Algebraic and structural automata theory
Mikolajczak, B
1991-01-01
Automata Theory is part of computability theory which covers problems in computer systems, software, activity of nervous systems (neural networks), and processes of live organisms development.The result of over ten years of research, this book presents work in the following areas of Automata Theory: automata morphisms, time-varying automata, automata realizations and relationships between automata and semigroups.Aimed at those working in discrete mathematics and computer science, parts of the book are suitable for use in graduate courses in computer science, electronics, telecommunications, and control engineering. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the basic concepts of algebra and graph theory.
Borowik, Bohdan; Lahno, Valery; Petrov, Oleksandr
2013-01-01
This book serves a dual purpose: firstly to combine the treatment of circuits and digital electronics, and secondly, to establish a strong connection with the contemporary world of digital systems. The need for this approach arises from the observation that introducing digital electronics through a course in traditional circuit analysis is fast becoming obsolete. Our world has gone digital. Automata theory helps with the design of digital circuits such as parts of computers, telephone systems and control systems. A complete perspective is emphasized, because even the most elegant computer architecture will not function without adequate supporting circuits. The focus is on explaining the real-world implementation of complete digital systems. In doing so, the reader is prepared to immediately begin design and implementation work. This work serves as a bridge to take readers from the theoretical world to the everyday design world where solutions must be complete to be successful.
Automata theory and its applications
Khoussainov, Bakhadyr
2001-01-01
The theory of finite automata on finite stings, infinite strings, and trees has had a dis tinguished history. First, automata were introduced to represent idealized switching circuits augmented by unit delays. This was the period of Shannon, McCullouch and Pitts, and Howard Aiken, ending about 1950. Then in the 1950s there was the work of Kleene on representable events, of Myhill and Nerode on finite coset congruence relations on strings, of Rabin and Scott on power set automata. In the 1960s, there was the work of Btichi on automata on infinite strings and the second order theory of one successor, then Rabin's 1968 result on automata on infinite trees and the second order theory of two successors. The latter was a mystery until the introduction of forgetful determinacy games by Gurevich and Harrington in 1982. Each of these developments has successful and prospective applications in computer science. They should all be part of every computer scientist's toolbox. Suppose that we take a computer scientist's ...
Learning automata theory and applications
Najim, K
1994-01-01
Learning systems have made a significant impact on all areas of engineering problems. They are attractive methods for solving many problems which are too complex, highly non-linear, uncertain, incomplete or non-stationary, and have subtle and interactive exchanges with the environment where they operate. The main aim of the book is to give a systematic treatment of learning automata and to produce a guide to a wide variety of ideas and methods that can be used in learning systems, including enough theoretical material to enable the user of the relevant techniques and concepts to understand why
Theory of computation, automata and languages | Akinyede | Ife ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In 1940s, another machine known as finite automata, which would model human brain function, was proposed. In the same manner, in late 1950s other areas such as formal grammars, which have closed relationships to abstract automata, were studied. This research work critically studied the theory of computation, ...
An Interface Theory for Input/Output Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nyman, Ulrik; Wasowski, Andrzej
Building on the theory of interface automata by de~Alfaro and Henzinger we design an interface language for Lynch's Input/Output Automata, a popular formalism used in the development of distributed asynchronous systems, not addressed by previous interface research. We introduce an explicit separa...
Theory of automata, formal languages and computation
Xavier, SPE
2004-01-01
This book is aimed at providing an introduction to the basic models of computability to the undergraduate students. This book is devoted to Finite Automata and their properties. Pushdown Automata provides a class of models and enables the analysis of context-free languages. Turing Machines have been introduced and the book discusses computability and decidability. A number of problems with solutions have been provided for each chapter. A lot of exercises have been given with hints/answers to most of these tutorial problems.
Classification of networks of automata by dynamical mean field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burda, Z.; Jurkiewicz, J.; Flyvbjerg, H.
1990-01-01
Dynamical mean field theory is used to classify the 2 24 =65,536 different networks of binary automata on a square lattice with nearest neighbour interactions. Application of mean field theory gives 700 different mean field classes, which fall in seven classes of different asymptotic dynamics characterized by fixed points and two-cycles. (orig.)
A half-century of automata theory celebration and inspiration
Salomaa, A; Yu, S
2001-01-01
This volume gathers lectures by 8 distinguished pioneers of automata theory, including two Turing Award winners. In each contribution, the early developments of automata theory are reminisced about and future directions are suggested. Although some of the contributions go into rather intriguing technical details, most of the book is accessible to a wide audience interested in the progress of the age of computers. The book is a must for professionals in theoretical computer science and related areas of mathematics. For students in these areas it provides an exceptionally deep view at the beginn
Multilane Traffic Flow Modeling Using Cellular Automata Theory
Chechina, Antonina; Churbanova, Natalia; Trapeznikova, Marina
2018-02-01
The paper deals with the mathematical modeling of traffic flows on urban road networks using microscopic approach. The model is based on the cellular automata theory and presents a generalization of the Nagel-Schreckenberg model to a multilane case. The created program package allows to simulate traffic on various types of road fragments (T or X type intersection, strait road elements, etc.) and on road networks that consist of these elements. Besides that, it allows to predict the consequences of various decisions regarding road infrastructure changes, such as: number of lanes increasing/decreasing, putting new traffic lights into operation, building new roads, entrances/exits, road junctions.
Computer Models and Automata Theory in Biology and Medicine
Baianu, I C
2004-01-01
The applications of computers to biological and biomedical problem solving goes back to the very beginnings of computer science, automata theory [1], and mathematical biology [2]. With the advent of more versatile and powerful computers, biological and biomedical applications of computers have proliferated so rapidly that it would be virtually impossible to compile a comprehensive review of all developments in this field. Limitations of computer simulations in biology have also come under close scrutiny, and claims have been made that biological systems have limited information processing power [3]. Such general conjectures do not, however, deter biologists and biomedical researchers from developing new computer applications in biology and medicine. Microprocessors are being widely employed in biological laboratories both for automatic data acquisition/processing and modeling; one particular area, which is of great biomedical interest, involves fast digital image processing and is already established for rout...
Priced Timed Automata: Theory and Tools
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
2009-01-01
Priced timed automata are emerging as useful formalisms for modeling and analysing a broad range of resource allocation problems. In this extended abstract, we highlight recent (un)deci\\-dability results related to priced timed automata as well as point to a number of open problems.......Priced timed automata are emerging as useful formalisms for modeling and analysing a broad range of resource allocation problems. In this extended abstract, we highlight recent (un)deci\\-dability results related to priced timed automata as well as point to a number of open problems....
Cellular Automata Ideas in Digital Circuits and Switching Theory.
Siwak, Pawel P.
1985-01-01
Presents two examples which illustrate the usefulness of ideas from cellular automata. First, Lee's algorithm is recalled and its cellular nature shown. Then a problem from digraphs, which has arisen from analyzing predecessing configurations in the famous Conway's "game of life," is considered. (Author/JN)
Perceptions of teaching and learning automata theory in a college-level computer science course
Weidmann, Phoebe Kay
This dissertation identifies and describes student and instructor perceptions that contribute to effective teaching and learning of Automata Theory in a competitive college-level Computer Science program. Effective teaching is the ability to create an appropriate learning environment in order to provide effective learning. We define effective learning as the ability of a student to meet instructor set learning objectives, demonstrating this by passing the course, while reporting a good learning experience. We conducted our investigation through a detailed qualitative case study of two sections (118 students) of Automata Theory (CS 341) at The University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Lily Quilt. Because Automata Theory has a fixed curriculum in the sense that many curricula and textbooks agree on what Automata Theory contains, differences being depth and amount of material to cover in a single course, a case study would allow for generalizable findings. Automata Theory is especially problematic in a Computer Science curriculum since students are not experienced in abstract thinking before taking this course, fail to understand the relevance of the theory, and prefer classes with more concrete activities such as programming. This creates a special challenge for any instructor of Automata Theory as motivation becomes critical for student learning. Through the use of student surveys, instructor interviews, classroom observation, material and course grade analysis we sought to understand what students perceived, what instructors expected of students, and how those perceptions played out in the classroom in terms of structure and instruction. Our goal was to create suggestions that would lead to a better designed course and thus a higher student success rate in Automata Theory. We created a unique theoretical basis, pedagogical positivism, on which to study college-level courses. Pedagogical positivism states that through examining instructor and student perceptions
Finite automata, their algebras and grammars towards a theory of formal expressions
Büchi, J Richard
1989-01-01
The author, who died in 1984, is well-known both as a person and through his research in mathematical logic and theoretical computer science. In the first part of the book he presents the new classical theory of finite automata as unary algebras which he himself invented about 30 years ago. Many results, like his work on structure lattices or his characterization of regular sets by generalized regular rules, are unknown to a wider audience. In the second part of the book he extends the theory to general (non-unary, many-sorted) algebras, term rewriting systems, tree automata, and pushdown automata. Essentially Büchi worked independent of other rersearch, following a novel and stimulating approach. He aimed for a mathematical theory of terms, but could not finish the book. Many of the results are known by now, but to work further along this line presents a challenging research program on the borderline between universal algebra, term rewriting systems, and automata theory. For the whole book and aga...
Stimulus-Response Theory of Finite Automata, Technical Report No. 133.
Suppes, Patrick
The central aim of this paper and its projected successors is to prove in detail that stimulus-response theory, or at least a mathematically precise version, can give an account of the learning of many phrase-structure grammars. Section 2 is concerned with standard notions of finite and probabilistic automata. An automaton is defined as a device…
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Structural Theory of Automata, Semigroups and Universal Algebra
Rosenberg, Ivo; Goldstein, Martin
2005-01-01
Several of the contributions to this volume bring forward many mutually beneficial interactions and connections between the three domains of the title. Developing them was the main purpose of the NATO ASI summerschool held in Montreal in 2003. Although some connections, for example between semigroups and automata, were known for a long time, developing them and surveying them in one volume is novel and hopefully stimulating for the future. Another aspect is the emphasis on the structural theory of automata that studies ways to contstruct big automata from small ones. The volume also has contributions on top current research or surveys in the three domains. One contribution even links clones of universal algebra with the computational complexity of computer science. Three contributions introduce the reader to research in the former East block.
Learning automata an introduction
Narendra, Kumpati S
2012-01-01
This self-contained introductory text on the behavior of learning automata focuses on how a sequential decision-maker with a finite number of choices responds in a random environment. Topics include fixed structure automata, variable structure stochastic automata, convergence, 0 and S models, nonstationary environments, interconnected automata and games, and applications of learning automata. A must for all students of stochastic algorithms, this treatment is the work of two well-known scientists and is suitable for a one-semester graduate course in automata theory and stochastic algorithms.
Simulators for teaching formal languages and automata theory: a comparative survey
Chesñevar, Carlos Iván; Cobo, María Laura
2002-01-01
Formal languages and automata theory (FL&AT) are central subjects in the CS curricula which are usually diffcult both to teach and to learn. This situation has motivated the development of a number of computer simulators as educational tools which allow the student to implement and `bring to life' many topics which traditionally were studied and analyzed mathematically rather than algorithmically. This paper discusses the main features of several educational software tools currently availa...
Cellular Automata Theory and Physics: A new Paradigm for the Unification of Physics
Ostoma, Tom; Trushyk, Mike
1999-01-01
A new paradigm for the unification of physics is described. It is called Cellular Automata (CA) theory, which is the most massively parallel computer model currently known to science. We maintain that at the tiniest distance and time scales the universe is completely deterministic, and utterly simple. Our universe is a Cellular Automaton consisting of a huge array of cells capable of storing numeric information. These cells form a vast, 3D 'geometric' CA, where each cell has 26 surrounding ne...
Automation of Algorithmic Tasks for Virtual Laboratories Based on Automata Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evgeniy A. Efimchik
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In the work a description of an automata model of standard algorithm for constructing a correct solution of algorithmic tests is given. The described model allows a formal determination of the variant complexity of algorithmic test and serves as a basis for determining the complexity functions, including the collision concept – the situation of uncertainty, when a choice must be made upon fulfilling the task between the alternatives with various priorities. The influence of collisions on the automata model and its inner structure is described. The model and complexity functions are applied for virtual laboratories upon designing the algorithms of constructing variant with a predetermined complexity in real time and algorithms of the estimation procedures of students’ solution with respect to collisions. The results of the work are applied to the development of virtual laboratories, which are used in the practical part of massive online course on graph theory.
A Review on Block Matching Motion Estimation and Automata Theory based Approaches for Fractal Coding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shailesh Kamble
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Fractal compression is the lossy compression technique in the field of gray/color image and video compression. It gives high compression ratio, better image quality with fast decoding time but improvement in encoding time is a challenge. This review paper/article presents the analysis of most significant existing approaches in the field of fractal based gray/color images and video compression, different block matching motion estimation approaches for finding out the motion vectors in a frame based on inter-frame coding and intra-frame coding i.e. individual frame coding and automata theory based coding approaches to represent an image/sequence of images. Though different review papers exist related to fractal coding, this paper is different in many sense. One can develop the new shape pattern for motion estimation and modify the existing block matching motion estimation with automata coding to explore the fractal compression technique with specific focus on reducing the encoding time and achieving better image/video reconstruction quality. This paper is useful for the beginners in the domain of video compression.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
These automata consist of a network of timed agents with the key restriction being that there is just one clock for each agent and the way the clocks are read and reset is determined by the distribution of shared actions across the agents. We show that the resulting automata admit a clean theory in both logical and language ...
Adamatzky, Andrew
2015-01-01
The book gives a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art research and engineering in theory and application of Lattice Automata in design and control of autonomous Robots. Automata and robots share the same notional meaning. Automata (originated from the latinization of the Greek word “αυτόματον”) as self-operating autonomous machines invented from ancient years can be easily considered the first steps of robotic-like efforts. Automata are mathematical models of Robots and also they are integral parts of robotic control systems. A Lattice Automaton is a regular array or a collective of finite state machines, or automata. The Automata update their states by the same rules depending on states of their immediate neighbours. In the context of this book, Lattice Automata are used in developing modular reconfigurable robotic systems, path planning and map exploration for robots, as robot controllers, synchronisation of robot collectives, robot vision, parallel robotic actuators. All chapters are...
The Determining Finite Automata Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. S. Vinogradova
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The theory of formal languages widely uses finite state automata both in implementation of automata-based approach to programming, and in synthesis of logical control algorithms.To ensure unambiguous operation of the algorithms, the synthesized finite state automata must be deterministic. Within the approach to the synthesis of the mobile robot controls, for example, based on the theory of formal languages, there are problems concerning the construction of various finite automata, but such finite automata, as a rule, will not be deterministic. The algorithm of determinization can be applied to the finite automata, as specified, in various ways. The basic ideas of the algorithm of determinization can be most simply explained using the representations of a finite automaton in the form of a weighted directed graph.The paper deals with finite automata represented as weighted directed graphs, and discusses in detail the procedure for determining the finite automata represented in this way. Gives a detailed description of the algorithm for determining finite automata. A large number of examples illustrate a capability of the determinization algorithm.
Okubo, Fumiya; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Yokomori, Takashi
2011-01-01
Reaction systems are a formal model that has been introduced to investigate the interactive behaviors of biochemical reactions. Based on the formal framework of reaction systems, we propose new computing models called reaction automata that feature (string) language acceptors with multiset manipulation as a computing mechanism, and show that reaction automata are computationally Turing universal. Further, some subclasses of reaction automata with space complexity are investigated and their la...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuki Osada
2014-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we define the class of hourglass automata, which are timed automata with bounded clocks that can be made to progress backwards as well as forwards at a constant rate. We then introduce a new clock update for timed automata that allows hourglass automata to be expressed. This allows us to show that language emptiness remains decidable with this update when the number of clocks is two or less. This is done by showing that we can construct a finite untimed graph using clock regions from any timed automaton that use this new update.
Cellular automata analysis and applications
Hadeler, Karl-Peter
2017-01-01
This book focuses on a coherent representation of the main approaches to analyze the dynamics of cellular automata. Cellular automata are an inevitable tool in mathematical modeling. In contrast to classical modeling approaches as partial differential equations, cellular automata are straightforward to simulate but hard to analyze. In this book we present a review of approaches and theories that allow the reader to understand the behavior of cellular automata beyond simulations. The first part consists of an introduction of cellular automata on Cayley graphs, and their characterization via the fundamental Cutis-Hedlund-Lyndon theorems in the context of different topological concepts (Cantor, Besicovitch and Weyl topology). The second part focuses on classification results: What classification follows from topological concepts (Hurley classification), Lyapunov stability (Gilman classification), and the theory of formal languages and grammars (Kůrka classification). These classifications suggest to cluster cel...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lars Luthmann
2015-04-01
Full Text Available We present an adaptation of input/output conformance (ioco testing principles to families of similar implementation variants as appearing in product line engineering. Our proposed product line testing theory relies on Modal Interface Automata (MIA as behavioral specification formalism. MIA enrich I/O-labeled transition systems with may/must modalities to distinguish mandatory from optional behavior, thus providing a semantic notion of intrinsic behavioral variability. In particular, MIA constitute a restricted, yet fully expressive subclass of I/O-labeled modal transition systems, guaranteeing desirable refinement and compositionality properties. The resulting modal-ioco relation defined on MIA is preserved under MIA refinement, which serves as variant derivation mechanism in our product line testing theory. As a result, modal-ioco is proven correct in the sense that it coincides with traditional ioco to hold for every derivable implementation variant. Based on this result, a family-based product line conformance testing framework can be established.
Statistical mechanics of cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolfram, S.
1983-01-01
Cellular automata are used as simple mathematical models to investigate self-organization in statistical mechanics. A detailed analysis is given of ''elementary'' cellular automata consisting of a sequence of sites with values 0 or 1 on a line, with each site evolving deterministically in discrete time steps according to p definite rules involving the values of its nearest neighbors. With simple initial configurations, the cellular automata either tend to homogeneous states, or generate self-similar patterns with fractal dimensions approx. =1.59 or approx. =1.69. With ''random'' initial configurations, the irreversible character of the cellular automaton evolution leads to several self-organization phenomena. Statistical properties of the structures generated are found to lie in two universality classes, independent of the details of the initial state or the cellular automaton rules. More complicated cellular automata are briefly considered, and connections with dynamical systems theory and the formal theory of computation are discussed
Interface Input/Output Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nyman, Ulrik; Wasowski, Andrzej
2006-01-01
Building on the theory of interface automata by de Alfaro and Henzinger we design an interface language for Lynch’s I/O, a popular formalism used in the development of distributed asynchronous systems, not addressed by previous interface research. We introduce an explicit separation of assumptions...... a method for solving systems of relativized behavioral inequalities as used in our setup and draw a formal correspondence between our work and interface automata....
On path hypercompositions in graphs and automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Massouros Christos G.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paths in graphs define hypercompositions in the set of their vertices and therefore it is feasible to associate hypercompositional structures to each graph. Similarly, the strings of letters from their alphabet, define hypercompositions in the automata, which in turn define the associated hypergroups to the automata. The study of the associated hypercompositional structures gives results in both, graphs and automata theory.
Guzmán, H. A.; Lárraga, M. E.; Alvarez-Icaza, L.; Carvajal, J.
2018-02-01
In this paper, a reliable cellular automata model oriented to faithfully reproduce deceleration and acceleration according to realistic reactions of drivers, when vehicles with different deceleration capabilities are considered is presented. The model focuses on describing complex traffic phenomena by coding in its rules the basic mechanisms of drivers behavior, vehicles capabilities and kinetics, while preserving simplicity. In particular, vehiclés kinetics is based on uniform accelerated motion, rather than in impulsive accelerated motion as in most existing CA models. Thus, the proposed model calculates in an analytic way three safe preserving distances to determine the best action a follower vehicle can take under a worst case scenario. Besides, the prediction analysis guarantees that under the proper assumptions, collision between vehicles may not happen at any future time. Simulations results indicate that all interactions of heterogeneous vehicles (i.e., car-truck, truck-car, car-car and truck-truck) are properly reproduced by the model. In addition, the model overcomes one of the major limitations of CA models for traffic modeling: the inability to perform smooth approach to slower or stopped vehicles. Moreover, the model is also capable of reproducing most empirical findings including the backward speed of the downstream front of the traffic jam, and different congested traffic patterns induced by a system with open boundary conditions with an on-ramp. Like most CA models, integer values are used to make the model run faster, which makes the proposed model suitable for real time traffic simulation of large networks.
Codd, E F
1968-01-01
Cellular Automata presents the fundamental principles of homogeneous cellular systems. This book discusses the possibility of biochemical computers with self-reproducing capability.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of some theorems dealing with conditions under which universal computation and construction can be exhibited in cellular spaces. This text then presents a design for a machine embedded in a cellular space or a machine that can compute all computable functions and construct a replica of itself in any accessible and sufficiently large region of t
The Role of Automata and Machine Theory in School and College Mathematics Syllabuses.
Holcombe, M.
1981-01-01
The introduction of certain topics in the theory of machines and languages into school and college mathematics courses in place of the more usual discussion of groups and formal logic is proposed. Examples of machines and languages and their interconnections suitable for such courses are outlined. (MP)
Algorithmic crystal chemistry: A cellular automata approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krivovichev, S. V.
2012-01-01
Atomic-molecular mechanisms of crystal growth can be modeled based on crystallochemical information using cellular automata (a particular case of finite deterministic automata). In particular, the formation of heteropolyhedral layered complexes in uranyl selenates can be modeled applying a one-dimensional three-colored cellular automaton. The use of the theory of calculations (in particular, the theory of automata) in crystallography allows one to interpret crystal growth as a computational process (the realization of an algorithm or program with a finite number of steps).
A Decomposition Theorem for Finite Automata.
Santa Coloma, Teresa L.; Tucci, Ralph P.
1990-01-01
Described is automata theory which is a branch of theoretical computer science. A decomposition theorem is presented that is easier than the Krohn-Rhodes theorem. Included are the definitions, the theorem, and a proof. (KR)
Azari, M; Tayyebi, A; Helbich, M; Ahadnejad Reveshty, M
2016-01-01
Urbanization processes challenge the growth of orchards areas in many cities in Iran. In Maragheh orchards are crucial ecological, economical, and tourist sources. To explore orchards threatened by urban expansion, this study aims, first, to develop a new model by coupling cellular automata and
On Decision Problems for Timed Automata
Finkel, Olivier
2005-01-01
We solve some decision problems for timed automata which were recently raised by S. Tripakis in [ Folk Theorems on the Determinization and Minimization of Timed Automata, in the Proceedings of the International Workshop FORMATS'2003, LNCS, Volume 2791, p. 182-188, 2004 ] and by E. Asarin in [ Challenges in Timed Languages, From Applied Theory to Basic Theory, Bulletin of the EATCS, Volume 83, p. 106-120, 2004 ]. In particular, we show that one cannot decide whether a given timed automaton is ...
Improved Undecidability Results for Reachability Games on Recursive Timed Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shankara Narayanan Krishna
2014-08-01
Full Text Available We study reachability games on recursive timed automata (RTA that generalize Alur-Dill timed automata with recursive procedure invocation mechanism similar to recursive state machines. It is known that deciding the winner in reachability games on RTA is undecidable for automata with two or more clocks, while the problem is decidable for automata with only one clock. Ouaknine and Worrell recently proposed a time-bounded theory of real-time verification by claiming that restriction to bounded-time recovers decidability for several key decision problem related to real-time verification. We revisited games on recursive timed automata with time-bounded restriction in the hope of recovering decidability. However, we found that the problem still remains undecidable for recursive timed automata with three or more clocks. Using similar proof techniques we characterize a decidability frontier for a generalization of RTA to recursive stopwatch automata.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Timed automata; distributed systems; logic. 1. Introduction. Timed automata as formulated by Alur & Dill (1994) have become a canonical model for describing timed behaviours. It is well-known that these automata are very powerful in language-theoretic terms. Their languages are closed under union and intersection but ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bahr, Patrick
2012-01-01
Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular r...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Srba, Jiri
2006-01-01
We investigate the possibility of (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds...... for a number of studied preorders and equivalences like simulation, completed simulation, ready simulation, 2-nested simulation preorders/equivalences and bisimulation equivalence. Our main results are that all the mentioned equivalences and preorders are EXPTIME-complete on visibly pushdown automata, PSPACE......-complete on visibly one-counter automata and P-complete on visibly BPA. Our PSPACE lower bound for visibly one-counter automata improves also the previously known DP-hardness results for ordinary one-counter automata and one-counter nets. Finally, we study regularity checking problems for visibly pushdown automata...
Algebraic Systems and Pushdown Automata
Petre, Ion; Salomaa, Arto
We concentrate in this chapter on the core aspects of algebraic series, pushdown automata, and their relation to formal languages. We choose to follow here a presentation of their theory based on the concept of properness. We introduce in Sect. 2 some auxiliary notions and results needed throughout the chapter, in particular the notions of discrete convergence in semirings and C-cycle free infinite matrices. In Sect. 3 we introduce the algebraic power series in terms of algebraic systems of equations. We focus on interconnections with context-free grammars and on normal forms. We then conclude the section with a presentation of the theorems of Shamir and Chomsky-Schützenberger. We discuss in Sect. 4 the algebraic and the regulated rational transductions, as well as some representation results related to them. Section 5 is dedicated to pushdown automata and focuses on the interconnections with classical (non-weighted) pushdown automata and on the interconnections with algebraic systems. We then conclude the chapter with a brief discussion of some of the other topics related to algebraic systems and pushdown automata.
Quantum features of natural cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elze, Hans-Thomas
2016-01-01
Cellular automata can show well known features of quantum mechanics, such as a linear rule according to which they evolve and which resembles a discretized version of the Schrödinger equation. This includes corresponding conservation laws. The class of “natural” Hamiltonian cellular automata is based exclusively on integer-valued variables and couplings and their dynamics derives from an Action Principle. They can be mapped reversibly to continuum models by applying Sampling Theory. Thus, “deformed” quantum mechanical models with a finite discreteness scale l are obtained, which for l → 0 reproduce familiar continuum results. We have recently demonstrated that such automata can form “multipartite” systems consistently with the tensor product structures of nonrelativistic many-body quantum mechanics, while interacting and maintaining the linear evolution. Consequently, the Superposition Principle fully applies for such primitive discrete deterministic automata and their composites and can produce the essential quantum effects of interference and entanglement. (paper)
The Quest for Minimal Quotients for Probabilistic Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eisentraut, Christian; Hermanns, Holger; Schuster, Johann
2013-01-01
One of the prevailing ideas in applied concurrency theory and verification is the concept of automata minimization with respect to strong or weak bisimilarity. The minimal automata can be seen as canonical representations of the behaviour modulo the bisimilarity considered. Together with congruence...... results wrt. process algebraic operators, this can be exploited to alleviate the notorious state space explosion problem. In this paper, we aim at identifying minimal automata and canonical representations for concurrent probabilistic models. We present minimality and canonicity results for probabilistic...... automata wrt. strong and weak bisimilarity, together with polynomial time minimization algorithms....
Algebras with actions and automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Kühnel
1982-01-01
Full Text Available In the present paper we want to give a common structure theory of left action, group operations, R-modules and automata of different types defined over various kinds of carrier objects: sets, graphs, presheaves, sheaves, topological spaces (in particular: compactly generated Hausdorff spaces. The first section gives an axiomatic approach to algebraic structures relative to a base category B, slightly more powerful than that of monadic (tripleable functors. In section 2 we generalize Lawveres functorial semantics to many-sorted algebras over cartesian closed categories. In section 3 we treat the structures mentioned in the beginning as many-sorted algebras with fixed scalar or input object and show that they still have an algebraic (or monadic forgetful functor (theorem 3.3 and hence the general theory of algebraic structures applies. These structures were usually treated as one-sorted in the Lawvere-setting, the action being expressed by a family of unary operations indexed over the scalars. But this approach cannot, as the one developed here, describe continuity of the action (more general: the action to be a B-morphism, which is essential for the structures mentioned above, e.g. modules for a sheaf of rings or topological automata. Finally we discuss consequences of theorem 3.3 for the structure theory of various types of automata. The particular case of algebras with fixed natural numbers object has been studied by the authors in [23].
Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.
We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation
Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.
2004-01-01
We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Page 1 .... experimental front to test the practical applicability of the models and techniques presented here. From a theoretical standpoint, PI automata are strictly less expressive than event clock ... It turns out that all our ideas can be extended smoothly to a larger setting in which the underlying “symbolic” automata are ...
Linearizable cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nobe, Atsushi; Yura, Fumitaka
2007-01-01
The initial value problem for a class of reversible elementary cellular automata with periodic boundaries is reduced to an initial-boundary value problem for a class of linear systems on a finite commutative ring Z 2 . Moreover, a family of such linearizable cellular automata is given
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quasthoff, U.
1985-07-01
Cellular automata by definition consist of a finite or infinite number of cells, say of unit length, with each cell having the same transition function. These cells are usually considered as the smallest elements and so the space filled with these cells becomes discrete. Nevertheless, large pictures created by such cellular automata look very fractal. So we try to replace each cell by a couple of smaller cells, which have the same transition functions as the large ones. There are automata where this replacement does not destroy the macroscopic structure. In these cases this nesting process can be iterated. The paper contains large classes of automata with the above properties. In the case of one dimensional automata with two states and next neighbour interaction and a nesting function of the same type a complete classification is given. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Meineche Smidt, Erik
A hierarchical type system for imperative programming languages gives rise to various computational problems, such as type equivalence, type ordering, etc. We present a particular class of finite automata which are shown to be isomorphic to type equations. All the relevant type concepts turn out...... to have well-known automata analogues, such as language equality, language inclusion, etc. This provides optimal or best known algorithms for the type system, by a process of translating type equations to automata, solving the analogous problem, and translating the result back to type equations. Apart...... from suggesting an implementation, this connection lends a certain naturality to our type system. We also introduce a very general form of extended (recursive) type equations which are explained in terms of (monotone) alternating automata. Since types are simply equationally defined trees...
Zeno's paradox in quantum cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Groessing, G.; Zeilinger, A.
1991-01-01
The effect of Zeno's paradox in quantum theory is demonstrated with the aid of quantum mechanical cellular automata. It is shown that the degree of non-unitarity of the cellular automaton evolution and the frequency of consecutive measurements of cellular automaton states are operationally indistinguishable. (orig.)
Magnetohydrodynamic cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatori, Tadatsugu
1990-01-01
There has been a renewal of interest in cellular automata, partly because they give an architecture for a special purpose computer with parallel processing optimized to solve a particular problem. The lattice gas cellular automata are briefly surveyed, which are recently developed to solve partial differential equations such as hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. A new model is given in the present paper to implement the magnetic Lorentz force in a more deterministic and local procedure than the previous one. (author)
Plasmonic Nanostructured Cellular Automata
Alkhazraji, Emad; Ghalib, A.; Manzoor, K.; Alsunaidi, M. A.
2017-03-01
In this work, we have investigated the scattering plasmonic resonance characteristics of silver nanospheres with a geometrical distribution that is modelled by Cellular Automata using time-domain numerical analysis. Cellular Automata are discrete mathematical structures that model different natural phenomena. Two binary one-dimensional Cellular Automata rules are considered to model the nanostructure, namely rule 30 and rule 33. The analysis produces three-dimensional scattering profiles of the entire plasmonic nanostructure. For the Cellular Automaton rule 33, the introduction of more Cellular Automata generations resulted only in slight red and blue shifts in the plasmonic modes with respect to the first generation. On the other hand, while rule 30 introduced significant red shifts in the resonance peaks at early generations, at later generations however, a peculiar effect is witnessed in the scattering profile as new peaks emerge as a feature of the overall Cellular Automata structure rather than the sum of the smaller parts that compose it. We strongly believe that these features that emerge as a result adopting the different 256 Cellular Automata rules as configuration models of nanostructures in different applications and systems might possess a great potential in enhancing their capability, sensitivity, efficiency, and power utilization.
Extended Cellular Automata Models of Particles and Space-Time
Beedle, Michael
2005-04-01
Models of particles and space-time are explored through simulations and theoretical models that use Extended Cellular Automata models. The expanded Cellular Automata Models consist go beyond simple scalar binary cell-fields, into discrete multi-level group representations like S0(2), SU(2), SU(3), SPIN(3,1). The propagation and evolution of these expanded cellular automatas are then compared to quantum field theories based on the "harmonic paradigm" i.e. built by an infinite number of harmonic oscillators, and with gravitational models.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Behrmann, Gerd; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Rasmussen, Jacob Illum
2004-01-01
This contribution reports on the considerable effort made recently towards extending and applying well-established timed automata technology to optimal scheduling and planning problems. The effort of the authors in this direction has to a large extent been carried out as part of the European...... projects VHS [22] and AMETIST [17] and are available in the recently released UPPAAL CORA [12], a variant of the real-time verification tool UPPAAL [20,5] specialized for cost-optimal reachability for the extended model of priced timed automata....
Minimal entropy approximation for cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukś, Henryk
2014-01-01
We present a method for the construction of approximate orbits of measures under the action of cellular automata which is complementary to the local structure theory. The local structure theory is based on the idea of Bayesian extension, that is, construction of a probability measure consistent with given block probabilities and maximizing entropy. If instead of maximizing entropy one minimizes it, one can develop another method for the construction of approximate orbits, at the heart of which is the iteration of finite-dimensional maps, called minimal entropy maps. We present numerical evidence that the minimal entropy approximation sometimes outperforms the local structure theory in characterizing the properties of cellular automata. The density response curve for elementary CA rule 26 is used to illustrate this claim. (paper)
Surjective cellular automata with zero entropy are almost one-to-one
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moothathu, T.K.S.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → We use information about maps with zero entropy from Ergodic Theory. → Surjective cellular automata with zero entropy are almost one-to-one. → Surjective, additive cellular automata with zero entropy are injective. - Abstract: We show that any one-dimensional surjective cellular automata whose entropy is zero with respect to the uniform Bernoulli measure must be almost one-to-one.
Undecidability and finite automata
Endrullis, Jörg; Shallit, Jeffrey; Smith, Tim
2017-01-01
Using a novel rewriting problem, we show that several natural decision problems about finite automata are undecidable (i.e., recursively unsolvable). In contrast, we also prove three related problems are decidable. We apply one result to prove the undecidability of a related problem about
Virtual Stationary Automata for Mobile Networks
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Dolev, Shlomi; Gilbert, Seth; Lahiani, Limor; Lynch, Nancy; Nolte, Tina
2005-01-01
We define a programming abstraction for mobile networks called the Virtual Stationary Automata programming layer, consisting of real mobile clients, virtual timed I/O automata called virtual stationary automata (VSAs...
Automata, universality, computation tribute to Maurice Margenstern
2015-01-01
This book is an intellectually stimulating excursion into mathematical machines and structures capable for a universal computation. World top experts in computer science and mathematics overview exciting and intriguing topics of logical theory of monoids, geometry of Gauss word, philosophy of mathematics in computer science, asynchronous and parallel P-systems, decidability in cellular automata, splicing systems, reversible Turing machines, information flows in two-way finite automata, prime generators in automaton arrays, Grossone and Turing machines, automaton models of atomic lattices. The book is full of visually attractive examples of mathematical machines, open problems and challenges for future research. Those interested in the advancement of a theory of computation, philosophy of mathematics, future and emergent computing paradigms, architectures and implementations will find the book vital for their research and development.
Compositions of (max, +) automata
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lahaye, S.; Komenda, Jan; Boimond, J.-L.
2015-01-01
Roč. 25, 1-2 (2015), s. 323-344 ISSN 0924-6703 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/0517 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : (max,+) automata * synchronous product * asynchronous product Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.268, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10626-014-0186-6
Wavefront cellular learning automata
Moradabadi, Behnaz; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza
2018-02-01
This paper proposes a new cellular learning automaton, called a wavefront cellular learning automaton (WCLA). The proposed WCLA has a set of learning automata mapped to a connected structure and uses this structure to propagate the state changes of the learning automata over the structure using waves. In the WCLA, after one learning automaton chooses its action, if this chosen action is different from the previous action, it can send a wave to its neighbors and activate them. Each neighbor receiving the wave is activated and must choose a new action. This structure for the WCLA is necessary in many dynamic areas such as social networks, computer networks, grid computing, and web mining. In this paper, we introduce the WCLA framework as an optimization tool with diffusion capability, study its behavior over time using ordinary differential equation solutions, and present its accuracy using expediency analysis. To show the superiority of the proposed WCLA, we compare the proposed method with some other types of cellular learning automata using two benchmark problems.
A compositional Translation of Stochastic Automata into Timed Automata
d' Argenio, P.R.
We present a translation from stochastic automata [17, 16] into timed automata with deadlines [37, 13]. The translation preserves traces when the stochastic characteristics, namely the probability measures, are abstracted from the original stochastic automaton. Moreover, we show that the translation
Designing beauty the art of cellular automata
Martínez, Genaro
2016-01-01
This fascinating, colourful book offers in-depth insights and first-hand working experiences in the production of art works, using simple computational models with rich morphological behaviour, at the edge of mathematics, computer science, physics and biology. It organically combines ground breaking scientific discoveries in the theory of computation and complex systems with artistic representations of the research results. In this appealing book mathematicians, computer scientists, physicists, and engineers brought together marvelous and esoteric patterns generated by cellular automata, which are arrays of simple machines with complex behavior. Configurations produced by cellular automata uncover mechanics of dynamic patterns formation, their propagation and interaction in natural systems: heart pacemaker, bacterial membrane proteins, chemical rectors, water permeation in soil, compressed gas, cell division, population dynamics, reaction-diffusion media and self-organisation. The book inspires artists to tak...
Stochastic properties of disturbed Elementary Cellular Automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Posiewnik, M.
2005-01-01
Cellular automata are class of simple mathematical systems that generate diverse, often complicated behaviour. Evolution of such a system is given by set of local and deterministic rules. However, in spite of simplicity of 'interactions' it's global behaviour can't be, in general, simply predicted or even can not be predicted in time shorter that time of it's strict evolution. We get as, a systems well known 1-dimensional, Wolfram class automata, and connect it into the reservoir consists of some random source (noise). In our experiment we are interested in: a) numeric verification of ergodicity for such a coupled system. b) finding it's probability distribution and evolution. c) finding some analogous for 'real' quantities and behaviour. d) using the dynamical systems and Markov chains theory to describe the system, and to make any predictions of it's behaviour. (author)
Weighted Watson-Crick automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku
2014-01-01
There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power
Height-Deterministic Pushdown Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nowotka, Dirk; Srba, Jiri
2007-01-01
We define the notion of height-deterministic pushdown automata, a model where for any given input string the stack heights during any (nondeterministic) computation on the input are a priori fixed. Different subclasses of height-deterministic pushdown automata, strictly containing the class...... of regular languages and still closed under boolean language operations, are considered. Several of such language classes have been described in the literature. Here, we suggest a natural and intuitive model that subsumes all the formalisms proposed so far by employing height-deterministic pushdown automata...
Global properties of cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jen, E.
1986-01-01
Cellular automata are discrete mathematical systems that generate diverse, often complicated, behavior using simple deterministic rules. Analysis of the local structure of these rules makes possible a description of the global properties of the associated automata. A class of cellular automata that generate infinitely many aperoidic temporal sequences is defined,a s is the set of rules for which inverses exist. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived characterizing the classes of ''nearest-neighbor'' rules for which arbitrary finite initial conditions (i) evolve to a homogeneous state; (ii) generate at least one constant temporal sequence
A Cellular Automata-Based Simulation Tool for Real Fire Accident Prevention
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacek M. Czerniak
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Many serious real-life problems could be simulated using cellular automata theory. There were a lot of fires in public places which kill many people. Proposed method, called Cellular Automata Evaluation (CAEva in short, is using cellular automata theory and could be used for checking buildings conditions for fire accident. The tests performed on real accident showed that an appropriately configured program allows obtaining a realistic simulation of human evacuation. The authors analyze some real accidents and proved that CAEva method appears as a very promising solution, especially in the cases of building renovations or temporary unavailability of escape routes.
Modelling Social-Technical Attacks with Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
David, Nicolas; David, Alexandre; Hansen, Rene Rydhof
2015-01-01
Attacks on a system often exploit vulnerabilities that arise from human behaviour or other human activity. Attacks of this type, so-called socio-technical attacks, cover everything from social engineering to insider attacks, and they can have a devastating impact on an unprepared organisation....... In this paper we develop an approach towards modelling socio-technical systems in general and socio-technical attacks in particular, using timed automata and illustrate its application by a complex case study. Thanks to automated model checking and automata theory, we can automatically generate possible attacks...
A Bibliography on Fuzzy Automata, Grammars and Lanuages
Asveld, P.R.J.
1995-01-01
This bibliography contains references to papers on fuzzy formal languages, the generation of fuzzy languages by means of fuzzy grammars, the recognition of fuzzy languages by fuzzy automata and machines, as well as some applications of fuzzy set theory to syntactic pattern recognition, linguistics
A Bibliography on Fuzzy Automata, Grammars and Lanuages
Asveld, P.R.J.
1996-01-01
This bibliography contains references to papers on fuzzy formal languages, the generation of fuzzy languages by means of fuzzy grammars, the recognition of fuzzy languages by fuzzy automata and machines, as well as some applications of fuzzy set theory to syntactic pattern recognition, linguistics
Synchronizing weighted automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Szabolcs Iván
2014-05-01
Full Text Available We introduce two generalizations of synchronizability to automata with transitions weighted in an arbitrary semiring K=(K,+,*,0,1. (or equivalently, to finite sets of matrices in K^nxn. Let us call a matrix A location-synchronizing if there exists a column in A consisting of nonzero entries such that all the other columns of A are filled by zeros. If additionally all the entries of this designated column are the same, we call A synchronizing. Note that these notions coincide for stochastic matrices and also in the Boolean semiring. A set M of matrices in K^nxn is called (location-synchronizing if M generates a matrix subsemigroup containing a (location-synchronizing matrix. The K-(location-synchronizability problem is the following: given a finite set M of nxn matrices with entries in K, is it (location-synchronizing? Both problems are PSPACE-hard for any nontrivial semiring. We give sufficient conditions for the semiring K when the problems are PSPACE-complete and show several undecidability results as well, e.g. synchronizability is undecidable if 1 has infinite order in (K,+,0 or when the free semigroup on two generators can be embedded into (K,*,1.
Subsequence automata with default transitions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye
2017-01-01
of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. Finally, we generalize the result to multiple strings. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....
Subsequence Automata with Default Transitions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye
2016-01-01
of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(nσ) and delay O(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....
Energy Games in Multiweighted Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fahrenberg, U.; Juhl, L.; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
2011-01-01
Energy games have recently attracted a lot of attention. These are games played on finite weighted automata and concern the existence of infinite runs subject to boundary constraints on the accumulated weight, allowing e.g only for behaviours where a resource is always available (nonnegative...... accumulated weight), yet does not exceed a given maximum capacity. We extend energy games to a multiweighted and parameterized setting, allowing us to model systems with multiple quantitative aspects. We present reductions between Petri nets and multiweighted automata and among different types...
Is there a sharp phase transition for deterministic cellular automata?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wootters, W.K.
1990-01-01
Previous work has suggested that there is a kind of phase transition between deterministic automata exhibiting periodic behavior and those exhibiting chaotic behavior. However, unlike the usual phase transitions of physics, this transition takes place over a range of values of the parameter rather than at a specific value. The present paper asks whether the transition can be made sharp, either by taking the limit of an infinitely large rule table, or by changing the parameter in terms of which the space of automata is explored. We find strong evidence that, for the class of automata we consider, the transition does become sharp in the limit of an infinite number of symbols, the size of the neighborhood being held fixed. Our work also suggests an alternative parameter in terms of which it is likely that the transition will become fairly sharp even if one does not increase the number of symbols. In the course of our analysis, we find that mean field theory, which is our main tool, gives surprisingly good predictions of the statistical properties of the class of automata we consider. 18 refs., 6 figs
Cellular Automata and the Humanities.
Gallo, Ernest
1994-01-01
The use of cellular automata to analyze several pre-Socratic hypotheses about the evolution of the physical world is discussed. These hypotheses combine characteristics of both rigorous and metaphoric language. Since the computer demands explicit instructions for each step in the evolution of the automaton, such models can reveal conceptual…
Cluster Statistics of BTW Automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ajanta Bhowal Acharyya
2011-01-01
The cluster statistics of BTW automata in the SOC states are obtained by extensive computer simulation. Various moments of the clusters are calculated and few results are compared with earlier available numerical estimates and exact results. Reasonably good agreement is observed. An extended statistical analysis has been made. (author)
Efficiently learning simple timed automata
Verwer, S.E.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.
2008-01-01
We describe an efficient algorithm for learning deterministic real-time automata (DRTA) from positive data. This data can be obtained from observations of the process to be modeled. The DRTA model we learn from such data can be used reason and gain knowledge about realtime systems such as network
Regular languages, regular grammars and automata in splicing systems
Mohamad Jan, Nurhidaya; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza
2013-04-01
Splicing system is known as a mathematical model that initiates the connection between the study of DNA molecules and formal language theory. In splicing systems, languages called splicing languages refer to the set of double-stranded DNA molecules that may arise from an initial set of DNA molecules in the presence of restriction enzymes and ligase. In this paper, some splicing languages resulted from their respective splicing systems are shown. Since all splicing languages are regular, languages which result from the splicing systems can be further investigated using grammars and automata in the field of formal language theory. The splicing language can be written in the form of regular languages generated by grammar. Besides that, splicing systems can be accepted by automata. In this research, two restriction enzymes are used in splicing systems namely BfuCI and NcoI.
