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Sample records for autologous plasma loaded

  1. Complement lysis activity in autologous plasma is associated with lower viral loads during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection.

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    Michael Huber

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the possibility that antibody-mediated complement lysis contributes to viremia control in HIV-1 infection, we measured the activity of patient plasma in mediating complement lysis of autologous primary virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sera from two groups of patients-25 with acute HIV-1 infection and 31 with chronic infection-were used in this study. We developed a novel real-time PCR-based assay strategy that allows reliable and sensitive quantification of virus lysis by complement. Plasma derived at the time of virus isolation induced complement lysis of the autologous virus isolate in the majority of patients. Overall lysis activity against the autologous virus and the heterologous primary virus strain JR-FL was higher at chronic disease stages than during the acute phase. Most strikingly, we found that plasma virus load levels during the acute but not the chronic infection phase correlated inversely with the autologous complement lysis activity. Antibody reactivity to the envelope (Env proteins gp120 and gp41 were positively correlated with the lysis activity against JR-FL, indicating that anti-Env responses mediated complement lysis. Neutralization and complement lysis activity against autologous viruses were not associated, suggesting that complement lysis is predominantly caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively our data provide evidence that antibody-mediated complement virion lysis develops rapidly and is effective early in the course of infection; thus it should be considered a parameter that, in concert with other immune functions, steers viremia control in vivo.

  2. A three-dimensional cell-loading system using autologous plasma loaded into a porous β-tricalcium-phosphate block promotes bone formation at extraskeletal sites in rats

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    Tajima, Nobutaka; Sotome, Shinichi; Marukawa, Eriko; Omura, Ken; Shinomiya, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    The effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) on bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) with respect to proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and bone formation capability were investigated. MSCs derived from rats were cultured in medium containing mixtures of PRP and PPP. Fibrinogen was eliminated prior to the experiment. The DNA content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were measured. PRP stimulated cell proliferation and inhibited osteoblastic differentiation. To examine the effects of fibrin in plasma, MSCs were cultured in PRP or PPP fibrin gels formed both on a cell culture insert installed in a culture well and on the bottom surface of the same culture well. The ALP activities of the MSCs in both of the gels were higher than those on the surface of the culture wells. The MSCs cultured on the PPP gel showed the highest ALP activity. The effects of PRP and PPP used as scaffolds for bone formation were also investigated. MSCs were suspended in PRP or PPP, introduced into porous β-tricalcium phosphate blocks, and then implanted into subcutaneous sites. Subsequently, bone formation was quantified. Further in vivo studies found that implants prepared using PPP had a greater osteoinductive capability than implants prepared with PRP

  3. A three-dimensional cell-loading system using autologous plasma loaded into a porous {beta}-tricalcium-phosphate block promotes bone formation at extraskeletal sites in rats

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    Tajima, Nobutaka [Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Orthopaedic and Spinal Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Sotome, Shinichi [Orthopaedic and Spinal Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Marukawa, Eriko [Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Orthopaedic and Spinal Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Omura, Ken [Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Shinomiya, Kenichi [Orthopaedic and Spinal Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan) and Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan) and Advanced Bone and Joint Science (Japan)]. E-mail: shinomiya.orth@tmd.ac.jp

    2007-05-16

    The effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) on bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) with respect to proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and bone formation capability were investigated. MSCs derived from rats were cultured in medium containing mixtures of PRP and PPP. Fibrinogen was eliminated prior to the experiment. The DNA content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were measured. PRP stimulated cell proliferation and inhibited osteoblastic differentiation. To examine the effects of fibrin in plasma, MSCs were cultured in PRP or PPP fibrin gels formed both on a cell culture insert installed in a culture well and on the bottom surface of the same culture well. The ALP activities of the MSCs in both of the gels were higher than those on the surface of the culture wells. The MSCs cultured on the PPP gel showed the highest ALP activity. The effects of PRP and PPP used as scaffolds for bone formation were also investigated. MSCs were suspended in PRP or PPP, introduced into porous {beta}-tricalcium phosphate blocks, and then implanted into subcutaneous sites. Subsequently, bone formation was quantified. Further in vivo studies found that implants prepared using PPP had a greater osteoinductive capability than implants prepared with PRP.

  4. Repair of segmental load-bearing bone defect by autologous mesenchymal stem cells and plasma-derived fibrin impregnated ceramic block results in early recovery of limb function.

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    Ng, Min Hwei; Duski, Suryasmi; Tan, Kok Keong; Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Low, Kiat Cheong; Rose, Isa Mohamed; Mohamed, Zahiah; Bin Saim, Aminuddin; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj

    2014-01-01

    Calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes have not been used to repair load-bearing bone defects due to their weak mechanical property. In this study, we reevaluated the functional outcomes of combining ceramic block with osteogenic-induced mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma (TEB) to repair critical-sized segmental tibial defect. Comparisons were made with fresh marrow-impregnated ceramic block (MIC) and partially demineralized allogeneic bone block (ALLO). Six New Zealand White female rabbits were used in each study group and three rabbits with no implants were used as negative controls. By Day 90, 4/6 rabbits in TEB group and 2/6 in ALLO and MIC groups resumed normal gait pattern. Union was achieved significantly faster in TEB group with a radiological score of 4.50 ± 0.78 versus ALLO (1.06 ± 0.32), MIC (1.28 ± 0.24), and negative controls (0). Histologically, TEB group scored the highest percentage of new bone (82% ± 5.1%) compared to ALLO (5% ± 2.5%) and MIC (26% ± 5.2%). Biomechanically, TEB-treated tibiae achieved the highest compressive strength (43.50 ± 12.72 MPa) compared to those treated with ALLO (15.15 ± 3.57 MPa) and MIC (23.28 ± 6.14 MPa). In conclusion, TEB can repair critical-sized segmental load-bearing bone defects and restore limb function.

  5. Repair of Segmental Load-Bearing Bone Defect by Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Plasma-Derived Fibrin Impregnated Ceramic Block Results in Early Recovery of Limb Function

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    Min Hwei Ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes have not been used to repair load-bearing bone defects due to their weak mechanical property. In this study, we reevaluated the functional outcomes of combining ceramic block with osteogenic-induced mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma (TEB to repair critical-sized segmental tibial defect. Comparisons were made with fresh marrow-impregnated ceramic block (MIC and partially demineralized allogeneic bone block (ALLO. Six New Zealand White female rabbits were used in each study group and three rabbits with no implants were used as negative controls. By Day 90, 4/6 rabbits in TEB group and 2/6 in ALLO and MIC groups resumed normal gait pattern. Union was achieved significantly faster in TEB group with a radiological score of 4.50 ± 0.78 versus ALLO (1.06 ± 0.32, MIC (1.28 ± 0.24, and negative controls (0. Histologically, TEB group scored the highest percentage of new bone (82% ± 5.1% compared to ALLO (5% ± 2.5% and MIC (26% ± 5.2%. Biomechanically, TEB-treated tibiae achieved the highest compressive strength (43.50 ± 12.72 MPa compared to those treated with ALLO (15.15 ± 3.57 MPa and MIC (23.28 ± 6.14 MPa. In conclusion, TEB can repair critical-sized segmental load-bearing bone defects and restore limb function.

  6. The volume-expanding effects of autologous liquid stored plasma following hemorrhage

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    Bentzer, Peter; Thomas, Owain D; Westborg, Johan

    2012-01-01

    of plasma transfusion on plasma volume. We report a prospective interventional study in which the plasma volume-expanding effect of autologous plasma was investigated after a controlled hemorrhage. Methods. Plasma obtained by plasmapheresis from nine healthy regular blood donors was stored at 2-6°C. Five...

  7. Local administration of autologous platelet-rich plasma in a female patient with skin ulcer defect

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    S M Noskov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical observation of the efficiency of local therapy with autologous platelet-rich plasma for .skin ulcer defect in a female with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

  8. Autologous Platelet-rich Plasma after Third Molar Surgery.

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    Gandevivala, Adil; Sangle, Amit; Shah, Dinesh; Tejnani, Avneesh; Sayyed, Aatif; Khutwad, Gaurav; Patel, Arpit Arunbhai

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the third molar impactions, with respect to: pain, swelling, healing, and periodontal status distal to the second molar in patients who need surgical removal of bilateral impacted mandibular third molars. Twenty-five patients of both sexes aged between 16 and 60 years who required bilateral surgical removal of their impacted third molars and met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. After surgical extraction of the third molar, primary closure was performed in the control group, whereas PRP was placed in the socket followed by primary closure in the case group. The outcome variables were pain, swelling, wound healing, and periodontal probe depth that were follow-up period of 2 months. Quantitative data are presented as mean. Statistical significance was checked by t -test. There was a difference in the pain (0.071) and facial swelling (0.184), reduction between test and control on day 3, but it was not found to be significant. Periodontal pocket depth (0.001) and wound healing (0.001) less in case group compared with the control group was found to be significant. The use of PRP lessens the severity of immediate postoperative sequelae and decreases preoperative pocket depth.

  9. Autologous Blood and Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections for Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis.

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    Calandruccio, James H; Steiner, Murphy M

    2017-07-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a frequent cause of elbow pain; most patients (80%-90%) are successfully treated with standard nonoperative methods (rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, bracing, and physical therapy). Autologous blood injections and platelet-rich plasma injections are the two most frequently used orthobiologic techniques in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Studies of the effectiveness of autologous blood injections and platelet-rich plasma report varying outcomes, some citing significant clinical relief and others reporting no beneficial effect. More research is needed to determine how to best use orthobiologics in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Systematic Review of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma and Fat Graft Preparation Methods.

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    Luck, Joshua; Smith, Oliver J; Mosahebi, Afshin

    2017-12-01

    The addition of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to adipose tissue may improve fat graft survival, although graft retention rates vary markedly between studies. To what extent this outcome heterogeneity reflects differing methodological factors remains unknown. This systematic review aims to synthesize and critically review methodological approaches to autologous PRP and fat cotransplantation in both human and animal studies. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from inception to April 2017. Data were extracted from all in vivo studies involving autologous PRP and fat cotransplantation. A secondary aim was to assess reporting of technical detail; authors were not contacted to provide missing data. From 335 articles, 23 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. Some 21 were performed in humans and 2 in rabbits. Six studies were randomized control trials; the remainder reported on observational data. Methods of PRP extraction and activation varied markedly between studies. Fat graft preparation was comparatively more consistent. Methods of PRP and fat mixing differed significantly, especially with regards to relative volume/volume ratios. Our study represents the first systematic review of methodological factors in autologous PRP and fat cotransplantation. It demonstrates that technical factors in graft preparation and administration vary significantly between in vivo studies. Such methodological heterogeneity may explain observed differences in experimental and clinical outcomes. Reporting of key procedural information is inconsistent and often inadequate. These issues make meaningful evaluation of the PRP-enhanced fat grafting literature difficult and may limit its translation into clinical practice.

  11. Treatment of chronic non-healing ulcers using autologous platelet rich plasma: a case series.

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    Suthar, Manish; Gupta, Saniya; Bukhari, Suhail; Ponemone, Venkatesh

    2017-02-27

    Non-healing ulcers are a major health problem worldwide and have great impact at personal, professional and social levels, with high cost in terms of human and material resources. Recalcitrant non-healing ulcers are inevitable and detrimental to the lower limb and are a major cause of non-traumatic lower limb amputations. Application of autologous Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) has been a major breakthrough for the treatment of non-healing and diabetic foot ulcers, as it is an easy and cost-effective method, and provides the necessary growth factors that enhance tissue healing. PRP is a conglomeration of thrombocytes, cytokines and various growth factors which are secreted by α-granules of platelets that augment the rate of natural healing process with decrease in time. The purpose of this case series was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of autologous platelet rich plasma for the treatment of chronic non-healing ulcers on the lower extremity. Autologous PRP was prepared from whole blood utilizing a rapid, intraoperative point-of-care system that works on the principle of density gradient centrifugation. Twenty Four (24) patients with non-healing ulcers of different etiologies, who met the inclusion criteria, were treated with single dose of subcutaneous PRP injections along with topical application of PRP gel under compassionate use. The mean age of the treated patients was 62.5 ± 13.53 years and they were followed-up for a period of 24 weeks. All the patients showed signs of wound healing with reduction in wound size, and the mean time duration to ulcer healing was 8.2 weeks. Also, an average five fold increase in the platelet concentrate was observed in the final PRP product obtained using the rapid point-of-care device, and the average platelet dose administered to the patients was 70.10 × 10 8 . This case series has demonstrated the potential safety and efficacy of autologous platelet rich plasma for the treatment of chronic non-healing ulcers. NCT

  12. Release kinetics of platelet-derived and plasma-derived growth factors from autologous plasma rich in growth factors.

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    Anitua, Eduardo; Zalduendo, Mari Mar; Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Orive, Gorka

    2013-10-01

    Many studies have evaluated the biological effects of platelet rich plasma reporting the final outcomes on cell and tissues. However, few studies have dealt with the kinetics of growth factor delivery by plasma rich in growth factors. Venous blood was obtained from three healthy volunteers and processed with PRGF-Endoret technology to prepare autologous plasma rich in growth factors. The gel-like fibrin scaffolds were then incubated in triplicate, in a cell culture medium to monitor the release of PDGF-AB, VEGF, HGF and IGF-I during 8 days of incubation. A leukocyte-platelet rich plasma was prepared employing the same technology and the concentrations of growth factors and interleukin-1β were determined after 24h of incubation. After each period, the medium was collected, fibrin clot was destroyed and the supernatants were stored at -80°C until analysis. The growth factor delivery is diffusion controlled with a rapid initial release by 30% of the bioactive content after 1h of incubation and a steady state release when almost 70% of the growth factor content has been delivered. Autologous fibrin matrix retained almost 30% of the amount of the growth factors after 8 days of incubation. The addition of leukocytes to the formula of platelet rich plasma did not increase the concentration of the growth factors, while it drastically increased the presence of pro-inflammatory IL-1β. Further studies employing an in vitro inflammatory model would be interesting to study the difference in growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines between leukocyte-free and leukocyte-rich platelet rich plasma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Therapeutic efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma and polydeoxyribonucleotide on female pattern hair loss.

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    Lee, Si-Hyung; Zheng, Zhenlong; Kang, Jin-Soo; Kim, Do-Young; Oh, Sang Ho; Cho, Sung Bin

    2015-01-01

    Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) exerts positive therapeutic effects on hair thickness and density in patients with pattern hair loss. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of intra-perifollicular autologous PRP and polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) injections in treating female pattern hair loss (FPHL). Twenty FPHL patients were treated with a single session of PRP injection, followed by 12 sessions of PDRN intra-perifollicular injection, along the scalp at weekly intervals. Additionally, another 20 FPHL patients were treated with 12 sessions of PDRN injection only. Meanwhile, one half of the backs of two rabbits was injected with the PRP preparation, while the other half was injected with phosphate buffered saline as a control. Tissue samples from the rabbits were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Compared with baseline values, patients treated with PRP and PDRN injections exhibited clinical improvement in mean hair counts (23.2 ± 15.5%; p hair thickness (16.8 ± 10.8%; p hair counts (17.9 ± 13.2%; p hair thickness (13.5 ± 10.7%; p hair thickness than treatment with PDRN therapy alone (p = 0.031), but not in hair counts (p > 0.05). The pilot animal study revealed significant up-regulation of WNT, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor expression in rabbit skin treated with the PRP preparation, compared with control skin. In conclusion, intra-perifollicular injections of autologous PRP and/or PDRN generate improvements in hair thickness and density in FPHL patients. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  14. The effect of autologous platelet rich plasma in treatment lateral epicondylitis

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    İsmail Ağır

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow is the most commonly diagnosed cause of lateral elbow pain. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of single dose corticosteroid and autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP injection in the treatment of tennis elbow.Materials and methods: The 15 elbow of 15 patients (6 male and 9 female was included in the study, who applied to our clinic with lateral elbow pain and diagnosed as lateral epicondylitis. A single dose of 0,5 ml Bethametasone and 0,5 ml Prilocaine mixture was applied to first group and single dose 1 ml autologous PRP was locally applied to the second group.Results: In the early follow-ups the results of corticosteroid group were better than latter follow-ups, however in PRP group the results were worst in early follow-ups but better results were obtained in later follow-ups according to Verhaar scoring system.Conclusion: According to our results, the beneficial effects of PRP injection in lateral epicondylitis increases over time but further studies with more patients and longer follow up durations should done in order to more clarified this subject.

  15. Intraarticular injection autologous platelet-rich plasma and bone marrow concentrate in a goat osteoarthritis model.

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    Wang, Zhen; Zhai, Chenjun; Fei, Hao; Hu, Junzheng; Cui, Weiding; Wang, Zhen; Li, Zeng; Fan, Weimin

    2018-02-21

    To evaluate the effects of intraarticular injections of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or bone marrow concentrate (BMC) on osteoarthritis (OA), 24 adult goats were equally divided into control (Ctrl), saline (NS), PRP, and BMC groups, and OA was induced by surgery in NS, PRP, and BMC groups. Autologous PRP and BMC were obtained from whole blood and bone marrow aspirates, respectively. The data revealed, platelets were increased in BMC by 1.8-fold, monocytes by 5.6-fold, TGF-β1 by 7.7-fold, and IGF-1 by 3.6-fold (p BMC were administered by intraarticular injection once every 4 weeks, three consecutive times. After the animals were sacrificed, inflammatory cytokines in the synovial fluid was measured, and bone and cartilage degeneration progression was observed by macroscopy, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Compared with the NS group, the level of inflammatory cytokines was reduced in the PRP and BMC groups (p BMC treated groups (p BMC group showed greater cartilage protection and less ECM loss than the PRP group (p BMC has therapeutic efficacy in a goat osteoarthritis model, with the greater benefit in terms of cartilage protection being observed in the BMC-treated group than PRP. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Use of autologous platelet-rich plasma in complete cleft palate repair.

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    El-Anwar, Mohammad Waheed; Nofal, Ahmed Abdel Fattah; Khalifa, Mohamed; Quriba, Amal Saeed

    2016-07-01

    Evaluate the effect of topical application of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in primary repair of complete cleft palate and then compare the result with another group of patients using the same surgical technique, without application of PRP with regard to the incidence of oronasal fistula, velopharyngeal closure, and grade of nasality. Case control study. This study was carried on 44 children with complete cleft palate with age range from 12 to 23 months. The children were divided into two age- and gender-matched groups: All children were subjected to the same technique of V-Y pushback repair of the complete cleft palate. In group A (22 children), the PRP prepared from the patient was topically applied between the nasal and oral mucosa layer during palatoplasty, whereas in group B (22 children) the PRP was not applied. All cases were recovered smoothly without problems. In group A, no oronasal fistula was reported, whereas in group B three patients (13.6%) had postoperative fistulae and two patients (9.1%) needed revision palatoplasty. At 6 months postoperative assessment, group A (with PRP application) showed significantly better grade of nasality (P = 0.024) and better endoscopic velopharyngeal closure (P = 0.016) than group B. Usage of autologous PRP in complete cleft palate repair is simple; effective; can decrease the incidence of oronasal fistula; and also significantly improves the grade of nasality and velopharyngeal closure, which decreases the need of further surgical intervention in cleft palate patients. 3b. Laryngoscope, 126:1524-1528, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Generation of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma by the Ultrasonic Standing Waves.

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    Wu, Yue; Kanna, Murugappan Suresh; Liu, Chenhui; Zhou, Yufeng; Chan, Casey K

    2016-08-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a volume of autologous plasma that has a higher platelet concentration above baseline. It has already been approved as a new therapeutic modality and investigated in clinics, such as bone repair and regeneration, and oral surgery, with low cost-effectiveness ratio. At present, PRP is mostly prepared using a centrifuge. However, this method has several shortcomings, such as long preparation time (30 min), complexity in operation, and contamination of red blood cells (RBCs). In this paper, a new PRP preparation approach was proposed and tested. Ultrasound waves (4.5 MHz) generated from piezoelectric ceramics can establish standing waves inside a syringe filled with the whole blood. Subsequently, RBCs would accumulate at the locations of pressure nodes in response to acoustic radiation force, and the formed clusters would have a high speed of sedimentation. It is found that the PRP prepared by the proposed device can achieve higher platelet concentration and less RBCs contamination than a commercial centrifugal device, but similar growth factor (i.e., PDGF-ββ). In addition, the sedimentation process under centrifugation and sonication was simulated using the Mason-Weaver equation and compared with each other to illustrate the differences between these two technologies and to optimize the design in the future. Altogether, ultrasound method is an effective method of PRP preparation with comparable outcomes as the commercially available centrifugal products.

  18. Spectroscopic Investigation of Nitrogen Loaded ECR Plasmas

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    Ullmann, F; Zschornack, G; Küchler, D; Ovsyannikov, V P

    1999-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy on ions in the plasma and magnetic q/A-analysis of the extracted ions were used to determine the plasmaproperties of nitrogen loaded ECR plasmas.As the beam expands from a limited plasma region and the ion extraction process alters the plasma properties in the extraction meniscus thebeam composition does not correspond to the bulk plasma composition. The analysis of measured spectra of characteristic X-rays delivers a method to determine the ion charge state distribution and the electron energy distribution inside the plasma and does not alter the plasma anddoes not depend on the extraction and transmission properties of the ion extraction and transport system. Hence this method seems to be moreaccurate than the traditional magnetic analysis and allows to analyse different plasma regions.A comparison between ion charge state distributions determined from X-ray spectra and such from q/A-analysis shows significant differencesfor the mean ion charge states in the source plasm...

  19. Analysis of autologous platelet-rich plasma during ascending and transverse aortic arch surgery.

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    Zhou, Shao-Feng; Estrera, Anthony L; Miller, Charles C; Ignacio, Craig; Panthayi, Sreelatha; Loubser, Paul; Sagun, Dean L; Sheinbaum, Roy; Safi, Hazim J

    2013-05-01

    Coagulopathy is a common complication after ascending and transverse arch aortic surgery with profound hypothermic circuit arrest (PHCA). Blood conservation strategies to reduce transfusion have been ongoing and involve multiple treatment modalities in modern cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of autologous platelet-rich plasma (aPRP) as a blood conservation technique to reduce blood transfusion in ascending and arch aortic surgery. Between 2003 and 2009, we retrospectively reviewed 685 cases of ascending aorta and transverse arch repair using PHCA. A total of 287 patients in which aPRP was used (aPRP group) were compared with 398 patients who did have aPRP (non-aPRP group). Perioperative transfusion requirements and clinical outcomes that included early mortality, postoperative stroke, renal dysfunction, prolonged ventilation, coagulopathy, and length of postoperative intensive care unit stay were analyzed. The data were analyzed by mean and frequency for continuous variables and qualitative variables. To account for potential selection bias, 2 types of propensity analysis were performed. In both unadjusted and adjusted analysis, perioperative transfusions were fewer in the aPRP group compared with the non-aPRP group: (3.9 units fewer packed red blood cells, 4.5 units fewer fresh frozen plasma, 7.9 units fewer platelets, and 6.8 units fewer cryoprecipitate). In all analyses, postoperative morbidity (stroke, duration of mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit stay) were significantly improved. Hospital mortality rate was not significantly decreased. The utilization of aPRP was associated with a reduction in allogeneic blood transfusions as well as a decrease in early postoperative morbidity during repairs of the ascending and transverse arch aorta using PHCA. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma in the Treatment of Achilles Tendon Ruptures: An Experimental Study on Rabbits.

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    Şen, Baran; Güler, Serkan; Çeçen, Berivan; Kumtepe, Erdem; Bağrıyanık, Alper; Özkal, Sermin; Ali Özcan, M; Özsan, Hayri; Şanlı, Namık; Tatari, M Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures are characterized by a long recovery period, high re-rupture rate and late return to work. To overcome these difficulties and augment tendon repair, many agents have been used. To determine the effect of autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures in rabbits. Animal experimentation. The study included 14 New Zealand albino rabbits that were divided randomly into 2 groups, A and B, each containing seven rabbits. On day zero, all 28 Achilles tendons were tenotomized and repaired. In group A, the tendons were injected with PRP post-surgery, whereas those in group B were left untreated. On day 28, the right tendons in both groups were examined histopathologically via both light and electron microscopy, and the left tendons were subjected to biomechanical testing. The histological and biomechanical findings in both light and electron microscopy in group A were better than those in group B, but the difference was not significant. According to Tang's scale, the mean value in Group A was 3.57, while it was 3.0 in Group B. The mean value of Group A for the length of collagen bands was 48.09 nm while the mean value of Group B was 46.58 nm (p=0.406). In biomechanical tests, although stiffness values were higher in group A, the difference between groups was not significant. In addition, maximum load values did not differ between groups A and B. PRP had no effect on the healing process 28 days post-Achilles tendon rupture.

  1. Plasma protein haptoglobin modulates renal iron loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagoonee, Sharmila; Gburek, Jakub; Hirsch, Emilio

    2005-01-01

    Haptoglobin is the plasma protein with the highest binding affinity for hemoglobin. The strength of hemoglobin binding and the existence of a specific receptor for the haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex in the monocyte/macrophage system clearly suggest that haptoglobin may have a crucial role in heme...... distribution of hemoglobin in haptoglobin-deficient mice resulted in abnormal iron deposits in proximal tubules during aging. Moreover, iron also accumulated in proximal tubules after renal ischemia-reperfusion injury or after an acute plasma heme-protein overload caused by muscle injury, without affecting...... morphological and functional parameters of renal damage. These data demonstrate that haptoglobin crucially prevents glomerular filtration of hemoglobin and, consequently, renal iron loading during aging and following acute plasma heme-protein overload....

  2. Load Designs For MJ Dense Plasma Foci

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    Link, A.; Povlius, A.; Anaya, R.; Anderson, M. G.; Angus, J. R.; Cooper, C. M.; Falabella, S.; Goerz, D.; Higginson, D.; Holod, I.; McMahon, M.; Mitrani, J.; Koh, E. S.; Pearson, A.; Podpaly, Y. A.; Prasad, R.; van Lue, D.; Watson, J.; Schmidt, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinches are compact pulse power driven devices with coaxial electrodes. The discharge of DPF consists of three distinct phases: first generation of a plasma sheath, plasma rail gun phase where the sheath is accelerated down the electrodes and finally an implosion phase where the plasma stagnates into a z-pinch geometry. During the z-pinch phase, DPFs can produce MeV ion beams, x-rays and neutrons. Megaampere class DPFs with deuterium fills have demonstrated neutron yields in the 1012 neutrons/shot range with pulse durations of 10-100 ns. Kinetic simulations using the code Chicago are being used to evaluate various load configurations from initial sheath formation to the final z-pinch phase for DPFs with up to 5 MA and 1 MJ coupled to the load. Results will be presented from the preliminary design simulations. LLNL-ABS-734785 This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and with support from the Computing Grand Challenge program at LLNL.

  3. γ-Herpesvirus load as surrogate marker of early death in HIV-1 lymphoma patients submitted to high dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pratesi

    Full Text Available Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT is a feasible procedure for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 lymphoma patients, whose underlying disease and intrinsic HIV-1- and ASCT-associated immunodeficiency might increase the risk for γ-herpesvirus load persistence and/or reactivation. We evaluated this hypothesis by investigating the levels of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV- and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV-DNA levels in the peripheral blood of 22 HIV-1-associated lymphoma patients during ASCT, highlighting their relationship with γ-herpesvirus lymphoma status, immunological parameters, and clinical events. EBV-DNA was detected in the pre-treatment plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of 12 (median 12,135 copies/mL and 18 patients (median 417 copies/10(6 PBMCs, respectively; the values in the two compartments were correlated (r = 0.77, p = 0.0001. Only EBV-positive lymphomas showed detectable levels of plasma EBV-DNA. After debulking chemotherapy, plasma EBV-DNA was associated with lymphoma chemosensitivity (p = 0.03 and a significant higher mortality risk by multivariate Cox analysis adjusted for EBV-lymphoma status (HR, 10.46, 95% CI, 1.11-98.32, p = 0.04. After infusion, EBV-DNA was detectable in five EBV-positive lymphoma patients who died within six months. KSHV-DNA load was positive in only one patient, who died from primary effusion lymphoma. Fluctuations in levels of KSHV-DNA reflected the patient's therapy and evolution of his underlying lymphoma. Other γ-herpesvirus-associated malignancies, such as multicentric Castleman disease and Kaposi sarcoma, or end-organ complications after salvage treatment were not found. Overall, these findings suggest a prognostic and predictive value of EBV-DNA and KSHV-DNA, the monitoring of which could be a simple, complementary tool for the management of γ-herpesvirus-positive lymphomas in HIV-1 patients submitted to ASCT.

  4. Use of autologous platelet - Rich plasma in the treatment of intrabony defects

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    Sharath K Shetty

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of intrabony defects by autologous PRP gel alone caused significant soft tissue clinical improvement as well as hard tissue defect fill as evidenced by SSD view in spiral computed tomography.

  5. Comparison between sensitivity of autologous skin serum test and autologous plasma skin test in patients with Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria for detection of antibody against IgE or IgE receptor (FcεRIα).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi, Vahid; Movahedi, Masoud; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Aghamohamadi, Asghar; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Ghareguzlou, Mohammad; Shafiei, Alireza; Soheili, Habib; Sanajian, Nahal

    2011-06-01

    Intradermal injection of autologous serum and plasma elicit a cutaneous reactivity in almost 45-60% of patients with Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria (CIU). This reactivity is associated with the presence of auto antibodies against IgE or IgE receptors. This study was carried out to compare the cutaneous reactivity of autologous serum and plasma skin tests in a series of patients with CIU for diagnosis of auto antibodies against IgE or IgE receptor. Fifty eight patients with CIU were injected intradermally with autologous serum and plasma (anticoagulated by citrate). Histamine was used as positive control and normal saline as negative control. The study group was checked by routine laboratory tests (CBC, U/A etc), allergens with skin prick tests, and serum IgE level, and auto antibodies against thyroid as well. Duration of urticaria was another factor which was assessed.There was no significant difference between positive ASST and positive APST patients for the above mentioned tests. 77.6% of the patients were Positive for APST and 65.5% were ASST positive. Duration of urticaria was longer in patients with positive ASST and APST than ASST and APST negative patients, although the difference was not statistically significant.Autologus serum skin test (ASST) and autologous plasma skin test (APST) could be used for estimation of duration and severity of urticaria and planning for the treatment.

  6. Intra-ligamentary autologous conditioned plasma and healing response to treat partial ACL ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Matthias; Matteo, Berardo Di; Eichhorn, Jürgen; Zellner, Johannes; Mayr, Felix; Krutsch, Werner; Achenbach, Leonard; Woehl, Rebecca; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter

    2018-05-01

    Conservative treatment of partial ACL ruptures is associated with a high failure rate, and often patients undergo ACL reconstruction. ACL preservation by trephination of the ACL origin and application of Autologous Conditioned Plasma (ACP) seems to be an intriguing new treatment option to favour ACL tissue healing and avoid traditional reconstruction. The aim of this study was to describe the mid-term outcomes of this new ACL preserving technique. Twenty-four patients (mean age 41.8 years) affected by partial rupture of one or both ACL bundles were included in the present trial. The partial ACL tears were arthroscopically assessed and classified according to a new five step grading system. All patients were treated by trephination of the femoral ACL stump and intra-ligamentary application of ACP. The postoperative outcome was evaluated by both subjective scores and stability testing up to a mean of 25.1 months' follow-up. Adverse events and failure rate were also documented. Clinical outcome was good to excellent with IKDC subjective 82.7 (SD 11.8), Lysholm 87.6 (SD 8.1), Tegner 5.3 (SD 2.1), Cincinnati 88.7 (SD 14.8). The failure rate (i.e. persisting knee instability assessed clinically or by rolimeter) was 12.5%. At objective measurements, knee joints showed a firm endpoint in Lachman test, negative pivot shift phenomenon and a significant reduction in AP-laxity compared to pre-operative status by rolimeter testing (p = 0.002). Return to sport practice was achieved after mean 4.8 months (SD 4.1). ACL stump trephination and concomitant intra-ligamentary application of ACP revealed promising results at mid-term follow-up to treat partial ACL lesions.

  7. Glucose ameliorates the metabolic profile and mitochondrial function of platelet concentrates during storage in autologous plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorini, Angela M.; Tuttobene, Michele; Tomasello, Flora M.; Biazzo, Filomena; Gullotta, Stefano; De Pinto, Vito; Lazzarino, Giuseppe; Tavazzi, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background It is essential that the quality of platelet metabolism and function remains high during storage in order to ensure the clinical effectiveness of a platelet transfusion. New storage conditions and additives are constantly evaluated in order to achieve this. Using glucose as a substrate is controversial because of its potential connection with increased lactate production and decreased pH, both parameters triggering the platelet lesion during storage. Materials and methods In this study, we analysed the morphological status and metabolic profile of platelets stored for various periods in autologous plasma enriched with increasing glucose concentrations (13.75, 27.5 and 55 mM). After 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days, high energy phosphates (ATP, GTP, ADP, AMP), oxypurines (hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid), lactate, pH, mitochondrial function, cell lysis and morphology, were evaluated. Results The data showed a significant dose-dependent improvement of the different parameters in platelets stored with increasing glucose, compared to what detected in controls. Interestingly, this phenomenon was more marked at the highest level of glucose tested and in the period of time generally used for platelet transfusion (0–6 days). Conclusion These results indicate that the addition of glucose during platelet storage ameliorates, in a dose-dependent manner, the biochemical parameters related to energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. Since there was no correspondence between glucose addition, lactate increase and pH decrease in our experiments, it is conceivable that platelet derangement during storage is not directly caused by glucose through an increase of anaerobic glycolysis, but rather to a loss of mitochondrial functions caused by reduced substrate availability. PMID:22682337

  8. Growth factor-enriched autologous plasma improves wound healing after surgical debridement in odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis: a case report

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    Martinez-Fong Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis of the neck is a fulminant infection of odontogenic origin that quickly spreads along the fascial planes and results in necrosis of the affected tissues. It is usually polymicrobial, occurs frequently in immunocompromised patients, and has a high mortality rate. Case presentation A 69-year old Mexican male had a pain in the maxillar right-canine region and a swelling of the submental and submandibular regions. Our examination revealed local pain, tachycardia, hyperthermia (39°C, and the swelling of bilateral submental and submandibular regions, which also were erythematous, hyperthermic, crepitant, and with a positive Godet sign. Mobility and third-degree caries were seen in the right mandibular canine. Bacteriological cultures isolated streptococcus pyogenes and staphylococcus aureus. The histopathological diagnosis was odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis of the submental and submandibular regions. The initial treatment was surgical debridement and the administration of antibiotics. After cultures were negative, the surgical wound was treated with a growth factor-enriched autologous plasma eight times every third day until complete healing occurred. Conclusions The treatment with a growth factor-enriched autologous plasma caused a rapid healing of an extensive surgical wound in a patient with odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis. The benefits were rapid tissue regeneration, an aesthetic and a functional scar, and the avoidance of further surgery and possible complications.

  9. Platelet-rich plasma-enriched autologous fat graft in regenerative and aesthetic facial surgery: Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, F; Hersant, B; La Padula, S; Meningaud, J-P

    2017-09-01

    The goal of adding platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to autologous fat graft is to increase the survival rate of the graft. After their activation, platelets release some important growth factors. As a result, PRP may increase the proliferation and differentiation of Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) into adipocytes, improve fat graft vascularisation, and may block the apoptosis of grafted adipocytes. The other benefit expected from the addition of PRP to fat graft is the improvement of cutaneous trophicity above the grafted areas. An exhaustive review of the literature retrieved 11 clinical studies on humans and 7 on animals. A statistically significant increase of the survival rate of fat grafts has been found in 9 comparative studies. Our synthesis allowed us to set up the following protocol: addition of 20% of PRP activated with calcium hydrochloride to fat grafts. It may enhance the results of autologous facial fat graft in regenerative and aesthetic facial surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasma firocoxib concentrations after intra-articular injection of autologous conditioned serum prepared from firocoxib positive horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortved, K F; Goodale, M B; Ober, C; Maylin, G A; Fortier, L A

    2017-12-01

    Orthobiologics such as autologous conditioned serum (ACS) are often used to treat joint disease in horses. Because ACS is generated from the horse's own blood, any medication administered at the time of preparation would likely be present in stored ACS, which could lead to an inadvertent positive drug test following intra-articular (IA) injection. The main objective of this study was to determine if ACS prepared from firocoxib positive horses could result in detectable plasma concentrations of the drug following IA injection. Firocoxib was administered to six horses at 0.1mg/kg PO twice at a 24h interval. Blood was obtained at 4h following the second dose and transferred to a separate syringe (Arthrex IRAP II) for ACS preparation. Plasma and ACS concentrations of firocoxib were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). When horses were confirmed firocoxib negative, 7.5mL of ACS was injected into both tarsocrural joints. Blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48h, and firocoxib concentration was measured. Mean (±standard error of the mean, SEM) plasma concentration of firocoxib 4h following the second dose was 33.3±4.72ng/mL. Mean (±SEM) firocoxib concentration in ACS was 35.4±4.47ng/mL. Fourteen days following the second and last dose of firocoxib, mean plasma concentration was below the lower limit of detection (LOD=1ng/mL) in all horses. Following IA injection of ACS, plasma concentrations of firocoxib remained below LOD at all times in all horses. ACS generated from horses with therapeutic plasma concentrations of firocoxib did not contain sufficient firocoxib to lead to a positive plasma drug test following IA administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of different concentrations of Platelet-rich Plasma and Platelet-Poor Plasma on vitality and differentiation of autologous Adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felthaus, Oliver; Prantl, Lukas; Skaff-Schwarze, Mona; Klein, Silvan; Anker, Alexandra; Ranieri, Marco; Kuehlmann, Britta

    2017-01-01

    Autologous fat grafts and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be used to treat soft tissue defects. However, the results are inconsistent and sometimes comprise tissue resorption and necrosis. This might be due to insufficient vascularization. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a source of concentrated autologous platelets. The growth factors and cytokines released by platelets can facilitate angiogenesis. The simultaneous use of PRP might improve the regeneration potential of fat grafts. The optimal ratio has yet to be elucidated. A byproduct of PRP preparation is platelet-poor plasma (PPP). In this study we investigated the influence of different concentrations of PRP on the vitality and differentiation of ASCs. We processed whole blood with the Arthrex Angel centrifuge and isolated ASCs from the same donor. We tested the effects of different PRP and PPP concentrations on the vitality using resazurin assays and the differentiation of ASCs using oil-red staining. Both cell vitality and adipogenic differentiation increase to a concentration of 10% to 20% PRP. With a PRP concentration of 30% cell vitality and differentiation decrease. Both PRP and PPP can be used to expand ASCs without xenogeneic additives in cell culture. A PRP concentration above 20% has inhibitory effects.

  12. Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP versus Autologous Whole Blood on Pain and Function Improvement in Tennis Elbow: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Autologous whole blood and platelet-rich plasma (PRP have been both suggested to treat chronic tennis elbow. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of PRP versus autologous whole blood local injection in chronic tennis elbow. Methods. Forty patients with tennis elbow were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was treated with a single injection of 2 mL of autologous PRP and group 2 with 2 mL of autologous blood. Tennis elbow strap, stretching, and strengthening exercises were administered for both groups during a 2-month followup. Pain and functional improvements were assessed using visual analog scale (VAS, modified Mayo Clinic performance index for the elbow, and pressure pain threshold (PPT at 0, 4, and 8 weeks. Results. All pain and functional variables including VAS, PPT, and Mayo scores improved significantly in both groups 4 weeks after injection. No statistically significant difference was noted between groups regarding pain scores in 4-week follow-up examination (P>0.05. At 8-week reevaluations, VAS and Mayo scores improved only in PRP group (P<0.05. Conclusion. PRP and autologous whole blood injections are both effective to treat chronic lateral epicondylitis. PRP might be slightly superior in 8-week followup. However, further studies are suggested to get definite conclusion.

  13. Evaluation of subcutaneous infiltration of autologous platelet-rich plasma on skin-wound healing in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farghali, Haithem A; AbdElKader, Naglaa A; Khattab, Marwa S; AbuBakr, Huda O

    2017-04-28

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is known to be rich in growth factors and cytokines, which are crucial to the healing process. This study investigate the effect of subcutaneous (S/C) infiltration of autologous PRP at the wound boundaries on wound epithelization and contraction. Five adult male mongrel dogs were used. Bilateral acute full thickness skin wounds (3 cm diameter) were created on the thorax symmetrically. Right side wounds were subcutaneously infiltrated with activated PRP at day 0 and then every week for three consecutive weeks. The left wound was left as control. Wound contraction and epithelization were clinically evaluated. Expression of collagen type I (COLI) A2, (COLIA2),histopathology and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of COLI α1 (COLIA1) were performed on skin biopsies at first, second and third weeks. The catalase activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 (MMP-9) activity were assessed in wound fluid samples. All data were analysed statistically. The epithelization percent significantly increased in the PRP-treated wound at week 3. Collagen was well organized in the PRP-treated wounds compared with control wounds at week 3. The COLIA2 expression and intensity of COLIA1 significantly increased in PRP-treated wounds. MDA concentration was significantly decreased in PRP-treated wound at week 3. The catalase activity exhibited no difference between PRP treated and untreated wounds. The activity of MMP-9 reached its peak at the second week and was significantly high in the PRP-treated group. S/C infiltration of autologous PRP at the wound margins enhances the wound epithelization and reduces the scar tissue formation. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Comparison between Conventional Mechanical Fixation and Use of Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) in Wound Beds Prior to Resurfacing with Split Thickness Skin Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Waiker, Veena; Shivalingappa, Shanthakumar

    2015-01-01

    Platelet rich plasma is known for its hemostatic, adhesive and healing properties in view of the multiple growth factors released from the platelets to the site of wound. The primary objective of this study was to use autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) in wound beds for anchorage of skin grafts instead of conventional methods like sutures, staplers or glue. In a single center based randomized controlled prospective study of nine months duration, 200 patients with wounds were divided into two equal groups. Autologous PRP was applied on wound beds in PRP group and conventional methods like staples/sutures used to anchor the skin grafts in a control group. Instant graft adherence to wound bed was statistically significant in the PRP group. Time of first post-graft inspection was delayed, and hematoma, graft edema, discharge from graft site, frequency of dressings and duration of stay in plastic surgery unit were significantly less in the PRP group. Autologous PRP ensured instant skin graft adherence to wound bed in comparison to conventional methods of anchorage. Hence, we recommend the use of autologous PRP routinely on wounds prior to resurfacing to ensure the benefits of early healing.

  15. Using autologous platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of complex fistulas

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    Almudena Moreno-Serrano

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of autologous fibrin gel rich in platelet growth factors for the treatment of complex perianal fistulas. Material and methods: Prospective epidemiological study. Patients with complex perianal fistula or perianal fistula mere alteration of continence are included. identification of both holes and the journey, curettage of it and instillation of Vivostat PRF® in the way it is done to observe excess material by OFE. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, use of prior Seton clinic prevalent type of fistula, postoperative complications, fistula closure and impaired quality of life using the SF-36 test (v2. Results: From January 2011 to May 2013 have involved 23 patients, 12 men and 11 women, with an average age of 49 years and a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Two dropped out. 17 patients had low transsphincteric fistulas, 2 and 2 high transsphincteric intersphincteric with impaired continence. The most common symptom is the discharge. Twelve patients had a loose seton (62%, of which nine cured. Of all the patients we have operated the success rate is 62%. No patient developed incontinence after treatment. Only two reported a worse quality of life after surgery. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that there is a clear benefit to the use of Vivostat PRF® as a treatment for complex perianal fistulas. It is a highly reproducible technique with acceptable results and does not produce impairment of continence.

  16. The Chondrogenic Induction Potential for Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells between Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma and Common Chondrogenic Induction Agents: A Preliminary Comparative Study

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    Shan-zheng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interests in platelet-rich plasma (PRP and their application in stem cell therapy have contributed to a better understanding of the basic biology of the prochondrogenesis effect on bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs. We aimed at comparing the effect of autologous PRP with common chondrogenic induction agents (CCIAs on the chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Rabbit BMSCs were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry and differentiated towards adipocytes and osteoblasts. The chondrogenic response of BMSCs to autologous PRP and CCIAs which included transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, dexamethasone (DEX, and vitamin C (Vc was examined by cell pellet culture. The isolated BMSCs after two passages highly expressed CD29 and CD44 but minimally expressed CD45. The osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials of the isolated BMSCs were also confirmed. Compared with common CCIAs, autologous PRP significantly upregulated the chondrogenic related gene expression, including Col-2, AGC, and Sox-9. Osteogenic related gene expression, including Col-1 and OCN, was not of statistical significance between these two groups. Thus, our data shows that, compared with common chondrogenic induction agents, autologous PRP can be more effective in promoting the chondrogenesis of BMSCs.

  17. The efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma combined with erbium fractional laser therapy for facial acne scars or acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang-Ting; Xuan, Min; Zhang, Ya-Ni; Liu, Hong-Wei; Cai, Jin-Hui; Wu, Yan-Hong; Xiang, Xiao-Fei; Shan, Gui-Qiu; Cheng, Biao

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combined with erbium fractional laser therapy for facial acne or acne scars. PRP combined with erbium fractional laser therapy was used for the treatment of 22 patients, including 16 patients who suffered from facial acne scars and 6 patients who suffered from acne scars concomitant with acne. Whole blood (40 ml) was collected from each patient, and following differential centrifugation, PRP was harvested. After using an erbium fractional laser, we applied PRP to the entire face of every patient. Digital photos were taken before and after the treatment for evaluation by dermatologists and the patients rated the efficacy on a 5-point scale. The erythema was moderate or mild, while its total duration was 50%, and 91% of the patients were satisfied; no acne inflammation was observed after treatment. PRP combined with erbium fractional laser therapy is an effective and safe approach for treating acne scars or acne, with minimal side-effects, and it simultaneously enhanced the recovery of laser-damaged skin.

  18. Autologous Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma Dermal Injections for Facial Skin Rejuvenation: Clinical, Instrumental, and Flow Cytometry Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, Norma; Mariano, Maria; Cordone, Iole; Abril, Elva; Masi, Serena; Foddai, Maria Laura

    2017-06-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an emerging treatment in dermatology recently proposed for skin rejuvenation. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of autologous pure PRP dermal injections on facial skin rejuvenation, investigating the cellularity of PRP samples. Twelve patients underwent 3 sessions of PRP injection at 1-month intervals. The clinical and instrumental outcomes were evaluated before (T0) and 1 month (T1) after the end of treatment by means of transepidermal water loss, corneometry, Cutometer, Visioscan, and Visioface. A flow cytometry characterization on PRP and peripheral blood (PB) samples was performed. Clinical and patient evaluation showed improvement of skin texture. Skin gross elasticity, skin smoothness parameters, skin barrier function, and capacitance were significantly improved. No difference between PRP and PB lymphocyte immunological asset was observed. A leukocyte population (mainly CD3) and neutrophils depletion were documented in all the PRP samples. This instrumental study demonstrated that PRP poor in leukocytes can provide objective improvements in skin biostimulation. Flow cytometry showed no variability among the PRP samples using a reproducible separation system and a low content in proinflammatory cells. Although a pilot study, it may be helpful for future investigations on PRP cellularity.

  19. Performance of Llampuedken with short circuit and plasma loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui, Hernan; Mitchell, Ian H.; Aliaga-Rossel, Raul; Favre, Mario; Wyndham, Edmund S.

    2002-01-01

    Llampuedken is a pulsed power generator designed to deliver a 1 MA, 250 ns risetime current pulse into a dense plasma load. The main novel feature of this generator is the two auxiliary transmission lines which transmit the energy not absorbed by the load, reflect it at the open end of the line and deliver it to the load when the energy from the main lines is decreasing. With the auxiliary lines an increase of 30% on the current as well as a decrease of the voltage at the load is obtained. To date Llampuedken has been operated up to the 400 kA level, into both short circuit and plasma loads. Details of actual performance of the pulse power generator are presented and compared with simulations

  20. Functional assessment of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) after long-term storage at -20 °C without any preservation agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosnuter, Mubin; Aslan, Cem; Isik, Daghan; Caliskan, Gorkem; Arslan, Banu; Durgun, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is increasingly being used in the treatment of chronic wounds, pathologies of the musculoskeletal system, and in cosmetic medicine; however, the preparation of platelet-rich plasma is both time-consuming and requires invasive intervention. Additional costs are introduced if special equipment is used during preparation. The aim of the present study is to test whether autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preserves the feature of growth factor release when stored at -20 °C after preparation. Autologous PRP concentrates were prepared using whole blood samples obtained from 20 healthy subjects and divided into three parts to form three groups. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and P-Selectin levels were immediately analysed in the control group. The other groups were defined as the experimental groups and were stored at -20 °C and analysed on the 7th and the 14th days. The same growth factors were tested in the experimental groups. The growth factors (EGF, VEGF, PDGF-AB, IGF-1, TGF-β) and P-selectin levels were significantly decreased in the autologous PRP samples stored at -20 °C compared to the control group. The growth factor levels on days 7 and 14 suggest that autologous PRP can be stored at -20 °C without preservative agents, although in vivo studies are required in order to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the detected growth factor levels.

  1. Assessment of canine autologous platelet-rich plasma produced with a commercial centrifugation and platelet recovery kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Chris W; Enders, Andrew; Brooks, Marjory B; Struble, Angela M; Wakshlag, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the cellular composition (platelets, erythrocytes, and leukocytes) and confirm reproducibility of platelet enrichment, as well as determine the platelet activation status in the final product of a commercial platelet-rich plasma kit using canine blood. Venous blood from 20 sedated client-owned dogs was used to prepare platelet-rich plasma (PRP) from a commercial kit. Complete blood counts were performed to determine erythrocyte, leukocyte, and platelet numbers in both whole blood (WB) and resultant PRP. The WB and PRP samples from jugular (fast collection) and cephalic (slow collection) venipuncture were also compared. P-selectin externalization was measured in WB and PRP samples from 15 of 20 dogs. This commercial kit produced an average percent recovery in platelets of 64.7 ± 17.4; erythrocytes of 3.7 ± 0.8, and leukocytes of 31.6 ± 10.0. Neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte percent recovery was 19.6 ± 7.2, 44.89 ± 19.8, and 57.5 ± 10.6, respectively. The recovery of platelets from jugular venipuncture (59.7 ± 13.6%) was lower than from cephalic recovery (68.8 ± 19.1%). The mean percent P-Selectin externalization for WB, PRP, and PRP with thrombin was 25.5 ± 30.9, 4.5 ± 6.4, and 90.6 ± 4.4 respectively. Cellular reproducibility of this kit was confirmed and platelets were concentrated within autologous serum. Additionally, measurements of P-selectin externalization showed that platelets are inactive in PRP unless stimulated to degranulate.

  2. Autologous platelet-rich plasma reduces transfusions during ascending aortic arch repair: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shao Feng; Estrera, Anthony L; Loubser, Paul; Ignacio, Craig; Panthayi, Sreelatha; Miller, Charles; Sheinbaum, Roy; Safi, Hazim J

    2015-04-01

    Blood conservation using autologous platelet-rich plasma (aPRP), a technique of whole blood harvest that separates red blood cells from plasma and platelets before cardiopulmonary bypass with retransfusion of the preserved platelets after completion of cardiopulmonary bypass, has not been studied extensively. We sought to prospectively determine whether aPRP reduces blood transfusions during ascending and transverse aortic arch repair. We randomly assigned 80 patients undergoing elective ascending and transverse aortic arch repair using deep hypothermic circulatory arrest to receive either aPRP (n = 38) or no aPRP (n = 42). Volume of aPRP retransfused was 726 ± 124 mL. The primary end point was transfusion amount. Secondary end points were death, stroke, renal failure, pulmonary failure, and transfusion costs. Perioperative transfusion rate was defined as blood transfusions given during surgery and up to 72 hours afterward. The surgeon and intensivist were blinded to the treatment arm. Because an anesthesiologist initiated the protocol, the surgeon was not aware of aPRP collection, as this occurred only after the sterile drape was in place. In addition, because cell salvage was performed on all cases, differentiation in perfusionist activities (during spinning of aPRP) was not evident. Platelet, fresh frozen plasma, and cryoprecipitate intraoperative transfusions were performed only after heparin was reversed and the patient was judged as coagulopathic on the basis of associated criteria: cryoprecipitate transfusion for fibrinogen level less than 150 μg/dL, platelet transfusion for platelet count less than 80,000, and fresh frozen plasma when thromboelastogram test was suggestive or a partial thromboplastin time was greater than 55 seconds, and prothrombin time was greater than 1.6 seconds. Early mortality, stroke, and respiratory complications were similar between groups. Only acute renal failure was reduced in the aPRP group, 7% versus 0% (p platelets by 56

  3. Treatment of a Refractory Skin Ulcer Using Punch Graft and Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma

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    Mauro Carducci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic ulceration of the lower legs is a relatively common condition amongst adults: one that causes pain and social distress and results in considerable healthcare and personal costs. The technique of punch grafting offers an alternative approach to the treatment of ulcers of the lower limbs. Objective. Combining platelet-rich plasma and skin graft enhances the efficacy of treating chronic diabetic wounds by enhancing healing rate and decreasing recurrence rate. Platelet-rich plasma could, by stimulating dermal regeneration, increase the take rate after skin grafting or speed up reepithelialization. Methods and Materials. The ulcer was prepared by removing fibrin with a curette and the edges of the ulcer were freshened. The platelet-rich plasma has been infiltrated on the bottom and edges of the ulcer. The punch grafts were placed in 5 mm holes arranged. The ulcer was medicated with hydrogel and a pressure dressing was removed after 8 days. Results. After a few days the patient did not report more pain. Granulation tissue appeared quickly between implants. Most of the grafts were viable in 2-3 weeks. The grafts gradually came together to close the ulcer and were completed in four months.

  4. Plasma Waves Associated with Mass-Loaded Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Plasma waves and instabilities are integrally involved with the plasma "pickup" process and the mass loading of the solar wind (thus the formation of ion tails and the magnetic tails). Anisotropic plasmas generated by solar wind-comet interactions (the bow shock, magnetic field pileup) cause the generation of plasma waves which in turn "smooth out" these discontinuities. The plasma waves evolve and form plasma turbulence. Comets are perhaps the best "laboratories" to study waves and turbulence because over time (and distance) one can identify the waves and their evolution. We will argue that comets in some ways are better laboratories than magnetospheres, interplanetary space and fusion devices to study nonlinear waves and their evolution.

  5. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops stimulates scarless regeneration compared to autologous serum in the ocular surface stromal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, E; de la Fuente, M; Muruzabal, F; Riestra, A; Merayo-Lloves, J; Orive, G

    2015-06-01

    Autologous serum (AS) eye drops was the first blood-derived product used for the treatment of corneal pathologies but nowadays PRGF arises as a novel interesting alternative to this type of diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the biological outcomes of autologous serum eye drops or Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops on corneal stromal keratocytes (HK) and conjunctival fibroblasts (HConF). To address this, blood from healthy donors was collected and processed to obtain autologous serum (AS) eye drops and plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops. Blood-derivates were aliquoted and stored at -80°C until use. PDGF-AB, VEGF, EGF, FGFb and TGF-β1 were quantified. The potential of PRGF and AS in promoting wound healing was evaluated by means of proliferation and migration assays in HK and HConF. Fibroblast cells were induced to myofibroblast differentiation after treatment with 2.5ng/mL of TGF-β1. The capability of PRGF and AS to prevent and inhibit TGF-β1-induced differentiation was evaluated. Results showed significant higher levels of all growth factors analyzed in PRGF eye drops compared to AS. Moreover, PRGF eye drops enhanced significantly the biological outcomes of both HK and HConF, and reduced TGF-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation in contrast to autologous serum eye drops (AS). In summary, these results suggest that PRGF exerts enhanced biological outcomes than AS. PRGF may improve the treatment of ocular surface wound healing minimizing the scar formation compared to AS. Results obtained herein suggest that PRGF protects and reverses the myofibroblast phenotype while promotes cell proliferation and migration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. INFLUENCE OF INTRAMUSCULAR APPLICATION OF AUTOLOGOUS CONDITIONED PLASMA ON SYSTEMIC CIRCULATING IGF-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Schippinger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP to increase levels of platelets and growth factors has been used for the treatment of sports injuries suggesting to improve healing and regeneration. This method offers some potential especially for elite athletes. However, the insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 is prohibited by the World Anti Doping Agency and, in addition, there may be a possible link between increased levels of IGF-1 and cancer risk. Aim of the study was to evaluate a systemic increase of IGF-1 after local intramuscular administration of PRP in young healthy moderately trained male subjects. Blood samples were drawn and PRP preparation was performed by means of centrifugation. Enriched plasma was injected into the gluteus muscle. Venous blood was collected and serum prepared before as well as after 0.5, 3 and 24 hours after PRP administration. IGF-1 analysis was performed applying an ELISA test kit. No significant systemic increase of mean IGF-1 was found after the PRP injection. Only one subject showed an increase after 24 h, but all IGF-1 values were found within reference limits. We conclude that a single intramuscular application of PRP does not significantly increase systemic IGF-1 levels. Therefore, a single application of PRP is safe with respect to systemic IGF-1 response and cancer risk and this should be allowed for treatment of muscle injuries in elite athletes

  7. Arthroscopic double row cuff repair with suture-bridging and autologous conditioned plasma injection: Functional and structural results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthel, Jean-David; Pelissier, Alexandre; Massin, Philippe; Boyer, Patrick; Valenti, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    The double row cuff repair with suture bridging is commonly used for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (RCR). Despite its biomechanical qualities, the rate of iterative tears with this technique is important. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) on functional results and on the rate of iterative tears after RCR by suture bridging. A consecutive series of 65 patients who underwent arthroscopic double-row suture bridge (Speed-Bridge, Arthrex) primary cuff repair of symptomatic full-thickness supraspinatus tear (retraction 4 were considered as iterative tears. Mean follow-up was 19 months (+/-42) in the 2 groups. The mean quantity of ACP injected was 6ml. (+/-1.5) and no specific complication of the injection was found. Mean preoperative Constant-Murley scores were 41,2 (±7,7) and 38 (±11)in group B. Mean normalized Constant-Murley score increased from 41 points (±7) pre-operatively to 70 points (±8) post-operatively in group A and from 38 points (±11) to 73 points (±11) in group B. There were no significative differences between the two groups (P > 0.05). In group A, 31 repairs were Sugaya 1-3 (94%), vs. 30 in group B (93%), and 1 was type 4 in group A (5%) vs. 2 in group B (8%). In both groups, RCR with suture bridging gave successful functional outcomes, with a low rate of iterative tear. In this preliminary study, the adjuvant effect of ACP injections could not be showed on both functional and structural results. Longer follow-up is needed to evaluate potential differences.

  8. Gait Changes Vary Among Horses with Naturally Occurring Osteoarthritis Following Intra-articular Administration of Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustajab Hussain Mirza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms to reduce lameness associated with osteoarthritis (OA are vital to equine health and performance. This study was designed to quantify response to autologous, intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP in horses with OA. Kinetic gait analysis was performed on 12 horses with unilateral forelimb lameness and OA in the same limb before and after intra-articular anesthesia (IAA. Radiographs and kinetic data were obtained before, 6 and 16 weeks after PRP administration to same joint 4 weeks after IAA. Statistical evaluations included filtration effect on platelet concentration, relationship between kinetic variable changes after IAA versus PRP in the affected limb, and associations between response to PRP and response to IAA, platelet concentration and radiographic OA. A positive response to IAA or PRP was defined as ≥5% improvement in peak vertical force, vertical impulse or breaking impulse of the affected limb. Out of 10 horses that responded to IAA, 4 responded to PRP at both time points and 2 responded at one. Of 2 horses that did not respond to IAA, one responded to PRP at both time points. Filtration increased platelet concentration significantly. The relationship between kinetic variable alterations of the affected limb after IAA and PRP was not significant, and response to PRP was not associated with response to IAA, platelet concentration or radiographic OA. Changes in kinetic variables following IAA in joints with naturally occurring OA provide a custom standard to assess intra-articular therapy. Kinetic gait changes after intra-articular PRP are variable in horses with moderate to severe forelimb OA.

  9. Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma for the Treatment of Pattern Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Babu; Goldberg, Lynne J

    2016-08-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a solution derived from whole blood that is enriched in the platelet fraction. Platelets serve as a reservoir of growth factors and cytokines. When platelets are activated in vivo, signaling molecules are released into the immediate microenvironment and activate receptors for various pathways. Historically, PRP has been applied to wound beds to promote healing of complex wounds. Over the last decade, it has served as a valuable therapeutic tool in various specialties such as maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgery, orthopedics and sports medicine. Only recently has PRP been utilized for dermatologic purposes, more specifically, for the treatment of male and female pattern hair loss. In this review, we discuss molecular and cellular pathways upregulated by PRP important in hair folliculogenesis, and examine clinical evidence from all previously published studies involving the use of PRP for pattern hair loss.

  10. Effects of heat-treatment on plasma rich in growth factors-derived autologous eye drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, E; Muruzabal, F; De la Fuente, M; Merayo-Lloves, J; Orive, G

    2014-02-01

    We have developed and characterized a new type of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) derived eye-drop therapy for patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. To determine the concentration of several growth factors, proteins, immunoglobulins and complement activity of the heat-inactivated eye-drop and to study its biological effects on cell proliferation and migration of different ocular surface cells, blood from healthy donors was collected, centrifuged and PRGF was prepared avoiding the buffy coat. The half volume of the obtained plasma supernatant from each donor was heat-inactivated at 56 °C for 1 h (heat-inactivated PRGF). The concentration of several proteins involved on corneal wound healing, immunoglubolins G, M and E and functional integrity of the complement system assayed by CH50 test were determined. The proliferative and migratory potential of inactivated and non-inactivated PRGF eye drops were assayed on corneal epithelial cells (HCE), keratocytes (HK) and conjunctival fibroblasts (HConF). Heat-inactivated PRGF preserves the content of most of the proteins and morphogens involved in its wound healing effects while reduces drastically the content of IgE and complement activity. Heat-inactivated PRGF eye drops increased proliferation and migration potential of ocular surface cells with regard to PRGF showing significant differences on proliferation and migration rate of HCE and HConF respectively. In summary, heat-inactivation of PRGF eye drops completely reduced complement activity and deceased significantly the presence of IgE, maintaining the biological activity of PRGF on ocular surface cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Heat Loads On Tore Supra ICRF Launchers Plasma Facing Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremond, S.; Colas, L.; Chantant, M.; Beaumont, B.; Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Moreau, P.; Mitteau, R.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the heat loads on Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency launchers plasma facing components is a crucial task both for operating present tokamaks and for designing ITER ICRF launchers as these loads may limit the RF power coupling capability. Tore Supra facility is particularly well suited to take this issue. Parametric studies have been performed which enables to get an overall detailed picture of the different heat loads on several areas, pointing to different mechanisms at the origin of the heat power fluxes. Lessons are drawned both with regards to Tore Supra possible operational limits and to ITER ICRF launcher design

  12. Serological analysis of patients treated with a new surgical hemostat containing bovine proteins and autologous plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P A; Powers, J N; Estridge, T D; Elder, E A; Alea, A D; Sidhu, P K; Sehl, L C; DeLustro, F A

    2001-01-01

    A randomized, controlled clinical study of the management of diffuse bleeding with CoStasis surgical hemostat, a new hemostat containing bovine thrombin and collagen with the patient's own plasma, included patients undergoing cardiac, hepatic, iliac, and general surgery. Sera from 92 patients treated with CoStasis and 84 control patients were collected preoperatively and at a post surgical follow-up of 8 weeks. Among the control group, 57 patients were treated with Instat collagen sponge in noncardiac indications. Results showed that antibody responses in the CoStasis clinical study were similar to the reported literature for all antigens screened and were not associated with any adverse reactions. The bovine thrombin preparations in CoStasis and other commercially available thrombins were compared with the use of SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses. Within this clinical study, CoStasis was shown to be a safe and effective hemostatic product containing bovine thrombin and bovine collagen and no pooled human blood products. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Autologous Conditioned Plasma Versus Placebo Injection Therapy in Lateral Epicondylitis of the Elbow: A Double Blind, Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffl, Volker; Willauschus, Wolfgang; Sauer, Felix; Küpper, Thomas; Schöffl, Isabelle; Lutter, Christoph; Gelse, Kolja; Dickschas, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Introduction  There are various therapeutic approaches to the treatment of lateral epicondylitis, a highly prevalent musculoskeletal disorder. Recently, injection therapy with autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) has shown promise as a new approach. Methods  Set up as a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial, this study involved 50 patients with lateral epicondylitis. Following external randomization, 25 patients received one round of injection therapy with ACP (platelet rich plasma, PRP), while the remaining 25 patients received a placebo of 0.9 % NaCl. All patients were re-evaluated with respect to lateral epicondylitis of the elbow at four-weeks and six-months post-injection. Results  Out of 50 patients, 36 qualified for reevaluation, 18 patients from the ACP therapy group and 18 from the placebo group. The initial Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score for all reevaluated patients was 36.4 in the ACP group, and 41.0 in the placebo group; both groups exhibited decreased DASH scores at the four-week and six-month post-injection follow-up (6 months: ACP 30.1, placebo 25.8). The decrease of the DASH score after 4 weeks was greater and qualified as statistically significant in the placebo group (p = 0.041), compared to the DASH score decrease in the ACP treatment group, which was statistically non-significant. Additionally, the difference between the DASH scores of the treatment and placebo groups was statistically non-significant four weeks and six months after treatment. Discussion  The results of this study suggest a therapeutic effect in both the ACP and placebo groups, with no evidence for a therapeutically significant difference between ACP and placebo treatments. It is hypothesized that, in accordance with the study protocols, injection with a local anaesthetic prior to ACP therapy may have an influence on the therapeutic effect of ACP. Future studies have to confirm recent findings that demonstrated a

  14. Effect of activated autologous platelet-rich plasma on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang-Tian; Li, Hong-Mian; Yin, Qing-Shui; Liang, Zhi-Jie; Huang, Min-Hong; Chi, Guang-Yi; Huang, Lu; Liu, Da-Lie; Nan, Hua

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can promote proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. hASCs were isolated from lipo-aspirates, and characterized by specific cell markers and multilineage differentiation capacity after culturing to the 3rd passage. PRP was collected and activated from human peripheral blood of the same patient. Cultured hASCs were treated with normal osteogenic inductive media alone (group A, control) or osteogenic inductive media plus 5%, 10%, 20%, 40%PRP (group B, C, D, E, respectively). Cell proliferation was assessed by CCK-8 assay. mRNA expression of osteogenic marker genes including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN) and core binding factor alpha 1 (Cbfa1) were determined by Real-Time Quantitative PCR Analysis (qPCR). Data revealed that different concentrations of activated autologous PRP significantly promoted hASCs growth in the proliferation phase compared to the without PRP group and resulted in a dose-response relationship. At 7-d and 14-d time point of the osteogenic induced stage, ALP activity in PRP groups gradually increased with the increasing of concentrations of PRP and showed that dose-response relationship. At 21-d time point of the osteogenic induced stage, PRP groups make much more mineralization and mRNA relative expression of ALP, OPN, OCN and Cbfa1 than that without PRP groups and show that dose-response relationship. This study indicated that different concentrations of activated autologous PRP can promote cell proliferation at earlier stage and promote osteogenic differentiation at later stage of hASCs in vitro. Moreover, it displayed a dose-dependent effect of activated autologous PRP on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hASCs in vitro. PMID:25901195

  15. A New Technique for the Treatment of Lumbar Facet Joint Syndrome Using Intra-articular Injection with Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiuping; Du, Zhenwu; Lv, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Xiong, Wei; Wang, Ruiqiang; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Guizhen; Liu, Qinyi

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar facet joint syndrome is currently suggested to be a main source of axial low back pain, and a large portion of axial low back pain is caused by disorders in lumbar facet joints. Intra-articular injection is one of the most common treatment methods in the early clinical application. Therefore, we attempt to seek a new injectable material, autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP), to treat lumbar facet syndrome, as well as to assess its therapeutic effectiveness and safety. A prospective clinic evaluation. The outpatient clinic of a single academic medical center. Total 19 patients with lumbar facet joint syndrome (8 men, 11 women; mean ages: 52.53 ± 6.79 years, range: 38 - 62 years) were enrolled to receive lumbar facet joint injection with autologous PRP under x-ray fluoroscopic control. Patients were followed up immediately, at one week, one month, 2 months, and 3 months following treatment, and the elements of this analysis included low back pain visual analogue scale (VAS) at rest and during flexion, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and modified MacNab criteria for the pain relief. All the 19 patients completed the intra-articular injections with autologous PRP successfully. At one week after treatment, low back pain reduced significantly compared with prior to treatment both at rest and during flexion. The outcomes were assessed as "good" or "excellent" for 9 patients (47.37%) immediately after treatment, 14 patients (73.68%) at one week, 15 patients (78.95%) at one month, 15 patients (78.95%) at 2 months, and 15 patients (78.95%) at 3 months. Statistically significant differences were observed based on RMQ and a more than 10% improvement in lumbar functional capacity was observed based on ODI between pre-treatment and post-treatment. In addition, there were no severe relevant complications during the whole process of injection and follow-up period. A control group and the curative effect observations with

  16. The effect of autologous activated platelet-rich plasma injection on female pattern hair loss: A randomized placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Abeer Attia; Osman, Mai Abdel Raouf

    2018-02-01

    Hair is an essential part of a woman's appearance and attractiveness. This is reflected in the predominantly psychological morbidity that can be associated with female pattern hair loss. Platelet-rich plasma(PRP) has been used in numerous fields of medicine. Recently, PRP has received growing attention as a potential therapeutic tool for hair loss. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of autologous platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of female pattern hair loss. Thirty female patients with female pattern hair loss were randomly assigned to receive autologous PRP injection into a selected area, and another area was injected with normal saline as a placebo. Sessions were performed weekly for a maximum total of four sessions. Patients were followed up 6 months after the end of last session. The outcome was assessed both subjectively and objectively. There was a statistical significant difference between PRP and placebo areas (Phair density and hair thickness as measured by a folliscope. The hair pull test became negative in PRP-injected areas in 25 patients (83%) with average number of three hairs. Global pictures showed a significant improvement in hair volume and quality together with a high overall patient satisfaction in PRP-injected sites, and these results were maintained during the 6-month follow- up. Platelet-rich plasma injections can be regarded as an alternative for the treatment of female pattern hair loss with minimal morbidity and a low cost-to-benefit ratio. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Plasma-particle interaction effects in induction plasma modelling under dense loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proulx, P.; Mostaghimi, J.; Boulos, M.

