoscale order. Here, we explored the self-assembly of the protected, noncoded fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-β,β-diphenyl-Ala-OH (Fmoc-Dip) amino acid. This process results in the formation of elongated needle-like crystals with notable aromatic continuity. By altering the assembly conditions, arrays of spherical particles were formed that exhibit strong light scattering. These arrays display vivid coloration, strongly resembling the appearance of opal gemstones. However, unlike the Rayleigh scattering effect produced by the arrangement of opal, the described optical phenomenon is attributed to Mie scattering. Moreover, by controlling the solution evaporation rate, i.e., the assembly kinetics, we were able to manipulate the resulting coloration. This work demonstrates a bottom-up approach, utilizing self-assembly of a protected amino acid minimal building block, to create arrays of organic, light-scattering colorful surfaces.

  9. Assembling the Streptococcus thermophilus clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) array for multiplex DNA targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijun; Xu, Kun; Liu, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Cunfang; Xin, Ying; Zhang, Zhiying

    2015-06-01

    In addition to the advantages of scalable, affordable, and easy to engineer, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) technology is superior for multiplex targeting, which is laborious and inconvenient when achieved by cloning multiple gRNA expressing cassettes. Here, we report a simple CRISPR array assembling method which will facilitate multiplex targeting usage. First, the Streptococcus thermophilus CRISPR3/Cas locus was cloned. Second, different CRISPR arrays were assembled with different crRNA spacers. Transformation assays using different Escherichia coli strains demonstrated efficient plasmid DNA targeting, and we achieved targeting efficiency up to 95% with an assembled CRISPR array with three crRNA spacers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assembly and Integration Process of the First High Density Detector Array for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaqiong; Choi, Steve; Ho, Shuay-Pwu; Crowley, Kevin T.; Salatino, Maria; Simon, Sara M.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Nati, Federico; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) upgrade on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) consists of multichroicTransition Edge Sensor (TES) detector arrays to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization anisotropies in multiple frequency bands. The first AdvACT detector array, sensitive to both 150 and 230 GHz, is fabricated on a 150 mm diameter wafer and read out with a completely different scheme compared to ACTPol. Approximately 2000 TES bolometers are packed into the wafer leading to both a much denser detector density and readout circuitry. The demonstration of the assembly and integration of the AdvACT arrays is important for the next generation CMB experiments, which will continue to increase the pixel number and density. We present the detailed assembly process of the first AdvACT detector array.

  11. Fractal assembly of micrometre-scale DNA origami arrays with arbitrary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Grigory; Petersen, Philip; Qian, Lulu

    2017-12-01

    Self-assembled DNA nanostructures enable nanometre-precise patterning that can be used to create programmable molecular machines and arrays of functional materials. DNA origami is particularly versatile in this context because each DNA strand in the origami nanostructure occupies a unique position and can serve as a uniquely addressable pixel. However, the scale of such structures has been limited to about 0.05 square micrometres, hindering applications that demand a larger layout and integration with more conventional patterning methods. Hierarchical multistage assembly of simple sets of tiles can in principle overcome this limitation, but so far has not been sufficiently robust to enable successful implementation of larger structures using DNA origami tiles. Here we show that by using simple local assembly rules that are modified and applied recursively throughout a hierarchical, multistage assembly process, a small and constant set of unique DNA strands can be used to create DNA origami arrays of increasing size and with arbitrary patterns. We illustrate this method, which we term ‘fractal assembly’, by producing DNA origami arrays with sizes of up to 0.5 square micrometres and with up to 8,704 pixels, allowing us to render images such as the Mona Lisa and a rooster. We find that self-assembly of the tiles into arrays is unaffected by changes in surface patterns on the tiles, and that the yield of the fractal assembly process corresponds to about 0.95m - 1 for arrays containing m tiles. When used in conjunction with a software tool that we developed that converts an arbitrary pattern into DNA sequences and experimental protocols, our assembly method is readily accessible and will facilitate the construction of sophisticated materials and devices with sizes similar to that of a bacterium using DNA nanostructures.

  12. Dielectrophoretic self-assembly of polarized light emitting poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) nanofibre arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, A; Iacopino, D; Lovera, P; Floyd, L; Reynolds, K; Redmond, G

    2011-01-01

    Conjugated polymer based 1D nanostructures are attractive building blocks for future opto-electronic nanoscale devices and systems. However, a critical challenge remains the lack of manipulation methods that enable controlled and reliable positioning and orientation of organic nanostructures in a fast, reliable and scalable manner. To address this challenge, we explore dielectrophoretic assembly of discrete poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) nanofibres and demonstrate site selective assembly and orientation of these fibres. Nanofibre arrays were assembled preferentially at receptor electrode edges, being aligned parallel to the applied electric field with a high order parameter fit (∼0.9) and exhibiting an emission dichroic ratio of ∼ 4.0. As such, the dielectrophoretic method represents a fast, reliable and scalable self-assembly approach for manipulation of 1D organic nanostructures. The ability to fabricate nanofibre arrays in this manner could be potentially important for exploration and development of future nanoscale opto-electronic devices and systems.

  13. JPLEX: Java Simplex Implementation with Branch-and-Bound Search for Automated Test Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ryoungsun; Kim, Jiseon; Dodd, Barbara G.; Chung, Hyewon

    2011-01-01

    JPLEX, short for Java simPLEX, is an automated test assembly (ATA) program. It is a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solver written in Java. It reads in a configuration file, solves the minimization problem, and produces an output file for postprocessing. It implements the simplex algorithm to create a fully relaxed solution and…

  14. Framework to Implement Collaborative Robots in Manual Assembly: A Lean Automation Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, Ali Ahmad; Bilberg, Arne

    The recent proliferation of smart manufacturing technologies has emerged the concept of hybrid automation for assembly systems utilizing the best of humans and robots in a combination. Based on the ability to work alongside human-workers the next generation of industrial robots (or robotics 2...... of virtual simulations is discussed for validation and optimization of human-robot work environment....

  15. Automated Test Assembly for Cognitive Diagnosis Models Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Matthew; Kim, Wonsuk; Roussos, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    Much recent psychometric literature has focused on cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs), a promising class of instruments used to measure the strengths and weaknesses of examinees. This article introduces a genetic algorithm to perform automated test assembly alongside CDMs. The algorithm is flexible in that it can be applied whether the goal is to…

  16. Electronic structure and self-assembly of cross-linked semiconductor nanocrystal arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Dov; Azulay, Doron; Aharoni, Assaf; Salant, Assaf; Banin, Uri; Millo, Oded

    2008-01-01

    We studied the electronic level structure of assemblies of InAs quantum dots and CdSe nanorods cross-linked by 1,4-phenylenediamine molecules using scanning tunneling spectroscopy. We found that the bandgap in these arrays is reduced with respect to the corresponding ligand-capped nanocrystal arrays. In addition, a pronounced sub-gap spectral structure commonly appeared which can be attributed to unpassivated nanocrystal surface states or associated with linker-molecule-related levels. The exchange of the ligands by the linker molecules also affected the structural array properties. Most significantly, clusters of close-packed standing CdSe nanorods were formed

  17. Development and applications of a computer-aided phased array assembly for ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, G.; Montag, H.J.; Wuestenberg, H.; Erhard, A.

    1985-01-01

    The use of modern electronic equipment for programmable signal delay increasingly allows transit-time controlled phased arrays to be applied in non-destructive, ultrasonic materials testing. A phased-array assembly is described permitting fast variation of incident angle of acoustic wave and of sonic beam focus, together with numerical evaluation of measured data. Phased arrays can be optimized by adding programmable electronic equipment so that the quality of conventional designs can be achieved. Applications of the new technical improvement are explained, referring to stress corrosion cracking, turbine testing, echo tomography of welded joints. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Nanoscale protein arrays of rich morphologies via self-assembly on chemically treated diblock copolymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Sheng; Milchak, Marissa; Zhou Hebing; Lee, Thomas; Hanscom, Mark; Hahm, Jong-in

    2013-01-01

    Well-controlled assembly of proteins on supramolecular templates of block copolymers can be extremely useful for high-throughput biodetection. We report the adsorption and assembly characteristics of a model antibody protein to various polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) templates whose distinctive nanoscale structures are obtained through time-regulated exposure to chloroform vapor. The strong adsorption preference of the protein to the polystyrene segment in the diblock copolymer templates leads to an easily predictable, controllable, rich set of nanoscale protein morphologies through self-assembly. We also demonstrate that the chemical identities of various subareas within individual nanostructures can be readily elucidated by investigating the corresponding protein adsorption behavior on each chemically distinct area of the template. In our approach, a rich set of intricate nanoscale morphologies of protein arrays that cannot be easily attained through other means can be generated straightforwardly via self-assembly of proteins on chemically treated diblock copolymer surfaces, without the use of clean-room-based fabrication tools. Our approach provides much-needed flexibility and versatility for the use of block copolymer-based protein arrays in biodetection. The ease of fabrication in producing well-defined and self-assembled templates can contribute to a high degree of versatility and simplicity in acquiring an intricate nanoscale geometry and spatial distribution of proteins in arrays. These advantages can be extremely beneficial both for fundamental research and biomedical detection, especially in the areas of solid-state-based, high-throughput protein sensing. (paper)

  19. Array automated assembly task low cost silicon solar array project. Phase 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Clayton

    1980-12-01

    The initial contract was a Phase II Process Development for a process sequence, but with concentration on two particular process steps: laserscribing and spray-on junction formation. The add-on portion of the contract was to further develop these tasks, to incorporate spray-on of AR Coating and aluminum and to study the application of microwave energy to solar cell fabrication. The overall process cost projection is 97.918 cents/Wp. The major contributor to this excess cost is the module encapsulation materials cost. During the span of this contract the study of microwave application to solar cell fabrication produced the ability to apply this technique to any requirement of 600/sup 0/C or less. Above this temperature, non-uniformity caused the processing to be unreliable. The process sequence is described in detail, and a SAMICS cost analysis for each valid process step studied is presented. A temporary catalog for expense items is included, and engineering specifications for the process steps are given. (WHK)

  20. Optical Fiber Array Assemblies for Space Flight on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Jelanie; Matuszeski, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Custom fiber optic bundle array assemblies developed by the Photonics Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center were an enabling technology for both the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) and the Laser Ranging (LR) Investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) currently in operation. The unique assembly array designs provided considerable decrease in size and weight and met stringent system level requirements. This is the first time optical fiber array bundle assemblies were used in a high performance space flight application. This innovation was achieved using customized Diamond Switzerland AVIM optical connectors. For LOLA, a five fiber array was developed for the receiver telescope to maintain precise alignment for each of the 200/220 micron optical fibers collecting 1,064 nm wavelength light being reflected back from the moon. The array splits to five separate detectors replacing the need for multiple telescopes. An image illustration of the LOLA instrument can be found at the top of the figure. For the laser ranging, a seven-optical-fiber array of 400/440 micron fibers was developed to transmit light from behind the LR receiver telescope located on the end of the high gain antenna system (HGAS). The bundle was routed across two moving gimbals, down the HGAS boom arm, over a deployable mandrel and across the spacecraft to a detector on the LOLA instrument. The routing of the optical fiber bundle and its end locations is identified in the figure. The Laser Ranging array and bundle is currently accepting light at a wavelength of 532 nm sent to the moon from laser stations at Greenbelt MD and other stations around the world to gather precision ranging information from the Earth to the LRO spacecraft. The LR bundle assembly is capable of withstanding temperatures down to -55 C at the connectors, and 20,000 mechanical gimbal cycles at temperatures as cold as -20 C along the length of the seven-fiber bundle (that is packaged into the gimbals). The total

  1. Shared robotic system: automated pipette calibration and pipette tip filter assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addison, J.H. Jr.; Dyches, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    At the Savannah River Laboratory a Zymate Laboratory Automation System has been developed to perform two completely independent tasks within one work cell. One operation is the precise calibration of pipettes; the other is the assembly of a filter in a pipette tip. Since neither task requires full robot time, the shared system is an economical means of robotizing both processes. These are tedious, repetitive, time consuming tasks; and human operators fail to yield constant results. Automation insures a repeatable process which increases product quality

  2. Automated assembly of microfluidic "lab-on-a-disc"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M.; Müller, T.; Voebel, T.; Baum, C.; Glennon, T.; Mishra, R.; Kinahan, D.; King, D.; Ducrée, J.; Brecher, C.

    2018-02-01

    Point-of-care (POC) testing attracts more and more attention in the medical health sector because of their specific property to perform the diagnostic close to the patient. The fast diagnosis right at the hospital or the doctor's office improves the medical reaction time and the chances for a successful healing process. One of this POC test systems is a "Lab-on-a-Disc" (LoaD) which looks like a compact disc crisscrossed with microfluidic tubes and cavities. The fluid to be analysed is placed in the LoaD and an external device then rotates the LoaD. The cavities inside the LoaD and the centrifugal force ensure a clearly defined sequence of the analysis. Furthermore, we aim for an inexpensive manufacture of the medical product without neglecting its quality and functionality. Therefore, the Fraunhofer IPT works on an assembly cell to implement dissoluble films concisely into the disc. This dissoluble film demonstrates its successful usage as a gate for the fluid, which opens after a predefined moment in the cycle. Furthermore, we investigate to integrate a laser welding process into our gantry system and demonstrate its efficiency with the welding of polymer discs. This procedure is clinically safe because no further laser absorption material is needed in the sealing process, which might pollute the LoaD. Moreover, this process allows the alignment of several discs before the welding and therefore leads to precisely manufactured LoaDs in large quantities. All these methods together enable a fast, costefficient and reliable mass production to bring POC testing among the people.

  3. Controlled in situ growth of tunable plasmonic self-assembled nanoparticle arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verre, R; Fleischer, K; McGilp, J F; Fox, D; Behan, G; Zhang, H; Shvets, I V

    2012-01-01

    Self-assembled silver nanoparticle (NP) arrays were produced by deposition at glancing angles on transparent stepped Al 2 O 3 templates. The evolution of the plasmonic resonances has been monitored using reflection anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) during growth. It is demonstrated that the morphology of the array can be tailored by changing the template structure, resulting in a large tunability of the optical resonances. In order to extract detailed information on the origin of the measured dichroic response of the system, a model based on dipolar interactions has been developed and the effect of tarnishing and morphological dispersion addressed. (paper)

  4. Simple method for assembly of CRISPR synergistic activation mediator gRNA expression array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vad-Nielsen, Johan; Nielsen, Anders Lade; Luo, Yonglun

    2018-05-20

    When studying complex interconnected regulatory networks, effective methods for simultaneously manipulating multiple genes expression are paramount. Previously, we have developed a simple method for generation of an all-in-one CRISPR gRNA expression array. We here present a Golden Gate Assembly-based system of synergistic activation mediator (SAM) compatible CRISPR/dCas9 gRNA expression array for the simultaneous activation of multiple genes. Using this system, we demonstrated the simultaneous activation of the transcription factors, TWIST, SNAIL, SLUG, and ZEB1 a human breast cancer cell line. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Digital image analysis applied to industrial nondestructive evaluation and automated parts assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janney, D.H.; Kruger, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    Many ideas of image enhancement and analysis are relevant to the needs of the nondestructive testing engineer. These ideas not only aid the engineer in the performance of his current responsibilities, they also open to him new areas of industrial development and automation which are logical extensions of classical testing problems. The paper begins with a tutorial on the fundamentals of computerized image enhancement as applied to nondestructive testing, then progresses through pattern recognition and automated inspection to automated, or robotic, assembly procedures. It is believed that such procedures are cost-effective in many instances, and are but the logical extension of those techniques now commonly used, but often limited to analysis of data from quality-assurance images. Many references are given in order to help the reader who wishes to pursue a given idea further

  6. A Capping Step During Automated Glycan Assembly Enables Access to Complex Glycans in High Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Kononov, Andrew; Delbianco, Martina; Seeberger, Peter H

    2018-04-20

    The products of multi-step automated solid phase syntheses are purified after release from the resin. Capping of unreacted nucleophiles is commonplace in automated oligonucleotide synthesis to minimize accumulation of deletion sequences. To date, capping was not used routinely during automated glycan assembly (AGA) since previous capping protocols suffered from long reaction times and conditions incompatible with some protective groups. Here, a method using methanesulfonic acid and acetic anhydride for the fast and quantitative capping of hydroxyl groups that failed to be glycosylated is reported. Commonly used protective groups in AGA are stable under these capping conditions. The introduction of a capping step into the coupling cycle drastically improved overall yields by decreasing side-products and simplifying purification, while reducing building block consumption. To illustrate the method, the biologically important tetrasaccharide Lc4, as well as a 50-mer polymannoside were prepared. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Automated assembly of fast-axis collimation (FAC) lenses for diode laser bar modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesner, Jörn; Timmermann, Andre; Meinschien, Jens; Neumann, Bernhard; Wright, Steve; Tekin, Tolga; Schröder, Henning; Westphalen, Thomas; Frischkorn, Felix

    2009-02-01

    Laser diodes and diode laser bars are key components in high power semiconductor lasers and solid state laser systems. During manufacture, the assembly of the fast axis collimation (FAC) lens is a crucial step. The goal of our activities is to design an automated assembly system for high volume production. In this paper the results of an intermediate milestone will be reported: a demonstration system was designed, realized and tested to prove the feasibility of all of the system components and process features. The demonstration system consists of a high precision handling system, metrology for process feedback, a powerful digital image processing system and tooling for glue dispensing, UV curing and laser operation. The system components as well as their interaction with each other were tested in an experimental system in order to glean design knowledge for the fully automated assembly system. The adjustment of the FAC lens is performed by a series of predefined steps monitored by two cameras concurrently imaging the far field and the near field intensity distributions. Feedback from these cameras processed by a powerful and efficient image processing algorithm control a five axis precision motion system to optimize the fast axis collimation of the laser beam. Automated cementing of the FAC to the diode bar completes the process. The presentation will show the system concept, the algorithm of the adjustment as well as experimental results. A critical discussion of the results will close the talk.

  8. Contact assembly of cell-laden hollow microtubes through automated micromanipulator tip locating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huaping; Shi, Qing; Guo, Yanan; Li, Yanan; Sun, Tao; Huang, Qiang; Fukuda, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an automated contact assembly method to fabricate a cell-laden microtube based on accurate locating of the micromanipulator tip. Essential for delivering nutrients in thick engineered tissues, a vessel-mimetic microtube can be precisely assembled through microrobotic contact biomanipulation. The biomanipulation is a technique to spatially order and immobilize cellular targets with high precision. However, due to image occlusion during contact, it is challenging to locate the micromanipulator tip for fully automated assembly. To achieve pixel-wise tracking and locating of the tip in contact, a particle filter algorithm integrated with a determined level set model is employed here. The model ensures precise convergence of the micromanipulator’s contour during occlusion. With the converged active contour, the algorithm is able to pixel-wisely separate the micromanipulator from the low-contrast background and precisely locate the tip with error around 1 pixel (2 µ m at 4  ×  magnification). As a result, the cell-laden microtube is automatically assembled at six layers/min, which is effective enough to fabricate vessel-mimetic constructs for vascularization in tissue engineering. (paper)

  9. Two-dimensional parallel array technology as a new approach to automated combinatorial solid-phase organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan; Biddison; Frauendorf; Schwarcz; Keen; Ecker; Davis; Tinder; Swayze

    1998-01-01

    An automated, 96-well parallel array synthesizer for solid-phase organic synthesis has been designed and constructed. The instrument employs a unique reagent array delivery format, in which each reagent utilized has a dedicated plumbing system. An inert atmosphere is maintained during all phases of a synthesis, and temperature can be controlled via a thermal transfer plate which holds the injection molded reaction block. The reaction plate assembly slides in the X-axis direction, while eight nozzle blocks holding the reagent lines slide in the Y-axis direction, allowing for the extremely rapid delivery of any of 64 reagents to 96 wells. In addition, there are six banks of fixed nozzle blocks, which deliver the same reagent or solvent to eight wells at once, for a total of 72 possible reagents. The instrument is controlled by software which allows the straightforward programming of the synthesis of a larger number of compounds. This is accomplished by supplying a general synthetic procedure in the form of a command file, which calls upon certain reagents to be added to specific wells via lookup in a sequence file. The bottle position, flow rate, and concentration of each reagent is stored in a separate reagent table file. To demonstrate the utility of the parallel array synthesizer, a small combinatorial library of hydroxamic acids was prepared in high throughput mode for biological screening. Approximately 1300 compounds were prepared on a 10 μmole scale (3-5 mg) in a few weeks. The resulting crude compounds were generally >80% pure, and were utilized directly for high throughput screening in antibacterial assays. Several active wells were found, and the activity was verified by solution-phase synthesis of analytically pure material, indicating that the system described herein is an efficient means for the parallel synthesis of compounds for lead discovery. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Automated tuning of an eight-channel cardiac transceive array at 7 tesla using piezoelectric actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Graeme A; Rodgers, Christopher T; Hess, Aaron T; Snyder, Carl J; Vaughan, J Thomas; Robson, Matthew D

    2015-06-01

    Ultra-high field (UHF) MR scanning in the body requires novel coil designs due to B1 field inhomogeneities. In the transverse electromagnetic field (TEM) design, maximum B1 transmit power can only be achieved if each individual transmit element is tuned and matched for different coil loads, which requires a considerable amount of valuable scanner time. An integrated system for autotuning a multichannel parallel transmit (pTx) cardiac TEM array was devised, using piezoelectric actuators, power monitoring equipment and control software. The reproducibility and performance of the system were tested and the power responses of the coil elements were profiled. An automated optimization method was devised and evaluated. The time required to tune an eight-element pTx cardiac RF array was reduced from a mean of 30 min to less than 10 min with the use of this system. Piezoelectric actuators are an attractive means of tuning RF coil arrays to yield more efficient B1 transmission into the subject. An automated mechanism for tuning these elements provides a practical solution for cardiac imaging at UHF, bringing this technology closer to clinical use. © 2014 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Toolchain concept for the automated assembly of micro-optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Sebastian; Müller, Tobias; Brecher, Christian

    2014-05-01

    In micro-optical assembly, the mastering of the steps of passive and active alignment, bonding, and part feeding as well as their interdependencies are crucial to the success of an automation solution. Process development is therefore complex and time consuming. Separation of assembly process planning and assembly execution decouples both phases so that production and process development can take place in parallel and even in spatially separated stations. The work presented in this paper refines the concept of flexible assembly systems by separating the phases of assembly process planning and assembly execution by providing a dedicated process development platform on the one hand and by providing automatisms regarding the transfer from the development platform into industrial production on the other. For this purpose, two key concepts are being developed by the research carried out at Fraunhofer IPT. The paper introduces the overall approach and formalisms as well as a form of notation based on part lists, product features and key characteristics and it shows industrial use cases the approach has been applied to. Key characteristics are constraints on spatial relations and they are expressed in terms of optical functions or geometric constraints which need to be fulfilled. In the paper, special attention is paid to the illustration of the end-user perspective.

  12. Self-assembly and optical properties of patterned ZnO nanodot arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yijian; Zheng Maojun; Ma Li

    2007-01-01

    Patterned ZnO nanodot (ND) arrays and a ND-cavity microstructure were realized on an anodic alumina membrane (AAM) surface through a spin-coating sol-gel process, which benefits from the morphology and localized negative charge surface of AAM as well as the optimized sol concentration. The growth mechanism is believed to be a self-assembly process. This provides a simple approach to fabricate semiconductor quantum dot (QD) arrays and a QD-cavity system with its advantage in low cost and mass production. Strong ultra-violet emission, a multi-phonon process, and its special structure-related properties were observed in the patterned ZnO ND arrays

  13. Subspace Dimensionality: A Tool for Automated QC in Seismic Array Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, C. A.; Stead, R. J.; Begnaud, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Because of the great resolving power of seismic arrays, the application of automated processing to array data is critically important in treaty verification work. A significant problem in array analysis is the inclusion of bad sensor channels in the beamforming process. We are testing an approach to automated, on-the-fly quality control (QC) to aid in the identification of poorly performing sensor channels prior to beam-forming in routine event detection or location processing. The idea stems from methods used for large computer servers, when monitoring traffic at enormous numbers of nodes is impractical on a node-by node basis, so the dimensionality of the node traffic is instead monitoried for anomalies that could represent malware, cyber-attacks or other problems. The technique relies upon the use of subspace dimensionality or principal components of the overall system traffic. The subspace technique is not new to seismology, but its most common application has been limited to comparing waveforms to an a priori collection of templates for detecting highly similar events in a swarm or seismic cluster. In the established template application, a detector functions in a manner analogous to waveform cross-correlation, applying a statistical test to assess the similarity of the incoming data stream to known templates for events of interest. In our approach, we seek not to detect matching signals, but instead, we examine the signal subspace dimensionality in much the same way that the method addresses node traffic anomalies in large computer systems. Signal anomalies recorded on seismic arrays affect the dimensional structure of the array-wide time-series. We have shown previously that this observation is useful in identifying real seismic events, either by looking at the raw signal or derivatives thereof (entropy, kurtosis), but here we explore the effects of malfunctioning channels on the dimension of the data and its derivatives, and how to leverage this effect for

  14. Development of the automated circulating tumor cell recovery system with microcavity array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Ryo; Hosokawa, Masahito; Nakamura, Seita; Kanbara, Hisashige; Kanetomo, Masafumi; Kikuhara, Yoshihito; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Yoshino, Tomoko

    2015-05-15

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are well recognized as useful biomarker for cancer diagnosis and potential target of drug discovery for metastatic cancer. Efficient and precise recovery of extremely low concentrations of CTCs from blood has been required to increase the detection sensitivity. Here, an automated system equipped with a microcavity array (MCA) was demonstrated for highly efficient and reproducible CTC recovery. The use of MCA allows selective recovery of cancer cells from whole blood on the basis of differences in size between tumor and blood cells. Intra- and inter-assays revealed that the automated system achieved high efficiency and reproducibility equal to the assay manually performed by well-trained operator. Under optimized assay workflow, the automated system allows efficient and precise cell recovery for non-small cell lung cancer cells spiked in whole blood. The automated CTC recovery system will contribute to high-throughput analysis in the further clinical studies on large cohort of cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. RoboSCell: An automated single cell arraying and analysis instrument

    KAUST Repository

    Sakaki, Kelly

    2009-09-09

    Single cell research has the potential to revolutionize experimental methods in biomedical sciences and contribute to clinical practices. Recent studies suggest analysis of single cells reveals novel features of intracellular processes, cell-to-cell interactions and cell structure. The methods of single cell analysis require mechanical resolution and accuracy that is not possible using conventional techniques. Robotic instruments and novel microdevices can achieve higher throughput and repeatability; however, the development of such instrumentation is a formidable task. A void exists in the state-of-the-art for automated analysis of single cells. With the increase in interest in single cell analyses in stem cell and cancer research the ability to facilitate higher throughput and repeatable procedures is necessary. In this paper, a high-throughput, single cell microarray-based robotic instrument, called the RoboSCell, is described. The proposed instrument employs a partially transparent single cell microarray (SCM) integrated with a robotic biomanipulator for in vitro analyses of live single cells trapped at the array sites. Cells, labeled with immunomagnetic particles, are captured at the array sites by channeling magnetic fields through encapsulated permalloy channels in the SCM. The RoboSCell is capable of systematically scanning the captured cells temporarily immobilized at the array sites and using optical methods to repeatedly measure extracellular and intracellular characteristics over time. The instrument\\'s capabilities are demonstrated by arraying human T lymphocytes and measuring the uptake dynamics of calcein acetoxymethylester-all in a fully automated fashion. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. The Role of Oleic Acid: From Synthesis to Assembly of Perovskite Nanocuboid Two-Dimensional Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Linhua; Wang, Chuandao; Kennedy, Robert M.; Marks, Laurence D.; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States

    2014-08-25

    Oleic acid, an 18-carbon chain fatty acid, has been widely used as a surfactant to fabricate colloidal nanocrystals. In previous work, we discovered a lamellar microemulsion strategy to fabricate sub-20 nm SrTiO3 nanocuboids using oleic acid and oleate species. Here, we demonstrate (i) the general synthesis with lamellar microemulsions of a family of compositionally varied BaxSr1–xTiO3 crystalline nanocuboids with uniform size, and (ii) subsequent assembly into two-dimensional arrays by nanoparticle-bound oleate in a nonpolar solvent. The measured interparticle distance (2.4 nm) of adjacent nanoparticles in an array is less than the length of a double oleate layer (~4 nm). On the basis of calculations of the interfacial free energy, we propose the hydrophobic, hydrocarbon-terminated groups of oleate from adjacent nanocuboids are situated closely but do not overlap. Lower aspect ratio nanocuboids are bordered by four adjacent nanocuboids which results in a uniform direction self-assembly array, whereas higher aspect ratio nanocuboids are bordered by five or six adjacent nanocuboids and can develop an arced local coordination.

  17. Titanium dioxide nanowire sensor array integration on CMOS platform using deterministic assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Oren Z; Zhong, Xiahua; Schulman, Daniel S; Kang, Myungkoo; Razavieh, Ali; Mayer, Theresa S

    2017-06-30

    Nanosensor arrays have recently received significant attention due to their utility in a wide range of applications, including gas sensing, fuel cells, internet of things, and portable health monitoring systems. Less attention has been given to the production of sensor platforms in the μW range for ultra-low power applications. Here, we discuss how to scale the nanosensor energy demand by developing a process for integration of nanowire sensing arrays on a monolithic CMOS chip. This work demonstrates an off-chip nanowire fabrication method; subsequently nanowires link to a fused SiO 2 substrate using electric-field assisted directed assembly. The nanowire resistances shown in this work have the highest resistance uniformity reported to date of 18%, which enables a practical roadmap towards the coupling of nanosensors to CMOS circuits and signal processing systems. The article also presents the utility of optimizing annealing conditions of the off-chip metal-oxides prior to CMOS integration to avoid limitations of thermal budget and process incompatibility. In the context of the platform demonstrated here, directed assembly is a powerful tool that can realize highly uniform, cross-reactive arrays of different types of metal-oxide nanosensors suited for gas discrimination and signal processing systems.

  18. Automated Glycan Assembly of Complex Oligosaccharides Related to Blood Group Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Heung Sik; Liang, Chien-Fu; Lai, Chian-Hui; Fair, Richard J; Schuhmacher, Frank; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-07-15

    Lactotetraosyl (Lc4) and neo-lactotetraosyl (nLc4) are backbones that are common to many glycans. Using automated glycan assembly, these common core structures were constructed and elaborated to access synthetically challenging glycans of biological relevance. The incorporation of α-fucoses is demonstrated for H-type I and II; α(1,3)-galactose epitopes were prepared, and the pentasaccharide HNK-1 required incorporation of a 3-O-sulfate. In addition to preparing the target structures, essential insights were gained regarding the relationships of glycosylating agents and nucleophiles as well as the linker stability.

  19. Assembly, characterization, and operation of large-scale TES detector arrays for ACTPol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christine Goodwin

    2016-01-01

    The Polarization-sensitive Receiver for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACTPol) is designed to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies on small angular scales. Measurements of the CMB temperature and polarization anisotropies have produced arguably the most important cosmological data to date, establishing the LambdaCDM model and providing the best constraints on most of its parameters. To detect the very small fluctuations in the CMB signal across the sky, ACTPol uses feedhorn-coupled Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) detectors. A TES is a superconducting thin film operated in the transition region between the superconducting and normal states, where it functions as a highly sensitive resistive thermometer. In this thesis, aspects of the assembly, characterization, and in-field operation of the ACTPol TES detector arrays are discussed. First, a novel microfabrication process for producing high-density superconducting aluminum/polyimide flexible circuitry (flex) designed to connect large-scale detector arrays to the first stage of readout is presented. The flex is used in parts of the third ACTPol array and is currently being produced for use in the AdvACT detector arrays, which will begin to replace the ACTPol arrays in 2016. Next, we describe methods and results for the in-lab and on-telescope characterization of the detectors in the third ACTPol array. Finally, we describe the ACTPol TES R(T,I) transition shapes and how they affect the detector calibration and operation. Methods for measuring the exact detector calibration and re-biasing functions, taking into account the R(T,I) transition shape, are presented.

  20. Assembly of metallic nanoparticle arrays on glass via nanoimprinting and thin-film dewetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Kyu Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a nanofabrication process to generate large-area arrays of noble metal nanoparticles on glass substrates via nanoimprinting and dewetting of metallic thin films. Glass templates were made via pattern transfer from a topographic Si mold to an inorganically cross-linked sol–gel (IGSG resist on glass using a two-layer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS stamp followed by annealing, which turned the imprinted resist into pure silica. The transparent, topographic glass successfully templated the assembly of Au and Ag nanoparticle arrays via thin-film deposition and dewetting at elevated temperatures. The microstructural and mechanical characteristics that developed during the processes were discussed. The results are promising for low-cost mass fabrication of devices for several photonic applications.

  1. Assembly of metallic nanoparticle arrays on glass via nanoimprinting and thin-film dewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Kyu; Hwang, Sori; Kim, Yoon-Kee; Oh, Yong-Jun

    2017-01-01

    We propose a nanofabrication process to generate large-area arrays of noble metal nanoparticles on glass substrates via nanoimprinting and dewetting of metallic thin films. Glass templates were made via pattern transfer from a topographic Si mold to an inorganically cross-linked sol-gel (IGSG) resist on glass using a two-layer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp followed by annealing, which turned the imprinted resist into pure silica. The transparent, topographic glass successfully templated the assembly of Au and Ag nanoparticle arrays via thin-film deposition and dewetting at elevated temperatures. The microstructural and mechanical characteristics that developed during the processes were discussed. The results are promising for low-cost mass fabrication of devices for several photonic applications.

  2. Development of a Solar Array Drive Assembly for CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaretti, Mike; Hayes, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Small satellites and in particular CubeSats, have increasingly become more viable as platforms for payloads typically requiring much larger bus structures. As advances in technology make payloads and instruments for space missions smaller, lighter and more power efficient, a niche market is emerging from the university community to perform rapidly developed, low-cost missions on very small spacecraft - micro, nano, and picosatellites. In just the last few years, imaging, biological and new technology demonstration missions have been either proposed or have flown using variations of the CubeSat structure as a basis. As these missions have become more complex, and the CubeSat standard has increased in both size (number of cubes) and mass, available power has become an issue. Body-mounted solar cells provide a minimal amount of power; deployable arrays improve on that baseline but are still limited. To truly achieve maximum power, deployed tracked arrays are necessary. To this end, Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corporation, along with MMA of Nederland Colorado, has developed a solar array drive assembly (SADA) and deployable solar arrays specifically for CubeSat missions. In this paper, we discuss the development of the SADA.

  3. Fabrication of biomolecules self-assembled on Au nanodot array for bioelectronic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taek; Kumar, Ajay Yagati; Yoo, Si-Youl; Jung, Mi; Min, Junhong; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, an nano-platform composed of Au nanodot arrays on which biomolecules could be self-assembled was developed and investigated for a stable bioelectronic device platform. Au nanodot pattern was fabricated using a nanoporous alumina template. Two different biomolecules, a cytochrome c and a single strand DNA (ssDNA), were immobilized on the Au nanodot arrays. Cytochorme c and single stranded DNA could be immobilized on the Au nanodot using the chemical linker 11-MUA and thiol-modification by covalent bonding, respectively. The atomic structure of the fabricated nano-platform device was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The electrical conductivity of biomolecules immobilized on the Au nanodot arrays was confirmed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). To investigate the activity of biomolecule-immobilized Au-nano dot array, the cyclic voltammetry was carried out. This proposed nano-platform device, which is composed of biomolecules, can be used for the construction of a novel bioelectronic device.

  4. Design and Assembly of DNA Nano-Objects and 2D DNA Origami Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyan

    DNA, which plays a central role in biology as the carrier of genetic information, is also an excellent candidate for structural nanotechnology. Researches have proven that a variety of complicated DNA assemblies, such as objects, 2D & 3D crystals, and nanomechanical devices, can be fabricated through the combination of robust branched DNA motifs and sticky ends. This dissertation focuses on the design and construction of DNA nano--objects and 2D DNA origami arrays. In this dissertation, we first describe the formation of a triangular species that has four strands per edge, held together by PX interactions. We demonstrate by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis and by atomic force microscopy (AFM) that we can combine a partial triangle with other strands to form a robust four--stranded molecule. By combining them with a novel three--domain molecule, we also demonstrate by AFM that these triangles can be self--assembled into a linear array. Second, we demonstrate our attempts to design and self--assemble 2D DNA origami arrays using several different strategies. Specifically, we introduce the self--assembly of 2D DNA origami lattices using a symmetric cross--like design. This design strategy resulted in a well--ordered woven latticework array with edge dimensions of 2--3 mum. This size is likely to be large enough to connect bottom-up methods of patterning with top--down approaches. Third, we illustrate the design and construction of DNA nano--objects for exploring the substrate preferences of topoisomerase (topo) II. We designed and fabricated four double rhombus--like DNA molecules, each of which contains a different conformation of crossover in the middle, as possible substrates to establish the structural preferences for topo II. We characterized the formation of each substrate molecule by gel electrophoresis. Finally, we study the effect of M13 DNA knotting on the formation of the DNA origami tiles. We demonstrate by atomic force microscopy (AFM) that knotted M13

  5. Diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica with interfacial co-assembly-based multi-channel electrochemical immunosensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wangping; Xu, Bin; Hu, Haiyan; Li, Jianyong; Hu, Wei; Song, Shiping; Feng, Zheng; Fan, Chunhai

    2013-05-01

    Schistosomiasis control remains to be an important and challenging task in the world. However, lack of quick, simple, sensitive and specific sero-diagnostic test is still a hurdle in the control practice. The commonly employed enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) relies on the native soluble egg antigen (SEA) that is limited in supply. Here we developed an electrochemical immunosensor array (ECISA) assay with an interfacial co-assembly strategy. A recombinant Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) calcium-binding protein (SjE16) was used as a principal antigen, while the SEA as a minor, co-assembling agent, with a ratio of 8:1 (SjE16: SEA, Sj16EA), which was co-immobilized on a disposable 16-channel screen-printed carbon electrode array. A portable electrochemical detector was employed to detect antibodies in serum samples. The sensitivity of ECISA reached 100% with minimal cross-reactions. Therefore, we have demonstrated that this rapid, sensitive and specific ECISA technique has the potential to perform large-scale on-site screening of Sj infection.

  6. Analytical Kinematics and Coupled Vibrations Analysis of Mechanical System Operated by Solar Array Drive Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, M.; Wei, C.; Jalali, A.; Sattar, R.

    2017-07-01

    To address the impact of solar array (SA) anomalies and vibrations on performance of precision space-based operations, it is important to complete its accurate jitter analysis. This work provides mathematical modelling scheme to approximate kinematics and coupled micro disturbance dynamics of rigid load supported and operated by solar array drive assembly (SADA). SADA employed in analysis provides a step wave excitation torque to activate the system. Analytical investigations into kinematics is accomplished by using generalized linear and Euler angle coordinates, applying multi-body dynamics concepts and transformations principles. Theoretical model is extended, to develop equations of motion (EoM), through energy method (Lagrange equation). The main emphasis is to research coupled frequency response by determining energies dissipated and observing dynamic behaviour of internal vibratory systems of SADA. The disturbance model captures discrete active harmonics of SADA, natural modes and vibration amplifications caused by interactions between active harmonics and structural modes of mechanical assembly. The proposed methodology can help to predict true micro disturbance nature of SADA operating rigid load. Moreover, performance outputs may be compared against actual mission requirements to assess precise spacecraft controller design to meet next space generation stringent accuracy goals.

  7. Modular assembly of transposable element arrays by microsatellite targeting in the guayule and rice genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes Franco, José A; Wang, Yi; Huo, Naxin; Ponciano, Grisel; Colvin, Howard A; McMahan, Colleen M; Gu, Yong Q; Belknap, William R

    2018-04-19

    Guayule (Parthenium argentatum A. Gray) is a rubber-producing desert shrub native to Mexico and the United States. Guayule represents an alternative to Hevea brasiliensis as a source for commercial natural rubber. The efficient application of modern molecular/genetic tools to guayule improvement requires characterization of its genome. The 1.6 Gb guayule genome was sequenced, assembled and annotated. The final 1.5 Gb assembly, while fragmented (N 50  = 22 kb), maps > 95% of the shotgun reads and is essentially complete. Approximately 40,000 transcribed, protein encoding genes were annotated on the assembly. Further characterization of this genome revealed 15 families of small, microsatellite-associated, transposable elements (TEs) with unexpected chromosomal distribution profiles. These SaTar (Satellite Targeted) elements, which are non-autonomous Mu-like elements (MULEs), were frequently observed in multimeric linear arrays of unrelated individual elements within which no individual element is interrupted by another. This uniformly non-nested TE multimer architecture has not been previously described in either eukaryotic or prokaryotic genomes. Five families of similarly distributed non-autonomous MULEs (microsatellite associated, modularly assembled) were characterized in the rice genome. Families of TEs with similar structures and distribution profiles were identified in sorghum and citrus. The sequencing and assembly of the guayule genome provides a foundation for application of current crop improvement technologies to this plant. In addition, characterization of this genome revealed SaTar elements with distribution profiles unique among TEs. Satar targeting appears based on an alternative MULE recombination mechanism with the potential to impact gene evolution.

  8. Multiple products management system with sensors array in automated storage and retrieval systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongbunyong, Supachai; Roengritronnachai, Perawat; Kongsanit, Savanut; Chanok-owat, Chawisa; Polchankajorn, Pongsakorn

    2018-01-01

    Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/RS) have now been widely used in a number of industries due to its capability to automatically manage the storage of products in effective ways. One of the key features of AS/RS is that each rack is not assigned for a specific product resulting in the benefit of space utilization and logistics related issues. In this research, sensor arrays are equipped at each rack in order to enhance this feature. As a result, various products can be identified and mixed in each rack, so that the space utilization efficiency can be increased. To prove the concept, a prototype system consisting of a Cartesian robot that manages the storage and retrieval of products with 9 variations based on size and color. The concept of Cyber-Physical System and self-awareness of the system are also implemented in this concept prototype.

  9. Total synthesis of TMG-chitotriomycin based on an automated electrochemical assembly of a disaccharide building block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoda, Yuta; Sasaki, Norihiko; Kitamura, Kei; Takahashi, Shuji; Manmode, Sujit; Takeda-Okuda, Naoko; Tamura, Jun-Ichi; Nokami, Toshiki; Itoh, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    The total synthesis of TMG-chitotriomycin using an automated electrochemical synthesizer for the assembly of carbohydrate building blocks is demonstrated. We have successfully prepared a precursor of TMG-chitotriomycin, which is a structurally-pure tetrasaccharide with typical protecting groups, through the methodology of automated electrochemical solution-phase synthesis developed by us. The synthesis of structurally well-defined TMG-chitotriomycin has been accomplished in 10-steps from a disaccharide building block.

  10. Total synthesis of TMG-chitotriomycin based on an automated electrochemical assembly of a disaccharide building block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Isoda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The total synthesis of TMG-chitotriomycin using an automated electrochemical synthesizer for the assembly of carbohydrate building blocks is demonstrated. We have successfully prepared a precursor of TMG-chitotriomycin, which is a structurally-pure tetrasaccharide with typical protecting groups, through the methodology of automated electrochemical solution-phase synthesis developed by us. The synthesis of structurally well-defined TMG-chitotriomycin has been accomplished in 10-steps from a disaccharide building block.