Cellular automata in image processing and geometry
Adamatzky, Andrew; Sun, Xianfang
2014-01-01
The book presents findings, views and ideas on what exact problems of image processing, pattern recognition and generation can be efficiently solved by cellular automata architectures. This volume provides a convenient collection in this area, in which publications are otherwise widely scattered throughout the literature. The topics covered include image compression and resizing; skeletonization, erosion and dilation; convex hull computation, edge detection and segmentation; forgery detection and content based retrieval; and pattern generation. The book advances the theory of image processing, pattern recognition and generation as well as the design of efficient algorithms and hardware for parallel image processing and analysis. It is aimed at computer scientists, software programmers, electronic engineers, mathematicians and physicists, and at everyone who studies or develops cellular automaton algorithms and tools for image processing and analysis, or develops novel architectures and implementations of mass...
Outer-totalistic cellular automata on graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marr, Carsten; Huett, Marc-Thorsten
2009-01-01
We present an intuitive formalism for implementing cellular automata on arbitrary topologies. By that means, we identify a symmetry operation in the class of elementary cellular automata. Moreover, we determine the subset of topologically sensitive elementary cellular automata and find that the overall number of complex patterns decreases under increasing neighborhood size in regular graphs. As exemplary applications, we apply the formalism to complex networks and compare the potential of scale-free graphs and metabolic networks to generate complex dynamics
On Nonlinear Prices in Timed Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Devendra Bhave
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Priced timed automata provide a natural model for quantitative analysis of real-time systems and have been successfully applied in various scheduling and planning problems. The optimal reachability problem for linearly-priced timed automata is known to be PSPACE-complete. In this paper we investigate priced timed automata with more general prices and show that in the most general setting the optimal reachability problem is undecidable. We adapt and implement the construction of Audemard, Cimatti, Kornilowicz, and Sebastiani for non-linear priced timed automata using state-of-the-art theorem prover Z3 and present some preliminary results.
Construction of fuzzy automata by fuzzy experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mironov, A.
1994-01-01
The solving the problem of canonical realization of partial reaction morphisms (PRM) for automata in toposes and fuzzy automata is addressed. This problem extends the optimal construction problem for finite deterministic automata by experiments. In the present paper the conception of canonical realization of PRM for automata in toposes is introduced and the sufficient conditions for the existence of canonical realizations for PRM in toposes are presented. As a consequence of this result the existence of canonical realizations for PRM in the category of fuzzy sets over arbitrary complete chain is proven
Linear Parametric Model Checking of Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hune, Tohmas Seidelin; Romijn, Judi; Stoelinga, Mariëlle
2001-01-01
We present an extension of the model checker Uppaal capable of synthesize linear parameter constraints for the correctness of parametric timed automata. The symbolic representation of the (parametric) state-space is shown to be correct. A second contribution of this paper is the identication...... of a subclass of parametric timed automata (L/U automata), for which the emptiness problem is decidable, contrary to the full class where it is know to be undecidable. Also we present a number of lemmas enabling the verication eort to be reduced for L/U automata in some cases. We illustrate our approach...
Bounded-oscillation Pushdown Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pierre Ganty
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We present an underapproximation for context-free languages by filtering out runs of the underlying pushdown automaton depending on how the stack height evolves over time. In particular, we assign to each run a number quantifying the oscillating behavior of the stack along the run. We study languages accepted by pushdown automata restricted to k-oscillating runs. We relate oscillation on pushdown automata with a counterpart restriction on context-free grammars. We also provide a way to filter all but the k-oscillating runs from a given PDA by annotating stack symbols with information about the oscillation. Finally, we study closure properties of the defined class of languages and the complexity of the k-emptiness problem asking, given a pushdown automaton P and k >= 0, whether P has a k-oscillating run. We show that, when k is not part of the input, the k-emptiness problem is NLOGSPACE-complete.
Universal map for cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
García-Morales, V.
2012-01-01
A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CAs) containing no freely adjustable parameters and valid for any alphabet size and any neighborhood range (including non-symmetrical neighborhoods). The map can be extended to an arbitrary number of dimensions and topologies and to arbitrary order in time. Specific CA maps for the famous Conway's Game of Life and Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs are given. An induction method for CAs, based in the universal map, allows mathematical expressions for the orbits of a wide variety of elementary CAs to be systematically derived. -- Highlights: ► A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CA). ► The map is generalized to 2D for Von Neumann, Moore and hexagonal neighborhoods. ► A map for all Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs is derived. ► A map for Conway's “Game of Life” is obtained.
Information Flow for Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Vasilikos, Panagiotis
2017-01-01
One of the key demands of cyberphysical systems is that they meet their safety goals. Timed Automata has established itself as a formalism for modelling and analysing the real-time safety aspects of cyberphysical systems. Increasingly it is also demanded that cyberphysical systems meet a number o...... of security goals for confidentiality and integrity. Information Flow Control is an approach to ensuring that there are no flows of information that violate the stated security policy....
Cellular automata with voting rule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makowiec, D.
1996-01-01
The chosen local interaction - the voting (majority) rule applied to the square lattice is known to cause the non ergodic cellular automata behaviour. Presented computer simulation results verify two cases of non ergodicity. The first one is implicated by the noise introduced to the local interactions and the second one follows properties of the initial lattice configuration selected at random. For the simplified voting rule - non symmetric voting, the critical behaviour has been explained rigorously. (author)
Dominant Strategies of Quantum Games on Quantum Periodic Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konstantinos Giannakis
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Game theory and its quantum extension apply in numerous fields that affect people’s social, political, and economical life. Physical limits imposed by the current technology used in computing architectures (e.g., circuit size give rise to the need for novel mechanisms, such as quantum inspired computation. Elements from quantum computation and mechanics combined with game-theoretic aspects of computing could open new pathways towards the future technological era. This paper associates dominant strategies of repeated quantum games with quantum automata that recognize infinite periodic inputs. As a reference, we used the PQ-PENNY quantum game where the quantum strategy outplays the choice of pure or mixed strategy with probability 1 and therefore the associated quantum automaton accepts with probability 1. We also propose a novel game played on the evolution of an automaton, where players’ actions and strategies are also associated with periodic quantum automata.
Beyond Language Equivalence on Visibly Pushdown Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Srba, Jiri
2009-01-01
We study (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds for a number of studied p...
Team Automata for Security (A Survey)
ter Beek, Maurice H.; Lenzini, Gabriele; Petrocchi, Marinella
Kleijn presented a survey of the use of team automata for the specification and analysis of phenomena from the field of computer supported cooperative work, in particular notions related to groupware systems. We present a survey of the use of team automata for the specification and analysis of some
On Elementary and Algebraic Cellular Automata
Gulak, Yuriy
In this paper we study elementary cellular automata from an algebraic viewpoint. The goal is to relate the emergent complex behavior observed in such systems with the properties of corresponding algebraic structures. We introduce algebraic cellular automata as a natural generalization of elementary ones and discuss their applications as generic models of complex systems.
Unary self-verifying symmetric difference automata
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Marais, Laurette
2016-07-01
Full Text Available We investigate self-verifying nondeterministic finite automata, in the case of unary symmetric difference nondeterministic finite automata (SV-XNFA). We show that there is a family of languages Ln=2 which can always be represented non...
Cellular automata a parallel model
Mazoyer, J
1999-01-01
Cellular automata can be viewed both as computational models and modelling systems of real processes. This volume emphasises the first aspect. In articles written by leading researchers, sophisticated massive parallel algorithms (firing squad, life, Fischer's primes recognition) are treated. Their computational power and the specific complexity classes they determine are surveyed, while some recent results in relation to chaos from a new dynamic systems point of view are also presented. Audience: This book will be of interest to specialists of theoretical computer science and the parallelism challenge.
Symmetry analysis of cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
García-Morales, V.
2013-01-01
By means of B-calculus [V. García-Morales, Phys. Lett. A 376 (2012) 2645] a universal map for deterministic cellular automata (CAs) has been derived. The latter is shown here to be invariant upon certain transformations (global complementation, reflection and shift). When constructing CA rules in terms of rules of lower range a new symmetry, “invariance under construction” is uncovered. Modular arithmetic is also reformulated within B-calculus and a new symmetry of certain totalistic CA rules, which calculate the Pascal simplices modulo an integer number p, is then also uncovered.
Chaotic behavior in the disorder cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ko, J.-Y.; Hung, Y.-C.; Ho, M.-C.; Jiang, I-M.
2008-01-01
Disordered cellular automata (DCA) represent an intermediate class between elementary cellular automata and the Kauffman network. Recently, Rule 126 of DCA has been explicated: the system can be accurately described by a discrete probability function. However, a means of extending to other rules has not been developed. In this investigation, a density map of the dynamical behavior of DCA is formulated based on Rule 22 and other totalistic rules. The numerical results reveal excellent agreement between the model and original automata. Furthermore, the inhomogeneous situation is also discussed
Timed Safety Automata and Logic Conformance
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Young, Frank
1999-01-01
Timed Logic Conformance (TLC) is used to verify the behavioral and timing properties of detailed digital circuits against abstract circuit specifications when both are modeled as Timed Safety Automata (TSA...
Cellular automata and statistical mechanical models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rujan, P.
1987-01-01
The authors elaborate on the analogy between the transfer matrix of usual lattice models and the master equation describing the time development of cellular automata. Transient and stationary properties of probabilistic automata are linked to surface and bulk properties, respectively, of restricted statistical mechanical systems. It is demonstrated that methods of statistical physics can be successfully used to describe the dynamic and the stationary behavior of such automata. Some exact results are derived, including duality transformations, exact mappings, disorder, and linear solutions. Many examples are worked out in detail to demonstrate how to use statistical physics in order to construct cellular automata with desired properties. This approach is considered to be a first step toward the design of fully parallel, probabilistic systems whose computational abilities rely on the cooperative behavior of their components
Random networks of Boolean cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miranda, Enrique
1990-01-01
Some recent results about random networks of Boolean automata -the Kauffman model- are reviewed. The structure of configuration space is explored. Ultrametricity between cycles is analyzed and the effects of noise in the dynamics are studied. (Author)
Reaction-Diffusion Automata Phenomenology, Localisations, Computation
Adamatzky, Andrew
2013-01-01
Reaction-diffusion and excitable media are amongst most intriguing substrates. Despite apparent simplicity of the physical processes involved the media exhibit a wide range of amazing patterns: from target and spiral waves to travelling localisations and stationary breathing patterns. These media are at the heart of most natural processes, including morphogenesis of living beings, geological formations, nervous and muscular activity, and socio-economic developments. This book explores a minimalist paradigm of studying reaction-diffusion and excitable media using locally-connected networks of finite-state machines: cellular automata and automata on proximity graphs. Cellular automata are marvellous objects per se because they show us how to generate and manage complexity using very simple rules of dynamical transitions. When combined with the reaction-diffusion paradigm the cellular automata become an essential user-friendly tool for modelling natural systems and designing future and emergent computing arch...
Boundary Induced Phase Transition in Cellular Automata Models of Pedestrian Flow
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bukáček, M.; Hrabák, Pavel
2016-01-01
Roč. 11, č. 4 (2016), s. 327-338 ISSN 1557-5969 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Adaptive time-span * Cellular automata model * Floor-field * Pedestrian flow * Phase transition * Principle of bonds Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.696, year: 2016
Applications of automata and graphs: Labeling operators in Hilbert space. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Ilwoo; Jorgensen, Palle E. T.
2009-01-01
We introduced a family of infinite graphs directly associated with a class of von Neumann automaton model A G . These are finite state models used in symbolic dynamics: stimuli models and in control theory. In the context of groupoid von Neumann algebras, and an associated fractal group, we prove a classification theorem for representations of automata.
The Theory of Timed IO Automata
Kaynar, Dilsun; Segala, Roberto
2010-01-01
This monograph presents the Timed Input/Output Automaton (TIOA) modeling framework, a basic mathematical framework to support description and analysis of timed (computing) systems. Timed systems are systems in which desirable correctness or performance properties of the system depend on the timing of events, not just on the order of their occurrence. Timed systems are employed in a wide range of domains including communications, embedded systems, real-time operating systems, and automated control. Many applications involving timed systems have strong safety, reliability, and predictability req
VERIFICATION OF PARALLEL AUTOMATA-BASED PROGRAMS
M. A. Lukin
2014-01-01
The paper deals with an interactive method of automatic verification for parallel automata-based programs. The hierarchical state machines can be implemented in different threads and can interact with each other. Verification is done by means of Spin tool and includes automatic Promela model construction, conversion of LTL-formula to Spin format and counterexamples in terms of automata. Interactive verification gives the possibility to decrease verification time and increase the maxi...
Reachability analysis for timed automata using max-plus algebra
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lu, Qi; Madsen, Michael; Milata, Martin
2012-01-01
We show that max-plus polyhedra are usable as a data structure in reachability analysis of timed automata. Drawing inspiration from the extensive work that has been done on difference bound matrices, as well as previous work on max-plus polyhedra in other areas, we develop the algorithms needed...... to perform forward and backward reachability analysis using max-plus polyhedra. To show that the approach works in practice and theory alike, we have created a proof-of-concept implementation on top of the model checker opaal....
Computing aggregate properties of preimages for 2D cellular automata
Beer, Randall D.
2017-11-01
Computing properties of the set of precursors of a given configuration is a common problem underlying many important questions about cellular automata. Unfortunately, such computations quickly become intractable in dimension greater than one. This paper presents an algorithm—incremental aggregation—that can compute aggregate properties of the set of precursors exponentially faster than naïve approaches. The incremental aggregation algorithm is demonstrated on two problems from the two-dimensional binary Game of Life cellular automaton: precursor count distributions and higher-order mean field theory coefficients. In both cases, incremental aggregation allows us to obtain new results that were previously beyond reach.
Formal languages, automata and numeration systems, v.2
Rigo, Michel
2014-01-01
The interplay between words, computability, algebra and arithmetic has now proved its relevance and fruitfulness. Indeed, the cross-fertilization between formal logic and finite automata (such as that initiated by J.R. Büchi) or between combinatorics on words and number theory has paved the way to recent dramatic developments, for example, the transcendence results for the real numbers having a "simple" binary expansion, by B. Adamczewski and Y. Bugeaud. This book is at the heart of this interplay through a unified exposition. Objects are considered with a perspective that comes both from t
Formal languages, automata and numeration systems introduction to combinatorics on words
Rigo, Michel
2014-01-01
Formal Languages, Automaton and Numeration Systems presents readers with a review of research related to formal language theory, combinatorics on words or numeration systems, such as Words, DLT (Developments in Language Theory), ICALP, MFCS (Mathematical Foundation of Computer Science), Mons Theoretical Computer Science Days, Numeration, CANT (Combinatorics, Automata and Number Theory). Combinatorics on words deals with problems that can be stated in a non-commutative monoid, such as subword complexity of finite or infinite words, construction and properties of infinite words, unavoidabl
Cox, Brian N.; Snead, Malcolm L.
2016-02-01
We argue in favor of representing living cells as automata and review demonstrations that autonomous cells can form patterns by responding to local variations in the strain fields that arise from their individual or collective motions. An autonomous cell's response to strain stimuli is assumed to be effected by internally-generated, internally-powered forces, which generally move the cell in directions other than those implied by external energy gradients. Evidence of cells acting as strain-cued automata have been inferred from patterns observed in nature and from experiments conducted in vitro. Simulations that mimic particular cases of pattern forming share the idealization that cells are assumed to pass information among themselves solely via mechanical boundary conditions, i.e., the tractions and displacements present at their membranes. This assumption opens three mechanisms for pattern formation in large cell populations: wavelike behavior, kinematic feedback in cell motility that can lead to sliding and rotational patterns, and directed migration during invasions. Wavelike behavior among ameloblast cells during amelogenesis (the formation of dental enamel) has been inferred from enamel microstructure, while strain waves in populations of epithelial cells have been observed in vitro. One hypothesized kinematic feedback mechanism, "enhanced shear motility", accounts successfully for the spontaneous formation of layered patterns during amelogenesis in the mouse incisor. Directed migration is exemplified by a theory of invader cells that sense and respond to the strains they themselves create in the host population as they invade it: analysis shows that the strain fields contain positional information that could aid the formation of cell network structures, stabilizing the slender geometry of branches and helping govern the frequency of branch bifurcation and branch coalescence (the formation of closed networks). In simulations of pattern formation in
Fuzzy automata and pattern matching
Setzer, C. B.; Warsi, N. A.
1986-01-01
A wide-ranging search for articles and books concerned with fuzzy automata and syntactic pattern recognition is presented. A number of survey articles on image processing and feature detection were included. Hough's algorithm is presented to illustrate the way in which knowledge about an image can be used to interpret the details of the image. It was found that in hand generated pictures, the algorithm worked well on following the straight lines, but had great difficulty turning corners. An algorithm was developed which produces a minimal finite automaton recognizing a given finite set of strings. One difficulty of the construction is that, in some cases, this minimal automaton is not unique for a given set of strings and a given maximum length. This algorithm compares favorably with other inference algorithms. More importantly, the algorithm produces an automaton with a rigorously described relationship to the original set of strings that does not depend on the algorithm itself.
Non deterministic finite automata for power systems fault diagnostics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LINDEN, R.
2009-06-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces an application based on finite non-deterministic automata for power systems diagnosis. Automata for the simpler faults are presented and the proposed system is compared with an established expert system.
Finite Automata Based on Quantum Logic and Their Determinization
Li, Yongming
2007-01-01
We give the quantum subset construction of orthomodular lattice-valued finite automata, then we show the equivalence between orthomodular lattice-valued finite automata, orthomodular lattice-valued deterministic finite automata and orthomodular lattice-valued finite automata with empty string-moves. Based on these equivalences, we study the algebraic operations on orthomodular lattice-valued regular languages, then we establish Kleene theorem in the frame of quantum logic.
An algorithm for learning real-time automata
Verwer, S.E.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.
2007-01-01
We describe an algorithm for learning simple timed automata, known as real-time automata. The transitions of real-time automata can have a temporal constraint on the time of occurrence of the current symbol relative to the previous symbol. The learning algorithm is similar to the redblue fringe
Computing Distances between Probabilistic Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mathieu Tracol
2011-07-01
Full Text Available We present relaxed notions of simulation and bisimulation on Probabilistic Automata (PA, that allow some error epsilon. When epsilon is zero we retrieve the usual notions of bisimulation and simulation on PAs. We give logical characterisations of these notions by choosing suitable logics which differ from the elementary ones, L with negation and L without negation, by the modal operator. Using flow networks, we show how to compute the relations in PTIME. This allows the definition of an efficiently computable non-discounted distance between the states of a PA. A natural modification of this distance is introduced, to obtain a discounted distance, which weakens the influence of long term transitions. We compare our notions of distance to others previously defined and illustrate our approach on various examples. We also show that our distance is not expansive with respect to process algebra operators. Although L without negation is a suitable logic to characterise epsilon-(bisimulation on deterministic PAs, it is not for general PAs; interestingly, we prove that it does characterise weaker notions, called a priori epsilon-(bisimulation, which we prove to be NP-difficult to decide.
A cryptosystem based on elementary cellular automata
Abdo, A. A.; Lian, Shiguo; Ismail, I. A.; Amin, M.; Diab, H.
2013-01-01
Based on elementary cellular automata, a new image encryption algorithm is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm, a special kind of periodic boundary cellular automata with unity attractors is used. From the viewpoint of security, the number of cellular automata attractor states are changed with respect to the encrypted image, and different key streams are used to encrypt different plain images. The cellular neural network with chaotic properties is used as the generator of a pseudo-random key stream. Theoretical analysis and experimental results have both confirmed that the proposed algorithm possesses high security level and good performances against differential and statistical attacks. The comparison with other existing schemes is given, which shows the superiority of the proposal scheme.
Automata Techniques for Epistemic Protocol Synthesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guillaume Aucher
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In this work we aim at applying automata techniques to problems studied in Dynamic Epistemic Logic, such as epistemic planning. To do so, we first remark that repeatedly executing ad infinitum a propositional event model from an initial epistemic model yields a relational structure that can be finitely represented with automata. This correspondence, together with recent results on uniform strategies, allows us to give an alternative decidability proof of the epistemic planning problem for propositional events, with as by-products accurate upper-bounds on its time complexity, and the possibility to synthesize a finite word automaton that describes the set of all solution plans. In fact, using automata techniques enables us to solve a much more general problem, that we introduce and call epistemic protocol synthesis.
On Oscillators in Phyllosilicate Excitable Automata
Adamatzky, Andrew
2013-06-01
Phyllosilicate is a sheet of silicate tetrahedra bound by basal oxygens. A phyllosilicate excitable automaton is a regular network of finite state machines, which mimics structure of a silicate sheet. A node of the silicate sheet is an automaton, which takes resting, excited and refractory states, and updates its state in discrete time depending on a sum of excited states of its three (silicon automata) or six (oxygen automata) closest neighbors. Oscillator is a localized compact configuration of nonquiescent states which undergoes finite growth and modification but returns to its original state in a finite number of steps. We show that phyllosilicate excitable automata exhibit waves and oscillating localizations (oscillators) dynamics. Basic types of oscillators are classified and characterized.
Geometrical automata for two phase flow simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrero, V.; Guido-Lavalle, G.; Clausse, A.
1996-01-01
An automaton is an entity defined by a mathematical state which changes following iterative rules representing the interaction with the neighborhood. A model of automata for two-phase flow simulation consisting in a field of disks which are allowed to change their radii and move in a plane is presented. The model is more general than the classical cellular automata in two respects: (1) the grid of cellular automata is dismissed in favor of a trajectory generator; and (2) the rules of interaction involve parameters intended to represent some of the most relevant variables governing the actual physical interactions between phases. Computational experiments show that the algorithm captures the essential physics underlying two-phase flow problems such as bubbly-slug pattern transition and void fraction development along tubes. A comparison with experimental data of void fraction profiles is presented, showing excellent agreement. (orig.)
Cyclic cellular automata in 3D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reiter, Clifford A.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → We explore the self-organization of cyclic cellular automata in 3D. → Von Neumann, Moore and two types of intermediate neighborhoods are investigated. → Random neighborhoods self organize through phases into complex nested structures. → Demons are seen to have many alternatives in 3D. - Abstract: Cyclic cellular automata in two dimensions have long been intriguing because they self organize into spirals and that behavior can be analyzed. The form for the patterns that develop is highly dependent upon the form of the neighborhood. We extend this work to three dimensional cyclic cellular automata and observe self organization dependent upon the neighborhood type. This includes neighborhood types intermediate between Von Neumann and Moore neighborhoods. We also observe that the patterns include nested shells with the appropriate forms but that the nesting is far more complex than the spirals that occur in two dimensions.
Cellular-automata method for phase unwrapping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghiglia, D.C.; Mastin, G.A.; Romero, L.A.
1987-01-01
Research into two-dimensional phase unwrapping has uncovered interesting and troublesome inconsistencies that cause path-dependent results. Cellular automata, which are simple, discrete mathematical systems, offered promise of computation in nondirectional, parallel manner. A cellular automaton was discovered that can unwrap consistent phase data in n dimensions in a path-independent manner and can automatically accommodate noise-induced (pointlike) inconsistencies and arbitrary boundary conditions (region partitioning). For data with regional (nonpointlike) inconsistencies, no phase-unwrapping algorithm will converge, including the cellular-automata approach. However, the automata method permits more simple visualization of the regional inconsistencies. Examples of its behavior on one- and two-dimensional data are presented
Cellular Automata Simulation for Wealth Distribution
Lo, Shih-Ching
2009-08-01
Wealth distribution of a country is a complicate system. A model, which is based on the Epstein & Axtell's "Sugars cape" model, is presented in Netlogo. The model considers the income, age, working opportunity and salary as control variables. There are still other variables should be considered while an artificial society is established. In this study, a more complicate cellular automata model for wealth distribution model is proposed. The effects of social welfare, tax, economical investment and inheritance are considered and simulated. According to the cellular automata simulation for wealth distribution, we will have a deep insight of financial policy of the government.
From Orchestration to Choreography through Contract Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Davide Basile
2014-10-01
Full Text Available We study the relations between a contract automata and an interaction model. In the former model, distributed services are abstracted away as automata - oblivious of their partners - that coordinate with each other through an orchestrator. The interaction model relies on channel-based asynchronous communication and choreography to coordinate distributed services. We define a notion of strong agreement on the contract model, exhibit a natural mapping from the contract model to the interaction model, and give conditions to ensure that strong agreement corresponds to well-formed choreography.
Importance Sampling for Stochastic Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jegourel, Cyrille; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel
2016-01-01
We present an importance sampling framework that combines symbolic analysis and simulation to estimate the probability of rare reachability properties in stochastic timed automata. By means of symbolic exploration, our framework first identifies states that cannot reach the goal. A state-wise cha......We present an importance sampling framework that combines symbolic analysis and simulation to estimate the probability of rare reachability properties in stochastic timed automata. By means of symbolic exploration, our framework first identifies states that cannot reach the goal. A state...
Automata Learning through Counterexample Guided Abstraction Refinement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aarts, Fides; Heidarian, Faranak; Kuppens, Harco
2012-01-01
Abstraction is the key when learning behavioral models of realistic systems. Hence, in most practical applications where automata learning is used to construct models of software components, researchers manually define abstractions which, depending on the history, map a large set of concrete events...... to a small set of abstract events that can be handled by automata learning tools. In this article, we show how such abstractions can be constructed fully automatically for a restricted class of extended finite state machines in which one can test for equality of data parameters, but no operations on data...
Execution spaces for simple higher dimensional automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raussen, Martin
2012-01-01
Higher dimensional automata (HDA) are highly expressive models for concurrency in Computer Science, cf van Glabbeek (Theor Comput Sci 368(1–2): 168–194, 2006). For a topologist, they are attractive since they can be modeled as cubical complexes—with an inbuilt restriction for directions of allowa......Higher dimensional automata (HDA) are highly expressive models for concurrency in Computer Science, cf van Glabbeek (Theor Comput Sci 368(1–2): 168–194, 2006). For a topologist, they are attractive since they can be modeled as cubical complexes—with an inbuilt restriction for directions...
From equilibrium spin models to probabilistic cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Georges, A.; Le Doussal, P.
1989-01-01
The general equivalence between D-dimensional probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) and (D + 1)-dimensional equilibrium spin models satisfying a disorder condition is first described in a pedagogical way and then used to analyze the phase diagrams, the critical behavior, and the universality classes of some automato. Diagrammatic representations of time-dependent correlation functions PCA are introduced. Two important classes of PCA are singled out for which these correlation functions simplify: (1) Quasi-Hamiltonian automata, which have a current-carrying steady state, and for which some correlation functions are those of a D-dimensional static model PCA satisfying the detailed balance condition appear as a particular case of these rules for which the current vanishes. (2) Linear (and more generally affine) PCA for which the diagrammatics reduces to a random walk problem closely related to (D + 1)-dimensional directed SAWs: both problems display a critical behavior with mean-field exponents in any dimension. The correlation length and effective velocity of propagation of excitations can be calculated for affine PCA, as is shown on an explicit D = 1 example. The authors conclude with some remarks on nonlinear PCA, for which the diagrammatics is related to reaction-diffusion processes, and which belong in some cases to the universality class of Reggeon field theory
A cellular automata model for ant trails
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this study, the unidirectional ant traffic flow with U-turn in an ant trail was investigated using one-dimensional cellular automata model. It is known that ants communicate with each other by dropping a chemical, called pheromone, on the substrate. Apart from the studies in the literature, it was considered in the model that ...
Building finite automata from DI specifications
Udding, J.T
1998-01-01
Numerous formalisms exist to specify delay-insensitive computations and their implementations. It is not always straightforward to compare specifications in the different formalisms. One way of comparing specifications is transforming them to automata in which nodes are annotated with progress
Blackhole State-Controlled Regulated Pushdown Automata
E. Csuhaj-Varju; T. Masopust (Tomas); G. Vaszil (György); H. Bordihn; R. Freund; T. Hinze; M. Holzer; M. Kutrib; F. Otto
2010-01-01
textabstractIn this paper, we introduce and study a variant of regulated pushdown automata, called blackhole state-controlled R-PDA where a symbol can always be pushed to the pushdown, but only a given depth of the pushdown contents is remembered; the rest of the pushdown contents is lost. In
On Probabilistic Automata in Continuous Time
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eisentraut, Christian; Hermanns, Holger; Zhang, Lijun
2010-01-01
We develop a compositional behavioural model that integrates a variation of probabilistic automata into a conservative extension of interactive Markov chains. The model is rich enough to embody the semantics of generalised stochastic Petri nets. We define strong and weak bisimulations and discuss...
A cellular automata model for ant trails
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In this study, the unidirectional ant traffic flow with U-turn in an ant trail was inves- tigated using one-dimensional cellular automata model. It is known that ants communicate with each other by dropping a chemical, called pheromone, on the substrate. Apart from the studies in the literature, it was considered in the ...
Cellular automata machines as physics emulators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toffoli, T.
1988-01-01
Can one design a computer optimized to be a physics emulator rather than a software interpreter? Cellular automata are discrete dynamical systems whose behavior is completely specified in terms of a local relation, much as is the case for a large class of continuous dynamical systems defined by partial differential equations. 31 refs, 3 figs
Bisimulations meet PCTL equivalences for probabilistic automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Song, Lei; Zhang, Lijun; Godskesen, Jens Chr.
2013-01-01
Probabilistic automata (PAs) have been successfully applied in formal verification of concurrent and stochastic systems. Efficient model checking algorithms have been studied, where the most often used logics for expressing properties are based on probabilistic computation tree logic (PCTL) and its...
Execution spaces for simple higher dimensional automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raussen, Martin
Higher Dimensional Automata (HDA) are highly expressive models for concurrency in Computer Science, cf van Glabbeek [26]. For a topologist, they are attractive since they can be modeled as cubical complexes - with an inbuilt restriction for directions´of allowable (d-)paths. In Raussen [25], we...
Bisimulations Meet PCTL Equivalences for Probabilistic Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Song, Lei; Zhang, Lijun; Godskesen, Jens Chr.
2011-01-01
Probabilistic automata (PA) [20] have been successfully applied in the formal verification of concurrent and stochastic systems. Efficient model checking algorithms have been studied, where the most often used logics for expressing properties are based on PCTL [11] and its extension PCTL∗ [4...
Two Phase Flow Simulation Using Cellular Automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marcel, C.P.
2002-01-01
The classical mathematical treatment of two-phase flows is based on the average of the conservation equations for each phase.In this work, a complementary approach to the modeling of these systems based on statistical population balances of aut omata sets is presented.Automata are entities defined by mathematical states that change following iterative rules representing interactions with the neighborhood.A model of automata for two-phase flow simulation is presented.This model consists of fie lds of virtual spheres that change their volumes and move around a certain environment.The model is more general than the classical cellular automata in two respects: the grid of cellular automata is dismissed in favor of a trajectory generator, and the rules of interaction involve parameters representing the actual physical interactions between phases.Automata simulation was used to study unsolved two-phase flow problems involving high heat flux rates. One system described in this work consists of a vertical channel with saturated water at normal pressure heated from the lower surface.The heater causes water to boil and starts the bubble production.We used cellular automata to describe two-phase flows and the interaction with the heater.General rule s for such cellular automata representing bubbles moving in stagnant liquid were used, with special attention to correct modeling of different mechanisms of heat transfer.The results of the model were compared to previous experiments and correlations finding good agreement.One of the most important findings is the confirmation of Kutateladze's idea about a close relation between the start of critical heat flux and a change in the flow's topology.This was analyzed using a control volume located in the upper surface of the heater.A strong decrease in the interfacial surface just before the CHF start was encountered.The automata describe quite well some characteristic parameters such as the shape of the local void fraction in the
From Multi to Single Stack Automata
Atig, Mohamed Faouzi
We investigate the issue of reducing the verification problem of multi-stack machines to the one for single-stack machines. For instance, elegant (and practically efficient) algorithms for bounded-context switch analysis of multi-pushdown systems have been recently defined based on reductions to the reachability problem of (single-stack) pushdown systems [10,18]. In this paper, we extend this view to both bounded-phase visibly pushdown automata (BVMPA) [16] and ordered multi-pushdown automata (OMPA) [1] by showing that each of their emptiness problem can be reduced to the one for a class of single-stack machines. For these reductions, we introduce effective generalized pushdown automata (EGPA) where operations on stacks are (1) pop the top symbol of the stack, and (2) push a word in some (effectively) given set of words L over the stack alphabet, assuming that L is in some class of languages for which checking whether L intersects regular languages is decidable. We show that the automata-based saturation procedure for computing the set of predecessors in standard pushdown automata can be extended to prove that for EGPA too the set of all predecessors of a regular set of configurations is an effectively constructible regular set. Our reductions from OMPA and BVMPA to EGPA, together with the reachability analysis procedure for EGPA, allow to provide conceptually simple algorithms for checking the emptiness problem for each of these models, and to significantly simplify the proofs for their 2ETIME upper bounds (matching their lower-bounds).
Kawano, Tomonori; Bouteau, François; Mancuso, Stefano
2012-11-01
The automata theory is the mathematical study of abstract machines commonly studied in the theoretical computer science and highly interdisciplinary fields that combine the natural sciences and the theoretical computer science. In the present review article, as the chemical and biological basis for natural computing or informatics, some plants, plant cells or plant-derived molecules involved in signaling are listed and classified as natural sequential machines (namely, the Mealy machines or Moore machines) or finite state automata. By defining the actions (states and transition functions) of these natural automata, the similarity between the computational data processing and plant decision-making processes became obvious. Finally, their putative roles as the parts for plant-based computing or robotic systems are discussed.
Characterization of one-dimensional cellular automata rules through topological network features
D'Alotto, Lou; Pizzuti, Clara
2016-10-01
The paper investigates the relationship between the classification schemes, defined by Wolfram and Gilman, of one-dimensional cellular automata through concepts coming from network theory. An automaton is represented with a network, generated from the elementary rule defining its behavior. Characteristic features of this graph are computed and machine learning classification models are built. Such models allow to classify automaton rules and to compare Wolfram's and Gilman's classes by comparing the classes predicted by these models.
Lee, William H K.
2016-01-01
A complex system consists of many interacting parts, generates new collective behavior through self organization, and adaptively evolves through time. Many theories have been developed to study complex systems, including chaos, fractals, cellular automata, self organization, stochastic processes, turbulence, and genetic algorithms.
Physical modeling of traffic with stochastic cellular automata
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schreckenberg, M. [Univ. Duisburg (Germany); Nagel, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States)
1995-09-01
A new type of probabilistic cellular automaton for the physical description of single and multilane traffic is presented. In this model space, time and the velocity of the cars are represented by integer numbers (as usual in cellular automata) with local update rules for the velocity. The model is very efficient for both numerical simulations and analytical investigations. The numerical results from extensive simulations reproduce very well data taken from real traffic (e.g. fundamental diagrams). Several analytical results for the model are presented as well as new approximation schemes for stationary traffic. In addition the relation to continuum hydrodynamic theory (Lighthill-Whitham) and the follow-the-leader models is discussed. The model is part of an interdisciplinary research program in Northrhine-Westfalia (``NRW Forschungsverbund Verkehrssimulation``) for the construction of a large scale microsimulation model for network traffic, supported by the government of NRW.
Cellular-automata supercomputers for fluid-dynamics modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Margolus, N.; Toffoli, T.; Vichniac, G.
1986-01-01
We report recent developments in the modeling of fluid dynamics, and give experimental results (including dynamical exponents) obtained using cellular automata machines. Because of their locality and uniformity, cellular automata lend themselves to an extremely efficient physical realization; with a suitable architecture, an amount of hardware resources comparable to that of a home computer can achieve (in the simulation of cellular automata) the performance of a conventional supercomputer
Inferring the Limit Behavior of Some Elementary Cellular Automata
Ruivo, Eurico L. P.; de Oliveira, Pedro P. B.
Cellular automata locally define dynamical systems, discrete in space, time and in the state variables, capable of displaying arbitrarily complex global emergent behavior. One core question in the study of cellular automata refers to their limit behavior, that is, to the global dynamical features in an infinite time evolution. Previous works have shown that for finite time evolutions, the dynamics of one-dimensional cellular automata can be described by regular languages and, therefore, by finite automata. Such studies have shown the existence of growth patterns in the evolution of such finite automata for some elementary cellular automata rules and also inferred the limit behavior of such rules based upon the growth patterns; however, the results on the limit behavior were obtained manually, by direct inspection of the structures that arise during the time evolution. Here we present the formalization of an automatic method to compute such structures. Based on this, the rules of the elementary cellular automata space were classified according to the existence of a growth pattern in their finite automata. Also, we present a method to infer the limit graph of some elementary cellular automata rules, derived from the analysis of the regular expressions that describe their behavior in finite time. Finally, we analyze some attractors of two rules for which we could not compute the whole limit set.
Recursive definition of global cellular-automata mappings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feldberg, Rasmus; Knudsen, Carsten; Rasmussen, Steen
1994-01-01
A method for a recursive definition of global cellular-automata mappings is presented. The method is based on a graphical representation of global cellular-automata mappings. For a given cellular-automaton rule the recursive algorithm defines the change of the global cellular-automaton mapping...... as the number of lattice sites is incremented. A proof of lattice size invariance of global cellular-automata mappings is derived from an approximation to the exact recursive definition. The recursive definitions are applied to calculate the fractal dimension of the set of reachable states and of the set...... of fixed points of cellular automata on an infinite lattice....
Optimised determinisation and completion of finite tree automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gallagher, John Patrick; Ajspur, Mai; Kafle, Bishoksan
2018-01-01
Determinisation and completion of finite tree automata are important operations with applications in program analysis and verification. However, the complexity of the classical procedures for determinisation and completion is high. They are not practical procedures for manipulating tree automata...... beyond very small ones. In this paper we develop an algorithm for determinisation and completion of finite tree automata, whose worst-case complexity remains unchanged, but which performs far better than existing algorithms in practice. The critical aspect of the algorithm is that the transitions...... an experimental evaluation of the algorithm on a large set of tree automata examples....
Recursive definition of global cellular-automata mappings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feldberg, R.; Knudsen, C.; Rasmussen, S.
1994-01-01
A method for a recursive definition of global cellular-automata mappings is presented. The method is based on a graphical representation of global cellular-automata mappings. For a given cellular-automaton rule the recursive algorithm defines the change of the global cellular-automaton mapping as the number of lattice sites is incremented. A proof of lattice size invariance of global cellular-automata mappings is derived from an approximation to the exact recursive definition. The recursive definitions are applied to calculate the fractal dimension of the set of reachable states and of the set of fixed points of cellular automata on an infinite lattice
Simulation of earthquakes with cellular automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. G. Akishin
1998-01-01
Full Text Available The relation between cellular automata (CA models of earthquakes and the Burridge–Knopoff (BK model is studied. It is shown that the CA proposed by P. Bak and C. Tang,although they have rather realistic power spectra, do not correspond to the BK model. We present a modification of the CA which establishes the correspondence with the BK model.An analytical method of studying the evolution of the BK-like CA is proposed. By this method a functional quadratic in stress release, which can be regarded as an analog of the event energy, is constructed. The distribution of seismic events with respect to this “energy” shows rather realistic behavior, even in two dimensions. Special attention is paid to two-dimensional automata; the physical restrictions on compression and shear stiffnesses are imposed.
Coupled cellular automata for frozen soil processes
R. M. Nagare; P. Bhattacharya; J. Khanna; R. A. Schincariol
2015-01-01
Heat and water movement in variably saturated freezing soils is a strongly coupled phenomenon. The coupling is a result of the effects of sub-zero temperature on soil water potential, heat carried by water moving under pressure gradients, and dependency of soil thermal and hydraulic properties on soil water content. This study presents a one-dimensional cellular automata (direct solving) model to simulate coupled heat and water transport with phase change in variably satura...
How to detect integrability in cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joshi, N; Lafortune, S
2005-01-01
Ultra-discrete equations are generalized cellular automata in the sense that the dependent (and independent) variables take only integer values. We present a new method for identifying integrable ultra-discrete equations which is the equivalent of the singularity confinement property for difference equations and the Painleve property for differential equations. Using this criterion, we find integrable ultra-discrete equations which include the ultra-discrete Painleve equations. (letter to the editor)
VERIFICATION OF PARALLEL AUTOMATA-BASED PROGRAMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. Lukin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with an interactive method of automatic verification for parallel automata-based programs. The hierarchical state machines can be implemented in different threads and can interact with each other. Verification is done by means of Spin tool and includes automatic Promela model construction, conversion of LTL-formula to Spin format and counterexamples in terms of automata. Interactive verification gives the possibility to decrease verification time and increase the maximum size of verifiable programs. Considered method supports verification of the parallel system for hierarchical automata that interact with each other through messages and shared variables. The feature of automaton model is that each state machine is considered as a new data type and can have an arbitrary bounded number of instances. Each state machine in the system can run a different state machine in a new thread or have nested state machine. This method was implemented in the developed Stater tool. Stater shows correct operation for all test cases.
Probabilistic cellular automata: Some statistical mechanical considerations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebowitz, J.L.; Maes, C.; Speer, E.R.
1990-01-01
Spin systems evolving in continuous or discrete time under the action of stochastic dynamics are used to model phenomena as diverse as the structure of alloys and the functioning of neural networks. While in some cases the dynamics are secondary, designed to produce a specific stationary measure whose properties one is interested in studying, there are other cases in which the only available information is the dynamical rule. Prime examples of the former are computer simulations, via Glauber dynamics, of equilibrium Gibbs measures with a specified interaction potential. Examples of the latter include various types of majority rule dynamics used as models for pattern recognition and for error-tolerant computations. The present note discusses ways in which techniques found useful in equilibrium statistical mechanics can be applied to a particular class of models of the latter types. These are cellular automata with noise: systems in which the spins are updated stochastically at integer times, simultaneously at all sites of some regular lattice. These models were first investigated in detail in the Soviet literature of the late sixties and early seventies. They are now generally referred to as Stochastic or Probabilistic Cellular Automata (PCA), and may be considered to include deterministic automata (CA) as special limits. 16 refs., 3 figs
Evolving cellular automata to perform computations. Final technical report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crutchfield, J.P.; Mitchell, M.
1998-04-01
The overall goals of the project are to determine the usefulness of genetic algorithms (GAs) in designing spatially extended parallel systems to perform computational tasks and to develop theoretical frameworks both for understanding the computation in the systems evolved by the GA and for understanding the evolutionary process which successful systems are designed. In the original proposal the authors scheduled the first year of the project to be devoted to experimental grounding. During the first year they developed the simulation and graphics software necessary for doing experiments and analysis on one dimensional cellular automata (CAs), and they performed extensive experiments and analysis concerning two computational tasks--density classification and synchronization. Details of these experiments and results, and a list of resulting publications, were given in the 1994--1995 report. The authors scheduled the second year to be devoted to theoretical development. (A third year, to be funded by the National Science Foundation, will be devoted to applications.) Accordingly, most of the effort during the second year was spent on theory, both of GAs and of the CAs that they evolve. A central notion is that of the computational strategy of a CA, which they formalize in terms of domains, particles, and particle interactions. This formalization builds on the computational mechanics framework developed by Crutchfield and Hanson for understanding intrinsic computation in spatially extended dynamical systems. They have made significant progress in the following areas: (1) statistical dynamics of GAs; (2) formalizing particle based computation in cellular automata; and (3) computation in two-dimensional CAs.
Model Checking Timed Automata with Priorities using DBM Subtraction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Pettersson, Paul
2006-01-01
In this paper we describe an extension of timed automata with priorities, and efficient algorithms to compute subtraction on DBMs (difference bounded matrices), needed in symbolic model-checking of timed automata with priorities. The subtraction is one of the few operations on DBMs that result in...... this number affects the performance of symbolic model-checking. The uses of the DBM subtraction operation extend beyond timed automata with priorities. It is also useful for allowing guards on transitions with urgent actions, deadlock checking, and timed games.......In this paper we describe an extension of timed automata with priorities, and efficient algorithms to compute subtraction on DBMs (difference bounded matrices), needed in symbolic model-checking of timed automata with priorities. The subtraction is one of the few operations on DBMs that result...
Two-Player Reachability-Price Games on Single-Clock Timed Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michal Rutkowski
2011-07-01
Full Text Available We study two player reachability-price games on single-clock timed automata. The problem is as follows: given a state of the automaton, determine whether the first player can guarantee reaching one of the designated goal locations. If a goal location can be reached then we also want to compute the optimum price of doing so. Our contribution is twofold. First, we develop a theory of cost functions, which provide a comprehensive methodology for the analysis of this problem. This theory allows us to establish our second contribution, an EXPTIME algorithm for computing the optimum reachability price, which improves the existing 3EXPTIME upper bound.
An order parameter for networks of automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flyvbjerg, H.
1988-05-01
An exact polynomial equation is given for the size of the stable core of networks of automata with random connections. When the connectivity K of a network equals 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 this equation is exactly solvable. It is found that the size of the stable core is an order parameter for a phase transition well known from Kauffman's model. A new derivation of critical parameter values follows. The phase structure is found to be independent of the updating scheme used in the dynamical law for the network. (orig.)
Measuring Communication in Parallel Communicating Finite Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henning Bordihn
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Systems of deterministic finite automata communicating by sending their states upon request are investigated, when the amount of communication is restricted. The computational power and decidability properties are studied for the case of returning centralized systems, when the number of necessary communications during the computations of the system is bounded by a function depending on the length of the input. It is proved that an infinite hierarchy of language families exists, depending on the number of messages sent during their most economical recognitions. Moreover, several properties are shown to be not semi-decidable for the systems under consideration.