    1983-07-01

    The injection of solid particles or aerosol droplets in the fire-ball of an inductively coupled plasma can substantially perturb the plasma and even quench it under high loading conditions. This can be mainly attributed to the local cooling of the plasma by the particles or their vapour cloud, combined with the possible change of the thermodynamic and transport properties of the plasma in the presence of the particle vapour. This paper reports the state-of-the-art in the mathematical modelling of the induction plasma. A particle-in-cell model is used in order to combine the continuum approach for the calculation of the flow, temperature and concentration fields in the plasma, with the stochastic single particle approach, for the calculation of the particle trajectories and temperature histories. Results are given for an argon induction plasma under atmospheric pressure in which fine copper particles are centrally injected in the coil region of the discharge

  18. Does autologous leukocyte-platelet-rich plasma improve tendon healing in arthroscopic repair of large or massive rotator cuff tears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charousset, Christophe; Zaoui, Amine; Bellaïche, Laurence; Piterman, Michel

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcome of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with the use of leukocyte-platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP) in patients with large or massive rotator cuff tears. A comparative cohort of patients with large or massive rotator cuff tears undergoing arthroscopic repair was studied. Two consecutive groups of patients were included: rotator cuff repairs with L-PRP injection (group 1, n = 35) and rotator cuff repairs without L-PRP injection (group 2, n = 35). A double-row cross-suture cuff repair was performed by a single surgeon with the same rehabilitation protocol. Patients were clinically evaluated with the Constant score; Simple Shoulder Test score; University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) score; and strength measurements by use of a handheld dynamometer. Rotator cuff healing was evaluated by postoperative MRI using the Sugaya classification (type 1 to type 5). We prospectively evaluated the 2 groups at a minimum 2-year follow-up. The results did not show differences in cuff healing between the 2 groups (P = .16). The size of recurrent tears (type 4 v type 5), however, was significantly smaller in group 1 (P = .008). There was no statistically significant difference in the recurrent tear rate (types 4 and 5) between the 2 groups (P = .65). There was no significant difference between group 1 and group 2 in terms of University of California, Los Angeles score (29.1 and 30.3, respectively; P = .90); Simple Shoulder Test score (9.9 and 10.2, respectively; P = .94); Constant score (77.3 and 78.1, respectively; P = .82); and strength (7.5 and 7.0, respectively; P = .51). In our study the use of autologous L-PRP did not improve the quality of tendon healing in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of large or massive rotator cuff tears based on postoperative MRI evaluation. The only significant advantage was that the L-PRP patients had smaller iterative tears. However, the functional outcome was similar in

  19. Heat loads on Tore Supra ICRF Launchers Plasma Facing Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremond, S.; Colas, L.; Beaumont, B.; Chantant, M.; Goniche, M.; Mitteau, R.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the heat loads on Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) launchers plasma-facing components is a crucial task both for operating present tokamaks and for designing ITER ICRF launchers as these loads may limit the RF power coupling capability. Tore Supra facility is particularly well suited to take this issue. Parametric studies have been performed which enables to get an overall detailed picture of the different heat loads on several areas, pointing to different mechanisms at the origin of the heat power fluxes. It is found that the most critical items for Tore-Supra operation are localized heat loads on the Faraday screen top left corner and vertical edges. Warming up close to maximum temperature limit originally set for protection of the plasma-facing components is found of high power pulses, but no erosion was observed after detailed inspection of the launcher in Tore-Supra vessel. Yet, the associated heat loads could be limiting for Tore-Supra operation in the future, and some dedicated work is under progress to improve the understanding of these power fluxes, pointing out the importance of getting a better knowledge of particle flows in the scrape of layer

  20. Use of autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) in stopping massive hemoptysis at the Lung Center of the Philippines: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Armand Gregorio C; Danguilan, Jose Luis J; Mariano, Zenaida M; Barzaga, Maria Teresa A

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of using autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) in patients having massive hemoptysis within a period of one week. This is a prospective cohort study involving 20 consecutive patients admitted who met the criteria for massive hemoptysis from July to October 2011. After stabilizing the patient, fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) was performed for localization of bleeding within 6 hours from diagnosis. A 50mL of blood was extracted from the patient whom was to be used for autologous PRP concentrate. After identifying the anatomic site of bleeding, autologous PRP concentrate was instilled on the affected bronchus and was allowed to stay for 5 minutes after instillation. Patients were then monitored from the time the bleeding stopped in the first 24 hours, 2 days and 7 days respectively. Mean age of the study population with massive hemoptysis was 47 years old (SD 17.3). Majority of cases were male 18 out of 20 (90%) and smokers 14 (70%) with a normal BMI (75%). Identification of bleeding site was more commonly seen on the right upper lobe 9 out of 20 (45%). Overall, 14 out of 20 patients (70%) were reported to have stopped bleeding immediately. Subsequent hospital days showed that 8 out of 20 patients (40%) had no hemoptysis. However, one [1] post-tuberculosis (TB) bronchiectatic patient had recurrence of massive hemoptysis, approximately 250 mL per expectorate, expired within the 7 days observation and one patient had lobectomy on the 2nd day. The rest had non-massive hemoptysis wherein their expectorations were only streaks of blood. Moreover, there was one [1] patient who had recurrence of massive hemoptysis 1 week after autologous PRP infusion and was eventually intubated. Majority of the subjects, eleven [11] were diagnosed to have post-TB bronchiectasis. The rest of the patients were worked-up prior to operation. Overall, it was observed that the use of autologous PRP was able to stop bleeding in 40% of the study

  1. Erosion of beryllium under ITER – Relevant transient plasma loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Nikolaev, G.N.; Kurbatova, L.A.; Porezanov, N.P.; Podkovyrov, V.L.; Muzichenko, A.D.; Zhitlukhin, A.M.; Gervash, A.A.; Safronov, V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the erosion, mass loss/gain and surface structure evolution of Be/CuCrZr mock-ups, armored with beryllium of TGP-56FW grade after irradiation by deuterium plasma heat load of 0.5 MJ/m 2 at 250 °C and 500 °C. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 250 °C is rather small (no more than 0.2 g/m 2 shot and 0.11 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 40 shots) and tends to decrease with increasing number of shots. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 500 °C is much higher (∼2.3 g/m 2 shot and 1.2 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 10 shot) and tends to decrease with increasing the number of shots (∼0.26 g/m 2 pulse and 0.14 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 100 shot). • Beryllium erosion value derived from the measurements of profile of irradiated surface is much higher than erosion value derived from mass loss data. - Abstract: Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2–0.5 MJ/m 2 at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology

  2. Erosion of beryllium under ITER – Relevant transient plasma loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B., E-mail: igkupr@gmail.com [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova St. 5a, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nikolaev, G.N.; Kurbatova, L.A.; Porezanov, N.P. [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova St. 5a, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Podkovyrov, V.L.; Muzichenko, A.D.; Zhitlukhin, A.M. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow reg. (Russian Federation); Gervash, A.A. [Efremov Research Institute, S-Peterburg (Russian Federation); Safronov, V.M. [Project Center of ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We study the erosion, mass loss/gain and surface structure evolution of Be/CuCrZr mock-ups, armored with beryllium of TGP-56FW grade after irradiation by deuterium plasma heat load of 0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} at 250 °C and 500 °C. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 250 °C is rather small (no more than 0.2 g/m{sup 2} shot and 0.11 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 40 shots) and tends to decrease with increasing number of shots. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 500 °C is much higher (∼2.3 g/m{sup 2} shot and 1.2 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 10 shot) and tends to decrease with increasing the number of shots (∼0.26 g/m{sup 2} pulse and 0.14 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 100 shot). • Beryllium erosion value derived from the measurements of profile of irradiated surface is much higher than erosion value derived from mass loss data. - Abstract: Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2–0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology.

  3. Simulation of plasma loading of high-pressure RF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; Samulyak, R.; Yonehara, K.; Freemire, B.

    2018-01-01

    Muon beam-induced plasma loading of radio-frequency (RF) cavities filled with high pressure hydrogen gas with 1% dry air dopant has been studied via numerical simulations. The electromagnetic code SPACE, that resolves relevant atomic physics processes, including ionization by the muon beam, electron attachment to dopant molecules, and electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, has been used. Simulations studies have been performed in the range of parameters typical for practical muon cooling channels.

  4. Simulation of plasma loading of high-pressure RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Computational Science Initiative; Samulyak, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Computational Science Initiative; Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Statistics; Yonehara, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Freemire, B. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2018-01-11

    Muon beam-induced plasma loading of radio-frequency (RF) cavities filled with high pressure hydrogen gas with 1% dry air dopant has been studied via numerical simulations. The electromagnetic code SPACE, that resolves relevant atomic physics processes, including ionization by the muon beam, electron attachment to dopant molecules, and electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, has been used. Simulations studies have also been performed in the range of parameters typical for practical muon cooling channels.

  5. Heat loads on plasma facing components during disruptions on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnoux, G.; Riccardo, V.; Fundamenski, W.; Loarte, A.; Huber, A.

    2009-01-01

    For the first time, fast measurements of heat loads on the main chamber plasma facing components (about 1 ms time resolution) during disruptions are taken on JET. The timescale of energy deposition during the thermal quench is estimated and compared with the timescale of the core plasma collapse measured with soft x-ray diagnostic. The energy deposition time is 3-8 times longer than the plasma energy collapse during density limit disruptions or radiative limit disruptions. This factor is rather in the range 1.5-4 for vertical displacement events. The heat load profiles measured during the thermal quench show substantial broadening of the power footprint on the upper dump plate. The scrape-off layer power width is increased by a factor of 3 for the density limit disruptions. The far scrape-off layer is characterized by a steeper gradient which could be explained by shadowing of the dump plate by other main chamber plasma facing components such as the outer limiter.

  6. Erosion of beryllium under ITER - Relevant transient plasma loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriyanov, I. B.; Nikolaev, G. N.; Kurbatova, L. A.; Porezanov, N. P.; Podkovyrov, V. L.; Muzichenko, A. D.; Zhitlukhin, A. M.; Gervash, A. A.; Safronov, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2-0.5 MJ/m2 at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology.

  7. Treatment of Knee Osteochondral Lesions Using a Novel Clot of Autologous Plasma Rich in Growth Factors Mixed with Healthy Hyaline Cartilage Chips and Intra-Articular Injection of PRGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugat, Ramón; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Steinbacher, Gilbert; Álvarez-Díaz, Pedro; Cuscó, Xavier; Seijas, Roberto; Barastegui, David; Navarro, Jordi; Laiz, Patricia; García-Balletbó, Montserrat

    2017-01-01

    Knee cartilage or osteochondral lesions are common and challenging injuries. To date, most symptomatic lesions warrant surgical treatment. We present two cases of patients with knee osteochondral defects treated with a one-step surgical procedure consisting of an autologous-based matrix composed of healthy hyaline cartilage chips, mixed plasma poor-rich in platelets clot, and plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF). Both patients returned to playing soccer at the preinjury activity level and demonstrated excellent defect filling in both magnetic resonance imaging and second-look arthroscopy (in one of them). The use of a clot of autologous plasma poor in platelets with healthy hyaline cartilage chips and intra-articular injection of plasma rich in platelets is an effective, easy, and cheap option to treat knee cartilage injuries in young and athletic patients.

  8. Treatment of Knee Osteochondral Lesions Using a Novel Clot of Autologous Plasma Rich in Growth Factors Mixed with Healthy Hyaline Cartilage Chips and Intra-Articular Injection of PRGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Cugat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Knee cartilage or osteochondral lesions are common and challenging injuries. To date, most symptomatic lesions warrant surgical treatment. We present two cases of patients with knee osteochondral defects treated with a one-step surgical procedure consisting of an autologous-based matrix composed of healthy hyaline cartilage chips, mixed plasma poor-rich in platelets clot, and plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF. Both patients returned to playing soccer at the preinjury activity level and demonstrated excellent defect filling in both magnetic resonance imaging and second-look arthroscopy (in one of them. The use of a clot of autologous plasma poor in platelets with healthy hyaline cartilage chips and intra-articular injection of plasma rich in platelets is an effective, easy, and cheap option to treat knee cartilage injuries in young and athletic patients.

  9. Efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma combined with fractional ablative carbon dioxide resurfacing laser in treatment of facial atrophic acne scars: A split-face randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gita Faghihi; Shima Keyvan; Ali Asilian; Saeid Nouraei; Shadi Behfar; Mohamad Ali Nilforoushzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Autologous platelet-rich plasma has recently attracted significant attention throughout the medical field for its wound-healing ability. Aims: This study was conducted to investigate the potential of platelet-rich plasma combined with fractional laser therapy in the treatment of acne scarring. Methods: Sixteen patients (12 women and 4 men) who underwent split-face therapy were analyzed in this study. They received ablative fractional carbon dioxide laser combined with intradermal ...

  10. Autologous plasma rich in growth factors in the prevention of severe bleeding after teeth extractions in patients with bleeding disorders: a controlled comparison with fibrin glue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocero, Nadia; Pucci, Fabrizio; Messina, Maria; Pollio, Berardino; Mozzati, Marco; Bergamasco, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental extractions in haemophiliacs may cause secondary bleeding, requiring repeated surgical and haematological interventions. As a local haemostatic, fibrin glue has recognised efficacy but, as a plasma-derived product, it carries the risk of viral infections. We, therefore, compared fibrin glue with an autologous haemostatic, plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF), in a controlled trial. Material and methods One hundred and twenty patients with different blood disorders were randomised into two cohorts to undergo dental extraction procedures without hospitalisation. Prior to the extractions, patients underwent systemic haematological treatment. Complications were defined as secondary bleeding after the 7-day follow-up period or protracting after the repair procedure. Results There were 106 extractions (7 retained 3rd molars) in the group managed with fibrin glue: secondary bleeding affected 3/60 patients (5%) on the third day after extraction and necessitated additional surgery and systemic treatment (in one case the procedure had to be repeated on the 7th day). In the PRGF arm there were 98 extractions (23 retained 3rd molars): secondary bleeding affected two patients (3.3%) on the first day after extraction and was arrested with surgery without systemic treatment. Four out of the five secondary bleeds occurred in patients with haemophilia A. Concomitant diabetes or liver disease significantly increased the bleeding risk. Discussion The bleeding rates in the study and control arm prove that PRGF works as well as fibrin glue as a local haemostatic. Further assets are that PRGF has autologous origin, does not require additional systemic treatment in post-extraction repair surgery, is associated with an earlier onset of neo-angiogenesis and, overall, can reduce patients’ distress and costs to the health system. PMID:25369587

  11. The efficacy of autologous platelet rich plasma combined with ablative carbon dioxide fractional resurfacing for acne scars: a simultaneous split-face trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Woong; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam; Mun, Seog Kyun

    2011-07-01

    Ablative carbon dioxide (CO(2) ) fractional resurfacing is a promising therapeutic intervention for the treatment of acne scars, although this technique is associated with prolonged surgical site erythema and edema, which may affect the daily lives of patients. Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is known to enhance wound healing and has applications in many areas of medicine. To evaluate the synergistic effects of autologous PRP with CO(2) fractional resurfacing for acne scars. A split-face trial was conducted in 14 Korean participants with acne scars. All participants received one session of ablative CO(2) fractional resurfacing. Immediately after resurfacing, facial halves were randomly assigned to receive treatment with autologous PRP injections on one side (experimental side) and normal saline injections on the other side (control side). The participants were monitored for degree of recovery and resurfacing-associated adverse events, including prolonged erythema, edema, and other effects on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 15, and 30. The intensity of erythema was objectively measured using a chromometer at the same time intervals. After one additional treatment session using the same protocol, two independent dermatologists evaluated clinical improvement using a quartile grading scale. All participants completed the study. Erythema on the experimental side improved faster than on the control side and was significantly less at day 4 (p=.01). This difference was confirmed using a chromometer (p=.049). Total duration of erythema was an average of 10.4±2.7 days on the control side and 8.6±2.0 days on the experimental side (p=.047). Edema also improved faster on the experimental side than on the control side. The total duration of edema was an average of 7.1±1.5 days on the control side and 6.1±1.1 days on the experimental side (p=.04). Participants were also assessed for duration of post-treatment crusting, with a mean of 6.8±1.0 days on the control side and 5.9±1

  12. Antibacterial Properties of Silver-Loaded Plasma Polymer Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploux, L.; Mateescu, M.; Anselme, K.; Vasilev, K.

    2012-01-01

    In a previous paper, we proposed new silver nanoparticles (SNPs) based antibacterial coatings able to protect eukaryotic cells from SNPs related toxic effects, while preserving antibacterial efficiency. A SNPs containing n-heptylamine (HA) polymer matrix was deposited by plasma polymerization and coated by a second HA layer. In this paper, we elucidate the antibacterial action of these new coatings. We demonstrated that SNPs-loaded material can be covered by thin HA polymer layer without losing the antibacterial activity to planktonic bacteria living in the near surroundings of the material. SNPs-containing materials also revealed antibacterial effect on adhered bacteria. Adhered bacteria number was significantly reduced compared to pure HA plasma polymer and the physiology of the bacteria was affected. The number of adhered bacteria directly decreased with thickness of the second HA layer. Surprisingly, the quantity of cultivable bacteria harvested by transfer to nutritive agar decreased not only with the presence of SNPs, but also in relation to the covering HA layer thickness, that is, oppositely to the increase in adhered bacteria number. Two hypotheses are proposed for this surprising result (stronger attachment or weaker vitality), which raises the question of the diverse potential ways of action of SNPs entrapped in a polymer matrix.

  13. Plasma arginine vasopressin response to water load during labour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhi, Sunit; Parshad, Omkar

    1985-01-01

    To find out whether plasma vasopressin (Psub(AVP)) response to a water load during pregnancy is inappropriately high, as had been speculated, we measured Psub(AVP)by radioimmunoassay in 30 women at the time of delivery. Ten women had received infusion of aqueous glucose solution during labour for hydration (GW group); another ten received infusion of glucose solution as a vehicle for oxytocin (IOT group), and ten women did not receive any intrapartum intravenous fluid therapy (controls). Serum sodium and osmolality were also determined in all the subjects. Psub(AVP) levels were significantly lower in GW (0.70 +- 0.4 pg/ml) and OT groups (0.7 +- 0.6 pg/ml) (P<0.05). Significant negative correlation was seen between the amount of glucose solution infused and levels of Psub(AVP) (r = -0.66; P<0.01), while a significant positive correlation was seen between Psub(AVP) and serum sodium (r = 0.61; P<0.01). These findings suggest that during labour, the physiological relationship between serum osmolality and Psub(AVP) in intact, and the infusion of a water load in the form of aqueous glucose solution is attended by an expected lowering of Psub(AVP). We infer that inappropriate ADH response is not the cause of water retention and hyponatremia often seen in women receiving aqueous glucose solution during labor. (author)

  14. Plasma arginine vasopressin response to water load during labour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhi, S. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Dept. of Child Health); Parshad, O. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Dept. of Physiology)

    1985-02-01

    To find out whether plasma vasopressin (Psub(AVP)) response to a water load during pregnancy is inappropriately high, as had been speculated, we measured Psub(AVP)by radioimmunoassay in 30 women at the time of delivery. Ten women had received infusion of aqueous glucose solution during labour for hydration (GW group); another ten received infusion of glucose solution as a vehicle for oxytocin (IOT group), and ten women did not receive any intrapartum intravenous fluid therapy (controls). Serum sodium and osmolality were also determined in all the subjects. Psub(AVP) levels were significantly lower in GW (0.70 +- 0.4 pg/ml) and OT groups (0.7 +- 0.6 pg/ml) (P < 0.05). Significant negative correlation was seen between the amount of glucose solution infused and levels of Psub(AVP) (r = -0.66; P < 0.01), while a significant positive correlation was seen between Psub(AVP) and serum sodium (r = 0.61; P < 0.01). These findings suggest that during labour, the physiological relationship between serum osmolality and Psub(AVP) in intact, and the infusion of a water load in the form of aqueous glucose solution is attended by an expected lowering of Psub(AVP). We infer that inappropriate ADH response is not the cause of water retention and hyponatremia often seen in women receiving aqueous glucose solution during labor.

  15. Comparison of the Efficacy of Homologous and Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) for Treating Androgenic Alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Bilsev; Yildirim, Mehmet Emin Cem; Dadaci, Mehmet; Avunduk, Mustafa Cihat; Savaci, Nedim

    2018-02-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), the most common cause of hair loss in both sexes, accounts for 95% of all cases of hair loss. Although the literature has suggested that both nonactivated (n-PRP) and activated autologous (a-PRP) PRP can be used to treat AGA, we did not find any study investigating the use of homologous PRP (h-PRP) for this purpose. Also, to the best of our knowledge, there are no studies comparing the efficacy of h-PRP, a-PRP, or n-PRP on AGA therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the increase in hair density, average number of platelets, complications, preparation, and duration of application in the treatment of AGA using a-PRP, n-PRP, and h-PRP. Between 2014 and 2015, we studied male patients who had experienced increased hair loss in the last year. Patients were divided into three groups: Group 1 received n-PRP, Group 2 received active PRP, and Group 3 received h-PRP. For Group 1, PRP was prepared by a single centrifugation prepared from the patient's own blood. For Group 2, the PRP was prepared from the patient's own blood, but a second centrifugation was applied for platelet activation with calcium chloride. For Group 3, the PRP was prepared from pooled platelets with the same blood group as the patient from the blood center. PRP was injected at 1, 2, and 6 months. The hair density (n/cm 2 ) of each patient before and after injection was calculated. Each patient was assigned a fixed evaluation point at the time of application to calculate hair density. At 2, 6, and 12 months after the first treatment, the increase in hair density was calculated as 11.2, 26.1, and 32.4%, respectively, in Group 1; 8.1, 12.5, and 20.8%, respectively, in Group 2; and 16.09, 36.41, and 41.76%, respectively, in Group 3. The increase in hair density was statistically significantly greater in Group 1 than in Group 2 and more so in Group 3 than in both groups among all controls (p PRP was greater than with autologous PRP groups. We believe that h-PRP therapy can

  16. Examining the effects of platelet-rich plasma and platelet-rich fibrin on autologous full thickness skin graft survival in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorahmad Latifi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Graft survival has been considered the major problem in reconstructive surgery. Clinical studies have helped us to understand the role of PRP in increasing skin survival. Our goal in this study was to examine the treatment effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF on autologous full thickness skin graft survival in male rats. Methods: This experimental study was performed on 36 rats of Sprague-Dawley race with weighing approximately 250 to 300 gr on May 2015 in animal laboratory of Hazrat Fatima Hospital. After anesthesia, rats were divided into 3 groups. We injected platelet-rich plasma (PRP in the first group, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF in the second and saline in the third group after removing the skin. Microscopic analysis was performed with camera (Canon powershot SX200, Tokyo, Japan on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after surgery. We used image analysis system (ImageJ, ver. 1.45 to examine necrosis and survival rate. Samples were studied with H&E staining on day 28 microscopically for histological analysis of vascular density and angiogenesis. Results: Our findings showed the area of necrosis in animals injected with PRP on days 7 and 14, was meaningfully less than control group (P= 0.0001. There was no meaningful difference between control and PRP groups (P> 0.05. The area of necrosis in animals injected with PRF did not have any significant difference with control group from beginning to 21st day (P< 0.0001. there was no meaningful difference in vascular density between control and PRP group, whereas in animals injected with PRF the vascular density was significantly less than control group (P= 0.002. Conclusion: According to our results in this study, we can conclude that using autologous PRP can enhance the process of healing soft tissue injury and be affective at increasing graft survival. This method is suggested to be conducted for patients highly at risk of graft loss and also for those who are in need of

  17. Application of quasi-steady-state plasma streams for simulation of ITER transient heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandura, A.N.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Marchenko, A.K.; Solyakov, D.G.; Tereshin, V.I.; Trubchaninov, S.A.; Tsarenko, A.V.; Landman, I.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents experimental investigations of energy characteristics of the plasma streams generated with quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50 and adjustment of plasma parameters from the point of view its applicability for simulation of transient plasma heat loads expected for ITER disruptions and type I ELMs. Possibility of generation of high-power magnetized plasma streams with ion impact energy up to 0.6 keV, pulse length of 0.25 ms and heat loads varied in wide range from 0.5 to 30 MJ/m 2 has been demonstrated and some features of plasma interaction with tungsten targets in dependence on plasma heat loads are discussed. (author)

  18. Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in chronic penile lichen sclerosus: the impact on tissue repair and patient quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabona, Francesco; Gambelli, Ilaria; Casabona, Federica; Santi, Pierluigi; Santori, Gregorio; Baldelli, Ilaria

    2017-04-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that frequently involves the anogenital region. Ongoing research is focused on finding more effective treatments for tissue repair and reducing symptoms. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) local injections in penile LS. Forty-five male patients affected by penile LS underwent injections of autologous PRP in the affected skin areas. Age at diagnosis and at first treatment, number of treatments, clinical conditions (phimosis, splitting, inflammation, synechiae, meatus stenosis), symptoms (pain, burning, itching), and functional impairment were considered. Treatment efficacy was also evaluated through the Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) on a six-point Likert scale and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). The patient age at LS diagnosis was 36.20 ± 9.19 years, while the mean age at the first PRP treatment was 42.96 ± 11.32 years (p PRP injections, it was observed in all patients a significant improvement in clinical conditions, with reduction/disappearance of symptoms. Topical steroid therapy, interrupted before PRP treatment, was not restarted by any patient. Only one patient underwent a later circumcision procedure. Both IGA scale and DLQI score showed a significant difference (p PRP treatment. PRP treatment in penile LS seems to be helpful to regenerate scarring, reduce symptoms, and improve patient quality of life. Further studies are necessary to evaluate long-term results.

  19. Autologous method for ex vivo expansion of human limbal epithelial progenitor cells based on plasma rich in growth factors technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riestra, A C; Vazquez, N; Chacon, M; Berisa, S; Sanchez-Avila, R M; Orive, G; Anitua, E; Meana, A; Merayo-Lloves, J

    2017-04-01

    Develop an autologous culture method for ex vivo expansion of human limbal epithelial progenitor cells (LEPCs) using Plasma Rich in Growth Factors (PRGF) as a growth supplement and as a scaffold for the culture of LEPCs. LEPCs were cultivated in different media supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or 10% PRGF. The outgrowths, total number of cells, colony forming efficiency (CFE), morphology and immunocytochemistry against p63- α and cytokeratins 3 and 12 (CK3-CK12) were analyzed. PRGF was also used to elaborate a fibrin membrane. The effects of the scaffold on the preservation of stemness and the phenotypic characterization of LEPCs were investigated through analysis of CK3-CK12, ABCG-2 and p63. LEPCs cultivated with PRGF showed a significantly higher growth area than FBS cultures. Moreover, the number of cells were also higher in PRGF than FBS, while displaying a better morphology overall. CFE was found to be also higher in PRGF groups compared to FBS, and the p63-α expression also differed between groups. LEPCs cultivated on PRGF membranes appeared as a confluent monolayer of cells and still retained p63 and ABCG-2 expression, being negative for CK3-CK12. PRGF can be used in corneal tissue engineering, supplementing the culture media, even in a basal media without any other additives, as well as providing a scaffold for the culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Clinical Efficacy of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma Combined with Ultra-Pulsed Fractional CO2 Laser Therapy for Facial Rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Qiang; Chang, Peng; Guo, Bingyu; Zhang, Yu; Tao, Kai

    2017-02-01

    Ultra-pulsed fractional CO 2 laser is an efficient, precise, and safe therapeutic intervention for skin refreshing, although accompanied with prolonged edema and erythema. In recent years, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been proven to promote wound and soft tissue healing and collagen regeneration. To investigate whether the combination of PRP and ultra-pulsed fractional CO 2 laser had a synergistic effect on therapy for facial rejuvenation. Totally, 13 facial aging females were treated with ultra-pulsed fractional CO 2 laser. One side of the face was randomly selected as experimental group and injected with PRP, the other side acted as the control group and was injected with physiological saline at the same dose. Comprehensive assessment of clinical efficacy was performed by satisfaction scores, dermatologists' double-blind evaluation and the VISIA skin analysis system. After treatment for 3 months, subjective scores of facial wrinkles, skin texture, and skin elasticity were higher than that in the control group. Similarly, improvement of skin wrinkles, texture, and tightness in the experimental group was better compared with the control group. Additionally, the total duration of erythema, edema, and crusting was decreased, in the experimental group compared with the control group. PRP combined with ultra-pulsed fractional CO 2 laser had a synergistic effect on facial rejuvenation, shortening duration of side effects, and promoting better therapeutic effect.

  1. Intra-articular Autologous Conditioned Plasma Injections Provide Safe and Efficacious Treatment for Knee Osteoarthritis: An FDA-Sanctioned, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick A

    2016-04-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections have become an intriguing treatment option for osteoarthritis (OA), particularly OA of the knee. Despite the plethora of PRP-related citations, there is a paucity of high-level evidence that is comparable, cohort specific, dose controlled, injection protocol controlled, and double-blinded. To determine the safety and efficacy of leukocyte-poor PRP autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) for knee OA treatment through a feasibility trial regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. In accordance with FDA protocol, patient selection was based on strict inclusion/exclusion criteria; 114 patients were screened, and 30 were ultimately included in the study. These patients were randomized to receive either ACP (n = 15) or saline placebo (n = 15) for a series of 3 weekly injections. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores served as the primary efficacy outcome measure. Patients were followed for 1 year. No adverse events were reported for ACP administration. Furthermore, the results demonstrated no statistically significant difference in baseline WOMAC scores between the 2 groups. However, in the ACP group, WOMAC scores at 1 week were significantly decreased compared with baseline scores, and the scores for this group remained significantly lower throughout the study duration. At the study conclusion (12 months), subjects in the ACP group had improved their overall WOMAC scores by 78% from their baseline score, compared with 7% for the placebo group. ACP is safe and provides quantifiable benefits for pain relief and functional improvement with regard to knee OA. No adverse events were reported for ACP administration. After 1 year, WOMAC scores for the ACP subjects had improved by 78% from their baseline score, whereas scores for the placebo control group had improved by only 7%. Other joints affected with OA may also benefit from this

  2. Experimental control of the solvent load of inductively coupled argon plasmas and effects of the chloroform plasma load on their analytical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maessen, F. J. M. J.; Kreuning, G.; Balke, J.

    The solvent plasma load ( QSPL) of water, methanol and chloroform was established as a function of the liquid uptake rate ( QL) by using a continuous weighing method for recording the rate differences between the relevant liquid streams. The shape of the QL vs QSPL curves revealed that the liquid uptake rate is a parameter much too insensitive to serve as a criterion for assessing the stability of "organic" plasmas. The quantity "maximum tolerable solvent plasma load" is suggested as a more useful criterion. Effects of rf power, observation height and solvent plasma load on the properties of chloroform inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs) are reported. The measurement of the axial distribution of net line intensities of representative spectral lines showed that the behaviour of emission lines as to their "hardness" is essentially the same in ICPs loaded with chloroform or water. The chloroform plasma load was regulated by the use of a condenser of which the temperature was varied in a range between -50°C and +20°C. Analytical performance characteristics such as net line and background intensities, signal-to-background ratios, and relative standard deviations of the background signal are presented for ICPs with various chloroform loads. Two sets of experimental conditions were finally selected for simultaneous multielement analysis of chloroform solvent solutions, one with and one without aerosol cooling. In the case that aerosol cooling was applied, the detection limits were similar to those for aqueous plasmas. Without aerosol cooling the detection limits were up to an order of magnitude poorer. An attempt has been made to catagorize organic solvents on the basis of both volatility and their behaviour in ICP systems. For a better understanding of the consequences of solvent volatility in ICP-AES it is of importance to consider separately the properties that determine the volatility of liquids, viz. the evaporation rate and the saturation vapour pressure.

  3. CONTAMINATED PROBLEMATIC SKIN WOUNDS IN DIABETIC PATIENTS TREATED WITH AUTOLOGOUS PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP: A case series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetan Sokolov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP on contaminated problematic skin ulcers in patients with diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 6 patients had been treated within the period from 2012 to 2014; they had various types of problematic wounds and diabetes type 2. Patients’ distribution by sex was as follows: 1 man and 5 women; mean age- 68 years. Ulcer types: acute (2 patients, hard-to-heal (2 patients and chronic (2 patients ulcers. The mean size of the skin and soft tissue defect was 9,5 cm2. Pathogenic microflora was isolated in 4 patients - S. aureus in three and Е. Coli in one. Based on a scheme developed by us, all cases were treated by administering platelet-rich plasma, derived by PRGF Endoret system. Follow-up period was within 4 – 6 months (4,5 on average. We used platelet rich plasma derived by PRGF Endoret system, applied on the wound bed on a weekly basis. RESULTS: Application of PRP allowed successful closure of all wounds. There were no complications associated with treatment of PRP. Epithelialization of the wound took 15 weeks on average for all patients. One patient presented with hyperkeratosis. Initial score of followed wounds, based on the scales are as follows: Total wound score – 10 p. Total anatomic score – 8 p. Total score – 15 p. at the initial stage. At the end of the treatment period scores were as follows - 0 p., which means excellent results CONCLUSION: We believe that the application of PRP may become optimal therapy in the treatment of contaminated problematic wounds in diabetic patients. PRP not only stimulates wound healing, but also has antimicrobial properties, which may contribute to the prevention of infections.

  4. Ectopic bone formation during tissue-engineered cartilage repair using autologous chondrocytes and novel plasma-derived albumin scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robla Costales, David; Junquera, Luis; García Pérez, Eva; Gómez Llames, Sara; Álvarez-Viejo, María; Meana-Infiesta, Álvaro

    2016-10-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: first, to evaluate the production of cartilaginous tissue in vitro and in vivo using a novel plasma-derived scaffold, and second, to test the repair of experimental defects made on ears of New Zealand rabbits (NZr) using this approach. Scaffolds were seeded with chondrocytes and cultured in vitro for 3 months to check in vitro cartilage production. To evaluate in vivo cartilage production, a chondrocyte-seeded scaffold was transplanted subcutaneously to a nude mouse. To check in vivo repair, experimental defects made in the ears of five New Zealand rabbits (NZr) were filled with chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds. In vitro culture produced mature chondrocytes with no extracellular matrix (ECM). Histological examination of redifferentiated in vitro cultures showed differentiated chondrocytes adhered to scaffold pores. Subcutaneous transplantation of these constructs to a nude mouse produced cartilage, confirmed by histological study. Experimental cartilage repair in five NZr showed cartilaginous tissue repairing the defects, mixed with calcified areas of bone formation. It is possible to produce cartilaginous tissue in vivo and to repair experimental auricular defects by means of chondrocyte cultures and the novel plasma-derived scaffold. Further studies are needed to determine the significance of bone formation in the samples. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prospective Randomized Evaluation of Intraoperative Application of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma on Surgical Site Infection or Delayed Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanGiovanni, Thomas P; Kiebzak, Gary M

    2016-05-01

    Prevention of surgical site infections and the reduction of wound-related complication rates have become increasingly emphasized by hospital task groups and government agencies given the degree of economic burden it places on the health care system. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains growth factors and other biomolecules that promote endogenous microbicidal activity. We hypothesized that PRP would help prevent postoperative infection and delayed wound healing (DWH). We randomized patients having foot or ankle surgery to the treatment group receiving intraoperative PRP (applied to operative field) and platelet-poor plasma at closing (PPP, on the sutured skin) or the control group (no PRP/PPP). The incidence of deep surgical site infection and DWH (collectively called endpoints) was compared between groups (n = 250/group). PRP had a mean 5.3-fold platelet concentration compared to whole blood, with concentrated white blood cells. Mean age (±SD) of patients was 52 years (±15), 65% were women. Minor and major operative procedures were included. Patients were followed for 60 days. Seventy controls had PRP prepared for assay of growth factors. Procedure mix, ASA scores, mean operative times, and comorbidity mix were similar between groups. The primary result was no difference in number of endpoints between groups: 19 patients in the PRP group (7.6%) versus 18 controls (7.2%). Endpoints were deep surgical site infections in 2 PRP/PPP patients and 1 control, and DWH in 17 PRP/PPP patients and 17 controls. Analysis of PRP samples revealed a large variation in growth factor concentrations between patients. Intraoperative application of PRP/PPP did not reduce the incidence of postoperative infection or DWH. Growth factor profiles varied greatly between patients, suggesting that the potentially therapeutic treatment delivered was not consistent from patient-to-patient. Level I, prospective randomized trial. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Autologous leukocyte-reduced platelet-rich plasma therapy for Achilles tendinopathy induced by collagenase in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan C; López, Catalina; Álvarez, María E; Pérez, Jorge E; Carmona, Jorge U

    2016-01-19

    Leukocyte-reduced platelet-rich plasma (LR-PRP) is a therapy for tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon (TAT); however, there is scarce information regarding LR-PRP effects in rabbit models of TAT. We compared, at 4 and 12 weeks (w), the LR-PRP and placebo (PBS) effects on ultrasonography, histology and relative gene expression of collagen types I (COL1A1) and III (COL3A1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in 24 rabbits with TAT induced by collagenase. The rabbits (treated with both treatments) were euthanatised after either 4 or 12 w. A healthy group (HG (n = 6)) was included. At 4 and 12 w, the LR-PRP group had a no statistically different histology score to the HG. At w 4, the COL1A1 expression was significantly higher in the LR-PRP group when compared to HG, and the expression of COL3A1 from both LR-PRP and PBS-treated tendons was significantly higher when compared to the HG. At w 12, the expression of COL3A1 remained significantly higher in the PBS group in comparison to the LR-PRP group and the HG. At w 4, the LR-PRP group presented a significantly higher expression of VEGF when compared to the PBS group and the HG. In conclusion, LR-PRP treatment showed regenerative properties in rabbits with TAT.

  7. At-Home Application of Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma as Treatment for Pressure Sore and Related Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendas, Andrea; Niscola, Pasquale; Giovannini, Marco; Costa, Adriana; Venditti, Daniela; Volta, Laura; Malandruccolo, Luigi; Sabbadini, Stefania; Lasorella, Rosa; Fabritiis, Paolo de; Cassetta, Rita; Perrotti, Alessio P

    2017-01-01

    Pressure sores are a major complication in the bed-ridden older patient. In this report, we present the case of platelet rich plasma (PRP) application for the treatment of a pressure sore in an 88-year-old female affected by transfusion-dependent chronic inflammatory disease anemia associated with the congenital and inherited condition of thalassemic trait carrier. A weekly application schedule was planned athome, given the patient's debilitation and her decreased performance status as well as personal and family difficulties to go as outpatients at our treatment center. After 9 PRP applications, a remarkable sore improvement was achieved so that PRP was discontinued; nevertheless, sore rapidly improved until the full resolution and the complete closing after 4 months from the start of PRP treatment. Noteworthy, transfusion support was interrupted and a significant recovery and a sustained stabilization of hemoglobin (Hb) level at 1 year after ulcer healing were observed. The present case suggests that PRP application, performed athome in our case, is a feasible and effective treatment for pressure sores and related complications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Assessment of Canine Autologous Conditioned PlasmaTM Cellular and Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel P. Franklin

    2018-06-01

    , body weight, and hematocrit were not significant predictors of ACP platelet concentration.These data show that on average this preparation protocol produces a mildly platelet-concentrated, leukoreduced platelet-rich plasma. Intentional activation had a significant effect on TGF-β1 concentrations with use of both CaCl2 and thrombin resulting in higher TGF-β1 concentrations than that obtained in samples that are not activated.

  9. Experimental study of plasma energy transfer and material erosion under ELM-like heat loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garkusha, I.E., E-mail: garkusha@ipp.kharkov.u [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Makhlaj, V.A.; Chebotarev, V.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Landman, I. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tereshin, V.I.; Aksenov, N.N.; Bandura, A.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-06-15

    Main features of plasma-surface interaction and energy transfer to tokamak plasma facing components are studied at different heat loads in ELM simulation experiments with the plasma gun QSPA Kh-50. Repetitive plasma exposures of tungsten, graphite and different combined W-C targets were performed at the pulse duration of 0.25 ms and the heat loads varied in the range 0.2-2.5 MJ/m{sup 2}. The onset of vapor shield in front of the surface was investigated. The evaporation is immediately followed by a saturation of surface heat load if further increasing the impact energy. The presence of graphite essentially decreases the heat flux to the nearby tungsten surface, which is due to the carbon vapor shield. Droplet splashing at the tungsten surface and formation of hot spots on the graphite surface are discussed.

  10. Experimental study of plasma energy transfer and material erosion under ELM-like heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garkusha, I.E.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Landman, I.; Tereshin, V.I.; Aksenov, N.N.; Bandura, A.N.

    2009-01-01

    Main features of plasma-surface interaction and energy transfer to tokamak plasma facing components are studied at different heat loads in ELM simulation experiments with the plasma gun QSPA Kh-50. Repetitive plasma exposures of tungsten, graphite and different combined W-C targets were performed at the pulse duration of 0.25 ms and the heat loads varied in the range 0.2-2.5 MJ/m 2 . The onset of vapor shield in front of the surface was investigated. The evaporation is immediately followed by a saturation of surface heat load if further increasing the impact energy. The presence of graphite essentially decreases the heat flux to the nearby tungsten surface, which is due to the carbon vapor shield. Droplet splashing at the tungsten surface and formation of hot spots on the graphite surface are discussed.

  11. Repetitive plasma loads typical for ITER Type-I ELMS; simulation in QSPA Kh-50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshin, V.I.; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Solyakov, D.G.; Tsarenko, A.V.; Landman, I.

    2005-01-01

    The power loads on current tokamaks associated with the Type I ELMs generally do not affect the lifetime of divertor elements. However, the ITER ELMs may lead to unacceptable lifetime; their loads are estimated as QELM(1-3) MJ/m 2 at t = 0.1-1 ms and the repetition frequency of an order of 1 Hz (∼ 400 ELMs during each ITER pulse). Such plasma energy loads expected for ITER ELMs are not achieved in existing tokamaks. Therefore powerful plasma accelerators are used at present for study of plasma-target interaction and for numerical models validation. Quasi-steady-state plasma accelerators (QSPA), which characterized by essentially longer duration of plasma stream generation in comparison with pulsed plasma guns, became especially attractive facilities for investigations of plasma-surface interaction in conditions of high heat loads simulating the ITER disruptions and ELMs. The paper presents experimental study of energy characteristics of the plasma streams generated with quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50 and the main features of plasma interaction with material surfaces in dependence on plasma heat loads. The samples of pure sintered tungsten of EU trademark have been exposed to hydrogen plasma streams produced by the accelerator. To estimate the range of tolerable loads the effects of ELMs on the lifetime of plasma facing components have been experimentally simulated for large numbers of impacts with varying energy density. The experiments were performed with up to 450 pulses of the duration of 0.25 ms and the heat loads in the range of 0.5 - 1.2 MJ/m 2 . At this calorimetry (both at plasma stream and at the target surface), piezo-detectors as well as spectroscopy and interferometry measurements were applied to determine the impacting plasma parameters in different regimes of operation. A threshold character of morphological changes on the tungsten surface under the melting in respect to the pulses number is demonstrated. The number of initial

  12. Management of stage I and II A/B avascular necrosis of femoral head with core decompression autologous cancellous bone grafting and platelet rich plasma factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Avascular necrosis (AVN of the femoral head is a progressive disease that generally affects patients in the third through fifth decades of life; if left untreated, it leads to complete deterioration of the hip joint. Treatments range from simple decompression of the femoral head, to bone grafting of the involved area, or by using a vascularized fibular graft with varying degree of success. In most instances, the disease progresses further causing secondary arthritis. We present a study of management of early stage AVN (stage I and II A/B of Ficat Arlet classification with core decompression autologous cancellous bone grafting along with platelet rich plasma. Aims: To evaluate the results of the above modality in the management of AVN of the hip. Settings and Design: This prospective study of 30 cases was done during the period of 2011-2013. Materials and Methods: Patients with stage I and II A/B were treated with the above modality and were followed up for 1-year. The results were evaluated on the basis of progression or remission of the disease by radiographic studies, preoperative and postoperative Harris hip score (HHS, age and sex distribution. Statistical Analysis Used: Primer software for calculating the statistical data was used and paired t-test was applied to all the data. Results: Show males were more affected than females and average age group of presentation in stage I and II was 29 years (22-55. The most common cause was idiopathic followed by steroid use. Average preoperative HHS was 56.80 and postoperative HHS was 79.73. 60% (18 showed remission of the disease (radiographically compared to preoperative stage at 1-year follow-up, in 30% (9 disease did not progress further and 10% (3 progressed and required arthroplasty. Conclusion: Management of stage I and II A/B AVN of femur showed good satisfactory results in terms of disease remission and prevention of the further progress of the disease by the above method at 1

  13. Initial particle loadings for a nonuniform simulation plasma in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitou, Hiroshi; Kamimura, Tetsuo; Tokuda, Sinji.

    1978-09-01

    Improved methods for initially loading particles in a magnetized simulation plasma with nonuniform density and temperature distributions are proposed. In the usual guiding center loading (GCL), a charge separation coming from finite Larmor radius effects remains due to the difference between the guiding center density and the actual density. The modified guiding center loading (MGCL) presented here eliminates the electric field so generated and can be used for arbitrary density and temperature profiles. Some applications of these methods to actual simulations are given for comparison. The significance of these methods of initial particle loadings is also discussed. (author)

  14. Experimental Simulation of Beryllium Armour Damage Under ITER-like Intense Transient Plasma Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.; Basaleev, E.; Nikolaev, G.; Kurbatova, L., E-mail: igkupr@gmail.com [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Material, Moscow (Russian Federation); Podkovyrov, V.; Zhitlukhin, A. [SRC RF TRINITI, Troitsk (Russian Federation); Khimchenko, L. L. [Project Centre of ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Beryllium will be used as a plasma facing material in the next generation of tokamaks such as ITER. During plasma operation in ITER, the plasma facing materials and components will be suffered by different kinds of loading which may affect their surface or their joint to the heat sink. In addition to quasi-stationary loadings which are caused by the normal cycling operation, the plasma facing components and materials may also be exposed to the intense short transient loads like disruptions, ELMs. All these events may lead to beryllium surface melting, cracking, evaporation and erosion. It is expected that the erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as ELMs and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of ITER first wall. To obtain the experimental data for the evaluation of the beryllium armor lifetime and dust production under ITER-relevant transient loads, the advanced plasma gun QSPA-Be facility has been constructed in Bochvar Institute. This paper presents recent results of the experiments with Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade. The mock-ups of a special design armored with two beryllium targets (80 x 80 x 10 mm{sup 3}) were tested by hydrogen plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat load of 0.5 and 1.0 MJ/m{sup 2}. Experiments were performed at RT temperature. The evolution of surface microstructure and profile, cracks morphology and mass loss/gain under erosion process on the beryllium surface exposed to up to 250 shots will be presented and discussed. (author)

  15. Stochastic clustering of material surface under high-heat plasma load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaev, Viacheslav P.

    2017-11-01

    The results of a study of a surface formed by high-temperature plasma loads on various materials such as tungsten, carbon and stainless steel are presented. High-temperature plasma irradiation leads to an inhomogeneous stochastic clustering of the surface with self-similar granularity - fractality on the scale from nanoscale to macroscales. Cauliflower-like structure of tungsten and carbon materials are formed under high heat plasma load in fusion devices. The statistical characteristics of hierarchical granularity and scale invariance are estimated. They differ qualitatively from the roughness of the ordinary Brownian surface, which is possibly due to the universal mechanisms of stochastic clustering of material surface under the influence of high-temperature plasma.

  16. Heat load and deuterium plasma effects on SPS and WSP tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilémová Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten is a prime choice for armor material in future nuclear fusion devices. For the realization of fusion, it is necessary to address issues related to the plasma–armor interactions. In this work, several types of tungsten material were studied, i.e. tungsten prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS and by water stabilized plasma spraying (WSP technique. An intended surface porosity was created in the samples to model hydrogen/helium bubbles. The samples were subjected to a laser heat loading and a radiation loading of deuterium plasma to simulate edge plasma conditions of a nuclear fusion device (power density of 108 W/cm2 and 107 W/cm2, respectively, in the pulse intervals up to 200 ns. Thermally induced changes in the morphology and the damage to the studied surfaces are described. Possible consequences for the fusion device operation are pointed out.

  17. GIT 16: megajoule pulsed generator with plasma opening switch for Z-pinch loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaev, S.P.; Volkov, A.M.; Kim, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Megajoule complex GIT 16 reserved for perfecting technology of forming powerful impulse with the help of intermediate inductive storage and break contact in the form of plasma opening switches and for investigating of irradiating loading of Z-pinch type is presented. The characteristics of isolated complex elements are given and basic results characterizing microsecond plasma opening switches at the current level of same M A are described

  18. Edge loading of plasma facing components in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanti, R.; Deksnis, E.; Lomas, P.; Pick, M.

    1993-03-01

    The new poloidal and the inner wall guard limiter tiles of the Joint European Torus Experiment (JET) have been shaped to maximise power handling capability. The existing design of the divertor tiles of JET have been modified to reduce edge exposure. All of these components consist of discrete tiles with finite gaps. Under the assumption that the particle power flow is along field lines, the leading edges of the tiles are exposed due to field line penetration between gaps. The peak loading of these tiles to be at the edges. The report presents a generalised solution to the edge problem which indicates the steps required to shape the tiles for maximum power handling capability. (Author)

  19. Association of Post-Saline Load Plasma Aldosterone Levels With Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Cristiana; Verheyen, Nicolas D; Url-Michitsch, Marion; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Colussi, GianLuca; Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pieske, Burkert; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2016-03-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity in hypertension. Current evidence suggests a contribution to LVH of plasma aldosterone levels that are inappropriately elevated for the salt status. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inappropriate modulation of aldosterone production by a saline load is associated with left ventricular (LV) mass in hypertensive patients. In 90 hypertensive patients free of clinically relevant cardiovascular complications in whom secondary forms of hypertension were ruled out, we performed a standard intravenous saline load (0.9% NaCl, 2 l in 4 hours) with measurement of plasma aldosterone and active renin at baseline and end of infusion. Bi-dimensional echocardiography was performed for the assessment of cardiac morphology and function. LVH was present in 19% of patients who had significantly worse renal function and higher body mass, blood pressure, and plasma aldosterone levels measured both at baseline and after the saline load than patients without LVH. LV mass was directly related to age, body mass, systolic blood pressure, duration of hypertension, baseline, and post-saline load plasma aldosterone levels and inversely to glomerular filtration. Multivariate regression analysis showed independent correlation of LV mass with body mass, systolic blood pressure, and plasma aldosterone levels measured after intravenous saline load, but not at baseline. In patients with hypertension, aldosterone levels measured after intravenous saline load are related to LV mass independent of age, body mass, and blood pressure, suggesting that limited ability of salt to modulate aldosterone production could contribute to LVH. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Divertor power load studies for attached L-mode single-null plasmas in TCV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurizio, R.; Elmore, S.; Fedorczak, N.; Gallo, A.; Reimerdes, H.; Labit, B.; Theiler, C.; Tsui, C. K.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; TCV team,; MST1 Team,

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the power loads at the inner and outer divertor targets of attached, Ohmic L-mode, deuterium plasmas in the TCV tokamak, in various experimental situations using an Infrared thermography system. The study comprises variations of the outer divertor leg length and target flux

  1. Combined impact of transient heat loads and steady-state plasma exposure on tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Alexander, E-mail: A.Huber@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Wirtz, Marius; Sergienko, Gennady; Steudel, Isabel [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Arakcheev, Aleksey; Burdakov, Aleksander [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Esser, Hans Guenter; Freisinger, Michaele; Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Linsmeier, Christian; Mertens, Philippe; Möller, Sören; Philipps, Volker; Pintsuk, Gerald; Reinhart, Michael; Schweer, Bernd [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Shoshin, Andrey [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Terra, Alexis; Unterberg, Bernhard [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • W-samples under combined loading conditions show a lower damage threshold. • The pre-loaded W-samples show a lower damage threshold due to the D- embrittlement. • Pronounced increase of the D retention has been observed during the combined loads. • Enhanced blister formation has been observed under combined loading conditions. - Abstract: Cracking thresholds and crack patterns in tungsten targets have been studied in recent experiments after repetitive ITER-like ELM heat pulses in combination with plasma exposure in PSI-2 (Γ{sub target} = 2.5–4.0 × 10{sup 21} m{sup −2} s{sup −1}, ion energy on surface E{sub ion} = 60 eV, T{sub e} ≈ 10 eV). The heat pulses were simulated by laser irradiation. A Nd:YAG laser with energy per pulse of up to 32 J and a duration of 1 ms at the fundamental wavelength (λ = 1064 nm, repetition rate 0.5 Hz) was used to irradiate ITER-grade W samples with repetitive heat loads. In contrast to pure thermal exposure with a laser beam where the damage threshold under pure heat loads for ITER-grade W lies between 0.38 and 0.76 GW/m{sup 2}, the experiments with pre-loaded W-samples as well as under combined loading conditions show a lower damage threshold of 0.3 GW/m{sup 2}. This is probably due to deuterium embrittlement and/or a higher defect concentration in a region close to the surface due to supersaturation with deuterium. A pronounced increase in the D retention (more than a factor of five) has been observed during the combined transient heat loads and plasma exposure. Enhanced blister formation has been observed under these combined loading conditions.

  2. Combined impact of transient heat loads and steady-state plasma exposure on tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Alexander; Wirtz, Marius; Sergienko, Gennady; Steudel, Isabel; Arakcheev, Aleksey; Burdakov, Aleksander; Esser, Hans Guenter; Freisinger, Michaele; Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Linsmeier, Christian; Mertens, Philippe; Möller, Sören; Philipps, Volker; Pintsuk, Gerald; Reinhart, Michael; Schweer, Bernd; Shoshin, Andrey; Terra, Alexis; Unterberg, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • W-samples under combined loading conditions show a lower damage threshold. • The pre-loaded W-samples show a lower damage threshold due to the D- embrittlement. • Pronounced increase of the D retention has been observed during the combined loads. • Enhanced blister formation has been observed under combined loading conditions. - Abstract: Cracking thresholds and crack patterns in tungsten targets have been studied in recent experiments after repetitive ITER-like ELM heat pulses in combination with plasma exposure in PSI-2 (Γ_t_a_r_g_e_t = 2.5–4.0 × 10"2"1 m"−"2 s"−"1, ion energy on surface E_i_o_n = 60 eV, T_e ≈ 10 eV). The heat pulses were simulated by laser irradiation. A Nd:YAG laser with energy per pulse of up to 32 J and a duration of 1 ms at the fundamental wavelength (λ = 1064 nm, repetition rate 0.5 Hz) was used to irradiate ITER-grade W samples with repetitive heat loads. In contrast to pure thermal exposure with a laser beam where the damage threshold under pure heat loads for ITER-grade W lies between 0.38 and 0.76 GW/m"2, the experiments with pre-loaded W-samples as well as under combined loading conditions show a lower damage threshold of 0.3 GW/m"2. This is probably due to deuterium embrittlement and/or a higher defect concentration in a region close to the surface due to supersaturation with deuterium. A pronounced increase in the D retention (more than a factor of five) has been observed during the combined transient heat loads and plasma exposure. Enhanced blister formation has been observed under these combined loading conditions.

  3. Calorimetric measurement of heat load in full non-inductive LHCD plasmas on TRIAM-1M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, K.; Shinoda, N.; Sugata, T.; Sasaki, K.; Zushi, H.; Nakamura, K.; Sato, K.N.; Sakamoto, M.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.

    2007-01-01

    Calorimetric measurements using the temperature increment of cooling-water were carried out to estimate the heat load distribution on the plasma facing components (PFCs) in the limiter discharges on TRIAM-1M. Line averaged electron density, n e , and LH power, P LH , dependences of the heat load on PFCs were measured. The heat load on the limiters was proportional to n e 1.5 in the range of n e =0.2-1.0x10 19 m -3 and P LH 1 in the range of P LH =0.005-0.09MW. For P LH >0.1MW, the plasma transition to an enhanced current drive (ECD) mode appeared and the n e dependences on the heat load on the limiter moderated. This indicates that the heat flux to scrape-off layer (SOL) region was reduced due to the improvement of the plasma confinement. The up-down asymmetry of the heat load on the vacuum vessel was enhanced in the ECD mode, which may be caused by the increasing of the direct loss of energetic electrons

  4. The Fracture of Plasma-Treated Polyurethane Surface under Fatigue Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Morozov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasma treatment of soft polymers is a promising technique to improve biomedical properties of the materials. The response to the deformation of such materials is not yet clear. Soft elastic polyurethane treated with plasma immersion ion implantation is subjected to fatigue uniaxial loading. The influence of the strain amplitude and the plasma treatment regime on damage character is discussed. Surface defects are studied in unloaded and stretched states of the material. As a result of fatigue loading, transverse cracks (with closed overlapping edges as well as with open edges deeply propagating into the polymer and longitudinal folds which are break and bend inward, appear on the surface. Hard edges of cracks cut the soft polymer which is squeezed from the bulk to the surface. The observed damages are related to the high stiffness of the modified surface and its transition to the polymer substrate.

  5. Optimization of laser-plasma injector via beam loading effects using ionization-induced injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P.; Maynard, G.; Audet, T. L.; Cros, B.; Lehe, R.; Vay, J.-L.

    2018-05-01

    Simulations of ionization-induced injection in a laser driven plasma wakefield show that high-quality electron injectors in the 50-200 MeV range can be achieved in a gas cell with a tailored density profile. Using the PIC code Warp with parameters close to existing experimental conditions, we show that the concentration of N2 in a hydrogen plasma with a tailored density profile is an efficient parameter to tune electron beam properties through the control of the interplay between beam loading effects and varying accelerating field in the density profile. For a given laser plasma configuration, with moderate normalized laser amplitude, a0=1.6 and maximum electron plasma density, ne 0=4 ×1018 cm-3 , the optimum concentration results in a robust configuration to generate electrons at 150 MeV with a rms energy spread of 4% and a spectral charge density of 1.8 pC /MeV .

  6. Electromagnetic loads and structural response of the CIT [Compact Ignition Tokamak] vacuum vessel to plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, S.L.; Listvinsky, G.; Lee, M.Y.; Bailey, C.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of the electromagnetic loads produced by a variety of plasma disruptions, and the resulting structural effects on the compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) vacuum vessel (VV), have been performed to help optimize the VV design. A series of stationary and moving plasmas, with disruption rates from 0.7--10.0 MA/ms, have been analyzed using the EMPRES code to compute eddy currents and electromagnetic pressures, and the NASTRAN code to evaluate the structural response of the vacuum vessel. Key factors contributing to the magnitude of EM forces and resulting stresses on the vessel have been found to include disruption rate, and direction and synchronization of plasma motion with the onset of plasma current decay. As a result of these analyses, a number of design changes have been made, and design margins for the present 1.75 meter design have been improved over the original CIT configuration. 1 ref., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Comparison of mechanical compressive properties of commercial and autologous fibrin glues for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravens, Matthew G; Behn, Anthony W; Dragoo, Jason L

    2017-11-01

    Fibrin glues are widely used in orthopedic surgery as adhesives and hemostatic agents. We evaluated the compressive properties of selected fibrin glues in order to identify which are appropriate for tissue regeneration applications subject to compression. Uniaxial unconfined compression tests were performed on fibrin gels prepared from commercial and autologous products: (1) Evicel (Ethicon), (2) Tisseel (Baxter), (3) Angel (Arthrex), and (4) ProPlaz (Biorich). Cyclic loads were applied from 0 to 30% strain for 100cycles at 0.5Hz. Following cyclic testing, specimens were subjected to ramp displacement of 1% strain per second to 80% strain. Throughout cyclic loading, Evicel and Tisseel deformed (shortened) less than Angel at all but one time point, and deformed less than ProPlaz at cycles 10 and 20. The dynamic moduli, peak stress, and strain energy were significantly greater in Tisseel than all other groups. Evicel displayed significantly greater dynamic moduli, peak stress, and strain energy than Angel and ProPlaz. Following cyclic testing, Tisseel and Evicel were significantly less deformed than Angel. No specimens exhibited gross failure during ramp loading to 80% strain. Ramp loading trends mirrored those of cyclic loading. The tested commercial glues were significantly more resistant to compression than the autologous products. The compressive properties of Tisseel were approximately twice those of Evicel. All preparations displayed moduli multiple orders of magnitude less than that of native articular cartilage. We conclude that in knee surgeries requiring fibrin glue to undergo compression of daily activity, commercial products are preferable to autologous preparations from platelet-poor plasma, though both will deform significantly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma combined with fractional ablative carbon dioxide resurfacing laser in treatment of facial atrophic acne scars: A split-face randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Faghihi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autologous platelet-rich plasma has recently attracted significant attention throughout the medical field for its wound-healing ability. Aims: This study was conducted to investigate the potential of platelet-rich plasma combined with fractional laser therapy in the treatment of acne scarring. Methods: Sixteen patients (12 women and 4 men who underwent split-face therapy were analyzed in this study. They received ablative fractional carbon dioxide laser combined with intradermal platelet-rich plasma treatment on one half of their face and ablative fractional carbon dioxide laser with intradermal normal saline on the other half. The injections were administered immediately after laser therapy. The treatment sessions were repeated after an interval of one month. The clinical response was assessed based on patient satisfaction and the objective evaluation of serial photographs by two blinded dermatologists at baseline, 1 month after the first treatment session and 4 months after the second. The adverse effects including erythema and edema were scored by participants on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 15 and 30 after each session. Results: Overall clinical improvement of acne scars was higher on the platelet-rich plasma-fractional carbon dioxide laser treated side but the difference was not statistically significant either 1 month after the first treatment session (P = 0.15 or 4 months after the second (P = 0.23. In addition, adverse effects (erythema and edema on the platelet-rich plasma-fractional carbon dioxide laser-treated side were more severe and of longer duration. Limitations: Small sample size, absence of all skin phototypes within the study group and lack of objective methods for the evaluation of response to treatment and adverse effects were the limitations. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that adding platelet-rich plasma to fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment did not produce any statistically significant synergistic effects

  9. Efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma combined with fractional ablative carbon dioxide resurfacing laser in treatment of facial atrophic acne scars: A split-face randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Gita; Keyvan, Shima; Asilian, Ali; Nouraei, Saeid; Behfar, Shadi; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohamad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Autologous platelet-rich plasma has recently attracted significant attention throughout the medical field for its wound-healing ability. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of platelet-rich plasma combined with fractional laser therapy in the treatment of acne scarring. Sixteen patients (12 women and 4 men) who underwent split-face therapy were analyzed in this study. They received ablative fractional carbon dioxide laser combined with intradermal platelet-rich plasma treatment on one half of their face and ablative fractional carbon dioxide laser with intradermal normal saline on the other half. The injections were administered immediately after laser therapy. The treatment sessions were repeated after an interval of one month. The clinical response was assessed based on patient satisfaction and the objective evaluation of serial photographs by two blinded dermatologists at baseline, 1 month after the first treatment session and 4 months after the second. The adverse effects including erythema and edema were scored by participants on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 15 and 30 after each session. Overall clinical improvement of acne scars was higher on the platelet-rich plasma-fractional carbon dioxide laser treated side but the difference was not statistically significant either 1 month after the first treatment session (P = 0.15) or 4 months after the second (P = 0.23). In addition, adverse effects (erythema and edema) on the platelet-rich plasma-fractional carbon dioxide laser-treated side were more severe and of longer duration. Small sample size, absence of all skin phototypes within the study group and lack of objective methods for the evaluation of response to treatment and adverse effects were the limitations. This study demonstrated that adding platelet-rich plasma to fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment did not produce any statistically significant synergistic effects and also resulted in more severe side effects and longer downtime.