  11. Iridium terpyridine complexes as functional assembling units in arrays for the conversion of light energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamigni, Lucia; Collin, Jean-Paul; Sauvage, Jean-Pierre

    2008-07-01

    In photosynthesis, sunlight energy is converted into a chemical potential by an electron transfer sequence that is started by an excited state and ultimately yields a long-lived charge-separated state. This process can be reproduced by carefully designed multicomponent artificial arrays of three or more components, and the stored energy can be used to oxidize or reduce molecules in solution, to inject electrons or holes, or to create an electron flow. Therefore, the process is important both for artificial-photosynthesis research and for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. Molecular arrays for photoinduced charge separation often use chromophores that resemble the natural ones. However, new synthetic components, including transition metal complexes, have had some success. This Account discusses the use of bis-terpyridine (tpy) metal complexes as assembling and functional units of such multicomponent arrays. M(tpy)2(n+) complexes have the advantage of yielding linear arrays with unambiguous geometry. Originally, Ru(tpy)2(2+) and Os(tpy)2(2+) were used as photosensitizers in triads containing typical organic donors and acceptors. However, it soon became evident that the relatively low excited state of these complexes could act as an energy drain of the excited state of the photosensitizer and, thus, seriously compete with charge separation. A new metal complex that preserved the favorable tpy geometry and yet had a higher energy level was needed. We identified Ir(tpy)2(3+), which displayed a higher energy level, a more facile reduction that favored charge separation, a longer excited-state lifetime, and strong spectroscopic features that were useful for the identification of intermediates. Ir(tpy)2(3+) was used in arrays with electron-donating gold porphyrin and electron-accepting free-base porphyrins. A judicious change of the free-base porphyrin photosensitizer with zinc porphyrin allowed us to shape the photoreactivity and led to charge separation with

  12. Fluorescence enhancement in large-scale self-assembled gold nanoparticle double arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekini, M.; Bierwagen, J.; Cunningham, A.; Bürgi, T.; Filter, R.; Rockstuhl, C.

    2015-01-01

    Localized surface plasmon resonances excited in metallic nanoparticles confine and enhance electromagnetic fields at the nanoscale. This is particularly pronounced in dimers made from two closely spaced nanoparticles. When quantum emitters, such as dyes, are placed in the gap of those dimers, their absorption and emission characteristics can be modified. Both processes have to be considered when aiming to enhance the fluorescence from the quantum emitters. This is particularly challenging for dimers, since the electromagnetic properties and the enhanced fluorescence sensitively depend on the distance between the nanoparticles. Here, we use a layer-by-layer method to precisely control the distances in such systems. We consider a dye layer deposited on top of an array of gold nanoparticles or integrated into a central position of a double array of gold nanoparticles. We study the effect of the spatial arrangement and the average distance on the plasmon-enhanced fluorescence. We found a maximum of a 99-fold increase in the fluorescence intensity of the dye layer sandwiched between two gold nanoparticle arrays. The interaction of the dye layer with the plasmonic system also causes a spectral shift in the emission wavelengths and a shortening of the fluorescence life times. Our work paves the way for large-scale, high throughput, and low-cost self-assembled functionalized plasmonic systems that can be used as efficient light sources

  13. Miniaturized embryo array for automated trapping, immobilization and microperfusion of zebrafish embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Akagi

    Full Text Available Zebrafish (Danio rerio has recently emerged as a powerful experimental model in drug discovery and environmental toxicology. Drug discovery screens performed on zebrafish embryos mirror with a high level of accuracy the tests usually performed on mammalian animal models, and fish embryo toxicity assay (FET is one of the most promising alternative approaches to acute ecotoxicity testing with adult fish. Notwithstanding this, automated in-situ analysis of zebrafish embryos is still deeply in its infancy. This is mostly due to the inherent limitations of conventional techniques and the fact that metazoan organisms are not easily susceptible to laboratory automation. In this work, we describe the development of an innovative miniaturized chip-based device for the in-situ analysis of zebrafish embryos. We present evidence that automatic, hydrodynamic positioning, trapping and long-term immobilization of single embryos inside the microfluidic chips can be combined with time-lapse imaging to provide real-time developmental analysis. Our platform, fabricated using biocompatible polymer molding technology, enables rapid trapping of embryos in low shear stress zones, uniform drug microperfusion and high-resolution imaging without the need of manual embryo handling at various developmental stages. The device provides a highly controllable fluidic microenvironment and post-analysis eleuthero-embryo stage recovery. Throughout the incubation, the position of individual embryos is registered. Importantly, we also for first time show that microfluidic embryo array technology can be effectively used for the analysis of anti-angiogenic compounds using transgenic zebrafish line (fli1a:EGFP. The work provides a new rationale for rapid and automated manipulation and analysis of developing zebrafish embryos at a large scale.

  14. Photochemical-chemiluminometric determination of aldicarb in a fully automated multicommutation based flow-assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomeque, M.; Garcia Bautista, J.A.; Catala Icardo, M.; Garcia Mateo, J.V.; Martinez Calatayud, J.

    2004-01-01

    A sensitive and fully automated method for determination of aldicarb in technical formulations (Temik) and mineral waters is proposed. The automation of the flow-assembly is based on the multicommutation approach, which uses a set of solenoid valves acting as independent switchers. The operating cycle for obtaining a typical analytical transient signal can be easily programmed by means of a home-made software running in the Windows environment. The manifold is provided with a photoreactor consisting of a 150 cm long x 0.8 mm i.d. piece of PTFE tubing coiled around a 20 W low-pressure mercury lamp. The determination of aldicarb is performed on the basis of the iron(III) catalytic mineralization of the pesticide by UV irradiation (150 s), and the chemiluminescent (CL) behavior of the photodegradated pesticide in presence of potassium permanganate and quinine sulphate as sensitizer. UV irradiation of aldicarb turns the very week chemiluminescent pesticide into a strongly chemiluminescent photoproduct. The method is linear over the range 2.2-100.0 μg l -1 of aldicarb; the limit of detection is 0.069 μg l -1 ; the reproducibility (as the R.S.D. of 20 peaks of a 24 μg l -1 solution) is 3.7% and the sample throughput is 17 h -1

  15. 75 FR 3253 - Lamb Assembly and Test, LLC, Subsidiary of Mag Industrial Automation Systems, Machesney Park, IL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70,516] Lamb Assembly and Test, LLC, Subsidiary of Mag Industrial Automation Systems, Machesney Park, IL; Notice of Negative... workers of Lamb Technicon, a division of Unova, Warren, Michigan and Lake Orion, Michigan were previously...

  16. Comparison of Integer Programming (IP) Solvers for Automated Test Assembly (ATA). Research Report. ETS RR-15-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, John R.

    2015-01-01

    At the heart of van der Linden's approach to automated test assembly (ATA) is a linear programming/integer programming (LP/IP) problem. A variety of IP solvers are available, ranging in cost from free to hundreds of thousands of dollars. In this paper, I compare several approaches to solving the underlying IP problem. These approaches range from…

  17. Template-Guided Self-Assembly of Discrete Optoplasmonic Molecules and Extended Optoplasmonic Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Björn M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of metallic and dielectric building blocks into optoplasmonic structures creates new electromagnetic systems in which plasmonic and photonic modes can interact in the near-, intermediate- and farfield. The morphology-dependent electromagnetic coupling between the different building blocks in these hybrid structures provides a multitude of opportunities for controlling electromagnetic fields in both spatial and frequency domain as well as for engineering the phase landscape and the local density of optical states. Control over any of these properties requires, however, rational fabrication approaches for well-defined metal-dielectric hybrid structures. Template-guided self-assembly is a versatile fabrication method capable of integrating metallic and dielectric components into discrete optoplasmonic structures, arrays, or metasurfaces. The structural flexibility provided by the approach is illustrated by two representative implementations of optoplasmonic materials discussed in this review. In optoplasmonic atoms or molecules optical microcavities (OMs serve as whispering gallery mode resonators that provide a discrete photonic mode spectrum to interact with plasmonic nanostructures contained in the evanescent fields of the OMs. In extended hetero-nanoparticle arrays in-plane scattered light induces geometry-dependent photonic resonances that mix with the localized surface plasmon resonances of the metal nanoparticles.We characterize the fundamental electromagnetic working principles underlying both optoplasmonic approaches and review the fabrication strategies implemented to realize them.

  18. Automated glycan assembly of a S. pneumoniae serotype 3 CPS antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus W. Weishaupt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines against S. pneumoniae, one of the most prevalent bacterial infections causing severe disease, rely on isolated capsular polysaccharide (CPS that are conjugated to proteins. Such isolates contain a heterogeneous oligosaccharide mixture of different chain lengths and frame shifts. Access to defined synthetic S. pneumoniae CPS structures is desirable. Known syntheses of S. pneumoniae serotype 3 CPS rely on a time-consuming and low-yielding late-stage oxidation step, or use disaccharide building blocks which limits variability. Herein, we report the first iterative automated glycan assembly (AGA of a conjugation-ready S. pneumoniae serotype 3 CPS trisaccharide. This oligosaccharide was assembled using a novel glucuronic acid building block to circumvent the need for a late-stage oxidation. The introduction of a washing step with the activator prior to each glycosylation cycle greatly increased the yields by neutralizing any residual base from deprotection steps in the synthetic cycle. This process improvement is applicable to AGA of many other oligosaccharides.

  19. Rnnotator: an automated de novo transcriptome assembly pipeline from stranded RNA-Seq reads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Jeffrey; Bruno, Vincent M.; Fang, Zhide; Meng, Xiandong; Blow, Matthew; Zhang, Tao; Sherlock, Gavin; Snyder, Michael; Wang, Zhong

    2010-11-19

    Background: Comprehensive annotation and quantification of transcriptomes are outstanding problems in functional genomics. While high throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) has emerged as a powerful tool for addressing these problems, its success is dependent upon the availability and quality of reference genome sequences, thus limiting the organisms to which it can be applied. Results: Here, we describe Rnnotator, an automated software pipeline that generates transcript models by de novo assembly of RNA-Seq data without the need for a reference genome. We have applied the Rnnotator assembly pipeline to two yeast transcriptomes and compared the results to the reference gene catalogs of these organisms. The contigs produced by Rnnotator are highly accurate (95percent) and reconstruct full-length genes for the majority of the existing gene models (54.3percent). Furthermore, our analyses revealed many novel transcribed regions that are absent from well annotated genomes, suggesting Rnnotator serves as a complementary approach to analysis based on a reference genome for comprehensive transcriptomics. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that the Rnnotator pipeline is able to reconstruct full-length transcripts in the absence of a complete reference genome.

  20. Preparation of FeS2 nanotube arrays based on layer-by-layer assembly and their photoelectrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mudan; Xue, Dongpeng; Qin, Haiying; Zhang, Lei; Ling, Guoping; Liu, Jiabin; Fang, Youtong; Meng, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amorphous Fe 2 O 3 nanotube arrays are prepared via layer-by-layer assembly. • Pyrite FeS 2 nanotube arrays are obtained by sulfurizing Fe 2 O 3 nanotube arrays. • Various electrochemical properties are characterized. • A comparison between FeS 2 nanotube and nanoparticle films is conducted. • Nanotube arrays show enhanced corrosion resistance and photoresponse. - Abstract: Well-aligned one-dimensional iron pyrite FeS 2 nanotube arrays have been fabricated via layer-by-layer assembly technique on ZnO nanorod arrays in combination with subsequent sulfurization. The as-prepared products were confirmed to be pure phase pyrite FeS 2 with Fe/S ratio approaching 1/2. Typical nanotube structure was observed for the FeS 2 with average outer diameter of 150 ± 20 nm and wall thickness of 50 ± 5 nm. Comparisons of photoelectrochemical properties between FeS 2 nanotubes and FeS 2 nanoparticles were conducted. Tafel polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicate that FeS 2 nanotubes possess high corrosion resistance and electrochemical stability. The J–V curves show that the photocurrent at 1.0 V for FeS 2 nanotubes is more than five times larger than that of FeS 2 nanoparticles, indicating enhanced photoresponse and rapid charge transfer performances of 1-D nanotube structure. The enhanced photoelectrochemical properties mainly benefit from the unique architecture features of nanotube array structure.

  1. Assembly of positioner of automated two-dimensional scan coupled to X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Leonardo Santiago Melgaço

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the design and assembling of a prototype automated positioner two-dimensional scanning coupled to X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The work aims to achieve a portable and easy to use, device of broad utility in the analysis of samples by X-ray fluorescence area of expertise and research. The two-dimensional scanning of the positioner is by means of two stepper motors controlled by a microcontroller PIC 16F877A, encoder and optical sensors. The user interacts with the XY table through an interface program for the Windows operating system, which communicates with the microcontroller through the serial port. The system of Fluorescence Spectroscopy incorporated into the positioner consists of a system commercially available system from the company AMPTEK, where the primary source of excitation of the sample was a source of 241 Am of 59.5 KeV emissions. Resolution and accuracy of tests were performed in the XY scanning process and reproducibility of the same kit with the fluorescence spectrometry X-ray. Qualitative tests by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in samples were performed to demonstrate the applicability and versatility of the project. It follows that the prototype illustrates a possible adequately to portable device for X-ray spectrometry of two-dimensional. (author)

  2. Self-assembly nanoparticle based tripetaloid structure arrays as surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Mingrui; Qian Chuang; Wu Wengang; Yu Wenxuan; Wang Yifei; Mao Haiyang

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a novel highly ordered tripetaloid structure array (TPSA) which performs very well as an active surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate. The TPSA is easily fabricated by anisotropic etching of a self-assembly silica-nanoparticle bilayer and a subsequent metal deposition step, with notable uniformity and reproducibility. Electromagnetic simulation indicates that the narrow inter-gaps and edge protrusions in the TPSA act as hot spots. In addition, the peak electromagnetic field intensity in the inter-gaps changes slightly and periodically as the polarization of the incident light varies from 0° to 360°. SERS experiments show that the SERS enhancement factor (EF) of a Au-film-covered TPSA is 12 times higher than that of regular Au-film-over-nanoparticles, and not sensitive to the polarization of the incident light. The spatially averaged EF of the TPSA is as high as 5.7 × 10 6 , and the local EF of its hot spots is much higher. (paper)

  3. Transcriptator: An Automated Computational Pipeline to Annotate Assembled Reads and Identify Non Coding RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Parijat Tripathi

    Full Text Available RNA-seq is a new tool to measure RNA transcript counts, using high-throughput sequencing at an extraordinary accuracy. It provides quantitative means to explore the transcriptome of an organism of interest. However, interpreting this extremely large data into biological knowledge is a problem, and biologist-friendly tools are lacking. In our lab, we developed Transcriptator, a web application based on a computational Python pipeline with a user-friendly Java interface. This pipeline uses the web services available for BLAST (Basis Local Search Alignment Tool, QuickGO and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery tools. It offers a report on statistical analysis of functional and Gene Ontology (GO annotation's enrichment. It helps users to identify enriched biological themes, particularly GO terms, pathways, domains, gene/proteins features and protein-protein interactions related informations. It clusters the transcripts based on functional annotations and generates a tabular report for functional and gene ontology annotations for each submitted transcript to the web server. The implementation of QuickGo web-services in our pipeline enable the users to carry out GO-Slim analysis, whereas the integration of PORTRAIT (Prediction of transcriptomic non coding RNA (ncRNA by ab initio methods helps to identify the non coding RNAs and their regulatory role in transcriptome. In summary, Transcriptator is a useful software for both NGS and array data. It helps the users to characterize the de-novo assembled reads, obtained from NGS experiments for non-referenced organisms, while it also performs the functional enrichment analysis of differentially expressed transcripts/genes for both RNA-seq and micro-array experiments. It generates easy to read tables and interactive charts for better understanding of the data. The pipeline is modular in nature, and provides an opportunity to add new plugins in the future. Web application is

  4. Realization of thermally durable close-packed 2D gold nanoparticle arrays using self-assembly and plasma etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaraman, Sankar K; Santhanam, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Realization of thermally and chemically durable, ordered gold nanostructures using bottom-up self-assembly techniques are essential for applications in a wide range of areas including catalysis, energy generation, and sensing. Herein, we describe a modular process for realizing uniform arrays of gold nanoparticles, with interparticle spacings of 2 nm and above, by using RF plasma etching to remove ligands from self-assembled arrays of ligand-coated gold nanoparticles. Both nanoscale imaging and macroscale spectroscopic characterization techniques were used to determine the optimal conditions for plasma etching, namely RF power, operating pressure, duration of treatment, and type of gas. We then studied the effect of nanoparticle size, interparticle spacing, and type of substrate on the thermal durability of plasma-treated and untreated nanoparticle arrays. Plasma-treated arrays showed enhanced chemical and thermal durability, on account of the removal of ligands. To illustrate the application potential of the developed process, robust SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering) substrates were formed using plasma-treated arrays of silver-coated gold nanoparticles that had a silicon wafer or photopaper as the underlying support. The measured value of the average SERS enhancement factor (2 × 10 5 ) was quantitatively reproducible on both silicon and paper substrates. The silicon substrates gave quantitatively reproducible results even after thermal annealing. The paper-based SERS substrate was also used to swab and detect probe molecules deposited on a solid surface. (paper)

  5. Automated Solar Cell Assembly Teamed Process Research. Final subcontract report, 6 January 1993--31 October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlan, M. J.; Hogan, S. J.; Breen, W. F.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Patterson, J. S.; Darkazalli, G. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (US)

    1996-02-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for a program entitled ''Automated Solar Cell Assembly Teamed Process Research,'' funded by the US Department of Energy. This program was part of Phase 3A of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, which addressed the generic needs of the photovoltaic (PV) industry for improved quality, accelerated production scale-up, and substantially reduced manufacturing cost. Crystalline silicon solar cells (Czochralski monocrystalline, cast polycrystalline, and ribbon polycrystalline) are used in the great majority of PV modules produced in the US, accounting for 95% of all shipments in 1994. Spire's goal in this program was to reduce the cost of these modules by developing high throughput (5 MW per year) automated processes for interconnecting solar cells made from standard and thin silicon wafers. Spire achieved this goal by developing a completely new automated processing system, designated the SPI-ASSEMBLER{trademark} 5000, which is now offered as a commercial product to the PV industry. A discussion of the project and of the Assembler is provided.

  6. The fabrication of Ag nanoflake arrays via self-assembly on the surface of an anodic aluminum oxide template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xueming; Dong Kun; Tang Libin; Wu, Yongjun; Yang Peizhi; Zhang Pengxiang

    2010-01-01

    Vertical-aligned Ag nanoflake arrays are fabricated on the surface of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template under a hydrothermal condition for the first time. The porous surface of AAO templates and the precursor solution may play key roles in the process of fabricating Ag nanoflakes. The rim of pores can provide many active sites for nucleation and growth, and then nanoflake arrays gradually form through self-assembly of Ag on the surface of AAO membranes. The product is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a growth mechanism of nanoflake is deduced. This work demonstrates that it is possible to make ordered nanoarrays without dissolving templates using the hydrothermal method, and this interesting Ag nanoflake arrays may provide a wider range of nanoscale applications.

  7. The fabrication of Ag nanoflake arrays via self-assembly on the surface of an anodic aluminum oxide template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueming; Dong, Kun; Tang, Libin; Wu, Yongjun; Yang, Peizhi; Zhang, Pengxiang

    2010-02-01

    Vertical-aligned Ag nanoflake arrays are fabricated on the surface of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template under a hydrothermal condition for the first time. The porous surface of AAO templates and the precursor solution may play key roles in the process of fabricating Ag nanoflakes. The rim of pores can provide many active sites for nucleation and growth, and then nanoflake arrays gradually form through self-assembly of Ag on the surface of AAO membranes. The product is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a growth mechanism of nanoflake is deduced. This work demonstrates that it is possible to make ordered nanoarrays without dissolving templates using the hydrothermal method, and this interesting Ag nanoflake arrays may provide a wider range of nanoscale applications.

  8. Automated optical testing of LWIR objective lenses using focal plane array sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Daniel; Erichsen, Patrik; Domagalski, Christian; Peter, Frank; Heinisch, Josef; Dumitrescu, Eugen

    2012-10-01

    The image quality of today's state-of-the-art IR objective lenses is constantly improving while at the same time the market for thermography and vision grows strongly. Because of increasing demands on the quality of IR optics and increasing production volumes, the standards for image quality testing increase and tests need to be performed in shorter time. Most high-precision MTF testing equipment for the IR spectral bands in use today relies on the scanning slit method that scans a 1D detector over a pattern in the image generated by the lens under test, followed by image analysis to extract performance parameters. The disadvantages of this approach are that it is relatively slow, it requires highly trained operators for aligning the sample and the number of parameters that can be extracted is limited. In this paper we present lessons learned from the R and D process on using focal plane array (FPA) sensors for testing of long-wave IR (LWIR, 8-12 m) optics. Factors that need to be taken into account when switching from scanning slit to FPAs are e.g.: the thermal background from the environment, the low scene contrast in the LWIR, the need for advanced image processing algorithms to pre-process camera images for analysis and camera artifacts. Finally, we discuss 2 measurement systems for LWIR lens characterization that we recently developed with different target applications: 1) A fully automated system suitable for production testing and metrology that uses uncooled microbolometer cameras to automatically measure MTF (on-axis and at several o-axis positions) and parameters like EFL, FFL, autofocus curves, image plane tilt, etc. for LWIR objectives with an EFL between 1 and 12mm. The measurement cycle time for one sample is typically between 6 and 8s. 2) A high-precision research-grade system using again an uncooled LWIR camera as detector, that is very simple to align and operate. A wide range of lens parameters (MTF, EFL, astigmatism, distortion, etc.) can be

  9. Development of an Automation Technique for the Establishment of Functional Lipid Bilayer Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Søndergaard; Perry, Mark; Vogel, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, a technique for establishing multiple black lipid membranes (BLMs) in arrays of micro structured ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) films, and supported by a micro porous material was developed. Rectangular 8 x 8 arrays with apertures having diameters of 301 +/- 5 mu m were...

  10. DNA-templated photonic arrays and assemblies: design principles and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wu; Bonnard, Vanessa; Burley, Glenn A

    2011-07-11

    Molecular photonics is a rapidly developing and multi-disciplinary field of research involving the construction of molecular assemblies comprising photoactive building blocks that are responsive to a light stimulus. A salient challenge in this field is the controlled assembly of these building blocks with nanoscale precision. DNA exhibits considerable promise as an architecture for the templated assembly of photoactive materials. In this Concept Article we describe the progress that has been made in the area of DNA photonics, in which DNA acts as a platform for the construction of optoelectronic assemblies, thin films and devices. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. An Automated Sensing System for Steel Bridge Inspection Using GMR Sensor Array and Magnetic Wheels of Climbing Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the main causes of deterioration of steel bridges. It may cause metal loss and fatigue cracks in the steel components, which would lead to the collapse of steel bridges. This paper presents an automated sensing system to detect corrosion, crack, and other kinds of defects using a GMR (Giant Magnetoresistance sensor array. Defects will change the relative permeability and electrical conductivity of the material. As a result, magnetic field density generated by ferromagnetic material and the magnetic wheels will be changed. The defects are able to be detected by using GMR sensor array to measure the changes of magnetic flux density. In this study, magnetic wheels are used not only as the adhesion device of the robot, but also as an excitation source to provide the exciting magnetic field for the sensing system. Furthermore, compared to the eddy current method and the MFL (magnetic flux leakage method, this sensing system suppresses the noise from lift-off value fluctuation by measuring the vertical component of induced magnetic field that is perpendicular to the surface of the specimen in the corrosion inspection. Simulations and experimental results validated the feasibility of the system for the automated defect inspection.

  12. Development of an automation technique for the establishment of functional lipid bilayer arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J S; Vogel, J; Geschke, O; Emnéus, J; Nielsen, C H; Perry, M; Vissing, T; Hansen, C R

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, a technique for establishing multiple black lipid membranes (BLMs) in arrays of micro structured ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) films, and supported by a micro porous material was developed. Rectangular 8 × 8 arrays with apertures having diameters of 301 ± 5 µm were fabricated in ETFE Teflon film by laser ablation using a carbon dioxide laser. Multiple lipid membranes could be formed across the micro structured 8 × 8 array ETFE partitions. Success rates for the establishment of cellulose-supported BLMs across the multiple aperture arrays were above 95%. However, the time course of the membrane thinning process was found to vary considerably between multiple aperture bilayer experiments. An airbrush partition pretreatment technique was developed to increase the reproducibility of the multiple lipid bilayers formation during the time course from the establishment of the lipid membranes to the formation of bilayers. The results showed that multiple lipid bilayers could be reproducible formed across the airbrush-pretreated 8 × 8 rectangular arrays. The ionophoric peptide valinomycin was incorporated into established membrane arrays, resulting in ionic currents that could be effectively blocked by tetraethylammonium. This shows that functional bimolecular lipid membranes were established, and furthermore outlines that the established lipid membrane arrays could host functional membrane-spanning molecules

  13. Assembly of Four Diverse Heterocyclic Libraries Enabled by Prins Cyclization, Au-Catalyzed Enyne Cycloisomerization, and Automated Amide Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiayue; Chai, David I.; Miller, Christopher; Hao, Jason; Thomas, Christopher; Wang, JingQi; Scheidt, Karl A.; Kozmin, Sergey A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a unified synthetic strategy for efficient assembly of four new heterocyclic libraries. The synthesis began by creating a range of structurally diverse pyrrolidinones or piperidinones. Such compounds were obtained in a simple one-flask operation starting with readily available amines, ketoesters, and unsaturated anhydrides. The use of tetrahydropyran-containing ketoesters, which were rapidly assembled by our Prins cyclization protocol, enabled efficient fusion of pyran and piperidinone cores. A newly developed Au(I)-catalyzed cycloisomerization of alkyne-containing enamides further expanded heterocyclic diversity by providing rapid entry into a wide range of bicyclic and tricyclic dienamides. The final stage of the process entailed diversification of each of the initially produced carboxylic acids using a fully automated platform for amide synthesis, which delivered 1872 compounds in high diastereomeric and chemical purity. PMID:22860634

  14. Probabilistic Neural Networks for Chemical Sensor Array Pattern Recognition: Comparison Studies, Improvements and Automated Outlier Rejection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaffer, Ronald E

    1998-01-01

    For application to chemical sensor arrays, the ideal pattern recognition is accurate, fast, simple to train, robust to outliers, has low memory requirements, and has the ability to produce a measure...

  15. Self-assembled vertically aligned Au nanorod arrays for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of Cannabinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, Sarah; Fraser, Jeff; Poirier, Shawn; Hulse, John; Tay, Li-Lin

    2018-05-01

    Self-assembled multi-layered vertically aligned gold nanorod (AuNR) arrays have been fabricated by a simple preparation process that requires a balance between the particle concentration and the ionic strength of the solvent. An experimentally determined critical AuNR concentration of 2.0 nM and 50 mM NaCl produces well-ordered vertically aligned hexagonally close-packed AuNR arrays. We demonstrate surface treatment via UV Ozone cleaning of such samples to allow introduction of analyte molecules (benzenethiol and cannabinol) for effective surface enhanced Raman scattering detection. This is the first demonstration of the SERS analysis of cannabinol. This approach demonstrates a cost-effective, high-yield and simple fabrication route to SERS sensors with application in the screening for the cannabinoids.

  16. Integrated Automation of High-Throughput Screening and Reverse Phase Protein Array Sample Preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marlene Lemvig; Block, Ines; List, Markus

    into automated robotic high-throughput screens, which allows subsequent protein quantification. In this integrated solution, samples are directly forwarded to automated cell lysate preparation and preparation of dilution series, including reformatting to a protein spotter-compatible format after the high......-throughput screening. Tracking of huge sample numbers and data analysis from a high-content screen to RPPAs is accomplished via MIRACLE, a custom made software suite developed by us. To this end, we demonstrate that the RPPAs generated in this manner deliver reliable protein readouts and that GAPDH and TFR levels can...

  17. Automated preparation method for colloidal crystal arrays of monodisperse and binary colloid mixtures by contact printing with a pintool plotter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert, Klaus; Neumann, Thomas; Wang, Jianjun; Jonas, Ulrich; Knoll, Wolfgang; Ottleben, Holger

    2007-03-13

    Photonic crystals and photonic band gap materials with periodic variation of the dielectric constant in the submicrometer range exhibit unique optical properties such as opalescence, optical stop bands, and photonic band gaps. As such, they represent attractive materials for the active elements in sensor arrays. Colloidal crystals, which are 3D gratings leading to Bragg diffraction, are one potential precursor of such optical materials. They have gained particular interest in many technological areas as a result of their specific properties and ease of fabrication. Although basic techniques for the preparation of regular patterns of colloidal crystals on structured substrates by self-assembly of mesoscopic particles are known, the efficient fabrication of colloidal crystal arrays by simple contact printing has not yet been reported. In this article, we present a spotting technique used to produce a microarray comprising up to 9600 single addressable sensor fields of colloidal crystal structures with dimensions down to 100 mum on a microfabricated substrate in different formats. Both monodisperse colloidal crystals and binary colloidal crystal systems were prepared by contact printing of polystyrene particles in aqueous suspension. The array morphology was characterized by optical light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, which revealed regularly ordered crystalline structures for both systems. In the case of binary crystals, the influence of the concentration ratio of the large and small particles in the printing suspension on the obtained crystal structure was investigated. The optical properties of the colloidal crystal arrays were characterized by reflection spectroscopy. To examine the stop bands of the colloidal crystal arrays in a high-throughput fashion, an optical setup based on a CCD camera was realized that allowed the simultaneous readout of all of the reflection spectra of several thousand sensor fields per array in parallel. In agreement with

  18. Integrative self-assembly of functional hybrid nanoconstructs by inorganic wrapping of single biomolecules, biomolecule arrays and organic supramolecular assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Avinash J; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen

    2013-08-21

    Synthesis of functional hybrid nanoscale objects has been a core focus of the rapidly progressing field of nanomaterials science. In particular, there has been significant interest in the integration of evolutionally optimized biological systems such as proteins, DNA, virus particles and cells with functional inorganic building blocks to construct mesoscopic architectures and nanostructured materials. However, in many cases the fragile nature of the biomolecules seriously constrains their potential applications. As a consequence, there is an on-going quest for the development of novel strategies to modulate the thermal and chemical stabilities, and performance of biomolecules under adverse conditions. This feature article highlights new methods of "inorganic molecular wrapping" of single or multiple protein molecules, individual double-stranded DNA helices, lipid bilayer vesicles and self-assembled organic dye superstructures using inorganic building blocks to produce bio-inorganic nanoconstructs with core-shell type structures. We show that spatial isolation of the functional biological nanostructures as "armour-plated" enzyme molecules or polynucleotide strands not only maintains their intact structure and biochemical properties, but also enables the fabrication of novel hybrid nanomaterials for potential applications in diverse areas of bionanotechnology.

  19. Integrative self-assembly of functional hybrid nanoconstructs by inorganic wrapping of single biomolecules, biomolecule arrays and organic supramolecular assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Avinash J.; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    Synthesis of functional hybrid nanoscale objects has been a core focus of the rapidly progressing field of nanomaterials science. In particular, there has been significant interest in the integration of evolutionally optimized biological systems such as proteins, DNA, virus particles and cells with functional inorganic building blocks to construct mesoscopic architectures and nanostructured materials. However, in many cases the fragile nature of the biomolecules seriously constrains their potential applications. As a consequence, there is an on-going quest for the development of novel strategies to modulate the thermal and chemical stabilities, and performance of biomolecules under adverse conditions. This feature article highlights new methods of ``inorganic molecular wrapping'' of single or multiple protein molecules, individual double-stranded DNA helices, lipid bilayer vesicles and self-assembled organic dye superstructures using inorganic building blocks to produce bio-inorganic nanoconstructs with core-shell type structures. We show that spatial isolation of the functional biological nanostructures as ``armour-plated'' enzyme molecules or polynucleotide strands not only maintains their intact structure and biochemical properties, but also enables the fabrication of novel hybrid nanomaterials for potential applications in diverse areas of bionanotechnology.

  20. Directed assembly of carbon nanotubes on soft substrates for use as a flexible biosensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Juntae; Yang Lee, Byung; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Joohyung; Hong, Seunghun; Yi, Mihye; Jhon, Young Min

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a method to selectively assemble and align carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on soft substrates for use as flexible biosensors. In this strategy, a thin oxide layer was deposited on soft substrates via low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and a linker-free assembly process was applied on the oxide surface where the assembly of carbon nanotubes was guided by methyl-terminated molecular patterns on the oxide surface. The electrical characterization of the fabricated CNT devices exhibited a typical p-type gating effect and 1/f noise behavior. The bare oxide regions near CNTs were functionalized with glutamate oxidase to fabricate selective biosensors to detect two forms of glutamate substances existing in different situations: L-glutamic acid, a neurotransmitting material, and monosodium glutamate, a food additive.

  1. Electrostatically Driven Assembly of Charged Amphiphiles Forming Crystallized Membranes, Vesicles and Nanofiber Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cheuk Yui Curtis

    Charged amphiphilic molecules can self-assemble into a large variety of objects including membranes, vesicles and fibers. These micro to nano-scale structures have been drawing increasing attention due to their broad applications, especially in biotechnology and biomedicine. In this dissertation, three self-assembled systems were investigated: +3/-1 self-assembled catanionic membranes, +2/-1 self-assembled catanionic membranes and +1 self-assembled nanofibers. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with synchrotron small and wide angle x-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) were used to characterize the coassembled structures from the mesoscopic to nanometer scale. We designed a system of +3 and -1 ionic amphiphiles that coassemble into crystalline ionic bilayer vesicles with large variety of geometries that resemble polyhedral cellular crystalline shells and archaea wall envelopes. The degree of ionization of the amphiphiles and their intermolecular electrostatic interactions can be controlled by varying pH. The molecular packing of these membranes showed a hexagonal to rectangular-C to hexagonal phase transition with increasing pH, resulting in significant changes to the membrane morphology. A similar mixture of +2 and -1 ionic amphiphiles was also investigated. In addition to varying pH, which controls the headgroup attractions, we also adjust the tail length of the amphiphiles to control the van der Waals interactions between the tails. A 2D phase diagram was developed to show how pH and tail length can be used to control the intermolecular packing within the membranes. Another system of self-assembled nanofiber network formed by positively charged amphiphiles was also studied. These highly charged fibers repel each other and are packed in hexagonal lattice with lattice constant at least eight times of the fiber diameter. The d-spacing and the crystal structure can be controlled by varying the solution concentration and temperature.

  2. Fringing-field dielectrophoretic assembly of ultrahigh-density semiconducting nanotube arrays with a self-limited pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Han, Shu-Jen; Tulevski, George S.

    2014-09-01

    One key challenge of realizing practical high-performance electronic devices based on single-walled carbon nanotubes is to produce electronically pure nanotube arrays with both a minuscule and uniform inter-tube pitch for sufficient device-packing density and homogeneity. Here we develop a method in which the alternating voltage-fringing electric field formed between surface microelectrodes and the substrate is utilized to assemble semiconducting nanotubes into well-aligned, ultrahigh-density and submonolayered arrays, with a consistent pitch as small as 21±6 nm determined by a self-limiting mechanism, based on the unique field focusing and screening effects of the fringing field. Field-effect transistors based on such nanotube arrays exhibit record high device transconductance (>50 μS μm-1) and decent on current per nanotube (~1 μA per tube) together with high on/off ratios at a drain bias of -1 V.

  3. Precisely Assembled Nanofiber Arrays as a Platform to Engineer Aligned Cell Sheets for Biofabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vince Beachley

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid cell sheet engineering approach was developed using ultra-thin nanofiber arrays to host the formation of composite nanofiber/cell sheets. It was found that confluent aligned cell sheets could grow on uniaxially-aligned and crisscrossed nanofiber arrays with extremely low fiber densities. The porosity of the nanofiber sheets was sufficient to allow aligned linear myotube formation from differentiated myoblasts on both sides of the nanofiber sheets, in spite of single-side cell seeding. The nanofiber content of the composite cell sheets is minimized to reduce the hindrance to cell migration, cell-cell contacts, mass transport, as well as the foreign body response or inflammatory response associated with the biomaterial. Even at extremely low densities, the nanofiber component significantly enhanced the stability and mechanical properties of the composite cell sheets. In addition, the aligned nanofiber arrays imparted excellent handling properties to the composite cell sheets, which allowed easy processing into more complex, thick 3D structures of higher hierarchy. Aligned nanofiber array-based composite cell sheet engineering combines several advantages of material-free cell sheet engineering and polymer scaffold-based cell sheet engineering; and it represents a new direction in aligned cell sheet engineering for a multitude of tissue engineering applications.

  4. A fully automated 384 capillary array for DNA sequencer. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qingbo; Kane, T

    2003-03-20

    Phase I SpectruMedix has successfully developed an automatic 96-capillary array DNA prototype based on the multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system originated from Ames Laboratory-USDOE, Iowa State University. With computer control of all steps involved in a 96-capillary array running cycle, the prototype instrument (the SCE9600) is now capable of sequencing 450 base pairs (bp) per capillary, or 48,000 bp per instrument run within 2 hrs. Phase II of this grant involved the advancement of the core 96 capillary technologies, as well as designing a high density 384 capillary prototype. True commercialization of the 96 capillary instrument involved finalization of the gel matrix, streamlining the instrument hardware, creating a more reliable capillary cartridge, and further advancement of the data processing software. Together these silos of technology create a truly commercializable product (the SCE9610) capable of meeting the operation needs of the sequencing centers.

  5. High-throughput automated system for statistical biosensing employing microcantilevers arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosco, Filippo; Chen, Ching H.; Hwu, En T.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a completely new and fully automated system for parallel microcantilever-based biosensing. Our platform is able to monitor simultaneously the change of resonance frequency (dynamic mode), of deflection (static mode), and of surface roughness of hundreds of cantilevers...... in a very short time over multiple biochemical reactions. We have proven that our system is capable to measure 900 independent microsensors in less than a second. Here, we report statistical biosensing results performed over a haptens-antibody assay, where complete characterization of the biochemical...

  6. Revision of an automated microseismic location algorithm for DAS - 3C geophone hybrid array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, T.; LeCalvez, J.; Raymer, D.

    2017-12-01

    Application of distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) has been studied in several areas in seismology. One of the areas is microseismic reservoir monitoring (e.g., Molteni et al., 2017, First Break). Considering the present limitations of DAS, which include relatively low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and no 3C polarization measurements, a DAS - 3C geophone hybrid array is a practical option when using a single monitoring well. Considering the large volume of data from distributed sensing, microseismic event detection and location using a source scanning type algorithm is a reasonable choice, especially for real-time monitoring. The algorithm must handle both strain rate along the borehole axis for DAS and particle velocity for 3C geophones. Only a small quantity of large SNR events will be detected throughout a large aperture encompassing the hybrid array; therefore, the aperture is to be optimized dynamically to eliminate noisy channels for a majority of events. For such hybrid array, coalescence microseismic mapping (CMM) (Drew et al., 2005, SPE) was revised. CMM forms a likelihood function of location of event and its origin time. At each receiver, a time function of event arrival likelihood is inferred using an SNR function, and it is migrated to time and space to determine hypocenter and origin time likelihood. This algorithm was revised to dynamically optimize such a hybrid array by identifying receivers where a microseismic signal is possibly detected and using only those receivers to compute the likelihood function. Currently, peak SNR is used to select receivers. To prevent false results due to small aperture, a minimum aperture threshold is employed. The algorithm refines location likelihood using 3C geophone polarization. We tested this algorithm using a ray-based synthetic dataset. Leaney (2014, PhD thesis, UBC) is used to compute particle velocity at receivers. Strain rate along the borehole axis is computed from particle velocity as DAS microseismic

  7. Detachably assembled microfluidic device for perfusion culture and post-culture analysis of a spheroid array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yusuke; Hattori, Koji; Yanagawa, Fumiki; Sugiura, Shinji; Kanamori, Toshiyuki; Nakazawa, Kohji

    2014-07-01

    Microfluidic devices permit perfusion culture of three-dimensional (3D) tissue, mimicking the flow of blood in vascularized 3D tissue in our body. Here, we report a microfluidic device composed of a two-part microfluidic chamber chip and multi-microwell array chip able to be disassembled at the culture endpoint. Within the microfluidic chamber, an array of 3D tissue aggregates (spheroids) can be formed and cultured under perfusion. Subsequently, detailed post-culture analysis of the spheroids collected from the disassembled device can be performed. This device facilitates uniform spheroid formation, growth analysis in a high-throughput format, controlled proliferation via perfusion flow rate, and post-culture analysis of spheroids. We used the device to culture spheroids of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells under two controlled perfusion flow rates. HepG2 spheroids exhibited greater cell growth at higher perfusion flow rates than at lower perfusion flow rates, and exhibited different metabolic activity and mRNA and protein expression under the different flow rate conditions. These results show the potential of perfusion culture to precisely control the culture environment in microfluidic devices. The construction of spheroid array chambers allows multiple culture conditions to be tested simultaneously, with potential applications in toxicity and drug screening. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Human papillomavirus genotyping using an automated film-based chip array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erali, Maria; Pattison, David C; Wittwer, Carl T; Petti, Cathy A

    2009-09-01

    The INFINITI HPV-QUAD assay is a commercially available genotyping platform for human papillomavirus (HPV) that uses multiplex PCR, followed by automated processing for primer extension, hybridization, and detection. The analytical performance of the HPV-QUAD assay was evaluated using liquid cervical cytology specimens, and the results were compared with those results obtained using the digene High-Risk HPV hc2 Test (HC2). The specimen types included Surepath and PreservCyt transport media, as well as residual SurePath and HC2 transport media from the HC2 assay. The overall concordance of positive and negative results following the resolution of indeterminate and intermediate results was 83% among the 197 specimens tested. HC2 positive (+) and HPV-QUAD negative (-) results were noted in 24 specimens that were shown by real-time PCR and sequence analysis to contain no HPV, HPV types that were cross-reactive in the HC2 assay, or low virus levels. Conversely, HC2 (-) and HPV-QUAD (+) results were noted in four specimens and were subsequently attributed to cross-contamination. The most common HPV types to be identified in this study were HPV16, HPV18, HPV52/58, and HPV39/56. We show that the HPV-QUAD assay is a user friendly, automated system for the identification of distinct HPV genotypes. Based on its analytical performance, future studies with this platform are warranted to assess its clinical utility for HPV detection and genotyping.

  9. Technologies for the Fast Set-Up of Automated Assembly Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Ude, Ales; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2014-01-01

    of so called few-of-a-kind production. Therefore, most production of this kind is done manually and thus often performed in low-wage countries. In the IntellAct project, we have developed a set of methods which facilitate the set-up of a complex automatic assembly process, and here we present our work...

  10. Vision feedback driven automated assembly of photopolymerized structures by parallel optical trapping and manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan Ryberg; Rodrigo, Peter John

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate how optical trapping and manipulation can be used to assemble microstructures. The microstructures we show being automatically recognized and manipulated are produced using the two-photon polymerization (2PP) technique with submicron resolution. In this work, we show identical shape...

  11. Automated simultaneous assembly of multi-stage testing for the uniform CPA examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breithaupt, Krista; Ariel, A.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2004-01-01

    Some solutions used in the assembly of the computerized Uniform Certified Public Accountancy (CPA) licensing examination are offered as practical alternatives for operational programs producing large numbers of forms. The Uniform CPA examination will be offered as an adaptive multi-stage test (MST)

  12. FORMING SELF-ASSEMBLED CELL ARRAYS AND MEASURING THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION RATE OF A SINGLE LIVE CELL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzkorn, James R; McQuaide, Sarah C; Anderson, Judy B; Meldrum, Deirdre R; Parviz, Babak A

    2009-06-01

    We report a method for forming arrays of live single cells on a chip using polymer micro-traps made of SU8. We have studied the toxicity of the microfabricated structures and the associated environment for two cell lines. We also report a method for measuring the oxygen consumption rate of a single cell using optical interrogation of molecular oxygen sensors placed in micromachined micro-wells by temporarily sealing the cells in the micro-traps. The new techniques presented here add to the collection of tools available for performing "single-cell" biology. A single-cell self-assembly yield of 61% was achieved with oxygen draw down rates of 0.83, 0.82, and 0.71 fmol/minute on three isolated live A549 cells.

  13. Automated Detection of Alkali-silica Reaction in Concrete using Linear Array Ultrasound Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Ezell, N Dianne Bull [ORNL; Clayton, Joseph A [ORNL; Baba, Justin S [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is a chemical reaction in either concrete or mortar between hydroxyl ions of the alkalis (sodium and potassium) from hydraulic cement (or other sources), and certain siliceous minerals present in some aggregates. The reaction product, an alkali-silica gel, is hygroscopic having a tendency to absorb water and swell, which under certain circumstances, leads to abnormal expansion and cracking of the concrete. This phenomenon affects the durability and performance of concrete structures severely since it can cause significant loss of mechanical properties. Developing reliable methods and tools that can evaluate the degree of the ASR damage in existing structures, so that informed decisions can be made toward mitigating ASR progression and damage, is important to the long term operation of nuclear power plants especially if licenses are extended beyond 60 years. This paper examines an automated method of determining the extent of ASR damage in fabricated concrete specimens.

