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Sample records for autologous peripheral monocytes

  1. Reticuloendothelial cell function in autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA): studies on the mechanism of peripheral monocyte activation.

    OpenAIRE

    Sunada,Mitsutoshi; Suzuki, Shinya; Ota, Zensuke

    1985-01-01

    We examined the activity of peripheral blood monocytes in patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) using an in vitro assay of monocyte-macrophage interaction with erythrocytes and an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay. The monocytes of AIHA patients in the hemolyzing period phagocytized autologous sensitized red cells and anti-D coated red cells more avidly than normal control monocytes. There was no significant relationship between phagocytic activity and ADCC...

  2. Reticuloendothelial cell function in autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA: studies on the mechanism of peripheral monocyte activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunada,Mitsutoshi

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined the activity of peripheral blood monocytes in patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA using an in vitro assay of monocyte-macrophage interaction with erythrocytes and an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC assay. The monocytes of AIHA patients in the hemolyzing period phagocytized autologous sensitized red cells and anti-D coated red cells more avidly than normal control monocytes. There was no significant relationship between phagocytic activity and ADCC activity. The activated monocytes phagocytized autologous sensitized red cells, but had no ADCC activity in a short time 51Cr release assay. Phagocytic activity of the patients' monocytes against autologous erythrocytes rapidly decreased after treatment with prednisolone even though the red cell sensitization with antibody remained almost the same as during the hemolyzing period. We postulated that the activation of monocytes in AIHA was due to the "arming" effect of anti-erythrocyte antibody, but we think that other mechanisms may also be involved in the activation of monocytes.

  3. Monocytes are required to prime peripheral blood T cells to undergo apoptosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, M. X.; Daley, J F; Rasmussen, R A; Schlossman, S F

    1995-01-01

    Freshly isolated, human peripheral blood T (PBT) cells are largely resistant to the apoptotic effects of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, ionomycin, or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). We demonstrate here, however, that PBT cells, including both CD4+ and CD8+ cell populations, can be readily induced to undergo apoptosis when cocultured with either autologous or allogeneic monocytes (Mo) in PMA-containing medium. Incubation of PBT cells with Mo at a ratio of 1:1 for 18 hr resulted in maxima...

  4. Phenotypic and functional characteristics of dendritic cells derived from human peripheral blood monocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ling-ling; ZHANG Zhe; ZHENG Jie-sheng; SHENG Ji-fang; LIU Ke-zhou

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study is aimed at developing a simple and easy way to generate dendritic cells (DCs) from human peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) in vitro. Methods: PBMCs were isolated directly from white blood cell rather than whole blood and purified by patching methods (collecting the attached cell and removing the suspension cell). DCs were then generated by culturing PBMCs for six days with 30 ng/ml recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) and 20 ng/ml recombinant human interleukin-4 (rhIL-4) in vitro. On the sixth day, TNF-alpha (TNFα) 30 ng/ml was added into some DC cultures, which were then incubated for two additional days. The morphology was monitored by light microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy, and the phenotypes were determined by flow cytometry. Autologous mixed leukocyte reactions (MLR) were used to characterize DC function after TNFα or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulations for 24 h. Results: After six days of culture, the monocytes developed significant dendritic morphology and a portion of cells expressed CD 1 a, CD80 and CD86, features of DCs. TNFα treatment induced DCs maturation and up-regulation of CD80, CD86 and CD83. Autologous MLR demonstrated that these DCs possess potent T-cell stimulatory capacity. Conclusion: This study developed a simple and easy way to generate DCs from PBMCs exposed to rhGM-CSF and rhIL-4. The DCs produced by this method acquired morphologic and antigenic characteristics of DCs.

  5. Peripheral monocytes are functionally altered and invade the CNS in ALS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zondler, Lisa; Müller, Kathrin; Khalaji, Samira; Bliederhäuser, Corinna; Ruf, Wolfgang P; Grozdanov, Veselin; Thiemann, Meinolf; Fundel-Clemes, Katrin; Freischmidt, Axel; Holzmann, Karlheinz; Strobel, Benjamin; Weydt, Patrick; Witting, Anke; Thal, Dietmar R; Helferich, Anika M; Hengerer, Bastian; Gottschalk, Kay-Eberhard; Hill, Oliver; Kluge, Michael; Ludolph, Albert C; Danzer, Karin M; Weishaupt, Jochen H

    2016-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting primarily the upper and lower motor neurons. A common feature of all ALS cases is a well-characterized neuroinflammatory reaction within the central nervous system (CNS). However, much less is known about the role of the peripheral immune system and its interplay with CNS resident immune cells in motor neuron degeneration. Here, we characterized peripheral monocytes in both temporal and spatial dimensions of ALS pathogenesis. We found the circulating monocytes to be deregulated in ALS regarding subtype constitution, function and gene expression. Moreover, we show that CNS infiltration of peripheral monocytes correlates with improved motor neuron survival in a genetic ALS mouse model. Furthermore, application of human immunoglobulins or fusion proteins containing only the human Fc, but not the Fab antibody fragment, increased CNS invasion of peripheral monocytes and delayed the disease onset. Our results underline the importance of peripheral monocytes in ALS pathogenesis and are in agreement with a protective role of monocytes in the early phase of the disease. The possibility to boost this beneficial function of peripheral monocytes by application of human immunoglobulins should be evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:26910103

  6. Peripheral Blood Monocyte Gene Expression Profile Clinically Stratifies Patients With Recent-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Irvine, Katharine M.; Gallego, Patricia; An, Xiaoyu; Best, Shannon E.; Thomas, Gethin; Wells, Christine; Harris, Mark; Cotterill, Andrew; Thomas, Ranjeny

    2012-01-01

    Novel biomarkers of disease progression after type 1 diabetes onset are needed. We profiled peripheral blood (PB) monocyte gene expression in six healthy subjects and 16 children with type 1 diabetes diagnosed ∼3 months previously and analyzed clinical features from diagnosis to 1 year. Monocyte expression profiles clustered into two distinct subgroups, representing mild and severe deviation from healthy control subjects, along the same continuum. Patients with strongly divergent monocyte gen...

  7. Phenotypic, functional, and quantitative characterization of canine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages

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    R Bueno

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The yield as well as phenotypic and functional parameters of canine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages were analyzed. The cells that remained adherent to Teflon after 10 days of culture had high phagocytic activity when inoculated with Leishmania chagasi. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that more than 80% of cultured cells were positive for the monocyte/macrophage marker CD14.

  8. Differential induction from X-irradiated human peripheral blood monocytes to dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are a type of antigen-presenting cell which plays an essential role in the immune system. To clarify the influences of ionizing radiation on the differentiation to DCs, we focused on human peripheral blood monocytes and investigated whether X-irradiated monocytes can differentiate into DCs. The non-irradiated monocytes and 5 Gy-irradiated monocytes were induced into immature DCs (iDCs) and mature DCs (mDCs) with appropriate cytokine stimulation, and the induced cells from each monocyte expressed each DC-expressing surface antigen such as CD40, CD86 and HLA-DR. However, the expression levels of CD40 and CD86 on the iDCs derived from the 5 Gy-irradiated monocytes were higher than those of iDCs derived from non-irradiated monocytes. Furthermore, the mDCs derived from 5 Gy-irradiated monocytes had significantly less ability to stimulate allogeneic T cells in comparison to the mDCs derived from non-irradiated monocytes. There were no significant differences in the phagocytotic activity of the iDCs and cytokines detected in the supernatants conditioned by the DCs from the non-irradiated and irradiated monocytes. These results suggest that human monocytes which are exposed to ionizing radiation can thus differentiate into DCs, but there is a tendency that X-irradiation leads to an impairment of the function of DCs. (author)

  9. Up-Front Autologous Stem-Cell Transplantation in Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Amore, Francesco; Relander, Thomas; Lauritzsen, Grete F; Jantunen, Esa; Hagberg, Hans; Anderson, Harald; Holte, Harald; Osterborg, Anders; Merup, Mats; Brown, Peter De Nully; Kuittinen, Outi; Erlanson, Martin; Ostenstad, Bjørn; Fagerli, Unn-Merete; Gadeberg, Ole Vestergaard; Sundström, Christer; Delabie, Jan; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth; Vornanen, Martine; Toldbod, Helle

    2012-01-01

    Systemic peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) respond poorly to conventional therapy. To evaluate the efficacy of a dose-dense approach consolidated by up-front high-dose chemotherapy (HDT) and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) in PTCL, the Nordic Lymphoma Group (NLG) conducted a large...

  10. Characteristic DNA methylation profiles in peripheral blood monocytes are associated with inflammatory phenotypes of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawardhana, Lakshitha P; Gibson, Peter G; Simpson, Jodie L.; Benton, Miles C.; Rodney A. Lea; Baines, Katherine J

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic changes including DNA methylation caused by environmental exposures may contribute to the heterogeneous inflammatory response in asthma. Here we investigate alterations in DNA methylation of purified blood monocytes that are associated with inflammatory phenotypes of asthma. Peripheral blood was collected from adults with eosinophilic asthma (EA; n = 21), paucigranulocytic asthma (PGA; n = 22), neutrophilic asthma (NA; n = 9), and healthy controls (n = 10). Blood monocytes were iso...

  11. Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in children and adolescents with non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gui, Wei; Su, Liping; He, Jianxia; WANG, LIEYANG; Guan, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT) in children and adolescents with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Ten patients with NHL were analyzed retrospectively. In all the patients, lymph node enlargement was most frequently detected. Patients with a mediastinal mass presented with a cough, palpitation and shortness of breath. Extranodal patients presented with abdominal pain, inability to walk and vaginal bleeding...

  12. Peripheral monocyte functions and activation in patients with quiescent Crohn's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schwarzmaier

    Full Text Available Recent developments suggest a causal link between inflammation and impaired bacterial clearance in Crohn's disease (CD due to alterations of intestinal macrophages. Studies suggest that excessive inflammation is the consequence of an underlying immunodeficiency rather than the primary cause of CD pathogenesis. We characterized phenotypic and functional features of peripheral blood monocytes of patients with quiescent CD (n = 18 and healthy controls (n = 19 by analyses of cell surface molecule expression, cell adherence, migration, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and cytokine expression and secretion with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS priming. Peripheral blood monocytes of patients with inactive CD showed normal expression of cell surface molecules (CD14, CD16, CD116, adherence to plastic surfaces, spontaneous migration, chemotaxis towards LTB4, phagocytosis of E. coli, and production of reactive oxygen species. Interestingly, peripheral blood monocytes of CD patients secreted higher levels of IL1β (p<.05. Upon LPS priming we found a decreased release of IL10 (p<.05 and higher levels of CCL2 (p<.001 and CCL5 (p<.05. The expression and release of TNFα, IFNγ, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL13, IL17, CXCL9, and CXCL10 were not altered compared to healthy controls. Based on our phenotypic and functional studies, peripheral blood monocytes from CD patients in clinical remission were not impaired compared to healthy controls. Our results highlight that defective innate immune mechanisms in CD seems to play a role in the (inflamed intestinal mucosa rather than in peripheral blood.

  13. The role of hepatocyte growth factor in the differentiation of dendritic cells from peripheral blood monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to find out the effects of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the development of dendritic cells (DC) from the peripheral monocytes. The study was carried out in Black Sea Technical Hospital, Trabzon, Turkey between 2003-2004. Seven different cytokines combinations were employed to assess phenotypical and functional differences of DCs from the peripheral monocytes in serum free culture media. Peripheral monocytes were incubated in media with cytokines for 5 days. The tumor necrosis factor-aplha (TNF-alpha) was added to the cell culture on day 5 and incubated for another 2 days. Surface and co-stimulating molecules on the cells were assessed by flowcytometry. The functional capacity of the DCs was evaluated on day 7 by purified protein derivative loading and subsequent lymphoproliferation test using methyl tetrazolium staining. On the 5th day of incubation DC development was observed in all cytokine groups, but cells were superior in cultures maintained in the presence of interleukin-4 combinations with granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or with GM-CSF+HGF. Moreover, the expression of surface and co-stimulating molecules increased significantly after incubation with TNF-alpha. The effect of PPD loaded-DCs on proliferation of lymphocytes was more striking in HGF containing groups. It was concluded that HGF supplemented cultures exert some additive effects in relation to function of monocyte-derived DCs. But HGF alone does not seem to augment monocyte-derived DC proliferation and maturation significantly. (author)

  14. Autologous bone marrow cell therapy for peripheral arterial disease

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    Botti C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available C Botti, C Maione, A Coppola, V Sica, G CobellisDepartment of General Pathology, Second University of Naples, Naples, ItalyAbstract: Inadequate blood supply to tissues caused by obstruction of arterioles and/or capillaries results in ischemic injuries – these injuries can range from mild (eg, leg ischemia to severe conditions (eg, myocardial infarction, stroke. Surgical and/or endovascular procedures provide cutting-edge treatment for patients with vascular disorders; however, a high percentage of patients are currently not treatable, owing to high operative risk or unfavorable vascular involvement. Therapeutic angiogenesis has recently emerged as a promising new therapy, promoting the formation of new blood vessels by the introduction of bone marrow–derived stem and progenitor cells. These cells participate in the development of new blood vessels, the enlargement of existing blood vessels, and sprouting new capillaries from existing blood vessels, providing evidence of the therapeutic utility of these cells in ischemic tissues. In this review, the authors describe peripheral arterial disease, an ischemic condition affecting the lower extremities, summarizing different aspects of vascular regeneration and discussing which and how stem cells restore the blood flow. The authors also present an overview of encouraging results from early-phase clinical trials using stem cells to treat peripheral arterial disease. The authors believe that additional research initiatives should be undertaken to better identify the nature of stem cells and that an intensive cooperation between laboratory and clinical investigators is needed to optimize the design of cell therapy trials and to maximize their scientific rigor. Only this will allow the results of these investigations to develop best clinical practices. Additionally, although a number of stem cell therapies exist, many treatments are performed outside international and national regulations and many

  15. Autologous peripheral hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in a patient with refractory pemphigus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effectiveness of autologous peripheral hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in the treatment of refractory pemphigus.A 35-year-old male patient presented with a 4-year history of recurrent bullae on his trunk and extremities.The diagnosis of pemphigus was made on the basis of the clinical,histologic and immunofluorescence findings.The patient had shown resistance to conventional therapy with glucocorticoid and immunosuppressive agents.Two months before admission,he complained of hip joint pain.X-ray and CT scan revealed aseptic necrosis of the femoral head.Stem-cell mobilization was achieved by treatment with cyclophosphamide,granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)and rituximab.Peripheral blood stem cells were collected via leukapheresis and cryopreserved for later use.Immunoablation was accomplished by using cyclophosphamide(200 mg/kg;divided into 50 mg/kg on days-5,-4,-3,and-2),antithymocyte globulin(ATG;10 mg/kg;divided into 2.5 mg/kg on days-6,-5,-4,and-3),and rituximab (1200 mg/d;divided into 600 mg/d on days 0 and 7).Autologous peripheral hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was followed by reconstitution of the immune system which was monitored by flow cytometry.The glucocorticoid was withdrawn immediately after transplantation.The pemphigus titer turned negative 6 weeks after transplantation and remained negative.The patient was in complete drug-free remission with no evidence of residual clinical or serological activity of pemphigus during 1 year of followup.The patient's response suggests that autologous peripheral hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be a potential "cure" for refractory pemphigus.However,further studies are needed to evaluate the risk-benefit ratio of this approach in patients with pemphigus showing resistance to conventional therapy.

  16. Treatment of radiation exposure and regeneration medicine. Regeneration treatment of blood vessels by transplantation of autologous marrow monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described are usefulness and future view of regenerative medicine in the treatment of radiation exposure as exemplified by the vascular regeneration by autologous marrow cell transplantation. Vascular endothelial cells (VEC), possessing a high ability to divide, are known sensitive to radiation, which gives damage of blood vessel to alter its permeability leading to apoptosis of VEC, organ/tissue injuries and final damages in the cerebral blood vessels, central nervous system and skin, the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Authors present successful cases of patients with chronic limb ischemia in the Therapeutic Angiogenesis using Cell Transplantation Trial (TACT), to whom the treatment is conducted with transplantation of autologous marrow monocyte fraction containing endothelial progenitor cells that differentiate to VEC. As well, they touch on a case of the patient encountered in a nuclear accident, mentioning that VEC are found partly derived from the donor after heamatopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Efficacy of HSCT in a literature is reviewed and commented to be an only limited one in 31 patients of various radiation accidents. However, treatment of ARS where stem cells are target, with regenerative medicine will become more useful in future, as basic and clinical researches will provide requisite findings. (T.I.)

  17. Interleukin-10 inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced upregulation of tissue factor in canine peripheral blood monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Seigo; Stokol, Tracy

    2012-08-15

    The potentially fatal hemostatic disorder of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is initiated in bacterial sepsis by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tissue factor (TF) expression on monocytes. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a potent inhibitory cytokine that downregulates monocyte inflammatory and procoagulant responses. We hypothesized that canine recombinant IL-10 (rIL-10) would inhibit LPS-induced TF upregulation on canine monocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), obtained by double-density gradient centrifugation, and monocytes, purified from PBMC by immunomagnetic bead separation with an anti-canine CD14 antibody (Ab), were stimulated in suspension with LPS (0.1-1000 ng/mL) for various times. Recombinant IL-10 (10-5000 pg/mL) was added with LPS or up to 2h later. Tissue factor procoagulant activity was measured by cleavage of a chromogenic substrate by activated Factor X generated by the TF-factor VII complex. We found that rIL-10, when given concurrently or 1h after LPS, strongly inhibited LPS-induced TF procoagulant activity in canine PBMC and monocytes. This inhibition was dose-dependent and blocked by an anti-canine IL-10 Ab. Our results indicate that rIL-10 effectively inhibits LPS-induced TF upregulation in canine monocytes and could potentially be useful in limiting the development of DIC in dogs with endotoxemia. PMID:22609246

  18. Ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes in peripheral blood in patients diagnosed with active tuberculosis

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    Jun Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes in peripheral blood could reflect an indi- vidual's immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes and clinical status of patients with active tuberculosis.Methods:This was a retrospective review of data collected from the clinical database of The Fifth People's Hospital of Wuxi, Medical College of Jiangnan University. A total of 419 patients who had newly diagnosed active tuberculosis and 108 cases from 419 patients with tuberculosis therapy either near completion or completed were selected. Controls were 327 healthy donors.Results:Median ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes was 0.36 (IQR, 0.22-0.54 in patients before treatment, and 0.16 (IQR, 0.12-0.20 in controls (p25% was significant predictors for active tuberculosis (OR = 114.73, 95% CI, 39.80-330.71; OR = 89.81, 95% CI, 53.18-151.68, respectively. After treatment, the median ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes recovered to be nearly normal. Compared to other patients, patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis and of age >60 years were more likely to have extreme ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes (AOR = 2.57, 95% CI, 1.08-6.09; AOR = 4.36, 95% CI, 1.43-13.29, respectively.Conclusions:Ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes 25% is predictive of active tuberculosis.

  19. Characterization of osteoclasts derived from CD14+ monocytes isolated from peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Grøndahl; Henriksen, Kim; Schaller, Sophie; Henriksen, Dennis Bang; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Karsdal, Morten Asser

    2007-01-01

    resorption. We have established a pure, stable, and reproducible system for purification of human osteoclasts from peripheral blood. We isolated CD14-positive (CD14+) monocytes using anti-CD14-coated beads. After isolation, the monocytes are differentiated into mature osteoclasts by stimulation with...... demonstrated that actin rings were only formed in the presence of RANKL. Moreover, the osteoclasts were capable of forming acidic resorption lacunae, and inhibitors of lysosomal acidification attenuated this process. Finally, we measured the response to known bone resorption inhibitors, and found that the...

  20. Activation of monocytes and cytokine production in patients with peripheral atherosclerosis obliterans

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    Lastória Sidney

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arterial peripheral disease is a condition caused by the blocked blood flow resulting from arterial cholesterol deposits within the arms, legs and aorta. Studies have shown that macrophages in atherosclerotic plaque are highly activated, which makes these cells important antigen-presenting cells that develop a specific immune response, in which LDLox is the inducing antigen. As functional changes of cells which participate in the atherogenesis process may occur in the peripheral blood, the objectives of the present study were to evaluate plasma levels of anti-inflammatory and inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IFN-γ, interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-β in patients with peripheral arteriosclerosis obliterans, to assess the monocyte activation level in peripheral blood through the ability of these cells to release hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and to develop fungicidal activity against Candida albicans (C. albicans in vitro. Methods TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-β from plasma of patients were detected by ELISA. Monocyte cultures activated in vitro with TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma were evaluated by fungicidal activity against C. albicans by culture plating and Colony Forming Unit (CFU recovery, and by H2O2 production. Results Plasma levels of all cytokines were significantly higher in patients compared to those detected in control subjects. Control group monocytes did not release substantial levels of H2O2 in vitro, but these levels were significantly increased after activation with IFN-γ and TNF-α. Monocytes of patients, before and after activation, responded less than those of control subjects. Similar results were found when fungicidal activity was evaluated. The results seen in patients were always significantly smaller than among control subjects. Conclusions: The results revealed an unresponsiveness of patient monocytes in vitro probably due to the high activation process occurring in vivo as corroborated by high

  1. [Outcomes of using autologous peripheral-blood stem cells in patients with chronic lower arterial insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, A V; Kiiasov, A P; Plotnikov, M V; Maianskaia, S D; Shamsutdinova, I I; Gazizov, I M; Mavlikeev, M O

    2011-01-01

    Presented herein are the outcomes of using autologous peripheral blood stem cells (SCs) in patients with stage II В lower limb chronic obliterating diseases (according to A.V. Pokrovsky's classification). Autologous SCs had previously been stimulated by means of the recombinant granulocytic colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) for five days. On day six, we performed mobilization of the peripheral blood stem cells on the MSC+ unit by means of leukopheresis followed by intramuscular administration of half of the obtained dose into the affected extremity. The mean number of the transplanted mononuclears amounted to 6.73 ± 2.2 x 10(9) cells, with the number of CD34+ cells averaging 2.94 ± 2.312 x 10(7). Assessing the therapeutic outcomes at 3 and 6 months of follow-up showed a statistically significant increase in the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) [being at baseline 0.59 ± 0.04, at 3 months - 0.66 ± 0.04 (P=0.001), and after 6 months - 0.73 ± .08 (P=0.035)], accompanied and followed by improved measures of the treadmill test, with the pain-free walking distance at baseline equalling 102.2 ± 11.55 m, after 3 months - 129 ± 11.13 m (P<0.001), and after 6 months - 140 ± 13.11 m=0.021 vs baseline). The findings of the immunohistochemical study confirmed the development of neoangiogenesis in the skeletal muscle and a 25 percent increase in the capillary-network density following administration of autologous stem cells into the muscle. The method of transplanting peripheral-blood autologous stem cells for treatment of patients presenting with distal forms of chronic obliterating insufficiency of the lower limbs proved safe and efficient. The findings obtained during this study made it possible to recommend extending the indications for its application at the expense of patients with critical ischaemia. PMID:21983456

  2. Increased microRNA-155 expression in the serum and peripheral monocytes in chronic HCV infection

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    Bala Shashi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C Virus (HCV, a single stranded RNA virus, affects millions of people worldwide and leads to chronic infection characterized by chronic inflammation in the liver and in peripheral immune cells. Chronic liver inflammation leads to progressive liver damage. MicroRNAs (miRNA regulate inflammation (miR-155, -146a and -125b as well as hepatocyte function (miR-122. Methods Here we hypothesized that microRNAs are dysregulated in chronic HCV infection. We examined miRNAs in the circulation and in peripheral monocytes of patients with chronic HCV infection to evaluate if specific miRNA expression correlated with HCV infection. Results We found that monocytes from chronic HCV infected treatment-naïve (cHCV but not treatment responder patients showed increased expression of miR-155, a positive regulator of TNFα, and had increased TNFα production compared to monocytes of normal controls. After LPS stimulation, miR-155 levels were higher in monocytes from cHCV patients compared to controls. MiR-125b, which has negative regulatory effects on inflammation, was decreased in cHCV monocytes compared to controls. Stimulation of normal monocytes with TLR4 and TLR8 ligands or HCV core, NS3 and NS5 recombinant proteins induced a robust increase in both miR-155 expression and TNFα production identifying potential mechanisms for in vivo induction of miR-155. Furthermore, we found increased serum miR-155 levels in HCV patients compared to controls. Serum miR-125b and miR-146a levels were also increased in HCV patients. Serum levels of miR-122 were elevated in cHCV patients and correlated with increased ALT and AST levels and serum miR-155 levels. Conclusion In conclusion, our novel data demonstrate that miR-155, a positive regulator of inflammation, is upregulated both in monocytes and in the serum of patients with chronic HCV infection. Our study suggests that HCV core, NS3, and NS5 proteins or TLR4 and TLR8 ligands can mediate

  3. Transcatheter Arterial Infusion of Autologous CD133+ Cells for Diabetic Peripheral Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Lian, Weishuai; Lou, Wensheng; Han, Shilong; Lu, Chenhui; Zuo, Keqiang; Su, Haobo; Xu, Jichong; Cao, Chuanwu; Tang, Tao; Jia, Zhongzhi; Jin, Tao; Uzan, Georges; Gu, Jianping; Li, Maoquan

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular lesion in diabetic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) still cannot be resolved by current surgical and interventional technique. Endothelial cells have the therapeutic potential to cure microvascular lesion. To evaluate the efficacy and immune-regulatory impact of intra-arterial infusion of autologous CD133+ cells, we recruited 53 patients with diabetic PAD (27 of CD133+ group and 26 of control group). CD133+ cells enriched from patients' PB-MNCs were reinfused intra-arterially. The ulcer healing followed up till 18 months was 100% (3/3) in CD133+ group and 60% (3/5) in control group. The amputation rate was 0 (0/27) in CD133+ group and 11.54% (3/26) in control group. Compared with the control group, TcPO2 and ABI showed obvious improvement at 18 months and significant increasing VEGF and decreasing IL-6 level in the CD133+ group within 4 weeks. A reducing trend of proangiogenesis and anti-inflammatory regulation function at 4 weeks after the cells infusion was also found. These results indicated that autologous CD133+ cell treatment can effectively improve the perfusion of morbid limb and exert proangiogenesis and anti-inflammatory immune-regulatory impacts by paracrine on tissue microenvironment. The CD133+ progenitor cell therapy may be repeated at a fixed interval according to cell life span and immune-regulatory function. PMID:26981134

  4. Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in malignancies involving bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, S; Leone, G; Teofili, L; Pierelli, L; Menichella, G; Di Mario, A; Paoloni, A; Iovino, M S; Bizzi, B

    1991-03-01

    Six patients suffering from refractory malignancies (3 NHL, 1 MM, 1 AML, 1 neuroblastoma) received high dose of chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT). The recruitment of PBSC was performed using conventional salvatage schedules of therapy. The patients received a median of 8.69 MNC/kg bw and 20.87 CFU-GM x 10(4)/kg bw. Prompt engraftment occurred in all patients and the median number of days to achieve WBC greater than 1 x 10(9)/l was 16.5 (range 7-26), PMN greater than 0.5 x 10(9)/l was 21.5 (range 6-37) and PLTs greater than 50 x 10(9)/l was 17.5 (range 4-31). Four patients achieved a complete remission. One patient (neuroblastoma) died of progressive disease after a partial response. One patient died in relapse because of drug related toxicity. PMID:1677914

  5. Controversies in autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in peripheral T/NK-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustov, Andrei

    2013-03-01

    Peripheral T-cell and NK-cell lymphomas (PT/NKCL) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoid neoplasms with poor outcomes. There is no consensus on the best front line therapy or management of relapsed/refractory disease. The use of autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been studied in both settings to improve outcomes. Multiple retrospective and several prospective trials were reported. While at first sight the outcomes in the relapsed/refractory setting appear similar in B-cell and T-cell lymphomas when treated with high dose therapy (HDT) and autologous HCT, it is becoming obvious that only specific subtypes of PTCL benefit from this approach (i.e. anaplastic large cell lymphoma [ALCL] and angioimmunoblastic lymphoma [AITL] in second CR). In less favorable histologies, HDT seems to provide limited benefit, with the majority of patients experiencing post-transplant relapse. The use of autologous HCT to consolidate first remission has been evaluated in several prospective trials. Again, the best results were observed in ALCL, but the superiority of this approach over chemotherapy alone needs confirmation in randomized trials. In less favorable histologies, high-dose consolidation resulted in low survival rates comparable to those obtained with chemotherapy alone, and without randomized trials it is hard to recommend this strategy to all patients with newly diagnosed PT/NKCL. Allogeneic HCT might provide potent and potentially curative graft-vs-lymphoma effect and overcome chemotherapy resistance. Only a few studies have been reported to date on allogeneic HCT in PT/NKCL. Based on available data, eligible patients benefit significantly from this approach, with 50% or more patients achieving long-term disease control or cure, although at the expense of significant treatment related mortality (TRM). Reduced-intensity conditioning regimens appear to have lower TRM and might extend this approach to older patients. With the recent approval of

  6. [High dosage therapy and autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation in breast carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier, P; Ruckser, R; Buxhofer, V; Habertheuer, K H; Zelenka, P; Tatzreiter, G; Hübl, G; Kittl, E; Hauser, A; Sebesta, C; Hinterberger, W

    2000-01-01

    42 breast cancer patients were treated by high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous peripheral stem-cell transplantation (ASTx) in the Donauspital between 1992 and 1999. 24 patients had stage II/III breast cancer with high risk for relapse. The other 18 patients underwent HDC and ASTx in chemosensitive stage IV. After previous conventional chemotherapy peripheral stem-cells were harvested by one cycle of mobilisation chemotherapy (epirubicin/taxol, FEC 120 or cyclophosphamide) followed by cytokine stimulation. 16 patients were treated by a tandem transplantation (conditioning protocol for 1st ASTx was melphalan 200 mg/m2 and for 2nd transplant it was CTC: cyclophosphamide 6 g/m2; thiotepa 500 mg/m2; carboplatin 800 mg/m2). The other 26 patients received one HDC with CTC as conditioning protocol. The HDC was well tolerated by all patients, there was no transplant-related mortality. The median survival and the progression-free survival (PFS) after HDC and ASTx in stage IV breast cancer patients were 28 and 11 months, respectively. The median survival and PFS were not yet reached in stage II/III patients after 55 months. The actuarial survival and PFS in that patient group were 70% after 55 months. Our data confirm the low risk and good efficacy of HDC and ASTx in breast cancer patients. Nevertheless randomised studies are necessary to evaluate the importance of HDC compared to intensified conventional protocols without ASTx. PMID:11261276

  7. Prognostic significance of peripheral monocyte count in patients with extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL) has heterogeneous clinical manifestations and prognosis. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic impact of absolute monocyte count (AMC) in ENKL, and provide some immunologically relevant information for better risk stratification in patients with ENKL. Retrospective data from 163 patients newly diagnosed with ENKL were analyzed. The absolute monocyte count (AMC) at diagnosis was analyzed as continuous and dichotomized variables. Independent prognostic factors of survival were determined by Cox regression analysis. The AMC at diagnosis were related to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with ENKL. Multivariate analysis identified AMC as independent prognostic factors of survival, independent of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and Korean prognostic index (KPI). The prognostic index incorporating AMC and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), another surrogate factor of immune status, could be used to stratify all 163 patients with ENKL into different prognostic groups. For patients who received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (102 cases), the three AMC/ALC index categories identified patients with significantly different survivals. When superimposed on IPI or KPI categories, the AMC/ALC index was better able to identify high-risk patients in the low-risk IPI or KPI category. The baseline peripheral monocyte count is shown to be an effective prognostic indicator of survival in ENKL patients. The prognostic index related to tumor microenvironment might be helpful to identify high-risk patients with ENKL

  8. Altered Peripheral Blood Monocyte Phenotype and Function in Chronic Liver Disease: Implications for Hepatic Recruitment and Systemic Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Gadd

    Full Text Available Liver and systemic inflammatory factors influence monocyte phenotype and function, which has implications for hepatic recruitment and subsequent inflammatory and fibrogenic responses, as well as host defence.Peripheral blood monocyte surface marker (CD14, CD16, CD163, CSF1R, CCR2, CCR4, CCR5, CXCR3, CXCR4, CX3CR1, HLA-DR, CD62L, SIGLEC-1 expression and capacity for phagocytosis, oxidative burst and LPS-stimulated TNF production were assessed in patients with hepatitis C (HCV (n = 39 or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD (n = 34 (classified as non-advanced disease, compensated cirrhosis and decompensated cirrhosis and healthy controls (n = 11 by flow cytometry.The selected markers exhibited similar monocyte-subset-specific expression patterns between patients and controls. Monocyte phenotypic signatures differed between NAFLD and HCV patients, with an increased proportion of CD16+ non-classical monocytes in NAFLD, but increased expression of CXCR3 and CXCR4 in HCV. In both cohorts, monocyte CCR2 expression was reduced and CCR4 elevated over controls. CD62L expression was specifically elevated in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and positively correlated with the model-for-end-stage-liver-disease score. Functionally, monocytes from patients with decompensated cirrhosis had equal phagocytic capacity, but displayed features of dysfunction, characterised by lower HLA-DR expression and blunted oxidative responses. Lower monocyte TNF production in response to LPS stimulation correlated with time to death in 7 (46% of the decompensated patients who died within 8 months of recruitment.Chronic HCV and NAFLD differentially affect circulating monocyte phenotype, suggesting specific injury-induced signals may contribute to hepatic monocyte recruitment and systemic activation state. Monocyte function, however, was similarly impaired in patients with both HCV and NAFLD, particularly in advanced disease, which likely contributes to the increased

  9. Canine PHA-stimulated adherent cell enhance interferon-gamma production and proliferation of autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Kaori; Momoi, Yasuyuki; Iwasaki, Toshiroh

    2005-03-01

    Dendritic cells are specialized antigen-presenting cells with immuno-modulating functions that are attractive for clinical applications for cancer immunotherapy. This study examined immunostimulatory functions of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated adherent cells (PHA-Ad cells) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in dogs. PHA-Ad cells enhanced interferon-gamma from autologous PBMC in vitro. PHA-Ad cells also stimulated antigen-independent proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. These results suggest that PHA-Ad cells from PBMC possess a stimulatory function to evoke anti-tumour immunity and that they demonstrate potential for therapeutic applications in dogs. PMID:19379211

  10. FUCOIDIN INHIBITS OXIDIZED LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN FROM INDUCING HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONOCYTE EXPRESSION OF PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES mRNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷新军; 马爱群; 任冰稳; 耿涛; 张葳; 白玲

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the significance of scavenger receptor class A(SR-A)in mediating human peripheral blood monocyte to uptake oxidized low density lipoprotein(OxLDL) and promoting the atherosclerotic immuno-pathological lesion in the local blood vessel. Methods With the Digoxenin-labeled Oligonucleotide-probes In situ Hybridization, this research investigated the effects of OxLDL on the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines including MCP-1, bFGF, PDGF and IL-10 in the human peripheral blood monocyte and whether fucoidin, a peculiarly inhibitory ligand for SR-A, would influence this process. Results Monocyte was significantly increased the mRNA expression of MCP-1, bFGF, PDGF and IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner after incubating with OxLDL (10,15,20,25,30·mg·L-1, respectively)for 24 hours(P<0.001). Fucoidin(50,100,150,200,250·mg·mL-1, respectively)completely inhibited OxLDL(20·mg·L-1)from inducing monocyte the mRNA expression of above proinflammatory cytokines(P<0.001). Conclusion OxLDL can stimulate human peripheral blood monocyte to give expression to proinflammatory cytokines mRNA in a dose-dependent manner, while a peculiarly inhibitory ligand for SR-A-fucoidin has an obviously opposed role.

  11. Human peripheral blood monocytes display surface antigens recognized by monoclonal antinuclear antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors used monoclonal anti-nuclear autoantibodies and indirect immunofluorescence to examine normal human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes for the presence of cell surface nuclear antigens. Only one monoclonal anti-histone antibody (MH-2) was found to bind to freshly isolated PBL, staining approximately 10% of large cells. However, after cells were placed into culture for 16-24 h, a high percentage (up to 60%) of large-sized cells were recognized by an anti-DNA (BWD-1) and several different antihistone monoclonal antibodies (BWH-1, MH-1, and MH-2). These antibodies recognize separate antigenic determinants on chromatin and histones extracted from chromatin. The histone antigen-positive cells were viable, and the monoclonal antibodies could be shown to be binding to the cell surface and not to the nucleus. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for monocytes and T cells, and complement-mediated cytotoxicity, the cells bearing histone antigens were shown to be primarily monocytes. The appearance of histone and DNA antigen-positive cells was nearly completely inhibited by the addition of low concentrations of cycloheximide at initiation of the cultures. In contrast, little effect on the percentage of positive cells was detected if cells were exposed to high doses of gamma irradiation before culture. These data further support the existence of cell surface nuclear antigens on selected cell subsets, which may provide insight into the immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and related autoimmune diseases

  12. Therapeutic neovascularization by autologous transplantation with expanded endothelial progenitor cells from peripheral blood into ischemic hind limbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-ling FAN; Ping-jin GAO; Zai-qian CHE; Jian-jun LIU; Jian WEI; Ding-liang ZHU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the hypothesis that transplantation with expanded autologous endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) could enhance neovascularization.Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PB-MNC) isolated from New Zealand White rabbits were cultured in vitro. At d 7, the adherent cells were collected for autologous transplantation. Rabbits with severe unilateral hind limb ischemia were randomly assigned to receive phosphate-buffered saline or expanded EPC in phosphate-buffered saline, administered by intramuscular injection in 6 sites of the ischemic thigh at postoperative d 7. Neovascularization was monitored by using the calf blood pressure ratio to indicate tissue perfusion, digital subtraction angiography to identify collateral vessel development and histological analysis of capillary density in the ischemic limb at d 35 after surgery. Results: Autologous EPC transplantation produced significant amelioration in ischemic hind limbs,as indicated by a greater calf blood pressure ratio (0.52±0.04 vs 0.42±0.05, P<0.01),angiographic score (1.44±0.06 vs 0.98±0.08, P<0.01) and capillary density in muscle (195.2±5.4/mm2 vs 169.4±6.4/mm2, P<0.05), than controls. Conclusion: Transplantation of autologous expanded EPC can promote neovascularization in ischemic hindlimbs.