Recent results for random networks of automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flyvbjerg, H.
1987-05-01
After a very brief historical and contextual introduction to random networks of automata we review recent numerical and analytical results. Open questions and unsolved problems are pointed out and discussed. One such question is also answered: it is shown that the size of the stable core can be used as order parameter for a transition between phases of frozen and chaotic network behavior. A mean-field-like but exact selfconsistency equation for the size of the stable core is given. A new derivation of critical parameter values follows from it. (orig.)
On Binary-State Phyllosilicate Automata
Adamatzky, Andrew
Phyllosilicate is a sheet of silicate tetrahedra bound by basal oxygens. A phyllosilicate automaton is a regular network of finite state machines, which mimics the structure of phyllosilicate. A node of a binary state phyllosilicate automaton takes states 0 and 1. A node updates its state in discrete time depending on a sum of states of its three (silicon nodes) or six (oxygen nodes) closest neighbors. We phenomenologically select the main types of patterns generated by phyllosilicate automata based on their shape: convex and concave hulls, almost circularly growing patterns, octagonal patterns, and those with dendritic growth; and, the patterns' interior: disordered, solid, labyrinthine. We also present the rules exhibiting traveling localizations.
Soliton cellular automata associated with crystal bases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatayama, Goro; Kuniba, Atsuo; Takagi, Taichiro
2000-01-01
We introduce a class of cellular automata associated with crystals of irreducible finite dimensional representations of quantum affine algebras U' q (g-circumflex n ). They have solitons labeled by crystals of the smaller algebra U' q (g-circumflex n-1 ). We prove stable propagation of one soliton for g-circumflex n =A (2) 2n-1 ,A (2) 2n ,B (1) n ,C (1) n ,D (1) n and D (2) n+1 . For g-circumflex n =C (1) n , we also prove that the scattering matrices of two solitons coincide with the combinatorial R matrices of U' q (C (1) n-1 )-crystals
Learn with SAT to Minimize Büchi Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephan Barth
2012-10-01
Full Text Available We describe a minimization procedure for nondeterministic Büchi automata (NBA. For an automaton A another automaton A_min with the minimal number of states is learned with the help of a SAT-solver. This is done by successively computing automata A' that approximate A in the sense that they accept a given finite set of positive examples and reject a given finite set of negative examples. In the course of the procedure these example sets are successively increased. Thus, our method can be seen as an instance of a generic learning algorithm based on a "minimally adequate teacher'' in the sense of Angluin. We use a SAT solver to find an NBA for given sets of positive and negative examples. We use complementation via construction of deterministic parity automata to check candidates computed in this manner for equivalence with A. Failure of equivalence yields new positive or negative examples. Our method proved successful on complete samplings of small automata and of quite some examples of bigger automata. We successfully ran the minimization on over ten thousand automata with mostly up to ten states, including the complements of all possible automata with two states and alphabet size three and discuss results and runtimes; single examples had over 100 states.
HYPERCOMPOSITIONAL STRUCTURES FROM THE COMPUTER THEORY
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Geronimos G. Massouros
1999-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the several types of hypercompositional structures that have been introduced and used for the approach and solution of problems in the theory of languages and automata.
Language Emptiness of Continuous-Time Parametric Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Benes, Nikola; Bezdek, Peter; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
2015-01-01
Parametric timed automata extend the standard timed automata with the possibility to use parameters in the clock guards. In general, if the parameters are real-valued, the problem of language emptiness of such automata is undecidable even for various restricted subclasses. We thus focus on the case...... of these clocks is compared with (an arbitrary number of) parameters, we show that the parametric language emptiness is decidable. The undecidability result tightens the bounds of a previous result which assumed six parameters, while the decidability result extends the existing approaches that deal with discrete...
Operational State Complexity of Deterministic Unranked Tree Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoxue Piao
2010-08-01
Full Text Available We consider the state complexity of basic operations on tree languages recognized by deterministic unranked tree automata. For the operations of union and intersection the upper and lower bounds of both weakly and strongly deterministic tree automata are obtained. For tree concatenation we establish a tight upper bound that is of a different order than the known state complexity of concatenation of regular string languages. We show that (n+1 ( (m+12^n-2^(n-1 -1 vertical states are sufficient, and necessary in the worst case, to recognize the concatenation of tree languages recognized by (strongly or weakly deterministic automata with, respectively, m and n vertical states.
Multilevel Cellular Automata as a Tool for Studying Bioinformatic Processes
Hogeweg, Paulien
The signature feature of Cellular Automata is the realization that "simple rules can give rise to complex behavior". In particular how fixed "rock-bottom" simple rules can give rise to multiple levels of organization. Here we describe Multilevel Cellular Automata, in which the microscopic entities (states) and their transition rules themselves are adjusted by the mesoscale patterns that they themselves generate. Thus we study the feedback of higher levels of organization on the lower levels. Such an approach is preeminently important for studying bioinformatic systems. We will here focus on an evolutionary approach to formalize such Multilevel Cellular Automata, and review examples of studies that use them.
Infinite Runs in Weighted Timed Automata with Energy Constraints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bouyer, Patricia; Fahrenberg, Uli; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
2008-01-01
We study the problems of existence and construction of infinite schedules for finite weighted automata and one-clock weighted timed automata, subject to boundary constraints on the accumulated weight. More specifically, we consider automata equipped with positive and negative weights on transitions...... and locations, corresponding to the production and consumption of some resource (e.g. energy). We ask the question whether there exists an infinite path for which the accumulated weight for any finite prefix satisfies certain constraints (e.g. remains between 0 and some given upper-bound). We also consider...
Modal Transition Systems as the Basis for Interface Theories and Product Lines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nyman, Ulrik
of these present and discuss four different forms of consistency. Algorithms for synthesizing implementations from a given consistency relation is described for all four consistencies. The final paper proves PSPACE-hardness for common implementation and thorough refinement for mixed and modal transition systems...... Systems, Modal Specifications, Mixed Specifications, Interfaces, Interface Theory, Interface Automata, I/O automata, Modal I/O Automata, Behavioral Inequalities, Consistency, Common Implementation, Thorough Refinement, Operational Characterization, Synthesizing Implementations, Relativized Simulation...
Mode automata and their compilation into fault trees
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rauzy, Antoine
2002-01-01
In this article, we advocate the use of mode automata as a high level representation language for reliability studies. Mode automata are states/transitions based representations with the additional notion of flow. They can be seen as a generalization of both finite capacity Petri nets and block diagrams. They can be assembled into hierarchies by means of composition operations. The contribution of this article is twofold. First, we introduce mode automata and we discuss their relationship with other formalisms. Second, we propose an algorithm to compile mode automata into Boolean equations (fault trees). Such a compilation is of interest for two reasons. First, assessment tools for Boolean models are much more efficient than those for states/transitions models. Second, the automated generation of fault trees from higher level representations makes easier their maintenance through the life cycle of systems under study
Molina, Mario Martínez; Moreno-Armendáriz, Marco A; Carlos Seck Tuoh Mora, Juan
2013-11-07
A two-dimensional lattice model based on Cellular Automata theory and swarm intelligence is used to study the spatial and population dynamics of a theoretical ecosystem. It is found that the social interactions among predators provoke the formation of clusters, and that by increasing the mobility of predators the model enters into an oscillatory behavior. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Resource-Optimal Scheduling Using Priced Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Rasmussen, Jacob Illum; Subramani, K.
2004-01-01
In this paper, we show how the simple structure of the linear programs encountered during symbolic minimum-cost reachability analysis of priced timed automata can be exploited in order to substantially improve the performance of the current algorithm. The idea is rooted in duality of linear progr......-80 percent performance gain. As a main application area, we show how to solve energy-optimal task graph scheduling problems using the framework of priced timed automata....
Multi-Robot Motion Planning: A Timed Automata Approach
Quottrup, Michael Melholt; Bak, Thomas; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh
2004-01-01
This paper describes how a network of interacting timed automata can be used to model, analyze, and verify motion planning problems in a scenario with multiple robotic vehicles. The method presupposes an infra-structure of robots with feed-back controllers obeying simple restriction on a planar grid. The automata formalism merely presents a high-level model of environment, robots and control, but allows composition and formal symbolic reasoning about coordinated solutions. Composition is achi...
Renormalization group and continuum limit of quantum cellular automata
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zimboras, Zoltan [Quantum Information Theory Group, ISI, Torino (Italy)
2012-07-01
We develop a renormalization group formalism for quantum cellular automata (reminiscent of the algebraic renormalization group of Buchholz and Verch). Using this formalism, we can define the continuum limit for certain automata. As a particular example, we show that the continuum limit of the so-called ''Glider Clifford cellular automaton'' is the 1+1 dimensional relativistic QFT of free Majorana fermions.
Analysis for Embedded Systems: Experiments with Priced Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ovatman, Tolga; Brekling, Aske Wiid; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt
2010-01-01
costs of those models. In order to achieve this, a basic model is built using priced timed automata and some resource consumption scenarios are verified. Even though the experiments are performed on small and basic models, we believe we have taken a basis step in showing that it is promising to use...... priced timed automata and Uppaal Cora as a model checking tool in reasoning about resource consumption of embedded systems....
Modelling Cow Behaviour Using Stochastic Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi
This report covers an initial study on the modelling of cow behaviour using stochastic automata with the aim of detecting lameness. Lameness in cows is a serious problem that needs to be dealt with because it results in less profitable production units and in reduced quality of life...... for the affected livestock. By featuring training data consisting of measurements of cow activity, three different models are obtained, namely an autonomous stochastic automaton, a stochastic automaton with coinciding state and output and an autonomous stochastic automaton with coinciding state and output, all...... of which describe the cows' activity in the two regarded behavioural scenarios, non-lame and lame. Using the experimental measurement data the different behavioural relations for the two regarded behavioural scenarios are assessed. The three models comprise activity within last hour, activity within last...
Simulating Complex Systems by Cellular Automata
Kroc, Jiri; Hoekstra, Alfons G
2010-01-01
Deeply rooted in fundamental research in Mathematics and Computer Science, Cellular Automata (CA) are recognized as an intuitive modeling paradigm for Complex Systems. Already very basic CA, with extremely simple micro dynamics such as the Game of Life, show an almost endless display of complex emergent behavior. Conversely, CA can also be designed to produce a desired emergent behavior, using either theoretical methodologies or evolutionary techniques. Meanwhile, beyond the original realm of applications - Physics, Computer Science, and Mathematics – CA have also become work horses in very different disciplines such as epidemiology, immunology, sociology, and finance. In this context of fast and impressive progress, spurred further by the enormous attraction these topics have on students, this book emerges as a welcome overview of the field for its practitioners, as well as a good starting point for detailed study on the graduate and post-graduate level. The book contains three parts, two major parts on th...
Computing by Temporal Order: Asynchronous Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Vielhaber
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Our concern is the behaviour of the elementary cellular automata with state set 0,1 over the cell set Z/nZ (one-dimensional finite wrap-around case, under all possible update rules (asynchronicity. Over the torus Z/nZ (n<= 11,we will see that the ECA with Wolfram rule 57 maps any v in F_2^n to any w in F_2^n, varying the update rule. We furthermore show that all even (element of the alternating group bijective functions on the set F_2^n = 0,...,2^n-1, can be computed by ECA57, by iterating it a sufficient number of times with varying update rules, at least for n <= 10. We characterize the non-bijective functions computable by asynchronous rules.
SELF-ORGANIZED CRITICALITY AND CELLULAR AUTOMATA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
CREUTZ,M.
2007-01-01
Cellular automata provide a fascinating class of dynamical systems based on very simple rules of evolution yet capable of displaying highly complex behavior. These include simplified models for many phenomena seen in nature. Among other things, they provide insight into self-organized criticality, wherein dissipative systems naturally drive themselves to a critical state with important phenomena occurring over a wide range of length and the scales. This article begins with an overview of self-organized criticality. This is followed by a discussion of a few examples of simple cellular automaton systems, some of which may exhibit critical behavior. Finally, some of the fascinating exact mathematical properties of the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sand-pile model [1] are discussed.
On Tree Pattern Matching by Pushdown Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Flouri
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Tree pattern matching is an important operation in Computer Science on which a number of tasks such as mechanical theorem proving, term-rewriting, symbolic computation and non-procedural programming languages are based on. Work has begun on a systematic approach to the construction of tree pattern matchers by deterministic pushdown automata which read subject trees in prefix notation. The method is analogous to the construction of string pattern matchers: for given patterns, a non-deterministic pushdown automaton is created and then it is determinised. In this first paper, we present the proposed non-deterministic pushdown automaton which will serve as a basis for the determinisation process, and prove its correctness.
Particles and Patterns in Cellular Automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jen, E.; Das, R.; Beasley, C.E.
1999-01-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Our objective has been to develop tools for studying particle interactions in a class of dynamical systems characterized by discreteness, determinism, local interaction, and an inherently parallel form of evolution. These systems can be described by cellular automata (CA) and the behavior we studied has improved our understanding of the nature of patterns generated by CAs, their ability to perform global computations, and their relationship to continuous dynamical systems. We have also developed a rule-table mathematics that enables one to custom-design CA rule tables to generate patterns of specified types, or to perform specified computational tasks
Authorship attribution based on Life-Like Network Automata
Machicao, Jeaneth; Corrêa, Edilson A.; Miranda, Gisele H. B.; Amancio, Diego R.
2018-01-01
The authorship attribution is a problem of considerable practical and technical interest. Several methods have been designed to infer the authorship of disputed documents in multiple contexts. While traditional statistical methods based solely on word counts and related measurements have provided a simple, yet effective solution in particular cases; they are prone to manipulation. Recently, texts have been successfully modeled as networks, where words are represented by nodes linked according to textual similarity measurements. Such models are useful to identify informative topological patterns for the authorship recognition task. However, there is no consensus on which measurements should be used. Thus, we proposed a novel method to characterize text networks, by considering both topological and dynamical aspects of networks. Using concepts and methods from cellular automata theory, we devised a strategy to grasp informative spatio-temporal patterns from this model. Our experiments revealed an outperformance over structural analysis relying only on topological measurements, such as clustering coefficient, betweenness and shortest paths. The optimized results obtained here pave the way for a better characterization of textual networks. PMID:29566100
Buffered Simulation Games for Büchi Automata
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Milka Hutagalung
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Simulation relations are an important tool in automata theory because they provide efficiently computable approximations to language inclusion. In recent years, extensions of ordinary simulations have been studied, for instance multi-pebble and multi-letter simulations which yield better approximations and are still polynomial-time computable. In this paper we study the limitations of approximating language inclusion in this way: we introduce a natural extension of multi-letter simulations called buffered simulations. They are based on a simulation game in which the two players share a FIFO buffer of unbounded size. We consider two variants of these buffered games called continuous and look-ahead simulation which differ in how elements can be removed from the FIFO buffer. We show that look-ahead simulation, the simpler one, is already PSPACE-hard, i.e. computationally as hard as language inclusion itself. Continuous simulation is even EXPTIME-hard. We also provide matching upper bounds for solving these games with infinite state spaces.
Representation theory of finite monoids
Steinberg, Benjamin
2016-01-01
This first text on the subject provides a comprehensive introduction to the representation theory of finite monoids. Carefully worked examples and exercises provide the bells and whistles for graduate accessibility, bringing a broad range of advanced readers to the forefront of research in the area. Highlights of the text include applications to probability theory, symbolic dynamics, and automata theory. Comfort with module theory, a familiarity with ordinary group representation theory, and the basics of Wedderburn theory, are prerequisites for advanced graduate level study. Researchers in algebra, algebraic combinatorics, automata theory, and probability theory, will find this text enriching with its thorough presentation of applications of the theory to these fields. Prior knowledge of semigroup theory is not expected for the diverse readership that may benefit from this exposition. The approach taken in this book is highly module-theoretic and follows the modern flavor of the theory of finite dimensional ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolnik, Barbara; Dembowski, Marcin; Bołt, Witold; Baetens, Jan M; De Baets, Bernard
2017-01-01
The focus of this paper is on the density classification problem in the context of affine continuous cellular automata. Although such cellular automata cannot solve this problem in the classical sense, most density-conserving affine continuous cellular automata with a unit neighborhood radius are valid solutions of a slightly relaxed version of this problem. This result follows from a detailed study of the dynamics of the density-conserving affine continuous cellular automata that we introduce. (paper)
Vargas, David L.
Emerging quantum simulator technologies provide a new challenge to quantum many body theory. Quantifying the emergent order in and predicting the dynamics of such complex quantum systems requires a new approach. We develop such an approach based on complex network analysis of quantum mutual information. First, we establish the usefulness of quantum mutual information complex networks by reproducing the phase diagrams of transverse Ising and Bose-Hubbard models. By quantifying the complexity of quantum cellular automata we then demonstrate the applicability of complex network theory to non-equilibrium quantum dynamics. We conclude with a study of student collaboration networks, correlating a student's role in a collaboration network with their grades. This work thus initiates a quantitative theory of quantum complexity and provides a new tool for physics education research. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).
Sequences, groups, and number theory
Rigo, Michel
2018-01-01
This collaborative book presents recent trends on the study of sequences, including combinatorics on words and symbolic dynamics, and new interdisciplinary links to group theory and number theory. Other chapters branch out from those areas into subfields of theoretical computer science, such as complexity theory and theory of automata. The book is built around four general themes: number theory and sequences, word combinatorics, normal numbers, and group theory. Those topics are rounded out by investigations into automatic and regular sequences, tilings and theory of computation, discrete dynamical systems, ergodic theory, numeration systems, automaton semigroups, and amenable groups. This volume is intended for use by graduate students or research mathematicians, as well as computer scientists who are working in automata theory and formal language theory. With its organization around unified themes, it would also be appropriate as a supplemental text for graduate level courses.
Urban sprawl modeling using cellular automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shikhar Deep
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The population settlements in the fast-growing urban world need to be monitored in order to design a sustainable urban habitat. The remote sensing and GIS are considered as an effective monitoring and decision-support tool in urban planning. This study compiles the results of a study undertaken to measure the urban sprawl in Dehradun city, India through cellular automata CA-Markov model. CA-Markov model can effectively be used to study the urban dynamics in rapidly growing cities. Being an effective tool for encoding spatial structures, the information generated by it could be used to predict urban scenarios for sustainable growth. To achieve the goal, the temporal images of LISS IV were used to analyse the spatial pattern of land cover change in the area and the future growth was modeled by applying CA-Markov model. The results clearly suggest that major changes between the periods of 2004 and 2009 occurred in built up classes (about 27% followed by agriculture (17.7% and fallow land (10.2%. The projection as predicted using CA-Markov model suggested a value of kappa coefficient = 0.91 which indicates the validity of the model to predict future projections. Modeling suggested a clear trend of various land use classes’ transformation in the area of urban built up expansions. It is concluded that RS and GIS can be an effective decision support tool for policy makers to design sustainable urban habitats.
Communicative automata based programming. Society Framework
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrei Micu
2015-10-01
Full Text Available One of the aims of this paper is to present a new programming paradigm based on the new paradigms intensively used in IT industry. Implementation of these techniques can improve the quality of code through modularization, not only in terms of entities used by a program, but also in terms of states in which they pass. Another aspect followed in this paper takes into account that in the development of software applications, the transition from the design to the source code is a very expensive step in terms of effort and time spent. Diagrams can hide very important details for simplicity of understanding, which can lead to incorrect or incomplete implementations. To improve this process communicative automaton based programming comes with an intermediate step. We will see how it goes after creating modeling diagrams to communicative automata and then to writing code for each of them. We show how the transition from one step to another is much easier and intuitive.
Early Vision with Cellular Automata Fields
Pereira, Ricardo Alberto Marques
We introduce a new approach, based on the natural clique structure of diffusive networks, to both the standard and the graded weak membrane models of image reconstruction from noisy sparse data. The new clique-based formulation leads to a single discontinuity field, provides a natural solution to the long-standing localization problem concerning the gradient field construction, and yields an exact paradigm of cellular automata field. The standard weak membrane model of image reconstruction assumes weakly continuous images corrupted by white gaussian noise and operates through an iterative process of constrained anisotropic diffusion. The anisotropy is controlled by the line process I describing the discontinuity contours, while the constraint enforces closeness to the image data. The graded weak membrane model includes an extra field, the sparse processs, which computes a 0 to 1 visual significance map and excludes the less significant data from the image reconstruction scheme. In this mechanism the sparse process s couples with a local noise estimate and, in the interactive model, with the line process l. The resulting [0,1] significance hierarchy of image sites can be regarded as the membership distribution of a fuzzy minimal image.
Concretization and animation of Finite Automata with c-cards
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Valente, Andrea
2004-01-01
to classes of 10 to 12 years old, and in general to students with a limited mathematical background. Our approach builds on {\\em computational cards} (or c-cards), a project aiming at scaling-down the learning complexity of computer science core contents, by presenting symbol manipulation via a t......-cards is given and its educational implication discussed: the mapping provides a mean to concretize and animate automata. The algorithm works with both deterministic and non-deterministic finite automata....... a tangible, physical metaphor. C-cards are still at a very early stage of development as an educational tool, yet we believe they represent a nice, intuitive mind-tool, that can be consistently applied to a variety of (theoretical) computer science concepts. Here an algorithm for mapping finite automata on c...
Minimum-Cost Reachability for Priced Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Behrmann, Gerd; Fehnker, A.; Hune, T.
2001-01-01
This paper introduces the model of linearly priced timed automata as an extension of timed automata, with prices on both transitions and locations. For this model we consider the minimum-cost reachability problem: i.e. given a linearly priced timed automaton and a target state, determine...... the minimum cost of executions from the initial state to the target state. This problem generalizes the minimum-time reachability problem for ordinary timed automata. We prove decidability of this problem by offering an algorithmic solution, which is based on a combination of branch-and-bound techniques...... and a new notion of priced regions. The latter allows symbolic representation and manipulation of reachable states together with the cost of reaching them....
Irreversibility and dissipation in finite-state automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganesh, Natesh; Anderson, Neal G.
2013-01-01
Irreversibility and dissipation in finite-state automata (FSA) are considered from a physical-information-theoretic perspective. A quantitative measure for the computational irreversibility of finite automata is introduced, and a fundamental lower bound on the average energy dissipated per state transition is obtained and expressed in terms of FSA irreversibility. The irreversibility measure and energy bound are germane to any realization of a deterministic automaton that faithfully registers abstract FSA states in distinguishable states of a physical system coupled to a thermal environment, and that evolves via a sequence of interactions with an external system holding a physical instantiation of a random input string. The central result, which is shown to follow from quantum dynamics and entropic inequalities alone, can be regarded as a generalization of Landauer's Principle applicable to FSAs and tailorable to specified automata. Application to a simple FSA is illustrated.
Design of Efficient Mirror Adder in Quantum- Dot Cellular Automata
Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Manju K.
2018-03-01
Lower power consumption is an essential demand for portable multimedia system using digital signal processing algorithms and architectures. Quantum dot cellular automata (QCA) is a rising nano technology for the development of high performance ultra-dense low power digital circuits. QCA based several efficient binary and decimal arithmetic circuits are implemented, however important improvements are still possible. This paper demonstrate Mirror Adder circuit design in QCA. We present comparative study of mirror adder cells designed using conventional CMOS technique and mirror adder cells designed using quantum-dot cellular automata. QCA based mirror adders are better in terms of area by order of three.
Optimal Conditional Reachability for Multi-Priced Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Rasmussen, Jacob Illum
2005-01-01
In this paper, we prove decidability of the optimal conditional reachability problem for multi-priced timed automata, an extension of timed automata with multiple cost variables evolving according to given rates for each location. More precisely, we consider the problem of determining the minimal...... cost of reaching a given target state, with respect to some primary cost variable, while respecting upper bound constraints on the remaining (secondary) cost variables. Decidability is proven by constructing a zone-based algorithm that always terminates while synthesizing the optimal cost with a single...
Verification of Continuous Dynamical Systems by Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael
2011-01-01
This paper presents a method for abstracting continuous dynamical systems by timed automata. The abstraction is based on partitioning the state space of a dynamical system using positive invariant sets, which form cells that represent locations of a timed automaton. The abstraction is intended......, which is generated utilizing sub-level sets of Lyapunov functions, as they are positive invariant sets. It is shown that this partition generates sound and complete abstractions. Furthermore, the complete abstractions can be composed of multiple timed automata, allowing parallelization...
Symmetry pattern transition in cellular automata with complex behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, Juan R.; Lopez-Ruiz, Ricardo
2008-01-01
A transition from asymmetric to symmetric patterns in time-dependent extended systems is described. It is shown that one dimensional cellular automata, started from fully random initial conditions, can be forced to evolve into complex symmetrical patterns by stochastically coupling a proportion p of pairs of sites located at equal distance from the center of the lattice. A nontrivial critical value of p must be surpassed in order to obtain symmetrical patterns during the evolution. This strategy is able to classify the cellular automata rules - with complex behavior - between those that support time-dependent symmetric patterns and those which do not support such kind of patterns
Factorization, reduction and embedding in integrable cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuniba, Atsuo; Takagi, Taichiro; Takenouchi, Akira
2004-01-01
Factorized dynamics in soliton cellular automata with quantum group symmetry is identified with a motion of particles and anti-particles exhibiting pair creation and annihilation. An embedding scheme is presented showing that the D (1) n -automaton contains, as certain subsectors, the box-ball systems and all the other automata associated with the crystal bases of non-exceptional affine Lie algebras. The results extend the earlier ones to higher representations by a certain reduction and to a wider class of boundary conditions
Implementation of Automata Theory to Improve the Learning Disability
Ali, Syed Asif; Soomro, Safeeullah; Memon, Abdul Ghafoor; Baqi, Abdul
2013-01-01
There are various types of disability egress in world like blindness, deafness, and Physical disabilities. It is quite difficult to deal with people with disability. Learning disability (LD) is types of disability totally different from general disability. To deal children with learning disability is difficult for both parents and teacher. As parent deal with only single child so it bit easy. But teacher deals with different students at a time so its more difficult to deal with group of stude...
Theory of computation, automata and languages | Akinyede | Ife ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Ife Journal of Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here ...
Ma, Xiao; Zheng, Wei-Fan; Jiang, Bao-Shan; Zhang, Ji-Ye
2016-10-01
With the development of traffic systems, some issues such as traffic jams become more and more serious. Efficient traffic flow theory is needed to guide the overall controlling, organizing and management of traffic systems. On the basis of the cellular automata model and the traffic flow model with look-ahead potential, a new cellular automata traffic flow model with negative exponential weighted look-ahead potential is presented in this paper. By introducing the negative exponential weighting coefficient into the look-ahead potential and endowing the potential of vehicles closer to the driver with a greater coefficient, the modeling process is more suitable for the driver’s random decision-making process which is based on the traffic environment that the driver is facing. The fundamental diagrams for different weighting parameters are obtained by using numerical simulations which show that the negative exponential weighting coefficient has an obvious effect on high density traffic flux. The complex high density non-linear traffic behavior is also reproduced by numerical simulations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11572264, 11172247, 11402214, and 61373009).
A Formal Connection between Security Automata and JML Annotations
Huisman, Marieke; Tamalet, A.; Checkik, M.; Wirsing, M.
2009-01-01
Security automata are a convenient way to describe security policies. Their typical use is to monitor the execution of an application, and to interrupt it as soon as the security policy is violated. However, run-time adherence checking is not always convenient. Instead, we aim at developing a
Cellular Automata in Topology Optimization of Continuum Structures ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, an optimization algorithm based on cellular automata (CA) is developed for topology optimization of continuum structures with shear and flexural behavior. The design domain is divided into small triangle elements and each cell is considered as a finite element. The stress analysis is performed by the Constant ...
A Symbolic Algorithm for the Analysis of Robust Timed Automata
Kordy, P.T.; Langerak, Romanus; Mauw, Sjouke; Polderman, Jan W.; Jones, C.; Pihlajasaari, P.; Sun, J.W.
2014-01-01
We propose an algorithm for the analysis of robustness of timed automata, that is, the correctness of a model in the presence of small drifts of the clocks. The algorithm is an extension of the region based algorithm of Puri and uses the idea of stable zones as introduced by Daws and Kordy.
Using a satisfiability solver to identify deterministic finite state automata
Heule, M.J.H.; Verwer, S.
2009-01-01
We present an exact algorithm for identification of deterministic finite automata (DFA) which is based on satisfiability (SAT) solvers. Despite the size of the low level SAT representation, our approach seems to be competitive with alternative techniques. Our contributions are threefold: First, we
Car-following Behavior Model Learning Using Timed Automata
Zhang, Yihuan; Lin, Q.; Wang, Jun; Verwer, S.E.; Dochain, D.; Henrion, D.; Peaucelle, D.
Learning driving behavior is fundamental for autonomous vehicles to “understand” traffic situations. This paper proposes a novel method for learning a behavioral model of car-following using automata learning algorithms. The model is interpretable for car-following behavior analysis. Frequent common
Supervisory control of (max,+) automata: extensions towards applications
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lahaye, S.; Komenda, Jan; Boimond, J.-L.
2015-01-01
Roč. 88, č. 12 (2015), s. 2523-2537 ISSN 0020-7179 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : discrete event systems * logical and timed behaviors * (max,+) automata * supervisory control Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.880, year: 2015 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00207179.2015.1048295
A generalized cellular automata approach to modeling first order ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Cellular automata; enzyme kinetics; extended von-Neumann neighborhood. 1. Introduction. Over the past two decades, there has been a significant growth in the use of computer-generated models to study dynamic phenomena in biochemical systems (Kier et al 2005). The need to include greater details about biochemical ...
Motion Planning in Multi-robot Systems using Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Michael. S.; Jensen, Rune S.; Bak, Thomas
kinematics, is captured in an automata formalism that allows formal composition and symbolic reasoning. The verification software UppAal is used to verify specification requirements formulated in computational tree logic (CTL), generating all feasible trajectories that satisfy specifications. The results...
Completely reproducible description of digital sound data with cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wada, Masato; Kuroiwa, Jousuke; Nara, Shigetoshi
2002-01-01
A novel method of compressive and completely reproducible description of digital sound data by means of rule dynamics of CA (cellular automata) is proposed. The digital data of spoken words and music recorded with the standard format of a compact disk are reproduced completely by this method with use of only two rules in a one-dimensional CA without loss of information
Simplicial models for trace spaces II: General higher dimensional automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raussen, Martin
Higher Dimensional Automata (HDA) are topological models for the study of concurrency phenomena. The state space for an HDA is given as a pre-cubical complex in which a set of directed paths (d-paths) is singled out. The aim of this paper is to describe a general method that determines the space...
Stability Analysis for Hybrid Automata Using Conservative Gains
Langerak, Romanus; Engell, S.; Guegen, H.; Polderman, Jan W.; Krilavicius, T.; Zaytoon, J.
2003-01-01
This paper presents a stability analysis approach for a class of hybrid automata. It is assumed that the dynamics in each location of the hybrid automaton is linear and asymptotically stable, and that the guards on the transitions are hyperplanes in the state space. For each pair of ingoing and
Modelling of recrystallization and grain boundary migration by cellular automata
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kroc, J.; Paidar, Václav
426-432, - (2003), s. 3873-3878 ISSN 0255-5476 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0916 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : cellular automata * dynamic recrystallization * grain boundary migration * modeling * simulation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.602, year: 2003
Modeling, refining and analyzing Incomplete B\\"uchi Automata
Menghi, Claudio; Spoletini, Paola; Ghezzi, Carlo
2016-01-01
Software development is an iterative process which includes a set of development steps that transform the initial high level specification of the system into its final, fully specified, implementation. This report discusses the theoretical foundations that allow Incomplete B\\"uchi Automata (IBAs) to be used in the iterative development of a sequential system.
Fractal dimension at the phase transition of inhomogeneous cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
da Silva, L.R.
1988-01-01
For random binary mixtures of cellular automata in the square lattice, calculations are made of the fractal dimensions associated with the damage spreading and the propagation time of damage at the transition to chaos. Two rules are mixed and universalities of these quantities are sought with respect to change of the rules
The degree of irreversibility in deterministic finite automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Axelsen, Holger Bock; Holzer, Markus; Kutrib, Martin
2016-01-01
for nondeterministic finite state automata (NFA) is PSPACE-complete. The recent DFA method essentially works by minimizing the DFA and inspecting it for a forbidden pattern. We here study the degree of irreversibility for a regular language, the minimal number of such forbidden patterns necessary in any DFA accepting...
Comprehensive bidding strategies with genetic programming/finite state automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richter, C.W. Jr.; Sheble, G.B.; Ashlock, D.
1999-01-01
This research is an extension of the authors' previous work in double auctions aimed at developing bidding strategies for electric utilities which trade electricity competitively. The improvements detailed in this paper come from using data structures which combine genetic programming and finite state automata termed GP-Automata. The strategies developed by the method described here are adaptive--reacting to inputs--whereas the previously developed strategies were only suitable in the particular scenario for which they had been designed. The strategies encoded in the GP-Automata are tested in an auction simulator. The simulator pits them against other distribution companies (distcos) and generation companies (gencos), buying and selling power via double auctions implemented in regional commodity exchanges. The GP-Automata are evolved with a genetic algorithm so that they possess certain characteristics. In addition to designing successful bidding strategies (whose usage would result in higher profits) the resulting strategies can also be designed to imitate certain types of trading behaviors. The resulting strategies can be implemented directly in on-line trading, or can be used as realistic competitors in an off-line trading simulator
The power of reachability testing for timed automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aceto, Luca; Bouyer, Patricia; Burgueno, A.
2003-01-01
be reached. Finally, the property language characterizing the power of reachability testing is used to provide a definition of characteristic properties with respect to a timed version of the ready simulation preorder, for nodes of tau-free, deterministic timed automata....
Supervisory Control of (max,+) automata: a behavioral approach
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Komenda, Jan; Lahaye, S.; Boimond, J.-L.
2009-01-01
Roč. 19, č. 4 (2009), s. 525-549 ISSN 0924-6703 Grant - others:EU Projekt(XE) EU.ICT.DISC 224498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : timed discrete-event systems * supervisory control * formal power series * (max,+) * automata Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.921, year: 2009
Improving the Timed Automata Approach to Biological Pathway Dynamics
Langerak, R.; Pol, Jaco van de; Post, Janine N.; Schivo, Stefano; Aceto, Luca; Bacci, Giorgio; Bacci, Giovanni; Ingólfsdóttir, Anna; Legay, Axel; Mardare, Radu
2017-01-01
Biological systems such as regulatory or gene networks can be seen as a particular type of distributed systems, and for this reason they can be modeled within the Timed Automata paradigm, which was developed in the computer science context. However, tools designed to model distributed systems often
A generalized cellular automata approach to modeling first order ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
lar Automata (CA) is a discrete representation of natural systems (Wolfram 1984). It deals with ..... 120. 140. 160. 180. 200. 220. 240. 260. 280. 300. 320. 340 final product concentration parameter value. (a). (b). (c). (d). (e). (f). Figure 6. Variation of final product concentration P with (a) Join (ES); (b) Break (ES); (c) Join (EI);.
Modelling and simulating in-stent restenosis with complex automata
Hoekstra, A.G.; Lawford, P.; Hose, R.
2010-01-01
In-stent restenosis, the maladaptive response of a blood vessel to injury caused by the deployment of a stent, is a multiscale system involving a large number of biological and physical processes. We describe a Complex Automata Model for in-stent restenosis, coupling bulk flow, drug diffusion, and
Project RAMA: Reconstructing Asteroids Into Mechanical Automata
Dunn, Jason; Fagin, Max; Snyder, Michael; Joyce, Eric
2017-01-01
Many interesting ideas have been conceived for building space-based infrastructure in cislunar space. From O'Neill's space colonies, to solar power satellite farms, and even prospecting retrieved near earth asteroids. In all the scenarios, one thing remained fixed - the need for space resources at the outpost. To satisfy this need, O'Neill suggested an electromagnetic railgun to deliver resources from the lunar surface, while NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission called for a solar electric tug to deliver asteroid materials from interplanetary space. At Made In Space, we propose an entirely new concept. One which is scalable, cost effective, and ensures that the abundant material wealth of the inner solar system becomes readily available to humankind in a nearly automated fashion. We propose the RAMA architecture, which turns asteroids into self-contained spacecraft capable of moving themselves back to cislunar space. The RAMA architecture is just as capable of transporting conventional-sized asteroids on the 10-meter length scale as transporting asteroids 100 meters or larger, making it the most versatile asteroid retrieval architecture in terms of retrieved-mass capability. This report describes the results of the Phase I study funded by the NASA NIAC program for Made In Space to establish the concept feasibility of using space manufacturing to convert asteroids into autonomous, mechanical spacecraft. Project RAMA, Reconstituting Asteroids into Mechanical Automata, is designed to leverage the future advances of additive manufacturing (AM), in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and in-situ manufacturing (ISM) to realize enormous efficiencies in repeated asteroid redirect missions. A team of engineers at Made In Space performed the study work with consultation from the asteroid mining industry, academia, and NASA. Previous studies for asteroid retrieval have been constrained to studying only asteroids that are both large enough to be discovered, and small enough to be
MTL-Model Checking of One-Clock Parametric Timed Automata is Undecidable
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karin Quaas
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Parametric timed automata extend timed automata (Alur and Dill, 1991 in that they allow the specification of parametric bounds on the clock values. Since their introduction in 1993 by Alur, Henzinger, and Vardi, it is known that the emptiness problem for parametric timed automata with one clock is decidable, whereas it is undecidable if the automaton uses three or more parametric clocks. The problem is open for parametric timed automata with two parametric clocks. Metric temporal logic, MTL for short, is a widely used specification language for real-time systems. MTL-model checking of timed automata is decidable, no matter how many clocks are used in the timed automaton. In this paper, we prove that MTL-model checking for parametric timed automata is undecidable, even if the automaton uses only one clock and one parameter and is deterministic.
Descriptional complexity of non-unary self-verifying symmetric difference automata
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Marais, Laurette
2017-09-01
Full Text Available ... ... ... ... 0 0 . . . 1 c0 c1 . . . cn−2 cn−1 In the next lemma, it will be convenient to represent XDFA states ds ⊆ Q as s = 〈sn−1, sn−2, ..., s1, s0〉, where si = 1 if qi ∈ ds and 0 otherwise. The lemma is adapted from [10] on the basis... for publication 3. Hopcroft, J.E., Ullman, J.D.: Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation. 1st edn. Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc., Boston, MA, USA (1990) 12 q0start q1 q2 q3 q0, q2, q3 q0, q1, q3 q1, q2, q3 q0, q1, q2 a,b,c a,b,c a...
Cellular automata-based artificial life system of horizontal gene transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ji-xin Liu
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Mutation and natural selection is the core of Darwin's idea about evolution. Many algorithms and models are based on this idea. However, in the evolution of prokaryotes, more and more researches have indicated that horizontal gene transfer (HGT would be much more important and universal than the authors had imagined. Owing to this mechanism, the prokaryotes not only become adaptable in nearly any environment on Earth, but also form a global genetic bank and a super communication network with all the genes of the prokaryotic world. Under this background, they present a novel cellular automata model general gene transfer to simulate and study the vertical gene transfer and HGT in the prokaryotes. At the same time, they use Schrodinger's life theory to formulate some evaluation indices and to discuss the intelligence and cognition of prokaryotes which is derived from HGT.
A federation of simulations based on cellular automata in cyber-physical systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hoang Van Tran
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In cyber-physical system (CPS, cooperation between a variety of computational and physical elements usually poses difficulties to current modelling and simulation tools. Although much research has proposed to address those challenges, most solutions do not completely cover uncertain interactions in CPS. In this paper, we present a new approach to federate simulations for CPS. A federation is a combination of, and coordination between simulations upon a standard of communication. In addition, a mixed simulation is defined as several parallel simulations federated in a common time progress. Such simulations run on the models of physical systems, which are built based on cellular automata theory. The experimental results are performed on a federation of three simulations of forest fire spread, river pollution diffusion and wireless sensor network. The obtained results can be utilized to observe and predict the behaviours of physical systems in their interactions.
Simulasi Tumbukan Partikel Gas Ideal Dengan Model Cellular Automata Dua Dimensi
Abdul Basid, Annisa Mujriati
2010-01-01
Telah dilakukan simulasi tumbukan partikel gas ideal dengan menggunakan model cellular automata dua dimensi untuk memvisualisasikan tumbukan partikel gas ideal. Tumbukan partikel disimulasikan dengan menggunakan model cellular automata dua dimensi. Di dalam cellular automata, pergerakan partikel diatur dengan suatu aturan yaitu aturan delapan tetangga yang merupakan aturan acak. Hasil program simulasi tumbukan partikel gas ideal dengan model cellular automata dua dimensi mengguna...
Horn clause verification with convex polyhedral abstraction and tree automata-based refinement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick
2017-01-01
In this paper we apply tree-automata techniques to refinement of abstract interpretation in Horn clause verification. We go beyond previous work on refining trace abstractions; firstly we handle tree automata rather than string automata and thereby can capture traces in any Horn clause derivations...... underlying the Horn clauses. Experiments using linear constraint problems and the abstract domain of convex polyhedra show that the refinement technique is practical and that iteration of abstract interpretation with tree automata-based refinement solves many challenging Horn clause verification problems. We...... compare the results with other state-of-the-art Horn clause verification tools....
Tree automata-based refinement with application to Horn clause verification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick
2015-01-01
In this paper we apply tree-automata techniques to refinement of abstract interpretation in Horn clause verification. We go beyond previous work on refining trace abstractions; firstly we handle tree automata rather than string automata and thereby can capture traces in any Horn clause derivations...... underlying the Horn clauses. Experiments using linear constraint problems and the abstract domain of convex polyhedra show that the refinement technique is practical and that iteration of abstract interpretation with tree automata-based refinement solves many challenging Horn clause verification problems. We...... compare the results with other state of the art Horn clause verification tools....
From Boolean logic to switching circuits and automata. Towards modern information technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stankovic, Radomir S. [Nis Univ. (RS). Dept. of Computer Science; Astola, Jaakko [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Signal Processing
2011-07-01
Logic networks and automata are facets of digital systems. The change of the design of logic networks from skills and art into a scientific discipline was possible by the development of the underlying mathematical theory called the Switching Theory. The fundamentals of this theory come from the attempts towards an algebraic description of laws of thoughts presented in the works by George J. Boole and the works on logic by Augustus De Morgan. As often the case in engineering, when the importance of a problem and the need for solving it reach certain limits, the solutions are searched by many scholars in different parts of the word, simultaneously or at about the same time, however, quite independently and often unaware of the work by other scholars. The formulation and rise of Switching Theory is such an example. This book presents a brief account of the developments of Switching Theory and highlights some less known facts in the history of it. The readers will find the book a fresh look into the development of the field revealing how difficult it has been to arrive at many of the concepts that we now consider obvious. Researchers in the history or philosophy of computing will find this book a valuable source of information that complements the standard presentations of the topic. (orig.)
Interpolant tree automata and their application in Horn clause verification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick
2016-01-01
This paper investigates the combination of abstract interpretation over the domain of convex polyhedra with interpolant tree automata, in an abstraction-refinement scheme for Horn clause verification. These techniques have been previously applied separately, but are combined in a new way in this ......This paper investigates the combination of abstract interpretation over the domain of convex polyhedra with interpolant tree automata, in an abstraction-refinement scheme for Horn clause verification. These techniques have been previously applied separately, but are combined in a new way...... clause verification problems indicates that the combination of interpolant tree automaton with abstract interpretation gives some increase in the power of the verification tool, while sometimes incurring a performance overhead....
Multi-Robot Motion Planning: A Timed Automata Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quottrup, Michael Melholt; Bak, Thomas; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh
2004-01-01
grid. The automata formalism merely presents a high-level model of environment, robots and control, but allows composition and formal symbolic reasoning about coordinated solutions. Composition is achieved through synchronization, and the verification software UPPAAL is used for a symbolic verification...... against specification requirements formulated in computational tree logic (CTL). In this way, all feasible trajectories that satisfy specifications and which moves the robots from a set of initial positions to a set of desired goal positions may be algorithmically analyzed. The trajectories can...... then subsequently be used as a high-level motion plan for the robots. This paper reports on the timed automata framework, results of two verification experiments, promise of the approach, and gives a perspective for future research....
Multi-Robot Motion Planning: A Timed Automata Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quottrup, Michael Melholt; Bak, Thomas; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh
grid. The automata formalism merely presents a high-level model of environment, robots and control, but allows composition and formal symbolic reasoning about coordinated solutions. Composition is achieved through synchronization, and the verification software UPPAAL is used for a symbolic verification...... against specification requirements formulated in computational tree logic (CTL). In this way, all feasible trajectories that satisfy specifications and which moves the robots from a set of initial positions to a set of desired goal positions may be algorithmically analyzed. The trajectories can...... then subsequently be used as a high-level motion plan for the robots. This paper reports on the timed automata framework, results of two verification experiments, promise of the approach, and gives a perspective for future research....
On the secure obfuscation of deterministic finite automata.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderson, William Erik
2008-06-01
In this paper, we show how to construct secure obfuscation for Deterministic Finite Automata, assuming non-uniformly strong one-way functions exist. We revisit the software protection approaches originally proposed by [5, 10, 12, 17] and revise them to the current obfuscation setting of Barak et al. [2]. Under this model, we introduce an efficient oracle that retains some 'small' secret about the original program. Using this secret, we can construct an obfuscator and two-party protocol that securely obfuscates Deterministic Finite Automata against malicious adversaries. The security of this model retains the strong 'virtual black box' property originally proposed in [2] while incorporating the stronger condition of dependent auxiliary inputs in [15]. Additionally, we show that our techniques remain secure under concurrent self-composition with adaptive inputs and that Turing machines are obfuscatable under this model.