  14. Fully automated synthesis of (phosphopeptide arrays in microtiter plate wells provides efficient access to protein tyrosine kinase characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein David J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic peptides have played a useful role in studies of protein kinase substrates and interaction domains. Synthetic peptide arrays and libraries, in particular, have accelerated the process. Several factors have hindered or limited the applicability of various techniques, such as the need for deconvolution of combinatorial libraries, the inability or impracticality of achieving full automation using two-dimensional or pin solid phases, the lack of convenient interfacing with standard analytical platforms, or the difficulty of compartmentalization of a planar surface when contact between assay components needs to be avoided. This paper describes a process for synthesis of peptides and phosphopeptides on microtiter plate wells that overcomes previous limitations and demonstrates utility in determination of the epitope of an autophosphorylation site phospho-motif antibody and utility in substrate utilization assays of the protein tyrosine kinase, p60c-src. Results The overall reproducibility of phospho-peptide synthesis and multiplexed EGF receptor (EGFR autophosphorylation site (pY1173 antibody ELISA (9H2 was within 5.5 to 8.0%. Mass spectrometric analyses of the released (phosphopeptides showed homogeneous peaks of the expected molecular weights. An overlapping peptide array of the complete EGFR cytoplasmic sequence revealed a high redundancy of 9H2 reactive sites. The eight reactive phospopeptides were structurally related and interestingly, the most conserved antibody reactive peptide motif coincided with a subset of other known EGFR autophosphorylation and SH2 binding motifs and an EGFR optimal substrate motif. Finally, peptides based on known substrate specificities of c-src and related enzymes were synthesized in microtiter plate array format and were phosphorylated by c-Src with the predicted specificities. The level of phosphorylation was proportional to c-Src concentration with sensitivities below 0.1 Units of

  15. Application of X-ray digital radiography to online automated inspection of interior assembly structures of complex products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yueping; Han Yan; Li Ruihong; Wang Liming

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes an application of X-ray digital radiography to online automated inspection and recognition of the interior assembly structures of complex products by means of the multiple views techniques. First, a vertical hybrid projection function (VHPF) is proposed as the recognition feature of a two-dimensional image. VHPF combines an integral projection function and a standard deviation function so that it can reflect the mean and the variance of the pixels in the vertical direction in an image. Secondly, by considering the different importance grades of objects inside the product and the independence of these objects along the circumference, the paper presents a hierarchical recognition method and uses a neural network system to speed up the computation process with parallel operations. Thirdly, using the whole-orientation features of one standard swatch and by extracting its maximal system of linear independence as the feature basis, the issue of blind areas for recognition is resolved. Based on this approach, the first domestic X-ray multi-view digital detection system has been developed and applied to the online detection of objects containing complicated assembly structures.

  16. A Problem of Particulate Contamination in an Automated Assembly Machine Successfully Solved by CFD and Simple Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatuporn Thongsri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assembly of hard disk drives (HDDs needs to be done in an automated assembly machine (AAM virtually free of particulate contamination that can cause them to malfunction. Fan filter units (FFUs are installed above the AAM to reduce the number of suspended particles in the recirculating air flowing over and around them. At one time, several HDDs were found to be defective. To find out the root cause of this problem, computational fluid dynamics (CFD was used to investigate the airflow over and around the AAM. It was found that the cause of the high particle counts was improper air speed from the FFUs. The optimal FFUs air speed needed to be in the range of 0.35–0.65 m/s in which the airflow would block out nearby airborne particles and purge away particles generated by the AAM effectively which would, in effect, reduce the particle counts down below the threshold level of class 100 clean room. A few available measurement tools at the factory were then used to perform validating measurements against the simulation results, and the validation was positive. This optimal speed range was implemented at the factory after which the level of contamination was reduced to an acceptable level.

  17. Langmuir-Blodgett assembly of visible light responsive TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays/graphene oxide heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying; Gao, Hongyan; Wei, Danming; Dong, Xinju; Cao, Yan, E-mail: yan.cao@wku.edu

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • First to report a heterostructure of TNA with GO prepared by LB assembly. • Much better photocurrent (32 μAcm{sup −2}) of TNA-GO, contrasting to TNA (12 μAcm{sup −2}). • Schottky junction formed between TNA and GO enhanced the photocurrent. • GO on TNA improved the hydrophilicity of TNA-GO. - Abstract: The hybrid nanocomposites of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) with graphene oxide (GO) have recently garnered much attention as electronic devices, energy conversion devices, photocatalysts and other applications. In this study, Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) assembly method was firstly reported to prepare a TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNA)-GO heterostructure. The as-prepared TNA-GO sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The promising characteristics of this TNA-GO material, the inexpensive, nontoxic and highly visible-light responsiveness, may raise the potential uses in many, various photocatalytic applications.

  18. Assembly of tobacco mosaic virus into fibrous and macroscopic bundled arrays mediated by surface aniline polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhongwei; Bruckman, Michael A; Li, Siqi; Lee, L Andrew; Lee, Byeongdu; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Thiyagarajan, P; Wang, Qian

    2007-06-05

    One-dimensional (1D) polyaniline/tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) composite nanofibers and macroscopic bundles of such fibers were generated via a self-assembly process of TMV assisted by in-situ polymerization of polyaniline on the surface of TMV. At near-neutral reaction pH, branched polyaniline formed on the surface of TMV preventing lateral association. Therefore, long 1D nanofibers were observed with high aspect ratios and excellent processibility. At a lower pH, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that initially long nanofibers were formed which resulted in bundled structures upon long-time reaction, presumably mediated by the hydrophobic interaction because of the polyaniline on the surface of TMV. In-situ time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering study of TMV at different reaction conditions supported this mechanism. This novel strategy to assemble TMV into 1D and 3D supramolecular composites could be utilized in the fabrication of advanced materials for potential applications including electronics, optics, sensing, and biomedical engineering.

  19. Analytical Formulation of the Electric Field Induced by Electrode Arrays: Towards Automated Dielectrophoretic Cell Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gauthier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dielectrophoresis is defined as the motion of an electrically polarisable particle in a non-uniform electric field. Current dielectrophoretic devices enabling sorting of cells are mostly controlled in open-loop applying a predefined voltage on micro-electrodes. Closed-loop control of these devices would enable to get advanced functionalities and also more robust behavior. Currently, the numerical models of dielectrophoretic force are too complex to be used in real-time closed-loop control. The aim of this paper is to propose a new type of models usable in this framework. We propose an analytical model of the electric field based on Fourier series to compute the dielectrophoretic force produced by parallel electrode arrays. Indeed, this method provides an analytical expression of the electric potential which decouples the geometrical factors (parameter of our system, the voltages applied on electrodes (input of our system, and the position of the cells (output of our system. Considering the Newton laws on each cell, it enables to generate easily a dynamic model of the cell positions (output function of the voltages on electrodes (input. This dynamic model of our system is required to design the future closed-loop control law. The predicted dielectrophoretic forces are compared to a numerical simulation based on finite element model using COMSOL software. The model presented in this paper enables to compute the dielectrophoretic force applied to a cell by an electrode array in a few tenths of milliseconds. This model could be consequently used in future works for closed-loop control of dielectrophoretic devices.

  20. Automated assembling of single fuel cell units for use in a fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, C. K.; Muminovic, A.; Barz, C.; Nasui, V.

    2017-05-01

    The manufacturing of PEMFC stacks (POLYMER ELEKTROLYT MEMBRAN Fuel Cell) is nowadays still done by hand. Over hundreds of identical single components have to be placed accurate together for the construction of a fuel cell stack. Beside logistic problems, higher total costs and disadvantages in weight the high number of components produce a higher statistic interference because of faulty erection or material defects and summation of manufacturing tolerances. The saving of costs is about 20 - 25 %. Furthermore, the total weight of the fuel cells will be reduced because of a new sealing technology. Overall a one minute cycle time has to be aimed per cell at the manufacturing of these single components. The change of the existing sealing concept to a bonded sealing is one of the important requisites to get an automated manufacturing of single cell units. One of the important steps for an automated gluing process is the checking of the glue application by using of an image processing system. After bonding the single fuel cell the sealing and electrical function can be checked, so that only functional and high qualitative cells can get into further manufacturing processes.

  1. Automated flow quantification in valvular heart disease based on backscattered Doppler power analysis: implementation on matrix-array ultrasound imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Thomas; Hwang, Shawn M; Plicht, Björn; Mucci, Ronald A; Hunold, Peter; Erbel, Raimund; Levine, Robert A

    2008-06-01

    Cardiac ultrasound imaging systems are limited in the noninvasive quantification of valvular regurgitation due to indirect measurements and inaccurate hemodynamic assumptions. We recently demonstrated that the principle of integration of backscattered acoustic Doppler power times velocity can be used for flow quantification in valvular regurgitation directly at the vena contracta of a regurgitant flow jet. We now aimed to accomplish implementation of automated Doppler power flow analysis software on a standard cardiac ultrasound system utilizing novel matrix-array transducer technology with detailed description of system requirements, components and software contributing to the system. This system based on a 3.5 MHz, matrix-array cardiac ultrasound scanner (Sonos 5500, Philips Medical Systems) was validated by means of comprehensive experimental signal generator trials, in vitro flow phantom trials and in vivo testing in 48 patients with mitral regurgitation of different severity and etiology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for reference. All measurements displayed good correlation to the reference values, indicating successful implementation of automated Doppler power flow analysis on a matrix-array ultrasound imaging system. Systematic underestimation of effective regurgitant orifice areas >0.65 cm(2) and volumes >40 ml was found due to currently limited Doppler beam width that could be readily overcome by the use of new generation 2D matrix-array technology. Automated flow quantification in valvular heart disease based on backscattered Doppler power can be fully implemented on board a routinely used matrix-array ultrasound imaging systems. Such automated Doppler power flow analysis of valvular regurgitant flow directly, noninvasively, and user independent overcomes the practical limitations of current techniques.

  2. NASA Wrangler: Automated Cloud-Based Data Assembly in the RECOVER Wildfire Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John; Carroll, Mark; Gill, Roger; Wooten, Margaret; Weber, Keith; Blair, Kindra; May, Jeffrey; Toombs, William

    2017-01-01

    NASA Wrangler is a loosely-coupled, event driven, highly parallel data aggregation service designed to take advantageof the elastic resource capabilities of cloud computing. Wrangler automatically collects Earth observational data, climate model outputs, derived remote sensing data products, and historic biophysical data for pre-, active-, and post-wildfire decision making. It is a core service of the RECOVER decision support system, which is providing rapid-response GIS analytic capabilities to state and local government agencies. Wrangler reduces to minutes the time needed to assemble and deliver crucial wildfire-related data.

  3. Self-assembly based plasmonic arrays tuned by atomic layer deposition for extreme visible light absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägglund, Carl; Zeltzer, Gabriel; Ruiz, Ricardo; Thomann, Isabell; Lee, Han-Bo-Ram; Brongersma, Mark L; Bent, Stacey F

    2013-07-10

    Achieving complete absorption of visible light with a minimal amount of material is highly desirable for many applications, including solar energy conversion to fuel and electricity, where benefits in conversion efficiency and economy can be obtained. On a fundamental level, it is of great interest to explore whether the ultimate limits in light absorption per unit volume can be achieved by capitalizing on the advances in metamaterial science and nanosynthesis. Here, we combine block copolymer lithography and atomic layer deposition to tune the effective optical properties of a plasmonic array at the atomic scale. Critical coupling to the resulting nanocomposite layer is accomplished through guidance by a simple analytical model and measurements by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Thereby, a maximized absorption of light exceeding 99% is accomplished, of which up to about 93% occurs in a volume-equivalent thickness of gold of only 1.6 nm. This corresponds to a record effective absorption coefficient of 1.7 × 10(7) cm(-1) in the visible region, far exceeding those of solid metals, graphene, dye monolayers, and thin film solar cell materials. It is more than a factor of 2 higher than that previously obtained using a critically coupled dye J-aggregate, with a peak width exceeding the latter by 1 order of magnitude. These results thereby substantially push the limits for light harvesting in ultrathin, nanoengineered systems.

  4. Programming Nanoparticles in Multiscale: Optically Modulated Assembly and Phase Switching of Silicon Nanoparticle Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Letian; Rho, Yoonsoo; Shou, Wan; Hong, Sukjoon; Kato, Kimihiko; Eliceiri, Matthew; Shi, Meng; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Pan, Heng; Carraro, Carlo; Qi, Dongfeng

    2018-03-27

    Manipulating and tuning nanoparticles by means of optical field interactions is of key interest for nanoscience and applications in electronics and photonics. We report scalable, direct, and optically modulated writing of nanoparticle patterns (size, number, and location) of high precision using a pulsed nanosecond laser. The complex nanoparticle arrangement is modulated by the laser pulse energy and polarization with the particle size ranging from 60 to 330 nm. Furthermore, we report fast cooling-rate induced phase switching of crystalline Si nanoparticles to the amorphous state. Such phase switching has usually been observed in compound phase change materials like GeSbTe. The ensuing modification of atomic structure leads to dielectric constant switching. Based on these effects, a multiscale laser-assisted method of fabricating Mie resonator arrays is proposed. The number of Mie resonators, as well as the resonance peaks and dielectric constants of selected resonators, can be programmed. The programmable light-matter interaction serves as a mechanism to fabricate optical metasurfaces, structural color, and multidimensional optical storage devices.

  5. Laser pulse number dependent nanostructure evolution by illuminating self-assembled microsphere array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dong; Weng, Ding; Wang, Bao; Wang, Jiadao

    2017-12-01

    Pulse number dependent evolution from nanodents to nanobumps has been studied on a bearing steel substrate, which was coated with a self-assembled monolayer of silica microspheres and repeatedly irradiated by an 800 nm femtosecond laser. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope were employed to characterize nanopatterns, the dimensions of which were related to the laser pulse number and pulse fluences. The transformation depending on the number of laser pulses could be attributed to the changes of electric field distribution and material property after the impacts of multiple laser pulses, the process of which could be divided into three steps. First, the bottoms of silica microspheres were ablated because of the incubation effects from repeated irradiation. Second, strong plasmonic localization at the edges of the deep nanodents resulted in plasma-chemical reactions between ablated materials, which was confirmed by electromagnetic simulations. Third, recrystallized solid matter from ablated materials deposited in nanodents and then formed nanobumps, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer analyses on their longitudinal sections.

  6. Methodology on Investigating the Influences of Automated Material Handling System in Automotive Assembly Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffar, Seha; Azni Jafar, Fairul; Jamaludin, Zamberi

    2016-02-01

    A case study was selected as a method to collect data in actual industry situation. The study aimed to assess the influences of automated material handling system in automotive industry by proposing a new design of integration system through simulation, and analyze the significant effect and influence of the system. The method approach tool will be CAD Software (Delmia & Quest). The process of preliminary data gathering in phase 1 will collect all data related from actual industry situation. It is expected to produce a guideline and limitation in designing a new integration system later. In phase 2, an idea or concept of design will be done by using 10 principles of design consideration for manufacturing. A full factorial design will be used as design of experiment in order to analyze the performance measured of the integration system with the current system in case study. From the result of the experiment, an ANOVA analysis will be done to study the performance measured. Thus, it is expected that influences can be seen from the improvement made in the system.

  7. Manipulation of extinction spectra of P3HT/PMMA medium arrays on silicon substrate containing self-assembled gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ming-Chung; Chen, Shih-Wen; Li, Jia-Han; Chou, Yi; Lin, Jhih-Fong; Chen, Yang-Fang; Su, Wei-Fang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we report a simple novel approach to modulate the extinction spectra of P3HT/PMMA by manipulating the medium arrays on a substrate that is coated with self-assembled gold nanoparticles. The 20 nm gold nanoparticles were synthesized and then self-assembled on the APTMS/silicon substrate surface by immersing the substrate into the gold colloid suspension. A high-resolution P3HT/PMMA photoluminescent electron beam resist was used to fabricate various square hole arrays on the substrate containing gold nanoparticles. The P3HT/PMMA medium composition causes the blue shifts in the extinction peaks of up to 40.6 nm by decreasing the period from 500 nm to 200 nm for P3HT/PMMA square hole arrays with a diameter of 100 nm. The magnitude of blue shift is directly proportional to the product of the changes of medium refractive index and the array structure factor. These peak shifts and intensity of extinction spectra for various P3HT/PMMA medium arrays are well described by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results. Since this simple cost-effective technique can tune the extinction spectrum of medium and adding the gold nanoparticles can give more functionalities for sensing applications, such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), that provides good opportunities for the design and fabrication of new optoelectronic devices and sensors. Highlights: ► We can tune the extinction spectra of P3HT/PMMA by manipulating the medium arrays. ► These optical behaviors of P3HT/PMMA medium arrays are well described by FDTD simulation results. ► Adding the Au nanoparticles can give more functionalities for sensing applications.

  8. Manipulation of extinction spectra of P3HT/PMMA medium arrays on silicon substrate containing self-assembled gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ming-Chung [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333-02, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shih-Wen; Li, Jia-Han [Department of Engineering Science and Ocean Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106-17, Taiwan (China); Chou, Yi; Lin, Jhih-Fong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106-17, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yang-Fang [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106-17, Taiwan (China); Su, Wei-Fang, E-mail: suwf@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106-17, Taiwan (China)

    2012-11-15

    In this study, we report a simple novel approach to modulate the extinction spectra of P3HT/PMMA by manipulating the medium arrays on a substrate that is coated with self-assembled gold nanoparticles. The 20 nm gold nanoparticles were synthesized and then self-assembled on the APTMS/silicon substrate surface by immersing the substrate into the gold colloid suspension. A high-resolution P3HT/PMMA photoluminescent electron beam resist was used to fabricate various square hole arrays on the substrate containing gold nanoparticles. The P3HT/PMMA medium composition causes the blue shifts in the extinction peaks of up to 40.6 nm by decreasing the period from 500 nm to 200 nm for P3HT/PMMA square hole arrays with a diameter of 100 nm. The magnitude of blue shift is directly proportional to the product of the changes of medium refractive index and the array structure factor. These peak shifts and intensity of extinction spectra for various P3HT/PMMA medium arrays are well described by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results. Since this simple cost-effective technique can tune the extinction spectrum of medium and adding the gold nanoparticles can give more functionalities for sensing applications, such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), that provides good opportunities for the design and fabrication of new optoelectronic devices and sensors. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We can tune the extinction spectra of P3HT/PMMA by manipulating the medium arrays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These optical behaviors of P3HT/PMMA medium arrays are well described by FDTD simulation results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adding the Au nanoparticles can give more functionalities for sensing applications.

  9. Versatile, modular 3D microelectrode arrays for neuronal ensemble recordings: from design to fabrication, assembly, and functional validation in non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, F.; Livi, A.; Lanzilotto, M.; Maranesi, M.; Bonini, L.; Paul, O.; Ruther, P.

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Application-specific designs of electrode arrays offer an improved effectiveness for providing access to targeted brain regions in neuroscientific research and brain machine interfaces. The simultaneous and stable recording of neuronal ensembles is the main goal in the design of advanced neural interfaces. Here, we describe the development and assembly of highly customizable 3D microelectrode arrays and demonstrate their recording performance in chronic applications in non-human primates. Approach. System assembly relies on a microfabricated stacking component that is combined with Michigan-style silicon-based electrode arrays interfacing highly flexible polyimide cables. Based on the novel stacking component, the lead time for implementing prototypes with altered electrode pitches is minimal. Once the fabrication and assembly accuracy of the stacked probes have been characterized, their recording performance is assessed during in vivo chronic experiments in awake rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) trained to execute reaching-grasping motor tasks. Main results. Using a single set of fabrication tools, we implemented three variants of the stacking component for electrode distances of 250, 300 and 350 µm in the stacking direction. We assembled neural probes with up to 96 channels and an electrode density of 98 electrodes mm-2. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the shank alignment is accurate to a few µm at an angular alignment better than 1°. Three 64-channel probes were chronically implanted in two monkeys providing single-unit activity on more than 60% of all channels and excellent recording stability. Histological tissue sections, obtained 52 d after implantation from one of the monkeys, showed minimal tissue damage, in accordance with the high quality and stability of the recorded neural activity. Significance. The versatility of our fabrication and assembly approach should significantly support the development of ideal interface geometries for a broad

  10. Automated flaw detection scheme for cast austenitic stainless steel weld specimens using Hilbert-Huang transform of ultrasonic phased array data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Tariq; Majumdar, Shantanu; Udpa, Lalita; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Crawford, Susan; Diaz, Aaron; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop processing algorithms to detect and localize flaws using ultrasonic phased-array data. Data was collected on cast austenitic stainless stell (CASS) weld specimens onloan from the U.S. nuclear power industry' Pressurized Walter Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) traveling specimen set. Each specimen consists of a centrifugally cast stainless stell (CCSS) pipe section welded to a statically cst(SCSS) or wrought (WRSS) section. The paper presents a novel automated flaw detection and localization scheme using low frequency ultrasonic phased array inspection singals from the weld and heat affected zone of the based materials. The major steps of the overall scheme are preprocessing and region of interest (ROI) detection followed by the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) of A-scans in the detected ROIs. HHT offers time-frequency-energy distribution for each ROI. The Accumulation of energy in a particular frequency band is used as a classification feature for the particular ROI

  11. Hybrid nanostructures of well-organized arrays of colloidal quantum dots and a self-assembled monolayer of gold nanoparticles for enhanced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoying; McBride, Sean P.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.; Nealey, Paul F.

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid nanomaterials comprised of well-organized arrays of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in close proximity to metal nanoparticles (NPs) represent an appealing system for high-performance, spectrum-tunable photon sources with controlled photoluminescence. Experimental realization of such materials requires well-defined QD arrays and precisely controlled QD-metal interspacing. This long-standing challenge is tackled through a strategy that synergistically combines lateral confinement and vertical stacking. Lithographically generated nanoscale patterns with tailored surface chemistry confine the QDs into well-organized arrays with high selectivity through chemical pattern directed assembly, while subsequent coating with a monolayer of close-packed Au NPs introduces the plasmonic component for fluorescence enhancement. The results show uniform fluorescence emission in large-area ordered arrays for the fabricated QD structures and demonstrate five-fold fluorescence amplification for red, yellow, and green QDs in the presence of the Au NP monolayer. Encapsulation of QDs with a silica shell is shown to extend the design space for reliable QD/metal coupling with stronger enhancement of 11 times through the tuning of QD-metal spatial separation. This approach provides new opportunities for designing hybrid nanomaterials with tailored array structures and multiple functionalities for applications such as multiplexed optical coding, color display, and quantum transduction.

  12. Low cost automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    This book indicates method of building of automation plan, design of automation facilities, automation and CHIP process like basics of cutting, NC processing machine and CHIP handling, automation unit, such as drilling unit, tapping unit, boring unit, milling unit and slide unit, application of oil pressure on characteristics and basic oil pressure circuit, application of pneumatic, automation kinds and application of process, assembly, transportation, automatic machine and factory automation.

  13. Photocatalytic activity of self-assembled porous TiO2 nano-columns array fabricated by oblique angle sputter deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengjun; Li, Xibo; Zhang, Qiuju; Yi, Zao; Luo, Jiangshan

    2018-04-01

    A well-separated and oriented TiO2 nano-columns arrays with porous structure were fabricated by the oblique angle sputter deposition technique and subsequently annealing at 450 °C in Ar/O2 mixed atmosphere. The deposited substrate was firstly modified by a template of self-assembled close-packed arrays of 500 nm-diameter silica (SiO2) spheres. Scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) images show that the porous columnar nanostructure is formed as a result of the geometric shadowing effect and surface diffusion of the adatoms in oblique angle deposition (OAD). X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements reveal that the physically OAD film with annealing treatment are generally mixed phase of rutile and anatase TiO2 polymorphic forms. The morphology induced absorbance and band gap tuning by different substrates was demonstrated by the UV–vis spectroscopy. The well-separated one-dimensional (1D) nano-columns array with specific large porous surface area is beneficial for charge separation in photocatalytic degradation. Compared with compact thin film, such self-assembled porous TiO2 nano-columns array fabricated by oblique angle sputter deposition performed an enhanced visible light induced photocatalytic activity by decomposing methyl orange (MO) solution. The well-designed periodic array-structured porous TiO2 films by using modified patterned substrates has been demonstrated significantly increased absorption edge in the UV-visible light region with a narrower optical band gap, which are expected to be favorable for application in photovoltaic, lithium-ion insertion and photocatalytic, etc.

  14. Assembled microneedle arrays enhance the transport of compounds varying over a large range of molecular weight across human dermatomed skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbaan, F.J.; Bal, S.M.; van den Berg, D.J.; Groenink, W.H.H.; Verpoorten, H.; Lüttge, Regina; Bouwstra, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility to use microneedle arrays manufactured from commercially available 30G hypodermal needles to enhance the transport of compounds up to a molecular weight of 72 kDa. Piercing of human dermatomed skin with microneedle arrays was studied by Trypan Blue

  15. Rational control on floating catalysts for the growth of carbon nanotube assemblies: From vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays to carbon nanotube films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hongyuan; Chen, Minghai; Zhang, Yongyi; Li, Qingwen

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Floating catalyst CVD for the growth of CNT films and arrays was investigated. • The structure of CNT array grown in floating catalyst CVD was revealed. • Temperature was proved as a key for the growth of different CNT assemblies. • The increase of growth temperature induced the growth of single-walled CNT film. - Abstract: Floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FCCVD) has been widely used for the growth of various carbon nanotube (CNT) macrostructures, mainly including vertically aligned CNT (VACNT) arrays and none-woven CNT films. However, it is still unclear for the reason why these CNT macrostructures with largely different morphologies were received via the similar method. In this research, it revealed that the growth temperature largely affected the nucleation status of floating catalysts and thus controlled the morphologies of CNT macrostructures from VACNT arrays to none-woven CNT films. In low temperatures (below 800 °C), VACNTs were grown by bottom-up mechanism with several CNTs, but not one individual from bottom to up along the array height direction. Furthermore, VACNT arrays were only grown on some substrates that can induce iron atoms aggregating to catalyst particles with a suitable size. When increasing the growth temperature higher than 800 °C, more catalyst particles were nucleated in the gas flow, which induced the formation of none-woven CNT films composed of thin CNTs (single-walled CNTs and double-walled CNTs). This research was significative for understanding CNT growth mechanism via FCCVD process and the synthesis of different CNT macrostructures by this strategy.

  16. Rational control on floating catalysts for the growth of carbon nanotube assemblies: From vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays to carbon nanotube films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hongyuan; Chen, Minghai, E-mail: mhchen2008@sinano.ac.cn; Zhang, Yongyi; Li, Qingwen

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Floating catalyst CVD for the growth of CNT films and arrays was investigated. • The structure of CNT array grown in floating catalyst CVD was revealed. • Temperature was proved as a key for the growth of different CNT assemblies. • The increase of growth temperature induced the growth of single-walled CNT film. - Abstract: Floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FCCVD) has been widely used for the growth of various carbon nanotube (CNT) macrostructures, mainly including vertically aligned CNT (VACNT) arrays and none-woven CNT films. However, it is still unclear for the reason why these CNT macrostructures with largely different morphologies were received via the similar method. In this research, it revealed that the growth temperature largely affected the nucleation status of floating catalysts and thus controlled the morphologies of CNT macrostructures from VACNT arrays to none-woven CNT films. In low temperatures (below 800 °C), VACNTs were grown by bottom-up mechanism with several CNTs, but not one individual from bottom to up along the array height direction. Furthermore, VACNT arrays were only grown on some substrates that can induce iron atoms aggregating to catalyst particles with a suitable size. When increasing the growth temperature higher than 800 °C, more catalyst particles were nucleated in the gas flow, which induced the formation of none-woven CNT films composed of thin CNTs (single-walled CNTs and double-walled CNTs). This research was significative for understanding CNT growth mechanism via FCCVD process and the synthesis of different CNT macrostructures by this strategy.

  17. Automated electrochemical assembly of the protected potential TMG-chitotriomycin precursor based on rational optimization of the carbohydrate building block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokami, Toshiki; Isoda, Yuta; Sasaki, Norihiko; Takaiso, Aki; Hayase, Shuichi; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Hayashi, Ryutaro; Shimizu, Akihiro; Yoshida, Jun-ichi

    2015-03-20

    The anomeric arylthio group and the hydroxyl-protecting groups of thioglycosides were optimized to construct carbohydrate building blocks for automated electrochemical solution-phase synthesis of oligoglucosamines having 1,4-β-glycosidic linkages. The optimization study included density functional theory calculations, measurements of the oxidation potentials, and the trial synthesis of the chitotriose trisaccharide. The automated synthesis of the protected potential N,N,N-trimethyl-d-glucosaminylchitotriomycin precursor was accomplished by using the optimized building block.

  18. Morphology-controlled SWCNT/polymeric microsphere arrays by a wet chemical self-assembly technique and their application for sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xingjiu; Li Yue; Im, Hyung-Soon; Yarimaga, Oktay; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Jang, Doon-Yoon; Cho, Sung-Oh; Cai Weiping; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale morphology-controlled SWCNT/polymeric microsphere arrays can be obtained by a wet chemical self-assembly technique. The loading of SWCNTs, the length of SWCNTs, and the size and nature of polymeric microspheres can easily be controlled. Similar results can also be reached using this method for MWCNTs. In both types of CNTs, they form an interesting interactive 'net' structure on spheres and sphere joints. The SWCNT/PS-modified Au electrode was used for detection of uric acid by cyclic voltammetry and single-potential time-based techniques. The preliminary results show that the modified electrode presents good sensitivity and stability to uric acid

  19. General Linker Diversification Approach to Bivalent Ligand Assembly: Generation of an Array of Ligands for the Cation-Independent Mannose 6-Phosphate Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xiang; Zavorka, Megan E; Malik, Guillaume; Connelly, Christopher M; MacDonald, Richard G; Berkowitz, David B

    2017-08-18

    A generalized strategy is presented for the rapid assembly of a set of bivalent ligands with a variety of linking functionalities from a common monomer. Herein, an array of phosphatase-inert mannose-6-phosphonate-presenting ligands for the cation-independent-mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) is constructed. Receptor binding affinity varies with linking functionality-the simple amide and 1,5-triazole(tetrazole) being preferred over the 1,4-triazole. This approach is expected to find application across chemical biology, particularly in glycoscience, wherein multivalency often governs molecular recognition.

  20. Automation of the linear array HPV genotyping test and its application for routine typing of human papillomaviruses in cervical specimens of women without cytological abnormalities in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobec, Marinko; Bannwart, Fridolin; Kaeppeli, Franz; Cassinotti, Pascal

    2009-05-01

    There is a need for reliable, automated high throughput HPV detection and genotyping methods for pre- and post-prophylactic vaccine intervention analyses. To optimize the linear array (LA) HPV genotyping test (Roche Diagnostics, Rotkreuz) in regard to possible automation steps for the routine laboratory diagnosis of HPV infections and to analyze the HPV genotype distribution in cervical specimens of women without cytological abnormalities in Switzerland. 680 cervical cell specimens with normal cytology, obtained from women undergoing routine cervical screening by liquid-based Pap smear, were analyzed by the LA HPV genotyping test for HPV-DNA. The automation of the LA HPV genotyping test resulted in a total hands-on time reduction of 255 min (from 480 to 225 min; 53%). Any of 37 HPV genotypes were detected in 117 (17.2%) and high-risk (HR) HPV in 55 (8.1%) of 680 women with normal cytology. The highest prevalence of any HPV (28.1%) and HR-HPV (15.1%) was observed in age-group 21-30 and showed a continuous decrease in older age-groups. The most common HR-HPV genotypes were HPV-16 (12%), HPV-31 (9.4%), HPV-52 (6%), HPV-51 (5.1%), HPV-45 (4.3%), HPV-58 (4.3%) and HPV-59 (4.3%). The optimization and automation of the LA HPV genotyping test makes it suited for high throughput HPV detection and typing. The epidemiological data provides information about distribution of HPV genotypes in women without cytological abnormalities in Switzerland and may be important for determining the future impact of vaccines and potential changes in the country's epidemiological HPV profile.

  1. Gross gamma-ray measurements of light water reactor spent-fuel assemblies in underwater storage arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.; Lee, D.M.

    1980-12-01

    Two gross gamma-ray detection systems have been developed for rapid measurement of spent-fuel assemblies in underwater storage racks. One system uses a scintillator as the detector and has a 2% crosstalk between a fuel assembly and an adjacent void. The other system uses an ion chamber as the detector. The measurements with both detectors correlate well with operator-declared burnup and cooling-time values

  2. Automation Study for Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant Hand Held Signal Flight Assembly, Rocket Barrel Assembly, 40 MM Signal, Final Packaging/Pack-Out, and Star Finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    wood protectors in the HHS Rocket Barrel Assembly Operations. d) Use of hot melt sealant rather than lacquer on the end of the assembled Hand Held...4OL.UA8LYADHRlE CG411!cLVPAM-1 ~LW7m~I~o~c~c LCA ~TM18UX"Y.31nSRGU-11 STiIM ASSELYJMACE FINh1TZ1A1*4CWAJKRZAM’ WAOiNt rs~my" LOCATM1ED 0~7 LOCA1ED’ IWCM-1W...Moorfeed Fairview, PA Indianapolis, IN Voice Synthesis Module Square D Micro Chip Technology Palatine, IL Chandler, AZ 85224 Vacuum Unit Venturi’s

  3. High-Performance 2.6 V Aqueous Asymmetric Supercapacitors based on In Situ Formed Na0.5 MnO2 Nanosheet Assembled Nanowall Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Nawishta; Hussain, Ahmad; Xia, Qiuying; Sun, Shuo; Zhu, Junwu; Xia, Hui

    2017-08-01

    The voltage limit for aqueous asymmetric supercapacitors is usually 2 V, which impedes further improvement in energy density. Here, high Na content Birnessite Na 0.5 MnO 2 nanosheet assembled nanowall arrays are in situ formed on carbon cloth via electrochemical oxidation. It is interesting to find that the electrode potential window for Na 0.5 MnO 2 nanowall arrays can be extended to 0-1.3 V (vs Ag/AgCl) with significantly increased specific capacitance up to 366 F g -1 . The extended potential window for the Na 0.5 MnO 2 electrode provides the opportunity to further increase the cell voltage of aqueous asymmetric supercapacitors beyond 2 V. To construct the asymmetric supercapacitor, carbon-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanorod arrays are synthesized as the anode and can stably work in a negative potential window of -1.3 to 0 V (vs Ag/AgCl). For the first time, a 2.6 V aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor is demonstrated by using Na 0.5 MnO 2 nanowall arrays as the cathode and carbon-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanorod arrays as the anode. In particular, the 2.6 V Na 0.5 MnO 2 //Fe 3 O 4 @C asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits a large energy density of up to 81 Wh kg -1 as well as excellent rate capability and cycle performance, outperforming previously reported MnO 2 -based supercapacitors. This work provides new opportunities for developing high-voltage aqueous asymmetric supercapacitors with further increased energy density. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Observation of layered antiferromagnetism in self-assembled parallel NiSi nanowire arrays on Si(110) by spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectromicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ie-Hong; Hsu, Hsin-Zan

    2018-03-01

    The layered antiferromagnetism of parallel nanowire (NW) arrays self-assembled on Si(110) have been observed at room temperature by direct imaging of both the topographies and magnetic domains using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (SP-STM/STS). The topographic STM images reveal that the self-assembled unidirectional and parallel NiSi NWs grow into the Si(110) substrate along the [\\bar{1}10] direction (i.e. the endotaxial growth) and exhibit multiple-layer growth. The spatially-resolved SP-STS maps show that these parallel NiSi NWs of different heights produce two opposite magnetic domains, depending on the heights of either even or odd layers in the layer stack of the NiSi NWs. This layer-wise antiferromagnetic structure can be attributed to an antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling between the adjacent layers in the multiple-layer NiSi NW with a B2 (CsCl-type) crystal structure. Such an endotaxial heterostructure of parallel magnetic NiSi NW arrays with a layered antiferromagnetic ordering in Si(110) provides a new and important perspective for the development of novel Si-based spintronic nanodevices.

  5. Efficient Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B Dye by Aligned Arrays of Self-Assembled Hydrogen Titanate Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriparna Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that an aligned array of hydrothermally grown, multiwalled hydrogen titanate (H2Ti3O7 nanotubes—anchored to both faces of a metallic Ti foil—acts as an efficient photocatalyst. We studied the degradation of rhodamine B dye in the presence of the nanostructured photocatalyst under UV irradiation, by monitoring the optical absorption of the dye. Rhodamine B was chosen as a representative—and particularly harmful—industrial pollutant dye. The inner and outer diameters of the H2Ti3O7 nanotubes were 5 nm and 10 nm, respectively. The nanotube array catalyst is recyclable and structurally stable. Most importantly, it shows comparable or higher photodecomposition rate constant than those of both H2Ti3O7 nanotube powder and P-25 (Degussa. The enhanced photocatalytic performance may be ascribed to the nanotube array having a superhydrophilic surface with a high accessible surface area.

  6. Self-Assembled TiO2 Nanotube Arrays with U-Shaped Profile by Controlling Anodization Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfei Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanotube arrays with uniform diameter from top to bottom were fabricated. The synthesizing approach is based on the investigation of the influence of electrolyte temperature on the tube diameter. We found that the inner diameter of the tubes increased with the electrolyte temperature. Accordingly, we improved the tube profile from the general V shape to U shape by raising the electrolyte temperature gradually. This is a simple and fast approach to fabricate uniform TiO2 nanotubes in diameter. The improved TiO2 nanotube arrays may show better properties and have broad potential applications.

  7. Automating Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John

    2007-01-01

    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  8. Bi-Component Nanostructured Arrays of Co Dots Embedded in Ni80Fe20 Antidot Matrix: Synthesis by Self-Assembling of Polystyrene Nanospheres and Magnetic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coïsson, Marco; Celegato, Federica; Barrera, Gabriele; Conta, Gianluca; Magni, Alessandro; Tiberto, Paola

    2017-08-23

    A bi-component nanostructured system composed by a Co dot array embedded in a Ni 80 Fe 20 antidot matrix has been prepared by means of the self-assembling polystyrene nanospheres lithography technique. Reference samples constituted by the sole Co dots or Ni 80 Fe 20 antidots have also been prepared, in order to compare their properties with those of the bi-component material. The coupling between the two ferromagnetic elements has been studied by means of magnetic and magneto-transport measurements. The Ni 80 Fe 20 matrix turned out to affect the vortex nucleation field of the Co dots, which in turn modifies the magneto-resistance behaviour of the system and its spinwave properties.

  9. Design and fabrication of 4π Clover Detector Array Assembly for gamma-spectroscopy studies using thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Manish; Kamble, S.R.; Chaudhari, A.T.; Sabharwal, T.P.; Pathak, Kavindra; Prasad, N.K.; Kinage, L.A.; Biswas, D.C.; Bhagwat, P.V.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear spectroscopy has been studied earlier from the measurement of prompt gamma rays produced in reactions with thermal neutrons from CIRUS reactor. For studying the prompt γ-spectroscopy using thermal neutrons from Dhruva Reactor, BARC, the development of a dedicated beam line (R-3001) is in progress. In this beam line a detector assembly consisting of Clover Ge detectors will be used. This experimental setup will be utilized to investigate nuclear structure using prompt (n,γ) reactions and also to study the spectroscopy of neutron-rich fission-fragment nuclei

  10. Phosphorene-directed self-assembly of asymmetric PS-b-PMMA block copolymer for perpendicularly-oriented sub-10 nm PS nanopore arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziming; Zheng, Lu; Khurram, Muhammad; Yan, Qingfeng

    2017-10-01

    Few-layer black phosphorus, also known as phosphorene, is a new two-dimensional material which is of enormous interest for applications, mainly in electronics and optoelectronics. Herein, we for the first time employ phosphorene for directing the self-assembly of asymmetric polystyrene-block-polymethylmethacrylate (PS-b-PMMA) block copolymer (BCP) thin film to form the perpendicular orientation of sub-10 nm PS nanopore arrays in a hexagonal fashion normal to the interface. We experimentally demonstrate that none of the PS and PMMA blocks exhibit preferential affinity to the phosphorene-modified surface. Furthermore, the perpendicularly-oriented PS nanostructures almost stay unchanged with the variation of number of layers of few-layer phosphorene nanoflakes between 15-30 layers. Differing from the neutral polymer brushes which are widely used for chemical modification of the silicon substrate, phosphorene provides a novel physical way to control the interfacial interactions between the asymmetric PS-b-PMMA BCP thin film and the silicon substrate. Based on our results, it is possible to build a new scheme for producing sub-10 nm PS nanopore arrays oriented perpendicularly to the few-layer phosphorene nanoflakes. Furthermore, the nanostructural microdomains could serve as a promising nanolithography template for surface patterning of phosphorene nanoflakes.

  11. Phosphorene-directed self-assembly of asymmetric PS-b-PMMA block copolymer for perpendicularly-oriented sub-10 nm PS nanopore arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziming; Zheng, Lu; Khurram, Muhammad; Yan, Qingfeng

    2017-10-20

    Few-layer black phosphorus, also known as phosphorene, is a new two-dimensional material which is of enormous interest for applications, mainly in electronics and optoelectronics. Herein, we for the first time employ phosphorene for directing the self-assembly of asymmetric polystyrene-block-polymethylmethacrylate (PS-b-PMMA) block copolymer (BCP) thin film to form the perpendicular orientation of sub-10 nm PS nanopore arrays in a hexagonal fashion normal to the interface. We experimentally demonstrate that none of the PS and PMMA blocks exhibit preferential affinity to the phosphorene-modified surface. Furthermore, the perpendicularly-oriented PS nanostructures almost stay unchanged with the variation of number of layers of few-layer phosphorene nanoflakes between 15-30 layers. Differing from the neutral polymer brushes which are widely used for chemical modification of the silicon substrate, phosphorene provides a novel physical way to control the interfacial interactions between the asymmetric PS-b-PMMA BCP thin film and the silicon substrate. Based on our results, it is possible to build a new scheme for producing sub-10 nm PS nanopore arrays oriented perpendicularly to the few-layer phosphorene nanoflakes. Furthermore, the nanostructural microdomains could serve as a promising nanolithography template for surface patterning of phosphorene nanoflakes.

  12. Self-assembly of charged microclusters of CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanodots and nanorods into hierarchically ordered colloidal arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanova, Alyona; Baranov, Alexander V; Klinov, Dmitriy; Oleinikov, Vladimir; Berwick, Kevin; Cohen, Jacques H M; Pluot, Michel; Nabiev, Igor

    2006-01-01

    A thermodynamically driven self-organization of microclusters of semiconductor nanocrystals with a narrow size distribution into periodic two-dimensional (2D) arrays is an attractive low-cost technique for the fabrication of 2D photonic crystals. We have found that CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots or quantum rods, transferred in aqueous phase after capping with the bifunctional surface-active agent DL-cysteine, form on a poly-L-lysine coated surface homogeneously sized micro-particles, droplet-like spheroid clusters and hexagon-like colloidal crystals self-organized into millimetre-sized 2D hexagonal assemblies. The presence of an organic molecular layer around the micro-particles prevents immediate contact between them, forming an interstitial space which may be varied in thickness by changing the origin of the molecular layer capping nanocrystals. Due to the high refractive index of CdSe and the low refractive index of the interstitial spaces, these structures are expected to have deep gaps in their photonic band, forming hierarchically ordered 2D arrays of potentially photonic materials

  13. Thermal dewetting with a chemically heterogeneous nano-template for self-assembled L1(0) FePt nanoparticle arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Wei; Cheng, Chung-Fu; Liao, Jung-Wei; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Wang, Ding-Shuo; Huang, Kuo-Feng; Lin, Tzu-Ying; Ho, Rong-Ming; Chen, Lih-Juann; Lai, Chih-Huang

    2016-02-21

    A design for the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles is presented by thermal dewetting with a chemically heterogeneous nano-template. For the template, we fabricate a nanostructured polystyrene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-b-PDMS) film on a Si|SiO2 substrate, followed by a thermal annealing and reactive ion etching (RIE) process. This gives a template composed of an ordered hexagonal array of SiOC hemispheres emerging in the polystyrene matrix. After the deposition of a FePt film on this template, we utilize the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process, which provides in-plane stress, to achieve thermal dewetting and structural ordering of FePt simultaneously. Since the template is composed of different composition surfaces with periodically varied morphologies, it offers more tuning knobs to manipulate the nanostructures. We show that both the decrease in the area of the PS matrix and the increase in the strain energy relaxation transfer the dewetted pattern from the randomly distributed nanoparticles into a hexagonal periodic array of L10 FePt nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy with the in situ heating stage reveals the evolution of the dewetting process, and confirms that the positions of nanoparticles are aligned with those of the SiOC hemispheres. The nanoparticles formed by this template-dewetting show an average diameter and center-to-center distance of 19.30 ± 2.09 nm and 39.85 ± 4.80 nm, respectively. The hexagonal array of FePt nanoparticles reveals a large coercivity of 1.5 T, much larger than the nanoparticles fabricated by top-down approaches. This approach offers an efficient pathway toward self-assembled nanostructures in a wide range of material systems.