  13. In-vitro differentiation of rat peripheral blood monocytes into insulin-producing cells by rat pancreatic extract

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    Tanhaye Kalate Sabz F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cell-therapy provides a promising alternative for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Monocytes which have a reprogramming or differentiation potential and are more available than any other types of stem cells, have been recognized as candidates for such investigations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the differentiation potential of rat peripheral blood monocytes into insulin-producing cells by the use of rat pancreatic extract (2 days after a 60% pancreatectomy. Methods: Rat peripheral blood monocytes were isolated and cultured. Adherent monocytes were induced to differentiate into programmable cells in RPMI supplemented by 10% FCS, β-mercaptoetanol, M-CSF and IL-3 for six days. The dedifferentiated cells were analyzed by invert microscopy. Cultures of Programmable Cells of Monocytic Origin (PCMOs were continued in RPMI, containing 10% FBS, pancreatic extract and 5 mmol/L glucose for 15 days. The medium was replaced every three days. At the end of the protocol, insulin and c-peptide excreted by the differentiated cells were tested by radioimmunoassay on days 6, 14, and 21. In order to verify insulin production in the cells, dithizone-staining, which is a method for insulin identification, was employed. Results: The results showed that the cells cultured in rat pancreatic extract secreted insulin and c-peptide relative to the control group. Dithizone-staining was positive in the aforesaid cells (P<0/05. Conclusion: The results of the current study showed that pancreatic extract treatment can differentiate rat peripheral blood monocytes into insulin-producing cells which can be regarded as a potential source for the treatment of diabetes.

  14. New method to differentiate human peripheral blood monocytes into insulin producing cells: Human hematosphere culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jin; Yang, Ji Min; Choi, Jae-Il; Yun, Ji-Yeon; Jang, Jae Hee; Kim, Joonoh; Kim, Ju-Young; Oh, Il-Young; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Cho, Hyun-Jai; Park, Young-Bae; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2012-02-24

    Strategy to differentiate stem cells into insulin producing cells (IPCs) in vitro has been a promising one to get cell source of β-cell replacement therapy for diabetes. It has been suggested that islets and neurons share features and nestin-positive cells could differentiate into IPCs. We have recently developed a three-dimensional culture system using human peripheral blood cells named as blood-born hematosphere (BBHS). Here we showed that most of BBHS were composed of nestin-positive cells. Under the four-stage differentiation protocol for IPCs, we plated nestin-positive BBHS onto fibronectin-coated dish. These cells form islet-like clusters and most of them expressed insulin. Pancreatic specific genes were turned on, such as transcription factors (Pdx-1, Ngn3 and Nkx6.1), genes related to endocrine function (Glut-2 and PC2) or β cell function (Kir6.2, SUR1). Furthermore islet differentiation was confirmed by dithizone (DTZ) staining to detect zinc ion which binds insulin protein within the cells. Finally, IPCs derived from BBHS showed capability to secrete insulin in response to glucose stimulation. Taken together, our novel protocol successfully induced islet-like human insulin producing cells out of BBHS. This strategy of ex vivo expansion of IPCs using BBHS provides an autologous therapeutic cell source for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:22310720

  15. Peripheral Blood Monocytes as Adult Stem Cells: Molecular Characterization and Improvements in Culture Conditions to Enhance Stem Cell Features and Proliferative Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrik Ungefroren; Ayman Hyder; Maren Schulze; Fawzy El-Sayed, Karim M.; Evelin Grage-Griebenow; Nussler, Andreas K.; Fred Fändrich

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem or programmable cells hold great promise in diseases in which damaged or nonfunctional cells need to be replaced. We have recently demonstrated that peripheral blood monocytes can be differentiated in vitro into cells resembling specialized cell types like hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells. During phenotypic conversion, the monocytes downregulate monocyte/macrophage differentiation markers, being indicative of partial dedifferentiation, and are partially reprogrammed to acquire...

  16. Monoclonal antibody to a subset of human monocytes found only in the peripheral blood and inflammatory tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwadlo, G.; Schlegel, R.; Sorg, C.

    1986-07-15

    A monoclonal antibody is described that was generated by immunizing mice with cultured human blood monocytes. The antibody (27E10) belongs to the IgG1 subclass and detects a surface antigen at M/sub r/ 17,000 that is found on 20% of peripheral blood monocytes. The antigen is increasingly expressed upon culture of monocytes, reaching a maximum between days 2 and 3. Stimulation of monocytes with interferon-..gamma.. (IFN-..gamma..), 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Ylalanine (fMLP) increased the 27E10 antigen density. The amount of 27E10-positive cells is not or is only weakly affected. The antigen is absent from platelets, lymphotyces, and all tested human cell lines, yet it cross-reacts with 15% of freshly isolated granulocytes. By using the indirect immunoperoxidase technique, the antibody is found to be negative on cryostat sections of normal human tissue (skin, lung, and colon) and positive on only a few monocyte-like cells in liver and on part of the cells of the splenic red pulp. In inflammatory tissue, however, the antibody is positive on monocytes/macrophages and sometimes on endothelial cells and epidermal cells, depending on the stage and type of inflammation, e.g., BCG ranulomas are negative, whereas psoriasis vulgaris, atopic dermatitis, erythrodermia, pressure urticaria, and periodontitis contain positively staining cells. In contact eczemas at different times after elicitation (6 hr, 24 hr, and 72 hr), the 27E10 antigen is seen first after 24 hr on a few infiltrating monocytes/macrophages, which increase in numbers after 72 hr.

  17. Effect of ovarian hormones on maturation of dendritic cells from peripheral blood monocytes in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijewardana, Viskam; Sugiura, Kikuya; Wijesekera, Daluthgamage Patsy H; Hatoya, Shingo; Nishimura, Toshiya; Kanegi, Ryoji; Ushigusa, Takahiro; Inaba, Toshio

    2015-07-01

    Previously, we reported that ovarian hormones affect the immune response against E. coli isolated from the dogs affected with pyometra. In order to investigate mechanisms underlying the immune modulation, we examined the effects of ovarian hormones on the generation of dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent antigen presenting cell. DCs were differentiated from peripheral blood monocytes (PBMOs) using a cytokine cocktail. Both estrogen receptor and progesterone receptors were expressed by the PBMOs and immature DCs. When various ovarian hormones were added to the culture for the DC differentiation, progesterone significantly decreased the expression of DC maturation markers, such as CD1a, CD80 and CD86, on mature DCs. Conversely, the addition of estrogen to the cultures increased the expression of CD86, but not other maturation makers. Furthermore, DCs differentiated in the presence of progesterone did not stimulate allogeneic mononuclear cells in PB. Taken together, these results indicate that progesterone diminishes the maturation of DCs, leading to decreased immune responses against invading pathogens. PMID:25715707

  18. Relationship between the monocyte proportion in peripheral blood and the extent of liver lesion in patients infected with HBV

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    Da-gang WANG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the relationship between the monocyte proportion in peripheral blood and the extent of liver lesions in HBV patients. Methods The clinical data of HBV patients, which were definitely diagnosed from 2010 to 2011 in our hospital, were studied, including 197 cases with mild or moderate hepatitis (hepatitis group and 248 cases of cirrhosis (cirrhosis group. The data of 269 healthy people concurrently coming for physical examination served as control (control group. The peripheral blood were analyzed by Sysmex XE-2100 hematology analyzer. The real-time PCR was employed to quantitatively detect the HBV DNA in serum; ELISA was performed to determine the liver fibrosis indicators, including hyaluronic acid (HA, laminin (LN, type Ⅳcollegen (IV. C and type Ⅲprecollegen (PCⅢ. Liver biopsy was done in 390 patients, and the extents of liver inflammation (G0-G4 and hepatic fibrosis (S0-S4 were evaluated according to the “Program of Viral Hepatitis Prevention and Control”issued by Chinese Medical Association in 2000. Results The peripheral blood analysis revealed that the monocyte proportion were significantly higher in hepatitis group and cirrhosis group (8.93%±3.05% and 9.85%±3.61% than in control group (8.16%±1.88%, P < 0.01, and also in cirrhosis group than in hepatitis group (P < 0.01. The result of real-time PCR showed that the monocyte proportion was significantly higher in 239 patients with HBV DNA≥100U/ml (8.61%±2.83% than that in the 206 patients with HBV DNA < 100U/ml (8.12%±2.53%, P < 0.05. The ELISA results indicated that the levels of liver fibrosis indicators (HA, LN, IV.C, PCⅢ were significantly higher in cirrhosis group than in hepatitis group, and moreover, in the same group the higher of those indicators, the higher of monocyte proportion. The results of liver biopsy in 390 patients showed that the monocyte proportion significantly elevated along with aggravation of liver inflammation and fibrosis (P

  19. In vitro method for the screening and monitoring of estrogen-deficiency osteoporosis by targeting peripheral circulating monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanna, Francesca; Maglio, Melania; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Pagani, Stefania; Giardino, Roberto; Fini, Milena

    2015-08-01

    Bone loss occurs insidiously and initially asymptomatically; therefore, osteoporosis is frequently diagnosed only after the first clinical fracture. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis is that by simply observing the behavior of cultured peripheral monocytes, it might be possible to diagnose altered bone remodeling and, therefore, limit the complications associated with osteoporosis, especially fractures. Monocytes isolated as mononuclear precursors from healthy and ovariectomized rats were cultured both in basal and differentiation medium for up to 3 weeks. Viability and differentiation capability towards the osteoclastic phenotype was checked by light microscopy at early times, whereas differentiation state and synthetic activity (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining; phalloidin, fluorescin isothiocynate (FITC) staining, cathepsin K, metalloproteinase 7 and 9, MMP-7 and MMP-9) were measured at 1, 2, and 3 weeks. Compared to their controls, monocytes isolated from ovariectomized rats proliferate and lean toward the osteoclastic phenotype in the absence of differentiating factors. In both culture conditions, osteoclasts from ovariectomized rats showed significantly higher productions of cathepsin K, MMP-7, and MMP-9 than those of cells isolated from healthy rats, steadily over time. These results obtained in an animal osteoporotic model, if confirmed by clinical studies, open up the possibility to assess the presence of an alteration in bone remodeling with a simple in vitro diagnostic test requiring a small blood sample and less than 48 h. This might allow to early select patients with a spontaneous viability and differentiation of monocytes to osteoclasts for further diagnostic techniques. PMID:26250906

  20. Elevated peripheral blood lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio predicts a favorable prognosis in the patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rou Jiang; Pei-Yu Huang; Yan-Qun Xiang; Xing Lu; Lin Wang; Wei-Xiong Xia; Hai-Qiang Mai; Ming-Yuan Chen; Xiu-Yu Cai; Zhong-Han Yang; Yue Yan; Xiong Zou; Ling Guo; Rui Sun; Dong-Hua Luo; Qiu-Yan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:Patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have variable survival outcomes. We have previously shown that an elevated peripheral blood lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) is associated with an increased metastatic risk in patients with primary NPC. The present study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of pretreatment LMR in a large cohort of metastatic NPC patients. Methods:Clinical data of 672 patients with metastatic NPC diagnosed between January 2003 and December 2009 were analyzed. The peripheral lymphocyte and monocyte counts were retrieved, and LMR was calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and univariate and multivariate COX proportional hazards analyses were performed to evaluate the association of LMR with overall survival (OS). Results:Univariate analysis revealed that an elevated absolute lymphocyte count (≥1.390 × 109/L) and LMR (≥2.475) as well as a decreased monocyte count (<0.665 × 109/L) were significantly associated with prolonged OS. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that LMR (hazard ratio [HR]=0.50, 95%confidence interval [CI]=0.41–0.60, P<0.001), absolute lymphocyte count (HR=0.77, 95%CI=0.64–0.93, P=0.007), and monocyte count (HR=1.98, 95%CI=1.63–2.41, P<0.001) were independent prognostic factors. By stratification analyses, only LMR remained a significant predictor of prognosis. Conclusion:We identified pretreatment LMR as an independent prognostic factor for patients with metastatic NPC. Independent validation of our findings is needed.

  1. MR tomography of bone marrow changes after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of MR standard imaging and short time inversion recovery (STIR) imaging to assess changes in red bone marrow cellularity after high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and peripheral blood stem cells transplantation (PBSCT). Results: STIR sequences demonstrated marked changes in signal intensity not only until the aplasia occurred but also during bone marrow repopulation. An increased signal intensity was observed after HDC in 13/15 patients (87%), followed by a decrease in signal intensity immediately after aplasia in 14/15 patients (93%). Signal intensity further changed parallel to marrow engraftment in 11/15 patients (73%). T2-TSE only showed clear changes during repopulation in 8/15 patients (53%). The individual course of the signal in T1-TSE was markedly inhomogeneous. Conclusions: STIR sequences show bone marrow edema during aplasia and marrow cellularity during reconstitution and are suitable for characterisation of red bone marrow after HDC and autologous PBSCT. (orig.)

  2. Leptospira interrogans activation of peripheral blood monocyte glycolipoprotein demonstrated in whole blood by the release of IL-6

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    F. Dorigatti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycolipoprotein (GLP from pathogenic serovars of Leptospira has been implicated in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis by its presence in tissues of experimental animals with leptospirosis, the inhibition of the Na,K-ATPase pump activity, and induced production of cytokines. The aims of the present study were to investigate the induction of IL-6 by GLP in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and to demonstrate monocyte stimulation at the cellular level in whole blood from healthy volunteers. PBMC were stimulated with increasing concentrations (5 to 2500 ng/ml of GLP extracted from the pathogenic L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni, lipopolysaccharide (positive control or medium (negative control, and supernatants were collected after 6, 20/24, and 48 h, and kept at -80ºC until use. Whole blood was diluted 1:1 in RPMI medium and cultivated for 6 h, with medium, GLP and lipopolysaccharide as described above. Monensin was added after the first hour of culture. Supernatant cytokine levels from PBMC were measured by ELISA and intracellular IL-6 was detected in monocytes in whole blood cultures by flow-cytometry. Monocytes were identified in whole blood on the basis of forward versus side scatter parameters and positive reactions with CD45 and CD14 antibodies. GLP ( > or = 50 ng/ml-induced IL-6 levels in supernatants were detected after 6-h incubation, reaching a peak after 20/24 h. The percentage of monocytes staining for IL-6 increased with increasing GLP concentration. Thus, our findings show a GLP-induced cellular activation by demonstrating the ability of GLP to induce IL-6 and the occurrence of monocyte activation in whole blood at the cellular level.

  3. Phenotyping of leukocytes and granulocyte and monocyte phagocytic activity in the peripheral blood and uterus of cows with endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzki, P; Kostro, K; Brodzki, A; Lisiecka, U; Kurek, L; Marczuk, J

    2014-08-01

    This study was a comparative evaluation of selected immunological parameters in peripheral blood and uterine wash samples from cows with a normal postpartum period compared with cows with endometritis. We aimed to determine the usefulness of these parameters in monitoring the puerperium. In total, 40 cows were included in the study: 20 had endometritis (experimental group), and 20 did not have uterine inflammation (control group). Animals were chosen on the basis of cytological and bacteriological test results. The tests were conducted 5, 22, and 40 days postpartum. In both groups, flow cytometric analysis of the surface molecules CD4, CD8, CD21, CD25, and CD14 in the peripheral blood and uterine washings was performed. Granulocyte and monocyte phagocytic activity was determined using a commercial Phagotest kit that was adapted for flow cytometry. The percentage of phagocytic granulocytes and monocytes in both the peripheral blood and the uterine washings was significantly lower for cows in the experimental group compared with the control group (P cows with endometritis. A significant decrease (P endometritis. Knowledge of the immunological mechanisms observed in cows with endometritis might aid in choosing the correct immunomodulating agent-based adjuvant therapy. PMID:24857644

  4. High-activity samarium-153-EDTMP therapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell support in unresectable osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Despite highly efficacious chemotherapy, patients with osteosarcomas still have a poor prognosis if adequate surgical control cannot be obtained. These patients may benefit from therapy with radiolabeled phosphonates. Patients and Methods: Six patients (three male, three female; seven to 41 years) with unresectable primary osteosarcoma (n = 3) or unresectable recurrent sites of osteosarcomas (n = 3) were treated with high-activity of Sm-153-EDTMP (150 MBq/kg BW). In all patients autologous peripheral blood stem cells had been collected before Sm-153-EDTMP therapy. Results: No immediate adverse reactions were observed in the patients. In one patient bone pain increased during the first 48 hrs after therapy. Three patients received pain relief. Autologous peripheral blood stem cell reinfusion was performed on day +12 to +27 in all patients to overcome potentially irreversible damage to the hematopoietic stem cells. In three patient external radiotherapy of the primary tumor site was performed after Sm-153-EDTMP therapy and in two of them polychemotherapy was continued. Thirty-six months later one of these patients is still free of progression. Two further patients are still alive. However, they have developed new metastases. The three patients who had no accompanying external radiotherapy, all died of disease progression five to 20 months after therapy. Conclusion: These preliminary results show that high-dose Sm-153-EDTMP therapy is feasible and warrants further evaluation of efficacy. The combination with external radiation and polychemotherapy seems to be most promising. Although osteosarcoma is believed to be relatively radioresistant, the total focal dose achieved may delay local progression or even achieve permanent local tumor control in patients with surgically inaccessible primary or relapsing tumors. (orig.)

  5. Peripheral monocytes from diabetic patients with coronary artery disease display increased bFGF and VEGF mRNA expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igoumenidis Nikos E

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages can produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in response to hypoxia, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1, angiotensin II, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, and interleukin-1. These factors have been found in the serum of coronary artery disease (CAD patients as well as in atherosclerotic lesions. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the expression of VEGF, TGF-β1 and bFGF in peripheral monocytes and lymphocytes is related to CAD. Methods Human Mononuclear cells and lymphocytes from peripheral blood were isolated from 53 donors undergoing angiography. Seventeen were found to be healthy and 36 were diagnosed with CAD. The respective mRNAs were extracted and quantified. Results The statistical analysis revealed a significant increase of the basal level expression for macrophage VEGF and bFGF in the CAD SA (stable angina patient group compared to the noCAD (control (p = 0.041 and p = 0.022 respectively and CAD UA (unstable angina (p = 0.024 and p = 0.005 respectively groups, which was highly dependent on the diabetic status of the population. Furthermore, we demonstrated with an in vitro cell culture model that the levels of VEGF and bFGF in monocytes of healthy donors are not affected by short term exposure to increased glucose levels (usually observed in the diabetic patients and/or statin. Conclusion Our findings display a statistically significant association of the increased VEGF and bFGF levels in peripheral monocytes, with stable angina and diabetes in coronary artery disease. The results give new insight to CAD and the impaired collateral vessel formation in diabetics.

  6. Peripheral monocytes from diabetic patients with coronary artery disease display increased bFGF and VEGF mRNA expression

    OpenAIRE

    Igoumenidis Nikos E; Kochiadakis George E; Krambovitis Elias; Zafiropoulos Alexandros; Panutsopulos Dimitrios; Spandidos Demetrios A

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Macrophages can produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in response to hypoxia, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), angiotensin II, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and interleukin-1. These factors have been found in the serum of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients as well as in atherosclerotic lesions. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the expression of VEGF, TGF-β1 and bFGF in peripheral monocytes and lymphocytes is relat...

  7. HIGH-DOSE CHEMOTHERAPY WITH AUTOLOGOUS PERIPHERAL BLOOD STEM CELL SUPPORT IN CHILDREN WITH MALIGNANT DISEASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-wen; TANG Suo-qin; YANG Guang; GAO Xiao-ning; FENG Chen; YU Fang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the potential effectiveness and toxicity of this therapy in children with advanced neuroblastoma on day--3(BM). Treatment regimens followed by autologous PBSC infusion were performed in 19 children with neuroblastoma (n=12) or malignant lymphoma (n=7) for consolidation treatment. There were thirteen males and six females,with a median age of 6.4 years (raging 3.5~13 years). Results: The median period of achieving ANC >0.5×109/L,WBC>1.0×109/L, and platelet >20×109/L after infusion of PBSCs were 21 d, 17 d, and 33 d respectively. Stomatitis occurred in 16 children (86%), and twelve had gastrointestinal toxicity (64%). Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 14 (74%)children. Fifteen patients (79%) survived. Ten patients (53%) are alive in CR. These patients are alive for a median of 639days and disease-free for 909 d after transplantation. Four cases (21%) relapsed, and four cases (21%) died. Conclusion:CEM or BM regimen followed by autologous PBSCT infusion is safe and feasible, and has significant effects in children with advanced neuroblastoma or malignant lymphoma.

  8. Interferon beta and vitamin D synergize to induce immunoregulatory receptors on peripheral blood monocytes of multiple sclerosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Waschbisch

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin-like transcript (ILT 3 and 4 are inhibitory receptors that modulate immune responses. Their expression has been reported to be affected by interferon, offering a possible mechanism by which this cytokine exerts its therapeutic effect in multiple sclerosis, a condition thought to involve excessive immune activity. To investigate this possibility, we measured expression of ILT3 and ILT4 on immune cells from multiple sclerosis patients, and in post-mortem brain tissue. We also studied the ability of interferon beta, alone or in combination with vitamin D, to induce upregulation of these receptors in vitro, and compared expression levels between interferon-treated and untreated multiple sclerosis patients. In vitro interferon beta treatment led to a robust upregulation of ILT3 and ILT4 on monocytes, and dihydroxyvitamin D3 increased expression of ILT3 but not ILT4. ILT3 was abundant in demyelinating lesions in postmortem brain, and expression on monocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid was higher than in peripheral blood, suggesting that the central nervous system milieu induces ILT3, or that ILT3 positive monocytes preferentially enter the brain. Our data are consistent with involvement of ILT3 and ILT4 in the modulation of immune responsiveness in multiple sclerosis by both interferon and vitamin D.

  9. Clinical trials using autologous bone marrow and peripheral blood-derived progenitor cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Tendera

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the current data concerning the results of major clinical trials using bone marrow-derived and peripheral blood-derived stem/progenitor cells in treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI and depressed left ventricular ejection fraction. In all major trials (TOPCARE-AMI, BOOST, the primary outcome measure was increase in left ventricular systolic function (LVEF and left ventricle remodeling. The most consistent finding is the significant increase in LVEF. Some trials suggest also reduction of left ventricular remodeling. Although the absolute LVEF increase is small (6-9%, it may substantially contribute to the improvement of global LV contractility. None of the studies in AMI patients treated with intracoronary infusion of progenitor cells revealed excess risk of arrythmia, restenosis or other adverse effects attributable to the therapy. The exact mechanism of improved myocardial contractile function remains unknown, however, there are several possible explanations: therapeutic angiogenesis improving the blood supply to the infarct border zone, paracrine modulation of myocardial fibrosis and remodeling (e.g. inhibition of myocyte apoptosis and transdifferentiation of stem/progenitor cells into functional cardiomyocytes. No study showed the superiority of the particular subpopulation of autologous progenitor cells in terms of left ventricular function improvement in AMI. In fact, most of the clinical trials used the whole population of mononuclear bone marrow-derived progenitor cells, peripheral blood derived progenitor cells (endothelial progenitors.

  10. Autologous peripheral blood stem cell harvest: Collection efficiency and factors affecting it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem K Tiwari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Harvest of hematopoietic progenitor cells via leukapheresis is being used increasingly for transplants in India. Adequate yield of cells per kilogram body weight of recipient is required for successful engraftment. Collection efficiency (CE is an objective quality parameter used to assess the quality of leukapheresis program. In this study, we calculated the CE of the ComTec cell separator (Fresenius Kabi, Germany using two different formulae (CE1 and CE2 and analyzed various patient and procedural factors, which may affect it. Materials and Methods: One hundred and one consecutive procedures in 77 autologous donors carried out over 3 years period were retrospectively reviewed. Various characteristics like gender, age, weight, disease status, hematocrit, preprocedure total leukocyte count, preprocedure CD34 positive (CD34+ cells count, preprocedure absolute CD34+ cell count and processed apheresis volume effect on CE were compared. CE for each procedure was calculated using two different formulae, and results were compared using statistical correlation and regression analysis. Results: The mean CE1 and CE2 was 41.2 and 49.1, respectively. CE2 appeared to be more accurate indicator of overall CE as it considered the impact of continued mobilization of stem cells during apheresis procedure, itself. Of all the factors affecting CE, preprocedure absolute CD34+ was the only independent factor affecting CE. Conclusion: The only factor affecting CE was preprocedure absolute CD34+ cells. Though the mean CE2 was higher than CE1, it was not statistically significant.

  11. Central and peripheral markers of neurodegeneration and monocyte activation in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jennifer L; Gill, Alexander J; Douglas, Steven D; Kolson, Dennis L

    2015-08-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) affect up to 50 % of HIV-infected adults, independently predict HIV morbidity/mortality, and are associated with neuronal damage and monocyte activation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament subunits (NFL, pNFH) are sensitive surrogate markers of neuronal damage in several neurodegenerative diseases. In HIV, CSF NFL is elevated in individuals with and without cognitive impairment, suggesting early/persistent neuronal injury during HIV infection. Although individuals with severe cognitive impairment (HIV-associated dementia (HAD)) express higher CSF NFL levels than cognitively normal HIV-infected individuals, the relationships between severity of cognitive impairment, monocyte activation, neurofilament expression, and systemic infection are unclear. We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of 48 HIV-infected adults with varying levels of cognitive impairment, not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), enrolled in the CNS Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study. We quantified NFL, pNFH, and monocyte activation markers (sCD14/sCD163) in paired CSF/plasma samples. By examining subjects off ART, these correlations are not confounded by possible effects of ART on inflammation and neurodegeneration. We found that CSF NFL levels were elevated in individuals with HAD compared to cognitively normal or mildly impaired individuals with CD4+ T-lymphocyte nadirs ≤200. In addition, CSF NFL levels were significantly positively correlated to plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load and negatively correlated to plasma CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, suggesting a link between neuronal injury and systemic HIV infection. Finally, CSF NFL was significantly positively correlated with CSF pNFH, sCD163, and sCD14, demonstrating that monocyte activation within the CNS compartment is directly associated with neuronal injury at all stages of HAND. PMID:25776526

  12. Irradiated autologous T cells restore the in vitro responsiveness of PWM-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes from splenectomized individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in vitro immunoglobulin (Ig) secrection of pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from individuals splenectomized post-trauma was monitored with a protein A plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay. Cultures of unfractionated as well as reconstituted cultures of isolated erythrocyte rosette-forming (E-RFC)-positive (T lymphocytes) and E-RFC-negative (B lymphocytes) cells were established. Using unfractionated cells, the response was substantially reduced or absent, whereas cultures of autologous untreated B and 2000 rads irradited T cells restored the response to normal levels. Normal T cells were not able to stimulate patients' B cells to Ig-secretion and patients' untreated T cells did not induce plaque formation in normal B cells, whereas irradiated patients' T cells induced development of approximately 50% of the response induced by normal irradiated T cells. These results indicate that the immunological defect in splenectomized individuals is not merely restricted to a high level of radiosensitive T cell suppression but also involves an impaired B cell function and T/B cell cooperation. (author)

  13. Changes in monocyte counts and expression of mCD14 and HLA-DR in the peripheral blood of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    National Research Project for SARS, Beijing Group

    2004-01-01

    @@ Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an infectious disease that originally emerged in China in November 2002. It subsequently spread worldwide.Investigators involved in an international collaboration have attempted to determine a specific etiology in order to redefine what is currently best described as a syndrome into a specific disease. At present, a novel coronavirus is generally accepted as the single most probable causative agent. In the case of HIV infection, monocytes/macrophages are infected early in the infection process,and the activation of monocytes/macrophages can influence the susceptibility of these cells to infection. 1Therefore, we examined the number of monocytes and the expression of CD14 and HLA-DR in the peripheral blood of patients with SARS to determine whether monocytes were involved in the pathogenesis of SARS.

  14. The ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes in peripheral blood correlates with increased susceptibility to clinical malaria in Kenyan children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Warimwe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a major cause of illness and death in sub-Saharan Africa. Young children bear the brunt of the disease and though older children and adults suffer relatively fewer clinical attacks, they remain susceptible to asymptomatic P. falciparum infection. A better understanding of the host factors associated with immunity to clinical malaria and the ability to sustain asymptomatic P. falciparum infection will aid the development of improved strategies for disease prevention. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we investigate whether full differential blood counts can predict susceptibility to clinical malaria among Kenyan children sampled at five annual cross-sectional surveys. We find that the ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes, measured in peripheral blood at the time of survey, directly correlates with risk of clinical malaria during follow-up. This association is evident among children with asymptomatic P. falciparum infection at the time the cell counts are measured (Hazard ratio (HR  =  2.7 (95% CI 1.42, 5.01, P  =  0.002 but not in those without detectable parasitaemia (HR  =  1.0 (95% CI 0.74, 1.42, P  =  0.9. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the monocyte to lymphocyte ratio, which is easily derived from routine full differential blood counts, reflects an individual's capacity to mount an effective immune response to P. falciparum infection.

  15. Effects of PM10 in human peripheral blood monocytes and J774 macrophages

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    Donaldson K

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of PM10, one of the components of particulate air pollution, was investigated using human monocytes and a mouse macrophage cell line (J774. The study aimed to investigate the role of these nanoparticles on the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and IL-1α gene expression. We also investigated the role of intracellular calcium signalling events and oxidative stress in control of these cytokines and the effect of the particles on the functioning of the cell cytoskeleton. We showed that there was an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in J774 cells on treatment with PM10 particles which could be significantly reduced with concomitant treatment with the calcium antagonists verapamil, the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM but not with the antioxidant nacystelyn or the calmodulin inhibitor W-7. In human monocytes, PM10 stimulated an increase in intracellular calcium which was reduced by verapamil, BAPTA-AM and nacystelyn. TNF-α release was increased with particle treatment in human monocytes and reduced by only verapamil and BAPTA-AM. IL-1α gene expression was increased with particle treatment and reduced by all of the inhibitors. There was increased F-actin staining in J774 cells after treatment with PM10 particles, which was significantly reduced to control levels with all the antagonists tested. The present study has shown that PM10 particles may exert their pro-inflammatory effects by modulating intracellular calcium signalling in macrophages leading to expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Impaired motility and phagocytic ability as shown by changes in the F-actin cytoskeleton is likely to play a key role in particle clearance from the lung.

  16. Overnight refrigerator storage of autologous peripheral progenitor stem cells without cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmez, Ayhan; Cagirgan, Seckin; Saydam, Guray; Tombuloglu, Murat

    2007-06-01

    We compared cryopreservation of peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) products immediately and after overnight storage. There was no statistically significant difference in the groups regarding median CD(34)+ cell count of the product, storage duration at -80 degrees C, viability rates, neutrophil and platelet engraftment days. Overnight storage of products with leukocyte count >300x10(9)/l has longer leukocyte (P=0.03) and platelet (P=0.01) engraftment days compared to other groups. Overnight storage without adding any medium or plasma for the apheresis product with leukocyte count of less than 300x10(9)/l in a commercially available refrigerator can easily and safely be used in transplantation centers. PMID:17569591

  17. Peripherally administered nanoparticles target monocytic myeloid cells, secondary lymphoid organs and tumors in mice.

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    Iraklis C Kourtis

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles have been extensively developed for therapeutic and diagnostic applications. While the focus of nanoparticle trafficking in vivo has traditionally been on drug delivery and organ-level biodistribution and clearance, recent work in cancer biology and infectious disease suggests that targeting different cells within a given organ can substantially affect the quality of the immunological response. Here, we examine the cell-level biodistribution kinetics after administering ultrasmall Pluronic-stabilized poly(propylene sulfide nanoparticles in the mouse. These nanoparticles depend on lymphatic drainage to reach the lymph nodes and blood, and then enter the spleen rather than the liver, where they interact with monocytes, macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells. They were more readily taken up into lymphatics after intradermal (i.d. compared to intramuscular administration, leading to ∼50% increased bioavailability in blood. When administered i.d., their distribution favored antigen-presenting cells, with especially strong targeting to myeloid cells. In tumor-bearing mice, the monocytic and the polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cell compartments were efficiently and preferentially targeted, rendering this nanoparticulate formulation potentially useful for reversing the highly suppressive activity of these cells in the tumor stroma.

  18. Human lymphokine-activated killer cell system. V. Purified recombinant interleukin 2 activates cytotoxic lymphocytes which lyse both natural killer-resistant autologous and allogeneic tumors and trinitrophenyl-modified autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culture of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in purified natural or recombinant interleukin 2 in the absence of exogenous antigen or mitogen causes the differentiation of nonlytic precursor cells into lymphokine-activated killers (LAK). A titration of purified Jurkat IL-2 (BRMP, FCRC, NIH) IL-2 showed that the relatively low concentration of 5 U/ml was optimal for LAK activation. When the responding PBL were pretreated with either mitomycin C or gamma irradiation, LAK activation did not occur, indicating that proliferation, in addition to differentiation, is required. The spectrum of target cells susceptible to LAK lysis in a 4-hr chromium-51-release assay includes fresh NK-resistant tumor cells and trinitrophenyl (TNP)-modified autologous PBL. Unmodified PBL are not lysed. Cold target inhibition studies indicated that LAK lysis of autologous TNP-PBL is totally inhibited by fresh tumors cells, and that tumor lysis is inhibited by TNP-PBL. Additionally, allogeneic tumors totally inhibit lysis of autologous tumor cells in other cold target studies. These results demonstrate that the lytic activity expressed by LAK is not HLA restricted, is not limited to tumor cells, and is polyspecific as indicated by the cross-reactive recognition of multiple target cell types in these cold target inhibition studies

  19. Small gap anastomosis to repair peripheral nerve rupture using a nerve regeneration chamber constructed by scissoring and sleeve jointing autologous epineurium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peiji Wang; Zhongliang Zhou; Qirong Dong

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have shown how to eliminate the misorientated docking of the peripheral nerve bundle in the traditional epineurium or perineudum anastomosis, thus avoiding neuroma formation and axonal outgrowth from the coaptation sites, and seriously hindering neural function recovery. Based on the "peripheral nerve selective regeneration theory", this experiment was designed to investigate the feasibility and benefits of a new small gap anastomosis repairing peripheral nerve rupture, by scissoring and sleeve jointing an autologous epineurium. In the proximal stump of the nerve, a 1 mm-long epineurium was annularly separated and removed, while a 3 mm-long epineurium was longitudinally incised in the distal stump after the epineurium was dissociated from proximal to distal. The epineuria of the two stumps and the longitudinal incision were sutured, leaving a 2 mm gap between the two nerve stumps. Results show that the experimental rats quickly recovered autonomic activities, and there were minimal adhesions at the outer surface of the epineurial tube to the surrounding tissue. The morphologic changes to the sciatic nerve showed that connective tissue hyperplasia of the small gaps was significantly reduced, and nerve fibers were arranged orderly. No such changes were observed in the neurorrhaphy in situ group. Thus, the experiment confirmed that the new small gap anastomosis to repair peripheral nerve rupture by scissoring and sleeve jointing autologous epineurium is feasible, and that it is superior to epineurium neurorrhaphy in situ.

  20. The Safety of Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation by Intracoronory Infusion in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ming; Li Zhanquan; Cui Lijie; Jin Yuanzhe; Yuan Long; Zhang Weiwei; Zhao Hongyuan

    2005-01-01

    Objectives Bone-marrow stem-cell transplantation has been shown to improve cardiac function in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but the safety of intracoronory infusion of autologous peripheral blood stem-cell (PBSCs) in patients with AMI is unknown. For this reason, we observe the feasibility and safety of PBSCs transplantation by intracoronory infusion in such patients. Methods 41 patients with AMI were allocated to receive granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF: Filgrastim, 300μg) with the dose of 300μg~600μg/day to mobilize the stem cell, and the duration of applying G-CSF was 5 days. On the sixth day, PBSCs were separated by Baxter CS 3000 blood cel 1 separator into suspend liquid 57 ml. Then the suspend liquid was infused into the infarct related artery (IRA)by occluding the over the wire balloon and infusing artery through balloon center lumen. In the process of the intracoronary infusion of PBSCs, the complications should be observed, which were arrhythmias including of bradycardia, sinus arrest or atrial ventricular block,premature ve. ntricular beats , ven~icular tachycardia,ventricular fibrillation; and hypotention, etc. Results There were total 10 cases with complications during the intracoronary infusion of PBSCs. The incidence of complications was 24.4% ( 10/41 ), including bradycardia was 2.4 % (1/41), sinus arrest or atrial ventricular block was 4.0% (2/41), ventricular fibrillation was 2.4 %(1/41), hypotentionwas 14.6 % (6/41).Conclusions In patients with AMI, intracoronary infusion of PBSCs is feasible and safe.