Station Model for Rail Transit System Using Cellular Automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xun Jing; Ning Bin; Li Keping
2009-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new cellular automata model to simulate the railway traffic at station. Based on NaSch model, the proposed station model is composed of the main track and the siding track. Two different schemes for trains passing through station are considered. One is the scheme of 'pass by the main track, start and stop by the siding track'. The other is the scheme of 'two tracks play the same role'. We simulate the train movement using the proposed model and analyze the traffic flow at station. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed cellular automata model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic. Some characteristic behaviors of railway traffic flow can be reproduced. Moreover, the simulation values of the minimum headway are close to the theoretical values. This result demonstrates the dependability and availability of the proposed model. (general)
Regulated nondeterminism in pushdown automata : the non-regular case
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Masopust, Tomáš
2010-01-01
Roč. 104, 1-2 (2010), s. 111-124 ISSN 0169-2968 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : pushdown automata * regulation * generative power Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2010 http://iospress.metapress.com/content/y7830k816323x351/?issue=1&genre=article&spage=111&issn=0169-2968&volume=104
Reconfigurable control of a power plant deaerator using learning automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia, H.E.; Ray, A.; Edwards, R.M.
1991-01-01
A deaerating feedwater heater, equipped with a water level controller and a pressure controller, has been chosen to investigate the feasibility of a reconfigurable control scheme for power plants by incorporating the concept of learning automata. In this paper simulation results based on a model of the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) at the Argonne National Laboratory site in Idaho are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the reconfigurable control scheme
A Markov Process Inspired Cellular Automata Model of Road Traffic
Wang, Fa; Li, Li; Hu, Jianming; Ji, Yan; Yao, Danya; Zhang, Yi; Jin, Xuexiang; Su, Yuelong; Wei, Zheng
2008-01-01
To provide a more accurate description of the driving behaviors in vehicle queues, a namely Markov-Gap cellular automata model is proposed in this paper. It views the variation of the gap between two consequent vehicles as a Markov process whose stationary distribution corresponds to the observed distribution of practical gaps. The multiformity of this Markov process provides the model enough flexibility to describe various driving behaviors. Two examples are given to show how to specialize i...
From Dynamic Condition Response Structures to Büchi Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Hildebrandt, Thomas
2010-01-01
Recently we have presented distributed dynamic condition response structures (DCR structures) as a declarative process model conservatively generalizing labelled event structures to allow for finite specifications of repeated, possibly infinite behavior. The key ideas are to split the causality r...... and show how to characterise the execution of DCR structures and the acceptance condition for infinite runs by giving a map to Bu ̈chi-automata. This is the first step towards automatic verification of processes specified as DCR structures....
Dualities for multi-state probabilistic cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
López, F Javier; Sanz, Gerardo; Sobottka, Marcelo
2008-01-01
In this paper a new form of duality for probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) is introduced. Using this duality, an ergodicity result for processes having a dual is proved. Also, conditions on the probabilities defining the evolution of the processes for the existence of a dual are provided. The results are applied to wide classes of PCA which include multi-opinion voter models, competition models and the Domany–Kinzel model
Multidimensional cellular automata and generalization of Fekete's lemma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silvio Capobianco
2008-08-01
Full Text Available Fekete's lemma is a well known combinatorial result on number sequences: we extend it to functions defined on $d$-tuples of integers. As an application of the new variant, we show that nonsurjective $d$-dimensional cellular automata are characterized by loss of arbitrarily much information on finite supports, at a growth rate greater than that of the support's boundary determined by the automaton's neighbourhood index.
Discovering Motifs in Biological Sequences Using the Micron Automata Processor.
Roy, Indranil; Aluru, Srinivas
2016-01-01
Finding approximately conserved sequences, called motifs, across multiple DNA or protein sequences is an important problem in computational biology. In this paper, we consider the (l, d) motif search problem of identifying one or more motifs of length l present in at least q of the n given sequences, with each occurrence differing from the motif in at most d substitutions. The problem is known to be NP-complete, and the largest solved instance reported to date is (26,11). We propose a novel algorithm for the (l,d) motif search problem using streaming execution over a large set of non-deterministic finite automata (NFA). This solution is designed to take advantage of the micron automata processor, a new technology close to deployment that can simultaneously execute multiple NFA in parallel. We demonstrate the capability for solving much larger instances of the (l, d) motif search problem using the resources available within a single automata processor board, by estimating run-times for problem instances (39,18) and (40,17). The paper serves as a useful guide to solving problems using this new accelerator technology.
GCA-w: Global Cellular Automata with Write-Access
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffmann, R.
2010-01-01
The novel GCA-w model (Global Cellular Automata with Write access) is presented which is based on the GCA (Global Cellular Automata) model. The GCA model is a massively parallel model like the cellular automata model. In the CA model, the cells have static links to their local neighbors whereas in the GCA model, the links are dynamic according to a special local rule. In both models, the access is '' read-only ''. Thereby no write conflict can occur and all cells can update their states independently in parallel. The GCA model is useful for many parallel problems that can be described by a non-local and changing neighborhood. A shortcoming of the GCA model is the missing write access to neighboring cells. Although a write access can be emulated in O(log n) time this slowdown may not be acceptable in some practical applications. Therefore, the GCA-w model was developed. The GCA-w model allows to change the states of the neighboring cells as well as the state of the own cell. Thereby certain parallel algorithms can be described more appropriately and the number of active cells can be controlled by the cells themselves in a decentralized way. Activity control also enables dynamic resource sharing and the reduction of power consumption. The usefulness of the GCA-w model is demonstrated by some fine-grain parallel applications: one-to-all communication, synchronization and moving particles. (author)
Study of spatially extended dynamical systems using probabilistic cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vanag, Vladimir K
1999-01-01
Spatially extended dynamical systems are ubiquitous and include such things as insect and animal populations; complex chemical, technological, and geochemical processes; humanity itself, and much more. It is clearly desirable to have a certain universal tool with which the highly complex behaviour of nonlinear dynamical systems can be analyzed and modelled. For this purpose, cellular automata seem to be good candidates. In the present review, emphasis is placed on the possibilities that various types of probabilistic cellular automata (PCA), such as DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo) and LGCA (lattice-gas cellular automata), offer. The methods are primarily designed for modelling spatially extended dynamical systems with inner fluctuations accounted for. For the Willamowskii-Roessler and Oregonator models, PCA applications to the following problems are illustrated: the effect of fluctuations on the dynamics of nonlinear systems; Turing structure formation; the effect of hydrodynamic modes on the behaviour of nonlinear chemical systems (stirring effects); bifurcation changes in the dynamical regimes of complex systems with restricted geometry or low spatial dimension; and the description of chemical systems in microemulsions. (reviews of topical problems)
Wickramasuriya, R.C.; Bregt, A.K.; Delden, van H.; Hagen-Zanker, A.
2009-01-01
This paper presents an extension to the Constrained Cellular Automata (CCA) land use model of White et al. [White, R., Engelen, G., Uljee, I., 1997. The use of constrained cellular automata for high-resolution modelling of urban land-use dynamics. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design
Compute bound and I/O bound Cellular Automata simulations on FPGA logic
Murtaza, S.; Hoekstra, A.G.; Sloot, P.M.A.
2009-01-01
FPGA-based computation engines have been used as Cellular Automata accelerators in the scientific community for some time now. With the recent availability of more advanced FPGA logic it becomes necessary to better understand the mapping of Cellular Automata to these systems. There are many
Hellouin de Menibus, Benjamin; Sablik, Mathieu
2017-06-01
This article introduces new tools to study self-organisation in a family of simple cellular automata which contain some particle-like objects with good collision properties (coalescence) in their time evolution. We draw an initial configuration at random according to some initial shift-ergodic measure, and use the limit measure to describe the asymptotic behaviour of the automata. We first take a qualitative approach, i.e. we obtain information on the limit measure(s). We prove that only particles moving in one particular direction can persist asymptotically. This provides some previously unknown information on the limit measures of various deterministic and probabilistic cellular automata: 3 and 4-cyclic cellular automata [introduced by Fisch (J Theor Probab 3(2):311-338, 1990; Phys D 45(1-3):19-25, 1990)], one-sided captive cellular automata [introduced by Theyssier (Captive Cellular Automata, 2004)], the majority-traffic cellular automaton, a self stabilisation process towards a discrete line [introduced by Regnault and Rémila (in: Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 2015—40th International Symposium, MFCS 2015, Milan, Italy, Proceedings, Part I, 2015)]. In a second time we restrict our study to a subclass, the gliders cellular automata. For this class we show quantitative results, consisting in the asymptotic law of some parameters: the entry times [generalising K ůrka et al. (in: Proceedings of AUTOMATA, 2011)], the density of particles and the rate of convergence to the limit measure.
Learning and Model-checking Networks of I/O Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mao, Hua; Jaeger, Manfred
2012-01-01
We introduce a new statistical relational learning (SRL) approach in which models for structured data, especially network data, are constructed as networks of communicating nite probabilistic automata. Leveraging existing automata learning methods from the area of grammatical inference, we can le...
Automata and cells in affine Weyl groups
Gunnells, Paul E.
2008-01-01
Let W~ be an affine Weyl group, and let C be a left, right, or two-sided Kazhdan--Lusztig cell in W~. Let Reduced (C) be the set of all reduced expressions of elements of C, regarded as a formal language in the sense of the theory of computation. We show that Reduced (C) is a regular language. Hence the reduced expressions of the elements in any Kazhdan--Lusztig cell can be enumerated by a finite state automaton.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seck Tuoh Mora, J. C. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)
2001-06-01
We present a review of reversible one dimensional cellular automata and their representation by block permutations. We analyze in detail the behavior of such block permutations to get their characterization. [Spanish] En el siguiente escrito se da una revision a la representacion y comportamiento de automatas celulares unidimensionales reversibles por medio de permutaciones en bloque. Hacemos un analisis detallado del comportamiento de dichas permutaciones para obtener su caracterizacion.
Bus Automata For Intelligent Robots And Computer Vision
Rothstein, Jerome
1988-02-01
Bus automata (BA's) are arrays of automata, each controlling a module of a global interconnection network, an automaton and its module constituting a cell. Connecting modules permits cells to become effectively nearest neighbors even when widely separated. This facilitates parallelism in computation far in excess of that allowed by the "bucket-brigade" communication bottleneck of traditional cellular automata (CA's). Distributed information storage via local automaton states permits complex parallel data processing for rapid pattern recognition, language parsing and other distributed computation at systolic array rates. Global BA architecture can be entirely changed in the time to make one cell state transition. The BA is thus a neural model (cells correspond to neurons) with network plasticity attractive for brain models. Planar (chip) BA's admitting optical input (phototransistors) become powerful retinal models. The distributed input pattern is optically fed directly to distributed local memory, ready for distributed processing, both "retinally" and cooperatively with other BA chips ("brain"). This composite BA can compute control signals for output organs, and sensory inputs other than visual can be utilized similarly. In the BA retina is essentially brain, as in mammals (retina and brain are embryologically the same). The BA can also model opto-motor response (frogs, insects) or sonar response (dolphins, bats), and is proposed as the model of choice for the brains of future intelligent robots and for computer eyes with local parallel image processing capability. Multidimensional formal languages are introduced, corresponding to BA's and patterns the way generative grammars correspond to sequential machines, and applied to fractals and their recognition by BA's.
The Complexity of Finding Reset Words in Finite Automata
Olschewski, Jörg; Ummels, Michael
We study several problems related to finding reset words in deterministic finite automata. In particular, we establish that the problem of deciding whether a shortest reset word has length k is complete for the complexity class DP. This result answers a question posed by Volkov. For the search problems of finding a shortest reset word and the length of a shortest reset word, we establish membership in the complexity classes FPNP and FPNP[log], respectively. Moreover, we show that both these problems are hard for FPNP[log]. Finally, we observe that computing a reset word of a given length is FNP-complete.
Reliable self-replicating machines in asynchronous cellular automata.
Lee, Jia; Adachi, Susumu; Peper, Ferdinand
2007-01-01
We propose a self-replicating machine that is embedded in a two-dimensional asynchronous cellular automaton with von Neumann neighborhood. The machine dynamically encodes its shape into description signals, and despite the randomness of cell updating, it is able to successfully construct copies of itself according to the description signals. Self-replication on asynchronously updated cellular automata may find application in nanocomputers, where reconfigurability is an essential property, since it allows avoidance of defective parts and simplifies programming of such computers.
Two Novel Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Full Adders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahdie Qanbari
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA is an efficient technology to create computing devices. QCA is a suitable candidate for the next generation of digital systems. Full adders are the main member of computational systems because other operations can be implemented by adders. In this paper, two QCA full adders are introduced. The first one is implemented in one layer, and the second one is implemented in three layers. Five-input majority gate is used in both of them. These full adders are better than pervious designs in terms of area, delay, and complexity.
Network reliability assessment using a cellular automata approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rocco S, Claudio M.; Moreno, Jose Ali
2002-01-01
Two cellular automata (CA) models that evaluate the s-t connectedness and shortest path in a network are presented. CA based algorithms enhance the performance of classical algorithms, since they allow a more reliable and straightforward parallel implementation resulting in a dynamic network evaluation, where changes in the connectivity and/or link costs can readily be incorporated avoiding recalculation from scratch. The paper also demonstrates how these algorithms can be applied for network reliability evaluation (based on Monte-Carlo approach) and for finding s-t path with maximal reliability
Clocked quantum-dot cellular automata shift register
Orlov, Alexei O.; Kummamuru, Ravi; Ramasubramaniam, R.; Lent, Craig S.; Bernstein, Gary H.; Snider, Gregory L.
2003-06-01
The quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) computational paradigm provides a means to achieve ultimately low limits of power dissipation by replacing binary coding in currents and voltages with single-electron switching within arrays of quantum dots ("cells"). Clocked control over the cells allows the realization of power gain, memory and pipelining in QCA circuits. We present an experimental demonstration of a clocked QCA two-stage shift register (SR) and use it to mimic the operation of a multi-stage SR. Error-bit rates for binary switching operations in a metal tunnel junction device are experimentally investigated, and discussed for future molecular QCAs.
Algorithmic Approach to Abstracting Linear Systems by Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael
2011-01-01
This paper proposes an LMI-based algorithm for abstracting dynamical systems by timed automata, which enables automatic formal verification of linear systems. The proposed abstraction is based on partitioning the state space of the system using positive invariant sets, generated by Lyapunov...... functions. This partitioning ensures that the vector field of the dynamical system is transversal to all facets of the cells, which induces some desirable properties of the abstraction. The algorithm is based on identifying intersections of level sets of quadratic Lyapunov functions, and determining...
Complete Abstractions of Dynamical Systems by Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael
2013-01-01
the vector field, which allows the generation of a complete abstraction. To compute the functions that define the subdivision of the state space in an algorithm, we formulate a sum of squares optimization problem. This optimization problem finds the best subdivisioning functions, with respect to the ability......This paper addresses the generation of complete abstractions of polynomial dynamical systems by timed automata. For the proposed abstraction, the state space is divided into cells by sublevel sets of functions. We identify a relation between these functions and their directional derivatives along...
Development of a Bacteria Computer: From in silico Finite Automata to in vitro and in vivo
Sakakibara, Yasubumi
We overview a series of our research on implementing finite automata in vitro and in vivo in the framework of DNA-based computing [1,2]. First, we employ the length-encoding technique proposed and presented in [3,4] to implement finite automata in test tube. In the length-encoding method, the states and state transition functions of a target finite automaton are effectively encoded into DNA sequences, a computation (accepting) process of finite automata is accomplished by self-assembly of encoded complementary DNA strands, and the acceptance of an input string is determined by the detection of a completely hybridized double-strand DNA. Second, we report our intensive in vitro experiments in which we have implemented and executed several finite-state automata in test tube. We have designed and developed practical laboratory protocols which combine several in vitro operations such as annealing, ligation, PCR, and streptavidin-biotin bonding to execute in vitro finite automata based on the length-encoding technique. We have carried laboratory experiments on various finite automata with 2 up to 6 states for several input strings. Third, we present a novel framework to develop a programmable and autonomous in vivo computer using Escherichia coli (E. coli), and implement in vivo finite-state automata based on the framework by employing the protein-synthesis mechanism of E. coli. We show some successful experiments to run an in vivo finite-state automaton on E. coli.
Simulation of root forms using cellular automata model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winarno, Nanang, E-mail: nanang-winarno@upi.edu; Prima, Eka Cahya [International Program on Science Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudi no 229, Bandung40154 (Indonesia); Afifah, Ratih Mega Ayu [Department of Physics Education, Post Graduate School, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudi no 229, Bandung40154 (Indonesia)
2016-02-08
This research aims to produce a simulation program for root forms using cellular automata model. Stephen Wolfram in his book entitled “A New Kind of Science” discusses the formation rules based on the statistical analysis. In accordance with Stephen Wolfram’s investigation, the research will develop a basic idea of computer program using Delphi 7 programming language. To best of our knowledge, there is no previous research developing a simulation describing root forms using the cellular automata model compared to the natural root form with the presence of stone addition as the disturbance. The result shows that (1) the simulation used four rules comparing results of the program towards the natural photographs and each rule had shown different root forms; (2) the stone disturbances prevent the root growth and the multiplication of root forms had been successfully modeled. Therefore, this research had added some stones, which have size of 120 cells placed randomly in the soil. Like in nature, stones cannot be penetrated by plant roots. The result showed that it is very likely to further develop the program of simulating root forms by 50 variations.
Modeling evolution and immune system by cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bezzi, M.
2001-01-01
In this review the behavior of two different biological systems is investigated using cellular automata. Starting from this spatially extended approach it is also tried, in some cases, to reduce the complexity of the system introducing mean-field approximation, and solving (or trying to solve) these simplified systems. It is discussed the biological meaning of the results, the comparison with experimental data (if available) and the different features between spatially extended and mean-field versions. The biological systems considered in this review are the following: Darwinian evolution in simple ecosystems and immune system response. In the first section the main features of molecular evolution are introduced, giving a short survey of genetics for physicists and discussing some models for prebiotic systems and simple ecosystems. It is also introduced a cellular automaton model for studying a set of evolving individuals in a general fitness landscape, considering also the effects of co-evolution. In particular the process of species formation (speciation) is described in sect. 5. The second part deals with immune system modeling. The biological features of immune response are discussed, as well as it is introduced the concept of shape space and of idiotypic network. More detailed reviews which deal with immune system models (mainly focused on idiotypic network models) can be found. Other themes here discussed: the applications of CA to immune system modeling, two complex cellular automata for humoral and cellular immune response. Finally, it is discussed the biological data and the general conclusions are drawn in the last section
Optimal Design of Gravitational Sewer Networks with General Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Hadi Afshar
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a Cellular Automata method is applied for the optimal design of sewer networks. The solution of sewer network optimization problems requires the determination of pipe diameters and average pipe cover depths, minimizing the total cost of the sewer network subject to operational constraints. In this paper, the network nodes and upstream and downstream pipe cover depths are considered as CA cells and cell states, respectively, and the links around each cell are taken into account as neighborhood. The proposed method is a general and flexible method for the optimization of sewer networks as it can be used to optimally design both gravity and pumped network due to the use of pipe nodal cover depths as the decision variables. The proposed method is tested against two gravitational sewer networks and the comparison of results with other methods such as Genetic algorithm, Cellular Automata, Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method.
Teaching Group Theory Using Rubik's Cubes
Cornock, Claire
2015-01-01
Being situated within a course at the applied end of the spectrum of maths degrees, the pure mathematics modules at Sheffield Hallam University have an applied spin. Pure topics are taught through consideration of practical examples such as knots, cryptography and automata. Rubik's cubes are used to teach group theory within a final year pure…
MeGARA: Menu-based Game Abstraction and Abstraction Refinement of Markov Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bettina Braitling
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Markov automata combine continuous time, probabilistic transitions, and nondeterminism in a single model. They represent an important and powerful way to model a wide range of complex real-life systems. However, such models tend to be large and difficult to handle, making abstraction and abstraction refinement necessary. In this paper we present an abstraction and abstraction refinement technique for Markov automata, based on the game-based and menu-based abstraction of probabilistic automata. First experiments show that a significant reduction in size is possible using abstraction.
Definition and evolution of quantum cellular automata with two qubits per cell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karafyllidis, Ioannis G.
2004-01-01
Studies of quantum computer implementations suggest cellular quantum computer architectures. These architectures can simulate the evolution of quantum cellular automata, which can possibly simulate both quantum and classical physical systems and processes. It is however known that except for the trivial case, unitary evolution of one-dimensional homogeneous quantum cellular automata with one qubit per cell is not possible. Quantum cellular automata that comprise two qubits per cell are defined and their evolution is studied using a quantum computer simulator. The evolution is unitary and its linearity manifests itself as a periodic structure in the probability distribution patterns
A Formal Theory of Perception. Technical Report No. 161.
Rottmayer, William Arthur
An attempt to build a mathematical model of a device that could learn geometry is discussed. The report discusses the background and motivation of the study, the coding problem, the derivation of Suppes "Stimulus-Response Theory of Finite Automata" used in the work in learning theory, and a summary of the technical work. (DB)
Genetic Algorithm Calibration of Probabilistic Cellular Automata for Modeling Mining Permit Activity
Louis, S.J.; Raines, G.L.
2003-01-01
We use a genetic algorithm to calibrate a spatially and temporally resolved cellular automata to model mining activity on public land in Idaho and western Montana. The genetic algorithm searches through a space of transition rule parameters of a two dimensional cellular automata model to find rule parameters that fit observed mining activity data. Previous work by one of the authors in calibrating the cellular automaton took weeks - the genetic algorithm takes a day and produces rules leading to about the same (or better) fit to observed data. These preliminary results indicate that genetic algorithms are a viable tool in calibrating cellular automata for this application. Experience gained during the calibration of this cellular automata suggests that mineral resource information is a critical factor in the quality of the results. With automated calibration, further refinements of how the mineral-resource information is provided to the cellular automaton will probably improve our model.
Modeling chemical systems using cellular automata a textbook and laboratory manual
Kier, Lemont B; Cheng, Chao-Kun
2005-01-01
There are few publications on Cellular Automata and certainly no direct competition Insight into a new modeling paradigm Novel approach to the use of in silico modeling to replace or supplement costly labs.
Solving advanced network reliability problems by means of cellular automata and Monte Carlo sampling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rocco S, Claudio M.; Zio, Enrico
2005-01-01
This paper extends the cellular automata-based, Monte Carlo sampling methodology for computing network reliability, previously proposed by the first author. The extension regards the development of cellular automata for the solution of the all-terminal and k-terminal connection problems and the maximum unsplittable flow problem, which can be considered as a particular, simplified case of the maximum flow distribution problem. The algorithms developed are presented in detail and verified on literature cases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær
2002-01-01
The advantageous performance of the UASB reactors is due to the immobilisation of the active biomass, since bacteria coagulate forming aggregates usually called granules. Changes in organic loading rate, hydraulic loading rate or influent substrate composition usually result in changes in granule...... characteristics and lead to different reactor behaviour. A dynamic mathematical model has been developed for the anaerobic digestion of a glucose based synthetic wastewater in UASB reactors. Cellular automata (CA) theory has been applied to simulate the granule development process. The model takes...... into consideration that granule diameter and granule microbial composition are functions of the reactor operational parameters and is capable of predicting the UASB performance and the layer structure of the granules....
Baianu,I C
2004-01-01
The concepts of quantum automata and quantum computation are studied in the context of quantum genetics and genetic networks with nonlinear dynamics. In previous publications (Baianu,1971a, b) the formal concept of quantum automaton and quantum computation, respectively, were introduced and their possible implications for genetic processes and metabolic activities in living cells and organisms were considered. This was followed by a report on quantum and abstract, symbolic computation based on the theory of categories, functors and natural transformations (Baianu,1971b; 1977; 1987; 2004; Baianu et al, 2004). The notions of topological semigroup, quantum automaton, or quantum computer, were then suggested with a view to their potential applications to the analogous simulation of biological systems, and especially genetic activities and nonlinear dynamics in genetic networks. Further, detailed studies of nonlinear dynamics in genetic networks were carried out in categories of n-valued, Lukasiewicz Logic Algebra...
Modeling reliability of power systems substations by using stochastic automata networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Šnipas, Mindaugas; Radziukynas, Virginijus; Valakevičius, Eimutis
2017-01-01
In this paper, stochastic automata networks (SANs) formalism to model reliability of power systems substations is applied. The proposed strategy allows reducing the size of state space of Markov chain model and simplifying system specification. Two case studies of standard configurations of substations are considered in detail. SAN models with different assumptions were created. SAN approach is compared with exact reliability calculation by using a minimal path set method. Modeling results showed that total independence of automata can be assumed for relatively small power systems substations with reliable equipment. In this case, the implementation of Markov chain model by a using SAN method is a relatively easy task. - Highlights: • We present the methodology to apply stochastic automata network formalism to create Markov chain models of power systems. • The stochastic automata network approach is combined with minimal path sets and structural functions. • Two models of substation configurations with different model assumptions are presented to illustrate the proposed methodology. • Modeling results of system with independent automata and functional transition rates are similar. • The conditions when total independence of automata can be assumed are addressed.
An Asynchronous Cellular Automata-Based Adaptive Illumination Facility
Bandini, Stefania; Bonomi, Andrea; Vizzari, Giuseppe; Acconci, Vito
The term Ambient Intelligence refers to electronic environments that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of people; in the described scenario the environment itself is endowed with a set of sensors (to perceive humans or other physical entities such as dogs, bicycles, etc.), interacting with a set of actuators (lights) that choose their actions (i.e. state of illumination) in an attempt improve the overall experience of these users. The model for the interaction and action of sensors and actuators is an asynchronous Cellular Automata (CA) with memory, supporting a self-organization of the system as a response to the presence and movements of people inside it. The paper will introduce the model, as well as an ad hoc user interface for the specification of the relevant parameters of the CA transition rule that determines the overall system behaviour.
Lattice Automata for Control of Self-Reconfigurable Robots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Støy, Kasper
2015-01-01
Self-reconfigurable robots are built from robotic modules typically organised in a lattice. The robotic modules themselves are complete, although simple, robots and have onboard batteries, actuators, sensors, processing power, and communication capabilities. The modules can automatically connect...... to and disconnect from neighbour modules and move around in the lattice of modules. The self-reconfigurable robot as a whole can, through this automatic rearrangement of modules, change its own shape to adapt to the environment or as a response to new tasks. Potential advantages of self-reconfigurable robots...... are extreme versatility and robustness. The organisation of self-reconfigurable robots in a lattice structure and the emphasis on local communication between modules mean that lattice automata are a useful basis for control of self-reconfigurable robots. However, there are significant differences which arise...
Modelling discrete longitudinal data using acyclic probabilistic finite automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anantharama Ankinakatte, Smitha; Edwards, David
2015-01-01
to minimize a penalized likelihood criterion such as AIC or BIC is described. This algorithm is compared to one implemented in Beagle, a widely used program for processing genomic data, both in terms of rate of convergence to the true model as the sample size increases, and a goodness-of-fit measure assessed...... using cross-validation. The comparisons are based on three data sets, two from molecular genetics and one from social science. The proposed algorithm performs at least as well as the algorithm in Beagle in both respects......Acyclic probabilistic finite automata (APFA) constitute a rich family of models for discrete longitudinal data. An APFA may be represented as a directed multigraph, and embodies a set of context-specific conditional independence relations that may be read off the graph. A model selection algorithm...
Bisimulation Meet PCTL Equivalences for Probabilistic Automata (Journal Version)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Song, Lei; Zhang, Lijun; Godskesen, Jens Christian
2013-01-01
Probabilistic automata (PA) have been successfully applied in the formal verification of concurrent and stochastic systems. Efficient model checking algorithms have been studied, where the most often used logics for expressing properties are based on PCTL and its extension PCTL*. Various behavioral...... equivalences are proposed for PAs, as a powerful tool for abstraction and compositional minimization for PAs. Unfortunately, the behavioral equivalences are well-known to be strictly stronger than the logical equivalences induced by PCTL or PCTL*. This paper introduces novel notions of strong bisimulation...... relations, which characterizes PCTL and PCTL* exactly. We also extend weak bisimulations characterizing PCTL and PCTL* without next operator, respectively. Thus, our paper bridges the gap between logical and behavioral equivalences in this setting....
Behavioral Modeling Based on Probabilistic Finite Automata: An Empirical Study.
Tîrnăucă, Cristina; Montaña, José L; Ontañón, Santiago; González, Avelino J; Pardo, Luis M
2016-06-24
Imagine an agent that performs tasks according to different strategies. The goal of Behavioral Recognition (BR) is to identify which of the available strategies is the one being used by the agent, by simply observing the agent's actions and the environmental conditions during a certain period of time. The goal of Behavioral Cloning (BC) is more ambitious. In this last case, the learner must be able to build a model of the behavior of the agent. In both settings, the only assumption is that the learner has access to a training set that contains instances of observed behavioral traces for each available strategy. This paper studies a machine learning approach based on Probabilistic Finite Automata (PFAs), capable of achieving both the recognition and cloning tasks. We evaluate the performance of PFAs in the context of a simulated learning environment (in this case, a virtual Roomba vacuum cleaner robot), and compare it with a collection of other machine learning approaches.
Molecular automata assembly: principles and simulation of bacterial membrane construction.
Lahoz-Beltra, R
1997-01-01
The motivation to understand the basic rules and principles governing molecular self-assembly may be relevant to explain in the context of molecular biology the self-organization and biological functions exhibited within cells. This paper presents a molecular automata model to simulate molecular self-assembly introducing the concept of molecular programming to simulate the biological function or operation performed by an assembled molecular state machine. The method is illustrated modelling Escherichia coli membrane construction including the assembly and operation of ATP synthase as well as the assembly of the bacterial flagellar motor. Flagellar motor operation was simulated using a different approach based on state machine definition used in virtual reality systems. The proposed methodology provides a modelling framework for simulation of biological functions performed by cellular components and other biological systems suitable to be modelled as molecular state machines.
Modelling Implicit Communication in Multi-Agent Systems with Hybrid Input/Output Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marta Capiluppi
2012-10-01
Full Text Available We propose an extension of Hybrid I/O Automata (HIOAs to model agent systems and their implicit communication through perturbation of the environment, like localization of objects or radio signals diffusion and detection. To this end we decided to specialize some variables of the HIOAs whose values are functions both of time and space. We call them world variables. Basically they are treated similarly to the other variables of HIOAs, but they have the function of representing the interaction of each automaton with the surrounding environment, hence they can be output, input or internal variables. Since these special variables have the role of simulating implicit communication, their dynamics are specified both in time and space, because they model the perturbations induced by the agent to the environment, and the perturbations of the environment as perceived by the agent. Parallel composition of world variables is slightly different from parallel composition of the other variables, since their signals are summed. The theory is illustrated through a simple example of agents systems.
Control of Discrete-Event Systems Automata and Petri Net Perspectives
Silva, Manuel; Schuppen, Jan
2013-01-01
Control of Discrete-event Systems provides a survey of the most important topics in the discrete-event systems theory with particular focus on finite-state automata, Petri nets and max-plus algebra. Coverage ranges from introductory material on the basic notions and definitions of discrete-event systems to more recent results. Special attention is given to results on supervisory control, state estimation and fault diagnosis of both centralized and distributed/decentralized systems developed in the framework of the Distributed Supervisory Control of Large Plants (DISC) project. Later parts of the text are devoted to the study of congested systems though fluidization, an over approximation allowing a much more efficient study of observation and control problems of timed Petri nets. Finally, the max-plus algebraic approach to the analysis and control of choice-free systems is also considered. Control of Discrete-event Systems provides an introduction to discrete-event systems for readers that are not familiar wi...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akishina, E.P.; Kostenko, B.F.; Ivanov, V.V.
2003-01-01
A new method of research in spatial structures that result from uranium dioxide burning in nuclear reactors of modern atomic plants is suggested. The method is based on the presentation of images of the mentioned structures in the form of the working field of a cellular automaton (CA). First, it has allowed one to extract some important quantitative characteristics of the structures directly from the micrographs of the uranium fuel surface. Secondly, the CA has been found out to allow one to formulate easily the dynamics of the evolution of the studied structures in terms of such micrograph elements as spots, spots' boundaries, cracks, etc. Relation has been found between the dynamics and some exactly solvable models of the theory of cellular automata, in particular, the Ising model and the vote model. This investigation gives a detailed description of some CA algorithms which allow one to perform the fuel surface image processing and to model its evolution caused by burnup or chemical etching. (author)
Dittrich, Peter
2018-02-01
The organic code concept and its operationalization by molecular codes have been introduced to study the semiotic nature of living systems. This contribution develops further the idea that the semantic capacity of a physical medium can be measured by assessing its ability to implement a code as a contingent mapping. For demonstration and evaluation, the approach is applied to a formal medium: elementary cellular automata (ECA). The semantic capacity is measured by counting the number of ways codes can be implemented. Additionally, a link to information theory is established by taking multivariate mutual information for quantifying contingency. It is shown how ECAs differ in their semantic capacities, how this is related to various ECA classifications, and how this depends on how a meaning is defined. Interestingly, if the meaning should persist for a certain while, the highest semantic capacity is found in CAs with apparently simple behavior, i.e., the fixed-point and two-cycle class. Synergy as a predictor for a CA's ability to implement codes can only be used if context implementing codes are common. For large context spaces with sparse coding contexts synergy is a weak predictor. Concluding, the approach presented here can distinguish CA-like systems with respect to their ability to implement contingent mappings. Applying this to physical systems appears straight forward and might lead to a novel physical property indicating how suitable a physical medium is to implement a semiotic system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Automating the First-Order Theory of Rewriting for Left-Linear Right-Ground Rewrite Systems
Rapp, Franziska; Middeldorp, Aart
2016-01-01
The first-order theory of rewriting is decidable for finite left-linear right-ground rewrite systems. We present a new tool that implements the decision procedure for this theory. It is based on tree automata techniques. The tool offers the possibility to synthesize rewrite systems that satisfy properties that are expressible in the first-order theory of rewriting.
Design of arithmetic circuits in quantum dot cellular automata nanotechnology
Sridharan, K
2015-01-01
This research monograph focuses on the design of arithmetic circuits in Quantum Dot Cellular Automata (QCA). Using the fact that the 3-input majority gate is a primitive in QCA, the book sets out to discover hitherto unknown properties of majority logic in the context of arithmetic circuit designs. The pursuit for efficient adders in QCA takes two forms. One involves application of the new results in majority logic to existing adders. The second involves development of a custom adder for QCA technology. A QCA adder named as hybrid adder is proposed and it is shown that it outperforms existing multi-bit adders with respect to area and delay. The work is extended to the design of a low-complexity multiplier for signed numbers in QCA. Furthermore the book explores two aspects unique to QCA technology, namely thermal robustness and the role of interconnects. In addition, the book introduces the reader to QCA layout design and simulation using QCADesigner. Features & Benefits: This research-based book: · �...
Neural networks and cellular automata in experimental high energy physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denby, B.
1987-11-01
Within the past few years, two novel computing techniques, cellular automata and neural networks, have shown considerable promise in the solution of problems of a very high degree of complexity, such as turbulent fluid flow, image processing, and pattern recognition. Many of the problems faced in experimental high energy physics are also of this nature. Track reconstruction in wire chambers and cluster finding in cellular calorimeters, for instance, involve pattern recognition and high combinatorial complexity since many combinations of hits or cells must be considered in order to arrive at the final tracks or clusters. Here we examine in what way connective network methods can be applied to some of the problems of experimental high physics. It is found that such problems as track and cluster finding adapt naturally to these approaches. When large scale hardwired connective networks become available, it will be possible to realize solutions to such problems in a fraction of the time required by traditional methods. For certain types of problems, faster solutions are already possible using model networks implemented on vector or other massively parallel machines. It should also be possible, using existing technology, to build simplified networks that will allow detailed reconstructed event information to be used in fast trigger decisions
An Orthogonal Evolutionary Algorithm With Learning Automata for Multiobjective Optimization.
Dai, Cai; Wang, Yuping; Ye, Miao; Xue, Xingsi; Liu, Hailin
2016-12-01
Research on multiobjective optimization problems becomes one of the hottest topics of intelligent computation. In order to improve the search efficiency of an evolutionary algorithm and maintain the diversity of solutions, in this paper, the learning automata (LA) is first used for quantization orthogonal crossover (QOX), and a new fitness function based on decomposition is proposed to achieve these two purposes. Based on these, an orthogonal evolutionary algorithm with LA for complex multiobjective optimization problems with continuous variables is proposed. The experimental results show that in continuous states, the proposed algorithm is able to achieve accurate Pareto-optimal sets and wide Pareto-optimal fronts efficiently. Moreover, the comparison with the several existing well-known algorithms: nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II, decomposition-based multiobjective evolutionary algorithm, decomposition-based multiobjective evolutionary algorithm with an ensemble of neighborhood sizes, multiobjective optimization by LA, and multiobjective immune algorithm with nondominated neighbor-based selection, on 15 multiobjective benchmark problems, shows that the proposed algorithm is able to find more accurate and evenly distributed Pareto-optimal fronts than the compared ones.
Stochastic cellular automata model for wildland fire spread dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maduro Almeida, Rodolfo; Macau, Elbert E N
2011-01-01
A stochastic cellular automata model for wildland fire spread under flat terrain and no-wind conditions is proposed and its dynamics is characterized and analyzed. One of three possible states characterizes each cell: vegetation cell, burning cell and burnt cell. The dynamics of fire spread is modeled as a stochastic event with an effective fire spread probability S which is a function of three probabilities that characterize: the proportion of vegetation cells across the lattice, the probability of a burning cell becomes burnt, and the probability of the fire spread from a burning cell to a neighboring vegetation cell. A set of simulation experiments is performed to analyze the effects of different values of the three probabilities in the fire pattern. Monte-Carlo simulations indicate that there is a critical line in the model parameter space that separates the set of parameters which a fire can propagate from those for which it cannot propagate. Finally, the relevance of the model is discussed under the light of computational experiments that illustrate the capability of the model catches both the dynamical and static qualitative properties of fire propagation.
Stochastic cellular automata model for stock market dynamics.
Bartolozzi, M; Thomas, A W
2004-04-01
In the present work we introduce a stochastic cellular automata model in order to simulate the dynamics of the stock market. A direct percolation method is used to create a hierarchy of clusters of active traders on a two-dimensional grid. Active traders are characterized by the decision to buy, sigma(i) (t)=+1, or sell, sigma(i) (t)=-1, a stock at a certain discrete time step. The remaining cells are inactive, sigma(i) (t)=0. The trading dynamics is then determined by the stochastic interaction between traders belonging to the same cluster. Extreme, intermittent events, such as crashes or bubbles, are triggered by a phase transition in the state of the bigger clusters present on the grid, where almost all the active traders come to share the same spin orientation. Most of the stylized aspects of the financial market time series, including multifractal proprieties, are reproduced by the model. A direct comparison is made with the daily closures of the S&P 500 index.
Stochastic cellular automata model for stock market dynamics
Bartolozzi, M.; Thomas, A. W.
2004-04-01
In the present work we introduce a stochastic cellular automata model in order to simulate the dynamics of the stock market. A direct percolation method is used to create a hierarchy of clusters of active traders on a two-dimensional grid. Active traders are characterized by the decision to buy, σi (t)=+1 , or sell, σi (t)=-1 , a stock at a certain discrete time step. The remaining cells are inactive, σi (t)=0 . The trading dynamics is then determined by the stochastic interaction between traders belonging to the same cluster. Extreme, intermittent events, such as crashes or bubbles, are triggered by a phase transition in the state of the bigger clusters present on the grid, where almost all the active traders come to share the same spin orientation. Most of the stylized aspects of the financial market time series, including multifractal proprieties, are reproduced by the model. A direct comparison is made with the daily closures of the S&P500 index.
Cellular automata model for traffic flow with safe driving conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lárraga María Elena; Alvarez-Icaza Luis
2014-01-01
In this paper, a recently introduced cellular automata (CA) model is used for a statistical analysis of the inner microscopic structure of synchronized traffic flow. The analysis focuses on the formation and dissolution of clusters or platoons of vehicles, as the mechanism that causes the presence of this synchronized traffic state with a high flow. This platoon formation is one of the most interesting phenomena observed in traffic flows and plays an important role both in manual and automated highway systems (AHS). Simulation results, obtained from a single-lane system under periodic boundary conditions indicate that in the density region where the synchronized state is observed, most vehicles travel together in platoons with approximately the same speed and small spatial distances. The examination of velocity variations and individual vehicle gaps shows that the flow corresponding to the synchronized state is stable, safe and highly correlated. Moreover, results indicate that the observed platoon formation in real traffic is reproduced in simulations by the relation between vehicle headway and velocity that is embedded in the dynamics definition of the CA model. (general)
A novel time series link prediction method: Learning automata approach
Moradabadi, Behnaz; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza
2017-09-01
Link prediction is a main social network challenge that uses the network structure to predict future links. The common link prediction approaches to predict hidden links use a static graph representation where a snapshot of the network is analyzed to find hidden or future links. For example, similarity metric based link predictions are a common traditional approach that calculates the similarity metric for each non-connected link and sort the links based on their similarity metrics and label the links with higher similarity scores as the future links. Because people activities in social networks are dynamic and uncertainty, and the structure of the networks changes over time, using deterministic graphs for modeling and analysis of the social network may not be appropriate. In the time-series link prediction problem, the time series link occurrences are used to predict the future links In this paper, we propose a new time series link prediction based on learning automata. In the proposed algorithm for each link that must be predicted there is one learning automaton and each learning automaton tries to predict the existence or non-existence of the corresponding link. To predict the link occurrence in time T, there is a chain consists of stages 1 through T - 1 and the learning automaton passes from these stages to learn the existence or non-existence of the corresponding link. Our preliminary link prediction experiments with co-authorship and email networks have provided satisfactory results when time series link occurrences are considered.
An Automata Based Intrusion Detection Method for Internet of Things
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yulong Fu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT transforms network communication to Machine-to-Machine (M2M basis and provides open access and new services to citizens and companies. It extends the border of Internet and will be developed as one part of the future 5G networks. However, as the resources of IoT’s front devices are constrained, many security mechanisms are hard to be implemented to protect the IoT networks. Intrusion detection system (IDS is an efficient technique that can be used to detect the attackers when cryptography is broken, and it can be used to enforce the security of IoT networks. In this article, we analyzed the intrusion detection requirements of IoT networks and then proposed a uniform intrusion detection method for the vast heterogeneous IoT networks based on an automata model. The proposed method can detect and report the possible IoT attacks with three types: jam-attack, false-attack, and reply-attack automatically. We also design an experiment to verify the proposed IDS method and examine the attack of RADIUS application.
Cellular Automata-Based Parallel Random Number Generators Using FPGAs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David H. K. Hoe
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Cellular computing represents a new paradigm for implementing high-speed massively parallel machines. Cellular automata (CA, which consist of an array of locally connected processing elements, are a basic form of a cellular-based architecture. The use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs for implementing CA accelerators has shown promising results. This paper investigates the design of CA-based pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs using an FPGA platform. To improve the quality of the random numbers that are generated, the basic CA structure is enhanced in two ways. First, the addition of a superrule to each CA cell is considered. The resulting self-programmable CA (SPCA uses the superrule to determine when to make a dynamic rule change in each CA cell. The superrule takes its inputs from neighboring cells and can be considered itself a second CA working in parallel with the main CA. When implemented on an FPGA, the use of lookup tables in each logic cell removes any restrictions on how the super-rules should be defined. Second, a hybrid configuration is formed by combining a CA with a linear feedback shift register (LFSR. This is advantageous for FPGA designs due to the compactness of the LFSR implementations. A standard software package for statistically evaluating the quality of random number sequences known as Diehard is used to validate the results. Both the SPCA and the hybrid CA/LFSR were found to pass all the Diehard tests.
New MPPT algorithm based on hybrid dynamical theory
Elmetennani, Shahrazed
2014-11-01
This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking algorithm based on the hybrid dynamical theory. A multiceli converter has been considered as an adaptation stage for the photovoltaic chain. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid automata switching between eight different operating modes, which has been validated by simulation tests under different working conditions. © 2014 IEEE.
Linear reversible second-order cellular automata and their first-order matrix equivalents
Macfarlane, A. J.
2004-11-01
Linear or one-dimensional reversible second-order cellular automata, exemplified by three cases named as RCA1-3, are introduced. Displays of their evolution in discrete time steps, &{\\in}Z_2;) as for RCA1-3. MCA1-3 are tractable because it has been possible to generalize to them the heavy duty methods already well-developed for ordinary first-order cellular automata like those of Wolfram's Rules 90 and 150. While the automata MCA1-3 are thought to be of genuine interest in their own right, with untapped further mathematical potential, their treatment has been applied here to expediting derivation of a large body of general and explicit results for N(t) for RCA1-3. Amongst explicit results obtained are formulas also for each of RCA1-3 for the total weight of the configurations of the first &2^M; times, M =0, 1, 2,\\ldots.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marc-Thorsten Hütt
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Cellular automata (CA are a remarkably efficient tool for exploring general properties of complex systems and spatiotemporal patterns arising from local rules. Totalistic cellular automata, where the update rules depend only on the density of neighboring states, are at the same time a versatile tool for exploring dynamical processes on graphs. Here we briefly review our previous results on cellular automata on graphs, emphasizing some systematic relationships between network architecture and dynamics identified in this way. We then extend the investigation towards graphs obtained in a simulated-evolution procedure, starting from Erdő s–Rényi (ER graphs and selecting for low entropies of the CA dynamics. Our key result is a strong association of low Shannon entropies with a broadening of the graph’s degree distribution.