  10. Tungsten erosion under plasma heat loads typical for ITER type I Elms and disruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garkusha, I.E. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)]. E-mail: garkusha@ipp.kharkov.ua; Bandura, A.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Byrka, O.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Chebotarev, V.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Landman, I.S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Makhlaj, V.A. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Marchenko, A.K. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Solyakov, D.G. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Tereshin, V.I. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Trubchaninov, S.A. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Tsarenko, A.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2005-03-01

    The behavior of pure sintered tungsten under repetitive plasma heat loads of {approx}1 MJ/m{sup 2} (which is relevant to ITER ELMs) and 25 MJ/m{sup 2} (ITER disruptions) is studied with the quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. The ELM relevant heat loads have resulted in formation of two kinds of crack networks, with typical sizes of 10-20 {mu}m and {approx}1 mm, at the surface. Tungsten preheating to 600 deg. C indicates that fine intergranular cracks are probably caused by thermal stresses during fast resolidification of the melt, whereas large cracks are the result of ductile-to-brittle transition. For several hundreds of ELM-like exposures, causing surface melting, the melt motion does not dominate the profile of the melt spot. The disruption relevant experiments demonstrated that melt motion became the main factor of tungsten damage.

  11. Thermal loads on tokamak plasma-facing components during normal operation and disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, R.T.

    1990-01-01

    Power loadings experienced by tokamak plasma-facing components during normal operation and during off-normal events are discussed. A model for power and particle flow in the tokamak boundary layer is presented and model predictions are compared to infrared measurements of component heating. The inclusion of the full three-dimensional geometry of the components and of the magnetic flux surface is very important in the modeling. Experimental measurements show that misalignment of component armour tile surfaces by only a millimeter can lead to significant localized heating. An application to the design of plasma-facing components for future machines is presented. Finally, thermal loads expected during tokamak disruptions are discussed. The primary problems are surface melting and vaporization due to localized intense heating during the disruption thermal quench and volumetric heating of the component armour and structure due to localised impact of runaway electrons. (author)

  12. Modulation of release kinetics by plasma polymerization of ampicillin-loaded β -TCP ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labay, C; Buxadera-Palomero, J; Avilés, M; Canal, C; Ginebra, M P

    2016-01-01

    Beta-tricalcium phosphate ( β -TCP) bioceramics are employed in bone repair surgery. Their local implantation in bone defects puts them in the limelight as potential materials for local drug delivery. However, obtaining suitable release patterns fitting the required therapeutics is a challenge. Here, plasma polymerization of ampicillin-loaded β -TCP is studied for the design of a novel antibiotic delivery system. Polyethylene glycol-like (PEG-like) coating of β -TCP by low pressure plasma polymerization was performed using diglyme as precursor, and nanometric PEG-like layers were obtained by simple and double plasma polymerization processes. A significant increase in hydrophobicity, and the presence of plasma polymer was visible on the surface by SEM and quantified by XPS. As a main consequence of the plasma polymerisation, the release kinetics were successfully modified, avoiding burst release, and slowing down the initial rate of release leading to a 4.5 h delay in reaching the same antibiotic release percentage, whilst conservation of the activity of the antibiotic was simultaneously maintained. Thus, plasma polymerisation on the surface of bioceramics may be a good strategy to design controlled drug delivery matrices for local bone therapies. (paper)

  13. Guanidinoacetic acid loading affects plasma γ-aminobutyric acid in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko

    2015-08-01

    Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), a precursor of creatine and an innovative dietary agent, activates γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors yet clinical effects of dietary GAA on GABA metabolism are currently unknown. The main aim of this pilot research was to investigate whether GAA loading affected peripheral GABA homeostasis in healthy humans. Eight healthy male volunteers aged 22-25 years were randomized in a double-blind design to receive either GAA (three grams daily) or placebo by oral administration for 3 weeks. At baseline and after 3 weeks participants provided fasting blood samples for free plasma levels of GABA, GAA, creatine and glutamine. Following 3 weeks of intervention, plasma GABA level dropped significantly in participants receiving 3 g of GAA per day as compared to the placebo (P = 0.03). GAA loading significantly decreased plasma GABA by 88.8 nmol/L (95% confidence interval; 5.4-172.1) after 3 weeks of intervention as compared to the baseline (P = 0.03). GAA intervention positively affected both plasma GAA and creatine (P GABA metabolism, and potentially down-regulates GABA synthesis in peripheral tissues. Possible GABAergic action of dietary GAA adds to the safety profile of this novel dietary supplement.

  14. Experiences with tungsten coatings in high heat flux tests and under plasma load in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A; Greuner, H; Fuchs, J C; Marne, P de; Neu, R

    2009-01-01

    ASDEX Upgrade was operated with about 6400 s plasma discharge during the scientific program in 2007/2008 exploring tungsten as a first wall material in tokamaks. In the first phase, the heating power was restricted to 10 MW. It was increased to 15 MW in the second phase. During this operational period, a delamination of the 200 μm W-VPS coating happened at 2 out of 128 tiles of the outer divertor and an unscheduled opening was required. In the third phase, ASDEX Upgrade was operated with partly predamaged tiles and up to 15 MW heating power. The target load was actively controlled by N 2 -seeding. This paper presents the screening test of target tiles in the high heat flux test facility GLADIS, experiences with operation and detected damages of the outer divertor as well as the heat load to the outer divertor and the reasons for the toroidal asymmetry of the divertor load.

  15. Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009 [Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the Earth's plasma sheet. In total we have studied 151 ECRs within 660 h of plasma sheet data from the summer and fall of 2001 when Cluster was close to apogee at an altitude of about 15–20 RE. Cluster offers appropriate conditions for the investigation of energy conversion by the evaluation of the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J the current density. From the sign of the power density, we have identified more than three times as many Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs as Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs. We also note that the CLRs appear to be stronger. To our knowledge, these are the first in situ observations confirming the general notion of the plasma sheet, on the average, behaving as a load. At the same time the plasma sheet appears to be highly structured, with energy conversion occurring in both directions between the fields and the particles. From our data we also find that the CLRs appear to be located closer to the neutral sheet, while CGRs prefer locations towards the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL. For both CLRs and CGRs, E and J in the GSM y (cross-tail direction dominate the total power density, even though the z contribution occasionally can be significant. The prevalence of the y-direction seems to be weaker for the CGRs, possibly related to a higher fluctuation level near the PSBL.

  16. Performance of plasma facing materials under intense thermal loads in tokamaks and stellarators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, J.; Hirai, T.; Roedig, M.; Singheiser, L. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Juelich (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Beside quasi-stationary plasma operation, short transient thermal pulses with deposited energy densities in the order of several ten MJm{sup -2} are a serious concern for next step devices, in particular for tokamak devices such as ITER. The most serious of these transient events are plasma disruptions. Here a considerable fraction of the plasma energy is deposited on a localized surface area in the divertor strike zone region; the time scale of these events is typically in the order of 1 ms. In spite of the fact that a dense cloud of ablation vapour will form above the strike zone, only partial shielding of the divertor armour from incident plasma particles will occur. As a consequence, thermal shock induced crack formation, vaporization, surface melting, melt layer ejection, and particle emission induced by brittle destruction processes will limit the lifetime of the components. In addition, dust particles (neutron activated metals or tritium enriched carbon) are a serious concern form a safety point of view. Other transient heat loads which occasionally occur in magnetic confinement experiments such as instabilities in the plasma positioning (vertical displacement events) also may cause irreversible damage to plasma facing components (PFC), particularly to metals such as beryllium and tungsten. Another serious damage to PFCs is due to intense fluxes of 14 MeV neutrons in D-T-burning plasma devices. Integrated neutron fluence of several ten dpa in future thermonuclear fusion reactors will degrade essential physical properties of the components (e.g. thermal conductivity); another serious concern is the embrittlement of the heat sink and the plasma facing materials (PFM). (orig.)

  17. The impact of transient thermal loads on beryllium as plasma facing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spilker, Benjamin Christof

    2017-01-24

    The rising global energy consumption requires a broad research and development approach in the field of energy technology. Besides renewables, nuclear fusion promises an efficient, CO{sub 2} free, no long-term radioactive waste producing, and safe energy source using only deuterium and lithium as primary resources, which are widely abundant. However, several technical challenges have to be overcome before a nuclear fusion power plant can be built. For this purpose, the experimental reactor ITER is currently under construction in France. ITER is intended to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of net energy generation via nuclear fusion. The most heavily loaded components inside a fusion reactor, which are directly facing the fusion plasma, have to be armoured with well suited materials, which need to be able to withstand the high thermal and particle loads for an economically reasonable lifetime. For ITER, beryllium is chosen as plasma facing material for the largest fraction of the inner vacuum vessel, the so called first wall. Tungsten will be applied in the bottom region of the vacuum vessel, the so called divertor, which acts as the exhaust system of the machine. The choice of beryllium as plasma facing material was driven by its outstanding advantages, e.g. the low atomic number assures that eroded wall material does not strongly decrease the fusion plasma performance, while it combines a high thermal conductivity with low chemical sputtering characteristics. However, the relatively low melting temperature of beryllium of 1287 C comprises the risk of amour damage by melting during transient plasma events, such as edge localized modes or plasma disruptions. Even when mitigated, these events put tremendous power densities in the GW m{sup -2} range with durations in the ms scale onto the plasma facing materials. Hence, the performance of the ITER reference beryllium grade S-65 under transient thermal loads was studied within this work. Thereby

  18. The impact of transient thermal loads on beryllium as plasma facing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spilker, Benjamin Christof

    2017-01-01

    The rising global energy consumption requires a broad research and development approach in the field of energy technology. Besides renewables, nuclear fusion promises an efficient, CO_2 free, no long-term radioactive waste producing, and safe energy source using only deuterium and lithium as primary resources, which are widely abundant. However, several technical challenges have to be overcome before a nuclear fusion power plant can be built. For this purpose, the experimental reactor ITER is currently under construction in France. ITER is intended to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of net energy generation via nuclear fusion. The most heavily loaded components inside a fusion reactor, which are directly facing the fusion plasma, have to be armoured with well suited materials, which need to be able to withstand the high thermal and particle loads for an economically reasonable lifetime. For ITER, beryllium is chosen as plasma facing material for the largest fraction of the inner vacuum vessel, the so called first wall. Tungsten will be applied in the bottom region of the vacuum vessel, the so called divertor, which acts as the exhaust system of the machine. The choice of beryllium as plasma facing material was driven by its outstanding advantages, e.g. the low atomic number assures that eroded wall material does not strongly decrease the fusion plasma performance, while it combines a high thermal conductivity with low chemical sputtering characteristics. However, the relatively low melting temperature of beryllium of 1287 C comprises the risk of amour damage by melting during transient plasma events, such as edge localized modes or plasma disruptions. Even when mitigated, these events put tremendous power densities in the GW m"-"2 range with durations in the ms scale onto the plasma facing materials. Hence, the performance of the ITER reference beryllium grade S-65 under transient thermal loads was studied within this work. Thereby, the

  19. Free-cholesterol loading does not trigger phase separation of the fluorescent sterol dehydroergosterol in the plasma membrane of macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    membrane distribution of the fluorescent cholesterol-mimicking sterol dehydroergosterol (DHE) was investigated in FC-loaded J774 macrophages. Wide field fluorescence and deconvolution microscopy were combined with quantitative assessment of sterol distribution in straightened plasma membrane image segments...

  20. Dynamics of the Energy Transfer to the Load During the Operation of a Plasma Opening Switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinsky, Yu.; Krasik, Ya.E.; Felsteiner, J.

    1999-01-01

    The main efforts of the theoretical and experimental studies related to the Plasma Opening Switch (POS) have been devoted to the understanding of an anomalous fast magnetic field penetration through the plasma. At present this phenomenon can be explained based on the electron magnetohydrodynamic theory.l The second important phenomenon is related with POS opening. Existing models explain POS opening as a result of cut-off of the electron current component in the double layer2 by self-magnetic field of the POS current or by the increase of the Hall potential in the current layer due to ion erosion.3 Nevertheless both models consider POS opening in the region which was preliminary occupied by the plasma. In a recent experiment4 it was shown that the POS opening is related with a fast charged particle flow in the downstream region, namely at the load. In this work we present results of theoretical studies of the phase of the POS operation when the self-magnetic field of the POS current appears at the downstream side of the plasma. Our study has been done within the framework of two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic theory. Taking into account the Hall electric field which is responsible for a strong ion acceleration in the axial direction, we found the velocity of the ions. In addition we show, that due to the inductive electric field caused by the motion of the axial current carrying plasma, the velocity of the magnetic field penetration is equal to the Alfven velocity

  1. Multi-gigaelectronvolt acceleration of positrons in a self-loaded plasma wakefield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corde, Sebastien [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Adli, E. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Univ. of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Allen, J. M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); An, W. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Clarke, C. I. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Delahaye, J. P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Frederico, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gessner, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Green, S. Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hogan, M. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Joshi, C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lipkowitz, N. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Litos, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lu, W. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Marsh, K. A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mori, W. B. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schmeltz, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Vafaei-Najafabadi, N. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Walz, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Yakimenko, V. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Yocky, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Clayton, C. E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-08-26

    New accelerator concepts must be developed to make future particle colliders more compact and affordable. The Plasma Wakefield Accelerator (PWFA) is one such concept, where the electric field of a plasma wake excited by a charged-particle bunch is used to accelerate a trailing bunch of particles. To apply plasma acceleration to particle colliders, it is imperative that both the electrons and their antimatter counterpart, the positrons, are efficiently accelerated at high fields using plasmas1. While substantial progress has recently been reported on high-field, high-efficiency acceleration of electrons in a PWFA powered by an electron bunch 2, such an electron-driven wake is unsuitable for the acceleration and focusing of a positron bunch. Here we demonstrate a new regime of PWFA where particles in the front of a single positron bunch transfer their energy to a substantial number of those in the rear of the same bunch by exciting a wakefield in the plasma. In the process, the accelerating field is altered – self-loaded – so that about a billion positrons gain five gigaelectronvolts (GeV) of energy with a narrow energy spread in a distance of just 1.3 meters. They extract about 30% of the wake’s energy and form a spectrally distinct bunch with as low as a 1.8% r.m.s. energy spread. This demonstrated ability of positron-driven plasma wakes to efficiently accelerate a significant number of positrons with a small energy spread may overcome the long-standing challenge of positron acceleration in plasma-based accelerators.

  2. Plasma loading and wave generation for ICRH in the ST Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, J.; Getty, W.D.; Hooke, W.M.; Hosea, J.C.; Sinclair, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma loading and wave generation for two half-turn loops operating at 25 MHz are being investigated on the ST Tokamak at power levels up to 1 MW. The equivalent series resistance R/sub s/ = P/sub rf//I 2 /sub rf/, measured as a function of Ω = ω/ω/sub ci/(r = 0) and plasma density, is found to be in good agreement with the predictions of the cylindrical theory. R/sub s/ values as high as several ohms are obtained at high densities giving wave generation efficiencies well above 90 percent. Loading near Ω = 1 and 2 is apparently independent of power level. Measurements of B/sub zrf/ at 20 locations about the torus reveal the predicted wave generation; m = 0, +1 slow waves in the vicinity of Ω = 1, m = -1 fast waves after the expected onset (usually Ω greater than or equal to 1), and m = 0, +1 fast waves for higher Ω. Toroidal eigenmodes accompanied by large loading are detected for the fast waves when the damping lengths are long

  3. Electronic load as part of the test complex of the power processing unit of electric and plasma propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Chubov, S. V.; Soldatov, Aleksey Ivanovich

    2017-01-01

    This article provides the advantages and technical solutions for the use of electronic loads as part of a testing complex of power and management systems of electric and plasma propulsion of three types. The paper shows the parameters that were applied to select the electronic loads and describes their functionality.

  4. A 5 kA pulsed power supply for inductive and plasma loads in large volume plasma device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, P. K., E-mail: pkumar@ipr.res.in; Singh, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M., E-mail: kushagra.lalit@gmail.com; Mattoo, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2016-07-15

    This paper describes 5 kA, 12 ms pulsed power supply for inductive load of Electron Energy Filter (EEF) in large volume plasma device. The power supply is based upon the principle of rapid sourcing of energy from the capacitor bank (2.8 F/200 V) by using a static switch, comprising of ten Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A suitable mechanism is developed to ensure equal sharing of current and uniform power distribution during the operation of these IGBTs. Safe commutation of power to the EEF is ensured by the proper optimization of its components and by the introduction of over voltage protection (>6 kV) using an indigenously designed snubber circuit. Various time sequences relevant to different actions of power supply, viz., pulse width control and repetition rate, are realized through optically isolated computer controlled interface.

  5. Thermal shock fracture of graphite armor plate under the heat load of plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Tomoyoshi; Seki, Masahiro; Ohmori, Junji

    1989-01-01

    Experiments on the thermal shock brittle fracture of graphite plates were performed. Thermal loading which simulated a plasma disruption was produced by an electron beam facility. Pre-cracks produced on the surface propagated to the inside of the specimen even if the thermal stress on the surface was compressive. Two mechanisms are possible to produce tensile stress around the crack tip under thermal shock conditions. Temperature, thermal stress, and the stress intensity factor for the specimen were analyzed based on the finite element method for various heating conditions. The trend of experimental results under the asymmetric heating agrees qualitatively with the analytical results. This phenomenon is important for the design of plasma facing components made of graphite. Establishment of a lifetime prediction procedure including fatigue, fatigue crack growth, and brittle fracture is needed for graphite armors. (orig.)

  6. Evolution of transiently melt damaged tungsten under ITER-relevant divertor plasma heat loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardin, S., E-mail: s.bardin@differ.nl [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Ass EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Morgan, T.W. [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Ass EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Glad, X. [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Pitts, R.A. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); De Temmerman, G. [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Ass EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-08-15

    A high-repetition-rate ELM simulation system was used at both the Pilot-PSI and Magnum-PSI linear plasma devices to investigate the nature of W damage under multiple shallow melt events and the subsequent surface evolution under ITER relevant plasma fluence and high ELM number. First, repetitive shallow melting of two W monoblocks separated by a 0.5 mm gap was obtained by combined pulsed/steady-state hydrogen plasma loading at normal incidence in the Pilot-PSI device. Surface modifications including melting, cracking and strong net-reshaping of the surface are obtained. During the second step, the pre-damaged W sample was exposed to a high flux plasma regime in the Magnum-PSI device with a grazing angle of 35°. SEM analysis indicates no measurable change to the surface state after the exposure in Magnum-PSI. An increase in transient-induced temperature rise of 40% is however observed, indicating a degradation of thermal properties over time.

  7. Increased Plasma Cell-Free DNA Level during HTNV Infection: Correlation with Disease Severity and Virus Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell-free DNA (cf-DNA in blood represents a promising DNA damage response triggered by virus infection or trauma, tumor, etc. Hantavirus primarily causes two diseases: haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS, depending on different Hantavirus species. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma cf-DNA levels in acute phase of HFRS, and to correlate plasma cf-DNA with disease severity and plasma Hanttan virus (HTNV load. We observed the appearance of cf-DNA in 166 plasma samples from 76 HFRS patients: the plasma cf-DNA levels peaked at the hypotensive stage of HFRS, and then decreased gradually. Until the diuretic stage, there was no significant difference in plasma cf-DNA level between patients and the healthy control. Exclusively in the febrile/hypotensive stage, the plasma cf-DNA levels of severe/critical patients were higher than those of the mild/moderate group. Moreover, the plasma cf-DNA value in the early stage of HFRS was correlated with HTNV load and disease severity. In most of the patients, plasma cf-DNA displayed a low-molecular weight appearance, corresponding to the size of apoptotic DNA. In conclusion, the plasma cf-DNA levels were dynamically elevated during HFRS, and correlated with disease severity, which suggests that plasma cf-DNA may be a potential biomarker for the pathogenesis and prognosis of HFRS.

  8. Oligonol supplementation modulates plasma volume and osmolality and sweating after heat load in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JeongBeom; Shin, YoungOh; Murota, Hiroyuki

    2015-05-01

    Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight polyphenol that possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study investigated the effects of Oligonol supplementation on sweating response, plasma volume (PV), and osmolality (Osm) after heat load in human volunteers. We conducted a placebo-controlled crossover trial. Participants took a daily dose of 200 mg Oligonol or placebo for 1 week. After a 2-week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. As a heat load, half-body immersion into hot water (42°C±0.5°C for 30 min) was performed in an automated climate chamber. Tympanic and mean body temperature (Tty, mTb) and whole-body sweat loss volume (WBSLV) were measured. Changes in PV, Osm, and serum levels of aldosterone and sodium were analyzed. Oligonol intake attenuated increases in Tty, mTb, and WBSLV after heat load compared with the placebo (Pbody temperature and excessive sweating under heat load in healthy humans, but interpretation of the results requires caution due to the potent diuretic effect of Oligonol.

  9. Decreased insulin clearance in individuals with elevated 1-h post-load plasma glucose levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adelaide Marini

    Full Text Available Reduced insulin clearance has been shown to predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Recently, it has been suggested that plasma glucose concentrations ≥ 8.6 mmol/l (155 mg/dl at 1 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT can identify individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes among those who have normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high. The aim of this study was to examine whether NGT 1 h-high have a decrease in insulin clearance, as compared with NGT individuals with 1-h post-load glucose <8.6 mmol/l (l (155 mg/dl, NGT 1 h-low. To this end, 438 non-diabetic White individuals were subjected to OGTT and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin clearance and insulin sensitivity. As compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals, NGT 1 h-high had significantly higher 1-h and 2-h post-load plasma glucose and 2-h insulin levels as well as higher fasting glucose and insulin levels. NGT 1 h-high exhibited also a significant decrease in both insulin sensitivity (P<0.0001 and insulin clearance (P = 0.006 after adjusting for age, gender, adiposity measures, and insulin sensitivity. The differences in insulin clearance remained significant after adjustment for fasting glucose (P = 0.02 in addition to gender, age, and BMI. In univariate analyses adjusted for gender and age, insulin clearance was inversely correlated with body weight, body mass index, waist, fat mass, 1-h and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting, 1-h and 2-h post-load insulin levels, and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In conclusion, our data show that NGT 1 h-high have a reduction in insulin clearance as compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals; this suggests that impaired insulin clearance may contribute to sustained fasting and post-meal hyperinsulinemia.

  10. Application of powerful quasi-steady-state plasma accelerators for simulation of ITER transient heat loads on divertor surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tereshin, V I [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Bandura, A N [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Byrka, O V [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Chebotarev, V V [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Garkusha, I E [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Landman, I [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Makhlaj, V A [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Neklyudov, I M [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Solyakov, D G [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Tsarenko, A V [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine)

    2007-05-15

    The paper presents the investigations of high power plasma interaction with material surfaces under conditions simulating the ITER disruptions and type I ELMs. Different materials were exposed to plasma with repetitive pulses of 250 {mu}s duration, the ion energy of up to 0.6 keV, and the heat loads varying in the 0.5-25 MJ m{sup -2} range. The plasma energy transfer to the material surface versus impact load has been analysed. The fraction of plasma energy that is absorbed by the target surface is rapidly decreased with the achievement of the evaporation onset for exposed targets. The distributions of evaporated material in front of the target surface and the thickness of the shielding layer are found to be strongly dependent on the target atomic mass. The surface analysis of tungsten targets exposed to quasi-steady-state plasma accelerators plasma streams is presented together with measurements of the melting onset load and evaporation threshold, and also of erosion patterns with increasing heat load and the number of plasma pulses.

  11. Numerical study of plasma generation process and internal antenna heat loadings in J-PARC RF negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, T., E-mail: shibat@post.j-parc.jp; Ueno, A.; Oguri, H.; Ohkoshi, K.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A.; Asano, H.; Naito, F. [J-PARC Center, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Nishida, K.; Mochizuki, S.; Hatayama, A. [Keio University, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan); Mattei, S.; Lettry, J. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-02-15

    A numerical model of plasma transport and electromagnetic field in the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) radio frequency ion source has been developed to understand the relation between antenna coil heat loadings and plasma production/transport processes. From the calculation, the local plasma density increase is observed in the region close to the antenna coil. Electrons are magnetized by the magnetic field line with absolute magnetic flux density 30–120 Gauss which leads to high local ionization rate. The results suggest that modification of magnetic configuration can be made to reduce plasma heat flux onto the antenna.

  12. Enhancement of glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow by oral glucose load in well controlled insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl Christiansen, J; Christensen, C K; Hermansen, K

    1986-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured in 27 patients with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) before and after an oral glucose load of 1.1 g glucose/kg body wt. In the 18 patients showing near-normoglycaemia (blood glucose less than or equal to 8....... No changes in blood pressure or urinary albumin excretion rates took place in either group. The reduction in plasma protein and in plasma growth hormone concentration were similar in the two groups. No change was seen in plasma arginine vasopressin concentration. There was no difference in the qualitative...

  13. Design study of a plasma-loaded CRM using TPD-II machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Kazuo

    2007-08-01

    Design study of an experiment for plasma-loaded cyclotron resonance maser (CRM) utilizing TPD-II Machine at NIFS, Japan is described in some detail. The principle of gyrotrons has been believed the CRM instability. However, all the existing linear theories of CRM instability include unphysical modes unstable at infinite values of axial wavenumber that can never be observed experimentally. To overcome the difficulty, we derive and analyze numerically an exact linear dispersion relation of a large orbit electron beam for CRM, and removed the unphysical modes. However, the relation is found to include two principles of cyclotron emission with oscillation frequencies above and below the branch of fast electron cyclotron wave. The former is CRM instability, and the latter is named Chrenkov instability in the azimuthal direction (CIAD). It is noted that the CIAD we found remains only a proposal of a new mechanism for cyclotron emission until the physical existence is verified experimentally. To verify the CIAD, the design study of a plasma-loaded CRM has been carried out. The apparatus consists of two portions installed in the TPD-II: A pair of helical wiggler windings to create a mono-energetic beam with 15 keV and pitch factor V θ /V z ≥1, and microwave circuits including a cylindrical TE 011 mode cavity with resonant frequency 3.45 GHz. For high plasma density n≥1.5x10 11 cm -3 from TPD-II, the CRM instability may be suppressed and the CIAD will take turn. The present experimental study contributes to a deeper understanding and a widened future prospect in gyrotron physics. (author)

  14. Antibacterial performance on plasma polymerized heptylamine films loaded with silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Chia-Chun; Lin, Chih-Hao; Wang, Meng-Jiy

    2017-01-01

    The antibacterial performance of the plasma-polymerized (pp) heptylamine thin films loaded with silver nanoparticles was evaluated against the colonization of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The properties including the thickness and chemical composition of the as deposited HApp films were modulated by adjusting plasma parameters. The acquired results showed that the film thickness was controlled in the range of 20 to 400 nm by adjusting deposition time. The subsequent immersion of the HApp thin films in silver nitrate solutions result in the formation of amine-metal complexes, in which the silver nanoparticles were reduced directly on the matrices to form Ag@HApp. The reduction reaction of silver was facilitated by applying NaBH4 as a reducing agent. The results of physicochemical analyses including morphological analysis and ellipsometry revealed that the silver nanoparticles were successfully reduced on the HApp films, and the amount of reduced silver was closely associated which the thickness of the plasma-polymerized films, the concentration of applied metal ions solutions, and the time of immobilization. Regarding the antibacterial performance, the Ag@HApp films reduced by NaBH4 showed antibacterial abilities of 70.1 and 68.2% against E. coli and S. aureus, respectively.

  15. Investigation of Peri-Implant Bone Healing Using Autologous Plasma Rich in Growth Factors in the Canine Mandible After 12 Weeks: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birang, Reza; Tavakoli, Mohammad; Shahabouei, Mohammad; Torabi, Alireza; Dargahi, Ali; Soolari, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Faster reconstruction of patients’ masticatory systems is the aim of modern dentistry. A number of studies have indicated that application of growth factors to the surface of a dental implant leads to accelerated and enhanced osseointegration. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of plasma rich in growth factors on peri-implant bone healing. Materials and Methods: For the purpose of this study, two healthy, mixed-breed canines were selected, and the premolars were extracted from both sides of the mandible. Three months after premolar removal, 12 implants, each 5 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length, were placed in osteotomy sites on both sides of the mandible. Prior to placement, plasma rich in growth factors was applied to the surfaces of six implants, while the other six were used without plasma rich in growth factors. The implants were removed after 12 weeks along with the bone surrounding the sites using a trephine bur. One mesiodistal section containing the surrounding bone from each implant block, 50 µm in diameter, was prepared for histologic and histomorphometric investigation with an optical microscope. Results: The sites with implants treated with plasma rich in growth factors showed more bone-to-implant contact compared to control sites. Also, higher values for bone trabecular thickness and bone maturity were recorded for the PRGF-treated sites than for the control sites. Conclusion: Application of plasma rich in growth factors to the surface of an implant may enhance the bone healing process as well as bone-to-implant contact, thereby helping to achieve faster osseointegration. PMID:22145011

  16. Meticulous plasma isolation is essential to avoid false low-level viraemia in Roche Cobas HIV-1 viral load assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, Virginie; Vancoillie, Leen; Dauwe, Kenny; Staelens, Delfien; Demecheleer, Els; Schauvliege, Marlies; Dinakis, Sylvie; Van Maerken, Tom; Dessilly, Géraldine; Ruelle, Jean; Verhofstede, Chris

    2017-10-24

    Pre-analytical sample processing is often overlooked as a potential cause of inaccurate assay results. Here we demonstrate how plasma, extracted from standard EDTA-containing blood collection tubes, may contain traces of blood cells consequently resulting in a false low-level HIV-1 viral load when using Roche Cobas HIV-1 assays. The presence of human DNA in Roche Cobas 4800 RNA extracts and in RNA extracts from the Abbott HIV-1 RealTime assay was assessed by quantifying the human albumin gene by means of quantitative PCR. RNA was extracted from plasma samples before and after an additional centrifugation and tested for viral load and DNA contamination. The relation between total DNA content and viral load was defined. Elevated concentrations of genomic DNA were detected in 28 out of 100 Cobas 4800 extracts and were significantly more frequent in samples processed outside of the AIDS Reference Laboratory. An association between genomic DNA presence and spurious low-level viraemia results was demonstrated. Supplementary centrifugation of plasma before RNA extraction eliminated the contamination and the false viraemia. Plasma isolated from standard EDTA-containing blood collection tubes may contain traces of HIV DNA leading to false viral load results above the clinical cutoff. Supplementary centrifugation of plasma before viral load analysis may eliminate the occurrence of this spurious low-level viraemia.

  17. Variability of plasma and urine betaine in diabetes mellitus and its relationship to methionine load test responses: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lever Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor, and abnormal betaine loss is common in diabetes mellitus (>20% patients, we investigated the relationship between betaine and the post-methionine load rise in homocysteine, in diabetes and control subjects. The post-methionine load test is reported to be both an independent vascular risk factor and a measure of betaine sufficiency. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 34 and control subjects (n = 17 were recruited. We measured baseline fasting plasma and 4-hour post-methionine load (L-methionine, 0.1 mg/kg body weight concentrations of homocysteine, betaine, and the betaine metabolite N,N-dimethylglycine. Baseline urine excretions of betaine, dimethylglycine and glucose were measured on morning urine samples as the ratio to urine creatinine. Statistical determinants of the post-methionine load increase in homocysteine were identified in multiple linear regression models. Results Plasma betaine concentrations and urinary betaine excretions were significantly (p p = 0.00014 and plasma dimethylglycine concentrations (p = 0.039 were also more variable. In diabetes, plasma betaine was a significant negative determinant (p  Conclusions Both high and low plasma betaine concentrations, and high and low urinary betaine excretions, are more prevalent in diabetes. The availability of betaine affects the response in the methionine load test. The benefits of increasing betaine intake should be investigated.

  18. Preoperative autologous plateletpheresis in patients undergoing open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Akhlesh S; Tempe, Deepak K; Banerjee, Amit; Hegde, Radhesh; Cooper, Andrea; Khanna, S K

    2003-07-01

    Blood conservation is an important aspect of care provided to the patients undergoing cardiac operations with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). It is even more important in patients with anticipated prolonged CPB, redo cardiac surgery, patients having negative blood group and in patients undergoing emergency cardiac surgery. In prolonged CPB the blood is subjected to more destruction of important coagulation factors, in redo surgery the separation of adhesions leads to increased bleeding and difficulty in achieving the haemostasis and in patients with negative blood group and emergency operations, the availability of sufficient blood can be a problem. Harvesting the autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) can be a useful method of blood conservation in these patients. The above four categories of patients were prospectively studied, using either autologous whole blood donation or autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) harvest in the immediate pre-bypass period. Forty two patients were included in the study and randomly divided into two equal groups of 21 each, control group (Group I) in which one unit of whole blood was withdrawn, and PRP group (Group II) where autologous plateletpheresis was utilised. After reversal of heparin, autologous whole blood was transfused in the control group and autologous PRP was transfused in the PRP group. The chest tube drainage and the requirement of homologous blood and blood products were recorded. Average PRP harvest was 643.33 +/- 133.51 mL in PRP group and the mean whole blood donation was 333.75 +/- 79.58 mL in the control group. Demographic, preoperative and intra operative data showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. The PRP group patients drained 26.44% less (pblood products (pconservation in terms of better haemostasis, and less requirement of blood and blood products in the postoperative period as compared with the autologous whole blood donation. This technique can be especially useful in the

  19. Differences in cardiovascular risk profile based on relationship between post-load plasma glucose and fasting plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succurro, Elena; Marini, Maria Adelaide; Grembiale, Alessandro; Lugarà, Marina; Andreozzi, Francesco; Sciacqua, Angela; Hribal, Marta Letizia; Lauro, Renato; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2009-05-01

    It has been shown that subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), whose plasma glucose (PG) levels do not return to their fasting PG level within 2 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (Group I), have a significantly higher risk to develop type 2 diabetes than NGT subjects whose 2-h glucose returns to, or drops below, the fasting level (Group I). However, it is still unsettled whether individuals in Group II have a more atherogenic profile than Group I subjects. To address this issue, we examined 266 non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic patients, recruited in the context of EUGENE2 cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent an euglycaemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to assess glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, cardiovascular risk factors and ultrasound measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were evaluated. Individuals in Group II exhibited significantly higher waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, 2-h post-load PG, hsC-reactive protein, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IMT, and lower insulin sensitivity than subjects in Group I. Subjects with NGT, whose PG concentration does not return to their fasting PG level within 2 h during OGTT, have an atherogenic profile, suggesting that performing OGTT with measurement of PG every 30 min may be useful to assess the risk for cardiovascular disease in glucose-tolerant subjects.

  20. Experimental simulation and analysis of off-normal heat loads accompanying plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, J.G. van der; Bakker, J.; Stad, R.C.L. van der; Klippel, H.T.

    1990-12-01

    The plasma disruption heat load is simulated experimentally using a pulsed laser beam with high energy density and short pulse duration (0.2-20 mm) covering a certain range of ITER design values. The present status of the laser heat flux test facility and new experimental tools are described. Spatial and time resolved profiles of the laser beam are given. Experimental results are presented including the variation of angle of incidence of the laser beam relative to the material surface. The nature and effects of the induced vapour plume are discussed. Materials studied are relevant to the ITER design. Experimental results are compared with numerical calculations. Some implications for the design of First Wall and Divertor of ITER are addressed. (author). 13 refs.; 5 figs

  1. Solitary electron density waves in a magnetized, plasma-loaded waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynov, J.-P.

    1980-08-01

    Investigations of two different types of nonlinear, solitary electron density waves in a magnetized, plasma-loaded waveguide are presented. One of the wavetypes is a localized, compressional pulse identified as a Trivelpiece-Gould soliton. The modification of this soliton by the resonant electrons is studied theoretically, by direct numerical solution of the model equation, experimentally, and by numerical simulation of the experiment. The other wave is a localized, rarefactive pulse called an electron hole. It is a positive pulse consisting of a large number of trapped electrons and is a purely kinetic phenomenon. A simple waterbag model for the electron hole is derived and compared with the results from the experiment and the numerical simulation. Finally, interactions between the solitary waves are investigated. (Auth.)

  2. Determination of the neutral oxygen atom density in a plasma reactor loaded with metal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozetic, Miran; Cvelbar, Uros

    2009-08-01

    The density of neutral oxygen atoms was determined during processing of metal samples in a plasma reactor. The reactor was a Pyrex tube with an inner diameter of 11 cm and a length of 30 cm. Plasma was created by an inductively coupled radiofrequency generator operating at a frequency of 27.12 MHz and output power up to 500 W. The O density was measured at the edge of the glass tube with a copper fiber optics catalytic probe. The O atom density in the empty tube depended on pressure and was between 4 and 7 × 1021 m-3. The maximum O density was at a pressure of about 150 Pa, while the dissociation fraction of O2 molecules was maximal at the lowest pressure and decreased with increasing pressure. At about 300 Pa it dropped below 10%. The measurements were repeated in the chamber loaded with different metallic samples. In these cases, the density of oxygen atoms was lower than that in the empty chamber. The results were explained by a drain of O atoms caused by heterogeneous recombination on the samples.

  3. The Use of Platelet-Rich and Platelet-Poor Plasma to Enhance Differentiation of Skeletal Myoblasts: Implications for the Use of Autologous Blood Products for Muscle Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnychenko, Olga; Chang, Wen-Teh; Dragoo, Jason L

    2017-03-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used to augment tissue repair and regeneration after musculoskeletal injury. However, there is increasing clinical evidence that PRP does not show a consistent clinical effect. Purpose/Hypothesis: This study aimed to compare the effects of the following non-neutrophil-containing (leukocyte-poor) plasma fractions on human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) differentiation: (1) PRP, (2) modified PRP (Mod-PRP), in which transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and myostatin (MSTN) were depleted, and (3) platelet-poor plasma (PPP). The hypothesis was that leukocyte-poor PRP would lead to myoblast proliferation (not differentiation), whereas certain modifications of PRP preparations would increase myoblast differentiation, which is necessary for skeletal muscle regeneration. Controlled laboratory study. Blood from 7 human donors was individually processed to simultaneously create leukocyte-poor fractions: PRP, Mod-PRP, PPP, and secondarily spun PRP and Mod-PRP (PRP ss and Mod-PRP ss , respectively). Mod-PRP was produced by removing TGF-β1 and MSTN from PRP using antibodies attached to sterile beads, while a second-stage centrifugal spin of PRP was performed to remove platelets. The biologics were individually added to cell culture groups. Analysis for induction into myoblast differentiation pathways included Western blot analysis, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry, as well as confocal microscopy to assess polynucleated myotubule formation. HSMMs cultured with PRP showed an increase in proliferation but no evidence of differentiation. Western blot analysis confirmed that MSTN and TGF-β1 could be decreased in Mod-PRP using antibody-coated beads, but this modification mildly improved myoblast differentiation. However, cell culture with PPP, PRP ss , and Mod-PRP ss led to a decreased proliferation rate but a significant induction of myoblast differentiation verified by increased multinucleated

  4. The JET real-time plasma-wall load monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcárcel, D.F.; Alves, D.; Card, P.; Carvalho, B.B.; Devaux, S.; Felton, R.; Goodyear, A.; Lomas, P.J.; Maviglia, F.; McCullen, P.; Reux, C.; Rimini, F.; Stephen, A.; Zabeo, L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper describes the JET real-time system monitoring the first-wall plasma loads. • It presents the motivation, physics basis, design and implementation of the system. • It also presents the integration in the JET CODAS. • Operational results are presented. - Abstract: In the past, the Joint European Torus (JET) has operated with a first-wall composed of Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) tiles. The thermal properties of the wall were monitored in real-time during plasma operations by the WALLS system. This software routinely performed model-based thermal calculations of the divertor and Inner Wall Guard Limiter (IWGL) tiles calculating bulk temperatures and strike-point positions as well as raising alarms when these were beyond operational limits. Operation with the new ITER-like wall presents a whole new set of challenges regarding machine protection. One example relates to the new beryllium limiter tiles with a melting point of 1278 °C, which can be achieved during a plasma discharge well before the bulk temperature rises to this value. This requires new and accurate power deposition and thermal diffusion models. New systems were deployed for safe operation with the new wall: the Real-time Protection Sequencer (RTPS) and the Vessel Thermal Map (VTM). The former allows for a coordinated stop of the pulse and the latter uses the surface temperature map, measured by infra-red (IR) cameras, to raise alarms in case of hot-spots. Integration of WALLS with these systems is required as RTPS responds to raised alarms and VTM, the primary protection system for the ITER-like wall, can use WALLS as a vessel temperature provider. This paper presents the engineering design, implementation and results of WALLS towards D-T operation, where it will act as a primary protection system when the IR cameras are blinded by the fusion reaction neutrons. The first operational results, with emphasis on its performance, are also presented

  5. The JET real-time plasma-wall load monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcárcel, D.F., E-mail: daniel.valcarcel@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, D. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Card, P. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Carvalho, B.B. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Devaux, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Felton, R.; Goodyear, A.; Lomas, P.J. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Maviglia, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Univ. di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); McCullen, P. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Reux, C. [Ecole Polytechnique, LPP, CNRS UMR 7648, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Rimini, F.; Stephen, A. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Zabeo, L. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St., Paul Lez Durance (France); and others

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • The paper describes the JET real-time system monitoring the first-wall plasma loads. • It presents the motivation, physics basis, design and implementation of the system. • It also presents the integration in the JET CODAS. • Operational results are presented. - Abstract: In the past, the Joint European Torus (JET) has operated with a first-wall composed of Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) tiles. The thermal properties of the wall were monitored in real-time during plasma operations by the WALLS system. This software routinely performed model-based thermal calculations of the divertor and Inner Wall Guard Limiter (IWGL) tiles calculating bulk temperatures and strike-point positions as well as raising alarms when these were beyond operational limits. Operation with the new ITER-like wall presents a whole new set of challenges regarding machine protection. One example relates to the new beryllium limiter tiles with a melting point of 1278 °C, which can be achieved during a plasma discharge well before the bulk temperature rises to this value. This requires new and accurate power deposition and thermal diffusion models. New systems were deployed for safe operation with the new wall: the Real-time Protection Sequencer (RTPS) and the Vessel Thermal Map (VTM). The former allows for a coordinated stop of the pulse and the latter uses the surface temperature map, measured by infra-red (IR) cameras, to raise alarms in case of hot-spots. Integration of WALLS with these systems is required as RTPS responds to raised alarms and VTM, the primary protection system for the ITER-like wall, can use WALLS as a vessel temperature provider. This paper presents the engineering design, implementation and results of WALLS towards D-T operation, where it will act as a primary protection system when the IR cameras are blinded by the fusion reaction neutrons. The first operational results, with emphasis on its performance, are also presented.

  6. Energy transformation in Z-pinch and plasma focus discharges with wire and wire-in-liner loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubes, Pavel; Kravarik, Jozef; Klir, Daniel; Scholz, Marek; Paduch, Marian; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof; Karpinski, Leslaw; Bakshaev, Yury L.; Blinov, Peter I.; Chernenko, Andrey S.; Dan'ko, Sergey A.; Korolev, Valery D.; Shashkov, Andrey Y.; Tumanov, Victor I.

    2002-01-01

    The results of the study of the Z-pinch and plasma-focus plasmas at presence of the axial C, Al, or Cu wires of sufficient high diameter are discussed in this paper. The wire was positioned on the top of the inner electrode of the PF 1000 plasma focus (1.8 MA, IPPLM Warsaw), or at the axis with or without the tungsten or alumine wire array load at the S-300 facility (3 MA, RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow), and at the axis of the small Z-pinch Z-150 (50 kA, CTU Prague). The plasma corona around the wire was generated both by the current going through the wires and by the implosion of the wire array or of the current sheath. The experiments showed interesting results often observed in some shots of Z-pinch type discharges - existence of helical structures, two relatively long and stable pinch phases, oscillation of pinch diameter, and back return of the plasma exploding from the pinch. All these observed phenomena can be evolved by spontaneous self-generation and transformation of the axial magnetic field in the pinch during the plasma implosion and explosion. A configuration of axial and azimuthal magnetic field confines the plasma and later transforms or dissipates during a few tens or hundreds ns. A fast transformation of internal magnetic fields can induce a sufficiently high electric field for generation of keV particles and radiation. Study and usage of Z-pinch discharges is connected with solving of two principal problems, limitation of instability development and a way of generation of high energy particles and radiation. The first problem is partially solved by the faster increase of the current, by better cylindrical symmetry of the load and plasma, by higher density of the plasma or by the presence of a stronger magnetized plasma

  7. Quantification of Epstein-Barr virus-DNA load in lung transplant recipients : A comparison of plasma versus whole blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Nicolaas A.; Verschuuren, Erik A.; Veeger, Nic J.; van der Bij, Wim; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W.; Kallenberg, Cees G.; Hepkema, Bouke G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Monitoring of the Epstein-Barr virus-DNA load is frequently used to identify patients at risk for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Epstein-Barr virus DNA can be measured in the plasma and whole blood serum compartments. Methods: We compared levels of Epstein-Barr virus

  8. Response of Jupiter's Aurora to Plasma Mass Loading Rate Monitored by the Hisaki Satellite During Volcanic Eruptions at Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, T.; Hiraki, Y.; Tao, C.; Tsuchiya, F.; Delamere, P. A.; Yoshioka, K.; Murakami, G.; Yamazaki, A.; Kita, H.; Badman, S. V.; Fukazawa, K.; Yoshikawa, I.; Fujimoto, M.

    2018-03-01

    The production and transport of plasma mass are essential processes in the dynamics of planetary magnetospheres. At Jupiter, it is hypothesized that Io's volcanic plasma carried out of the plasma torus is transported radially outward in the rotating magnetosphere and is recurrently ejected as plasmoid via tail reconnection. The plasmoid ejection is likely associated with particle energization, radial plasma flow, and transient auroral emissions. However, it has not been demonstrated that plasmoid ejection is sensitive to mass loading because of the lack of simultaneous observations of both processes. We report the response of plasmoid ejection to mass loading during large volcanic eruptions at Io in 2015. Response of the transient aurora to the mass loading rate was investigated based on a combination of Hisaki satellite monitoring and a newly developed analytic model. We found that the transient aurora frequently recurred at a 2-6 day period in response to a mass loading increase from 0.3 to 0.5 t/s. In general, the recurrence of the transient aurora was not significantly correlated with the solar wind, although there was an exceptional event with a maximum emission power of 10 TW after the solar wind shock arrival. The recurrence of plasmoid ejection requires the precondition that an amount comparable to the total mass of magnetosphere, 1.5 Mt, is accumulated in the magnetosphere. A plasmoid mass of more than 0.1 Mt is necessary in case that the plasmoid ejection is the only process for mass release.

  9. An autologously generated platelet-rich plasma suturable membrane may enhance peripheral nerve regeneration after neurorraphy in an acute injury model of sciatic nerve neurotmesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannessi, Elisabetta; Coli, Alessandra; Stornelli, Maria Rita; Miragliotta, Vincenzo; Pirone, Andrea; Lenzi, Carla; Burchielli, Silvia; Vozzi, Giovanni; De Maria, Carmelo; Giorgetti, Margherita

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of suturable platelet-rich plasma (PRP) membrane to promote peripheral nerve regeneration after neurotmesis and neurorraphy. A total of 36 rats were used: 32 animals underwent surgery and were split in two groups. An interim sacrifice was performed at 6 weeks postsurgery and final sacrifice at 12 weeks; four animals did not sustain nerve injury and served as control. Clinical, electromyographic (EMG), gross, and histological changes were assessed. The EMG signal was evaluated for its amplitude and frequency spectrum. Number of regenerating fibers, their diameter, and myelin thickness were histologically analyzed. Both EMG parameters showed a significant (p neurorraphy improves the nerve regeneration process in a rat sciatic nerve model. The use of PRP as a suturable membrane could perform an action not only as a source of bioactive proteins but also as a nerve guide to hold the scar reaction and thus improve axonal regeneration. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Experimental investigation of vapor shielding effects induced by ELM-like pulsed plasma loads using the double plasma gun device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, I.; Kikuchi, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Asai, Y.; Onishi, K.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a unique experimental device of so-called double plasma gun, which consists of two magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) devices, in order to clarify effects of vapor shielding on material erosion due to transient events in magnetically confined fusion devices. Two ELM-like pulsed plasmas produced by the two MCPG devices were injected into a target chamber with a variable time difference. For generating ablated plasmas in front of a target material, an aluminum foil sample in the target chamber was exposed to a pulsed plasma produced by the 1st MCPG device. The 2nd pulsed plasma was produced with a time delay of 70 μs. It was found that a surface absorbed energy measured by a calorimeter was reduced to ∼66% of that without the Al foil sample. Thus, the reduction of the incoming plasma energy by the vapor shielding effect was successfully demonstrated in the present experiment.

  11. Experimental investigation of vapor shielding effects induced by ELM-like pulsed plasma loads using the double plasma gun device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, I., E-mail: eu13z002@steng.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Kikuchi, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Asai, Y.; Onishi, K.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2015-08-15

    We have developed a unique experimental device of so-called double plasma gun, which consists of two magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) devices, in order to clarify effects of vapor shielding on material erosion due to transient events in magnetically confined fusion devices. Two ELM-like pulsed plasmas produced by the two MCPG devices were injected into a target chamber with a variable time difference. For generating ablated plasmas in front of a target material, an aluminum foil sample in the target chamber was exposed to a pulsed plasma produced by the 1st MCPG device. The 2nd pulsed plasma was produced with a time delay of 70 μs. It was found that a surface absorbed energy measured by a calorimeter was reduced to ∼66% of that without the Al foil sample. Thus, the reduction of the incoming plasma energy by the vapor shielding effect was successfully demonstrated in the present experiment.

  12. Dynamic load balancing in a concurrent plasma PIC code on the JPL/Caltech Mark III hypercube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liewer, P.C.; Leaver, E.W.; Decyk, V.K.; Dawson, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Dynamic load balancing has been implemented in a concurrent one-dimensional electromagnetic plasma particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code using a method which adds very little overhead to the parallel code. In PIC codes, the orbits of many interacting plasma electrons and ions are followed as an initial value problem as the particles move in electromagnetic fields calculated self-consistently from the particle motions. The code was implemented using the GCPIC algorithm in which the particles are divided among processors by partitioning the spatial domain of the simulation. The problem is load-balanced by partitioning the spatial domain so that each partition has approximately the same number of particles. During the simulation, the partitions are dynamically recreated as the spatial distribution of the particles changes in order to maintain processor load balance

  13. Autologous Stem Cell Transplant for AL Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AL amyloidosis is caused by clonal plasma cells that produce immunoglobulin light chains which misfold and get deposited as amyloid fibrils. Therapy directed against the plasma cell clone leads to clinical benefit. Melphalan and corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment for a number of years and the recent availability of other effective agents (IMiDs and proteasome inhibitors has increased treatment options. Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT has been used in the treatment of AL amyloidosis for many years. It is associated with high rates of hematologic response and improvement in organ function. However, transplant carries considerable risks. Careful patient selection is important to minimize transplant related morbidity and mortality and ensure optimal patient outcomes. As newer more affective therapies become available the role and timing of ASCT in the overall treatment strategy of AL amyloidosis will need to be continually reassessed.

  14. Plasma facing materials performance under ITER-relevant mitigated disruption photonic heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, N. S.; Putrik, A. B.; Linke, J.; Pitts, R. A.; Zhitlukhin, A. M.; Kuprianov, I. B.; Spitsyn, A. V.; Ogorodnikova, O. V.; Podkovyrov, V. L.; Muzichenko, A. D.; Ivanov, B. V.; Sergeecheva, Ya. V.; Lesina, I. G.; Kovalenko, D. V.; Barsuk, V. A.; Danilina, N. A.; Bazylev, B. N.; Giniyatulin, R. N.

    2015-08-01

    PFMs (Plasma-facing materials: ITER grade stainless steel, beryllium, and ferritic-martensitic steels) as well as deposited erosion products of PFCs (Be-like, tungsten, and carbon based) were tested in QSPA under photonic heat loads relevant to those expected from photon radiation during disruptions mitigated by massive gas injection in ITER. Repeated pulses slightly above the melting threshold on the bulk materials eventually lead to a regular, "corrugated" surface, with hills and valleys spaced by 0.2-2 mm. The results indicate that hill growth (growth rate of ∼1 μm per pulse) and sample thinning in the valleys is a result of melt-layer redistribution. The measurements on the 316L(N)-IG indicate that the amount of tritium absorbed by the sample from the gas phase significantly increases with pulse number as well as the modified layer thickness. Repeated pulses significantly below the melting threshold on the deposited erosion products lead to a decrease of hydrogen isotopes trapped during the deposition of the eroded material.

  15. Plasma facing materials performance under ITER-relevant mitigated disruption photonic heat loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimov, N.S., E-mail: klimov@triniti.ru [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoye shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Putrik, A.B. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Linke, J. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Jülich D-52425 (Germany); Pitts, R.A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Zhitlukhin, A.M. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Kuprianov, I.B. [Bochvar Institute, ul. Rogova, 5a, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Spitsyn, A.V. [NRC «Kurchatov Institute», Akademika Kurchatova pl., 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Ogorodnikova, O.V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoye shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Podkovyrov, V.L.; Muzichenko, A.D. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, B.V.; Sergeecheva, Ya.V.; Lesina, I.G. [Bochvar Institute, ul. Rogova, 5a, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Kovalenko, D.V.; Barsuk, V.A.; Danilina, N.A. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Bazylev, B.N. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Giniyatulin, R.N. [Efremov Institute, Doroga na Metallostroy, 3 bld., Metallostroy, Saint-Petersburg 196641 (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    PFMs (Plasma-facing materials: ITER grade stainless steel, beryllium, and ferritic–martensitic steels) as well as deposited erosion products of PFCs (Be-like, tungsten, and carbon based) were tested in QSPA under photonic heat loads relevant to those expected from photon radiation during disruptions mitigated by massive gas injection in ITER. Repeated pulses slightly above the melting threshold on the bulk materials eventually lead to a regular, “corrugated” surface, with hills and valleys spaced by 0.2–2 mm. The results indicate that hill growth (growth rate of ∼1 μm per pulse) and sample thinning in the valleys is a result of melt-layer redistribution. The measurements on the 316L(N)-IG indicate that the amount of tritium absorbed by the sample from the gas phase significantly increases with pulse number as well as the modified layer thickness. Repeated pulses significantly below the melting threshold on the deposited erosion products lead to a decrease of hydrogen isotopes trapped during the deposition of the eroded material.

  16. Overall glycemic index and glycemic load of vegan diets in relation to plasma lipoproteins and triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Annika; Ströhle, Alexander; Koschizke, Jochen W; Leitzmann, Claus; Hahn, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the overall glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and intake of dietary fiber, and to examine the associations between these factors and plasma lipoproteins and triacylglycerols in adult vegans in the German Vegan Study (GVS). Cross-sectional study, Germany. Healthy men (n = 67) and women (n = 87), who fulfilled the study criteria (vegan diet for >or=1 year prior to study start; minimum age of 18 years; no pregnancy/childbirth during the last 12 months) and who participated in all study segments. The average dietary GL of the GVS population was 144, and the average GI was 51.4. The adjusted geometric mean total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased across the increasing quartiles of GL, carbohydrate and dietary fiber intake. The associations between total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and GL density and GI were inconsistent. Also, associations between GI, GL, the intake of carbohydrates, and triacylglycerol concentration were not observed. Fiber-rich vegan diets are characterized by a low GI and a low to moderate GL. The data do not support the hypothesis that a carbohydrate-rich diet per se is associated with unfavorable effects on triaclyglycerols that would be predicted to increase the risk of coronary heart disease. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Evaluation of electromagnetic loads on various design options of the ITER diagnostic upper port plug during plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, Sunil; Ku, Duck Young; Oh, Dong-Keun; Jhang, Hogun; Kim, Duck-Hoi; Cheon, Mun-Seong; Seon, Chang Rae; Lee, Hyeon Gon; Pitcher, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) loads due to eddy current and halo current during plasma disruptions are evaluated for the ITER diagnostic upper port plug. To reduce strong EM loads acting on the port plug fixed to the vacuum vessel like a cantilever beam, three design options have been considered: removal of the diagnostic first wall, slitting of the diagnostic shield module and recess of the port plug. The main focus of the present study is to examine the efficacy of these options in terms of EM loads on the upper port plug. It is found that making slits is more effective than removing the first wall. It is also shown that the upper port plug needs to be recessed to reduce the EM load induced by halo current.

  18. Association between feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) plasma viral RNA load, concentration of acute phase proteins and disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Rebecca K C; Seddon, Jennifer M; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat T; Henning, Joerg; Meers, Joanne

    2014-08-01

    Veterinarians have few tools to predict the rate of disease progression in FIV-infected cats. In contrast, in HIV infection, plasma viral RNA load and acute phase protein concentrations are commonly used as predictors of disease progression. This study evaluated these predictors in cats naturally infected with FIV. In older cats (>5 years), log10 FIV RNA load was higher in the terminal stages of disease compared to the asymptomatic stage. There was a significant association between log10 FIV RNA load and both log10 serum amyloid A concentration and age in unwell FIV-infected cats. This study suggests that viral RNA load and serum amyloid A warrant further investigation as predictors of disease status and prognosis in FIV-infected cats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Platelet-rich plasma loaded in situ-formed hydrogel enhances hyaline cartilage regeneration by CB1 upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Rim; Park, Kyung Min; Joung, Yoon Ki; Park, Ki Dong; Do, Sun Hee

    2012-11-01

    The efficacy of three-dimensional (3D) culture on the proliferation and maturation of chondrocytes seeded into a hydrogel scaffold was assessed. Three types of hydrogel were prepared for the 3D culture of primary isolated chondrocytes. Chondrocyte proliferation was assessed using a live/dead viability/cytotoxicity assay and semiquantitative RT-PCR after 3D culture in hydrogel. Cylindrical defects in the center of rat xyphoids were used for the implantation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP)/hydrogel composites. Rats were killed at day 7 postoperatively and evaluated histochemically and immunohistologically. Xyphoid chondrocytes proliferated well with time in hydrogels. In the PRP-containing hydrogels, xyphoid defects displayed early formation of chondroid matrix with massive peripheral infiltration of spindle cells. These results were consistent with Safranin-O staining for proteoglycans and immunohistochemistry for type II collagen. Gene expression analyses in vitro revealed aggrecan, type II collagen, and ChM-1 and CB1 upregulation by PRP/hydrogel. PRP/hydrogel provided a suitable environment for hyaline cartilaginous regeneration, leading to anti-inflammation by significant increase of CB1 and inhibiting vascular ingrowth via considerable upregulation of ChM-1. The results provide a valuable reference for the clinical application of hydrogel scaffolds for hyaline cartilage regeneration, as well as the use of autologous PRP to improve cellular proliferation and maturation of xyphoid repair. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Preoperative autologous plateletpheresis in patients undergoing open heart surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomar Akhlesh

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood conservation is an important aspect of care provided to the patients undergoing cardiac operations with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. It is even more important in patients with anticipated prolonged CPB, redo cardiac surgery, patients having negative blood group and in patients undergoing emergency cardiac surgery. In prolonged CPB the blood is subjected to more destruction of important coagulation factors, in redo surgery the separation of adhesions leads to increased bleeding and difficulty in achieving the haemostasis and in patients with negative blood group and emergency operations, the availability of sufficient blood can be a problem. Harvesting the autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP can be a useful method of blood conservation in these patients. The above four categories of patients were prospectively studied, using either autologous whole blood donation or autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP harvest in the immediate pre-bypass period. Forty two patients were included in the study and randomly divided into two equal groups of 21 each, control group (Group I in which one unit of whole blood was withdrawn, and PRP group (Group II where autologous plateletpheresis was utilised. After reversal of heparin, autologous whole blood was transfused in the control group and autologous PRP was transfused in the PRP group. The chest tube drainage and the requirement of homologous blood and blood products were recorded. Average PRP harvest was 643.33 +/- 133.51 mL in PRP group and the mean whole blood donation was 333.75 +/- 79.58 mL in the control group. Demographic, preoperative and intra operative data showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. The PRP group patients drained 26.44% less (p<0.001 and required 38.5% less homologous blood and blood products (p<0.05, in the postoperative period. Haemoglobin levels on day zero (day of operation and day three were statistically not different between the two groups. We

  1. Undetectable plasma viral load predicts normal survival in HIV-2-infected people in a West African village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricard Dominique

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been no previous studies of the long-term survival and temporal changes in plasma viral load among HIV-2 infected subjects. Methods 133 HIV-2 infected and 158 HIV-uninfected subjects from a rural area in North-west Guinea-Bissau, West Africa were enrolled into a prospective cohort study in 1991 and followed-up to mid-2009. Data were collected on four occasions during that period on HIV antibodies, CD4% and HIV-2 plasma viral load. Results Median age (interquartile range [IQR] of HIV-2 infected subjects at time of enrollment was 47 (36, 60 years, similar to that of HIV-uninfected control subjects, 49 (38, 62 (p = 0.4. Median (IQR plasma viral load and CD4 percentage were 347 (50, 4,300 copies/ml and 29 (22, 35 respectively. Overall loss to follow-up to assess vital status was small, at 6.7% and 6.3% for HIV-2 infected and uninfected subjects respectively. An additional 17 (12.8% and 16 (10.1% of HIV-2 infected and uninfected subjects respectively were censored during follow-up due to infection with HIV-1. The mortality rate per 100 person-years (95% CI was 4.5 (3.6, 5.8 among HIV-2 infected subjects compared to 2.1 (1.6, 2.9 among HIV-uninfected (age-sex adjusted rate ratio 1.9 (1.3, 2.8, p Viral load measurements were available for 98%, 78%, 77% and 61% HIV-2 infected subjects who were alive and had not become super-infected with HIV-1, in 1991, 1996, 2003 and 2006 respectively. Median plasma viral load (RNA copies per ml (IQR did not change significantly over time, being 150 (50, 1,554; n = 77 in 1996, 203 (50, 2,837; n = 47 in 2003 and 171 (50, 497; n = 31 in 2006. Thirty seven percent of HIV-2 subjects had undetectable viraemia ( Conclusions A substantial proportion of HIV-2 infected subjects in this cohort have stable plasma viral load, and those with an undetectable viral load (37% at study entry had a normal survival rate. However, the sequential laboratory findings need to be interpreted with caution given

  2. Autologous proliferative therapies in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetschke, Elisa; Rudolf, Margit; Lohmann, Christoph H; Stärke, Christian

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the clinical effects of autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) injections and low-level laser application as therapy options for chronic lateral epicondylitis. A total of 52 patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis were evaluated in this study; 26 of these patients received three ACP injections and the control group, with 26 patients, received 12 laser applications, with standardized physical therapy for all patients afterward. Control examinations took place before treatment, after 2 and 6 mos, and in the 1 yr final follow-up. The control examination included the visual analog scale for pain and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand outcome measure scores. The analysis at final follow-up after 1 yr showed that both treatment options resulted in successful therapy outcome for the patients. In total, 63.5 % were successfully treated. Successful treatment was defined as more than 30% improvement in the visual analog score and more than 10.2 points in the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score. Both groups showed a significant improvement in time response. This study demonstrates the beneficial effects of autologous proliferative therapies in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. The data show that laser application and ACP therapy lead to a clinical improvement in epicondylopathia. Especially the new treatment with ACP can be highlighted as an alternative and as an easy-to-apply therapy option for clinical practice.

  3. Unconjugated oestetrol in plasma in response to an intravenous load of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHAS) in uncomplicated and complicated human pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsson, Ove

    1978-01-01

    A non-chromatographic radioimmunoassay for estimation of unconjugated oestetrol in plasma from pregnant women is described. The antiserum has a high specificity to oestetrol. The technical procedure is simple and rapid. Only small amounts of plasma (0.2-0.4 ml) are needed for the analysis. The method has been applied to the measurement of oestetrol in plasma from pregnant women before and after an intravenous injection of 50 mg DHAS. In women with uncomplicated pregnancies a rise of plasma oestetrol was found 60 min after the injection. From 120 to 360 min there was a plateau level, at 600 min a decrease from this level was observed. No changes in the oestetrol response were found with advancing gestational age from the 33rd to the 40th week of pregnancy. A great spread in the individual responses were recorded. Patients with pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation had a tendency to a lower increase and patients with diabetes a tendency to a higher increase of plasma oestetrol after the DHAS administration. From the data obtained it is concluded that the increase of plasma oestetrol after an intraveneous injection of DHAS in most cases is secondary to the increase of plasma oestradiol. The results suggest that measurement of unconjugated oestetrol in plasma after an intravenous load of DHAS is no safe way to assess foetal wellbeing. In women with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) the simultaneous measurement of plasma oestradiol and oestetrol after an injection of DHAS indicates a possibility to distinguish placental from foetal causes of this syndrome. (author)

  4. Effect of high-flux H/He plasma exposure on tungsten damage due to transient heat loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Temmerman, G., E-mail: gregory.detemmerman@iter.org [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregion Cluster, Postbus 1207, 3430BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 096, 13067 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Morgan, T.W.; Eden, G.G. van; Kruif, T. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregion Cluster, Postbus 1207, 3430BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Wirtz, M. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Microstructure and Properties of Materials (IEK-2), EURATOM Association, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Matejicek, J.; Chraska, T. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM-IPP, CR Prague (Czech Republic); Pitts, R.A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 096, 13067 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Wright, G.M. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The thermal shock behaviour of tungsten exposed to high-flux plasma is studied using a high-power laser. The cases of laser-only, sequential laser and hydrogen (H) plasma and simultaneous laser plus H plasma exposure are studied. H plasma exposure leads to an embrittlement of the material and the appearance of a crack network originating from the centre of the laser spot. Under simultaneous loading, significant surface melting is observed. In general, H plasma exposure lowers the heat flux parameter (F{sub HF}) for the onset of surface melting by ∼25%. In the case of He-modified (fuzzy) surfaces, strong surface deformations are observed already after 1000 laser pulses at moderate F{sub HF} = 19 MJ m{sup −2} s{sup −1/2}, and a dense network of fine cracks is observed. These results indicate that high-fluence ITER-like plasma exposure influences the thermal shock properties of tungsten, lowering the permissible transient energy density beyond which macroscopic surface modifications begin to occur.

  5. Effects of fusion relevant transient energetic radiation, plasma and thermal load on PLANSEE double forged tungsten samples in a low-energy plasma focus device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, S.; Ouyang, B.; Zhang, Z.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Salar Elahi, A.; Rawat, R. S.