  14. A Microelectrode Array with Reproducible Performance Shows Loss of Consistency Following Functionalization with a Self-Assembled 6-Mercapto-1-hexanol Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damion K. Corrigan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available For analytical applications involving label-free biosensors and multiple measurements, i.e., across an electrode array, it is essential to develop complete sensor systems capable of functionalization and of producing highly consistent responses. To achieve this, a multi-microelectrode device bearing twenty-four equivalent 50 µm diameter Pt disc microelectrodes was designed in an integrated 3-electrode system configuration and then fabricated. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used for initial electrochemical characterization of the individual working electrodes. These confirmed the expected consistency of performance with a high degree of measurement reproducibility for each microelectrode across the array. With the aim of assessing the potential for production of an enhanced multi-electrode sensor for biomedical use, the working electrodes were then functionalized with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (MCH. This is a well-known and commonly employed surface modification process, which involves the same principles of thiol attachment chemistry and self-assembled monolayer (SAM formation commonly employed in the functionalization of electrodes and the formation of biosensors. Following this SAM formation, the reproducibility of the observed electrochemical signal between electrodes was seen to decrease markedly, compromising the ability to achieve consistent analytical measurements from the sensor array following this relatively simple and well-established surface modification. To successfully and consistently functionalize the sensors, it was necessary to dilute the constituent molecules by a factor of ten thousand to support adequate SAM formation on microelectrodes. The use of this multi-electrode device therefore demonstrates in a high throughput manner irreproducibility in the SAM formation process at the higher concentration, even though these electrodes are apparently functionalized simultaneously in the same film

  15. Automated NMR structure determination of stereo-array isotope labeled ubiquitin from minimal sets of spectra using the SAIL-FLYA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeya, Teppei [Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Institute of Biophysical Chemistry, Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (Germany); Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Jee, Jun-Goo; Kainosho, Masatsune [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Graduate School of Science (Japan)], E-mail: kainosho@nmr.chem.metro-u.ac.jp; Guentert, Peter [Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Institute of Biophysical Chemistry, Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (Germany)], E-mail: guentert@em.uni-frankfurt.de

    2009-08-15

    Stereo-array isotope labeling (SAIL) has been combined with the fully automated NMR structure determination algorithm FLYA to determine the three-dimensional structure of the protein ubiquitin from different sets of input NMR spectra. SAIL provides a complete stereo- and regio-specific pattern of stable isotopes that results in sharper resonance lines and reduced signal overlap, without information loss. Here we show that as a result of the superior quality of the SAIL NMR spectra, reliable, fully automated analyses of the NMR spectra and structure calculations are possible using fewer input spectra than with conventional uniformly {sup 13}C/{sup 15}N-labeled proteins. FLYA calculations with SAIL ubiquitin, using a single three-dimensional 'through-bond' spectrum (and 2D HSQC spectra) in addition to the {sup 13}C-edited and {sup 15}N-edited NOESY spectra for conformational restraints, yielded structures with an accuracy of 0.83-1.15 A for the backbone RMSD to the conventionally determined solution structure of SAIL ubiquitin. NMR structures can thus be determined almost exclusively from the NOESY spectra that yield the conformational restraints, without the need to record many spectra only for determining intermediate, auxiliary data of the chemical shift assignments. The FLYA calculations for this report resulted in 252 ubiquitin structure bundles, obtained with different input data but identical structure calculation and refinement methods. These structures cover the entire range from highly accurate structures to seriously, but not trivially, wrong structures, and thus constitute a valuable database for the substantiation of structure validation methods.

  16. Automated NMR structure determination of stereo-array isotope labeled ubiquitin from minimal sets of spectra using the SAIL-FLYA system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeya, Teppei; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Jee, Jun-Goo; Kainosho, Masatsune; Guentert, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Stereo-array isotope labeling (SAIL) has been combined with the fully automated NMR structure determination algorithm FLYA to determine the three-dimensional structure of the protein ubiquitin from different sets of input NMR spectra. SAIL provides a complete stereo- and regio-specific pattern of stable isotopes that results in sharper resonance lines and reduced signal overlap, without information loss. Here we show that as a result of the superior quality of the SAIL NMR spectra, reliable, fully automated analyses of the NMR spectra and structure calculations are possible using fewer input spectra than with conventional uniformly 13 C/ 15 N-labeled proteins. FLYA calculations with SAIL ubiquitin, using a single three-dimensional 'through-bond' spectrum (and 2D HSQC spectra) in addition to the 13 C-edited and 15 N-edited NOESY spectra for conformational restraints, yielded structures with an accuracy of 0.83-1.15 A for the backbone RMSD to the conventionally determined solution structure of SAIL ubiquitin. NMR structures can thus be determined almost exclusively from the NOESY spectra that yield the conformational restraints, without the need to record many spectra only for determining intermediate, auxiliary data of the chemical shift assignments. The FLYA calculations for this report resulted in 252 ubiquitin structure bundles, obtained with different input data but identical structure calculation and refinement methods. These structures cover the entire range from highly accurate structures to seriously, but not trivially, wrong structures, and thus constitute a valuable database for the substantiation of structure validation methods

  17. Automated NMR structure determination of stereo-array isotope labeled ubiquitin from minimal sets of spectra using the SAIL-FLYA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeya, Teppei; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Jee, Jun-Goo; Kainosho, Masatsune; Güntert, Peter

    2009-08-01

    Stereo-array isotope labeling (SAIL) has been combined with the fully automated NMR structure determination algorithm FLYA to determine the three-dimensional structure of the protein ubiquitin from different sets of input NMR spectra. SAIL provides a complete stereo- and regio-specific pattern of stable isotopes that results in sharper resonance lines and reduced signal overlap, without information loss. Here we show that as a result of the superior quality of the SAIL NMR spectra, reliable, fully automated analyses of the NMR spectra and structure calculations are possible using fewer input spectra than with conventional uniformly 13C/15N-labeled proteins. FLYA calculations with SAIL ubiquitin, using a single three-dimensional "through-bond" spectrum (and 2D HSQC spectra) in addition to the 13C-edited and 15N-edited NOESY spectra for conformational restraints, yielded structures with an accuracy of 0.83-1.15 A for the backbone RMSD to the conventionally determined solution structure of SAIL ubiquitin. NMR structures can thus be determined almost exclusively from the NOESY spectra that yield the conformational restraints, without the need to record many spectra only for determining intermediate, auxiliary data of the chemical shift assignments. The FLYA calculations for this report resulted in 252 ubiquitin structure bundles, obtained with different input data but identical structure calculation and refinement methods. These structures cover the entire range from highly accurate structures to seriously, but not trivially, wrong structures, and thus constitute a valuable database for the substantiation of structure validation methods.

  18. A hierarchically assembled mesoporous ZnO hemisphere array and hollow microspheres for photocatalytic membrane water filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jia Hong; Zhang, Xiwang; Du, Alan J; Bai, Hongwei; Ng, Jiawei; Sun, Darren

    2012-05-28

    A mesoporous ZnO hemisphere array has been prepared via a topotactic transition of Zn(4)(OH)(6)CO(3)·H(2)O (ZCHH) by chemical bath deposition. Each hemisphere is comprised of a radially oriented nanoflake shell grown on the hemispherical interior. Reaction time-dependent SEM analysis shows that the morphological formation of ZCHH involves a deposition-growth-secondary growth-redeposition procedure. Upon calcination, ZCHH readily decomposes to nanocrystalline wurtzite-phase ZnO without significant change in morphology, and the release of CO(2) and H(2)O from ZCHH creates an additional mesoporous structure in both hemispherical interior and nanoflake shell. A similar process but without using a substrate has been developed for synthesis of mesoporous ZnO hollow microspheres in powder form. Both the elaborated superstructured photocatalysts consisting of mesoporous nanoflakes have been demonstrated to exhibit excellent performances in the photocatalytic membrane filtration.

  19. Low-Resolution Tactile Image Recognition for Automated Robotic Assembly Using Kernel PCA-Based Feature Fusion and Multiple Kernel Learning-Based Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a robust tactile sensing image recognition scheme for automatic robotic assembly. First, an image reprocessing procedure is designed to enhance the contrast of the tactile image. In the second layer, geometric features and Fourier descriptors are extracted from the image. Then, kernel principal component analysis (kernel PCA is applied to transform the features into ones with better discriminating ability, which is the kernel PCA-based feature fusion. The transformed features are fed into the third layer for classification. In this paper, we design a classifier by combining the multiple kernel learning (MKL algorithm and support vector machine (SVM. We also design and implement a tactile sensing array consisting of 10-by-10 sensing elements. Experimental results, carried out on real tactile images acquired by the designed tactile sensing array, show that the kernel PCA-based feature fusion can significantly improve the discriminating performance of the geometric features and Fourier descriptors. Also, the designed MKL-SVM outperforms the regular SVM in terms of recognition accuracy. The proposed recognition scheme is able to achieve a high recognition rate of over 85% for the classification of 12 commonly used metal parts in industrial applications.

  20. Structure and magnetic properties of CoxCu1−x nanowires in self-assembled arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Adelnia Najafabadi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Role of non-magnetic Cu on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Co x Cu 1−x nanowires. ► Composition variation through ac pulse electrodeposition. ► Replacement of Co with Cu by electroless phenomenon during the off-time between pulses. - Abstract: CoCu alloy nanowire arrays were ac-pulse electrodeposited into porous anodic aluminum oxide. The effect of off-time between pulses and Cu concentration on the magnetic properties, crystalline structure and weight percentage of Co x Cu 1−x alloy nanowires have been studied by alternating gradient force magnetometer (AGFM), X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and energy dispersed spectrometry (EDS), respectively. Increasing the off-time between pulses decreased the weight percentage of Co in the range of (x = 0.84 − 0.24). Results of EDS were in accordance with saturation magnetization per unit area of the samples. Coexistence of a moderate off-time and Cu concentration provided excellent conditions for fabrication of the composite nanowires which were proved by XRD patterns.

  1. Architecturing hierarchical function layers on self-assembled viral templates as 3D nano-array electrodes for integrated Li-ion microbatteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihang; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Yujie; Luo, Yanting; Xu, Yunhua; Brown, Adam; Culver, James N; Lundgren, Cynthia A; Xu, Kang; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Chunsheng

    2013-01-09

    This work enables an elegant bottom-up solution to engineer 3D microbattery arrays as integral power sources for microelectronics. Thus, multilayers of functional materials were hierarchically architectured over tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) templates that were genetically modified to self-assemble in a vertical manner on current-collectors, so that optimum power and energy densities accompanied with excellent cycle-life could be achieved on a minimum footprint. The resultant microbattery based on self-aligned LiFePO(4) nanoforests of shell-core-shell structure, with precise arrangement of various auxiliary material layers including a central nanometric metal core as direct electronic pathway to current collector, delivers excellent energy density and stable cycling stability only rivaled by the best Li-ion batteries of conventional configurations, while providing rate performance per foot-print and on-site manufacturability unavailable from the latter. This approach could open a new avenue for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications, which would significantly benefit from the concept that electrochemically active components be directly engineered and fabricated as an integral part of the integrated circuit (IC).

  2. Automation and robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemerlo, Melvin

    1988-01-01

    The Autonomous Systems focus on the automation of control systems for the Space Station and mission operations. Telerobotics focuses on automation for in-space servicing, assembly, and repair. The Autonomous Systems and Telerobotics each have a planned sequence of integrated demonstrations showing the evolutionary advance of the state-of-the-art. Progress is briefly described for each area of concern.

  3. Photoelectrocatalytic Glucose Oxidation to Promote Hydrogen Production over Periodically Ordered TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Assembled of Pd Quantum Dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yajun; Zhao, Guohua; Shi, Huijie; Zhang, Ya-nan; Huang, Wenna; Huang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Zhongyi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar-driven PEC glucose oxidation to promote hydrogen production was presented. • The excellent PEC activity of Pd QDs@TNTAs was investigated. • The rate of hydrogen production from glucose was about 15 times than water. • A low-cost and efficient method in renewables-to-hydrogen conversion was put forward. - Abstract: The development of highly efficient and low-cost approaches for catalytic hydrogen production from renewable energy is of tremendous importance for a truly sustainable hydrogen-based energy carrier in future life. Herein, the probability of utilizing solar light to product hydrogen from biomass derivative, glucose, was systematically demonstrated by using the periodically ordered TiO 2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) assembled of Palladium quantum dots (Pd QDs), i.e. Pd QDs@ TNTAs as photoanode. The results showed that remarkably increased photocurrent density was obtained in the glucose solution compared to the pure KOH electrolyte over as-prepared photoelectrode, which indicated that the glucose could be faster oxidized than water oxidation, and thus could promote the hydrogen production on Pt cathode. The yield of hydrogen production from glucose oxidation reached as high as 164.8 μmol cm −1 over Pd QDs@TNTAs photoanode and Pt cathode system (denoted as Pd QDs@TNTAs/Pt) under the solar light irradiation for 6 h, which was about 15 times higher than that from pure water splitting. The superior hydrogen production performance could be attributed to the less endergonic process of the glucose oxidation than water, as well as the efficient synergistic photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) glucose oxidation over Pd QDs@TNTAs photoanode which possesses excellent photoelectrochemical performance and structure characteristics. Moreover, a probable mechanism for the PEC hydrogen production from biomass derivatives oxidation was proposed and discussed

  4. Final report of a scalable, automated, semipermanent seismic array (SASSA) method for detecting CO2 extent during geologic CO2 injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnison, Shaughn [University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Livers-Douglas, Amanda [University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Barajas-Olalde, Cesar [University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Jin, Lu [University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Vettleson, Heidi [University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Hamiling, John [University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Gorecki, Charles [University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2017-12-15

    The scalable, automated, semipermanent seismic array (SASSA) project led and managed by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was designed as a 3-year proof-of-concept study to evaluate and demonstrate an innovative application of the seismic method. The concept was to use a sparse surface array of 96 nodal seismic sensors paired with a single, remotely operated active seismic source at a fixed location to monitor for CO2 saturation changes in a subsurface reservoir by processing the data for time-lapse changes at individual, strategically chosen reservoir reflection points. The combination of autonomous equipment and modern processing algorithms was used to apply the seismic method in a manner different from the normal paradigm of collecting a spatially dense data set to produce an image. It was used instead to monitor individual, strategically chosen reservoir reflection points for detectable signal character changes that could be attributed to the passing of a CO2 saturation front or, possibly, changes in reservoir pressure. Data collection occurred over the course of 1 year at an oil field undergoing CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and focused on four overlapping “five-spot” EOR injector–producer patterns. Selection, procurement, configuration, installation, and testing of project equipment and collection of five baseline data sets were completed in advance of CO2 injection within the study area. Weekly remote data collection produced 41 incremental time-lapse records for each of the 96 nodes. Validation was provided by two methods: 1) a conventional 2-D seismic line acquired through the center of the study area before injection started and again after the project ended and processed in a time-lapse manner and 2) by CO2 saturation maps created from reservoir simulations based on injection and production history matching. Interpreted results were encouraging but mixed, with

  5. Design of a K-Band Transmit Phased Array For Low Earth Orbit Satellite Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Thomas; Miller, Stephen; Kershner, Dennis; Anzic, Godfrey

    2000-01-01

    The design of a light weight, low cost phased array antenna is presented. Multilayer printed wiring board (PWB) technology is utilized for Radio Frequencies (RF) and DC/Logic manifold distribution. Transmit modules are soldered on one side and patch antenna elements are on the other, allowing the use of automated assembly processes. The 19 GHz antenna has two independently steerable beams, each capable of transferring data at 622 Mbps. A passive, self-contained phase change thermal management system is also presented.

  6. Solar collector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  7. Using RNA-Seq to assemble a rose transcriptome with more than 13,000 full-length expressed genes and to develop the WagRhSNP 68k Axiom SNP array for rose (Rosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole F S Koning-Boucoiran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop a versatile and large SNP array for rose, we set out to mine ESTs from diverse sets of rose germplasm. For this RNA-Seq libraries containing about 700 million reads were generated from tetraploid cut and garden roses using Illumina paired-end sequencing, and from diploid Rosa multiflora using 454 sequencing. Separate de novo assemblies were performed in order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within and between rose varieties. SNPs among tetraploid roses were selected for constructing a genotyping array that can be employed for genetic mapping and marker-trait association discovery in breeding programs based on tetraploid germplasm, both from cut roses and from garden roses. In total 68,893 SNPs were included on the WagRhSNP Axiom array.Next, an orthology-guided assembly was performed for the construction of a non-redundant rose transcriptome database. A total of 21,740 transcripts had significant hits with orthologous genes in the strawberry (Fragaria vesca L. genome. Of these 13,390 appeared to contain the full-length coding regions. This newly established transcriptome resource adds considerably to the currently available sequence resources for the Rosaceae family in general and the genus Rosa in particular.

  8. Using RNA-Seq to assemble a rose transcriptome with more than 13,000 full-length expressed genes and to develop the WagRhSNP 68k Axiom SNP array for rose (Rosa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning-Boucoiran, Carole F S; Esselink, G Danny; Vukosavljev, Mirjana; van 't Westende, Wendy P C; Gitonga, Virginia W; Krens, Frans A; Voorrips, Roeland E; van de Weg, W Eric; Schulz, Dietmar; Debener, Thomas; Maliepaard, Chris; Arens, Paul; Smulders, Marinus J M

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop a versatile and large SNP array for rose, we set out to mine ESTs from diverse sets of rose germplasm. For this RNA-Seq libraries containing about 700 million reads were generated from tetraploid cut and garden roses using Illumina paired-end sequencing, and from diploid Rosa multiflora using 454 sequencing. Separate de novo assemblies were performed in order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within and between rose varieties. SNPs among tetraploid roses were selected for constructing a genotyping array that can be employed for genetic mapping and marker-trait association discovery in breeding programs based on tetraploid germplasm, both from cut roses and from garden roses. In total 68,893 SNPs were included on the WagRhSNP Axiom array. Next, an orthology-guided assembly was performed for the construction of a non-redundant rose transcriptome database. A total of 21,740 transcripts had significant hits with orthologous genes in the strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) genome. Of these 13,390 appeared to contain the full-length coding regions. This newly established transcriptome resource adds considerably to the currently available sequence resources for the Rosaceae family in general and the genus Rosa in particular.

  9. Post-assembly transformations of porphyrin-containing metal-organic framework (MOF) films fabricated via automated layer-by-layer coordination

    KAUST Repository

    So, Monica; Beyzavi, M. Hassan; Sawhney, Rohan; Shekhah, Osama; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Al-Juaid, Salih Salem; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate the robustness of layer-by-layer (LbL)-assembled, pillared-paddlewheel-type MOF films toward conversion to new or modified MOFs via solvent-assisted linker exchange (SALE) and post-assembly linker metalation. Further, we show that LbL synthesis can afford MOFs that have proven inaccessible through other de novo strategies.

  10. Investigation of proposed process sequence for the array automated assembly task. Phase I and II. Final report, October 1, 1977-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardesich, N.; Garcia, A.; Eskenas, K.

    1980-08-01

    A selected process sequence for the low cost fabrication of photovoltaic modules was defined during this contract. Each part of the process sequence was looked at regarding its contribution to the overall dollars per watt cost. During the course of the research done, some of the initially included processes were dropped due to technological deficiencies. The printed dielectric diffusion mask, codiffusion of the n+ and p+ regions, wraparound front contacts and retention of the diffusion oxide for use as an AR coating were all the processes that were removed for this reason. Other process steps were retained to achieve the desired overall cost and efficiency. Square wafers, a polymeric spin-on PX-10 diffusion source, a p+ back surface field and silver front contacts are all processes that have been recommended for use in this program. The printed silver solderable pad for making contact to the aluminum back was replaced by an ultrasonically applied tin-zinc pad. Also, the texturized front surface was dropped as inappropriate for the sheet silicon likely to be available in 1986. Progress has also been made on the process sequence for module fabrication. A shift from bonding with a conformal coating to laminating with ethylene vinyl acetate and a glass superstrate is recommended for further module fabrication. The finalized process sequence is described.

  11. Automated Temperature and Emission Measure Analysis of Coronal Loops and Active Regions Observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO/AIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Boerner, Paul; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Malanushenko, Anna

    2013-03-01

    We developed numerical codes designed for automated analysis of SDO/AIA image datasets in the six coronal filters, including: i) coalignment test between different wavelengths with measurements of the altitude of the EUV-absorbing chromosphere, ii) self-calibration by empirical correction of instrumental response functions, iii) automated generation of differential emission measure [DEM] distributions with peak-temperature maps [ T p( x, y)] and emission measure maps [ EM p( x, y)] of the full Sun or active region areas, iv) composite DEM distributions [d EM( T)/d T] of active regions or subareas, v) automated detection of coronal loops, and vi) automated background subtraction and thermal analysis of coronal loops, which yields statistics of loop temperatures [ T e], temperature widths [ σ T], emission measures [ EM], electron densities [ n e], and loop widths [ w]. The combination of these numerical codes allows for automated and objective processing of numerous coronal loops. As an example, we present the results of an application to the active region NOAA 11158, observed on 15 February 2011, shortly before it produced the largest (X2.2) flare during the current solar cycle. We detect 570 loop segments at temperatures in the entire range of log( T e)=5.7 - 7.0 K and corroborate previous TRACE and AIA results on their near-isothermality and the validity of the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana (RTV) law at soft X-ray temperatures ( T≳2 MK) and its failure at lower EUV temperatures.

  12. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjertsen, R.K.; Bassler, E.A.; Huckestein, E.A.; Salton, R.B.; Tower, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    A fuel assembly adapted for use with a pressurized water nuclear reactor having capabilities for fluid moderator spectral shift control is described comprising: parallel arranged elongated nuclear fuel elements; means for providing for axial support of the fuel elements and for arranging the fuel elements in a spaced array; thimbles interspersed among the fuel elements adapted for insertion of a rod control cluster therewithin; means for structurally joining the fuel elements and the guide thimbles; fluid moderator control means for providing a volume of low neutron absorbing fluid within the fuel assembly and for removing a substantially equivalent volume of reactor coolant water therefrom, a first flow manifold at one end of the fuel assembly sealingly connected to a first end of the moderator control tubes whereby the first ends are commonly flow connected; and a second flow manifold, having an inlet passage and an outlet passage therein, sealingly connected to a second end of the moderator control tubes at a second end of the fuel assembly

  13. The Self- and Directed Assembly of Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin David

    orientations. Second, particles fell oriented vertically and when the surface concentrations were high, they retained this orientation upon reaching the substrate. Since vertically aligned PENs supported each other, assembly into vertical arrays was highly dependent on the surface concentration. But, oriented arrays could be easily formed on larger or smaller substrates, provided a particle concentration scaled to the substrate were used. The mixing of these particles to form heterogeneous arrays was examined. The overall array structure favored that of particles which sedimented more quickly and/or were present in higher amounts. The semi-automated counting of PENs in images by software is used heavily in Chapters 4 and 5. Appendix A describes the use, development, and validation of macros within Image-Pro. The structure, syntax, and use are specifically examined for three nanowire counting macros. The counting results; including: number of particles in an image, number of horizontally vs. vertically oriented PENs, and PENs in microwells; are compared with manual hand counts. Chapter 7 examines the overall conclusions and future directions for this research. By combining our assembly techniques with known directing forces (e.g., electric or magnetic fields) more specific alignment and/or positioning could be achieved. We have also begun to explore directing assembly through lithographic microwells. Further work needs to explore the integration of arrays into devices and the use of functional materials. Then, high density, oriented arrays could be created for photonic, energy, sensing, catalytic, and electronic applications.

  14. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  15. Automated Test-Form Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Diao, Qi

    2011-01-01

    In automated test assembly (ATA), the methodology of mixed-integer programming is used to select test items from an item bank to meet the specifications for a desired test form and optimize its measurement accuracy. The same methodology can be used to automate the formatting of the set of selected items into the actual test form. Three different…

  16. Application of high-resolution capillary array electrophoresis with automated fraction collection for GeneCalling analysis of the yeast genomic DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berka, J.; Ruiz-Martinez, M. C.; Hammond, R.; Minarik, M.; Foret, František; Sosic, Z.; Klepárník, Karel; Karger, B. L.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2003), s. 639-647 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/0772; GA ČR GA303/00/0928 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : capillary array * fraction collection * gene expression profiling Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.040, year: 2003

  17. Should We Stop Developing Heuristics and Only Rely on Mixed Integer Programming Solvers in Automated Test Assembly? A Rejoinder to van der Linden and Li (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Hua

    2017-05-01

    This rejoinder responds to the commentary by van der Linden and Li entiled "Comment on Three-Element Item Selection Procedures for Multiple Forms Assembly: An Item Matching Approach" on the article "Three-Element Item Selection Procedures for Multiple Forms Assembly: An Item Matching Approach" by Chen. Van der Linden and Li made a strong statement calling for the cessation of test assembly heuristics development, and instead encouraged embracing mixed integer programming (MIP). This article points out the nondeterministic polynomial (NP)-hard nature of MIP problems and how solutions found using heuristics could be useful in an MIP context. Although van der Linden and Li provided several practical examples of test assembly supporting their view, the examples ignore the cases in which a slight change of constraints or item pool data might mean it would not be possible to obtain solutions as quickly as before. The article illustrates the use of heuristic solutions to improve both the performance of MIP solvers and the quality of solutions. Additional responses to the commentary by van der Linden and Li are included.

  18. Modular nuclear fuel assembly rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    A modular nuclear fuel assembly rack constructed of an array of identical cells, each cell constructed of a plurality of identical flanged plates. The unique assembly of the plates into a rigid rack provides a cellular compartment for nuclear fuel assemblies and a cavity between the cells for accepting neutron absorbing materials thus allowing a closely spaced array. The modular rack size can be easily adapted to conform with available storage space. U-shaped flanges at the edges of the plates are nested together at the intersection of four cells in the array. A bar is placed at the intersection to lock the cells together

  19. Self-assembly graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots anchored on TiO_2 nanotube arrays: An efficient heterojunction for pollutants degradation under solar light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Jingyang; Zhu, Lin; Geng, Ping; Chen, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon nitride quantum dots (CNQDs) were decorated onto TiO_2 nanotube arrays (NTAs). • The CNQDs/TiO_2 NTAs exhibits much improved photoelectrochemical activity. • The heterojunction displays efficient removal efficiencies for RhB and phenol. • Pollutants degradation mechanism over CNQDs/TiO_2 NTAs was clarified. - Abstract: In this study, an efficient heterojunction was constructed by anchoring graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots onto TiO_2 nanotube arrays through hydrothermal reaction strategy. The prepared graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots, which were prepared by solid-thermal reaction and sequential dialysis process, act as a sensitizer to enhance light absorption. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the charge transfer and separation in the formed heterojunction were significantly improved compared with pristine TiO_2. The prepared heterojunction was used as a photoanode, exhibiting much improved photoelectrochemical capability and excellent photo-stability under solar light illumination. The photoelectrocatalytic activities of prepared heterojunction were demonstrated by degradation of RhB and phenol in aqueous solution. The kinetic constants of RhB and phenol degradation using prepared photoelectrode are 2.4 times and 4.9 times higher than those of pristine TiO_2, respectively. Moreover, hydroxyl radicals are demonstrated to be dominant active radicals during the pollutants degradation.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Manual and Automated (MagNA Pure Nucleic Acid Isolation in HPV Detection and Genotyping Using Roche Linear Array HPV Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Chranioti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acids of human papillomavirus (HPV isolated by manual extraction method (AmpliLute and automated MagNA pure system were compared and evaluated with cytohistological findings in 253 women. The concordance level between AmpliLute and MagNA was very good 93.3% (=0.864, <.0001. Overall HPVpositivity detected by AmpliLute was 57.3% (30.4% as single and 27% as multiple infections in contrast to MagNA 54.5% (32% and 23%, resp.. Discrepant results observed in 25 cases: 11 MagNA(−/AmpliLute(+, 10 of which had positive histology; 5 MagNA(+/AmpliLute(− with negative histology; 8 MagNA(+/AmpliLute(+: in 7 of which AmpliLute detected extra HPV genotypes and 1 MagNA(invalid/AmpliLute(+ with positive histology. Both methods performed well when compared against cytological (area under curve (AUC of AmpliLute 0.712 versus 0.672 of MagNA and histological diagnoses (AUC of AmpliLute 0.935 versus 0.877 of MagNA, with AmpliLute showing a slightly predominance over MagNA. However, higher sensitivities, specificities, and positive/negative predictive values were obtained by AmpliLute.

  1. Linear self-assembly and grafting of gold nanorods into arrayed micrometer-long nanowires on a silicon wafer via a combined top-down/bottom-up approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestini, Elena; Andrei, Codrin; Zerulla, Dominic

    2018-01-01

    Macroscopically long wire-like arrangements of gold nanoparticles were obtained by controlled evaporation and partial coalescence of an aqueous colloidal solution of capped CTAB-Au nanorods onto a functionalised 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) silicon substrate, using a removable, silicon wafer with a hydrophobic surface that serves as a "handrail" for the initial nanorods' linear self-assembly. The wire-like structures display a quasi-continuous pattern by thermal annealing of the gold nanorods when the solvent (i.e. water) is evaporated at temperatures rising from 20°C to 140°C. Formation of both single and self-replicating parallel 1D-superstructures consisting of two or even three wires is observed and explained under such conditions.

  2. Automation, Performance and International Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Lene; Sørensen, Anders

    This paper presents new evidence on trade‐induced automation in manufacturing firms using unique data combining a retrospective survey that we have assembled with register data for 2005‐2010. In particular, we establish a causal effect where firms that have specialized in product types for which...... the Chinese exports to the world market has risen sharply invest more in automated capital compared to firms that have specialized in other product types. We also study the relationship between automation and firm performance and find that firms with high increases in scale and scope of automation have faster...... productivity growth than other firms. Moreover, automation improves the efficiency of all stages of the production process by reducing setup time, run time, and inspection time and increasing uptime and quantity produced per worker. The efficiency improvement varies by type of automation....

  3. Apparatus for assembling and welding end plugs to nuclear fuel cladding tubes and inspecting the end plug welds on an automated basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenig, F.C. Jr.; Walker, E.S.; Cueman, M.K.; Haughton, R.A.; Zuloaga, J.A. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an automated apparatus for welding a separate end plug to one open end of each of a succession of nuclear fuel cladding tubes and for inspecting each end plug weld. The apparatus comprising, in combination: a welding station; a cooldown station for cooling each end plug weld in an inert gas atmosphere; a serial number reader station for reading a serial number on each end plug; a first weld inspection station; a second weld inspection station for generating second weld inspection data; a computer system linked with the serial number reader and the first and second weld inspection stations; an input queue for holding a plurality of tubes; a tube transporter for periodically picking individual tubes from the input queque and conveying the tubes in a direction transverse to their tube axis in indexing steps to index positions respectively axially aligned with the welding, serial number reader, and first and second weld inspection stations; and a sorter positioned at an output end of the tube transporter

  4. Protein Functionalized Nanodiamond Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu YL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Various nanoscale elements are currently being explored for bio-applications, such as in bio-images, bio-detection, and bio-sensors. Among them, nanodiamonds possess remarkable features such as low bio-cytotoxicity, good optical property in fluorescent and Raman spectra, and good photostability for bio-applications. In this work, we devise techniques to position functionalized nanodiamonds on self-assembled monolayer (SAMs arrays adsorbed on silicon and ITO substrates surface using electron beam lithography techniques. The nanodiamond arrays were functionalized with lysozyme to target a certain biomolecule or protein specifically. The optical properties of the nanodiamond-protein complex arrays were characterized by a high throughput confocal microscope. The synthesized nanodiamond-lysozyme complex arrays were found to still retain their functionality in interacting with E. coli.

  5. Numerical and Experimental Characterization of Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Composite Structures with Embedded Piezoelectric Sensor-Actuator Arrays for Ultrasonic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudiusz Holeczek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents preliminary numerical and experimental studies of active textile-reinforced thermoplastic composites with embedded sensor-actuator arrays. The goal of the investigations was the assessment of directional sound wave generation capability using embedded sensor-actuator arrays and developed a wave excitation procedure for ultrasound measurement tasks. The feasibility of the proposed approach was initially confirmed in numerical investigations assuming idealized mechanical and geometrical conditions. The findings were validated in real-life conditions on specimens of elementary geometry. Herein, the technological aspects of unique automated assembly of thermoplastic films containing adapted thermoplastic-compatible piezoceramic modules and conducting paths were described.

  6. Assembly of positioner of automated two-dimensional scan coupled to X-ray fluorescence spectrometry; Montagem de posicionador de varredura bidimensional automatizada acoplado a espectrometria de fluorescência de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Leonardo Santiago Melgaço

    2011-07-01

    This work describes the design and assembling of a prototype automated positioner two-dimensional scanning coupled to X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The work aims to achieve a portable and easy to use, device of broad utility in the analysis of samples by X-ray fluorescence area of expertise and research. The two-dimensional scanning of the positioner is by means of two stepper motors controlled by a microcontroller PIC 16F877A, encoder and optical sensors. The user interacts with the XY table through an interface program for the Windows operating system, which communicates with the microcontroller through the serial port. The system of Fluorescence Spectroscopy incorporated into the positioner consists of a system commercially available system from the company AMPTEK, where the primary source of excitation of the sample was a source of {sup 241}Am of 59.5 KeV emissions. Resolution and accuracy of tests were performed in the XY scanning process and reproducibility of the same kit with the fluorescence spectrometry X-ray. Qualitative tests by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in samples were performed to demonstrate the applicability and versatility of the project. It follows that the prototype illustrates a possible adequately to portable device for X-ray spectrometry of two-dimensional. (author)

  7. Fuel assembly for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjertsen, R.K.; Tower, S.N.; Huckestein, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    A fuel assembly for a nuclear reactor comprises a 5x5 array of guide tubes in a generally 20x20 array of fuel elements, the guide tubes being arranged to accommodate either control rods or water displacer rods. The fuel assembly has top and bottom Inconel (Registered Trade Mark) grids and intermediate Zircaloy grids in engagement with the guide tubes and supporting the fuel elements and guide tubes while allowing flow of reactor coolant through the assembly. (author)

  8. Robust, directed assembly of fluorescent nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianinia, Mehran; Shimoni, Olga; Bendavid, Avi; Schell, Andreas W; Randolph, Steven J; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor; Lobo, Charlene J

    2016-10-27

    Arrays of fluorescent nanoparticles are highly sought after for applications in sensing, nanophotonics and quantum communications. Here we present a simple and robust method of assembling fluorescent nanodiamonds into macroscopic arrays. Remarkably, the yield of this directed assembly process is greater than 90% and the assembled patterns withstand ultra-sonication for more than three hours. The assembly process is based on covalent bonding of carboxyl to amine functional carbon seeds and is applicable to any material, and to non-planar surfaces. Our results pave the way to directed assembly of sensors and nanophotonics devices.

  9. Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  10. The Owens Valley Millimeter Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padin, S.; Scott, S.L.; Woody, D.P.; Scoville, N.Z.; Seling, T.V.

    1991-01-01

    The telescopes and signal processing systems of the Owens Valley Millimeter Array are considered, and improvements in the sensitivity and stability of the instrument are characterized. The instrument can be applied to map sources in the 85 to 115 GHz and 218 to 265 GHz bands with a resolution of about 1 arcsec in the higher frequency band. The operation of the array is fully automated. The current scientific programs for the array encompass high-resolution imaging of protoplanetary/protostellar disk structures, observations of molecular cloud complexes associated with spiral structure in nearby galaxies, and observations of molecular structures in the nuclei of spiral and luminous IRAS galaxies. 9 refs

  11. Multi-Robot Assembly Strategies and Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARVEL, JEREMY A.; BOSTELMAN, ROGER; FALCO, JOE

    2018-01-01

    We present a survey of multi-robot assembly applications and methods and describe trends and general insights into the multi-robot assembly problem for industrial applications. We focus on fixtureless assembly strategies featuring two or more robotic systems. Such robotic systems include industrial robot arms, dexterous robotic hands, and autonomous mobile platforms, such as automated guided vehicles. In this survey, we identify the types of assemblies that are enabled by utilizing multiple robots, the algorithms that synchronize the motions of the robots to complete the assembly operations, and the metrics used to assess the quality and performance of the assemblies. PMID:29497234

  12. Multi-Robot Assembly Strategies and Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Jeremy A; Bostelman, Roger; Falco, Joe

    2018-02-01

    We present a survey of multi-robot assembly applications and methods and describe trends and general insights into the multi-robot assembly problem for industrial applications. We focus on fixtureless assembly strategies featuring two or more robotic systems. Such robotic systems include industrial robot arms, dexterous robotic hands, and autonomous mobile platforms, such as automated guided vehicles. In this survey, we identify the types of assemblies that are enabled by utilizing multiple robots, the algorithms that synchronize the motions of the robots to complete the assembly operations, and the metrics used to assess the quality and performance of the assemblies.

  13. BRET fuel assembly dismantling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titzler, P.A.; Bennett, K.L.; Kelley, R.S. Jr.; Stringer, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    An automated remote nuclear fuel assembly milling and dismantling machine has been designed, developed, and demonstrated at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in Richland, Washington. The machine can be used to dismantle irradiated breeder fuel assemblies from the Fast Flux Test Facility prior to fuel reprocessing. It can be installed in an existing remotely operated shielded hot cell facility, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington

  14. Partial Automated Alignment and Integration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Gary Wayne (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a Partial Automated Alignment and Integration System (PAAIS) used to automate the alignment and integration of space vehicle components. A PAAIS includes ground support apparatuses, a track assembly with a plurality of energy-emitting components and an energy-receiving component containing a plurality of energy-receiving surfaces. Communication components and processors allow communication and feedback through PAAIS.

  15. Powder handling for automated fuel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederickson, J.R.; Eschenbaum, R.C.; Goldmann, L.H.

    1989-01-01

    Installation of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line has been completed. It is located in the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington. The SAF line was designed to fabricate advanced reactor fuel pellets and assemble fuel pins by automated, remote operation. This paper describes powder handling equipment and techniques utilized for automated powder processing and powder conditioning systems in this line. 9 figs

  16. Automation Revolutionize the Business Service Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Marciniak, Róbert

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades significant disruptive changes began with the extended use of automation. Many jobs are changed or disappeared and others were born totally with the automation. Together with the progress of technology, the automation was primarily spread in the industrial sector, mostly in the production and assembly lines. The growth maycontinue in the future further, researchers expect more than 35 million industrial robots globally by 2018.But it shades the situati...

  17. Secure Automated Microgrid Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    O&M Operations and Maintenance PSO Power System Optimization PV Photovoltaic RAID Redundant Array of Independent Disks RBAC Role...elements of the initial study and operational power system model (feeder size , protective devices, generation sources, controllable loads, transformers...EW-201340) Secure Automated Microgrid Energy System December 2016 This document has been cleared for public release; Distribution Statement A

  18. Automated tetraploid genotype calling by hierarchical clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    SNP arrays are transforming breeding and genetics research for autotetraploids. To fully utilize these arrays, however, the relationship between signal intensity and allele dosage must be inferred independently for each marker. We developed an improved computational method to automate this process, ...

  19. Glass fiber reinforced concrete for terrestrial photovoltaic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, H.

    1979-01-01

    The use of glass-fiber-reinforced concrete (GRC) as a low-cost structural substrate for terrestrial solar cell arrays is discussed. The properties and fabrication of glass-reinforced concrete structures are considered, and a preliminary design for a laminated solar cell assembly built on a GRC substrate is presented. A total cost for such a photovoltaic module, composed of a Korad acrylic plastic film front cover, an aluminum foil back cover, an ethylene/vinyl acetate pottant/adhesive and a cotton fabric electrical isolator in addition to the GRC substrate, of $9.42/sq m is projected, which is less than the $11.00/sq m cost goal set by the Department of Energy. Preliminary evaluations are concluded to have shown the design capabilities and cost effectiveness of GRC; however, its potential for automated mass production has yet to be evaluated.

  20. Fuel assembly manufacturing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, P.; Villaeys, R.

    1995-01-01

    The device comprises a central support on which the frame is mounted, a magazine which supports the fuel rods in passages aligned with those in the frame and a traction assembly on the opposite side of the magazine and including an array of pull rods designed to be advanced through the passages in the frame, to grip respective fuel rods in magazine and to pull those rods into the passages on the return stroke. 13 figs

  1. Welding process automation in power machine building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'bard, S.N.; Shakhnov, A.F.; Shergov, I.V.

    1977-01-01

    The level of welding automation operations in power engineering and ways of its enhancement are highlighted. Used as the examples of comlex automation are an apparatus for the horizontal welding of turbine rotors, remotely controlled automatic machine for welding ring joint of large-sized vessels, equipment for the electron-beam welding of steam turbine assemblies of alloyed steels. The prospects of industrial robots are noted. The importance of the complex automation of technological process, including stocking, assemblying, transportation and auxiliary operations, is emphasized

  2. Illustrating how mechanical assemblies work

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.; Yang, Yongliang; Yan, Dongming; Li, Wilmot; Agrawala, Maneesh

    2010-01-01

    How things work visualizations use a variety of visual techniques to depict the operation of complex mechanical assemblies. We present an automated approach for generating such visualizations. Starting with a 3D CAD model of an assembly, we first infer the motions of individual parts and the interactions between parts based on their geometry and a few user specified constraints. We then use this information to generate visualizations that incorporate motion arrows, frame sequences and animation to convey the causal chain of motions and mechanical interactions between parts. We present results for a wide variety of assemblies. © 2010 ACM.

  3. Illustrating how mechanical assemblies work

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.; Yang, Yongliang; Yan, Dongming; Li, Wilmot; Agrawala, Maneesh

    2013-01-01

    How-things-work visualizations use a variety of visual techniques to depict the operation of complex mechanical assemblies. We present an automated approach for generating such visualizations. Starting with a 3D CAD model of an assembly, we first infer the motions of the individual parts and the interactions across the parts based on their geometry and a few user-specified constraints. We then use this information to generate visualizations that incorporate motion arrows, frame sequences, and animation to convey the causal chain of motions and mechanical interactions across parts. We demonstrate our system on a wide variety of assemblies. © 2013 ACM 0001-0782/13/01.

  4. Illustrating how mechanical assemblies work

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.

    2010-07-26

    How things work visualizations use a variety of visual techniques to depict the operation of complex mechanical assemblies. We present an automated approach for generating such visualizations. Starting with a 3D CAD model of an assembly, we first infer the motions of individual parts and the interactions between parts based on their geometry and a few user specified constraints. We then use this information to generate visualizations that incorporate motion arrows, frame sequences and animation to convey the causal chain of motions and mechanical interactions between parts. We present results for a wide variety of assemblies. © 2010 ACM.