Generic framework for mining cellular automata models on protein-folding simulations.
Diaz, N; Tischer, I
2016-05-13
Cellular automata model identification is an important way of building simplified simulation models. In this study, we describe a generic architectural framework to ease the development process of new metaheuristic-based algorithms for cellular automata model identification in protein-folding trajectories. Our framework was developed by a methodology based on design patterns that allow an improved experience for new algorithms development. The usefulness of the proposed framework is demonstrated by the implementation of four algorithms, able to obtain extremely precise cellular automata models of the protein-folding process with a protein contact map representation. Dynamic rules obtained by the proposed approach are discussed, and future use for the new tool is outlined.
Cellular Automata as a learning process in Architecture and Urban design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Mads Brath; Foged, Isak Worre
2014-01-01
This paper explores the application of cellular automata as method for investigating the dynamic parameters and interrelationships that constitute the urban space. With increasing aspects needed for integration during the architectural and urban design process with the relations between these asp......This paper explores the application of cellular automata as method for investigating the dynamic parameters and interrelationships that constitute the urban space. With increasing aspects needed for integration during the architectural and urban design process with the relations between....... An architectural methodological response to this situation is presented through the development of a conceptual computational design system that allows these dynamics to unfold and to be observed for architectural design decision taking. Reflecting on the development and implementation of a cellular automata based...
A metric for characterizing the bistability of molecular quantum-dot cellular automata.
Lu, Yuhui; Lent, Craig S
2008-04-16
Much of molecular electronics involves trying to use molecules as (a) wires, (b) diodes or (c) field-effect transistors. In each case the criterion for determining good performance is well known: for wires it is conductance, for diodes it is conductance asymmetry, while for transistors it is high transconductance. Candidate molecules can be screened in terms of these criteria by calculating molecular conductivity in forward and reverse directions, and in the presence of a gating field. Hence so much theoretical work has focused on understanding molecular conductance. In contrast a molecule used as a quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) cell conducts no current at all. The keys to QCA functionality are (a) charge localization, (b) bistable charge switching within the cell and (c) electric field coupling between one molecular cell and its neighbor. The combination of these effects can be examined using the cell-cell response function which relates the polarization of one cell to the induced polarization of a neighboring cell. The response function can be obtained by calculating the molecular electronic structure with ab initio quantum chemistry techniques. We present an analysis of molecular QCA performance that can be applied to any candidate molecule. From the full quantum chemistry, all-electron ab initio calculations we extract parameters for a reduced-state model which reproduces the cell-cell response function very well. Techniques from electron transfer theory are used to derive analytical models of the response function and can be employed on molecules too large for full ab initio treatment. A metric is derived which characterizes molecular QCA performance the way transconductance characterizes transistor performance. This metric can be assessed from absorption measurements of the electron transfer band or quantum chemistry calculations of appropriate sophistication.
Two-layer synchronized ternary quantum-dot cellular automata wire crossings
2012-01-01
Quantum-dot cellular automata are an interesting nanoscale computing paradigm. The introduction of the ternary quantum-dot cell enabled ternary computing, and with the recent development of a ternary functionally complete set of elementary logic primitives and the ternary memorizing cell design of complex processing structures is becoming feasible. The specific nature of the ternary quantum-dot cell makes wire crossings one of the most problematic areas of ternary quantum-dot cellular automata circuit design. We hereby present a two-layer wire crossing that uses a specific clocking scheme, which ensures the crossed wires have the same effective delay. PMID:22507371
Oestrus Detection in Dairy Cows using Automata Modelling and Diagnosis Techniques
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Caponetti, Fabio; Blanke, Mogens
2009-01-01
-balance as a biologically inspired quantity describing how much the cow has been resting for a preceding period. A dynamic lying-balance model is identified from real data and the lying balance is used as input, together with lying/standing sensor measurements. Using different automata models for oestrus and non......This paper addresses detection of oestrus in dairy cows using automata-based modelling and diagnosis. Measuring lying/standing behaviour of the cows by a sensor attached to the cows hindleg, lying/standing behaviour is modelled as a stochastic automaton. The paper introduces a cow's lying...
Quantum mechanics of lattice gas automata: One-particle plane waves and potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, D.A.
1997-01-01
Classical lattice gas automata effectively simulate physical processes, such as diffusion and fluid flow (in certain parameter regimes), despite their simplicity at the microscale. Motivated by current interest in quantum computation we recently defined quantum lattice gas automata; in this paper we initiate a project to analyze which physical processes these models can effectively simulate. Studying the single particle sector of a one-dimensional quantum lattice gas we find discrete analogs of plane waves and wave packets, and then investigate their behavior in the presence of inhomogeneous potentials. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
A comparative analysis of electronic and molecular quantum dot cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Umamahesvari, H.; Ajitha, D.
2015-01-01
This paper presents a comparative analysis of electronic quantum-dot cellular automata (EQCA) and Magnetic quantum dot Cellular Automata (MQCA). QCA is a computing paradigm that encodes and processes information by the position of individual electrons. To enhance the high dense and ultra-low power devices, various researches have been actively carried out to find an alternative way to continue and follow Moore’s law, so called “beyond CMOS technology”. There have been several proposals for physically implementing QCA, EQCA and MQCA are the two important QCAs reported so far. This paper provides a comparative study on these two QCAs
A stochastic parameterization for deep convection using cellular automata
Bengtsson, L.; Steinheimer, M.; Bechtold, P.; Geleyn, J.
2012-12-01
Cumulus parameterizations used in most operational weather and climate models today are based on the mass-flux concept which took form in the early 1970's. In such schemes it is assumed that a unique relationship exists between the ensemble-average of the sub-grid convection, and the instantaneous state of the atmosphere in a vertical grid box column. However, such a relationship is unlikely to be described by a simple deterministic function (Palmer, 2011). Thus, because of the statistical nature of the parameterization challenge, it has been recognized by the community that it is important to introduce stochastic elements to the parameterizations (for instance: Plant and Craig, 2008, Khouider et al. 2010, Frenkel et al. 2011, Bentsson et al. 2011, but the list is far from exhaustive). There are undoubtedly many ways in which stochastisity can enter new developments. In this study we use a two-way interacting cellular automata (CA), as its intrinsic nature possesses many qualities interesting for deep convection parameterization. In the one-dimensional entraining plume approach, there is no parameterization of horizontal transport of heat, moisture or momentum due to cumulus convection. In reality, mass transport due to gravity waves that propagate in the horizontal can trigger new convection, important for the organization of deep convection (Huang, 1988). The self-organizational characteristics of the CA allows for lateral communication between adjacent NWP model grid-boxes, and temporal memory. Thus the CA scheme used in this study contain three interesting components for representation of cumulus convection, which are not present in the traditional one-dimensional bulk entraining plume method: horizontal communication, memory and stochastisity. The scheme is implemented in the high resolution regional NWP model ALARO, and simulations show enhanced organization of convective activity along squall-lines. Probabilistic evaluation demonstrate an enhanced spread in
Dynamic behavior of multirobot systems using lattice gas automata
Stantz, Keith M.; Cameron, Stewart M.; Robinett, Rush D., III; Trahan, Michael W.; Wagner, John S.
1999-07-01
Recent attention has been given to the deployment of an adaptable sensor array realized by multi-robotic systems (or swarms). Our group has been studying the collective, autonomous behavior of these such systems and their applications in the area of remote-sensing and emerging threats. To accomplish such tasks, an interdisciplinary research effort at Sandia National Laboratories are conducting tests in the fields of sensor technology, robotics, and multi- agents architectures. Our goal is to coordinate a constellation of point sensors using unmanned robotic vehicles (e.g., RATLERs, Robotic All-Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover- class vehicles) that optimizes spatial coverage and multivariate signal analysis. An overall design methodology evolves complex collective behaviors realized through local interaction (kinetic) physics and artificial intelligence. Learning objectives incorporate real-time operational responses to environmental changes. This paper focuses on our recent work understanding the dynamics of many-body systems according to the physics-based hydrodynamic model of lattice gas automata. Three design features are investigated. One, for single-speed robots, a hexagonal nearest-neighbor interaction topology is necessary to preserve standard hydrodynamic flow. Two, adaptability, defined by the swarm's rate of deformation, can be controlled through the hydrodynamic viscosity term, which, in turn, is defined by the local robotic interaction rules. Three, due to the inherent nonlinearity of the dynamical equations describing large ensembles, stability criteria ensuring convergence to equilibrium states is developed by scaling information flow rates relative to a swarm's hydrodynamic flow rate. An initial test case simulates a swarm of twenty-five robots maneuvering past an obstacle while following a moving target. A genetic algorithm optimizes applied nearest-neighbor forces in each of five spatial regions distributed over the simulation domain. Armed with
Coupling Cellular Automata Land Use Change with Distributed Hydrologic Models
Shu, L.; Duffy, C.
2017-12-01
There has been extensive research on LUC modeling with broad applications to simulating urban growth and changing demographic patterns across multiple scales. The importance of land conversion is a critical issue in watershed scale studies and is generally not treated in most watershed modeling approaches. In this study we apply spatially explicit hydrologic and landuse change models and the Conestoga Watershed in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. The Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM) partitions the water balance in space and time over the urban catchment, the coupled Cellular Automata Land Use Change model (CALUC) dynamically simulates the evolution of land use classes based on physical measures associated with population change and land use demand factors. The CALUC model is based on iteratively applying discrete rules to each individual spatial cell. The essence the CA modeling involves calculation of the Transition Potential (TP) for conversion of a grid cell from one land use class to another. This potential includes five factors: random perturbation, suitability, accessibility, neighborhood effect, inertia effects and zonal factors. In spite of simplicity, this CALUC model has been shown to be very effective for simulating LUC leading to the emergence of complex spatial patterns. The components of TP are derived from present land use data for landuse reanalysis and for realistic future land use scenarios. For the CALUC we use early-settlement (circa 1790) initial land class values and final or present-day (2010) land classes to calibrate the model. CALUC- PIHM dynamically simulates the hydrologic response of conversion from pre-settlement to present landuse. The simulations highlight the capability and value of dynamic coupling of catchment hydrology with land use change over long time periods. Analysis of the simulation uses various metrics such as the distributed water balance, flow duration curves, etc. to show how deforestation, urbanization and
Parametric Linear Hybrid Automata for Complex Environmental Systems Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samar Hayat Khan Tareen
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Environmental systems, whether they be weather patterns or predator-prey relationships, are dependent on a number of different variables, each directly or indirectly affecting the system at large. Since not all of these factors are known, these systems take on non-linear dynamics, making it difficult to accurately predict meaningful behavioral trends far into the future. However, such dynamics do not warrant complete ignorance of different efforts to understand and model close approximations of these systems. Towards this end, we have applied a logical modeling approach to model and analyze the behavioral trends and systematic trajectories that these systems exhibit without delving into their quantification. This approach, formalized by René Thomas for discrete logical modeling of Biological Regulatory Networks (BRNs and further extended in our previous studies as parametric biological linear hybrid automata (Bio-LHA, has been previously employed for the analyses of different molecular regulatory interactions occurring across various cells and microbial species. As relationships between different interacting components of a system can be simplified as positive or negative influences, we can employ the Bio-LHA framework to represent different components of the environmental system as positive or negative feedbacks. In the present study, we highlight the benefits of hybrid (discrete/continuous modeling which lead to refinements among the fore-casted behaviors in order to find out which ones are actually possible. We have taken two case studies: an interaction of three microbial species in a freshwater pond, and a more complex atmospheric system, to show the applications of the Bio-LHA methodology for the timed hybrid modeling of environmental systems. Results show that the approach using the Bio-LHA is a viable method for behavioral modeling of complex environmental systems by finding timing constraints while keeping the complexity of the model
Effect of asynchronous updating on the stability of cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baetens, J.M.; Van der Weeën, P.; De Baets, B.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► An upper bound on the Lyapunov exponent of asynchronously updated CA is established. ► The employed update method has repercussions on the stability of CAs. ► A decision on the employed update method should be taken with care. ► Substantial discrepancies arise between synchronously and asynchronously updated CA. ► Discrepancies between different asynchronous update schemes are less pronounced. - Abstract: Although cellular automata (CAs) were conceptualized as utter discrete mathematical models in which the states of all their spatial entities are updated simultaneously at every consecutive time step, i.e. synchronously, various CA-based models that rely on so-called asynchronous update methods have been constructed in order to overcome the limitations that are tied up with the classical way of evolving CAs. So far, only a few researchers have addressed the consequences of this way of updating on the evolved spatio-temporal patterns, and the reachable stationary states. In this paper, we exploit Lyapunov exponents to determine to what extent the stability of the rules within a family of totalistic CAs is affected by the underlying update method. For that purpose, we derive an upper bound on the maximum Lyapunov exponent of asynchronously iterated CAs, and show its validity, after which we present a comparative study between the Lyapunov exponents obtained for five different update methods, namely one synchronous method and four well-established asynchronous methods. It is found that the stability of CAs is seriously affected if one of the latter methods is employed, whereas the discrepancies arising between the different asynchronous methods are far less pronounced and, finally, we discuss the repercussions of our findings on the development of CA-based models.
Behavioural differential equations : a coinductive calculus of streams, automata, and power series
J.J.M.M. Rutten (Jan)
2000-01-01
textabstractStreams, (automata and) languages, and formal power series are viewed coalgebraically. In summary, this amounts to supplying these sets with a deterministic automaton structure, which has the universal property of being final. Finality then forms the basis for both definitions and proofs
Tackling the Dagstuhl '94 specification problem with I/O automata
J.M.T. Romijn (Judi)
1996-01-01
textabstractAn I/O automata solution to the problem posed by Broy & Lamport at the Dagstuhl Workshop on Reactive Systems is presented. The problem, which concerns components that communicate by means of a procedure interface, consists of an untimed and a timed part. In this paper, both parts are
Modeling cell adhesion and proliferation: a cellular-automata based approach.
Vivas, J; Garzón-Alvarado, D; Cerrolaza, M
Cell adhesion is a process that involves the interaction between the cell membrane and another surface, either a cell or a substrate. Unlike experimental tests, computer models can simulate processes and study the result of experiments in a shorter time and lower costs. One of the tools used to simulate biological processes is the cellular automata, which is a dynamic system that is discrete both in space and time. This work describes a computer model based on cellular automata for the adhesion process and cell proliferation to predict the behavior of a cell population in suspension and adhered to a substrate. The values of the simulated system were obtained through experimental tests on fibroblast monolayer cultures. The results allow us to estimate the cells settling time in culture as well as the adhesion and proliferation time. The change in the cells morphology as the adhesion over the contact surface progress was also observed. The formation of the initial link between cell and the substrate of the adhesion was observed after 100 min where the cell on the substrate retains its spherical morphology during the simulation. The cellular automata model developed is, however, a simplified representation of the steps in the adhesion process and the subsequent proliferation. A combined framework of experimental and computational simulation based on cellular automata was proposed to represent the fibroblast adhesion on substrates and changes in a macro-scale observed in the cell during the adhesion process. The approach showed to be simple and efficient.
A cellular automata intraurban model with prices and income-differentiated actors
Furtado, B.A.; Ettema, D.F.; Ruiz, R.M.; Hurkens, J.; Delden, H. van
2012-01-01
This paper presents an intraurban cellular automata model that is an extension to White and Engelen’s pioneering model. The paper’s main contribution is to distinguish between agglomerative eff ects, determined by the attraction of the neighbourhood, and disagglomerative eff ects, driven by land
Using cellular automata for parallel simulation of laser dynamics with dynamic load balancing
Guisado, J.L.; Fernández de Vega, F.; Jiménez Morales, F.; Iskra, K.A.; Sloot, P.M.A.
2008-01-01
We present an analysis of the feasibility of executing a parallel bioinspired model of laser dynamics, based on cellular automata (CA), on the usual target platform of this kind of applications: a heterogeneous non-dedicated cluster. As this model employs a synchronous CA, using the single program,
Simulating Urban Growth Using a Random Forest-Cellular Automata (RF-CA Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Courage Kamusoko
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Sustainable urban planning and management require reliable land change models, which can be used to improve decision making. The objective of this study was to test a random forest-cellular automata (RF-CA model, which combines random forest (RF and cellular automata (CA models. The Kappa simulation (KSimulation, figure of merit, and components of agreement and disagreement statistics were used to validate the RF-CA model. Furthermore, the RF-CA model was compared with support vector machine cellular automata (SVM-CA and logistic regression cellular automata (LR-CA models. Results show that the RF-CA model outperformed the SVM-CA and LR-CA models. The RF-CA model had a Kappa simulation (KSimulation accuracy of 0.51 (with a figure of merit statistic of 47%, while SVM-CA and LR-CA models had a KSimulation accuracy of 0.39 and −0.22 (with figure of merit statistics of 39% and 6%, respectively. Generally, the RF-CA model was relatively accurate at allocating “non-built-up to built-up” changes as reflected by the correct “non-built-up to built-up” components of agreement of 15%. The performance of the RF-CA model was attributed to the relatively accurate RF transition potential maps. Therefore, this study highlights the potential of the RF-CA model for simulating urban growth.
An Efficient Translation of Timed-Arc Petri Nets to Networks of Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Byg, Joakim; Jørgensen, Kenneth Yrke; Srba, Jiri
2009-01-01
to enforce urgency and with transport arcs to generalise the read-arcs. We also describe a novel translation from the extended timed-arc Petri net model to networks of timed automata. The translation is implemented in the tool TAPAAL and it uses UPPAAL as the verification engine. Our experiments confirm...
An application of lattice-gas cellular automata to the study of Brownian motion
Ladd, A.J.C.; Frenkel, D.; Colvin, M.E.
1988-01-01
An adaptation of lattice-gas cellular automata to the simulation of solid-fluid suspensions is described. The method incorporates both dissipative hydrodynamic forces and thermal fluctuations. At low solid densities, theoretical results for the drag force on a single disk and the viscosity of a
Multi-Core Emptiness Checking of Timed Büchi Automata using Inclusion Abstraction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laarman, Alfons; Olesen, Mads Chr.; Dalsgaard, Andreas
2013-01-01
This paper contributes to the multi-core model checking of timed automata (TA) with respect to liveness properties, by investigating checking of TA Büchi emptiness under the very coarse inclusion abstraction or zone subsumption, an open problem in this field. We show that in general Büchi emptiness...
On the relationship between LTL normal forms and Büchi automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Jianwen; Pu, Geguang; Zhang, Lijun
2013-01-01
In this paper, we revisit the problem of translating LTL formulas to Büchi automata. We first translate the given LTL formula into a special disjuctive-normal form (DNF). The formula will be part of the state, and its DNF normal form specifies the atomic properties that should hold immediately...
Controller synthesis for dynamic hierarchical real-time plants using timed automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bin Waez, Md Tawhid; Wasowski, Andrzej; Dingel, Juergen
2017-01-01
We use timed I/O automata based timed games to synthesize task-level reconfiguration services for cost-effective fault tolerance in a case study. The case study shows that state-space explosion is a severe problem for timed games. By applying suitable abstractions, we dramatically improve the sca...
Cellular automata model of magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling
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B. V. Kozelov
2003-09-01
Full Text Available We propose a cellular automata model (CAM to describe the substorm activity of the magnetospheric-ionospheric system. The state of each cell in the model is described by two numbers that correspond to the energy content in a region of the current sheet in the magnetospheric tail and to the conductivity of the ionospheric domain that is magnetically connected with this region. The driving force of the system is supposed to be provided by the solar wind that is convected along the two boundaries of the system. The energy flux inside is ensured by the penetration of the energy from the solar wind into the array of cells (magnetospheric tail with a finite velocity. The third boundary (near to the Earth is closed and the fourth boundary is opened, thereby modeling the flux far away from the tail. The energy dissipation in the system is quite similar to other CAM models, when the energy in a particular cell exceeds some pre-defined threshold, and the part of the energy excess is redistributed between the neighbouring cells. The second number attributed to each cell mimics ionospheric conductivity that can allow for a part of the energy to be shed on field-aligned currents. The feedback between "ionosphere" and "magnetospheric tail" is provided by the change in a part of the energy, which is redistributed in the tail when the threshold is surpassed. The control parameter of the model is the z-component of the interplanetary magnetic field (Bz IMF, "frozen" into the solar wind. To study the internal dynamics of the system at the beginning, this control parameter is taken to be constant. The dynamics of the system undergoes several bifurcations, when the constant varies from - 0.6 to - 6.0. The Bz IMF input results in the periodic transients (activation regions and the inter-transient period decreases with the decrease of Bz. At the same time the onset of activations in the array shifts towards the "Earth". When the modulus of the Bz IMF exceeds some
A Cellular Automata Model for the Study of Landslides
Liucci, Luisa; Suteanu, Cristian; Melelli, Laura
2016-04-01
Power-law scaling has been observed in the frequency distribution of landslide sizes in many regions of the world, for landslides triggered by different factors, and in both multi-temporal and post-event datasets, thus indicating the universal character of this property of landslides and suggesting that the same mechanisms drive the dynamics of mass wasting processes. The reasons for the scaling behavior of landslide sizes are widely debated, since their understanding would improve our knowledge of the spatial and temporal evolution of this phenomenon. Self-Organized Critical (SOC) dynamics and the key role of topography have been suggested as possible explanations. The scaling exponent of the landslide size-frequency distribution defines the probability of landslide magnitudes and it thus represents an important parameter for hazard assessment. Therefore, another - still unanswered - important question concerns the factors on which its value depends. This paper investigates these issues using a Cellular Automata (CA) model. The CA uses a real topographic surface acquired from a Digital Elevation Model to represent the initial state of the system, where the states of cells are defined in terms of altitude. The stability criterion is based on the slope gradient. The system is driven to instability through a temporal decrease of the stability condition of cells, which may be thought of as representing the temporal weakening of soil caused by factors like rainfall. A transition rule defines the way in which instabilities lead to discharge from unstable cells to the neighboring cells, deciding upon the landslide direction and the quantity of mass involved. Both the direction and the transferred mass depend on the local topographic features. The scaling properties of the area-frequency distributions of the resulting landslide series are investigated for several rates of weakening and for different time windows, in order to explore the response of the system to model
Using cellular automata to simulate forest fire propagation in Portugal
Freire, Joana; daCamara, Carlos
2017-04-01
Wildfires in the Mediterranean region have severe damaging effects mainly due to large fire events [1, 2]. When restricting to Portugal, wildfires have burned over 1:4 million ha in the last decade. Considering the increasing tendency in the extent and severity of wildfires [1, 2], the availability of modeling tools of fire episodes is of crucial importance. Two main types of mathematical models are generally available, namely deterministic and stochastic models. Deterministic models attempt a description of fires, fuel and atmosphere as multiphase continua prescribing mass, momentum and energy conservation, which typically leads to systems of coupled PDEs to be solved numerically on a grid. Simpler descriptions, such as FARSITE, neglect the interaction with atmosphere and propagate the fire front using wave techniques. One of the most important stochastic models are Cellular Automata (CA), in which space is discretized into cells, and physical quantities take on a finite set of values at each cell. The cells evolve in discrete time according to a set of transition rules, and the states of the neighboring cells. In the present work, we implement and then improve a simple and fast CA model designed to operationally simulate wildfires in Portugal. The reference CA model chosen [3] has the advantage of having been applied successfully in other Mediterranean ecosystems, namely to historical fires in Greece. The model is defined on a square grid with propagation to 8 nearest and next-nearest neighbors, where each cell is characterized by 4 possible discrete states, corresponding to burning, not-yet burned, fuel-free and completely burned cells, with 4 possible rules of evolution which take into account fuel properties, meteorological conditions, and topography. As a CA model, it offers the possibility to run a very high number of simulations in order to verify and apply the model, and is easily modified by implementing additional variables and different rules for the
Complexity measurement based on information theory and kolmogorov complexity.
Lui, Leong Ting; Terrazas, Germán; Zenil, Hector; Alexander, Cameron; Krasnogor, Natalio
2015-01-01
In the past decades many definitions of complexity have been proposed. Most of these definitions are based either on Shannon's information theory or on Kolmogorov complexity; these two are often compared, but very few studies integrate the two ideas. In this article we introduce a new measure of complexity that builds on both of these theories. As a demonstration of the concept, the technique is applied to elementary cellular automata and simulations of the self-organization of porphyrin molecules.
Martinek, Pavel
2017-07-01
The class of multiset languages accepted by deterministic multiset finite automata with detection is strictly included in the class of multiset regular languages. Since multiset regular languages coincide with semilinear languages, the strict inclusion means that some restrictive conditions imposed to semilinear languages can narrow them appropriately. The paper provides a condition which is expressed with help of semilinear languages and which is necessary for the multiset languages accepted by deterministic multiset finite automata with detection.
Mohammad Sayemuzzaman; Manoj K. Jha
2014-01-01
State wide variant topographic features in North Carolina attract the hydro-climatologist. There is none modeling study found that predict future Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) change for whole North Carolina. In this study, satellite-derived land cover maps of year 1992, 2001 and 2006 of North Carolina were integrated within the framework of the Markov-Cellular Automata (Markov-CA) model which combines the Markov chain and Cellular Automata (CA) techniques. A Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) was ...
Ramírez-López, A.; Romero-Romo, M. A.; Muñoz-Negron, D.; López-Ramírez, S.; Escarela-Pérez, R.; Duran-Valencia, C.
2012-10-01
Computational models are developed to create grain structures using mathematical algorithms based on the chaos theory such as cellular automaton, geometrical models, fractals, and stochastic methods. Because of the chaotic nature of grain structures, some of the most popular routines are based on the Monte Carlo method, statistical distributions, and random walk methods, which can be easily programmed and included in nested loops. Nevertheless, grain structures are not well defined as the results of computational errors and numerical inconsistencies on mathematical methods. Due to the finite definition of numbers or the numerical restrictions during the simulation of solidification, damaged images appear on the screen. These images must be repaired to obtain a good measurement of grain geometrical properties. Some mathematical algorithms were developed to repair, measure, and characterize grain structures obtained from cellular automata in the present work. An appropriate measurement of grain size and the corrected identification of interfaces and length are very important topics in materials science because they are the representation and validation of mathematical models with real samples. As a result, the developed algorithms are tested and proved to be appropriate and efficient to eliminate the errors and characterize the grain structures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Larissa Albantakis
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Current approaches to characterize the complexity of dynamical systems usually rely on state-space trajectories. In this article instead we focus on causal structure, treating discrete dynamical systems as directed causal graphs—systems of elements implementing local update functions. This allows us to characterize the system’s intrinsic cause-effect structure by applying the mathematical and conceptual tools developed within the framework of integrated information theory (IIT. In particular, we assess the number of irreducible mechanisms (concepts and the total amount of integrated conceptual information Φ specified by a system. We analyze: (i elementary cellular automata (ECA; and (ii small, adaptive logic-gate networks (“animats”, similar to ECA in structure but evolving by interacting with an environment. We show that, in general, an integrated cause-effect structure with many concepts and high Φ is likely to have high dynamical complexity. Importantly, while a dynamical analysis describes what is “happening” in a system from the extrinsic perspective of an observer, the analysis of its cause-effect structure reveals what a system “is” from its own intrinsic perspective, exposing its dynamical and evolutionary potential under many different scenarios.
Uniform and localized corrosion modelling by means of probabilistic cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez-Brokate, Cristian
2016-01-01
Numerical modelling is complementary tool for corrosion prediction. The objective of this work is to develop a corrosion model by means of a probabilistic cellular automata approach at a mesoscopic scale. In this work, we study the morphological evolution and kinetics of corrosion. This model couples electrochemical oxidation and reduction reactions. Regarding kinetics, cellular automata models are able to describe current as a function of the applied potential for a redox reaction on an inert electrode. The inclusion of probabilities allows the description of the stochastic nature of anodic and cathodic reactions. Corrosion morphology has been studied in different context: generalised corrosion, pitting corrosion and corrosion in an occluded environment. a general tendency of two regimes is found. a first regime of uniform corrosion where the anodic and cathodic reactions occur homogeneously over the surface. a second regime of localized corrosion when there is a spatial separation of anodic and cathodic zones, with an increase of anodic reaction rate. (author) [fr
Naqvi, Syed Rameez; Akram, Tallha; Iqbal, Saba; Haider, Sajjad Ali; Kamran, Muhammad; Muhammad, Nazeer
2018-02-01
Considering the lack of optimization support for Quantum-dot Cellular Automata, we propose a dynamically reconfigurable logic cell capable of implementing various logic operations by means of artificial neural networks. The cell can be reconfigured to any 2-input combinational logic gate by altering the strength of connections, called weights and biases. We demonstrate how these cells may appositely be organized to perform multi-bit arithmetic and logic operations. The proposed work is important in that it gives a standard implementation of an 8-bit arithmetic and logic unit for quantum-dot cellular automata with minimal area and latency overhead. We also compare the proposed design with a few existing arithmetic and logic units, and show that it is more area efficient than any equivalent available in literature. Furthermore, the design is adaptable to 16, 32, and 64 bit architectures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaomeng Li
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The operational efficiency and safety of pedestrian flows at intersections is an important aspect of urban traffic. Particularly, conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles in crosswalk are one of the most influential factors for intersection safety. This paper presents a cellular automata model that simulates pedestrian and vehicle crossing behaviors at signalized intersections. Through the simulation, we investigate the effects of different pedestrian signal timing and crosswalk widths on the crosswalk capacity, the number of traffic conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles, and pedestrian delay due to the conflicts. The simulation results indicate that the cellular automata is an effective simulation platform for investigating complex pedestrian-related traffic phenomenon at signalized intersections.
Li, Qi-Lang; Wong, S. C.; Min, Jie; Tian, Shuo; Wang, Bing-Hong
2016-08-01
This study examines the cellular automata traffic flow model, which considers the heterogeneity of vehicle acceleration and the delay probability of vehicles. Computer simulations are used to identify three typical phases in the model: free-flow, synchronized flow, and wide moving traffic jam. In the synchronized flow region of the fundamental diagram, the low and high velocity vehicles compete with each other and play an important role in the evolution of the system. The analysis shows that there are two types of bistable phases. However, in the original Nagel and Schreckenberg cellular automata traffic model, there are only two kinds of traffic conditions, namely, free-flow and traffic jams. The synchronized flow phase and bistable phase have not been found.
Design of Improved Arithmetic Logic Unit in Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata
Heikalabad, Saeed Rasouli; Gadim, Mahya Rahimpour
2018-03-01
The quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) can be replaced to overcome the limitation of CMOS technology. An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a basic structure of any computer devices. In this paper, design of improved single-bit arithmetic logic unit in quantum dot cellular automata is presented. The proposed structure for ALU has AND, OR, XOR and ADD operations. A unique 2:1 multiplexer, an ultra-efficient two-input XOR and a low complexity full adder are used in the proposed structure. Also, an extended design of this structure is provided for two-bit ALU in this paper. The proposed structure of ALU is simulated by QCADesigner and simulation result is evaluated. Evaluation results show that the proposed design has best performance in terms of area, complexity and delay compared to the previous designs.
Solving the Ternary Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Logic Gate Problem by Means of Adiabatic Switching
Pecar, Primoz; Mraz, Miha; Zimic, Nikolaj; Janez, Miha; Lebar Bajec, Iztok
2008-06-01
Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) are one of the most promising alternative platforms of the future. Recent years have witnessed the development of basic logic structures as well as more complex processing structures, however most in the realm of binary logic. On the grounds that future platforms should not disregard the advantages of multi-valued logic, Lebar Bajec et al. were the first to show that quantum-dot cellular automata can be used for the implementation of ternary logic as well. In their study the ternary AND and OR logic functions proved to be the most troublesome primitive to implement. This research presents a revised solution that is based on adiabatic switching.
Coulomb coupling and the role of symmetries in quantum-dot arrays for cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramirez, F.; Cota, E.; Ulloa, S. E.
2000-01-01
Using a group-theoretical analysis of the symmetries of a quantum dot array, we investigate the role of defects on the energetics of the system and the resulting charge configurations (or polarization of the cell). We find that for the typical four- or five-element geometries proposed, even small asymmetries introduced by defects in the system, or variations in the local electrostatic environment, can give rise to large effects on the polarization of the ground state and the corresponding low-energy excitations. These shifts are likely to produce important effects in the operation of the cellular automata proposed using these quantum dots. In particular, we find that the sensitivity to polarization changes induced by a driver cell decreases dramatically, and the polarization values are no longer fully defined. These effects would both force the use of stronger driving fields, and may also complicate the dynamical behavior of the cellular automata. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
A cellular automata model of traffic flow with variable probability of randomization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Wei-Fan; Zhang Ji-Ye
2015-01-01
Research on the stochastic behavior of traffic flow is important to understand the intrinsic evolution rules of a traffic system. By introducing an interactional potential of vehicles into the randomization step, an improved cellular automata traffic flow model with variable probability of randomization is proposed in this paper. In the proposed model, the driver is affected by the interactional potential of vehicles before him, and his decision-making process is related to the interactional potential. Compared with the traditional cellular automata model, the modeling is more suitable for the driver’s random decision-making process based on the vehicle and traffic situations in front of him in actual traffic. From the improved model, the fundamental diagram (flow–density relationship) is obtained, and the detailed high-density traffic phenomenon is reproduced through numerical simulation. (paper)
Parallel Genetic Algorithms for calibrating Cellular Automata models: Application to lava flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Ambrosio, D.; Spataro, W.; Di Gregorio, S.; Calabria Univ., Cosenza; Crisci, G.M.; Rongo, R.; Calabria Univ., Cosenza
2005-01-01
Cellular Automata are highly nonlinear dynamical systems which are suitable far simulating natural phenomena whose behaviour may be specified in terms of local interactions. The Cellular Automata model SCIARA, developed far the simulation of lava flows, demonstrated to be able to reproduce the behaviour of Etnean events. However, in order to apply the model far the prediction of future scenarios, a thorough calibrating phase is required. This work presents the application of Genetic Algorithms, general-purpose search algorithms inspired to natural selection and genetics, far the parameters optimisation of the model SCIARA. Difficulties due to the elevated computational time suggested the adoption a Master-Slave Parallel Genetic Algorithm far the calibration of the model with respect to the 2001 Mt. Etna eruption. Results demonstrated the usefulness of the approach, both in terms of computing time and quality of performed simulations
Stair evacuation simulation based on cellular automata considering evacuees’ walk preferences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ding Ning; Luh, Peter B.; Zhang Hui; Chen Tao
2015-01-01
As a physical model, the cellular automata (CA) model is widely used in many areas, such as stair evacuation. However, existing CA models do not consider evacuees’ walk preferences nor psychological status, and the structure of the basic model is unapplicable for the stair structure. This paper is to improve the stair evacuation simulation by addressing these issues, and a new cellular automata model is established. Several evacuees’ walk preference and how evacuee’s psychology influences their behaviors are introduced into this model. Evacuees’ speeds will be influenced by these features. To validate this simulation, two fire drills held in two high-rise buildings are video-recorded. It is found that the simulation results are similar to the fire drill results. The structure of this model is simple, and it is easy to further develop and utilize in different buildings with various kinds of occupants. (paper)
Behavioural differential equations : a coinductive calculus of streams, automata, and power series
Rutten, Jan
2000-01-01
textabstractStreams, (automata and) languages, and formal power series are viewed coalgebraically. In summary, this amounts to supplying these sets with a deterministic automaton structure, which has the universal property of being final. Finality then forms the basis for both definitions and proofs by coinduction, the coalgebraic counterpart of induction. Coinductive definitions take the shape of what we have called behavioural differential equations, after Brzozowski's notion of input deriv...
a Predator-Prey Model Based on the Fully Parallel Cellular Automata
He, Mingfeng; Ruan, Hongbo; Yu, Changliang
We presented a predator-prey lattice model containing moveable wolves and sheep, which are characterized by Penna double bit strings. Sexual reproduction and child-care strategies are considered. To implement this model in an efficient way, we build a fully parallel Cellular Automata based on a new definition of the neighborhood. We show the roles played by the initial densities of the populations, the mutation rate and the linear size of the lattice in the evolution of this model.
CAVDM: Cellular Automata Based Video Cloud Mining Framework for Information Retrieval
Sree, P. Kiran; Babu, Inampudi Ramesh; N, SSSN Usha Devi
2013-01-01
Cloud Mining technique can be applied to various documents. Acquisition and storage of video data is an easy task but retrieval of information from video data is a challenging task. So video Cloud Mining plays an important role in efficient video data management for information retrieval. This paper proposes a Cellular Automata based framework for video Cloud Mining to extract the information from video data. This includes developing the technique for shot detection then key frame analysis is...
Model Skinner Operant Conditioning automata i bionički naučeno upravljanje robota
Cai, Jianxian; Hong, Li; Cheng, Lina; Yu, Ruihong
2016-01-01
Fuzzy Skinner Operant Conditioning Automaton (FSOCA) sastavljen je na temelju Operant Conditioning mehanizma primjenom teorije neizrazitih skupova. Osnovno obilježje automata FSOCA je sljedeće: neizraziti rezultati stanja pomoću Gausove funkcije koriste se kao skupovi neizrazitog stanja; neizrazita pravila preslikavanja (fuzzy mapping rules) kod fuzzy-conditioning-operacije zamjenjuju stohastičke "conditioning-operant" skupove preslikavanja. Stoga se automat FSOCA može koristiti za opisivanje...
Excellent approach to modeling urban expansion by fuzzy cellular automata: agent base model
Khajavigodellou, Yousef; Alesheikh, Ali A.; Mohammed, Abdulrazak A. S.; Chapi, Kamran
2014-09-01
Recently, the interaction between humans and their environment is the one of important challenges in the world. Landuse/ cover change (LUCC) is a complex process that includes actors and factors at different social and spatial levels. The complexity and dynamics of urban systems make the applicable practice of urban modeling very difficult. With the increased computational power and the greater availability of spatial data, micro-simulation such as the agent based and cellular automata simulation methods, has been developed by geographers, planners, and scholars, and it has shown great potential for representing and simulating the complexity of the dynamic processes involved in urban growth and land use change. This paper presents Fuzzy Cellular Automata in Geospatial Information System and remote Sensing to simulated and predicted urban expansion pattern. These FCA-based dynamic spatial urban models provide an improved ability to forecast and assess future urban growth and to create planning scenarios, allowing us to explore the potential impacts of simulations that correspond to urban planning and management policies. A fuzzy inference guided cellular automata approach. Semantic or linguistic knowledge on Land use change is expressed as fuzzy rules, based on which fuzzy inference is applied to determine the urban development potential for each pixel. The model integrates an ABM (agent-based model) and FCA (Fuzzy Cellular Automata) to investigate a complex decision-making process and future urban dynamic processes. Based on this model rapid development and green land protection under the influences of the behaviors and decision modes of regional authority agents, real estate developer agents, resident agents and non- resident agents and their interactions have been applied to predict the future development patterns of the Erbil metropolitan region.
Canalization and control in automata networks: body segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manuel Marques-Pita
Full Text Available We present schema redescription as a methodology to characterize canalization in automata networks used to model biochemical regulation and signalling. In our formulation, canalization becomes synonymous with redundancy present in the logic of automata. This results in straightforward measures to quantify canalization in an automaton (micro-level, which is in turn integrated into a highly scalable framework to characterize the collective dynamics of large-scale automata networks (macro-level. This way, our approach provides a method to link micro- to macro-level dynamics--a crux of complexity. Several new results ensue from this methodology: uncovering of dynamical modularity (modules in the dynamics rather than in the structure of networks, identification of minimal conditions and critical nodes to control the convergence to attractors, simulation of dynamical behaviour from incomplete information about initial conditions, and measures of macro-level canalization and robustness to perturbations. We exemplify our methodology with a well-known model of the intra- and inter cellular genetic regulation of body segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster. We use this model to show that our analysis does not contradict any previous findings. But we also obtain new knowledge about its behaviour: a better understanding of the size of its wild-type attractor basin (larger than previously thought, the identification of novel minimal conditions and critical nodes that control wild-type behaviour, and the resilience of these to stochastic interventions. Our methodology is applicable to any complex network that can be modelled using automata, but we focus on biochemical regulation and signalling, towards a better understanding of the (decentralized control that orchestrates cellular activity--with the ultimate goal of explaining how do cells and tissues 'compute'.
Canalization and Control in Automata Networks: Body Segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster
Marques-Pita, Manuel; Rocha, Luis M.
2013-01-01
We present schema redescription as a methodology to characterize canalization in automata networks used to model biochemical regulation and signalling. In our formulation, canalization becomes synonymous with redundancy present in the logic of automata. This results in straightforward measures to quantify canalization in an automaton (micro-level), which is in turn integrated into a highly scalable framework to characterize the collective dynamics of large-scale automata networks (macro-level). This way, our approach provides a method to link micro- to macro-level dynamics – a crux of complexity. Several new results ensue from this methodology: uncovering of dynamical modularity (modules in the dynamics rather than in the structure of networks), identification of minimal conditions and critical nodes to control the convergence to attractors, simulation of dynamical behaviour from incomplete information about initial conditions, and measures of macro-level canalization and robustness to perturbations. We exemplify our methodology with a well-known model of the intra- and inter cellular genetic regulation of body segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster. We use this model to show that our analysis does not contradict any previous findings. But we also obtain new knowledge about its behaviour: a better understanding of the size of its wild-type attractor basin (larger than previously thought), the identification of novel minimal conditions and critical nodes that control wild-type behaviour, and the resilience of these to stochastic interventions. Our methodology is applicable to any complex network that can be modelled using automata, but we focus on biochemical regulation and signalling, towards a better understanding of the (decentralized) control that orchestrates cellular activity – with the ultimate goal of explaining how do cells and tissues ‘compute’. PMID:23520449
A predator-prey model based on fully parallel cellular automata
He, Mingfeng; Ruan, Hongbo; Yu, Changliang
2003-01-01
We presented a predator-prey lattice model containing moveable wolves and sheep, which are characterized by Penna double bit strings. Sexual reproduction and child-care strategies are considered. To implement this model in an efficient way, we build a fully parallel Cellular Automata based on a new definition of the neighborhood. We show the roles played by the initial densities of the populations, the mutation rate and the linear size of the lattice in the evolution of this model.
Application of lattice-gas cellular automata to the Brownian motion of solids in suspension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ladd, A.J.C.; Colvin, M.E.; Frenkel, D.
1988-01-01
An adaptation of lattice-gas cellular automata to the simulation of solid-fluid suspensions is described. The method incorporates both dissipative hydrodynamic forces and thermal fluctuations. At low solid densities, theoretical results for the drag force on a single disk and the viscosity of a suspension of disks are reproduced. The zero--shear-rate viscosity has been obtained over a range of packing fractions and results indicate that simulations of three-dimensional suspensions are feasible
Linear reversible second-order cellular automata and their first-order matrix equivalents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macfarlane, A J
2004-01-01
Linear or one-dimensional reversible second-order cellular automata, exemplified by three cases named as RCA1-3, are introduced. Displays of their evolution in discrete time steps, t=0, 1, 2, ..., from their simplest initial states and on the basis of updating rules in modulo 2 arithmetic, are presented. In these, shaded and unshaded squares denote cells whose cell variables are equal to one and zero respectively. This paper is devoted to finding general formulas for, and explicit numerical evaluations of, the weights N(t) of the states or configurations of RCA1-3, i.e. the total number of shaded cells in tth line of their displays. This is achieved by means of the replacement of RCA1-3 by the equivalent linear first-order matrix automata MCA1-3, for which the cell variables are 2x2 matrices, instead of just numbers (element of Z 2 ) as for RCA1-3. MCA1-3 are tractable because it has been possible to generalize to them the heavy duty methods already well-developed for ordinary first-order cellular automata like those of Wolfram's Rules 90 and 150. While the automata MCA1-3 are thought to be of genuine interest in their own right, with untapped further mathematical potential, their treatment has been applied here to expediting derivation of a large body of general and explicit results for N(t) for RCA1-3. Amongst explicit results obtained are formulas also for each of RCA1-3 for the total weight of the configurations of the first 2 M times, M=0, 1, 2, ..
Cell Based GIS as Cellular Automata for Disaster Spreading Predictions and Required Data Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kohei Arai
2013-03-01
Full Text Available A method for prediction and simulation based on the Cell Based Geographic Information System(GIS as Cellular Automata (CA is proposed together with required data systems, in particular metasearch engine usage in an unified way. It is confirmed that the proposed cell based GIS as CA has flexible usage of the attribute information that is attached to the cell in concert with location information and does work for disaster spreading simulation and prediction.