  1. Activation of monocytes and cytokine production in patients with peripheral atherosclerosis obliterans

    OpenAIRE

    Lastória Sidney; Calvi Sueli A; Dias-Melicio Luciane A; Corrêa Camila R; Soares Angela MVC

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Arterial peripheral disease is a condition caused by the blocked blood flow resulting from arterial cholesterol deposits within the arms, legs and aorta. Studies have shown that macrophages in atherosclerotic plaque are highly activated, which makes these cells important antigen-presenting cells that develop a specific immune response, in which LDLox is the inducing antigen. As functional changes of cells which participate in the atherogenesis process may occur in the peri...

  2. Human peripheral blood monocytes display surface antigens recognized by monoclonal antinuclear antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Holers, V.M.; Kotzin, B L

    1985-01-01

    We used monoclonal anti-nuclear autoantibodies and indirect immunofluorescence to examine normal human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes for the presence of cell surface nuclear antigens. Only one monoclonal anti-histone antibody (MH-2) was found to bind to freshly isolated PBL, staining approximately 10% of large cells. However, after cells were placed into culture for 16-24 h, a high percentage (up to 60%) of large-sized cells were recognized by an anti-DNA (BWD-1) and several differe...

  3. Increased microRNA-155 expression in the serum and peripheral monocytes in chronic HCV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Bala Shashi; Tilahun Yaphet; Taha Odette; Alao Hawau; Kodys Karen; Catalano Donna; Szabo Gyongyi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), a single stranded RNA virus, affects millions of people worldwide and leads to chronic infection characterized by chronic inflammation in the liver and in peripheral immune cells. Chronic liver inflammation leads to progressive liver damage. MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate inflammation (miR-155, -146a and -125b) as well as hepatocyte function (miR-122). Methods Here we hypothesized that microRNAs are dysregulated in chronic HCV infection. We examined mi...

  4. Regulation of tumor necrosis factor gene expression by ionizing radiation in human myeloid leukemia cells and peripheral blood monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that ionizing radiation induces the expression of certain cytokines, such as TNF alpha/cachectin. However, there is presently no available information regarding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cytokine gene expression by ionizing radiation. In this report, we describe the regulation of the TNF gene by ionizing radiation in human myeloid leukemia cells. The increase in TNF transcripts by x rays was both time- and dose-dependent as determined by Northern blot analysis. Similar findings were obtained in human peripheral blood monocytes. Transcriptional run-on analyses have demonstrated that ionizing radiation stimulates the rate of TNF gene transcription. Furthermore, induction of TNF mRNA was increased in the absence of protein synthesis. In contrast, ionizing radiation had little effect on the half-life of TNF transcripts. These findings indicate that the increase in TNF mRNA observed after irradiation is regulated by transcriptional mechanisms and suggest that production of this cytokine by myeloid cells may play a role in the pathophysiologic effects of ionizing radiation

  5. High-dose cyclophosphamide followed by autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation improves the salvage treatment for persistent or sensitive relapsed malignant lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldissera R.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Trials have demonstrated that high-dose escalation followed by autologous transplantation can promote better long-term survival as salvage treatment in malignant lymphomas. The aim of the present nonrandomized clinical trial was to demonstrate the role of high-dose cyclophosphamide (HDCY in reducing tumor burden and also to determine the effectiveness of HDCY followed by etoposide (VP-16 and methotrexate (MTX in Hodgkin's disease plus high-dose therapy with peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC transplantation as salvage treatment. From 1998 to 2000, 33 patients with a median age of 33 years (13-65 affected by aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL (60.6% or persistent or relapsed Hodgkin's disease (39.4% were enrolled and treated using high dose escalation (HDCY + HDVP-16 plus HDMTX in Hodgkin's disease followed by autologous PBPC transplantation. On an "intention to treat" basis, 33 patients with malignant lymphomas were evaluated. The overall median follow-up was 400 days (40-1233. Thirty-one patients underwent autografting and received a median of 6.19 x 10(6/kg (1.07-29.3 CD34+ cells. Patients who were chemosensitive to HDCY (N = 22 and patients who were chemoresistant (N = 11 presented an overall survival of 96 and 15%, respectively (P<0.0001. Overall survival was 92% for chemosensitive patients and 0% for patients who were still chemoresistant before transplantation (P<0.0001. Toxicity-related mortality was 12% (four patients, related to HDCY in two cases and to transplant in the other two. HDCY + HDVP-16 plus HDMTX in only Hodgkin's disease followed by autologous PBPC proved to be effective and safe as salvage treatment for chemosensitive patients affected by aggressive NHL and Hodgkin's disease, with acceptable mortality rates related to sequential treatment.

  6. SOBREPESO Y EXPRESIÓN DE RECEPTORES DE ADIPONECTINA EN MONOCITOS DE SANGRE PERIFÉRICA Overweight and adiponectin receptors expression in peripheral blood monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismena Mockus

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Estudios anteriores han demostrado la asociación entre aumento del tejido adiposo e incremento de ateroesclerosis y han evidenciado la expresión de receptores de adiponectina en la placa ateroesclerótica. A su vez, trabajos previos han permitido concluir que los macrófagos del ateroma provienen de los monocitos circulantes. Objetivo. Determinar la expresión relativa de los receptores 1 y 2 de adiponectina (AdipoR1 y AdipoR2 en monocitos circulantes de sujetos con sobrepeso y con peso normal. Material y métodos. Mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real se determinó la expresión relativa (mRNA de AdipoR1 y AdipoR2 en monocitos de sangre periférica aislados con técnica de inmunoafinidad, en un grupo de estudiantes de 18 a 25 años (n=48; además se midieron parámetros antropométricos y bioquímicos (resistencia a la insulina con modelo homeostático, colesterol total, colesterol-HDL y triglicéridos. Resultados. Se encontró que los niveles de expresión de AdipoR1 en monocitos eran mayores que los de AdipoR2 (p Background. Previous research had shown that adipose tissue increase is associated to greater atherosclerosis and have also demonstrated adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression in atherosclerotic plaque. In addition, previous research have allowed to conclude that atheroma´s macrophage arise from circulating monocytes. Aims. To determine AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 relative expression in peripheral blood monocytes from overweight and normal subjects. Materials and methods. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 relative expression was determined in peripheral blood monocytes by using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated by means of immunoaffinity technique from a group of students aged 18 to 25 years (n=48. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters (total and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance estimated by the homeostasis model assessment ratio

  7. Peripheral blood monocyte subpopulations in patients with syphilis%梅毒患者外周血单核细胞亚群的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩俊燕; 曾辉; 伦文辉; 闫会文; 刘彦春; 王蓓蓓; 宋映雪; 吴焱

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the changes in peripheral blood monocyte subpopulations in patients with primary, secondary and latent syphilis. Methods Flow cytometry was used to detect CD14highCD16- and CD14+CD16+ monocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood from 58 patients with untreated syphilis, including 36 cases of latent syphilis,8 cases of primary syphilis and 14 cases of secondary syphilis, as well as from 65 normal human controls. Restflts Compared with the normal controls, the proportion of CD14+CD16+ monocytes among total monocytes was significantly elevated (12.0% ± 5.0% vs 6.0% ± 3.3%, t = 7.25, P 0.05). Conclusions The changes in peripheral blood monocyte subpopulation in patients with untreated syphilis may be associated with the permanent infection of Treponema pallidum, but have no obvious correlation with clinical stage of syphilis.%目的 探讨未经治疗的一期、二期和隐性梅毒患者外周血单核细胞亚群的变化.方法 流式细胞仪检测58例未经治疗的梅毒患者(包括隐性梅毒36例,一期梅毒8例,二期梅毒14例)的外周血单核细胞CD14highSCD16-亚群和CD14+CD16+亚群.结果 与正常人对照组相比.梅毒患者CD14+CD16+单核细胞所占比例明显升高,所占总单核细胞比例为12.0%±5.0%,而CD14highCD16-Mo亚群明显降低.为88.0%±5.1%,二者差异均有统计学意义.隐性梅毒、一期梅毒、二期梅毒之间CD14highCD16-亚群和CD14+CD16+亚群差异无统计学意义.结论 未经治疗的梅毒患者外周血单核细胞亚群的变化可能与梅毒螺旋体的持续感染有关,与各临床分期相关性不明显.

  8. The effects of 60Co γ-ray irradiation on the cytoskeleton of mouse peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral blood monocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole mount cell electron microscopy in combination with selective extraction method for preparing cytoskeletal framework was applied. Cy toskeleton prepared by Triton X-100 treatment of mouse peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral blood monocytes appeared in electron microscopy as a highly organized and interconnected three-dimensional matrix of different fibrous elements. Since such cytoskeletons are open membrane-free system, individual fibrous organizations can be identified by specific antibodies. An indirect immunogold procedure using monoclonal anti-tubulin or anti-actin antibodies was applied to visualize tubulin-or actin-containing structures. The three-dimensional visualization of Triton X-100 resistant cytoskeletons had been used to demonstrate that different doses of 60Co γ-ray caused a distinctive and reproducible alterations of the cytoskeletons of intact mouse peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral blood monocytes in vitro. The results showed that there were some similar alterations with those caused by cytochalasin B and by colchicine. From these observations and other workers' studies, it's likely that 60Co γ-ray irradiation may inhibit cytoplasmic microtubule and microfilament assembling

  9. Classical scrapie prions are associated with peripheral blood monocytes and T-lymphocytes from naturally infected sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that affects sheep and goats. As detected by enzyme-linked immunoassay, previous studies suggested scrapie prions in the blood of sheep might be associated with B lymphocytes but not with monocytes or T lymphocytes. The association of sc...

  10. Ifosfamide, Cisplatin or Carboplatin, and Etoposide (ICE)-based Chemotherapy for Mobilization of Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cells in Patients with Lymphomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Zhou; Peng Liu; Sheng-Yu Zhou; Xiao-Hui He; Xiao-Hong Han; Yan Qin; Sheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background:High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a promising approach for lymphomas.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ifosfamide,cisplatin or carboplatin,and etoposide (ICE)-based regimen as a mobilization regimen on relapsed,refractory,or high-risk aggressive lymphoma.Methods:From June 2001 to May 2013,patients with lymphomas who mobilized by ICE-based regimen for ASCT were analyzed in this retrospective study.The results of the autologous peripheral blood stem cells collection,toxicity,engraftment after ICE-based mobilization regimen were analyzed in this study.Furthermore,risk factors for overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) were evaluated by univariate analysis.Results:The stem cells were mobilized using ICE-based regimen plus rituximab or ICE-based regimen alone in 12 patients and 54 patients,respectively.The results of stem cell mobilization were excellent.Ninety-seven percentages of the patients had the stem cell collection of at least 2.0 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg and 68% had at least 5 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg.Fifty-eight percentage of the patients experienced Grade 4 neutropenia,20% developed febrile neutropenia,and only 12% had Grade 4 thrombocytopenia.At a median follow-up of 63.8 months,the 5-year PFS and OS were 64.4% and 75.3%,respectively.Conclusion:ICE is a powerful regimen for stem cell mobilization in patients with lymphomas.

  11. Clinical significance of monocyte heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Stansfield, Brian K.; Ingram, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes are primitive hematopoietic cells that primarily arise from the bone marrow, circulate in the peripheral blood and give rise to differentiated macrophages. Over the past two decades, considerable attention to monocyte diversity and macrophage polarization has provided contextual clues into the role of myelomonocytic derivatives in human disease. Until recently, human monocytes were subdivided based on expression of the surface marker CD16. “Classical” monocytes express surface marke...

  12. Erythropoietin receptor is expressed on human peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes and monocytes and is modulated by recombinant human erythropoietin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowska, Katarzyna A; Debska-Slizień, Alicja; Bryl, Ewa; Rutkowski, Bolesław; Witkowski, Jacek M

    2010-08-01

    Erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) appears on the cell surface in the early stages of erythropoiesis. It has also been found on endothelial cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, suggesting erythropoietin (EPO) role beyond erythropoiesis itself. Earlier reports have shown that treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients improves interleukin-2 production and restores the T lymphocyte function. We decided to investigate possible expression of EPO-R on circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes of CRF patients in order to assess the possibility of rhEPO direct action on these cells. Flow cytometry was used for detection and quantification of EPO-R, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for detection of the EPO receptor mRNA. Our results show for the first time the existence of EPO-R on cell surface of human T and B lymphocytes and monocytes as well as at the transcriptional activity of the EPO-R gene in these cells, both in healthy and CRF individuals. We have also found significant differences between the numbers of EPO-R molecules on T and B lymphocytes of CRF patients not treated and treated with rhEPO and healthy control. Discovery of EPO-R expression on human lymphocytes suggests that EPO is probably able to directly modulate some signaling pathways important for these cells. PMID:20528849

  13. Hyper-CVAD chemotherapy or autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with peripheral T cell lymphomas:a single centre report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yang; WU Xiao-jin; WANG Ying; JIN Zheng-ming; SUN Ai-ning; WU De-pei

    2012-01-01

    Background Peripheral T-cell lymphoma(PTCL)is generally characterized by poor prognosis after conventional chemotherapy.The place for high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation(ASCT)in these patients is still not clear.In this study,we presented the outcomes of PTCL patients followed these treatments in our centre.Methods We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 39 patients with PTCL received the two treatments between 1999 and 2010.Results The 3-year overall survival(OS)of 61.9% and 3-year progression free survival(PFS)of 35.7% were observed in the 39 patient.Twenty-one patients received Hyper-CVAD chemotherapy with 3-year OS of 46.2% and 3-year PFS of 27.9%.Eighteen patients received ASCT with 3-year OS of 70.3% and 3-year PFS of 44.2%.Further analysis revealed that patients with elevated lactate dehydrogenase,at least 2 international prognostic index(IPI)points,and extranodal involvement had a poorer outcome compared with the control group.Conclusion These findings might suggest that Hyper-CVAD chemotherapy and ASCT could offer a durable survival benefit for patients with aggressive PTCL.

  14. Acute renal toxicity of 2 conditioning regimens in patients undergoing autologous peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation. Total body irradiation-cyclophosphamide versus ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to compare renal toxicity of 2 conditioning regimens of total body irradiation/cyclophosphamide TBI-Cy and Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, Etoposide ICE. Between August 1996 and February 2004, patients treated with autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation in the Department of Medical and radiation Oncology, Gulhane Military Medical School, Ankara, Turkey with 2 different conditioning regimens was comparatively analyzed for acute renal toxicity in the early post-transplant period. Forty-even patients received ICE regimen with 12 g/m2; 1.2 g/m2 and 1.2 g/m2 divided to 6 consecutive days, whereas 21 patients received 12 Gy TBI 6 fractions twice daily in 3 consecutive days and 60 mg/m2/day cyclophosphamide for 2 days. Sixty-eight patients were evaluated in this study. There was no significant difference in baseline renal function between patients in the ICE and TBI-Cy groups. Eleven patients developed nephrotoxicity 23.4% in the ICE group while one patient 4.8% in the TBI-Cy group developed nephrotoxicity in ICEgroup required hemodialysis and subsequently 48.5% of them died. In contrast, one patient 4.8% died due to nephrotoxicity despite hemodialysis in the TBI-Cy arm. This study reveals that the TBI-Cy conditioning regimen seems no more nephrotoxic than an ICE regimen particularly in patients who had used cisplatin prior to transplantation. (author)

  15. Approaches to Peripheral Nerve Repair: Generations of Biomaterial Conduits Yielding to Replacing Autologous Nerve Grafts in Craniomaxillofacial Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipfer, Christian; Hadlock, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a common clinical entity, which may arise due to traumatic, tumorous, or even iatrogenic injury in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Despite advances in biomaterials and techniques over the past several decades, reconstruction of nerve gaps remains a challenge. Autografts are the gold standard for nerve reconstruction. Using autografts, there is donor site morbidity, subsequent sensory deficit, and potential for neuroma development and infection. Moreover, the need for a second surgical site and limited availability of donor nerves remain a challenge. Thus, increasing efforts have been directed to develop artificial nerve guidance conduits (ANCs) as new methods to replace autografts in the future. Various synthetic conduit materials have been tested in vitro and in vivo, and several first- and second-generation conduits are FDA approved and available for purchase, while third-generation conduits still remain in experimental stages. This paper reviews the current treatment options, summarizes the published literature, and assesses future prospects for the repair of peripheral nerve injury in craniomaxillofacial surgery with a particular focus on facial nerve regeneration. PMID:27556032

  16. A large cohort study reveals the association of elevated peripheral blood lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio with favorable prognosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is an endemic neoplasm in southern China. Although NPC sufferers are sensitive to radiotherapy, 20-30% of patients finally progress with recurrence and metastases. Elevated lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR has been reported to be associated with favorable prognosis in some hematology malignancies, but has not been studied in NPC. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LMR could predict the prognosis of NPC patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 1,547 non-metastatic NPC patients was recruited between January 2005 and June 2008. The counts for peripheral lymphocyte and monocyte were retrieved, and the LMR was calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, univariate and multivariate COX proportional hazards analyses were applied to evaluate the associations of LMR with overall survival (OS, disease-free survival (DFS, distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS and loco-regional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS, respectively. RESULTS: Univariate analysis revealed that higher LMR level (≥ 5.220 was significantly associated with superior OS, DFS and DMFS (P values <0.001. The higher lymphocyte count (≥ 2.145 × 10(9/L was significantly associated with better OS (P = 0.002 and DMFS (P = 0.031, respectively, while the lower monocyte count (<0.475 × 10(9/L was associated with better OS (P = 0.012, DFS (P = 0.011 and DMFS (P = 0.003, respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that higher LMR level was a significantly independent predictor for superior OS (hazard ratio or HR = 0.558, 95% confidence interval or 95% CI = 0.417-0.748; P<0.001, DFS (HR = 0.669, 95% CI = 0.535-0.838; P<0.001 and DMFS (HR = 0.543, 95% CI = 0.403-0.732; P<0.001, respectively. The advanced T and N stages were also independent indicators for worse OS, DFS, and DMFS, except that T stage showed borderline statistical significance for DFS (P = 0.053 and DMFS (P = 0.080. CONCLUSIONS: The

  17. Correlation between pretreatment or follow-up CT findings and therapeutic effect of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for interstitial pneumonia associated with systemic sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuuchi, Hidetake, E-mail: yabuuchi@shs.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Matsuo, Yoshio [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Tsukamoto, Hiroshi [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Sunami, Shunya; Kamitani, Takeshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Sakai, Shuji [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Hatakenaka, Masamitsu [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Nagafuji, Koji; Horiuchi, Takahiko; Harada, Mine; Akashi, Koichi [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate what is useful among various parameters including CT findings, laboratory parameters (%VC, %DLco, KL-6), patients related data (age, sex, duration of disease) to discriminate between responder and non-responder in patients who received autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT) for interstitial pneumonia (IP) with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Method: Auto-PBSCT and follow-up of at least one year by chest CT, serum KL-6, %VC, and %DLco were performed in 15 patients for IP with SSc. Analyzed CT findings included extent of ground-glass opacity (GGO), intralobular reticular opacity, number of segments that showed traction bronchiectasis, and presence of honeycombing. We regarded the therapeutic response of patients as responders when TLC or VC increase over 10% or DLco increase more than 15%, otherwise we have classified as non-responder. We applied univariate and multivariate analyses to find the significant indicators to discriminate responders from non-responders. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the significant parameter to discriminate responders from non-responders were pretreatment KL-6, presence of honeycombing, extent of GGO, and early change in extent of GGO. Among them, extent of GGO and early change in extent of GGO were the strongest discriminators between responders and non-responders (P = 0.001, 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Several CT findings and pretreatment KL-6 may be useful to discriminate between responder and non-responder in patients who received auto-PBSCT for IP with SSc.

  18. High-dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhee Seo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We performed a pilot study to determine the benefit of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (HDCT/autoPBSCT for patients with Ewing sarcoma family of tumors. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients who received HDCT/autoPBSCT at Korea Cancer Center Hospital. Patients with relapsed, metastatic, or centrally located tumors were eligible for the study. Results: A total of 9 patients (3 male, 6 female, with a median age at HDCT/autoPBSCT of 13.4 years (range, 7.1 to 28.2 years, were included in this study. Patients underwent conventional chemotherapy and local control either by surgery or radiation therapy, and had achieved complete response (CR, n=7, partial response (n=1, or stable disease (n=1 prior to HDCT/autoPBSCT. There was no transplant-related mortality. However, the median duration of overall survival and event-free survival after HDCT/autoPBSCT were 13.3 months (range, 5.3 to 44.5 months and 6.2 months (range, 2.1 to 44.5 months, respectively. At present, 4 patients are alive and 5 patients who experienced adverse events (2 metastasis, 2 local recur, and 1 progressive disease survived for a median time of 2.8 months (range, 0.1 to 10.7 months. The 2-year survival after HDCT/autoPBSCT was 44.4%±16.6% and disease status at the time of HDCT/autoPBSCT tended to influence survival (57.1%±18.7% of cases with CR vs. 0% of cases with non-CR, P =0.07. Conclusion: Disease status at HDCT/autoPBSCT tended to influence survival. Further studies are necessary to define the role of HDCT/autoPBSCT and to identify subgroup of patients who might benefit from this investigational treatment.

  19. Correlation between pretreatment or follow-up CT findings and therapeutic effect of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for interstitial pneumonia associated with systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate what is useful among various parameters including CT findings, laboratory parameters (%VC, %DLco, KL-6), patients related data (age, sex, duration of disease) to discriminate between responder and non-responder in patients who received autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT) for interstitial pneumonia (IP) with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Method: Auto-PBSCT and follow-up of at least one year by chest CT, serum KL-6, %VC, and %DLco were performed in 15 patients for IP with SSc. Analyzed CT findings included extent of ground-glass opacity (GGO), intralobular reticular opacity, number of segments that showed traction bronchiectasis, and presence of honeycombing. We regarded the therapeutic response of patients as responders when TLC or VC increase over 10% or DLco increase more than 15%, otherwise we have classified as non-responder. We applied univariate and multivariate analyses to find the significant indicators to discriminate responders from non-responders. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the significant parameter to discriminate responders from non-responders were pretreatment KL-6, presence of honeycombing, extent of GGO, and early change in extent of GGO. Among them, extent of GGO and early change in extent of GGO were the strongest discriminators between responders and non-responders (P = 0.001, 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Several CT findings and pretreatment KL-6 may be useful to discriminate between responder and non-responder in patients who received auto-PBSCT for IP with SSc.

  20. Quantification of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Clonotypes in Leukapheresed Peripheral Blood Progenitor Cells Predicts Relapse Risk after Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannis, Gabriel N; Martin, Thomas G; Damon, Lloyd E; Andreadis, Charalambos; Olin, Rebecca L; Kong, Katherine A; Faham, Malek; Hwang, Jimmy; Ai, Weiyun Z; Gaensler, Karin M L; Sayre, Peter H; Wolf, Jeffrey L; Logan, Aaron C

    2016-06-01

    Since the incorporation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors into the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the notion that all patients with "high-risk" ALL uniformly require allogeneic (allo) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has received increasing scrutiny. Although multiple studies have shown superiority of alloHCT over autologous (auto) hematopoietic cell transplantation for high-risk patients, these findings may be explained, in part, by contamination of the peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) leukapheresis product by residual leukemic cells in patients undergoing autoHCT. We retrospectively evaluated minimal residual disease (MRD) using next-generation sequencing (NGS) in the PBPC leukapheresis product of 32 ALL patients who underwent autoHCT. Twenty-eight patients (88%) had diagnostic samples with quantifiable immunoreceptor rearrangements to follow for MRD. Twelve (38%) patients had Ph+ B-ALL, 12 (38%) had Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph-) B-ALL, and 4 (14%) had T cell ALL. With a median follow-up of 41 months (range, 3 to 217), median relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival for the entire cohort were 3.2 and 4.2 years, respectively; at 5 years after transplantation, 42% of patients remain alive and relapse free. Using MRD detection at a threshold of ≥ 1 × 10(-6), median RFS for patients with detectable MRD was 6.5 months and was not reached for patients without detectable disease (P = .0005). In multivariate analysis, the only factor significantly associated with relapse was the presence of MRD ≥1 × 10(-6) (odds ratio, 23.8; confidence interval, 1.8 to 312.9; P = .0158). Our findings suggest that NGS for MRD detection can predict long-term RFS in patients undergoing autoHCT for high-risk ALL. PMID:26899561

  1. Altered cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood monocytes across the menstrual cycle in primary dysmenorrhea: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyue Ma

    Full Text Available Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecological complaints in young women, but potential peripheral immunologic features underlying this condition remain undefined. In this paper, we compared 84 common cytokine gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from six primary dysmenorrheic young women and three unaffected controls on the seventh day before (secretory phase, and the first (menstrual phase and the fifth (regenerative phase days of menstruation, using a real-time PCR array assay combined with pattern recognition and gene function annotation methods. Comparisons between dysmenorrhea and normal control groups identified 11 (nine increased and two decreased, 14 (five increased and nine decreased, and 15 (seven increased and eight decreased genes with ≥ 2-fold difference in expression (P<0.05 in the three phases of menstruation, respectively. In the menstrual phase, genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1B, TNF, IL6, and IL8 were up-regulated, and genes encoding TGF-β superfamily members (BMP4, BMP6, GDF5, GDF11, LEFTY2, NODAL, and MSTN were down-regulated. Functional annotation revealed an excessive inflammatory response and insufficient TGF-β superfamily member signals with anti-inflammatory consequences, which may directly contribute to menstrual pain. In the secretory and regenerative phases, increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased expression of growth factors were also observed. These factors may be involved in the regulation of decidualization, endometrium breakdown and repair, and indirectly exacerbate primary dysmenorrhea. This first study of cytokine gene expression profiles in PBMCs from young primary dysmenorrheic women demonstrates a shift in the balance between expression patterns of pro-inflammatory cytokines and TGF-β superfamily members across the whole menstrual cycle, underlying the peripheral immunologic features of primary dysmenorrhea.

  2. Monocytes in inflammatory bowel disease: absolute monocyte counts.

    OpenAIRE

    Mee, A. S.; Berney, J.; Jewell, D P

    1980-01-01

    Using a cytochemical staining technique, peripheral blood monocytes have been precisely identified and enumerated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and compared with healthy and disease control subjects. For ulcerative colitis there was a significant monocytosis, which was closely correlated with the total white cell count and with the activity of the disease. For patients with Crohn's disease, the peripheral blood monocyte count was also raised compared with that of the control gro...

  3. In vitro binding and survival assays of Leishmania parasites to peripherical blood monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages isolated from dogs naturally and experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafuri Washington L

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are a few works considering the characterization of canine monocyte-derived macrophages as well as a standardized procedure for isolation, culture, and infection of these cells with Leishmania. We have performed several modifications in order to improve the canine monocyte-derived macrophage cultures. In addition, we have done a comparative study between monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages from dogs naturally and experimentally infected with L. chagasi. Results In the presence of exogenous serum, opsonized Leishmania promastigotes binds better to monocytes/macrophages than without serum. Otherwise, this binding occurs due to the strict correlation between the opsonized biologic particles with the third receptor of the complement (CR3-CD11b/CD18. In fact, our assays with CD11b confirmed the importance of this receptor for canine cells and the L. chagasi experimental system. Moreover, monocytes obtained from naturally infected dogs have shown a higher number of monocytes bounded to promastigotes. The experimental results regarding survival have shown that promastigote forms of opsonized L. chagasi were more infective, because we found higher numbers of promastigotes bound to the different cells. As a consequence, after forty-eight hours of binding, higher numbers of amastigotes appeared inside monocyte-macrophages. Conclusion These studies have given support to continue comparative studies involving canine monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages and peritoneal macrophages. Since we have standardized the canine cell culture, we are looking forward to determining the phenotypic properties of these cells before and after L. chagasi infection using flow cytometry.

  4. Evaluation of an optimized protocol using human peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic cells for the in vitro detection of sensitizers: Results of a ring study in five laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Hendrik; Gerlach, Silke; Spieker, Jochem; Ryan, Cindy; Bauch, Caroline; Mangez, Claire; Winkler, Petra; Landsiedel, Robert; Templier, Marie; Mignot, Aurelien; Gerberick, Frank; Wenck, Horst; Aeby, Pierre; Schepky, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed T-cell mediated allergic response associated with relevant social and economic impacts. Animal experiments (e.g. the local lymph node assay) are still supplying most of the data used to assess the sensitization potential of new chemicals. However, the 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetic Directive have introduced a testing ban for cosmetic ingredients after March 2013. We have developed and optimized a stable and reproducible in vitro protocol based on human peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic cells to assess the sensitization potential of chemicals. To evaluate the transferability and the predictivity of this PBMDCs based test protocol, a ring study was organized with five laboratories using seven chemicals with a known sensitization potential (one none-sensitizer and six sensitizers, including one pro-hapten). The results indicated that this optimized test protocol could be successfully transferred to all participating laboratories and allowed a correct assessment of the sensitization potential of the tested set of chemicals. This should allow a wider acceptance of PBMDCs as a reliable test system for the detection of human skin sensitizers and the inclusion of this protocol in the toolbox of in vitro methods for the evaluation of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. PMID:25868915

  5. The expression of p66shc in peripheral blood monocytes is increased in patients with coronary heart disease and correlated with endothelium-dependent vasodilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qin; Wang, Qiong; Dong, Lini; Wang, Yanjiao; Tan, Yi; Zhang, Xiangyu

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study is to detect the p66shc mRNA and protein expression of the peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs) in coronary heart disease patients (CHD) and controls, to evaluate the correlation between the expression of p66shc mRNA in the PBMs and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. This study included 78 coronary angiography-documented CHD patients (CHD group) and 38 non-CHD controls (control group). The p66shc mRNA and protein levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. The flow-mediated dilatation (FMD, endothelium-dependent), nitroglycerine-induced dilatation (NID, endothelium-independent) and carotid intimal medial thickness (CIMT) were detected using high-resolution ultrasound. The p66shc mRNA and the protein expression levels in the PBMs were significantly higher in the CHD group compared with the control group (p = 0.007 and 0.001). The FMD (p FMD and the NID (all p FMD (p dysfunction, which might represent a molecular target to prevent endothelial dysfunction-related disease. PMID:24676406

  6. Clinical significance of monocyte heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Brian K; Ingram, David A

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes are primitive hematopoietic cells that primarily arise from the bone marrow, circulate in the peripheral blood and give rise to differentiated macrophages. Over the past two decades, considerable attention to monocyte diversity and macrophage polarization has provided contextual clues into the role of myelomonocytic derivatives in human disease. Until recently, human monocytes were subdivided based on expression of the surface marker CD16. "Classical" monocytes express surface markers denoted as CD14(++)CD16(-) and account for greater than 70% of total monocyte count, while "non-classical" monocytes express the CD16 antigen with low CD14 expression (CD14(+)CD16(++)). However, recognition of an intermediate population identified as CD14(++)CD16(+) supports the new paradigm that monocytes are a true heterogeneous population and careful identification of specific subpopulations is necessary for understanding monocyte function in human disease. Comparative studies of monocytes in mice have yielded more dichotomous results based on expression of the Ly6C antigen. In this review, we will discuss the use of monocyte subpopulations as biomarkers of human disease and summarize correlative studies in mice that may yield significant insight into the contribution of each subset to disease pathogenesis. PMID:25852821

  7. Monocyte activation in early onset rheumatoid arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, I.; Shingu, M; Nobunaga, M.

    1990-01-01

    Monocytes from peripheral blood and synovial fluid of patients with definite and classic rheumatoid arthritis spontaneously produced significantly greater amounts of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) than samples of peripheral blood from normal controls. Peripheral blood monocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis produced significantly greater amounts of PGE2 than control samples when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. There were no sig...

  8. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for peripheral T cell lymphoma%自体造血干细胞移植治疗外周T细胞淋巴瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘耀柱; 白海; 王存邦; 葸瑞; 张茜; 王晓靖

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The incidence rate of peripheral T cel lymphoma is high in Asia, and peripheral T cel lymphoma is aggressive with generaly poor prognosis. However, there is no standard treatment strategy. OBJECTIVE:To retrospectively analyze the therapeutic effect of autologous hematopoietic stem cel transplantation on peripheral T cel lymphoma as wel as relevant toxic and side effects. METHODS:A retrospective review was conducted in 35 patients with peripheral T cel lymphoma who underwent autologous hematopoietic stem cel transplantation from March 2003 to April 2014, including 22 cases of extranodal NK/T-cel lymphoma (nasal type), 1 case of angioimmunoblastic T-cel lymphoma, 8 cases of peripheral T cel lymphoma (non-specific), 3 cases of ALK-positive anaplastic large cel lymphoma, and 1 case of ALK-negative anaplastic large cel lymphoma. Al of 35 patients were classified pathologicaly according to WHO pathological type in 2001 and 2008, and received the high-dose chemotherapy with vincristine, cytarabine, etoposide, mitoxantrone, semustine, cyclophosphamide, and total body irradiation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After a median folow-up of 54 (9-120) months, the probabilities of overal survival and disease-free survival after transplantation were 80% (n=28) and 71% (n=25), respectively. Eight cases (23%) relapsed after transplantation, seven of which died. It was safe with mild and moderate transplantation related side-effects on opportunistic infections, oral cavity mucosa and bladder responses and so on, and there were no severe, life-threatening late complications. Autologous hematopoietic stem cel transplantation may be an effective and safe treatment for peripheral T cel lymphoma, and there is a better benefit in peripheral T cel lymphoma patients with first complete remission.%背景:外周T细胞淋巴瘤亚洲地区发病率高,具有侵袭性,预后普遍较差,目前尚无标准治疗策略。目的:评价自体造血干细胞移植治疗外周T细胞

  9. Microgravity modifies protein kinase C isoform translocation in the human monocytic cell line U937 and human peripheral blood T-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Jason P.; Gaubert, Francois; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Schmitt, Didier; Hashemi, B. B. (Principal Investigator); Hughes-Fulford, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Individual protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms fulfill distinct roles in the regulation of the commitment to differentiation, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in both monocytes and T-cells. The human monocyte like cell line U937 and T-cells were exposed to microgravity, during spaceflight and the translocation (a critical step in PKC signaling) of individual isoforms to cell particulate fraction examined. PKC activating phorbol esters induced a rapid translocation of several PKC isoforms to the particulate fraction of U937 monocytes under terrestrial gravity (1 g) conditions in the laboratory. In microgravity, the translocation of PKC beta II, delta, and epsilon in response to phorbol esters was reduced in microgravity compared to 1 g, but was enhanced in weak hypergravity (1.4 g). All isoforms showed a net increase in particulate PKC following phorbol ester stimulation, except PKC delta which showed a net decrease in microgravity. In T-cells, phorbol ester induced translocation of PKC delta was reduced in microgravity, compared to 1 g, while PKC beta II translocation was not significantly different at the two g-levels. These data show that microgravity differentially alters the translocation of individual PKC isoforms in monocytes and T-cells, thus providing a partial explanation for the modifications previously observed in the activation of these cell types under microgravity.

  10. Synergy of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide and double-stranded RNA (poly I:C) on nitric oxide induction in chicken peripheral blood monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize microbial components and initiate the innate immune responses that control microbial infections. We have investigated the innate immune response of chicken monocytes to ligands of TLR3 and TLR9, poly I:C, the analog of viral double-stranded RNA, and CpG-ODN, bac...

  11. Hepatitis C virus regulates the production of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells through PI3K pathway and autocrine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaoli; Song, Hongxiao; Zhang, Qianqian; Tu, Zhengkun; Niu, Junqi

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major liver disease that ultimately develops into chronic hepatitis. Consequently, such patients are predisposed to serious complications, such as hepatocellular carcinoma. In HCV-infected patients, impaired T-cell responses are associated with persistent infection. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play a pivotal role in suppressing T-cell responses. In this study, we investigated the capacity and mechanism through which HCV transforms CD14+ monocytes into monocytic (Mo)-MDSCs. We showed that HCV core protein promotes CD14+ monocytes to develop a CD14+HLA-DR/low phenotype with upregulated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expression and suppressed T-cell proliferation. Importantly, HCV-induced Mo-MDSC production was attributed to the PI3K pathway via induction of IL-10 and TNF-α secretion. This process could be reversed by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that HCV regulates Mo-MDSC production from monocytes through the PI3K pathway and autocrine cytokines. The latter can serve as effective targets for novel HCV therapies. PMID:26821305

  12. Differential and time-dependent expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA by astrocytes and macrophages in rat brain : Effects of ischemia and peripheral lipopolysaccharide administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gourmala, NG; Buttini, M; Limonta, S; Sauter, A; Boddeke, HWGM

    1997-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates a key role of chemoattractant cytokines in the accumulation of leukocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) during the course of inflammatory processes. Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1/JE), a member of the beta-chemokine (C-C chemokine) family, functions as a

  13. Evaluation of Toll-like, chemokine, and integrin receptors on monocytes and neutrophils from peripheral blood of septic patients and their correlation with clinical outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, S.C.; Baggio-Zappia, G.L.; Brunialti, M.K.C. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Disciplina de Infectologia, Departamento de Medicina, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Disciplina de Infectologia, Departamento de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Assunçao, M.S.C. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Azevedo, L.C.P. [Hospital Sírio Libanês, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, Hospital Sírio Libanês, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Machado, F.R. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Disciplina de Anestesiologia, Departamento de Cirurgia, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Disciplina de Anestesiologia, Departamento de Cirurgia, Hospital São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salomao, R. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Disciplina de Infectologia, Departamento de Medicina, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Disciplina de Infectologia, Departamento de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-11

    Recognition of pathogens is performed by specific receptors in cells of the innate immune system, which may undergo modulation during the continuum of clinical manifestations of sepsis. Monocytes and neutrophils play a key role in host defense by sensing and destroying microorganisms. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of CD14 receptors on monocytes; CD66b and CXCR2 receptors on neutrophils; and TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, and CD11b receptors on both cell types of septic patients. Seventy-seven septic patients (SP) and 40 healthy volunteers (HV) were included in the study, and blood samples were collected on day zero (D0) and after 7 days of therapy (D7). Evaluation of the cellular receptors was carried out by flow cytometry. Expression of CD14 on monocytes and of CD11b and CXCR2 on neutrophils from SP was lower than that from HV. Conversely, expression of TLR5 on monocytes and neutrophils was higher in SP compared with HV. Expression of TLR2 on the surface of neutrophils and that of TLR5 on monocytes and neutrophils of SP was lower at D7 than at D0. In addition, SP who survived showed reduced expression of TLR2 and TLR4 on the surface of neutrophils at D7 compared to D0. Expression of CXCR2 for surviving patients was higher at follow-up compared to baseline. We conclude that expression of recognition and cell signaling receptors is differentially regulated between SP and HV depending on the receptor being evaluated.