  5. EPRI 25kW high concentration photovoltaic integrated array concept and associated economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.A.; Dostalek, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a cost effective photovoltaic array design for the high concentration technology being developed by the Electric Power Research Institute for utility scale applications. The concept of an ''integrated array'' is to attach Fresnel lens parquets directly to the front of the tracker structure and PV panels directly to the back of the structure thereby eliminating redundant structural components. The concept also incorporates the maximum use of automated manufacturing techniques for all components thereby minimizing material waste, fabrication and assembly labor. This paper also describes the results of a first approach cost and economic study for the technology which shows the potential for levelized energy cost below $0.10/kWh for a 50 MW ac plant given a mature technology

  6. Large-area fabrication of patterned ZnO-nanowire arrays using light stamping lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae K; Cho, Sangho; Seo, Eun K; Myoung, Jae M; Sung, Myung M

    2009-12-01

    We demonstrate selective adsorption and alignment of ZnO nanowires on patterned poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) thin layers with (aminopropyl)siloxane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Light stamping lithography (LSL) was used to prepare patterned PDMS thin layers as neutral passivation regions on Si substrates. (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-based SAMs were selectively formed only on regions exposing the silanol groups of the Si substrates. The patterned positively charged amino groups define and direct the selective adsorption of ZnO nanowires with negative surface charges in the protic solvent. This procedure can be adopted in automated printing machines that generate patterned ZnO-nanowire arrays on large-area substrates. To demonstrate its usefulness, the LSL method was applied to prepare ZnO-nanowire transistor arrays on 4-in. Si wafers.

  7. A 4 probe array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, C E [CEGB, Marchwood Engineering Laboratories, Marchwood, Southampton, Hampshire (United Kingdom)

    1980-11-01

    A NDT system is described which moves away from the present manual method using a single send/receive transducer combination and uses instead an array of four transducers. Four transducers are shown sufficient to define a point reflector with a resolution of m{lambda}z/R where m{lambda} is the minimum detectable path difference in the system (corresponding to a m cycle time resolution), z the range and R the radius of the array. Signal averaging with an input ADC rate of 100 MHz is used with voice output for the range data. Typical resolution measurements in a water tank are presented. We expect a resolution of the order of mm in steel at a range of 80 mm. The system is expected to have applications in automated, high resolution, sizing of defects and in the inspection of austenitic stainless steel welds. (author)

  8. Modelling reversible execution of robotic assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Johan Sund; Ellekilde, Lars Peter; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2018-01-01

    Programming robotic assembly for industrial small-batch production is challenging; hence, it is vital to increase robustness and reduce development effort in order to achieve flexible robotic automation. A human who has made an assembly error will often simply undo the process until the error is ...

  9. Photonic hybrid assembly through flexible waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wörhoff, K.; Prak, A.; Postma, F.; Leinse, A.; Wu, K.; Peters, T. J.; Tichem, M.; Amaning-Appiah, B.; Renukappa, V.; Vollrath, G.; Balcells-Ventura, J.; Uhlig, P.; Seyfried, M.; Rose, D.; Santos, R.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Flintham, B.; Wale, M.; Robbins, D.

    2016-01-01

    Fully automated, high precision, cost-effective assembly technology for photonic packages remains one of the main challenges in photonic component manufacturing. Next to the cost aspect the most demanding assembly task for multiport photonic integrated circuits (PICs) is the high-precision (±0.1 μm)

  10. Photonic hybrid assembly through flexible waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wörhoff, Kerstin; Prak, Albert; postma, F; Leinse, A; Wu, K.; Peters, T.J.; Tichem, M.; Amaning-Appiah, B.; Renukappa, V.; Vollrath, G.; Balcells-Ventura, J.; Uhlig, P.; Seyfried, M.; Rose, D.; Santos, Raquel; Leijtens, XJM; Flintham, B.; Wale, M.; Robbins, D.; Vivien, Laurent; Pavesi, Lorenzo; Pelli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Fully automated, high precision, cost-effective assembly technology for photonic packages remains one of the main challenges in photonic component manufacturing. Next to the cost aspect the most demanding assembly task for multiport photonic integrated circuits (PICs) is the high-precision (±0.1

  11. Automated refueling inventory control system at FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, C.R.

    1983-10-01

    The Refueling Inventory Control System (RICS) at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) keeps track of all assemblies that reside in the various refueling facilities. The automated RICS allows the user to obtain information regarding any assembly under its control by displaying the data on a screen. It also provides a simulation mode which allows assembly moves on a duplicated data base. This simulation is used to verify the refueling documentation before it is issued

  12. Ultra-Precise Assembly of Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.T.; Simon, R.; Polosky, M.; Christenson, T.

    1999-04-01

    This report summarizes a three year effort to develop an automated microassembly workcell for the assembly of LIGA (Lithography Galvonoforming Abforming) parts. Over the last several years, Sandia has developed processes for producing surface machined silicon and LIGA parts for use in weapons surety devices. Some of these parts have outside dimensions as small as 100 micron, and most all have submicron tolerances. Parts this small and precise are extremely difficult to assembly by hand. Therefore, in this project, we investigated the technologies required to develop a robotic workcell to assembly these parts. In particular, we concentrated on micro-grippers, visual servoing, micro-assembly planning, and parallel assembly. Three different micro-grippers were tested: a pneumatic probe, a thermally actuated polysilicon tweezer, and a LIGA fabricated tweezer. Visual servoing was used to accuracy position two parts relative to one another. Fourier optics methods were used to generate synthetic microscope images from CAD drawings. These synthetic images are used off-line to test image processing routines under varying magnifications and depths of field. They also provide reference image features which are used to visually servo the part to the desired position. We also investigated a new aspect of fine motion planning for the micro-domain. As parts approach 1-10 {micro}m or less in outside dimensions, interactive forces such as van der Waals and electrostatic forces become major factors which greatly change the assembly sequence and path plans. We developed the mathematics required to determine the goal regions for pick up, holding, and release of a micro-sphere being handled by a rectangular tool. Finally, we implemented and tested the ability to assemble an array of LIGA parts attached to two 3 inch diameter wafers. In this way, hundreds of parts can be assembled in parallel rather than assembling each part individually.

  13. Array capabilities and future arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, D.

    1993-01-01

    Early results from the new third-generation instruments GAMMASPHERE and EUROGAM are confirming the expectation that such arrays will have a revolutionary effect on the field of high-spin nuclear structure. When completed, GAMMASHPERE will have a resolving power am order of magnitude greater that of the best second-generation arrays. When combined with other instruments such as particle-detector arrays and fragment mass analysers, the capabilites of the arrays for the study of more exotic nuclei will be further enhanced. In order to better understand the limitations of these instruments, and to design improved future detector systems, it is important to have some intelligible and reliable calculation for the relative resolving power of different instrument designs. The derivation of such a figure of merit will be briefly presented, and the relative sensitivities of arrays currently proposed or under construction presented. The design of TRIGAM, a new third-generation array proposed for Chalk River, will also be discussed. It is instructive to consider how far arrays of Compton-suppressed Ge detectors could be taken. For example, it will be shown that an idealised open-quote perfectclose quotes third-generation array of 1000 detectors has a sensitivity an order of magnitude higher again than that of GAMMASPHERE. Less conventional options for new arrays will also be explored

  14. Robotically Assembled Aerospace Structures: Digital Material Assembly using a Gantry-Type Assembler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Greenfield; Copplestone, Grace; O'Connor, Molly; Hu, Steven; Nowak, Sebastian; Cheung, Kenneth; Jenett, Benjamin; Cellucci, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the development of automated assembly techniques for discrete lattice structures using a multi-axis gantry type CNC machine. These lattices are made of discrete components called "digital materials." We present the development of a specialized end effector that works in conjunction with the CNC machine to assemble these lattices. With this configuration we are able to place voxels at a rate of 1.5 per minute. The scalability of digital material structures due to the incremental modular assembly is one of its key traits and an important metric of interest. We investigate the build times of a 5x5 beam structure on the scale of 1 meter (325 parts), 10 meters (3,250 parts), and 30 meters (9,750 parts). Utilizing the current configuration with a single end effector, performing serial assembly with a globally fixed feed station at the edge of the build volume, the build time increases according to a scaling law of n4, where n is the build scale. Build times can be reduced significantly by integrating feed systems into the gantry itself, resulting in a scaling law of n3. A completely serial assembly process will encounter time limitations as build scale increases. Automated assembly for digital materials can assemble high performance structures from discrete parts, and techniques such as built in feed systems, parallelization, and optimization of the fastening process will yield much higher throughput.

  15. Workload analyse of assembling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghea, L. D.

    2015-11-01

    The workload is the most important indicator for managers responsible of industrial technological processes no matter if these are automated, mechanized or simply manual in each case, machines or workers will be in the focus of workload measurements. The paper deals with workload analyses made to a most part manual assembling technology for roller bearings assembling process, executed in a big company, with integrated bearings manufacturing processes. In this analyses the delay sample technique have been used to identify and divide all bearing assemblers activities, to get information about time parts from 480 minutes day work time that workers allow to each activity. The developed study shows some ways to increase the process productivity without supplementary investments and also indicated the process automation could be the solution to gain maximum productivity.

  16. Bacteriophage Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia A. Aksyuk

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages have been a model system to study assembly processes for over half a century. Formation of infectious phage particles involves specific protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, as well as large conformational changes of assembly precursors. The sequence and molecular mechanisms of phage assembly have been elucidated by a variety of methods. Differences and similarities of assembly processes in several different groups of bacteriophages are discussed in this review. The general principles of phage assembly are applicable to many macromolecular complexes.

  17. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent scattering of gaseous fission products released from fuel assemblies stored in an fbr type reactor. Constitution; A cap provided with means capable of storing gas is adapted to amount to the assembly handling head, for example, by way of threading in a storage rack of spent fuel assemblies consisting of a bottom plate, a top plate and an assembly support mechanism. By previously eliminating the gas inside of the assembly and the cap in the storage rack, gaseous fission products upon loading, if released from fuel rods during storage, are stored in the cap and do not scatter in the storage rack. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies and...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/assembly/methods.html....

  19. Engineering customized TALE nucleases (TALENs) and TALE transcription factors by fast ligation-based automatable solid-phase high-throughput (FLASH) assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyon, Deepak; Maeder, Morgan L; Khayter, Cyd; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Foley, Jonathan E; Sander, Jeffry D; Joung, J Keith

    2013-07-01

    Customized DNA-binding domains made using transcription activator-like effector (TALE) repeats are rapidly growing in importance as widely applicable research tools. TALE nucleases (TALENs), composed of an engineered array of TALE repeats fused to the FokI nuclease domain, have been used successfully for directed genome editing in various organisms and cell types. TALE transcription factors (TALE-TFs), consisting of engineered TALE repeat arrays linked to a transcriptional regulatory domain, have been used to up- or downregulate expression of endogenous genes in human cells and plants. This unit describes a detailed protocol for the recently described fast ligation-based automatable solid-phase high-throughput (FLASH) assembly method. FLASH enables automated high-throughput construction of engineered TALE repeats using an automated liquid handling robot or manually using a multichannel pipet. Using the automated approach, a single researcher can construct up to 96 DNA fragments encoding TALE repeat arrays of various lengths in a single day, and then clone these to construct sequence-verified TALEN or TALE-TF expression plasmids in a week or less. Plasmids required for FLASH are available by request from the Joung lab (http://eGenome.org). This unit also describes improvements to the Zinc Finger and TALE Targeter (ZiFiT Targeter) web server (http://ZiFiT.partners.org) that facilitate the design and construction of FLASH TALE repeat arrays in high throughput. © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Danger! Automation at Work; Report of the State of Illinois Commission on Automation and Technological Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, William

    The 74th Illinois General Assembly created the Illinois Commission on Automation and Technological Progress to study and analyze the economic and social effects of automation and other technological changes on industry, commerce, agriculture, education, manpower, and society in Illinois. Commission members visited industrial plants and business…

  1. Process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs

  2. SNP Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Louhelainen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The papers published in this Special Issue “SNP arrays” (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Arrays focus on several perspectives associated with arrays of this type. The range of papers vary from a case report to reviews, thereby targeting wider audiences working in this field. The research focus of SNP arrays is often human cancers but this Issue expands that focus to include areas such as rare conditions, animal breeding and bioinformatics tools. Given the limited scope, the spectrum of papers is nothing short of remarkable and even from a technical point of view these papers will contribute to the field at a general level. Three of the papers published in this Special Issue focus on the use of various SNP array approaches in the analysis of three different cancer types. Two of the papers concentrate on two very different rare conditions, applying the SNP arrays slightly differently. Finally, two other papers evaluate the use of the SNP arrays in the context of genetic analysis of livestock. The findings reported in these papers help to close gaps in the current literature and also to give guidelines for future applications of SNP arrays.

  3. Optical Epitaxial Growth of Gold Nanoparticle Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ningfeng; Martínez, Luis Javier; Jaquay, Eric; Nakano, Aiichiro; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2015-09-09

    We use an optical analogue of epitaxial growth to assemble gold nanoparticles into 2D arrays. Particles are attracted to a growth template via optical forces and interact through optical binding. Competition between effects determines the final particle arrangements. We use a Monte Carlo model to design a template that favors growth of hexagonal particle arrays. We experimentally demonstrate growth of a highly stable array of 50 gold particles with 200 nm diameter, spaced by 1.1 μm.

  4. electrode array

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    A geoelectric investigation employing vertical electrical soundings (VES) using the Ajayi - Makinde Two-Electrode array and the ... arrangements used in electrical D.C. resistivity survey. These include ..... Refraction Tomography to Study the.

  5. Distribution automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenemeyer, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a Distribution Automation (DA) System enhances the efficiency and productivity of a utility. It also provides intangible benefits such as improved public image and market advantages. A utility should evaluate the benefits and costs of such a system before committing funds. The expenditure for distribution automation is economical when justified by the deferral of a capacity increase, a decrease in peak power demand, or a reduction in O and M requirements

  6. Cell manipulation tool with combined microwell array and optical tweezers for cell isolation and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Gou, Xue; Chen, Shuxun; Yan, Xiao; Sun, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Isolation from rare cells and deposition of sorted cells with high accuracy for further study are critical to a wide range of biomedical applications. In the current paper, we report an automated cell manipulation tool with combined optical tweezers and a uniquely designed microwell array, which functions for recognition, isolation, assembly, transportation and deposition of the interesting cells. The microwell array allows the passive hydrodynamic docking of cells, while offering the opportunity to inspect the interesting cell phenotypes with high spatio-temporal resolution based on the flexible image processing technique. In addition, dynamic and parallel cell manipulation in three dimensions can realize the target cell levitation from microwell and pattern assembly with multiple optical traps. Integrated with the programmed motorized stage, the optically levitated and assembled cells can be transported and deposited to the predefined microenvironment, so the tool can facilitate the integration of other on-chip functionalities for further study without removing these isolated cells from the chip. Experiments on human embryonic stem cells and yeast cells are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed cell manipulation tool. Besides the application to cell isolation and deposition, three other biological applications with this tool are also presented. (paper)

  7. Virtual automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casis, E; Garrido, A; Uranga, B; Vives, A; Zufiaurre, C

    2001-01-01

    Total laboratory automation (TLA) can be substituted in mid-size laboratories by a computer sample workflow control (virtual automation). Such a solution has been implemented in our laboratory using PSM, software developed in cooperation with Roche Diagnostics (Barcelona, Spain), to this purpose. This software is connected to the online analyzers and to the laboratory information system and is able to control and direct the samples working as an intermediate station. The only difference with TLA is the replacement of transport belts by personnel of the laboratory. The implementation of this virtual automation system has allowed us the achievement of the main advantages of TLA: workload increase (64%) with reduction in the cost per test (43%), significant reduction in the number of biochemistry primary tubes (from 8 to 2), less aliquoting (from 600 to 100 samples/day), automation of functional testing, drastic reduction of preanalytical errors (from 11.7 to 0.4% of the tubes) and better total response time for both inpatients (from up to 48 hours to up to 4 hours) and outpatients (from up to 10 days to up to 48 hours). As an additional advantage, virtual automation could be implemented without hardware investment and significant headcount reduction (15% in our lab).

  8. Filter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  9. Layer-by-layer cell membrane assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosevic, Sandro; Paegel, Brian M.

    2013-11-01

    Eukaryotic subcellular membrane systems, such as the nuclear envelope or endoplasmic reticulum, present a rich array of architecturally and compositionally complex supramolecular targets that are as yet inaccessible. Here we describe layer-by-layer phospholipid membrane assembly on microfluidic droplets, a route to structures with defined compositional asymmetry and lamellarity. Starting with phospholipid-stabilized water-in-oil droplets trapped in a static droplet array, lipid monolayer deposition proceeds as oil/water-phase boundaries pass over the droplets. Unilamellar vesicles assembled layer-by-layer support functional insertion both of purified and of in situ expressed membrane proteins. Synthesis and chemical probing of asymmetric unilamellar and double-bilayer vesicles demonstrate the programmability of both membrane lamellarity and lipid-leaflet composition during assembly. The immobilized vesicle arrays are a pragmatic experimental platform for biophysical studies of membranes and their associated proteins, particularly complexes that assemble and function in multilamellar contexts in vivo.

  10. Microfluidic device for the assembly and transport of microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Conrad D [Albuquerque, NM; Kumar, Anil [Framingham, MA; Khusid, Boris [New Providence, NJ; Acrivos, Andreas [Stanford, CA

    2010-06-29

    A microfluidic device comprising independently addressable arrays of interdigitated electrodes can be used to assembly and transport large-scale microparticle structures. The device and method uses collective phenomena in a negatively polarized suspension exposed to a high-gradient strong ac electric field to assemble the particles into predetermined locations and then transport them collectively to a work area for final assembly by sequentially energizing the electrode arrays.

  11. Four-port gas separation membrane module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Nicholas P.; Fulton, Donald A.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Kaschemekat, Jurgen

    2010-07-20

    A gas-separation membrane assembly, and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly incorporates multiple gas-separation membranes in an array within a single vessel or housing, and is equipped with two permeate ports, enabling permeate gas to be withdrawn from both ends of the membrane module permeate pipes.

  12. Library Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Ole

    1990-01-01

    The challenges and potential benefits of automating university libraries are reviewed, with special attention given to cooperative systems. Aspects discussed include database size, the role of the university computer center, storage modes, multi-institutional systems, resource sharing, cooperative system management, networking, and intelligent…

  13. Self-optimizing approach for automated laser resonator alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, C.; Schmitt, R.; Loosen, P.; Guerrero, V.; Pyschny, N.; Pavim, A.; Gatej, A.

    2012-02-01

    Nowadays, the assembly of laser systems is dominated by manual operations, involving elaborate alignment by means of adjustable mountings. From a competition perspective, the most challenging problem in laser source manufacturing is price pressure, a result of cost competition exerted mainly from Asia. From an economical point of view, an automated assembly of laser systems defines a better approach to produce more reliable units at lower cost. However, the step from today's manual solutions towards an automated assembly requires parallel developments regarding product design, automation equipment and assembly processes. This paper introduces briefly the idea of self-optimizing technical systems as a new approach towards highly flexible automation. Technically, the work focuses on the precision assembly of laser resonators, which is one of the final and most crucial assembly steps in terms of beam quality and laser power. The paper presents a new design approach for miniaturized laser systems and new automation concepts for a robot-based precision assembly, as well as passive and active alignment methods, which are based on a self-optimizing approach. Very promising results have already been achieved, considerably reducing the duration and complexity of the laser resonator assembly. These results as well as future development perspectives are discussed.

  14. Using RNA-Seq to assemble a rose transcriptome with more than 13,000 full-length expressed genes and to develop the WagRhSNP 68k Axiom SNP array for rose (Rosa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, C.F.S.; Esselink, G.; Vukosavljev, M.; Westende, van 't W.P.C.; Gitonga, V.W.; Krens, F.A.; Voorrips, R.E.; Weg, van de W.E.; Schulz, D.; Debener, T.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Arens, P.F.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop a versatile and large SNP array for rose, we set out to mine ESTs from diverse sets of rose germplasm. For this RNA-Seq libraries containing about 700 million reads were generated from tetraploid cut and garden roses using Illumina paired-end sequencing, and from diploid Rosa

  15. Automation of Electrical Cable Harnesses Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuming Bi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional automated systems, such as industrial robots, are applied in well-structured environments, and many automated systems have a limited adaptability to deal with complexity and uncertainty; therefore, the applications of industrial robots in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are very limited. The majority of manual operations in SMEs are too complicated for automation. The rapidly developed information technologies (IT has brought new opportunities for the automation of manufacturing and assembly processes in the ill-structured environments. Note that an automation solution should be designed to meet the given requirements of the specified application, and it differs from one application to another. In this paper, we look into the feasibility of automated testing for electric cable harnesses, and our focus is on some of the generic strategies for the improvement of the adaptability of automation solutions. Especially, the concept of modularization is adopted in developing hardware and software to maximize system adaptability in testing a wide scope of products. A proposed system has been implemented, and the system performances have been evaluated by executing tests on actual products. The testing experiments have shown that the automated system outperformed manual operations greatly in terms of cost-saving, productivity and reliability. Due to the potential of increasing system adaptability and cost reduction, the presented work has its theoretical and practical significance for an extension for other automation solutions in SMEs.

  16. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The configuration of a tomographic array in which the object can rotate about its axis is described. The X-ray detector is a cylindrical screen perpendicular to the axis of rotation. The X-ray source has a line-shaped focus coinciding with the axis of rotation. The beam is fan-shaped with one side of this fan lying along the axis of rotation. The detector screen is placed inside an X-ray image multiplier tube

  17. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A tomographic array with the following characteristics is described. An X-ray screen serving as detector is placed before a photomultiplier tube which itself is placed in front of a television camera connected to a set of image processors. The detector is concave towards the source and is replacable. Different images of the object are obtained simultaneously. Optical fibers and lenses are used for transmission within the system

  18. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hideaki; Sakai, Takao; Ishida, Tomio; Yokota, Norikatsu.

    1992-01-01

    The lower ends of a plurality of plate-like shape memory alloys are secured at the periphery of the upper inside of the handling head of a fuel assembly. As the shape memory alloy, a Cu-Zn alloy, a Ti-Pd alloy or a Fe-Ni alloy is used. When high temperature coolants flow out to the handling head, the shape memory alloy deforms by warping to the outer side more greatly toward the upper portion thereof with the temperature increase of the coolants. As the result, the shape of the flow channel of the coolants is changed so as to enlarge at the exit of the upper end of the fuel assembly. Then, the pressure loss of the coolants in the fuel assembly is decreased by the enlargement. Accordingly, the flow rate of the coolants in the fuel assembly is increased to lower the temperature of the coolants. Further, high temperature coolants and low temperature coolants are mixed sufficiently just above the fuel assembly. This can suppress the temperature fluctuation of the mixed coolants in the upper portion of the reactor core, thereby enabling to decrease a fatigue and failures of the structural components in the upper portion of the reactor core. (I.N.)

  19. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Matsuzuka, Ryuji.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a fuel assembly which can decrease pressure loss of coolant to uniform temperature. Structure: A sectional area of a flow passage in the vicinity of an inner peripheral surface of a wrapper tube is limited over the entire length to prevent the temperature of a fuel element in the outermost peripheral portion from being excessively decreased to thereby flatten temperature distribution. To this end, a plurality of pincture-frame-like sheet metals constituting a spacer for supporting a fuel assembly, which has a plurality of fuel elements planted lengthwise and in given spaced relation within the wrapper tube, is disposed in longitudinal grooves and in stacked fashion to form a substantially honeycomb-like space in cross section. The fuel elements are inserted and supported in the space to form a fuel assembly. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Mamoru; Yoshioka, Ritsuo

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively utilize nuclear fuels by increasing the reactivity of a fuel assembly and reduce the concentration at the central region thereof upon completion of the burning. Constitution: A fuel assembly is bisected into a central region and a peripheral region by disposing an inner channel box within a channel box. The flow rate of coolants passing through the central region is made greater than that in the peripheral region. The concentration of uranium 235 of the fuel rods in the central region is made higher. In such a structure, since the moderating effect in the central region is improved, the reactivity of the fuel assembly is increased and the uranium concentration in the central region upon completion of the burning can be reduced, fuel economy and effective utilization of uranium can be attained. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Human-automation collaboration in manufacturing: identifying key implementation factors

    OpenAIRE

    Charalambous, George; Fletcher, Sarah; Webb, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Human-automation collaboration refers to the concept of human operators and intelligent automation working together interactively within the same workspace without conventional physical separation. This concept has commanded significant attention in manufacturing because of the potential applications, such as the installation of large sub-assemblies. However, the key human factors relevant to human-automation collaboration have not yet been fully investigated. To maximise effective implement...

  2. Processes for design, construction and utilisation of arrays of light-emitting diodes and light-emitting diode-coupled optical fibres for multi-site brain light delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jacob G; Allen, Brian D; Guerra, Alexander A; Boyden, Edward S

    2015-05-01

    Optogenetics enables light to be used to control the activity of genetically targeted cells in the living brain. Optical fibers can be used to deliver light to deep targets, and LEDs can be spatially arranged to enable patterned light delivery. In combination, arrays of LED-coupled optical fibers can enable patterned light delivery to deep targets in the brain. Here we describe the process flow for making LED arrays and LED-coupled optical fiber arrays, explaining key optical, electrical, thermal, and mechanical design principles to enable the manufacturing, assembly, and testing of such multi-site targetable optical devices. We also explore accessory strategies such as surgical automation approaches as well as innovations to enable low-noise concurrent electrophysiology.

  3. AUTOMATED GEOSPATIAL WATERSHED ASSESSMENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona, and the University of Wyoming to automate the parameterization and execution of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and KINEmatic Runoff and EROSion (KINEROS2) hydrologic models. The application of these two models allows AGWA to conduct hydrologic modeling and watershed assessments at multiple temporal and spatial scales. AGWA’s current outputs are runoff (volumes and peaks) and sediment yield, plus nitrogen and phosphorus with the SWAT model. AGWA uses commonly available GIS data layers to fully parameterize, execute, and visualize results from both models. Through an intuitive interface the user selects an outlet from which AGWA delineates and discretizes the watershed using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) based on the individual model requirements. The watershed model elements are then intersected with soils and land cover data layers to derive the requisite model input parameters. The chosen model is then executed, and the results are imported back into AGWA for visualization. This allows managers to identify potential problem areas where additional monitoring can be undertaken or mitigation activities can be focused. AGWA also has tools to apply an array of best management practices. There are currently two versions of AGWA available; AGWA 1.5 for

  4. Conducting Automated Test Assembly Using the Premium Solver Platform Version 7.0 with Microsoft Excel and the Large-Scale LP/QP Solver Engine Add-In

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cor, Ken; Alves, Cecilia; Gierl, Mark J.

    2008-01-01

    This review describes and evaluates a software add-in created by Frontline Systems, Inc., that can be used with Microsoft Excel 2007 to solve large, complex test assembly problems. The combination of Microsoft Excel 2007 with the Frontline Systems Premium Solver Platform is significant because Microsoft Excel is the most commonly used spreadsheet…

  5. Valve assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandling, M.

    1981-01-01

    An improved valve assembly, used for controlling the flow of radioactive slurry, is described. Radioactive contamination of the air during removal or replacement of the valve is prevented by sucking air from the atmosphere through a portion of the structure above the valve housing. (U.K.)

  6. Conformable eddy current array delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summan, Rahul; Pierce, Gareth; Macleod, Charles; Mineo, Carmelo; Riise, Jonathan; Morozov, Maxim; Dobie, Gordon; Bolton, Gary; Raude, Angélique; Dalpé, Colombe; Braumann, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    The external surface of stainless steel containers used for the interim storage of nuclear material may be subject to Atmospherically Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking (AISCC). The inspection of such containers poses a significant challenge due to the large quantities involved; therefore, automating the inspection process is of considerable interest. This paper reports upon a proof-of-concept project concerning the automated NDT of a set of test containers containing artificially generated AISCCs. An Eddy current array probe with a conformable padded surface from Eddyfi was used as the NDT sensor and end effector on a KUKA KR5 arc HW robot. A kinematically valid cylindrical raster scan path was designed using the KUKA|PRC path planning software. Custom software was then written to interface measurement acquisition from the Eddyfi hardware with the motion control of the robot. Preliminary results and analysis are presented from scanning two canisters.

  7. Plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, L.J.; Sackett, J.I.; Dayal, Y.; Wagner, W.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes work at EBR-II in the development and demonstration of new control equipment and methods and associated schemes for plant prognosis, diagnosis, and automation. The development work has attracted the interest of other national laboratories, universities, and commercial companies. New initiatives include use of new control strategies, expert systems, advanced diagnostics, and operator displays. The unique opportunity offered by EBR-II is as a test bed where a total integrated approach to automatic reactor control can be directly tested under real power plant conditions

  8. Grid structure for nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, W.J.; Akey, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    Described is a nuclear fuel element support system comprising an egg-crate-type grid made up of slotted vertical portions interconnected at right angles to each other, the vertical portions being interconnected by means of cross straps which are dimpled midway between their ends to engage fuel elements disposed within openings formed in the egg-crate assembly. The cross straps are disposed at an angle, other than a right angle, to the vertical portions of the assembly whereby their lengths are increased for a given span, and the total elastic deflection capability of the cell is increased. The assembly is particularly adapted for computer design and automated machine tool fabrication

  9. Prototype implementation of segment assembling software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Đorđe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available IT education is very important and a lot of effort is put into the development of tools for helping students to acquire programming knowledge and for helping teachers in automating the examination process. This paper describes a prototype of the program segment assembling software used in the context of making tests in the field of algorithmic complexity. The proposed new program segment assembling model uses rules and templates. A template is a simple program segment. A rule defines combining method and data dependencies if they exist. One example of program segment assembling by the proposed system is given. Graphical user interface is also described.

  10. Design for an IO block array in a tile-based FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Guangxin; Chen Lingdou; Liu Zhongli

    2009-01-01

    A design for an IO block array in a tile-based FPGA is presented. Corresponding with the characteristics of the FPGA, each IO cell is composed of a signal path, local routing pool and configurable input/output buffers. Shared programmable registers in the signal path can be configured for the function of JTAG, without specific boundary scan registers/latches, saving layout area. The local routing pool increases the flexibility of routing and the routability of the whole FPGA. An auxiliary power supply is adopted to increase the performance of the IO buffers at different configured IO standards. The organization of the IO block array is described in an architecture description file, from which the array layout can be accomplished through use of an automated layout assembly tool. This design strategy facilitates the design of FPGAs with different capacities or architectures in an FPGA family series. The bond-out schemes of the same FPGA chip in different packages are also considered. The layout is based on SMIC 0.13 μm logic 1P8M salicide 1.2/2.5 V CMOS technology. Our performance is comparable with commercial SRAM-based FPGAs which use a similar process. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. Assembly Modulated by Particle Position and Shape: A New Concept in Self-Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavacoli, Joe W; Heuvingh, Julien; Du Roure, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    In this communication we outline how the bespoke arrangements and design of micron-sized superparamagnetic shapes provide levers to modulate their assembly under homogeneous magnetic fields. We label this new approach, 'assembly modulated by particle position and shape' (APPS). Specifically, using...... rectangular lattices of superparamagnetic micron-sized cuboids, we construct distinct microstructures by adjusting lattice pitch and angle of array with respect to a magnetic field. Broadly, we find two modes of assembly: (1) immediate 2D jamming of the cuboids as they rotate to align with the applied field...... (rotation-induced jamming) and (2) aggregation via translation after their full alignment (dipole-dipole assembly). The boundary between these two assembly pathways is independent on field strength being solely a function of the cuboid's dimensions, lattice pitch, and array angle with respect to field...

  12. WIDAFELS flexible automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shende, P.S.; Chander, K.P.; Ramadas, P.

    1990-01-01

    After discussing the various aspects of automation, some typical examples of various levels of automation are given. One of the examples is of automated production line for ceramic fuel pellets. (M.G.B.)

  13. An Automation Planning Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Marion

    1988-01-01

    This brief planning guide for library automation incorporates needs assessment and evaluation of options to meet those needs. A bibliography of materials on automation planning and software reviews, library software directories, and library automation journals is included. (CLB)

  14. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Tokunobu.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel assembly used in a FBR type nuclear reactor comprises a plurality of fuel rods and a moderator guide member (water rod). A moderator exit opening/closing mechanism is formed at the upper portion of the moderator guide member for opening and closing a moderator exit. In the initial fuel charging operation cycle to the reactor, the moderator exit is closed by the moderator exit opening/closing mechanism. Then, voids are accumulated at the inner upper portion of the moderator guide member to harden spectrum and a great amount of plutonium is generated and accumulated in the fuel assembly. Further, in the fuel re-charging operation cycle, the moderator guide member is used having the moderator exit opened. In this case, voids are discharged from the moderator guide member to decrease the ratio, and the plutonium accumulated in the initial charging operation cycle is burnt. In this way, the fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  15. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echigoya, Hironori; Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To render the axial distribution relatively flat. Constitution: First nuclear element comprises a fuel can made of zircalloy i.e., the metal with less neutron absorption, which is filled with a plurality of UO 2 pellets and sealed by using a lower end plug, a plenum spring and an upper end plug by means of welding. Second fuel element is formed by substituting a part of the UO 2 pellets with a water tube which is sealed with water and has a space for allowing the heat expansion. The nuclear fuel assembly is constituted by using the first and second fuel elements together. In such a structure, since water reflects neutrons and decrease their leakage to increase the temperature, reactivity is added at the upper portion of the fuel assembly to thereby flatten the axial power distribution. Accordingly, stable operation is possible only by means of deep control rods while requiring no shallow control rods. (Sekiya, K.)

  16. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Mitsuo.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the corrosion rate and suppress the increase of radioactive corrosion products in reactor water of nuclear fuel assemblies for use in BWR type reactors having spacer springs made of nickel based deposition reinforced type alloys. Constitution: Spacer rings made of nickel based deposition reinforced type alloy are incorporated and used as fuel assemblies after applying treatment of dipping and maintaining at high temperature water followed by heating in steams. Since this can remove the nickel leaching into reactor water at the initial stage, Co-58 as the radioactive corrosion products in the reactor water can be reduced, and the operation at in-service inspection or repairement can be facilitated to improve the working efficiency of the nuclear power plant. The dipping time is desirably more than 10 hours and more desirably more than 30 hours. (Horiuchi, T. )

  17. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoichi; Hirano, Yasushi.

    1998-01-01

    A one-half or more of entire fuel rods in a fuel assembly comprises MOX fuel rods containing less than 1wt% of burnable poisons, and at least a portion of the burnable poisons comprises gadolinium. Then, surplus reactivity at an initial stage of operation cycle is controlled to eliminate burnable poisons remained unburnt at a final stage, as well as increase thermal reactivity. In addition, the content of fission plutonium is determined to greater than the content of uranium 235, and fuel rods at corner portions are made not to incorporate burnable poisons. Fuel rods not containing burnable poisons are disposed at positions in adjacent with fuel rods facing to a water rod at one or two directions. Local power at radial center of the fuel assembly is increased to flatten the distortion of radial power distribution. (N.H.)

  18. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  19. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Sei; Ando, Ryohei; Mitsutake, Toru.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly suitable to a BWR-type reactor and improved especially with the nuclear characteristic, heat performance, hydraulic performance, dismantling or assembling performance and economical property. A part of poison rods are formed as a large-diameter/multi-region poison rods having a larger diameter than a fuel rod. A large number of fuel rods are disposed surrounding a large diameter water rod and a group of the large-diameter/multi-region poison rods in adjacent with the water rod. The large-diameter water rod has a burnable poison at the tube wall portion. At least a portion of the large-diameter poison rods has a coolant circulation portion allowing coolants to circulate therethrough. Since the large-diameter poison rods are disposed at a position of high neutron fluxes, a large neutron multiplication factor suppression effect can be provided, thereby enabling to reduce the number of burnable poison rods relative to fuels. As a result, power peaking in the fuel assembly is moderated and a greater amount of plutonium can be loaded. In addition the flow of cooling water which tends to gather around the large diameter water rod can be controlled to improve cooling performance of fuels. (N.H.)

  20. Fabrication of plasmonic cavity arrays for SERS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Feng, Lei; Teng, Fei; Lu, Nan

    2017-05-01

    The plasmonic cavity arrays are ideal substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering analysis because they can provide hot spots with large volume for analyte molecules. The large area increases the probability to make more analyte molecules on hot spots and leads to a high reproducibility. Therefore, to develop a simple method for creating cavity arrays is important. Herein, we demonstrate how to fabricate a V and W shape cavity arrays by a simple method based on self-assembly. Briefly, the V and W shape cavity arrays are respectively fabricated by taking KOH etching on a nanohole and a nanoring array patterned silicon (Si) slides. The nanohole array is generated by taking a reactive ion etching on a Si slide assembled with monolayer of polystyrene (PS) spheres. The nanoring array is generated by taking a reactive ion etching on a Si slide covered with a monolayer of octadecyltrichlorosilane before self-assembling PS spheres. Both plasmonic V and W cavity arrays can provide large hot area, which increases the probability for analyte molecules to deposit on the hot spots. Taking 4-Mercaptopyridine as analyte probe, the enhancement factor can reach 2.99 × 105 and 9.97 × 105 for plasmonic V cavity and W cavity array, respectively. The relative standard deviations of the plasmonic V and W cavity arrays are 6.5% and 10.2% respectively according to the spectra collected on 20 random spots.

  1. Automation and integration of multiplexed on-line sample preparation with capillary electrophoresis for DNA sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, H.

    1999-03-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a multiplexed sample processing system in conjunction with multiplexed capillary electrophoresis for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The concept from DNA template to called bases was first demonstrated with a manually operated single capillary system. Later, an automated microfluidic system with 8 channels based on the same principle was successfully constructed. The instrument automatically processes 8 templates through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in a parallel fashion. A multiplexed freeze/thaw switching principle and a distribution network were implemented to manage flow direction and sample transportation. Dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reactions are performed in an 8-capillary array in a hot air thermal cycler. Subsequently, the sequencing ladders are directly loaded into a corresponding size-exclusion chromatographic column operated at {approximately} 60 C for purification. On-line denaturation and stacking injection for capillary electrophoresis is simultaneously accomplished at a cross assembly set at {approximately} 70 C. Not only the separation capillary array but also the reaction capillary array and purification columns can be regenerated after every run. DNA sequencing data from this system allow base calling up to 460 bases with accuracy of 98%.

  2. Automated Budget System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  3. Case Study in Biomimetic Design: Handling and Assembly of Microparts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, Li; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gegeckaite, Asta

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the biomimetic design process to the development of automated gripping devices for microparts. Handling and assembly of micromechanical parts is complicated by size effects that occur when part dimensions are scaled down. A common complication involves stic...... and the abscission process in plants inspired concepts of new automated handling devices for microobjects. The design, development and testing of a gripping device based on biological principles for the automated handling and assembly of a microscrew is presented.......This paper describes the application of the biomimetic design process to the development of automated gripping devices for microparts. Handling and assembly of micromechanical parts is complicated by size effects that occur when part dimensions are scaled down. A common complication involves...

  4. Subcritical nuclear assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H. R.

    2014-08-01

    A Subcritical Nuclear Assembly is a device where the nuclear-fission chain reaction is initiated and maintained using an external neutron source. It is a valuable educational and research tool where in a safe way many reactor parameters can be measured. Here, we have used the Wigner-Seitz method in the six-factor formula to calculate the effective multiplication factor of a subcritical nuclear reactor Nuclear Chicago model 9000. This reactor has approximately 2500 kg of natural uranium heterogeneously distributed in slugs. The reactor uses a 239 PuBe neutron source that is located in the center of an hexagonal array. Using Monte Carlo methods, with the MCNP5 code, a three-dimensional model of the subcritical reactor was designed to estimate the effective multiplication factor, the neutron spectra, the total and thermal neutron fluences along the radial and axial axis. With the neutron spectra in two locations outside the reactor the ambient dose equivalent were estimated. (Author)

  5. Self-assembled DNA Structures for Nanoconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hao; Yin, Peng; Park, Sung Ha; Li, Hanying; Feng, Liping; Guan, Xiaoju; Liu, Dage; Reif, John H.; LaBean, Thomas H.

    2004-09-01

    In recent years, a number of research groups have begun developing nanofabrication methods based on DNA self-assembly. Here we review our recent experimental progress to utilize novel DNA nanostructures for self-assembly as well as for templates in the fabrication of functional nano-patterned materials. We have prototyped a new DNA nanostructure known as a cross structure. This nanostructure has a 4-fold symmetry which promotes its self-assembly into tetragonal 2D lattices. We have utilized the tetragonal 2D lattices as templates for highly conductive metallic nanowires and periodic 2D protein nano-arrays. We have constructed and characterized a DNA nanotube, a new self-assembling superstructure composed of DNA tiles. We have also demonstrated an aperiodic DNA lattice composed of DNA tiles assembled around a long scaffold strand; the system translates information encoded in the scaffold strand into a specific and reprogrammable barcode pattern. We have achieved metallic nanoparticle linear arrays templated on self-assembled 1D DNA arrays. We have designed and demonstrated a 2-state DNA lattice, which displays expand/contract motion switched by DNA nanoactuators. We have also achieved an autonomous DNA motor executing unidirectional motion along a linear DNA track.

  6. Automated nutrient analyses in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

    1981-02-01

    This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

  7. Automating occupational protection records systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, M.; Martin, J.B.

    1991-10-01

    Occupational protection records have traditionally been generated by field and laboratory personnel, assembled into files in the safety office, and eventually stored in a warehouse or other facility. Until recently, these records have been primarily paper copies, often handwritten. Sometimes, the paper is microfilmed for storage. However, electronic records are beginning to replace these traditional methods. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance for making the transition to automated record keeping and retrieval using modern computer equipment. This paper describes the types of records most readily converted to electronic record keeping and a methodology for implementing an automated record system. The process of conversion is based on a requirements analysis to assess program needs and a high level of user involvement during the development. The importance of indexing the hard copy records for easy retrieval is also discussed. The concept of linkage between related records and its importance relative to reporting, research, and litigation will be addressed. 2 figs

  8. Automated protein structure calculation from NMR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, Mike P.; Craven, C. Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Current software is almost at the stage to permit completely automatic structure determination of small proteins of <15 kDa, from NMR spectra to structure validation with minimal user interaction. This goal is welcome, as it makes structure calculation more objective and therefore more easily validated, without any loss in the quality of the structures generated. Moreover, it releases expert spectroscopists to carry out research that cannot be automated. It should not take much further effort to extend automation to ca 20 kDa. However, there are technological barriers to further automation, of which the biggest are identified as: routines for peak picking; adoption and sharing of a common framework for structure calculation, including the assembly of an automated and trusted package for structure validation; and sample preparation, particularly for larger proteins. These barriers should be the main target for development of methodology for protein structure determination, particularly by structural genomics consortia

  9. Automation 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Zieliński, Cezary; Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    This book consists of papers presented at Automation 2017, an international conference held in Warsaw from March 15 to 17, 2017. It discusses research findings associated with the concepts behind INDUSTRY 4.0, with a focus on offering a better understanding of and promoting participation in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Each chapter presents a detailed analysis of a specific technical problem, in most cases followed by a numerical analysis, simulation and description of the results of implementing the solution in a real-world context. The theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines presented are valuable for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and practitioners looking for solutions to industrial problems. .

  10. Marketing automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODOR Raluca Dania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the technical progress, the marketing fragmentation, demand for customized products and services on one side and the need to achieve constructive dialogue with the customers, immediate and flexible response and the necessity to measure the investments and the results on the other side, the classical marketing approached had changed continue to improve substantially.