An energy and cost efficient majority-based RAM cell in quantum-dot cellular automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milad Bagherian Khosroshahy
Full Text Available Nanotechnologies, notably quantum-dot cellular automata, have achieved major attentions for their prominent features as compared to the conventional CMOS circuitry. Quantum-dot cellular automata, particularly owning to its considerable reduction in size, high switching speed and ultra-low energy consumption, is considered as a potential alternative for the CMOS technology. As the memory unit is one of the most essential components in a digital system, designing a well-optimized QCA random access memory (RAM cell is an important area of research. In this paper, a new five-input majority gate is presented which is suitable for implementing efficient single-layer QCA circuits. In addition, a new RAM cell with set and reset capabilities is designed based on the proposed majority gate, which has an efficient and low-energy structure. The functionality, performance and energy consumption of the proposed designs are evaluated based on the QCADesigner and QCAPro tools. According to the simulation results, the proposed RAM design leads to on average 38% lower total energy dissipation, 25% smaller area, 20% lower cell count, 28% lower delay and 60% lower QCA cost as compared to its previous counterparts. Keywords: Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA, Majority gate, Random access memory (RAM, Energy efficiency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adel Akbarimajd
2012-02-01
Full Text Available A path planning method for mobile robots based on two dimensional cellular automata is proposed. The method can be applied for environments with both concave and convex obstacles. It is also appropriate for multi-robot problems as well as dynamic environments. In order to develop the planning method, environment of the robot is decomposed to a rectangular grid and the automata is defined with four states including Robot cell, Free cell, Goal cell and Obstacle cell. Evolution rules of automata are proposed in order to direct the robot toward its goal. CA based path planner method is afterwards modified by a colony technique to be applicable for concave obstacles. Then a layered architecture is proposed to autonomously implement the planning algorithm. The architecture employs an abstraction approach which makes the complexity manageable. An important feature of the architecture is internal artifacts that have some beliefs about the world. Most actions of the robot are planned and performed with respect to these artifacts.
FPGA Implementation of one-dimensional and two-dimensional cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Antone, I.
1999-01-01
This report describes the hardware implementation of one-dimensional and two-dimensional cellular automata (CAs). After a general introduction to the cellular automata, we consider a one-dimensional CA used to implement pseudo-random techniques in built-in self test for VLSI. Due to the increase in digital ASIC complexity, testing is becoming one of the major costs in the VLSI production. The high electronics complexity, used in particle physics experiments, demands higher reliability than in the past time. General criterions are given to evaluate the feasibility of the circuit used for testing and some quantitative parameters are underlined to optimize the architecture of the cellular automaton. Furthermore, we propose a two-dimensional CA that performs a peak finding algorithm in a matrix of cells mapping a sub-region of a calorimeter. As in a two-dimensional filtering process, the peaks of the energy clusters are found in one evolution step. This CA belongs to Wolfram class II cellular automata. Some quantitative parameters are given to optimize the architecture of the cellular automaton implemented in a commercial field programmable gate array (FPGA)
A new optimization method based on cellular automata for VVER-1000 nuclear reactor loading pattern
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fadaei, Amir Hosein; Setayeshi, Saeed
2009-01-01
This paper presents a new and innovative optimization technique, which uses cellular automata for solving multi-objective optimization problems. Due to its ability in simulating the local information while taking neighboring effects into account, the cellular automata technique is a powerful tool for optimization. The fuel-loading pattern in nuclear reactor cores is a major optimization problem. Due to the immensity of the search space in fuel management optimization problems, finding the optimum solution requires a huge amount of calculations in the classical method. The cellular automata models, based on local information, can reduce the computations significantly. In this study, reducing the power peaking factor, while increasing the initial excess reactivity inside the reactor core of VVER-1000, which are two apparently contradictory objectives, are considered as the objective functions. The result is an optimum configuration, which is in agreement with the pattern proposed by the designer. In order to gain confidence in the reliability of this method, the aforementioned problem was also solved using neural network and simulated annealing, and the results and procedures were compared.
Roth, J. P.
1972-01-01
The following problems are considered: (1) methods for development of logic design together with algorithms, so that it is possible to compute a test for any failure in the logic design, if such a test exists, and developing algorithms and heuristics for the purpose of minimizing the computation for tests; and (2) a method of design of logic for ultra LSI (large scale integration). It was discovered that the so-called quantum calculus can be extended to render it possible: (1) to describe the functional behavior of a mechanism component by component, and (2) to compute tests for failures, in the mechanism, using the diagnosis algorithm. The development of an algorithm for the multioutput two-level minimization problem is presented and the program MIN 360 was written for this algorithm. The program has options of mode (exact minimum or various approximations), cost function, cost bound, etc., providing flexibility.
Iris segmentation using an edge detector based on fuzzy sets theory and cellular learning automata.
Ghanizadeh, Afshin; Abarghouei, Amir Atapour; Sinaie, Saman; Saad, Puteh; Shamsuddin, Siti Mariyam
2011-07-01
Iris-based biometric systems identify individuals based on the characteristics of their iris, since they are proven to remain unique for a long time. An iris recognition system includes four phases, the most important of which is preprocessing in which the iris segmentation is performed. The accuracy of an iris biometric system critically depends on the segmentation system. In this paper, an iris segmentation system using edge detection techniques and Hough transforms is presented. The newly proposed edge detection system enhances the performance of the segmentation in a way that it performs much more efficiently than the other conventional iris segmentation methods.
A cellular automata traffic flow model for three-phase theory
Qian, Yong-Sheng; Feng, Xiao; Zeng, Jun-Wei
2017-08-01
This paper presents a newly-modified KKW model including the subdivided vehicles types, and introduces the changes for a driver's sensitivity into the speed fluctuation. By means of the numerical simulation the following conclusions are obtained herewith: 1. Velocity disturbance propagation in traffic flow is caused by the speed adaptation among vehicles. 2. In free flow phase, very fewer vehicles are affected by the velocity disturbance and the effect can be dissipated quickly thus the time of disturbance in a single vehicle is quite shorter. On the contrary, the impact duration time of the disturbance on a single vehicle is longer in synchronous flow phase, thus, it will affect more vehicles accordingly. 3. Under the free flow phase, the continuous deceleration behavior of a high speed vehicle to adapt the preceding car with slow speed can cause the reduction of the driver's sensitivity, lead to the vehicle over-deceleration and aggravate the effects of velocity perturbations While in the synchronous flow phase, though the reaction delay caused by the driver's sensitivity reduction can induce speed wave dissolving in essence, it increases the impact of disturbance on the traffic flow. 4. The large acceleration and deceleration tendency of an aggressive driver in the free flow phase always increase the influence of the velocity disturbance, while a conservative driver often weakens the influence. However, in the synchronized flow, since the high traffic density and the synchronization between vehicles is very strong, also the main factor which affects the driver's speed choice is the distance among vehicles, therefore the effect of a driver's behavior tendency to the spread of velocity perturbation is not obvious under this state.
MotieGhader, Habib; Gharaghani, Sajjad; Masoudi-Sobhanzadeh, Yosef; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali
2017-01-01
Feature selection is of great importance in Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) analysis. This problem has been solved using some meta-heuristic algorithms such as GA, PSO, ACO and so on. In this work two novel hybrid meta-heuristic algorithms i.e. Sequential GA and LA (SGALA) and Mixed GA and LA (MGALA), which are based on Genetic algorithm and learning automata for QSAR feature selection are proposed. SGALA algorithm uses advantages of Genetic algorithm and Learning Automata sequentially and the MGALA algorithm uses advantages of Genetic Algorithm and Learning Automata simultaneously. We applied our proposed algorithms to select the minimum possible number of features from three different datasets and also we observed that the MGALA and SGALA algorithms had the best outcome independently and in average compared to other feature selection algorithms. Through comparison of our proposed algorithms, we deduced that the rate of convergence to optimal result in MGALA and SGALA algorithms were better than the rate of GA, ACO, PSO and LA algorithms. In the end, the results of GA, ACO, PSO, LA, SGALA, and MGALA algorithms were applied as the input of LS-SVR model and the results from LS-SVR models showed that the LS-SVR model had more predictive ability with the input from SGALA and MGALA algorithms than the input from all other mentioned algorithms. Therefore, the results have corroborated that not only is the predictive efficiency of proposed algorithms better, but their rate of convergence is also superior to the all other mentioned algorithms.
A verification strategy for web services composition using enhanced stacked automata model.
Nagamouttou, Danapaquiame; Egambaram, Ilavarasan; Krishnan, Muthumanickam; Narasingam, Poonkuzhali
2015-01-01
Currently, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is becoming the most popular software architecture of contemporary enterprise applications, and one crucial technique of its implementation is web services. Individual service offered by some service providers may symbolize limited business functionality; however, by composing individual services from different service providers, a composite service describing the intact business process of an enterprise can be made. Many new standards have been defined to decipher web service composition problem namely Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). BPEL provides an initial work for forming an Extended Markup Language (XML) specification language for defining and implementing business practice workflows for web services. The problems with most realistic approaches to service composition are the verification of composed web services. It has to depend on formal verification method to ensure the correctness of composed services. A few research works has been carried out in the literature survey for verification of web services for deterministic system. Moreover the existing models did not address the verification properties like dead transition, deadlock, reachability and safetyness. In this paper, a new model to verify the composed web services using Enhanced Stacked Automata Model (ESAM) has been proposed. The correctness properties of the non-deterministic system have been evaluated based on the properties like dead transition, deadlock, safetyness, liveness and reachability. Initially web services are composed using Business Process Execution Language for Web Service (BPEL4WS) and it is converted into ESAM (combination of Muller Automata (MA) and Push Down Automata (PDA)) and it is transformed into Promela language, an input language for Simple ProMeLa Interpreter (SPIN) tool. The model is verified using SPIN tool and the results revealed better recital in terms of finding dead transition and deadlock in contrast to the
Designing quantum-dot cellular automata circuits using a robust one layer crossover scheme
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sara Hashemi
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA is a novel nanotechnology which is considered as a solution to the scaling problems in complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. In this Letter, a robust one layer crossover scheme is introduced. It uses only 90° QCA cells and works based on a proper clock assignment. The application of this new scheme is shown in designing a sample QCA circuit. Simulation results demonstrate that using this new scheme, significant improvements in terms of area and complexity can be achieved.
Javaheri Javid, Mohammad Ali; Blackwell, Tim; Zimmer, Robert; Majid al-Rifaie, Mohammad
2016-04-01
Shannon entropy fails to discriminate structurally different patterns in two-dimensional images. We have adapted information gain measure and Kolmogorov complexity to overcome the shortcomings of entropy as a measure of image structure. The measures are customised to robustly quantify the complexity of images resulting from multi-state cellular automata (CA). Experiments with a two-dimensional multi-state cellular automaton demonstrate that these measures are able to predict some of the structural characteristics, symmetry and orientation of CA generated patterns.
Glider-based computing in reaction-diffusion hexagonal cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adamatzky, Andrew; Wuensche, Andrew; De Lacy Costello, Benjamin
2006-01-01
A three-state hexagonal cellular automaton, discovered in [Wuensche A. Glider dynamics in 3-value hexagonal cellular automata: the beehive rule. Int J Unconvention Comput, in press], presents a conceptual discrete model of a reaction-diffusion system with inhibitor and activator reagents. The automaton model of reaction-diffusion exhibits mobile localized patterns (gliders) in its space-time dynamics. We show how to implement the basic computational operations with these mobile localizations, and thus demonstrate collision-based logical universality of the hexagonal reaction-diffusion cellular automaton
On Cellular Automata Models of Traffic Flow with Look-Ahead Potential
Hauck, Cory; Sun, Yi; Timofeyev, Ilya
2012-01-01
We study the statistical properties of a cellular automata model of traffic flow with the look-ahead potential. The model defines stochastic rules for the movement of cars on a lattice. We analyze the underlying statistical assumptions needed for the derivation of the coarse-grained model and demonstrate that it is possible to relax some of them to obtain an improved coarse-grained ODE model. We also demonstrate that spatial correlations play a crucial role in the presence of the look-ahead p...
A study for bank effect on ship traffic in narrow water channels using cellular automata
Sun, Zhuo; Cong, Shuang; Pan, Junnan; Zheng, Jianfeng
2017-12-01
In narrow water channels, bank might affect nearby ships due to hydrodynamic forces (bank effect). To avoid accidents, different sailing rules (i.e., lane-changing, speed control) are required. In this paper, a two-lane cellular automata model is proposed to evaluate such phenomena. Numerical experiments show that ships will form a “slow-moving chunk” in the bank area, which will significantly block the flux. As further study demonstrated to alleviate bank effect, ship speed and bank length should be controlled.
Traffic simulation using distributed cellular automata in the Multi-agent system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petr Fuks
2007-04-01
Full Text Available This article is aimed at the description of traffic simulation architecture based on a multi-agent system and cellular automata. This approach allows a better understanding of complexity of the real traffic and to build advanced dynamic navigation systems, which will be able to predict the traffic situation and to use an information based on current statistical data. In the future, such navigation systems will help us to prevent congestions and other problems, which are caused by increasing traffic intensity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. G. Klyucharev
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the paper the author considers hardware implementation of the GRACE-H family general cellular automata based cryptographic hash functions. VHDL is used as a language and Altera FPGA as a platform for hardware implementation. Performance and effectiveness of the FPGA implementations of GRACE-H hash functions were compared with Keccak (SHA-3, SHA-256, BLAKE, Groestl, JH, Skein hash functions. According to the performed tests, performance of the hardware implementation of GRACE-H family hash functions significantly (up to 12 times exceeded performance of the hardware implementation of previously known hash functions, and effectiveness of that hardware implementation was also better (up to 4 times.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ken Tokunaga
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Dynamic behavior of signal transmission through metal complexes [L5M-BL-ML5]5+ (M=Fe, Ru, Os, BL=pyrazine (py, 4,4’-bipyridine (bpy, L=NH3, which are simplified models of the molecular quantum-dot cellular automata (molecular QCA, is discussed from the viewpoint of one-electron theory, density functional theory. It is found that for py complexes, the signal transmission time (tst is Fe(0.6 fs < Os(0.7 fs < Ru(1.1 fs and the signal amplitude (A is Fe(0.05 e < Os(0.06 e < Ru(0.10 e. For bpy complexes, tst and A are Fe(1.4 fs < Os(1.7 fs < Ru(2.5 fs and Os(0.11 e < Ru(0.12 e
An energy and cost efficient majority-based RAM cell in quantum-dot cellular automata
Khosroshahy, Milad Bagherian; Moaiyeri, Mohammad Hossein; Navi, Keivan; Bagherzadeh, Nader
Nanotechnologies, notably quantum-dot cellular automata, have achieved major attentions for their prominent features as compared to the conventional CMOS circuitry. Quantum-dot cellular automata, particularly owning to its considerable reduction in size, high switching speed and ultra-low energy consumption, is considered as a potential alternative for the CMOS technology. As the memory unit is one of the most essential components in a digital system, designing a well-optimized QCA random access memory (RAM) cell is an important area of research. In this paper, a new five-input majority gate is presented which is suitable for implementing efficient single-layer QCA circuits. In addition, a new RAM cell with set and reset capabilities is designed based on the proposed majority gate, which has an efficient and low-energy structure. The functionality, performance and energy consumption of the proposed designs are evaluated based on the QCADesigner and QCAPro tools. According to the simulation results, the proposed RAM design leads to on average 38% lower total energy dissipation, 25% smaller area, 20% lower cell count, 28% lower delay and 60% lower QCA cost as compared to its previous counterparts.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junpeng Zhu
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The coming interaction between a growing electrified vehicle fleet and the desired growth in renewable energy provides new insights into the economic dispatch (ED problem. This paper presents an economic dispatch model that considers electric vehicle charging, battery exchange stations, and wind farms. This ED model is a high-dimensional, non-linear, and stochastic problem and its solution requires powerful methods. A new finite action-set learning automata (FALA-based approach that has the ability to adapt to a stochastic environment is proposed. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated in a modified IEEE 30 bus system. It is compared with continuous action-set learning automata and particle swarm optimization-based approaches in terms of convergence characteristics, computational efficiency, and solution quality. Simulation results show that the proposed FALA-based approach was indeed capable of more efficiently obtaining the approximately optimal solution. In addition, by using an optimal dispatch schedule for the interaction between electric vehicle stations and power systems, it is possible to reduce the gap between demand and power generation at different times of the day.
Decentralized Cooperation Strategies in Two-Dimensional Traffic of Cellular Automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fang Jun; Qin Zheng; Xu Zhaohui; Chen Xiqun; Leng Biao; Jiang Zineng
2012-01-01
We study the two-dimensional traffic of cellular automata using computer simulation. We propose two type of decentralized cooperation strategies, which are called stepping aside (CS-SA) and choosing alternative routes (CS-CAR) respectively. We introduce them into an existing two-dimensional cellular automata (CA) model. CS-SA is designed to prohibit a kind of ping-pong jump when two objects standing together try to move in opposite directions. CS-CAR is designed to change the solution of conflict in parallel update. CS-CAR encourages the objects involved in parallel conflicts choose their alternative routes instead of waiting. We also combine the two cooperation strategies (CS-SA-CAR) to test their combined effects. It is found that the system keeps on a partial jam phase with nonzero velocity and flow until the density reaches one. The ratios of the ping-pong jump and the waiting objects involved in conflict are decreased obviously, especially at the free phase. And the average flow is improved by the three cooperation strategies. Although the average travel time is lengthened a bit by CS-CAR, it is shorten by CS-SA and CS-SA-CAR. In addition, we discuss the advantage and applicability of decentralized cooperation modeling.
An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, Sheng [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China); Qu, Xiaobo [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast, 4222 Australia (Australia); Xu, Cheng [Department of Transportation Management Engineering, Zhejiang Police College, Hangzhou, 310053 China (China); College of Transportation, Jilin University, Changchun, 130022 China (China); Ma, Dongfang, E-mail: mdf2004@zju.edu.cn [Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China); Wang, Dianhai [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China)
2015-10-16
This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model. - Highlights: • We proposed an improved multi-value CA model with higher maximum speed. • Update rules are introduced for heterogeneous bicycle traffic with maximum speed 2 and 3 cells/s. • Simulation results of the proposed model are consistent with field bicycle data. • Slowdown probabilities of both regular and electric bicycles are calibrated.
Revisiting Decidability and Optimum Reachability for Multi-Priced Timed Automata
Fränzle, Martin; Swaminathan, Mani
We investigate the optimum reachability problem for Multi-Priced Timed Automata (MPTA) that admit both positive and negative costs on edges and locations, thus bridging the gap between the results of Bouyer et al. (2007) and of Larsen and Rasmussen (2008). Our contributions are the following: (1) We show that even the location reachability problem is undecidable for MPTA equipped with both positive and negative costs, provided the costs are subject to a bounded budget, in the sense that paths of the underlying Multi-Priced Transition System (MPTS) that operationally exceed the budget are considered as not being viable. This undecidability result follows from an encoding of Stop-Watch Automata using such MPTA, and applies to MPTA with as few as two cost variables, and even when no costs are incurred upon taking edges. (2) We then restrict the MPTA such that each viable quasi-cyclic path of the underlying MPTS incurs a minimum absolute cost. Under such a condition, the location reachability problem is shown to be decidable and the optimum cost is shown to be computable for MPTA with positive and negative costs and a bounded budget. These results follow from a reduction of the optimum reachability problem to the solution of a linear constraint system representing the path conditions over a finite number of viable paths of bounded length.
Cellular automata model for traffic flow at intersections in internet of vehicles
Zhao, Han-Tao; Liu, Xin-Ru; Chen, Xiao-Xu; Lu, Jian-Cheng
2018-03-01
Considering the effect of the front vehicle's speed, the influence of the brake light and the conflict of the traffic flow, we established a cellular automata model called CE-NS for traffic flow at the intersection in the non-vehicle networking environment. According to the information interaction of Internet of Vehicles (IoV), introducing parameters describing the congestion and the accurate speed of the front vehicle into the CE-NS model, we improved the rules of acceleration, deceleration and conflict, and finally established a cellular automata model for traffic flow at intersections of IoV. The relationship between traffic parameters such as vehicle speed, flow and average travel time is obtained by numerical simulation of two models. Based on this, we compared the traffic situation of the non-vehicle networking environment with conditions of IoV environment, and analyzed the influence of the different degree of IoV on the traffic flow. The results show that the traffic speed is increased, the travel time is reduced, the flux of intersections is increased and the traffic flow is more smoothly under IoV environment. After the vehicle which achieves IoV reaches a certain proportion, the operation effect of the traffic flow begins to improve obviously.
Emergent dynamic structures and statistical law in spherical lattice gas automata.
Yao, Zhenwei
2017-12-01
Various lattice gas automata have been proposed in the past decades to simulate physics and address a host of problems on collective dynamics arising in diverse fields. In this work, we employ the lattice gas model defined on the sphere to investigate the curvature-driven dynamic structures and analyze the statistical behaviors in equilibrium. Under the simple propagation and collision rules, we show that the uniform collective movement of the particles on the sphere is geometrically frustrated, leading to several nonequilibrium dynamic structures not found in the planar lattice, such as the emergent bubble and vortex structures. With the accumulation of the collision effect, the system ultimately reaches equilibrium in the sense that the distribution of the coarse-grained speed approaches the two-dimensional Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution despite the population fluctuations in the coarse-grained cells. The emergent regularity in the statistical behavior of the system is rationalized by mapping our system to a generalized random walk model. This work demonstrates the capability of the spherical lattice gas automaton in revealing the lattice-guided dynamic structures and simulating the equilibrium physics. It suggests the promising possibility of using lattice gas automata defined on various curved surfaces to explore geometrically driven nonequilibrium physics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Linjun Fan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the dynamic evolution analysis and quantitative measurement of primary factors that cause service inconsistency in service-oriented distributed simulation applications (SODSA. Traditional methods are mostly qualitative and empirical, and they do not consider the dynamic disturbances among factors in service’s evolution behaviors such as producing, publishing, calling, and maintenance. Moreover, SODSA are rapidly evolving in terms of large-scale, reusable, compositional, pervasive, and flexible features, which presents difficulties in the usage of traditional analysis methods. To resolve these problems, a novel dynamic evolution model extended hierarchical service-finite state automata (EHS-FSA is constructed based on finite state automata (FSA, which formally depict overall changing processes of service consistency states. And also the service consistency evolution algorithms (SCEAs based on EHS-FSA are developed to quantitatively assess these impact factors. Experimental results show that the bad reusability (17.93% on average is the biggest influential factor, the noncomposition of atomic services (13.12% is the second biggest one, and the service version’s confusion (1.2% is the smallest one. Compared with previous qualitative analysis, SCEAs present good effectiveness and feasibility. This research can guide the engineers of service consistency technologies toward obtaining a higher level of consistency in SODSA.
Fan, Linjun; Tang, Jun; Ling, Yunxiang; Li, Benxian
2014-01-01
This paper is concerned with the dynamic evolution analysis and quantitative measurement of primary factors that cause service inconsistency in service-oriented distributed simulation applications (SODSA). Traditional methods are mostly qualitative and empirical, and they do not consider the dynamic disturbances among factors in service's evolution behaviors such as producing, publishing, calling, and maintenance. Moreover, SODSA are rapidly evolving in terms of large-scale, reusable, compositional, pervasive, and flexible features, which presents difficulties in the usage of traditional analysis methods. To resolve these problems, a novel dynamic evolution model extended hierarchical service-finite state automata (EHS-FSA) is constructed based on finite state automata (FSA), which formally depict overall changing processes of service consistency states. And also the service consistency evolution algorithms (SCEAs) based on EHS-FSA are developed to quantitatively assess these impact factors. Experimental results show that the bad reusability (17.93% on average) is the biggest influential factor, the noncomposition of atomic services (13.12%) is the second biggest one, and the service version's confusion (1.2%) is the smallest one. Compared with previous qualitative analysis, SCEAs present good effectiveness and feasibility. This research can guide the engineers of service consistency technologies toward obtaining a higher level of consistency in SODSA.
Image Encryption Scheme Based on Balanced Two-Dimensional Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoyan Zhang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Cellular automata (CA are simple models of computation which exhibit fascinatingly complex behavior. Due to the universality of CA model, it has been widely applied in traditional cryptography and image processing. The aim of this paper is to present a new image encryption scheme based on balanced two-dimensional cellular automata. In this scheme, a random image with the same size of the plain image to be encrypted is first generated by a pseudo-random number generator with a seed. Then, the random image is evoluted alternately with two balanced two-dimensional CA rules. At last, the cipher image is obtained by operating bitwise XOR on the final evolution image and the plain image. This proposed scheme possesses some advantages such as very large key space, high randomness, complex cryptographic structure, and pretty fast encryption/decryption speed. Simulation results obtained from some classical images at the USC-SIPI database demonstrate the strong performance of the proposed image encryption scheme.
Solution of Dendritic Growth in Steel by the Novel Point Automata Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lorbiecka, A Z; Šarler, B
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is the simulation of dendritic growth in steel in two dimensions by a coupled deterministic continuum mechanics heat and species transfer model and a stochastic localized phase change kinetics model taking into account the undercooling, curvature, kinetic, and thermodynamic anisotropy. The stochastic model receives temperature and concentration information from the deterministic model and the deterministic heat, and species diffusion equations receive the solid fraction information from the stochastic model. The heat and species transfer models are solved on a regular grid by the standard explicit Finite Difference Method (FDM). The phase-change kinetics model is solved by a novel Point Automata (PA) approach. The PA method was developed [1] in order to circumvent the mesh anisotropy problem, associated with the classical Cellular Automata (CA) method. The PA approach is established on randomly distributed points and neighbourhood configuration, similar as appears in meshless methods. A comparison of the PA and CA methods is shown. It is demonstrated that the results with the new PA method are not sensitive to the crystallographic orientations of the dendrite.
An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin, Sheng; Qu, Xiaobo; Xu, Cheng; Ma, Dongfang; Wang, Dianhai
2015-01-01
This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model. - Highlights: • We proposed an improved multi-value CA model with higher maximum speed. • Update rules are introduced for heterogeneous bicycle traffic with maximum speed 2 and 3 cells/s. • Simulation results of the proposed model are consistent with field bicycle data. • Slowdown probabilities of both regular and electric bicycles are calibrated
Exact quantification of the complexity of spacewise pattern growth in cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freire, Joana G; Gallas, Jason A C; Brison, Owen J
2009-01-01
We analyze the two possible ways of simulating complex systems with cellular automata: by using the familiar timewise updating or by using the complementary spacewise updating. Both updating algorithms operate on identical sets of initial conditions defining the state of the automaton. While timewise growth generally probes just vanishingly small sets of initial conditions producing statistical samples of the asymptotic attractors, spacewise growth operates with much restricted sets which allow one to simulate them all, exhaustively. Our main result is the derivation of an exact analytical formula to quantify precisely one of the two sources of algorithmic complexity of spacewise detection of the complete set of attractors for elementary 1D cellular automata with generic non-periodic architectures of any arbitrary size. The formula gives the total number of initial conditions that need to be investigated to locate rigorously all possible patterns for any given rule. As simple applications, we illustrate how this knowledge may be used (i) to uncover missing patterns in previous classifications in the literature and (ii) to obtain surprisingly novel patterns that are totally unreachable with the time-honored technique of artificially imposing spatially periodic boundary conditions.
Exact results of 1D traffic cellular automata: The low-density behavior of the Fukui-Ishibashi model
Salcido, Alejandro; Hernández-Zapata, Ernesto; Carreón-Sierra, Susana
2018-03-01
The maximum entropy states of the cellular automata models for traffic flow in a single-lane with no anticipation are presented and discussed. The exact analytical solutions for the low-density behavior of the stochastic Fukui-Ishibashi traffic model were obtained and compared with computer simulations of the model. An excellent agreement was found.
Real-Time Extended Interface Automata for Software Testing Cases Generation
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Shunkun Yang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Testing and verification of the interface between software components are particularly important due to the large number of complex interactions, which requires the traditional modeling languages to overcome the existing shortcomings in the aspects of temporal information description and software testing input controlling. This paper presents the real-time extended interface automata (RTEIA which adds clearer and more detailed temporal information description by the application of time words. We also establish the input interface automaton for every input in order to solve the problems of input controlling and interface covering nimbly when applied in the software testing field. Detailed definitions of the RTEIA and the testing cases generation algorithm are provided in this paper. The feasibility and efficiency of this method have been verified in the testing of one real aircraft braking system.
Cellular Automata Modelling of Dynamics of Volumes of Sales of a Trade Company
Zhikharevich Vladimir V.; Matsyuk Nataliya A.
2013-01-01
The article substantiates expediency of use of the multi-agent simulation modelling in the study of dynamics of complex economic systems. It shows a possibility to use cellular automata in construction of simulation economic models, particularly models of consumers’ behaviour, in principle. It describes a simulation model, which could be sophisticated further for deeper analysis of a studied phenomenon.В статье обоснована целесообразность использования многоагентного имитационного моделирован...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemattre, Thibault
2013-01-01
The design of operational control architectures is a very important step of the design of energy production systems. This step consists in mapping the functional architecture of the system onto its hardware architecture while respecting capacity and safety constraints, i.e. in allocating control functions to a set of controllers while respecting these constraints. The work presented in this thesis presents: i) a formalization of the data and constraints of the function allocation problem; ii) a mapping method, by reachability analysis, based on a request/response mechanism in a network of communicating automata with integer variables; iii) a comparison between this method and a resolution method by integer linear programming. The results of this work have been validated on examples of actual size and open the way to the coupling between reachability analysis and integer linear programming for the resolution of satisfaction problems for non-linear constraint systems. (author)
Explicit implementation of quantum circuits on a quantum-cellular-automata-like architecture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawano, Y.; Yamashita, S.; Kitagawa, M.
2005-01-01
We present an efficient strategy to translate a normal quantum algorithm into a sequence of operations on the quantum-cellular-automata-like architecture (QCALA) originally proposed by Lloyd. The QCALA assumes arrays of weakly coupled quantum systems where an interaction exists only between neighboring qubits and can only perform the same quantum operation onto all the qubits. The sequence obtained by the strategy proposed by Lloyd needs at most 12n operations, where n is the number of qubits for the original circuit. The sequence obtained by our strategy needs at most 6n operations. We also clarified the relations between the upper bound of the number of translated operations and the period of the QCALA and between the upper bound of the number of qubits and the period of the QCALA
An Innovative Cellular Automata Technique for Mapping Cracking Pattern of Airport Pavement
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Yin Fucheng
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, an innovative cellular automata (CA technique was proposed for mapping cracking pattern of the airport pavement. The CA technique was developed to establish a numerical model describing the effect of boundary condition of pavement on zones (CA cells within the pavement. A state function was used to describe the state values in the cells within the CA lattice. The correction coefficient principle is used as the criterion of zone similarity and the corresponding technique is proposed to find similar zones within and between pavements. Three pavement models, HRS, MRS and LRS, tested in FAA, USA, are set as the base pavements to map the cracking patterns of pavements with different sizes from the base pavements. The mapped cracking patterns of unseen pavements are empirically verified by referring to the relative experimental models.
Cellular automata approach to investigation of high burn-up structures in nuclear reactor fuel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akishina, E.P.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kostenko, B.F.
2005-01-01
Micrographs of uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) corresponding to exposure times in reactor during 323, 953, 971, 1266 and 1642 full power days were investigated. The micrographs were converted into digital files isomorphous to cellular automata (CA) checkerboards. Such a representation of the fuel structure provides efficient tools for its dynamics simulation in terms of primary 'entities' imprinted in the micrographs. Besides, it also ensures a possibility of very effective micrograph processing by CA means. Interconnection between the description of fuel burn-up development and some exactly soluble models is ascertained. Evidences for existence of self-organization in the fuel at high burn-ups were established. The fractal dimension of microstructures is found to be an important characteristic describing the degree of radiation destructions
IMITATOR II: A Tool for Solving the Good Parameters Problem in Timed Automata
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Étienne André
2010-10-01
Full Text Available We present here Imitator II, a new version of Imitator, a tool implementing the "inverse method" for parametric timed automata: given a reference valuation of the parameters, it synthesizes a constraint such that, for any valuation satisfying this constraint, the system behaves the same as under the reference valuation in terms of traces, i.e., alternating sequences of locations and actions. Imitator II also implements the "behavioral cartography algorithm", allowing us to solve the following good parameters problem: find a set of valuations within a given bounded parametric domain for which the system behaves well. We present new features and optimizations of the tool, and give results of applications to various examples of asynchronous circuits and communication protocols.
Monadic structures over an ordered universal random graph and finite automata
Dudakov, Sergey M.
2011-10-01
We continue the investigation of the expressive power of the language of predicate logic for finite algebraic systems embedded in infinite systems. This investigation stems from papers of M. A. Taitslin, M. Benedikt and L. Libkin, among others. We study the properties of a finite monadic system which can be expressed by formulae if such a system is embedded in a random graph that is totally ordered in an arbitrary way. The Büchi representation is used to connect monadic structures and formal languages. It is shown that, if one restricts attention to formulae that are -invariant in totally ordered random graphs, then these formulae correspond to finite automata. We show that =-invariant formulae expressing the properties of the embedded system itself can express only Boolean combinations of properties of the form `the cardinality of an intersection of one-place predicates belongs to one of finitely many fixed finite or infinite arithmetic progressions'.
Gioco ingegno utopia. Automata sonori nel mondo greco romano. Alcuni spunti di riflessione
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Francesca Berlinzani
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The paper collects the greek and latin testimonies on real or fictitious acoustic automata. The words and the meanings concerning the automatic devices have been considered and analysed, together with the most important personalities of engineers and inventors, in order to determine and single out the possible connections between their creations and the social, political and economic systems that gave impulse to this creative impetus. The analysis tries also to point to the ludic aspects of this process, in which abstraction, epistemological mechanisms, empiric praxis, go together and alternate themselves in a game played between the inventor and his public, a game made of secrets, enigmas, discoveries and acknowledgement, in order to obtain concrete objects that share many aspects with the toys.
Novel Design for Quantum Dots Cellular Automata to Obtain Fault-Tolerant Majority Gate
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Razieh Farazkish
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA is one of the most attractive technologies for computing at nanoscale. The principle element in QCA is majority gate. In this paper, fault-tolerance properties of the majority gate is analyzed. This component is suitable for designing fault-tolerant QCA circuits. We analyze fault-tolerance properties of three-input majority gate in terms of misalignment, missing, and dislocation cells. In order to verify the functionality of the proposed component some physical proofs using kink energy (the difference in electrostatic energy between the two polarization states and computer simulations using QCA Designer tool are provided. Our results clearly demonstrate that the redundant version of the majority gate is more robust than the standard style for this gate.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zun-dong Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available According to different driving behavioral characteristics of bus drivers, a cellular automata traffic model considering the bus lane changing behavior with scheduling parameters is proposed in this paper. Traffic bottleneck problems caused by bus stops are simulated in multiple lanes roads with no-bay bus stations. With the mixed traffic flow composed of different bus arrival rate, flow-density graph, density distribution graph, and temporal-spatial graph are presented. Furthermore, the mixed traffic flow characteristics are analyzed. Numerical experiment results show that the proposed model can generate a variety of complicated realistic phenomena in the traffic system with bus stops and provide theoretical basis for better using of traffic flow model.
Real-time extended interface automata for software testing cases generation.
Yang, Shunkun; Xu, Jiaqi; Man, Tianlong; Liu, Bin
2014-01-01
Testing and verification of the interface between software components are particularly important due to the large number of complex interactions, which requires the traditional modeling languages to overcome the existing shortcomings in the aspects of temporal information description and software testing input controlling. This paper presents the real-time extended interface automata (RTEIA) which adds clearer and more detailed temporal information description by the application of time words. We also establish the input interface automaton for every input in order to solve the problems of input controlling and interface covering nimbly when applied in the software testing field. Detailed definitions of the RTEIA and the testing cases generation algorithm are provided in this paper. The feasibility and efficiency of this method have been verified in the testing of one real aircraft braking system.
Modeling of the competition life cycle using the software complex of cellular automata PyCAlab
Berg, D. B.; Beklemishev, K. A.; Medvedev, A. N.; Medvedeva, M. A.
2015-11-01
The aim of the work is to develop a numerical model of the life cycle of competition on the basis of software complex cellular automata PyCAlab. The model is based on the general patterns of growth of various systems in resource-limited settings. At examples it is shown that the period of transition from an unlimited growth of the market agents to the stage of competitive growth takes quite a long time and may be characterized as monotonic. During this period two main strategies of competitive selection coexist: 1) capture of maximum market space with any reasonable costs; 2) saving by reducing costs. The obtained results allow concluding that the competitive strategies of companies must combine two mentioned types of behavior, and this issue needs to be given adequate attention in the academic literature on management. The created numerical model may be used for market research when developing of the strategies for promotion of new goods and services.
Modelling land-use effects of future urbanization using cellular automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuglsang, Morten; Münier, Bernd; Hansen, Henning Sten
2013-01-01
project PASHMINA (Paradigm Shift modelling and innovative approaches), three storylines of future transportation paradigm shifts towards 2040 are created. These storylines are translated into spatial planning strategies and modelled using the cellular automata model LUCIA. For the modelling, an Eastern...... Danish case area was selected, comprising of the Copenhagen metropolitan area and its hinterland. The different scenarios are described using a range of different descriptive GIS datasets. These include mapping of accessibility based on public and private transportation, urban density and structure...... strategies can produce, changing the shape of the urban landscape. The scenarios visualized showed to outline different planning strategies that could be implemented, creating a more homogenous urban structure targeted at a reduction of transportation work and thus energy consumption. This will lead to less...
Behavioral Modeling Based on Probabilistic Finite Automata: An Empirical Study †
Tîrnăucă, Cristina; Montaña, José L.; Ontañón, Santiago; González, Avelino J.; Pardo, Luis M.
2016-01-01
Imagine an agent that performs tasks according to different strategies. The goal of Behavioral Recognition (BR) is to identify which of the available strategies is the one being used by the agent, by simply observing the agent’s actions and the environmental conditions during a certain period of time. The goal of Behavioral Cloning (BC) is more ambitious. In this last case, the learner must be able to build a model of the behavior of the agent. In both settings, the only assumption is that the learner has access to a training set that contains instances of observed behavioral traces for each available strategy. This paper studies a machine learning approach based on Probabilistic Finite Automata (PFAs), capable of achieving both the recognition and cloning tasks. We evaluate the performance of PFAs in the context of a simulated learning environment (in this case, a virtual Roomba vacuum cleaner robot), and compare it with a collection of other machine learning approaches. PMID:27347956
Advanced spatial metrics analysis in cellular automata land use and cover change modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zamyatin, Alexander; Cabral, Pedro
2011-01-01
This paper proposes an approach for a more effective definition of cellular automata transition rules for landscape change modeling using an advanced spatial metrics analysis. This approach considers a four-stage methodology based on: (i) the search for the appropriate spatial metrics with minimal correlations; (ii) the selection of the appropriate neighborhood size; (iii) the selection of the appropriate technique for spatial metrics application; and (iv) the analysis of the contribution level of each spatial metric for joint use. The case study uses an initial set of 7 spatial metrics of which 4 are selected for modeling. Results show a better model performance when compared to modeling without any spatial metrics or with the initial set of 7 metrics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongsheng Chen
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Coupled heat transfer and chemical reaction of fluid flow in complex boundaries are explored by introducing two additional properties, i.e. particle type and energy state into the Lattice gas automata (LGA Frisch–Hasslacher–Pomeau (FHP-II model. A mix-redistribute of energy and type of particles is also applied on top of collision rules to ensure randomness while maintaining the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Simulations of heat transfer and heterogeneous reaction of gas flow passing a circular porous cylinder in a channel are presented. The effects of porosity of cylinder, gas inlet velocity, and reaction probability on the reaction process are further analyzed with respect to the characteristics of solid morphology, product concentration, and temperature profile. Numerical results indicate that the reaction rate increases with increasing reaction probability as well as gas inlet velocity. Cylinders with a higher value of porosity and more homogeneous structure also react with gas particles faster. These results agree well with the basic theories of gas–solid reactions, indicating the present model provides a method for describing gas–solid reactions in complex boundaries at mesoscopic level.
REDUNDANT ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVE CONTROL UNIT DESIGN USING AUTOMATA-BASED APPROACH
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Yuri Yu. Yankin
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Implementation of redundant unit for motor drive control based on programmable logic devices is discussed. Continuous redundancy method is used. As compared to segregated standby redundancy and whole system standby redundancy, such method provides preservation of all unit functions in case of redundancy and gives the possibility for continuous monitoring of major and redundant elements. Example of that unit is given. Electric motor drive control channel block diagram contains two control units – the major and redundant; it also contains four power supply units. Control units programming was carried out using automata-based approach. Electric motor drive control channel model was developed; it provides complex simulation of control state-machine and power converter. Through visibility and hierarchy of finite state machines debug time was shortened as compared to traditional programming. Control state-machine description using hardware description language is required for its synthesis with FPGA-devices vendor design software. This description was generated automatically by MATLAB software package. To verify results two prototype control units, two prototype power supply units, and device mock-up were developed and manufactured. Units were installed in the device mock-up. Prototype units were created in accordance with requirements claimed to deliverable hardware. Control channel simulation and tests results in the perfect state and during imitation of major element fault are presented. Automata-based approach made it possible to observe and debug control state-machine transitions during simulation of transient processes, occurring at imitation of faults. Results of this work can be used in development of fault tolerant electric motor drive control channels.
Cellular-automata model of the dwarf shrubs populations and communities dynamics
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A. S. Komarov
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The probabilistic cellular-automata model of development and long-time dynamics of dwarf shrub populations and communities is developed. It is based on the concept of discrete description of the plant ontogenesis and joint model approaches in terms of probabilistic cellular automata and L-systems by Lindenmayer. Short representation of the basic model allows evaluation of the approach and software implementation. The main variables of the model are a number of partial bushes in clones or area projective cover. The model allows us to investigate the conditions of self-maintenance and sustainability population under different environmental conditions (inaccessibility of the territory for settlement, mosaic moisture conditions of soil and wealth. The model provides a forecast of the total biomass dynamics shrubs and their fractions (stems, leaves, roots, fine roots, fruits on the basis of the data obtained in the discrete description of ontogenesis and further information on the productivity of the plant fractions. The inclusion of the joint dynamics of biomass of shrubs and soil in EFIMOD models cycle of carbon and nitrogen to evaluate the role of shrubs in these circulations, especially at high impact, such as forest fires and clear cutting, allow forecasting of the dynamics of populations and ecosystem functions of shrubs (regulation of biogeochemical cycles maintaining biodiversity, participation in the creation of non-wood products with changing climatic conditions and strong damaging effects (logging, fires; and application of the models developed to investigate the stability and productivity of shrubs and their participation in the cycle of carbon and nitrogen in different climatic and edaphic conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takesue, Shinji
1989-01-01
This is the first part of a series devoted to the study of thermodynamic behavior of large dynamical systems with the use of a family of full-discrete and conservative models named elementary reversible cellular automata (ERCAs). In this paper, basic properties such as conservation laws and phase space structure are investigated in preparation for the later studies. ERCAs are a family of one-dimensional reversible cellular automata having two Boolean variables on each site. Reflection and Boolean conjugation symmetries divide them into 88 equivalence classes. For each rule, additive conserved quantities written in a certain form are regarded as a kind of energy, if they exist. By the aid of the discreteness of the variables, every ERCA satisfies the Liouville theorem or the preservation of phase space volume. Thus, if an energy exists in the above sense, statistical mechanics of the model can formally be constructed. If a locally defined quantity is conserved, however, it prevents the realization of statistical mechanics. The existence of such a quantity is examined for each class and a number of rules which have at least one energy but no local conservation laws are selected as hopeful candidates for the realization of thermodynamic behavior. In addition, the phase space structure of ERCAs is analyzed by enumerating cycles exactly in the phase space for systems of comparatively small sizes. As a result, it is revealed that a finite ERCA is not ergodic, that is, a large number of orbits coexist on an energy surface. It is argued that this fact does not necessarily mean the failure of thermodynamic behavior on the basis of an analogy with the ergodic nature of infinite systems
Fischer, P.; Jardani, A.; Lecoq, N.
2017-03-01
Inverse problem permits to map the subsurface properties from a few observed data. The inverse problem can be physically constrained by a priori information on the property distribution in order to limit the nonuniqueness of the solution. The geostatistical information is often chosen as a priori information; however, when the field properties present a spatial locally distributed high variability, the geostatistical approach becomes inefficient. Therefore, we propose a new method adapted for fields presenting linear structures (such as a fractured field). The Cellular Automata-based Deterministic Inversion (CADI) method is, as far as we know when this paper is produced, the first inversion method which permits a deterministic inversion based on a Bayesian approach and using a dynamic optimization to generate different linear structures iteratively. The model is partitioned in cellular automaton subspaces, each one controlling a different zone of the model. A cellular automata subspace structures the properties of the model in two units ("structure" and "background") and control their dispensing direction and their values. The partitioning of the model in subspaces permits to monitor a large-scale structural model with only a few pilot-parameters and to generate linear structures with local direction changes. Thereby, the algorithm can easily handle with large-scale structures, and a sensitivity analysis is possible on these structural pilot-parameters, which permits to considerably accelerate the optimization process in order to find the best structural geometry. The algorithm has been successfully tested on simple, to more complex, theoretical models with different inversion techniques by using seismic and hydraulic data.