  14. Evaluation of Toll-like, chemokine, and integrin receptors on monocytes and neutrophils from peripheral blood of septic patients and their correlation with clinical outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognition of pathogens is performed by specific receptors in cells of the innate immune system, which may undergo modulation during the continuum of clinical manifestations of sepsis. Monocytes and neutrophils play a key role in host defense by sensing and destroying microorganisms. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of CD14 receptors on monocytes; CD66b and CXCR2 receptors on neutrophils; and TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, and CD11b receptors on both cell types of septic patients. Seventy-seven septic patients (SP) and 40 healthy volunteers (HV) were included in the study, and blood samples were collected on day zero (D0) and after 7 days of therapy (D7). Evaluation of the cellular receptors was carried out by flow cytometry. Expression of CD14 on monocytes and of CD11b and CXCR2 on neutrophils from SP was lower than that from HV. Conversely, expression of TLR5 on monocytes and neutrophils was higher in SP compared with HV. Expression of TLR2 on the surface of neutrophils and that of TLR5 on monocytes and neutrophils of SP was lower at D7 than at D0. In addition, SP who survived showed reduced expression of TLR2 and TLR4 on the surface of neutrophils at D7 compared to D0. Expression of CXCR2 for surviving patients was higher at follow-up compared to baseline. We conclude that expression of recognition and cell signaling receptors is differentially regulated between SP and HV depending on the receptor being evaluated

  15. Interferon-Gamma Increases the Ratio of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9/Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 in Peripheral Monocytes from Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Springall, Rashidi; Amezcua-Guerra, Luis M; Gonzalez-Pacheco, Hector; Furuzawa-Carballeda, Janette; Gomez-Garcia, Lorena; Marquez-Velasco, Ricardo; Mejía-Domínguez, Ana María; Cossío-Aranda, Jorge; Martínez-Sánchez, Carlos; Bojalil, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) may be triggered by acute infections. Systemic production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is induced during infection and regulates the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs), both important in plaque stability. This study evaluates the effect of IFN-γ on the MMPs/TIMP-1 ratio in cultured monocytes from 30 patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD), 30 with unstable angina (UA) or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infar...

  16. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection Causes Suppression of RANTES, Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Expression in Peripheral Blood of Experimentally Infected Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Buza, Joram J.; Mori, Yasuyuki; Bari, Abusaleh M.; Hikono Aodon-geril, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Sachiyo; Shu, Yujing; Momotani, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Blood from cattle with subclinical Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection was stimulated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens, and expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and IL-8 was measured. Expression of TNF-α, RANTES, and MCP-1 was lower in infected than in uninfected cattle. The reduced response may weaken protective immunity and perpetuate infection.

  17. Expression and activation of intracellular receptors TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 in peripheral blood monocytes from HIV-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Valencia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. TLR´s play a role in host defense in HIV infection recognizing the viral DNA or RNA. Their activation induces a signaling pathway that includes the proteins MyD88, IRAK4, TRAF6 and the transcription factor NF-kBp65. Objective. To determine the expression of TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9, and activation of its signaling pathway in monocytes from patients infected with HIV. Methods. Expression of TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 was determined in monocytes from HIV-infected patients (n = 13 and control subjects (n = 13, which were activated with specific ligands. The expression of MyD88 and NF-kBp65 were determined by flow cytometry; IRAK4 and TRAF6 were studied by immunoblotting. Results. No statistical difference was found in the expression of TLR7, 8 and 9 in monocytes from patients compared to controls, but we observed the non-significant increased expression of TLR9 in patients. The activation showed no significant difference in the expression of MyD88 and NF-kBp65 in patients when compared to controls, but were decreased in stimulated cells over non-stimulated cells. IRAK4 and TRAF6 were not detected. Conclusions. No statistical difference was observed in the expression of intracellular TLRs, MyD88 and NFkBp65 in monocytes from patients compared to controls. This was probably due to effective antiretroviral therapy being received at the time of study entry. Additional studies are needed (ARTV under controlled conditions that include infected patients with and without ARVT, responders and non- responders, and work with different cell populations 

  18. Concomitant detection of IFNα signature and activated monocyte/dendritic cell precursors in the peripheral blood of IFNα-treated subjects at early times after repeated local cytokine treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizza Paola

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferons alpha (IFNα are the cytokines most widely used in clinical medicine for the treatment of cancer and viral infections. Among the immunomodulatory activities possibly involved in their therapeutic efficacy, the importance of IFNα effects on dendritic cells (DC differentiation and activation has been considered. Despite several studies exploiting microarray technology to characterize IFNα mechanisms of action, there is currently no consensus on the core signature of these cytokines in the peripheral blood of IFNα-treated individuals, as well as on the existence of blood genomic and proteomic markers of low-dose IFNα administered as a vaccine adjuvant. Methods Gene profiling analysis with microarray was performed on PBMC isolated from melanoma patients and healthy individuals 24 hours after each repeated injection of low-dose IFNα, administered as vaccine adjuvant in two separate clinical trials. At the same time points, cytofluorimetric analysis was performed on CD14+ monocytes, to detect the phenotypic modifications exerted by IFNα on antigen presenting cells precursors. Results An IFNα signature was consistently observed in both clinical settings 24 hours after each repeated administration of the cytokine. The observed modulation was transient, and did not reach a steady state level refractory to further stimulations. The molecular signature observed ex vivo largely matched the one detected in CD14+ monocytes exposed in vitro to IFNα, including the induction of CXCL10 at the transcriptional and protein level. Interestingly, IFNα ex vivo signature was paralleled by an increase in the percentage and expression of costimulatory molecules by circulating CD14+/CD16+ monocytes, indicated as natural precursors of DC in response to danger signals. Conclusions Our results provide new insights into the identification of a well defined molecular signature as biomarker of IFNα administered as immune adjuvants, and

  19. Steady-State Pharmacokinetics of Oral Voriconazole and Its Primary Metabolite, N-Oxide Voriconazole, Pre- and Post-Autologous Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Amsden, Jarrett R.; Gubbins, Paul O.; McConnell, Scott; Anaissie, Elias

    2013-01-01

    Voriconazole (VCZ) is frequently utilized for prevention and treatment of invasive fungal infections in peripheral stem cell transplant (PSCT) patients. We performed an open-label pharmacokinetic study to compare VCZ and N-oxide voriconazole (N-oxide VCZ) pharmacokinetics in patients pre- and post-PSCT. Ten patients completed both sampling periods. The pharmacokinetics of VCZ were unchanged; however, those of N-oxide VCZ were significantly different pre- and post-PSCT.

  20. Peripheral Neuropathy and VIth Nerve Palsy Related to Randall Disease Successfully Treated by High-Dose Melphalan, Autologous Blood Stem Cell Transplantation, and VIth Nerve Decompression Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    J.-L. Dupond; Manckoundia, P.; Pfitzenmeyer, P; C. Foguem

    2010-01-01

    Randall disease is an unusual cause of extraocular motor nerve (VI) palsy. A 35-year-old woman was hospitalized for sicca syndrome. The physical examination showed general weakness, weight loss, diplopia related to a left VIth nerve palsy, hypertrophy of the submandibular salivary glands, and peripheral neuropathy. The biological screening revealed renal insufficiency, serum monoclonal kappa light chain immunoglobulin, urinary monoclonal kappa light chain immunoglobulin, albuminuria, and Benc...

  1. Monocyte scintigraphy in rheumatoid arthritis: the dynamics of monocyte migration in immune-mediated inflammatory disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier M Thurlings

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Macrophages are principal drivers of synovial inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA, a prototype immune-mediated inflammatory disease. Conceivably, synovial macrophages are continuously replaced by circulating monocytes in RA. Animal studies from the 1960s suggested that macrophage replacement by monocytes is a slow process in chronic inflammatory lesions. Translation of these data into the human condition has been hampered by the lack of available techniques to analyze monocyte migration in man. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a technique that enabled us to analyze the migration of labelled autologous monocytes in RA patients using single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT. We isolated CD14+ monocytes by CliniMACS in 8 patients and labeled these with technetium-99m (99mTc-HMPAO. Monocytes were re-infused into the same patient. Using SPECT we calculated that a very small but specific fraction of 3.4 x 10(-3 (0.95-5.1 x 10(-3 % of re-infused monocytes migrated to the inflamed joints, being detectable within one hour after re-infusion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate monocytes migrate continuously into the inflamed synovial tissue of RA patients, but at a slow macrophage-replacement rate. This suggests that the rapid decrease in synovial macrophages that occurs after antirheumatic treatment might rather be explained by an alteration in macrophage retention than in monocyte influx and that RA might be particularly sensitive to treatments targeting inflammatory cell retention.

  2. Nursing of 41 patients with POEMS syndrome treated by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation%41例自体外周血造血干细胞移植治疗POEMS综合征的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余旻虹; 刘逢辰; 王丹; 李颖

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the nursing care of 41 patients with POEMS (poly neuropathy, organomegaly,endoc-rinopathy, M-protein and skin changes) syndrome treated by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation(AUTO-PBSCT). All the patients were in poor situation before PBSCT manifested with problems such as polyneuropathy,myasthenia,hepatosplenomegaly, pleural effusion and ascites.high level and estrogen in male and lower sexual activity. The key points in nursing were symptomatic care of peripheral neuropathies and myasthenia,prevention of infections,coping with feminization in male, observation of engraftment syndrome and adverse reactions. Totally 2 cases died during hospitalization and 3 cases died during follow-up. The rest of the patient's condition do not make progress.%回顾分析41例POEMS综合征患者进行自体外周造血干细胞移植治疗之后的护理要点.患者移植前状态不良,存在多发性周围神经病、肌无力、肝脾肿大、胸水和腹水、男性患者雌激素水平升高、性功能减退等问题,护理要点为周围神经病、肌无力的护理、预防感染、男性性格女性化的应对、植入综合征及不良反应的观察及护理,取得了较好的效果,住院期间死亡2例,随访中死亡3例,其余存活患者疾病均无再次进展.

  3. Elevated neutrophil and monocyte counts in peripheral blood are associated with poor survival in patients with metastatic melanoma: a prognostic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, H; Bastholt, L; Geertsen, P; Christensen, I J; Larsen, S; Gehl, J; von der Maase, H

    We aimed to create a prognostic model in metastatic melanoma based on independent prognostic factors in 321 patients receiving interleukin-2 (IL-2)-based immunotherapy with a median follow-up time for patients currently alive of 52 months (range 15-189 months). The patients were treated as part of...... several phase II protocols and the majority received treatment with intermediate dose subcutaneous IL-2 and interferon-alpha. Neutrophil and monocyte counts, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), number of metastatic sites, location of metastases and performance status were all statistically significant prognostic...... not be offered IL-2-based immunotherapy....

  4. The Clinical Application of Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cells Transplantation in Treating Peripheral Arterial Diseases in Diabetic%自体骨髓基质干细胞移植治疗糖尿病下肢血管病变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红普; 仝现州; 史帅伟

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨自体骨髓基质干细胞(BMSC)移植治疗糖尿病下肢血管病变的可行性和临床效果.方法 糖尿病致双下肢血管病变的患者30例(60条下肢),双侧下肢的病变程度接近.以患者自体BMSC对一侧下肢进行治疗,以另一侧下肢为自身对照,对双侧肢体肤色、肢体疼痛、冷感、溃疡、皮温改变、间歇性跛行变化及实验室检查进行比较,观察自体BMSC治疗糖尿病周围血管病变的安全性和有效性.结果 治疗侧下肢在肤色、疼痛感、冷感、溃疡、皮温等方面均明显好于对照组,间隙性跛行亦有改善;术后6个月时行数字减影动脉血管造影,治疗组可见丰富的侧支血管形成.结论 自体BMSC移植治疗糖尿病下肢血管病变具有可行性,可明显改善症状,效果肯定.%Objective To evaluate the clinical effects of autologous bone marrow stem cells transplantation in treating diabetic arterial diseases of the lower extremities. Methods Thirty patients with diabetic artery diseases involved in both lower limbs were enrolled in this study. The patients were received autologenous bone marrow stem cell transplantation by intramuscular injections at multiple sites of affected limb. During 15 months of follow-up, symptoms including skin colour,sensation, local ulcers, skin temperature and claudication were observed and compared with the control group. The anklebronchial indexes and MRI angiographic results were recorded. Results The symptoms were greatly relieved and the walking distance without pain was dramatically prolonged. The ankle-bronchial indexes were increased from 0.35±0.20 to 0.56±0.10 (P<0.05) after cellular treatment. Conclusion Autologous bone marrow stem cells transplantation is safe, effective and feasible for the treatment of peripheral arterial vascular disease in diabetic.

  5. DexaBEAM versus ICE salvage regimen prior to autologous transplantation for relapsed or refractory aggressive peripheral T cell lymphoma: a retrospective evaluation of parallel patient cohorts of one center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikesch, Jan-Henrik; Kuhlmann, Mareike; Demant, Angela; Krug, Utz; Thoennissen, Gabriela B; Schmidt, Eva; Kessler, Torsten; Schliemann, Christoph; Pohlen, Michele; Mohr, Michael; Evers, Georg; Köhler, Gabriele; Wessling, Johannes; Mesters, Rolf; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Thoennissen, Nils H

    2013-08-01

    High-dose chemotherapy (HDT) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is considered standard in the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL). However, the optimal salvage regimen before ASCT has not yet been established. We retrospectively analyzed 31 patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive PTCL after anthracycline-based first-line chemotherapy who received either DexaBEAM (dexamethasone, carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan; n = 16) or ICE (ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide; n = 15) regimen as first salvage chemotherapy followed by HDT/ASCT. The overall response rate (OR) was significantly higher for patients treated with DexaBEAM (69 %; 95 % confidence interval 46.0-91.5 %) as compared to the ICE group (20 %; 95 % confidence interval -0.2-40.2 %; P = 0.01), with higher complete response (CR; 38 %; 95 % confidence interval 13.8-61.2 %; vs. 7 %; 95 % confidence interval -6.0-19.6 %) as well as partial response (PR; 31 vs. 13 %) rate. Changing regimen due to failure of first salvage therapy, 12 patients initially receiving ICE still achieved an OR of 58 % (33 % CR, 25 % PR) with DexaBEAM as second salvage therapy, whereas in three patients receiving ICE after DexaBEAM failure, only one achieved an OR (1 PR). Median progression-free survival was significantly higher in the DexaBEAM group (6.4 vs. 2 months; P = 0.01). Major adverse event in both groups was myelosuppression with higher but tolerable treatment-related toxicity for patients in the DexaBEAM group. For all patients proceeding to HDT/ASCT, a 3-year overall survival was 50 %. Together, considering the limitations of the retrospective design of the evaluation and the small sample size, our data suggest that DexaBEAM salvage chemotherapy is superior to ICE for patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive PTCL for remission induction prior to autologous transplantation, with higher

  6. [Tandem transplantation with peripheral autologous hematopoietic blood stem cells in treatment of oncologic and hematologic malignancies. Initial results of the Donauspital, Vienna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckser, R; Kier, P; Sebesta, C; Kittl, E; Kurz, M; Selleny, S; Höniger, S; Scherz, M; Habertheuer, K H; Zelenka, P

    1995-01-01

    10 patients were subjected to tandem transplantation for breast cancer (n = 3), ovarian cancer (n = 2) and multiple myeloma (n = 5), at the Second Department of Medicine, Donauspital, Vienna. The breast cancer patients were in stages 2 and 3, respectively, at diagnosis and entered complete remission thereafter. 2 of them developed lymph node metastasis and additional local recurrence, the 3rd patient presented with distant metastasis. The 2 patients with ovarian cancer were in stages Figo III and IV, respectively, at the time of diagnosis, and showed minimal residual disease at second-look-operation. 5 patients with multiple myeloma were in stage 3 pretransplant. Peripheral stem cells were obtained after either high-dose cyclophosphamide or FEC induction and application of cytokines. In 4 patients, tandem transplantation has been completed. 1 patient with multiple myeloma, who had received total body irradiation in combination with chemotherapy for the 2nd transplant, succumbed from idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. No severe clinical complications were observed in all other patients. All patients with solid tumors entered complete remission after the 1st transplantation. 3 of them completed tandem transplantation. Of these, 2 remain in continuous complete remission, the 3rd patient relapsed in lymph nodes day 485. In patients who received only 1 course of high dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplantation, relapses occurred on days 29 and 75, respectively. All patients with multiple myeloma entered only partial remission. We conclude that supralethal chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell support is a safe procedure that may at least induce prolonged remissions in solid tumors and hematologic malignancies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7762251

  7. Productive replication of nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus in peripheral blood monocytic cells, a strategy for viral dissemination and kidney infection in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vishwanatha R A P; Trus, Ivan; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Li, Yewei; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the replication kinetics of nephropathogenic (B1648) and respiratory (Massachusetts-M41) IBV strains were compared in vitro in respiratory mucosa explants and blood monocytes (KUL01(+) cells), and in vivo in chickens to understand why some IBV strains have a kidney tropism. B1648 was replicating somewhat better than M41 in the epithelium of the respiratory mucosa explants and used more KUL01(+) cells to penetrate the deeper layers of the respiratory tract. B1648 was productively replicating in KUL01(+) monocytic cells in contrast with M41. In B1648 inoculated animals, 10(2.7-6.8) viral RNA copies/100 mg were detected in tracheal secretions at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 days post inoculation (dpi), 10(2.4-4.5) viral RNA copies/mL in plasma at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 dpi and 10(1.8-4.4) viral RNA copies/10(6) mononuclear cells in blood at 2, 4, 6 and 8 dpi. In M41 inoculated animals, 10(2.6-7.0) viral RNA copies/100 mg were detected in tracheal secretions at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dpi, but viral RNA was not demonstrated in plasma and mononuclear cells (except in one chicken at 6 dpi). Infectious virus was detected only in plasma and mononuclear cells of the B1648 group. At euthanasia (12 dpi), viral RNA and antigen positive cells were detected in lungs, liver, spleen and kidneys of only the B1648 group and in tracheas of both the B1648 and M41 group. In conclusion, only B1648 can easily disseminate to internal organs via a cell-free and -associated viremia with KUL01(+) cells as important carrier cells. PMID:27412035

  8. Interferon-gamma increases the ratio of matrix metalloproteinase-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in peripheral monocytes from patients with coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidi Springall

    Full Text Available Acute coronary syndromes (ACS may be triggered by acute infections. Systemic production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ is induced during infection and regulates the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPs, both important in plaque stability. This study evaluates the effect of IFN-γ on the MMPs/TIMP-1 ratio in cultured monocytes from 30 patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD, 30 with unstable angina (UA or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI, and 30 healthy blood donors. Supernatant concentrations of MMP-1, -2, -9, and TIMP-1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassays. Basal concentration of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 was similar between groups, while MMP-2 was higher in healthy individuals and MMP-9 in patients with UA/NSTEMI. Upon IFN-γ stimulation, MMP-9 secretion increased in all groups, while TIMP-1 decreased only in patients with CAD, which in turn result in a strikingly elevation in their mean MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio. MMP-1/TIMP-1 and MMP-2/TIMP-1 ratios were <1.0 in basal conditions and after stimulation in all groups. Our results suggest that nonstimulated monocytes from patients with stable CAD show a similar behavior than those from healthy individuals. However, stimulation with IFN-γ induces an increase on the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio as high as that found in patients with ACS. Thus, it may bring biological plausibility to the association between acute infections and the development of ACS.

  9. Bone Marrow Plasma Cell Assessment before Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Mobilization in Patients with Multiple Myeloma Undergoing Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Eun Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current definition of complete response (CR in multiple myeloma (MM includes negative serum and urine immunofixation (IFE tests and <5% bone marrow plasma cells (BMPCs. However, many studies of the prognostic impact of pretransplant response have not included BMPCs. We evaluated the prognostic impact of BMPC assessment before peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC mobilization on subsequent transplant outcomes. BMPCs were assessed by CD138, kappa, and lambda immunostaining in 106 patients. After a median followup of 24.5 months, patients with <5% BMPCs had a significantly better progression-free survival (PFS compared to those with ≥5% BMPCs (P=0.005. Patients with <5% BMPCs + serologic CR showed superior PFS compared to those with <5% BMPCs + serologic non-CR (P=0.050 or ≥5% BMPCs + serologic non-CR (P=0.001. Interestingly, the prognostic impact of BMPCs was more apparent for patients who did not achieve a serologic CR (P=0.042 compared to those with a serologic CR (P=0.647. We concluded that IFE negativity and <5% BMPCs before PBSC mobilization were important factors to predict PFS in patients with MM undergoing ASCT. Particularly, a significant impact of <5% BMPCs was observed in patients who did not achieve IFE negativity.

  10. A phase 2 study of high-activity 186Re-HEDP with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant in progressive hormone-refractory prostate cancer metastatic to bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the potential for improvement in disease control by use of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) to permit administration of high activities of 186Re-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP) in patients with progressive hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Eligible patients had progressive HRPC metastatic to bone, good performance status and minimal soft tissue disease. Patients received 5,000 MBq of 186Re-HEDP i.v., followed 14 days later by PBSCT. Response was assessed using PSA, survival, pain scores and quality of life. Thirty-eight patients with a median age of 67 years (range 50-77) and a median PSA of 57 ng/ml (range 4-3,628) received a median activity of 4,978 MBq 186Re-HEDP (range 4,770-5,100 MBq). The most serious toxicity was short-lived grade 3 thrombocytopenia in 8 (21%) patients. The median survival of the group is 21 months (95%CI 18-24 months) with Kaplan-Meier estimated 1- and 2-year survival rates of 83% and 40% respectively. Thirty-one patients (81%, 95% CI 66-90%) had stable or reduced PSA levels 3 months post therapy while 11 (29%, 95% CI 15-49%) had PSA reductions of >50% lasting >4 weeks. Quality of life measures were stable or improved in 27 (66%) at 3 months. We have shown that it is feasible and safe to deliver high-activity radioisotope therapy with PBSCT to men with metastatic HRPC. Response rates and survival data are encouraging; however, further research is needed to define optimal role of this treatment approach. (orig.)

  11. A randomized, non-inferiority study comparing efficacy and safety of a single dose of pegfilgrastim versus daily filgrastim in pediatric patients after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cesaro

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the non-inferiority of pegfilgrastim versus filgrastim in speeding the recovery of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN in pediatric patients who underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT. METHODS: The sample size of this randomized, multicenter, phase III study, was calculated assuming that a single dose of pegfilgrastim of 100 ug/kg was not inferior to 9 doses of filgrastim of 5 ug/kg/day. Randomization was performed by a computer-generated list and stored by sequentially numbered sealed envelopes. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients, with a median age of 11.5 years, were recruited: 29 in the filgrastim arm and 32 in the pegfilgrastim arm. Twenty percent were affected by lymphoma/leukaemia and eighty percent by solid tumors. The mean time to PMN engraftment was 10.48 days (standard deviation [SD] 1.57 and 10.44 days (SD 2.44 in the filgrastim and pegfilgrastim arms, respectively. Having fixed a non-inferiority margin Delta of 3, the primary endpoint of non-inferiority was reached. No differences were observed for other secondary endpoints: platelet engraftment, mean time to platelet recovery (28 days vs. 33 days, fever of unknown origin (79% vs. 78%, proven infection (34% vs. 28%, mucositis (76% vs. 59%. After a median follow-up of 2.3 years (95% C.I.: 1.5, 3.3, 20 deaths were observed due to disease progression. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that pegfilgrastim was not inferior to daily filgrastim in pediatric patients who underwent PBSCT. EU CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTER NUMBER: 2007-001430-14.

  12. Bone formation following lenalidomide-dexamethasone combination therapy in cases of multiple myeloma refractory to high-dose chemotherapy with bortezomib and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: report of a case and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yasunobu; Ichikawa, Kunimoto; Wakabayashi, Mutsumi; Sugimoto, Keiji; Tomita, Shigeki; Izumi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Noriko; Sawada, Tomohiro; Ohta, Yasunori; Komatsu, Norio; Noguchi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    A 41-year-old man presented with the chief complaint of right hip pain that had persisted for 6 months. F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging showed FDG accumulation in the right pubic bone. A bone biopsy specimen from the site revealed findings suggestive of a plasma cell tumor. Bone marrow examination and serum and urine immunofixation tests showed no abnormalities. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed as having non-secretory multiple myeloma. FDG accumulation in the right pubic bone diminished following four cycles of weekly bortezomib and concomitant dexamethasone therapy. Tandem autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation was performed, followed by monthly bortezomib/dexamethasone maintenance therapy. A further FDG-PET/CT scan 9 months after the start of therapy indicated that FDG accumulation in the right pubic bone had worsened. Consequently, the therapy was switched to twice-weekly bortezomib/dexamethasone as remission re-induction therapy. New FDG uptake in the right hip bone was noted after six cycles of the therapy, and plain X-ray examination revealed osteolytic changes. The patient was then administered eight cycles of combined lenalidomide-dexamethasone therapy, which resulted in a marked decrease of the FDG accumulation in the right pubic bone and disappearance of uptake in the right hip bone. There was radiographic evidence of bone formation at these sites. This is only the second reported case in which treatment with the immunomodulatory drug lenalidomide and concomitant dexamethasone has been found to induce bone formation. PMID:26464727

  13. Transcriptome Analysis on Monocytes from Patients with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Grunin; Shira- Hagbi-Levi; Batya Rinsky; Yoav Smith; Itay Chowers

    2016-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes (MPs), including monocytes/macrophages, play complex roles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) pathogenesis. We reported altered gene-expression signature in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from AMD patients, and a chemokine receptor signature on AMD monocytes. To obtain comprehensive understanding of MP involvement, particularly in peripheral circulation in AMD, we performed global gene expression analysis in monocytes. We separated monocytes from treatment-na...

  14. Human peripheral blood monocyte separation with Nycodenz-NaCl density osmotic pressure medium centrifugation%Nycodenz-密度渗透压介质离心分离人外周血单核细胞研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹建平; 余谨; 王先广; 陈禹潭; 马威; 赵云斌

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究人外周血单核细胞分离方法.方法 采集24名健康志愿献血者外周血,分别以EDTA-K2、肝素钠、枸橼酸钠抗凝,将抗凝全血或单个核细胞悬液缓慢加入不同密度和渗透压组合的Nycodenz-NaCI溶液上层,离心分离单核细胞;EDTA抗凝血经Ficoll-Hypaque密度梯度离心获得的单个核细胞,再分别用Nycodenz-NaCl密度渗透压介质离心法、Percoll密度梯度离心法、贴壁法、MACS(抗CD-14磁珠)分离单核细胞.结果 如上4种方法 获得的单核细胞纯度和收获率中位数(M)分别为98.9%和68.5%、89.6%和64.5%、64.8%和60.5%、94.1%和73.5%,比较显示Nycodenz法获得的单核细胞纯度最高(P<0.01);吞噬指数和趋化指数分别为188.8±11.2和26.8±5.9、187.8±12.2和26.1±5.1、144.4 ±24.8和15.4±7.3、177.1 ±18.3和18.9±6.7.统计表明Percoll法和Nycodenz法获得的单核细胞的吞噬指数、趋化指数高于贴壁法和MACS法(P<0.05);单核细胞受LPS刺激分泌细胞因子IL-12p70、IL-10、TNF-α水平(pg/ml)分别为2 545±341、1 216±397、3.999±418,2 489±425、1080±277、3 891±446,2 147±223、794±180、3268±411,35±12、142±81、407±199,比较得知MACS的单核细胞受LPS刺激分泌细胞因子IL-12p70、IL-10、TNF-α水平非常显著低于其他方法 (P<0.01);单核细胞经典亚群CD14+CD16-HLA-DR+百分比和非经典亚群CD14+CD16+HLA-DR+百分比(M)分别为89%和5%、88%和1%、73%和1%、51%和36%,统计表明MACS法的单核细胞经典亚群百分比明显低于其他分离方法 (P<0.01),而非经典亚群百分比明显高于其他方法 (P<0.01).结论 Nycodenz-NaCl密度渗透压介质离心法能够分离获得较高纯度、较多经典型的单核细胞.%Objective To study separation methods of human peripheral blood monocytes. Methods Peripheral whole blood collected from 24 healthy volunteer donors wercare each anticoagulated respectively with EDTA-K2, heparin, and citrate sodium. The a

  15. Induction of IL-12 Production in Human Peripheral Monocytes by Trypanosoma cruzi Is Mediated by Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Mucin-Like Glycoproteins and Potentiated by IFN-γ and CD40-CD40L Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Cristina Jamli Abel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi, is characterized by immunopathology driven by IFN-γ secreting Th1-like T cells. T. cruzi has a thick coat of mucin-like glycoproteins covering its surface, which plays an important role in parasite invasion and host immunomodulation. It has been extensively described that T. cruzi or its products—like GPI anchors isolated from GPI-anchored mucins from the trypomastigote life cycle stage (tGPI-mucins—are potent inducers of proinflammatory responses (i.e., cytokines and NO production by IFN-γ primed murine macrophages. However, little is known about whether T. cruzi or GPI-mucins exert a similar action in human cells. We therefore decided to further investigate the in vitro cytokine production profile from human mononuclear cells from uninfected donors exposed to T. cruzi as well as tGPI-mucins. We observed that both living T. cruzi trypomastigotes and tGPI-mucins are potent inducers of IL-12 by human peripheral blood monocytes and this effect depends on CD40-CD40L interaction and IFN-γ. Our findings suggest that the polarized T1-type cytokine profile seen in T. cruzi infected patients might be a long-term effect of IL-12 production induced by lifelong exposure to T. cruzi tGPI-mucins.

  16. A clinical study on the therapeutic effect of rituximab in combination with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in treatment of CD20+ B cellulous non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-sheng CHEN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT in combination with rituximab in treatment of CD20+ B cellulous non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL. Methods Sixty patients with CD20+ aggressive or refractory and recurrent B-NHL and treated with APBSCT in our department from Jan. 2005 to Jan. 2011 were admitted. All the subjects were divided into 2 groups according to their own choice: 25 patients received rituximab treatment (treatment group and 35 patients were treated without rituximab treatment (control group. All patients underwent chemotherapy and APBSCT. For patients in treatment group, rituximab was used with CHOP before collecting the stem cells and after the transplantation. After transplantation, rituximab and IL-2 were used in treatment group every 3-6 months as maintenance treatment. Results No side effect was observed during the use of rituximab either before or after transplantation. The mononuclear cell count in treatment and control group was (8.2±2.9×108/kg and (8.4±3.9×108/kg (P=0.822, respectively; CD34+cell count was (12.3±12.7×106/kg and (13.2±13.9×106/kg (P=0.799, respectively. Haemopoiesis reconstruction was successfully achieved in the patients of treatment group, while 3 patients in control group failed to have haemopoiesis reconstruction. No significant difference was found between two groups on the recovery time of neutrophilic granulocytes and platelets. All patients achieved complete remission. The average follow-up time was 22 months. The disease relapsed in two patients in treatment group and six in control group. The 3-year overall survival rate in treatment group (91.6% was a little higher than that in control group (69.5%, P=0.060. Conclusion To patients of CD20+ B lymphoma, the use of rituximab shows no side effect before or after collection of stem cell and hemopoiesis reconstruction, and the overall survival rate may be improved.

  17. Autologous blood donation

    OpenAIRE

    Goodnough, Lawrence T

    2004-01-01

    Although preoperative autologous blood donation is employed in elective surgery, this is declining because of the increasingly safe allogeneic blood supply. However, it continues to be used because of the public's perception of allogeneic blood risks and increasing blood shortages. Patients may donate a unit of blood (450 ± 45 ml) as often as twice weekly, up to 72 hours before surgery. Preoperative autologous blood is most beneficial in procedures that cause significant blood loss. It has be...

  18. Persistent seropositivity for yellow fever in a previously vaccinated autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipient

    OpenAIRE

    Kayoko Hayakawa; Tomohiko Takasaki; Hiroko Tsunemine; Shuzo Kanagawa; Satoshi Kutsuna; Nozomi Takeshita; Momoko Mawatari; Yoshihiro Fujiya; Kei Yamamoto; Norio Ohmagari; Yasuyuki Kato

    2015-01-01

    The duration of a protective level of yellow fever antibodies after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a previously vaccinated person is unclear. The case of a patient who had previously been vaccinated for yellow fever and who remained seropositive for 22 months after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for malignant lymphoma is described herein.

  19. Vaccination with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with multiple tumor antigens for treatment of patients with malignant melanoma: results from a phase I/II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trepiakas, Redas; Berntsen, Annika; Hadrup, Sine Reker;

    2010-01-01

    vaccination with autologous monocyte-derived mature dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with p53, survivin and telomerase-derived peptides (HLA-A2+ patients) or with autologous/allogeneic tumor lysate (HLA-A2(-) patients) in combination with low-dose interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-alpha2b....

  20. Labeling monocytes for imaging chronic inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With growing interest in cell-based scintigraphic diagnosis or therapy monitoring, there is an increasing demand for non-invasive observation and quantification of cell trafficking in the preclinical and clinical setting. Monocytes are members of the human mononuclear phagocyte system originating from a myeloid precursor in the bone. Labeled monocytes are being used for investigation of pathogenesis like atherosclerosis and for monitoring of therapeutic intervention in inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. Labeling mononuclear cells at high specific activity without affecting their biological functions allows (delayed) non-invasive imaging with g or PET cameras. Monocytes labeled before their final differentiation into macrophages or dendritic cells may reveal centers of inflammation in a patient and, thereby, contribute to scintigraphic diagnosis. Macrophages or dendritic cells may be in vitro cultured and by means of genetic transformation specified towards specific targets prior to re-injection, an approach with therapeutic potency. This review addresses issues on autologous monocytes, particularly their properties and labeling for non-invasive in vivo radionuclide imaging of chronic inflammation.

  1. 自体干细胞移植治疗糖尿病足的干细胞动员和采集%Stem cell mobilization and collection for autologous peripheral blood stem cells transplantation in diabetic foot treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 陈旭艳; 周斌; 冯亮华; 肖萍萍; 吴完婷

    2011-01-01

    背景:在自体干细胞移植治疗下肢缺血性疾病的干细胞动员期间,国内外大多数研究组均常规应用5~10 μg/(kg?d)的粒细胞集落刺激因子动员,5 d后采集干细胞进行移植,这是否为最佳的动员时间和采集时机未见相关报道.目的:分析探讨自体干细胞移植最佳动员方案及采集时机,提高该方法的安全性.方法:对备行干细胞移植的18例糖尿病足患者分别采用粒细胞集落刺激因子5,10 μg/(kg?d)进行造血干细胞动员,分析粒细胞集落刺激因子动员天数、剂量与外周血白细胞、单个核细胞、CD34+细胞数的关系,并检测干细胞动员前后、采集前后患者凝血指标、血小板计数的变化,观察患者动员及采集过程的不良反应.结果与结论:随着动员天数的增加,白细胞和单个核细胞、CD34+细胞数也随之增加,干细胞获得的效率与粒细胞集落刺激因子的剂量、动员时间有关,外周血中CD34+总数与单个核细胞总数呈正相关.患者的凝血指标在动员和采集前后无显著变化.血小板计数在动员前后无变化,但在采集后有显著下降;18例患者中仅有1例在粒细胞集落刺激因子动员中发生轻度骨头酸痛,1例出现发热,其他患者均无不良反应发生.提示,糖尿病足患者干细胞采集的最佳时机不能单凭动员天数和外周血白细胞数决定,而是由外周血单个核细胞数和CD34+的数量来决定.且干细胞动员和采集对患者的不良反应小,安全性高.%BACKGROUND: Autologous stem cell transplantation in the treatment of lower limb ischemia has been developed extensively in domestic and overseas and achieved better clinical curative effect. 5-10 μg/(kg · D) of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization is often used, and stem cells are harvested after 5 days for transplantation. Whether the above-mentioned is the optimal mobilization scheme and harvesting opportunity is not reported

  2. Virus-specific HLA-restricted lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected human monocytes and macrophages mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshly-isolated peripheral blood human monocytes and 5 day in vitro cultured macrophages were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), labeled with 51Cr, and used as target cells in a 12-14 hour cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay. Mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) from HSV-1 non-immune individuals, whether unstimulated or stimulated with HSV-1 antigen, did not mediate significant lysis of either target cell. HSV-immune MNL, both freshly-isolated and cultured for 5 days without antigen, demonstrated only low levels of natural killer (NK) cell-mediate lysis. MNL from HSV-immune individuals incubated for 5 days in vitro with HSV-1 antigen mediated significant virus-specific lysis of both target cells. Mean virus-specific lysis of autologous monocytes was 8.5(/+-/2.0)% compared to a three-fold greater virus-specific lysis of autologous macrophages. Greater than 70% of this lytic activity was mediated by Leu-11-negative, T3-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Allogeneic target cells lacking a common HLA determinant were not significantly lysed while T8-positive CTL mediated infrequent lysis of target cells sharing a common HLA-A and/or HLA-B determinant. T4-positive lymphocytes were demonstrated to be the predominant cell mediating lysis of autologous target cells and allogeneic target cells sharing both HLA-A and/or HLA-B plus HLA-DR determinants with the CTL; the T4-positive cell was the sole CTL mediator of lysis of allogeneic target cells having a common HLA-DR determinant

  3. Treatment of Oral Mucositis in Hematologic Patients Undergoing Autologous or Allogeneic Transplantation of Peripheral Blood Stem Cells: a Prospective, Randomized Study with a Mouthwash Containing Camelia Sinensis Leaf Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Carulli; Melania Rocco; Alessia Panichi; Chiara Feira Chios; Ester Ciurli; Chiara Mannucci; Elisabetta Sordi; Francesco Caracciolo; Federico Papineschi; Edoardo Benedetti; Mario Petrini

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucositis is an important side effect of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCST), mainly due to toxicity of conditioning regimens. It produces significant pain and morbidity. The present study reports a prospective, randomized, non-blinded study testing the efficacy of a new mouthwash, called Baxidil Onco® (Sanitas Farmaceutici Srl, Tortona, Italy) in 60 hematologic patients undergoing HCST (28 autologous, 32 allogeneic). Baxidil Onco®, used three times a day from Day -1 to Day +3...