  11. Modular high power diode lasers with flexible 3D multiplexing arrangement optimized for automated manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könning, Tobias; Bayer, Andreas; Plappert, Nora; Faßbender, Wilhelm; Dürsch, Sascha; Küster, Matthias; Hubrich, Ralf; Wolf, Paul; Köhler, Bernd; Biesenbach, Jens

    2018-02-01

    A novel 3-dimensional arrangement of mirrors is used to re-arrange beams from 1-D and 2-D high power diode laser arrays. The approach allows for a variety of stacking geometries, depending on individual requirements. While basic building blocks, including collimating optics, always remain the same, most adaptations can be realized by simple rearrangement of a few optical components. Due to fully automated alignment processes, the required changes can be realized in software by changing coordinates, rather than requiring customized mechanical components. This approach minimizes development costs due to its flexibility, while reducing overall product cost by using similar building blocks for a variety of products and utilizing a high grade of automation. The modules can be operated with industrial grade water, lowering overall system and maintenance cost. Stackable macro coolers are used as the smallest building block of the system. Each cooler can hold up to five diode laser bars. Micro optical components, collimating the beam, are mounted directly to the cooler. All optical assembly steps are fully automated. Initially, the beams from all laser bars propagate in the same direction. Key to the concept is an arrangement of deflectors, which re-arrange the beams into a 2-D array of the desired shape and high fill factor. Standard multiplexing techniques like polarization- or wavelengths-multiplexing have been implemented as well. A variety of fiber coupled modules ranging from a few hundred watts of optical output power to multiple kilowatts of power, as well as customized laser spot geometries like uniform line sources, have been realized.

  12. Flexible manufacturing for photonics device assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shin-Yee; Pocha, Michael D.; Strand, Oliver T.; Young, K. David

    1994-01-01

    The assembly of photonics devices such as laser diodes, optical modulators, and opto-electronics multi-chip modules (OEMCM), usually requires the placement of micron size devices such as laser diodes, and sub-micron precision attachment between optical fibers and diodes or waveguide modulators (usually referred to as pigtailing). This is a very labor intensive process. Studies done by the opto-electronics (OE) industry have shown that 95 percent of the cost of a pigtailed photonic device is due to the use of manual alignment and bonding techniques, which is the current practice in industry. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we are working to reduce the cost of packaging OE devices through the use of automation. Our efforts are concentrated on several areas that are directly related to an automated process. This paper will focus on our progress in two of those areas, in particular, an automated fiber pigtailing machine and silicon micro-technology compatible with an automated process.

  13. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1970-01-01

    Herein disclosed is a fuel assembly in which a fuel rod bundle is easily detachable by rotating a fuel rod fastener rotatably mounted to the upper surface of an upper tie-plate supporting a fuel bundle therebelow. A locking portion at the leading end of each fuel rod protrudes through the upper tie-plate and is engaged with or separated from the tie-plate by the rotation of the fastener. The removal of a desired fuel rod can therefore be remotely accomplished without the necessity of handling pawls, locking washers and nuts. (Owens, K.J.)

  14. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  15. Linear Array Ultrasonic Transducers: Sensitivity and Resolution Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramb, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    The University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) under contract by the US Air Force has designed and integrated a fully automated inspection system for the inspection of turbine engines that incorporates linear phased array ultrasonic transducers. Phased array transducers have been successfully implemented into weld and turbine blade root inspections where the defect types are well known and characterized. Embedded defects in aerospace turbine engine components are less well defined, however. In order to determine the applicability of linear arrays to aerospace inspections the sensitivity of array transducers to embedded defects in engine materials must be characterized. In addition, the implementation of array transducers into legacy inspection procedures must take into account any differences in sensitivity between the array transducer and that of the single element transducer currently used. This paper discusses preliminary results in a study that compares the sensitivity of linear array and conventional single element transducers to synthetic hard alpha defects in a titanium alloy

  16. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Kunitoshi; Azekura, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    In a reactor core of a heavy water moderated light water cooled pressure tube type reactor, no sufficient effects have been obtained for the transfer width to a negative side of void reactivity change in a region of a great void coefficient. Then, a moderation region divided into upper and lower two regions is disposed at the central portion of a fuel assembly. Coolants flown into the lower region can be discharged to the cooling region from an opening disposed at the upper end portion of the lower region. Light water flows from the lower region of the moderator region to the cooling region of the reactor core upper portion, to lower the void coefficient. As a result, the reactivity performance at low void coefficient, i.e., a void reaction rate is transferred to the negative side. Thus, this flattens the power distribution in the fuel assembly, increases the thermal margin and enables rapid operaiton and control of the reactor core, as well as contributes to the increase of fuel burnup ratio and reduction of the fuel cycle cost. (N.H.)

  17. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao; Nishida, Koji; Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Kanazawa, Toru; Orii, Akihito; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Masuhara, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly, for a BWR type nuclear reactor, comprising fuel rods in 9 x 9 matrix. The inner width of the channel box is about 132mm and the length of the fuel rods which are not short fuel rods is about 4m. Two water rods having a circular cross section are arranged on a diagonal line in a portion of 3 x 3 matrix at the center of the fuel assembly, and two fuel rods are disposed at vacant spaces, and the number of fuel rods is 74. Eight fuel rods are determined as short fuel rods among 74 fuel rods. Assuming the fuel inventory in the short fuel rod as X(kg), and the fuel inventory in the fuel rods other than the short fuel rods as Y(kg), X and Y satisfy the relation: X + Y ≥ 173m, Y ≤ - 9.7X + 292, Y ≤ - 0.3X + 203 and X > 0. Then, even when the short fuel rods are used, the fuel inventory is increased and fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  18. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushimi, Atsushi; Shimada, Hidemitsu; Aoyama, Motoo; Nakajima, Junjiro

    1998-01-01

    In a fuel assembly for an n x n lattice-like BWR type reactor, n is determined to 9 or greater, and the enrichment degree of plutonium is determined to 4.4% by weight or less. Alternatively, n is determined to 10 or greater, and the enrichment degree of plutonium is determined to 5.2% by weight or less. An average take-out burnup degree is determined to 39GWd/t or less, and the matrix is determined to 9 x 9 or more, or the average take-out burnup degree is determined to 51GWd/t, and the matrix is determined to 10 x 10 or more and the increase of the margin of the maximum power density obtained thereby is utilized for the compensation of the increase of distortion of power distribution due to decrease of the kinds of plutonium enrichment degree, thereby enabling to reduce the kind of the enrichment degree of MOX fuel rods to one. As a result, the manufacturing step for fuel pellets can be simplified to reduce the manufacturing cost for MOX fuel assemblies. (N.H.)

  19. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : 1- Adoption de l’ordre du jour. 2- Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. 3- Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. 4- Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. 5- Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. 6- Programme 2015. 7- Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. 8- Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. 9- Élections des membres de la Commission é...

  20. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 avril 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2016. Programme de travail 2017. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2017 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2018. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposées. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. Élections des vérifica...

  1. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Mardi 5 avril à 11 h 00 BE Auditorium Meyrin (6-2-024) Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 mai 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2015. Programme de travail 2016. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2016 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2017. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commissio...

  2. General assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. Programme 2015. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. &am...

  3. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1993-01-01

    Among fuel pellets to be loaded to fuel cans of a fuel assembly, fuel pellets having a small thermal power are charged in a region from the end of each of spacers up to about 50mm on the upstream of coolants that flow vertically at the periphery of fuel rods. Coolants at the periphery of fuel rods are heated by the heat generation, to result in voids. However, since cooling effect on the upstream of the spacers is low due to influences of the spacers. Further, since the fuel pellets disposed in the upstream region have small thermal power, a void coefficient is not increased. Even if a thermal power exceeding cooling performance should be generated, there is no worry of causing burnout in the upstream region. Even if burnout should be caused, safety margin and reliability relative to burnout are improved, to increase an allowable thermal power, thereby enabling to improve integrity and reliability of fuel rods and fuel assemblies. (N.H.)

  4. Both Automation and Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Royal

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the concept of a paperless society and the current situation in library automation. Various applications of automation and telecommunications are addressed, and future library automation is considered. Automation at the Monroe County Public Library in Bloomington, Indiana, is described as an example. (MES)

  5. A Framework for Geometric Reasoning About Human Figures and Factors in Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calton, Terri L.

    1999-07-20

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be perfectly valid operations, but in reality some operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. For example, the use of a ratchet may be reasoned feasible for an assembly operation; however, when a hand is placed on the tool the operation is no longer feasible, perhaps because of inaccessibility, insufficient strength or human interference with assembly components. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications, however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem, HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning which allows engineers to quickly verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. This paper presents a framework for integrating geometry-based assembly planning algorithms with commercially available human figure modeling software packages. Experimental results to selected applications along with lessons learned are presented.

  6. Laser-Assisted Simultaneous Transfer and Patterning of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays on Polymer Substrates for Flexible Devices

    KAUST Repository

    In, Jung Bin; Lee, Daeho; Fornasiero, Francesco; Noy, Aleksandr; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a laser-assisted dry transfer technique for assembling patterns of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on a flexible polymeric substrate. A laser beam is applied to the interface of a nanotube array and a polycarbonate sheet

  7. Coupling in reflector arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1968-01-01

    In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present communic......In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present...

  8. A response to Yu et al. "A forward-backward fragment assembling algorithm for the identification of genomic amplification and deletion breakpoints using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array", BMC Bioinformatics 2007, 8: 145.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Oscar M; Diaz-Uriarte, Ramon

    2007-10-16

    Yu et al. (BMC Bioinformatics 2007,8: 145+) have recently compared the performance of several methods for the detection of genomic amplification and deletion breakpoints using data from high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. One of the methods compared is our non-homogenous Hidden Markov Model approach. Our approach uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo for inference, but Yu et al. ran the sampler for a severely insufficient number of iterations for a Markov Chain Monte Carlo-based method. Moreover, they did not use the appropriate reference level for the non-altered state. We rerun the analysis in Yu et al. using appropriate settings for both the Markov Chain Monte Carlo iterations and the reference level. Additionally, to show how easy it is to obtain answers to additional specific questions, we have added a new analysis targeted specifically to the detection of breakpoints. The reanalysis shows that the performance of our method is comparable to that of the other methods analyzed. In addition, we can provide probabilities of a given spot being a breakpoint, something unique among the methods examined. Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods require using a sufficient number of iterations before they can be assumed to yield samples from the distribution of interest. Running our method with too small a number of iterations cannot be representative of its performance. Moreover, our analysis shows how our original approach can be easily adapted to answer specific additional questions (e.g., identify edges).

  9. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Makoto; Ogiya, Shunsuke.

    1989-01-01

    For improving the economy of a BWR type reactor by making the operation cycle longer, the fuel enrichment degree has to be increased further. However, this makes the subcriticality shallower in the upper portion of the reactor core, to bring about a possibility that the reactor shutdown becomes impossible. In the present invention, a portion of fuel rod is constituted as partial length fuel rods (P-fuel rods) in which the entire stack length in the effective portion is made shorter by reducing the concentration of fissionable materials in the axial portion. A plurality of moderator rods are disposed at least on one diagonal line of a fuel assembly and P-fuel rods are arranged at a position put between the moderator rods. This makes it possible to reactor shutdown and makes the axial power distribution satisfactory even if the fuel enrichment degree is increased. (T.M.)

  10. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, Masaru.

    1993-01-01

    As neutron irradiation progresses on a fuel assembly of an FBR type reactor, a strong force is exerted to cause ruptures if the arrangement of fuel elements is not displaced, whereas the fuel elements may be brought into direct contact with each other not by way of spacers to cause burning damages if the arrangement is displaced. In the present invention, the circumference of fuel elements arranged in a normal triangle lattice is surrounded by a wrapper tube having a hexagonal cross section, wire spacers are wound therearound, and deformable spacers are distributed to optional positions for fuel elements in the wrapper tube. Interaction between the fuel elements caused by irradiation is effectively absorbed, thereby enabling to delay the occurrence of the rupture and burning damages of the elements. (N.H.)

  11. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Makoto.

    1991-01-01

    In a fuel assembly in which spectral shift type moderator guide members are arranged, the moderator guide member has a flow channel resistance member, that provides flow resistance against the moderators, in the upstream of a moderator flowing channel, by which the ratio of removing coolants is set greater at the upstream than downstream. With such a constitution, the void distribution increasing upward in the channel box except for the portion of the moderator guide member is moderated by the increase of the area of the void region that expands downward in the guide member. Accordingly, the axial power distribution is flattened throughout the operation cycle and excess distortion is eliminated to improve the fuel integrity. (T.M.)

  12. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataumi, Kazutoshi; Tajiri, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    In a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor, a pellet to be loaded comprises an external layer of fissile materials containing burnable poisons and an internal layer of fissile materials not containing burnable poison. For example, there is provided a dual type pellet comprising an external layer made of UO 2 incorporated with Gd 2 O 3 at a predetermined concentration as the burnable poisons and an internal layer made of UO 2 not containing Gd 2 O 3 . The amount of the burnable poisons required for predetermined places is controlled by the thickness of the ring of the external layer. This can dissipate an unnecessary poisoning effect at the final stage of the combustion cycle. Further, since only one or a few kinds of powder mixture of the burnable poisons and the fissile materials is necessary, production and product control can be facilitated. (I.N.)

  13. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Yoko; Aoyama, Motoo; Oyama, Jun-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    Burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of a first group are disposed in a region in adjacent with a water rod having a large diameter (neutron moderator rod) disposed to the central portion of a fuel assembly. Burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of a second group are disposed to a region other than peripheral zone in adjacent with a channel box and corners positioned at an inner zone, in adjacent with the channel box. The average concentration of burnable poisons of the burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of the first group is made greater than that of the second group. With such a constitution, when the burnable poisons of the first group are burnt out, the burnable poisons of the second group are also burnt out at the same time. Accordingly, an amount of burnable poisons left unburnt at the final stage of the operation cycle is reduced, to improve the reactivity. This can improve the economical property. (I.N.)

  14. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Ritsuo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the operation performance of a BWR type reactor by improving the distribution of the uranium enrichment and the incorporation amount of burnable poisons in fuel assemblies. Constitution: The average enrichment of uranium 235 is increased in the upper portion as compared with that in the lower portion, while the incorporation amount of burnable poisons is increased in an upper portion as compared with that in the lower portion. The difference in the incorporation amount of the burnable poisons between the upper and lower portions is attained by charging two kinds of fuel rods; the ones incorporated with the burnable poisons over the entire length and the others incorporated with the burnable poisons only in the upper portions. (Seki, T.)

  15. Assembly of nanoparticles on patterned surfaces by noncovalent interachtions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maury, P.A.; Reinhoudt, David; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the recent developments in the assembly of nanoparticles into patterned arrays. An introduction is given on nanoparticles assembly and its applications. This is followed by a discussion on recent papers, seen from the perspective of the interaction between particle and

  16. Preliminary High-Throughput Metagenome Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusheyko, Serge; Furman, Craig; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Shapiro, Harris; Tu, Hank

    2007-03-26

    Metagenome data sets present a qualitatively different assembly problem than traditional single-organism whole-genome shotgun (WGS) assembly. The unique aspects of such projects include the presence of a potentially large number of distinct organisms and their representation in the data set at widely different fractions. In addition, multiple closely related strains could be present, which would be difficult to assemble separately. Failure to take these issues into account can result in poor assemblies that either jumble together different strains or which fail to yield useful results. The DOE Joint Genome Institute has sequenced a number of metagenomic projects and plans to considerably increase this number in the coming year. As a result, the JGI has a need for high-throughput tools and techniques for handling metagenome projects. We present the techniques developed to handle metagenome assemblies in a high-throughput environment. This includes a streamlined assembly wrapper, based on the JGI?s in-house WGS assembler, Jazz. It also includes the selection of sensible defaults targeted for metagenome data sets, as well as quality control automation for cleaning up the raw results. While analysis is ongoing, we will discuss preliminary assessments of the quality of the assembly results (http://fames.jgi-psf.org).

  17. A novel probe density controllable electrochemiluminescence biosensor for ultra-sensitive detection of Hg2+ based on DNA hybridization optimization with gold nanoparticles array patterned self-assembly platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenhua; Zhang, An; Chen, Yunsheng; Chen, Zixuan; Chen, Yaowen; Lu, Fushen; Chen, Zhanguang

    2013-11-15

    Biosensor based on DNA hybridization holds great potential to get higher sensitivity as the optimal DNA hybridization efficiency can be achieved by controlling the distribution and orientation of probe strands on the transducer surface. In this work, an innovative strategy is reported to tap the sensitivity potential of current electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensing system by dispersedly anchoring the DNA beacons on the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) array which was electrodeposited on the glassy carbon electrode surface, rather than simply sprawling the coil-like strands onto planar gold surface. The strategy was developed by designing a "signal-on" ECL biosensing switch fabricated on the GNPs nanopatterned electrode surface for enhanced ultra-sensitivity detection of Hg(2+). A 57-mer hairpin-DNA labeled with ferrocene as ECL quencher and a 13-mer DNA labeled with Ru(bpy)3(2+) as reporter were hybridized to construct the signal generator in off-state. A 31-mer thymine (T)-rich capture-DNA was introduced to form T-T mismatches with the loop sequence of the hairpin-DNA in the presence of Hg(2+) and induce the stem-loop open, meanwhile the ECL "signal-on" was triggered. The peak sensitivity with the lowest detection limit of 0.1 nM was achieved with the optimal GNPs number density while exorbitant GNPs deposition resulted in sensitivity deterioration for the biosensor. We expect the present strategy could lead the renovation of the existing probe-immobilized ECL genosensor design to get an even higher sensitivity in ultralow level of target detection such as the identification of genetic diseases and disorders in basic research and clinical application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Image quality testing of assembled IR camera modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Daniel; Erichsen, Patrik

    2013-10-01

    Infrared (IR) camera modules for the LWIR (8-12_m) that combine IR imaging optics with microbolometer focal plane array (FPA) sensors with readout electronics are becoming more and more a mass market product. At the same time, steady improvements in sensor resolution in the higher priced markets raise the requirement for imaging performance of objectives and the proper alignment between objective and FPA. This puts pressure on camera manufacturers and system integrators to assess the image quality of finished camera modules in a cost-efficient and automated way for quality control or during end-of-line testing. In this paper we present recent development work done in the field of image quality testing of IR camera modules. This technology provides a wealth of additional information in contrast to the more traditional test methods like minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) which give only a subjective overall test result. Parameters that can be measured are image quality via the modulation transfer function (MTF) for broadband or with various bandpass filters on- and off-axis and optical parameters like e.g. effective focal length (EFL) and distortion. If the camera module allows for refocusing the optics, additional parameters like best focus plane, image plane tilt, auto-focus quality, chief ray angle etc. can be characterized. Additionally, the homogeneity and response of the sensor with the optics can be characterized in order to calculate the appropriate tables for non-uniformity correction (NUC). The technology can also be used to control active alignment methods during mechanical assembly of optics to high resolution sensors. Other important points that are discussed are the flexibility of the technology to test IR modules with different form factors, electrical interfaces and last but not least the suitability for fully automated measurements in mass production.

  19. Automation of FBTR fuel pin inspection using FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, K.M.; Pai, Siddhesh; Pant, Brijesh; Sendhil Raja, S.; Gupta, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    A non-contact metrology system for inspection of FBTR fuel pins has been developed. The system consists of a stepper motors driven mechanism for orientation and positioning of FBTR fuel pin, a telecentric imaging system, absolute linear encoder with 0.1 μm resolution and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPCA) based controller. The FBTR pin assembly is telecentrically illuminated from bottom by a red LED and its shadow graph is imaged using a CCD camera through telecentric imaging lens system. For system control and automation we have used a FPGA that has integrated soft picoblaze processor, X-θ axis motion controller, custom IPs for encoder data acquisition, synchronization circuit, RS485 interface along with other l/Os. Using the Graphical User Interface (GUI) on a PC the system is initialized at home position and the controller provides the trigger signal for start of data acquisition of CCD camera. CCD image of pin and the corresponding X-θ information is captured. After the acquisition of one set of images, the imaging module is moved with a step size pre-programmed to ensure proper stitching of acquired images. The GUI is programmed to analyze these X-θ Images to calculate the required parameters of the fuel pin like the diameter variation, pitch and bow. The details of the instrument and measurements made with it will be presented. (author)

  20. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, José; Rocha, Jorge; Redondo, Luís; Cruz, João

    2017-08-01

    The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR) at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST) has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+) and proton (H+) beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  1. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes José

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+ and proton (H+ beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  2. Analysis of reconfigurable assembly system framing systems in automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zain Mohamad Zamri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current trend in automotive industry shows increasing demand for multiple models with lean production. Prior to that, automotive manufacturing systems evolved from mass production to flexible automation. Material handling systems and equipment in a single assembly line with multiple models require high investment but with low throughput thus making production cost relatively high. Current assembly process of side structure and undercarriage with downtime occurrence during assembly process affecting production performance (quality, cost and delivery. Manufacturing facilities should allow more flexibility and increase intelligence evolving toward novel reconfigurable assembly systems (RAS. RAS is envisaged capable of increasing factor flexibility and responsiveness by incorporating assembly jig, robot and framing, which could be next generation of world class automotive assembly systems. This project research proposes a new methodology of framework reconfigurable assembly systems principles in automotive framing systems i.e. enhance assembly process between side structure assembly and undercarriage assembly which a new RAS is capable to reconfigure the assembly processes of multiple model on a single assembly line. Simulation software (Witness will be used to simulate and validate current and proposed assembly process. RAS is expected to be a solution for rapid change in structure and for a responsively adjustable production capacity. Quality, cost and delivery are production key parameters that can be achieved by implementing RAS.

  3. Drying induced upright sliding and reorganization of carbon nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qingwen; De Paula, Raymond; Zhang Xiefei; Zheng Lianxi; Arendt, Paul N; Mueller, Fred M; Zhu, Y T; Tu Yi

    2006-01-01

    Driven by capillary force, wet carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have been found to reorganize into cellular structures upon drying. During the reorganization process, individual CNTs are firmly attached to the substrate and have to lie down on the substrate at cell bottoms, forming closed cells. Here we demonstrate that by modifying catalyst structures, the adhesion of CNTs to the substrate can be weakened. Upon drying such CNT arrays, CNTs may slide away from their original sites on the surface and self-assemble into cellular patterns with bottoms open. It is also found that the sliding distance of CNTs increases with array height, and drying millimetre tall arrays leads to the sliding of CNTs over a few hundred micrometres and the eventual self-assembly into discrete islands. By introducing regular vacancies in CNT arrays, CNTs may be manipulated into different patterns

  4. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirukawa, Koji; Sakurada, Koichi.

    1992-01-01

    In a fuel assembly for a BWR type reactor, water rods or water crosses are disposed between fuel rods, and a value with a spring is disposed at the top of the coolant flow channel thereof, which opens a discharge port when pressure is increased to greater than a predetermined value. Further, a control element for the amount of coolant flow rate is inserted retractable to a control element guide tube formed at the lower portion of the water rod or the water cross. When the amount of control elements inserted to the control element guide tube is small and the inflown coolant flow rate is great, the void coefficient at the inside of the water rod is less than 5%. On the other hand, when the control elements are inserted, the flow resistance is increased, so that the void coefficient in the water rod is greater than 80%. When the pressure in the water rod is increased, the valve with the spring is raised to escape water or steams. Then, since the variation range of the change of the void coefficient can be controlled reliably by the amount of the control elements inserted, and nuclear fuel materials can be utilized effectively. (N.H.)

  5. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraiwa, Koji; Ueda, Makoto

    1989-01-01

    In a fuel assembly used for a light water cooled reactor such as a BWR type reactor, a water rod is divided axially into an upper outer tube and a lower outer tube by means of a plug disposed from the lower end of a water rod to a position 1/4 - 1/2 of the entire length for the water rod. Inlet apertures and exit apertures for moderators are respectively perforated for the divided outer tube and upper and lower portions. Further, an upper inner tube with less neutron irradiation growing amount than the outer tube is perforated on the plug in the outer tube, while a lower inner tube with greater neutron irradiation growing amount than the outer tube is suspended from the lower surface of the plug in the outer tube. Then, the opening area for the exit apertures disposed to the upper outer tube and the lower outer tube is controlled depending on the difference of the neutron irradiation growing amount between the upper inner tube and the upper outer tube, and the difference of the neutron irradiation growing amount between the lower inner tube and the lower outer tube. This enables effective spectral shift operation and improve the fuel economy. (T.M.)

  6. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hajime.

    1995-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having fuel rods of different length, fuel pellets of mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium are loaded to a short fuel rod. The volume ratio of a pellet-loaded portion to a plenum portion of the short fuel rod is made greater than the volume ratio of a fuel rod to which uranium fuel pellets are loaded. In addition, the volume of the plenum portion of the short fuel rod is set greater depending on the plutonium content in the loaded fuel pellets. MOX fuel pellets are loaded on the short fuel rods having a greater degree of freedom relevant to the setting for the volume of the plenum portion compared with that of a long rod fuel, and the volume of the plenum portion is ensured greater depending on the plutonium content. Even if a large amount of FP gas and He gas are discharged from the MOX fuels compared with that from the uranium fuels, the internal pressure of the MOX fuel rod during operation is maintained substantially identical with that of the uranium fuel rod, so that a risk of generating excess stresses applied to the fuel cladding tubes and rupture of fuels are greatly reduced. (N.H.)

  7. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Akiyoshi; Bessho, Yasunori; Aoyama, Motoo; Koyama, Jun-ichi; Hirakawa, Hiromasa; Yamashita, Jun-ichi; Hayashi, Tatsuo

    1998-01-01

    In a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor in which a water rod of a large diameter is disposed at the central portion, the cross sectional area perpendicular to the axial direction comprises a region a of a fuel rod group facing to a wide gap water region to which a control rod is inserted, a region b of a fuel rod group disposed on the side of the wide gap water region other than the region a, a region d of a fuel rod group facing to a narrow gap water region and a region c of a fuel rod group disposed on the side of the narrow gap water region other than the region d. When comparing an amount of fission products contained in the four regions relative to that in the entire regions and average enrichment degrees of fuel rods for the four regions, the relative amount and the average enrichment degree of the fuel rod group of the region a is minimized, and the relative amount and the average enrichment degree of the fuel rod group in the region b is maximized. Then, reactor shut down margin during cold operation can be improved while flattening the power in the cross section perpendicular to the axial direction. (N.H.)

  8. Tunneling Current Probe for Noncontract Wafer-Level Photodiode Array Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Verdun, Horacio

    1999-01-01

    The Tunneling Current Probe (TCP) is an automated picometer-sensitive proximity sensor and current measurement system which measures the current through a photodiode detector array element by establishing a tunneling current...

  9. Photovoltaic array with minimally penetrating rooftop support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.S.

    2012-10-23

    A photovoltaic array including a plurality of photovoltaic assemblies and a plurality of mounting units. The mounting units each include an elongate rail and a plurality of leg assemblies. The rail is sized and configured to maintain a portion of at least two of the photovoltaic assemblies, with the leg assemblies extending from the rail in a spaced-apart fashion and terminating in a foot for placement against a rooftop structure for minimally penetration installation. Further, at least one of the leg assemblies can include a retractable leg. When the photovoltaic array is installed to a rooftop structure including a membrane intermittently secured to a rooftop deck, the retractable leg accommodates upward billowing of the membrane under windy conditions.

  10. Automated welding of appendages on empty clad tubes: an advanced technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    Several developments have been carried out at Atomic Fuels Division related to fabrication of PHWR fuel assemblies. This paper describes the salient features of an automated welding equipment and its design. Special attention was given to ensure integration of equipment in the existing assembly lines with ease. Detailed drawings are made using Autocad-12 and isometric view of the assembly was prepared. The equipment design is a significant step in the advancement of PHWR fuel assembly fabrication

  11. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation for the Space Station are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based automation technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics. AI technology will also be developed for the servicing of satellites at the Space Station, system monitoring and diagnosis, space manufacturing, and the assembly of large space structures.

  12. An automated swimming respirometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    STEFFENSEN, JF; JOHANSEN, K; BUSHNELL, PG

    1984-01-01

    An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks.......An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks....

  13. Autonomy and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2017-01-01

    A significant level of debate and confusion has surrounded the meaning of the terms autonomy and automation. Automation is a multi-dimensional concept, and we propose that Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) automation should be described with reference to the specific system and task that has been automated, the context in which the automation functions, and other relevant dimensions. In this paper, we present definitions of automation, pilot in the loop, pilot on the loop and pilot out of the loop. We further propose that in future, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) RPAS Panel avoids the use of the terms autonomy and autonomous when referring to automated systems on board RPA. Work Group 7 proposes to develop, in consultation with other workgroups, a taxonomy of Levels of Automation for RPAS.

  14. Configuration Management Automation (CMA) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Configuration Management Automation (CMA) will provide an automated, integrated enterprise solution to support CM of FAA NAS and Non-NAS assets and investments. CMA...

  15. Automated imaging system for single molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David Charles; Runnheim, Rodney; Forrest, Daniel

    2012-09-18

    There is provided a high throughput automated single molecule image collection and processing system that requires minimal initial user input. The unique features embodied in the present disclosure allow automated collection and initial processing of optical images of single molecules and their assemblies. Correct focus may be automatically maintained while images are collected. Uneven illumination in fluorescence microscopy is accounted for, and an overall robust imaging operation is provided yielding individual images prepared for further processing in external systems. Embodiments described herein are useful in studies of any macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, peptides and proteins. The automated image collection and processing system and method of same may be implemented and deployed over a computer network, and may be ergonomically optimized to facilitate user interaction.

  16. Design requirement on HYPER blanket fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, B. O.; Nam, C.; Ryu, W. S.; Lee, B. S.; Park, W. S.

    2000-07-01

    This document describes design requirements which are needed for designing the blanket assembly of the HYPER as design guidance. The blanket assembly of the HYPER consists of blanket fuel rods, mounting rail, spacer, upper nozzle with handling socket, bottom nozzle with mounting rail and skeleton structure. The blanket fuel rod consists of top end plug, bottom end plug with key way, blanket fuel slug, and cladding. In the assembly, the rods are in a triangular pitch array. This report contains functional requirements, performance and operational requirements, interfacing systems requirements, core restraint and interface requirements, design limits and strength requirements, system configuration and essential feature requirements, seismic requirements, structural requirements, environmental requirements, reliability and safety requirements, standard and codes, QA programs, and other requirements for the blanket fuel assembly of the HYPER

  17. Gigapixel imaging with microlens arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Antony; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2016-03-01

    A crucial part of the drug discovery process involves imaging the response of thousands of cell cultures to candidate drugs. Quantitative parameters from these "high content screens", such as protein expression and cell morphology, are extracted from fluorescence and brightfield micrographs. Due to the sheer number of cells that need to imaged for adequate statistics, the imaging time itself is a major bottleneck. Automated microscopes image small fields-of-view (FOVs) serially, which are then stitched together to form gigapixel-scale mosaics. We have developed a microscopy architecture that reduces mechanical overhead of traditional large field-of-view by parallelizing the image capture process. Instead of a single objective lens imaging FOVs one by one, we employ a microlens array for continuous photon capture, resulting in a 3-fold throughput increase. In this contribution, we present the design and imaging results of this microscopy architecture in three different contrast modes: multichannel fluorescence, hyperspectral fluorescence and brightfield.

  18. Subcritical nuclear assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    A Subcritical Nuclear Assembly is a device where the nuclear-fission chain reaction is initiated and maintained using an external neutron source. It is a valuable educational and research tool where in a safe way many reactor parameters can be measured. Here, we have used the Wigner-Seitz method in the six-factor formula to calculate the effective multiplication factor of a subcritical nuclear reactor Nuclear Chicago model 9000. This reactor has approximately 2500 kg of natural uranium heterogeneously distributed in slugs. The reactor uses a {sup 239}PuBe neutron source that is located in the center of an hexagonal array. Using Monte Carlo methods, with the MCNP5 code, a three-dimensional model of the subcritical reactor was designed to estimate the effective multiplication factor, the neutron spectra, the total and thermal neutron fluences along the radial and axial axis. With the neutron spectra in two locations outside the reactor the ambient dose equivalent were estimated. (Author)

  19. Automation and Robotics for Space-Based Systems, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert L., II (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this in-house workshop was to assess the state-of-the-art of automation and robotics for space operations from an LaRC perspective and to identify areas of opportunity for future research. Over half of the presentations came from the Automation Technology Branch, covering telerobotic control, extravehicular activity (EVA) and intra-vehicular activity (IVA) robotics, hand controllers for teleoperation, sensors, neural networks, and automated structural assembly, all applied to space missions. Other talks covered the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) active damping augmentation, space crane work, modeling, simulation, and control of large, flexible space manipulators, and virtual passive controller designs for space robots.

  20. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  1. Fiber Laser Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ...., field-dependent, loss within the coupled laser array. During this program, Jaycor focused on the construction and use of an experimental apparatus that can be used to investigate the coherent combination of an array of fiber lasers...

  2. Artificial intelligence approach to planning the robotic assembly of large tetrahedral truss structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homemdemello, Luiz S.

    1992-01-01

    An assembly planner for tetrahedral truss structures is presented. To overcome the difficulties due to the large number of parts, the planner exploits the simplicity and uniformity of the shapes of the parts and the regularity of their interconnection. The planning automation is based on the computational formalism known as production system. The global data base consists of a hexagonal grid representation of the truss structure. This representation captures the regularity of tetrahedral truss structures and their multiple hierarchies. It maps into quadratic grids and can be implemented in a computer by using a two-dimensional array data structure. By maintaining the multiple hierarchies explicitly in the model, the choice of a particular hierarchy is only made when needed, thus allowing a more informed decision. Furthermore, testing the preconditions of the production rules is simple because the patterned way in which the struts are interconnected is incorporated into the topology of the hexagonal grid. A directed graph representation of assembly sequences allows the use of both graph search and backtracking control strategies.

  3. Advanced cutting, welding and inspection methods for vacuum vessel assembly and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L. E-mail: jonesl@ipp.mgg.de; Alfile, J.-P.; Aubert, Ph.; Punshon, C.; Daenner, W.; Kujanpaeae, V.; Maisonnier, D.; Serre, M.; Schreck, G.; Wykes, M

    2000-11-01

    ITER requires a 316 l stainless steel, double-skinned vacuum vessel (VV), each shell being 60 mm thick. EFDA (European Fusion Development Agreement) is investigating methods to be used for performing welding and NDT during VV assembly and also cutting and re-welding for remote sector replacement, including the development of an Intersector Welding Robot (IWR) [Jones et al. This conference]. To reduce the welding time, distortions and residual stresses of conventional welding, previous work concentrated on CO{sub 2} laser welding and cutting processes [Jones et al. Proc. Symp. Fusion Technol., Marseilles, 1998]. NdYAG laser now provides the focus for welding of the rearside root and for completing the weld for overhead positions with multipass filling. Electron beam (E-beam) welding with local vacuum offers a single-pass for most of the weld depth except for overhead positions. Plasma cutting has shown the capability to contain the backside dross and preliminary work with NdYAG laser cutting has shown good results. Automated ultrasonic inspection of assembly welds will be improved by the use of a phased array probe system that can focus the beam for accurate flaw location and sizing. This paper describes the recent results of process investigations in this R and D programme, involving five European sites and forming part of the overall VV/blanket research effort [W. Daenner et al. This conference].

  4. Regimes of data output from an automated scanning system into a computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovsov, Yu.V.; Shaislamov, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A method is described for accomplishment of rather a complex algorithm of various coordinate and service data transmission from different automated scanning system devices into a monitoring computer in the automated system for processing images from bubble chambers. The accepted data output algorithm and the developed appropriate equipment enable data transmission both in separate words and word arrays

  5. Systems integration (automation system). System integration (automation system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, K; Komori, T; Fukuma, Y; Oikawa, M [Nippon Steal Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-09-26

    This paper introduces business activities on an automation systems integration (SI) started by a company in July,1988, and describes the SI concepts. The business activities include, with the CIM (unified production carried out on computers) and AMENITY (living environment) as the mainstays, a single responsibility construction ranging from consultation on structuring optimal systems for processing and assembling industries and intelligent buildings to system design, installation and after-sales services. With an SI standing on users {prime} position taken most importantly, the business starts from a planning and consultation under close coordination. On the conceptual basis of structuring optimal systems using the ompany {prime}s affluent know-hows and tools and adapting and applying with multi-vendors, open networks, centralized and distributed systems, the business is promoted with the accumulated technologies capable of realizing artificial intelligence and neural networks in its background, and supported with highly valuable business results in the past. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Magnetic self-assembly of small parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetye, Sheetal B.

    Modern society's propensity for miniaturized end-user products is compelling electronic manufacturers to assemble and package different micro-scale, multi-technology components in more efficient and cost-effective manners. As the size of the components gets smaller, issues such as part sticking and alignment precision create challenges that slow the throughput of conventional robotic pick-n-place systems. As an alternative, various self-assembly approaches have been proposed to manipulate micro to millimeter scale components in a parallel fashion without human or robotic intervention. In this dissertation, magnetic self-assembly (MSA) is demonstrated as a highly efficient, completely parallel process for assembly of millimeter scale components. MSA is achieved by integrating permanent micromagnets onto component bonding surfaces using wafer-level microfabrication processes. Embedded bonded powder methods are used for fabrication of the magnets. The magnets are then magnetized using pulse magnetization methods, and the wafers are then singulated to form individual components. When the components are randomly mixed together, self-assembly occurs when the intermagnetic forces overcome the mixing forces. Analytical and finite element methods (FEM) are used to study the force interactions between the micromagnets. The multifunctional aspects of MSA are presented through demonstration of part-to-part and part-to-substrate assembly of 1 mm x 1mm x 0.5 mm silicon components. Part-to-part assembly is demonstrated by batch assembly of free-floating parts in a liquid environment with the assembly yield of different magnetic patterns varying from 88% to 90% in 20 s. Part-to-substrate assembly is demonstrated by assembling an ordered array onto a fixed substrate in a dry environment with the assembly yield varying from 86% to 99%. In both cases, diverse magnetic shapes/patterns are used to control the alignment and angular orientation of the components. A mathematical model is

  7. Optical Assembly and Characterization System for Nano-Photonics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    freedoms) 3 (3) Carried out initial research work related to semiconductor membrane transfer printing. Based on the customer designed PDMS stamp...for optical characterization and membrane printing/assembly. The system has the following features: Micro-precision alignment with integrated 50 nm...a FL300-12 Automated Alignment System was acquired from Ficontec (USA) Corporation for optical characterization and membrane printing/assembly. The

  8. Automatic test comes to focal plane array production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, Frank L.; Barton, T. D.

    1992-08-01

    To meet the needs of military and commercial markets, the infrared focal plane array industry must develop new, effective and low cost methods of fabricating and testing imaging detectors. This paper describes Texas Instruments new concepts in automated testing and cold probe technology as they apply to volume production.

  9. Evidence of performance for phased array/ALOK-inspection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, H.; Kroening, M.; Rathgeb, W.; Gebhardt, W.; Kappes, W.; Barbian, O.A.

    1986-01-01

    Phased-array probes combined with the ALOK method give an US test system which results in major improvements of automated ultrasonic testing of pressure vessels. The authors discuss the improvements in test execution, defect detection and interpretation by means of tandem defects and defect detection in fault displays. (DG) [de

  10. Column Grid Array Rework for High Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Atul C.; Bodie, Charles C.

    2008-01-01

    Due to requirements for reduced size and weight, use of grid array packages in space applications has become common place. To meet the requirement of high reliability and high number of I/Os, ceramic column grid array packages (CCGA) were selected for major electronic components used in next MARS Rover mission (specifically high density Field Programmable Gate Arrays). ABSTRACT The probability of removal and replacement of these devices on the actual flight printed wiring board assemblies is deemed to be very high because of last minute discoveries in final test which will dictate changes in the firmware. The questions and challenges presented to the manufacturing organizations engaged in the production of high reliability electronic assemblies are, Is the reliability of the PWBA adversely affected by rework (removal and replacement) of the CGA package? and How many times can we rework the same board without destroying a pad or degrading the lifetime of the assembly? To answer these questions, the most complex printed wiring board assembly used by the project was chosen to be used as the test vehicle, the PWB was modified to provide a daisy chain pattern, and a number of bare PWB s were acquired to this modified design. Non-functional 624 pin CGA packages with internal daisy chained matching the pattern on the PWB were procured. The combination of the modified PWB and the daisy chained packages enables continuity measurements of every soldered contact during subsequent testing and thermal cycling. Several test vehicles boards were assembled, reworked and then thermal cycled to assess the reliability of the solder joints and board material including pads and traces near the CGA. The details of rework process and results of thermal cycling are presented in this paper.

  11. Newnes electronics assembly handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electronics Assembly Handbook: Techniques, Standards and Quality Assurance focuses on the aspects of electronic assembling. The handbook first looks at the printed circuit board (PCB). Base materials, basic mechanical properties, cleaning of assemblies, design, and PCB manufacturing processes are then explained. The text also discusses surface mounted assemblies and packaging of electromechanical assemblies, as well as the soldering process. Requirements for the soldering process; solderability and protective coatings; cleaning of PCBs; and mass solder/component reflow soldering are des

  12. Mobius Assembly: A versatile Golden-Gate framework towards universal DNA assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas I Andreou

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology builds upon the foundation of engineering principles, prompting innovation and improvement in biotechnology via a design-build-test-learn cycle. A community-wide standard in DNA assembly would enable bio-molecular engineering at the levels of predictivity and universality in design and construction that are comparable to other engineering fields. Golden Gate Assembly technology, with its robust capability to unidirectionally assemble numerous DNA fragments in a one-tube reaction, has the potential to deliver a universal standard framework for DNA assembly. While current Golden Gate Assembly frameworks (e.g. MoClo and Golden Braid render either high cloning capacity or vector toolkit simplicity, the technology can be made more versatile-simple, streamlined, and cost/labor-efficient, without compromising capacity. Here we report the development of a new Golden Gate Assembly framework named Mobius Assembly, which combines vector toolkit simplicity with high cloning capacity. It is based on a two-level, hierarchical approach and utilizes a low-frequency cutter to reduce domestication requirements. Mobius Assembly embraces the standard overhang designs designated by MoClo, Golden Braid, and Phytobricks and is largely compatible with already available Golden Gate part libraries. In addition, dropout cassettes encoding chromogenic proteins were implemented for cost-free visible cloning screening that color-code different cloning levels. As proofs of concept, we have successfully assembled up to 16 transcriptional units of various pigmentation genes in both operon and multigene arrangements. Taken together, Mobius Assembly delivers enhanced versatility and efficiency in DNA assembly, facilitating improved standardization and automation.

  13. Automated Fresnel lens tester system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phipps, G.S.

    1981-07-01

    An automated data collection system controlled by a desktop computer has been developed for testing Fresnel concentrators (lenses) intended for solar energy applications. The system maps the two-dimensional irradiance pattern (image) formed in a plane parallel to the lens, whereas the lens and detector assembly track the sun. A point detector silicon diode (0.5-mm-dia active area) measures the irradiance at each point of an operator-defined rectilinear grid of data positions. Comparison with a second detector measuring solar insolation levels results in solar concentration ratios over the image plane. Summation of image plane energies allows calculation of lens efficiencies for various solar cell sizes. Various graphical plots of concentration ratio data help to visualize energy distribution patterns.

  14. Performance of prototype segmented CdZnTe arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, A.; Palmer, D.M.; Kurczynski, P.; Barbier, L.; Barthelmy, S.; Bartlett, L.; Gehrels, N.; Krizmanic, J.; Stahle, C.M.; Tueller, J.; Teegarden, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Burst and All Sky Imaging Survey (BASIS) is a proposed mission to provide ∼3 arc second locations of approximately 90 Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) per year. The BASIS coded aperture imaging system requires a segmented detector plane able to detect the interaction position of (10--150 keV) photons to less than 100 microm. To develop prototype detector arrays with such fine position resolution the authors have fabricated many 15 mm x 15 mm x 2 mm 100 microm pitch CdZnTe strip detectors. They have assembled these fine pitch CdZnTe strip detectors into prototype 2 x 2 and 6 x 6 element arrays read out by ASIC electronics. The assembly and electronics readout of the 6 x 6 flight prototype array will be discussed, and preliminary data illustrating the uniformity and efficiency of the array will be presented

  15. Dynamics of self-assembled cytosine nucleobases on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Nabanita; Johnson, Floyd; Waters, Kevin; Pandey, Ravindra

    2018-05-01

    Molecular self-assembly of cytosine (C n ) bases on graphene was investigated using molecular dynamics methods. For free-standing C n bases, simulation conditions (gas versus aqueous) determine the nature of self-assembly; the bases prefer to aggregate in the gas phase and are stabilized by intermolecular H-bonds, while in the aqueous phase, the water molecules disrupt base-base interactions, which facilitate the formation of π-stacked domains. The substrate-induced effects, on the other hand, find the polarity and donor-acceptor sites of the bases to govern the assembly process. For example, in the gas phase, the assembly of C n bases on graphene displays short-range ordered linear arrays stabilized by the intermolecular H-bonds. In the aqueous phase, however, there are two distinct configurations for the C n bases assembly on graphene. For the first case corresponding to low surface coverage, the bases are dispersed on graphene and are isolated. The second configuration archetype is disordered linear arrays assembled with medium and high surface coverage. The simulation results establish the role of H-bonding, vdW π-stacking, and the influence of graphene surface towards the self-assembly. The ability to regulate the assembly into well-defined patterns can aid in the design of self-assembled nanostructures for the next-generation DNA based biosensors and nanoelectronic devices.