Self-replicating systems in spatial form generation: The concept of cellular automata
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Petruševski Ljiljana
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The self-replicating systems introduced theoretically by von Neumann, are widely examined in biology, computing, geometry, engineering sciences etc. In this study the authors are focused on the concept of cellular automata (CA and its possible application in processes of spatial form generation. The study has been realized with participation of 60 senior architecture students, creating various spatial forms by using the CA concept, within the series of elective courses titled Generic Explorations. The experimental activity is supported by the software Fun3D, i.e. its CA module, which has been created at the University of Belgrade, Faculty of Architecture, to support generative processes in the field of architecture. After introducing a general idea of the self-replicating systems, the authors explain the major principles of CA, particularly the issues of layered 2D automata, discussing possible approaches to spatial form creation. The study examines CA based on a cubic cell, evolving to a rectangular cuboid where width/height/length ratio can differ, as well as the gap between cells and some of the visual features, like color, transparency, texture etc. Creators of various spatial forms can set a pattern of initial cells, and define a rule for a self-reproduction of a single cell. Combinations of multiple CA systems have been introduced, as an entirely original approach to the problem of form generation in general. A variety of approaches to the generation of spatial form, resulted from the experimental activity, indicate a significant potential of the CA concept application in many areas of spatial design. The authors suggest a range of interpretations of a resulted generic form, such as architectural, urban, product design, exhibition systems etc.
Raines, G.L.; Zientek, M.L.; Causey, J.D.; Boleneus, D.E.
2002-01-01
For public land management in Idaho and western Montana, the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) has requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) predict where mineral-related activity will occur in the next decade. Cellular automata provide an approach to simulation of this human activity. Cellular automata (CA) are defined by an array of cells, which evolve by a simple transition rule, the automaton. Based on exploration trends, we assume that future exploration will focus in areas of past exploration. Spatial-temporal information about mineral-related activity, that is permits issued by USFS and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in the last decade, and spatial information about undiscovered resources, provide a basis to calibrate a CA. The CA implemented is a modified annealed voting rule that simulates mineral-related activity with spatial and temporal resolution of 1 mi2 and 1 year based on activity from 1989 to 1998. For this CA, the state of the economy and exploration technology is assumed constant for the next decade. The calibrated CA reproduces the 1989-1998-permit activity with an agreement of 94%, which increases to 98% within one year. Analysis of the confusion matrix and kappa correlation statistics indicates that the CA underestimates high activity and overestimates low activity. Spatially, the major differences between the actual and calculated activity are that the calculated activity occurs in a slightly larger number of small patches and is slightly more uneven than the actual activity. Using the calibrated CA in a Monte Carlo simulation projecting from 1998 to 2010, an estimate of the probability of mineral activity shows high levels of activity in Boise, Caribou, Elmore, Lincoln, and western Valley counties in Idaho and Beaverhead, Madison, and Stillwater counties in Montana, and generally low activity elsewhere. ?? 2002 International Association for Mathematical Geology.
The Unknown Component Problem Theory and Applications
Villa, Tiziano; Brayton, Robert K; Mishchenko, Alan; Petrenko, Alexandre; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto
2012-01-01
The Problem of the Unknown Component: Theory and Applications addresses the issue of designing a component that, combined with a known part of a system, conforms to an overall specification. The authors tackle this problem by solving abstract equations over a language. The most general solutions are studied when both synchronous and parallel composition operators are used. The abstract equations are specialized to languages associated with important classes of automata used for modeling systems. The book is a blend of theory and practice, which includes a description of a software package with applications to sequential synthesis of finite state machines. Specific topologies interconnecting the components, exact and heuristic techniques, and optimization scenarios are studied. Finally the scope is enlarged to domains like testing, supervisory control, game theory and synthesis for special omega languages. The authors present original results of the authors along with an overview of existing ones.
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Yu Zou
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Reconciling competing desires to build urban models that can be simple and complicated is something of a grand challenge for urban simulation. It also prompts difficulties in many urban policy situations, such as urban sprawl, where simple, actionable ideas may need to be considered in the context of the messily complex and complicated urban processes and phenomena that work within cities. In this paper, we present a novel architecture for achieving both simple and complicated realizations of urban sprawl in simulation. Fine-scale simulations of sprawl geography are run using geographic automata to represent the geographical drivers of sprawl in intricate detail and over fine resolutions of space and time. We use Equation-Free computing to deploy population as a coarse observable of sprawl, which can be leveraged to run automata-based models as short-burst experiments within a meta-simulation framework.
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Anna Staszczyk
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The Cellular Automata represent a universal method of modelling and simulation. They enable the performance of calculations for even the most complex processes and phenomena. They are also used successfully in mechanical and material engineering. In this paper, the concept of application of the Cellular Automata method for simulating the behaviour of material under stress is presented. The proposed numerical algorithm created performs a number of calculations of local stress states in the structure of precipitation hardened material. The principle of its operation is based on the application of the equivalent truss model, which is often used in the optimisation and design of structures. In this paper, this model was used to simulate a system embodying a section of the material containing various phases with different mechanical properties.
González, Ramón E. R.; de Figueirêdo, Pedro Hugo; Coutinho, Sérgio
2013-10-01
We study a cellular automata model to test the timing of antiretroviral therapy strategies for the dynamics of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We focus on the role of virus diffusion when its population is included in previous cellular automata model that describes the dynamics of the lymphocytes cells population during infection. This inclusion allows us to consider the spread of infection by the virus-cell interaction, beyond that which occurs by cell-cell contagion. The results show an acceleration of the infectious process in the absence of treatment, but show better efficiency in reducing the risk of the onset of AIDS when combined antiretroviral therapies are used even with drugs of low effectiveness. Comparison of results with clinical data supports the conclusions of this study.
Mahesh Kumar Jat; Mahender Choudhary; Ankita Saxena
2017-01-01
Urban growth monitoring and assessment are essential for the sustainable natural resources planning & optimum utilization and reducing the risk of problems arising from unplanned urban growth like pollution, urban heat island and ecological disturbances. Cellular Automata (CA) based modelling techniques have become popular in recent past for simulating the urban growth. Present study is aimed to evaluate the performance of the CA based SLEUTH model in simulating the urban growth of a complex ...
Gary Achtemeier
2012-01-01
A cellular automata fire model represents âelementsâ of fire by autonomous agents. A few simple algebraic expressions substituted for complex physical and meteorological processes and solved iteratively yield simulations for âsuper-diffusiveâ fire spread and coupled surface-layer (2-m) fireâatmosphere processes. Pressure anomalies, which are integrals of the thermal...
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Xian-sheng Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban transport and the sharp increase in vehicle population, traffic accidents form one of the most important causes of urban traffic congestion other than the imbalance between traffic supply and demand. Traffic congestion causes severe problems, such as environment contamination and energy dissipation. Therefore, it would be useful to analyze the congestion propagation characteristics after traffic accidents. Numerical analysis and computer simulation were two of the typical methods used at present to study the traffic congestion propagation properties. The latter was more widespread as it is more consistent with the actual traffic flow and more visual than the former. In this paper, an improved cellular automata (CA model was presented to analyze traffic congestion propagation properties and to evaluate control strategies. In order to apply them to urban traffic flow simulation, the CA models have been improved and expanded on. Computer simulations were built for congestion not only extending to the upstream intersection, but also the upstream intersection and the entire road network, respectively. Congestion propagation characteristics after road traffic accidents were obtained, and controls of different severities and durations were analyzed. The results provide the theoretical foundation and practical means for the control of congestion.
Egger, Jan; Nimsky, Christopher
2016-03-01
Due to the aging population, spinal diseases get more and more common nowadays; e.g., lifetime risk of osteoporotic fracture is 40% for white women and 13% for white men in the United States. Thus the numbers of surgical spinal procedures are also increasing with the aging population and precise diagnosis plays a vital role in reducing complication and recurrence of symptoms. Spinal imaging of vertebral column is a tedious process subjected to interpretation errors. In this contribution, we aim to reduce time and error for vertebral interpretation by applying and studying the GrowCut - algorithm for boundary segmentation between vertebral body compacta and surrounding structures. GrowCut is a competitive region growing algorithm using cellular automata. For our study, vertebral T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans were first manually outlined by neurosurgeons. Then, the vertebral bodies were segmented in the medical images by a GrowCut-trained physician using the semi-automated GrowCut-algorithm. Afterwards, results of both segmentation processes were compared using the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and the Hausdorff Distance (HD) which yielded to a DSC of 82.99+/-5.03% and a HD of 18.91+/-7.2 voxel, respectively. In addition, the times have been measured during the manual and the GrowCut segmentations, showing that a GrowCutsegmentation - with an average time of less than six minutes (5.77+/-0.73) - is significantly shorter than a pure manual outlining.
Designing Nanoscale Counter Using Reversible Gate Based on Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata
Moharrami, Elham; Navimipour, Nima Jafari
2017-12-01
Some new technologies such as Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is suggested to solve the physical limits of the Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The QCA as one of the novel technologies at nanoscale has potential applications in future computers. This technology has some advantages such as minimal size, high speed, low latency, and low power consumption. As a result, it is used for creating all varieties of memory. Counter circuits as one of the important circuits in the digital systems are composed of some latches, which are connected to each other in series and actually they count input pulses in the circuit. On the other hand, the reversible computations are very important because of their ability in reducing energy in nanometer circuits. Improving the energy efficiency, increasing the speed of nanometer circuits, increasing the portability of system, making smaller components of the circuit in a nuclear size and reducing the power consumption are considered as the usage of reversible logic. Therefore, this paper aims to design a two-bit reversible counter that is optimized on the basis of QCA using an improved reversible gate. The proposed reversible structure of 2-bit counter can be increased to 3-bit, 4-bit and more. The advantages of the proposed design have been shown using QCADesigner in terms of the delay in comparison with previous circuits.
Exploratory analysis of spatiotemporal patterns of cellular automata by clustering compressibility
Emmert-Streib, Frank
2010-02-01
In this paper we study the classification of spatiotemporal pattern of one-dimensional cellular automata (CA) whereas the classification comprises CA rules including their initial conditions. We propose an exploratory analysis method based on the normalized compression distance (NCD) of spatiotemporal patterns which is used as dissimilarity measure for a hierarchical clustering. Our approach is different with respect to the following points. First, the classification of spatiotemporal pattern is comparative because the NCD evaluates explicitly the difference of compressibility among two objects, e.g., strings corresponding to spatiotemporal patterns. This is in contrast to all other measures applied so far in a similar context because they are essentially univariate. Second, Kolmogorov complexity, which underlies the NCD, was used in the classification of CA with respect to their spatiotemporal pattern. Third, our method is semiautomatic allowing us to investigate hundreds or thousands of CA rules or initial conditions simultaneously to gain insights into their organizational structure. Our numerical results are not only plausible confirming previous classification attempts but also shed light on the intricate influence of random initial conditions on the classification results.
Cellular Automata Modeling of Decarburization of Metal Droplets in Basic Oxygen Steelmaking
Ankit; Kundu, T. K.
2016-02-01
In steelmaking, a supersonic jet is blown over the bath to refine the hot metal to produce steel. The refining process primarily consists of removal of impurities from the hot metal to a permissible level. The impact of oxygen jet on the surface of the hot metal bath results in ejection of droplets, which mix with slag and form emulsion. The formed emulsion plays an important role in refining reactions kinetics and understanding of this process is required todevelopimproved process control model for the steel industry. In this paper, cellular automata technique has been explored to simulate decarburization in emulsion caused by interfacial reactions between the metal droplets and slag. In the course of the work, a framework has also been developed to quantify the contribution of carbon monoxide, generated by decarburization, in bloating of metal droplets and formation of halo around the droplets. The model has incorporated diffusion and decarburization reaction based on probabilities to study the evolution of the system. Simulations with varying parameters have been performed and decarburization trends obtained are comparable with the experimentally determined data reported in literatures.
Designing Nanoscale Counter Using Reversible Gate Based on Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata
Moharrami, Elham; Navimipour, Nima Jafari
2018-04-01
Some new technologies such as Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is suggested to solve the physical limits of the Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The QCA as one of the novel technologies at nanoscale has potential applications in future computers. This technology has some advantages such as minimal size, high speed, low latency, and low power consumption. As a result, it is used for creating all varieties of memory. Counter circuits as one of the important circuits in the digital systems are composed of some latches, which are connected to each other in series and actually they count input pulses in the circuit. On the other hand, the reversible computations are very important because of their ability in reducing energy in nanometer circuits. Improving the energy efficiency, increasing the speed of nanometer circuits, increasing the portability of system, making smaller components of the circuit in a nuclear size and reducing the power consumption are considered as the usage of reversible logic. Therefore, this paper aims to design a two-bit reversible counter that is optimized on the basis of QCA using an improved reversible gate. The proposed reversible structure of 2-bit counter can be increased to 3-bit, 4-bit and more. The advantages of the proposed design have been shown using QCADesigner in terms of the delay in comparison with previous circuits.
Modelling the shrub encroachment in a grassland with a Cellular Automata Model
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D. Caracciolo
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Arid and semi-arid grasslands of southwestern North America have changed dramatically over the last 150 years as a result of shrub encroachment, i.e. the increase in density, cover and biomass of indigenous shrubby plants in grasslands. Numerous studies have documented the expansion of shrublands in the southwestern American grasslands; in particular shrub encroachment has occurred strongly in part of the northern Chihuahuan desert since 1860. This encroachment has been simulated using an ecohydrological Cellular Automata model, CATGraSS. It is a spatially distributed model driven by spatially explicit irradiance and runs on a fine-resolution gridded domain. Plant competition is modelled by keeping track of mortality and establishment of plants; both are calculated probabilistically based on soil moisture stress. For this study CATGraSS has been improved with a stochastic fire module and a grazing function. The model has been implemented in a small area in Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR, characterized by two vegetation types (grass savanna and creosote bush shrub, considering as encroachment causes the fire return period increase, the grazing increase, the seed dispersal caused by animals, the role of wind direction and plant type competition. The model is able to reproduce the encroachment that has occurred in SNWR, simulating an increase of the shrub from 2% in 1860 to the current shrub percentage, 42%, and highlighting among the most influential factors the reduced fire frequency and the increased grazing intensity.
Estimation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of snow covered area by using cellular automata models
Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Collados-Lara, Antonio-Juan; Pulido-Velazquez, David
2017-07-01
Given the need to consider the cryosphere in water resources management for mountainous regions, the purpose of this paper is to model the daily spatially distributed dynamics of snow covered area (SCA) by using calibrated cellular automata models. For the operational use of the calibrated model, the only data requirements are the altitude of each cell of the spatial discretization of the area of interest and precipitation and temperature indexes for the area of interest. For the calibration step, experimental snow covered area data are needed. Potential uses of the model are to estimate the snow covered area when satellite data are absent, or when they provide a temporal resolution different from the operational resolution, or when the satellite images are useless because they are covered by clouds or because there has been a sensor failure. Another interesting application is the simulation of SCA dynamics for the snow covered area under future climatic scenarios. The model is applied to the Sierra Nevada mountain range, in southern Spain, which is home to significant biodiversity, contains important water resources in its snowpack, and contains the most meridional ski resort in Europe.
Design of a Reconfigurable Pulsed Quad-Cell for Cellular-Automata-Based Conformal Computing
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Mariam Hoseini
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a reconfigurable asynchronous computing element, called the pulsed quad-cell (PQ-cell, for constructing conformal computers. Conformal computers are systems with an exceptional ability to conform to the physical and computational needs of an application. PQ-cells, like cellular automata, are assembled into arrays, communicate with neighboring cells, and are collectively capable of general computation. They operate asynchronously to scale without the limitations of a global clock and to minimize power consumption. Cell operations are stimulated by pulses which travel on different wires to represent 0's and 1's. Cells are individually configured to perform logic, move and store information, and coordinate parallel activity. The PQ-cell design targets a 0.25 μm CMOS technology. Simulations show that a single cell consumes 15.6 pJ per operation when pulsed at 1.3 GHz. Examples of multicell structures include a 98 MHz ring oscillator and a 190 MHz pipeline.
Modeling and Simulation of Polarization in Internet Group Opinions Based on Cellular Automata
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Yaofeng Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Hot events on Internet always attract many people who usually form one or several opinion camps through discussion. For the problem of polarization in Internet group opinions, we propose a new model based on Cellular Automata by considering neighbors, opinion leaders, and external influences. Simulation results show the following: (1 It is easy to form the polarization for both continuous opinions and discrete opinions when we only consider neighbors influence, and continuous opinions are more effective in speeding the polarization of group. (2 Coevolution mechanism takes more time to make the system stable, and the global coupling mechanism leads the system to consensus. (3 Opinion leaders play an important role in the development of consensus in Internet group opinions. However, both taking the opinion leaders as zealots and taking some randomly selected individuals as zealots are not conductive to the consensus. (4 Double opinion leaders with consistent opinions will accelerate the formation of group consensus, but the opposite opinions will lead to group polarization. (5 Only small external influences can change the evolutionary direction of Internet group opinions.
Delimiting Urban Growth Boundary through Combining Land Suitability Evaluation and Cellular Automata
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Qing Zheng
2017-11-01
Full Text Available China’s domestic urban planning only worked on researches of urban space control, the scope definition of urban development is not clear enough. The purpose of this study is to present a new urban growth boundary (UGB delimitation method which combined land suitability evaluation (LSE and cellular automata (CA. This method gave credence to LSE’s advantage in sustainable land use, and CA’s advantage in objective dynamic simulation. The ecological limitation areas were defined by LSE, which were regarded as the restricted areas of urban growth; meanwhile, it was taken as an important model input to guide intensive land allocation in urban growth model (CA model. The future urban growth scenarios were predicted by CA model and the corresponding UGB lines were delineated by ArcGIS 10.1. The results indicated that this method had good performance in Ningbo’s urban growth simulation. When compared to the planned UGB in urban master planning, the simulated UGBs under port development and regulated scenarios showed more intensive and suitable spatial layout of land. Besides, the simulated UGB under regulated scenario had the most reasonable space structure and the largest ecological protection effect among the UGBs. Hence, the simulated UGBs were superior to the planned UGB. The study recommends that this UGB delimitation method can promote sustainability of land development and ecological environment in Chinese cities.
Impact of time delay on the dynamics of SEIR epidemic model using cellular automata
Sharma, Natasha; Gupta, Arvind Kumar
2017-04-01
The delay of an infectious disease is significant when aiming to predict its strength and spreading patterns. In this paper the SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered) epidemic spread with time delay is analyzed through a two-dimensional cellular automata model. The time delay corresponding to the infectious span, predominantly, includes death during the latency period in due course of infection. The advancement of whole system is described by SEIR transition function complemented with crucial factors like inhomogeneous population distribution, birth and disease independent mortality. Moreover, to reflect more realistic population dynamics some stochastic parameters like population movement and connections at local level are also considered. The existence and stability of disease free equilibrium is investigated. Two prime behavioral patterns of disease dynamics is found depending on delay. The critical value of delay, beyond which there are notable variations in spread patterns, is computed. The influence of important parameters affecting the disease dynamics on basic reproduction number is also examined. The results obtained show that delay plays an affirmative role to control disease progression in an infected host.
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Daniil S. Chivilikhin
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The procedure of testing traditionally used in software engineering cannot guarantee program correctness; therefore verification is used at the excess requirements to programs reliability. Verification makes it possible to check certain properties of programs in all possible computational states; however, this process is very complex. In the model checking method a model of the program is built (often, manually and requirements in terms of temporal logic are formulated. Such temporal properties of the model can be checked automatically. The main issue in this framework is the gap between the program and its model. Automata-based programming paradigm gives the possibility to overcome this limitation. In this paradigm, program logic is represented using finite-state machines. The advantage of finite-state machines is that their models can be constructed automatically. The paper deals with the application of mutation-based ant colony optimization algorithm to the problem of finite-state machine construction from their specification, defined by test scenarios and temporal properties. The presented approach has been tested on the elevator doors control problem as well as on randomly generated data. Obtained results show the ant colony algorithm is two-three times faster than the previously used genetic algorithm. The proposed approach can be recommended for inferring control programs for critical systems.
Assessment of freeway work zone safety with improved cellular automata model
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Guohua Liang
2014-08-01
Full Text Available To accurately assess the safety of freeway work zones, this paper investigates the safety of vehicle lane change maneuvers with improved cellular automata model. Taking the traffic conflict and standard deviation of operating speed as the evaluation indexes, the study evaluates the freeway work zone safety. With improved deceleration probability in car-following raies and the addition of lanechanging rules under critical state, the lane-changing behavior under critical state is defined as a conflict count. Through 72 schemes of simulation runs, the possible states of the traffic flow are carefully studied. The results show that under the condition of constant saturation traffic conflict count and vehicle speed standard deviation reach their maximums when the mixed rate of heave vehicles is 40%. Meanwhile, in the case of constant heavy vehicles mix, traffic conflict count and vehicle speed standard deviation reach maximum values when saturation rate is 0. 75. Integrating ail simulation results, it is known the traffic safety in freeway work zones is classified into four levels : safe, relatively safe, relatively dangerous, and dangerous.
A cellular automata based FPGA realization of a new metaheuristic bat-inspired algorithm
Progias, Pavlos; Amanatiadis, Angelos A.; Spataro, William; Trunfio, Giuseppe A.; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch.
2016-10-01
Optimization algorithms are often inspired by processes occuring in nature, such as animal behavioral patterns. The main concern with implementing such algorithms in software is the large amounts of processing power they require. In contrast to software code, that can only perform calculations in a serial manner, an implementation in hardware, exploiting the inherent parallelism of single-purpose processors, can prove to be much more efficient both in speed and energy consumption. Furthermore, the use of Cellular Automata (CA) in such an implementation would be efficient both as a model for natural processes, as well as a computational paradigm implemented well on hardware. In this paper, we propose a VHDL implementation of a metaheuristic algorithm inspired by the echolocation behavior of bats. More specifically, the CA model is inspired by the metaheuristic algorithm proposed earlier in the literature, which could be considered at least as efficient than other existing optimization algorithms. The function of the FPGA implementation of our algorithm is explained in full detail and results of our simulations are also demonstrated.
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David Rehkopf
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Transmission of the agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is dependent on social context. A discrete spatial model representing neighborhoods segregated by levels of crowding and immunocompetence is constructed and used to evaluate prevention strategies, based on a number of assumptions about the spatial dynamics of tuberculosis. A cellular automata model is used to (a construct neighborhoods of different densities, (b model stochastically local interactions among individuals, and (c model the spread of tuberculosis within and across neighborhoods over time. Since infected people may become progressively sick but also heal through treatment, the transition among stages was modeled with transition probabilities. A moderate level of successful treatment (40% dramatically reduced the number of infections across all neighborhoods. Increasing the treatment in neighborhoods of a lower socioeconomic level from 40% to 90% results in an additional decrease of approximately 25% in the number of infected individuals overall. In conclusion, we find that a combination of a moderate level of successful treatment across all areas with more focused treatment efforts in lower socioeconomic areas resulted in the least number of infections over time.
A Local Land Use Competition Cellular Automata Model and Its Application
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Jun Yang
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Cellular automaton (CA is an important method in land use and cover change studies, however, the majority of research focuses on the discovery of macroscopic factors affecting LUCC, which results in ignoring the local effects within the neighborhoods. This paper introduces a Local Land Use Competition Cellular Automata (LLUC-CA model, based on local land use competition, land suitability evaluation, demand analysis of the different land use types, and multi-target land use competition allocation algorithm to simulate land use change at a micro level. The model is applied to simulate land use changes at Jinshitan National Tourist Holiday Resort from 1988 to 2012. The results show that the simulation accuracies were 64.46%, 77.21%, 85.30% and 99.14% for the agricultural land, construction land, forestland and water, respectively. In addition, comparing the simulation results of the LLUC-CA and CA-Markov model with the real land use data, their overall spatial accuracies were found to be 88.74% and 86.82%, respectively. In conclusion, the results from this study indicated that the model was an acceptable method for the simulation of large-scale land use changes, and the approach used here is applicable to analyzing the land use change driven forces and assist in decision-making.
Cellular automata model for drug release from binary matrix and reservoir polymeric devices.
Johannes Laaksonen, Timo; Mikael Laaksonen, Hannu; Tapio Hirvonen, Jouni; Murtomäki, Lasse
2009-04-01
Kinetics of drug release from polymeric tablets, inserts and implants is an important and widely studied area. Here we present a new and widely applicable cellular automata model for diffusion and erosion processes occurring during drug release from polymeric drug release devices. The model divides a 2D representation of the release device into an array of cells. Each cell contains information about the material, drug, polymer or solvent that the domain contains. Cells are then allowed to rearrange according to statistical rules designed to match realistic drug release. Diffusion is modeled by a random walk of mobile cells and kinetics of chemical or physical processes by probabilities of conversion from one state to another. This is according to the basis of diffusion coefficients and kinetic rate constants, which are on fundamental level just probabilities for certain occurrences. The model is applied to three kinds of devices with different release mechanisms: erodable matrices, diffusion through channels or pores and membrane controlled release. The dissolution curves obtained are compared to analytical models from literature and the validity of the model is considered. The model is shown to be compatible with all three release devices, highlighting easy adaptability of the model to virtually any release system and geometry. Further extension and applications of the model are envisioned.
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ChengHe Guan
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The formation of ‘Urban Networks’ has become a wide-spread phenomenon around the world. In the study of metropolitan regions, there are competing or diverging views about management and control of environmental and land-use factors as well as about scales and arrangements of settlements. Especially in China, these matters alongside of regulatory aspects, infrastructure applications, and resource allocations, are important because of population concentrations and the overlapping of urban areas with other land resources. On the other hand, the increasing sophistication of models operating on iterative computational power and widely-available spatial information and analytical techniques make it possible to simulate and investigate the spatial distribution of urban territories at a regional scale. This research applies a scenario-based Cellular Automata model to a case study of the Changjiang Delta Region, which produces useful and predictive scenario-based projections within the region, using quantitative methods and baseline conditions that address issues of regional urban development. The contribution of the research includes the improvement of computer simulation of urban growth, the application of urban form and other indices to evaluate complex urban conditions, and a heightened understanding of the performance of an urban network in the Changjiang Delta Region composed of big, medium, and small-sized cities and towns.
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Liqiang Ji
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In public places, the high pedestrian density is one of the direct causes leading to crowding and trample disaster, so it is very necessary to investigate the collective and evacuation characteristics for pedestrian movement. In the occupants’ evacuation process, the people-people interaction and the people-environment interaction are sufficiently considered in this paper, which have been divided into the exit attraction, the repulsion force between people, the friction between people, the repulsion force between human and barrier, and the attraction of surrounding people. Through analyzing the existing models, a new occupant evacuation cellular automata (CA model based on the social force model is presented, which overcomes the shortage of the high density crowd simulation and combines the advantages that CA has sample rules and faster calculating speed. The simulating result shows a great applicability for evacuation under the high density crowd condition, and the segregation phenomena have also been found in the bidirectional pedestrian flow. Besides these, setting isolated belt near the exit or entrance of underpass not only remarkably decreases the density and the risk of tramper disaster but also increases the evacuation efficiency, so it provides a new idea for infrastructure design about the exits and entrances.
Small universal cellular automata in hyperbolic spaces a collection of jewels
Margenstern, Maurice
2013-01-01
Hyperbolic geometry is an essential part of theoretical astrophysics and cosmology. Besides specialists of these domains, many specialists of new domains start to show a growing interest both to hyperbolic geometry and to cellular automata. This is especially the case in biology and computer science. This book gives the reader a deep and efficient introduction to an algorithmic approach to hyperbolic geometry. It focuses the attention on the possibilities to obtain in this frame the power of computing everything a computer can compute, that is to say: universality. The minimal ways to get universality are invistigated in a large family of tilings of the hyperbolic plane. In several cases the best results are obtained.In all cases, the results are close to the theoretical best values. This gives rise to fantastic illustrations: the results are jewels in all meanings of the word. ------------------------ Maurice MARGENSTERN is professor emeritus at the University of Lorraine, he is a member of LI...
Role of correlation in the operation of quantum-dot cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toth, Geza; Lent, Craig S.
2001-01-01
Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) may offer a viable alternative of traditional transistor-based technology at the nanoscale. When modeling a QCA circuit, the number of degrees of freedom necessary to describe the quantum mechanical state increases exponentially making modeling even modest size cell arrays difficult. The intercellular Hartree approximation largely reduces the number of state variables and still gives good results especially when the system remains near ground state. This suggests that a large part of the correlation degrees of freedom are not essential from the point of view of the dynamics. In certain cases, however, such as, for example, the majority gate with unequal input legs, the Hartree approximation gives qualitatively wrong results. An intermediate model is constructed between the Hartree approximation and the exact model, based on the coherence vector formalism. By including correlation effects to a desired degree, it improves the results of the Hartree method and gives the approximate dynamics of the correlation terms. It also models the majority gate correctly. Beside QCA cell arrays, our findings are valid for Ising spin chains in transverse magnetic field, and can be straightforwardly generalized for coupled two-level systems with a more complicated Hamiltonian. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics
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Pabitra Pal Choudhury
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Dynamics of a nonlinear cellular automaton (CA is, in general asymmetric, irregular, and unpredictable as opposed to that of a linear CA, which is highly systematic and tractable, primarily due to the presence of a matrix handle. In this paper, we present a novel technique of studying the properties of the State Transition Diagram of a nonlinear uniform one-dimensional cellular automaton in terms of its deviation from a suggested linear model. We have considered mainly elementary cellular automata with neighborhood of size three, and, in order to facilitate our analysis, we have classified the Boolean functions of three variables on the basis of number and position(s of bit mismatch with linear rules. The concept of deviant and nondeviant states is introduced, and hence an algorithm is proposed for deducing the State Transition Diagram of a nonlinear CA rule from that of its nearest linear rule. A parameter called the proportion of deviant states is introduced, and its dependence on the length of the CA is studied for a particular class of nonlinear rules.
Alonso, J.; Fernández, A.; Fort, H.
2006-06-01
We propose an extension of the evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma cellular automata, introduced by Nowak and May (1992 Nature 359 826), in which the pressure of the environment is taken into account. This is implemented by requiring that individuals need to collect a minimum score Umin, representing indispensable resources (nutrients, energy, money, etc) to prosper in this environment. So the agents, instead of evolving just by adopting the behaviour of the most successful neighbour (who got Umsn), also take into account if Umsn is above or below the threshold Umin. If Umsn
Statistical learning and the challenge of syntax: Beyond finite state automata
Elman, Jeff
2003-10-01
Over the past decade, it has been clear that even very young infants are sensitive to the statistical structure of language input presented to them, and use the distributional regularities to induce simple grammars. But can such statistically-driven learning also explain the acquisition of more complex grammar, particularly when the grammar includes recursion? Recent claims (e.g., Hauser, Chomsky, and Fitch, 2002) have suggested that the answer is no, and that at least recursion must be an innate capacity of the human language acquisition device. In this talk evidence will be presented that indicates that, in fact, statistically-driven learning (embodied in recurrent neural networks) can indeed enable the learning of complex grammatical patterns, including those that involve recursion. When the results are generalized to idealized machines, it is found that the networks are at least equivalent to Push Down Automata. Perhaps more interestingly, with limited and finite resources (such as are presumed to exist in the human brain) these systems demonstrate patterns of performance that resemble those in humans.
A theory of desynchronisable closed loop system
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Harsh Beohar
2010-10-01
Full Text Available The task of implementing a supervisory controller is non-trivial, even though different theories exist that allow automatic synthesis of these controllers in the form of automata. One of the reasons for this discord is due to the asynchronous interaction between a plant and its controller in implementations, whereas the existing supervisory control theories assume synchronous interaction. As a consequence the implementation suffer from the so-called inexact synchronisation problem. In this paper we address the issue of inexact synchronisation in a process algebraic setting, by solving a more general problem of refinement. We construct an asynchronous closed loop system by introducing a communication medium in a given synchronous closed loop system. Our goal is to find sufficient conditions under which a synchronous closed loop system is branching bisimilar to its corresponding asynchronous closed loop system.
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Bilan Stepan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available To date, there are many tasks that are aimed at studying the dynamic changes in physical processes. These tasks do not give advance known result. The solution of such problems is based on the construction of a dynamic model of the object. Successful structural and functional implementation of the object model can give a positive result in time. This approach uses the task of constructing artificial biological objects. To solve such problems, pseudo-random number generators are used, which also find wide application for information protection tasks. Such generators should have good statistical properties and give a long repetition period of the generated pseudo-random bit sequence. This work is aimed at improving these characteristics. The paper considers the method of forming pseudo-random sequences of numbers on the basis of aperiodic cellular automata with two active cells. A pseudo-random number generator is proposed that generates three bit sequences. The first two bit sequences are formed by the corresponding two active cells in the cellular automaton. The third bit sequence is the result of executing the XOR function over the bits of the first two sequences and it has better characteristics compared to them. The use of cellular automata with two active cells allowed to improve the statistical properties of the formed bit sequence, as well as its repetition period. This is proved by using graphical tests for generators built based on cellular automata using the neighborhoods of von Neumann and Moore. The tests showed high efficiency of the generator based on an asynchronous cellular automaton with the neighborhood of Moore. The proposed pseudo-random number generators have good statistical properties, which makes it possible to use them in information security systems, as well as for simulation tasks of various dynamic processes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tosic, P.T.
2011-01-01
We study certain types of Cellular Automata (CA) viewed as an abstraction of large-scale Multi-Agent Systems (MAS). We argue that the classical CA model needs to be modified in several important respects, in order to become a relevant and sufficiently general model for the large-scale MAS, and so that thus generalized model can capture many important MAS properties at the level of agent ensembles and their long-term collective behavior patterns. We specifically focus on the issue of inter-agent communication in CA, and propose sequential cellular automata (SCA) as the first step, and genuinely Asynchronous Cellular Automata (ACA) as the ultimate deterministic CA-based abstract models for large-scale MAS made of simple reactive agents. We first formulate deterministic and nondeterministic versions of sequential CA, and then summarize some interesting configuration space properties (i.e., possible behaviors) of a restricted class of sequential CA. In particular, we compare and contrast those properties of sequential CA with the corresponding properties of the classical (that is, parallel and perfectly synchronous) CA with the same restricted class of update rules. We analytically demonstrate failure of the studied sequential CA models to simulate all possible behaviors of perfectly synchronous parallel CA, even for a very restricted class of non-linear totalistic node update rules. The lesson learned is that the interleaving semantics of concurrency, when applied to sequential CA, is not refined enough to adequately capture the perfect synchrony of parallel CA updates. Last but not least, we outline what would be an appropriate CA-like abstraction for large-scale distributed computing insofar as the inter-agent communication model is concerned, and in that context we propose genuinely asynchronous CA. (author)
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Artiom Alhazov
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper we focus on two weak forms of cooperation in P systems, namely, catalytic rules and matter/anti-matter annihilation rules. These variants of P systems both are computationally complete, while the corresponding rule complexity turns out to be of special interest. For establishing considerably small universal P systems in both cases, we found two suitable tools: generalized register machines and generalized counter automata. Depending on the features used in the different variants, we construct several small universal P systems.
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Paulo Rangel Rios
2006-06-01
Full Text Available The effect of non-random nuclei location and the efficiency of microstructural descriptors in assessing such a situation are studied. Cellular automata simulation of recrystallization in two dimensions is carried out to simulate microstrutural evolution for nuclei distribution ranging from a periodic arrangement to clusters of nuclei. The simulation results are compared in detail with microstrutural descriptors normally used to follow transformation evolution. It is shown that the contiguity is particularly relevant to detect microstructural deviations from randomness. This work focuses on recrystallization but its results are applicable to any nucleation and growth transformation.
Singh, V. K.; Jha, A. K.; Gupta, K.; Srivastav, S. K.
2017-12-01
Recent studies indicate that there is a significant improvement in the urban land use dynamics through modeling at finer spatial resolutions. Geo-computational models such as cellular automata and agent based model have given evident proof regarding the quantification of the urban growth pattern with urban boundary. In recent studies, socio- economic factors such as demography, education rate, household density, parcel price of the current year, distance to road, school, hospital, commercial centers and police station are considered to the major factors influencing the Land Use Land Cover (LULC) pattern of the city. These factors have unidirectional approach to land use pattern which makes it difficult to analyze the spatial aspects of model results both quantitatively and qualitatively. In this study, cellular automata model is combined with generic model known as Agent Based Model to evaluate the impact of socio economic factors on land use pattern. For this purpose, Dehradun an Indian city is selected as a case study. Socio economic factors were collected from field survey, Census of India, Directorate of economic census, Uttarakhand, India. A 3X3 simulating window is used to consider the impact on LULC. Cellular automata model results are examined for the identification of hot spot areas within the urban area and agent based model will be using logistic based regression approach where it will identify the correlation between each factor on LULC and classify the available area into low density, medium density, high density residential or commercial area. In the modeling phase, transition rule, neighborhood effect, cell change factors are used to improve the representation of built-up classes. Significant improvement is observed in the built-up classes from 84 % to 89 %. However after incorporating agent based model with cellular automata model the accuracy improved from 89 % to 94 % in 3 classes of urban i.e. low density, medium density and commercial classes
Simulation of Corrosion Process for Structure with the Cellular Automata Method
Chen, M. C.; Wen, Q. Q.
2017-06-01
In this paper, from the mesoscopic point of view, under the assumption of metal corrosion damage evolution being a diffusive process, the cellular automata (CA) method was proposed to simulate numerically the uniform corrosion damage evolution of outer steel tube of concrete filled steel tubular columns subjected to corrosive environment, and the effects of corrosive agent concentration, dissolution probability and elapsed etching time on the corrosion damage evolution were also investigated. It was shown that corrosion damage increases nonlinearly with increasing elapsed etching time, and the longer the etching time, the more serious the corrosion damage; different concentration of corrosive agents had different impacts on the corrosion damage degree of the outer steel tube, but the difference between the impacts was very small; the heavier the concentration, the more serious the influence. The greater the dissolution probability, the more serious the corrosion damage of the outer steel tube, but with the increase of dissolution probability, the difference between its impacts on the corrosion damage became smaller and smaller. To validate present method, corrosion damage measurements for concrete filled square steel tubular columns (CFSSTCs) sealed at both their ends and immersed fully in a simulating acid rain solution were conducted, and Faraday’s law was used to predict their theoretical values. Meanwhile, the proposed CA mode was applied for the simulation of corrosion damage evolution of the CFSSTCs. It was shown by the comparisons of results from the three methods aforementioned that they were in good agreement, implying that the proposed method used for the simulation of corrosion damage evolution of concrete filled steel tubular columns is feasible and effective. It will open a new approach to study and evaluate further the corrosion damage, loading capacity and lifetime prediction of concrete filled steel tubular structures.
Design pattern mining using distributed learning automata and DNA sequence alignment.
Esmaeilpour, Mansour; Naderifar, Vahideh; Shukur, Zarina
2014-01-01
Over the last decade, design patterns have been used extensively to generate reusable solutions to frequently encountered problems in software engineering and object oriented programming. A design pattern is a repeatable software design solution that provides a template for solving various instances of a general problem. This paper describes a new method for pattern mining, isolating design patterns and relationship between them; and a related tool, DLA-DNA for all implemented pattern and all projects used for evaluation. DLA-DNA achieves acceptable precision and recall instead of other evaluated tools based on distributed learning automata (DLA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences alignment. The proposed method mines structural design patterns in the object oriented source code and extracts the strong and weak relationships between them, enabling analyzers and programmers to determine the dependency rate of each object, component, and other section of the code for parameter passing and modular programming. The proposed model can detect design patterns better that available other tools those are Pinot, PTIDEJ and DPJF; and the strengths of their relationships. The result demonstrate that whenever the source code is build standard and non-standard, based on the design patterns, then the result of the proposed method is near to DPJF and better that Pinot and PTIDEJ. The proposed model is tested on the several source codes and is compared with other related models and available tools those the results show the precision and recall of the proposed method, averagely 20% and 9.6% are more than Pinot, 27% and 31% are more than PTIDEJ and 3.3% and 2% are more than DPJF respectively. The primary idea of the proposed method is organized in two following steps: the first step, elemental design patterns are identified, while at the second step, is composed to recognize actual design patterns.
Design pattern mining using distributed learning automata and DNA sequence alignment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mansour Esmaeilpour
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Over the last decade, design patterns have been used extensively to generate reusable solutions to frequently encountered problems in software engineering and object oriented programming. A design pattern is a repeatable software design solution that provides a template for solving various instances of a general problem. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes a new method for pattern mining, isolating design patterns and relationship between them; and a related tool, DLA-DNA for all implemented pattern and all projects used for evaluation. DLA-DNA achieves acceptable precision and recall instead of other evaluated tools based on distributed learning automata (DLA and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequences alignment. METHOD: The proposed method mines structural design patterns in the object oriented source code and extracts the strong and weak relationships between them, enabling analyzers and programmers to determine the dependency rate of each object, component, and other section of the code for parameter passing and modular programming. The proposed model can detect design patterns better that available other tools those are Pinot, PTIDEJ and DPJF; and the strengths of their relationships. RESULTS: The result demonstrate that whenever the source code is build standard and non-standard, based on the design patterns, then the result of the proposed method is near to DPJF and better that Pinot and PTIDEJ. The proposed model is tested on the several source codes and is compared with other related models and available tools those the results show the precision and recall of the proposed method, averagely 20% and 9.6% are more than Pinot, 27% and 31% are more than PTIDEJ and 3.3% and 2% are more than DPJF respectively. CONCLUSION: The primary idea of the proposed method is organized in two following steps: the first step, elemental design patterns are identified, while at the second step, is composed to recognize actual design patterns.
An enhanced high-speed multi-digit BCD adder using quantum-dot cellular automata
Ajitha, D.; Ramanaiah, K. V.; Sumalatha, V.
2017-02-01
The advent of development of high-performance, low-power digital circuits is achieved by a suitable emerging nanodevice called quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA). Even though many efficient arithmetic circuits were designed using QCA, there is still a challenge to implement high-speed circuits in an optimized manner. Among these circuits, one of the essential structures is a parallel multi-digit decimal adder unit with significant speed which is very attractive for future environments. To achieve high speed, a new correction logic formulation method is proposed for single and multi-digit BCD adder. The proposed enhanced single-digit BCD adder (ESDBA) is 26% faster than the carry flow adder (CFA)-based BCD adder. The multi-digit operations are also performed using the proposed ESDBA, which is cascaded innovatively. The enhanced multi-digit BCD adder (EMDBA) performs two 4-digit and two 8-digit BCD addition 50% faster than the CFA-based BCD adder with the nominal overhead of the area. The EMDBA performs two 4-digit BCD addition 24% faster with 23% decrease in the area, similarly for 8-digit operation the EMDBA achieves 36% increase in speed with 21% less area compared to the existing carry look ahead (CLA)-based BCD adder design. The proposed multi-digit adder produces significantly less delay of (N -1) + 3.5 clock cycles compared to the N* One digit BCD adder delay required by the conventional BCD adder method. It is observed that as per our knowledge this is the first innovative proposal for multi-digit BCD addition using QCA.
Dynamical Behavior of Multi-Robot Systems Using Lattice Gas Automata
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cameron, S.M.; Robinett, R.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.
1999-03-11
Recent attention has been given to the deployment of an adaptable sensor array realized by multi-robotic systems. Our group has been studying the collective behavior of autonomous, multi-agent systems and their applications in the area of remote-sensing and emerging threats. To accomplish such tasks, an interdisciplinary research effort at Sandia National Laboratories are conducting tests in the fields of sensor technology, robotics, and multi-robotic and multi-agents architectures. Our goal is to coordinate a constellation of point sensors that optimizes spatial coverage and multivariate signal analysis using unmanned robotic vehicles (e.g., RATLERs, Robotic All-ten-sin Lunar Exploration Rover-class vehicles). Overall design methodology is to evolve complex collective behaviors realized through simple interaction (kinetic) physics and artificial intelligence to enable real-time operational responses to emerging threats. This paper focuses on our recent work understanding the dynamics of many-body systems using the physics-based hydrodynamic model of lattice gas automata. Three design features are investigated. One, for single-speed robots, a hexagonal nearest-neighbor interaction topology is necessary to preserve standard hydrodynamic flow. Two, adaptability, defined by the swarm's deformation rate, can be controlled through the hydrodynamic viscosity term, which, in turn, is defined by the local robotic interaction rules. Three, due to the inherent non-linearity of the dynamical equations describing large ensembles, development of stability criteria ensuring convergence to equilibrium states is developed by scaling information flow rates relative to a swarm's hydrodynamic flow rate. An initial test case simulates a swarm of twenty-five robots that maneuvers past an obstacle while following a moving target. A genetic algorithm optimizes applied nearest-neighbor forces in each of five spatial regions distributed over the simulation domain. Armed with
Heckerling, P S; Gerber, B S; Weiner, S J
2006-01-01
Medical residents engage in formal and informal education interactions with fellow residents during the working day, and can choose whether to spend time and effort on such interactions. Time and effort spent on such interactions can bring learning and personal satisfaction to residents, but may also delay completion of clinical work. Using hypothetical cases, we assessed the values and strategies of internal medicine residents at one hospital for both cooperative and non-cooperative education interactions with fellow residents. We then used these data and cellular automata models of two-person games to simulate repeated interactions between residents, and to determine which strategies resulted in greatest accrued value. We conducted sensitivity analyses on several model parameters, to test the robustness of dominant strategies to model assumptions. Twenty-nine of the 57 residents (50.9%) valued cooperation more than non-cooperation no matter what the other resident did during the current interaction. Similarly, thirty-six residents (63.2%) endorsed an unconditional always-cooperate strategy no matter what the other resident had done during their previous interaction. In simulations, an always-cooperate strategy accrued more value (776.42 value units) than an aggregate of strategies containing non-cooperation components (675.0 value units, p = 0.052). Only when the probability of strategy errors reached 50%, or when values were re-ordered to match those of a Prisoner's Dilemma, did non-cooperation-based strategies accrue the most value. Cooperation-based values and strategies were most frequent among our residents, and dominated in simulations of repeated education interactions between them.