  4. Up-regulation of chemokine C-C ligand 2 (CCL2) and C-X-C chemokine 8 (CXCL8) expression by monocytes in chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J C; de Brito, C A; Futata, E A; Azor, M H; Orii, N M; Maruta, C W; Rivitti, E A; Duarte, A J S; Sato, M N

    2012-01-01

    The disturbed cytokine-chemokine network could play an important role in the onset of diseases with inflammatory processes such as chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). Our main objectives were to evaluate the relation between proinflammatory chemokine serum levels from CIU patients and their response to autologous skin test (ASST) and basophil histamine release (BHR). We also aimed to assess the chemokine secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) upon polyclonal stimulus and to evaluate chemokine C-C ligand 2/C-X-C chemokine 8 (CCL2/CXCL8) and Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) expression in monocytes. We observed significantly higher serum levels of the CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CCL2 in CIU patients compared to the healthy group, regardless of the BHR or ASST response. The basal secretion of CCL2 by PBMC or induced by Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A (SEA) was higher in CIU patients than in the control group, as well as for CXCL8 and CCL5 secretions upon phytohaemagglutinin stimulation. Also, up-regulation of CCL2 and CXCL8 mRNA expression was found in monocytes of patients upon SEA stimulation. The findings showed a high responsiveness of monocytes through CCL2/CXCL8 expression, contributing to the creation of a proinflammatory environment in CIU. PMID:22132892

  5. Correlation between frequencies of blood monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells, regulatory T cells and negative prognostic markers in patients with castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; Køllgaard, Tania; Kongsted, Per;

    2014-01-01

    function of immune suppressive cell subsets in the peripheral blood of 41 patients with prostate cancer (PC) and 36 healthy donors (HD) showed a significant increase in circulating CD14(+) HLA-DR(low/neg) monocytic MDSC (M-MDSC) and Tregs in patients with PC compared to HD. Furthermore, M-MDSC frequencies......Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are believed to play a role in immune suppression and subsequent failure of T cells to mount an efficient anti-tumor response, by employing both direct T-cell inhibition as well as induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Investigating the frequency and...... correlated positively with Treg levels. In vitro proliferation assay with autologous T cells confirmed M-MDSC-mediated T-cell suppression, and intracellular staining of immune suppressive enzyme iNOS revealed a higher expression in M-MDSC from patients with PC. Increased frequencies of M-MDSC correlated with...

  6. HIV-1 infection of in vitro cultured human monocytes: early events and influence of anti HIV-1 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Olofsson, S; Nielsen, Jens Ole;

    1994-01-01

    To characterize the role of the humoral immune response on HIV-1 infection of monocytes and macrophages (M phi s) we examined the susceptibility of in vitro cultured monocyte/M phi s to various HIV-1 isolates and the influence of heterologous and particularly autologous anti HIV-1 sera on this...... infection. Depending on the period of in vitro cultivation and the virus isolate used different patterns of susceptibility were detected. One week old monocyte/M phi s were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection, in contrast to monocyte/M phi s cultured 4 weeks. The infection by virus isolated immediately...... CD4 and that post binding events may be common to the infection of lymphocytes. Anti HIV-1 sera showed neutralizing activity against heterologous and even autologous escape virus. This finding, together with the observation that monocytes and M phi s are infected in vivo, suggests that protection...

  7. Circulating CD14+ monocytes in patients with aortic stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sara Shimoni; Valery Meledin; Iris Bar; Jacob Fabricant; Gera Gandelman; Jacob George

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundCalcific aortic stenosis (AS) is an active process sharing similarities with atherosclerosis and chronic inflammation. The pathophysiology of AS is notable for three cardinal components: inflammation, fibrosis and calcification. Monocytes play a role in each of these processes. The role of circulating monocytes in AS is not clear. The aim of the present study was to study an association between cir-culating apoptotic and non apoptotic CD14+ monocytes and AS features.MethodsWe assessed the number of CD14+ monocytes and apoptotic monocytes in 54 patients with significant AS (aortic valve area 0.74 ± 0.27 cm2) and compared them to 33 patients with similar risk factors and no valvular disease. The level of CD14+ monocytes and apoptotic monocytes was assessed by flow cytometry.ResultsThere was no difference in the risk factor profile and known coronary or peripheral vascular diseases between patients with AS and controls.Pa-tients with AS exhibited increased numbers of CD14+ monocytes as compared to controls (9.9% ± 4.9%vs. 7.7% ± 3.9%,P= 0.03). CD14+ monocyte number was related to age and the presence and severity of AS. In patients with AS, both CD14+ monocytes and apoptotic mono-cytes were inversely related to aortic valve area.ConclusionsPatients with significant AS have increased number of circulating CD14+ monocytes and there is an inverse correlation between monocyte count and aortic valve area. These findings may suggest that inflammation is operative not only in early valve injury phase, but also at later developed stages such as calcification when AS is severe.

  8. Therapeutic effect of autologous dendritic cell vaccine on patients with chronic hepatitis B: A clinical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Chen; Yong-Guo Li; Da-Zhi Zhang; Zhi-Yi Wang; Wei-Qun Zeng; Xiao-Feng Shi; Yuan Guo; Shu-Hua Guo; Hong Ren

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the therapeutic effect of autologous HBsAg-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) on patients with chronic hepatitis B.METHODS: Monocytes were isolated from fresh peripheral blood of 19 chronic HBV-infected patients by Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation and cultured by plastic-adherence methods. DCs were induced and proliferated in the culture medium with recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage-colony- stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) and human interleukin-4 (rhIL-4). DCs pulsed with HBsAg for twelve hours were injected into patients subcutaneously twice at intervals of two weeks. Two patients received 100 mg oral lamivudine daily for 12 mo at the same time. HBV-DNA and viral markers in sera of patients were tested every two months.RESULTS: By the end of 2003, 11 of 19 (57.9%) patients had a clinical response to DC-treatment. HBeAg of 10(52.6%) patients became negative, and the copies of HBVDNA decreased 101.77±2.39 averagely (t = 3.13, P<0.01).Two cases co-treated with DCs and lamivudine had a complete clinical response. There were no significant differences in the efficient rate between the cases with ALT level lower than 2xULN and those with ALT level higher than 2xULN before treatment (χ2 = 0.0026).CONCLUSION: Autologous DC-vaccine induced in vitro can effectively suppress HBV replication, reduce the virus load in sera, eliminate HBeAg and promote HBeAg/antiHBe transformation. Not only the patients with high serum ALT levels but also those with normal ALT levels can respond to DC vaccine treatment, and the treatment combining DCs with lamivudine can eliminate viruses more effectively.

  9. Monocyte-platelet interaction induces a pro-inflammatory phenotype in circulating monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Passacquale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Activated platelets exert a pro-inflammatory action that can be largely ascribed to their ability to interact with leukocytes and modulate their activity. We hypothesized that platelet activation and consequent formation of monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPA induces a pro-inflammatory phenotype in circulating monocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CD62P(+ platelets and MPA were measured, and monocytes characterized, by whole blood flow cytometry in healthy subjects, before and two days after receiving influenza immunization. Three monocytic subsets were identified: CD14(+CD16(-, CD14(highCD16(+and CD14(lowCD16(+. The increase in high sensitivity C-reactive protein post-immunization was accompanied by increased platelet activation and MPA formation (25.02±12.57 vs 41.48±16.81; p = 0.01, along with enhancement of circulating CD14(highCD16(+ cells (4.7±3.6 vs 10.4±4.8; p = 0.003, their percentage being linearly related to levels of CD62P(+-platelets (r(2 = 0.4347; p = 0.0008. In separate in vitro experiments, co-incubation of CD14(+CD16(- cells, isolated from healthy donor subjects, with autologous platelets gave rise to up-regulation of CD16 on monocytes as compared with those maintained in medium alone (% change in CD14(+CD16(+ cells following 48 h co-incubation of monocytes with platelets was +106±51% vs monocytes in medium alone; p<0.001. This effect correlated directly with degree of MPA formation (r(2 = 0.7731; p<0.0001 and was associated with increased monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1 blocking antibody, which abrogates MPA formation, abolished these effects, as did the cyclooxygenase (COX-2 selective inhibitor NS-398, aspirin and the EP1/EP2-selective antagonist AH6809. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that MPA formation, as occurs in the blood under pro-inflammatory conditions, expands the pool of circulating CD14(highCD16(+ monocytes in a

  10. Treatment of oral mucositis in hematologic patients undergoing autologous or allogeneic transplantation of peripheral blood stem cells: a prospective, randomized study with a mouthwash containing Camelia Sinensis leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Carulli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis is an important side effect of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCST, mainly due to toxicity of conditioning regimens. It produces significant pain and morbidity. The present study reports a prospective, randomized, non-blinded study testing the efficacy of a new mouthwash, called Baxidil Onco® (Sanitas Farmaceutici Srl, Tortona, Italy in 60 hematologic patients undergoing HCST (28 autologous, 32 allogeneic. Baxidil Onco®, used three times a day from Day -1 to Day +30, in addition to standard prophylactic schedules, was administered to 14 patients undergoing autologous and 14 patients undergoing allogeneic HCST. The remaining 32 patients (14 autologous and 18 HCST were treated only with standard prophylactic schedules and served as control. In our study, the overall incidence of oral mucositis, measured according to the World Health Organization 0-4 scale, was 50% in the Baxidl Onco® group versus 82% in the control group (P=0.022. In addition, a significant reduction in scale 2-4 oral mucositis was observed in the Baxidil Onco® group (25% vs 56.2%; P=0.0029. The results obtained indicate that incidence, severity and duration of oral mucositis induced by conditioning regi- mens for HCST can be significantly reduced by oral rinsing with Baxidil Onco®, in addition to the standard prophylaxis scheme. Since Camelia Sinensin extract, which is used to produce green tea, is the main agent in this mouthwash, we hypothesize that the anti-oxidative properties of polyphenolic compounds of tea might exert protective effects on oral mucosa.

  11. Treatment of oral mucositis in hematologic patients undergoing autologous or allogeneic transplantation of peripheral blood stem cells: a prospective, randomized study with a mouthwash containing camelia sinensis leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carulli, Giovanni; Rocco, Melania; Panichi, Alessia; Chios, Chiara Feira; Ciurli, Ester; Mannucci, Chiara; Sordi, Elisabetta; Caracciolo, Francesco; Papineschi, Federico; Benedetti, Edoardo; Petrini, Mario

    2013-01-25

    Oral mucositis is an important side effect of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCST), mainly due to toxicity of conditioning regimens. It produces significant pain and morbidity. The present study reports a prospective, randomized, non-blinded study testing the efficacy of a new mouthwash, called Baxidil Onco(®) (Sanitas Farmaceutici Srl, Tortona, Italy) in 60 hematologic patients undergoing HCST (28 autologous, 32 allogeneic). Baxidil Onco(®), used three times a day from Day -1 to Day +30, in addition to standard prophylactic schedules, was administered to 14 patients undergoing autologous and 14 patients undergoing allogeneic HCST. The remaining 32 patients (14 autologous and 18 HCST) were treated only with standard prophylactic schedules and served as control. In our study, the overall incidence of oral mucositis, measured according to the World Health Organization 0-4 scale, was 50% in the Baxidl Onco(®) group versus 82% in the control group (P=0.022). In addition, a significant reduction in scale 2-4 oral mucositis was observed in the Baxidil Onco(®) group (25% vs 56.2%; P=0.0029). The results obtained indicate that incidence, severity and duration of oral mucositis induced by conditioning regimens for HCST can be significantly reduced by oral rinsing with Baxidil Onco(®), in addition to the standard prophylaxis scheme. Since Camelia Sinensin extract, which is used to produce green tea, is the main agent in this mouthwash, we hypothesize that the anti-oxidative properties of polyphenolic compounds of tea might exert protective effects on oral mucosa. PMID:23888242

  12. HIV-1 infection of in vitro cultured human monocytes: early events and influence of anti HIV-1 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Olofsson, S; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    To characterize the role of the humoral immune response on HIV-1 infection of monocytes and macrophages (M phi s) we examined the susceptibility of in vitro cultured monocyte/M phi s to various HIV-1 isolates and the influence of heterologous and particularly autologous anti HIV-1 sera on this...... infection. Depending on the period of in vitro cultivation and the virus isolate used different patterns of susceptibility were detected. One week old monocyte/M phi s were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection, in contrast to monocyte/M phi s cultured 4 weeks. The infection by virus isolated immediately...

  13. Cryptococcal meningitis post autologous stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaban, S; Wheat, L J; Assi, M

    2014-06-01

    Disseminated Cryptococcus disease occurs in patients with defective T-cell immunity. Cryptococcal meningitis following autologous stem cell transplant (SCT) has been described previously in only 1 patient, 4 months post SCT and while off antifungal prophylaxis. We present a unique case of Cryptococcus meningitis pre-engraftment after autologous SCT, while the patient was receiving fluconazole prophylaxis. A 41-year-old man with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma underwent autologous SCT. Post-transplant prophylaxis consisted of fluconazole 400 mg daily, levofloxacin 500 mg daily, and acyclovir 800 mg twice daily. On day 9 post transplant, he developed fever and headache. Peripheral white blood cell count (WBC) was 700/μL. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed lesions consistent with meningoencephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed a WBC of 39 with 77% lymphocytes, protein 63, glucose 38, CSF pressure 20.5 cmH2 O, and a positive cryptococcal antigen. CSF culture confirmed Cryptococcus neoformans. The patient was treated with liposomal amphotericin B 5 mg/kg intravenously daily, and flucytosine 37.5 mg/kg orally every 6 h. He was switched to fluconazole 400 mg daily after 3 weeks of amphotericin therapy, with sterilization of the CSF with negative CSFCryptococcus antigen and negative CSF culture. Review of the literature revealed 9 cases of cryptococcal disease in recipients of SCT. Median time of onset was 64 days post transplant. Only 3 meningitis cases were described; 2 of them after allogeneic SCT. Fungal prophylaxis with fluconazole post autologous SCT is recommended at least through engraftment, and for up to 100 days in high-risk patients. A high index of suspicion is needed to diagnose and treat opportunistic infections, especially in the face of immunosuppression and despite adequate prophylaxis. Infection is usually fatal without treatment, thus prompt diagnosis and therapy might be life saving. PMID:24750320

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Circulating Monocytes Identifies Cathepsin D as A Potential Novel Plasma Marker of Acute Coronary Syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Vivanco; Jesús Egido; José Tuñón; Lorenzo Lopez-Bescos; Gloria Alvarez-Llamas; Julio Jiménez-Narcher; Luis Miguel Blanco-Colio; Jose Luis Martin-Ventura; Fernando de la Cuesta; Verónica M. Dardé; Maria G Barderas

    2008-01-01

    We have performed a proteomic analysis of peripheral blood monocytes from ACS patients in comparison with healthy subjects and stable coronary patients in order to search novel biomarkers of ACS in circulating monocytes. Monocytes were isolated from blood of patients with non-ST elevation ACS (n = 27) at day 0, 2 and 6 months, and from patients with stable coronary disease (n = 10) and matched healthy controls (n = 11). The proteomic analysis of monocytes from ACS patients at day 0 showed ...

  15. Fate of gamma-interferon-activated killer blood monocytes adoptively transferred into the abdominal cavity of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five patients with colorectal cancer widely metastatic to peritoneal surfaces have been treated i.p. with infusions of autologous blood monocytes made cytotoxic by in vitro incubation with human gamma-interferon. The monocytes were purified by a combination of cytapheresis and counter-current centrifugal elutriation procedures; each week approximately 350 million activated monocytes were given to patients as adoptive immunotherapy by a single i.p. instillation. On the eighth cycle of treatment the trafficking of i.p. infused blood monocytes was studied in two patients by prelabeling the cells with 111In. These activated cells became distributed widely within the peritoneal cavity. Two and 5 days after infusion their position within the peritoneum had not changed. When peritoneal specimens were obtained 36 h after 111In-labeled monocyte infusion, labeled monocytes were demonstrated to be associated with the serosal surfaces by autoradiographic analysis. Scintiscanning structures outside the abdominal cavity revealed that 111In-labeled monocytes infused i.p. did not traffic to other organs during the 5 days of the study. We conclude that i.p. adoptive transfer of autologous killer blood monocytes is an effective way of delivering these cytotoxic cells to sites of tumor burden on peritoneal surfaces in these cancer patients

  16. Characterization of CD8+ T-Cell Responses in the Peripheral Blood and Skin Injection Sites of Melanoma Patients Treated with mRNA Electroporated Autologous Dendritic Cells (TriMixDC-MEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphné Benteyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of melanoma patients with mRNA electroporated dendritic cells (TriMixDC-MEL stimulates T-cell responses against the presented tumor-associated antigens (TAAs. In the current clinical trials, melanoma patients with systemic metastases are treated, requiring priming and/or expansion of preexisting TAA-specific T cells that are able to migrate to both the skin and internal organs. We monitored the presence of TAA-specific CD8+ T cells infiltrating the skin at sites of intradermal TriMixDC-MEL injection (SKILs and within the circulation of melanoma patients treated in two clinical trials. In 10 out of fourteen (71% patients screened, CD8+ T cells recognizing any of the four TAA presented by TriMixDC-MEL cellular vaccine were found in both compartments. In total, 30 TAA-specific T-cell responses were detected among the SKILs and 29 among peripheral blood T cells, of which 24 in common. A detailed characterization of the antigen specificity of CD8+ T-cell populations in four patients indicates that the majority of the epitopes detected were only recognized by CD8+ T cells derived from either skin biopsies or peripheral blood, indicating that some compartmentalization occurs after TriMix-DC therapy. To conclude, functional TAA-specific CD8+ T cells distribute both to the skin and peripheral blood of patients after TriMixDC-MEL therapy.

  17. Inhibition of human monocyte chemotaxis and chemiluminescence by Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharazmi, A; Nielsen, H

    1991-01-01

    The in vitro effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase on human monocyte function was examined. Mononuclear cells isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy individuals were incubated with various concentrations of elastase, and the chemotactic activity and chemiluminescence response of these ...

  18. TELOMERE SHORTENING IN MONOCYTES OF THE PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Borisov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Present study deals with size measurements of telomeric DNA from the human peripheral mononuclear immune cells in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. A method for measuring the relative telomere length by in situ hybridization followed by flow cytometric analysis (flow-FISH was used. Relative telomere length (RTL in monocytes was estimated as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI of test cells divided by MFI values of internal control cells. Hybridization conditions for analysis of telomere length in monocytes have been optimized in advance. It has been shown that RTL of monocytes was significantly lower in RA patients compared to donors. Significant differences in telomere length of monocytes between RA patients and donors were revealed for the young persons under 30 years old. The findings obtained may be considered as an additional argument confirming the hypothesis on genetic defects of hematopoietic stem cells determining RA development.

  19. Vascular Leakage in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Is Associated with Dengue Infected Monocytes, Monocyte Activation/Exhaustion, and Cytokines Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirichan Chunhakan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vascular leakage was shown by the increment of hematocrit (Hct, dengue viral infected monocyte, monocyte status, and cytokines production in patients infected with dengue virus. Dengue viral antigens were demonstrated in monocytes (CD14+ from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The increased levels of Hct, interleukin- (IL- 10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α were detected in dengue fever (DF, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and dengue shock syndrome (DSS patients as compared with other febrile illnesses (OFIs. The highest levels of Hct and IL-10 were detected in DSS patients as compared with other groups (P<0.05 especially on one day before and after defervescence. The unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated monocytes from DSS patients showed the significantly decreased of intracellular IL-1β and TNF-α. In addition, the lowest level of mean fluorescence intensity (MFI of CD11b expression on monocytes surface in DSS patients was also demonstrated. Furthermore, the negative correlations between IL-10 levels and intracellular IL-1β and MFI of CD11b expression in unstimulated and LPS-stimulated monocytes were also detected. Nevertheless, not only were the relationships between the prominent IL-10 and the suppression of intracellular monocyte secretion, namely, IL-1β, TNF-α, demonstrated but also the effect of vascular leakage was observed.

  20. Generation of Monocyte-Derived Insulin-Producing Cells from Non-Human Primates According to an Optimized Protocol for the Generation ofPCMO-Derived Insulin-Producing Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Jessica; Harder, Ole; Faendrich, Fred; Schulze, Maren

    2014-01-01

    Ob­jec­ti­ve: The vision of potential autologous cell therapy for the cure of diabetes encourages ongoing research. According to a previously published protocol for the generation of insulin-producing cells from human monocytes, we analyzed whether the addition of growth factors could increase insulin production. This protocol was then transferred to a non-human primate model by using either blood- or spleen-derived monocytes. Methods: Human monocytes were treated to dedifferentiate into prog...

  1. Generation of mature dendritic cells from peripheral blood monocytes not purified from the PBMCs by calcium ionophore A23187 and GM-CSF in vitro%非贴壁法体外诱导人外周血单核细胞生成树突状细胞的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭卫斌; 饶珈琦; 沙卫红; 容海鹰; 聂玉强; 李瑜元

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨新型诱导剂钙离子载体A23187联合重组人粒细胞-巨噬细胞集落刺激因子(rhGM-CSF)通过非贴壁法体外诱导人外周血单核细胞(monocytes,Mo)生成树突状细胞(dendritic cell,DC)的可行性.方法 采用密度梯度离心法分离出人外周血单个核细胞(peripheral blood mononuclear cell,PBMC),一组通过贴壁法分离出Mo,再加入rhGM-CSF+A23187,称贴壁法组.另一组直接加入rhGM-CSF+A23187,称非贴壁法组.通过光镜观察细胞形态的变化,流式细胞仪检测DC细胞的表面标志.结果 两组诱导培养的DCs都具有典型的树突形态;与贴壁法比较,DC表面分子CD14-CD83+(39.2% vs40.9%)、CD14-CD1a+(19.6% vs 18.3%)、CD14-CD86+(47.1% vs 46.0%)、CD14-CD40+(30.5% vs 32.8%)的表达无明显差异,P值均大于0.05.结论 新型诱导剂钙离子载体A23187联合rhGM-CSF通过非贴壁法能有效地诱导Mo生成成熟的DCs.%Objection The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of calcium ionophore (CI) A23187 and human recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) on the cultivation of dendritic cell (DC) from healthy human peripheral blood monocytes (Mo) not purified from the PBMC in vitro. Methods PBMC isolated from peripheral blood of healthy human by Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient separation were separated into two groups. The monocytes purified through adhensiveness from the cells in group A were cultured in the presence of rhGM-CSF and calcium ionophore (CI) A23187. The cells in group B were cultured with additional rhGM-CSF and CI A23187 directly. The cells in both groups were loaded by freeze-thawed K562 cells on the first day and were harvested in 96 hours of cultivation. The morphology of the DCs was observed by microscope all through the process. The surface antigens of the induced cells after culturing for 96 hours were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Results Typical morphological features

  2. Autologous blood storage in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, W N; Owen, H G; Collins, M L

    1988-08-01

    Autologous transfusion, storage of one's own blood for subsequent infusion if needed, is safe and effective in a variety of scheduled operative procedures. Obstetric involvement in such programs is very limited, however. Thirty pregnant women with placenta previa or other potential complications underwent 55 phlebotomies in an autologous transfusion program. Phlebotomies were performed at an average gestational age of 32.4 weeks (range 13-40). Changes in mean diastolic blood pressure and pulse were minimal. Electronic fetal monitoring tracings were normal during the 34 procedures in which it was used. The frequency of mild donor reactions (4%) was consistent with that in nonpregnant donors. After entry into this program, 15 patients received a total of 29 U of packed red blood cells (23 autologous; six homologous). Homologous transfusion was avoided in 86.7% of patients receiving blood. Selected pregnant women can participate safely in autologous blood collection programs, minimizing the need, and therefore the risks, of homologous transfusion. PMID:3292974

  3. Monocyte functions in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Almdal, T; Bennedsen, J;

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the functions of monocytes obtained from 14 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) compared with those of monocytes from healthy individuals. It was found that the total number of circulating monocytes in the 14 diabetic patients was lower than that from the...... elucidation of concomitant infections in diabetic patients are discussed....

  4. Peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral neuritis; Neuropathy - peripheral; Neuritis - peripheral; Nerve disease; Polyneuropathy ... Katirji B, Koontz D. Disorders of peripheral nerves. In: Daroff RB, ... Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012: ...

  5. Leukemic cell kinetics in peripheral blood, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in vivo kinetics of autologous leukemic cells labeled in vitro with indium-111-oxine was studied in 10 patients with acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL), consisting of 7 patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), 2 with acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMML) and 1 with acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL). Leukemic cell disappearance curves showed a single exponential line. The half tims of disappearance (T1/2) in AML was 18.6 +- 8.3 hours (mean +- s.d.), and was longer than that of normal neutrophils. In AMML and AMoL, T1/2 was 11.5 +- 1.4 hours, and tended to be shorter than that in AML (p < 0.1). Total blood leukemic cell pool (TBLCP) size correlated with blood leukemic cell count (LC) (Y = 1.11 + 2.01X, r = 0.95). The ratio of marginal (MLCP) to circulating leukemic cell pool (CLCP) size was 2.38 +- 0.99 in AML. There was no significant correlation between leukemic cell turnover rate (LCTR) and TBLCP size. As for organ distribution, labeled leukemic cells passed immediately through lungs, are then accumulated markedly in the spleen and liver in that order. Initial pulmonary radioactivity was observed in only one of the AMML patients. Only in AMoL, hepatic radioactivity 30 minutes after the injection surpassed splenic radioactivity. Accumulation of radioactivity in the bone marrow was observed in 6 out of 8 patients studied. Radioactivity of the leukemic cells isolated from the bone marrow in 4 patients was larger than that expected from mixing of peripheral blood leukemic cells, suggesting that a portion of blood leukemic cells returned to the bone marrow. (author)

  6. Gallium-67 scanning and autologous transplantation for lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Gallium-67 (67Ga) scanning in the malignant Iymphomas has been performed for over 20 years. Its major contributions are in staging and in detecting relapse, residual or progressive disease. Autologous bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation is now an accepted therapy for refractory and relapsed Iymphoma. Between May 1991 and December 1995, 19 patients underwent autologous bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for Non-Hodgkin's Iymphoma or Hodgkin's disease. Five patients had high grade Non-Hodgkin's Iymphoma with widespread disease and did not undergo 67Ga scanning. There was one transplant related death. Thirteen patients had 67Ga scanning pre- and post-transplantation. Six patients remained in clinical remission with no evidence of gallium avid active disease at a median of 11 months (range 3 to 19 months) post-transplant. Five of these patients had intermediate grade Non-Hodgkin's Iymphoma and one had Hodgkin's disease. The other seven patients all demonstrated evidence of active disease on 67Ga scanning and subsequent clinical relapse. In all patients shown to have 67Ga avid disease pre-transplant, 67Ga scanning post-transplant is useful in detecting relapse These results suggest that 67Ga avid disease pre-transplant, 67Ga scanning post-autologous transplantation as it is for conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy

  7. Application of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in children with malignanttumor%恶性肿瘤患儿接受低剂量全身照射联合强烈化疗后行自体外周血造血干细胞 移植有可能取得良好疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐锁勤; 黄东生; 王建文; 魏晓军; 冉崇蓉; 彭云; 吕善根; 张建忠

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate if low dose total body irradiation (TBI, 6.0- 9.0 Gy) combined with intensified chemotherapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation results in better survival in children with refractory leukemia or solid tumors. Methods Twenty-one children with malignant tumors were included in this study. There were 14 males and 7 females aged 3.5- 12 years. Underlying disease included high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, CR1 in 3 children and CR2 in 5 children), acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML, 9 children), non Hodgkin' s lymphoma stage Ⅳ (2 children), and neuroblastoma stage Ⅳ (2 children). The peripheral hematopoietic stem cells were collected six to eleven months after complete response, mobilized with high dose chemotherapy alone or combined with GM-CSF or G-CSF. The conditioning regimen consisted of chemotherapy with two to three combinations of the following drugs: cyclophosphamide, arabinosylcytosine, McNU, etopside, and Idarubicin on the basis of TBI (6.0-9.0Gy). A mean of (1.8 ± 0.5) × 108/kg autologous mononuclear cells were transplanted. The patients were followed up after transplantation. Results Severe bone marrow suppression occurred in all patients around day + 7. Peripheral white blood cell count decreased to 0 in all patients at day + 4.8 ± 2.9, and platelet count decreased to less than 20× 109/L at day + 9.0 ± 2.6. Successful engraftment was achieved in 21 patients, but four died of infection at day + 17, + 20, + 31 and + 67, respectively. Recovery of white blood cell (WBC) to 10 × 109/L, absolute neutrophil count to 0.5 × 109/L, platelet count to 20 × 109/L occurred on 21 ± 12, 26± 13, and 27 ± 10 days, respectively. During the follow up period, three patients relapsed at + 5 months, + 1.5 years, and + 2 years 10 months, respectively. One patient died of intracranial hemorrhage at +8 months. Thirteen patients had event-free survival for 2 - 12 years, with a mean of 6.7±3.4 years

  8. Maturation and demise of human primary monocytes by carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of exploiting carbon nanotubes (CNT) in biomedical practices requires thorough analysis of the chemical or bulk effects they may exert on the immune system, the complex network that recognizes and eliminates foreign particles. In particular, the phagocytosing ability of cells belonging to the monocyte/macrophage lineage may render these immune cells an ideal toxicological target of pristine CNT, which may form aggregates of size exceeding monocyte/macrophage phagocytosing plasticity. To shed light on this issue, we analyzed the effects that pristine multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) without metal or biological impurities exert on survival and activation of freshly explanted human peripheral blood monocytes, analyzing in parallel the non-phagocytosing lymphocytes, and using graphite as control carbon material. MWCNT (diameter 10–50 nm, length up to 10 μm) exert two different toxic effects on mononuclear leukocytes: a minor apoptogenic effect (on lymphocytes > monocytes), and a major, apoptosis-independent effect that exclusively and deeply affect monocyte homeostasis. Analysis of monocyte number, adhesion, redox equilibrium, and the differentiation markers CD14 and CD11b reveals that MWCNT cause the selective disappearance of phagocytosis-competent monocytes by mechanisms related to the presence of large nanoparticle aggregates, suggesting phenomena of bulk toxicity possibly consisting of frustrated phagocytosis. At the same time, MWCNT stimulate adhesion of the phagocytosis-incompetent monocytes, and their differentiation toward a peculiar maturation asset. These observations point out novel mechanisms of CNT toxicity, renewing concerns that they may impair the innate immune system deranging the inflammatory responses.

  9. Maturation and demise of human primary monocytes by carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nicola, Milena, E-mail: milena.de.nicola@uniroma2.it [University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Department of Biology (Italy); Mirabile Gattia, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.mirabile@enea.it [UTTMAT, ENEA-C.R. Casaccia (Italy); Traversa, Enrico, E-mail: Enrico.Traversa@kaust.edu.sa [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Division of Physical Science and Engineering (Saudi Arabia); Ghibelli, Lina, E-mail: ghibelli@uniroma2.it [University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Department of Biology (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    The possibility of exploiting carbon nanotubes (CNT) in biomedical practices requires thorough analysis of the chemical or bulk effects they may exert on the immune system, the complex network that recognizes and eliminates foreign particles. In particular, the phagocytosing ability of cells belonging to the monocyte/macrophage lineage may render these immune cells an ideal toxicological target of pristine CNT, which may form aggregates of size exceeding monocyte/macrophage phagocytosing plasticity. To shed light on this issue, we analyzed the effects that pristine multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) without metal or biological impurities exert on survival and activation of freshly explanted human peripheral blood monocytes, analyzing in parallel the non-phagocytosing lymphocytes, and using graphite as control carbon material. MWCNT (diameter 10-50 nm, length up to 10 {mu}m) exert two different toxic effects on mononuclear leukocytes: a minor apoptogenic effect (on lymphocytes > monocytes), and a major, apoptosis-independent effect that exclusively and deeply affect monocyte homeostasis. Analysis of monocyte number, adhesion, redox equilibrium, and the differentiation markers CD14 and CD11b reveals that MWCNT cause the selective disappearance of phagocytosis-competent monocytes by mechanisms related to the presence of large nanoparticle aggregates, suggesting phenomena of bulk toxicity possibly consisting of frustrated phagocytosis. At the same time, MWCNT stimulate adhesion of the phagocytosis-incompetent monocytes, and their differentiation toward a peculiar maturation asset. These observations point out novel mechanisms of CNT toxicity, renewing concerns that they may impair the innate immune system deranging the inflammatory responses.

  10. Maturation and demise of human primary monocytes by carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    De Nicola, Milena D.

    2013-05-17

    The possibility of exploiting carbon nanotubes (CNT) in biomedical practices requires thorough analysis of the chemical or bulk effects they may exert on the immune system, the complex network that recognizes and eliminates foreign particles. In particular, the phagocytosing ability of cells belonging to the monocyte/macrophage lineage may render these immune cells an ideal toxicological target of pristine CNT, which may form aggregates of size exceeding monocyte/macrophage phagocytosing plasticity. To shed light on this issue, we analyzed the effects that pristine multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) without metal or biological impurities exert on survival and activation of freshly explanted human peripheral blood monocytes, analyzing in parallel the non-phagocytosing lymphocytes, and using graphite as control carbon material. MWCNT (diameter 10-50 nm, length up to 10 μm) exert two different toxic effects on mononuclear leukocytes: a minor apoptogenic effect (on lymphocytes > monocytes), and a major, apoptosis-independent effect that exclusively and deeply affect monocyte homeostasis. Analysis of monocyte number, adhesion, redox equilibrium, and the differentiation markers CD14 and CD11b reveals that MWCNT cause the selective disappearance of phagocytosis-competent monocytes by mechanisms related to the presence of large nanoparticle aggregates, suggesting phenomena of bulk toxicity possibly consisting of frustrated phagocytosis. At the same time, MWCNT stimulate adhesion of the phagocytosis-incompetent monocytes, and their differentiation toward a peculiar maturation asset. These observations point out novel mechanisms of CNT toxicity, renewing concerns that they may impair the innate immune system deranging the inflammatory responses. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  11. Platelet-rich plasma-induced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells versus autologous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changsuo Xia; Yajuan Li; Wen Cao; Zhaohua Yu

    2010-01-01

    Autologous nerve grafting is the gold standard of peripheral nerve repair.We previously showed that autologous platelet-rich plasma(PRP)contains high concentrations of growth factors and can induce in vitro cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMSCs)to differentiate into Schwann cells.Here we used PRP-induced BMSCs combined with chemically extracted acellular nerves to repair sciatic nerve defects and compared the effect with autologous nerve grafting.The BMSCs and chemically extracted acellular nerve promoted target muscle wet weight restoration,motor nerve conduction velocity,and axonal and myelin sheath regeneration,with similar effectiveness to autologous nerve grafting.This finding suggests that PRP induced BMSCs can be used to repair peripheral nerve defects.

  12. Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Patient with Critical Limb Ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is clinical manifestation of an end-stage peripheral arterial obstruction disease. Progressive ischemia leads to development of ischemic rest pain and skin defects. Early recognition, medicamentous treatment and revascularisation are standard treatment practise in these patients. However, up to 30% of patients are not eligible for endovascular or surgical revascularisation. Remaining patients are threatened with disease progression and high risk for leg amputation. Some clinical studies demonstrated, that therapeutic angio genesis with autologous stem cells therapy may be effective in ulcer healing and prevention of limb amputation. This case report describes a 47-year old male with history of one year non-healing ulcer after the third and fifth finger amputation without option of endovascular or surgical revascularisation. Patient was successfully treated with intramuscular autologous bone marrow therapy with ulcer healing and limb salvage after 12-month follow-up. (author)

  13. Extracellular lipase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: biochemical characterization and effect on human neutrophil and monocyte function in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, K E; Kharazmi, A; Høiby, N

    1991-01-01

    concentrations of this lipase preparation were preincubated with human peripheral blood neutrophils and monocytes. The chemotaxis and chemiluminescence of these cells were then determined. It was shown that lipase inhibited the monocyte chemotaxis and chemiluminescence, whereas it had no or very little effect on...