    2018-06-01

    Tungsten is the leading candidate for plasma facing component (PFC) material for thermonuclear fusion reactors and various efforts are ongoing to evaluate its performance or response to intense fusion relevant radiation, plasma and thermal loads. This paper investigates the effects of hot dense decaying pinch plasma, highly energetic deuterium ions and fusion neutrons generated in a low-energy (3.0 kJ) plasma focus device on the structure, morphology and hardness of the PLANSEE double forged tungsten (W) samples surfaces. The tungsten samples were provided by Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), Germany via International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria. Tungsten samples were irradiated using different number of plasma focus (PF) shots (1, 5 and 10) at a fixed axial distance of 5 cm from the anode top and also at various distances from the top of the anode (5, 7, 9 and 11 cm) using fixed number (5) of plasma focus shots. The virgin tungsten sample had bcc structure (α-W phase). After PF irradiation, the XRD analysis showed (i) the presence of low intensity new diffraction peak corresponding to β-W phase at (211) crystalline plane indicating the partial structural phase transition in some of the samples, (ii) partial amorphization, and (iii) vacancy defects formation and compressive stress in irradiated tungsten samples. Field emission scanning electron microscopy showed the distinctive changes to non-uniform surface with nanometer sized particles and particle agglomerates along with large surface cracks at higher number of irradiation shots. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrated the reduction in relative tungsten oxide content and the increase in metallic tungsten after irradiation. Hardness of irradiated samples initially increased for one shot exposure due to reduction in tungsten oxide phase, but then decreased with increasing number of shots due to increasing concentration of defects. It is demonstrated that the plasma focus device provides

  6. Doxorubicin-loaded QuadraSphere microspheres: plasma pharmacokinetics and intratumoral drug concentration in an animal model of liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Hun; Liapi, Eleni A; Cornell, Curt; Reb, Philippe; Buijs, Manon; Vossen, Josephina A; Ventura, Veronica Prieto; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro and in vivo, doxorubicin-loaded poly (vinyl alcohol-sodium acrylate) copolymer microspheres [QuadraSphere microspheres (QSMs)] for transcatheter arterial delivery in an animal model of liver cancer. Doxorubicin loading efficiency and release profile were first tested in vitro. In vivo, 15 rabbits, implanted with a Vx-2 tumor in the liver, were divided into three groups of five rabbits each, based on the time of euthanasia. Twenty-five milligrams of QSMs was diluted in 10 ml of a 10 mg/ml doxorubicin solution and 10 ml of nonionic contrast medium for a total volume of 20 ml. One milliliter of a drug-loaded QSM solution containing 5 mg of doxorubicin was injected into the tumor feeding artery. Plasma doxorubicin and doxorubicinol concentrations, and intratumoral and peritumoral doxorubicin tissue concentrations, were measured. Tumor specimens were pathologically evaluated to record tumor necrosis. As a control, one animal was blandly embolized with plain QSMs in each group. In vitro testing of QSM doxorubicin loadability and release over time showed 82-94% doxorubicin loadability within 2 h and 6% release within the first 6 h after loading, followed by a slow release pattern. In vivo, the doxorubicin plasma concentration declined at 40 min. The peak doxorubicin intratumoral concentration was observed at 3 days and remained detectable till the study's end point (7 days). Mean percentage tumor cell death in the doxorubicin QSM group was 90% at 7 days and 60% in the bland QSM embolization group. In conclusion, QSMs can be efficiently loaded with doxorubicin. Initial experiments with doxorubicin-loaded QSMs show a safe pharmacokinetic profile and effective tumor killing in an animal model of liver cancer.

  7. Doxorubicin-Loaded QuadraSphere Microspheres: Plasma Pharmacokinetics and Intratumoral Drug Concentration in an Animal Model of Liver Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-Hun; Liapi, Eleni A.; Cornell, Curt; Reb, Philippe; Buijs, Manon; Vossen, Josephina A.; Ventura, Veronica Prieto; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro and in vivo, doxorubicin-loaded poly (vinyl alcohol-sodium acrylate) copolymer microspheres [QuadraSphere microspheres (QSMs)] for transcatheter arterial delivery in an animal model of liver cancer. Doxorubicin loading efficiency and release profile were first tested in vitro. In vivo, 15 rabbits, implanted with a Vx-2 tumor in the liver, were divided into three groups of five rabbits each, based on the time of euthanasia. Twenty-five milligrams of QSMs was diluted in 10 ml of a 10 mg/ml doxorubicin solution and 10 ml of nonionic contrast medium for a total volume of 20 ml. One milliliter of a drug-loaded QSM solution containing 5 mg of doxorubicin was injected into the tumor feeding artery. Plasma doxorubicin and doxorubicinol concentrations, and intratumoral and peritumoral doxorubicin tissue concentrations, were measured. Tumor specimens were pathologically evaluated to record tumor necrosis. As a control, one animal was blandly embolized with plain QSMs in each group. In vitro testing of QSM doxorubicin loadability and release over time showed 82-94% doxorubicin loadability within 2 h and 6% release within the first 6 h after loading, followed by a slow release pattern. In vivo, the doxorubicin plasma concentration declined at 40 min. The peak doxorubicin intratumoral concentration was observed at 3 days and remained detectable till the study's end point (7 days). Mean percentage tumor cell death in the doxorubicin QSM group was 90% at 7 days and 60% in the bland QSM embolization group. In conclusion, QSMs can be efficiently loaded with doxorubicin. Initial experiments with doxorubicin-loaded QSMs show a safe pharmacokinetic profile and effective tumor killing in an animal model of liver cancer.

  8. Measurement of Epstein-Barr virus DNA loads in whole blood and plasma by TaqMan PCR and in peripheral blood lymphocytes by competitive PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, Robert M; Laus, Stella; Green, Michael; Webber, Steven A; Rowe, David

    2003-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA load values were measured in samples of whole blood (n = 60) and plasma (n = 59) by TaqMan PCR and in samples of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) (n = 60) by competitive PCR (cPCR). The samples were obtained from 44 transplant recipients. The whole-blood and PBL loads correlated highly (r(2) > 0.900), whereas the plasma and PBL loads correlated poorly (r(2) = 0.512). Testing of whole blood by TaqMan PCR is an acceptable alternative to testing of PBLs by cPCR for quantifying EBV DNA load.

  9. Performance Test of Korea Heat Load Test Facility (KoHLT-EB) for the Plasma Facing Components of Fusion Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk-Kwon; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Dong Won; Cho, Seungyon

    2014-01-01

    The main components of the plasma facing components (PFCs) in the tokamak are the blanket first wall and divertor, which include the armour materials, the heat sink with the cooling mechanism, and the diagnostics devices for the temperature measurement. The Korea Heat Load Test facility by using electron beam (KoHLT-EB) has been operating for the plasma facing components to develop fusion engineering. This electron beam facility was constructed using a 300 kW electron gun and a cylindrical vacuum chamber. Performance tests were carried out for the calorimetric calibrations with Cu dummy mockup and for the heat load test of large Cu module. For the simulation of the heat load test of each mockup, the preliminary thermal-hydraulic analyses with ANSYS-CFX were performed. For the development of the plasma facing components in the fusion reactors, test mockups were fabricated and tested in the high heat flux test facility. To perform a beam profile test, an assessment of the possibility of electron beam Gaussian power density profile and the results of the absorbed power for that profile before the test starts are needed. To assess the possibility of a Gaussian profile, for the qualification test of the Gaussian heat load profile, a calorimeter mockup and large Cu module were manufactured to simulate real heat. For this high-heat flux test, the Korean high-heat flux test facility using an electron beam system was constructed. In this facility, a cyclic heat flux test will be performed to measure the surface heat flux, surface temperature profile, and cooling capacity

  10. Performance Test of Korea Heat Load Test Facility (KoHLT-EB) for the Plasma Facing Components of Fusion Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk-Kwon; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The main components of the plasma facing components (PFCs) in the tokamak are the blanket first wall and divertor, which include the armour materials, the heat sink with the cooling mechanism, and the diagnostics devices for the temperature measurement. The Korea Heat Load Test facility by using electron beam (KoHLT-EB) has been operating for the plasma facing components to develop fusion engineering. This electron beam facility was constructed using a 300 kW electron gun and a cylindrical vacuum chamber. Performance tests were carried out for the calorimetric calibrations with Cu dummy mockup and for the heat load test of large Cu module. For the simulation of the heat load test of each mockup, the preliminary thermal-hydraulic analyses with ANSYS-CFX were performed. For the development of the plasma facing components in the fusion reactors, test mockups were fabricated and tested in the high heat flux test facility. To perform a beam profile test, an assessment of the possibility of electron beam Gaussian power density profile and the results of the absorbed power for that profile before the test starts are needed. To assess the possibility of a Gaussian profile, for the qualification test of the Gaussian heat load profile, a calorimeter mockup and large Cu module were manufactured to simulate real heat. For this high-heat flux test, the Korean high-heat flux test facility using an electron beam system was constructed. In this facility, a cyclic heat flux test will be performed to measure the surface heat flux, surface temperature profile, and cooling capacity.

  11. ACVP-02: Plasma SIV/SHIV RNA Viral Load Measurements through the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program Quantitative Molecular Diagnostics Core | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SIV plasma viral load assay performed by the Quantitative Molecular Diagnostics Core (QMDC) utilizes reagents specifically designed to detect and accurately quantify the full range of SIV/SHIV viral variants and clones in common usage in the rese

  12. Screening for autologous blood transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkeberg, J; Belhage, B; Ashenden, M

    2009-01-01

    parameter in the screening for autologous blood doping. Three bags of blood (approximately 201+/-11 g of Hb) were withdrawn from 16 males and stored at either -80 degrees C (-80 T, n=8) or +4 degrees C (+4 T, n=8) and reinfused 10 weeks or 4 weeks later, respectively. Seven subjects served as controls...

  13. Quality of harvested autologous platelets compared with stored donor platelets for use after cardiopulmonary bypass procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, M; Ford, I; Jeffrey, R R; Urbaniak, S J; Greaves, M

    2000-10-01

    Platelet dysfunction has a major contribution in bleeding after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and transfusion of platelets is frequently used to secure haemostasis. Allogeneic platelets prepared for transfusion are functionally impaired. Autologous platelets harvested preoperatively require a shorter storage time before transfusion and their use also avoids the risks associated with transfusion of allogeneic blood products. For the first time, we have compared the functional quality of autologous platelets with allogeneic platelets prepared by two methods, immediately before infusion. Platelet activation was assessed by P-selectin expression and fibrinogen binding using flow cytometry. We also monitored the effects of CPB surgery and re-infusion of autologous platelets on platelet function. Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contained a significantly lower (P platelets compared with allogeneic platelet preparations, and also contained a significantly higher (P platelets. Allogeneic platelets prepared by donor apheresis were more activated and less responsive than those produced by centrifugation of whole blood. In patients' blood, the percentage of platelets expressing P-selectin or binding fibrinogen increased significantly after CPB (P platelets responsive to in vitro agonists was decreased (P platelet activation during the procedure. The percentage of activated platelets decreased (statistically not significant) after re-infusion of autologous PRP. P-selectin expression had returned to pre-CPB levels 24 h post-operatively. Autologous platelet preparations display minimal activation, but remain responsive. Conservation of platelet function may contribute to the potential clinical benefits of autologous transfusion in cardiopulmonary bypass.

  14. Effect of plasma spraying parameter on wear resistance of NiCrBSiCFe plasma coatings on austenitic stainless steel at elevated temperatures at various loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathi, N.L.; Duraiselvam, Muthukannan; Borah, Utpal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of plasma spraying parameters, especially the stand-off distance. ► Effect of microstructure and applied load on coating in sliding wear. ► The reason for maximum wear rate at 250 °C and the minimum wear at 350 °C were explained. ► The worn debris were characterised by SEM analysis and correlated with wear rate. -- Abstract: The dry sliding wear tests were carried out on AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel (ASS) plasma coated with NiCrBSiCFe alloy powder under two set of plasma spraying parameters (PSP-1 and PSP-2). EN 8 medium carbon steel was used as a counterface material. The tests were carried out at loads of 20 N and 40 N with a constant sliding velocity of 1 m/s at room temperature (35°), 150 °C, 250 °C and 350 °C. Metallographic characterisation was carried out by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Between the two plasma parameters tested, stand-off distance of 125 mm was found to be more suitable for producing uniform lamellar microstructure with fewer amounts of pores which shows better wear resistance. The wear rate at 250 °C was comparatively more due to the material softening and adhesion by intermolecular bonding. The worn debris collected during sliding at 350 °C turn into oxides which further behaves like a protective and lubricative film eliminating the chances of severe material loss. SEM was used to characterise the worn track and debris to identity the wear mechanism.

  15. Antiretroviral-treated HIV-1 patients can harbour resistant viruses in CSF despite an undetectable viral load in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulie, Cathia; Grudé, Maxime; Descamps, Diane; Amiel, Corinne; Morand-Joubert, Laurence; Raymond, Stéphanie; Pallier, Coralie; Bellecave, Pantxika; Reigadas, Sandrine; Trabaud, Mary-Anne; Delaugerre, Constance; Montes, Brigitte; Barin, Francis; Ferré, Virginie; Jeulin, Hélène; Alloui, Chakib; Yerly, Sabine; Signori-Schmuck, Anne; Guigon, Aurélie; Fafi-Kremer, Samira; Haïm-Boukobza, Stéphanie; Mirand, Audrey; Maillard, Anne; Vallet, Sophie; Roussel, Catherine; Assoumou, Lambert; Calvez, Vincent; Flandre, Philippe; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève

    2017-08-01

    HIV therapy reduces the CSF HIV RNA viral load (VL) and prevents disorders related to HIV encephalitis. However, these brain disorders may persist in some cases. A large population of antiretroviral-treated patients who had a VL > 1.7 log 10 copies/mL in CSF with detectable or undetectable VL in plasma associated with cognitive impairment was studied, in order to characterize discriminatory factors of these two patient populations. Blood and CSF samples were collected at the time of neurological disorders for 227 patients in 22 centres in France and 1 centre in Switzerland. Genotypic HIV resistance tests were performed on CSF. The genotypic susceptibility score was calculated according to the last Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida et les hépatites virales Action Coordonnée 11 (ANRS AC11) genotype interpretation algorithm. Among the 227 studied patients with VL > 1.7 log 10 copies/mL in CSF, 195 had VL detectable in plasma [median (IQR) HIV RNA was 3.7 (2.7-4.7) log 10 copies/mL] and 32 had discordant VL in plasma (VL plasma compared with patients with plasma VL > 1.7 log 10 copies/mL. Resistance to antiretrovirals was observed in CSF for the two groups of patients. Fourteen percent of this population of patients with cognitive impairment and detectable VL in CSF had well controlled VL in plasma. Thus, it is important to explore CSF HIV (VL and genotype) even if the HIV VL is controlled in plasma because HIV resistance may be observed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Heat loads to divertor nearby components from secondary radiation evolved during plasma instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizyuk, V., E-mail: vsizyuk@purdue.edu; Hassanein, A., E-mail: hassanein@purdue.edu [Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    A fundamental issue in tokamak operation related to power exhaust during plasma instabilities is the understanding of heat and particle transport from the core plasma into the scrape-off layer and to plasma-facing materials. During abnormal and disruptive operation in tokamaks, radiation transport processes play a critical role in divertor/edge-generated plasma dynamics and are very important in determining overall lifetimes of the divertor and nearby components. This is equivalent to or greater than the effect of the direct impact of escaped core plasma on the divertor plate. We have developed and implemented comprehensive enhanced physical and numerical models in the upgraded HEIGHTS package for simulating detailed photon and particle transport in the evolved edge plasma during various instabilities. The paper describes details of a newly developed 3D Monte Carlo radiation transport model, including optimization methods of generated plasma opacities in the full range of expected photon spectra. Response of the ITER divertor's nearby surfaces due to radiation from the divertor-developed plasma was simulated by using actual full 3D reactor design and magnetic configurations. We analyzed in detail the radiation emission spectra and compared the emission of both carbon and tungsten as divertor plate materials. The integrated 3D simulation predicted unexpectedly high damage risk to the open stainless steel legs of the dome structure in the current ITER design from the intense radiation during a disruption on the tungsten divertor plate.

  17. Evaluation of surface, microstructure and phase modifications on various tungsten grades induced by pulsed plasma loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilémová, Monika; Pala, Zdeněk; Jäger, Aleš; Matějíček, Jiří; Chernyshova, M.; Kowalska-Strzęciwilk, E.; Tonarová, Dana; Gribkov, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2016), č. článku 034003. ISSN 0031-8949. [PLASMA 2015 : International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas. Warsaw, 07.09.2015-11.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12837S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : tungsten * titanium carbide * yttrium oxide * plasma focus * damage Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: 1.3 Physical sciences; 1.3 Physical sciences (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.280, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0031-8949/91/3/034003/meta

  18. Results of high heat flux tests of tungsten divertor targets under plasma heat loads expected in ITER and tokamaks (review)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budaev, V. P., E-mail: budaev@mail.ru [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Heat loads on the tungsten divertor targets in the ITER and the tokamak power reactors reach ~10MW m{sup −2} in the steady state of DT discharges, increasing to ~0.6–3.5 GW m{sup −2} under disruptions and ELMs. The results of high heat flux tests (HHFTs) of tungsten under such transient plasma heat loads are reviewed in the paper. The main attention is paid to description of the surface microstructure, recrystallization, and the morphology of the cracks on the target. Effects of melting, cracking of tungsten, drop erosion of the surface, and formation of corrugated and porous layers are observed. Production of submicron-sized tungsten dust and the effects of the inhomogeneous surface of tungsten on the plasma–wall interaction are discussed. In conclusion, the necessity of further HHFTs and investigations of the durability of tungsten under high pulsed plasma loads on the ITER divertor plates, including disruptions and ELMs, is stressed.

  19. Effect of cyclodextrin-loaded cholesterol conjugates on plasma membrane viability of Piau swine breed frozen/thawed spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, R O; Lima, D M A; Shiomi, H H; Siqueira, J B; Silveira, C O; Faria, V R; Lopes, P S; Guimarães, S E F; Guimarães, J D

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cyclodextrin-loaded cholesterol conjugates addition to freezing extenders on plasma membrane viability of frozen-thawed spermatozoa of the Piau swine breed. Twenty semen samples were used from five males. The freezing extender was based on lactose-egg yolk extender, added to 2% glycerol, 3% dimethylacetamide. The addition of cyclodextrin-loaded cholesterol conjugates was performed after centrifugation, when semen was diluted with the cooling extender. Four groups were subjected to the following treatment: without addition (group 1); 1.5 mg of cyclodextrin-loaded cholesterol/120 × 10(6) sperm (group 2); 1.5 mg of cyclodextrin-loaded cholestanol/120 × 10(6) sperm (group 3); 1.5 mg of cyclodextrin-loaded desmosterol/120 × 10(6) sperm (group 4). To check post-thawing sperm quality sperm motility and sperm morphology evaluation were used. Additionally, to check sperm viability the hypoosmotic swelling test, supravital staining, and fluorescent assay were used. The mean values recorded for total sperm motility of semen immediately after thawing were 54.5 ± 5.8, 55.5 ± 5.3, 53.7 ± 6.7, and 52.5 ± 6.6% respectively for groups one to four, without difference between themselves (p > 0.05). Regarding fluorescent assay the results were 28.3 ± 13.2, 26.9 ± 12.2, 22.2 ± 11.4, and 32.0 ± 15.3% respectively for groups one to four, also without difference between groups (p > 0,05). Similarly, complementary tests for evaluating the integrity and functionality of the plasma membrane showed no difference between treatments (p > 0.05). In conclusion, use of cyclodextrin-loaded cholesterol conjugates added to the plasma membrane of sperm did not demonstrate any additive effect on increasing and/or maintaining sperm motility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of Plasma Neurofilament Light Chain with Neocortical Amyloid-β Load and Cognitive Performance in Cognitively Normal Elderly Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pratishtha; Goozee, Kathryn; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Shen, Kaikai; Shah, Tejal; Asih, Prita R; Dave, Preeti; ManYan, Candice; Taddei, Kevin; Chung, Roger; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Martins, Ralph N

    2018-01-01

    The disruption of neurofilament, an axonal cytoskeletal protein, in neurodegenerative conditions may result in neuronal damage and its release into the cerebrospinal fluid and blood. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), neurofilament light chain (NFL), a neurofilament subunit, is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Investigate the association of plasma NFL with preclinical-AD features, such as high neocortical amyloid-β load (NAL) and subjective memory complaints, and cognitive performance in cognitively normal older adults. Plasma NFL concentrations were measured employing the single molecule array platform in participants from the Kerr Anglican Retirement Village Initiative in Ageing Health cohort, aged 65- 90 years. Participants underwent a battery of neuropsychological testing to evaluate cognitive performance and were categorized as low NAL (NAL-, n = 65) and high NAL (NAL+, n = 35) assessed via PET, and further stratified into subjective memory complainers (SMC; nNAL- = 51, nNAL+ = 25) and non-SMC (nNAL- = 14, nNAL+ = 10) based on the Memory Assessment Clinic- Questionnaire. Plasma NFL inversely correlated with cognitive performance. No significant difference in NFL was observed between NAL+ and NAL- participants; however, within APOEɛ4 non-carriers, higher NAL was observed in individuals with NFL concentrations within quartiles 3 and 4 (versus quartile 1). Additionally, within the NAL+ participants, SMC had a trend of higher NFL compared to non-SMC. Plasma NFL is inversely associated with cognitive performance in elderly individuals. While plasma NFL may not reflect NAL in individuals with normal global cognition, the current observations indicate that onset of axonal injury, reflected by increased plasma NFL, within the preclinical phase of AD may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD.

  1. Related factors to atazanavir plasma levels in a cohort of HIV positive individuals with undetectable viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Júlia Luz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors associated with plasma concentrations of atazanavir (ATV in a cohort of well-controlled HIV infected subjects (undetectable viremia. Design: Cross-sectional study where 69 subjects were consecutively enrolled between April and November, 2011. METHODS: Patients had to be on atazanavir for at least six months, undetectable viral load for a period equal to or longer than 12 months, T CD4+ lymphocyte count higher than 200 cells/mm³, and aged between 18 years and 70 years old. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, any neurologic disease, active opportunistic disease, hepatitis or cancer. Atazanavir plasma levels were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Overall, 54 patients (mean age of 47 years and 50% women were included in the analysis. Those without ritonavir (unboosted atazanavir had statistically lower plasma concentrations than those with ritonavir boosted atazanavir (p = 0.001 and total and indirect bilirubin were statistically associated with plasma concentration of atazanavir (r = 0.32 and r = 0.33 respectively; p < 0.05 in both cases. no statistical association was found among gender, ethnicity, age, weight, body mass index (BMI, lipid profile, and the plasma concentration of atazanavir. CONCLUSION: in summary, as expected, concomitant ritonavir use was the only factor associated with atazanavir plasma levels. prospective studies with a larger sample size might help to observe an association of atazanavir concentrations to other characteristics such as body weight, since the p-value showed to be close to significance (p = 0.068.

  2. Effects of microbial loading and sporulation temperature on atmospheric plasma inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, X. T.; Shi, J. J.; Shama, G.; Kong, M. G.

    2005-10-01

    Current inactivation studies of Bacillus subtilis spores using atmospheric-pressure glow discharges (APGD) do not consider two important factors, namely microbial loading at the surface of a substrate and sporulation temperature. Yet these are known to affect significantly microbial resistance to heat and hydrogen peroxide. This letter investigates effects of microbial loading and sporulation temperature on spore resistance to APGD. It is shown that microbial loading can lead to a stacking structure as a protective shield against APGD treatment and that high sporulation temperature increases spore resistance by altering core water content and cross-linked muramic acid content of B. subtilis spores.

  3. Tritium loading in ITER plasma-facing surfaces and its release under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Pawelko, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma-facing surfaces of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will take up tritium from the plasma. These surfaces will probably consist of matures of Be, C, and possibly W together with other impurities. Recent experimental results have suggested mechanisms, not previously considered in analyses, by which tritium and other hydrogen isotopes are retained in Be. This warrants revised modeling and estimation of the amount of tritium that will be deposited in ITER beryllium plasma-facing surfaces and the rates at which it can be released under postulated accident scenarios. In this paper we describe improvements in modeling and experiments planned at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to investigate the tritium uptake and thermal release behavior for mixed plasma- facing materials. TMAP4 calculations were made using recent data to estimate first-wall tritium inventories in ITER. 16 refs., 1 fig

  4. Melt layer macroscopic erosion of tungsten and other metals under plasma heat loads simulating ITER off-normal events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garkusha, I.E.; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Kulik, N.V.; Landman, I.; Wuerz, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is focused on experimental analysis of metal layer erosion and droplet splashing of tungsten and other metals under heat loads typical for ITER FEAT off-normal events,such as disruptions and VDE's. Plasma pressure gradient action on melt layer results in erosion crater formation with mountains of displaced material at the crater edge. It is shown that macroscopic motion of melt layer and surface cracking are the main factors responsible for tungsten damage. Weight loss measurements of all exposed materials demonstrate inessential contribution of evaporation process to metals erosion

  5. Heat loads on JET plasma facing components from ICRF and LH wave absorption in the SOL

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jacquet, P.; Colas, L.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Arnoux, G.; Bobkov, V.; Brix, M.; Coad, P.; Czarnecka, A.; Dodt, D.; Durodie, F.; Ekedahl, A.; Frigione, D.; Fursdon, M.; Gauthier, E.; Goniche, M.; Graham, M.; Joffrin, E.; Korotkov, A.; Lerche, E.; Mailloux, J.; Monakhov, I.; Noble, C.; Ongena, J.; Petržílka, Václav; Portafaix, C.; Rimini, F.; Sirinelli, A.; Riccardo, V.; Vizvary, Z.; Widdowson, A.; Zastrow, K.-D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 10 (2011), s. 103018-103018 ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : LH wave * plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.090, year: 2011 http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/51/10/103018/pdf/0029-5515_51_10_103018.pdf

  6. IMpact of Platelet Rich plasma OVer alternative therapies in patients with lateral Epicondylitis (IMPROVE): protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled study: a multicenter, randomized trial comparing autologous platelet-rich plasma, autologous whole blood, dry needle tendon fenestration, and physical therapy exercises alone on pain and quality of life in patients with lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaras, Mary M; Jacobson, Jon A; Carlos, Ruth; Maida, Eugene; Bentley, Todd; Simunovic, Nicole; Swinton, Marilyn; Bhandari, Mohit

    2014-09-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, commonly known as tennis elbow, is the most common cause of lateral elbow pain and the second most frequently diagnosed musculoskeletal disorder in the neck and upper limb in a primary care setting. Many therapeutic options, including conservative, surgical, and minimally invasive procedures, have been advocated for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Although numerous small studies have been performed to assess the efficacy of various treatments, there are conflicting results with no clear consensus on the optimal treatment. In an economic environment with limited health care resources, it is paramount that optimal cost-effective therapies with favorable patient-important outcomes be identified. This is a protocol paper which outlines a multicenter, multidisciplinary, single-blinded, four-arm randomized controlled trial, comparing platelet-rich plasma (PRP), whole blood injection, dry needle tendon fenestration, and sham injection with physical therapy alone for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Patients are screened based on pre-established eligibility criteria and randomized to one of the four study groups using an Internet-based system. The patients are followed at 6-week, 12-week, 24-week, and 52-week time points to assess the primary and secondary outcomes of the study. The primary outcome is pain. Secondary outcomes include health-related quality of life and ultrasound appearance of the common extensor tendon. Two university centers (McMaster University and the University of Michigan) are currently recruiting patients. We have planned a sample size of 100 patients (25 patients per arm) to ensure over 80% power to detect a three-point difference in pain scores at 52 weeks of follow-up. This study has ethics approval from the McMaster University Research Ethics Board (REB# 12-146) and the University of Michigan Institutional Review Board (IRB# HUM00067750). Successful completion of this proposed study will significantly impact

  7. Autologous blood transfusion during emergency trauma operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carlos V R; Foulkrod, Kelli H; Sadler, Holli T; Richards, E Kalem; Biggan, Dennis P; Czysz, Clea; Manuel, Tony

    2010-07-01

    Intraoperative cell salvage (CS) of shed blood during emergency surgical procedures provides an effective and cost-efficient resuscitation alternative to allogeneic blood transfusion, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. Retrospective matched cohort study. Level I trauma center. All adult trauma patients who underwent an emergency operation and received CS as part of their intraoperative resuscitation. The CS group was matched to a no-CS group for age, sex, Injury Severity Score, mechanism of injury, and operation performed. Amount and cost of allogeneic transfusion of packed red blood cells and plasma. The 47 patients in the CS group were similar to the 47 in the no-CS group for all matched variables. Patients in the CS group received an average of 819 mL of autologous CS blood. The CS group received fewer intraoperative (2 vs 4 U; P = .002) and total (4 vs 8 U; P blood cells. The CS group also received fewer total units of plasma (3 vs 5 U; P = .03). The cost of blood product transfusion (including the total cost of CS) was less in the CS group ($1616 vs $2584 per patient; P = .004). Intraoperative CS provides an effective and cost-efficient resuscitation strategy as an alternative to allogeneic blood transfusion in trauma patients undergoing emergency operative procedures.

  8. Comparison of EBV DNA viral load in whole blood, plasma, B-cells and B-cell culture supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, David Eric; Bollore, Karine; Viljoen, Johannes; Foulongne, Vincent; Reynes, Jacques; Cartron, Guillaume; Vendrell, Jean-Pierre; Van de Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2014-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome quantitation in whole blood is used widely for therapeutic monitoring of EBV-associated disorders in immunosuppressed individuals and in patients with EBV-associated lymphoma. However, the most appropriate biological material to be used for EBV DNA quantitation remains a subject of debate. This study compare the detection rate and levels of EBV DNA from whole blood, plasma, enriched B-cells, and B-cell short-term culture supernatant using quantitative real-time PCR. Samples were collected from 33 subjects with either HIV infection or B-cell lymphoma. Overall, EBV DNA was detected in 100% of enriched B-cell samples, in 82% of B-cell culture supernatants, in 57% of plasma, and 42% of whole blood samples. A significant correlation for EBV viral load was found between enriched B-cell and B-cell culture supernatant material (ρ = 0.92; P cells (ρ = -0.02; P = 0.89), whole blood and plasma (ρ = 0.24; P = 0.24), or enriched B-cells and plasma (ρ = 0.08; P = 0.77). Testing of enriched B-cells appeared to be the most sensitive method for detection of EBV DNA as well as for exploration of the cellular reservoir. Quantitation of EBV DNA in plasma and B-cell culture supernatant may be of interest to assess EBV reactivation dynamics and response to treatment as well as to decipher EBV host-pathogen interactions in various clinical scenarios. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Eul Sik; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran

    2008-01-01

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  10. The composite of bone marrow concentrate and PRP as an alternative to autologous bone grafting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohssen Hakimi

    Full Text Available One possible alternative to the application of autologous bone grafts represents the use of autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the potency of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP in combination with BMC. In 32 mini-pigs a metaphyseal critical-size defect was surgically created at the proximal tibia. The animals were allocated to four treatment groups of eight animals each (1. BMC+CPG group, 2. BMC+CPG+PRP group, 3. autograft group, 4. CPG group. In the BMC+CPG group the defect was filled with autologous BMC in combination with calcium phosphate granules (CPG, whereas in the BMC+CPG+PRP group the defect was filled with the composite of autologous BMC, CPG and autologous PRP. In the autograft group the defect was filled with autologous cancellous graft, whereas in the CPG group the defect was filled with CPG solely. After 6 weeks radiological and histomorphometrical analysis showed significantly more new bone formation in the BMC+CPG+PRP group compared to the BMC+CPG group and the CPG group. There were no significant differences between the BMC+CPG+PRP group and the autograft group. In the PRP platelets were enriched significantly about 4.7-fold compared to native blood. In BMC the count of mononuclear cells increased significantly (3.5-fold compared to the bone marrow aspirate. This study demonstrates that the composite of BMC+CPG+PRP leads to a significantly higher bone regeneration of critical-size defects at the proximal tibia in mini-pigs than the use of BMC+CPG without PRP. Furthermore, within the limits of the present study the composite BMC+CPG+PRP represents a comparable alternative to autologous bone grafting.

  11. Disintegration of fast magnetoacoustic oscillation spectra in non-uniform current-loaded plasma cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girka, I.A.; Stepanov, K.N.

    1990-01-01

    Dispersion equation for fast plasma cylinder with longitudinal current including a weak azimuthal magnetic field β 0v is obtained and analyzed on the basis of perturbation theory. Simple asymptotic expressions for S w , S n and σ k are derived under different limiting cases (propagation of small-scale waves with high values of radial wave number, wave in the uniform cylinder, surface mode etc.). 10 refs.; 1 fig

  12. Low inductance diode design on the Proto II accelerator for imploding plasma loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsing, W.W.; Coats, R.; McDaniel, D.H.; Spielman, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    A new water transmission line convolute, single piece insulator, and double disk feed has been designed and tested on the .125 ohm, 10 TW Proto II accelerator. The water transmission lines have a 5 cm gap to eliminate any water arcing. A two-dimensional magnetic field code was used to calculate the convolute inductance. The authors used an acrylic insulator as well as a single piece, laminated polycarbonate insulator. They have been successfully tested at over 90% of the Shipman criteria for classical insulator breakdown, although the laminations in the polycarbonate insulator failed after a few shots. The anode and cathode each have two pieces and are held together mechanically. The vacuum MITL tapers to a 3 mm minimum gap. The total inductance is 8.4 nH for gas puff loads and 7.8 nH for imploding foil loads

  13. Low inductance diode design on the Proto II accelerator for imploding plasma loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsing, W.W.; Coats, R.; McDaniel, D.H.; Spielman, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    A new water transmission line convolute, single piece insulator, and double disk feed has been designed and tested on the .125 ohm, 10 TW Proto II accelerator. The water transmission lines have a 5 cm gap to eliminate any water arcing. A two-dimensional magnetic field code was used to calculate the convolute inductance. We used an acrylic insulator as well as a single piece, laminated polycarbonate insulator. They have been succuessfully tested at over 90% of the Shipman criteria for classical insulator breakdown, although the laminations in the polycarbonate insulator failed after a few shots. The anode and cathode each have two pieces and are held together mechanically. The vacuum MITL tapers to a 3 mm minimum gap. The total inductance is 8.4 nH for gas puff loads and 7.8 nH for imploding foil loads. Out of a forward-going energy of 290 kJ, 175 kJ has been delivered past the insulator, and 100 kJ has been successfully delivered to the load

  14. Low inductance diode design of the Proto 2 accelerator for imploding plasma loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, W. W.; Coats, R.; McDaniel, D. H.; Spielman, R. B.

    A new water transmission line convolute, single piece insulator, and double accelerator. The water transmission lines have a 5 cm gap to eliminate any water arcing. A two-dimensional magnetic field code was used to calculate the convolute inductance. An acrylic insulator was used as well as a single piece, laminated polycarbonate insulator. They have been successfully tested at over 90% of the Shipman criteria for classical insulator breakdown, although the laminations in the polycarbonate insulator failed after a few shots. The anode and cathode each have two pieces and are held together mechanically. The vacuum MITL tapers to a 3 mm minimum gap. The total inductance is 8.4 nH for gas puff loads and 7.8 nH for imploding foil loads. Out of a forward-going energy of 290 kJ, 175 kJ has been delivered past the insulator, and 100 kJ has been successfully delivered to the load.

  15. Measuring deuterium permeation through tungsten near room temperature under plasma loading using a getter layer and ion-beam based detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kapser

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A method to measure deuterium permeation through tungsten near room temperature under plasma loading is presented. The permeating deuterium is accumulated in a getter layer of zirconium, titanium or erbium, respectively, on the unexposed side of the sample. Subsequently, the amount of deuterium in the getter is measured ex-situ using nuclear reaction analysis. A cover layer system on the getter prevents direct loading of the getter with deuterium from the gas phase during plasma loading. In addition, it enables the distinction of deuterium in the getter and at the cover surface. The method appears promising to add additional permeation measurement capabilities to deuterium retention experiments, also in other plasma devices, without the need for a complex in-situ permeation measurement setup.

  16. A preclinical evaluation of an autologous living hyaline-like cartilaginous graft for articular cartilage repair: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Yvonne Peck; Pengfei He; Geetha Soujanya V. N. Chilla; Chueh Loo Poh; Dong-An Wang

    2015-01-01

    In this pilot study, an autologous synthetic scaffold-free construct with hyaline quality, termed living hyaline cartilaginous graft (LhCG), was applied for treating cartilage lesions. Implantation of autologous LhCG was done at load-bearing regions of the knees in skeletally mature mini-pigs for 6 months. Over the course of this study, significant radiographical improvement in LhCG treated sites was observed via magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, macroscopic repair was effected by LhCG...

  17. Correlation of virus load in plasma and lymph node tissue in human immunodeficiency virus infection. INCAS Study Group. Italy, Netherlands, Canada, Australia, and (United) States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M; Patenaude, P; Cooperberg, P; Filipenko, D; Thorne, A; Raboud, J; Rae, S; Dailey, P; Chernoff, D; Todd, J; Conway, B; Montaner, J S

    1997-11-01

    The impact of long-term changes in plasma viremia, produced by effective combination antiretroviral therapy, on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden within tissue reservoirs is unknown. Fifteen patients who had received at least 1 year of therapy with two or three drug combinations of zidovudine, didanosine, and nevirapine had suitable samples of lymph node tissue obtained by ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy. HIV RNA was extracted from homogenized tissue samples and quantitated using a modified branched DNA assay. Results were correlated with antiretroviral treatment effect on the basis of plasma virus load measurements over the preceding 12-18 months. A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between magnitude of treatment effect on plasma viremia and lymph node virus load. These data suggest that combinations of antiretroviral drugs that produce sustained suppression of plasma HIV RNA may also be able to reduce the virus burden in lymphoid tissues.

  18. Behavior and microstructural changes in different tungsten-based materials under pulsed plasma loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilémová, Monika; Pala, Zdeněk; Jäger, Aleš; Matějíček, Jiří; Chernyshova, M.; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Gribkov, V. A.; Janata, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, December (2016), s. 123-127 ISSN 2352-1791. [International Conference of Fusion Reactor Material (ICFRM-17) /17./. Aachen, 11.10.2015-16.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12837S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : ODS tungsten * yttrium oxide * porosity * phase stability * monoclinic phase * plasma focus * damage * erosion Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials; JJ - Other Materials (FZU-D) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nme.2016.06.004

  19. Behavior and microstructural changes in different tungsten-based materials under pulsed plasma loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vilémová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, morphological, microstructural and phase changes of four types of tungsten materials after exposure to dense deuterium plasma were examined. The microstructures of the prepared materials mutually differ by the porosity, grain size and phase content. It was found that inherent porosity of sintered materials leads to a specific mechanism of erosion and might be a significant source of dust in the case of materials with higher porosity. Further, a preferential erosion of the dispersed particles by melting and evaporation and subsequent formation of thin film on the surface of W-Y2O3 was described as well.

  20. Regeneration of Cartilage in Human Knee Osteoarthritis with Autologous Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Autologous Extracellular Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewoo Pak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This clinical case series demonstrates that percutaneous injections of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs and homogenized extracellular matrix (ECM in the form of adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF, along with hyaluronic acid (HA and platelet-rich plasma (PRP activated by calcium chloride, could regenerate cartilage-like tissue in human knee osteoarthritis (OA patients. Autologous lipoaspirates were obtained from adipose tissue of the abdominal origin. Afterward, the lipoaspirates were minced to homogenize the ECM. These homogenized lipoaspirates were then mixed with collagenase and incubated. The resulting mixture of ADSCs and ECM in the form of SVF was injected, along with HA and PRP activated by calcium chloride, into knees of three Korean patients with OA. The same affected knees were reinjected weekly with additional PRP activated by calcium chloride for 3 weeks. Pretreatment and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data, functional rating index, range of motion (ROM, and pain score data were then analyzed. All patients' MRI data showed cartilage-like tissue regeneration. Along with MRI evidence, the measured physical therapy outcomes in terms of ROM, subjective pain, and functional status were all improved. This study demonstrates that percutaneous injection of ADSCs with ECM contained in autologous adipose SVF, in conjunction with HA and PRP activated by calcium chloride, is a safe and potentially effective minimally invasive therapy for OA of human knees.

  1. Effect of heat loads on the plasma facing components of demo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igitkhanov, Yu., E-mail: juri.igitkhanov@partner.kit.edu [ITEP, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Fetzer, R. [IHM, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Bazylev, B. [INR, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Under the DEMO1 stationary operation the nominal power fluxes along the magnetic field at the FW blanket modules is expected about 50 MW/m{sup 2}. • In the current design and averaged incident angle about 3–4.5° (similar to ITER) the engineering power load to the FW is expected within 2.5÷3.9 MW/m{sup 2}. • In the case of the unmitigated Type I ELMs unavoidable in the higher confinement H-mode of operation energy load per ELM is about 20 MJ/m{sup 2} along the field line, arriving at a frequency of 0.8 Hz with deposition time of 0.6 ms per each ELM. - Abstract: In this paper we analyse a thermo-hydraulic performance of the first wall blanket module during the stationary DEMO operation with the edge localized mode (ELM). Heat loads are estimated based on scaling arguments and predictions from the peeling-ballooning ELM model. Effect of parallel heat fluxes intersecting with the first wall panels and avoidance of overheating by inclination of the panels are considered. The material temperatures of the W/EUROFER sandwich type module with water cooling stainless steel tube and Cu alloy compliance embedded into EUROFER is calculated by using the MEMOS code. The calculations were carried out indicating the required geometric parameters as well as the cooling conditions which allow keeping materials temperatures within allowable engineering limits. Effect of inclination of the first wall plates to avoid the misalignment problems is considered.

  2. Heat load and deuterium plasma effects on SPS and WSP tungsten

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilémová, Monika; Matějíček, Jiří; Nevrlá, Barbara; Chernyshova, M.; Gasior, P.; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Jäger, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2015), s. 275-283 ISSN 0029-5922. [Kudowa Summer School 2014 "Towards Fusion Energy"/12./. Kudowa Zdrój, 09.06.2014-13.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12837S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Tungsten * fusion * heat loading * irradiation * bubbles * surface damage Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials; JJ - Other Materials (FZU-D) Impact factor: 0.546, year: 2015 http://www.nukleonika.pl/www/back/full/vol60_2015/v60n2p275f.pdf

  3. [Autologous fat grafting in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, C; Bertrand, B; Philandrianos, C; Degardin, N; Casanova, D

    2016-10-01

    Lipofilling or fat grafting transfer is defined as a technique of filling soft tissue by autologous fat grafting. The basic principle of lipofilling is based on a harvest of adipose tissue, followed by a reinjection after treatment. Lipofilling main objective is a volume defect filling, but also improving cutaneous trophicity. Lipofilling specificities among children is mainly based on these indications. Complications of autologous fat grafting among children are the same as those in adults: we distinguish short-term complications (intraoperative and perioperative) and the medium and long-term complications. The harvesting of fat tissue is the main limiting factor of the technique, due to low percentage of body fat of children. Indications of lipofilling among children may be specific or similar to those in adults. There are two types of indications: cosmetic, in which the aim of lipofilling is correcting a defect density, acquired (iatrogenic, post-traumatic scar) or malformation (otomandibular dysplasia, craniosynostosis, Parry Romberg syndrom, Poland syndrom, pectus excavatum…). The aim of functional indications is correcting a velar insufficiency or lagophthalmos. In the paediatric sector, lipofilling has become an alternative to the conventional techniques, by its reliability, safety, reproducibility, and good results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Healing of skin wounds with a chitosan-gelatin sponge loaded with tannins and platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bitao; Wang, Tianyou; Li, Zhiquan; Dai, Fangying; Lv, Lingmei; Tang, Fengling; Yu, Kun; Liu, Jiawei; Lan, Guangqian

    2016-01-01

    A chitosan-gelatin sponge (CSGT) was prepared using a chitosan/ascorbic acid solution blend containing gelatin, followed by crosslinking with tannin acid and freeze-drying, thereby combining the chitosan sponge and gelatin sponge. The structure of the CSGT was observed by scanning electron microscopy and was shown to have uniform and abundant pores measuring about 145-240μm in size. We also characterized the sponges by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, mechanical property tests, swelling behavior analysis, water retention capacity tests, antibacterial property analysis, and cytotoxicity tests. Our data showed that the CSGT had good thermostability and mechanical properties as well as efficient water absorption and retention capacities. Moreover, the CSGT could effectively inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with low toxicity. In animal experiments, macroscopic observations and histological examinations showed that the wound covered by the CSGT healed quickly. Additionally, loading of the CSGT with platelet-rich plasma resulted in further acceleration of wound healing. Therefore, the CSGT and the CSGT with platelet-rich plasma were suitable for application as a wound dressing and may have potential for use in various biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Production of high-quality electron bunches by dephasing and beam loading in channeled and unchanneled laser plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, Cs.; Tilborg, J. van; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Bruhwiler, D.; Nieter, C.; Cary, J.; Leemans, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    High-quality electron beams, with a few 10 9 electrons within a few percent of the same energy above 80 MeV, were produced in a laser wakefield accelerator by matching the acceleration length to the length over which electrons were accelerated and outran (dephased from) the wake. A plasma channel guided the drive laser over long distances, resulting in production of the high-energy, high-quality beams. Unchanneled experiments varying the length of the target plasma indicated that the high-quality bunches are produced near the dephasing length and demonstrated that channel guiding was more stable and efficient than relativistic self-guiding. Consistent with these data, particle-in-cell simulations indicate production of high-quality electron beams when trapping of an initial bunch of electrons suppresses further injection by loading the wake. The injected electron bunch is then compressed in energy by dephasing, when the front of the bunch begins to decelerate while the tail is still accelerated

  6. Enhancement of glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow by oral glucose load in well controlled insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl Christiansen, J; Christensen, C K; Hermansen, K

    1986-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured in 27 patients with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) before and after an oral glucose load of 1.1 g glucose/kg body wt. In the 18 patients showing near-normoglycaemia (blood glucose less than or equal to 8...... mmol/l) before the glucose challenge the increase in blood glucose from 4.2 +/- 1.7 to 15.2 +/- 2.3 mmol/l was accompanied by an enhancement of GFR from 128 +/- 15 to 132 +/- 14 ml/min X 1.73 m2 (2p = 0.030) and of RPF from 534 +/- 116 to 562 +/- 105 ml/min X 1.73 m2 (2p = 0.023). By contrast oral...... glucose load to the nine patients with hyperglycaemia (greater than 8 mmol/l) during baseline conditions raising blood glucose from 11.9 +/- 2.0 to 19.6 +/- 1.5 mmol/l was accompanied by a reduction in GFR from 149 +/- 15 to 139 +/- 9 ml/min X 1.73 m2 (2p less than 0.001) while RPF was unchanged...

  7. Plasma induced material defects and threshold values for thermal loads in high temperature resistant alloys and in refractory metals for first wall application in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.; Hoven, H.; Kny, E.; Koizlik, K.; Linke, J.; Nickel, H.; Wallura, E.

    1986-10-01

    Materials for the application in the first wall of fusion reactors of the tokamak type are subjected to pulsed heat fluxes which range from some 0.5 MW m -2 to 10 MW m -2 during normal plasma operation, and which can exceed 1000 MW m -2 during total plasma disruptions. The structural defects and material fatigue caused by this types of plasma wall interaction are investigated and the results are plotted in threshold loading curves. Additionally, the results are, as far as possible, compared with quantitative, theoretical calculations. These procedures allow a semiquantitative evaluation of the applicability of the mentioned metals in the first wall of fusion reactors. (orig.) [de

  8. Killing malignant melanoma cells with protoporphyrin IX-loaded polymersome-mediated photodynamic therapy and cold atmospheric plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mian Wang,1 Benjamin M Geilich,2 Michael Keidar,3 Thomas J Webster1,4 1Department of Chemical Engineering, 2Department of Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, 3Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA; 4Wenzhou Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Traditional cancer treatments contain several limitations such as incomplete ablation and multidrug resistance. It is known that photodynamic therapy (PDT is an effective treatment for several tumor types especially melanoma cells. During the PDT process, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX, an effective photosensitizer, can selectively kill cancer cells by activating a special light source. When tumor cells encapsulate a photosensitizer, they can be easily excited into an excited state by a light source. In this study, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP was used as a novel light source. Results of some studies have showed that cancer cells can be effectively killed by using either a light source or an individual treatment due to the generation of reactive oxygen species and electrons from a wide range of wavelengths, which suggest that CAP can act as a potential light source for anticancer applications compared with UV light sources. Results of the present in vitro study indicated for the first time that PpIX can be successfully loaded into polymersomes. Most importantly, cell viability studies revealed that PpIX-loaded polymersomes had a low toxicity to healthy fibroblasts (20% were killed at a concentration of 400 µg/mL, but they showed a great potential to selectively kill melanoma cells (almost 50% were killed. With the application of CAP posttreatment, melanoma cell viability significantly decreased (80% were killed compared to not using a light source (45% were killed or using a UV light source (65% were killed. In summary, these results indicated for the

  9. Consolidation therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation in plasma cell leukemia after VAD, high-dose cyclophosphamide and EDAP courses : a report of three cases and a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenga, S; deWolf, JTM; Klip, H; Vellenga, E

    1997-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by a malignant proliferation of plasma cells in blood and bone marrow, Treatment of primary PCL has been mostly disappointing, Three patients with primary PCL are described who received high-dose melphalan with

  10. Enhanced load current delivery from the SHIVA Star vacuum inductive store/plasma flow switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.W.; Baker, W.L.; Beason, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The experimental results reported here were obtained from passively integrated Rogowski coils mounted in the SHIVA Star device and B located in the load and transfer regions of the device. The integrator time constant was 100 μs. Current measurements accuracy is estimated to be 5% for the Rogowski coils and 10% for B probes. B probes indicated peak currents of 13.5 MA at the breech and 13.0 MA at the muzzle with 650 ns 10-90% rise time. B probes in the implosion region indicated a current greater than 9.4 MA inside 5.5 cm radius; at that time, the muzzle current was 10.3 MA. The 10-90% rise time was 170 ns. The innermost probe indicated 7.3 MA inside 3.2 cm; at that time, the muzzle current was 9.3 MA. The 10-90% rise time at 3.2 cm was 300 ns. Timing anomalies suggested some azimuthal current asymmetry in the implosion region. The data indicate greater than 90% current delivery from the gun muzzle to just outside the initial position implosion foil and 70-80% current delivery from the gun muzzle to the partially imploded foil

  11. Effect of design geometry of the demo first wall on the plasma heat load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Igitkhanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyse the effect of W armour surface shaping on the heat load on the W/EUROFER DEMO sandwich type first wall blanket module with the water coolant. The armour wetted area is varied by changing the inclination and height of the «roof» type armor surface. The deleterious effect of leading edge at the tiles corner caused by misalignment is replaced in current design by rounded corners. Analysis has been carried out by means of the MEMOS code to assess the influence of the thickness of the layers and effect of the magnetic field inclination. Calculations show the evolution of the maximum temperatures in the tungsten, EUROFER, Cu allow and the stainless-steel water tube for different level of surface inclination (chamfering and in the case of rounded corners used in the current design. It is shown that the blanket module materials remain within a proper temperature range only at shallow incident angle if the width of EUROFER is reduced at list twice compare with the reference case.

  12. Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation Disrupts Adaptive Immune Responses during Rebound Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Viremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Daniel B; Peterson, Christopher W; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Schiffer, Joshua T

    2017-07-01

    Primary HIV-1 infection induces a virus-specific adaptive/cytolytic immune response that impacts the plasma viral load set point and the rate of progression to AIDS. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) suppresses plasma viremia to undetectable levels that rebound upon cART treatment interruption. Following cART withdrawal, the memory component of the virus-specific adaptive immune response may improve viral control compared to primary infection. Here, using primary infection and treatment interruption data from macaques infected with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV), we observe a lower peak viral load but an unchanged viral set point during viral rebound. The addition of an autologous stem cell transplant before cART withdrawal alters viral dynamics: we found a higher rebound set point but similar peak viral loads compared to the primary infection. Mathematical modeling of the data that accounts for fundamental immune parameters achieves excellent fit to heterogeneous viral loads. Analysis of model output suggests that the rapid memory immune response following treatment interruption does not ultimately lead to better viral containment. Transplantation decreases the durability of the adaptive immune response following cART withdrawal and viral rebound. Our model's results highlight the impact of the endogenous adaptive immune response during primary SHIV infection. Moreover, because we capture adaptive immune memory and the impact of transplantation, this model will provide insight into further studies of cure strategies inspired by the Berlin patient. IMPORTANCE HIV patients who interrupt combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) eventually experience viral rebound, the return of viral loads to pretreatment levels. However, the "Berlin patient" remained free of HIV rebound over a decade after stopping cART. His cure is attributed to leukemia treatment that included an HIV-resistant stem cell transplant. Inspired by this case, we studied the impact

  13. Heat loads on poloidal and toroidal edges of castellated plasma-facing components in COMPASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejarnac, R.; Corre, Y.; Vondracek, P.; Gaspar, J.; Gauthier, E.; Gunn, J. P.; Komm, M.; Gardarein, J.-L.; Horacek, J.; Hron, M.; Matejicek, J.; Pitts, R. A.; Panek, R.

    2018-06-01

    Dedicated experiments have been performed in the COMPASS tokamak to thoroughly study the power deposition processes occurring on poloidal and toroidal edges of castellated plasma-facing components in tokamaks during steady-state L-mode conditions. Surface temperatures measured by a high resolution infra-red camera are compared with reconstructed synthetic data from a 2D thermal model using heat flux profiles derived from both the optical approximation and 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. In the case of poloidal leading edges, when the contribution from local radiation is taken into account, the parallel heat flux deduced from unperturbed, upstream measurements is fully consistent with the observed temperature increase at the leading edges of various heights, respecting power balance assuming simple projection of the parallel flux density. Smoothing of the heat flux deposition profile due to finite ion Larmor radius predicted by the PIC simulations is found to be weak and the power deposition on misaligned poloidal edges is better described by the optical approximation. This is consistent with an electron-dominated regime associated with a non-ambipolar parallel current flow. In the case of toroidal gap edges, the different contributions of the total incoming flux along the gap have been observed experimentally for the first time. They confirm the results of recent numerical studies performed for ITER showing that in specific cases the heat deposition does not necessarily follow the optical approximation. Indeed, ions can spiral onto the magnetically shadowed toroidal edge. Particle-in-cell simulations emphasize again the role played by local non-ambipolarity in the deposition pattern.

  14. Autologous blood preparations rich in platelets, fibrin and growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, C; Frustaci, I; Armellin, E; Condò, R; Arcuri, C; Cerroni, L

    2015-01-01

    Bone regeneration is often needed prior to dental implant treatment due to the lack of adequate quantity and quality after infectious diseases. The greatest regenerative power was obtained with autologous tissue, primarily the bone alive, taken from the same site or adjacent sites, up to the use centrifugation of blood with the selection of the parts with the greatest potential regenerative. In fact, various techniques and technologies were chronologically successive to cope with an ever better preparation of these concentrates of blood. Our aim is to review these advances and discuss the ways in which platelet concentrates may provide such unexpected beneficial therapeutic effects. The research has been carried out in the MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials database by choosing keywords as "platelet rich plasma", "platelet rich fibrin", "platelet growth factors", and "bone regeneration" and "dentistry". Autologous platelet rich plasma is a safe and low cost procedure to deliver growth factors for bone and soft tissue healing. The great heterogeneity of clinical outcomes can be explained by the different PRP products with qualitative and quantitative difference among substance.

  15. Quality of intraoperative autologous blood withdrawal used for retransfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom-Halvorsen, Hanne I; Øvrum, Eivind; Øystese, Rolf; Brosstad, Frank

    2003-09-01

    Intraoperative autologous blood withdrawal protects the pooled blood from the deleterious effects of cardiopulmonary bypass. Following reinfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass, the fresh autologous blood contributes to less coagulation abnormalities and reduces postoperative bleeding and the need for allogeneic blood products. However, few data have been available concerning the quality and potential activation of fresh blood stored at room temperature in the operating room. Forty coronary artery bypass grafting patients undergoing a consistent intraoperative and postoperative autotransfusion protocol had a median of 1,000 mL of autologous blood withdrawn before cardiopulmonary bypass. After heparinization the blood was drained from the venous catheter via venous cannula into standard blood bags and stored in the operating room until termination of cardiopulmonary bypass. Samples for hemostatic and inflammatory markers were taken from the pooled blood immediately before it was returned to the patient. There was some activation of platelets in the stored autologous blood, as measured by an increase of beta-thromboglobulin. Indications of thrombin formation, as assessed by plasma levels of thrombin-antithrombin complex and prothrombin fragment 1.2 were not seen, and there was no fibrinolytic activity. The red blood cells remained intact, indicated by the absence of plasma free hemoglobin. As for the inflammatory response, the levels of the terminal complement complex remained stable, and the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 6 levels were not increased during storage. The complement activation products increased minimally, but remained within normal ranges. Except for slight activation of platelets, there was no indication of coagulation, hemolysis, fibrinolysis, or immunologic activity in the autologous blood after approximately 1 hour of operating room storage. The autologous blood was preserved in a condition of high quality, and retransfusion

  16. Autologous serum therapy in chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous serum therapy is a promising therapy for treatment resistant urticaria. This is useful in developing countries as this is economical option. Minimum instruments like centrifuge, syringe and needles are required for the procedure.

  17. Intraurethral Injection of Autologous Minced Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, Søren; Klarskov, Niels; Lose, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    noted. CONCLUSIONS: Intraurethral injection of minced autologous muscle tissue is a simple surgical procedure that appears safe and moderately effective in women with uncomplicated stress urinary incontinence. It compares well to a more complicated regenerative strategy using in vitro expanded muscle......PURPOSE: Intraurethral injection of in vitro expanded autologous skeletal muscle derived cells is a new regenerative therapy for stress urinary incontinence. We examined the efficacy and safety of a simpler alternative strategy using freshly harvested, minced autologous skeletal muscle tissue...... with its inherent content of regenerative cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 and 15 women with uncomplicated and complicated stress urinary incontinence, respectively, received intraurethral injections of minced autologous skeletal muscle tissue and were followed for 1 year. Efficacy was assessed...

  18. Hemifacial atrophy treated with autologous fat transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old male developed right hemifacial atrophy following marphea profunda. Facial asymmetry due to residual atrophy was treated with autologous fat harvested from buttocks with marked cosmetic improvement.

  19. Autologous fat transplantation for labia majora reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, P M; Herold, C; Rennekampff, H O

    2011-10-01

    A case of autologous fat transplantation for labia majora augmentation after ablative surgery is presented. The patient reported pain and deformity of the left labium majus after resection for Bowen's disease. The symptoms had not been solved by classic plastic surgical reconstructions including a pudendal thigh fasciocutaneous flap. Use of autologous fat transplantation facilitated an improved aesthetic result while preserving residual sensation to the external genitalia and improving symptoms of mucosal exposure and dryness.

  20. Autologous bone marrow purging with LAK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, L; Moretti, L; Stramigioli, S; Luchetti, F; Annibali, G M; Baldi, A

    1993-12-01

    In this study we will demonstrate that LAK cells, in vitro, can lyse hematologic neoplastic cells with a minor toxicity of the staminal autologous marrow cells. In fact, after bone marrow and LAK co-culture at a ratio of 1/1 for 8 hours, the inhibition on the GEMM colonies resulted to be 20% less compared to the untreated marrow. These data made LAK an inviting agent for marrow purging in autologous bone marrow transplantation.

  1. A study of plasma facing tungsten components with electrical discharge machined surface exposed to cyclic thermal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Yohji, E-mail: seki.yohji@jaea.go.jp; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Yamada, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Tomoyuki

    2016-11-01

    Through R&D for a plasma facing units (PFUs) in an outer vertical target of an ITER full-tungsten (W) divertor, Japan Atomic Energy Agency succeeded in demonstrating the durability of the W divertor shaped by an electrical discharge machining (EDM). To prevent melting of W armors in the PFUs, an adequate technology to meet requirements of a geometrical shape and a tolerance is one of the most important key issues in a manufacturing process. From the necessity, the EDM has been evaluated to control the final shape of the W armor. Though the EDM was known to be advantages such as an easy workability, a potential disadvantage of presence of micro-cracks on the W surface appeared. In order to examine a potential effect of the micro-crack on a heat removal durability, a high heat flux testing was carried out for the W divertor mock-up with the polish and the EDM. As the result, all of the W armors endured the repetitive heat load of 1000 cycles at an absorbed heat flux of more than 20 MW/m{sup 2}, which strongly encourages the realization of the PFUs of the ITER full-W divertor with the various geometrical shape and the high accuracy tolerance.

  2. A study of plasma facing tungsten components with electrical discharge machined surface exposed to cyclic thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yohji; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Yamada, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Through R&D for a plasma facing units (PFUs) in an outer vertical target of an ITER full-tungsten (W) divertor, Japan Atomic Energy Agency succeeded in demonstrating the durability of the W divertor shaped by an electrical discharge machining (EDM). To prevent melting of W armors in the PFUs, an adequate technology to meet requirements of a geometrical shape and a tolerance is one of the most important key issues in a manufacturing process. From the necessity, the EDM has been evaluated to control the final shape of the W armor. Though the EDM was known to be advantages such as an easy workability, a potential disadvantage of presence of micro-cracks on the W surface appeared. In order to examine a potential effect of the micro-crack on a heat removal durability, a high heat flux testing was carried out for the W divertor mock-up with the polish and the EDM. As the result, all of the W armors endured the repetitive heat load of 1000 cycles at an absorbed heat flux of more than 20 MW/m"2, which strongly encourages the realization of the PFUs of the ITER full-W divertor with the various geometrical shape and the high accuracy tolerance.

  3. Damage prediction of carbon fibre composite armoured actively cooled plasma-facing components under cycling heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevet, G; Schlosser, J; Courtois, X; Escourbiac, F; Missirlian, M; Herb, V; Martin, E; Camus, G; Braccini, M

    2009-01-01

    In order to predict the lifetime of carbon fibre composite (CFC) armoured plasma-facing components in magnetic fusion devices, it is necessary to analyse the damage mechanisms and to model the damage propagation under cycling heat loads. At Tore Supra studies have been launched to better understand the damage process of the armoured flat tile elements of the actively cooled toroidal pump limiter, leading to the characterization of the damageable mechanical behaviour of the used N11 CFC material and of the CFC/Cu bond. Up until now the calculations have shown damage developing in the CFC (within the zone submitted to high shear stress) and in the bond (from the free edge of the CFC/Cu interface). Damage is due to manufacturing shear stresses and does not evolve under heat due to stress relaxation. For the ITER divertor, NB31 material has been characterized and the characterization of NB41 is in progress. Finite element calculations show again the development of CFC damage in the high shear stress zones after manufacturing. Stresses also decrease under heat flux so the damage does not evolve. The characterization of the CFC/Cu bond is more complex due to the monoblock geometry, which leads to more scattered stresses. These calculations allow the fabrication difficulties to be better understood and will help to analyse future high heat flux tests on various mock-ups.

  4. Which adherence measure - self-report, clinician recorded or pharmacy refill - is best able to predict detectable viral load in a public ART programme without routine plasma viral load monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuria, Legese A; Prins, Jan M; Yalew, Alemayehu W; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T

    2016-07-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) suppresses viral replication to an undetectable level if a sufficiently high level of adherence is achieved. We investigated which adherence measurement best distinguishes between patients with and without detectable viral load in a public ART programme without routine plasma viral load monitoring. We randomly selected 870 patients who started cART between May 2009 and April 2012 in 10 healthcare facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Six hundred and sixty-four (76.3%) patients who were retained in HIV care and were receiving cART for at least 6 months were included and 642 had their plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration measured. Patients' adherence to cART was assessed according to self-report, clinician recorded and pharmacy refill measures. Multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to identify the predictors of detectable viremia. Model accuracy was evaluated by computing the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A total of 9.2% and 5.5% of the 642 patients had a detectable viral load of ≥40 and ≥400 RNA copies/ml, respectively. In the multivariate analyses, younger age, lower CD4 cell count at cART initiation, being illiterate and widowed, and each of the adherence measures were significantly and independently predictive of having ≥400 RNA copies/ml. The ROC curve showed that these variables altogether had a likelihood of more than 80% to distinguish patients with a plasma viral load of ≥400 RNA copies/ml from those without. Adherence to cART was remarkably high. Self-report, clinician recorded and pharmacy refill non-adherence were all significantly predictive of detectable viremia. The choice for one of these methods to detect non-adherence and predict a detectable viral load can therefore be based on what is most practical in a particular setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Autopoiesis: Autology, Autotranscendence and Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and 1990s – particularly in a French context. While his work has remained (to date) at distance from the rising number of suggestions, especi- ally regarding social and cultural theory, that have come out of these debates on self-organization, Castoriadis made a speci¿c and original contribution to them...... ‘reality-modeling’ (John Casti) – whether via cognitive frameworks or models of society and culture. Secondly, attempts to adapt debates within the humanities, e.g. in philosophy, social theory and cultural studies, have tended to end in anti-humanism, ranging from Deleuze and Guattari’s ‘abstract machine......’s philosophy. She argues that a focus on the self-organization of the living being implies not only a distinct move towards an ontology of radical physis in Castoriadis’s later work, but also, along with it, a revised version of his project of autonomy. Autonomy, like autology and the other theme of this issue...

  6. Failure study of helium-cooled tungsten divertor plasma-facing units tested at DEMO relevant steady-state heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, G; Pintsuk, G; Linke, J; Hirai, T; Norajitra, P; Reiser, J; Giniyatulin, R; Makhankov, A; Mazul, I

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten was selected as armor material for the helium-cooled divertor in future DEMO-type fusion reactors and fusion power plants. After realizing the design and testing of them under cyclic thermal loads of up to ∼14 MW m -2 , the tungsten divertor plasma-facing units were examined by metallography; they revealed failures such as cracks at the thermal loaded and as-machined surfaces, as well as degradation of the brazing layers. Furthermore, in order to optimize the machining processes, the quality of tungsten surfaces prepared by turning, milling and using a diamond cutting wheel were examined. This paper presents a metallographic examination of the tungsten plasma-facing units as well as technical studies and the characterization on machining of tungsten and alternative brazing joints.

  7. Failure study of helium-cooled tungsten divertor plasma-facing units tested at DEMO relevant steady-state heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, G.; Hirai, T.; Norajitra, P.; Reiser, J.; Giniyatulin, R.; Makhankov, A.; Mazul, I.; Pintsuk, G.; Linke, J.

    2009-12-01

    Tungsten was selected as armor material for the helium-cooled divertor in future DEMO-type fusion reactors and fusion power plants. After realizing the design and testing of them under cyclic thermal loads of up to ~14 MW m-2, the tungsten divertor plasma-facing units were examined by metallography; they revealed failures such as cracks at the thermal loaded and as-machined surfaces, as well as degradation of the brazing layers. Furthermore, in order to optimize the machining processes, the quality of tungsten surfaces prepared by turning, milling and using a diamond cutting wheel were examined. This paper presents a metallographic examination of the tungsten plasma-facing units as well as technical studies and the characterization on machining of tungsten and alternative brazing joints.