Design Pattern Mining Using Distributed Learning Automata and DNA Sequence Alignment
Esmaeilpour, Mansour; Naderifar, Vahideh; Shukur, Zarina
2014-01-01
Context Over the last decade, design patterns have been used extensively to generate reusable solutions to frequently encountered problems in software engineering and object oriented programming. A design pattern is a repeatable software design solution that provides a template for solving various instances of a general problem. Objective This paper describes a new method for pattern mining, isolating design patterns and relationship between them; and a related tool, DLA-DNA for all implemented pattern and all projects used for evaluation. DLA-DNA achieves acceptable precision and recall instead of other evaluated tools based on distributed learning automata (DLA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences alignment. Method The proposed method mines structural design patterns in the object oriented source code and extracts the strong and weak relationships between them, enabling analyzers and programmers to determine the dependency rate of each object, component, and other section of the code for parameter passing and modular programming. The proposed model can detect design patterns better that available other tools those are Pinot, PTIDEJ and DPJF; and the strengths of their relationships. Results The result demonstrate that whenever the source code is build standard and non-standard, based on the design patterns, then the result of the proposed method is near to DPJF and better that Pinot and PTIDEJ. The proposed model is tested on the several source codes and is compared with other related models and available tools those the results show the precision and recall of the proposed method, averagely 20% and 9.6% are more than Pinot, 27% and 31% are more than PTIDEJ and 3.3% and 2% are more than DPJF respectively. Conclusion The primary idea of the proposed method is organized in two following steps: the first step, elemental design patterns are identified, while at the second step, is composed to recognize actual design patterns. PMID:25243670
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meireles, Sincler P. de; Santos, Adriano M.; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein, E-mail: spm@cdtn.b, E-mail: amsantos@cdtn.b, E-mail: seg@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nunes, Maria Eugenia S., E-mail: mariaeugenia@iceb.ufop.b [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil)
2011-07-01
During recent years, there has been a shift from an approach focused entirely on DNA as the main target of ionizing radiation to a vision that considers complex signaling pathways in cells and among cells within tissues. Several newly recognized responses were classified as the so-called non-target responses in which the biological effects are not directly related to the amount of energy deposited in the DNA of cells that were traversed by radiation. In 1992 the bystander effect was described referring to a series of responses such as death, chromosomal instability or other abnormalities that occur in non-irradiated cells that came into contact with irradiated cells or medium from irradiated cells. In this work, we have developed a mathematical model via cellular automata, to quantify cell death induced by the bystander effect. The model is based on experiments with irradiated cells conditioned medium which suggests that irradiated cells secrete molecules in the medium that are capable of damaging other cells. The computational model consists of two-dimensional cellular automata which is able to simulate the transmission of bystander signals via extrinsic route and via Gap junctions. The model has been validated by experimental results in the literature. The time evolution of the effect and the dose-response curves were obtained in good accordance to them. Simulations were conducted for different values of bystander and irradiated cell densities with constant dose. From this work, we have obtained a relationship between cell density and effect. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meireles, Sincler P. de; Santos, Adriano M.; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein; Nunes, Maria Eugenia S.
2011-01-01
During recent years, there has been a shift from an approach focused entirely on DNA as the main target of ionizing radiation to a vision that considers complex signaling pathways in cells and among cells within tissues. Several newly recognized responses were classified as the so-called non-target responses in which the biological effects are not directly related to the amount of energy deposited in the DNA of cells that were traversed by radiation. In 1992 the bystander effect was described referring to a series of responses such as death, chromosomal instability or other abnormalities that occur in non-irradiated cells that came into contact with irradiated cells or medium from irradiated cells. In this work, we have developed a mathematical model via cellular automata, to quantify cell death induced by the bystander effect. The model is based on experiments with irradiated cells conditioned medium which suggests that irradiated cells secrete molecules in the medium that are capable of damaging other cells. The computational model consists of two-dimensional cellular automata which is able to simulate the transmission of bystander signals via extrinsic route and via Gap junctions. The model has been validated by experimental results in the literature. The time evolution of the effect and the dose-response curves were obtained in good accordance to them. Simulations were conducted for different values of bystander and irradiated cell densities with constant dose. From this work, we have obtained a relationship between cell density and effect. (author)
Pérez-Molina, Eduardo; Sliuzas, R.V.; Flacke, J.; Jetten, V.G.
2017-01-01
Urban growth may intensify local flooding problems. Understanding the spatially explicit flood consequences of possible future land cover patterns contributes to inform policy for mitigating these impacts. A cellular automata model has been coupled with the openLISEM integrated flood modeling tool
Social interactions of eating behaviour among high school students: a cellular automata approach.
Dabbaghian, Vahid; Mago, Vijay K; Wu, Tiankuang; Fritz, Charles; Alimadad, Azadeh
2012-10-09
Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a global epidemic posing problems for both developed and developing nations. The prevalence is particularly alarming in developed nations, such as the United States, where approximately one in three school-aged adolescents (ages 12-19) are overweight or obese. Evidence suggests that weight gain in school-aged adolescents is related to energy imbalance exacerbated by the negative aspects of the school food environment, such as presence of unhealthy food choices. While a well-established connection exists between the food environment, presently there is a lack of studies investigating the impact of the social environment and associated interactions of school-age adolescents. This paper uses a mathematical modelling approach to explore how social interactions among high school adolescents can affect their eating behaviour and food choice. In this paper we use a Cellular Automata (CA) modelling approach to explore how social interactions among school-age adolescents can affect eating behaviour, and food choice. Our CA model integrates social influences and transition rules to simulate the way individuals would interact in a social community (e.g., school cafeteria). To replicate these social interactions, we chose the Moore neighbourhood which allows all neighbours (eights cells in a two-dimensional square lattice) to influence the central cell. Our assumption is that individuals belong to any of four states; Bring Healthy, Bring Unhealthy, Purchase Healthy, and Purchase Unhealthy, and will influence each other according to parameter settings and transition rules. Simulations were run to explore how the different states interact under varying parameter settings. This study, through simulations, illustrates that students will change their eating behaviour from unhealthy to healthy as a result of positive social and environmental influences. In general, there is one common characteristic of changes across time
Freedom and enforcement in action a study in formal action theory
Czelakowski, Janusz
2015-01-01
Action theory is the object of growing attention in a variety of scientific disciplines, and this is the first volume to offer a synthetic view of the range of approaches possible in the topic. The volume focuses on the nexus of formal action theory with a startlingly diverse set of subjects, which range from logic, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and automata theory to jurisprudence, deontology, and economics. It covers semantic, mathematical and logical aspects of action, showing how the problem of action breaks the boundaries of traditional branches of logic located in syntactics and semantics and now lies on lies on the borderline between logical pragmatics and praxeology. The chapters here focus on specialized tasks in formal action theory, beginning with a thorough description and formalization of the language of action, and moving through material on the differing models of action theory to focus on probabilistic models, the relations of formal action theory to deontic logic, and its key appl...
A novel multiplexer-based structure for random access memory cell in quantum-dot cellular automata
Naji Asfestani, Mazaher; Rasouli Heikalabad, Saeed
2017-09-01
Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is a new technology in scale of nano and perfect replacement for CMOS circuits in the future. Memory is one of the basic components in any digital system, so designing the random access memory (RAM) with high speed and optimal in QCA is important. In this paper, by employing the structure of multiplexer, a novel RAM cell architecture is proposed. The proposed architecture is implemented without the coplanar crossover approach. The proposed architecture is simulated using the QCADesigner version 2.0.3 and QCAPro. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed QCA RAM architecture has the best performance in terms of delay, circuit complexity, area, cell count and energy consumption in comparison with other QCA RAM architectures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Naji Asfestani, Mazaher; Rasouli Heikalabad, Saeed, E-mail: s.rasouli@iaut.ac.ir
2017-05-01
Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is the advent of technology and suitable replacement for semiconductor transistor technology. In this paper, a unique structure for the 2:1 multiplexer is presented in QCA. The structure of this component is simple, ultra-efficient and very useful to implement the various logical functions. The proposed structure does not follow any Boolean function. It takes advantage of the inherent characteristics of quantum technology to produce the desired output. Based on these principles, we design the new and efficient structures for the 4:1 multiplexer and 8:1 multiplexer in the QCA technology. These structures are designed with QCADesigner simulator and simulation results are examined. Investigation results indicate the amazing performance of proposed structure compared to existing structures in terms of area, complexity, power consumption and latency.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agung Wahyudi
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Abstrak.Kawasan perkotaan terutama di negara-negara berkembang menunjukkan laju pertumbuhan fisik yang tinggi. Telah banyak model yang mencoba merekonstruksi pertumbuhan perkotaan ini dengan menggunakan data demografi dan data sosial. Permodelan ini adalah salah satu yang lazim digunakan para praktisi perencana karena ketersediaan data dan waktu proses yang relatif lebih singkat. Sayangnya, model ini bersifat statis yaitu hanya menangkap karakteristik dan bentuk kota pada satu satuan waktu. Model ini tidak akan berubah saat variabel waktu berubah. Kebanyakan model ini bertujuan untuk memperkuat atau memperjelas suatu teori perencanaan perkotaan. Model statis ini juga memanfaatkan batas-batas administrasi dan tidak memungkinkan untuk melakukan permodelan diluar bentuk administrasi sebuah kota. Dengan permasalahan perkotaan yang semakin rumit yang menuntut pengambil keputusan membuat kebijakan tepat, diperlukan suatu metode permodelan pertumbuhan perkotaan yang dinamis yang dapat memberikan informasi yang lebih lengkap kepada pengambil kebijakan terkait struktur dan bentuk perkotaan, serta beroperasi pada skala yang lebih detail. Kemudian model perkotaan ini juga perlu mewakili perilaku para aktor pembangunan perkotaan. Salah satu konsep yang berkembang sejak tiga dasawarsa lalu adalah cellular automata (CA dan agent-based urban model (ABM. Dalam konteks penelitian perkotaan di Indonesia, sayangnya konsep-konsep ini belum banyak tersedia pada jurnal-jurnal perkotaan dan terlebih lagi belum banyak kontribusi pada konsep-konsep permodelan dan mekanisme pada proses perubahan guna/tutupan lahan. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk memperkenalkan teori dasar CA dan adaptasi dari sistem tersebut untuk keperluan aplikasi di bidang spasial perkotaan. Kami juga akan menjelaskan konsep ABM sebagai komponen dari model yang memiliki kemampuan mewakili perilaku para pelaku pembangunan. Beberapa contoh aplikasi dan kemungkinan perkembangan model dinamis untuk kota
Mendonça, J. R. G.
2018-04-01
We propose and investigate a one-parameter probabilistic mixture of one-dimensional elementary cellular automata under the guise of a model for the dynamics of a single-species unstructured population with nonoverlapping generations in which individuals have smaller probability of reproducing and surviving in a crowded neighbourhood but also suffer from isolation and dispersal. Remarkably, the first-order mean field approximation to the dynamics of the model yields a cubic map containing terms representing both logistic and weak Allee effects. The model has a single absorbing state devoid of individuals, but depending on the reproduction and survival probabilities can achieve a stable population. We determine the critical probability separating these two phases and find that the phase transition between them is in the directed percolation universality class of critical behaviour.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Mardiris
2016-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel configurable design for the implementation of basic morphological operations based on Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA technology. QCA is a promising technology in the field of nanoelectronics that could be utilized in many image processing applications. QCA architecture will provide better performance by exploiting parallel processing, better silicon-area utilization, maximization of clock speed and very low power consumption. Fundamentals of QCA technology and circuit design and the basic operations of mathematical morphology are presented in brief. A new innovative QCA design that is capable to implement either the erosion or the dilation morphological operation, configured by the value of one-bit input is designed, simulated and tested with success.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mindaugas Snipas
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The primary goal of this work was to study advantages of numerical methods used for the creation of continuous time Markov chain models (CTMC of voltage gating of gap junction (GJ channels composed of connexin protein. This task was accomplished by describing gating of GJs using the formalism of the stochastic automata networks (SANs, which allowed for very efficient building and storing of infinitesimal generator of the CTMC that allowed to produce matrices of the models containing a distinct block structure. All of that allowed us to develop efficient numerical methods for a steady-state solution of CTMC models. This allowed us to accelerate CPU time, which is necessary to solve CTMC models, ∼20 times.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. G. Klyucharev
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A number of previous author’s papers proposed methods for constructing various cryptographic algorithms, including block ciphers and cryptographic hash functions, based on generalized cellular automata. This one is aimed at studying a possibility to use the algebraic cryptanalysis methods related to the construction of Gröbner bases for the generalized cellular automata to be applied in cryptography, i.e. this paper studies the possibility for using algebraic cryptanalysis methods to solve the problems of inversion of a generalized cellular automaton and recovering the key of such an automaton.If the cryptographic algorithm is represented as a system of polynomial equations over a certain finite field, then its breach is reduced to solving this system with respect to the key. Although the problem of solving a system of polynomial equations in a finite field is NP-difficult in the general case, the solution of a particular system can have low computational cost.Cryptanalysis based on the construction of a system of polynomial equations that links plain text, cipher-text and key, and its solution by algebraic methods, is usually called algebraic cryptanalysis. Among the main methods to solve systems of polynomial equations are those to construct Gröbner bases.Cryptanalysis of ciphers and hash functions based on generalized cellular automata can be reduced to various problems. We will consider two such problems: the problem of inversion of a generalized cellular automaton, which, in case we know the values of the cells after k iterations, enables us to find the initial values. And the task of recovering the key, which is to find the initial values of the remaining cells, using the cell values after k steps and the initial values of a part of the cells.A computational experiment was carried out to solve the two problems above stated in order to determine the maximum size of a generalized cellular automaton for which the solution of these
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Yizhu; Ding Hanlin; Liu Liufa; Shin, Keesam
2006-01-01
The morphology, topology and kinetics of normal grain growth in two-dimension were studied by computer simulation using a cellular automata (Canada) model based on the lowest energy principle. The thermodynamic energy that follows Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics has been introduced into this model for the calculation of energy change. The transition that can reduce the system energy to the lowest level is chosen to occur when there is more than one possible transition direction. The simulation results show that the kinetics of normal grain growth follows the Burke equation with the growth exponent m = 2. The analysis of topology further indicates that normal grain growth can be simulated fairly well by the present CA model. The vanishing of grains with different number of sides is discussed in the simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liao, H.L.; Wu, Q.H.; Li, Y.Z.; Jiang, L.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Apply multi-objective optimization by learning automata to power system. • Sequentially dimensional search and state memory are incorporated. • Track dispatch under significant variations of wind power and load demand. • Good performance in terms of accuracy, distribution and computation time. - Abstract: This paper is concerned with using multi-objective optimization by learning automata (MOLA) for economic emission dispatching in the environment where wind power and loads vary. With its capabilities of sequentially dimensional search and state memory, MOLA is able to find accurate solutions while satisfying two objectives: fuel cost coupled with environmental emission and voltage stability. Its searching quality and efficiency are measured using the hypervolume indicator for investigating the quality of Pareto front, and demonstrated by tracking the dispatch solutions under significant variations of wind power and load demand. The simulation studies are carried out on the modified midwestern American electric power system and the IEEE 118-bus test system, in which wind power penetration and load variations present. Evaluated on these two power systems, MOLA is fully compared with multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D) and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II). The simulation results have shown the superiority of MOLA over NAGA-II and MOEA/D, as it is able to obtain more accurate and widely distributed Pareto fronts. In the dynamic environment where the operation condition of both wind speed and load demand varies, MOLA outperforms the other two algorithms, with respect to the tracking ability and accuracy of the solutions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wæver, Ole
2009-01-01
Kenneth N. Waltz's 1979 book, Theory of International Politics, is the most influential in the history of the discipline. It worked its effects to a large extent through raising the bar for what counted as theoretical work, in effect reshaping not only realism but rivals like liberalism and refle......Kenneth N. Waltz's 1979 book, Theory of International Politics, is the most influential in the history of the discipline. It worked its effects to a large extent through raising the bar for what counted as theoretical work, in effect reshaping not only realism but rivals like liberalism...... and reflectivism. Yet, ironically, there has been little attention to Waltz's very explicit and original arguments about the nature of theory. This article explores and explicates Waltz's theory of theory. Central attention is paid to his definition of theory as ‘a picture, mentally formed' and to the radical anti...
Mean-field theory of meta-learning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plewczynski, Dariusz
2009-01-01
We discuss here the mean-field theory for a cellular automata model of meta-learning. Meta-learning is the process of combining outcomes of individual learning procedures in order to determine the final decision with higher accuracy than any single learning method. Our method is constructed from an ensemble of interacting, learning agents that acquire and process incoming information using various types, or different versions, of machine learning algorithms. The abstract learning space, where all agents are located, is constructed here using a fully connected model that couples all agents with random strength values. The cellular automata network simulates the higher level integration of information acquired from the independent learning trials. The final classification of incoming input data is therefore defined as the stationary state of the meta-learning system using simple majority rule, yet the minority clusters that share the opposite classification outcome can be observed in the system. Therefore, the probability of selecting a proper class for a given input data, can be estimated even without the prior knowledge of its affiliation. The fuzzy logic can be easily introduced into the system, even if learning agents are built from simple binary classification machine learning algorithms by calculating the percentage of agreeing agents
Pokkuluri, Kiran Sree; Inampudi, Ramesh Babu; Nedunuri, S S S N Usha Devi
2014-01-01
Protein coding and promoter region predictions are very important challenges of bioinformatics (Attwood and Teresa, 2000). The identification of these regions plays a crucial role in understanding the genes. Many novel computational and mathematical methods are introduced as well as existing methods that are getting refined for predicting both of the regions separately; still there is a scope for improvement. We propose a classifier that is built with MACA (multiple attractor cellular automata) and MCC (modified clonal classifier) to predict both regions with a single classifier. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with Fickett and Tung (1992) datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 54, 108, and 162. This classifier is trained and tested with MMCRI datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 252 and 354. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with promoter sequences from DBTSS (Yamashita et al., 2006) dataset and nonpromoters from EID (Saxonov et al., 2000) and UTRdb (Pesole et al., 2002) datasets. The proposed model can predict both regions with an average accuracy of 90.5% for promoter and 89.6% for protein coding region predictions. The specificity and sensitivity values of promoter and protein coding region predictions are 0.89 and 0.92, respectively.
Liu, Yaolin; Kong, Xuesong; Liu, Yanfang; Chen, Yiyun
2013-01-01
Rapid urbanization in China has triggered the conversion of land from rural to urban use, particularly the conversion of rural settlements to town land. This conversion is the result of the joint effects of the geographic environment and agents involving the government, investors, and farmers. To understand the dynamic interaction dominated by agents and to predict the future landscape of town expansion, a small town land-planning model is proposed based on the integration of multi-agent systems (MAS) and cellular automata (CA). The MAS-CA model links the decision-making behaviors of agents with the neighbor effect of CA. The interaction rules are projected by analyzing the preference conflicts among agents. To better illustrate the effects of the geographic environment, neighborhood, and agent behavior, a comparative analysis between the CA and MAS-CA models in three different towns is presented, revealing interesting patterns in terms of quantity, spatial characteristics, and the coordinating process. The simulation of rural settlements conversion to town land through modeling agent decision and human-environment interaction is very useful for understanding the mechanisms of rural-urban land-use change in developing countries. This process can assist town planners in formulating appropriate development plans.
Change of Land Use/Cover in Tianjin City Based on the Markov and Cellular Automata Models
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Ruci Wang
2017-05-01
Full Text Available In recent years, urban areas have been expanding rapidly in the world, especially in developing countries. With this rapid urban growth, several environmental and social problems have appeared. Better understanding of land use and land cover (LULC change will facilitate urban planning and constrain these potential problems. As one of the four municipalities in China, Tianjin has experienced rapid urbanization and such trend is expected to continue. Relying on remote sensing (RS and geographical information system (GIS tools, this study investigates LULC change in Tianjin city. First, we used RS to generate classification maps for 1995, 2005, and 2015. Then, simulation models were applied to evaluate the LULC changes. Analysis of the 1995, 2005, and 2015 LULC maps shows that more than 10% of the cropland areas were transformed into built-up areas. Finally, by employing the Markov model and cellular automata (CA model, the LULC in 2025 and 2035 were simulated and forecasted. Our analysis contributes to the understanding of the development process in the Tianjin area, which will facilitate future planning, as well as constraining the potential negative consequences brought by future LULC changes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kiran Sree Pokkuluri
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Protein coding and promoter region predictions are very important challenges of bioinformatics (Attwood and Teresa, 2000. The identification of these regions plays a crucial role in understanding the genes. Many novel computational and mathematical methods are introduced as well as existing methods that are getting refined for predicting both of the regions separately; still there is a scope for improvement. We propose a classifier that is built with MACA (multiple attractor cellular automata and MCC (modified clonal classifier to predict both regions with a single classifier. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with Fickett and Tung (1992 datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 54, 108, and 162. This classifier is trained and tested with MMCRI datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 252 and 354. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with promoter sequences from DBTSS (Yamashita et al., 2006 dataset and nonpromoters from EID (Saxonov et al., 2000 and UTRdb (Pesole et al., 2002 datasets. The proposed model can predict both regions with an average accuracy of 90.5% for promoter and 89.6% for protein coding region predictions. The specificity and sensitivity values of promoter and protein coding region predictions are 0.89 and 0.92, respectively.
Sasamal, Trailokya Nath; Singh, Ashutosh Kumar; Ghanekar, Umesh
2018-04-01
Nanotechnologies, remarkably Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA), offer an attractive perspective for future computing technologies. In this paper, QCA is investigated as an implementation method for designing area and power efficient reversible logic gates. The proposed designs achieve superior performance by incorporating a compact 2-input XOR gate. The proposed design for Feynman, Toffoli, and Fredkin gates demonstrates 28.12, 24.4, and 7% reduction in cell count and utilizes 46, 24.4, and 7.6% less area, respectively over previous best designs. Regarding the cell count (area cover) that of the proposed Peres gate and Double Feynman gate are 44.32% (21.5%) and 12% (25%), respectively less than the most compact previous designs. Further, the delay of Fredkin and Toffoli gates is 0.75 clock cycles, which is equal to the delay of the previous best designs. While the Feynman and Double Feynman gates achieve a delay of 0.5 clock cycles, equal to the least delay previous one. Energy analysis confirms that the average energy dissipation of the developed Feynman, Toffoli, and Fredkin gates is 30.80, 18.08, and 4.3% (for 1.0 E k energy level), respectively less compared to best reported designs. This emphasizes the beneficial role of using proposed reversible gates to design complex and power efficient QCA circuits. The QCADesigner tool is used to validate the layout of the proposed designs, and the QCAPro tool is used to evaluate the energy dissipation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahesh Kumar Jat
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Urban growth monitoring and assessment are essential for the sustainable natural resources planning & optimum utilization and reducing the risk of problems arising from unplanned urban growth like pollution, urban heat island and ecological disturbances. Cellular Automata (CA based modelling techniques have become popular in recent past for simulating the urban growth. Present study is aimed to evaluate the performance of the CA based SLEUTH model in simulating the urban growth of a complex and relatively more heterogeneous urban area, Ajmer city of Rajasthan (India which is quite different as compared to areas where SLEUTH has been tested in developed countries. Seven multispectral satellite imageries spanning over 21 years have been processed and used for SLEUTH parameterisation. Results of urban growth predicted by SLEUTH has been compared with other methods of land use/land cover extraction. The study has been proved to be successful in giving significant insight into issues contributing uncertainties in forecasting of urban growth of heterogeneous urban areas.
Zhao, Y.; Qin, R. S.; Chen, D. F.
2013-08-01
A three-dimensional (3D) cellular automata (CA) model has been developed for the simulation of microstructure evolution in alloy solidification. The governing rule for the CA model is associated with the phase transition driving force which is obtained via a thermodynamic database. This determines the migration rate of the non-equilibrium solid-liquid (SL) interface and is calculated according to the local temperature and chemical composition. The curvature of the interface and the anisotropic property of the surface energy are taken into consideration. A 3D finite element (FE) method is applied for the calculation of transient heat and mass transfer. Numerical calculations for the solidification of Fe-1.5 wt% C alloy have been performed. The morphological evolution of dendrites, carbon segregation and temperature distribution in both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions are studied. The parameters affecting the growth of equiaxed and columnar dendrites are discussed. The calculated results are verified using the analytical model and previous experiments. The method provides a sophisticated approach to the solidification of multi-phase and multi-component systems.
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Yuanyuan Yang
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Decadal to centennial land use and land cover change has been consistently singled out as a key element and an important driver of global environmental change, playing an essential role in balancing energy use. Understanding long-term human-environment interactions requires historical reconstruction of past land use and land cover changes. Most of the existing historical reconstructions have insufficient spatial and thematic detail and do not consider various land change types. In this context, this paper explored the possibility of using a cellular automata-Markov model in 90 m × 90 m spatial resolution to reconstruct historical land use in the 1930s in Zhenlai County, China. Then the three-map comparison methodology was employed to assess the predictive accuracy of the transition modeling. The model could produce backward projections by analyzing land use changes in recent decades, assuming that the present land use pattern is dynamically dependent on the historical one. The reconstruction results indicated that in the 1930s most of the study area was occupied by grasslands, followed by wetlands and arable land, while other land categories occupied relatively small areas. Analysis of the three-map comparison illustrated that the major differences among the three maps have less to do with the simulation model and more to do with the inconsistencies among the land categories during the study period. Different information provided by topographic maps and remote sensing images must be recognized.
Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Margaria, Tiziana (Inventor); Rash, James L. (Inventor); Rouff, Christopher A. (Inventor); Steffen, Bernard (Inventor)
2010-01-01
Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments, automata learning algorithms and techniques are implemented to generate a more complete set of scenarios for requirements based programming. More specifically, a CSP-based, syntax-oriented model construction, which requires the support of a theorem prover, is complemented by model extrapolation, via automata learning. This may support the systematic completion of the requirements, the nature of the requirement being partial, which provides focus on the most prominent scenarios. This may generalize requirement skeletons by extrapolation and may indicate by way of automatically generated traces where the requirement specification is too loose and additional information is required.
Hu, X.; Li, X.; Lu, L.
2017-12-01
Land use/cover change (LUCC) is an important subject in the research of global environmental change and sustainable development, while spatial simulation on land use/cover change is one of the key content of LUCC and is also difficult due to the complexity of the system. The cellular automata (CA) model had an irreplaceable role in simulating of land use/cover change process due to the powerful spatial computing power. However, the majority of current CA land use/cover models were binary-state model that could not provide more general information about the overall spatial pattern of land use/cover change. Here, a multi-state logistic-regression-based Markov cellular automata (MLRMCA) model and a multi-state artificial-neural-network-based Markov cellular automata (MANNMCA) model were developed and were used to simulate complex land use/cover evolutionary process in an arid region oasis city constrained by water resource and environmental policy change, the Zhangye city during the period of 1990-2010. The results indicated that the MANNMCA model was superior to MLRMCA model in simulated accuracy. These indicated that by combining the artificial neural network with CA could more effectively capture the complex relationships between the land use/cover change and a set of spatial variables. Although the MLRMCA model were also some advantages, the MANNMCA model was more appropriate for simulating complex land use/cover dynamics. The two proposed models were effective and reliable, and could reflect the spatial evolution of regional land use/cover changes. These have also potential implications for the impact assessment of water resources, ecological restoration, and the sustainable urban development in arid areas.
Wang, Li; Liu, Mao; Meng, Bo
2013-02-01
In China, both the mountainous areas and the number of people who live in mountain areas occupy a significant proportion. When production accidents or natural disasters happen, the residents in mountain areas should be evacuated and the evacuation is of obvious importance to public safety. But it is a pity that there are few studies on safety evacuation in rough terrain. The particularity of the complex terrain in mountain areas, however, makes it difficult to study pedestrian evacuation. In this paper, a three-dimensional surface cellular automata model is proposed to numerically simulate the real time dynamic evacuation of residents. The model takes into account topographic characteristics (the slope gradient) of the environment and the biomechanics characteristics (weight and leg extensor power) of the residents to calculate the walking speed. This paper only focuses on the influence of topography and the physiological parameters are defined as constants according to a statistical report. Velocity varies with the topography. In order to simulate the behavior of a crowd with varying movement velocities, and a numerical algorithm is used to determine the time step of iteration. By doing so, a numerical simulation can be conducted in a 3D surface CA model. Moreover, considering residents evacuation around a gas well in a mountain area as a case, a visualization system for a three-dimensional simulation of pedestrian evacuation is developed. In the simulation process, population behaviors of congestion, queuing and collision avoidance can be observed. The simulation results are explained reasonably. Therefore, the model presented in this paper can realize a 3D dynamic simulation of pedestrian evacuation vividly in complex terrain and predict the evacuation procedure and evacuation time required, which can supply some valuable information for emergency management.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fereydoun Naghibi
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an advanced method in urban growth modeling to discover transition rules of cellular automata (CA using the artificial bee colony (ABC optimization algorithm. Also, comparisons between the simulation results of CA models optimized by the ABC algorithm and the particle swarm optimization algorithms (PSO as intelligent approaches were performed to evaluate the potential of the proposed methods. According to previous studies, swarm intelligence algorithms for solving optimization problems such as discovering transition rules of CA in land use change/urban growth modeling can produce reasonable results. Modeling of urban growth as a dynamic process is not straightforward because of the existence of nonlinearity and heterogeneity among effective involved variables which can cause a number of challenges for traditional CA. ABC algorithm, the new powerful swarm based optimization algorithms, can be used to capture optimized transition rules of CA. This paper has proposed a methodology based on remote sensing data for modeling urban growth with CA calibrated by the ABC algorithm. The performance of ABC-CA, PSO-CA, and CA-logistic models in land use change detection is tested for the city of Urmia, Iran, between 2004 and 2014. Validations of the models based on statistical measures such as overall accuracy, figure of merit, and total operating characteristic were made. We showed that the overall accuracy of the ABC-CA model was 89%, which was 1.5% and 6.2% higher than those of the PSO-CA and CA-logistic model, respectively. Moreover, the allocation disagreement (simulation error of the simulation results for the ABC-CA, PSO-CA, and CA-logistic models are 11%, 12.5%, and 17.2%, respectively. Finally, for all evaluation indices including running time, convergence capability, flexibility, statistical measurements, and the produced spatial patterns, the ABC-CA model performance showed relative improvement and therefore its superiority was
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somsak Panyakeow
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs called quantum dot molecules (QDMs are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs and quantum dot rings (QDRs. Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is laterally close-packed quantum dot molecules having four quantum dots at the corners of square configuration. These four quantum dot sets are called quadra-quantum dots (QQDs. Aligned quadra-quantum dots with two electron confinements work like a wire for digital information transmission by Coulomb repulsion force, which is fast and consumes little power. Combination of quadra-quantum dots in line and their cross-over works as logic gates and memory bits. Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth technique called 'Droplet Epitaxy' has been developed for several quantum nanostructures such as quantum rings and quantum dot rings. Quantum rings are prepared by using 20 ML In-Ga (15:85 droplets deposited on a GaAs substrate at 390'C with a droplet growth rate of 1ML/s. Arsenic flux (7'8'10-6Torr is then exposed for InGaAs crystallization at 200'C for 5 min. During droplet epitaxy at a high droplet thickness and high temperature, out-diffusion from the centre of droplets occurs under anisotropic strain. This leads to quantum ring structures having non-uniform ring stripes and deep square-shaped nanoholes. Using these peculiar quantum rings as templates, four quantum dots situated at the corners of a square shape are regrown. Two of these four quantum dots are aligned either or, which are preferable crystallographic directions of quantum dot alignment in general.
Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Mondal, Parimal; Barik, Jyotiskona; Chowdhury, S M; Ghosh, Tuhin; Hazra, Sugata
2015-06-01
The composition and assemblage of mangroves in the Bangladesh Sundarbans are changing systematically in response to several environmental factors. In order to understand the impact of the changing environmental conditions on the mangrove forest, species composition maps for the years 1985, 1995 and 2005 were studied. In the present study, 1985 and 1995 species zonation maps were considered as base data and the cellular automata-Markov chain model was run to predict the species zonation for the year 2005. The model output was validated against the actual dataset for 2005 and calibrated. Finally, using the model, mangrove species zonation maps for the years 2025, 2055 and 2105 have been prepared. The model was run with the assumption that the continuation of the current tempo and mode of drivers of environmental factors (temperature, rainfall, salinity change) of the last two decades will remain the same in the next few decades. Present findings show that the area distribution of the following species assemblages like Goran (Ceriops), Sundari (Heritiera), Passur (Xylocarpus), and Baen (Avicennia) would decrease in the descending order, whereas the area distribution of Gewa (Excoecaria), Keora (Sonneratia) and Kankra (Bruguiera) dominated assemblages would increase. The spatial distribution of projected mangrove species assemblages shows that more salt tolerant species will dominate in the future; which may be used as a proxy to predict the increase of salinity and its spatial variation in Sundarbans. Considering the present rate of loss of forest land, 17% of the total mangrove cover is predicted to be lost by the year 2105 with a significant loss of fresh water loving mangroves and related ecosystem services. This paper describes a unique approach to assess future changes in species composition and future forest zonation in mangroves under the 'business as usual' scenario of climate change.
Henry, Jackson; Blair, Enrique P.
2018-02-01
Mixed-valence molecules provide an implementation for a high-speed, energy-efficient paradigm for classical computing known as quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA). The primitive device in QCA is a cell, a structure with multiple quantum dots and a few mobile charges. A single mixed-valence molecule can function as a cell, with redox centers providing quantum dots. The charge configuration of a molecule encodes binary information, and device switching occurs via intramolecular electron transfer between dots. Arrays of molecular cells adsorbed onto a substrate form QCA logic. Individual cells in the array are coupled locally via the electrostatic electric field. This device networking enables general-purpose computing. Here, a quantum model of a two-dot molecule is built in which the two-state electronic system is coupled to the dominant nuclear vibrational mode via a reorganization energy. This model is used to explore the effects of the electronic inter-dot tunneling (coupling) matrix element and the reorganization energy on device switching. A semi-classical reduction of the model also is made to investigate the competition between field-driven device switching and the electron-vibrational self-trapping. A strong electron-vibrational coupling (high reorganization energy) gives rise to self-trapping, which inhibits the molecule's ability to switch. Nonetheless, there remains an expansive area in the tunneling-reorganization phase space where molecules can support adequate tunneling. Thus, the relationship between the tunneling matrix element and the reorganization energy affords significant leeway in the design of molecules viable for QCA applications.
Baianu, IC
2004-01-01
Two important concepts for nanoscience and nanotechnology-- the quantum automaton and quantum computation--were introduced in the context of quantum genetics and complex genetic networks with nonlinear dynamics. In previous publications (Baianu,1971a, b) the formal definition of quantum automaton was initially presented in the Schrodinger representation of quantum mechanics, and several possible implications for genetic processes and metabolic activities in living cells and organisms were considered. This was followed by reports on quantum, as well as symbolic, abstract computations based on the theory of categories, functors and natural transformations (Baianu,1971b; 1977; 1987; 2004; Baianu et al, 2004). The notions of quantum topological semigroup, quantum automaton, and/or quantum computer, were then suggested with a view to their potential applications to the analogous simulation of biological systems, and especially genetic activities and nonlinear dynamics in genetic networks. A representation of inter...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Vincent F.
Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan Hongmo.
1987-10-01
The paper traces the development of the String Theory, and was presented at Professor Sir Rudolf Peierls' 80sup(th) Birthday Symposium. The String theory is discussed with respect to the interaction of strings, the inclusion of both gauge theory and gravitation, inconsistencies in the theory, and the role of space-time. The physical principles underlying string theory are also outlined. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cirillo, Emilio N.M.; Louis, Pierre-Yves; Ruszel, Wioletta M.; Spitoni, Cristian
2014-01-01
Cellular Automata are discrete-time dynamical systems on a spatially extended discrete space which provide paradigmatic examples of nonlinear phenomena. Their stochastic generalizations, i.e., Probabilistic Cellular Automata (PCA), are discrete time Markov chains on lattice with finite single-cell states whose distinguishing feature is the parallel character of the updating rule. We study the ground states of the Hamiltonian and the low-temperature phase diagram of the related Gibbs measure naturally associated with a class of reversible PCA, called the cross PCA. In such a model the updating rule of a cell depends indeed only on the status of the five cells forming a cross centered at the original cell itself. In particular, it depends on the value of the center spin (self-interaction). The goal of the paper is that of investigating the role played by the self-interaction parameter in connection with the ground states of the Hamiltonian and the low-temperature phase diagram of the Gibbs measure associated with this particular PCA
String theory or field theory?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marshakov, A.V.
2002-01-01
The status of string theory is reviewed, and major recent developments - especially those in going beyond perturbation theory in the string theory and quantum field theory frameworks - are analyzed. This analysis helps better understand the role and place of experimental phenomena, it is emphasized that there are some insurmountable problems inherent in it - notably the impossibility to formulate the quantum theory of gravity on its basis - which prevent it from being a fundamental physical theory of the world of microscopic distances. It is this task, the creation of such a theory, which string theory, currently far from completion, is expected to solve. In spite of its somewhat vague current form, string theory has already led to a number of serious results and greatly contributed to progress in the understanding of quantum field theory. It is these developments, which are our concern in this review [ru
The Modeling and Complexity of Dynamical Systems by Means of Computation and Information Theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Logozar
2011-12-01
Full Text Available We present the modeling of dynamical systems and finding of their complexity indicators by the use of concepts from computation and information theories, within the framework of J. P. Crutchfield's theory of ε-machines. A short formal outline of the ε-machines is given. In this approach, dynamical systems are analyzed directly from the time series that is received from a properly adjusted measuring instrument. The binary strings are parsed through the parse tree, within which morphologically and probabilistically unique subtrees or morphs are recognized as system states. The outline and precise interrelation of the information-theoretic entropies and complexities emanating from the model is given. The paper serves also as a theoretical foundation for the future presentation of the DSA program that implements the ε-machines modeling up to the stochastic finite automata level.
4th International Conference on Frontiers in Intelligent Computing : Theory and Applications
Pal, Tandra; Kar, Samarjit; Satapathy, Suresh; Mandal, Jyotsna
2016-01-01
The proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Frontiers in Intelligent Computing: Theory and Applications 2015 (FICTA 2015) serves as the knowledge centre not only for scientists and researchers in the field of intelligent computing but also for students of post-graduate level in various engineering disciplines. The book covers a comprehensive overview of the theory, methods, applications and tools of Intelligent Computing. Researchers are now working in interdisciplinary areas and the proceedings of FICTA 2015 plays a major role to accumulate those significant works in one arena. The chapters included in the proceedings inculcates both theoretical as well as practical aspects of different areas like Nature Inspired Algorithms, Fuzzy Systems, Data Mining, Signal Processing, Image processing, Text Processing, Wireless Sensor Networks, Network Security and Cellular Automata. .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uehara, S.
1985-01-01
Of all supergravity theories, the maximal, i.e., N = 8 in 4-dimension or N = 1 in 11-dimension, theory should perform the unification since it owns the highest degree of symmetry. As to the N = 1 in d = 11 theory, it has been investigated how to compactify to the d = 4 theories. From the phenomenological point of view, local SUSY GUTs, i.e., N = 1 SUSY GUTs with soft breaking terms, have been studied from various angles. The structures of extended supergravity theories are less understood than those of N = 1 supergravity theories, and matter couplings in N = 2 extended supergravity theories are under investigation. The harmonic superspace was recently proposed which may be useful to investigate the quantum effects of extended supersymmetry and supergravity theories. As to the so-called Kaluza-Klein supergravity, there is another possibility. (Mori, K.)
Johnstone, PT
2014-01-01
Focusing on topos theory's integration of geometric and logical ideas into the foundations of mathematics and theoretical computer science, this volume explores internal category theory, topologies and sheaves, geometric morphisms, other subjects. 1977 edition.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shailesh Kamble
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The major challenge with fractal image/video coding technique is that, it requires more encoding time. Therefore, how to reduce the encoding time is the research component remains in the fractal coding. Block matching motion estimation algorithms are used, to reduce the computations performed in the process of encoding. The objective of the proposed work is to develop an approach for video coding using modified three step search (MTSS block matching algorithm and weighted finite automata (WFA coding with a specific focus on reducing the encoding time. The MTSS block matching algorithm are used for computing motion vectors between the two frames i.e. displacement of pixels and WFA is used for the coding as it behaves like the Fractal Coding (FC. WFA represents an image (frame or motion compensated prediction error based on the idea of fractal that the image has self-similarity in itself. The self-similarity is sought from the symmetry of an image, so the encoding algorithm divides an image into multi-levels of quad-tree segmentations and creates an automaton from the sub-images. The proposed MTSS block matching algorithm is based on the combination of rectangular and hexagonal search pattern and compared with the existing New Three-Step Search (NTSS, Three-Step Search (TSS, and Efficient Three-Step Search (ETSS block matching estimation algorithm. The performance of the proposed MTSS block matching algorithm is evaluated on the basis of performance evaluation parameters i.e. mean absolute difference (MAD and average search points required per frame. Mean of absolute difference (MAD distortion function is used as the block distortion measure (BDM. Finally, developed approaches namely, MTSS and WFA, MTSS and FC, and Plane FC (applied on every frame are compared with each other. The experimentations are carried out on the standard uncompressed video databases, namely, akiyo, bus, mobile, suzie, traffic, football, soccer, ice etc. Developed
Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Benny N.
2000-01-01
There has been significant improvement in the performance of VLSI devices, in terms of size, power consumption, and speed, in recent years and this trend may also continue for some near future. However, it is a well known fact that there are major obstacles, i.e., physical limitation of feature size reduction and ever increasing cost of foundry, that would prevent the long term continuation of this trend. This has motivated the exploration of some fundamentally new technologies that are not dependent on the conventional feature size approach. Such technologies are expected to enable scaling to continue to the ultimate level, i.e., molecular and atomistic size. Quantum computing, quantum dot-based computing, DNA based computing, biologically inspired computing, etc., are examples of such new technologies. In particular, quantum-dots based computing by using Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) has recently been intensely investigated as a promising new technology capable of offering significant improvement over conventional VLSI in terms of reduction of feature size (and hence increase in integration level), reduction of power consumption, and increase of switching speed. Quantum dot-based computing and memory in general and QCA specifically, are intriguing to NASA due to their high packing density (10(exp 11) - 10(exp 12) per square cm ) and low power consumption (no transfer of current) and potentially higher radiation tolerant. Under Revolutionary Computing Technology (RTC) Program at the NASA/JPL Center for Integrated Space Microelectronics (CISM), we have been investigating the potential applications of QCA for the space program. To this end, exploiting the intrinsic features of QCA, we have designed novel QCA-based circuits for co-planner (i.e., single layer) and compact implementation of a class of data permutation matrices, a class of interconnection networks, and a bit-serial processor. Building upon these circuits, we have developed novel algorithms and QCA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul
2015-01-01
Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting, and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul
Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex a...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism.......Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...
Loring, FH
2014-01-01
Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec
Harris, Tina
2015-04-29
Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.
Number theory via Representation theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-11-09
Number theory via Representation theory. Eknath Ghate. November 9, 2014. Eightieth Annual Meeting, Chennai. Indian Academy of Sciences1. 1. This is a non-technical 20 minute talk intended for a general Academy audience.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwarz, J.H.
1985-01-01
Dual string theories, initially developed as phenomenological models of hadrons, now appear more promising as candidates for a unified theory of fundamental interactions. Type I superstring theory (SST I), is a ten-dimensional theory of interacting open and closed strings, with one supersymmetry, that is free from ghosts and tachyons. It requires that an SO(eta) or Sp(2eta) gauge group be used. A light-cone-gauge string action with space-time supersymmetry automatically incorporates the superstring restrictions and leads to the discovery of type II superstring theory (SST II). SST II is an interacting theory of closed strings only, with two D=10 supersymmetries, that is also free from ghosts and tachyons. By taking six of the spatial dimensions to form a compact space, it becomes possible to reconcile the models with our four-dimensional perception of spacetime and to define low-energy limits in which SST I reduces to N=4, D=4 super Yang-Mills theory and SST II reduces to N=8, D=4 supergravity theory. The superstring theories can be described by a light-cone-gauge action principle based on fields that are functionals of string coordinates. With this formalism any physical quantity should be calculable. There is some evidence that, unlike any conventional field theory, the superstring theories provide perturbatively renormalizable (SST I) or finite (SST II) unifications of gravity with other interactions
Dependence theory via game theory
Grossi, D.; Turrini, P.
2011-01-01
In the multi-agent systems community, dependence theory and game theory are often presented as two alternative perspectives on the analysis of social interaction. Up till now no research has been done relating these two approaches. The unification presented provides dependence theory with the sort
String theory or field theory?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marshakov, Andrei V
2002-01-01
The status of string theory is reviewed, and major recent developments - especially those in going beyond perturbation theory in the string theory and quantum field theory frameworks - are analyzed. This analysis helps better understand the role and place of string theory in the modern picture of the physical world. Even though quantum field theory describes a wide range of experimental phenomena, it is emphasized that there are some insurmountable problems inherent in it - notably the impossibility to formulate the quantum theory of gravity on its basis - which prevent it from being a fundamental physical theory of the world of microscopic distances. It is this task, the creation of such a theory, which string theory, currently far from completion, is expected to solve. In spite of its somewhat vague current form, string theory has already led to a number of serious results and greatly contributed to progress in the understanding of quantum field theory. It is these developments which are our concern in this review. (reviews of topical problems)