  14. Significance of detection of the monocyte CD14+CD16+ subsets and monocyte-platelet aggregates in patients with cerebral infarction by FCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the mononuclear cell subsets distribution and monocyte-platelet aggregates of the peripheral blood in patients with cerebral infarction and its clinical significance. Methods: In 48 patients with cerebral infarction and 31 normal controls, the expression levels of CD14, CD16, CD41 were measured by flow cytometry. Results: The expression levels of CD14, Cr16 and CD41 on monocyte in group of cerebral infarction patients were significant difference than those in normal control (P+CD16+ subsets and the monocyte-platelet aggregates (PMAs) were helpful for the early diagnosis in patients with cerebral infarction. (authors)

  15. Loss of quiescence and impaired function of CD34+/CD38low cells one year following autologous stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Woolthuis, Carolien M.; Brouwers-Vos, Annet Z.; Huls, Gerwin; de Wolf, Joost Th. M.; Schuringa, Jan Jacob; Vellenga, Edo

    2013-01-01

    Patients who have undergone autologous stem cell transplantation are subsequently more susceptible to chemotherapy-induced bone marrow toxicity. In the present study, bone marrow primitive progenitor cells were examined one year after autologous stem cell transplantation and compared with normal bone marrow and mobilized peripheral blood stem cells. Post-transplantation bone marrow contained a significantly lower percentage of quiescent cells in the CD34+/CD38low fraction compared to normal b...

  16. Coating with Autologous Plasma Improves Biocompatibility of Mesh Grafts In Vitro: Development Stage of a Surgical Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Gerullis; Evangelos Georgas; Christoph Eimer; Christian Arndt; Dimitri Barski; Bernhard Lammers; Bernd Klosterhalfen; Mihaly Borós; Thomas Otto

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate mesh coating modalities with autologous blood components in a recently developed in vitro test system for biocompatibility assessment of alloplastic materials. Materials and Methods. Seven different mesh types, currently used in various indications, were randomly investigated. Meshes were coated prior to cultivation with autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), platelets, and blood plasma. Pretreated meshes were incubated over 6 weeks in a minced tissue a...

  17. Organophosphates and monocyte esterase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To examine the possibility that monocyte esterase deficiency (MED) could be caused by exposure to organophosphates. METHODS--Pseudocholinesterase, paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were measured in the serum and acetylcholinesterase activity was measured in the red cells of a group of monocyte esterase deficient subjects and compared with the enzyme activities of a control group of monocyte esterase positive subjects. RESULTS--No significant difference was found between the enzyme...

  18. Transcriptome analysis of monocyte-HIV interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Huyen

    2010-06-01

    macrophages can contribute to sustained chronic immune activation during HIV infection, e.g. through the perturbation of cytokine and chemokine networks 141516. With the acknowledged notion of chronic immune activation as a paradoxical driving force of immune suppression 17, this pro-inflammatory macrophage phenotype during HIV infection may be a crucial parameter in disease progression. Yet other macrophage dysfunctions are associated with more peripheral HIV- or ART-associated disorders such as atherosclerosis 18, lipodystrophy 19, and metabolic syndrome during HIV infection and/or combination ART 2021. Monocytes, for their part, are much less permissive to infection with HIV, both in vitro 22 and in vivo, where estimates of infected circulating monocytes are consistently low 2324. Circulating monocytes represent the most accessible primary model for macrophage dysfunction during HIV infection, however, and are furthermore of sufficient importance to study in their own right. Infectious virus can be recovered from circulating monocytes, both in untreated patients 24 and in patients undergoing long-term successful combination ART 25. Additionally, the circulating monocyte pool as a whole does seem to be affected during HIV infection, despite the low frequency of actually infected monocytes. Transcriptome studies, in particular, show a form of hybrid phenotype exhibiting both increased and decreased pro-inflammatory features 2627. This modulation of the non-infected monocyte population could be due to the virus itself through mechanisms which do not require direct infection 28, or to other factors contributing to (aberrant immune activation occurring during HIV infection, such as perturbed cytokine networks 29 or other inflammatory stimulants 30. Several key factors in the described dysregulated processes have been identified 1831, but many molecular components remain elusive. Furthermore, other aspects of HIV and combination ART pathogenesis in which monocyte

  19. Changes of monocyte subsets in patients with acute coronary syndrome and correlation with myocardial injury markers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Li; Yin, Yigang; Zhou, Ruifang; Lin, Jie; Li, Jianming; Ye, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of peripheral blood monocytes subsets in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and its clinical significance. Methods: A total of 68 ACS patients and 27 healthy subjects (HS) were enrolled. Monocyte subset analysis was performed using flow cytometry: CD14++CD16-(Mon1), CD14++CD16+ (Mon2), and CD14+CD16++ (Mon3). Results: 1. The number of Mon1 and Mon3 were significantly increased in ACS patients compared with HS (P

  20. Monocyte Subsets and Related Chemokines in Carotid Artery Stenosis and Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Gerrit M.; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J.; Teebken, Omke E.; Schuppner, Ramona; Dirks, Meike; Worthmann, Hans; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Maye, Gerrit; Limbourg, Florian P.; Weissenborn, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Carotid stenosis (CS) is an important cause of ischemic stroke. However, reliable markers for the purpose of identification of high-risk, so-called vulnerable carotid plaques, are still lacking. Monocyte subsets are crucial players in atherosclerosis and might also contribute to plaque rupture. In this study we, therefore, aimed to investigate the potential role of monocyte subsets and associated chemokines as clinical biomarkers for vulnerability of CS. Patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic CS (n = 21), patients with cardioembolic ischemic strokes (n = 11), and controls without any cardiovascular disorder (n = 11) were examined. Cardiovascular risk was quantified using the Essen Stroke Risk Score (ESRS). Monocyte subsets in peripheral blood were measured by quantitative flow cytometry. Plaque specimens were histologically analyzed. Furthermore, plasma levels of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and fractalkine were measured. Intermediate monocytes (Mon2) were significantly elevated in symptomatic and asymptomatic CS-patients compared to controls. Mon2 counts positively correlated with the ESRS. Moreover, stroke patients showed an elevation of Mon2 compared to controls, independent of the ESRS. MCP-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with symptomatic than in those with asymptomatic CS. Several histological criteria significantly differed between symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. However, there was no association of monocyte subsets or chemokines with histological features of plaque vulnerability. Due to the multifactorial influence on monocyte subsets, the usability as clinical markers for plaque vulnerability seems to be limited. However, monocyte subsets may be critically involved in the pathology of CS. PMID:27023515

  1. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  2. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Eul Sik; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  3. Fatal CMV-Infection after Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Refractory Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Váróczy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation can be a rescue for patients with severe refractory systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. However, the procedure might have fatal complications including infections and bleeding. We report on a young female patient with SLE whose disease started in her early childhood. After many years, severe renal, neurological, and bone marrow involvement developed that did not respond to conventional therapy. She was selected for autologous stem cell transplantation. A successful peripheral stem cell apheresis was performed in March 2006. The nonselected graft was reinfused in August 2006 after a conditioning chemotherapy containing high-dose cyclophosphamide and antithymocyte globulin. Engraftment was detected within 11 days. On the 38th posttransplant day, severe cytomegalovirus (CMV infection developed that included pneumonitis, hepatitis, and pancytopenia. The patient died in a week due to multiorgan failure. With her case, we want to call the attention to this rare, but lethal complication of the autologous transplantation.

  4. Monocyte trafficking to the brain with stress and inflammation: a novel axis of immune-to-brain communication that influences mood and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Wohleb, Eric S; McKim, Daniel B.; Sheridan, John F.; Godbout, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Psychological stress activates neuroendocrine pathways that alter immune responses. Stress-induced alterations in microglia phenotype and monocyte priming leads to aberrant peripheral and central inflammation. Elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels caused by microglia activation and recruitment of monocytes to the brain contribute to development and persistent anxiety-like behavior. Mechanisms that mediate interactions between microglia, endothelial cells, and macro...

  5. Hyper-activated pro-inflammatory CD16 monocytes correlate with the severity of liver injury and fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yuan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extensive mononuclear cell infiltration is strongly correlated with liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB infection. Macrophages and infiltrating monocytes also participate in the development of liver damage and fibrosis in animal models. However, little is known regarding the immunopathogenic role of peripheral blood monocytes and intrahepatic macrophages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The frequencies, phenotypes, and functions of peripheral blood and intrahepatic monocyte/macrophage subsets were analyzed in 110 HBeAg positive CHB patients, including 32 immune tolerant (IT carriers and 78 immune activated (IA patients. Liver biopsies from 20 IA patients undergoing diagnosis were collected for immunohistochemical analysis. IA patients displayed significant increases in peripheral blood monocytes and intrahepatic macrophages as well as CD16(+ subsets, which were closely associated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels and the liver histological activity index (HAI scores. In addition, the increased CD16(+ monocytes/macrophages expressed higher levels of the activation marker HLA-DR compared with CD16(- monocytes/macrophages. Furthermore, peripheral blood CD16(+ monocytes preferentially released inflammatory cytokines and hold higher potency in inducing the expansion of Th17 cells. Of note, hepatic neutrophils also positively correlated with HAI scores. CONCLUSIONS: These distinct properties of monocyte/macrophage subpopulations participate in fostering the inflammatory microenvironment and liver damage in CHB patients and further represent a collaborative scenario among different cell types contributing to the pathogenesis of HBV-induced liver disease.

  6. Febrile neutropenic infection occurred in cancer patients undergoing autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation%自体外周血干细胞移植患者粒细胞缺乏期并发感染的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文筱; 赵擎宇

    2011-01-01

    目的:综合分析肿瘤患者经自体外周血干细胞移植(APBSCT)治疗后出现粒细胞缺乏伴感染发热的特点、危险因素及预后.方法:对89例进行APBSCT治疗的患者进行回顾性调查研究,收集其粒细胞缺乏期的相关临床资料并分析其感染情况.结果:89例行APBSCT治疗患者均在千细胞回输后4d(0~15d)出现粒细胞缺乏,持续时间6 d(3~27 d).粒细胞缺乏期感染发生率为78.7% (70/89),发热中位时间为3 d(1~20d),无感染相关性死亡.发热患者使用抗生素治疗,其中44例(66.7%)初始治疗有效.34例(38.2%)患者的预防性抗感染用药中含抗真菌药物,但其中仍有25例(73.5%)出现发热.结论:感染是APBSCT粒细胞缺乏期主要并发症,粒细胞缺乏时间是感染的高危因素,预防性应用抗真菌药物未能降低感染发生率,早期、足量广谱抗生素治疗效果良好.%OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence, risk factors, clinical and prognostic characteristics of febrile infection occurred during the neutropenic period in cancer patients who underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT). METHODES: Eighty-nine cases were collected and retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Eighty-nine APBSCT subjects were investigated. Neutropenia usually occurred on the 4th day (0-15 d) after transplantation and lasted for 6 days (3 - 27 d). Febrile neutropenia occurred in 78. 7% (70/89) patients and lasted for 3 daysd - 20 days) and no infection-related deaths were observed. Of all post-APBSCT febrile neurtopenia, initial empirical anti-microbial therapy was given, 44 cases (66. 7%) of which got to be effective. Febrile neutropenia occurred in 25 cases (73. 5%) who were given antifungal drugs for prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: Neutropenic infection is still the major complication in APBSCT patients and neutropenia is one of the most important risk factors. Prophylactic administration of antifungal drugs seems to be invalid to

  7. Measurement of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in monocytes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Tomás P

    2011-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the primary function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is to synthesize and assemble membrane and secreted proteins. As the main site of protein folding and posttranslational modification in the cell, the ER operates a highly conserved quality control system to ensure only correctly assembled proteins exit the ER and misfolded and unfolded proteins are retained for disposal. Any disruption in the equilibrium of the ER engages a multifaceted intracellular signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore normal conditions in the cell. A variety of pathological conditions can induce activation of the UPR, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson\\'s disease, metabolic disorders such as atherosclerosis, and conformational disorders such as cystic fibrosis. Conformational disorders are characterized by mutations that modify the final structure of a protein and any cells that express abnormal protein risk functional impairment. The monocyte is an important and long-lived immune cell and acts as a key immunological orchestrator, dictating the intensity and duration of the host immune response. Monocytes expressing misfolded or unfolded protein may exhibit UPR activation and this can compromise the host immune system. Here, we describe in detail methods and protocols for the examination of UPR activation in peripheral blood monocytes. This guide should provide new investigators to the field with a broad understanding of the tools required to investigate the UPR in the monocyte.

  8. Measurement of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in monocytes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Tomas P

    2012-02-01

    In mammalian cells, the primary function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is to synthesize and assemble membrane and secreted proteins. As the main site of protein folding and posttranslational modification in the cell, the ER operates a highly conserved quality control system to ensure only correctly assembled proteins exit the ER and misfolded and unfolded proteins are retained for disposal. Any disruption in the equilibrium of the ER engages a multifaceted intracellular signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore normal conditions in the cell. A variety of pathological conditions can induce activation of the UPR, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson\\'s disease, metabolic disorders such as atherosclerosis, and conformational disorders such as cystic fibrosis. Conformational disorders are characterized by mutations that modify the final structure of a protein and any cells that express abnormal protein risk functional impairment. The monocyte is an important and long-lived immune cell and acts as a key immunological orchestrator, dictating the intensity and duration of the host immune response. Monocytes expressing misfolded or unfolded protein may exhibit UPR activation and this can compromise the host immune system. Here, we describe in detail methods and protocols for the examination of UPR activation in peripheral blood monocytes. This guide should provide new investigators to the field with a broad understanding of the tools required to investigate the UPR in the monocyte.

  9. Monocyte matrix metalloproteinase production in Type 2 diabetes and controls – a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Isabel R

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary plaque rupture may result from localised over expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs within the plaque by infiltrating monocyte – macrophages. As MMP expression can be promoted by the modified lipoproteins, oxidative stress and hyperglycaemia that characterises Type 2 diabetes, we hypothesised that peripheral monocytes in these patients, exposed to these factors in vivo, would demonstrate increased MMP production compared to controls. Methods We examined peripheral venous monocyte expression of MMP and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 in 18 controls and 22 subjects with Type 2 diabetes and no previous cardiovascular complications. Results No significant difference in MMP-1, 3 or 9 or TIMP-1 production was observed between control and diabetes groups. Conclusions Monocyte MMP-1, 3, and 9, and TIMP-1, production are not abnormal in Type 2 diabetes. This data cannot be extrapolated to monocyte – macrophage behaviour in the vessel wall, but it does suggest MMP and TIMP-1 expression prior to monocyte infiltration and transformation are not abnormal in Type 2 diabetes.

  10. [Subpopulations and phagocytic activity of monocytes in chronic gastroduodenitis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonova, E V; Malanicheva, T G; Denisova, S N

    2013-01-01

    There was conducted a study of the phagocytic activity, immunophenotype and peripheral blood monocytes by flow cytometry in children with chronic gastroduodenitis associated with Helicobacter pylori, as well as the association of Helicobacter pylori with fungi of the genus Candida and markers of secondary immune deficiency. The differential changes in the structure of circulating profile of monocytes were revealed, that indicate the pathogenetic significance of these disorders in chronic gastroduodenitis with H. pylori etiology, as well as at association of Helicobacter pylori with fungi of the genus Candida. Violations of the phagocytic activity of monocytes in chronic gastroduodenitis in children are associated with depression of different stages of phagocytosis--capture functions, mobilization, killing, intracellular biocidity. A severe depression in phagocytic activity of monocytes occurs in CGD associated with Hp and fungi of the genus Candida. PMID:24501955

  11. Screening for autologous blood transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkeberg, J; Belhage, B; Ashenden, M;

    2009-01-01

    The ratio between the amount of hemoglobin in the mature erythrocyte population and the reticulocytes (RBCHb:RetHb ratio) has previously been suggested as a marker to screen for EPO-abuse. We speculated that the reinfusion of blood would lead to a marked increase in this ratio, making it a valuable...... parameter in the screening for autologous blood doping. Three bags of blood (approximately 201+/-11 g of Hb) were withdrawn from 16 males and stored at either -80 degrees C (-80 T, n=8) or +4 degrees C (+4 T, n=8) and reinfused 10 weeks or 4 weeks later, respectively. Seven subjects served as controls...... week wash-out period were identified as 'suspicious', and 18.8% (-80 T) and 4.3% (+4 T) as 'positive'. In total, 7 out of 16 (43.8%) subjects had at least one sample exceeding 182.9. Compared to the currently used indirect parameters, the RBCHb:RetHb ratio is the best indicator of autologous blood...

  12. Evidence for unfolded protein response activation in monocytes from individuals with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Tomás P

    2010-04-15

    The hereditary disorder alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency results from mutations in the SERPINA1 gene and presents with emphysema in young adults and liver disease in childhood. The most common form of AAT deficiency occurs because of the Z mutation, causing the protein to fold aberrantly and accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This leads to ER stress and contributes significantly to the liver disease associated with the condition. In addition to hepatocytes, AAT is also synthesized by monocytes, neutrophils, and epithelial cells. In this study we show for the first time that the unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in quiescent monocytes from ZZ individuals. Activating transcription factor 4, X-box binding protein 1, and a subset of genes involved in the UPR are increased in monocytes from ZZ compared with MM individuals. This contributes to an inflammatory phenotype with ZZ monocytes exhibiting enhanced cytokine production and activation of the NF-kappaB pathway when compared with MM monocytes. In addition, we demonstrate intracellular accumulation of AAT within the ER of ZZ monocytes. These are the first data showing that Z AAT protein accumulation induces UPR activation in peripheral blood monocytes. These findings change the current paradigm regarding lung inflammation in AAT deficiency, which up until now was derived from the protease-anti-protease hypothesis, but which now must include the exaggerated inflammatory response generated by accumulated aberrantly folded AAT in circulating blood cells.

  13. Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Mobilizing Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cells Transplantation to Form Cardiac Myoid Cells and Angiogenesis%G-CSF动员后外周血干细胞移植的成心肌和血管作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文华; 陈永胜; 姜雪松; 于凯江; 李海波

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究粒细胞集落刺激因子(G-CSF)动员后自体外周血干细胞(PBSCs)移植的成心肌和血管的作用.方法 60只日本大耳白兔随机分成移植组、动员剂组和对照组,每组20只,均采用结扎冠状动脉前降支的方法建立心肌梗死(MI)模型,移植组连续给予G-CSF 7 d,在模型建立后1周,将分离外周血所得的干细胞用BrdU标记,制成细胞悬液经心外膜注射到心梗区及周边,对照组只给予等量的生理盐水注射.组织学分析检测植入细胞的存活及分化情况,并测定毛细血管密度.结果 移植组在梗死区可发现BrdU阳性心肌样细胞,且表达Actin阳性.HE染色显示移植组梗死区细胞排列有序,可见大量的新生毛细血管,而对照组梗死区结构紊乱,毛细血管密度较移植组明显降低(P<0.01).Masson染色对照组胶原纤维明显多于移植组和动员剂组.结论 G-CSF动员后植入自体外周血单个核细胞可在梗死区内及周边区存活并分化成心肌样细胞,同时明显促进了毛细血管的生成.%Objective To study autologous peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) transplantation for cardiac myoid cells formation and angionesis after recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) mobilizing. Methods The 60 white Japanese big-ear rabbits were divided into 3 groups, i.e. transplantation (T) mobiliztor (M) and control (C) groups, each group with 20 rabbits. Myocardial infarction (MI) model was developed by ligating the anterior descending coronary artery. G-CSFs were given continually for 7 d in T and M groups since 1 h after MI model development. Cell suspension which derived from the peripheral blood and labeled with BrdU which prepared 1 week ago were injected into infarction regions and borders, while in C groups only the same doses saline was injected. The survival and differentiation of the implanted cells were detected with histological analyses and capillary densities. Results Brd

  14. Autologous Transplantation of Lentivector/Acid Ceramidase–Transduced Hematopoietic Cells in Nonhuman Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Walia, Jagdeep S; Neschadim, Anton; Lopez-Perez, Orlay; Alayoubi, Abdulfatah; Fan, Xin; Carpentier, Stéphane; Madden, Melissa; Lee, Chyan-Jang; Cheung, Fred; Jaffray, David A.; Levade, Thierry; McCart, J Andrea; Jeffrey A Medin

    2011-01-01

    Farber disease is a rare lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) that manifests due to acid ceramidase (AC) deficiencies and ceramide accumulation. We present a preclinical gene therapy study for Farber disease employing a lentiviral vector (LV-huAC/huCD25) in three enzymatically normal nonhuman primates. Autologous, mobilized peripheral blood (PB) cells were transduced and infused into fully myelo-ablated recipients with tracking for at least 1 year. Outcomes were assessed by measuring the AC speci...

  15. Characterization of monocyte-derived dendritic cells maturated with IFN-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, I M; Nikolajsen, K; Walter, M R; Buus, S; Gad, M; Claesson, M H; Pedersen, Anders Elm

    2006-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are promising candidates for cancer immunotherapy. These cells can be generated from peripheral blood monocytes cultured with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). In order to obtain full functional capacity, maturation is required...

  16. Mobilization of autologous peripheral blood stem cells by mitoxantone, arabinosylcytosin and granulocyte colonystimulating factor regimen and harvesting by large-volume leukapheresis%米托蒽醌、阿糖胞苷、粒细胞集落刺激因子的动员方案及大容量采集自体外周血干细胞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄一虹; 徐开林; 何徐彭; 李德鹏; 鹿群先; 李宝林; 嵇月红; 孙海英; 潘秀英

    2007-01-01

    cytological examination. The functions of the main organs such as heart, lung, liver and kidney,and so on, were normal. The patients underwent an average of 8-course chemotherapy before the mobilization. Informed consents of all the patients were obtained.METHODS: MIT was intravenously injected at 10 mg/(m2·d)for 2 to 3 days, then Ara-C was also intravenously injected at 2 g/m2 every 12 hours for 1 to 2 days. When white blood cell (WBC) count recovered from the lowest value, 5 to 7.5 μg/ (kg·d)G-CSF was applied in 20 patients for 3 to 5 days successively. And 5 to 7.5 μg/ (kg·d)G-CSF and 5 to 7 μ g/(kg·d)GM-CSF were applied in another 22 patients at 6:00 in the morning and in the evening, respectively. PBSCs harvesting started when WBC > 2.5×109 L-1, especially when CD34+ cells≥ 1%,WBC was doubly increased. Autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) were collected with CS3000 plus blood cell separator for detecting the level of CD34+ cells and T lymphocyte subsets. CFU-GM assays were performed in a methyl-cellulose-based clonogenic assay.① MNCs mixed with FITC-labeled CD34+, CD3 and CD8 monoclonal antibodies as well as CD4 PE-labeled CD monoclonal antibody at 4 ℃ for 30 minutes. 5×105 cells were determined, and CD3 and CD34+ levels, CD4/CD8 were determined by flow cytometer.Colony forming unit-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) was determined with methyl cellulose. ② Related adverse reactions were observed after operation. ③ Aiming to different types of diseases,autologous PBSCs were back infused 36 to 48 hours after pre-disposal treatment. MNCs count and trypan-blue drying were done. Levels of CFU-GM and CD34+ cells were determined after unfreezing.MATN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Changes in CD34+ cells and T lymphocyte subsets before and after mobilization. ② Postoperative related adverse reactions. ③ Back perfusion volume of autologous PBSCs (MNCs count, the number of CFU-GM and CD34+ cells).RESULTS: Forty-two involved patients participated in the

  17. The inability of human immunodeficiency virus to infect chimpanzee monocytes can be overcome by serial viral passage in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Gendelman, H E; Ehrlich, G D; Baca, L M; Conley, S; Ribas, J.; Kalter, D C; Meltzer, M S; Poiesz, B J; Nara, P

    1991-01-01

    Studies of lentivirus infection in ruminants, nonhuman primates, and humans suggest that virus infection of macrophages plays a central role in the disease process. To investigate whether human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can infect chimpanzee macrophages, we recovered monocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-1-negative animals and inoculated these and control human monocytes with a panel of four human-passaged monocytotropic virus strains and one chimpanzee-passaged...

  18. Immunological aspects of allogeneic and autologous mesenchymal stem cell therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogduijn, M J; Roemeling-van Rhijn, M; Korevaar, S S; Engela, A U; Weimar, W; Baan, C C

    2011-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have potential for therapeutic application as an immunomodulatory and regenerative agent. The immunogenicity and survival of MSCs after infusion are, however, not clear and evidence suggests that allogeneic but also autologous MSCs disappear rapidly after infusion. This may be associated with the susceptibility of MSCs to lysis by natural killer (NK) cells, possibly a result of culture-induced stress. In the present study we examined whether NK cell-mediated lysis of MSCs could be inhibited by immunosuppressive drugs. Human MSCs were isolated from adipose tissue and expanded in culture. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were activated with interleukin (IL)-2 (200 U/ml) and IL-15 (10 ng/ml) for 7 days. CD3(-)CD16(+)CD56(+) NK cells were then isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and added to europium-labeled MSCs for 4 hr in the presence or absence of immunosuppressive drugs. Lysis of MSCs was determined by spectrophotometric measurement of europium release. Nonactivated NK cells were not capable of lysing MSCs. Cytokine-activated NK cells showed upregulated levels of granzyme B and perforin and efficiently lysed allogeneic and autologous MSCs. Addition of tacrolimus, rapamycin or sotrastaurin to the lysis assay did not inhibit MSC killing. Furthermore, preincubation of activated NK cells with the immunosuppressive drugs for 24 hr before exposure to MSCs had no effect on MSC lysis. Last, addition of the immunosuppressants before and during the activation of NK cells, reduced NK cell numbers but did not affect their capacity to lyse MSCs. We conclude that the immunosuppressive drugs tacrolimus, rapamycin, and sotrastaurin are not capable of inhibiting the lysis of allogeneic and autologous MSCs by activated NK cells. Other approaches to controlling lysis of MSCs should be investigated, as controlling lysis may determine the efficacy of MSC therapy. PMID:21732766

  19. Autologous Transfusion in Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmehr H

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Preoperative autologous blood donation is commonly used to reduce exposure to homologous blood transfusions among patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of autologous transfusion on patients' hematocryte value, intra and postoperative blood loss, hospitalization time, the development of infective complications and other factors. Materials and Methods: Between June 2001 to April 2002, 208 patients were underwent cardiac surgery in cardiac surgery ward in Imam Khomeini Medical Center. One or more blood units donate from 104 Patients before cardiopulmonary bypass and heparin injection, and transfused to them after CPB and Protamin injection (autologous Group, group 1. 104 patients underwent cardiac surgery routinely (control group, group 2."nResults: Mean of age was 55.9±8.6 in group 1 and 56.6±9.3 in group 2 (P=NS. 73 male and 31 females were in group 1 and 79 males and 25 females were in group 2 (P=NS. Smoking, familial history, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, hypertension, stroke, and history of myocardial infarction was similar in two groups."nSeverity of angina, urgency operation, number vessels disease, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, duration of aortic cross clamp time, use of internal thoracic artery graft, and number of grafts was similar in both groups. Mean of bleeding post operation was 548 cc in group 1 and 803 cc in-group 2 (P=0.003. Bleeding that need to operation was 1.8% in group 1 and 8.6% in group 2 (P=0.002. Wound infection, mediastinitis, renal failure, ventilatory prolonged, stroke, need to Intra-aortic Balloon Pump (IABP, intraoperative bleeding, and hospital stay was similar in both groups. Mean of extubationt time was 10.2 hours in group 1 and 14.8 hours in group 2 (P=0.001."nConclusion: Preoperative and intra-operative donations are safe and continue to contribute uniquely to blood conservation, providing important options in comprehensive

  20. Leishmania major surface protease Gp63 interferes with the function of human monocytes and neutrophils in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A L; Hey, A S; Kharazmi, A

    1994-01-01

    In the present study the effect of Leishmania major surface protease Gp63 on the chemotaxis and oxidative burst response of human peripheral blood monocytes and neutrophils was investigated. It was shown that prior incubation of cells with Gp63 inhibited chemotaxis of neutrophils but not monocytes...... by heat inactivation of the protease at 70 degrees C for 15 min. Neither neutrophil nor monocyte chemiluminescence was inhibited by Gp63 when cells were stimulated with PMA. Our data suggest that the major surface protease Gp63 might play an important role in the initial stages of Leishmania...

  1. Chemical dampening of Ly6C(hi) monocytes in the periphery produces anti-depressant effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao; Ma, Sijing; Kang, An; Wu, Mengqiu; Wang, Lin; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of systemic immunity in depression pathogenesis promises a periphery-targeting paradigm in novel anti-depressant discovery. However, relatively little is known about druggable targets in the periphery for mental and behavioral control. Here we report that targeting Ly6C(hi) monocytes in blood can serve as a strategy for anti-depressant purpose. A natural compound, ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), was firstly validated as a periphery-restricted chemical probe. Rg1 selectively suppressed Ly6C(hi) monocytes recruitment to the inflamed mice brain. The proinflammatory potential of Ly6C(hi) monocytes to activate astrocytes was abrogated by Rg1, which led to a blunted feedback release of CCL2 to recruit the peripheral monocytes. In vitro study demonstrated that Rg1 pretreatment on activated THP-1 monocytes retarded their ability to trigger CCL2 secretion from co-cultured U251 MG astrocytes. CCL2-triggered p38/MAPK and PI3K/Akt activation were involved in the action of Rg1. Importantly, in mice models, we found that dampening Ly6C(hi) monocytes at the periphery ameliorated depression-like behavior induced by neuroinflammation or chronic social defeat stress. Together, our work unravels that blood Ly6C(hi) monocytes may serve as the target to enable remote intervention on the depressed brain, and identifies Rg1 as a lead compound for designing drugs targeting peripheral CCL2 signals. PMID:26783261

  2. Chemical dampening of Ly6Chi monocytes in the periphery produces anti-depressant effects in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao; Ma, Sijing; Kang, An; Wu, Mengqiu; Wang, Lin; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of systemic immunity in depression pathogenesis promises a periphery-targeting paradigm in novel anti-depressant discovery. However, relatively little is known about druggable targets in the periphery for mental and behavioral control. Here we report that targeting Ly6Chi monocytes in blood can serve as a strategy for anti-depressant purpose. A natural compound, ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), was firstly validated as a periphery-restricted chemical probe. Rg1 selectively suppressed Ly6Chi monocytes recruitment to the inflamed mice brain. The proinflammatory potential of Ly6Chi monocytes to activate astrocytes was abrogated by Rg1, which led to a blunted feedback release of CCL2 to recruit the peripheral monocytes. In vitro study demonstrated that Rg1 pretreatment on activated THP-1 monocytes retarded their ability to trigger CCL2 secretion from co-cultured U251 MG astrocytes. CCL2-triggered p38/MAPK and PI3K/Akt activation were involved in the action of Rg1. Importantly, in mice models, we found that dampening Ly6Chi monocytes at the periphery ameliorated depression-like behavior induced by neuroinflammation or chronic social defeat stress. Together, our work unravels that blood Ly6Chi monocytes may serve as the target to enable remote intervention on the depressed brain, and identifies Rg1 as a lead compound for designing drugs targeting peripheral CCL2 signals. PMID:26783261

  3. Injection of Autologous Fat Alone and in Combination With Autologous Platelet Gel for Nasolabial Fold Augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasemi; Tabaie; Azizjalali; Berenjiardestani; Fereshtenejad; Amirizadeh; Fateh

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently, soft tissue augmentation has become popular due to development of convenient techniques. Autologous fat is one of the safest fillers for this purpose. Moreover, healing effects of autologous platelet gel on acute and chronic human skin wounds have been shown in recent studies. Objectives In this study, the effect of subcutaneous injection of autologous fat alone and in combination with platelet gel was compare...

  4. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Sabine; Ronchese, Franca

    2013-01-01

    The elicitation of efficient antitumor immune responses requires the optimal activation of tumor-associated dendritic cells (DCs). Our comparison of the effect of various immunostimulatory treatments on DCs revealed that the best predictor of the success of immunotherapy is not the activation of existing DC populations, but the appearance of a population of monocyte-derived DC in tumor-draining lymph nodes.

  5. The radioactive labeling of monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of studying a possible relationship between circulating monocytes and Sternberg-Reed cells investigations were started on the specific labeling of monocytes. In this thesis the literature on the pertinent data has been reviewed and a series of experiments on the monocyte labeling procedure has been described. The principles of cell labeling with radioactive compounds were discussed. 1. Total separation of the particular cell population to be labeled and subsequent labeling with a non-specific radiopharmaceutical. 2. Specific cell labeling in a mixture of cell types based on a well defined affinity of the cell under study for the radiopharmaceutical used. Next the radionuclides that can be used for cell labeling purposes were discussed with special attention for 111In and its chelates. The principles of radiodosimetry were also discussed shortly. This section was focussed on the radiation dose the labeled cells receive because of the intracellular localized radioactivity. The radiation burden is high in comparison to amounts of radiation known to affect cell viability. A newly developed method for labeling monocytes specifically by phagocytosis of 111In-Fe-colloid without apparent loss of cells was described in detail. (Auth.)

  6. Hemifacial atrophy treated with autologous fat transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old male developed right hemifacial atrophy following marphea profunda. Facial asymmetry due to residual atrophy was treated with autologous fat harvested from buttocks with marked cosmetic improvement.

  7. Intraurethral Injection of Autologous Minced Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, Søren; Klarskov, Niels; Lose, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Intraurethral injection of in vitro expanded autologous skeletal muscle derived cells is a new regenerative therapy for stress urinary incontinence. We examined the efficacy and safety of a simpler alternative strategy using freshly harvested, minced autologous skeletal muscle tissue with...... its inherent content of regenerative cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 and 15 women with uncomplicated and complicated stress urinary incontinence, respectively, received intraurethral injections of minced autologous skeletal muscle tissue and were followed for 1 year. Efficacy was assessed...... events were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Intraurethral injection of minced autologous muscle tissue is a simple surgical procedure that appears safe and moderately effective in women with uncomplicated stress urinary incontinence. It compares well to a more complicated regenerative strategy using in vitro...

  8. [Autologous transfusion in obstetrics and fetal safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, F; Patella, A; Cecchi, A; Ippolito, M; Indraccolo, S R

    1994-06-01

    It is common knowledge that for modern medicine transfusion therapy represents a precious resource and an often mandatory option. It is equally known that autohemotransfusion (or autologous transfusion) provides further advantages: certainty of blood availability when necessary, absence of transfusion reactions, elimination of the risk of infections that is still associated with the traditional homologous transfusions. In its most widespread application, autotransfusion provides for the donation of one or more units of autologous blood, mostly before elective surgery. Even in obstetrics the practice of autologous blood donation with the aim of autotransfusion is finding increasing employment. However, there are still controversial aspects and the need is pointed out for more authoritative verifications as refers to the alleged innocuity to the fetus of acute maternal blood loss. The present study was performed to contribute personal experience to a better definition of the possible interactions between autologous blood donation during pregnancy and unborn child welfare. To this end, 80 term pregnant women underwent fetal heart rate electronic monitoring before, during and after the donation of one unit of autologous blood. Both during and after the phlebotomy there were no cardiotocographic signs of fetal hypo-oxygenation. Even the non stress tests performed at a distance of 24 hours and those that were periodically repeated afterwards were normal, confirming the safety of autologous predonation during pregnancy. However, the authors think that in obstetrics it is still premature to consider the experimental phase of autotransfusion as definitively exhausted. PMID:7936387

  9. Microbial translocation is associated with increased monocyte activation and dementia in AIDS patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Ancuta

    Full Text Available Elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an indicator of microbial translocation from the gut, is a likely cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection. LPS induces monocyte activation and trafficking into brain, which are key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD. To determine whether high LPS levels are associated with increased monocyte activation and HAD, we obtained peripheral blood samples from AIDS patients and examined plasma LPS by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL assay, peripheral blood monocytes by FACS, and soluble markers of monocyte activation by ELISA. Purified monocytes were isolated by FACS sorting, and HIV DNA and RNA levels were quantified by real time PCR. Circulating monocytes expressed high levels of the activation markers CD69 and HLA-DR, and harbored low levels of HIV compared to CD4(+ T-cells. High plasma LPS levels were associated with increased plasma sCD14 and LPS-binding protein (LBP levels, and low endotoxin core antibody levels. LPS levels were higher in HAD patients compared to control groups, and were associated with HAD independently of plasma viral load and CD4 counts. LPS levels were higher in AIDS patients using intravenous heroin and/or ethanol, or with Hepatitis C virus (HCV co-infection, compared to control groups. These results suggest a role for elevated LPS levels in driving monocyte activation in AIDS, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of HAD, and provide evidence that cofactors linked to substance abuse and HCV co-infection influence these processes.

  10. Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be associated with peripheral neuropathy. Metabolic and endocrine disorders impair the body’s ability to transform nutrients into ... to neuropathies as a result of chemical imbalances. Endocrine disorders that lead to hormonal imbalances can disturb normal ...

  11. Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injury (trauma) to a nerve, tumors, toxins, autoimmune responses, nutritional deficiencies, alcoholism, medical procedures, and vascular and metabolic disorders. Acquired peripheral neuropathies are caused by systemic disease, trauma from external agents, or infections or autoimmune disorders ...