  8. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations during an oral fat load and after short term high-fat, high-fat high-protein and high-fructose diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariou Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 is a circulating protein that promotes hypercholesterolemia by decreasing hepatic LDL receptor protein. Under non interventional conditions, its expression is driven by sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2 and follows a diurnal rhythm synchronous with cholesterol synthesis. Plasma PCSK9 is associated to LDL-C and to a lesser extent plasma triglycerides and insulin resistance. We aimed to verify the effect on plasma PCSK9 concentrations of dietary interventions that affect these parameters. Methods We performed nutritional interventions in young healthy male volunteers and offspring of type 2 diabetic (OffT2D patients that are more prone to develop insulin resistance, including: i acute post-prandial hyperlipidemic challenge (n=10, ii 4 days of high-fat (HF or high-fat/high-protein (HFHP (n=10, iii 7 (HFruc1, n=16 or 6 (HFruc2, n=9 days of hypercaloric high-fructose diets. An acute oral fat load was also performed in two patients bearing the R104C-V114A loss-of-function (LOF PCSK9 mutation. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the HFruc1 study, intrahepatocellular (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids were measured by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed with a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (0.3 and 1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1. Findings HF and HFHP short-term diets, as well as an acute hyperlipidemic oral load, did not significantly change PCSK9 concentrations. In addition, post-prandial plasma triglyceride excursion was not altered in two carriers of PCSK9 LOF mutation compared with non carriers. In contrast, hypercaloric 7-day HFruc1 diet increased plasma PCSK9 concentrations by 28% (p=0.05 in healthy volunteers and by 34% (p=0.001 in OffT2D patients. In another independent study, 6-day HFruc2 diet increased plasma PCSK9 levels by 93% (p Conclusions Plasma PCSK9 concentrations vary

  9. LOCAL CORTICOSTEROID VS. AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD FOR PLANTAR FASCIITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syam Sunder B

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain for which professional care is sought. Initially thought of as an inflammatory process, plantar fasciitis is a disorder of degenerative changes in the fascia and maybe more accurately termed plantar fasciosis. Traditional therapeutic efforts have been directed at decreasing the presumed inflammation. These treatments include icing, Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs, rest and activity modification, corticosteroids, botulinum toxin type A, splinting, shoe modifications and orthosis. Other treatment techniques have been directed at resolving the degeneration caused by the disease process. In general, these techniques are designed to create an acute inflammatory reaction with the goal of restarting the healing process. These techniques include autologous blood injection, Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP injection, nitroglycerin patches, Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT and surgical procedures. Recently, research has focused on regenerative therapies with high expectations of success. The use of autologous growth factors is thought to heal through collagen regeneration and the stimulation of a well-ordered angiogenesis. These growth factors are administered in the form of autologous whole blood or Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP. Platelets can be isolated using simple cell-separating systems. The degranulation of the alpha granules in the platelets releases many different growth factors that play a role in tissue regeneration processes. Platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-P, vascular-derived endothelial growth factor, epithelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor and insulin-like growth factor are examples of such growth factors. Injections with autologous growth factors are becoming common in clinical practice. The present study was an attempt to compare the efficacy of autologous blood injection in plantar fasciitis by comparing it with the local

  10. Anode plasma dynamics in an extraction applied-B ion diode: effects on divergence, ion species and parasitic load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenly, J.B.; Appartaim, R.K.; Olson, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of data from the LION (1.2 MV, 300 kA, 40 ns) extraction applied-B diode allows a number of inferences regarding the effect of anode plasma dynamics on ion beam divergence, ion species composition, and diode impedance and power coupling. The two dominant features of anode plasma dynamics observed on LION are (1) plasma expansion away from the solid anode surface and into the accelerating gap during the beam pulse, and (2) evolution of the composition of the plasma during the pulse. The data presented in this paper characterize the plasma expansion, and suggest a possible picture of the mechanism of the plasma dynamics that could produce these basic features. (J.U.). 2 figs., 5 refs

  11. Anode plasma dynamics in an extraction applied-B ion diode: effects on divergence, ion species and parasitic load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenly, J B; Appartaim, R K; Olson, J C [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. of Plasma Studies

    1997-12-31

    Analysis of data from the LION (1.2 MV, 300 kA, 40 ns) extraction applied-B diode allows a number of inferences regarding the effect of anode plasma dynamics on ion beam divergence, ion species composition, and diode impedance and power coupling. The two dominant features of anode plasma dynamics observed on LION are (1) plasma expansion away from the solid anode surface and into the accelerating gap during the beam pulse, and (2) evolution of the composition of the plasma during the pulse. The data presented in this paper characterize the plasma expansion, and suggest a possible picture of the mechanism of the plasma dynamics that could produce these basic features. (J.U.). 2 figs., 5 refs.

  12. Smart alloys for a future fusion power plant: First studies under stationary plasma load and in accidental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Litnovsky

    2017-08-01

    Plasma exposure was followed by the oxidation of alloys at 1000°C accomplishing the first test of these new materials both in a plasma environment and under accidental conditions. Compared to pure tungsten, smart alloys featured the 3-fold suppression of oxidation. Plasma exposure did not affect the oxidation resistance of smart alloys. At the same time, the self-passivation of the protective layer did not occur, calling for further optimization of alloys.

  13. Effects of an aqueous leaf extract of Sansevieria senegambica Baker on plasma biochemistry and haematological indices of salt-loaded rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C. Ikewuchi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria senegambica on plasma marker enzymes, plasma chemistry and the haematological profile of salt-loaded rats were studied. The control group received only a commercial feed, whilst the four test groups received a diet consisting of the commercial feed and salt, although the reference treatment group was reverted to the normal feed at the end of 6 weeks. The extract was orally administered daily at 150 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg body weight to two test groups, respectively; whilst the test control, reference and control groups received equivalent volumes of water by the same route. The extract had no negative effects on markers of liver and kidney functions, but it did produce leukocytosis, significantly increased (p < 0.05 plasma calcium and potassium levels and significantly decreased (p < 0.05 plasma sodium and chloride levels in the test animals compared to the test control animals. This result supports the traditional use of Sansevieria senegambica in the management of hypertension, whilst suggesting that the extract may be a potassium-sparing diuretic whose mechanism of antihypertensive action may be achieved through alteration of plasma sodium and potassium balances, or through calcium-mediated changes in vascular muscle tone.

  14. Loading of deuterium and helium by Pilot-PSI plasma and their detection by in-situ LIBS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piip, K.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Bystrov, K.; Hämarik, L.; Karhunen, J.; Aints, M.; Laan, M.; Paris, P.; Seemen, H.; Hakola, A.; Brezinsek, S.

    2017-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a promising method for quantifying the fuel content of the plasma-facing components of ITER both in between plasma discharges (in-situ) and after maintenance operations. The aim of the present study is to test the applicability of in-situ LIBS for

  15. Fibrin- versus Plasma-Gel Scaffolds - und der Einfluss von TGF-ß und bFGF auf Myofibroblasten und die Gewebeneogenese

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Maren

    2015-01-01

    One central aspect in tissue engineering is the scaffold. Due to its properties and the direct contact to cells, it strongly influences the development of the tissue engineered construct. Especially attractive are autologous materials, like fibrin. To optimize autologous PFP- and fibrin-scaffolds this work compared the basic materials platelet free plasma (PFP), platelet poor plasma (PPP), and platelet rich plasma (PRP) as autologous materials for scaffold production. Three differently concen...

  16. Cord Blood Banking Standards: Autologous Versus Altruistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Cord blood (CB) is either donated to public CB banks for use by any patient worldwide for whom it is a match or stored in a private bank for potential autologous or family use. It is a unique cell product that has potential for treating life-threatening diseases. The majority of CB products used today are for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and are accessed from public banks. CB is still evolving as a hematopoietic stem cell source, developing as a source for cellular immunotherapy products, such as natural killer, dendritic, and T-cells, and fast emerging as a non-hematopoietic stem cell source in the field of regenerative medicine. This review explores the regulations, standards, and accreditation schemes that are currently available nationally and internationally for public and private CB banking. Currently, most of private banking is under regulated as compared to public banking. Regulations and standards were initially developed to address the public arena. Early responses from the medical field regarding private CB banking was that at the present time, because of insufficient scientific data to support autologous banking and given the difficulty of making an accurate estimate of the need for autologous transplantation, private storage of CB as "biological insurance" should be discouraged (1, 2, 3). To ensure success and the true realization of the full potential of CB, whether for autologous or allogeneic use, it is essential that each and every product provided for current and future treatments meets high-quality, international standards.

  17. Plasma facing materials and components for future fusion devices - development, characterization and performance under fusion specific loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik

    2006-04-15

    The plasma exposed components in existing and future fusion devices are strongly affected by the plasma material interaction processes. These mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; in addition they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour and the joining interface between the plasma facing material (PFM) and the heat sink. Besides physical and chemical sputtering processes, high heat quasi-stationary fluxes during normal and intense thermal transients are of serious concern for the engineers who develop reliable wall components. In addition, the material and component degradation due to intense fluxes of energetic neutrons is another critical issue in D-T-burning fusion devices which requires extensive RandD. This paper presents an overview on the materials development and joining, the testing of PFMs and components, and the analysis of the neutron irradiation induced degradation.

  18. Plasma facing materials and components for future fusion devices - development, characterization and performance under fusion specific loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, J.

    2006-01-01

    The plasma exposed components in existing and future fusion devices are strongly affected by the plasma material interaction processes. These mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; in addition they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour and the joining interface between the plasma facing material (PFM) and the heat sink. Besides physical and chemical sputtering processes, high heat quasi-stationary fluxes during normal and intense thermal transients are of serious concern for the engineers who develop reliable wall components. In addition, the material and component degradation due to intense fluxes of energetic neutrons is another critical issue in D-T-burning fusion devices which requires extensive RandD. This paper presents an overview on the materials development and joining, the testing of PFMs and components, and the analysis of the neutron irradiation induced degradation

  19. Plasma facing materials and components for future fusion devices—development, characterization and performance under fusion specific loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, J.

    2006-04-01

    The plasma exposed components in existing and future fusion devices are strongly affected by the plasma material interaction processes. These mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; in addition they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour and the joining interface between the plasma facing material (PFM) and the heat sink. Besides physical and chemical sputtering processes, high heat quasi-stationary fluxes during normal and intense thermal transients are of serious concern for the engineers who develop reliable wall components. In addition, the material and component degradation due to intense fluxes of energetic neutrons is another critical issue in D-T-burning fusion devices which requires extensive R&D. This paper presents an overview on the materials development and joining, the testing of PFMs and components, and the analysis of the neutron irradiation induced degradation.

  20. Experimental study of divertor plasma-facing components damage under a combination of pulsed and quasi-stationary heat loads relevant to expected transient events at ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimov, N S; Podkovyrov, V L; Kovalenko, D V; Zhitlukhin, A M; Barsuk, V A; Mazul, I V; Giniyatulin, R N; Kuznetsov, V Ye; Riccardi, B; Loarte, A; Merola, M; Koidan, V S; Linke, J; Landman, I S; Pestchanyi, S E; Bazylev, B N

    2011-01-01

    This paper concerns the experimental study of damage of ITER divertor plasma-facing components (PFCs) under a combination of pulsed plasma heat loads (representative of controlled ITER type I edge-localized modes (ELMs)) and quasi-stationary heat loads (representative of the high heat flux (HHF) thermal fatigue expected during ITER normal operations and slow transient events). The PFC's tungsten armor damage under pulsed plasma exposure was driven by (i) the melt layer motion, which leads to bridges formation between neighboring tiles and (ii) the W brittle failure giving rise to a stable crack pattern on the exposed surface. The crack width reaches a saturation value that does not exceed some tens of micrometers after several hundreds of ELM-like pulses. HHF thermal fatigue tests have shown (i) a peeling-off of the re-solidified material due to its brittle failure and (ii) a significant widening (up to 10 times) of the cracks and the formation of additional cracks.

  1. Complement activated granulocytes can cause autologous tissue destruction in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Löhde

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs by C5a is thought to be important in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure during sepsis and after trauma. In our experiment exposure of human PMNs to autologous zymosan activated plasma (ZAP leads to a rapid increase in chemiluminescence. Heating the ZAP at 56°C for 30 min did not alter the changes, while untreated plasma induced only baseline activity. The respiratory burst could be completely abolished by decomplementation and preincubation with rabbit antihuman C5a antibodies. Observation of human omentum using electron microscopy showed intravascular aggregation of PMNs, with capillary thrombosis and diapedesis of the cells through endothelial junctions 90 s after exposure to ZAP. PMNs caused disruption of connections between the mesothelial cells. After 4 min the mesothelium was completely destroyed, and connective tissue and fat cells exposed. Native plasma and minimum essential medium did not induce any morphological changes. These data support the concept that C5a activated PMNs can cause endothelial and mesothelial damage in man. Even though a causal relationship between anaphylatoxins and organ failure cannot be proved by these experiments C5a seems to be an important mediator in the pathogenesis of changes induced by severe sepsis and trauma in man.

  2. Surface cracking and melting of different tungsten grades under transient heat and particle loads in a magnetized coaxial plasma gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Y.; Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kitagawa, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.; Ueda, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Surface damage of pure tungsten (W), W alloys with 2 wt.% tantalum (W-Ta) and vacuum plasma spray (VPS) W coating on a reduced activation material of ferritic steel (F82H) due to repetitive ELM-like pulsed (˜0.3 ms) deuterium plasma irradiation has been investigated by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun. Surface cracks appeared on a pure W sample exposed to 10 plasma pulses of ˜0.3 MJ m-2, while a W-Ta sample did not show surface cracks with similar pulsed plasma irradiation. The energy density threshold for surface cracking was significantly increased by the existence of the alloying element of tantalum. No surface morphology change of a VPS W coated F82H sample was observed under 10 plasma pulses of ˜0.3 MJ m-2, although surface melting and cracks in the resolidification layer occurred at higher energy density of ˜0.9 MJ m-2. There was no indication of exfoliation of the W coating from the substrate of F82H after the pulsed plasma exposures.

  3. Surface cracking and melting of different tungsten grades under transient heat and particle loads in a magnetized coaxial plasma gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Y., E-mail: ykikuchi@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kitagawa, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Ueda, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    Surface damage of pure tungsten (W), W alloys with 2 wt.% tantalum (W–Ta) and vacuum plasma spray (VPS) W coating on a reduced activation material of ferritic steel (F82H) due to repetitive ELM-like pulsed (∼0.3 ms) deuterium plasma irradiation has been investigated by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun. Surface cracks appeared on a pure W sample exposed to 10 plasma pulses of ∼0.3 MJ m{sup −2}, while a W–Ta sample did not show surface cracks with similar pulsed plasma irradiation. The energy density threshold for surface cracking was significantly increased by the existence of the alloying element of tantalum. No surface morphology change of a VPS W coated F82H sample was observed under 10 plasma pulses of ∼0.3 MJ m{sup −2}, although surface melting and cracks in the resolidification layer occurred at higher energy density of ∼0.9 MJ m{sup −2}. There was no indication of exfoliation of the W coating from the substrate of F82H after the pulsed plasma exposures.

  4. Effect of high-flux H/He plasma exposure on tungsten damage due to transient heat loads

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Temmerman, G.; Morgan, T.W.; van Eden, G.G.; de Kruif, T.; Wirtz, M.; Matějíček, Jiří; Chráska, Tomáš; Pitts, R.A.; Wright, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 463, August (2015), s. 198-201 ISSN 0022-3115. [PLASMA-SURFACE INTERACTIONS 21: International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices. Kanazawa, 26.05.2014-30.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12837S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma-facing components * tungsten * hydrogen * helium * ELM Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022311514006758#

  5. An HPLC Method for Microanalysis and Pharmacokinetics of Marine Sulfated Polysaccharide PSS-Loaded Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA Nanoparticles in Rat Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Shi Guan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at developing a sensitive and selective HPLC method with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization for the detection of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by a simple and fast ultrafiltration method. PSS was extracted from rat plasma with d-glucuronic acid as internal standard. Isocratic chromatographic separation was performed on a TSKgel G2500 PWxL column with the mobile phase of 0.1 M sodium sulfate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Analyte detection was achieved by fluorescence detection (FLD at 250 nm (excitation and 435 nm (emission using guanidine hydrochloride as postcolumn derivatizing reagent in an alkaline medium at 120 °C. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1–500 μg/mL, and the lower limit of detection (LLOD was found to be 250 ng/mL. This validated method was applied successfully to the pharmacokinetic study of PSS and PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles (PSS-NP in rat plasma after a single intravenous (PSS only and oral administration (PSS and PSS-NP. Significant differences in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of PSS and PSS-NP were observed. The relative bioavailability of PSS-NP was 190.10% compared with PSS which shows that PSS-NP can improve oral bioavailability.

  6. Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 infection in rural Zimbabwe: effect of treatment of schistosomiasis on CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama, Rutendo; Gomo, Exnevia

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether treatment of schistosomiasis has an effect on the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, individuals with schistosomiasis and with or without HIV-1 infection were randomized to receive praziquantel treatment at inclusion or after a delay of 3 months......; 287 participants were included in the study, and 227 (79%) were followed up. Among the 130 participants who were coinfected, those who received early treatment (n=64) had a significantly lower increase in plasma HIV-1 RNA load than did those who received delayed treatment (n=66) (P...

  7. Comparative Study Using Autologous Fat Grafts Plus Platelet-Rich Plasma With or Without Fractional CO2 Laser Resurfacing in Treatment of Acne Scars: Analysis of Outcomes and Satisfaction With FACE-Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenna, S; Cogliandro, A; Barone, M; Panasiti, Vincenzo; Tirindelli, M; Nobile, Carolina; Persichetti, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    A multitude of options are traditionally used for the treatment of acne scars; however, newer treatment modalities are emerging to decrease the propensity for post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and upregulate new collagen production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of nanofat and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) infiltration alone and combined with fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing to improve atrophic scars of the face. From March 2014 to June 2015, 30 patients with atrophic acne scars on the cheeks were selected for this study. Patients were evaluated pre- and postoperatively by physical examination, photographs and ultrasound with a 22-MHz probe to measure subcutaneous tissue thickness. All patients were treated with infiltration of nanofat plus PRP. The production of PRP was achieved using the RegenLab THT tube ® method. In 15 randomly chosen patients, a fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing at 15 W was also performed right after the infiltration. An Italian version of the FACE-Q postoperative module was administered to analyze each patient's satisfaction and aesthetic perception of the result. The average preoperative thickness of subcutaneous tissue of patients from group A was 0.532 cm, while the average preoperative thickness of subcutaneous tissue of patients from group B was 0.737 cm. The average postoperative thickness of subcutaneous tissue was 1.201 cm in group A and 1.367 cm in group B. The improvement of thickness of subcutaneous tissue was 0.668 cm in group A and 0.63 cm in group B. We applied a t test on unpaired data, comparing the difference in thickness obtained with the treatment in both group A and in group B, with a p value =0.7289 (not significant). All patients in both groups had a treatment benefit, confirmed with FACE-Q postoperative module, but without a significant difference between the two groups. Subcutaneous infiltration with nanofat and PRP seems to be effective to improve atrophic scars, either alone or combined

  8. Autologous nerve graft repair of different degrees of sciatic nerve defect:stress and displacement at the anastomosis in a three-dimensional finite element simulation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-dong Piao; Kun Yang; Peng Li; Min Luo

    2015-01-01

    In the repair of peripheral nerve injury using autologous or synthetic nerve grafting, the mag-nitude of tensile forces at the anastomosis affects its response to physiological stress and the ultimate success of the treatment. One-dimensional stretching is commonly used to measure changes in tensile stress and strain; however, the accuracy of this simple method is limited. There-fore, in the present study, we established three-dimensional ifnite element models of sciatic nerve defects repaired by autologous nerve grafts. Using PRO E 5.0 ifnite element simulation software, we calculated the maximum stress and displacement of an anastomosis under a 5 N load in 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-mm long autologous nerve grafts. We found that maximum displacement increased with graft length, consistent with specimen force. These ifndings indicate that three-dimensional ifnite element simulation is a feasible method for analyzing stress and displacement at the anas-tomosis after autologous nerve grafting.

  9. Autologous nerve graft repair of different degrees of sciatic nerve defect: stress and displacement at the anastomosis in a three-dimensional fnite element simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-dong Piao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the repair of peripheral nerve injury using autologous or synthetic nerve grafting, the magnitude of tensile forces at the anastomosis affects its response to physiological stress and the ultimate success of the treatment. One-dimensional stretching is commonly used to measure changes in tensile stress and strain however, the accuracy of this simple method is limited. Therefore, in the present study, we established three-dimensional finite element models of sciatic nerve defects repaired by autologous nerve grafts. Using PRO E 5.0 finite element simulation software, we calculated the maximum stress and displacement of an anastomosis under a 5 N load in 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-mm long autologous nerve grafts. We found that maximum displacement increased with graft length, consistent with specimen force. These findings indicate that three-dimensional finite element simulation is a feasible method for analyzing stress and displacement at the anastomosis after autologous nerve grafting.

  10. Deuterium retention in tungsten under combined high cycle ELM-like heat loads and steady-state plasma exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Huber

    2016-12-01

    Enhanced blister formation has been observed under combined loading conditions at power densities close to the threshold for damaging. It is shown that blisters are not mainly responsible for the pronounced increase of the D retention.

  11. Cytomegalovirus sequence variability, amplicon length, and DNase-sensitive non-encapsidated genomes are obstacles to standardization and commutability of plasma viral load results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, Klaudia; Lautenschlager, Irmeli; Gosert, Rainer; Loginov, Raisa; Bir, Katia; Helanterä, Ilkka; Schaub, Stefan; Khanna, Nina; Hirsch, Hans H

    2018-04-22

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) management post-transplantation relies on quantification in blood, but inter-laboratory and inter-assay variability impairs commutability. An international multicenter study demonstrated that variability is mitigated by standardizing plasma volumes, automating DNA extraction and amplification, and calibration to the 1st-CMV-WHO-International-Standard as in the FDA-approved Roche-CAP/CTM-CMV. However, Roche-CAP/CTM-CMV showed under-quantification and false-negative results in a quality assurance program (UK-NEQAS-2014). To evaluate factors contributing to quantification variability of CMV viral load and to develop optimized CMV-UL54-QNAT. The UL54 target of the UK-NEQAS-2014 variant was sequenced and compared to 329 available CMV GenBank sequences. Four Basel-CMV-UL54-QNAT assays of 361 bp, 254 bp, 151 bp, and 95 bp amplicons were developed that only differed in reverse primer positions. The assays were validated using plasmid dilutions, UK-NEQAS-2014 sample, as well as 107 frozen and 69 prospectively collected plasma samples from transplant patients submitted for CMV QNAT, with and without DNase-digestion prior to nucleic acid extraction. Eight of 43 mutations were identified as relevant in the UK-NEQAS-2014 target. All Basel-CMV-UL54 QNATs quantified the UK-NEQAS-2014 but revealed 10-fold increasing CMV loads as amplicon size decreased. The inverse correlation of amplicon size and viral loads was confirmed using 1st-WHO-International-Standard and patient samples. DNase pre-treatment reduced plasma CMV loads by >90% indicating the presence of unprotected CMV genomic DNA. Sequence variability, amplicon length, and non-encapsidated genomes obstruct standardization and commutability of CMV loads needed to develop thresholds for clinical research and management. Besides regular sequence surveys, matrix and extraction standardization, we propose developing reference calibrators using 100 bp amplicons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  12. Variability of plasma and urine betaine in diabetes mellitus and its relationship to methionine load test responses: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Lever, Michael; Slow, Sandy; McGregor, David O; Dellow, Warwick J; George, Peter M; Chambers, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Since betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor, and abnormal betaine loss is common in diabetes mellitus (>20% patients), we investigated the relationship between betaine and the post-methionine load rise in homocysteine, in diabetes and control subjects. The post-methionine load test is reported to be both an independent vascular risk factor and a measure of betaine sufficiency. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 34) and control subjects (n = 17) were recruited. We...

  13. Vapor shielding effects on energy transfer from plasma-gun generated ELM-like transient loads to material surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Y.; Sakuma, I.; Asai, Y.; Onishi, K.; Isono, W.; Nakazono, T.; Nakane, M.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2016-02-01

    Energy transfer processes from ELM-like pulsed helium (He) plasmas with a pulse duration of ˜0.1 ms to aluminum (Al) and tungsten (W) surfaces were experimentally investigated by the use of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun device. The surface absorbed energy density of the He pulsed plasma on the W surface measured with a calorimeter was ˜0.44 MJ m-2, whereas it was ˜0.15 MJ m-2 on the Al surface. A vapor layer in front of the Al surface exposed to the He pulsed plasma was clearly identified by Al neutral emission line (Al i) measured with a high time resolution spectrometer, and fast imaging with a high-speed visible camera filtered around the Al i emission line. On the other hand, no clear evaporation in front of the W surface exposed to the He pulsed plasma was observed in the present condition. Discussions on the reduction in the surface absorbed energy density on the Al surface are provided by considering the latent heat of vaporization and radiation cooling due to the Al vapor cloud.

  14. [Human herpesvirus-6 pneumonitis following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Yuu; Gotoh, Moritaka; Yoshizawa, Seiichiro; Akahane, Daigo; Fujimoto, Hiroaki; Ito, Yoshikazu; Ohyashiki, Kazuma

    2018-01-01

    A-46-year-old man was diagnosed with peripheral T cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified. He achieved a complete remission after pirarubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone (THP-COP) therapy and successful autologous peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation (AutoSCT). However, 6 months post AutoSCT, he complained of fever. Chest computed tomography of the patient displayed bilateral interstitial pneumonitis. Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) DNA was detected in his bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Therefore, the patient was confirmed for HHV-6 pneumonitis. The treatment with foscarnet was effective, and no relapse was noticed in the patient. Besides, we have experienced pneumonitis of unknown origin in some patients after autologous or allogeneic stem-cell transplantations. Moreover, most of the above patients were clinically diagnosed using serum or plasma markers. Therefore, examining respiratory symptoms after AutoSCT would enable a more accurate diagnosis as well as treatment of patients with HHV-6 pneumonitis.

  15. UPDATE ON THE ROLE OF AUTOLOGOUS HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Tosi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Autologous stem cell transplantation is considered the standard of care for multiple myeloma patients aged < 65 years with no relevant comorbidities. The addition of drugs acting both on bone marrow microenvironment and on neoplastic plasma cells has significantly increased the proportion of patients achieving a complete remission after induction therapy, and these results are mantained after high-dose melphalan, leading to a prolonged disease control. Studies are being carried out in order to evaluate whether short term consolidation or long-term maintenance therapy can result into disease eradication at the molecular level thus increasing also patients survival. The efficacy of these new drugs has raised the issue of deferring the transplant after achivng a second response upon relapse. Another controversial point is the optimal treatment strategy for high-risk patients, that do not benefit from autologous stem cell transplantation and for whom the efficacy of new drugs is still matter of debate.

  16. Tumescent mastectomy technique in autologous breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Christina R; Koolen, Pieter G L; Ho, Olivia A; Ricci, Joseph A; Tobias, Adam M; Lin, Samuel J; Lee, Bernard T

    2015-10-01

    Use of the tumescent mastectomy technique has been reported to facilitate development of a hydrodissection plane, reduce blood loss, and provide adjunct analgesia. Previous studies suggest that tumescent dissection may contribute to adverse outcomes after immediate implant reconstruction; however, its effect on autologous microsurgical reconstruction has not been established. A retrospective review was conducted of all immediate microsurgical breast reconstruction procedures at a single academic center between January 2004 and December 2013. Records were queried for age, body mass index, mastectomy weight, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, preoperative radiation, reconstruction flap type, and autologous flap weight. Outcomes of interest were mastectomy skin necrosis, complete and partial flap loss, return to the operating room, breast hematoma, seroma, and infection. There were 730 immediate autologous breast reconstructions performed during the study period; 46% with the tumescent dissection technique. Groups were similar with respect to baseline patient and procedural characteristics. Univariate analysis revealed no significant difference in the incidence of mastectomy skin necrosis, complete or partial flap loss, return to the operating room, operative time, estimated blood loss, recurrence, breast hematoma, seroma, or infection in patients undergoing tumescent mastectomy. Multivariate analysis also demonstrated no significant association between the use of tumescent technique and postoperative breast mastectomy skin necrosis (P = 0.980), hematoma (P = 0.759), or seroma (P = 0.340). Use of the tumescent dissection technique during mastectomy is not significantly associated with adverse outcomes after microsurgical breast reconstruction. Despite concern for its impact on implant reconstruction, our findings suggest that this method can be used safely preceding autologous procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Improving oocyte quality by transfer of autologous mitochondria from fully grown oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine Gry; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2017-01-01

    options using autologous mitochondria to potentially augment pregnancy potential in ART. Autologous transfer of mitochondria from the patient's own germline cells has attracted much attention as a possible new treatment to revitalize deficient oocytes. IVF births have been reported after transfer...... of oogonial precursor cell-derived mitochondria; however, the source and quality of the mitochondria are still unclear. In contrast, fully grown oocytes are loaded with mitochondria which have passed the genetic bottleneck and are likely to be of high quality. An increased supply of such oocytes could...... with high quality mitochondria can be obtained from natural or stimulated ovaries and potentially be used to improve both quality and quantity of oocytes available for fertility treatment....

  18. Experimental investigation of heat transport and divertor loads of fusion plasmas in all metal ASDEX upgrade and JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieglin, Bernhard A.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents divertor heat load studies conducted at two of the largest tokamaks currently in operation, ASDEX Upgrade and the Joint European Torus (JET). A commonly agreed empirical scaling for the power fall-off length in H-mode obtained in carbon devices is validated in JET with the ILW. Bohm and Gyro-Bohm like models are identified as possible candidates describing the divertor broadening. Quantities for the assessment of the thermal load induced by transient heat loads are defined. JET with the ILW exhibits an on average longer ELM duration as compared to the carbon wall. For identical pedestal conditions the ELM durations in both cases are found to be the same within error bars. The energy fluency is found to depend mainly on the pedestal pressure with a weak dependence on the relative loss in stored energy. This is noteworthy since the current extrapolation to ITER assumes a linear dependence on the relative ELM size.

  19. Autologous patch graft in tube shunt surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanides, I M; Spaeth, G L; Schmidt, C M; Lanzl, I M; Gandham, S B

    1999-10-01

    To evaluate an alternate method of covering the subconjunctival portion of the tube in aqueous shunt surgery. Evidence of tube erosion, graft-related infection, graft melting, or other associated intraocular complications were evaluated. A retrospective study of 16 patients (17 eyes) who underwent tube shunt surgery at Wills Eye Hospital between July 1991 and October 1996 was conducted. An autologous either "free" or "rotating" scleral lamellar graft was created to cover the subconjunctival portion of the tube shunt. All patients were evaluated for at least 6 months, with a mean follow-up of 14.8 months (range 6-62 months). All eyes tolerated the autologous graft well, with no clinical evidence of tube erosion, or graft-related or intraocular complications. Autologous patch graft in tube shunt surgery appears--in selected cases--to be an effective, safe and inexpensive surgical alternative to allogenic graft materials. It also offers ease of availability, and eliminates the risk of transmitting infectious disease.

  20. Differences in HIV Type 1 RNA Plasma Load Profile of Closely Related Cocirculating Ethiopian Subtype C Strains: C and C '

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayele, Workenesh; Mekonnen, Yared; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Mengistu, Yohannes; Tsegaye, Aster; Bakker, Margreet; Berkhout, Ben; Dorigo-Zetsma, Wendelien; Wolday, Dawit; Goudsmit, Jaap; Coutinho, Roel; de Baar, Michel; Paxton, William A.; Pollakis, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    Two HIV-1 subtype C subclusters have been identified in Ethiopia (C and C') with little knowledge regarding their biological or clinical differences. We longitudinally monitored HIV-1 viral loads and CD4(+) T cell counts for 130 subtype C-infected individuals from Ethiopia over 5 years. The genetic

  1. Predictors of undetectable plasma viral load in HIV-positive adults receiving antiretroviral therapy in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marysabel Pinto Telis Silveira

    Full Text Available Factors associated with undetectable viral load ( or = 95% of adherence (CI 95% 1,80-13,28; CI 95% 1,73-9,53, compared with less than 60% adherence; it was greater for less than 6 months in treatment (OR = 3.37; CI 95% 1.09-10.46; and smaller for viral load previous to adherence measurement > or = 5.2 log10 (OR = 0.19; CI95% 0.06-0.58, adjusted for these variables and sex, age, clinical status, current immune status, group of drugs and interval between the two measurements of viral load. The crude odds were lower for age 16-24 years and use of Nucleoside Analog Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors only, but these effects were not significant in the multivariate model. There was no evidence of effect of sex, clinical status, current immune status, and changes in treatment regimen. Treatment adherence gave the largest effect. Motivational interventions directed at adherence may improve treatment effectiveness.

  2. Lymphoscintigraphy and autologous stem cell implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña, Yamile; Batista, Juan F.; Perera, Alejandro; Torres, Leonel A.; Sánchez, Elvia L.; Sánchez, Yolaine; Ducat, Luis; Prats, Anais; Hernández, Porfirio; Romero, Susana; Goicochea, Pedro; Quintela, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy is the criterion standard technique for the diagnosis of lymphedema. Advances of the application of autologous hematopoietic stem cells in ischemic disorders of lower limbs have increased the attention of researchers in this field. Aim: To determine the usefulness of lymphoscintigraphy for the assessment the efficacy of autologous stem cell implantation in patients with chronic lymphedema of the upper and lower limbs. Methods: Sixty-five patients were included. Clinical evaluation and lymphoscintigraphy were performed before and six months after stem cells implantation. The stem cells implantations were carried out by multiple superficial and deep injections in the trajectory of the lymphatic vessels and also in the inguinal region. A volume of 0.75 to 1.00 mL of cell suspension (1.0-2.2 x 109 stem cells) was administered in each injection site. Lymphoscintigraphy: Whole-body scans were acquired at 20 minutes, 1 hour, and 3 hours after administration of 185 to 259 MBq (5–7mCi) of 99m Tc-albumin nanocolloids in the interdigital space of both limbs. The anatomy and function of the lymphatic system were evaluated. Results: Functional assessment before implantation of stem cells showed that 69.2% of the patients had severe lymphatic insufficiency. The 61.5% of patients showed clinical improvement, confirmed by the results of the lymphoscintigraphy. The 46.1% of the cases evaluated showed a clear improvement. The study showed that the isotopic lymphography can evaluate the therapeutic response and its intensity. Conclusion: Lymphoscintigraphy is a useful technique for the evaluation and monitoring of autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with chronic lymphedema. (author)

  3. Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation in Osteoarthritic Surroundings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossendorff, Robert; Grad, Sibylle; Stoddart, Martin J

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) fails in up to 20% of cases. Advanced intra-articular degeneration paired with an inflammatory environment may be closely related to implantation failure. Certain cytokines have been identified to play a major role during early osteoarthritis....... PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and its potential inhibition by adalimumab on cartilage regeneration in an in vitro model of ACI. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Bovine articular chondrocytes were cultivated and transferred at passage 3 to fibrin...

  4. Marked improvement by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in a case of light chain deposition disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Keiichi; Ohsawa, Isao; Nishitani, Tomohito; Takeda, Yukihiko; Inoshita, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Masaya; Takagi, Miyuki; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2011-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman presented with heavy proteinuria (6.2 g/day) in April 2007. Because monoclonal IgG-k was detected in serum and urine samples, bone marrow aspiration and renal biopsy were performed. She was diagnosed with plasma cell dyscrasia because a bone marrow aspiration specimen showed plasma cells at 6.1%. Renal tissues revealed the formation of nodular glomerulosclerosis which was negative for Congo-red staining. Renal immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for kappa light chains in the nodular lesions, proximal tubules and part of Bowman's capsules. Her renal involvement was diagnosed as light chain deposition disease. Proteinuria disappeared and renal function stabilized after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. It appears that an early initiation of active therapy such as high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation may be beneficial for patients with light chain deposition disease.

  5. Plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) por meio de centrífuga de bancada

    OpenAIRE

    Calixto, Carlos Alberto [UNIFESP

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich plasma is an autologous concentration of autologous platelets in a small volume of plasma, obtained by centrifugation of the whole blood, and have been considered to be a rich source of growth factors. OBJECTIVE: Establish a method to prepare a platelet-rich plasma by centrifugation. METHODS: In this study 40 ml from the whole blood was obtained from eight volunteers, and seventy-two tests were performed in three groups (control, one spin, and two spins), changing th...

  6. Cost effectiveness of autologous blood transfusion – A developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An autologous blood donation program was set up at National Orthopaedic Hospital, Igbobi Lagos in 1992 in response to the rising sero prevalence of HIV observed in our “relative replacement” donors. A retrospective batch analysis of patients who received autologous transfusion and those who received homologous ...

  7. Autologous Transfusion of Stored Red Blood Cells Increases Pulmonary Artery Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinciroli, Riccardo; Stowell, Christopher P.; Wang, Lin; Yu, Binglan; Fernandez, Bernadette O.; Feelisch, Martin; Mietto, Cristina; Hod, Eldad A.; Chipman, Daniel; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Zapol, Warren M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Transfusion of erythrocytes stored for prolonged periods is associated with increased mortality. Erythrocytes undergo hemolysis during storage and after transfusion. Plasma hemoglobin scavenges endogenous nitric oxide leading to systemic and pulmonary vasoconstriction. Objectives: We hypothesized that transfusion of autologous blood stored for 40 days would increase the pulmonary artery pressure in volunteers with endothelial dysfunction (impaired endothelial production of nitric oxide). We also tested whether breathing nitric oxide before and during transfusion could prevent the increase of pulmonary artery pressure. Methods: Fourteen obese adults with endothelial dysfunction were enrolled in a randomized crossover study of transfusing autologous, leukoreduced blood stored for either 3 or 40 days. Volunteers were transfused with 3-day blood, 40-day blood, and 40-day blood while breathing 80 ppm nitric oxide. Measurements and Main Results: The age of volunteers was 41 ± 4 years (mean ± SEM), and their body mass index was 33.4 ± 1.3 kg/m2. Plasma hemoglobin concentrations increased after transfusion with 40-day and 40-day plus nitric oxide blood but not after transfusing 3-day blood. Mean pulmonary artery pressure, estimated by transthoracic echocardiography, increased after transfusing 40-day blood (18 ± 2 to 23 ± 2 mm Hg; P transfusing 3-day blood (17 ± 2 to 18 ± 2 mm Hg; P = 0.5). Breathing nitric oxide decreased pulmonary artery pressure in volunteers transfused with 40-day blood (17 ± 2 to 12 ± 1 mm Hg; P Transfusion of autologous leukoreduced blood stored for 40 days was associated with increased plasma hemoglobin levels and increased pulmonary artery pressure. Breathing nitric oxide prevents the increase of pulmonary artery pressure produced by transfusing stored blood. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01529502). PMID:25162920

  8. Differentiation within autologous fibrin scaffolds of porcine dermal cells with the mesenchymal stem cell phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puente, Pilar de la; Ludeña, Dolores; López, Marta; Ramos, Jennifer; Iglesias, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) are an attractive source of cells for tissue engineering because their properties are similar to those of human stem cells. pMSCs can be found in different tissues but their dermal origin has not been studied in depth. Additionally, MSCs differentiation in monolayer cultures requires subcultured cells, and these cells are at risk of dedifferentiation when implanting them into living tissue. Following this, we attempted to characterize the MSCs phenotype of porcine dermal cells and to evaluate their cellular proliferation and differentiation in autologous fibrin scaffolds (AFSs). Dermal biopsies and blood samples were obtained from 12 pigs. Dermal cells were characterized by flow cytometry. Frozen autologous plasma was used to prepare AFSs. pMSC differentiation was studied in standard structures (monolayers and pellets) and in AFSs. The pMSCs expressed the CD90 and CD29 markers of the mesenchymal lineage. AFSs afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The porcine dermis can be proposed to be a good source of MSCs with adequate proliferative capacity and a suitable expression of markers. The pMSCs also showed optimal proliferation and differentiation in AFSs, such that these might serve as a promising autologous and implantable material for use in tissue engineering. -- Highlights: ► Low fibrinogen concentration provides a suitable matrix for cell migration and differentiation. ► Autologous fibrin scaffolds is a promising technique in tissue engineering. ► Dermal cells are an easily accessible mesenchymal stem cell source. ► Fibrin scaffolds afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation.

  9. Effect of cold plasma pre-treatment on photocatalytic activity of 3D fabric loaded with nano-photocatalysts: Response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishian, Seyed Majid; Badii, Khashayar; Norouzi, Mohammad; Malek, Kaveh

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the physico-chemical effects occasioned by the cold plasma discharge (CPD) on the photo-decolorization of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) by 3D fabrics (spacer fabrics) loaded with ZnO:TiO2 nano-photocatalysts (nphs) were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). CPD was employed to improve the surface characteristics of the spacer fabrics for nphs loading. Surface morphology and color variation were studied utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and CIE-Lab system, respectively. The effect of CPD on the wetting ability of the spacer fabrics was examined using dynamic adsorption measurement (DAM). Also, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was utilized to investigate the durability of the nphs on the spacer fabrics. All the experiments were implemented in a Box-Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables (CPD treatment time, dye concentration and irradiation time) in order to optimize the decolorization of RO16. The anticipated values of the decolorization efficiency were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values (R2 = 0.9996, Adjusted R2 = 0.9992). The kinetic analysis demonstrated that the photocatalytic decolorization followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. In conclusion, this heterogeneous photocatalytic process is capable of decolorizing and mineralizing azoic reactive dye in textile wastewater. Moreover, the results confirmed that RSM based on the BBD was a suitable method to optimize the operating conditions of RO16 degradation.

  10. Recrystallization and modification of the stainless-steel surface relief under photonic heat load in powerful plasma discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budaev, V. P., E-mail: budaev@mail.ru; Martynenko, Yu. V. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Khimchenko, L. N. [Project Center ITER (Russian Federation); Zhitlukhin, A. M.; Klimov, N. S. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Pitts, R. A. [ITER Organization (France); Linke, J. [EURATOM Association, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Germany); Bazylev, B. [IHM, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Belova, N. E.; Karpov, A. V. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Kovalenko, D. V.; Podkovyrov, V. L.; Yaroshevskaya, A. D. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    Targets made of ITER-grade 316L(N)-IG stainless steel and Russian-grade 12Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel with a close composition were exposed at the QSPA-T plasma gun to plasma photonic radiation pulses simulating conditions of disruption mitigation in ITER. After a large number of pulses, modification of the stainless-steel surface was observed, such as the formation of a wavy structure, irregular roughness, and cracks on the target surface. X-ray and optic microscopic analyses of targets revealed changes in the orientation and dimensions of crystallites (grains) over a depth of up to 20 μm for 316L(N)-IG stainless steel after 200 pulses and up to 40 μm for 12Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel after 50 pulses, which is significantly larger than the depth of the layer melted in one pulse (∼10 μm). In a series of 200 tests of ITER-grade 316L(N)-IG ITER stainless steel, a linear increase in the height of irregularity (roughness) with increasing number of pulses at a rate of up to ∼1 μm per pulse was observed. No alteration in the chemical composition of the stainless-steel surface in the series of tests was revealed. A model is developed that describes the formation of wavy irregularities on the melted metal surface with allowance for the nonlinear stage of instability of the melted layer with a vapor/plasma flow above it. A decisive factor in this case is the viscous flow of the melted metal from the troughs to tops of the wavy structure. The model predicts saturation of the growth of the wavy structure when its amplitude becomes comparable with its wavelength. Approaches to describing the observed stochastic relief and roughness of the stainless-steel surface formed in the series of tests are considered. The recurrence of the melting-solidification process in which mechanisms of the hill growth compete with the spreading of the material from the hills can result in the formation of a stochastic relief.

  11. Behavior of porous beryllium under thermomechanical loading. Part 6. Effect of pressure on the microstructure of plasma-sprayed beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafee, J.E.; Snell, E.O.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of pressure and specimen preparation on the microstructure of two grades of porous plasma-sprayed beryllium were determined. One grade, P-1, was sintered after spraying while the other grade, P-10, was tested in the as-sprayed condition. the principal microstructural characteristics studied were grain size: grain morphology, and void distribution and size. It was found that machining can readily cause a significant dense surface layer on the porous beryllium specimens, and that the dense surface layer can be removed by etching. There was substantial difference in microstructure between the P-1 sintered and P-10 unsintered specimens both before and after being subjected to shock waves and static compression. (U.S.)

  12. Cartilage repair: Generations of autologous chondrocyte transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlovits, Stefan; Zeller, Philip; Singer, Philipp; Resinger, Christoph; Vecsei, Vilmos

    2006-01-01

    Articular cartilage in adults has a limited capacity for self-repair after a substantial injury. Surgical therapeutic efforts to treat cartilage defects have focused on delivering new cells capable of chondrogenesis into the lesions. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) is an advanced cell-based orthobiologic technology used for the treatment of chondral defects of the knee that has been in clinical use since 1987 and has been performed on 12,000 patients internationally. With ACT, good to excellent clinical results are seen in isolated post-traumatic lesions of the knee joint in the younger patient, with the formation of hyaline or hyaline-like repair tissue. In the classic ACT technique, chondrocytes are isolated from small slices of cartilage harvested arthroscopically from a minor weight-bearing area of the injured knee. The extracellular matrix is removed by enzymatic digestion, and the cells are then expanded in monolayer culture. Once a sufficient number of cells has been obtained, the chondrocytes are implanted into the cartilage defect, using a periosteal patch over the defect as a method of cell containment. The major complications are periosteal hypertrophy, delamination of the transplant, arthrofibrosis and transplant failure. Further improvements in tissue engineering have contributed to the next generation of ACT techniques, where cells are combined with resorbable biomaterials, as in matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). These biomaterials secure the cells in the defect area and enhance their proliferation and differentiation

  13. Complications Following Autologous Latissimus Flap Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufid Burgić

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Use of an autologous latissimus flap in breast reconstruction accounts for a supple and natural look of reconstructed breast. Most common postoperative complication, seroma, became more of a rule then an exception when it comes to postoperative evaluation of the patients who underwent this reconstructive procedure. A retrospective study analysing and evaluating different complication rates in 20 patients who underwent breast reconstruction by autologous latissimus flap, was conducted. All patients included in the study were operated at the Department of plastic surgery of Hôpital Civil in Strasbourg, France, between 1996 and 2008. The complication rates were noted as follows: seroma in 19 of our 20 patients (95%, late hypertrophic scarring in 3 patients (15%, postoperative surgical site hematoma in 3 patients (15%, and 2 patients (10% presented postoperative chronic back pain. Different options used in seroma treatment and prevention (subcutaneous-fascia anchor sutures of donor site, application of corticosteroids by injection into donor site postoperatively, passive drainage can reduce seroma formation and thus overall complication rates, leading to much faster patient’s recovery time and return to normal daily activities.

  14. Cartilage repair: Generations of autologous chondrocyte transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlovits, Stefan [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: stefan.marlovits@meduniwien.ac.at; Zeller, Philip [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Singer, Philipp [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Resinger, Christoph [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Vecsei, Vilmos [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-01-15

    Articular cartilage in adults has a limited capacity for self-repair after a substantial injury. Surgical therapeutic efforts to treat cartilage defects have focused on delivering new cells capable of chondrogenesis into the lesions. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) is an advanced cell-based orthobiologic technology used for the treatment of chondral defects of the knee that has been in clinical use since 1987 and has been performed on 12,000 patients internationally. With ACT, good to excellent clinical results are seen in isolated post-traumatic lesions of the knee joint in the younger patient, with the formation of hyaline or hyaline-like repair tissue. In the classic ACT technique, chondrocytes are isolated from small slices of cartilage harvested arthroscopically from a minor weight-bearing area of the injured knee. The extracellular matrix is removed by enzymatic digestion, and the cells are then expanded in monolayer culture. Once a sufficient number of cells has been obtained, the chondrocytes are implanted into the cartilage defect, using a periosteal patch over the defect as a method of cell containment. The major complications are periosteal hypertrophy, delamination of the transplant, arthrofibrosis and transplant failure. Further improvements in tissue engineering have contributed to the next generation of ACT techniques, where cells are combined with resorbable biomaterials, as in matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). These biomaterials secure the cells in the defect area and enhance their proliferation and differentiation.

  15. Hyaline cartilage degenerates after autologous osteochondral transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibesku, C O; Szuwart, T; Kleffner, T O; Schlegel, P M; Jahn, U R; Van Aken, H; Fuchs, S

    2004-11-01

    Autologous osteochondral grafting is a well-established clinical procedure to treat focal cartilage defects in patients, although basic research on this topic remains sparse. The aim of the current study was to evaluate (1) histological changes of transplanted hyaline cartilage of osteochondral grafts and (2) the tissue that connects the transplanted cartilage with the adjacent cartilage in a sheep model. Both knee joints of four sheep were opened surgically and osteochondral grafts were harvested and simultaneously transplanted to the contralateral femoral condyle. The animals were sacrificed after three months and the received knee joints were evaluated histologically. Histological evaluation showed a complete ingrowth of the osseous part of the osteochondral grafts. A healing or ingrowth at the level of the cartilage could not be observed. Histological evaluation of the transplanted grafts according to Mankin revealed significantly more and more severe signs of degeneration than the adjacent cartilage, such as cloning of chondrocytes and irregularities of the articular surface. We found no connecting tissue between the transplanted and the adjacent cartilage and histological signs of degeneration of the transplanted hyaline cartilage. In the light of these findings, long-term results of autologous osteochondral grafts in human beings have to be followed critically.

  16. Rice (Oryza sativa japonica) Albumin Suppresses the Elevation of Blood Glucose and Plasma Insulin Levels after Oral Glucose Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Shigenobu; Ninomiya, Kazumi; Mogi, Takashi; Hase, Ayumu; Ando, Toshiki; Matsukaze, Narumi; Ogihara, Jun; Akao, Makoto; Kumagai, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Hitomi

    2016-06-22

    The suppressive effect of rice albumin (RA) of 16 kDa on elevation of blood glucose level after oral loading of starch or glucose and its possible mechanism were examined. RA suppressed the increase in blood glucose levels in both the oral starch tolerance test and the oral glucose tolerance test. The blood glucose concentrations 15 min after the oral administration of starch were 144 ± 6 mg/dL for control group and 127 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group, while those after the oral administration of glucose were 157 ± 7 mg/dL for control group and 137 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group. However, in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, no significant differences in blood glucose level were observed between RA and the control groups, indicating that RA suppresses the glucose absorption from the small intestine. However, RA did not inhibit the activity of mammalian α-amylase. RA was hydrolyzed to an indigestible high-molecular-weight peptide (HMP) of 14 kDa and low-molecular-weight peptides by pepsin and pancreatin. Furthermore, RA suppressed the glucose diffusion rate through a semipermeable membrane like dietary fibers in vitro. Therefore, the indigestible HMP may adsorb glucose and suppress its absorption from the small intestine.

  17. Predeposit autologous blood transfusion: Do we require to promote it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Safest blood a patient can receive is his own. Quest for safe blood transfusion has remained of prime concern. To meet this aspiration, various forms of autologous blood transfusions can be practiced. It is especially suitable for patients with rare blood groups and religious sects such as Jehovah′s witness autologous transfusion is extremely safe. Cross matching is not required; iso-immunization to a foreign body is excluded. Fear of transfusion transmissible disease can be ignored. Therefore, autologous blood transfusion is required to be revisited. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study carried out at Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Pune between July 2010 and May 2012. Study comprised of 100 patients divided into two groups, autologous and homologous. Benefits of autologous transfusion were studied. Results: There was no significant change in hematocrit and blood parameters after blood donation. That is mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (P < 0.001 after blood donation. Only one complication of vasovagal syncope was observed at the time of blood donation. Conclusion: Autologous blood transfusion is safe. Easy alternative to be practiced in elective surgeries, especially in patients with rare blood group or believers of Jehovah′s witness faith. It helps to reduce the shortfall in national blood inventory. Autologous blood donation should be practiced whenever possible.

  18. Effects of particle size, helium gas pressure and microparticle dose on the plasma concentration of indomethacin after bombardment of indomethacin-loaded poly-L-lactic acid microspheres using a Helios gun system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Masaki; Natsume, Hideshi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Sugibayashi, Kenji; Morimoto, Yasunori

    2002-05-01

    We investigated the effects of the particle size of indomethacin-loaded poly-L-lactic acid microspheres (IDM-loaded PLA MS), the helium pressure used to accelerate the particles, and the bombardment dose of PLA MS on the plasma concentration of IDM after bombarding with IDM-loaded PLA MS of different particle size ranges, 20-38, 44-53 and 75-100 microm, the abdomen of hairless rats using the Helios gene gun system (Helios gun system). Using larger particles and a higher helium pressure, produced an increase in the plasma IDM concentration and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and resultant F (relative bioavailability with respect to intracutaneous injection) of IDM increased by an amount depending on the particle size and helium pressure. Although a reduction in the bombardment dose led to a decrease in C(max) and AUC, F increased on decreasing the bombardment dose. In addition, a more efficient F was obtained after bombarding with IDM-loaded PLA MS of 75-100 microm in diameter at each low dose in different sites of the abdomen compared with that after bolus bombardment with a high dose (dose equivalent). These results suggest that the bombardment injection of drug-loaded microspheres by the Helios gun system is a very useful tool for delivering a variety of drugs in powder form into the skin and systemic circulation.

  19. Loading regimen required to rapidly achieve therapeutic trough plasma concentration of teicoplanin and evaluation of clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seki M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Masafumi Seki,1,* Kaori Yabuno,1,2,* Koji Miyawaki,1,2 Yoshihiro Miwa,2 Kazunori Tomono11Division of Infection Control and Prevention, 2Department of Pharmacy, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka, Japan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: A trough concentration of >20 mg/L is considered the optimal dosage of teicoplanin required to ensure early therapeutic effects against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections including those in patients who develop febrile neutropenia after chemotherapy. This study determines appropriate initial doses during the first 2 days of administration and evaluates the therapeutic target teicoplanin trough concentration.Method: A 2-day regimen was evaluated in patients treated with 600 mg and 1200 mg or 1200 mg and 600 mg (total 1800 mg, Group 1, 800 mg and 800 mg (total 1600 mg, Group 2, and 800 mg and 400 mg (total 1200 mg, Group 3 of teicoplanin on Days 1 and 2, respectively. We also compared the efficiency and adverse effects at trough concentrations of 15–20 mg/L (Group A, n = 28 with >20 mg/L (Group B, n = 27 of teicoplanin, and also compared them with those on the similar concentrations of vancomycin (Groups C and D, n = 50 and 34, respectively.Results: The mean trough concentrations of teicoplanin on Days 4 or 5 were 22.2, 17.5, and 16.2 mg/L in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The clinical efficiency was 85.7%, 81.5%, 92.0%, and 91.5%, in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. The rates of adverse effects were not high in teicoplanin (nephrotoxicity, 7.1% and 3.7%, and hepatotoxicity, 14.3% and 11.1% in Groups A and B, respectively. However, more adverse effects tended to arise in patients who received vancomycin in nephrotoxicity (14.0% and 11.8%, in Groups C and D, respectively.Conclusion: These results suggest that the 2-day regimens with total 1800 mg achieved the most effective therapeutic trough plasma concentration of teicoplanin (20 mg/L. However, 15–20

  20. Plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load rebound among people who inject drugs receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a Canadian setting: an ethno-epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Will; Milloy, M J; McNeil, Ryan; Maher, Lisa; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) living with HIV often experience sub-optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment outcomes, including HIV plasma viral load (PVL) rebound. While previous studies have identified risk factors for PVL rebound among PWID, no study has examined the perspectives of PWID who have experienced PVL rebound episodes. We conducted an ethno-epidemiological study to investigate the circumstances surrounding the emergence of rebound episodes among PWID in Vancouver, BC, Canada. Comprehensive clinical records linked to a community-based prospective observational cohort of HIV-positive drug users were used to identify PWID who had recently experienced viral rebound. In-depth qualitative interviews with 16 male and 11 female participants explored participant perspectives regarding the emergence of viral rebound. A timeline depicting each participant's HIV viral load and adherence to ART was used to elicit discussion of circumstances surrounding viral rebound. Viral rebound episodes were shaped by interplay between various individual, social, and environmental factors that disrupted routines facilitating adherence. Structural-environmental influences resulting in non-adherence included housing transitions, changes in drug use patterns and intense drug scene involvement, and inadequate care for co-morbid health conditions. Social-environmental influences on ART adherence included poor interactions between care providers and patients producing non-adherence, and understandings of HIV treatment that fostered intentional treatment discontinuation. This study describes key pathways which led to rebound episodes among PWID receiving ART and illustrates how environmental forces may increase vulnerability for non-adherence leading to treatment failure. Our findings have potential to help inform interventions and supports that address social-structural forces that foster non-adherence among PWID.

  1. Effect of cold plasma pre-treatment on photocatalytic activity of 3D fabric loaded with nano-photocatalysts: Response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoreishian, Seyed Majid; Badii, Khashayar; Norouzi, Mohammad; Malek, Kaveh

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The potential of immobilized TiO_2 and ZnO nanophotocatalysts for the removal of reactive dye was investigated. • Optimum decolorization conditions have been determined. • The immobilized nanophotocatalysts decolorized azo dyes completely from a textile effluent within 60 min. • Photocatalytic decolorization rates obeyed the pseudo-first-order rate. - Abstract: In this study, the physico-chemical effects occasioned by the cold plasma discharge (CPD) on the photo-decolorization of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) by 3D fabrics (spacer fabrics) loaded with ZnO:TiO_2 nano-photocatalysts (nphs) were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). CPD was employed to improve the surface characteristics of the spacer fabrics for nphs loading. Surface morphology and color variation were studied utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and CIE-Lab system, respectively. The effect of CPD on the wetting ability of the spacer fabrics was examined using dynamic adsorption measurement (DAM). Also, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was utilized to investigate the durability of the nphs on the spacer fabrics. All the experiments were implemented in a Box–Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables (CPD treatment time, dye concentration and irradiation time) in order to optimize the decolorization of RO16. The anticipated values of the decolorization efficiency were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values (R"2 = 0.9996, Adjusted R"2 = 0.9992). The kinetic analysis demonstrated that the photocatalytic decolorization followed the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model. In conclusion, this heterogeneous photocatalytic process is capable of decolorizing and mineralizing azoic reactive dye in textile wastewater. Moreover, the results confirmed that RSM based on the BBD was a suitable method to optimize the operating conditions of RO16 degradation.

  2. Effect of cold plasma pre-treatment on photocatalytic activity of 3D fabric loaded with nano-photocatalysts: Response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoreishian, Seyed Majid, E-mail: m.ghoreishian.1985@gmail.com [Young Researchers and Elite Club, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Badii, Khashayar [Department of Environmental Researches, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Norouzi, Mohammad [Graduate Program of Biomedical Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Malek, Kaveh [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The potential of immobilized TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanophotocatalysts for the removal of reactive dye was investigated. • Optimum decolorization conditions have been determined. • The immobilized nanophotocatalysts decolorized azo dyes completely from a textile effluent within 60 min. • Photocatalytic decolorization rates obeyed the pseudo-first-order rate. - Abstract: In this study, the physico-chemical effects occasioned by the cold plasma discharge (CPD) on the photo-decolorization of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) by 3D fabrics (spacer fabrics) loaded with ZnO:TiO{sub 2} nano-photocatalysts (nphs) were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). CPD was employed to improve the surface characteristics of the spacer fabrics for nphs loading. Surface morphology and color variation were studied utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and CIE-Lab system, respectively. The effect of CPD on the wetting ability of the spacer fabrics was examined using dynamic adsorption measurement (DAM). Also, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was utilized to investigate the durability of the nphs on the spacer fabrics. All the experiments were implemented in a Box–Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables (CPD treatment time, dye concentration and irradiation time) in order to optimize the decolorization of RO16. The anticipated values of the decolorization efficiency were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values (R{sup 2} = 0.9996, Adjusted R{sup 2} = 0.9992). The kinetic analysis demonstrated that the photocatalytic decolorization followed the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model. In conclusion, this heterogeneous photocatalytic process is capable of decolorizing and mineralizing azoic reactive dye in textile wastewater. Moreover, the results confirmed that RSM based on the BBD was a suitable method to optimize the operating conditions of RO16 degradation.

  3. Platelet autologous growth factors decrease the osteochondral regeneration capability of a collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold in a sheep model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giavaresi Gianluca

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current research aims to develop innovative approaches to improve chondral and osteochondral regeneration. The objective of this study was to investigate the regenerative potential of platelet-rich plasma (PRP to enhance the repair process of a collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold in osteochondral defects in a sheep model. Methods PRP was added to a new, multi-layer gradient, nanocomposite scaffold that was obtained by nucleating collagen fibrils with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Twenty-four osteochondral lesions were created in sheep femoral condyles. The animals were randomised to three treatment groups: scaffold, scaffold loaded with autologous PRP, and empty defect (control. The animals were sacrificed and evaluated six months after surgery. Results Gross evaluation and histology of the specimens showed good integration of the chondral surface in both treatment groups. Significantly better bone regeneration and cartilage surface reconstruction were observed in the group treated with the scaffold alone. Incomplete bone regeneration and irregular cartilage surface integration were observed in the group treated with the scaffold where PRP was added. In the control group, no bone and cartilage defect healing occurred; defects were filled with fibrous tissue. Quantitative macroscopic and histological score evaluations confirmed the qualitative trends observed. Conclusions The hydroxyapatite-collagen scaffold enhanced osteochondral lesion repair, but the combination with platelet growth factors did not have an additive effect; on the contrary, PRP administration had a negative effect on the results obtained by disturbing the regenerative process. In the scaffold + PRP group, highly amorphous cartilaginous repair tissue and poorly spatially organised underlying bone tissue were found.

  4. Quantification of Epstein-Barr virus DNA load, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, transforming growth factor-β1 and stem cell factor in plasma of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Eng-lai; Selvaratnam, G; Kananathan, R; Sam, Choon-kook

    2006-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common epithelial neoplasm among the Chinese populations in Southern China and South East Asia. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known to be an important etiologic agent of NPC and the viral gene products are frequently detected in NPC tissues along with elevated antibody titres to the viral proteins (VCA and EA) in a majority of patients. Elevated plasma EBV DNA load is regarded as an important marker for the presence of the disease and for the monitoring of disease progression. However, other serum/plasma parameters such as the levels of certain interleukins and growth factors have also been implicated in NPC. The objectives of the present study are, 1) to investigate the correlations between plasma EBV DNA load and the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, TGF-β1 and SCF (steel factor) and 2) to relate these parameters to the stages of NPC and the effect of treatment. A total of 78 untreated NPC patients were enrolled in this study. Of these, 51 were followed-up after treatment. The remaining patients had irregular or were lost to follow-up. Plasma EBV DNA was quantified using real-time quantitative PCR. The levels of plasma interleukins and growth factors were quantified using ELISA. A significant decrease in EBV DNA load was detected in plasma of untreated NPC patients (1669 ± 637 copies/mL; n = 51) following treatment (57 ± 37 copies/mL, p < 0.05); n = 51). Plasma EBV DNA load was shown to be a good prognosticator for disease progression and clinical outcome in five of the follow-up patients. A significant difference in IL-6 levels was noted between the untreated patients (164 ± 37 pg/mL; n = 51) and following treatment (58 ± 16 pg/mL, p < 0.05; n = 51). Positive correlations between EBV DNA load and IL-10 (r(49) = 0.535, p < 0.01), between IL6 and IL-10 (r(49) = 0.474, p < 0.01) and between TGF and SCF (r(49) = 0.464, p < 0.01) were observed in patients following treatment. None of the parameters tested including Ig

  5. Clinical evaluations of complete autologous fibrin glue, produced by the CryoSeal® FS system, and polyglycolic acid sheets as wound coverings after oral surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouketsu, Atsumu; Nogami, Shinnosuke; Yamada-Fujiwara, Minami; Nagai, Hirokazu; Yamauchi, Kensuke; Mori, Shiro; Miyashita, Hitoshi; Kawai, Tadashi; Matsui, Aritsune; Kataoka, Yoshihiro; Satomi, Norihisa; Ezoe, Yushi; Abe, Satoko; Takeda, Yuri; Tone, Takeshi; Hirayama, Bunnichi; Kurobane, Tsuyoshi; Tashiro, Kazuki; Yanagisawa, Yuta; Takahashi, Tetsu

    2017-09-01

    The CryoSeal ® FS System has been recently introduced as an automated device for the production of complete fibrin glue from autologous plasma, rather than from pool allogenic or cattle blood, to prevent viral infection and allergic reaction. We evaluated the effectiveness of complete autologous fibrin glue and polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheet wound coverings in mucosa defect oral surgery. Postoperative pain, scar contracture, ingestion, tongue dyskinesia, and postoperative bleeding were evaluated in 12 patients who underwent oral (including the tongue) mucosa excision, and received a PGA sheet and an autologous fibrin glue covering. They were compared with 12 patients who received a PGA sheet and commercial allogenic fibrin glue. All cases in the complete autologous fibrin glue group demonstrated good wound healing without complications such as local infection or incomplete cure. All evaluated clinical measures in this group were similar or superior to the commercial allogenic fibrin glue group. Coagulation and adhesion quality achieved with this method was comparable to that with a PGA sheet and commercial fibrin glue. Covering oral surgery wounds with complete autologous fibrin glue produced by an automated device was convenient, safe, and reduced the risk of viral infection and allergic reaction associated with conventional techniques. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of randomized whey-protein loads on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying, and plasma gut-hormone concentrations in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Standfield, Scott; Jones, Karen L; Lange, Kylie; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2017-09-01

    Background: Protein- and energy-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in the elderly. Information about the effects of protein on energy intake and related gastrointestinal mechanisms and whether these differ between men and women is limited. Objective: We determined the effects of whey protein on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying, and gut hormones in healthy older men and women. Design: Eight older women and 8 older men [mean ± SEM age: 72 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 25 ± 1] were studied on 3 occasions in which they received protein loads of 30 g (120 kcal) or 70 g (280 kcal) or a flavored water control drink (0 kcal). At regular intervals over 180 min, appetite (visual analog scales), gastric emptying (3-dimensional ultrasonography), and blood glucose and plasma gut-hormone concentrations [insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)] were measured, and ad libitum energy intake was quantified from a buffet meal (180-210 min; energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying in the men have been published previously). Results: Energy intake at the buffet meal was ∼80% higher in older men than in older women ( P 0.05). There was no effect of sex on gastric emptying, appetite, gastrointestinal symptoms, glucose, or gut hormones ( P > 0.05). There was a protein load-dependent slowing of gastric emptying, an increase in concentrations of insulin, glucagon, cholecystokinin, GIP, GLP-1, and PYY, and an increase in total energy intake (drink plus meal: 12% increase with 30 g and 32% increase with 70 g; P < 0.001). Energy intake at the buffet meal was inversely related to the stomach volume and area under the curve of hormone concentrations ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: In older men and women, whey-protein drinks load-dependently slow gastric emptying and alter gut hormone secretion compared with a control but have no

  7. PRGF exerts more potent proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects than autologous serum on a cell culture inflammatory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, E; Muruzabal, F; de la Fuente, M; Riestra, A; Merayo-Lloves, J; Orive, G

    2016-10-01

    Ocular graft versus host disease (oGVHD) is part of a systemic inflammatory disease that usually affects ocular surface tissues manifesting as a dry eye syndrome. Current treatments provide unsatisfactory results. Blood-derived products, like plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) emerge as a potential therapy for this disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tissue regeneration and anti-inflammatory capability of PRGF, an autologous platelet enriched plasma eye-drop, compared to autologous serum (AS) obtained from oGVHD patients on ocular surface cells cultured in a pro-inflammatory environment. PRGF and AS were obtained from four GVHD patients. Cell proliferation and inflammation markers, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), were measured in corneal and conjunctival fibroblastic cells cultured under pro-inflammatory conditions and after treatment with PRGF or AS eye drops. Moreover, cell proliferation increased after treatment with PRGF and AS, though this enhancement in the case of keratocytes was significantly higher with PRGF. PRGF eye drops showed a significant reduction of both inflammatory markers with respect to the initial inflammatory situation and to the AS treatment. Our results concluded that PRGF exerts more potent regenerative and anti-inflammatory effects than autologous serum on ocular surface fibroblasts treated with pro-inflammatory IL-1β and TNFα. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Recovery from deep-plane rhytidectomy following unilateral wound treatment with autologous platelet gel: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D M; Chang, E; Farrior, E H

    2001-01-01

    To determine the effects of treatment with autologous platelet-rich plasma mixed with thrombin and calcium chloride to form an autologous platelet gel (APG) on postoperative recovery from deep-plane rhytidectomy. A prospective, randomized, controlled pilot study. An accredited ambulatory facial plastic surgery center. Healthy volunteer women (N = 8) undergoing rhytidectomy. Unilateral autologous platelet-rich plasma wound treatment during standard deep-plane rhytidectomy. Staged postoperative facial photographs were graded in a blinded fashion by 3 facial plastic surgeon reviewers for postoperative ecchymosis and edema. Each facial side treated with APG that demonstrated less edema or ecchymosis than the non-APG-treated side was designated a positive response; otherwise, the response was equal (no difference) or negative (untreated side had less edema or ecchymosis). Twenty-one positive and 21 equal responses were observed compared with 8 negative ones. Of 20 unanimous observations, 15 were positive, only 3 equal, and 1 negative. Treatment with APG may prevent or improve edema or ecchymosis after deep-plane rhytidectomy. This trend is more apparent for ecchymosis than for edema, and is chiefly demonstrable in the early phases of recovery. These observations are consistent with previous reports of cell tissue culture and wound response to concentrated platelet product.