  16. Contribution of phased array technique to automation in ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhard, A.; Schenk, G.; Moehrle, W.; Wuestenberg, H.; Rathgeb, W.

    1989-01-01

    Ultrasonic tests on complicated geometries often require expensive manipulator technique. To guarantee certain information from tests, the control of the manipulator must be matched to the acoustic boundary conditions. In the past and today, complex manipulators were and are being developed and used with tests on such geometries. The results of the measurements with group radiator technique in the bottom hole area or on ducts, showed that the manipulators can be simplified, particularly with regard to their degrees of freedom, e.g.: doing without the axis of rotation to set the angle of squint in testing ducts, without thereby narrowing the test area. In the bottom hole test, it was found that by using the group radiator technique, the test area is expanded, evaluation is simplified and coupling can be ensured. (orig.) [de

  17. Primarily Experimental Results for a W Wire Array Z Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuai Bin; Aici, Qiu; Wang Liangping; Zeng Zhengzhong; Wang Wensheng; Cong Peitian; Gai Tongyang; Wei Fuli; Guo Ning; Zhang Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Primarily experimental results are given for a W wire array Z pinch imploded with up to 2 MA in 100 ns on a Qiangguang-I pulsed power generator. The configuration and parameters of the generator, the W wire array load assembly and the diagnostic system for the experiment are described. The total X-ray energy has been obtained with a averaged power of X-ray radiation of 1.28 TW

  18. Multilayer Ferritin Array for Bionanobattery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R., Jr. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A thin-film electrode for a bio-nanobattery is produced by consecutively depositing arrays of a ferritin protein on a substrate, employing a spin self-assembly procedure. By this procedure, a first ferritin layer is first formed on the substrate, followed by building a second, oppositely-charged ferritin layer on the top of the first ferritin layer to form a bilayer structure. Oppositely-charged ferritin layers are subsequently deposited on top of each other until a desired number of bilayer structures is produced. An ordered, uniform, stable and robust, thin-film electrode material of enhanced packing density is presented, which provides optimal charge density for the bio-nanobattery.

  19. ORIGAMI Automator Primer. Automated ORIGEN Source Terms and Spent Fuel Storage Pool Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieselquist, William A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thompson, Adam B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bowman, Stephen M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peterson, Joshua L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Source terms and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage pool decay heat load analyses for operating nuclear power plants require a large number of Oak Ridge Isotope Generation and Depletion (ORIGEN) calculations. SNF source term calculations also require a significant amount of bookkeeping to track quantities such as core and assembly operating histories, spent fuel pool (SFP) residence times, heavy metal masses, and enrichments. The ORIGEN Assembly Isotopics (ORIGAMI) module in the SCALE code system provides a simple scheme for entering these data. However, given the large scope of the analysis, extensive scripting is necessary to convert formats and process data to create thousands of ORIGAMI input files (one per assembly) and to process the results into formats readily usable by follow-on analysis tools. This primer describes a project within the SCALE Fulcrum graphical user interface (GUI) called ORIGAMI Automator that was developed to automate the scripting and bookkeeping in large-scale source term analyses. The ORIGAMI Automator enables the analyst to (1) easily create, view, and edit the reactor site and assembly information, (2) automatically create and run ORIGAMI inputs, and (3) analyze the results from ORIGAMI. ORIGAMI Automator uses the standard ORIGEN binary concentrations files produced by ORIGAMI, with concentrations available at all time points in each assembly’s life. The GUI plots results such as mass, concentration, activity, and decay heat using a powerful new ORIGEN Post-Processing Utility for SCALE (OPUS) GUI component. This document includes a description and user guide for the GUI, a step-by-step tutorial for a simplified scenario, and appendices that document the file structures used.

  20. Reliability of CCGA and PBGA assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2005-01-01

    Area Array Packages (AAPs) with 1.27 mm pitch have been the packages of the choice for commercial applications; they are now started to be implemented for use in military and aerospace applications. Thermal cycling characteristics of plastic BGA (PBGA) and CSP assemblies, because of their wide usage for commercial applications, have been extensively reported in literature. Thermal cycling represents the on-off environmental condition for most electronic products and therefore is a key factor that defines reliability.

  1. Automation systems for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Paul

    1974-01-01

    The application of automation systems for radioimmunoassay (RIA) was discussed. Automated systems could be useful in the second step, of the four basic processes in the course of RIA, i.e., preparation of sample for reaction. There were two types of instrumentation, a semi-automatic pipete, and a fully automated pipete station, both providing for fast and accurate dispensing of the reagent or for the diluting of sample with reagent. Illustrations of the instruments were shown. (Mukohata, S.)

  2. Self-assembly of ordered graphene nanodot arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camilli, Luca; Jørgensen, Jakob H.; Tersoff, Jerry

    2017-01-01

    The ability to fabricate nanoscale domains of uniform size in two-dimensional materials could potentially enable new applications in nanoelectronics and the development of innovative metamaterials. However, achieving even minimal control over the growth of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures...

  3. Capacity analysis of an automated kit transportation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijm, W.H.M.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Buitenhek, R.; Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present a capacity analysis of an automated transportation system in a flexible assembly factory. The transportation system, together with the workstations, is modeled as a network of queues with multiple job classes. Due to its complex nature, the steadystate behavior of this

  4. Automated Parallel Capillary Electrophoretic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbo; Kane, Thomas E.; Liu, Changsheng; Sonnenschein, Bernard; Sharer, Michael V.; Kernan, John R.

    2000-02-22

    An automated electrophoretic system is disclosed. The system employs a capillary cartridge having a plurality of capillary tubes. The cartridge has a first array of capillary ends projecting from one side of a plate. The first array of capillary ends are spaced apart in substantially the same manner as the wells of a microtitre tray of standard size. This allows one to simultaneously perform capillary electrophoresis on samples present in each of the wells of the tray. The system includes a stacked, dual carousel arrangement to eliminate cross-contamination resulting from reuse of the same buffer tray on consecutive executions from electrophoresis. The system also has a gel delivery module containing a gel syringe/a stepper motor or a high pressure chamber with a pump to quickly and uniformly deliver gel through the capillary tubes. The system further includes a multi-wavelength beam generator to generate a laser beam which produces a beam with a wide range of wavelengths. An off-line capillary reconditioner thoroughly cleans a capillary cartridge to enable simultaneous execution of electrophoresis with another capillary cartridge. The streamlined nature of the off-line capillary reconditioner offers the advantage of increased system throughput with a minimal increase in system cost.

  5. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Automated cloning methods.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collart, F.

    2001-01-01

    Argonne has developed a series of automated protocols to generate bacterial expression clones by using a robotic system designed to be used in procedures associated with molecular biology. The system provides plate storage, temperature control from 4 to 37 C at various locations, and Biomek and Multimek pipetting stations. The automated system consists of a robot that transports sources from the active station on the automation system. Protocols for the automated generation of bacterial expression clones can be grouped into three categories (Figure 1). Fragment generation protocols are initiated on day one of the expression cloning procedure and encompass those protocols involved in generating purified coding region (PCR)

  7. ASIC Readout Circuit Architecture for Large Geiger Photodiode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Stefan; Lipson, Jerold

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new class of readout integrated circuit (ROIC) arrays to be operated with Geiger avalanche photodiode (GPD) arrays, by integrating multiple functions at the pixel level (smart-pixel or active pixel technology) in 250-nm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) processes. In order to pack a maximum of functions within a minimum pixel size, the ROIC array is a full, custom application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design using a mixed-signal CMOS process with compact primitive layout cells. The ROIC array was processed to allow assembly in bump-bonding technology with photon-counting infrared detector arrays into 3-D imaging cameras (LADAR). The ROIC architecture was designed to work with either common- anode Si GPD arrays or common-cathode InGaAs GPD arrays. The current ROIC pixel design is hardwired prior to processing one of the two GPD array configurations, and it has the provision to allow soft reconfiguration to either array (to be implemented into the next ROIC array generation). The ROIC pixel architecture implements the Geiger avalanche quenching, bias, reset, and time to digital conversion (TDC) functions in full-digital design, and uses time domain over-sampling (vernier) to allow high temporal resolution at low clock rates, increased data yield, and improved utilization of the laser beam.

  8. Complacency and Automation Bias in the Use of Imperfect Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher D; Clegg, Benjamin A; Vieane, Alex Z; Sebok, Angelia L

    2015-08-01

    We examine the effects of two different kinds of decision-aiding automation errors on human-automation interaction (HAI), occurring at the first failure following repeated exposure to correctly functioning automation. The two errors are incorrect advice, triggering the automation bias, and missing advice, reflecting complacency. Contrasts between analogous automation errors in alerting systems, rather than decision aiding, have revealed that alerting false alarms are more problematic to HAI than alerting misses are. Prior research in decision aiding, although contrasting the two aiding errors (incorrect vs. missing), has confounded error expectancy. Participants performed an environmental process control simulation with and without decision aiding. For those with the aid, automation dependence was created through several trials of perfect aiding performance, and an unexpected automation error was then imposed in which automation was either gone (one group) or wrong (a second group). A control group received no automation support. The correct aid supported faster and more accurate diagnosis and lower workload. The aid failure degraded all three variables, but "automation wrong" had a much greater effect on accuracy, reflecting the automation bias, than did "automation gone," reflecting the impact of complacency. Some complacency was manifested for automation gone, by a longer latency and more modest reduction in accuracy. Automation wrong, creating the automation bias, appears to be a more problematic form of automation error than automation gone, reflecting complacency. Decision-aiding automation should indicate its lower degree of confidence in uncertain environments to avoid the automation bias. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  9. Capacity analysis of automatic transport systems in an assembly factory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijm, W.H.M.; Lenstra, J.K.; Tijms, H.C.; Volgenant, A.

    1989-01-01

    We describe a case study concerning the capacity analysis of a completely automated transport system in a flexible assembly environment. Basically, the system is modelled as a network of queues, however, due to its complex nature, product-form network theory is not applicable. Instead, we present an

  10. Flaw detection of welded joints in NPP equipment assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, N.A.; Polevik, V.A.; Orlov, N.S.

    1984-01-01

    State of the art and prospects of development of ultrasonic and radiography testing of welded joints for quality used in NPP equipment assembly are considered. Recommendations are given on reducing the labour content with the use of these methods. Specifications for the developed facilities intended for automation and mechanization of the described quality control methods are presented

  11. An Easily Assembled Laboratory Exercise in Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylott, Elliot; Klepetka, Ryan; Dunlap, Justin C.; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a laboratory activity in computed tomography (CT) primarily composed of a photogate and a rotary motion sensor that can be assembled quickly and partially automates data collection and analysis. We use an enclosure made with a light filter that is largely opaque in the visible spectrum but mostly transparent to the near…

  12. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  13. Fiber optical assembly for fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, II, Robert W.; Rubenstein, Richard; Piltch, Martin; Gray, Perry

    2010-12-07

    A system for analyzing a sample for the presence of an analyte in a sample. The system includes a sample holder for containing the sample; an excitation source, such as a laser, and at least one linear array radially disposed about the sample holder. Radiation from the excitation source is directed to the sample, and the radiation induces fluorescent light in the sample. Each linear array includes a plurality of fused silica optical fibers that receive the fluorescent light and transmits a fluorescent light signal from the first end to an optical end port of the linear array. An end port assembly having a photo-detector is optically coupled to the optical end port. The photo-detector detects the fluorescent light signal and converts the fluorescent light signal into an electrical signal.

  14. Fuel assembly guide tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is directed toward a nuclear fuel assembly guide tube arrangement which restrains spacer grid movement due to coolant flow and which offers secondary means for supporting a fuel assembly during handling and transfer operations

  15. Josephson junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindslev Hansen, J.; Lindelof, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    In this review we intend to cover recent work involving arrays of Josephson junctions. The work on such arrays falls naturally into three main areas of interest: 1. Technical applications of Josephson junction arrays for high-frequency devices. 2. Experimental studies of 2-D model systems (Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition, commensurate-incommensurate transition in frustrated (flux) lattices). 3. Investigations of phenomena associated with non-equilibrium superconductivity in and around Josephson junctions (with high current density). (orig./BUD)

  16. Phased-array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1985-02-01

    The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

  17. Nuclear fuel bundle disassembly and assembly tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, J.; Long, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear power reactor fuel bundle is described which has a plurality of tubular fuel rods disposed in parallel array between two transverse tie plates. It is secured against disassembly by one or more locking forks which engage slots in tie rods which position the transverse plates. Springs mounted on the fuel and tie rods are compressed when the bundle is assembled thereby maintaining a continual pressure against the locking forks. Force applied in opposition to the springs permits withdrawal of the locking forks so that one tie plate may be removed, giving access to the fuel rods. An assembly and disassembly tool facilitates removal of the locking forks when the bundle is to be disassembled and the placing of the forks during assembly of the bundle. (U.S.)

  18. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  19. The EUROBALL array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi Alvarez, C.

    1998-01-01

    The quality of the multidetector array EUROBALL is described, with emphasis on the history and formal organization of the related European collaboration. The detector layout is presented together with the electronics and Data Acquisition capabilities. The status of the instrument, its performances and the main features of some recently developed ancillary detectors will also be described. The EUROBALL array is operational in Legnaro National Laboratory (Italy) since April 1997 and is expected to run up to November 1998. The array represents a significant improvement in detector efficiency and sensitivity with respect to the previous generation of multidetector arrays

  20. Rectenna array measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The measured performance characteristics of a rectenna array are reviewed and compared to the performance of a single element. It is shown that the performance may be extrapolated from the individual element to that of the collection of elements. Techniques for current and voltage combining were demonstrated. The array performance as a function of various operating parameters is characterized and techniques for overvoltage protection and automatic fault clearing in the array demonstrated. A method for detecting failed elements also exists. Instrumentation for deriving performance effectiveness is described. Measured harmonic radiation patterns and fundamental frequency scattered patterns for a low level illumination rectenna array are presented.

  1. Arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Muñoz, Pascual; Sales, Salvador; Pastor, Daniel; Ortega, Beatriz; Martinez, Alfonso

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel device, an arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer, that combines the flexibility of arrayed waveguides and the wide application range of fiber or integrated optics Sagnac loops. We form the device by closing an array of wavelength-selective light paths provided by two arrayed waveguides with a single 2 x 2 coupler in a Sagnac configuration. The equations that describe the device's operation in general conditions are derived. A preliminary experimental demonstration is provided of a fiber prototype in passive operation that shows good agreement with the expected theoretical performance. Potential applications of the device in nonlinear operation are outlined and discussed.

  2. LFI Radiometric Chain Assembly (RCA) data handling ``Rachel''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, M.; Franceschi, E.; Battaglia, P.; Binko, P.; Butler, R. C.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Fogliani, S.; Frailis, M.; Franceschet, C.; Galeotta, S.; Gasparo, F.; Gregorio, A.; Lapolla, M.; Leonardi, R.; Maggio, G.; Mandolesi, N.; Manzato, P.; Maris, M.; Meharga, M.; Meinhold, P.; Morisset, N.; Pasian, F.; Perrotta, F.; Rohlfs, R.; Sandri, M.; Tomasi, M.; Türler, M.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2009-12-01

    Planck's Low Frequency Instrument is an array of 22 pseudo-correlation radiometers at 30, 44, and 70 GHz. Before integrating the overall array assembly, a first set of tests has been performed for each radiometer chain assembly (RCA), consisting of two radiometers. In this paper, we describe Rachel, a software application which has been purposely developed and used during the RCA test campaign to carry out both near-realtime on-line data analysis and data storage (in FITS format) of the raw output from the radiometric chains.

  3. LFI Radiometric Chain Assembly (RCA) data handling 'Rachel'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaspina, M; Franceschi, E; Butler, R C; Mandolesi, N; Battaglia, P; Franceschet, C; Lapolla, M; Binko, P; Meharga, M; D'Arcangelo, O; Fogliani, S; Frailis, M; Galeotta, S; Gasparo, F; Maggio, G; Manzato, P; Maris, M; Gregorio, A; Leonardi, R; Meinhold, P

    2009-01-01

    Planck's Low Frequency Instrument is an array of 22 pseudo-correlation radiometers at 30, 44, and 70 GHz. Before integrating the overall array assembly, a first set of tests has been performed for each radiometer chain assembly (RCA), consisting of two radiometers. In this paper, we describe Rachel, a software application which has been purposely developed and used during the RCA test campaign to carry out both near-realtime on-line data analysis and data storage (in FITS format) of the raw output from the radiometric chains.

  4. Automated handling and assembly of customizable AFM-tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartenwerfer, M.; Eichhorn, V.; Jasper, D.

    2011-01-01

    Today's processes in micro- and nanofabrication include several critical dimension metrology steps to guarantee device performance. Especially in the manufacturing process of novel disruptive photonic devices and nanoelectronic circuit architectures, new 3D acquisition and visualization technique...

  5. An ultrasonic phased array applicator for deep localized hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocheltree, K.B.; Benkeser, P.J.; Foster, S.G.; Frizzell, L.A.; Cain, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The use of an ultrasonic phased array applicator presents a major advantage over the fixed beam ultrasonic applicators which are typically used for clinical hyperthermia. Such an applicator allows focal region placement in the three dimensional treatment field by electronic steering instead of mechanical movement of the transducer assembly. The design of an array is discussed theoretically, considering that the constraints on grating lobes and power output for hyperthermic applications are quite different from those for imaging. The effects of various design parameters are discussed. Experimental results are presented for several arrays for frequencies under 1 Mhz

  6. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e. g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is

  7. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Tashima, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies arranged in the form of a lattice wherein there is attached to the interface of one of two adjacent fuel assemblies a plate spring having a concave portion curved toward said interface and to the interface of the other fuel assembly a plate spring having a convex portion curved away from said interface

  8. Sensor Arrays and Electronic Tongue Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel del Valle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes recent work performed with electronic tongue systems utilizing electrochemical sensors. The electronic tongues concept is a new trend in sensors that uses arrays of sensors together with chemometric tools to unravel the complex information generated. Initial contributions and also the most used variant employ conventional ion selective electrodes, in which it is named potentiometric electronic tongue. The second important variant is the one that employs voltammetry for its operation. As chemometric processing tool, the use of artificial neural networks as the preferred data processing variant will be described. The use of the sensor arrays inserted in flow injection or sequential injection systems will exemplify attempts made to automate the operation of electronic tongues. Significant use of biosensors, mainly enzyme-based, to form what is already named bioelectronic tongue will be also presented. Application examples will be illustrated with selected study cases from the Sensors and Biosensors Group at the Autonomous University of Barcelona.

  9. Automated System Marketplace 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jose-Marie; Kertis, Kimberly

    1994-01-01

    Reports results of the 1994 Automated System Marketplace survey based on responses from 60 vendors. Highlights include changes in the library automation marketplace; estimated library systems revenues; minicomputer and microcomputer-based systems; marketplace trends; global markets and mergers; research needs; new purchase processes; and profiles…

  10. Automation in Warehouse Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg, R.; Verriet, J.

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and

  11. Order Division Automated System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniemeyer, Justin M.; And Others

    This publication was prepared by the Order Division Automation Project staff to fulfill the Library of Congress' requirement to document all automation efforts. The report was originally intended for internal use only and not for distribution outside the Library. It is now felt that the library community at-large may have an interest in the…

  12. Automate functional testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kalindri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, software engineers are increasingly turning to the option of automating functional tests, but not always have successful in this endeavor. Reasons range from low planning until over cost in the process. Some principles that can guide teams in automating these tests are described in this article.

  13. Automating the Small Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapura, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of microcomputers for automating school libraries, both for entire systems and for specific library tasks. Highlights include available library management software, newsletters that evaluate software, constructing an evaluation matrix, steps to consider in library automation, and a brief discussion of computerized card catalogs.…

  14. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David H [Redondo Beach, CA

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  15. Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanopillar light-emitting diode arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Fadil, Ahmed; Ou, Haiyan

    Nanopillar InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diode arrays were fabricated by using self-assembled nanopatterning and dry etching process. Both internal and external quantum efficiency were increased due to strain relaxation and enhanced light extraction.......Nanopillar InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diode arrays were fabricated by using self-assembled nanopatterning and dry etching process. Both internal and external quantum efficiency were increased due to strain relaxation and enhanced light extraction....

  16. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  17. Automated model building

    CERN Document Server

    Caferra, Ricardo; Peltier, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book on automated model building, a discipline of automated deduction that is of growing importance Although models and their construction are important per se, automated model building has appeared as a natural enrichment of automated deduction, especially in the attempt to capture the human way of reasoning The book provides an historical overview of the field of automated deduction, and presents the foundations of different existing approaches to model construction, in particular those developed by the authors Finite and infinite model building techniques are presented The main emphasis is on calculi-based methods, and relevant practical results are provided The book is of interest to researchers and graduate students in computer science, computational logic and artificial intelligence It can also be used as a textbook in advanced undergraduate courses

  18. Automation in Immunohematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Bajpai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  19. Automation in Warehouse Development

    CERN Document Server

    Verriet, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and supports the quality of picking processes. Secondly, the development of models to simulate and analyse warehouse designs and their components facilitates the challenging task of developing warehouses that take into account each customer’s individual requirements and logistic processes. Automation in Warehouse Development addresses both types of automation from the innovative perspective of applied science. In particular, it describes the outcomes of the Falcon project, a joint endeavour by a consortium of industrial and academic partners. The results include a model-based approach to automate warehouse control design, analysis models for warehouse design, concepts for robotic item handling and computer vision, and auton...

  20. ATLAS facility fabrication and assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Ballard, E O; Davis, H A; Nielsen, K E; Parker, G V; Parsons, W M

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given. Atlas is a pulsed-power facility recently completed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to drive hydrodynamic experiments. This new generation pulsed-power machine consists of a radial array of 24, 240-kV Marx modules and transmission lines supplying current to the load region at the machine center. The transmission lines, powered by the Marx modules, consist of cable headers, load protection switches and tri-plates interfacing to the center transition section through detachable current joints. A conical power-flow-channel attaches to the transition section providing an elevated interface to attach the experimental loads for diagnostic access. Fabrication and assembly of all components for the Atlas machine was completed in August 2000. The machine has also progressed through a test phase where the Marx module/transmission line units were fired, individually, into a test load. Progression continued with eight and sixteen lines being fired. Subsequently, an overall machine test was condu...

  1. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  2. Nuclear fuel string assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, A.K.; Koyanagi, K.; Tarasuk, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of fabricating rodded fuels suitable for use in pressure tube type reactors and in pressure vessel type reactors is described. Fuel rods are secured as an inner and an outer sub-assembly, each rod attached between mounting rings secured to the rod ends. The two sub-assemblies are telescoped together and positioned by spaced thimbles located between them to provide precise positioning while permittng differential axial movement between the sub-assemblies. Such sub-assemblies are particularly suited for mounting as bundle strings. The method provides particular advantages in the assembly of annular-section fuel pins, which includes booster fuel containing enriched fuel material. (LL)

  3. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmonier, Pierre; Mesnage, Bernard; Nervi, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    This invention refers to fuel assemblies for a liquid metal cooled fast neutron reactor. Each assembly is composed of a hollow vertical casing, of regular polygonal section, containing a bundle of clad pins filled with a fissile or fertile substance. The casing is open at its upper end and has a cylindrical foot at its lower end for positioning the assembly in a housing provided in the horizontal diagrid, on which the core assembly rests. A set of flat bars located on the external surface of the casing enables it to be correctly orientated in its housing among the other core assemblies [fr

  4. Key Performance Indicators for the Impact of Cognitive Assembly Planning on Ramp-Up Process

    OpenAIRE

    Buescher, Christian; Hauck, Eckart; Schilberg, Daniel; Jeschke, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    Within the ramp-up phase of highly automated assembly systems, the planning effort forms a large part of production costs. Due to shortening product lifecycles, changing customer demands, and therefore an increasing number of ramp-up processes, these costs even rise. So assembly systems should reduce these efforts and simultaneously be flexible for quick adaption to changes in products and their variants. A cognitive interaction system in the field of assembly planning systems is developed wi...

  5. Intelligent Automated Nuclear Fuel Pellet Inspection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyvan, S.

    1999-01-01

    At the present time, nuclear pellet inspection is performed manually using naked eyes for judgment and decisionmaking on accepting or rejecting pellets. This current practice of pellet inspection is tedious and subject to inconsistencies and error. Furthermore, unnecessary re-fabrication of pellets is costly and the presence of low quality pellets in a fuel assembly is unacceptable. To improve the quality control in nuclear fuel fabrication plants, an automated pellet inspection system based on advanced techniques is needed. Such a system addresses the following concerns of the current manual inspection method: (1) the reliability of inspection due to typical human errors, (2) radiation exposure to the workers, and (3) speed of inspection and its economical impact. The goal of this research is to develop an automated nuclear fuel pellet inspection system which is based on pellet video (photographic) images and uses artificial intelligence techniques

  6. Triggering the GRANDE array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.L.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, J.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of the Gamma Ray And Neutrino Detector Experiment (GRANDE) is presented. The detector elements and electronics are described. The trigger logic for the array is then examined. The triggers for the Gamma Ray and the Neutrino portions of the array are treated separately. (orig.)

  7. ISS Solar Array Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James P.; Martin, Keith D.; Thomas, Justin R.; Caro, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Solar Array Management (SAM) software toolset provides the capabilities necessary to operate a spacecraft with complex solar array constraints. It monitors spacecraft telemetry and provides interpretations of solar array constraint data in an intuitive manner. The toolset provides extensive situational awareness to ensure mission success by analyzing power generation needs, array motion constraints, and structural loading situations. The software suite consists of several components including samCS (constraint set selector), samShadyTimers (array shadowing timers), samWin (visualization GUI), samLock (array motion constraint computation), and samJet (attitude control system configuration selector). It provides high availability and uptime for extended and continuous mission support. It is able to support two-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) array positioning and supports up to ten simultaneous constraints with intuitive 1D and 2D decision support visualizations of constraint data. Display synchronization is enabled across a networked control center and multiple methods for constraint data interpolation are supported. Use of this software toolset increases flight safety, reduces mission support effort, optimizes solar array operation for achieving mission goals, and has run for weeks at a time without issues. The SAM toolset is currently used in ISS real-time mission operations.

  8. Far infrared through millimeter backshort-under-grid arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christine A.; Abrahams, John; Benford, Dominic J.; Chervenak, James A.; Chuss, David T.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Miller, Timothy M.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Wollack, Edward J.

    2006-06-01

    We are developing a large-format, versatile, bolometer array for a wide range of infrared through millimeter astronomical applications. The array design consists of three key components - superconducting transition edge sensor bolometer arrays, quarter-wave reflective backshort grids, and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) multiplexer readouts. The detector array is a filled, square grid of bolometers with superconducting sensors. The backshort arrays are fabricated separately and are positioned in the etch cavities behind the detector grid. The grids have unique three-dimensional interlocking features micromachined into the walls for positioning and mechanical stability. The ultimate goal of the program is to produce large-format arrays with background-limited sensitivity, suitable for a wide range of wavelengths and applications. Large-format (kilopixel) arrays will be directly indium bump bonded to a SQUID multiplexer circuit. We have produced and tested 8×8 arrays of 1 mm detectors to demonstrate proof of concept. 8×16 arrays of 2 mm detectors are being produced for a new Goddard Space Flight Center instrument. We have also produced models of a kilopixel detector grid and dummy multiplexer chip for bump bonding development. We present detector design overview, several unique fabrication highlights, and assembly technologies.

  9. Ceramic ball grid array package stress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, S. H. B. S.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Ong, N. R.; Sauli, Z.; Alcain, J. B.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    The ball grid array (BGA), a form of chip scale package (CSP), was developed as one of the most advanced surface mount devices, which may be assembled by an ordinary surface ball bumps are used instead of plated nickel and gold (Ni/Au) bumps. Assembly and reliability of the BGA's printed circuit board (PCB), which is soldered by conventional surface mount technology is considered in this study. The Ceramic Ball Grid Array (CBGA) is a rectangular ceramic package or square-shaped that will use the solder ball for external electrical connections instead of leads or wire for connections. The solder balls will be arranged in an array or grid at the bottom of the ceramic package body. In this study, ANSYS software is used to investigate the stress on the package for 2 balls and 4 balls of the CBGA package with the various force range of 1-3 Newton applied to the top of the die, top of the substrate and side of the substrate. The highest maximum stress was analyzed and the maximum equivalent stress was observed on the solder ball and the die. From the simulation result, the CBGA package with less solder balls experience higher stress compared to the package with many solder balls. Therefore, less number of solder ball on the CBGA package results higher stress and critically affect the reliability of the solder balls itself, substrate and die which can lead to the solder crack and also die crack.

  10. A Macintosh based data system for array spectrometers (Poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, J.; Moss, N.

    An interactive data aquisition and reduction system has been assembled by combining a Macintosh computer with an instrument controller (an Apple II computer) via an RS-232 interface. The data system provides flexibility for operating different linear array spectrometers. The standard Macintosh interface is used to provide ease of operation and to allow transferring the reduced data to commercial graphics software.

  11. Computerized tomographic x-ray scanner system and gantry assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyd, D.P.; Lanzara, G.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a scanner assembly. It comprises: a support head, a C-shaped gantry, means for supporting the gantry in the support head for rotating movement, an x-ray source mounted on one side of the gantry for independent movement with respect to a detector array along the gantry, the x-ray source projecting x-rays across the gantry, and a detector array mounted on the other side of a gantry for independent movement with respect to the x-ray source along the gantry, the detector array serving to receive the projected x-rays

  12. Systematic review automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  13. AI, automation and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Andre; Dominy, Robert

    1988-01-01

    A NASA study for the preliminary definition of a teleoperated robotic device has been recently completed. The Fligt Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) will be used to assist astronauts in many of the on-board tasks of assembly, maintenance, servicing, and inspection of the Space Station. The role of artificial intelligence (AI) in furthering the FTS automation capabilities and, hence, extending its capacity for growth and evolution is discussed. Relevant system engineering issues are identified, and an approach for insertion of AI technology is presented in terms of the NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model control architecture NASREM.

  14. Al, Automation And The Flight Telerobotic Servicer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Andre; Dominy, Robert

    1988-10-01

    NASA has recently completed a study for the preliminary definition of a teleoperated robotic device. The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) will be used to assist astronauts in many of the on-board tasks of assembly, maintenance, servicing and inspection of the Space Station. This paper makes an assessment of the role that Artificial Intelligence (AI) may have in furthering the automation capabilities of the FTS and, hence, extending the FTS capacity for growth and evolution. Relevant system engineering issues are identified, and an approach for insertion of AI technology is presented in terms of the NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model (NASREM) control architecture.

  15. Automated fuel fabrication- a vision comes true

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemantha Rao, G.V.S.; Prakash, M.S.; Setty, C.R.P.; Gupta, U.C.

    1997-01-01

    When New Uranium Fuel Assembly Project at Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) begins production, its operator will have equipment provided with intramachine handling systems working automatically by pressing a single button. Additionally simple low cost inter machine handling systems will further help in critical areas. All these inter and intra machine handling systems will result in improved reliability, productivity and quality. The fault diagnostics, mimics and real time data acquisition systems make the plant more operator friendly. The paper deals with the experience starting from layout, selection of product carriers, different handling systems, the latest technology and the integration of which made the vision on automation in fuel fabrication come true. (author)

  16. Improved piercing of microneedle arrays in dermatomed human skin by an impact insertion method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbaan, F.J.; Bal, S.M.; van den Berg, D.J.; Dijksman, J.A.; van Hecke, M.; Verpoorten, H.; van den Berg, Albert; Lüttge, Regina; Bouwstra, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    An electrical applicator was designed, which can pierce short microneedles into the skin with a predefined velocity. Three different shapes of microneedles were used, namely 300 mu m assembled hollow metal microneedle arrays, 300 mu m solid metal microneedle arrays and 245 mu m hollow silicon

  17. Improved piercing of microneedle arrays in dermatomed human skin by an impact insertion method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbaan, F.J.; Bal, S.M.; Berg, van den D.J.; Dijksman, J.A.; Hecke, van M.; Verpoorten, H.; Berg, van den A.; Luttge, R.; Bouwstra, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    An electrical applicator was designed, which can pierce short microneedles into the skin with a predefined velocity. Three different shapes of microneedles were used, namely 300 µm assembled hollow metal microneedle arrays, 300 µm solid metal microneedle arrays and 245 µm hollow silicon microneedle

  18. Assembly technology of 4-side buttable MPPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, K.; Sato, K.; Yamada, R., E-mail: ryuta-ya@ssd.hpk.co.jp; Hosokawa, N.; Nagano, T.; Hayatsu, K.; Shimohara, T.; Ohkuwa, Y.; Oguri, A.

    2013-12-21

    The multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) is a solid-state photon counting device consisting of a Geiger-mode APD and a quenching resistor. Through-silicon via technology (TSV) allows for the production of a discrete array version of the MPPC, creating a detector with the advantages of a larger active area and less dead space in its overall packaging when compared to other package types commonly used to produce MPPCs. Eliminating the need for a wire-bonding pad allows individual MPPCs to be tiled with minimum dead-space between individual detectors to form a four-sided buttable array. Selecting MPPCs that behave and perform very similarly to each other, especially when an operating voltage is applied, minimizes variation in performance between each channel and enhances channel uniformity. The output of discrete arrays of MPPCs can be easily readout with ASICs (application specific integrated circuits) due to their excellent channel uniformity characteristics, with minimum adjustment required by the ASIC. -- Author-Highlights: • TSV-MPPC and assembly technology are developed. • TSV-MPPC array is tiled in 4-sided buttable and has large and dense active area. • The output pulse of MPPC may have sharp rising edge by virtue of TSV. • The uniformity of the array can be maximized by neat inspection technology.

  19. Advanced automation for in-space vehicle processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, Michael; Wegerif, D.

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of this 3-year planned study is to assure that the fully evolved Space Station Freedom (SSF) can support automated processing of exploratory mission vehicles. Current study assessments show that required extravehicular activity (EVA) and to some extent intravehicular activity (IVA) manpower requirements for required processing tasks far exceeds the available manpower. Furthermore, many processing tasks are either hazardous operations or they exceed EVA capability. Thus, automation is essential for SSF transportation node functionality. Here, advanced automation represents the replacement of human performed tasks beyond the planned baseline automated tasks. Both physical tasks such as manipulation, assembly and actuation, and cognitive tasks such as visual inspection, monitoring and diagnosis, and task planning are considered. During this first year of activity both the Phobos/Gateway Mars Expedition and Lunar Evolution missions proposed by the Office of Exploration have been evaluated. A methodology for choosing optimal tasks to be automated has been developed. Processing tasks for both missions have been ranked on the basis of automation potential. The underlying concept in evaluating and describing processing tasks has been the use of a common set of 'Primitive' task descriptions. Primitive or standard tasks have been developed both for manual or crew processing and automated machine processing.

  20. Ultrafine luminescent structures through nanoparticle self-assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakaran, K; Goetzinger, S; Shafi, K V P M; Mazzei, A; Schietinger, S; Benson, O

    2006-01-01

    We report the fabrication of ultrafine structures consisting of regular arrays of nanoemitters through the self-assembly of luminescent nanoparticles on a silicon wafer. Nanoparticles of yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) doped with Eu 3+ ions were synthesized by a sonochemical technique. These particles, suspended in ethanol, are introduced onto a pre-patterned silicon wafer, covered with a thin oxide layer. On annealing the sample in an ultrahigh-vacuum chamber, the nanoparticles self-assemble along the pattern. We demonstrate this 'chemical lithography' by assembling the nanoparticles along a variety of patterns. We believe that such self-organized nanopatterning of functional structures is important for the realization of nanodevices

  1. Operational proof of automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaerschky, R.; Reifenhaeuser, R.; Schlicht, K.

    1976-01-01

    Automation of the power plant process may imply quite a number of problems. The automation of dynamic operations requires complicated programmes often interfering in several branched areas. This reduces clarity for the operating and maintenance staff, whilst increasing the possibilities of errors. The synthesis and the organization of standardized equipment have proved very successful. The possibilities offered by this kind of automation for improving the operation of power plants will only sufficiently and correctly be turned to profit, however, if the application of these technics of equipment is further improved and if its volume is tallied with a definite etc. (orig.) [de

  2. Automation of radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Chisato; Yamada, Hideo; Iio, Masahiro

    1974-01-01

    Automation systems for measuring Australian antigen by radioimmunoassay under development were discussed. Samples were processed as follows: blood serum being dispensed by automated sampler to the test tube, and then incubated under controlled time and temperature; first counting being omitted; labelled antibody being dispensed to the serum after washing; samples being incubated and then centrifuged; radioactivities in the precipitate being counted by auto-well counter; measurements being tabulated by automated typewriter. Not only well-type counter but also position counter was studied. (Kanao, N.)

  3. Automated electron microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.A.; Walker, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Plant Laboratory at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has recently obtained a Cameca MBX electron microprobe with a Tracor Northern TN5500 automation system. This allows full stage and spectrometer automation and digital beam control. The capabilities of the system include qualitative and quantitative elemental microanalysis for all elements above and including boron in atomic number, high- and low-magnification imaging and processing, elemental mapping and enhancement, and particle size, shape, and composition analyses. Very low magnification, quantitative elemental mapping using stage control (which is of particular interest) has been accomplished along with automated size, shape, and composition analysis over a large relative area

  4. Chef infrastructure automation cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marschall, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Chef Infrastructure Automation Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to automate your infrastructure using Chef. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to automate your server and cloud infrastructure.The book first shows you the simplest way to achieve a certain task. Then it explains every step in detail, so that you can build your knowledge about how things work. Eventually, the book shows you additional things to consider for each approach. That way, you can learn step-by-step and build profound knowledge on how to go about your configuration management

  5. Managing laboratory automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboe, T J

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the process of managing automated systems through their life cycles within the quality-control (QC) laboratory environment. The focus is on the process of directing and managing the evolving automation of a laboratory; system examples are given. The author shows how both task and data systems have evolved, and how they interrelate. A BIG picture, or continuum view, is presented and some of the reasons for success or failure of the various examples cited are explored. Finally, some comments on future automation need are discussed.

  6. Automated PCB Inspection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Usama BUKHARI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of an automated PCB inspection system as per the need of industry is a challenging task. In this paper a case study is presented, to exhibit, a proposed system for an immigration process of a manual PCB inspection system to an automated PCB inspection system, with a minimal intervention on the existing production flow, for a leading automotive manufacturing company. A detailed design of the system, based on computer vision followed by testing and analysis was proposed, in order to aid the manufacturer in the process of automation.

  7. Operational proof of automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaerschky, R.; Schlicht, K.

    1977-01-01

    Automation of the power plant process may imply quite a number of problems. The automation of dynamic operations requires complicated programmes often interfering in several branched areas. This reduces clarity for the operating and maintenance staff, whilst increasing the possibilities of errors. The synthesis and the organization of standardized equipment have proved very successful. The possibilities offered by this kind of automation for improving the operation of power plants will only sufficiently and correctly be turned to profit, however, if the application of these equipment techniques is further improved and if it stands in a certain ratio with a definite efficiency. (orig.) [de

  8. Sensor array signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Naidu, Prabhakar S

    2009-01-01

    Chapter One: An Overview of Wavefields 1.1 Types of Wavefields and the Governing Equations 1.2 Wavefield in open space 1.3 Wavefield in bounded space 1.4 Stochastic wavefield 1.5 Multipath propagation 1.6 Propagation through random medium 1.7 ExercisesChapter Two: Sensor Array Systems 2.1 Uniform linear array (ULA) 2.2 Planar array 2.3 Distributed sensor array 2.4 Broadband sensor array 2.5 Source and sensor arrays 2.6 Multi-component sensor array2.7 ExercisesChapter Three: Frequency Wavenumber Processing 3.1 Digital filters in the w-k domain 3.2 Mapping of 1D into 2D filters 3.3 Multichannel Wiener filters 3.4 Wiener filters for ULA and UCA 3.5 Predictive noise cancellation 3.6 Exercises Chapter Four: Source Localization: Frequency Wavenumber Spectrum4.1 Frequency wavenumber spectrum 4.2 Beamformation 4.3 Capon's w-k spectrum 4.4 Maximum entropy w-k spectrum 4.5 Doppler-Azimuth Processing4.6 ExercisesChapter Five: Source Localization: Subspace Methods 5.1 Subspace methods (Narrowband) 5.2 Subspace methods (B...

  9. Highlighting the history of Japanese radio astronomy. 5: The 1950 Osaka solar grating array proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Harry; Orchiston, Wayne; Ishiguro, Masato; Nakamura, Tsuko

    2017-04-01

    In November 1950, a paper was presented at the 5th Annual Assembly of the Physical Society of Japan that outlined the plan for a radio frequency grating array, designed to provide high-resolution observations of solar radio emission at 3.3 GHz. This short paper provides details of the invention of this array, which occurred independently of W.N. Christiansen's invention of the solar grating array in Australia at almost the same time.

  10. Development of the solar array deployment and drive system for the XTE spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Rodger; Ngo, Son

    1995-01-01

    The X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) spacecraft is a NASA science low-earth orbit explorer-class satellite to be launched in 1995, and is an in-house Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) project. It has two deployable aluminum honeycomb solar array wings with each wing being articulated by a single axis solar array drive assembly. This paper will address the design, the qualification testing, and the development problems as they surfaced of the Solar Array Deployment and Drive System.

  11. Development of a dense SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny using the Malus Infinium whole genome genotyping array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antanaviciute, Laima; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad; Jansen, Johannes; Banchi, Elisa; Evans, Katherine M; Viola, Roberto; Velasco, Riccardo; Dunwell, Jim M; Troggio, Michela; Sargent, Daniel J

    2012-05-25

    A whole-genome genotyping array has previously been developed for Malus using SNP data from 28 Malus genotypes. This array offers the prospect of high throughput genotyping and linkage map development for any given Malus progeny. To test the applicability of the array for mapping in diverse Malus genotypes, we applied the array to the construction of a SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny. Of the 7,867 Malus SNP markers on the array, 1,823 (23.2%) were heterozygous in one of the two parents of the progeny, 1,007 (12.8%) were heterozygous in both parental genotypes, whilst just 2.8% of the 921 Pyrus SNPs were heterozygous. A linkage map spanning 1,282.2 cM was produced comprising 2,272 SNP markers, 306 SSR markers and the S-locus. The length of the M432 linkage map was increased by 52.7 cM with the addition of the SNP markers, whilst marker density increased from 3.8 cM/marker to 0.5 cM/marker. Just three regions in excess of 10 cM remain where no markers were mapped. We compared the positions of the mapped SNP markers on the M432 map with their predicted positions on the 'Golden Delicious' genome sequence. A total of 311 markers (13.7% of all mapped markers) mapped to positions that conflicted with their predicted positions on the 'Golden Delicious' pseudo-chromosomes, indicating the presence of paralogous genomic regions or mis-assignments of genome sequence contigs during the assembly and anchoring of the genome sequence. We incorporated data for the 2,272 SNP markers onto the map of the M432 progeny and have presented the most complete and saturated map of the full 17 linkage groups of M. pumila to date. The data were generated rapidly in a high-throughput semi-automated pipeline, permitting significant savings in time and cost over linkage map construction using microsatellites. The application of the array will permit linkage maps to be developed for QTL analyses in a cost-effective manner, and the identification of SNPs that have been

  12. Flexible manufacturing for photonics device assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Shin-yee; Young, K.D.