  12. Dendritic Cells and Monocytes with Distinct Inflammatory Responses Reside in Lung Mucosa of Healthy Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharom, Faezzah; Thomas, Saskia; Rankin, Gregory; Lepzien, Rico; Pourazar, Jamshid; Behndig, Annelie F; Ahlm, Clas; Blomberg, Anders; Smed-Sörensen, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Every breath we take contains potentially harmful pathogens or allergens. Dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes, and macrophages are essential in maintaining a delicate balance of initiating immunity without causing collateral damage to the lungs because of an exaggerated inflammatory response. To document the diversity of lung mononuclear phagocytes at steady-state, we performed bronchoscopies on 20 healthy subjects, sampling the proximal and distal airways (bronchial wash and bronchoalveolar lavage, respectively), as well as mucosal tissue (endobronchial biopsies). In addition to a substantial population of alveolar macrophages, we identified subpopulations of monocytes, myeloid DCs (MDCs), and plasmacytoid DCs in the lung mucosa. Intermediate monocytes and MDCs were highly frequent in the airways compared with peripheral blood. Strikingly, the density of mononuclear phagocytes increased upon descending the airways. Monocytes from blood and airways produced 10-fold more proinflammatory cytokines than MDCs upon ex vivo stimulation. However, airway monocytes were less inflammatory than blood monocytes, suggesting a more tolerant nature. The findings of this study establish how to identify human lung mononuclear phagocytes and how they function in normal conditions, so that dysregulations in patients with respiratory diseases can be detected to elucidate their contribution to immunity or pathogenesis. PMID:27183618

  13. Studies on the metabolism of triphenylphosphate by carboxylesterases and human monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resin workers exposed to triphenylphosphate (TPP), an organophosphate (OP) flame retardant and plasticizer, had a decreased expression of carboxylesterase (CBE) activity in their peripheral blood monocytes. The mechanisms of CBE inhibition by TPP were investigated using purified hog liver CBE and intact human monocytes. TPP inactivated hog liver CBE in a time and dose dependent manner, and this inhibition was partially reversed by alkaline phosphatase (AP). Analysis of [14C]TPP metabolites from the enzymatic reaction by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GM-C) identified phenol as the hydrolytic metabolite of TPP. Human monocytes cultured with [14C]TPP also released phenol. In addition to phenol, several phenol metabolites, such as catechol, hydroquinone, 2,2 biphenol and 4,4 biphenol were also generated by monocytes. An identical pattern of these metabolites was also formed from monocytes incubated with radiolabelled phenol. This cellular degradation of TPP was inhibited by diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), but not observed in neutrophil or lymphocyte cultures. Activation of monocytes with gamma interferon (IFN-g), f-Met-Leu-Phe, and serum treated zymosan (STZ) enhanced the levels of phenolic metabolites and, further, shifted the metabolism of TPP towards the formation of the biphenolic metabolites

  14. NK cell-mediated killing of AML blasts. Role of histamine, monocytes and reactive oxygen metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasts recovered from patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) were lysed by heterologeous natural killer (NK) cells treated with NK cell-activating cytokine-induced killing of AML blasts was inhibited by monocytes, recovered from peripheral blood by counterflow centrifugal elutriation. Histamine, at concentrations exceeding 0.1 μM, abrogated the monocyte-induced inhibition of NK cells; thereby, histamine and IL-2 or histamine and IFN-α synergistically induced NK cell-mediated destruction of AML blasts. The effect of histamine was completely blocked by the histamine H2-receptor (H2R) antagonist ranitidine but not by its chemical control AH20399AA. Catalase, a scavenger of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM), reversed the monocyte-induced inhibition of NK cell-mediated killing of blast cells, indicating that the inhibitory signal was mediated by products of the respiratory burst of monocytes. It is concluded that (i) monocytes inhibit anti-leukemic properties of NK cells, (ii) the inhibition is conveyed by monocyte-derived ROM, and (iii) histamine reverses the inhibitory signal and, thereby, synergizes with NK cell-activating cytokines to induce killing of AML blasts. (au) 19 refs

  15. NK cell-mediated killing of AML blasts. Role of histamine, monocytes and reactive oxygen metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, M.; Mellqvist, U.H. [Sahlgren`s Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Medicine, Haematology Section, Goeteborg (Sweden); Hansson, M.; Hermodsson, S.; Hellstrand, K. [Sahlgren`s Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Virology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    Blasts recovered from patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) were lysed by heterologeous natural killer (NK) cells treated with NK cell-activating cytokine-induced killing of AML blasts was inhibited by monocytes, recovered from peripheral blood by counterflow centrifugal elutriation. Histamine, at concentrations exceeding 0.1 {mu}M, abrogated the monocyte-induced inhibition of NK cells; thereby, histamine and IL-2 or histamine and IFN-{alpha} synergistically induced NK cell-mediated destruction of AML blasts. The effect of histamine was completely blocked by the histamine H2-receptor (H2R) antagonist ranitidine but not by its chemical control AH20399AA. Catalase, a scavenger of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM), reversed the monocyte-induced inhibition of NK cell-mediated killing of blast cells, indicating that the inhibitory signal was mediated by products of the respiratory burst of monocytes. It is concluded that (i) monocytes inhibit anti-leukemic properties of NK cells, (ii) the inhibition is conveyed by monocyte-derived ROM, and (iii) histamine reverses the inhibitory signal and, thereby, synergizes with NK cell-activating cytokines to induce killing of AML blasts. (au) 19 refs.

  16. Phagocytic ability of neutrophils and monocytes in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantagos Stephanos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections by a variety of pathogens are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality during perinatal period. The susceptibility of neonates to bacterial infections has been attributed to immaturity of innate immunity. It is considered that one of the impaired mechanisms is the phagocytic function of neutrophils and monocytes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the phagocytic ability of neonates at birth. Methods The phagocytic ability of neutrophils and monocytes of 42 neonates was determined using the Phagotest flow cytometry method, that assesses the intake of E. Coli by phagocytes, in cord blood and in peripheral blood 3 days after birth. Fifteen healthy adults were included in the study as controls. Results The phagocytic ability of neutrophils in the cord blood of neonates was significantly reduced compared to adults. The 3rd postnatal day the reduction of phagocytic ability of neutrophils was no longer significant compared to adults. The phagocytic ability of monocytes did not show any difference from that of adults either at birth or the 3rd postnatal day. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the intake of E. Coli by phagocytes is impaired at birth in both preterm and full term neonates compared to adults. This defect is transient, with the phagocytic ability in neonates reaching that of the adults 3 days after birth.

  17. A simple model of radial nerve injury in the rhesus monkey to evaluate peripheral nerve repair

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dong; Huang, Xijun; Fu, Guo; Gu, Liqiang; Liu, Xiaolin; WANG, HONGGANG; Hu, Jun; Yi, Jianhua; Niu, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Qingtang

    2014-01-01

    Current research on bone marrow stem cell transplantation and autologous or xenogenic nerve transplantation for peripheral nerve regeneration has mainly focused on the repair of peripheral nerve defects in rodents. In this study, we established a standardized experimental model of radial nerve defects in primates and evaluated the effect of repair on peripheral nerve injury. We repaired 2.5-cm lesions in the radial nerve of rhesus monkeys by transplantation of autografts, acellular allografts...

  18. ApoE Production in Human Monocytes and Its Regulation by Inflammatory Cytokines

    OpenAIRE

    Braesch-Andersen, Sten; Paulie, Staffan; Smedman, Christian; Mia, Sohel; Kumagai-Braesch, Makiko

    2013-01-01

    The apoE production by tissue macrophages is crucial for the prevention of atherosclerosis and the aim of this study was to further elucidate how this apolipoprotein is regulated by cytokines present during inflammation. Here we studied apoE production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and analysis was made with a newly developed apoE ELISpot assay. In PBMC, apoE secretion was restricted to monocytes with classical (CD14++CD16−) and intermediate (CD14+CD16+) monocytes being the mai...

  19. Haemopoietic progenitor cells in human peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the investigation reported is to purify haemopoietic progenitor cells from human peripheral blood using density gradient centrifugation in order to isolate a progenitor cell fraction without immunocompetent cells. The purification technique of peripheral blood flow colony forming unit culture (CFU-c) by means of density gradient centrifugation and a combined depletion of various rosettes is described. The results of several 'in vitro' characteristics of purified CFU-c suspensions and of the plasma clot diffusion chamber culture technique are presented. Irradiation studies revealed that for both human bone marrow and peripheral blood the CFU-c were less radioresistant than clusters. Elimination of monocytes (and granulocytes) from the test suspensions induced an alteration in radiosensitivity pararmeters. The results obtained with the different techniques are described by analysing peripheral progenitor cell activity in myeloproliferative disorders. (Auth.)

  20. Infliximab therapy increases the frequency of circulating CD16(+) monocytes and modifies macrophage cytokine response to bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareth, N; Magro, F; Silva, J; Duro, M; Gracio, D; Coelho, R; Appelberg, R; Macedo, G; Sarmento, A

    2014-09-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) has been correlated with altered macrophage response to microorganisms. Considering the efficacy of infliximab treatment on CD remission, we investigated infliximab effects on circulating monocyte subsets and on macrophage cytokine response to bacteria. Human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages were obtained from CD patients, treated or not with infliximab. Macrophages were infected with Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) or M. avium subsp avium, and cytokine levels [tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-10] were evaluated at different time-points. To evaluate infliximab-dependent effects on monocyte subsets, we studied CD14 and CD16 expression by peripheral blood monocytes before and after different infliximab administrations. We also investigated TNF secretion by macrophages obtained from CD16(+) and CD16(-) monocytes and the frequency of TNF(+) cells among CD16(+) and CD16(-) monocyte-derived macrophages from CD patients. Infliximab treatment resulted in elevated TNF and IL-10 macrophage response to bacteria. An infliximab-dependent increase in the frequency of circulating CD16(+) monocytes (particularly the CD14(++) CD16(+) subset) was also observed (before infliximab: 4·65 ± 0·58%; after three administrations: 10·68 ± 2·23%). In response to MAP infection, macrophages obtained from CD16(+) monocytes were higher TNF producers and CD16(+) macrophages from infliximab-treated CD patients showed increased frequency of TNF(+) cells. In conclusion, infliximab treatment increased the TNF production of CD macrophages in response to bacteria, which seemed to depend upon enrichment of CD16(+) circulating monocytes, particularly of the CD14(++) CD16(+) subset. Infliximab treatment of CD patients also resulted in increased macrophage IL-10 production in response to bacteria, suggesting an infliximab-induced shift to M2 macrophages. PMID:24816497

  1. Autologous nerve graft repair of different degrees of sciatic nerve defect: stress and displacement at the anastomosis in a three-dimensional fnite element simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-dong Piao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the repair of peripheral nerve injury using autologous or synthetic nerve grafting, the magnitude of tensile forces at the anastomosis affects its response to physiological stress and the ultimate success of the treatment. One-dimensional stretching is commonly used to measure changes in tensile stress and strain however, the accuracy of this simple method is limited. Therefore, in the present study, we established three-dimensional finite element models of sciatic nerve defects repaired by autologous nerve grafts. Using PRO E 5.0 finite element simulation software, we calculated the maximum stress and displacement of an anastomosis under a 5 N load in 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-mm long autologous nerve grafts. We found that maximum displacement increased with graft length, consistent with specimen force. These findings indicate that three-dimensional finite element simulation is a feasible method for analyzing stress and displacement at the anastomosis after autologous nerve grafting.

  2. A case of human monocytic ehrlichiosis in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ehrlichiosis is a bacterial zoonosis transmitted by hematophagous arthropods - ticks. In humans, it occurs as monocytic, granulocytic, and ewingii ehrlichiosis. Pathological process is based on parasitic presence of Ehrlichia organisms within peripheral blood cells - monocytes and granulocytes. Case Outline. Fifty-two year old patient was admitted to hospital due to high fever of over 40°C that lasted two days, accompanied with chills, muscle aches, malaise, loss of appetite, headache, confusion, breathing difficulties, and mild dry cough. The history suggested tick bite that occurred seven days before the onset of disease. Doxycycline was introduced and administered for 14 days, causing the disease to subside. Indirect immunofluorescence assay was used to analyze three serum samples obtained from this patient for Ehrlichia chaffeensis antibodies, and peripheral blood smear was evaluated for the presence of Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia aggregation into morulae. Conclusion. Ehrlichiosis should be considered in each case where there is a history of tick bite together with the clinical picture (high fever, chills, muscle aches, headache, generalized weakness and malaise, and possible maculopapular rash. The presence of Ehrlichia chaffeensis antibodies was confirmed in a patient with the history of tick bite, appropriate clinical picture and indirect immunofluorescence assay. This confirmed the presence of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis, a disease that is uncommonly identified in our country.

  3. Monocyte dysfunction in Sydenham's chorea patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Karen C; Dutra, Walderez O; de Rezende, Vitor Bortolo; Cardoso, Francisco; Gollob, Kenneth J; Teixeira, Antonio L

    2010-04-01

    Until now, there are no conclusive data about the mechanisms involved in motor symptoms of Sydenham's chorea (SC). Taking into account the autoreactive antibody-mediated hypothesis of SC pathogenesis, the SC may be associated with uncontrolled immune mechanisms. Besides the antibody hypothesis, the innate immune system has been underappreciated. Hence, we evaluated the activation state of monocytes, cells that are precursors of macrophages, to characterize the inflammation profile of patients. We assessed the surface molecules CD80, CD86, and human leukocyte antigen DR expression in patients with SC by flow cytometry analysis. Our results showed a decreased CD14(+) (monocyte) frequency, with concomitant increased CD14(-) frequency inside monocyte population. Although monocyte population showed a decreased human leukocyte antigen DR and CD86 frequencies, the CD14(-) population showed an increased frequency of CD80(+) monocyte from SC compared with controls. These data suggest that monocytes showed a reduced costimulatory potential in SC. PMID:20080141

  4. [Monomorphic post-transplant T-lymphoproliferative disorder after autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Takei, Toshifumi; Koya, Hiroko; Iriuchishima, Hirono; Hosiho, Takumi; Hirato, Junko; Kojima, Masaru; Handa, Hiroshi; Nojima, Yoshihisa; Murakami, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of T cell type monomorphic post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) after autologous stem cell transplantation. A 53-year-old man with multiple myeloma received autologous stem cell transplantation and achieved a very good partial response. Nine months later, he developed a high fever and consciousness disturbance, and had multiple swollen lymph nodes and a high titer of Epstein-Barr (EB) virus DNA in his peripheral blood. Neither CT nor MRI of the brain revealed any abnormalities. Cerebrospinal fluid contained no malignant cells, but the EB virus DNA titer was high. Lymph node biopsy revealed T cell type monomorphic PTLD. Soon after high-dose treatment with methotrexate and cytosine arabinoside, the high fever and consciousness disturbance subsided, and the lymph node swelling and EB virus DNA disappeared. Given the efficacy of chemotherapy in this case, we concluded that the consciousness disturbance had been induced by central nervous system involvement of monomorphic PTLD. PMID:26861102

  5. Homocysteine induces production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-8 in cultured human whole blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-kun ZENG; Daniel G REMICK; Xian WANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether increased plasma L-homocysteine (Hcy) level could promote monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in cultured whole blood. METHODS: Human whole blood or different type of peripheral blood cells from health volunteers were incubated with Hcy and/or the inhibitors. MCP- 1 and IL-8 level were measured by ELISA assay. RESULTS: Hcy 10-1000 μmol/L induced production of MCP-1 and IL-8 in cultured human whole blood (P<0.05). The major cellular source of these chemokines comed from monocytes.Meanwhile,Hcy also promoted the upregulation of MPO level even at the 10 μmol/L in the cultured whole blood.secretion in cultured human whole blood, especially in monocytes via oxidative stress mechanism.

  6. Monocyte and macrophage differentiation: circulation inflammatory monocyte as biomarker for inflammatory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jiyeon; Zhang, Lixiao; Yu, Caijia; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Monocytes express various receptors, which monitor and sense environmental changes. Monocytes are highly plastic and heterogeneous, and change their functional phenotype in response to environmental stimulation. Evidence from murine and human studies has suggested that monocytosis can be an indicator of various inflammatory diseases. Monocytes can differentiate into inflammatory or anti-inflammatory subsets. Upon tissue damage or infection, monocytes are rapidly recruited to the tissue, where...

  7. Nonclassical Patrolling Monocyte Function in the Vasculature

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Graham; Tacke, Robert; Hedrick, Catherine C.; Hanna, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Nonclassical patrolling monocytes are characterized by their unique ability to actively patrol the vascular endothelium under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. Patrolling monocyte subsets (CX3CR1highLy6C− in mouse, and CX3CR1highCD14dimCD16+ in humans) are distinct from the classical monocyte subsets (CCR2highLy6C+ in mouse, and CCR2highCD14+CD16− in humans) and exhibit unique functions in the vasculature and inflammatory disease. Patrolling monocytes function in a number of disease se...

  8. Differential effect of methotrexate on the increased CCR2 density on circulating CD4 T lymphocytes and monocytes in active chronic rheumatoid arthritis, with a down regulation only on monocytes in responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, T; Hornung, N; Møller, B K; Poulsen, Jørgen Hjelm; Stengaard-Pedersen, K

    2007-01-01

    arthritis. METHODS: All 34 patients with rheumatoid arthritis fulfilled the 1987 American Rheumatism Association criteria and were followed for 16 weeks after starting MTX. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analysed for CCR2 and CXCR3 density by three-colour flow cytometry before initiation of MTX and...... monocytes, CD4(+) CXCR3(+) and CD4(+) CXCR3(-) T lymphocytes was increased compared with controls. During 12 weeks of MTX treatment, the CCR2 density on monocytes decreased significantly in the ACR50% group but not in the ACR20% and non-responder groups. The increased CCR2 density on CD4(+) CXCR3(+) and CD4......(+) CXCR3(-) T lymphocytes was unaffected by the reduction in disease activity measured in relation to MTX treatment. The percentage of both monocytes and CD4(+) CXCR3(+) and CD4+ CXCR3(-) T lymphocytes among the peripheral circulating mononuclear cells did not change during MTX treatment. CONCLUSIONS...

  9. Targeting monocytes and macrophages by means of SPECT and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monocytes have been isolated from patient’s blood and directly radiolabelled in vitro using a variety of radiopharmaceuticals such as 99mTc-HMPAO, 111In-oxine, 99mTc-colloids and 18F-FDG. Overall, the best labeling results were obtained using 99mTc-HMPAO. The wide availability of 99mTc and of the ligand HMPAO in kit-formulation makes it the most versatile procedure for imaging localized inflammation using in-vitro labeling. Injection of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled monocytes in adult patients has proven safe with an effective dose of 0.011 mSv/Mbq, equivalent to that of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled mixed white blood cells. Furthermore, in a proof of concept studies, in-vitro labeled monocytes were shown to specifically accumulate in the bowels of patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease as well as in inflamed joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Inversely, the decrease in disease activity of inflamed joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients treated by Adalimumab could not be substantiated using 99mTc-HMPAO labelled monocytes suggesting this type of treatment does not reduce monocyte influx. In spite of their wide availability, in-vitro labeling procedures are cumbersome and time-consuming. Furthermore, cell activation may occur during the labeling process and it cannot be excluded that the radiopharmaceuticals used for labelling interfere with ongoing cellular processes. As such, various authors turned towards the development of radiopharmaceuticals for in-vivo labeling of both monocytes and more importantly macrophages, many of which were subsequently validated in animal models. Targets studied in this regard include amongst others the folate receptor, the mannose receptor, the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor as well as more general characteristics of macrophages such as phagocytosis. Various of these novel molecules appear promising and clinical studies using these radiopharmaceuticals are awaited in the near future. Some of these radiopharmaceuticals also

  10. Interferon-beta induces distinct gene expression response patterns in human monocytes versus T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Henig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monocytes, which are key players in innate immunity, are outnumbered by neutrophils and lymphocytes among peripheral white blood cells. The cytokine interferon-β (IFN-β is widely used as an immunomodulatory drug for multiple sclerosis and its functional pathways in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs have been previously described. The aim of the present study was to identify novel, cell-specific IFN-β functions and pathways in tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α-activated monocytes that may have been missed in studies using PBMCs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Whole genome gene expression profiles of human monocytes and T cells were compared following in vitro priming to TNF-α and overnight exposure to IFN-β. Statistical analyses of the gene expression data revealed a cell-type-specific change of 699 transcripts, 667 monocyte-specific transcripts, 21 T cell-specific transcripts and 11 transcripts with either a difference in the response direction or a difference in the magnitude of response. RT-PCR revealed a set of differentially expressed genes (DEGs, exhibiting responses to IFN-β that are modulated by TNF-α in monocytes, such as RIPK2 and CD83, but not in T cells or PBMCs. Known IFN-β promoter response elements, such as ISRE, were enriched in T cell DEGs but not in monocyte DEGs. The overall directionality of the gene expression regulation by IFN-β was different in T cells and monocytes, with up-regulation more prevalent in T cells, and a similar extent of up and down-regulation recorded in monocytes. CONCLUSIONS: By focusing on the response of distinct cell types and by evaluating the combined effects of two cytokines with pro and anti-inflammatory activities, we were able to present two new findings First, new IFN-β response pathways and genes, some of which were monocytes specific; second, a cell-specific modulation of the IFN-β response transcriptome by TNF-α.

  11. Coating with Autologous Plasma Improves Biocompatibility of Mesh Grafts In Vitro: Development Stage of a Surgical Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Gerullis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate mesh coating modalities with autologous blood components in a recently developed in vitro test system for biocompatibility assessment of alloplastic materials. Materials and Methods. Seven different mesh types, currently used in various indications, were randomly investigated. Meshes were coated prior to cultivation with autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, platelets, and blood plasma. Pretreated meshes were incubated over 6 weeks in a minced tissue assay, representative for fibroblasts, muscle cells, and endothelial cells originating from 10 different patients. Adherence of those tissues on the meshes was microscopically investigated and semiquantitatively assessed using a previously described scoring system. Results. Coating with peripheral blood mononuclear cells did not affect the adherence score, whereas coating with platelets and blood plasma increased the score suggesting improved biocompatibility in vitro. The previous ranking of native meshes remained consistent after coating. Conclusion. Plasma coating of meshes improves their biocompatibility score in a novel in vitro test system.

  12. Interaction between Salmonella typhimurium and phagocytic cells in pigs - Phagocytosis, oxidative burst and killing in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Lind, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Interactions between Salmonella typhimurium and peripheral blood leucocytes from healthy, Salmonella-free pigs were investigated in vitro. Both granulocytes and monocytes phagocytized FITC-labelled heat-killed Salmonella bacteria as shown by flow cytometry. Phagocytosis in whole blood and isolate...

  13. The immune response during the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle : increasing sensitivity of human monocytes to endotoxin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Annechien; Moes, H; Heineman, MJ; de Leij, LFMH; Faas, MM

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that during the luteal phase of the human ovarian cycle, as compared with the follicular phase, the percentage of cytokines producing peripheral monocytes after in vitro stimulation with endotoxin is increased. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Academic research i

  14. High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for adult histiocytic disorders with central nervous system involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar, Nathalie; Van Den Neste, Eric; Boudou, Pascaline; Haroche, Julien; Wechsler, Bertrand; Hoang-Xuan, Khe; Amoura, Zahir; Guillevin, Remy; Savatovski, Julien; Azar, Nabih; Piette, Jean-Charles; Leblond, Veronique

    2006-01-01

    We postulated that high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) followed by peripheral autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation might help to control refractory central nervous system (CNS) histiocytic disorders. Six patients with histiocytic CNS involvement were treated in this way. Two patients achieved non-active disease status, although one relapsed at 84 months. Two patients had regressive disease, one of whom progressed at 21 months. One patient had progressive disease at 14 months. One patie...

  15. Cytokine and Eicosanoid Production by Cultured Human Monocytes Exposed to Titanium Particulate Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Timothy M.; Manley, Paul A.; Sims, Paul A.; Albrecht, Ralph; Darien, Benjamin J.

    1999-10-01

    Phagocytosis of particulate wear debris from arthroplasties by macrophages induces an inflammatory response that has been linked to implant loosening and premature failure of artificial joints. Inflammatory mediators released by phagocytic macrophages such as tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-[alpha]), interleukin-1[beta] (IL-1[beta]), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of aseptic loosening. The objective of this study was to characterize titanium alloy particulates that closely match wear debris found around joint arthroplasties and to study their effects on the biosynthesis of inflammatory mediators by cultured monocytes. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy human volunteers. Monocytes were cultured in 96-well plates for 24 h, washed, and exposed to three concentrations of titanium particulates and controls from 18Ð24 h. Supernatants were assayed for TNF-[alpha], IL-1[beta], IL-6, and PGE2 activity. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) verified the titanium alloy to be Ti6A14V. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed significant titanium particulate heterogeneity with approximately 95% of the particles titanium particulates utilized for in vitro models of titanium-induced cytokine release by monocytes. Incubation of titanium particulates (in concentrations similar to those found around loosened prosthetic joints) with cultured monocytes significantly increased their production of TNF-[alpha], IL-1[beta], and PGE2.

  16. Monocyte-derived macrophages exhibit distinct and more restricted HIV-1 integration site repertoire than CD4+ T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yik Lim Kok; Valentina Vongrad; Mohaned Shilaih; Francesca Di Giallonardo; Herbert Kuster; Roger Kouyos; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Metzner, Karin J.

    2016-01-01

    The host genetic landscape surrounding integrated HIV-1 has an impact on the fate of the provirus. Studies analysing HIV-1 integration sites in macrophages are scarce. We studied HIV-1 integration site patterns in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and activated CD4+ T cells derived from seven antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated HIV-1-infected individuals whose cells were infected ex vivo with autologous HIV-1 isolated during the acute phase of infection. A total of 1,484 unique HIV-1 integ...

  17. Monocytes infiltrate the pancreas via the MCP-1/CCR2 pathway and differentiate into stellate cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Ino

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that monocytes possess pluripotent plasticity. We previously reported that monocytes could differentiate into hepatic stellate cells. Although stellate cells are also present in the pancreas, their origin remains unclear. An accumulation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP(+CD45(- cells was observed in the pancreases and livers of chimeric mice, which were transplanted with a single hematopoietic stem cell isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice and treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. Because the vast majority of EGFP(+CD45(- cells in the pancreas expressed stellate cell-associated antigens such as vimentin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, procollagen-I, and α-smooth muscle actin, they were characterized as pancreatic stellate cells (PaSCs. EGFP(+ PaSCs were also observed in CCl4-treated mice adoptively transferred with monocytes but not with other cell lineages isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice. The expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and angiotensin II (Ang II increased in the pancreas of CCl4-treated mice and their respective receptors, C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2 and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R, were expressed on Ly6C(high monocytes isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice. We examined the effect of an AT1R antagonist, irbesartan, which is also a CCR2 antagonist, on the migration of monocytes into the pancreas. Monocytes migrated toward MCP-1 but not Ang II in vitro. Irbesartan inhibited not only their in vitro chemotaxis but also in vivo migration of adoptively transferred monocytes from peripheral blood into the pancreas. Irbesartan treatment significantly reduced the numbers of EGFP(+F4/80(+CCR2(+ monocytic cells and EGFP(+ PaSCs in the pancreas of CCl4-treated chimeric mice receiving EGFP(+ bone marrow cells. A specific CCR2 antagonist RS504393 inhibited the occurrence of EGFP(+ PaSCs in injured mice. We propose that CCR2(+ monocytes migrate into the pancreas possibly via the

  18. Immunosuppressive CD11b+Ly6Chi monocytes in pristane-induced lupus mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huijuan; Wan, Suigui; Xia, Chang-Qing

    2016-06-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells with immunosuppressive functions have been described to be associated with one of the mechanisms by which malignant tumors escape immune surveillance. However, little is known about the role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in autoimmunity. In the current study, when we attempted to characterize the peritoneal cells in pristane-induced lupus model, as reported previously, we observed that there were markedly increased CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes. Surprisingly, this type of monocytes was almost phenotypically identical to the reported monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Further analysis on how these CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) cells affected T cell response showed that they strongly suppressed T cell proliferation in vitro in a manner dependent on cell-cell contact, NO, and PGE2. In addition, we found that CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes inhibited Th1 differentiation but enhanced development of forkhead box p3(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells. Consistent with the in vitro experimental results, the in vivo adoptive cell transfer study showed that infusion of pristane-treated syngeneic CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes significantly suppressed the production of anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin antibodies induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunization. In addition, we found that CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes were also increased significantly in spleen and peripheral blood and showed immunosuppressive characteristics similar to their peritoneal counterparts. Our findings indicate that CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes in a pristane-induced lupus mouse model are monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells instead of inflammatory monocytes, as demonstrated previously. To our knowledge, this is the first to describe myeloid-derived suppressor cells in a pristane-induced lupus mouse model, which may lead to a better understanding of the role of CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes in this specific pristane-induced lupus model. PMID:26657791

  19. Phagocytosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes: effect of cystic fibrosis serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomassen, M J; Demko, C A; Wood, R E; Sherman, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    It has been shown previously that serum from chronically infected patients with cystic fibrosis inhibits the phagocytosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by both normal and cystic fibrosis alveolar macrophages. In the present study, the ability of peripheral monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes from normal volunteers and cystic fibrosis patients to phagocytize P. aeruginosa was shown not to be inhibited in the presence of serum from cystic fibrosis patients.

  20. Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria induce a common early response in human monocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Ghai Rohit; Tchatalbachev Svetlin; Hossain Hamid; Chakraborty Trinad

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background We infected freshly isolated human peripheral monocytes with live bacteria of three clinically important gram-positive bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes and studied the ensuing early transcriptional response using expression microarrays. Thus the observed response was unbiased by signals originating from other helper and effector cells of the host and was not limited to induction by solitary bacterial constituents...

  1. Monocyte Toll-Like Receptor Expression in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurses, Kadri Murat; Kocyigit, Duygu; Yalcin, Muhammed Ulvi; Canpinar, Hande; Yorgun, Hikmet; Sahiner, Mehmet Levent; Kaya, Ergun Baris; Oto, Mehmet Ali; Ozer, Necla; Guc, Dicle; Aytemir, Kudret

    2016-05-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. Inflammation has been suggested to play a vital role in the pathogenesis. Previous studies have investigated expression of inflammatory markers in AF. Several studies have focused on the effects of toll-like receptors (TLRs) on heart in terms of capability of modulating inflammation. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether peripheral monocyte TLR expression was associated with the AF presence, and recurrence of AF after cryoablation, as a reflection of inflammatory status. Patients with AF who were scheduled for cryoballoon-based ablation for AF and age- and gender-matched subjects in sinus rhythm were included. Peripheral monocyte TLR-2 and TLR-4 expressions were evaluated by flow cytometric analysis in peripheral venous blood samples obtained during evaluation in outpatient clinics: 172 patients (56.5 ± 6.6 years, 52.3% men) were included in the study. Peripheral monocyte TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression levels were significantly higher in patients with AF (p analysis showed that left atrial volume index (hazard ratio 2.040, 95% CI 1.197 to 3.477, p = 0.009) and monocyte TLR-4 expression (hazard ratio 1.226, 95% CI 1.042 to 1.443, p = 0.014) were independent predictors of AF recurrence after blanking period following second-generation cryoballoon-based pulmonary vein isolation for paroxysmal AF. In conclusion, our study highlights the role of TLR-mediated inflammation in the pathogenesis of AF. This link may also constitute a therapeutic target in patients with AF. PMID:26988292

  2. Monocytes of individual human subjects display heterogeneous bacterial uptake and antilisterial activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Zerlauth, G; Chehadeh, H E; Maier, E; Schaff, Z.; Eibl, M M; Mannhalter, J W

    1996-01-01

    Peripheral blood monocytes (Mo) of normal human donors simultaneously exhibit two subsets differing in their functional activity towards the facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. One subset (on average, 25% of total Mo) was characteristically able to ingest a large number of L. monocytogenes bacteria and permitted intracellular growth of these bacteria. The other Mo subpopulation (on average, 75% of total Mo) was far less active in phagocytosing L. monocytogenes and rest...

  3. Tissue-specific induction of ADAMTS2 in monocytes and macrophages by glucocorticoids.

    OpenAIRE

    Hofer, Thomas P. J.; Frankenberger, Marion; Mages, Jorg; Lang, Roland; Meyer, Peter; Hoffmann, Reinhard; Colige, Alain; Ziegler-Heitbrock, Loms

    2008-01-01

    The regulated expression of ADAMTS2 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs), a secreted metalloproteinase involved in the processing of procollagen to collagen, was studied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Stimulation with glucocorticoids (GC) resulted in a pronounced dose- and time-dependent increase of ADAMTS2 mRNA levels in PBMC. The increase of ADAMTS2 expression was specific for CD14++ monocytes (440-fold) and alveolar macrophages (200-fold), whereas...

  4. Sweet Syndrome After Autologous Stem Cell Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Ali; İdemen, Celal; Okçu Heper, Aylin; Utkan, Güngör

    2016-02-01

    Sweet syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis) is a rare clinical entity characterized by skin lesions, neutrophilia, fever, and neutrophilic infiltration of the dermis. It may be a consequence of malignant disease, comorbidities, or drugs. We present a case of acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis in a patient after autologous stem cell transplant. PMID:25748978

  5. Chronic inhalation of cigarette smoke reduces phagocytosis in peripheral blood leukocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Tschernig, Thomas; Rabung, Andrea; Voss, Meike; Meier, Carola; Bals, Robert; Beisswenger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Background Phagocytosis activity of peripheral blood leukocytes in smokers or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients was found to be controversial and dependent on the phagocytic stimulus. Results We demonstrated that long-term exposure to cigarette smoke in mice clearly suppressed the phagocytosis of granulocytes and monocytes from peripheral blood. Conclusions Impaired phagocytosis activity of peripheral blood leukocytes may have a systemic effect and potentially contribute to smoki...

  6. Nonclassical patrolling monocyte function in the vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Graham; Tacke, Robert; Hedrick, Catherine C; Hanna, Richard N

    2015-06-01

    Nonclassical patrolling monocytes are characterized by their unique ability to actively patrol the vascular endothelium under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. Patrolling monocyte subsets (CX3CR1(high)Ly6C(-) in mouse and CX3CR1(high)CD14(dim)CD16(+) in humans) are distinct from the classical monocyte subsets (CCR2(high)Ly6C(+) in mouse and CCR2(high)CD14(+)CD16(-) in humans) and exhibit unique functions in the vasculature and inflammatory disease. Patrolling monocytes function in several disease settings to remove damaged cells and debris from the vasculature and have been associated with wound healing and the resolution of inflammation in damaged tissues. This review highlights the unique functions of these patrolling monocytes in the vasculature and during inflammation. PMID:25838429

  7. Injection of Autologous Fat Alone and in Combination With Autologous Platelet Gel for Nasolabial Fold Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, soft tissue augmentation has become popular due to development of convenient techniques. Autologous fat is one of the safest fillers for this purpose. Moreover, healing effects of autologous platelet gel on acute and chronic human skin wounds have been shown in recent studies. Objectives In this study, the effect of subcutaneous injection of autologous fat alone and in combination with platelet gel was compared in the treatment of nasolabial skin folds in nine cases. Patients and Methods Nine volunteers (three males and six females were referred to the dermatology clinic of Rasoul-e-Akram hospital. For each patient, one side of the lateral nasolabial folds underwent injections with the combination of autologous fat and platelet gel and the other side with autologous fat alone. Improvement of nasolabial fold was monitored by clinical assessment and digital photographs over a six-month period. Results All patients experienced improvement in the wrinkles of the side treated by the combination therapy compared to the other side. In addition, less complication was observed in the side that underwent combination therapy. Conclusions Our study showed that autologous fat in combination with platelet gel might have better cosmetic results as well as lesser complications in the healing of nasolabial wrinkles. However, the findings of this pilot study should be examined in further studies with larger sample size.

  8. The role of exosomes in peripheral nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna C Ching

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injuries remain problematic to treat, with poor functional recovery commonly observed. Injuries resulting in a nerve gap create specific difficulties for axonal regeneration. Approaches to address these difficulties include autologous nerve grafts (which are currently the gold standard treatment and synthetic conduits, with the latter option being able to be impregnated with Schwann cells or stem cells which provide an appropriate micro-environment for neuronal regeneration to occur. Transplanting stem cells, however, infers additional risk of malignant transformation as well as manufacturing difficulties and ethical concerns, and the use of autologous nerve grafts and Schwann cells requires the sacrifice of a functioning nerve. A new approach utilizing exosomes, secreted extracellular vesicles, could avoid these complications. In this review, we summarize the current literature on exosomes, and suggest how they could help to improve axonal regeneration following peripheral nerve injury.

  9. Autologous Fat Grafting for Whole Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. L. Howes, MBBS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This is the first reported case of a patient who had a single-stage large-volume breast reconstruction with autologous fat grafting, following rotation flap approach (RoFA mastectomy. The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the viability of reconstruction of the breast by autologous fat grafting alone, in the context of RoFA mastectomy. The hypothesis was that there would be minimal interval loss of autologous fat on the whole breast reconstruction side. Right RoFA mastectomy was used for resection of an invasive primary breast cancer and resulted in the right breast skin envelope. Eleven months later, the patient underwent grafting of 400 ml of autologous fat into the skin envelope and underlying pectoralis major muscle. Outcome was assessed by using a validated 3D laser scan technique for quantitative breast volume measurement. Other outcome measures included the BREAST-Q questionnaire and 2D clinical photography. At 12-month follow-up, the patient was observed to have maintenance of volume of the reconstructed breast. Her BREAST-Q scores were markedly improved compared with before fat grafting, and there was observable improvement in shape, contour, and symmetry on 2D clinical photography. The 2 new techniques, RoFA mastectomy and large-volume single-stage autologous fat grafting, were used in combination to achieve a satisfactory postmastectomy breast reconstruction. Novel tools for measurement of outcome were the 3D whole-body laser scanner and BREAST-Q questionnaire. This case demonstrates the potential for the use of fat grafting for reconstruction. Outcomes in a larger patient populations are needed to confirm these findings.