  9. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell delivery to dilated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell delivery to dilated cardiomyopathy patients: A clinical trial. PLN Kaparthi, G Namita, LK Chelluri, VSP Rao, PK Shah, A Vasantha, SK Ratnakar, K Ravindhranath ...

  10. Residual viraemia in HIV-1-infected patients with plasma viral load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S R; Katzenstein, T L; Pedersen, B K

    2008-01-01

    Despite undetectable viral load in conventional assays, probably all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected patients have residual viraemia (RV) detectable by ultra-sensitive assays. To study this issue, this study investigated virologic and immunologic consequences of RV in highly active......-count, CD4+HLA-DR+, CD8+HLA-DR+CD38+, CD4+CD45RA-CD45RO+, CD8+CD45RA-CD45RO+, CD4+CD45RA+CD62L+, CD8+CD45RA+CD62L+ T cells, IgG or IgM. In conclusion, RV was associated with increased blood levels of soluble immune activation markers in HAART-treated HIV-1-infected patients. The finding that RV...... antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated HIV-1-infected patients with plasma HIV-1 RNA or=1 episode with TMA-RV whereas 9 patients had undetectable TMA-RV throughout the study-period. Time-points with TMA-RV and PCR-RV were associated with higher circulating sTNFrII (+0.234 ng/ml, P = 0.030) and beta(2...

  11. On-demand Antimicrobial Treatment with Antibiotic-Loaded Porous Silicon Capped with a pH-Responsive Dual Plasma Polymer Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasani, Roshan B; Szili, Endre J; Rajeev, Gayathri; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2017-07-04

    Chronic wounds are a major socio-economic problem. Bacterial infections in such wounds are a major contributor to lack of wound healing. An early indicator of wound infection is an increase in pH of the wound fluid. Herein, we describe the development of a pH-responsive drug delivery device that can potentially be used for wound decontamination in situ and on-demand in response to an increase in the pH of the wound environment. The device is based on a porous silicon film that provides a reservoir for encapsulation of an antibiotic within the pores. Loaded porous silicon is capped with dual plasma polymer layers of poly(1,7-octadiene) and poly(acrylic acid), which provide a pH-responsive barrier for on-demand release of the antibiotic. We demonstrate that release of the antibiotic is inhibited in aqueous buffer at pH 5, whereas the drug is released in a sustainable manner at pH 8. Importantly, the released drug was bacteriostatic against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound pathogen. In the future, incorporation of the delivery device into wound dressings could potentially be utilized for non-invasive decontamination of wounds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Localized extramedullary relapse after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkus, Muhan; Meteoglu, Ibrahim; Bolaman, Zahit; Kadikoylu, Gurhan

    2005-01-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytomas are rare manifestation of plasma cell malignancies. After hematopoietic stem cell transplantation HSCT, presentation of localized plasmacytoma with extramedullary growth is very unusual. We report a case of a 56-year-old woman with Dune-Salmon stage IIIA immunoglobulin A-kappa multiple myeloma, which presented 120 days after autologous HSCT with extramedullary plasmacytoma arising from a lymph node in supraclavicular region. The patient had no pretransplant-history related with extramedullary disease. There was no increase of plasma cells in bone marrow or monoclonal protein in urine or serum. Aspiration smears of lymph node revealed a population of plasmacytoid cells at various stages of maturation. The patient was successfully treated with local radiotherapy and has remained progression-free for more than 20 months. (author)

  13. A variant in the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus is associated with increased fasting plasma glucose, increased basal hepatic glucose production and increased insulin release after oral and intravenous glucose loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, C S; Grarup, N; Krarup, N T

    2009-01-01

    An association between elevated fasting plasma glucose and the common rs560887 G allele in the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus has been reported. In Danes we aimed to examine rs560887 in relation to plasma glucose and serum insulin responses following oral and i.v. glucose loads and in relation to hepatic...... glucose production during a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Furthermore, we examined rs560887 for association with impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), type 2 diabetes and components of the metabolic syndrome....

  14. Autologous fat grafting: use of closed syringe microcannula system for enhanced autologous structural grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander RW

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Robert W Alexander,1 David Harrell2 1Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Harvest-Terumo Inc, Plymouth, MA, USA Objectives: Provide background for use of acquiring autologous adipose tissue as a tissue graft and source of adult progenitor cells for use in cosmetic plastic surgery. Discuss the background and mechanisms of action of closed syringe vacuum lipoaspiration, with emphasis on accessing adipose-derived mesenchymal/stromal cells and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF for use in aesthetic, structural reconstruction and regenerative applications. Explain a proven protocol for acquiring high-quality autologous fat grafts (AFG with use of disposable, microcannula systems. Design: Explain the components and advantage of use of the patented super luer-lock and microcannulas system for use with the closed-syringe system. A sequential explanation of equipment selection for minimally traumatic lipoaspiration in small volumes is presented, including use of blunt injection cannulas to reduce risk of embolism. Results: Thousands of AFG have proven safe and efficacious for lipoaspiration techniques for large and small structural fat grafting procedures. The importance and advantages of gentle harvesting of the adipose tissue complex has become very clear in the past 5 years. The closed-syringe system offers a minimally invasive, gentle system with which to mobilize subdermal fat tissues in a suspension form. Resulting total nuclear counting of undifferentiated cells of the adipose-derived -SVF suggests that the yield achieved is better than use of always-on, constant mechanical pump applied vacuum systems. Conclusion: Use of a closed-syringe lipoaspiration system featuring disposable microcannulas offers a safe and effective means of harvesting small volumes of nonmanipulated adipose tissues and its accompanying progenitor cells within the SVF. Closed syringes and microcannulas are

  15. Inflammatory effects of autologous, genetically modified autologous, allogeneic, and xenogeneic mesenchymal stem cells after intra-articular injection in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigott, J H; Ishihara, A; Wellman, M L; Russell, D S; Bertone, A L

    2013-01-01

    To compare the clinical and inflammatory joint responses to intra-articular injection of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) including autologous, genetically modified autologous, allogeneic, or xenogeneic cells in horses. Six five-year-old Thoroughbred mares had one fetlock joint injected with Gey's balanced salt solution as the vehicle control. Each fetlock joint of each horse was subsequently injected with 15 million MSC from the described MSC groups, and were assessed for 28 days for clinical and inflammatory parameters representing synovitis, joint swelling, and pain. There were not any significant differences between autologous and genetically modified autologous MSC for synovial fluid total nucleated cell count, total protein, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, fetlock circumference, oedema score, pain-free range-of-motion, and soluble gene products that were detected for at least two days. Allogeneic and xenogeneic MSC produced a greater increase in peak of inflammation at 24 hours than either autologous MSC group. Genetically engineered MSC can act as vehicles to deliver gene products to the joint; further investigation into the therapeutic potential of this cell therapy is warranted. Intra-articular MSC injection resulted in a moderate acute inflammatory joint response that was greater for allogeneic and xenogeneic MSC than autologous MSC. Clinical management of this response may minimize this effect.

  16. Autologous Blood Transfusion for Postpartum Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenawalt, Julia A; Zernell, Denise

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a leading contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality in the United States and globally. Although the rate of PPH is generally decreasing nationally, severity of PPH appears to be increasing, potentially related to the various comorbidities associated with women of childbearing age. There is increasing evidence of risks associated with allogeneic blood transfusion, which has historically been the classic therapeutic approach for treatment to PPH. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to the implications of sensitization to red cell antigens, a common sequela to allogenic blood transfusion. Autologous blood transfusion eliminates the potential of communicable disease transmission as well as the conceivable threat of a blood transfusion reaction. Recent technological advances allow cell salvage coupled with the use of a leukocyte filter to be used as an alternative approach for improving the outcome for women experiencing a PPH. Modest changes in standard operating procedure and continued training in use and application of cell salvaged blood may assist in minimizing negative outcomes from PPH. Salvaged blood has been demonstrated to be at least equal and often superior to banked blood. We discuss nursing implications for application of this technology for women with PPH. Continued research is warranted to evaluate the impact that application of cell salvage with filtration has on the patient experiencing a PPH.

  17. Effects of supplemental seminal plasma on cryopreserved boar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To analyse the effects of supplemental autologous seminal plasma on boar semen quality before freezing and after thawing, thirty ejaculates were collected from six Pietrain boars. The main factors of a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments were Beltsville thawing solution (BTS), seminal plasma before freezing, and ...

  18. Increased cellular immune responses and CD4+ T-cell proliferation correlate with reduced plasma viral load in SIV challenged recombinant simian varicella virus - simian immunodeficiency virus (rSVV-SIV vaccinated rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pahar Bapi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An effective AIDS vaccine remains one of the highest priorities in HIV-research. Our recent study showed that vaccination of rhesus macaques with recombinant simian varicella virus (rSVV vector – simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV envelope and gag genes, induced neutralizing antibodies and cellular immune responses to SIV and also significantly reduced plasma viral loads following intravenous pathogenic challenge with SIVMAC251/CX1. Findings The purpose of this study was to define cellular immunological correlates of protection in rSVV-SIV vaccinated and SIV challenged animals. Immunofluorescent staining and multifunctional assessment of SIV-specific T-cell responses were evaluated in both Experimental and Control vaccinated animal groups. Significant increases in the proliferating CD4+ T-cell population and polyfunctional T-cell responses were observed in all Experimental-vaccinated animals compared with the Control-vaccinated animals. Conclusions Increased CD4+ T-cell proliferation was significantly and inversely correlated with plasma viral load. Increased SIV-specific polyfunctional cytokine responses and increased proliferation of CD4+ T-cell may be crucial to control plasma viral loads in vaccinated and SIVMAC251/CX1 challenged macaques.

  19. HIV-1 subtype C superinfected individuals mount low autologous neutralizing antibody responses prior to intrasubtype superinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basu Debby

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential role of antibodies in protection against intra-subtype HIV-1 superinfection remains to be understood. We compared the early neutralizing antibody (NAb responses in three individuals, who were superinfected within one year of primary infection, to ten matched non-superinfected controls from a Zambian cohort of subtype C transmission cases. Sequence analysis of single genome amplified full-length envs from a previous study showed limited diversification in the individuals who became superinfected with the same HIV-1 subtype within year one post-seroconversion. We hypothesized that this reflected a blunted NAb response, which may have made these individuals more susceptible to superinfection. Results Neutralization assays showed that autologous plasma NAb responses to the earliest, and in some cases transmitted/founder, virus were delayed and had low to undetectable titers in all three superinfected individuals prior to superinfection. In contrast, NAbs with a median IC50 titer of 1896 were detected as early as three months post-seroconversion in non-superinfected controls. Early plasma NAbs in all subjects showed limited but variable levels of heterologous neutralization breadth. Superinfected individuals also exhibited a trend toward lower levels of gp120- and V1V2-specific IgG binding antibodies but higher gp120-specific plasma IgA binding antibodies. Conclusions These data suggest that the lack of development of IgG antibodies, as reflected in autologous NAbs as well as gp120 and V1V2 binding antibodies to the primary infection virus, combined with potentially competing, non-protective IgA antibodies, may increase susceptibility to superinfection in the context of settings where a single HIV-1 subtype predominates.

  20. Chimeric autologous/allogeneic constructs for skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Cathy Ann; Tam, Joshua; Steiglitz, Barry M; Bauer, Rebecca L; Peters, Noel R; Wang, Ying; Anderson, R Rox; Allen-Hoffmann, B Lynn

    2014-08-01

    The ideal treatment for severe cutaneous injuries would eliminate the need for autografts and promote fully functional, aesthetically pleasing autologous skin regeneration. NIKS progenitor cell-based skin tissues have been developed to promote healing by providing barrier function and delivering wound healing factors. Independently, a device has recently been created to "copy" skin by harvesting full-thickness microscopic tissue columns (MTCs) in lieu of autografts traditionally harvested as sheets. We evaluated the feasibility of combining these two technologies by embedding MTCs in NIKS-based skin tissues to generate chimeric autologous/allogeneic constructs. Chimeric constructs have the potential to provide immediate wound coverage, eliminate painful donor site wounds, and promote restoration of a pigmented skin tissue possessing hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands. After MTC insertion, chimeric constructs and controls were reintroduced into air-interface culture and maintained in vitro for several weeks. Tissue viability, proliferative capacity, and morphology were evaluated after long-term culture. Our results confirmed successful MTC insertion and integration, and demonstrated the feasibility of generating chimeric autologous/allogeneic constructs that preserved the viability, proliferative capacity, and structure of autologous pigmented skin. These feasibility studies established the proof-of-principle necessary to further develop chimeric autologous/allogeneic constructs for the treatment of complex skin defects. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. Autologous chondrocyte implantation: superior biologic properties of hyaline cartilage repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Ian; Lavigne, Patrick; Valenzuela, Herminio; Oakes, Barry

    2007-02-01

    Information regarding the quality of autologous chondrocyte implantation repair is needed to determine whether the current autologous chondrocyte implantation surgical technology and the subsequent biologic repair processes are capable of reliably forming durable hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage in vivo. We report and analyze the properties and qualities of autologous chondrocyte implantation repairs. We evaluated 66 autologous chondrocyte implantation repairs in 57 patients, 55 of whom had histology, indentometry, and International Cartilage Repair Society repair scoring at reoperation for mechanical symptoms or pain. International Knee Documentation Committee scores were used to address clinical outcome. Maximum stiffness, normalized stiffness, and International Cartilage Repair Society repair scoring were higher for hyaline articular cartilage repairs compared with fibrocartilage, with no difference in clinical outcome. Reoperations revealed 32 macroscopically abnormal repairs (Group B) and 23 knees with normal-looking repairs in which symptoms leading to arthroscopy were accounted for by other joint disorders (Group A). In Group A, 65% of repairs were either hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage compared with 28% in Group B. Autologous chondrocyte repairs composed of fibrocartilage showed more morphologic abnormalities and became symptomatic earlier than hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage repairs. The hyaline articular cartilage repairs had biomechanical properties comparable to surrounding cartilage and superior to those associated with fibrocartilage repairs.

  2. Non-immunogenicity of overlapping gag peptides pulsed on autologous cells after vaccination of HIV infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik N Kløverpris

    Full Text Available HIV Gag-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses are important for HIV immune control. Pulsing overlapping Gag peptides on autologous lymphocytes (OPAL has proven immunogenic and effective in reducing viral loads in multiple pigtail macaque studies, warranting clinical evaluation.We performed a phase I, single centre, placebo-controlled, double-blinded and dose-escalating study to evaluate the safety and preliminary immunogenicity of a novel therapeutic vaccine approach 'OPAL-HIV-Gag(c'. This vaccine is comprised of 120 15mer peptides, overlapping by 11 amino acids, spanning the HIV Gag C clade sequence proteome, pulsed on white blood cells enriched from whole blood using a closed system, followed by intravenous reinfusion. Patients with undetectable HIV viral loads (<50 copies/ml plasma on HAART received four administrations at week 0, 4, 8 and 12, and were followed up for 12 weeks post-treatment. Twenty-three people were enrolled in four groups: 12 mg (n = 6, 24 mg (n = 7, 48 mg (n = 2 or matching placebo (n = 8 with 18 immunologically evaluable. T-cell immunogenicity was assessed by IFNγ ELIspot and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS.The OPAL-HIV-Gag(c peptides were antigenic in vitro in 17/17 subjects. After vaccination with OPAL-HIV-Gag(c, 1/6 subjects at 12 mg and 1/6 subjects at 24 mg dose groups had a 2- and 3-fold increase in ELIspot magnitudes from baseline, respectively, of Gag-specific CD8+ T-cells at week 14, compared to 0/6 subjects in the placebo group. No Gag-specific CD4+ T-cell responses or overall change in Rev, Nef, Tat and CMV specific responses were detected. Marked, transient and self-limiting lymphopenia was observed immediately post-vaccination (4 hours in OPAL-HIV-Gag(c but not in placebo recipients, with median fall from 1.72 to 0.67 million lymphocytes/mL for active groups (P<0.001, compared to post-placebo from 1.70 to 1.56 lymphocytes/ml (P = 0.16.Despite strong immunogenicity observed in

  3. UPDATE ON THE ROLE OF AUTOLOGOUS HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Tosi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Autologous stem cell transplantation is considered the standard of care for multiple myeloma patients aged < 65 years with no relevant comorbidities. The addition of drugs acting both on bone marrow microenvironment and on neoplastic plasma cells has significantly increased the proportion of patients achieving a complete remission after induction therapy, and these results are mantained after high-dose melphalan, leading to a prolonged disease control. Studies are being carried out in order to evaluate whether short term consolidation or long-term maintenance therapy can result into disease eradication at the molecular level thus increasing also patients survival. The efficacy of these new drugs has raised the issue of deferring the transplant after achivng a second response upon relapse. Another controversial point is the optimal treatment strategy for high-risk patients, that do not benefit from autologous stem cell transplantation and for whom the efficacy of new drugs is still matter of debate.

  4. Autologous Blood Transfusion in Sports: Emerging Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamin, Olivier; De Angelis, Sara; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Saugy, Martial; Leuenberger, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Despite being prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency, blood doping through erythropoietin injection or blood transfusion is frequently used by athletes to increase oxygen delivery to muscles and enhance performance. In contrast with allogeneic blood transfusion and erythropoietic stimulants, there is presently no direct method of detection for autologous blood transfusion (ABT) doping. Blood reinfusion is currently monitored with individual follow-up of hematological variables via the athlete biological passport, which requires further improvement. Microdosage is undetectable, and suspicious profiles in athletes are often attributed to exposure to altitude, heat stress, or illness. Additional indirect biomarkers may increase the sensitivity and specificity of the longitudinal approach. The emergence of "-omics" strategies provides new opportunities to discover biomarkers for the indirect detection of ABT. With the development of direct quantitative methods, transcriptomics based on microRNA or messenger RNA expression is a promising approach. Because blood donation and blood reinfusion alter iron metabolism, quantification of proteins involved in metal metabolism, such as hepcidin, may be applied in an "ironomics" strategy to improve the detection of ABT. As red blood cell (RBC) storage triggers changes in membrane proteins, proteomic methods have the potential to identify the presence of stored RBCs in blood. Alternatively, urine matrix can be used for the quantification of the plasticizer di(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate and its metabolites that originate from blood storage bags, suggesting recent blood transfusion, and have an important degree of sensitivity and specificity. This review proposes that various indirect biomarkers should be applied in combination with mathematical approaches for longitudinal monitoring aimed at improving ABT detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. FRET microscopy autologous tumor lysate processing in mature dendritic cell vaccine therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridolfi Ruggero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigen processing by dendritic cells (DC exposed to specific stimuli has been well characterized in biological studies. Nonetheless, the question of whether autologous whole tumor lysates (as used in clinical trials are similarly processed by these cells has not yet been resolved. Methods In this study, we examined the transfer of peptides from whole tumor lysates to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHC II in mature dendritic cells (mDC from a patient with advanced melanoma. Tumor antigenic peptides-MHC II proximity was revealed by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET measurements, which effectively extends the application of fluorescence microscopy to the molecular level ( Results We detected significant energy transfer between donor and acceptor-labelled antibodies against HLA-DR at the membrane surface of mDC. FRET data indicated that fluorescent peptide-loaded MHC II molecules start to accumulate on mDC membranes at 16 hr from the maturation stimulus, steeply increasing at 22 hr with sustained higher FRET detected up to 46 hr. Conclusions The results obtained imply that the patient mDC correctly processed the tumor specific antigens and their display on the mDC surface may be effective for several days. These observations support the rationale for immunogenic efficacy of autologous tumor lysates.

  6. Soft Tissue Repair with Easy-Accessible Autologous Newborn Placenta or Umbilical Cord Blood in Severe Malformations: A Primary Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Disrupted organogenesis leads to permanent malformations that may require surgical correction. Autologous tissue grafts may be needed in severe lack of orthotopic tissue but include donor site morbidity. The placenta is commonly discarded after birth and has a therapeutic potential. The aim of this study was to determine if the amnion from placenta or plasma rich of growth factors (PRGF) with mononuclear cells (MNC) from umbilical cord blood (UCB), collected noninvasively, could be used as bio-constructs for autologous transplantation as an easy-accessible no cell culture-required method. Human amnion and PRGF gel were isolated and kept in culture for up to 21 days with or without small intestine submucosa (SIS). The cells in the constructs showed a robust phenotype without induced increased proliferation (Ki67) or apoptosis (caspase 3), but the constructs showed decreased integrity of the amnion-epithelial layer at the end of culture. Amnion-residing cells in the SIS constructs expressed CD73 or pan-cytokeratin, and cells in the PRGF-SIS constructs expressed CD45 and CD34. This study shows that amnion and UCB are potential sources for production of autologous grafts in the correction of congenital soft tissue defects. The constructs can be made promptly after birth with minimal handling or cell expansion needed. PMID:29403534

  7. Soft Tissue Repair with Easy-Accessible Autologous Newborn Placenta or Umbilical Cord Blood in Severe Malformations: A Primary Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Ekblad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disrupted organogenesis leads to permanent malformations that may require surgical correction. Autologous tissue grafts may be needed in severe lack of orthotopic tissue but include donor site morbidity. The placenta is commonly discarded after birth and has a therapeutic potential. The aim of this study was to determine if the amnion from placenta or plasma rich of growth factors (PRGF with mononuclear cells (MNC from umbilical cord blood (UCB, collected noninvasively, could be used as bio-constructs for autologous transplantation as an easy-accessible no cell culture-required method. Human amnion and PRGF gel were isolated and kept in culture for up to 21 days with or without small intestine submucosa (SIS. The cells in the constructs showed a robust phenotype without induced increased proliferation (Ki67 or apoptosis (caspase 3, but the constructs showed decreased integrity of the amnion-epithelial layer at the end of culture. Amnion-residing cells in the SIS constructs expressed CD73 or pan-cytokeratin, and cells in the PRGF-SIS constructs expressed CD45 and CD34. This study shows that amnion and UCB are potential sources for production of autologous grafts in the correction of congenital soft tissue defects. The constructs can be made promptly after birth with minimal handling or cell expansion needed.

  8. Autologous bone marrow Th cells can support multiple myeloma cell proliferation in vitro and in xenografted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Fløisand, Y; Myklebust, C V; Bürgler, S; Parente-Ribes, A; Hofgaard, P O; Bogen, B; Taskén, K; Tjønnfjord, G E; Schjesvold, F; Dalgaard, J; Tveita, A; Munthe, L A

    2017-10-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy where MM cell growth is supported by the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment with poorly defined cellular and molecular mechanisms. MM cells express CD40, a receptor known to activate autocrine secretion of cytokines and elicit proliferation. Activated T helper (Th) cells express CD40 ligand (CD40L) and BM Th cells are significantly increased in MM patients. We hypothesized that activated BM Th cells could support MM cell growth. We here found that activated autologous BM Th cells supported MM cell growth in a contact- and CD40L-dependent manner in vitro. MM cells had retained the ability to activate Th cells that reciprocated and stimulated MM cell proliferation. Autologous BM Th cells supported MM cell growth in xenografted mice and were found in close contact with MM cells. MM cells secreted chemokines that attracted Th cells, secretion was augmented by CD40-stimulation. Within 14 days of culture of whole BM aspirates in autologous serum, MM cells and Th cells mutually stimulated each other, and MM cells required Th cells for further expansion in vitro and in mice. The results suggest that Th cells may support the expansion of MM cells in patients.

  9. Effectiveness of autologous transfusion system in primary total hip and knee arthroplasty.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Schneider, Marco M

    2014-01-01

    Autologous transfusion has become a cost-efficient and useful option in the treatment of patients with high blood loss following major orthopaedic surgery. However, the effectiveness of autologous transfusion in total joint replacement remains controversial.

  10. Treatment of Refractory Filamentary Keratitis With Autologous Serum Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Sarah P; Rodriguez, Marianeli; Dubovy, Sander; Karp, Carol L; Galor, Anat

    2017-09-01

    To report a case of filamentary keratitis (FK) successfully treated with autologous serum tears and to review the pathogenesis and management of FK. Case report including high-resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography and filament histopathology. A 61-year-old Hispanic man presented with pain and photophobia of the right eye. He was found to have a corneal epithelial defect and a small peripheral infiltrate 4 months after Laser Assisted in situ Keratomileusis. After resolution of the epithelial defect, he developed FK. Over a 4-month period, conservative management with aggressive lubrication, lid hygiene, topical corticosteroids, topical cyclosporine, bandage contact lenses, and oral doxycycline failed to resolve the corneal filaments. Notably, treatment with 20% autologous serum tears, four times daily, led to a sustained resolution of the FK within 1 week. This case demonstrates the complexity of FK management and introduces autologous serum tears as a viable management option when conservative approaches to this condition fail.

  11. Treatment of a non-healing diabetic foot ulcer with platelet-rich plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak H Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower extremity ulcers and amputations are an increasing problem among individuals with diabetes. Among diabetes mellitus-related complications, foot ulceration is the most common, affecting approximately 15% of diabetic patients during their lifetime. The pathogenesis of diabetic ulcer is peripheral sensory neuropathy, calluses, oedema and peripheral vascular disease. Diabetic ulcer is managed by adequate control of infections and blood sugar levels, surgical debridement with various dressings and off loading of the foot from pressure. In spite of these standard measures, some recalcitrant non-healing ulcers need additional growth factors for healing. Autologous platelet-rich plasma is easy and cost-effective method in treating diabetic ulcers as it provides necessary growth factors which enhance healing.

  12. Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Chronic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashu Bhasin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cell transplantation is a ‘hype and hope’ in the current scenario. It is in the early stage of development with promises to restore function in chronic diseases. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC transplantation in stroke patients has shown significant improvement by reducing clinical and functional deficits. They are feasible and multipotent and have homing characteristics. This study evaluates the safety, feasibility and efficacy of autologous MSC transplantation in patients with chronic stroke using clinical scores and functional imaging (blood oxygen level-dependent and diffusion tensor imaging techniques. Methods: Twelve chronic stroke patients were recruited; inclusion criteria were stroke lasting 3 months to 1 year, motor strength of hand muscles of at least 2, and NIHSS of 4–15, and patients had to be conscious and able to comprehend. Fugl Meyer (FM, modified Barthel index (mBI, MRC, Ashworth tone grade scale scores and functional imaging scans were assessed at baseline, and after 8 and 24 weeks. Bone marrow was aspirated under aseptic conditions and expansion of MSC took 3 weeks with animal serum-free media (Stem Pro SFM. Six patients were administered a mean of 50–60 × 106 cells i.v. followed by 8 weeks of physiotherapy. Six patients served as controls. This was a non-randomized experimental controlled trial. Results: Clinical and radiological scanning was normal for the stem cell group patients. There was no mortality or cell-related adverse reaction. The laboratory tests on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 were also normal in the MSC group till the last follow-up. The FM and mBI showed a modest increase in the stem cell group compared to controls. There was an increased number of cluster activation of Brodmann areas BA 4 and BA 6 after stem cell infusion compared to controls, indicating neural plasticity. Conclusion: MSC therapy aiming to restore function in stroke is safe and feasible. Further randomized controlled trials are needed

  13. Plasma cell leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández de Larrea, C; Kyle, R A; Durie, B G M

    2013-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of myeloma characterized by the presence of circulating plasma cells. It is classified as either primary PCL occurring at diagnosis or as secondary PCL in patients with relapsed/refractory myeloma. Primary PCL is a distinct clinic......-pathological entity with different cytogenetic and molecular findings. The clinical course is aggressive with short remissions and survival duration. The diagnosis is based upon the percentage (≥ 20%) and absolute number (≥ 2 × 10(9)/l) of plasma cells in the peripheral blood. It is proposed that the thresholds...... regimens and bortezomib-based regimens are recommended followed by high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation if feasible. Allogeneic transplantation can be considered in younger patients. Prospective multicenter studies are required to provide revised definitions and better understanding...

  14. The effect of high-flux H plasma exposure with simultaneous transient heat loads on tungsten surface damage and power handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eden, G. G.; Morgan, T. W.; van der Meiden, H. J.; J Matejicek,; T Chraska,; Wirtz, M.; De Temmerman, G.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of the full-W ITER divertor may be significantly affected by the interplay between steady-state plasma exposure and transient events. To address this issue, the effect of a high-flux H plasma on the thermal shock response of W to ELM-like transients has been investigated. Transient

  15. Evaluation of the performance of Abbott m2000 and Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS Taqman assays for HIV-1 viral load determination using dried blood spots and dried plasma spots in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeh, Clement; Ndiege, Kenneth; Inzaule, Seth; Achieng, Rebecca; Williamson, John; Chih-Wei Chang, Joy; Ellenberger, Dennis; Nkengasong, John

    2017-01-01

    Routine HIV viral load testing is not widely accessible in most resource-limited settings, including Kenya. To increase access to viral load testing, alternative sample types like dried blood spots (DBS), which overcome the logistic barriers associated with plasma separation and cold chain shipment need to be considered and evaluated. The current study evaluated matched dried blood spots (DBS) and dried plasma spots (DPS) against plasma using the Abbott M 2000 (Abbott) and Roche Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas TaqMan (CAP/CTM) quantitative viral load assays in western Kenya. Matched plasma DBS and DPS were obtained from 200 HIV-1 infected antiretroviral treatment (ART)-experienced patients attending patient support centers in Western Kenya. Standard quantitative assay performance parameters with accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CI) were assessed at the assays lower detection limit (400cps/ml for CAP/CTM and 550cps/ml for Abbott) using SAS version 9.2. Receiver operating curves (ROC) were further used to assess viral-load thresholds with best assay performance (reference assay CAP/CTM plasma). Using the Abbott test, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for DPS were (97.3%, [95%CI: 93.2-99.2] and 98.1% [95%CI: 89.7-100]) and those for DBS (93.9% [95%CI: 88.8-97.2] and 88.0% [95%CI: 82.2-92.4]). The correlation and agreement using paired plasma and DPS/DBS were strong, with r2 = 90.5 and rc = 68.1. The Bland-Altman relative percent change was 95.3 for DPS, (95%CI: 90.4-97.7) and 73.6 (95%CI: 51.6-86.5) for DBS. Using the CAP/CTM assay, the sensitivity for DBS was significantly higher compared to DPS (100.0% [95% CI: 97.6-100.0] vs. 94.7% [95%CI: 89.8-97.7]), while the specificity for DBS was lower: 4%, [95% CI: 0.4-13.7] compared to DPS: 94.0%, [95% CI: 83.5-98.7]. When compared under different clinical relevant thresholds, the accuracy for the Abbott assay was 95% at the 1000cps/ml cut-off with a sensitivity and specificity of 96.6% [95% CI 91.8-98.7] and 90

  16. Determinants of the Use of Autologous Blood in Elective General ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study reports the 7 year experience of the authors with autologous blood transfusion in elective general surgery using the predeposit method. Material and Method: Patients aged 18 years and older, presenting for elective surgery and for whom blood donation was required were encouraged to predonate one ...

  17. Osteoarthritis treatment using autologous conditioned serum after placebo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Marijn; Creemers, Laura B; Auw Yang, Kiem Gie; Raijmakers, Natasja J H; Dhert, Wouter J A; Saris, Daniel B F

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Autologous conditioned serum (ACS) is a disease-modifying drug for treatment of knee osteoarthritis, and modest superiority over placebo was reported in an earlier randomized controlled trial (RCT). We hypothesized that when given the opportunity, placebo-treated patients

  18. Bortezomib consolidation after autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Gimsing, Peter; Hjertner, Oyvind

    2013-01-01

    The Nordic Myeloma Study Group conducted an open randomized trial to compare bortezomib as consolidation therapy given after high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) with no consolidation in bortezomib-naive patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Overall, 370...

  19. Experience with predonated autologous blood transfusion in open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To find out the practicability, the acceptability, the effectiveness and the safety level of pre-donated, autologous blood transfusion (ABT) in patients who underwent open prostatectomy. Study design: Prospective. Patients and methods: It was a prospective study carried out in Nigeria over a 5-year period.

  20. Review of autologous blood transfusion at the Kenyatta National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was performed over a three- month period to establish the pattern of autologous blood transfusion with specific focus on age, sex, type of surgery, duration of hospital stay and religious beliefs. Design: Hospital based prospective study. Setting: The study was conducted at the Kenyatta National Hospital ...

  1. Surgical Patients\\' Knowledge and Acceptance of Autologous Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Homologous blood transfusion carries a well-documented array of risks especially in an HIV endemic environment like Nigeria. It is therefore imperative to consider other forms of restoring blood volume in surgical patients. Autologous blood transfusion (ABT) is one of the ways the problem of HIV transmission ...

  2. Resorbable screws for fixation of autologous bone grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, GM; Liem, RSB; Bos, RRM; van der Wal, JE; Vissink, A

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of resorbable screws made of poly (D,L-lactide) acid (PDLLA) for fixation of autologous bone grafts related to graft regeneration and osseointegration of dental implants. In eight edentulous patients suffering from insufficient retention of their

  3. Vaccination with apoptosis colorectal cancer cell pulsed autologous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate vaccination with apoptosis colorectal cancer (CRC) cell pulsed autologous dendritic cells (DCs) in advanced CRC, 14 patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) were enrolled and treated with DCs vaccine to assess toxicity, tolerability, immune and clinical responses to the vaccine. No severe toxicity ...

  4. Regeneration of Tissues and Organs Using Autologous Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony Atala

    2010-04-28

    The Joint Commission for Health Care Organizations recently declared the shortage of transplantable organs and tissues a public health crisis. As such, there is about one death every 30 seconds due to organ failure. Complications and rejection are still significant albeit underappreciated problems. It is often overlooked that organ transplantation results in the patient being placed on an immune suppression regimen that will ultimate shorten their life span. Patients facing reconstruction often find that surgery is difficult or impossible due to the shortage of healthy autologous tissue. In many cases, autografting is a compromise between the condition and the cure that can result in substantial diminution of quality of life. The national cost of caring for persons who might benefit from engineered tissues or organs has reached $600 billion annually. Autologous tissue technologies have been developed as an alternative to transplantation or reconstructive surgery. Autologous tissues derived from the patient's own cells are capable of correcting numerous pathologies and injuries. The use of autologous cells eliminates the risks of rejection and immunological reactions, drastically reduces the time that patients must wait for lifesaving surgery, and negates the need for autologous tissue harvest, thereby eliminating the associated morbidities. In fact, the use of autologous tissues to create functional organs is one of the most important and groundbreaking steps ever taken in medicine. Although the basic premise of creating tissues in the laboratory has progressed dramatically, only a limited number of tissue developments have reached the patients to date. This is due, in part, to the several major technological challenges that require solutions. To that end, we have been in pursuit of more efficient ways to expand cells in vitro, methods to improve vascular support so that relevant volumes of engineered tissues can be grown, and constructs that can mimic the

  5. Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Akpek, Esen K

    2017-01-01

    Background Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) offer a potential advantage over traditional therapies on the assumption that AS not only serve as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication but contain other biochemical components that allow them to mimic natural tears more closely. Application of AS has gained popularity as second-line therapy for patients with dry eye. Published studies on this subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. Objectives We conducted this review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS given alone or in combination with artificial tears as compared with artificial tears alone, saline, placebo, or no treatment for adults with dry eye. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2016), Embase (January 1980 to July 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to July 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (December 2016) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 July 2016. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared AS versus artificial tears for treatment of adults with dry eye. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text reports of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed risk of bias and characteristics of included

  6. Use of containers with sterilizing filter in autologous serum eyedrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, José S; García-Lozano, Isabel

    2012-11-01

    To assess the effect of the use of containers with an adapted sterilizing filter on the contamination of autologous serum eyedrops. Prospective, consecutive, comparative, and randomized study. Thirty patients with Sjögren syndrome. One hundred seventy-six autologous serum containers used in home therapy were studied; 48 of them included an adapted filter (Hyabak; Thea, Clermont-Ferrand, France), and the other 128 were conventional containers. Containers equipped with a filter were tested at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of use, whereas conventional containers were studied after 7 days of use. In addition, testing for contamination was carried out in 14 conventional containers used during in-patient therapy every week for 4 weeks. In all cases, the preparation of the autologous serum was similar. Blood agar and chocolate agar were used as regular culture media for the microbiologic studies, whereas Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol was the medium for fungal studies. Microbiologic contamination of containers with autologous serum eyedrops. Only one of the containers with an adapted sterilizing filter (2.1%) became contaminated with Staphylococcus epidermidis after 1 month of treatment, whereas the contamination rate among conventional containers reached 28.9% after 7 days of treatment. The most frequent germs found in the samples were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (48.6%). With regard the containers used in the in-patient setting, 2 (14.3%) became contaminated after 2 weeks, 5 (35.7%) became contaminated after 3 weeks, and 5 (50%) became contaminated after 4 weeks, leaving 7 (50%) that did not become contaminated after 1 month of treatment. Using containers with an adapted filter significantly reduces the contamination rates in autologous serum eyedrops, thus extending the use of such container by the patients for up to 4 weeks with virtually no contamination risks. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapidly produced /sup 125/I labelled autologous fibrinogen: in vitro properties and preliminary metabolic studies in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawker, R J; Hawker, L M [Birmingham Univ. (UK)

    1976-06-01

    The properties of fibrinogen extracted by a precipitation method using glycine at ambient temperatures near neutral pH are described. The simple and reproducible method gave a 73% yield of high purity plasminogen-free fibrinogen in 45 minutes from small volumes of plasma. The protein extract was labelled with /sup 125/I using chloramine-T under conditions optimal for fibrinogen stability. The extraction procedure, radio-iodination, desalting, and sterilization take only 70 minutes for completion from the time donor blood is received in the laboratory. The methods, using a specially developed extraction vessel and desalting/sterilizing column, can be used in a small hospital laboratory. Autologous fibrinogen can thus be extracted from patients' blood, eliminating the risk of transmitting hepatitis when it is re-administered. The autologous material, which is 97% clottable and contains less than 0.05% free iodide, is being routinely used as a diagnostic tool in the detection of deep vein thrombosis. The high purity of the preparation facilitates metabolic studies and in vitro experimental work. In vivo results showed a mean half-life in three normal volunteers of 3.95 days and a catabolic rate of 25.23% per day with the extravascular space estimated as 24.86%. In 30 surgical patients an expected reduced half-life in plasma was determined with a mean of 3.1 days.

  8. Plasma-wall interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichle, R.

    2004-01-01

    This document gathers the 43 slides presented in the framework of the week long lecture 'hot plasmas 2004' and dedicated to plasma-wall interaction in a tokamak. This document is divided into 4 parts: 1) thermal load on the wall, power extraction and particle recovery, 2) basic edge plasma physics, 3) processes that drive the plasma-solid interaction, and 4) material conditioning (surface treatment...) for ITER

  9. Development and validation of a production process of platelet lysate for autologous use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöderl, Karin; Strasser, Cornelia; Hennerbichler, Simone; Peterbauer-Scherb, Anja; Gabriel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Growth factors (GF) contained in platelets are a potential source to improve wound healing by the stimulation and acceleration of soft tissue and bone healing. This resulted in the idea that autologous platelet-rich plasma or platelet lysate (PL) containing high levels of GF might improve healing processes. Today platelet products are already applied in bone and maxillofacial surgery. In recent years, cosmetic surgery and facial rejuvenation procedures are growing steadily. New methods including platelet products aiming to induce non-surgical reduction of wrinkles upon topical injection and to minimize surgical risks in general are developed. Several point-of-care devices are already available on the market. However, the amount of PL obtained by these kits is far too high for certain applications in cosmetic surgery and they offer no possibility of storing the remaining material in a sterile manner. Therefore we developed a procedure for the sterile production of smaller amounts of PL in a closed system that can also be split into several products for repeated administration. The closed system was determined to be a bag system designed for an autologous blood donation of 100 ml whole blood. We set a special focus on the validation of the production procedure, mainly regarding sterility and platelet recovery. For validation 22 healthy volunteers were asked for a blood donation, which was centrifuged twice to obtain concentrated platelets (CP). A freeze-thaw cycle caused lysis of the CP to get approximately 8.48 ± 1.36 ml PL. We yielded satisfying results of 100% sterility and a platelet recovery of 36.92% ± 18.71%. We therefore conclude that the PL obtained is ready for studies comparing it with traditional treatments.

  10. Bio-artificial pleura using an autologous dermal fibroblast sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Masato; Takagi, Ryo; Washio, Kaoru; Kokubo, Mami; Yamato, Masayuki

    2017-10-01

    Air leaks (ALs) are observed after pulmonary resections, and without proper treatment, can produce severe complications. AL prevention is a critical objective for managing patients after pulmonary resection. This study applied autologous dermal fibroblast sheets (DFS) to close ALs. For sealing ALs in a 44-year-old male human patient with multiple bullae, a 5 × 15-mm section of skin was surgically excised. From this skin specimen, primary dermal fibroblasts were isolated and cultured for 4 weeks to produce DFSs that were harvested after a 10-day culture. ALs were completely sealed using surgical placement of these autologous DFSs. DFS were found to be a durable long-term AL sealant, exhibiting requisite flexibility, elasticity, durability, biocompatibility, and usability, resulting reliable AL closure. DFS should prove to be an extremely useful tissue-engineered pleura substitute.

  11. Recovery of autologous sickle cells by hypotonic wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emily; Kezeor, Kelly; Crosby, Monica

    2018-01-01

    It is important to isolate autologous red blood cells (RBCs) from transfused RBCs in samples from recently transfused patients to ensure that accurate serologic results are obtained. Typically, this isolation can be performed using methods that separate patient reticulocytes from transfused, older donor RBCs. Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), however, characteristically have RBCs with altered membrane and morphological features, causing their RBCs to take on a sickle-shape appearance different from the biconcave disc-shape appearance of "normal" RBCs. These characteristics enable the use of hypotonic saline solution to lyse normal RBCs while allowing "sickle cells" to remain intact. Because many patients with SCD undergo frequent transfusions to treat their condition, the use of hypotonic saline solution provides a rapid method to obtain autologous RBCs for serologic testing from this patient population using standard laboratory equipment and supplies.

  12. Autologous blood transfusion in total knee replacement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkanović, Mirka Lukić; Gvozdenović, Ljiljana; Savić, Dragan; Ilić, Miroslav P; Jovanović, Gordana

    2013-03-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) surgery is one of the most frequent and the most extensive procedures in orthopedic surgery, accompanied with some serious complications. Perioperative blood loss is one of the most serious losses, so it is vital to recognize and treat such losses properly. Autologous blood transfusion is the only true alternative for the allogeneic blood. The aim of this study was to to examine if autologous blood transfusion reduces usage of allogenic blood in total knee replacement surgery, as well as to examine possible effect of autologous blood transfusion on postoperative complications, recovery and hospital stay of patients after total knee replacement surgery. During the controlled, prospective, randomised study we compared two groups of patients (n = 112) with total prosthesis implanted in their knee. The group I consisted of the patients who received the transfusion of other people's (allogeneic) blood (n = 57) and the group II of the patients whose blood was collected postoperatively and then given them [their own (autologous) blood] (n = 55). The transfusion trigger for both groups was hemoglobin level of 85 g/L. In the group of patients whose blood was collected perioperatively only 9 (0.9%) of the patients received transfusion of allogeneic blood, as opposed to the control group in which 98.24% of the patients received the transfusion of allogeneic blood (p blood was collected stayed in hospital for 6.18 days, while the patients of the control group stayed 7.67 days (p blood transfusion is a very effective method for reducing consumption of allogenic blood and thus, indirectly for reducing all complications related to allogenic blood transfusion. There is also a positive influence on postoperative recovery after total knee replacement surgery due to the reduction of hospital stay, and indirectly on the reduction of hospital costs.

  13. Autologous Fat Transfer in a Patient with Lupus Erythematosus Profundus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimi Yoon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lupus erythematosus profundus, a form of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus, is a rare inflammatory disease involving in the lower dermis and subcutaneous tissues. It primarily affects the head, proximal upper arms, trunk, thighs, and presents as firm nodules, 1 to 3 cm in diameter. The overlying skin often becomes attached to the subcutaneous nodules and is drawn inward to produce deep, saucerized depressions. We present a rare case of lupus erythematosus profundus treated with autologous fat transfer.

  14. Autologous Adipose-Derived Tissue Matrix Part I: Biologic Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Stephen A

    2017-10-01

    Autologous collagen is an ideal soft tissue filler and may serve as a matrix for stem cell implantation and growth. Procurement of autologous collagen has been limited, though, secondary to a sufficient source. Liposuction is a widely performed and could be a source of autologous collagen. The amount of collagen and its composition in liposuctioned fat remains unknown. The purpose of this research was to characterize an adipose-derived tissue-based product created using ultrasonic cavitation and cryo-grinding. This study evaluated the cellular and protein composition of the final product. Fat was obtained from individuals undergoing routine liposuction and was processed by a 2 step process to obtain only the connective tissue. The tissue was then evaluated by scanning electronic microscope, Western blot analysis, and flow cytometry. Liposuctioned fat was obtained from 10 individuals with an average of 298 mL per subject. After processing an average of 1 mL of collagen matrix was obtained from each 100 mL of fat. Significant viable cell markers were present in descending order for adipocytes > CD90+ > CD105+ > CD45+ > CD19+ > CD144+ > CD34+. Western blot analysis showed collagen type II, III, IV, and other proteins. Scanning electronic microscope study showed a regular pattern of cross-linked, helical collagen. Additionally, vital staing demonstrated that the cells were still viable after processing. Collagen and cells can be easily obtained from liposuctioned fat by ultrasonic separation without alteration of the overall cellular composition of the tissue. Implantation results in new collagen and cellular growth. Collagen matrix with viable cells for autologous use can be obtained from liposuctioned fat and may provide long term results. 5. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Microfluidic squeezing for intracellular antigen loading in polyclonal B-cells as cellular vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Szeto, Gregory; van Egeren, Debra; Worku, Hermoon; Sharei, Armon; Alejandro, Brian; Park, Clara; Frew, Kirubel; Brefo, Mavis; Mao, Shirley; Heimann, Megan; Langer, Robert; Jensen, Klavs; Irvine, Darrell J.

    2015-05-01

    B-cells are promising candidate autologous antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to prime antigen-specific T-cells both in vitro and in vivo. However to date, a significant barrier to utilizing B-cells as APCs is their low capacity for non-specific antigen uptake compared to “professional” APCs such as dendritic cells. Here we utilize a microfluidic device that employs many parallel channels to pass single cells through narrow constrictions in high throughput. This microscale “cell squeezing” process creates transient pores in the plasma membrane, enabling intracellular delivery of whole proteins from the surrounding medium into B-cells via mechano-poration. We demonstrate that both resting and activated B-cells process and present antigens delivered via mechano-poration exclusively to antigen-specific CD8+T-cells, and not CD4+T-cells. Squeezed B-cells primed and expanded large numbers of effector CD8+T-cells in vitro that produced effector cytokines critical to cytolytic function, including granzyme B and interferon-γ. Finally, antigen-loaded B-cells were also able to prime antigen-specific CD8+T-cells in vivo when adoptively transferred into mice. Altogether, these data demonstrate crucial proof-of-concept for mechano-poration as an enabling technology for B-cell antigen loading, priming of antigen-specific CD8+T-cells, and decoupling of antigen uptake from B-cell activation.

  16. Clinical Allogeneic and Autologous Islet Cell Transplantation: Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Matsumoto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Islet cell transplantation is categorized as a β-cell replacement therapy for diabetic patients who lack the ability to secrete insulin. Allogeneic islet cell transplantation is for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, and autologous islet cell transplantation is for the prevention of surgical diabetes after a total pancreatectomy. The issues of allogeneic islet cell transplantation include poor efficacy of islet isolation, the need for multiple donor pancreata, difficulty maintaining insulin independence and undesirable side effects of immunosuppressive drugs. Those issues have been solved step by step and allogeneic islet cell transplantation is almost ready to be the standard therapy. The donor shortage will be the next issue and marginal and/or living donor islet cell transplantation might alleviate the issue. Xeno-islet cell transplantation, β-cell regeneration from human stem cells and gene induction of the naïve pancreas represent the next generation of β-cell replacement therapy. Autologous islet cell transplantation after total pancreatectomy for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis with severe abdominal pain is the standard therapy, even though only limited centers are able to perform this treatment. Remote center autologous islet cell transplantation is an attractive option for hospitals performing total pancreatectomies without the proper islet isolation facilities.

  17. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells: clinical applications in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, Letizia; Mareschi, Katia; Ferrero, Ivana; Vassallo, Elena; Oliveri, Giuseppe; Boccaletti, Riccardo; Testa, Lucia; Livigni, Sergio; Fagioli, Franca

    2006-07-01

    Our study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of intraspinal cord implantation of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a few well-monitored amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Seven patients affected by definite ALS were enrolled in the study and two patients were treated for compassionate use and monitored for at least 3 years. Bone marrow was collected from the posterior iliac crest according to the standard procedure and MSCs were expanded ex vivo according to Pittenger's protocol. The cells were suspended in 2 ml autologous cerebrospinal fluid and transplanted into the spinal cord by a micrometric pump injector. The in vitro expanded MSCs did not show any bacterial o fungal contamination, hemopoietic cell contamination, chromosomic alterations and early cellular senescence. No patient manifested major adverse events such as respiratory failure or death. Minor adverse events were intercostal pain irradiation and leg sensory dysesthesia, both reversible after a mean period of 6 weeks. No modification of the spinal cord volume or other signs of abnormal cell proliferation were observed. A significant slowing down of the linear decline of the forced vital capacity was evident in four patients 36 months after MSCs transplantation. Our results demonstrate that direct injection of autologous expanded MSCs into the spinal cord of ALS patients is safe, with no significant acute or late toxicity, and well tolerated. The clinical results seem to be encouraging.

  18. Efficacy of autologous platelets in macular hole surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinidis A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aristeidis Konstantinidis,1,2 Mark Hero,2 Panagiotis Nanos,1 Georgios D Panos1,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 2Opthalmology Department, University Hospital Coventry and Warwickshire, Coventry, UK; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland Abstract: The introduction of optical coherence tomography has allowed accurate measurement of the size of macular holes. A retrospective consecutive review was performed of 21 patients undergoing macular hole repair with vitrectomy, gas tamponade, and autologous platelet injection and we assessed the effect of macular hole parameters on anatomic and functional outcomes. We looked at the demographic features, final visual outcome, and anatomical closure. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. They underwent routine vitrectomy with gas tamponade (C3F8 and injection of autologous platelets. All patients were advised to maintain a facedown posture for 2 weeks. Anatomical closure was confirmed in all cases and 20 out of 21 of patients had improved postoperative visual acuity by two or more lines. In our series, the macular hole dimensions did not have much effect on the final results. The use of autologous platelets and strict facedown posture seems to be the deciding factor in good anatomical and visual outcome irrespective of macular hole dimensions. Keywords: macular hole, platelets, vitrectomy

  19. Efficacy of autologous platelets in macular hole surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Aristeidis; Hero, Mark; Nanos, Panagiotis; Panos, Georgios D

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of optical coherence tomography has allowed accurate measurement of the size of macular holes. A retrospective consecutive review was performed of 21 patients undergoing macular hole repair with vitrectomy, gas tamponade, and autologous platelet injection and we assessed the effect of macular hole parameters on anatomic and functional outcomes. We looked at the demographic features, final visual outcome, and anatomical closure. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. They underwent routine vitrectomy with gas tamponade (C3F8) and injection of autologous platelets. All patients were advised to maintain a facedown posture for 2 weeks. Anatomical closure was confirmed in all cases and 20 out of 21 of patients had improved postoperative visual acuity by two or more lines. In our series, the macular hole dimensions did not have much effect on the final results. The use of autologous platelets and strict facedown posture seems to be the deciding factor in good anatomical and visual outcome irrespective of macular hole dimensions.

  20. Autologous fat graft in irradiated orbit postenucleation for retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Francesco; Maione, Luca; Vinci, Valeriano; Lisa, Andrea; Barbera, Federico; Balia, Laura; Caviggioli, Fabio; Di Maria, Alessandra

    2018-01-05

    Autologous fat grafting has been extensively and successfully adopted in a number of pathologic conditions in regenerative surgery especially on irradiated fields in order to improve pain symptoms and tissue trophism promoting scar release. In the present study, we report our experience with autologous fat grafting for the treatment of postirradiation fibrosis and pain on three consecutive patients undergoing orbital enucleation for locally advanced retinoblastoma (RB) and subsequent radiotherapy. We selected three consecutive patients who underwent orbital enucleation for locally advanced RB and subsequent local radiotherapy showing severe reduction in orbital volume and eyelid length and retraction due to fibrosis, spontaneous local pain exacerbated after digital pressure with no possibility to place an ocular implant. They underwent autologous fat grafting in the orbital cavity and results were evaluated by clinical examination at 5 and 14 days, and 1, 3, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. A significant release of scar retraction, reduction of fibrosis and orbital rim contraction together with an important improvement of pain symptoms was observed in all patients. The local changes observed enabled an ease placement of an ocular prosthetic implant (implant). No local or systemic complication occurred. Fat grafting is a promising treatment for patients showing radiotherapy related complication in the orbital area and it should be adopted by all oculoplastic surgeon in order to improve pain syndrome creating the ideal local conditions for the placement of an ocular prosthetic implant.

  1. Disposition of 14C-β-carotene following delivery with autologous triacylglyceride-rich lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueker, Stephen R.; Le Thuy Vuong; Faulkner, Brian; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Vogel, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Following ingestion, a fraction of β-carotene is cleaved into vitamin A in the intestine, while another is absorbed intact and distributed among tissues and organs. The extent to which this absorbed β-carotene serves as a source of vitamin A is unknown in vivo. In the present study we use the attomole sensitivity of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for 14 C to quantify the disposition of 14 C-β-carotene (930 ng; 60.4 nCi of activity) after intravenous injection with an autologous triacylglyceride-rich lipoprotein fraction in a single volunteer. Total 14 C was quantified in serial plasma samples and also in triglyceride-rich, and low density lipoprotein, subfractions. The appearance of 14 C-retinol, the circulating form of vitamin A in plasma, was determined by chromatographic separation of plasma retinol extracts prior to AMS analysis. The data showed that 14 C concentrations rapidly decayed within the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions after injection, whereas low density lipoprotein 14 C began a significant rise in 14 C 5 h post dose. Plasma 14 C-retinol also appeared at 5 h post dose and its concentrations were maintained above baseline for >88 days. Based upon comparisons of 14 C-retinol concentrations following an earlier study with orally dosed 14 C-β-carotene, a molar vitamin A value of the absorbed β-carotene of 0.19 was derived, meaning that 1 mole of absorbed β-carotene provides 0.19 moles of vitamin A. This is the first study to show that infused β-carotene contributes to the vitamin A economy in humans in vivo

  2. Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation to Prevent Antibody Mediated Rejection After Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0664 TITLE: Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation to Prevent Antibody-Mediated Rejection after...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2016 – 14 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation to...sensitization, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, antibody mediated rejection, donor specific antibodies 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  3. Fat, Stem Cells, and Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Isaac B; Coleman, Sydney R; Rubin, J Peter

    2016-07-01

    The ideal filler for aesthetic surgery is inexpensive and easy to obtain, natural in appearance and texture, immunologically compatible, and long lasting without risk of infection. By most metrics, autologous fat grafts meet these criteria perfectly. Although facial fat grafting is now a commonly accepted surgical procedure, there has been a wave of activity applying stem cells and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapies to aesthetic practice. This article addresses technical considerations in the use of autologous fat transfer for facial rejuvenation, and also explores the current evidence for these stem cell and PRP therapies in aesthetic practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The failure of retrograde autologous priming of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit to reduce blood use after cardiac surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Glenn S; Szokol, Joseph W; Nitsun, Martin; Alspach, David A; Avram, Michael J; Vender, Jeffery S; Votapka, Timothy V; Rosengart, Todd K

    2004-05-01

    Hemodilution during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a primary risk factor for blood transfusion in cardiac surgical patients. Priming of the CPB circuit with the patients' own blood (retrograde autologous priming, RAP) is a technique used to limit hemodilution and reduce transfusion requirements. We designed this study to examine the impact of RAP on perioperative blood product use. Using a retrospective cohort study design, the medical records of all patients undergoing CPB (excluding circulatory arrest cases) by a single surgeon were examined. Data were collected over a 24-mo period when RAP was routinely used as a blood conservation strategy (RAP group, n = 257). This group was compared with a cohort of patients during the 24 mo immediately preceding the introduction of RAP into clinical practice (no RAP group, n = 288). A small, statistically insignificant reduction in the percentage of patients receiving packed red blood cells was observed in the RAP group (44% versus 51% no RAP, P = 0.083). No differences were found between the groups in the number of units of packed red blood cells, platelets, or fresh frozen plasma transfused throughout the perioperative period. These results suggest that overall, RAP does not offer a clinically important benefit as a blood conservation technique. Priming of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit with the patients' own blood (retrograde autologous priming) resulted in insignificant reductions in blood use in a large, unselected group of patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures.

  5. A preclinical evaluation of an autologous living hyaline-like cartilaginous graft for articular cartilage repair: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Yvonne; He, Pengfei; Chilla, Geetha Soujanya V N; Poh, Chueh Loo; Wang, Dong-An

    2015-11-09

    In this pilot study, an autologous synthetic scaffold-free construct with hyaline quality, termed living hyaline cartilaginous graft (LhCG), was applied for treating cartilage lesions. Implantation of autologous LhCG was done at load-bearing regions of the knees in skeletally mature mini-pigs for 6 months. Over the course of this study, significant radiographical improvement in LhCG treated sites was observed via magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, macroscopic repair was effected by LhCG at endpoint. Microscopic inspection revealed that LhCG engraftment restored cartilage thickness, promoted integration with surrounding native cartilage, produced abundant cartilage-specific matrix molecules, and re-established an intact superficial tangential zone. Importantly, the repair efficacy of LhCG was quantitatively shown to be comparable to native, unaffected cartilage in terms of biochemical composition and biomechanical properties. There were no complications related to the donor site of cartilage biopsy. Collectively, these results imply that LhCG engraftment may be a viable approach for articular cartilage repair.

  6. Autologous glioma cell vaccine admixed with interleukin-4 gene transfected fibroblasts in the treatment of patients with malignant gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Trejo Alejandro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognosis for malignant gliomas remains dismal. We addressed the safety, feasibility and preliminary clinical activity of the vaccinations using autologous glioma cells and interleukin (IL-4 gene transfected fibroblasts. Methods In University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI protocol 95-033, adult participants with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM or anaplastic astrocytoma (AA received gross total resection (GTR of the recurrent tumors, followed by two vaccinations with autologous fibroblasts retrovirally transfected with TFG-IL4-Neo-TK vector admixed with irradiated autologous glioma cells. In UPCI 99-111, adult participants with newly diagnosed GBM or AA, following GTR and radiation therapy, received two intradermal vaccinations with the TFG-IL4-Neo-TK-transfected fibroblasts admixed with type-1 dendritic cells (DC loaded with autologous tumor lysate. The participants were evaluated for occurrence of adverse events, immune response, and clinical response by radiological imaging. Results and Discussion In UPCI 95-033, only 2 of 6 participants received the vaccinations. Four other participants were withdrawn from the trial because of tumor progression prior to production of the cellular vaccine. However, both participants who received two vaccinations demonstrated encouraging immunological and clinical responses. Biopsies from the local vaccine sites from one participant displayed IL-4 dose-dependent infiltration of CD4+ as well as CD8+ T cells. Interferon (IFN-γ Enzyme-Linked Immuno-SPOT (ELISPOT assay in another human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A2+ participant demonstrated systemic T-cell responses against an HLA-A2-restricted glioma-associated antigen (GAA epitope EphA2883–891. Moreover, both participants demonstrated clinical and radiological improvement with no evidence of allergic encephalitis, although both participants eventually succumbed with the tumor recurrence. In 99-111, 5 of 6 enrolled participants

  7. Production of a Dendritic Cell-Based Vaccine Containing Inactivated Autologous Virus for Therapy of Patients with Chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Theresa L.; Piazza, Paolo; Reiter, Amanda; Stanson, Joanna; Connolly, Nancy C.; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Riddler, Sharon A.

    2009-01-01

    In preparation for a pilot clinical trial in patients with chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, a novel dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine is being manufactured. The trial will test the hypothesis that isolated endogenous virus presented by DCs serves as a potent immunogen for activation of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells specific for a broad range of autologous HIV-1 antigens. Production of the vaccine under good manufacture practice conditions involves (i) autologous virus isolation; (ii) superinfection of CD4+ T cells with the virus; (iii) inactivation of the virus in CD4+ T cells, T-cell apoptosis, and coincubation of T cells with autologous DCs; and (iv) product testing and release. Endogenous virus was isolated from peripheral blood-derived CD4+ T cells of three HIV-1-positive subjects by coincubation with autologous OKT-3-stimulated CD4+ T cells. CD4+ T-cell supernatants were tested for p24 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (>25 ng/ml) and for the 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50; which ranged from 4,642 to 46,416/ml on day 19 of culture). Autologous CD4+ T cells that were separated on immunobeads (>95% purity) and superinfected with virus-expressed p24 (28 to 54%) had TCID50 of >400/ml on days 5 to 10. Virus inactivation with psoralen (20 μg/ml) and UVB irradiation (312 nm) reduced the TCID50 of the supernatants from 199,986 to 11/ml (>99%). 7-Amino-actinomycin D-positive, annexin V-positive CD4+ T cells were fed to autologous DCs generated by using the Elutra cell separation system and the Aastrom system. Flow analysis showed that DC loading was complete in 24 h. On the basis of these translational results and experience with the generation of DCs from HIV-1-infected patients in a previous clinical trial, the Investigational New Drug application for clinical vaccination was submitted and approved by the FDA (application no. BB-IND-13137). PMID:19038780

  8. Production of a dendritic cell-based vaccine containing inactivated autologous virus for therapy of patients with chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Theresa L; Piazza, Paolo; Reiter, Amanda; Stanson, Joanna; Connolly, Nancy C; Rinaldo, Charles R; Riddler, Sharon A

    2009-02-01

    In preparation for a pilot clinical trial in patients with chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, a novel dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine is being manufactured. The trial will test the hypothesis that isolated endogenous virus presented by DCs serves as a potent immunogen for activation of CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells specific for a broad range of autologous HIV-1 antigens. Production of the vaccine under good manufacture practice conditions involves (i) autologous virus isolation; (ii) superinfection of CD4(+) T cells with the virus; (iii) inactivation of the virus in CD4(+) T cells, T-cell apoptosis, and coincubation of T cells with autologous DCs; and (iv) product testing and release. Endogenous virus was isolated from peripheral blood-derived CD4(+) T cells of three HIV-1-positive subjects by coincubation with autologous OKT-3-stimulated CD4(+) T cells. CD4(+) T-cell supernatants were tested for p24 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (>25 ng/ml) and for the 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID(50); which ranged from 4,642 to 46,416/ml on day 19 of culture). Autologous CD4(+) T cells that were separated on immunobeads (>95% purity) and superinfected with virus-expressed p24 (28 to 54%) had TCID(50) of >400/ml on days 5 to 10. Virus inactivation with psoralen (20 microg/ml) and UVB irradiation (312 nm) reduced the TCID(50) of the supernatants from 199,986 to 11/ml (>99%). 7-Amino-actinomycin D-positive, annexin V-positive CD4(+) T cells were fed to autologous DCs generated by using the Elutra cell separation system and the Aastrom system. Flow analysis showed that DC loading was complete in 24 h. On the basis of these translational results and experience with the generation of DCs from HIV-1-infected patients in a previous clinical trial, the Investigational New Drug application for clinical vaccination was submitted and approved by the FDA (application no. BB-IND-13137).