    1994-01-01

    The assembly of photonics devices such as laser diodes, optical modulators, and optoelectronics (OE) multi-chip modules usually requires the placement of micron-size devices, and sub-micron precision attachment between optical fibers and diodes or waveguide modulators (pigtailing). This is a labor-intensive process. Studies done by the OE industry have shown that 95% of the cost of a pigtailed photonic device is attributed to the current practice of manual alignment and bonding techniques. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the authors are working to reduce the cost of packaging OE devices, through the use of automation

  13. Introduction to adaptive arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Monzingo, Bob; Haupt, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This second edition is an extensive modernization of the bestselling introduction to the subject of adaptive array sensor systems. With the number of applications of adaptive array sensor systems growing each year, this look at the principles and fundamental techniques that are critical to these systems is more important than ever before. Introduction to Adaptive Arrays, 2nd Edition is organized as a tutorial, taking the reader by the hand and leading them through the maze of jargon that often surrounds this highly technical subject. It is easy to read and easy to follow as fundamental concept

  14. Piezoelectric transducer array microspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-12-19

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-speaker. The speaker is an array of micro-machined piezoelectric membranes, fabricated on silicon wafer using advanced micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n piezoelectric transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a circular shape structure. The membrane is made out four layers: 300nm of platinum for the bottom electrode, 250nm or lead zirconate titanate (PZT), a top electrode of 300nm and a structural layer of 50

  15. Assembly tool design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Naokazu; Nakahira, Masataka; Ohkawa, Yoshinao; Tada, Eisuke; Seki, Masahiro

    1996-06-01

    The reactor core of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is assembled with a number of large and asymmetric components within a tight tolerance in order to assure the structural integrity for various loads and to provide the tritium confinement. In addition, the assembly procedure should be compatible with remote operation since the core structures will be activated by 14-MeV neutrons once it starts operation and thus personal access will be prohibited. Accordingly, the assembly procedure and tool design are quite essential and should be designed from the beginning to facilitate remote operation. According to the ITER Design Task Agreement, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has performed design study to develop the assembly procedures and associated tool design for the ITER tokamak assembly. This report describes outlines of the assembly tools and the remaining issues obtained in this design study. (author)

  16. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  17. Hydrometeorological Automated Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of Hydrologic Development of the National Weather Service operates HADS, the Hydrometeorological Automated Data System. This data set contains the last 48...

  18. Automated External Defibrillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leads to a 10 percent reduction in survival. Training To Use an Automated External Defibrillator Learning how to use an AED and taking a CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) course are helpful. However, if trained ...

  19. Planning for Office Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, Colin K.

    1983-01-01

    Outlines a practical approach to planning for office automation termed the "Focused Process Approach" (the "what" phase, "how" phase, "doing" phase) which is a synthesis of the problem-solving and participatory planning approaches. Thirteen references are provided. (EJS)

  20. Fixed automated spray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    This research project evaluated the construction and performance of Boschungs Fixed Automated : Spray Technology (FAST) system. The FAST system automatically sprays de-icing material on : the bridge when icing conditions are about to occur. The FA...

  1. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  2. Automation Interface Design Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our research makes its contributions at two levels. At one level, we addressed the problems of interaction between humans and computers/automation in a particular...

  3. I-94 Automation FAQs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — In order to increase efficiency, reduce operating costs and streamline the admissions process, U.S. Customs and Border Protection has automated Form I-94 at air and...

  4. Automation synthesis modules review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi, S.; Lodi, F.; Malizia, C.; Cicoria, G.; Marengo, M.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of 68 Ga labelled tracers has changed the diagnostic approach to neuroendocrine tumours and the availability of a reliable, long-lived 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generator has been at the bases of the development of 68 Ga radiopharmacy. The huge increase in clinical demand, the impact of regulatory issues and a careful radioprotection of the operators have boosted for extensive automation of the production process. The development of automated systems for 68 Ga radiochemistry, different engineering and software strategies and post-processing of the eluate were discussed along with impact of automation with regulations. - Highlights: ► Generators availability and robust chemistry boosted for the huge diffusion of 68Ga radiopharmaceuticals. ► Different technological approaches for 68Ga radiopharmaceuticals will be discussed. ► Generator eluate post processing and evolution to cassette based systems were the major issues in automation. ► Impact of regulations on the technological development will be also considered

  5. Fuel assembly storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To remove limitation of the number of storage of fuel assemblies to increase the number of storage thereof so as to relatively reduce the water depth required for shielding radioactive rays. Structure: Fuel assembly storage rack containers for receiving a plurality of spent fuel assembly racks are stacked in multi-layer fashion within a storage pool filled with water for shielding radioactive rays and removing heat. (Furukawa, Y.)

  6. Push plate, mounting assembly, circuit board, and method of assembling thereof for ball grid array packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Mark R.; Montague, Stephen

    2017-05-16

    A push plate that includes springs in the form of cantilever flexures and an inspection window is disclosed. The push plate provides a known, uniform, down force and minimal torque to a package to be tested. The cantilevers have a known, calculable down force producing stiffness. The window provides for viewing of the package during testing.

  7. Low-cost solar array structure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1981-06-01

    Early studies of flat-plate arrays have projected costs on the order of $50/square meter for installed array support structures. This report describes an optimized low-cost frame-truss structure that is estimated to cost below $25/square meter, including all markups, shipping an installation. The structure utilizes a planar frame made of members formed from light-gauge galvanized steel sheet and is supposed in the field by treated-wood trusses that are partially buried in trenches. The buried trusses use the overburden soil to carry uplift wind loads and thus to obviate reinforced-concrete foundations. Details of the concept, including design rationale, fabrication and assembly experience, structural testing and fabrication drawings are included.

  8. Cymbal and BB underwater transducers and arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newnham, R.E.; Zhang, J.; Alkoy, S.; Meyer, R.; Hughes, W.J.; Hladky-Hennion, A.C.; Cochran, J.; Markley, D. [Materials Research Laboratory, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The cymbal is a miniaturized class V flextensional transducer that was developed for use as a shallow water sound projector and receiver. Single elements are characterized by high Q, low efficiency, and medium power output capability. Its low cost and thin profile allow the transducer to be assembled into large flexible arrays. Efforts were made to model both single elements and arrays using the ATILA code and the integral equation formulation (EQI).Millimeter size microprobe hydrophones (BBs) have been designed and fabricated from miniature piezoelectric hollow ceramic spheres for underwater applications such as mapping acoustic fields of projectors, and flow noise sensors for complex underwater structures. Green spheres are prepared from soft lead zirconate titanate powders using a coaxial nozzle slurry process. A compact hydrophone with a radially-poled sphere is investigated using inside and outside electrodes. Characterization of these hydrophones is done through measurement of hydrostatic piezoelectric charge coefficients, free field voltage sensitivities and directivity beam patterns. (orig.)

  9. Disassembly automation automated systems with cognitive abilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vongbunyong, Supachai

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a number of aspects to be considered in the development of disassembly automation, including the mechanical system, vision system and intelligent planner. The implementation of cognitive robotics increases the flexibility and degree of autonomy of the disassembly system. Disassembly, as a step in the treatment of end-of-life products, can allow the recovery of embodied value left within disposed products, as well as the appropriate separation of potentially-hazardous components. In the end-of-life treatment industry, disassembly has largely been limited to manual labor, which is expensive in developed countries. Automation is one possible solution for economic feasibility. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  10. Highway Electrification And Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Shladover, Steven E.

    1992-01-01

    This report addresses how the California Department of Transportation and the California PATH Program have made efforts to evaluate the feasibility and applicability of highway electrification and automation technologies. In addition to describing how the work was conducted, the report also describes the findings on highway electrification and highway automation, with experimental results, design study results, and a region-wide application impacts study for Los Angeles.

  11. Automated lattice data generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyar Venkitesh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of generating ensembles of gauge configurations (and measuring various observables over them can be tedious and error-prone when done “by hand”. In practice, most of this procedure can be automated with the use of a workflow manager. We discuss how this automation can be accomplished using Taxi, a minimal Python-based workflow manager built for generating lattice data. We present a case study demonstrating this technology.

  12. Automated lattice data generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyar, Venkitesh; Hackett, Daniel C.; Jay, William I.; Neil, Ethan T.

    2018-03-01

    The process of generating ensembles of gauge configurations (and measuring various observables over them) can be tedious and error-prone when done "by hand". In practice, most of this procedure can be automated with the use of a workflow manager. We discuss how this automation can be accomplished using Taxi, a minimal Python-based workflow manager built for generating lattice data. We present a case study demonstrating this technology.

  13. Automated security management

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Shaer, Ehab; Xie, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    In this contributed volume, leading international researchers explore configuration modeling and checking, vulnerability and risk assessment, configuration analysis, and diagnostics and discovery. The authors equip readers to understand automated security management systems and techniques that increase overall network assurability and usability. These constantly changing networks defend against cyber attacks by integrating hundreds of security devices such as firewalls, IPSec gateways, IDS/IPS, authentication servers, authorization/RBAC servers, and crypto systems. Automated Security Managemen

  14. Marketing automation supporting sales

    OpenAIRE

    Sandell, Niko

    2016-01-01

    The past couple of decades has been a time of major changes in marketing. Digitalization has become a permanent part of marketing and at the same time enabled efficient collection of data. Personalization and customization of content are playing a crucial role in marketing when new customers are acquired. This has also created a need for automation to facilitate the distribution of targeted content. As a result of successful marketing automation more information of the customers is gathered ...

  15. Instant Sikuli test automation

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to follow style using the Starter guide approach.This book is aimed at automation and testing professionals who want to use Sikuli to automate GUI. Some Python programming experience is assumed.

  16. Managing laboratory automation

    OpenAIRE

    Saboe, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the process of managing automated systems through their life cycles within the quality-control (QC) laboratory environment. The focus is on the process of directing and managing the evolving automation of a laboratory; system examples are given. The author shows how both task and data systems have evolved, and how they interrelate. A BIG picture, or continuum view, is presented and some of the reasons for success or failure of the various examples cited are explored. Fina...

  17. Shielded cells transfer automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear waste from shielded cells is removed, packaged, and transferred manually in many nuclear facilities. Radiation exposure is absorbed by operators during these operations and limited only through procedural controls. Technological advances in automation using robotics have allowed a production waste removal operation to be automated to reduce radiation exposure. The robotic system bags waste containers out of glove box and transfers them to a shielded container. Operators control the system outside the system work area via television cameras. 9 figures

  18. Automated Status Notification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Automated Status Notification System (ASNS) was born out of need. To prevent "hacker attacks," Lewis' telephone system needed to monitor communications activities 24 hr a day, 7 days a week. With decreasing staff resources, this continuous monitoring had to be automated. By utilizing existing communications hardware, a UNIX workstation, and NAWK (a pattern scanning and processing language), we implemented a continuous monitoring system.

  19. Automated ultrasonic shop inspection of reactor pressure vessel forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, J.M.; Dikstra, B.J.; Hanstock, D.J.; Pople, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Automated ultrasonic shop inspection utilizing a computer-controlled system is being applied to each of the forgings for the reactor pressure vessel of the proposed Sizewell B PWR power station. Procedures which utilize a combination of high sensitivity shear wave pulse echo, 0 degrees and 70 degrees angled longitudinal waves, tandem and through-thickness arrays have been developed to provide comprehensive coverage and an overall reliability of inspection comparable to the best achieved in UKAEA defect detection trials and in PISC II. This paper describes the ultrasonic techniques, the automated system (its design, commissioning and testing), validation and the progress of the inspections

  20. Polymeric microbead arrays for microfluidic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Jason A; Du, Xiaoguang; Grogan, Joseph M; Schrlau, Michael G; Bau, Haim H

    2010-01-01

    Microbeads offer a convenient and efficient means of immobilizing biomolecules and capturing target molecules of interest in microfluidic immunoassay devices. In this study, hot embossing is used to form wells enabling the direct incorporation of a microbead array in a plastic substrate. We demonstrate two techniques to populate the well array with beads. In the first case, encoded beads with various functionalizations are distributed randomly among the wells and their position is registered by reading their encoding. Alternatively, beads are controllably placed at predetermined positions and decoding is not required. The random placement technique is demonstrated with two functionalized bead types that are distributed among the wells and then decoded to register their locations. The alternative, deliberate placement technique is demonstrated by controllably placing magnetic beads at selected locations in the array using a magnetic probe. As a proof of concept to illustrate the biosensing capability of the randomly assembled array, an on-chip, bead-based immunoassay is employed to detect the inflammatory protein Interleukin-8. The principle of the assay, however, can be extended to detect multiple targets simultaneously. Our method eliminates the need to interface silicon components with plastic devices to form microarrays containing individually addressable beads. This has the potential to reduce the cost and complexity of lab-on-chip devices for medical diagnosis, food and water quality inspection, and environmental monitoring

  1. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  2. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  3. Electrodeposition of nickel nano wire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Kok Kuan Ying; Ng Inn Khuan; Nurazila Mat Zali; Siti Salwa Zainal Abidin

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis, characterization and assembly of one-dimensional nickel nano wires prepared by template directed electrodeposition are discussed in this paper. Parallel arrays of high aspect ratio nickel nano wires were electrodeposited using electrolytes with different cations and pH. The nano wires were characterized using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the orientations of the electro deposited Ni nano wires were governed by the deposition current and the electrolyte conditions. Free standing nickel nano wires can be obtained by dissolving the template. Due to the magnetic nature of the nano wires, magnetic alignment was employed to assemble and position the free standing nano wires in the device structure. (author)

  4. Environmentally responsive optical microstructured hybrid actuator assemblies and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenberg, Joanna; Aizenberg, Michael; Kim, Philseok

    2016-01-05

    Microstructured hybrid actuator assemblies in which microactuators carrying designed surface properties to be revealed upon actuation are embedded in a layer of responsive materials. The microactuators in a microactuator array reversibly change their configuration in response to a change in the environment without requiring an external power source to switch their optical properties.

  5. Photovoltaic Assemblies for the Power Generation of the Exomars Missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrando Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Finally the bio burden and planetary protection requirements are also not a standard in SA field. A special manufacturing, assembly and test sequence will be implemented to capitalize our previous experience on the Mars drill tool development. For both the arrays European PVA technology was exclusively used: more specifically high efficiency III-V compounds solar cells and a new glass grounding network.

  6. Automated Groundwater Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Glenn A.; Collard, Leonard B.

    2005-01-01

    The Automated Intruder Analysis has been extended to include an Automated Ground Water Screening option. This option screens 825 radionuclides while rigorously applying the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) methodology. An extension to that methodology is presented to give a more realistic screening factor for those radionuclides which have significant daughters. The extension has the promise of reducing the number of radionuclides which must be tracked by the customer. By combining the Automated Intruder Analysis with the Automated Groundwater Screening a consistent set of assumptions and databases is used. A method is proposed to eliminate trigger values by performing rigorous calculation of the screening factor thereby reducing the number of radionuclides sent to further analysis. Using the same problem definitions as in previous groundwater screenings, the automated groundwater screening found one additional nuclide, Ge-68, which failed the screening. It also found that 18 of the 57 radionuclides contained in NCRP Table 3.1 failed the screening. This report describes the automated groundwater screening computer application

  7. Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altug, Hatice; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    We recently proposed two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal nanocavity arrays as a route to achieve a slow-group velocity of light in all crystal directions, thereby enabling numerous applications...

  8. Oxide nanostructures through self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, S.; Ogale, S. B.; Ganpule, C. S.; Shinde, S. R.; Novikov, V. A.; Monga, A. P.; Burr, M. R.; Ramesh, R.; Ballarotto, V.; Williams, E. D.

    2001-03-01

    A prominent theme in inorganic materials research is the creation of uniformly flat thin films and heterostructures over large wafers, which can subsequently be lithographically processed into functional devices. This letter proposes an approach that will lead to thin film topographies that are directly counter to the above-mentioned philosophy. Recent years have witnessed considerable research activity in the area of self-assembly of materials, stimulated by observations of self-organized behavior in biological systems. We have fabricated uniform arrays of nonplanar surface features by a spontaneous assembly process involving the oxidation of simple metals, especially under constrained conditions on a variety of substrates, including glass and Si. In this letter we demonstrate the pervasiveness of this process through examples involving the oxidation of Pd, Cu, Fe, and In. The feature sizes can be controlled through the grain size and thickness of the starting metal thin film. Finally, we demonstrate how such submicron scale arrays can serve as templates for the design and development of self-assembled, nanoelectronic devices.

  9. Automated alignment of optical components for high-power diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, C.; Pyschny, N.; Haag, S.; Guerrero Lule, V.

    2012-03-01

    Despite major progress in developing brilliant laser sources a huge potential for cost reductions can be found in simpler setups and automated assembly processes, especially for large volume applications. In this presentation, a concept for flexible automation in optics assembly is presented which is based on standard micro assembly systems with relatively large workspace and modular micromanipulators to enhance the system with additional degrees of freedom and a very high motion resolution. The core component is a compact flexure-based micromanipulator especially designed for the alignment of micro optical components which will be described in detail. The manipulator has been applied in different scenarios to develop and investigate automated alignment processes. This paper focuses on the automated alignment of fast axis collimation (FAC) lenses which is a crucial step during the production of diode lasers. The handling and positioning system, the measuring arrangement for process feedback during active alignment as well as the alignment strategy will be described. The fine alignment of the FAC lens is performed with the micromanipulator under concurrent analysis of the far and the near field intensity distribution. An optimization of the image processing chains for the alignment of a FAC in front of a diode bar led to cycle times of less than 30 seconds. An outlook on other applications and future work regarding the development of automated assembly processes as well as new ideas for flexible assembly systems with desktop robots will close the talk.

  10. Reload safety analysis automation tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havlůj, F.; Hejzlar, J.; Vočka, R.

    2013-01-01

    Performing core physics calculations for the sake of reload safety analysis is a very demanding and time consuming process. This process generally begins with the preparation of libraries for the core physics code using a lattice code. The next step involves creating a very large set of calculations with the core physics code. Lastly, the results of the calculations must be interpreted, correctly applying uncertainties and checking whether applicable limits are satisfied. Such a procedure requires three specialized experts. One must understand the lattice code in order to correctly calculate and interpret its results. The next expert must have a good understanding of the physics code in order to create libraries from the lattice code results and to correctly define all the calculations involved. The third expert must have a deep knowledge of the power plant and the reload safety analysis procedure in order to verify, that all the necessary calculations were performed. Such a procedure involves many steps and is very time consuming. At ÚJV Řež, a.s., we have developed a set of tools which can be used to automate and simplify the whole process of performing reload safety analysis. Our application QUADRIGA automates lattice code calculations for library preparation. It removes user interaction with the lattice code and reduces his task to defining fuel pin types, enrichments, assembly maps and operational parameters all through a very nice and user-friendly GUI. The second part in reload safety analysis calculations is done by CycleKit, a code which is linked with our core physics code ANDREA. Through CycleKit large sets of calculations with complicated interdependencies can be performed using simple and convenient notation. CycleKit automates the interaction with ANDREA, organizes all the calculations, collects the results, performs limit verification and displays the output in clickable html format. Using this set of tools for reload safety analysis simplifies

  11. Grasping devices and methods in automated production processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantoni, Gualtiero; Santochi, Marco; Dini, Gino

    2014-01-01

    assembly to disassembly, from aerospace to food industry, from textile to logistics) are discussed. Finally, the most recent research is reviewed in order to introduce the new trends in grasping. They provide an outlook on the future of both grippers and robotic hands in automated production processes. (C......In automated production processes grasping devices and methods play a crucial role in the handling of many parts, components and products. This keynote paper starts with a classification of grasping phases, describes how different principles are adopted at different scales in different applications...

  12. Carbon nanotube array actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, S; Mahrholz, T; Wierach, P; Sinapius, M

    2013-01-01

    Experimental investigations of highly vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), also known as CNT-arrays, are the main focus of this paper. The free strain as result of an active material behavior is analyzed via a novel experimental setup. Previous test experiences of papers made of randomly oriented CNTs, also called Bucky-papers, reveal comparably low free strain. The anisotropy of aligned CNTs promises better performance. Via synthesis techniques like chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD), highly aligned arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are synthesized. Two different types of CNT-arrays are analyzed, morphologically first, and optically tested for their active characteristics afterwards. One type of the analyzed arrays features tube lengths of 750–2000 μm with a large variety of diameters between 20 and 50 nm and a wave-like CNT-shape. The second type features a maximum, almost uniform, length of 12 μm and a constant diameter of 50 nm. Different CNT-lengths and array types are tested due to their active behavior. As result of the presented tests, it is reported that the quality of orientation is the most decisive property for excellent active behavior. Due to their alignment, CNT-arrays feature the opportunity to clarify the actuation mechanism of architectures made of CNTs. (paper)

  13. The design of reconfigurable assembly stations for high variety and mass customisation manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padayachee, Jared

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The economical production of mass customised and high variety goods is a challenge facing modern manufacturers. This challenge is being addressed, in part, by the on-going development of technologies that facilitate the manufacturing of these goods. Existing technologies require either excessive inbuilt flexibility or frequent changes to the machine set up to provide the manufacturing functions required for the customisation process. This paper presents design principles for automated assembly stations within the scope of mass customisation. Design principles are presented that minimise the hardware and operating complexities of assembly stations, allowing stations to be easily automated for concurrent mixed model assembly with a First In First Out (FIFO scheduling policy. A reconfigurable assembly station is developed to demonstrate how the proposed design methods simplify the creation and operation of an assembly station for a product family of flashlights.

  14. Automated microfluidically controlled electrochemical biosensor for the rapid and highly sensitive detection of Francisella tularensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulay, Samuel B; Gransee, Rainer; Julich, Sandra; Tomaso, Herbert; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2014-09-15

    Tularemia is a highly infectious zoonotic disease caused by a Gram-negative coccoid rod bacterium, Francisella tularensis. Tularemia is considered as a life-threatening potential biological warfare agent due to its high virulence, transmission, mortality and simplicity of cultivation. In the work reported here, different electrochemical immunosensor formats for the detection of whole F. tularensis bacteria were developed and their performance compared. An anti-Francisella antibody (FB11) was used for the detection that recognises the lipopolysaccharide found in the outer membrane of the bacteria. In the first approach, gold-supported self-assembled monolayers of a carboxyl terminated bipodal alkanethiol were used to covalently cross-link with the FB11 antibody. In an alternative second approach F(ab) fragments of the FB11 antibody were generated and directly chemisorbed onto the gold electrode surface. The second approach resulted in an increased capture efficiency and higher sensitivity. Detection limits of 4.5 ng/mL for the lipopolysaccharide antigen and 31 bacteria/mL for the F. tularensis bacteria were achieved. Having demonstrated the functionality of the immunosensor, an electrode array was functionalised with the antibody fragment and integrated with microfluidics and housed in a tester set-up that facilitated complete automation of the assay. The only end-user intervention is sample addition, requiring less than one-minute hands-on time. The use of the automated microfluidic set-up not only required much lower reagent volumes but also the required incubation time was considerably reduced and a notable increase of 3-fold in assay sensitivity was achieved with a total assay time from sample addition to read-out of less than 20 min. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Structure and assembly of a paramyxovirus matrix protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Anthony J; Meng, Geng; Winkler, Dennis C; McGinnes, Lori W; Plevka, Pavel; Steven, Alasdair C; Morrison, Trudy G; Rossmann, Michael G

    2012-08-28

    Many pleomorphic, lipid-enveloped viruses encode matrix proteins that direct their assembly and budding, but the mechanism of this process is unclear. We have combined X-ray crystallography and cryoelectron tomography to show that the matrix protein of Newcastle disease virus, a paramyxovirus and relative of measles virus, forms dimers that assemble into pseudotetrameric arrays that generate the membrane curvature necessary for virus budding. We show that the glycoproteins are anchored in the gaps between the matrix proteins and that the helical nucleocapsids are associated in register with the matrix arrays. About 90% of virions lack matrix arrays, suggesting that, in agreement with previous biological observations, the matrix protein needs to dissociate from the viral membrane during maturation, as is required for fusion and release of the nucleocapsid into the host's cytoplasm. Structure and sequence conservation imply that other paramyxovirus matrix proteins function similarly.

  16. Calibration assembly for nuclear reactor vessel inspection apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsner, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    A removable calibration assembly can be utilized to verify the angular mounting of transducers in an array employed in an ultrasonic inpsection apparatus, to calibrate one axis of movement of the array with reference to a starting point, or to measure and calibrate the speed per unit of distance of the transducer's ultrasonic beam in the operating medium. The calibration assembly includes both a large and small reflecting surface separated by known distances, and several large cones, the tips of which are machined or adjusted to angles at which certain of the transducers are to be mounted. Clamping means for securing the calibration assembly to the inspection apparatus at a predetermined orientation is provided

  17. Method of using infrared radiation for assembling a first component with a second component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Whitson, Barry G.; Blue, Craig A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of assembling a first component for assembly with a second component involves a heating device which includes an enclosure having a cavity for inserting a first component. An array of infrared energy generators is disposed within the enclosure. At least a portion of the first component is inserted into the cavity, exposed to infrared energy and thereby heated to a temperature wherein the portion of the first component is sufficiently softened and/or expanded for assembly with a second component.

  18. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafosse, Jacques.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a nuclear fuel assembly for a light or heavy water reactor, or for a fast reactor of the kind with a bundle of cladded pins, maintained parallel to each other in a regular network by an assembly of separate supporting grids, fitted with elastic bearing surfaces on these pins [fr

  19. Assembling Transgender Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greteman, Adam J.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author seeks to assemble moments--scholarly, popular, and aesthetic--in order to explore the possibilities that emerge as moments collect in education's encounters with the needs, struggles, and possibilities of transgender lives and practices. Assembling moments, the author argues, illustrates the value of "moments"…

  20. Vertical pump assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohnal, M.; Rosel, J.; Skarka, V.

    1988-01-01

    The mounting is described of the drive assembly of a vertical pump for nuclear power plants in areas with seismic risk. The assembly is attached to the building floor using flexible and damping elements. The design allows producing seismically resistant pumps without major design changes in the existing types of vertical pumps. (E.S.). 1 fig

  1. In Vivo Expansion of Melanoma-Specific T Cells Using Microneedle Arrays Coated with Immune-Polyelectrolyte Multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qin; Gammon, Joshua M; Tostanoski, Lisa H; Chiu, Yu-Chieh; Jewell, Christopher M

    2017-02-13

    Microneedles (MNs) are micron-scale polymeric or metallic structures that offer distinct advantages for vaccines by efficiently targeting skin-resident immune cells, eliminating injection-associated pain, and improving patient compliance. These advantages, along with recent studies showing therapeutic benefits achieved using traditional intradermal injections in human cancer patients, suggest MN delivery might enhance cancer vaccines and immunotherapies. We recently developed a new class of polyelectrolyte multilayers based on the self-assembly of model peptide antigens and molecular toll-like receptor agonists (TLRa) into ultrathin, conformal coatings. Here, we reasoned that these immune polyelectrolyte multilayers (iPEMs) might be a useful platform for assembling cancer vaccine components on MN arrays for intradermal delivery from these substrates. Using conserved human melanoma antigens and a potent TLRa vaccine adjuvant, CpG, we show that iPEMs can be assembled on MNs in an automated fashion. These films, prepared with up to 128 layers, are approximately 200 nm thick but provide cancer vaccine cargo loading >225 μg/cm 2 . In cell culture, iPEM cargo released from MNs is internalized by primary dendritic cells, promotes activation of these cells, and expands T cells during coculture. In mice, application of iPEM-coated MNs results in the codelivery of tumor antigen and CpG through the skin, expanding tumor-specific T cells during initial MN applications and resulting in larger memory recall responses during a subsequent booster MN application. This study support MNs coated with PEMs built from tumor vaccine components as a well-defined, modular system for generating tumor-specific immune responses, enabling new approaches that can be explored in combination with checkpoint blockade or other combination cancer therapies.

  2. Fuel Assembly Damping Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kanghee; Kang, Heungseok; Oh, Dongseok; Yoon, Kyungho; Kim, Hyungkyu; Kim, Jaeyong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This paper summary the fuel assembly damping data in air/in still water/under flow, released from foreign fuel vendors, compared our data with the published data. Some technical issues in fuel assembly damping measurement testing are also briefly discussed. Understanding of each fuel assembly damping mechanisms according to the surrounding medium and flow velocity can support the fuel design improvement in fuel assembly dynamics and structural integrity aspect. Because the upgraded requirements of the newly-developed advanced reactor system will demands to minimize fuel design margin in integrity evaluation, reduction in conservatism of fuel assembly damping can contribute to alleviate the fuel design margin for sure. Damping is an energy dissipation mechanism in a vibrating mechanical structure and prevents a resonant structure from having infinite vibration amplitudes. The sources of fuel assembly damping are various from support friction to flow contribution, and it can be increased by the viscosity or drag of surrounding fluid medium or the average velocity of water flowing. Fuel licensing requires fuel design evaluation in transient or accidental condition. Dynamic response analysis of fuel assembly is to show fuel integrity and requires information on assembly-wise damping in dry condition and under wet or water flowing condition. However, damping measurement test for the full-scale fuel assembly prototype is not easy to carry out because of the scale (fuel prototype, test facility), unsteadiness of test data (scattering, random sampling and processing), instrumentation under water flowing (water-proof response measurement), and noise. LWR fuel technology division in KAERI is preparing the infra structure for damping measurement test of full-scale fuel assembly, to support fuel industries and related research activities. Here is a preliminary summary of fuel assembly damping, published in the literature. Some technical issues in fuel assembly damping

  3. Array Phase Shifters: Theory and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    While there are a myriad of applications for microwave phase shifters in instrumentation and metrology, power combining, amplifier linearization, and so on, the most prevalent use is in scanning phased-array antennas. And while this market continues to be dominated by military radar and tracking platforms, many commercial applications have emerged in the past decade or so. These new and potential applications span low-Earth-orbit (LEO) communications satellite constellations and collision warning radar, an aspect of the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System or Automated Highway System. In any case, the phase shifters represent a considerable portion of the overall antenna cost, with some estimates approaching 40 percent for receive arrays. Ferrite phase shifters continue to be the workhorse in military-phased arrays, and while there have been advances in thin film ferrite devices, the review of this device technology in the previous edition of this book is still highly relevant. This chapter will focus on three types of phase shifters that have matured in the past decade: GaAs MESFET monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC), micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), and thin film ferroelectric-based devices. A brief review of some novel devices including thin film ferrite phase shifters and superconducting switches for phase shifter applications will be provided. Finally, the effects of modulo 2 phase shift limitations, phase errors, and transient response on bit error rate degradation will be considered.

  4. Self-assembled nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jin Z; Liu, Jun; Chen, Shaowei; Liu, Gang-yu

    2003-01-01

    Nanostructures refer to materials that have relevant dimensions on the nanometer length scales and reside in the mesoscopic regime between isolated atoms and molecules in bulk matter. These materials have unique physical properties that are distinctly different from bulk materials. Self-Assembled Nanostructures provides systematic coverage of basic nanomaterials science including materials assembly and synthesis, characterization, and application. Suitable for both beginners and experts, it balances the chemistry aspects of nanomaterials with physical principles. It also highlights nanomaterial-based architectures including assembled or self-assembled systems. Filled with in-depth discussion of important applications of nano-architectures as well as potential applications ranging from physical to chemical and biological systems, Self-Assembled Nanostructures is the essential reference or text for scientists involved with nanostructures.

  5. Design of hybrid two-dimensional and three-dimensional nanostructured arrays for electronic and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyunhyub

    This dissertation presents the design of organic/inorganic hybrid 2D and 3D nanostructured arrays via controlled assembly of nanoscale building blocks. Two representative nanoscale building blocks such as carbon nanotubes (one-dimension) and metal nanoparticles (zero-dimension) are the core materials for the study of solution-based assembly of nanostructured arrays. The electrical, mechanical, and optical properties of the assembled nanostructure arrays have been investigated for future device applications. We successfully demonstrated the prospective use of assembled nanostructure arrays for electronic and sensing applications by designing flexible carbon nanotube nanomembranes as mechanical sensors, highly-oriented carbon nanotubes arrays for thin-film transistors, and gold nanoparticle arrays for SERS chemical sensors. In first section, we fabricated highly ordered carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays by tilted drop-casting or dip-coating of CNT solution on silicon substrates functionalized with micropatterned self-assembled monolayers. We further exploited the electronic performance of thin-film transistors based on highly-oriented, densely packed CNT micropatterns and showed that the carrier mobility is largely improved compared to randomly oriented CNTs. The prospective use of Raman-active CNTs for potential mechanical sensors has been investigated by studying the mechano-optical properties of flexible carbon nanotube nanomembranes, which contain freely-suspended carbon nanotube array encapsulated into ultrathin (optical waveguide properties of nano-canals. We demonstrated the ability of this SERS substrate for trace level sensing of nitroaromatic explosives by detecting down to 100 zeptogram (˜330 molecules) of DNT.

  6. Statistical analysis of AFM topographic images of self-assembled quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevriuk, V. A.; Brunkov, P. N., E-mail: brunkov@mail.ioffe.ru; Shalnev, I. V.; Gutkin, A. A.; Klimko, G. V.; Gronin, S. V.; Sorokin, S. V.; Konnikov, S. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-15

    To obtain statistical data on quantum-dot sizes, AFM topographic images of the substrate on which the dots under study are grown are analyzed. Due to the nonideality of the substrate containing height differences on the order of the size of nanoparticles at distances of 1-10 {mu}m and the insufficient resolution of closely arranged dots due to the finite curvature radius of the AFM probe, automation of the statistical analysis of their large dot array requires special techniques for processing topographic images to eliminate the loss of a particle fraction during conventional processing. As such a technique, convolution of the initial matrix of the AFM image with a specially selected matrix is used. This makes it possible to determine the position of each nanoparticle and, using the initial matrix, to measure their geometrical parameters. The results of statistical analysis by this method of self-assembled InAs quantum dots formed on the surface of an AlGaAs epitaxial layer are presented. It is shown that their concentration, average size, and half-width of height distribution depend strongly on the In flow and total amount of deposited InAs which are varied within insignificant limits.

  7. AUTOMATED PROCESS MONITORING: APPLYING PROVEN AUTOMATION TECHNIQUES TO INTERNATIONAL SAFEGUARDS NEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, Matthew J.; Durst, Philip C.; Grate, Jay W.; Devol, Timothy A.; Egorov, Oleg; Clements, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Identification and quantification of specific alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides in complex liquid matrices is highly challenging, and is typically accomplished through laborious wet chemical sample preparation and separations followed by analysis using a variety of detection methodologies (e.g., liquid scintillation, gas proportional counting, alpha energy analysis, mass spectrometry). Analytical results may take days or weeks to report. Chains of custody and sample security measures may also complicate or slow the analytical process. When an industrial process-scale plant requires the monitoring of specific radionuclides as an indication of the composition of its feed stream or of plant performance, radiochemical measurements must be fast, accurate, and reliable. Scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have assembled a fully automated prototype Process Monitor instrument capable of a variety of tasks: automated sampling directly from a feed stream, sample digestion/analyte redox adjustment, chemical separations, radiochemical detection and data analysis/reporting. The system is compact, its components are fluidically inter-linked, and analytical results could be immediately transmitted to on- or off-site locations. The development of a rapid radiochemical Process Monitor for 99Tc in Hanford tank waste processing streams, capable of performing several measurements per hour, will be discussed in detail. More recently, the automated platform was modified to perform measurements of 90Sr in Hanford tank waste stimulant. The system exemplifies how automation could be integrated into reprocessing facilities to support international nuclear safeguards needs

  8. Toward a human-centered aircraft automation philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of automation in civil aircraft is examined in order to discern trends in the respective roles and functions of automation technology and the humans who operate these aircraft. The effects of advances in automation technology on crew reaction is considered and it appears that, though automation may well have decreased the frequency of certain types of human errors in flight, it may also have enabled new categories of human errors, some perhaps less obvious and therefore more serious than those it has alleviated. It is suggested that automation could be designed to keep the pilot closer to the control of the vehicle, while providing an array of information management and aiding functions designed to provide the pilot with data regarding flight replanning, degraded system operation, and the operational status and limits of the aircraft, its systems, and the physical and operational environment. The automation would serve as the pilot's assistant, providing and calculating data, watching for the unexpected, and keeping track of resources and their rate of expenditure.

  9. Nuclear power generation and automation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korei, Yoshiro

    1985-01-01

    The proportion of nuclear power in the total generated electric power has been increasing year after year, and the ensuring of its stable supply has been demanded. For the further development of nuclear power generation, the heightening of economical efficiency which is the largest merit of nuclear power and the public acceptance as a safe and stable electric power source are the important subjects. In order to solve these subjects, in nuclear power generation, various automation techniques have been applied for the purpose of the heightening of reliability, labor saving and the reduction of radiation exposure. Meeting the high needs of automation, the automation technology aided by computers have been applied to the design, manufacture and construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. Computer-aided design and the examples of design of a reactor building, pipings and a fuel assembly, an automatic welder for pipings of all position TIG welding type, a new central monitoring and control system, an automatic exchanger of control rod-driving mechanism, an automatic in-service inspection system for nozzles and pipings, and a robot for steam generator maintenance are shown. The trend of technical development and an intelligent moving robot, a system maintenance robot and a four legs walking robot are explained. (Kako, I.)

  10. Testing of focal plane arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriam, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Problems associated with the testing of focal plane arrays are briefly examined with reference to the instrumentation and measurement procedures. In particular, the approach and instrumentation used as the Naval Ocean Systems Center is presented. Most of the measurements are made with flooded illumination on the focal plane array. The array is treated as an ensemble of individual pixels, data being taken on each pixel and array averages and standard deviations computed for the entire array. Data maps are generated, showing the pixel data in the proper spatial position on the array and the array statistics

  11. Dynamics of magnetic nano-particle assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyev, V N

    2010-01-01

    Ferromagnetically coupled nano-particle assembly is analyzed accounting for inter- and intra- particle electronic structures within the randomly jumping interacting moments model including quantum fluctuations due to the discrete levels and disorder. At the magnetic jump anomalies caused by quantization the magnetic state equation and phase diagram are found to indicate an existence of spinodal regions and critical points. Arrays of magnetized nano-particles with multiple magnetic response anomalies are predicted to display some specific features. In a case of weak coupling such arrays exhibit the well-separated instability regions surrounding the anomaly positions. With increasing coupling we observe further structure modification, plausibly, of bifurcation type. At strong coupling the dynamical instability region become wide while the stable regime arises as a narrow islands at small disorders. It is shown that exploring correlations of magnetic noise amplitudes represents convenient analytical tool for quantitative definition, description and study of supermagnetism, as well as self-organized criticality.

  12. Development of the Triple Theta assembly station with machine vision feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Derek William

    2008-01-01

    Increased requirements for tighter tolerances on assembled target components in complex three-dimensional geometries with only days to assemble complete campaigns require the implementation of a computer-controlled high-precision assembly station. Over the last year, an 11-axis computer-controlled assembly station has been designed and built with custom software to handle the multiple coordinate systems and automatically calculate all relational positions. Preliminary development efforts have also been done to explore the benefit of a machine vision feedback module with a dual-camera viewing system to automate certain basic features like crosshair calibration, component leveling, and component centering.

  13. The Gerda Phase II detector assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bode, Tobias; Schoenert, Stefan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Schwingenheuer, Bernhard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Phase II of the Gerda (Germanium Detector Array) experiment will continue the search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of {sup 76}Ge. Prerequisites for Phase II are an increased target mass and a reduced background index of < 10 {sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr). Major hardware upgrades to achieve these requirements are scheduled for 2013. They include the deployment of a new radio pure low mass detector assembly. The structural properties of available radio-pure materials and reduction of mass necessitate a change of the electrical contacting used to bias and read-out the detectors. The detector assembly design and the favored contacting solution are presented.

  14. Solar array technology evaluation program for SEPS (Solar Electrical Propulsion Stage)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the technology and the development of a preliminary design for a 25 kilowatt solar array system for solar electric propulsion are discussed. The solar array has a power to weight ratio of 65 watts per kilogram. The solar array system is composed of two wings. Each wing consists of a solar array blanket, a blanket launch storage container, an extension/retraction mast assembly, a blanket tensioning system, an array electrical harness, and hardware for supporting the system for launch and in the operating position. The technology evaluation was performed to assess the applicable solar array state-of-the-art and to define supporting research necessary to achieve technology readiness for meeting the solar electric propulsion system solar array design requirements.

  15. Bottom nozzle of a LWR fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroux, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The bottom nozzle consists of a transverse element in form of box having a bending resistant grid structure which has an outer peripheral frame of cross-section corresponding to that of the fuel assembly and which has walls defining large cells. The transverse element has a retainer plate with a regular array of openings. The retainer plate is fixed above and parallel to the grid structure with a spacing in order to form, between the grid structure and the retainer plate a free space for tranquil flow of cooling water and for debris collection [fr

  16. Assembly mechanism for nuclear fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.W.; Flora, B.S.; Ford, K.L.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a nuclear power reactor fuel bundle of the type wherein several rods are mounted in parallel array between two tie plates which secure the fuel rods in place and are maintained in assembled position by means of a number of tie rods secured to both of the end plates. Improved apparatus is provided for attaching the tie rods to the upper tie plate by the use of locking lugs fixed to rotatable sleeves which engage the upper tie plate. (auth)

  17. Automation of Taxiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Bursík

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the possibility of automation of taxiing, which is the part of a flight, which, under adverse weather conditions, greatly reduces the operational usability of an airport, and is the only part of a flight that has not been affected by automation, yet. Taxiing is currently handled manually by the pilot, who controls the airplane based on information from visual perception. The article primarily deals with possible ways of obtaining navigational information, and its automatic transfer to the controls. Analyzed wand assessed were currently available technologies such as computer vision, Light Detection and Ranging and Global Navigation Satellite System, which are useful for navigation and their general implementation into an airplane was designed. Obstacles to the implementation were identified, too. The result is a proposed combination of systems along with their installation into airplane’s systems so that it is possible to use the automated taxiing.

  18. Integration of disabled people in an automated work process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, C. K.; Muminovic, A.; Epple, S.; Barz, C.; Nasui, V.

    2017-05-01

    Automation processes enter more and more into all areas of life and production. Especially people with disabilities can hardly keep step with this change. In sheltered workshops in Germany people with physical and mental disabilities get help with much dedication, to be integrated into the work processes. This work shows that cooperation between disabled people and industrial robots by means of industrial image processing can successfully result in the production of highly complex products. Here is described how high-pressure hydraulic pumps are assembled by people with disabilities in cooperation with industrial robots in a sheltered workshop. After the assembly process, the pumps are checked for leaks at very high pressures in a completely automated process.

  19. High-throughput mouse genotyping using robotics automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linask, Kaari L; Lo, Cecilia W

    2005-02-01

    The use of mouse models is rapidly expanding in biomedical research. This has dictated the need for the rapid genotyping of mutant mouse colonies for more efficient utilization of animal holding space. We have established a high-throughput protocol for mouse genotyping using two robotics workstations: a liquid-handling robot to assemble PCR and a microfluidics electrophoresis robot for PCR product analysis. This dual-robotics setup incurs lower start-up costs than a fully automated system while still minimizing human intervention. Essential to this automation scheme is the construction of a database containing customized scripts for programming the robotics workstations. Using these scripts and the robotics systems, multiple combinations of genotyping reactions can be assembled simultaneously, allowing even complex genotyping data to be generated rapidly with consistency and accuracy. A detailed protocol, database, scripts, and additional background information are available at http://dir.nhlbi.nih.gov/labs/ldb-chd/autogene/.

  20. Control and automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Zillich, H.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of the development of control and automation systems for energy uses. General remarks about control and automation schemes are followed by a description of modern process control systems along with process control processes as such. After discussing the particular process control requirements of nuclear power plants the paper deals with the reliability and availability of process control systems and refers to computerized simulation processes. The subsequent paragraphs are dedicated to descriptions of the operating floor, ergonomic conditions, existing systems, flue gas desulfurization systems, the electromagnetic influences on digital circuits as well as of light wave uses. (HAG) [de