  9. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso José Pereira Cortez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hodgkin's lymphoma has high rates of cure, but in 15% to 20% of general patients and between 35% and 40% of those in advanced stages, the disease will progress or will relapse after initial treatment. For this group, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered one option of salvage therapy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a group of 106 patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma, who suffered relapse or who were refractory to treatment, submitted to autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a single transplant center. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed with data collected from patient charts. The analysis involved 106 classical Hodgkin's lymphoma patients who were consecutively submitted to high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous transplants in a single institution from April 1993 to December 2006. RESULTS: The overall survival rates of this population at five and ten years were 86% and 70%, respectively. The disease-free survival was approximately 60% at five years. Four patients died of procedure-related causes but relapse of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma after transplant was the most frequent cause of death. Univariate analysis shows that sensitivity to pre-transplant treatment and hemoglobin < 10 g/dL at diagnosis had an impact on patient survival. Unlike other studies, B-type symptoms did not seem to affect overall survival. Lactic dehydrogenase and serum albumin concentrations analyzed at diagnosis did not influence patient survival either. CONCLUSION: Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment strategy for early and late relapse in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma for cases that were responsive to pre-transplant chemotherapy. Refractory to treatment is a sign of worse prognosis. Additionally, a hemoglobin concentration below 10 g/dL at diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma has a negative impact on the survival of patients after transplant. As far as we know this relationship has not

  10. Outcomes of rotator cuff augmentation surgery with autologous fascia lata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Varo, A P; García-Espona, M A; Roda-Murillo, O

    To evaluate whether augmentation grafts using autologous fascia lata improve functional results for rotator cuff repairs and reduce the retear rate compared to those without augmentation. This is a prospective evaluation comprising 20 patients with a complete symptomatic rotator cuff tear. The operations were carried out from a superior approach performing a total cuff repair, for 10 patients we used a suture augmented with an autologous graft taken from their own fascia lata while unaugmented sutures were used for the other 10 patients. The follow-up period lasted for one year post-intervention. We measured variables for tear type, functionality and pain, both baseline and at 6 and 12-month follow ups. We evaluated retear incidence in each group as well as each group's pain and functionality response. The improved pain levels in the non-graft group evolved gradually over time. Conversely, in the group with the augmentation grafts, average Constant-Murley shoulder outcome scores at six months were already above 10 and were maintained at 12 months. One retear occurred in the graft group and 2 in the group without grafts, thus presenting no significant differences. There were no significant changes in pain and function values at the one year follow up in either group. Our preliminary results regarding rotator cuff augmentation surgery with autologous fascia lata showed a significant improvement in pain levels after 6 months compared to the patients with no augmentation, who required 12 months to reach the same values. After a year of follow up, there were no differences between the mean Constant and pain scores in either intervention group The number of retears in the non-graft group was greater than that in the group with grafts although the difference was not significant. Copyright © 2018 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Autologous Blood Pleurodesis In Patients With Persistent Air Leaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agkajanzadeh M

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Persistent air leaks occur after Spontaneous pneumothorax both primary and secondary, and after lungs trauma and lung surgeries are sever problems encountered chest surgeons with. Persistent air leak causes longer patients hospitalization."nMaterials and Methods: We used autologous blood pleurodesis in patients with persistent air leak for 30patients with more than 8 days air leaks, during a three years period 1377-1380 (1999-2002."nResults: The patients had 19 years up to 70 years old. Eight patients had thoracotomy and lobectomy and /or segmentectomies 6 with primary pneumothorax, 10 with secondary pneumothorax, and four with penetrated or blunt thoracic traumas. Blood was obtained from femoral or brachial veins and 70-150 mis. Injected in chest tubes. Chest bottle was first lied 80cm higher than body levels. After 24 hours repositioned in normal levels, and patients were supervised. Via chest tube we injected blood 70-100ml.for young patients, and 100-150 ml for older patients into intra pleural space. There were no clamped chest tubes. There were no pain, respiratory distress, fever, or cough in pleurodesized patients. The only patient's complaint was local pain in femoral vein or brachial vein because blood sampling and blood obtaining, although there was no local visible complication as hematoma or bleeding. After 48 hours in 24 patients air leak ceased. In six patients because persistent air leak autologous blood pleurodesis repeated, two patients after 48hours"nair leak ceased, remaining four patients underwent for thoracotomies, success rate"nwas 86.6%."nConclusion: According above success rate we suggest autologous blood pleurodesis in patients with persistent air leak is a reliable, effective, and no complicated procedure for persistent air leaks.

  12. Facial fat necrosis following autologous fat transfer and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Rai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous fat transfer (AFT is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the benefits and risks of AFT highlighting common causes of fat graft failure.

  13. Autologous fat grafting for cosmetic enhancement of the perioral region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgold, Mark; Lam, Samuel M; Glasgold, Robert

    2007-11-01

    The role of volume loss in the progression of facial aging is widely accepted as an important cause. The aging appearance of the perioral region and lower face is significantly affected by this volume loss, which contributes to the development of labiomental folds, the loss of definition of the jawline, and worsening of skin texture, among other manifestations. Autologous fat transfer can effectively replace this lost volume and contribute to any facial rejuvenation plan. Fat can replace larger volumes than off-the-shelf fillers and provides a potentially permanent solution.

  14. Autologous 111In-oxine-labeled granulocytes in Yersinia infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.; Boerner, W.; Fischbach, W.

    1985-01-01

    Autologous 111 In-oxine-labeled granulocytes have proved to be valuable for the localization of inflammatory bowel diseases, especially Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Other rare inflammatory bowel diseases also yield positive 111 In scans. One case of Yersinia infection of the terminal ileum (Yersinia enterocolitica) showing an accumulation of 111 In-oxine-labeled granulocytes 0.5, 4, and 24 h after the reinjection of the labeled cells is described. The 4-day fecal excretion of 111 In-oxine granulocytes showed a slight inflammatory activity of the terminal ileum. One negative scan is reported in a cotrimoxazole-treated patient with Yersinia infection. (orig.)

  15. Assessment of the Human Kynurenine Pathway: Comparisons and Clinical Implications of Ethnic and Gender Differences in Plasma Tryptophan, Kynurenine Metabolites, and Enzyme Expressions at Baseline and after Acute Tryptophan Loading and Depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla A.-B. Badawy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tryptophan (Trp metabolism via the kynurenine pathway (KP was assessed in normal healthy US volunteers at baseline and after acute Trp depletion (ATD and acute Trp loading (ATL using amino acid formulations. The hepatic KP accounts for ~90% of overall Trp degradation. Liver Trp 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO contributes ~70% toward Trp oxidation, with the remainder achieved by subsequent rate-limiting enzymes in the KP. TDO is not influenced by a 1.15 g Trp load, but is maximally activated by a 5.15 g dose. We recommend a 30 mg/kg dose for future ATL studies. ATD activates TDO and enhances the Trp flux down the KP via its leucine component. Higher plasma free [Trp] and lower total [Trp] are observed in women, with no gender differences in kynurenines. Kynurenic acid is lower in female Caucasians, which may explain their lower incidence of schizophrenia. African-American and Hispanic women have a lower TDO and Trp oxidation relative to free Trp than the corresponding men. African-American women have a potentially higher 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid/anthranilic acid ratio, which may protect them against osteoporosis. Future studies of the KP in relation to health and disease should focus on gender and ethnic differences.

  16. Longer duration of homelessness is associated with a lower likelihood of non-detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load among people who use illicit drugs in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Jane; Kennedy, Mary Clare; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; Marshall, Brandon; Parashar, Surita; Montaner, Julio; Milloy, M-J

    2016-11-01

    Homelessness is common among people who use drugs (PWUD) and, for those living with HIV/AIDS, an important contributor to sub-optimal HIV treatment outcomes. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the duration of homelessness and the likelihood of plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) non-detectability among a cohort of HIV-positive PWUD. We used data from the ACCESS study, a long-running prospective cohort study of HIV-positive PWUD linked to comprehensive HIV clinical records including systematic plasma HIV-1 RNA VL monitoring. We estimated the longitudinal relationship between the duration of homelessness and the likelihood of exhibiting a non-detectable VL (i.e., effects modelling. Between May 1996 and June 2014, 922 highly active antiretroviral therapy-exposed participants were recruited and contributed 8188 observations. Of these, 4800 (59%) were characterized by non-detectable VL. Participants reported they were homeless in 910 (11%) interviews (median: six months, interquartile range: 6-12 months). A longer duration of homelessness was associated with lower odds of VL non-detectability (adjusted odds ratio = 0.71 per six-month period of homelessness, 95% confidence interval: 0.60-0.83) after adjustment for age, ancestry, drug use patterns, engagement in addiction treatment, and other potential confounders. Longer durations of episodes of homelessness in this cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users were associated with a lower likelihood of plasma VL non-detectability. Our findings suggest that interventions that seek to promptly house homeless individuals, such as Housing First approaches, might assist in maximizing the clinical and public health benefits of antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS.

  17. Pulmonary heart valve replacement using stabilized acellular xenogeneic scaffolds; effects of seeding with autologous stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpa Marius Mihai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We hypothesized that an ideal heart valve replacement would be acellular valve root scaffolds seeded with autologous stem cells. To test this hypothesis, we prepared porcine acellular pulmonary valves, seeded them with autologous adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs and implanted them in sheep and compared them to acellular valves.

  18. Clinical Benefit of Allogeneic Melanoma Cell Lysate-Pulsed Autologous Dendritic Cell Vaccine in MAGE-Positive Colorectal Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toh, Han Chong; Wang, Who-Whong; Chia, Whay Kuang

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: We evaluated the clinical benefit of an allogeneic melanoma cell lysate (MCL)-pulsed autologous dendritic cell (DC) vaccine in advanced colorectal cancer patients expressing at least one of six MAGE-A antigens overexpressed by the cell line source of the lysate. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: DCs...... were cultured from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), pulsed with the allogeneic MCL, and matured using cytokines that achieved high CD83- and CCR7-expressing DCs. Each patient received up to 10 intradermal vaccinations (3-5 x 10(6) cells per dose) at biweekly intervals. RESULTS: Twenty......-free for >27 and >37 months, respectively. This result is particularly meaningful as all patients had progressive disease before treatment. Overall, DC vaccination was associated with a serial decline in regulatory T cells. Using an antibody array, we characterized plasma protein profiles in responding...

  19. Characteristics of an autologous leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin patch intended for the treatment of recalcitrant wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Rasmus; Holmstrøm, Kim; Clausen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the physical, biochemical, and cellular properties of an autologous leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin patch. This was generated in an automated device from a sample of a patient's blood at the point of care. Using microscopy, cell counting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...... of chronic wound fluid. By comparison with traditional platelet-rich plasma, differences in immune components were found. The relevance of these findings was assessed by showing a mitogenic and migratory effect on cultured human dermal fibroblasts. Further, we showed that fibrocytes, a cell type important......, antibody arrays, and cell culture assays, we show that the patch is a three-layered membrane comprising a fibrin sheet, a layer of platelets, and a layer of leukocytes. Mean recovery of platelets from the donated blood was 98% (±95%CI 0.8%). Mean levels of platelet-derived growth factor AB, human...

  20. Autologous Blood Injection Works for Recalcitrant Lateral Epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora Bostan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis may be a disabling condition. Treatment of this condition is still controversial. Aims: In the present prospective study, we evaluated the long-term results of autologous blood injection for the treatment of recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis. Study Design: Prospective clinical study. Methods: A total of 42 elbows of 40 consecutive patients (28 female, 12 male were enrolled in this prospective study. Seven patients left the study (3 patients moved to another city, 1 patient died in the second week due to a heart condition, 1 patient quit the study because of the resolution of pain in the fourth week and 2 patients did not agree to the second injection. Thirteen patients were lost to third year follow-up. Therefore, a total of 21 elbows of 20 patients with 3 years of follow-up were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 47.25 years (range, 20-68 years. Results: Visual analogue scale (VAS, Nirschl score and grip strength were significantly improved after injections when compared to before treatment. The best improvement in terms of grip strength, Nirschl score and VAS score was detected at the one year follow-up. The improvement in Nirschl and VAS score sustained until the third year. Conclusion: We suggest that autologous blood injection for the treatment of recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis is an effective, safe and successful procedure in the long-term.

  1. Autologous Blood Injection and Wrist Immobilisation for Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Massy-Westropp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study explored the effect of autologous blood injection (with ultrasound guidance to the elbows of patients who had radiologically assessed degeneration of the origin of extensor carpi radialis brevis and failed cortisone injection/s to the lateral epicondylitis. Methods. This prospective longitudinal series involved preinjection assessment of pain, grip strength, and function, using the patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation. Patients were injected with blood from the contralateral limb and then wore a customised wrist support for five days, after which they commenced a stretching, strengthening, and massage programme with an occupational therapist. These patients were assessed after six months and then finally between 18 months and five years after injection, using the patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation. Results. Thirty-eight of 40 patients completed the study, showing significant improvement in pain; the worst pain decreased by two to five points out of a 10-point visual analogue for pain. Self-perceived function improved by 11–25 points out of 100. Women showed significant increase in grip, but men did not. Conclusions. Autologous blood injection improved pain and function in a worker’s compensation cohort of patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis, who had not had relief with cortisone injection.

  2. Long term results in refractory tennis elbow using autologous blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Naseem Ul; Khan, Hayat Ahmad; Kamal, Younis; Farooq, Munir; Jeelani, Hina; Shah, Adil Bashir

    2014-10-27

    Tennis elbow (TE) is one of the commonest myotendinosis. Different treatment options are available and autologous blood injection has emerged as the one of the acceptable modalities of treatment. Long term studies over a larger group of patients are however lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these patients on longer durations. One-hundred and twenty patients of TE, who failed to respond to conventional treatment including local steroid injections were taken up for this prospective study over the period from year 2005 to 2011 and were followed up for the minimum of 3 years (range 3-9 years). Two mL of autologous blood was taken from the ipsilateral limb and injected into the lateral epicondyle. The effectiveness of the procedure was assessed by Pain Rating Sscale and Nirschl Staging, which was monitored before the procedure, at first week, monthly for first three months, at 6 months and then 3 monthly for first year, six monthly for next 2 years and then yearly. Statistical analysis was done and a P value of tennis elbow should be made as there is lot of controversy regarding the treatment.

  3. From fresh heterologous oocyte donation to autologous oocyte banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, D

    2012-01-01

    Today, oocyte donation has become well established, giving rise to thousands of children born worldwide annually. The introduction of oocyte cryopreservation through vitrification allows the introduction of egg banking, improving the efficiency and comfort of oocyte donation. Moreover, the vitrification technique can now enable autologous donation of oocytes to prevent future infertility. We evaluated fresh heterologous oocyte donation in terms of obstetrical and perinatal outcome as well as of the reproductive outcome of past donors. We then evaluated the efficiency of a closed vitrification device and its clinical applications within ART. Thirdly, we evaluated the opinion of women with regard to preventive egg freezing and the efficiency of a human oocyte in relation to age. Oocyte donation is associated with an increased risk of first trimester bleeding and pregnancy induced hypertension. Donating oocytes does not seem to increase the likelihood for a later need of fertility treatment. The chance of an oocyte to result in live birth (utilization rate) in women women would consider safeguarding their reproductive potential through egg freezing or are at least open to the idea. The introduction of efficient oocyte cryopreservation has revolutionized oocyte donation through the establishment of eggbank donation. The technique also enables women to perform autologous donation after preventive oocyte storage in order to circumvent their biological clock.

  4. Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Intrathecal Transplantation in Chronic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapy is being widely explored in the management of stroke and has demonstrated great potential. It has been shown to assist in the remodeling of the central nervous system by inducing neurorestorative effect through the process of angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and reduction of glial scar formation. In this study, the effect of intrathecal administration of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs is analyzed on the recovery process of patients with chronic stroke. 24 patients diagnosed with chronic stroke were administered cell therapy, followed by multidisciplinary neurorehabilitation. They were assessed on functional independence measure (FIM objectively, along with assessment of standing and walking balance, ambulation, and hand functions. Out of 24 patients, 12 improved in ambulation, 10 in hand functions, 6 in standing balance, and 9 in walking balance. Further factor analysis was done. Patients of the younger groups showed higher percentage of improvement in all the areas. Patients who underwent cell therapy within 2 years after the stroke showed better changes. Ischemic type of stroke had better recovery than the hemorrhagic stroke. This study demonstrates the potential of autologous BMMNCs intrathecal transplantation in improving the prognosis of functional recovery in chronic stage of stroke. Further clinical trials are recommended. This trial is registered with NCT02065778.

  5. Autologous blood injection in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Qazi Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Aziz, Amer

    2014-12-01

    To determine mean decrease in visual analogue pain score after autologous blood injection in patients with lateral epicondylitis. The quasi-experimental study was conducted at Ghurki Trust Hospital, Lahore, from December 10, 2012, to June 8, 2013, and comprised patients having lateral epicondylitis of elbow. Pre-procedure baseline visual analogue score was measured. Under aseptic conditions, 2ml of autologous blood was drawn from the contra-lateral antecubital fossa of the patient and slowly injected into the site of maximum tenderness. Patients were advised to continue their normal daily activities and were followed up at third and sixth week for assessment of pain intensity. Mean decrease was calculated by subtracting the post-procedure visual analogue score from the baseline value.SPSS 11 was used for data analysis. Of the 150 patients in the study, there were 127(84.7%) males and 23(15.3%) females. Male-to-female ratio was 5.5:1 Overall mean age of was 33.91±10.23 years. The mean pre-injection pain score was 8.97±1.02 and post-injection was 3.59±1.58. Mean decrease in VAS pain score was 5.37±1.80. Autolgous blood injection was found to be an effective way to treat patients of epicondylitis elbow.

  6. Autologous Blood Injection and Wrist Immobilisation for Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massy-Westropp, Nicola; Simmonds, Stuart; Caragianis, Suzanne; Potter, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. This study explored the effect of autologous blood injection (with ultrasound guidance) to the elbows of patients who had radiologically assessed degeneration of the origin of extensor carpi radialis brevis and failed cortisone injection/s to the lateral epicondylitis. Methods. This prospective longitudinal series involved preinjection assessment of pain, grip strength, and function, using the patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation. Patients were injected with blood from the contralateral limb and then wore a customised wrist support for five days, after which they commenced a stretching, strengthening, and massage programme with an occupational therapist. These patients were assessed after six months and then finally between 18 months and five years after injection, using the patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation. Results. Thirty-eight of 40 patients completed the study, showing significant improvement in pain; the worst pain decreased by two to five points out of a 10-point visual analogue for pain. Self-perceived function improved by 11–25 points out of 100. Women showed significant increase in grip, but men did not. Conclusions. Autologous blood injection improved pain and function in a worker's compensation cohort of patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis, who had not had relief with cortisone injection. PMID:23251809

  7. Autologous Blood Injection Works for Recalcitrant Lateral Epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Bora; Balta, Orhan; Aşçı, Murat; Aytekin, Kürşad; Eser, Enes

    2016-03-01

    Recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis may be a disabling condition. Treatment of this condition is still controversial. In the present prospective study, we evaluated the long-term results of autologous blood injection for the treatment of recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis. Prospective clinical study. A total of 42 elbows of 40 consecutive patients (28 female, 12 male) were enrolled in this prospective study. Seven patients left the study (3 patients moved to another city, 1 patient died in the second week due to a heart condition, 1 patient quit the study because of the resolution of pain in the fourth week and 2 patients did not agree to the second injection). Thirteen patients were lost to third year follow-up. Therefore, a total of 21 elbows of 20 patients with 3 years of follow-up were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 47.25 years (range, 20-68 years). Visual analogue scale (VAS), Nirschl score and grip strength were significantly improved after injections when compared to before treatment. The best improvement in terms of grip strength, Nirschl score and VAS score was detected at the one year follow-up. The improvement in Nirschl and VAS score sustained until the third year. We suggest that autologous blood injection for the treatment of recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis is an effective, safe and successful procedure in the long-term.

  8. Illness intrusiveness among survivors of autologous blood and marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, A D; Elliott, M E; Abbey, S E; Raiz, L; Keating, A; Beanlands, H J; McCay, E; Messner, H A; Lipton, J H; Devins, G M

    2001-12-15

    Illness-induced disruptions to lifestyles, activities, and interests (i.e., illness intrusiveness) compromise subjective well-being. The authors measured illness intrusiveness in autologous blood and bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) survivors and compared the results with survivors of solid organ transplants. Forty-four of 64 consecutive ABMT survivors referred to the University of Toronto ABMT long-term follow-up clinic completed the Illness Intrusiveness Ratings Scale (IIRS), the Affect Balance Scale (ABS), the Atkinson Life Happiness Rating (ATKLH), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Mean time from ABMT to evaluation was 4.6 +/- 2.8 years. All patients were in remission or had stable disease at the time of evaluation. Autologous blood and bone marrow transplantation patients' IIRS scores were compared with scores reported by recipients of kidney (n = 357), liver (n = 150), lung (n = 77), and heart (n = 60) transplants. Mean IIRS score for the 44 ABMT patients was 37.2 +/- 17 (maximum possible score, 91; minimum possible score, 13). Higher IIRS scores correlated with lower scores on the ABS (r = -0.54; P work, financial situation, and active recreation. Despite achieving a remission after ABMT, patients continue to experience illness intrusiveness compromising subjective well-being. Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.

  9. Calculations for reproducible autologous skin cell-spray grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Vives, Roger; Young, Matthew T; Zhu, Toby; Beiriger, Justin; Pekor, Chris; Ziembicki, Jenny; Corcos, Alain; Rubin, Peter; Gerlach, Jörg C

    2016-12-01

    Non-cultured, autologous cell-spray grafting is an alternative to mesh grafting for larger partial- and deep partial-thickness burn wounds. The treatment uses a suspension of isolated cells, from a patient's donor site skin tissue, and cell-spray deposition onto the wound that facilitates re-epithelialization. Existing protocols for therapeutic autologous skin cell isolation and cell-spray grafting have defined the donor site area to treatment area ratio of 1:80, substantially exceeding the coverage of conventional mesh grafting. However, ratios of 1:100 are possible by maximizing the wound treatment area with harvested cells from a given donor site skin tissue according to a given burn area. Although cell isolation methods are very well described in the literature, a rational approach addressing critical aspects of these techniques are of interest in planning clinical study protocols. We considered in an experimental study the cell yield as a function of the donor site skin tissue, the cell density for spray grafting, the liquid spray volume, the sprayed distribution area, and the percentage of surface coverage. The experimental data was then used for the development of constants and mathematical equations to give a rationale for the cell isolation and cell-spray grafting processes and in planning for clinical studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, H.

    1995-01-01

    Slides used in a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about the changing needs for load forecasting were presented. Technological innovations and population increase were said to be the prime driving forces behind the changing needs in load forecasting. Structural changes, market place changes, electricity supply planning changes, and changes in planning objectives were other factors discussed. It was concluded that load forecasting was a form of information gathering, that provided important market intelligence

  11. Treatment of AVN Using Autologous BM Stem Cells and Activated Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandeesh, Nagaraj H; Janardhan, Kiranmayee; Subramanian, Vignesh; Ashtekar, Abhishek Bhushan; Srikruthi, Nandagiri; Koka, Prasad S; Deb, Kaushik

    Avascular Necrosis (AVN) of hip is a devastating condition seen in younger individuals. It is the ischemic death of the constituents of the bone cartilage of the hip. The femoral head (FH) is the most common site for AVN. It results from interruption of the normal blood flow to the FH that fits into the hip socket. Earlier studies using autologous bone marrow stem cell concentrate injections have shown encouraging results with average success rates. The current study was designed to improve significantly the cartilage regeneration and clinical outcome. Total of 48 patients underwent autologous bone marrow stem cell and activated platelet-rich plasma derived growth factor concentrate (PRP-GFC) therapy for early and advanced stages AVN of femoral head in a single multi-specialty center. The total treatment was divided into three phases. In the phase I, all the clinical diagnostic measurements such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) etc. with respect to the AVN patients and bone marrow aspiration from posterior iliac spine from the patients were carried out. In the phase II, isolation of stem cells and preparation from the patients were performed. Subsequently, in phase III, the stem cells and PRP- GFCs were transplanted in the enrolled patients. Ninety three percent of the enrolled AVN patients showed marked enhancement in the hip bone joint space (more than 3mm) after combined stem cells and PRP-GFC treatment as evidenced by comparison of the pre- and post-treatment MRI data thus indicative of regeneration of cartilage. The treated patients showed significant improvement in their motor function, cartilage regrowth (3 to 10mm), and high satisfaction in the two-year follow-up. Combination of stem cell and PRP-GFC therapy has shown promising cartilage regeneration in 45 out of 48 patients of AVN. This study clearly demonstrates the safety and efficacy of this treatment. Larger numbers of patients need to be evaluated to better understand the

  12. Influence of the inclusion of spray-dried animal plasma in weanling pigs’ diet on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Pacheco Monferdini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available O plasma sanguíneo em pó (PSP, produto natural de indústria frigorífica, tem mostrado efeitos benéficos sobre o crescimento e desempenho de leitões desmamados precocemente. Atualmente, embora o circovírus suíno 2 (PCV2 tenha grande importância para a suinocultura, não há informações sobre o impacto do uso de PSP e a resposta imune ao PCV2 em infecções naturais. Este trabalho avaliou diferentes níveis de inclusão de PSP em dietas de leitões e as cargas virais de PCV2 correspondentes. Quatro níveis de inclusão de PSP foram testados em dois períodos consecutivos: 0, 2, 4 ou 6% durante o período 1 (14 aos 28 dias de idade e 1, 2 ou 3% de PSP durante o período 2 (29 a 42 dias de idade. No período 3 (42 aos 56 dias de idade, todos os leitões foram alimentados com dieta isenta de PSP. Amostras de soro foram coletadas semanalmente e testadas para anticorpos anti-PCV2 e carga de DNA de PCV2. As concentrações de 6% e 3% de PSP fornecidas nas rações durante o período 1 e 2, respectivamente, influenciaram na carga viral de PCV2 de suínos naturalmente infectados.

  13. The DEMO wall load challenge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wenninger, R.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Aubert, J.; Bachmann, C.; Barbato, L.; Barrett, T.; Beckers, M.; Biel, W.; Boccaccini, L.; Carralero, D.; Coster, D.; Eich, T.; Fasoli, A.; Federici, G.; Firdaouss, M.; Graves, J.; Horáček, Jan; Kovari, M.; Lanthaler, S.; Loschiavo, V.; Lowry, C.; Lux, H.; Maddaluno, G.; Maviglia, F.; Mitteau, R.; Neu, R.; Pfefferle, D.; Schmid, K.; Siccinio, M.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, C.; Snicker, A.; Subba, F.; Varje, J.; Zohm, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 046002. ISSN 0029-5515 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : DEMO * power loads * first wall Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741-4326/aa4fb4

  14. Long term results in refractory tennis elbow using autologous blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem ul Gani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tennis elbow (TE is one of the commonest myotendinosis. Different treatment options are available and autologous blood injection has emerged as the one of the acceptable modalities of treatment. Long term studies over a larger group of patients are however lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these patients on longer durations. One-hundred and twenty patients of TE, who failed to respond to conventional treatment including local steroid injections were taken up for this prospective study over the period from year 2005 to 2011 and were followed up for the minimum of 3 years (range 3-9 years. Two mL of autologous blood was taken from the ipsilateral limb and injected into the lateral epicondyle. The effectiveness of the procedure was assessed by Pain Rating Sscale and Nirschl Staging, which was monitored before the procedure, at first week, monthly for first three months, at 6 months and then 3 monthly for first year, six monthly for next 2 years and then yearly. Statistical analysis was done and a P value of <0.05 was taken as significant. The patients (76 females and 44 males were evaluated after procedure. The mean age group was 40.67±8.21. The mean follow up was 5.7±1.72 (range 3 to 9 years. The mean pain score and Nirschl stage before the procedure was 3.3±0.9 and 6.2±0.82 respectively. At final follow up the pain score and Nirschl were 1.1±0.9 and 1.5±0.91 respectively. Autologous blood injection was found to be one of the modalities for treatment of TE. Being cheap, available and easy method of treatment, it should be considered as a treatment modality before opting for the surgery. Universal guidelines for the management of tennis elbow should be made as there is lot of controversy regarding the treatment.

  15. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy combined with autologous platelet concentrate applied in rabbit fibula fraction healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Fagundes Neves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose is to study the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and autologous platelet concentrates in healing the fibula bone of rabbits after induced fractures. METHODS: A total of 128 male New Zealand albino rabbits, between 6-8 months old, were subjected to a total osteotomy of the proximal portion of the right fibula. After surgery, the animals were divided into four groups (n = 32 each: control group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy; autologous platelet concentrate group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy and autologous platelet concentrate applied at the fracture site; hyperbaric oxygen group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy and 9 consecutive daily hyperbaric oxygen therapy sessions; and autologous platelet concentrate and hyperbaric oxygen group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy, autologous platelet concentrate applied at the fracture site, and 9 consecutive daily hyperbaric oxygen therapy sessions. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups according to a pre-determined euthanasia time points: 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postoperative. After euthanasia at a specific time point, the fibula containing the osseous callus was prepared histologically and stained with hematoxylin and eosin or picrosirius red. RESULTS: Autologous platelet concentrates and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, applied together or separately, increased the rate of bone healing compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and autologous platelet concentrate combined increased the rate of bone healing in this experimental model.

  16. Graft Product for Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation Enhances Thrombin Generation and Expresses Procoagulant Microparticles and Tissue Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidibe, Fatoumata; Spanoudaki, Anastasia; Vanneaux, Valerie; Mbemba, Elisabeth; Larghero, Jerome; Van Dreden, Patrick; Lotz, Jean-Pierre; Elalamy, Ismail; Larsen, Annette K; Gerotziafas, Grigoris T

    2018-05-01

    The beneficial effect of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT) may be compromised by acute vascular complications related to hypercoagulability. We studied the impact of graft product on thrombin generation of normal plasma and the expression of tissue factor (TF) and procoagulant platelet-derived procoagulant microparticles (Pd-MPs) in samples of graft products. Graft products from 10 patients eligible for APBSCT were mixed with platelet-poor plasma (PPP) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) from healthy volunteers and assessed for in vitro thrombin generation. In control experiments, thrombin generation was assessed in (1) PPP and PRP without any exogenous TF and/or procoagulant phospholipids, (2) PPP with the addition of TF (5 pM) and procoagulant phospholipids (4 μM), (3) in PRP with the addition of TF (5 pM). Graft products were assessed with Western blot assay for TF expression, with a specific clotting assay for TF activity and with flow cytometry assay for Pd-MPs. The graft product enhanced thrombin generation and its procoagulant activity was related to the presence of Pd-MPs and TF. The concentration of Pd-MPs in the graft product was characterized by a significant interindividual variability. The present study reveals the need for a thorough quality control of the graft products regarding their procoagulant potential.

  17. Investigations on the use of pneumatic cross-flow nebulizers with dual solution loading including the correction of matrix effects in elemental determinations by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Mathieu; Broekaert, Jose A.C.

    2007-01-01

    The use of a so-called trihedral and a T-shaped cross-flow pneumatic nebulizer with dual solution loading for inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry has been studied. By these devices analyte clouds from two solutions can be mixed during the aerosol generation step. For both nebulizers the correction of matrix effects using internal standardization and standard addition calibration in an on-line way was investigated and compared to elemental determinations using a conventional cross-flow nebulizer and calibration with synthetic standard solutions without matrix matching. A significant improvement of accuracy, both for calibration with internal standardization and standard addition, was obtained in the case of four synthetic solutions containing each 40 mmol L -1 Na, K, Rb and Ba as matrix elements and 300 μg L -1 Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb as analytes. Calibration by standard addition in the case of dual solution loading has been shown to be very useful in the determination of elements at minor and trace levels in steel and alumina reference materials. The results of analysis for minor concentrations of Cr, Cu and Ni in steel as well as for Ca, Fe, Ga, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Si and Zn in alumina powder certified reference materials subsequent to sample dissolution were found to be in good agreement with the certificates. Limits of detection were found to be only slightly above those for a conventional cross-flow nebulizer and a precision better than 3% was realized with both novel nebulizers

  18. Transcriptomic biomarkers of altered erythropoiesis to detect autologous blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamin, Olivier; Mignot, Jonathan; Kuuranne, Tiia; Saugy, Martial; Leuenberger, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    Autologous blood transfusion is a powerful means of improving performance and remains one of the most challenging methods to detect. Recent investigations have identified 3 candidate reticulocytes genes whose expression was significantly influenced by blood transfusion. Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction as an alternative quantitative method, the present study supports that delta-aminolevulinate synthase 2 (ALAS2), carbonic anhydrase (CA1), and solute carrier family 4 member 1 (SLC4A1) genes are down-regulated post-transfusion. The expression of these genes exhibited stronger correlation with immature reticulocyte fraction than with reticulocytes percentage. Moreover, the repression of reticulocytes' gene expression was more pronounced than the diminution of immature reticulocyte fraction and reticulocyte percentage following blood transfusion. It suggests that the 3 candidate genes are reliable predictors of bone marrow's response to blood transfusion and that they represent potential biomarkers for the detection of this method prohibited in sports. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Immunisation of colorectal cancer patients with autologous tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Alice; Stenholm, Anna Catharina Olsen; Kronborg, O

    1998-01-01

    Patients with colorectal cancer were entered into a clinical phase I trial of immunotherapy with an autologous tumour cell/bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine. We attempted to describe the possible effects and side effects of the immunisation, and further to investigate whether expression...... of immune-response-related surface molecules on the tumour cells in the vaccine correlated with survival. The first and second vaccine comprised of 107 irradiated tumour cells mixed with BCG, the third of irradiated tumour cells only. Thirty-nine patients were considered, but only 6 patients fulfilled...... the criteria for inclusion. No serious side effects were observed. With three years of observation time, two patients are healthy, while the rest have had recurrence, and two of them have died. In all vaccines, all tumour cells expressed HLA class I, some expressed HLA class II and none expressed CD80...

  20. Is gender influencing the biomechanical results after autologous chondrocyte implantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuz, Peter C; Müller, Sebastian; Erggelet, Christoph; von Keudell, Arvind; Tischer, Thomas; Kaps, Christian; Niemeyer, Philipp; Hirschmüller, Anja

    2014-01-01

    The influence of gender on the biomechanical outcome after autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) including isokinetic muscle strength measurements has not been investigated. The present prospective study was performed to evaluate gender-specific differences in the biomechanical function 48 months after ACI. Fifty-two patients (mean age 35.6 ± 8.5 years) that met our inclusion criteria, underwent ACI with Bioseed C(®) and were evaluated with the KOOS score preoperatively, 6, 12 and 48 months after surgery. At final follow-up, 44 out of the 52 patients underwent biomechanical evaluation with isokinetic strength measurements of both knees. All data were evaluated separately for men and women and compared for each time interval using the Mann-Whitney U test. Clinical scores improved significantly over the whole study period (p genders. Isokinetic muscle strength measures are significantly worse in women (p role for the explanation of gender-specific results after ACI.

  1. MR imaging of autologous chondrocyte implantation of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, S.L.J.; Connell, D.A.; Saifuddin, A.; Skinner, J.A.; Briggs, T.W.R. [RNOH Stanmore, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a surgical technique that is increasingly being used in the treatment of full-thickness defects of articular cartilage in the knee. It involves the arthroscopic harvesting and in vitro culture of chondrocytes that are subsequently implanted into a previously identified chondral defect. The aim is to produce a repair tissue that closely resembles hyaline articular cartilage that gradually becomes incorporated, restoring joint congruity. Over the long term, it is hoped that this will prevent the progression of full-thickness articular cartilage defects to osteoarthritis. This article reviews the indications and operative procedure performed in ACI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences that provide optimal visualization of articular cartilage in the post-operative period are discussed. Normal appearances of ACI on MRI are presented along with common complications that are encountered with this technique. (orig.)

  2. Radiation-induced autologous in situ tumor vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha, Chandan

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) has been used as a definitive treatment for many solid tumors. While tumoricidal properties of RT are instrumental for standard clinical application, irradiated tumors can potentially serve as a source of tumor antigens in vivo, where dying tumor cells would release tumor antigens and danger signals and serve as autologous in situ tumor vaccines. Using murine tumor models of prostate, metastatic lung cancer and melanoma, we have demonstrated evidence of radiation-enhanced tumor-specific immune response that resulted in improved primary tumor control and reduction in systemic metastasis and cure. We will discuss the immunogenic properties of RT and determine how immunotherapeutic approaches can synergize with RT in boosting immune cells cell function. (author)

  3. Autologous blood transfusion in open heart surgeries under cardio-pulmonary bypass - Clinical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sartaj Hussain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous blood withdrawal before instituting cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB protects the platelets, preserve red cell mass and reduce allogeneic transfusion requirements. Ideal condition for autologous blood donation is elective cardiac surgery where there is a high probability of blood transfusion. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of preoperative autologous blood donation in cardiac surgeries. Out of 150 patients registered, 50 cases were excluded on the basis of hemoglobin content ( [J Med Allied Sci 2017; 7(1.000: 48-54

  4. Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Islet Cotransplantation: Safety and Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjun; Strange, Charlie; Nietert, Paul J; Wang, Jingjing; Turnbull, Taylor L; Cloud, Colleen; Owczarski, Stefanie; Shuford, Betsy; Duke, Tara; Gilkeson, Gary; Luttrell, Louis; Hermayer, Kathie; Fernandes, Jyotika; Adams, David B; Morgan, Katherine A

    2018-01-01

    Islet engraftment after transplantation is impaired by high rates of islet/β cell death caused by cellular stressors and poor graft vascularization. We studied whether cotransplantation of ex vivo expanded autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with islets is safe and beneficial in chronic pancreatitis patients undergoing total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation. MSCs were harvested from the bone marrow of three islet autotransplantation patients and expanded at our current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) facility. On the day of islet transplantation, an average dose of 20.0 ± 2.6 ×10 6 MSCs was infused with islets via the portal vein. Adverse events and glycemic control at baseline, 6, and 12 months after transplantation were compared with data from 101 historical control patients. No adverse events directly related to the MSC infusions were observed. MSC patients required lower amounts of insulin during the peritransplantation period (p = .02 vs. controls) and had lower 12-month fasting blood glucose levels (p = .02 vs. controls), smaller C-peptide declines over 6 months (p = .01 vs. controls), and better quality of life compared with controls. In conclusion, our pilot study demonstrates that autologous MSC and islet cotransplantation may be a safe and potential strategy to improve islet engraftment after transplantation. (Clinicaltrials.gov registration number: NCT02384018). Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2018;7:11-19. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  5. Human induced pluripotent stem cells on autologous feeders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Takahashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For therapeutic usage of induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS cells, to accomplish xeno-free culture is critical. Previous reports have shown that human embryonic stem (ES cells can be maintained in feeder-free condition. However, absence of feeder cells can be a hostile environment for pluripotent cells and often results in karyotype abnormalities. Instead of animal feeders, human fibroblasts can be used as feeder cells of human ES cells. However, one still has to be concerned about the existence of unidentified pathogens, such as viruses and prions in these non-autologous feeders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This report demonstrates that human induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS cells can be established and maintained on isogenic parental feeder cells. We tested four independent human skin fibroblasts for the potential to maintain self-renewal of iPS cells. All the fibroblasts tested, as well as their conditioned medium, were capable of maintaining the undifferentiated state and normal karyotypes of iPS cells. Furthermore, human iPS cells can be generated on isogenic parental fibroblasts as feeders. These iPS cells carried on proliferation over 19 passages with undifferentiated morphologies. They expressed undifferentiated pluripotent cell markers, and could differentiate into all three germ layers via embryoid body and teratoma formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that autologous fibroblasts can be not only a source for iPS cells but also be feeder layers. Our results provide a possibility to solve the dilemma by using isogenic fibroblasts as feeder layers of iPS cells. This is an important step toward the establishment of clinical grade iPS cells.

  6. Tear trough – Anatomy and treatment by autologous fat grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Yung Chia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tear trough is the main irregularity at midface, of which treatment is difficult. There is no agreement in literature about its anatomy and best treatment. The author presented an anatomical study and personal autologous fat grafting technique for tear trough treatment. Anatomical dissections were done on two fresh cadavers to examine the skin, subcutaneous, muscle and bone layers, spaces, and attachments. Safety and efficacy were evaluated via retrospective analysis of the last 200 consecutive procedures performed by the author. Tear trough is caused by the abrupt transition of the palpebral orbicular oculi muscle (OOM (i.e., thin skin without subcutaneous fat compartment to the orbital OOM (i.e., thicker skin with malar fat compartment. The tear trough region is located at the OOM bony origin at the medial canthus where no specific ligament was found. The grafted fat volume stabilized at two or three months after the procedure, instead of six months as stated in literature, with excellent results and no severe complications. Tear trough is a personal characteristic, a natural anatomical depression caused by subcutaneous irregularity and can worsen with age. The lack of volume is not effectively corrected by surgeries and thus it must be filled. Fat grafting has several advantages over alloplastic fillers, although it may be more difficult. Fat graft is autologous and abundant, and tissue transplantation could enhance skin quality. Fat grafting is a simple, safe, and effective solution for adding extra volume to correct the deflation phenomenon of the midface aging process. There is no specific anatomical plane for volume injection; the fat graft must be evenly distributed in the deep and superficial plane for uniformity.

  7. Factors affecting the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction in kidney transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, L.; Flaa, C.; Jaffe, D.; Strauss, J.; Kyriakides, G.K.; Miller, J.

    1983-01-01

    In long-term well adapted kidney transplant recipients we have found a close correlation between the T helper (TH):T suppressor/cytotoxic (TS/C) subset ratios and the presence of T cells that respond in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR). In 21 recipients with T cell E rosette levels ranging between 53 and 86% and TH:TS/C ratios between 0.15 to 2.10, ratios of greater than 0.8 correlated with AMLR responses (13/13), and ratios of less than 0.8 with AMLR nonreactivity (7/7). By contrast, the allogeneic MLR showed no apparent correlation with the TH:TS/C ratios or with the AMLR pre- or postoperatively. It was found that the AMLR in 22 of 23 normal individuals was markedly inhibited by autologous T cells obtained from peripheral blood lymphocytes, exposed to 3,000 rad (Tx) and added as a third component to the cultures. In contrast, 13 of 13 kidney transplant recipients failed to exhibit this Tx AMLR inhibitory cell population. The ''naturally occurring'' T inhibitory cells, fractionated by an affinity column chromatography procedure into x-irradiated TH and TS/C subsets, inhibited the AMLR to the same extent as unseparated Tx cells. In cell interchange studies performed in four of five HLA identical donor-recipient pairs the Tx cells of the (normal) donor inhibited the recipient AMLR (immunosuppressed), but recipient Tx cells failed to inhibit the donor AMLR. Finally T cells, primed in AMLR and allogeneic MLR for 10 d were tested for AMLR or allogeneic MLR inhibitory activity. Allogeneic MLR primed x-irradiated cells, inhibited both the AMLR and allogeneic MLR while AMLR x-irradiated primed cells inhibited neither reaction. The Tx AMLR inhibitor found in normal peripheral blood, appears to be a cell that is highly sensitive to the effects of biologic or pharmacologic immunosuppressive agents

  8. Beam loading

    OpenAIRE

    Boussard, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superco...

  9. Extraction, radiolabeling, and in vivo catabolism of autologous-origin equine fibrinogen and platelets in the healthy and exercise-stressed horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyne, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    Three separate techniques were evaluated for the extraction of autologous-origin fibrinogen from whole equine plasma. Rapid extraction of equine fibrinogen with ammonium sulfate-sodium phosphate buffer, in combination with saturated glycine buffer, provided the most practical means of obtaining a protein extract with the highest degree of biological activity and sufficiently high iodine-125 ( 125 I) radiolabeling efficiencies using monochloroiodine reagent (ICI). A technique was developed for the in vitro radiolabeling of equine platelets suspended in plasma. This entailed the use of the isotope, indium-111 ( 111 In), together with the lipophilic ligand, 2-(mercaptopyridine-N-oxide). This labeling technique achieved labeling efficiencies between 75% and 96%, and in vitro aggregability of 111 In-merc radiolabeled platelets was comparable to that of unlabeled cell isolates. In the final phase of the investigation, autologous-origin 125 I-labeled fibrinogen and 111 In-labeled platelets were applied in a series of equine exercise physiology studies. Elimination of these two radiobiologicals was evaluated in the resting and exercise-stressed horse. Results from these investigations revealed no long-term influence of exercise conditioning on the in vivo kinetics of radiolabeled fibrinogen or platelets

  10. Platelet-Rich Plasma Increases Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Cagri A; Ertas, Nilgun Markal

    2017-11-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous solution of plasma containing 4 to 7 times the baseline concentration of human platelets. Platelet-rich plasma has been widely popular in facial rejuvenation to attenuate wrinkles and has been practically used. The authors have been encountering various patients of increased hiperpigmentation following PRP applications that were performed to attenuate the postinflammatory hiperpigmentation especially after laser treatment. The authors have been using PRP for facial rejuvenation in selected patients and in 1 patient the authors have encountered increased pigmentation over the pigmented skin lesions that were present before the application. The authors recommend that the PRP might increase pigmentation especially in the face region and precautions might be taken before and after the application. Platelet-rich plasma should not be used for the treatment of post inflammatory hiperpigmentation.

  11. Comparison of immune reconstitution after allogeneic vs. autologous stem cell transplantation in 182 pediatric recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wiegering

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Children undergoing a HSCT show a different pattern of immune reconstitution in the allogeneic and autologous setting. This might influence the outcome and should affect the clinical handling of infectious prophylaxis and re-vaccinations.

  12. Disruptions, loads, and dynamic response of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.; Riemer, B.; Sayer, R.; Strickler, D.; Barabaschi, P.; Ioki, K.; Johnson, G.; Shimizu, K.; Williamson, D.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma disruptions and the resulting electromagnetic loads are critical to the design of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This paper describes the status of plasma disruption simulations and related analysis, including the dynamic response of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components, stresses and deflections in the vacuum vessel, and reaction loads in the support structures

  13. The Efficacy and Safety of Autologous Transfusion in Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Moon-Jib; Park, Hee-Gon; Ryu, Jee-Won; Kim, Jeong-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although allogeneic blood transfusion is the most common method of transfusion in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), there are reports showing significant decrease in the amount of allogeneic transfusion and incidence of side effects after combined use of autologous transfusion. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of using an autologous transfusion device in TKA. Materials and Methods Patients who underwent TKA at our institution from January 2003 to January 2014 were...

  14. Comparative analysis of autologous blood transfusion and allogeneic blood transfusion in surgical patients

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Miao-Yun; Liu, Zhong-Han; Zhu, Jian-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate application effects of autologous blood transfusion and allogeneic blood transfusion in surgically treated patients receiving spine surgery, abdomen surgery and ectopic pregnancy surgery. Methods: 130 patients who would undergo selective operations were divided into autologous transfusion group and allogeneic transfusion group. Both groups received the same anesthesia, and there was no significant difference in transfusion volume or fluid infusion volume. Results: Th...

  15. Persistent seropositivity for yellow fever in a previously vaccinated autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Kayoko; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Tsunemine, Hiroko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Mawatari, Momoko; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Kei; Ohmagari, Norio; Kato, Yasuyuki

    2015-08-01

    The duration of a protective level of yellow fever antibodies after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a previously vaccinated person is unclear. The case of a patient who had previously been vaccinated for yellow fever and who remained seropositive for 22 months after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for malignant lymphoma is described herein. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. The model of pulmonary embolism caused by autologous thrombus in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Jiao Ding; Yang Chen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To establish a model of pulmonary embolism in rabbits by using autologous thrombosis of rabbit ear vein, to study the method of establishing acute pulmonary embolism by using autologous thrombus and to explore the diagnostic value of oxygen partial pressure in acute pulmonary embolism. Methods: Twenty rabbits were randomly divided into normal group (n=5), 7 h group, 24h group, 1 week after model establishment Group. The arterial blood gas analysis was performed on th...

  17. A clinical study on the feasibility of autologous cord blood transfusion for anemia of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabux, Chantal M; von Lindern, Jeannette S; van Hilten, Joost A; Scherjon, Sicco; Walther, Frans J; Brand, Anneke

    2008-08-01

    The objective was to investigate the use of autologous red blood cells (RBCs) derived from umbilical cord blood (UCB), as an alternative for allogeneic transfusions in premature infants admitted to a tertiary neonatal center. UCB collection was performed at deliveries of less than 32 weeks of gestation and processed into autologous RBC products. Premature infants requiring a RBC transfusion were randomly assigned to an autologous or allogeneic product. The primary endpoint was an at least 50 percent reduction in allogeneic transfusion needs. Fifty-seven percent of the collections harvested enough volume (> or =15 mL) for processing. After being processed, autologous products (> or =10 mL/kg) were available for 36 percent of the total study population and for 27 percent of the transfused infants and could cover 58 percent (range, 25%-100%) of the transfusion needs within the 21-day product shelf life. Availability of autologous products depended most on the gestational age. Infants born between 24 and 28 weeks had the lowest availability (17%). All products, however, would be useful in view of their high (87%) transfusion needs. Availability was highest (48%) for the infants born between 28 and 30 weeks. For 42 percent of the infants with transfusion needs in this group, autologous products were available. For the infants born between 30 and 32 weeks, autologous products were available for 36 percent of the infants. Transfusion needs in this group were, however, much lower (19%) compared to the other gestational groups. Autologous RBCs derived from UCB could not replace 50 percent of allogeneic transfusions due to the low UCB volumes collected and subsequent low product availability.

  18. Latissimus Dorsi and Immediate Fat Transfer (LIFT for Complete Autologous Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Economides, MD

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion:. Autologous augmentation of the LD flap with lipotransfer has been used to avoid placement of an implant. We improve the technique by performing lipotransfer during index reconstruction. Furthermore, we perform lipotransfer prior to disorigination of the LD muscle to minimize trauma to the flap and increase the efficiency of fat grafting. Our experience demonstrates that this technique is a viable autologous alternative to microsurgical breast reconstruction.

  19. Chimeric Human Skin Substitute Tissue: A Novel Treatment Option for the Delivery of Autologous Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Cathy A; Allen-Hoffmann, B Lynn

    2012-04-01

    For patients suffering from catastrophic burns, few treatment options are available. Chimeric coculture of patient-derived autologous cells with a "carrier" cell source of allogeneic keratinocytes has been proposed as a means to address the complex clinical problem of severe skin loss. Currently, autologous keratinocytes are harvested, cultured, and expanded to form graftable epidermal sheets. However, epidermal sheets are thin, are extremely fragile, and do not possess barrier function, which only develops as skin stratifies and matures. Grafting is typically delayed for up to 4 weeks to propagate a sufficient quantity of the patient's cells for application to wound sites. Fully stratified chimeric bioengineered skin substitutes could not only provide immediate wound coverage and restore barrier function, but would simultaneously deliver autologous keratinocytes to wounds. The ideal allogeneic cell source for this application would be an abundant supply of clinically evaluated, nontumorigenic, pathogen-free, human keratinocytes. To evaluate this potential cell-based therapy, mixed populations of a green fluorescent protein-labeled neonatal human keratinocyte cell line (NIKS) and unlabeled primary keratinocytes were used to model the allogeneic and autologous components of chimeric monolayer and organotypic cultures. Relatively few autologous keratinocytes may be required to produce fully stratified chimeric skin substitute tissue substantially composed of autologous keratinocyte-derived regions. The need for few autologous cells interspersed within an allogeneic "carrier" cell population may decrease cell expansion time, reducing the time to patient application. This study provides proof of concept for utilizing NIKS keratinocytes as the allogeneic carrier for the generation of bioengineered chimeric skin substitute tissues capable of providing immediate wound coverage while simultaneously supplying autologous human cells for tissue regeneration.

  20. Plasma-surface interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnaev, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    The latest experimental results characterizing plasma interaction with walls in thermonuclear facilities are presented. The main attention is paid to the mode of plasma ejection from the tokamak divertor receiving elements to study the properties of the so-called gas divertor. A sharp reduction of load on the receiving plates is provided in the mode at the expense of over-radiation of a substantial share of power in a layer of peripheral removed plasma. However, the sharp reduction of load on the current-receiving plates is accompanied by an increase of the main plasma charge up to an unacceptably high level. An alternative variant of solving the problem of heat and impurity removal in the form of a concept of capillary lithium divertor is described. Besides, the latest results of experiments in simulator devices are presented. 46 refs., 15 figs

  1. Evaluation of intra-articular injection of autologous platelet lysate (PL) in horses with osteoarthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrnenopoulou, Panagiota; Diakakis, Nikolaos; Karayannopoulou, Maria; Savvas, Ioannis; Koliakos, Georgios

    2016-06-01

    Regenerative medicine has become one of the most promising therapies of equine osteoarthritis. Platelet lysate (PL) is rich in bioactive proteins and growth factors that play a crucial role in tissue healing. To evaluate the efficacy of intra-articularly injected autologous PL in equine athletes with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. Fifteen warmblood geldings aged 8-19 years with osteoarthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint were included in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups; 10 horses received intra-articular injections of PL and 5 of normal saline (controls). Before treatment, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) levels in basal plasma and prepared PL were estimated. Each joint was injected twice within a three-week period. Lameness was evaluated using the American Association of Equine Practitioners grading system, before treatment and 10 days after each intra-articular injection. Horses were examined fortnightly for one year. Radiographic examination was performed six months post-treatment. The generalized estimating equation test was used for statistical analysis. Acceptable levels of PDGF were detected in PLs (mean ± SD: 258.0 ± 52.3 pg/ml). The majority of horses (9/10) responded positively to PL treatment presenting lower lameness grades (p < 0.0005) compared to controls 10 days after the second injection, and returned to normal athletic activity. Radiographs revealed no changes in osteoarthritis lesions six months after treatment. One year post-injections, however, all horses relapsed to their initial degree of lameness. Intra-articularly injected autologous PL is an efficient method for temporarily managing osteoarthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint in athletic horses.

  2. Perinatal outcomes after gestational surrogacy versus autologous IVF: analysis of national data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Sesh Kamal; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Selliah, Hepsy Y; Kamath, Mohan S

    2017-12-01

    Anonymized data were obtained from the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority to determine whether gestational surrogacy influences perinatal outcomes compared with pregnancies after autologous IVF. A total of 103,160 singleton live births, including 244 after gestational surrogacy, 87,571 after autologous fresh IVF and intractyoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and 15,345 after autologous frozen embryo transfers were analysed. Perinatal outcomes of pretern birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW) and high birth weight (HBW) were compared. No difference was found in the risk of PTB and LBW after gestational surrogacy compared with autologous fresh IVF-ICSI: PTB (adjusted OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.42), LBW (adjusted OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.43) and gestational surrogacy compared with autologous frozen embryo transfers: PTB (adjusted OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.60), LBW (adjusted OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.96). The incidence of HBW was significantly higher after gestational surrogacy compared with fresh IVF-ICSI (adjusted OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.75); no difference was found in HBW between gestational surrogacy and autologous frozen embryo transfers. The dataset is limited by lack of information on confounders, i.e. ethnicity, body mass index, underlying medical history, which could result in residual confounding. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. What is the role of autologous blood transfusion in major spine surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naresh; Chen, Yongsheng; Nath, Chinmoy; Liu, Eugene Hern Choon

    2012-06-01

    Major spine surgery is associated with significant blood loss, which has numerous complications. Blood loss is therefore an important concern when undertaking any major spine surgery. Blood loss can be addressed by reducing intraoperative blood loss and replenishing perioperative blood loss. Reducing intraoperative blood loss helps maintain hemodynamic equilibrium and provides a clearer operative field during surgery. Homologous blood transfusion is still the mainstay for replenishing blood loss in major spine surgery across the world, despite its known adverse effects. These significant adverse effects can be seen in up to 20% of patients. Autologous blood transfusion avoids the risks associated with homologous blood transfusion and has been shown to be cost-effective. This article reviews the different methods of autologous transfusion and focuses on the use of intraoperative cell salvage in major spine surgery. Autologous blood transfusion is a proven alternative to homologous transfusion in major spine surgery, avoiding most, if not all of these adverse effects. However, autologous blood transfusion rates in major spine surgery remain low across the world. Autologous blood transfusion may obviate the need for homologous transfusion completely. We encourage spine surgeons to consider autologous blood transfusion wherever feasible.

  4. Fundamental studies of fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, R.E.; Catto, P.J.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R; Russell, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses: ICRF impurity studies; ICRF convective cells; sheath plasma waves and anomalous IBW loading; a quasilinear description for fast wave minority heating permitting off magnetic axis heating in a tokamak; and runaway electrons studies in support of TEXT

  5. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  6. Beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed. (author)

  7. Antibacterial Effect of Autologous Platelet-Rich Gel Derived from Subjects with Diabetic Dermal Ulcers In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Autologous platelet-rich gel (APG is an effective method to improve ulcer healing. However, the mechanisms are not clear. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial effect of APG in vitro. Methods. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP, platelet-poor plasma (PPP and APG were prepared from whole blood of sixteen diabetic patients with dermal ulcers. Antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated by bacteriostasis assay of APG, PRP, and APG-APO (APG combined with apocynin, with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS and PPP as the control group. Results. (1 Compared to the PBS and PPP, the APG and APG-APO groups showed strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 between APG and APG-APO. (2 Compared to PBS, APG, APG-APO, and PRP showed obvious antibacterial effects against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. No significant difference (P>0.05 was revealed among the three groups. Compared to the PPP group, they did not show antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P>0.05. Conclusions. APG has antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus mediated by platelet activation in the diabetic patients with dermal ulcer, and does not present obvious antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Combination of APG and antibiotics may have synergistic antibacterial effect.

  8. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder

  9. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  10. Autologous blood cell therapies from pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengerke, Claudia; Daley, George Q.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The discovery of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) raised promises for a universal resource for cell based therapies in regenerative medicine. Recently, fast-paced progress has been made towards the generation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) amenable for clinical applications, culminating in reprogramming of adult somatic cells to autologous PSCs that can be indefinitely expanded in vitro. However, besides the efficient generation of bona fide, clinically safe PSCs (e.g. without the use of oncoproteins and gene transfer based on viruses inserting randomly into the genome), a major challenge in the field remains how to efficiently differentiate PSCs to specific lineages and how to select for cells that will function normally upon transplantation in adults. In this review, we analyse the in vitro differentiation potential of PSCs to the hematopoietic lineage discussing blood cell types that can be currently obtained, limitations in derivation of adult-type HSCs and prospects for clinical application of PSCs-derived blood cells. PMID:19910091

  11. Radiolabelling of autologous leucocytes: technique and clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl-Jaeger, E.; Kolbe, H.; Ludwig, H.; Sinzinger, H.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma-camera imaging after injection of radiolabelled autologous leucocytes can be very helpful in the diagnosis, localization and further clinical treatment of inflammatory diseases. We present a technique allowing sterile separation of white blood cells and labelling with 99m Tc-phytate or -oxine and with 111 In-oxine, -oxine sulphate or -tropolone. The method is non-invasive and the radiation dose amounts to less than 80 mrad using 100 μCi 111 Indium. The use of radiolabelled granulocytes is of particular diagnostic value in patients with septicaemia of unknown origin. Whole body scanning allows not only visualization of enhanced splenic uptake in septicaemia, but also localization of an inflammatory process. Preferential indications for a diagnostic approach using radiolabelled granulocytes are inflammatory abdominal processes which cannot easily be documented by means of other non-invasive techniques, such as inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's diseases and ulcerative colitis), arthritic processes and abscesses of the liver and spleen, as well as subphrenic and retroperitoneal abscesses. Untreated osteomyelitis can be located with the help of labelled granulocytes, but in patients treated with antibiotics a false negative result is obtained in approximately 50 % of cases for as yet unknown reasons, even in the presence of a still active osteomyelitic process. (Authors)

  12. Rapid cell separation with minimal manipulation for autologous cell therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alban J.; O'Rorke, Richard D.; Kale, Akshay; Rimsa, Roberts; Tomlinson, Matthew J.; Kirkham, Jennifer; Davies, A. Giles; Wälti, Christoph; Wood, Christopher D.

    2017-02-01

    The ability to isolate specific, viable cell populations from mixed ensembles with minimal manipulation and within intra-operative time would provide significant advantages for autologous, cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine. Current cell-enrichment technologies are either slow, lack specificity and/or require labelling. Thus a rapid, label-free separation technology that does not affect cell functionality, viability or phenotype is highly desirable. Here, we demonstrate separation of viable from non-viable human stromal cells using remote dielectrophoresis, in which an electric field is coupled into a microfluidic channel using shear-horizontal surface acoustic waves, producing an array of virtual electrodes within the channel. This allows high-throughput dielectrophoretic cell separation in high conductivity, physiological-like fluids, overcoming the limitations of conventional dielectrophoresis. We demonstrate viable/non-viable separation efficacy of >98% in pre-purified mesenchymal stromal cells, extracted from human dental pulp, with no adverse effects on cell viability, or on their subsequent osteogenic capabilities.

  13. Hepcidin as a new biomarker for detecting autologous blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Nicolas; Barras, Laura; Nicoli, Raul; Robinson, Neil; Baume, Norbert; Lion, Niels; Barelli, Stefano; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Saugy, Martial

    2016-05-01

    Autologous blood transfusion (ABT) is an efficient way to increase sport performance. It is also the most challenging doping method to detect. At present, individual follow-up of haematological variables via the athlete biological passport (ABP) is used to detect it. Quantification of a novel hepatic peptide called hepcidin may be a new alternative to detect ABT. In this prospective clinical trial, healthy subjects received a saline injection for the control phase, after which they donated blood that was stored and then transfused 36 days later. The impact of ABT on hepcidin as well as haematological parameters, iron metabolism, and inflammation markers was investigated. Blood transfusion had a particularly marked effect on hepcidin concentrations compared to the other biomarkers, which included haematological variables. Hepcidin concentrations increased significantly: 12 hr and 1 day after blood reinfusion, these concentrations rose by seven- and fourfold, respectively. No significant change was observed in the control phase. Hepcidin quantification is a cost-effective strategy that could be used in an "ironomics" strategy to improve the detection of ABT. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Endocrinopathies after Allogeneic and Autologous Transplantation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Orio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early and late endocrine disorders are among the most common complications in survivors after hematopoietic allogeneic- (allo- and autologous- (auto- stem cell transplant (HSCT. This review summarizes main endocrine disorders reported in literature and observed in our center as consequence of auto- and allo-HSCT and outlines current options for their management. Gonadal impairment has been found early in approximately two-thirds of auto- and allo-HSCT patients: 90–99% of women and 60–90% of men. Dysfunctions of the hypothalamus-pituitary-growth hormone/insulin growth factor-I axis, hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis were documented as later complicances, occurring in about 10, 30, and 40–50% of transplanted patients, respectively. Moreover, overt or subclinical thyroid complications (including persistent low-T3 syndrome, chronic thyroiditis, subclinical hypo- or hyperthyroidism, and thyroid carcinoma, gonadal failure, and adrenal insufficiency may persist many years after HSCT. Our analysis further provides evidence that main recognized risk factors for endocrine complications after HSCT are the underlying disease, previous pretransplant therapies, the age at HSCT, gender, total body irradiation, posttransplant derangement of immune system, and in the allogeneic setting, the presence of graft-versus-host disease requiring prolonged steroid treatment. Early identification of endocrine complications can greatly improve the quality of life of long-term survivors after HSCT.

  15. Quality Improvement Methodologies Increase Autologous Blood Product Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Ashley B.; Preston, Thomas J.; Fitch, Jill A.; Harrison, Sheilah K.; Hersey, Diane K.; Nicol, Kathleen K.; Naguib, Aymen N.; McConnell, Patrick I.; Galantowicz, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Whole blood from the heart–lung (bypass) machine may be processed through a cell salvaging device (i.e., cell saver [CS]) and subsequently administered to the patient during cardiac surgery. It was determined at our institution that CS volume was being discarded. A multidisciplinary team consisting of anesthesiologists, perfusionists, intensive care physicians, quality improvement (QI) professionals, and bedside nurses met to determine the challenges surrounding autologous blood delivery in its entirety. A review of cardiac surgery patients’ charts (n = 21) was conducted for analysis of CS waste. After identification of practices that were leading to CS waste, interventions were designed and implemented. Fishbone diagram, key driver diagram, Plan–Do–Study–Act (PDSA) cycles, and data collection forms were used throughout this QI process to track and guide progress regarding CS waste. Of patients under 6 kg (n = 5), 80% had wasted CS blood before interventions, whereas those patients larger than 36 kg (n = 8) had 25% wasted CS before interventions. Seventy-five percent of patients under 6 kg who had wasted CS blood received packed red blood cell transfusions in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit within 24 hours of their operation. After data collection and didactic education sessions (PDSA Cycle I), CS blood volume waste was reduced to 5% in all patients. Identification and analysis of the root cause followed by implementation of education, training, and management of change (PDSA Cycle II) resulted in successful use of 100% of all CS blood volume. PMID:24783313

  16. Sleep disruption among cancer patients following autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ashley M; Jim, Heather S L; Small, Brent J; Nishihori, Taiga; Gonzalez, Brian D; Cessna, Julie M; Hyland, Kelly A; Rumble, Meredith E; Jacobsen, Paul B

    2018-03-01

    Despite a high prevalence of sleep disruption among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, relatively little research has investigated its relationships with modifiable cognitive or behavioral factors or used actigraphy to characterize sleep disruption in this population. Autologous HCT recipients who were 6-18 months post transplant completed self-report measures of cancer-related distress, fear of cancer recurrence, dysfunctional sleep cognitions, and inhibitory sleep behaviors upon enrollment. Patients then wore an actigraph for 7 days and completed a self-report measure of sleep disruption on day 7 of the study. Among the 84 participants (age M = 60, 45% female), 41% reported clinically relevant sleep disruption. Examination of actigraph data confirmed that, on average, sleep was disrupted (wake after sleep onset M = 66 min) and sleep efficiency was less than recommended (sleep efficiency M = 78%). Cancer-related distress, fear of recurrence, dysfunctional sleep cognitions, and inhibitory sleep behaviors were related to self-reported sleep disruption (p valuesdisruption after transplant. Cancer-related distress, fear of recurrence, dysfunctional sleep cognitions, and maladaptive sleep behaviors are related to self-reported sleep disruption and should be considered targets for cognitive behavioral intervention in this population.

  17. Autologous Pancreatic Islet Transplantation in Human Bone Marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffi, Paola; Balzano, Gianpaolo; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Nano, Rita; Sordi, Valeria; Melzi, Raffaella; Mercalli, Alessia; Scavini, Marina; Esposito, Antonio; Peccatori, Jacopo; Cantarelli, Elisa; Messina, Carlo; Bernardi, Massimo; Del Maschio, Alessandro; Staudacher, Carlo; Doglioni, Claudio; Ciceri, Fabio; Secchi, Antonio; Piemonti, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    The liver is the current site of choice for pancreatic islet transplantation, even though it is far from being ideal. We recently have shown in mice that the bone marrow (BM) may be a valid alternative to the liver, and here we report a pilot study to test feasibility and safety of BM as a site for islet transplantation in humans. Four patients who developed diabetes after total pancreatectomy were candidates for the autologous transplantation of pancreatic islet. Because the patients had contraindications for intraportal infusion, islets were infused in the BM. In all recipients, islets engrafted successfully as shown by measurable posttransplantation C-peptide levels and histopathological evidence of insulin-producing cells or molecular markers of endocrine tissue in BM biopsy samples analyzed during follow-up. Thus far, we have recorded no adverse events related to the infusion procedure or the presence of islets in the BM. Islet function was sustained for the maximum follow-up of 944 days. The encouraging results of this pilot study provide new perspectives in identifying alternative sites for islet infusion in patients with type 1 diabetes. Moreover, this is the first unequivocal example of successful engraftment of endocrine tissue in the BM in humans. PMID:23733196

  18. Design of a hybrid biomaterial for tissue engineering: Biopolymer-scaffold integrated with an autologous hydrogel carrying mesenchymal stem-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein-Oppenheimer, Caroline R; Brown, Donald I; Coloma, Rodrigo; Morales, Patricio; Reyna-Jeldes, Mauricio; Díaz, María J; Sánchez, Elizabeth; Acevedo, Cristian A

    2017-10-01

    Biologically active biomaterials as biopolymers and hydrogels have been used in medical applications providing favorable results in tissue engineering. In this research, a wound dressing device was designed by integration of an autologous clot hydrogel carrying mesenchymal stem-cells onto a biopolymeric scaffold. This hybrid biomaterial was tested in-vitro and in-vivo, and used in a human clinical case. The biopolymeric scaffold was made with gelatin, chitosan and hyaluronic acid, using a freeze-drying method. The scaffold was a porous material which was designed evaluating both physical properties (glass transition, melting temperature and pore size) and biological properties (cell viability and fibronectin expression). Two types of chitosan (120 and 300kDa) were used to manufacture the scaffold, being the high molecular weight the most biologically active and stable after sterilization with gamma irradiation (25kGy). A clot hydrogel was formulated with autologous plasma and calcium chloride, using an approach based on design of experiments. The optimum hydrogel was used to incorporate cells onto the porous scaffold, forming a wound dressing biomaterial. The wound dressing device was firstly tested in-vitro using human cells, and then, its biosecurity was evaluated in-vivo using a rabbit model. The in-vitro results showed high cell viability after one week (99.5%), high mitotic index (19.8%) and high fibronectin expression. The in-vivo application to rabbits showed adequate biodegradability capacity (between 1 and 2weeks), and the histological evaluation confirmed absence of rejection signs and reepithelization on the wound zone. Finally, the wound dressing biomaterial was used in a single human case to implant autologous cells on a skin surgery. The medical examination indicated high biocompatibility, partial biodegradation at one week, early regeneration capacity at 4weeks and absence of rejection signs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and comparison of a minimally-invasive model of autologous clot pulmonary embolism in Sprague-Dawley and Copenhagen rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanapareddy Nina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental models of pulmonary embolism (PE that produce pulmonary hypertension (PH employ many different methods of inducing acute pulmonary occlusion. Many of these models induce PE with intravenous injection of exogenous impervious objects that may not completely reproduce the physiological properties of autologous thromboembolism. Current literature lacks a simple, well-described rat model of autlogous PE. Objective: Test if moderate-severity autologous PE in Sprague-Dawley (SD and Copenhagen (Cop rats can produce persistent PH. Methods blood was withdrawn from the jugular vein, treated with thrombin-Ca++ and re-injected following pretreatment with tranexamic acid. Hemodynamic values, clot weights and biochemical measurements were performed at 1 and 5 days. Results Infusion of clot significantly increased the right ventricular peak systolic pressure to 45-55 mm Hg, followed by normalization within 24 hours in SD rats, and within 5 days in COP rats. Clot lysis was 95% (24 hours and 97% (5 days in SD rats and was significantly lower in COP rats (70%, 24 hours; 87% 5 days. Plasma D-dimer was elevated in surgical sham animals and was further increased 8 hours after pulmonary embolism. Neither strain showed a significant increase in bronchoalveolar chemotactic activity, myeloperoxidase activity, leukocyte infiltration, or chemokine accumulation, indicating that there was no significant pulmonary inflammation. Conclusions Both SD and COP rats exhibited near complete fibrinolysis of autologous clot PE within 5 days. Neither strain developed persistent PH. Experimental models of PE designed to induce sustained PH and a robust inflammatory response appear to require significant, persistent pulmonary vascular occlusion.

  20. Efficacy, Reliability, and Safety of Completely Autologous Fibrin Glue in Neurosurgical Procedures: Single-Center Retrospective Large-Number Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Noriyuki; Yano, Hirohito; Egashira, Yusuke; Enomoto, Yukiko; Ohe, Naoyuki; Kanemura, Nobuhiro; Kitagawa, Junichi; Iwama, Toru

    2018-01-01

    Commercially available fibrin glue (Com-FG), which is used commonly worldwide, is produced with pooled human plasma from multiple donors. However, it has added bovine aprotinin, which involves the risk of infection, allogenic immunity, and allergic reactions. We evaluate the efficacy, reliability, and safety of completely autologous fibrin glue (CAFG). From August 2014 to February 2016, prospective data were collected and analyzed from 153 patients. CAFG was prepared with the CryoSeal System using autologous blood and was applied during neurosurgical procedures. Using CAFG-soaked oxidized regenerated cellulose and/or polyglycolic acid sheets, we performed a pinpoint hemostasis, transposed the offending vessels in a microvascular decompression, and covered the dural incision to prevent cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The CryoSeal System had generated up to a mean of 4.51 mL (range, 3.0-8.4 mL) of CAFG from 400 mL autologous blood. Com-FG products were not used in our procedures. Only 6 patients required an additional allogeneic blood transfusion. The hemostatic effective rate was 96.1% (147 of 153 patients). Only 1 patient who received transsphenoidal surgery for a pituitary adenoma presented with the complication of delayed postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage (0.65%). No patient developed allergic reactions or systemic complications associated with the use of CAFG. CAFG effectively provides hemostatic, adhesive, and safety performance. The timing and three-dimensional shape of CAFG-soaked oxidized regenerated cellulose and/or polyglycolic acid sheets solidification can be controlled with slow fibrin formation. The cost to prepare CAFG is similar compared with Com-FG products, and it can therefore be easily used at most institutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Modification of Plasma Solitons by Resonant Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpman, Vladimir; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and numerical results are compared with new theoretical results describing soliton propagation and deformation in a strongly magnetized, plasma-loaded waveguide.......Experimental and numerical results are compared with new theoretical results describing soliton propagation and deformation in a strongly magnetized, plasma-loaded waveguide....

  2. Long-term use and follow-up of autologous and homologous cartilage graft in rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemali Khorasani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cartilage grafting is used in rhinoplasty and reconstructive surgeries. Autologous rib and nasal septum cartilage (auto graft is the preferred source of graft material in rhinoplasty, however, homologous cartilage (allograft has been extensively used to correct the nasal framework in nasal deformities. Autologous cartilage graft usage is restricted with complication of operation and limiting availability of tissue for extensive deformities. Alternatively, preserved costal cartilage allograft represents a readily available and easily contoured material. The current study was a formal systematic review of complications associated with autologous versus homologous cartilage grafting in rhinoplasty patients. Methods: In this cohort retrospective study, a total of 124 patients undergone primary or revision rhinoplasty using homologous or autologus grafts with postoperative follow-up ranging from 6 to 60 months were studied. The types of grafts and complications related to the grafts were evaluated. This included evaluation for warping, infection, resorption, mobility and fracture. Results: The total complications related to the cartilage grafts were 7 cases, which included 1 warped in auto graft group, three cases of graft displacement (two in allograft group and one in auto graft group and three fractures in allograft group. No infection and resorption was recorded. Complication rate (confidence interval 0.95 in autologous and homologous group were 1.25(0.4-3.88 and 2.08(0.78-5.55 in 1000 months follow up. There was no statistically significant difference between autologous and homologous group complications. Onset of complication in autologous and homologous group were 51.23(49.27-53.19 and 58.7(54.51-62.91 month respectively (P=0.81. Conclusion: The allograft cartilage has the advantage of avoiding donor-site scar. Moreover, it provides the same benefits as autologous costal cartilage with comparable complication rate. Therefore, it

  3. Outcomes of Autologous Fascia Pubovaginal Sling for Patients with Transvaginal Mesh Related Complications Requiring Mesh Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Olugbemisola; Vaughan, Taylor; Nickles, S Walker; Ashley, Matt; MacLachlan, Lara S; Ginsberg, David; Rovner, Eric

    2016-08-01

    We reviewed the outcomes of the autologous fascial pubovaginal sling as a salvage procedure for recurrent stress incontinence after intervention for polypropylene mesh erosion/exposure and/or bladder outlet obstruction in patients treated with prior transvaginal synthetic mesh for stress urinary incontinence. In a review of surgical databases at 2 institutions between January 2007 and June 2013 we identified 46 patients who underwent autologous fascial pubovaginal sling following removal of transvaginal synthetic mesh in simultaneous or staged fashion. This cohort of patients was evaluated for outcomes, including subjective and objective success, change in quality of life and complications between those who underwent staged vs concomitant synthetic mesh removal with autologous fascial pubovaginal sling placement. All 46 patients had received at least 1 prior mesh sling for incontinence and 8 (17%) had received prior transvaginal polypropylene mesh for pelvic organ prolapse repair. A total of 30 patients underwent concomitant mesh incision with or without partial excision and autologous sling placement while 16 underwent staged autologous sling placement. Mean followup was 16 months. Of the patients 22% required a mean of 1.8 subsequent interventions an average of 6.5 months after autologous sling placement with no difference in median quality of life at final followup. At last followup 42 of 46 patients (91%) and 35 of 46 (76%) had achieved objective and subjective success, respectively. There was no difference in subjective success between patients treated with a staged vs a concomitant approach (69% vs 80%, p = 0.48). Autologous fascial pubovaginal sling placement after synthetic mesh removal can be performed successfully in patients with stress urinary incontinence as a single or staged procedure. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment results of combined platelet-rich plasma and fat injection in patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Fathi; Farid Fereyduni

    2013-01-01

    Background: Velopharyngeal insufficiency causes hypernasal vocal quality and can also result in audible nasal air emission and difficulty in producing pressure consonants. The resulting speech is often socially unacceptable and can be difficult to understand. Platelet-rich plasma is an autologous derivative of whole blood. Today, the importance of clinical use of Platelet-rich plasma in the plastic surgery is considered. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of combined Platel...

  5. Load sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder forming 30-60% by volume of the composite, and wherein the PZT powder forms 40-50% by volume of the composite.

  6. Platelet Rich Plasma and Knee Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine, the knee joint has traditionally been considered the workhorse. The reconstruction of every damaged element in this joint is crucial in achieving the surgeon’s goal to restore the knee function and prevent degeneration towards osteoarthritis. In the last fifteen years, the field of regenerative medicine is witnessing a boost of autologous blood-derived platelet rich plasma products (PRPs application to effectively mimic and accelerate the tissue healing process. The scientific rationale behind PRPs is the delivery of growth factors, cytokines, and adhesive proteins present in platelets and plasma, as well as other biologically active proteins conveyed by the plasma such as fibrinogen, prothrombin, and fibronectin; with this biological engineering approach, new perspectives in knee surgery were opened. This work describes the use of PRP to construct and repair every single anatomical structure involved in knee surgery, detailing the process conducted in ligament, meniscal, and chondral surgery.

  7. Preeclampsia in autologous and oocyte donation pregnancy: is there a different pathophysiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, Lisa E E L O; Buurma, Aletta; Swings, Godelieve M J S; Eikmans, Michael; Anholts, Jacqueline D H; Bakker, Jaap A; Claas, Frans H J

    2015-06-01

    Oocyte donation (OD) is a specific method of artificial reproductive technology that is accompanied by a higher risk of preeclampsia during pregnancy. The pathophysiological mechanism underlying preeclampsia in OD pregnancies is thought to differ from preeclampsia in autologous pregnancies. As preeclampsia in autologous pregnancies is suggested to be associated with complement activation, we studied C4d deposition, circulating complement components and placental complement regulatory proteins in preeclamptic OD pregnancies. Women with uncomplicated and preeclamptic pregnancies after OD or spontaneous conception were selected. We stained the placentas for C4d, marker for complement activation, measured complement factors C1q, C3 and C4 in maternal sera and quantified the placental mRNA expression of complement regulatory proteins CD46, CD55 and CD59. A significantly (p preeclampsia compared with uncomplicated pregnancies, both OD and autologous. The level of complement factors in serum did not differ between the groups. Children born in the autologous preeclampsia group were significantly lower in birth weight (p preeclampsia pregnancies, there is excessive activation of complement in preeclamptic OD pregnancies. However, in contrast to autologous pregnancies this is not associated with counterbalancing upregulation of complement regulatory proteins. Furthermore, C4d deposition in OD pregnancies is not related to the severity of preeclampsia, suggesting another trigger or regulatory mechanism of placental C4d deposition in preeclamptic OD pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Autologous fibrin sealant (Vivostat®) in the neurosurgical practice: Part I: Intracranial surgical procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Francesca; Certo, Francesco; Basile, Luigi; Maugeri, Rosario; Grasso, Giovanni; Meccio, Flavia; Ganau, Mario; Iacopino, Domenico G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hemorrhages, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula and infections are the most challenging postoperative complications in Neurosurgery. In this study, we report our preliminary results using a fully autologous fibrin sealant agent, the Vivostat® system, in achieving hemostasis and CSF leakage repair during cranio-cerebral procedures. Methods: From January 2012 to March 2014, 77 patients were studied prospectively and data were collected and analyzed. Autologous fibrin sealant, taken from patient's blood, was prepared with the Vivostat® system and applied on the resection bed or above the dura mater to achieve hemostasis and dural sealing. The surgical technique, time to bleeding control and associated complications were recorded. Results: A total of 79 neurosurgical procedures have been performed on 77 patients. In the majority of cases (98%) the same autologous fibrin glue provided rapid hemostasis and dural sealing. No patient developed allergic reactions or systemic complications in association with its application. There were no cases of cerebral hematoma, swelling, infection, or epileptic seizures after surgery whether in the immediate or in late period follow-up. Conclusions: In this preliminary study, the easy and direct application of autologous fibrin sealant agent helped in controlling cerebral bleeding and in providing prompt and efficient dural sealing with resolution of CSF leaks. Although the use of autologous fibrin glue seems to be safe, easy, and effective, further investigations are strongly recommended to quantify real advantages and potential limitations. PMID:25984391

  9. Autologous tenocyte therapy for experimental Achilles tendinopathy in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jimin; Yu, Qian; Wu, Bing; Lin, Zhen; Pavlos, Nathan J; Xu, Jiake; Ouyang, Hongwei; Wang, Allan; Zheng, Ming H

    2011-08-01

    Tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon is a chronic degenerative condition that frequently does not respond to treatment. In the current study, we propose that autologous tenocytes therapy (ATT) is effective in treating tendon degeneration in a collagenase-induced rabbit Achilles tendinopathy model. Chronic tendinopathy was created in the left Achilles tendon of 44 rabbits by an intratendonous injection of type I collagenase. Forty-two rabbits were randomly allocated into three groups of 14 and received control treatment; autologous tenocytes digested from tendon tissue; and autologous tenocytes digested from epitendineum tissue. For cell tracking in vivo, the remaining two animals were injected with autologous tenocytes labeled with a nano-scale super-paramagnetic iron oxide (Feridex). Rabbits were sacrificed at 4 and 8 weeks after the therapeutic injection, and tendon tissue was analyzed by histology, immunostaining, and biomechanical testing to evaluate tissue repair. Autologous tenocyte treatment improved tendon remodeling, histological outcomes, collagen content, and tensile strength of tendinopathic Achilles tendons. Injected tenocytes were integrated into tendon matrix and could be tracked up to 8 weeks in vivo. Immunohistochemistry showed that ATT improved type I collagen expression in repaired tendon but did not affect type III collagen and secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine expression. ATT may be a useful treatment of chronic Achilles tendinopathy.

  10. Phase I/II Trial of Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation with a Three-Dimensional Woven-Fabric Scaffold for Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Baba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative medicine is emerging as a promising option, but the potential of autologous stem cells has not been investigated well in clinical settings of periodontal treatment. In this clinical study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of a new regenerative therapy based on the surgical implantation of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs with a biodegradable three-dimensional (3D woven-fabric composite scaffold and platelet-rich plasma (PRP. Ten patients with periodontitis, who required a surgical procedure for intrabony defects, were enrolled in phase I/II trial. Once MSCs were implanted in each periodontal intrabony defect, the patients were monitored during 36 months for a medical exam including laboratory tests of blood and urine samples, changes in clinical attachment level, pocket depth, and linear bone growth (LBG. All three parameters improved significantly during the entire follow-up period (p<0.0001, leading to an average LBG of 4.7 mm after 36 months. Clinical mobility measured by Periotest showed a decreasing trend after the surgery. No clinical safety problems attributable to the investigational MSCs were identified. This clinical trial suggests that the stem cell therapy using MSCs-PRP/3D woven-fabric composite scaffold may constitute a novel safe and effective regenerative treatment option for periodontitis.

  11. Fingerprick autologous blood: a novel treatment for dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, J; Balal, S; Wawrzynski, J; Nesaratnam, N; Saleh, G M; Moore, J; Patel, A; Shah, S; Sharma, B; Kumar, B; Smith, J; Sharma, A

    2017-12-01

    PurposeDry eye syndrome (DES) causes significant morbidity. Trials of blood-derived products in treatment of the condition show promising results. However, their production is expensive and time-consuming. We investigate fingerprick autologous blood (FAB) as an alternative low-cost, readily accessible treatment for DES.Patients and methodsProspective, non-comparative, interventional case series. In total, 29 eyes of 16 DES patients (2 males and 14 females) from two NHS sites in the United Kingdom. Patients instructed to clean a finger, prick with a blood lancet, and apply a drop of blood to the lower fornix of the affected eye(s), 4 times daily for 8 weeks then stop and review 4 weeks later. Follow-up visits occurred ~3 days, 2, 4, 8 weeks into therapy, and 4 weeks post-cessation. At each visit, visual acuity, corneal staining, Schirmer's test, tear break-up time (TBUT), and ocular comfort index (OCI) were measured, and photographs taken. Results were analysed using Student's paired t-test.ResultsAt 8 weeks, there was improvement in mean Oxford corneal staining grade (3.31 to 2.07 (P<0.0001)), TBUT (5.00 to 7.80 s (P<0.05)), visual acuity (0.08 to 0.01 LogMAR equivalent (P<0.05)), and OCI score (56.03 to 39.72 (P<0.0001)). There was no statistically significant change in Schirmer's test results. Four weeks post-cessation versus immediately after completion of FAB therapy, mean staining grade worsened from 2.07 to 2.86 (P<0.0001). OCI score worsened from 39.72 to 44.67 (P<0.05).ConclusionsIn our limited case series FAB appears to be a safe and effective treatment for DES.

  12. Autologous Intravenous Mononuclear Stem Cell Therapy in Chronic Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhasin A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The regenerative potential of brain has led to emerging therapies that can cure clinico-motor deficits after neurological diseases. Bone marrow mononuclear cell therapy is a great hope to mankind as these cells are feasible, multipotent and aid in neurofunctional gains in Stroke patients. Aims: This study evaluates safety, feasibility and efficacy of autologous mononuclear (MNC stem cell transplantation in patients with chronic ischemic stroke (CIS using clinical scores and functional imaging (fMRI and DTI. Design: Non randomised controlled observational study Study: Twenty four (n=24 CIS patients were recruited with the inclusion criteria as: 3 months–2years of stroke onset, hand muscle power (MRC grade at least 2; Brunnstrom stage of recovery: II-IV; NIHSS of 4-15, comprehendible. Fugl Meyer, modified Barthel Index (mBI and functional imaging parameters were used for assessment at baseline, 8 weeks and at 24 weeks. Twelve patients were administered with mean 54.6 million cells intravenously followed by 8 weeks of physiotherapy. Twelve patients served as controls. All patients were followed up at 24 weeks. Outcomes: The laboratory and radiological outcome measures were within normal limits in MNC group. Only mBI showed statistically significant improvement at 24 weeks (p<0.05 whereas the mean FM, MRC, Ashworth tone scores in the MNC group were high as compared to control group. There was an increased number of cluster activation of Brodmann areas BA 4, BA 6 post stem cell infusion compared to controls indicating neural plasticity. Cell therapy is safe and feasible which may facilitate restoration of function in CIS.

  13. Scintigraphic detection of thrombi using indium-111-labeled autologous platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeoka, Kiyomitsu; Todo, Yasuhiro; Konishiike, Atsushi; Fujisue, Ryu; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Yasutomi, Nagao; Tanimoto, Masaho; Kawai, Yoshitaka; Iwasaki, Tadaaki

    1985-01-01

    Intracardiac and arterial thrombi were examined by scintigraphy using In-111-oxine labeled autologous platelets. 1. In 22 cases of myocardial infarction including six with ventricular aneurysms, four had positive findings of thrombi on imaging and detected also by echocardiography. All four had ventricular aneurysms. The so-called ''moya-moya'' echoes (fuzzy echoes) were demonstrated in two of these four cases. 2. We encountered two cases with positive findings on imaging in 13 with mitral valve disease. These two had systemic embolic episodes after scintigraphic examination. ''Moya-moya'' echoes were detected in the left atrial cavity in four with negative findings on imaging. 3. Positive images were obtained in two of three with acute arterial occlusive disease, and in both cases platelet deposition was observed in the proximal site of obstruction. Though thrombectomy was performed for one of these two cases, no thrombus was detected at the site of platelet deposition. After one month, re-examination revealed only negative findings in all sites in both these patients. 4. In the six cases of aortic aneurysm, three had platelet deposition within their aneurysms, and surgery was performed for these positive cases, but one of them had no thrombus. 5. Positive images were obtained in only one of seven patients with chronic arterial occlusive disease. 6. Coagulation tests and platelet studies were investigated for patients with positive or negative platelet scans. Only the data of the thrombo-test showed a significant difference (97 +- 9 % vs 23 +- 7 %, p < 0.001). Three cases of positive imaging became negative after anticoagulant therapy. 7. We tried ECT for eight cases 24 hours after injection of In-111-oxine labeled platelets. Three cases showed clear images of thrombi, while the planar images could not detect them at an early stage. Therefore, we propose that ECT can be a useful technique for diagnosing intracardiac thrombi in early stage. (author)

  14. Regeneration of Tissues and Organs Using Autologous Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony Atala, M D

    2012-10-11

    The proposed work aims to address three major challenges to the field of regenerative medicine: 1) the growth and expansion of regenerative cells outside the body in controlled in vitro environments, 2) supportive vascular supply for large tissue engineered constructs, and 3) interactive biomaterials that can orchestrate tissue development in vivo. Toward this goal, we have engaged a team of scientists with expertise in cell and molecular biology, physiology, biomaterials, controlled release, nanomaterials, tissue engineering, bioengineering, and clinical medicine to address all three challenges. This combination of resources, combined with the vast infrastructure of the WFIRM, have brought to bear on projects to discover and test new sources of autologous cells that can be used therapeutically, novel methods to improve vascular support for engineered tissues in vivo, and to develop intelligent biomaterials and bioreactor systems that interact favorably with stem and progenitor cells to drive tissue maturation. The Institute's ongoing programs are aimed at developing regenerative medicine technologies that employ a patient's own cells to help restore or replace tissue and organ function. This DOE program has provided a means to solve some of the vexing problems that are germane to many tissue engineering applications, regardless of tissue type or target disease. By providing new methods that are the underpinning of tissue engineering, this program facilitated advances that can be applied to conditions including heart disease, diabetes, renal failure, nerve damage, vascular disease, and cancer, to name a few. These types of conditions affect millions of Americans at a cost of more than $400 billion annually. Regenerative medicine holds the promise of harnessing the body's own power to heal itself. By addressing the fundamental challenges of this field in a comprehensive and focused fashion, this DOE program has opened new opportunities to treat

  15. Comparison of a plasma-based composite biologic sealant with fibrin glue (Tisseel) for vascular anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doillon, Charles J; Dion, Yves-Marie

    2004-12-01

    Biologic sealants are needed in numerous, more and more demanding, procedures--especially with developments occurring in endovascular and laparoscopic vascular techniques. An initial pilot study in dogs showed that a 4-cm aortotomy closed with a polyester patch sutured in place by a 4-mm-spaced running suture consistently led to massive hemorrhage. We then designed a study using five dogs where two aortotomies were done to compare the effect of Tisseel to that of an autologous sealant prepared in our laboratory. Arterial pressures and heparinization were maintained throughout the surgical procedure. Both biologic sealants prevented hemorrhage from the arteriotomy at unclamping. Macroscopic and histologic assessments were performed. At killing, one week later, the autologous sealant exhibited less blood saturation of the collagen sponge compared with Tisseel. The use of autologous plasma combined with other adhesive components could be an efficient alternative to allogenic fibrin glue. Further studies are needed to confirm these observations.

  16. In Vivo Study of Ligament-Bone Healing after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Autologous Tendons with Mesenchymal Stem Cells Affinity Peptide Conjugated Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxian Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning nanofibrous scaffold was commonly used in tissue regeneration recently. Nanofibers with specific topological characteristics were reported to be able to induce osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. In this in vivo study, autologous tendon grafts with lattice-like nanofibrous scaffold wrapping at two ends of autologous tendon were used to promote early stage of ligament-bone healing after rabbit ACL reconstruction. To utilize native MSCs from bone marrow, an MSCs specific affinity peptide E7 was conjugated to nanofibrous meshes. After 3 months, H-E assessment and specific staining of collagen type I, II, and III showed direct ligament-bone insertion with typical four zones (bone, calcified fibrocartilage, fibrocartilage, and ligament in bioactive scaffold reconstruction group. Diameters of bone tunnel were smaller in nanofibrous scaffold conjugated E7 peptide group than those in control group. The failure load of substitution complex also indicated a stronger ligament-bone insertion healing using bioactive scaffold. In conclusion, lattice-like nanofibrous scaffold with specific MSCs affinity peptide has great potential in promoting early stage of ligament-bone healing after ACL reconstruction.

  17. Platelet concentrates stored in plasma for 72 hours at 22 degrees C prepared from buffycoats of citrate-phosphate-dextrose blood collected in a quadruple-bag saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietersz, R. N.; Loos, J. A.; Reesink, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described to prepare platelet concentrates from the buffycoat of citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD) blood in a closed four-bag system and to store the platelets in autologous plasma under sterile conditions. After separation of the blood into plasma, buffycoat and leukocyte- and

  18. Gastrocnemius tendon strain in a dog treated with autologous mesenchymal stem cells and a custom orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, J Brad; Palmer, Ross; Valdes-Martinez, Alex; Egger, Erick L; Haussler, Kevin K

    2013-05-01

    To report clinical findings and outcome in a dog with gastrocnemius tendon strain treated with autologous mesenchymal stem cells and a custom orthosis. Clinical report. A 4-year-old spayed female Border Collie. Bone-marrow derived, autologous mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into the tendon core lesion. A custom, progressive, dynamic orthosis was fit to the tarsus. Serial orthopedic examinations and ultrasonography as well as long-term force-plate gait analysis were utilized for follow up. Lameness subjectively resolved and peak vertical force increased from 43% to 92% of the contralateral pelvic limb. Serial ultrasonographic examinations revealed improved but incomplete restoration of normal linear fiber pattern of the gastrocnemius tendon. Findings suggest that autologous mesenchymal stem cell transplantation with custom, progressive, dynamic orthosis may be a viable, minimally invasive technique for treatment of calcaneal tendon injuries in dogs. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  19. Plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates

  20. Enrichment of autologous fat grafts with ex-vivo expanded adipose tissue-derived stem cells for graft survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølle, Stig-Frederik Trojahn; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne; Mathiasen, Anders Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Autologous fat grafting is increasingly used in reconstructive surgery. However, resorption rates ranging from 25% to 80% have been reported. Therefore, methods to increase graft viability are needed. Here, we report the results of a triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare the survival ...... of fat grafts enriched with autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) versus non-enriched fat grafts....

  1. Is there evidence that barrier membranes prevent bone resorption in autologous bone grafts during the healing period? A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielkens, Pepijn F. M.; Bos, Ruud R. M.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Autologous bone is considered the "reference standard" for bone-grafting procedures. A barrier membrane covering an autologous bone graft (guided bone regeneration [GBR]) is expected to prevent graft resorption. Good clinical results have been reported for GBR, although potential

  2. Reduced use of allogeneic platelets through high-yield perioperative autologous plateletpheresis and reinfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Melissa; Bandarenko, Nicholas; Gaca, Jeffrey; Lockhart, Evelyn; Milano, Carmelo; Alexander, Stanlin; Linder, Dean; Lombard, Frederick W; Welsby, Ian J

    2014-05-01

    Intraoperative autologous platelet (PLT) collection as part of a multimodal blood conservation program carries a Class IIa recommendation from the Societies of Thoracic Surgeons and Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, but achieving a suitable PLT yield limits its application. A novel, autologous, intraoperative, high-yield plateletpheresis collection program was established and retrospectively analyzed to identify potential improvements over previously reported plateletpheresis protocols. Targeting complex cardiothoracic surgery patients without recent anti-PLT agents, thrombocytopenia, or severe anemia, the program aimed to achieve a PLT yield of at least one standard apheresis unit (3.0 × 10(11) ) within 60 to 90 minutes and using an automated plateletpheresis device (Trima, Terumo BCT). Anesthetized and invasively monitored patients underwent plateletpheresis via a large-bore, indwelling central line placed for the surgery. Collection-related data for quality control purposes and subsequent PLT transfusion requirements were analyzed and reported. Forty-two patients donated autologous PLTs between 2011 and 2012. PLT yield was 4.5 (3.9-5.0) × 10(11) , which significantly exceeds previously reported yields, and procedure duration was 53.2 (48.4-57.9) minutes. As anticipated, postcollection PLT count decreased from 268 (242-293) × 10(9) to 182 (163-201) × 10(9) /L; hypocalcemia was minimized by infusion of 1 g of CaCl2 . Autologous PLT yield was inversely correlated with allogeneic PLT use, and avoidance of allogeneic PLT transfusion was increased when the autologous yield was the equivalent of 2 or more apheresis units. High-yield, intraoperative autologous PLT collection is achievable using an automated plateletpheresis device. Initial experience shows a reduction in reliance on allogeneic PLTs for complex cardiothoracic surgery. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. Autologous Dendritic Cells Pulsed with Allogeneic Tumor Cell Lysate in Mesothelioma: From Mouse to Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Joachim G J V; de Goeje, Pauline L; Cornelissen, Robin; Kaijen-Lambers, Margaretha E H; Bezemer, Koen; van der Leest, Cor H; Mahaweni, Niken M; Kunert, André; Eskens, Ferry A L M; Waasdorp, Cynthia; Braakman, Eric; van der Holt, Bronno; Vulto, Arnold G; Hendriks, Rudi W; Hegmans, Joost P J J; Hoogsteden, Henk C

    2018-02-15

    Purpose: Mesothelioma has been regarded as a nonimmunogenic tumor, which is also shown by the low response rates to treatments targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. Previously, we demonstrated that autologous tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) immunotherapy increased T-cell response toward malignant mesothelioma. However, the use of autologous tumor material hampers implementation in large clinical trials, which might be overcome by using allogeneic tumor cell lines as tumor antigen source. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether allogeneic lysate-pulsed DC immunotherapy is effective in mice and safe in humans. Experimental Design: First, in two murine mesothelioma models, mice were treated with autologous DCs pulsed with either autologous or allogeneic tumor lysate or injected with PBS (negative control). Survival and tumor-directed T-cell responses of these mice were monitored. Results were taken forward in a first-in-human clinical trial, in which 9 patients were treated with 10, 25, or 50 million DCs per vaccination. DC vaccination consisted of autologous monocyte-derived DCs pulsed with tumor lysate from five mesothelioma cell lines. Results: In mice, allogeneic lysate-pulsed DC immunotherapy induced tumor-specific T cells and led to an increased survival, to a similar extent as DC immunotherapy with autologous tumor lysate. In the first-in-human clinical trial, no dose-limiting toxicities were established and radiographic responses were observed. Median PFS was 8.8 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.1-20.3] and median OS not reached (median follow-up = 22.8 months). Conclusions: DC immunotherapy with allogeneic tumor lysate is effective in mice and safe and feasible in humans. Clin Cancer Res; 24(4); 766-76. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Research progresses in treating diabetic foot with autologous stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Hanlin; Gao Bin

    2010-01-01

    Because the distal arteries of lower extremities become narrowed or even occluded in diabetic foot, the clinical therapeutic results for diabetic foot have been unsatisfactory so far. Autologous stem cell transplantation that has emerged in recent years is a new, safe and effective therapy for diabetic foot, which achieves its excellent clinical success in restoring the blood supply of ischemic limb by way of therapeutic angiogenesis. Now autologous stem cell transplantation has become one of the hot points in medical research both at home and abroad, moreover, it has brought a new hope of cure to the patients with diabetic foot. (authors)

  5. Protein incorporation by isolated amphibian oocytes. VI. Comparison of autologous and xenogeneic vitellogenins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, R A; Deufel, R A; Misulovin, Z

    1980-01-01

    1. Labeled vitellogenins were isolated from the sera of several amphibians, a turtle, and a pigeon, and were incubated in vitro with oocytes from Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens. 2. Oocytes from X. laevis sequestered vitellogenin from salamanders, turtle, and pigeon at rates comparable to that for autologous vitellogenin, while anuran vitellogenins were sequestered at somewhat lower rates. 3. Oocytes from R. pipiens sequestered X. laevis vitellogenin at a rate comparable to autologous vitellogenin, while salamander, turtle, and pigeon vitellogenins were sequestered at faster rates. 4. All vitellogenins examined appear to be recognized and incorporated specifically by X. laevis and R. pipiens oocytes.

  6. Myeloid regeneration after whole body irradiation, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and treatment with an anabolic steroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrus, C.M.; Ambrus, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    Stumptail monkeys (Macaca speciosa) received lethal whole-body radiation. Autologous bone marrow injection resulted in survival of the majority of the animals. Treatment with Deca-Durabolin, an anabolic steroid, caused more rapid recovery of colony-forming cell numbers in the bone marrow than in control animals. Both the Deca-Durabolin-treated and control groups were given autologous bone marrow transplantation. Anabolic steroid effect on transplanted bone marrow colony-forming cells may explain the increased rate of leukopoietic regeneration in anabolic steroid-treated animals as compared to controls

  7. Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cell Infusion (AMBI therapy for Chronic Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar JS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver Cirrhosis is the end stage of chronic liver disease which may happen due to alcoholism, viral infections due to Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C viruses and is difficult to treat. Liver transplantation is the only available definitive treatment which is marred by lack of donors, post operative complications such as rejection and high cost. Autologous bone marrow stem cells have shown a lot of promise in earlier reported animal studies and clinical trials. We have in this study administered in 22 patients with chronic liver disease, autologous bone marrow stem cell whose results are presented herewith.

  8. Chondrocyte-seeded type I/III collagen membrane for autologous chondrocyte transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemeyer, Philipp; Lenz, Philipp; Kreuz, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: We report the 2-year clinical results and identify prognostic factors in patients treated with autologous chondrocyte transplantation by use of a collagen membrane to seed the chondrocytes (ACT-CS). METHODS: This is a prospective study of 59 patients who were treated with ACT......-CS represents a technical modification of membrane-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation that combines easy handling and attractive application properties with reliable clinical results 24 months after surgery, especially in patients with isolated cartilage defects. Even though the failure rate...

  9. Successful autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for a patient with rapidly progressive localized scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Velu; Sharma, Ajay; Sharma, Sanjeevan; Das, Satyaranjan; Bhakuni, Darshan S; Narayanan, Krishnan; Nair, Vivek; Shankar, Subramanian

    2015-03-01

    Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) for rapidly progressive disease has not been reported in localized scleroderma. Our patient, a 16-year-old girl had an aggressive variant of localized scleroderma, mixed subtype (linear-generalized) with Parry Romberg syndrome, with no internal organ involvement, that was unresponsive to immunosuppressive therapy and was causing rapid disfigurement. She was administered autologous HSCT in June 2011 and has maintained drug-free remission with excellent functional status at almost 3.5 years of follow-up. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Autologous dental pulp stem cells in periodontal regeneration: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimetti, Mario; Ferrarotti, Francesco; Cricenti, Luca; Mariani, Giulia Maria; Romano, Federica

    2014-01-01

    Histologic findings in animal models suggest that the application of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) may promote periodontal regeneration in infrabony defects. This case report describes the clinical and radiographic regenerative potential of autologous DPSCs in the treatment of human noncontained intraosseous defects. A chronic periodontitis patient with one vital third molar requiring extraction was surgically treated. The third molar was extracted and used as an autologous DPSCs source to regenerate the infrabony defect on the mandibular right second premolar. At the 1-year examination, the defect was completely filled with bonelike tissue as confirmed through the reentry procedure.

  11. Pair plasma relaxation time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, A G; Ruffini, R; Vereshchagin, G V

    2010-04-01

    By numerically solving the relativistic Boltzmann equations, we compute the time scale for relaxation to thermal equilibrium for an optically thick electron-positron plasma with baryon loading. We focus on the time scales of electromagnetic interactions. The collisional integrals are obtained directly from the corresponding QED matrix elements. Thermalization time scales are computed for a wide range of values of both the total-energy density (over 10 orders of magnitude) and of the baryonic loading parameter (over 6 orders of magnitude). This also allows us to study such interesting limiting cases as the almost purely electron-positron plasma or electron-proton plasma as well as intermediate cases. These results appear to be important both for laboratory experiments aimed at generating optically thick pair plasmas as well as for astrophysical models in which electron-positron pair plasmas play a relevant role.

  12. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: MHD plasma activity: equilibrium, stability and transport; statistical analysis; transport studies; edge physics studies; wave propagation analysis; basic plasma physics and fluid dynamics; space plasma; and numerical methods

  13. Autologous Immune Enhancement Therapy for Cancer - Our experience since 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Terunuma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer, the major killer disease of the century requires a multi-pronged approach and among the latest modalities of treatments, Immunotherapy occupies a promising role. Immunotherapy for cancer was first started to be practised in the NIH and cell based immunotherapy for cancer is in practice for the past three decades. [1, 2] There are several literatures from various countries on the successful application of cell based Immunotherapies for various solid tumours and haematological malignancies. [3-8] Our team’s association with immune cells started when I was working on RNA transcriptome analysis to understand the immune system in HIV carriers which in turn required in vitro expansion of human Natural Killer (NK cells. [9] This led to the customization of protocols which has resulted in successful in vitro expansion, activation of NK cells and T cells for Immunotherapy. The purpose of Biotherapy institute of Japan (BIJ is to support research and clinical application of immune cells like NK cells, γδT cells, αβT cells, Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL and Dendritic cells (DC for application as Autologous Immune Enhancement Therapy (AIET to fight against cancer. AIET using NK cells, CTLs, DCs etc have been administered for more than 5000 patients since 2004 till date by BIJ. Principle of AIET: For AIET using NK cells, the process involves separation of lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of the patient followed by selective NK cell expansion using the expansion kit (BINKIT, BIJ, JAPAN without feeder layers and then infusion of the expanded-activated NK cells. [10,11] As reports suggest that the activity of peripheral blood NK cells are lower in cancer patients compared to normal individuals [12] and as in vitro expansion of NK cells increases the cytotoxic ability 5 to 10 fold, [13] the NK cells are expanded in vivo and then infused to the patient in AIET. We are also working on combination immunotherapy using NK cells and CTLs and also NK

  14. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  15. Des-γ-Carboxy Prothrombin (DCP as a Potential Autologous Growth Factor for the Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Sheng Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP is a prothrombin precursor produced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Because of deficiency of vitamin K or γ-glutamyl carboxylase in HCC cells, the 10 glutamic acid (Glu residues in prothrombin precursor did not completely carboxylate to γ-carboxylated glutamic acid (Gla residues, leaving some Glu residues remained in N-terminal domain. These prothrombin precursors with Glu residues are called DCPs. DCP displays insufficient coagulation activity. Since Liebman reported an elevated plasma DCP in patients with HCC, DCP has been used in the diagnosis of HCC. Recently, its biological malignant potential has been specified to describe DCP as an autologous growth factor to stimulate HCC growth and a paracrine factor to integrate HCC with vascular endothelial cells. DCP was found to stimulate HCC growth through activation of the DCP-Met-JAK1-STAT3 signaling pathway. DCP might increase HCC invasion and metastasis through activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs and the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. DCP has also been found to play a crucial role in the formation of angiogenesis. DCP could increase the angiogenic factors released from HCC and vascular endothelial cells. These effects of DCP in angiogenesis might be related to activation of the DCP-KDR-PLC-γ-MAPK signaling pathway. In this article, we summarized recent studies on DCP in biological roles related to cancer progression and angiogenesis in HCC.

  16. Thymus cells in myasthenia gravis selectively enhance production of anti-acetylcholine-receptor antibody by autologous blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsom-Davis, J.; Willcox, N.; Calder, L.

    1981-01-01

    We investigated the role of the thymus in 16 patients with myasthenia gravis without thymoma by studying the production of anti-acetylcholine-receptor antibody by thymic and blood lymphocytes cultured alone or together. In 10 responders (with the highest receptor-antibody titers in their plasma), cultured thymic cells spontaneously produced measurable receptor antibody. Receptor-antibody production by autologous blood lymphocytes was enhanced by the addition of responder's thymic cells, irradiated to abrogate antibody production and suppression (P<0.01). This enhancement was greater and more consistent than that by pokeweed mitogen; it depended on viable thymic cells, appeared to be selective for receptor antibody, and correlated with the ratio of thymic helper (OKT4-positive or OKT4+) to suppressor (OKT8+) T cells (P<0.01). These results suggest that myasthenic thymus contains cell-bound acetylcholine-receptor-like material or specific T cells (or both) that can aid receptor-antibody production. This may be relevant to the benefits of thymectomy in myasthenia and to the breakdown in self-tolerance in this and other autoimmune diseases

  17. Thymus cells in myasthenia gravis selectively enhance production of anti-acetylcholine-receptor antibody by autologous blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom-Davis, J.; Willcox, N.; Calder, L.

    1981-11-26

    We investigated the role of the thymus in 16 patients with myasthenia gravis without thymoma by studying the production of anti-acetylcholine-receptor antibody by thymic and blood lymphocytes cultured alone or together. In 10 responders (with the highest receptor-antibody titers in their plasma), cultured thymic cells spontaneously produced measurable receptor antibody. Receptor-antibody production by autologous blood lymphocytes was enhanced by the addition of responder's thymic cells, irradiated to abrogate antibody production and suppression (P<0.01). This enhancement was greater and more consistent than that by pokeweed mitogen; it depended on viable thymic cells, appeared to be selective for receptor antibody, and correlated with the ratio of thymic helper (OKT4-positive or OKT4+) to suppressor (OKT8+) T cells (P<0.01). These results suggest that myasthenic thymus contains cell-bound acetylcholine-receptor-like material or specific T cells (or both) that can aid receptor-antibody production. This may be relevant to the benefits of thymectomy in myasthenia and to the breakdown in self-tolerance in this and other autoimmune diseases.

  18. Plasma physics aspects of ETF/INTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Rutherford, P.R.; Schmidt, J.A.; Cohn, D.R.; Miller, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    In order to achieve their principle technical objectives, the Engineering Test Facility (ETF) and the International Tokomak Reactor (INTOR) will require an ignited (or near ignited) plasma, sustained for pulse lengths of at least 100 secs at a high enough plasma pressure to provide a neutron wall loading of at least 1.3 MW/m 2 . The ignited plasma will have to be substantially free of impurities. Our current understanding of major plasma physics characters is summarized

  19. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  20. Histologic Evidence of New Collagen Formulation Using Platelet Rich Plasma in Skin Rejuvenation: A Prospective Controlled Clinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abuaf, Ozlem Karabudak; Yildiz, Hamza; Baloglu, H?seyin; Bilgili, Memet Ersan; Simsek, Hasan Aktug; Dogan, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    Background Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous concentration of human platelets contained in a small volume of plasma and has recently been shown to accelerate rejuvenate aging skin by various growth factors and cell adhesion molecules. Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intradermal injection of PRP in the human facial rejuvenation. Methods This study was a prospective, single-center, single-dose, open-label, non-randomized controlled clinical st...

  1. Specific Factors Influence the Success of Autologous and Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thissiane L. Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, both autologous and allogeneic, requires a rapid and durable engraftment, with neutrophil (>500/µL and platelet (>20,000/µL reconstitution. Factors influencing engraftment after autologous or allogeneic HSCT were investigated in 65 patients: 25 autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation (PBSCT and 40 allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT patients. The major factor affecting engraftment was the graft source for HSCT. Neutrophil and platelet recovery were more rapid in autologous PBSCT than in allogeneic BMT [neutrophil occurring in median on day 10.00 (09.00/11.00 and 19.00 (16.00/23.00 and platelet on day 11.00 (10.00/13.00 and 21.00 (18.00/25.00, respectively; p < 0.0001]. The type of disease also affected engraftment, where multiple myeloma (MM and lymphoma showed faster engraftment when compared with leukemia, syndrome myelodysplastic (SMD and aplastic anemia (AA and MM presented the best overall survival (OS in a period of 12 months. Other factors included the drug used in the conditioning regimen (CR, where CBV, melphalan (M-200 and FluCy showed faster engraftment and M-200 presented the best OS, in a period of 12 months and age, where 50–59 years demonstrated faster engraftment. Sex did not influence neutrophil and platelet recovery.

  2. Poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guides perform better than autologous nerve grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DenDunnen, WFA; VanderLei, B; Schakenraad, JM; Stokroos, [No Value; Blaauw, E; Pennings, AJ; Robinson, PH; Bartels, H.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the speed and quality of nerve regeneration after reconstruction using a biodegradable nerve guide or an autologous nerve graft. We evaluated nerve regeneration using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and morphometric analysis. Nerve regeneration

  3. Biodegradable p(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides versus autologous nerve grafts : Electromyographic and video analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Nicolai, JPA; Gramsbergen, A; van der Werf, J.F.A.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional effects of bridging a gap in the sciatic nerve of the rat with either a biodegradable copolymer of (DL)-lactide and epsilon -caprolactone [p(DLLA-epsilon -CL)] nerve guide or an autologous nerve graft. Electromyograms (EMGs) of the gastrocnemius

  4. Injection Pharyngoplasty With Autologous Fat as Treatment for Stress Velopharyngeal Insufficiency in Brass and Woodwind Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamal, Mausumi N; Bryson, Paul C

    2017-02-01

    Stress velopharyngeal insufficiency (SVPI) is an uncommon but often career-threatening condition affecting professional brass and woodwind musicians. To review the evaluation of and treatment for SVPI in professional musicians with lipoinjection to the posterior pharyngeal wall. A retrospective medical record and literature review. Two professional musicians with SVPI treated with autologous lipoinjection to the posterior pharyngeal wall were included. Nasopharyngoscopy was performed while patients played their instrument both before and after injection. To assess the effectiveness of autologous fat injection to the posterior pharyngeal wall to treat stress velopharyngeal insufficiency in 2 professional instrumentalists. Successful treatment was the absence of VPI during playing as visualized by flexible nasopharyngoscopy. After autologous lipoinjection of the posterior pharyngeal wall, 1 patient resumed full play with complete resolution, now 3 years after lipoinjection pharyngoplasty. The other patient received temporary resolution. Both had no surgical complications. Stress VPI is often a career-threatening condition for professional brass and woodwind musicians, with a cited incidence of 34%. Various treatment options in the literature include observation, speech and language pathology referral for pharyngeal strengthening, lipoinjection of the soft palate, and more invasive options, such as sphincter pharyngoplasty, pharyngeal flaps and V-Y pushback. Autologous fat injection pharyngoplasty of the posterior pharyngeal wall may be a less invasive treatment option for musicians with SVPI.

  5. Autologous transplantation of the internal limiting membrane for refractory macular holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizane, Yuki; Shiraga, Fumio; Kimura, Shuhei; Hosokawa, Mio; Shiode, Yusuke; Kawata, Tetsuhiro; Hosogi, Mika; Shirakata, Yukari; Okanouchi, Toshio

    2014-04-01

    To determine the effectiveness of autologous transplantation of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) for refractory macular holes. Prospective, interventional case series. Ten eyes of 10 consecutive patients who underwent autologous transplantation of the ILM for the treatment of refractory macular holes were studied. The primary diseases in these patients were large idiopathic macular holes that had existed for more than 1 year (4 eyes), a traumatic macular hole (1 eye), myopic foveoschisis (2 eyes), foveoschisis resulting from pit-macular syndrome (2 eyes), and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (1 eye). Apart from the 5 eyes with idiopathic or traumatic macular holes, macular holes developed in the other 5 eyes after initial vitrectomies with ILM removal. In all eyes, regular macular hole surgery failed to achieve closure. The main outcome measures used in this study were macular hole closure and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Macular holes were closed successfully in 9 eyes (90%) after autologous transplantation of the ILM. The postoperative BCVAs were significantly better than the preoperative BCVAs (P = .007, paired t test). Postoperative BCVAs improved by more than 0.2 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution units in 8 eyes (80%) and were unchanged in 2 eyes (20%). Although this is a pilot study, the results suggest that autologous transplantation of the ILM may contribute to improved anatomic and visual outcomes in the treatment of refractory macular holes and may warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Specifically activated memory T cell subsets from cancer patients recognize and reject xenotransplanted autologous tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckhove, Philipp; Feuerer, Markus; Dolenc, Mathias; Schuetz, Florian; Choi, Carmen; Sommerfeldt, Nora; Schwendemann, Jochen; Ehlert, Katrin; Altevogt, Peter; Bastert, Gunther; Schirrmacher, Volker; Umansky, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    Bone marrow of breast cancer patients was found to contain CD8+ T cells specific for peptides derived from breast cancer–associated proteins MUC1 and Her-2/neu. Most of these cells had a central or effector memory phenotype (CD45RA–CD62L+ or CD45RA–CD62L–, respectively). To test their in vivo function, we separated bone marrow–derived CD45RA+ naive or CD45RA–CD45RO+ memory T cells, stimulated them with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with tumor lysate, and transferred them into NOD/SCID mice bearing autologous breast tumors and normal skin transplants. CD45RA– memory but not CD45RA+ naive T cells infiltrated autologous tumor but not skin tissues after the transfer. These tumor-infiltrating cells had a central or effector memory phenotype and produced perforin. Many of them expressed the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 and were found around P-selectin+ tumor endothelium. Tumor infiltration included cluster formation in tumor tissue by memory T cells with cotransferred dendritic cells. It was associated with the induction of tumor cell apoptosis and significant tumor reduction. We thus demonstrate selective homing of memory T cells to human tumors and suggest that tumor rejection is based on the recognition of tumor-associated antigens on tumor cells and dendritic cells by autologous specifically activated central and effector memory T cells. PMID:15232613

  7. Reaming debris as a novel source of autologous bone to enhance healing of bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.D.; Kroeze, R.J.; Korstjens, C.; de Kleine, R.H.; Frolke, J.P.M.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2011-01-01

    Reaming debris is formed when bone defects are stabilized with an intramedullary nail, and contains viable osteoblast-like cells and growth factors, and might thus act as a natural osteoinductive scaffold. The advantage of using reaming debris over stem cells or autologous bone for healing bone

  8. Reaming debris as a novel source of autologous bone to enhance healing of bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Astrid D.; Kroeze, Robert Jan; Korstjens, Clara; de Kleine, Ruben H.; Frolke, Jan Paul M.; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    Reaming debris is formed when bone defects are stabilized with an intramedullary nail, and contains viable osteoblast-like cells and growth factors, and might thus act as a natural osteoinductive scaffold. The advantage of using reaming debris over stem cells or autologous bone for healing bone

  9. Autologous orbicularis muscle for filling facial folds-an experimental and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellini, Silvana Artioli; Hirai, Flavio Eduardo; Hoyama, Erika; Mattos, Maila Karina; Chaves, Fernando Rodrigo; Pellizon, Claudia Helena; Padovani, Carlos Roberto

    2009-01-01

    To present a technique for filling facial folds by using autologous orbicularis oculi muscle, based on an experimental model. two studies are presented: (1) an experimental study using 15 albino guinea-pigs from which a strip of the sural triceps muscle was removed and implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of the dorsal area. The animals were sacrificed 7, 30 and 60 days after the implantation, and the material was histologically evaluated. And (2) an interventional prospective clinical trial carried out on 20 patients referred to blepharoplasty surgery. They received autologous preseptal orbicularis muscle for filling facial folds. The results where evaluated by patients satisfaction and clinical exam. the sural tricep muscle, when implanted in the subcutaneous tissue, resulted in fibrosis. The patients whom received autologous orbicularis muscle implanted for filling facial folds showed that the procedure can be successfully carried out. autologous preseptal orbicularis muscle is a good material for filling facial folds. Cicatricial tissue will be formed on its implantation site, filling the tissue gap that forms the folds on the skin.

  10. Autologous fat transplantation for depressed linear scleroderma-induced facial atrophic scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Mi Ryung; Jung, Jin Young; Chung, Kee Yang

    2008-12-01

    Facial linear scleroderma results in depressed atrophic scars. Autologous fat transplantation has been widely used, and fat appears to be an ideal material for filling depressed atrophic scars and contour deformities, but long-term results for autologous fat transplantation are controversial. To review the short- and long-term results of 20 patients who underwent multiple autologous fat transplantations for depressed atrophic scar correction. Twenty patients with clinically inactive facial linear scleroderma were included. They received at least two transplantations and had a 12-month follow-up evaluation. On the forehead, 51% to 75% improvement (average grading scale: 2.4) was achieved when observed at least 12 months after the last treatment. For the chin, correction was poor (average grading scale: 0.7) with less than 25% improvement. The infraorbital area showed fair correction, but the nose showed poor correction. Two of three patients with scalp reduction surgery showed excellent results, showing only slight scar widening. Autologous fat transplantation is an effective method for long-term correction of depressed atrophic scars left by linear scleroderma on the forehead but is less effective for corrections on the nose, infraorbital area, and chin.

  11. Evidences of autologous fat grafting for the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINÍCIUS ZOLEZI DA SILVA

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Introduction Since the 1980s, the use of autologous fat grafting has been growing in plastic surgery. Recently, this procedure has come to be used as a treatment for keloids and hypertrophic scars mainly due to the lack of satisfactory results with other techniques. So far, however, it lacks more consistent scientific evidence to recommend its use. The aim of this study was to review the current state of autologous fat grafting for the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars, their benefits and scientific evidences in the literature. Method A review in the Pubmed database was performed using the keywords “fat grafting and scar”, “fat grafting and keloid scar” and “fat grafting and hypertrophic scar.” Inclusion criteria were articles written in English and published in the last 10 years, resulting in 15 studies. Results These articles indicate that autologous fat grafting carried out at sites with pathological scars leads to a reduction of the fibrosis and pain, an increased range of movement in areas of scar contraction, an increase in their flexibility, resulting in a better quality of scars. Conclusion So far, evidences suggest that autologous fat grafting for the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars is associated with a better quality of scars, leading to esthetic and functional benefits. However, this review has limitations and these findings should be treated with reservations, since they mostly came from studies with low levels of evidence.

  12. IgM-specific serodiagnosis of acute human cytomegalovirus infection using recombinant autologous fusion proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vornhagen, R; Hinderer, W; Sonneborn, HH; Bein, G; Matter, L; The, T. Hauw; Enders, G; Jahn, G; Plachter, B

    Portions of three human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) polypeptides, which were shown previously to be highly reactive with patient sera, were expressed in Escherichia coli as autologous fusion proteins. Purified recombinant polypeptides were used as antigens in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and

  13. Detecting autologous blood transfusions: a comparison of three passport approaches and four blood markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkeberg, J; Sharpe, K; Belhage, B

    2011-01-01

    Blood passport has been suggested as an indirect tool to detect various kinds of blood manipulations. Autologous blood transfusions are currently undetectable, and the objective of this study was to examine the sensitivities of different blood markers and blood passport approaches in order to det...

  14. Lysis of fresh human solid tumors by autologous lymphocytes activated in vitro with lectins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumder, A.; Grimm, E.A.; Zhang, H.Z.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), obtained from patients with a variety of cancers, were incubated in vitro with phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and crude or lectin-free T-cell growth factors. The lectin-activated PBL of nine patients were capable of lysing fresh autologous tumor during a 4-hr 51Cr release assay. Multiple metastases from the same patient were equivalently lysed by these activated autologous PBL. No lysis of fresh PBL or lectin-induced lymphoblast cell targets was seen, although tumor, PBL, and lymphoblast cells were shown to be equally lysable using allosensitized cells. The activated cells could be expanded without loss of cytotoxicity in crude or lectin-free T-cell growth factors. The generation of cells lytic to fresh autologous tumor was dependent on the presence of adherent cells, although the lytic cell itself was not adherent. Proliferation was not involved in the induction of lytic cells since equal lysis was induced in irradiated and nonirradiated lymphocytes. Lectin was not required in the lytic assay, and the addition of alpha-methyl-D-mannoside to concanavalin A-activated lymphoid cells did not increase the lysis of fresh tumor cells. Activation by lectin for 3 days appears to be an efficient and convenient method for generating human cells lytic to fresh autologous tumor. These lytic cells may be of value for studies of the cell-mediated lysis of human tumor and possibly for tumor immunotherapy as well

  15. Successful autologous Stem Cell transplantation in a woman with Severe Systemic Sclerosis, refractory to immunosuppressive therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Elsa; Arbelaez, Ana M; Avila P, Luz M; Benjamin O, Juan Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The following case presents a 49 year-old patient with diffuse SSc and poor evolution given by rapidly progressive of severe skin and lung involvement, who had undergone autologous stem cell transplantation in December 2008. Sustained improvement of skin thickening and of major organ involvement was achieved at six months.

  16. Autologous bone marrow transplantation following chemotherapy and irradiation in dogs with spontaneous lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, C.A.; Bull, M.; McCormick, K.; Kadin, M.; Lucas, D.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty dogs with spontaneous lymphomas were administered two to six cycles of chemotherapy and were randomized into 3 groups to receive 800 rads of total body irradiation and autologous bone marrow transplantation. Of 10 dogs irradiated after chemotherapy-induced remission and infused with remission marrow (group 1), 8 (80%) had successful grafts and experienced remissions lasting 62 to 1024 days. Of 9 dogs irradiated during remission and infused with remission marrow mixed with autologous tumor cells (group 2), 6 (66%) had remission lasting 15 to 45 days. Eleven dogs with progressive tumor growth (relapse) following chemotherapy were irradiated and infused with remission marrow (group 3). Tumor remission lasting 39 to 350 days was observed in 5 dogs (45%) in this group, and 6 dogs died in less than 30 days. Dogs in groups 1 to 3 had median survival times of 216, 60, and 45 days, respectively. The prolonged survival times for dogs in group 1 compared to dogs in groups 2 and 3 suggest that protocols involving irradiation and autologous marrow grafting in this model would be most effective when these protocols are applied to animals having a minimum tumor burden at the time of irradiation and when the grafting is done with tumor-free autologous marrow

  17. Experimental results and clinical impact of using autologous rectus fascia sheath for vascular replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobori, Laszlo; Nemeth, Tibor; Nagy, Peter; Dallos, Gabor; Sotonyi, Peter; Fehervari, Imre; Nemes, Balazs; Gorog, Denes; Patonai, Attila; Monostory, Katalin; Doros, Attila; Sarvary, Enikoe; Fazakas, Janos; Gerlei, Zsuzsanna; Benkoe, Tamas; Piros, Laszlo; Jaray, Jeno; De Jong, Koert P.

    Vascular complications are major causes of graft failure in liver transplantation. The use of different vascular grafts is common but the results are controversial. The aim of this study was to create an 'ideal' arterial interponate for vascular replacements in the clinical field. An autologous,

  18. Severe encephalopathy after high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support for brain tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berkmortel, F.; Gidding, C.; de Kanter, M.; Punt, C. J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Recurrent medulloblastoma carries a poor prognosis. Long-term survival has been obtained with high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation and secondary irradiation. A 21-year-old woman with recurrent medulloblastoma after previous chemotherapy and radiotherapy is presented. The

  19. [Construction of a capsular tissue-engineered ureteral stent seeded with autologous urothelial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Haisong; Fu, Weijun; Li, Jianqiang; Wang, Zhongxin; Li, Gang; Ma, Xin; Dong, Jun; Gao, Jiangping; Wang, Xiaoxiong; Zhang, Xu

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of constructing a capsular poly L-lactic acid (PLLA) ureteral stent seeded with autologous urothelial cells using tissue engineering methods. The capsular ureteral stent was constructed by subcutaneously embedding PLLA ureteral stent in the back of beagles for 3 weeks to induce the formation of connective tissue on the surfaces. After decellularization of the stent, the expanded autologous urothelial cells were seeded on the stent. The surface structure and cell adhesion of the stent were observed using HE staining, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and immunocytochemical staining. MTT assay was used to evaluate urothelial cell proliferation on the capsular PLLA ureteral stent and on circumferential small intestinal submucosa graft. HE staining and VIII factor immunohistochemistry revealed numerous capillaries in the connective tissue encapsulating the stent without obvious local inflammatory response. The results of SEM and immunocytochemical staining showed that the capsule contained rich collagenic fibers forming three-dimensional structures, and the seeded autologous urothelial cells could adhere and well aligned on the surface. MTT assay showed normal growth of the cells on the stent as compared with the cells grown on circumferential small intestinal submucosa graft. The capsular PLLA ureteral stent allows adhesion and proliferation of autologous urothelial cells and shows a potential in applications of constructing tissue-engineered ureter.

  20. Unicameral bone cysts: a comparison of injection of steroid and grafting with autologous bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H S; Oh, J H; Kim, H-S; Kang, H G; Lee, S H

    2007-02-01

    Open surgery is rarely justified for the initial treatment of a unicameral bone cyst, but there is some debate concerning the relative effectiveness of closed methods. This study compared the results of steroid injection with those of autologous bone marrow grafting for the treatment of unicameral bone cysts. Between 1990 and 2001, 30 patients were treated by steroid injection and 28 by grafting with autologous bone marrow. The overall success rates were 86.7% and 92.0%, respectively (p>0.05). The success rate after the initial procedure was 23.3% in the steroid group and 52.0% in those receiving autologous bone marrow (p0.05). The mean number of procedures required was 2.19 (1 to 5) and 1.57 (1 to 3) (p0.05), and the rate of recurrence after the initial procedure was 41.7% and 13.3% in the steroid and in the autologous bone marrow groups, respectively (p<0.05). Although the overall rates of success of both methods were similar, the steroid group had higher recurrence after a single procedure and required more injections to achieve healing.

  1. Hemolytic uremic syndrome after high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lelie, H.; Baars, J. W.; Rodenhuis, S.; Van Dijk, M. A.; de Glas-Vos, C. W.; Thomas, B. L.; van Oers, R. H.; von dem Borne, A. E.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy intensification may lead to new forms of toxicity such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. METHODS: Three patients are described who developed this complication 4 to 6 months after high dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell support. The literature on this subject is

  2. Multiple congenitally missing teeth: treatment outcome with autologous transplantation and orthodontic space closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Giuseppe; Vecchione, Pietro

    2007-11-01

    Treatment for patients with congenitally missing teeth can be challenging. The treatment options include retaining the deciduous teeth, extracting the deciduous teeth and allowing the space to close spontaneously, implant replacement, autotransplantation, prosthetic replacement, and orthodontic space closure. Autologous transplantation and space closure with orthodontic appliances are demonstrated in this case report.

  3. Intrathecal application of autologous bone marrow cell preparations in parkinsonian syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storch, Alexander; Csoti, Ilona; Eggert, Karla

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of patients is treated with intrathecal application of autologous bone marrow cells (aBMCs), but clinical data are completely lacking in movement disorders. We provide first clinical data on efficacy and safety of this highly experimental treatment approach in parkinsonian...

  4. No positive effect of autologous platelet gel after total knee arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerbooms, Joost C.; de Wolf, Gideon S.; Colaris, Joost W.; Bruijn, Daniël J.; Verhaar, Jan A. N.

    2009-01-01

    Activated platelets release a cocktail of growth factors, some of which are thought to stimulate repair. We investigated whether the use of autologous platelet gel (PG) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) would improve wound healing and knee function, and reduce blood loss and the use of analgesics.

  5. Platelet lysate as an autologous alternative for fetal bovine serum in cardiovascular tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riem Vis, P.W.; Bouten, C.V.C.; Sluijter, J.P.G.; Herwerden, van L.A.; Kluin, J.

    2010-01-01

    There is an ongoing search for alternative tissue culture sera to engineer autologous tissues, since use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) is limited under Good Tissue Practice (GTP) guidelines. We compared FBS with human Platelet-lysate (PL) in media for in vitro cell culture. A threefold increase in

  6. beta-TCP Versus Autologous Bone for Repair of Alveolar Clefts in a Goat Model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, A. de; Meijer, G.J.; Dormaar, T.; Janssen, N.; Bilt, A. van der; Slootweg, P.J.; Bruijn, J. de; Rijn, L. van; Koole, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective : The aim of this study in goats was to test the hypothesis that a novel synthetic bone substitute beta tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) can work as well as autologous bone harvested from the iliac crest for grafting and repair of alveolar clefts. Design : Ten adult Dutch milk goats ( Capra

  7. Management of vocal fold scar with autologous fat implantation: perceptual results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, M C; Sataloff, R T; Abaza, M M; Hawkshaw, M J; Reiter, D; Spiegel, J R

    2001-06-01

    Vocal fold scar disrupts the mucosal wave and interferes with glottic closure. Treatment involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes voice therapy, medical management, and sometimes surgery. We reviewed the records of the first eight patients who underwent autologous fat implantation for vocal fold scar. Information on the etiology of scar, physical findings, and prior interventions were collected. Videotapes of videostroboscopic findings and perceptual voice ratings [Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain (GRBAS)] were randomized and analyzed independently by four blinded observers. Etiology of scar included mass excision (7), vocal fold stripping (3), congenital sulcus (2), and hemorrhage (1). Prior surgical procedures performed included thyroplasty (1), autologous fat injection (9), excision of scar (2), and lysis of adhesions (2). Strobovideolaryngoscopy: Statistically significant improvement was found in glottic closure, mucosal wave, and stiffness (P = 0.05). Perceptual ratings (GRBAS): Statistically significant improvement was found in all five parameters, including overall Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, and Strain (P = 0.05). Patients appear to have improved vocal fold function and quality of voice after autologous fat implantation in the vocal fold. Autologous fat implantation is an important adjunctive procedure in the management of vocal fold scar, and a useful addition to the armamentarium of the experienced phonomicrosurgeon.

  8. Investigation of an autologous blood treatment strategy for temporomandibular joint hypermobility in a pig model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štembírek, Jan; Matalová, Eva; Buchtová, Marcela; Machoň, V.; Míšek, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 3 (2013), s. 369-375 ISSN 0901-5027 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0528 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : temporomandibular joint * pig * autologous blood * hypermobility Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.359, year: 2013

  9. Characteristic complications after autologous chondrocyte implantation for cartilage defects of the knee joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemeyer, Philipp; Pestka, Jan M; Kreuz, Peter C

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a well-established therapy for the treatment of isolated cartilage defects of the knee joint, little is known about typical complications and their treatment after ACI. HYPOTHESIS: Unsatisfactory outcome after ACI is associated...

  10. High thermal load receiving heat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibutani, Jun-ichi; Shibayama, Kazuhito; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Uchida, Takaho.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a high thermal load heat receiving plate such as a divertor plate of a thermonuclear device. The high thermal load heat receiving plate of the present invention has a cooling performance capable of suppressing the temperature of an armour tile to less than a threshold value of the material against high thermal loads applied from plasmas. Spiral polygonal pipes are inserted in cooling pipes at a portion receiving high thermal loads in the high temperature load heat receiving plate of the present invention. Both ends of the polygonal pipes are sealed by lids. An area of the flow channel in the cooling pipes is thus reduced. Heat conductivity on the cooling surface of the cooling pipes is increased in the high thermal load heat receiving plate having such a structure. Accordingly, temperature elevation of the armour tile can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  11. [Optimization on trehalose loading technique as protective conditioning for lyophilization of human platelets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Han; Zhou, Jun; Ouyang, Xi-Lin; Li, Xi-Jin; Lu, Fa-Qiang

    2005-08-01

    This study was aimed to further optimize trehalose