  10. Monocytes increase human cardiac myofibroblast-mediated extracellular matrix remodeling through TGF-β1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewhort, Holly E M; Lipon, Brodie D; Svystonyuk, Daniyil A; Teng, Guoqi; Guzzardi, David G; Silva, Claudia; Yong, V Wee; Fedak, Paul W M

    2016-03-15

    Following myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac myofibroblasts remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM), preventing mechanical complications. However, prolonged myofibroblast activity leads to dysregulation of the ECM, maladaptive remodeling, fibrosis, and heart failure (HF). Chronic inflammation is believed to drive persistent myofibroblast activity; however, the mechanisms are unclear. We assessed the influence of peripheral blood monocytes on human cardiac myofibroblast activity in a three-dimensional (3D) ECM microenvironment. Human cardiac myofibroblasts isolated from surgical biopsies of the right atrium and left ventricle were seeded into 3D collagen matrices. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy human donors and cocultured with myofibroblasts. Monocytes increased myofibroblast activity measured by collagen gel contraction (baseline: 57.6 ± 5.9% vs. coculture: 65.2 ± 7.1% contraction; P < 0.01) and increased local ECM remodeling quantified by confocal microscopy. Under coculture conditions that allow indirect cellular interaction via paracrine factors but prevent direct cell-cell contact, monocytes had minimal effects on myofibroblast activity (17.9 ± 11.1% vs. 6.4 ± 7.0% increase, respectively; P < 0.01). When cells were cultured under direct contact conditions, multiplex analysis of the coculture media revealed an increase in the paracrine factors TGF-β1 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 compared with baseline (122.9 ± 10.1 pg/ml and 3,496.0 ± 190.4 pg/ml, respectively, vs. 21.5 ± 16.3 pg/ml and 183.3 ± 43.9 pg/ml; P < 0.001). TGF-β blockade abolished the monocyte-induced increase in cardiac myofibroblast activity. These data suggest that direct cell-cell interaction between monocytes and cardiac myofibroblasts stimulates TGF-β-mediated myofibroblast activity and increases remodeling of local matrix. Peripheral blood monocyte interaction with human cardiac myofibroblasts stimulates myofibroblast activity through release of TGF-β1

  11. Serum after autologous transplantation stimulates proliferation and expansion of human hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Walenda

    Full Text Available Regeneration after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT depends on enormous activation of the stem cell pool. So far, it is hardly understood how these cells are recruited into proliferation and self-renewal. In this study, we have addressed the question if systemically released factors are involved in activation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPC after autologous HSCT. Serum was taken from patients before chemotherapy, during neutropenia and after hematopoietic recovery. Subsequently, it was used as supplement for in vitro culture of CD34(+ cord blood HPC. Serum taken under hematopoietic stress (4 to 11 days after HSCT significantly enhanced proliferation, maintained primitive immunophenotype (CD34(+, CD133(+, CD45(- for more cell divisions and increased colony forming units (CFU as well as the number of cobblestone area-forming cells (CAFC. The stimulatory effect decays to normal levels after hematopoietic recovery (more than 2 weeks after HSCT. Chemokine profiling revealed a decline of several growth-factors during neutropenia, including platelet-derived growth factors PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB and PDGF-BB, whereas expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 increased. These results demonstrate that systemically released factors play an important role for stimulation of hematopoietic regeneration after autologous HSCT. This feedback mechanism opens new perspectives for in vivo stimulation of the stem cell pool.

  12. The Mechanisms of Human Renal Epithelial Cell Modulation of Autologous Dendritic Cell Phenotype and Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sampangi

    Full Text Available Proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTEC of the kidney line the proximal tubule downstream of the glomerulus and play a major role in the re-absorption of small molecular weight proteins that may pass through the glomerular filtration process. In the perturbed disease state PTEC also contribute to the inflammatory disease process via both positive and negative mechanisms via the production of inflammatory cytokines which chemo-attract leukocytes and the subsequent down-modulation of these cells to prevent uncontrolled inflammatory responses. It is well established that dendritic cells are responsible for the initiation and direction of adaptive immune responses. Both resident and infiltrating dendritic cells are localised within the tubulointerstitium of the renal cortex, in close apposition to PTEC, in inflammatory disease states. We previously demonstrated that inflammatory PTEC are able to modulate autologous human dendritic cell phenotype and functional responses. Here we extend these findings to characterise the mechanisms of this PTEC immune-modulation using primary human PTEC and autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC as the model system. We demonstrate that PTEC express three inhibitory molecules: (i cell surface PD-L1 that induces MoDC expression of PD-L1; (ii intracellular IDO that maintains the expression of MoDC CD14, drives the expression of CD80, PD-L1 and IL-10 by MoDC and inhibits T cell stimulatory capacity; and (iii soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G that inhibits HLA-DR and induces IL-10 expression by MoDC. Collectively the results demonstrate that primary human PTEC are able to modulate autologous DC phenotype and function via multiple complex pathways. Further dissection of these pathways is essential to target therapeutic strategies in the treatment of inflammatory kidney disorders.

  13. Staphylococcal protein A primed leukocytes enhance the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were preincubated for 3 days in medium alone or with various mitogens then washed and irradiated. The preincubated cells then were cultured with autologous T-cells in an autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR). Staphylococcal protein A (SPA) pretreatment of PBMC enhanced autologous T-lymphocyte proliferation from 1375 +/- 321 cpm (mean +/- SEM untreated PBMC) to 42,467 +/- 7985 cpm (SPA primed PBMC) (p less than 0.01). The ability of SPA treated PBMC to enhance the AMLR was not simply a reflection of their proliferation in preculture, as PBMC precultured with phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A showed greater proliferation than SPA-treated PBMC yet only minimally enhanced the AMLR. Kinetic studies and pre-exposure of PBMC to graded doses of gamma radiation showed that SPA augmentation of the AMLR was mediated by 2 components which differed in kinetics and radiosensitivity. Although incubation of PBMC with SPA did not increase the percentage of cells with detectable surface Ia antigen, SPA did increase the density of Ia in the preincubated cells. Cell separation studies revealed that SPA enhancement of the AMLR was not mediated by T-cells, but was mediated by a non-adherent non-E-rosetting fraction of cells. SPA enhancement of the AMLR was associated with an increased Ia density in the stimulator population but not with an increase in Ia positive cells and was mediated by proliferation-dependent and proliferation-independent mechanisms

  14. Measles virus infection enhances IL-1 beta but reduces tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopardi, R; Vainionpää, R; Hurme, M; Siljander, P; Salmi, A A

    1992-10-01

    Monocytes may play a role in the immunologic abnormalities caused by measles. The effect of measles virus (MV) infection on peripheral blood monocyte functions is poorly known. We report that MV-infected PBM have an altered pattern of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha production in response to stimulation with LPS and PMA in vitro. MV-infected peripheral blood monocytes produced higher amounts of IL-1 beta, whereas the production of TNF-alpha was reduced. The same effect was observed in the human monocytic cell line THP-1, which was used for RNA analysis. An increased steady-state level of IL-1 beta mRNA was observed in MV-infected cells, and the level of TNF-alpha mRNA was reduced. However, both IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha had about 50% increased transcription rate. Analysis of the mRNA stability after transcriptional block by actinomycin D showed that the TNF-alpha mRNA had a reduced half-life in MV-infected cells (about 30 vs 80 min in uninfected cells), whereas IL-1 beta mRNA stability was similar in uninfected and MV-infected cells. These results indicate that MV infection disturbs the immunoregulatory network by interfering with the monocyte functions. PMID:1527385

  15. Autologous MUC1-Specific Th1 Effector Cell Immunotherapy Induce Differential Levels of Systemic TReg Cell Subpopulations That Result in Increased Ovarian Cancer Patient Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrzanski, Mark J.; Rewers-Felkins, Kathleen A.; Quinlin, Imelda S.; Samad, Khaliquzzaman A.; Phillips, Catherine A.; Robinson, William; Dobrzanski, David J.; Wright, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    Adoptive T cell immunotherapy using autologous lymphocytes is a viable treatment for patients with cancer and requires participation of Ag-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Here, we assessed the immunotherapeutic effects of autologous MUC1 peptide-stimulated CD4+ effector cells following adoptive transfer in patients with ovarian cancer. Using MUC1 peptide and IL-2 for ex vivo CD4+/Th1 effector cell generation, we show that three monthly treatment cycles of peripheral blood T cell restimulation a...

  16. Human autologous in vitro models of glioma immunogene therapy using B7-2, GM-CSF, and IL12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer immunogene therapy is based on vaccination with radiated, autologous tumor cells transduced with immunostimulatory genes. To help determine an optimal glioma immunogene therapy strategy, we stimulated lymphocytes with autologous human glioma cells transduced with B7-2 (CD86), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and/or interleukin-12 (IL12). A human glioma-derived cell culture (Ed147.BT) was transduced with B7-2, GM-CSF, and/or IL12 using retroviral vectors. Autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were co-cultured with irradiated gene-transduced tumor alone or a combination of radiated wild type and gene-transduced cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferation was determined by serial cell counts. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells phenotype was assessed by flow cytometry for CD4, CD8, and CD16. Anti-tumor cytotoxicity was determined by chromium-51 (51Cr) release assay. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells cell numbers all decreased during primary stimulation but tumor cells expressing B7-2 or GM-CSF consistently caused secondary proliferation. Tumors expressing B7-2 and GM-CSF or B7-2,GM-CSF,and IL12 consistently increased PBMC CD8+ (cytotoxic T) and CD16+ (natural killer) percentages. Interestingly, anti-tumor cytotoxicity only exceeded that of PBMC stimulated with wild type tumor alone when peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with both wild type tumor and B7-2/GM-CSF- (but not IL12) transduced cells. PBMC proliferation and phenotype is altered as expected by exposure to immunostimulatory gene-transduced tumor. However, transduced tumor cells alone do not stimulate greater anti-tumor cytotoxicity than wild type tumor. Only B7-2/GM-CSF-transduced cells combined with wild type produced increased cytotoxicity. This may reflect selection of turnor subclones with limited antigenic spectra during retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. (author)

  17. Human autologous in vitro models of glioma immunogene therapy using B7-2, GM-CSF, and IL12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parney, I.F.; Farr-Jones, M.A. [Univ. of Alberta, Div. of Neurosurgery, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Kane, K.; Chang, L.-J. [Univ. of Alberta, Dept. of Surgery and Dept. of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Petruk, K.C. [Univ. of Alberta, Div. of Neurosurgery, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2002-08-01

    Cancer immunogene therapy is based on vaccination with radiated, autologous tumor cells transduced with immunostimulatory genes. To help determine an optimal glioma immunogene therapy strategy, we stimulated lymphocytes with autologous human glioma cells transduced with B7-2 (CD86), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and/or interleukin-12 (IL12). A human glioma-derived cell culture (Ed147.BT) was transduced with B7-2, GM-CSF, and/or IL12 using retroviral vectors. Autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were co-cultured with irradiated gene-transduced tumor alone or a combination of radiated wild type and gene-transduced cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferation was determined by serial cell counts. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells phenotype was assessed by flow cytometry for CD4, CD8, and CD16. Anti-tumor cytotoxicity was determined by chromium-51 ({sup 51}Cr) release assay. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells cell numbers all decreased during primary stimulation but tumor cells expressing B7-2 or GM-CSF consistently caused secondary proliferation. Tumors expressing B7-2 and GM-CSF or B7-2,GM-CSF,and IL12 consistently increased PBMC CD8+ (cytotoxic T) and CD16+ (natural killer) percentages. Interestingly, anti-tumor cytotoxicity only exceeded that of PBMC stimulated with wild type tumor alone when peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with both wild type tumor and B7-2/GM-CSF- (but not IL12) transduced cells. PBMC proliferation and phenotype is altered as expected by exposure to immunostimulatory gene-transduced tumor. However, transduced tumor cells alone do not stimulate greater anti-tumor cytotoxicity than wild type tumor. Only B7-2/GM-CSF-transduced cells combined with wild type produced increased cytotoxicity. This may reflect selection of turnor subclones with limited antigenic spectra during retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. (author)

  18. Ranitidine improves postoperative monocyte and neutrophil function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Nielsen, H; Jensen, S; Moesgaard, F

    1994-01-01

    no adjuvant treatment (n = 13). Blood monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis and chemiluminescence were analyzed before the operation and on postoperative days 1, 3, and 9. RESULTS: Monocyte chemotaxis to C5a in the 13 control patients was significantly decreased on day 1 compared with day 0. Chemotaxis...... chemiluminescence to zymosan insignificantly on day 1 (P < .07 between groups). Five of the 13 control patients developed postoperative infectious complications, which were related to decreased monocyte chemotaxis to C5a and increased neutrophil chemiluminescence to zymosan, compared with noninfected patients. A...

  19. Strenuous physical exercise adversely affects monocyte chemotaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czepluch, Frauke S; Barres, Romain; Caidahl, Kenneth;

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise is important for proper cardiovascular function and disease prevention, but it may influence the immune system. We evaluated the effect of strenuous exercise on monocyte chemotaxis. Monocytes were isolated from blood of 13 young, healthy, sedentary individuals participating...... in a three-week training program which consisted of repeated exercise bouts. Monocyte chemotaxis and serological biomarkers were investigated at baseline, after three weeks training and after four weeks recovery. Chemotaxis towards vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and transforming growth factor...

  20. Circulating CD14brightCD16+ 'intermediate' monocytes exhibit enhanced parasite pattern recognition in human helminth infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D Turner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Circulating monocyte sub-sets have recently emerged as mediators of divergent immune functions during infectious disease but their role in helminth infection has not been investigated. In this study we evaluated whether 'classical' (CD14brightCD16-, 'intermediate' (CD14brightCD16+, and 'non-classical' (CD14dimCD16+ monocyte sub-sets from peripheral blood mononuclear cells varied in both abundance and ability to bind antigenic material amongst individuals living in a region of Northern Senegal which is co-endemic for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium. Monocyte recognition of excretory/secretory (E/S products released by skin-invasive cercariae, or eggs, of S. mansoni was assessed by flow cytometry and compared between S. mansoni mono-infected, S. mansoni and S. haematobium co-infected, and uninfected participants. Each of the three monocyte sub-sets in the different infection groups bound schistosome E/S material. However, 'intermediate' CD14brightCD16+ monocytes had a significantly enhanced ability to bind cercarial and egg E/S. Moreover, this elevation of ligand binding was particularly evident in co-infected participants. This is the first demonstration of modulated parasite pattern recognition in CD14brightCD16+ intermediate monocytes during helminth infection, which may have functional consequences for the ability of infected individuals to respond immunologically to infection.

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Circulating Monocytes Identifies Cathepsin D as A Potential Novel Plasma Marker of Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vivanco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have performed a proteomic analysis of peripheral blood monocytes from ACS patients in comparison with healthy subjects and stable coronary patients in order to search novel biomarkers of ACS in circulating monocytes. Monocytes were isolated from blood of patients with non-ST elevation ACS (n = 27 at day 0, 2 and 6 months, and from patients with stable coronary disease (n = 10 and matched healthy controls (n = 11. The proteomic analysis of monocytes from ACS patients at day 0 showed that cathepsin D is differentially expressed compared to healthy subjects and stable coronary patients. Western blot analysis indicated that the mature form of cathepsin D at day 0 was overexpressed in monocytes of ACS patients in relation to healthy subjects. In contrast, the precursor of this enzyme, absent at day 0 in ACS patients, was highly expressed in monocytes of healthy subjects. Furthermore, the upregulation of the mature form of cathepsin D diminished along the time, while the expression of the precursor increased. ACS patients also showed significantly increased plasma cathepsin D levels on admission compared to healthy subjects and stable patients. Cathepsin D plasma levels diminished at 2 and 6 months to control values. Finally, cathepsin D levels were independent of the existence of coronary risk factors and CRP levels, correlating only with CD40L. Since this protease participates in the genesis and rupture of atherosclerotic plaques, it could represent a potential marker of ACS.

  2. Dilazep and dipyridamole inhibit tissue factor expression on monocytes induced by IgG from patients with antiphospholipid syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong ZHON

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether antiplatelet agents, dilazep and dipyridamole, inhibit tissue factor (TF) expression on monocytes induced by IgG from patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). METHODS: Freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytes were allowed to adhere on plastic and then cultured in media containing patient or control antibodies and/or other agonists with or without dilazep or dipyridamole. The TF activity on monocytes was investigated by measuring factor VIIa-dependent generation of factor Xa, using a chromogenic substrate and the TF mRNA expression was examined by real-time PCR (TaqMan PCR). RESULTS: The TF activity on monocytes induced by APS IgG (250 mg/L) was inhibited by dilazep (0.15-150 μmol/L) and dipyridamole (0.2-200 μrmol/L) in a dose-dependent fashion. But, the TF mRNA expression induced by APS IgG was not inhibited. Theophylline (500 μmol/L), an adenosine receptor antagonist, could counteract the inhibitory effect of dilazep and dipyridamole on TF activity. CONCLUSION: Antiplatelet agents, dilazep and dipyridamole, block APS IgG-induced monocytes TF expression at a post-transcriptional level, partly by adenosine receptor pathway. Pharmacological agents that block monocytes TF activity, such as dilazep and dipyridamole, are a novel therapeutic approach in APS.

  3. Autologous antibodies that bind neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujing; Sholler, Giselle S; Shukla, Girja S; Pero, Stephanie C; Carman, Chelsea L; Zhao, Ping; Krag, David N

    2015-11-01

    Antibody therapy of neuroblastoma is promising and our goal is to derive antibodies from patients with neuroblastoma for developing new therapeutic antibodies. The feasibility of using residual bone marrow obtained for clinical indications as a source of tumor cells and a source of antibodies was assessed. From marrow samples, neuroblastoma cells were recovered, grown in cell culture and also implanted into mice to create xenografts. Mononuclear cells from the marrow were used as a source to generate phage display antibody libraries and also hybridomas. Growth of neuroblastoma patient cells was possible both in vitro and as xenografts. Antibodies from the phage libraries and from the monoclonal hybridomas bound autologous neuroblastoma cells with some selectivity. It appears feasible to recover neuroblastoma cells from residual marrow specimens and to generate human antibodies that bind autologous neuroblastoma cells. Expansion of this approach is underway to collect more specimens, optimize methods to generate antibodies, and to evaluate the bioactivity of neuroblastoma-binding antibodies. PMID:26210205

  4. Breast Augmentation With Autologous Fat Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Fa-Cheng; Chen, Bing; Cheng, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Autologous fat transplantation has attracted great interest in breast augmentation for cosmetic purpose. In the present study, we reported our experience in fat grafting in breast in 105 cases, and some detailed procedure concerning efficacy and safety of grafting was evaluated. Methods Fat was harvested using 20-mL syringe attached to a 3-hole blunt cannula in a diameter not beyond 3 mm. After washing with cool normal saline to remove blood, the fat was managed with open method ...

  5. Postoperative Autologous Reinfusion in Total Knee Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    A. Crescibene; Martire, F.; Gigliotti, P.; Rende, A.; Candela, M

    2015-01-01

    Surgeries for total knee replacement (TKR) are increasing and in this context there is a need to develop new protocols for management and use of blood transfusion therapy. Autologous blood reduces the need for allogeneic blood transfusion and the aim of the present study was to verify the safety and the clinical efficacy. An observational retrospective study has been conducted on 124 patients, undergoing cemented total knee prosthesis replacement. Observed population was stratified into two g...

  6. Serine leucocyte proteinase inhibitor-treated monocyte inhibits human CD4(+) lymphocyte proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Diego; Tateosian, Nancy L; Maffía, Paulo C; Reiteri, Romina M; Amiano, Nicolás O; Costa, María J; Villalonga, Ximena; Sanchez, Mercedes L; Estein, Silvia M; Garcia, Verónica E; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Chuluyan, Héctor E

    2011-08-01

    Serine leucocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) is the main serine proteinase inhibitor produced by epithelial cells and has been shown to be a pleiotropic molecule with anti-inflammatory and microbicidal activities. However, the role of SLPI on the adaptive immune response is not well established. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of SLPI on lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were treated with mitogens plus SLPI and proliferation was assessed by [(3) H]thymidine uptake. The SLPI decreased the lymphocyte proliferation induced by interleukin-2 (IL-2) or OKT3 monoclonal antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition was not observed when depleting monocytes from the PBMC and it was restored by adding monocytes and SLPI. SLPI-treated monocyte slightly decreased MHC II and increased CD18 expression, and secreted greater amounts of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in the cell culture supernatants. SLPI-treated monocyte culture supernatant inhibited the CD4(+) lymphocyte proliferation but did not affect the proliferation of CD8(+) cells. Moreover, IL-2 increased T-bet expression and the presence of SLPI significantly decreased it. Finally, SLPI-treated monocyte culture supernatant dramatically decreased interferon-γ but increased IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in the presence of IL-2-treated T cells. Our results demonstrate that SLPI target monocytes, which in turn inhibit CD4 lymphocyte proliferation and T helper type 1 cytokine secretion. Overall, these results suggest that SLPI is an alarm protein that modulates not only the innate immune response but also the adaptive immune response. PMID:21574992

  7. Serine leucocyte proteinase inhibitor-treated monocyte inhibits human CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Diego; Tateosian, Nancy L; Maffía, Paulo C; Reiteri, Romina M; Amiano, Nicolás O; Costa, María J; Villalonga, Ximena; Sanchez, Mercedes L; Estein, Silvia M; Garcia, Verónica E; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Chuluyan, Héctor E

    2011-01-01

    Serine leucocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) is the main serine proteinase inhibitor produced by epithelial cells and has been shown to be a pleiotropic molecule with anti-inflammatory and microbicidal activities. However, the role of SLPI on the adaptive immune response is not well established. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of SLPI on lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were treated with mitogens plus SLPI and proliferation was assessed by [3H]thymidine uptake. The SLPI decreased the lymphocyte proliferation induced by interleukin-2 (IL-2) or OKT3 monoclonal antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition was not observed when depleting monocytes from the PBMC and it was restored by adding monocytes and SLPI. SLPI-treated monocyte slightly decreased MHC II and increased CD18 expression, and secreted greater amounts of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in the cell culture supernatants. SLPI-treated monocyte culture supernatant inhibited the CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation but did not affect the proliferation of CD8+ cells. Moreover, IL-2 increased T-bet expression and the presence of SLPI significantly decreased it. Finally, SLPI-treated monocyte culture supernatant dramatically decreased interferon-γ but increased IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in the presence of IL-2-treated T cells. Our results demonstrate that SLPI target monocytes, which in turn inhibit CD4 lymphocyte proliferation and T helper type 1 cytokine secretion. Overall, these results suggest that SLPI is an alarm protein that modulates not only the innate immune response but also the adaptive immune response. PMID:21574992

  8. Effect of glycolipids of Leishmania parasites on human monocyte activity. Inhibition by lipophosphoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenburg, S; Leibovici, V; Mansbach, N; Turco, S J; Rosen, G

    1990-12-15

    Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) and glycosyl phosphatidylinositol Ag (GPI), are glycolipids present on the membrane of Leishmania parasites. Both glycolipids have been chemically characterized. LPG is a polysaccharide of repeating phosphorylated units linked to a phosphocarbohydrate core that is anchored to the membrane by lysoalkyl phosphatidylinositol (PI). The GPI are smaller glycolipids with a structure resembling the phosphocarbohydrate core of the LPG. They are anchored to the membrane by alkyl acyl PI. Their relative abundance, uniqueness of structure, and cellular location suggest a role in interactions of the parasites with host cells. In the present study we examined the effect of LPG and GPI on the activation of human peripheral blood monocytes. Three parameters were studied: the production of IL-1, chemotactic locomotion, and oxidative burst. We found that whereas neither GPI nor LPG directly affected monocyte activity, preincubation of the monocytes with LPG strongly inhibited further activation: The production of IL-1, after stimulation with LPS, was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Previous incubation with LPG also inhibited chemotactic locomotion of monocytes and neutrophils in response to diacylglycerol, zymosan-activated serum, FMLP and LTB4. Luminol-dependent chemiluminiscence caused by stimulation of the monocytes with streptococci and histone was also inhibited. After fragmentation of the LPG into phosphoglycan and 1-O-alkylglycerol by phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C, only the phosphoglycan retained inhibitory activity. No difference in inhibitory activity was found between LPG prepared from Leishmania major or Leishmania donovani promastigotes. These results show that the phosphoglycan of LPG inhibits the immunologic response of normal human monocytes and neutrophils, and suggest that LPG may influence the nature of the inflammatory response surrounding infected cells. PMID:2147940

  9. Short-term Effect of Chemotherapy Concomitant with Multiple Autologous Immunocytes on Patients with Colorectal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Junquan; Zhu Yun; Zhang Nanzheng; Chen Fuxing; Chen Ling; Zhang Song; Yang Wanying; Zhou Zhonghai; Lv Xiaoting

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To compare the differences of cellular immunological functional changes and survival time of chemotherapy concomitant with multiple autologous immunocytes with single chemotherapy on patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Methods: Of the 83 CRC patients, 43 were treated with single chemotherapy (single chemotherapy group) while the other 40 were given chemotherapy concomitant with multiple autologous immunocytes (combined chemotherapy group). Blood cell separator was applied to collect autologous peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMC) which was used to induce the cultures of peripheral blood CD3AK cell, CIK cell, dendritic cell (DC), γδT cell and NK cell based on routine approaches. Peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, CD16+, CD56+, CD4/CD8 andγδT cell ratio as well as the positive expression rates of perforin, granular enzyme B and CD107a in PBMC were determined by lfow cytometer. Same chemotherapy (oxaliplatin + CF + 5-FU) was intravenously given to both groups, while in combination group, 4, 6, 9, 11 and 10 patients received 3, 6, 7, 10 and>16 courses of treatment, respectively. Results:Subgroup of immunocytes and absolute value in combined chemotherapy group were evidently higher than in single chemotherapy group, but there was no significant difference in Karnofsky score. In addition, combined chemotherapy group was apparently higher after treatment than treatment before and single chemotherapy group in the results of perforin, granular enzyme B (GranB) and CD107a in PBMC. Additionally, 1-, 2- and 5-year survival rates in combined chemotherapy group (in phases Ⅱ, Ⅲand Ⅳ) were 70.0%(28/40), 20.0%(8/40) and 10.0%(4/40), higher than those in single chemotherapy group [23.2% (10/43), 7.0% (3/43) and 4.6%(2/43)], respectively, in which the differences in phases Ⅱand Ⅲwere more signiifcant (P Conclusion:Chemotherapy concomitant with multiple autologous immunocytes can improve the immunological function and prolong survival time for

  10. Short-term Effect of Chemotherapy Concomitant with Multiple Autologous Immunocytes on Patients with Colorectal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junquan Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the differences of cellular immunological functional changes and survival time of chemotherapy concomitant with multiple autologous immunocytes with single chemotherapy on patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC. Methods: Of the 83 CRC patients, 43 were treated with single chemotherapy (single chemotherapy group while the other 40 were given chemotherapy concomitant with multiple autologous immunocytes (combined chemotherapy group. Blood cell separator was applied to collect autologous peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMC which was used to induce the cultures of peripheral blood CD3AK cell, CIK cell, dendritic cell (DC, γδT cell and NK cell based on routine approaches. Peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, CD16+, CD56+, CD4/CD8 and γδT cell ratio as well as the positive expression rates of perforin, granular enzyme B and CD107a in PBMC were determined by flow cytometer. Same chemotherapy (oxaliplatin + CF + 5-FU was intravenously given to both groups, while in combination group, 4, 6, 9, 11 and 10 patients received 3, 6, 7, 10 and > 16 courses of treatment, respectively. Results: Subgroup of immunocytes and absolute value in combined chemotherapy group were evidently higher than in single chemotherapy group, but there was no significant difference in Karnofsky score. In addition, combined chemotherapy group was apparently higher after treatment than treatment before and single chemotherapy group in the results of perforin, granular enzyme B (GranB and CD107a in PBMC. Additionally, 1-, 2- and 5-year survival rates in combined chemotherapy group (in phases Ⅱ , Ⅲ and Ⅳ were 70.0% (28/40, 20.0% (8/40 and 10.0% (4/40, higher than those in single chemotherapy group [23.2% (10/43, 7.0% (3/43 and 4.6% (2/43], respectively, in which the differences in phases Ⅱ and Ⅲ were more significant (P <0.05, but no difference was observed between two groups in 5-year survival rate in patients in phase Ⅳ . Conclusion

  11. Facial wrinkles correction through autologous fat microinjection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Cháves Sánchez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: autologous fat microinjection is a technique which allows the correction of different dispositions that appear in the face in a very fast, effective and simple way compared to other procedures implying more pain, incisions, and elevated doses of anesthesia. Objective: to show the effectiveness of the autologous fat microinjection in the correction of facial wrinkles. Methods: a series study was carried out from May 2005 to May 2006 at the University Hospital “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” in Cienfuegos city, Cuba. 60 patients of both sexes constituted this series study. They had facial wrinkles and this procedure was performed on them. Age, sex, patient’s race, localization and the type of wrinkle as well as the satisfaction level of the patient with the surgical procedure were analyzed. Results: Female sex was predominant, as well as white race and the ages from 45-50. A good aesthetic result was obtained. The satisfaction level of the patients was more elevated in short and medium terms. Conclusions: the level of satisfaction reached in the studied series reassure the advantages of the autologous fat microinjection technique so that, it is recommended for the elimination of facial wrinkles.

  12. Spermine inhibition of monocyte activation and inflammation.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, M.; Borovikova, L. V.; Wang, H.; Metz, C.; Tracey, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    The innate immune system functions as a defensive front line against pathogenic invasion, but the proinflammatory products of activated monocytes and macrophages (e.g., TNF and NO) can also injure normal cells. Anti-inflammatory mediators restrain the innate immune response and prevent excessive collateral tissue damage. Spermine, a ubiquitous biogenic polyamine, specifically and reversibly suppresses the synthesis of monocyte proinflammatory cytokines. This may provide a counterregulatory me...

  13. Monocyte and interferon based therapy for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel S; Nunes, Ana T; Annunziata, Christina M; Zoon, Kathryn C

    2016-06-01

    Cytokines and cells of the innate immune system have been shown to be critical regulators in the elimination, equilibrium and escape of malignant cells. Despite in vitro and in vivo evidence, components of the innate immune system have shown limited efficacy in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Intraperitoneal immunotherapies are a promising field that has not yet been fully explored in ovarian cancer. Cytokine immunotherapy using interferon alpha (IFN-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) has predominantly been used intraperitoneally in ovarian cancer, with promising results. Early studies also showed that autologous monocytes infused into the peritoneum have anti-tumor properties. Combination therapies have been shown to be more effective in treating cancer than mono-therapies. Based on these observations the combination of cell therapy with cytokine therapy may provide a unique strategy for the treatment of chemotherapy resistant solid cancers. PMID:27026228

  14. Expression of P53(v) protein of peripheral blood in patients with tumor and its relation with age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the expression of P53(v) protein of peripheral blood monocytes in cancer patients and its relation with age, P53(v) proteins were determined in 88 cancer patients and 88 normals by flow cytometry. The levels of P53(v) were (7.76 +- 7.13)% in cancer group and (0.66 +- 0.5)% in normal group. Mean value of P53(v) in the cancers was higher than that in the controls (P<0.01). The expression of P53(v) of peripheral blood raised with age. Conclusion: P53(v) proteins can be detected in peripheral blood monocytes. The detection of P53 expression in human peripheral blood monocytes can be used to screen high risk population with tumor

  15. HIV-1 Latency in Monocytes/Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 targets CD4+ T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. HIV pathogenesis is characterized by the depletion of T lymphocytes and by the presence of a population of cells in which latency has been established called the HIV-1 reservoir. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has significantly improved the life of HIV-1 infected patients. However, complete eradication of HIV-1 from infected individuals is not possible without targeting latent sources of infection. HIV-1 establishes latent infection in resting CD4+ T cells and findings indicate that latency can also be established in the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocyte/macrophage lineage includes among others, monocytes, macrophages and brain resident macrophages. These cells are relatively more resistant to apoptosis induced by HIV-1, thus are important stable hideouts of the virus. Much effort has been made in the direction of eliminating HIV-1 resting CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. However, it is impossible to achieve a cure for HIV-1 without considering these neglected latent reservoirs, the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. In this review we will describe our current understanding of the mechanism of latency in monocyte/macrophage lineage and how such cells can be specifically eliminated from the infected host.

  16. Thalidomide-dexamethasone as induction therapy before autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma and renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Patrizia; Zamagni, Elena; Tacchetti, Paola; Ceccolini, Michela; Perrone, Giulia; Brioli, Annamaria; Pallotti, Maria Caterina; Pantani, Lucia; Petrucci, Alessandro; Baccarani, Michele; Cavo, Michele

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and the toxicity of thalidomide-dexamethasone (Thal-Dex) as induction therapy before autologous peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) with renal insufficiency. The study included 31 patients with a baseline creatinine clearance value 4 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg were collected. Double autologous transplantation was performed in 15 patients, and a single autologous transplantation was performed in 7 patients. After a median of 32 months of follow-up, median event-free survival was 30 months, and median survival was not determined. According to our data, Thal-Dex is effective and safe in patients with newly diagnosed MM and renal insufficiency. Given the relationship between recovery of renal function and response to induction treatment, more intensive Thal + bortezomib regimens could be explored to rescue higher numbers of patients. PMID:20197100

  17. Biologic therapy improves psoriasis by decreasing the activity of monocytes and neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Keiichi; Umezawa, Yoshinori; Yamagiwa, Akisa; Saeki, Hidehisa; Kondo, Makoto; Gabazza, Esteban C; Nakagawa, Hidemi; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    Therapy with monoclonal antibodies to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the interleukin (IL)-12/23 p40 subunit has significantly improved the clinical outcome of patients with psoriasis. These antibodies inhibit the effects of the target cytokines and thus the major concern during their use is the induction of excessive immunosuppression. Recent studies evaluating the long-term efficacy and safety of biologic therapy in psoriasis have shown no significant appearance of serious adverse effects including infections and malignancies. However, the immunological consequence and the mechanism by which the blockade of a single cytokine by biologics can successfully control the activity of psoriasis remain unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of biologic therapy on cytokine production of various lymphocytes and on the activity of monocytes and neutrophils in psoriatic patients. Neutrophils, monocytes and T cells were purified from heparinized peripheral venous blood by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, and γ-interferon, TNF-α and IL-17 production from lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometer. The activation maker of neutrophils and the activated subsets of monocytes were also analyzed. Biologic therapy induced no significant changes in the cytokine production by lymphocytes from the skin and gut-homing T cells. However, neutrophil activity and the ratio of activated monocyte population increased in severely psoriatic patients were normalized in psoriatic patients receiving biologic therapy. The present study showed that biologic therapy ameliorates clinical symptoms and controls the immune response in patients with psoriasis. PMID:25099154

  18. Microparticles engineered to highly express peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ decreased inflammatory mediator production and increased adhesion of recipient monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Sahler

    Full Text Available Circulating blood microparticles are submicron vesicles released primarily by megakaryocytes and platelets that act as transcellular communicators. Inflammatory conditions exhibit elevated blood microparticle numbers compared to healthy conditions. Direct functional consequences of microparticle composition, especially internal composition, on recipient cells are poorly understood. Our objective was to evaluate if microparticle composition could impact the function of recipient cells, particularly during inflammatory provocation. We therefore engineered the composition of megakaryocyte culture-derived microparticles to generate distinct microparticle populations that were given to human monocytes to assay for influences recipient cell function. Herein, we tested the responses of monocytes exposed to either control microparticles or microparticles that contain the anti-inflammatory transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ. In order to normalize relative microparticle abundance from two microparticle populations, we implemented a novel approach that utilizes a Nanodrop Spectrophotometer to assay for microparticle density rather than concentration. We found that when given to peripheral blood mononuclear cells, microparticles were preferentially internalized by CD11b+ cells, and furthermore, microparticle composition had a profound functional impact on recipient monocytes. Specifically, microparticles containing PPARγ reduced activated monocyte production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared to activated monocytes exposed to control microparticles. Additionally, treatment with PPARγ microparticles greatly increased monocyte cell adherence. This change in morphology occurred simultaneously with increased production of the key extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin and increased expression of the fibronectin-binding integrin, ITGA5. PPARγ microparticles

  19. Co-transplantation of macaque autologous Schwann cells and human embryonic nerve stem cells in treatment of macaque Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Xia; Chengchuan Jiang; Zuowei Cao; Keshan Shi; Yang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the therapeutic effects of co-transplantation with Schwann cells (SCs) and human embryonic nerve stem cells (NSCs) on macaque Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods:Macaque autologous SCs and human embryonic NSCs were adopted for the treatment of macaque PD. Results: Six months after transplantation, positron emission computerized tomography showed that 18F-FP-β-CIT was significantly concentrated in the injured striatum in the co-transplanted group. Immunohistochemical staining of transplanted area tissue showed migration of tyroxine hydroxylase positive cells from the transplant area to the surrounding area was significantly increased in the co-transplanted group. Conclusions: Co-transplantation of SCs and NSCs could effectively cure PD in macaques. SCs harvested from the autologous peripheral nerves can avoid rejection and the ethics problems, so it is expected to be applied clinically.

  20. Lymphoscintigraphy and autologous stem cell implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphoscintigraphy is the criterion standard technique for the diagnosis of lymphedema. Advances of the application of autologous hematopoietic stem cells in ischemic disorders of lower limbs have increased the attention of researchers in this field. Aim: To determine the usefulness of lymphoscintigraphy for the assessment the efficacy of autologous stem cell implantation in patients with chronic lymphedema of the upper and lower limbs. Methods: Sixty-five patients were included. Clinical evaluation and lymphoscintigraphy were performed before and six months after stem cells implantation. The stem cells implantations were carried out by multiple superficial and deep injections in the trajectory of the lymphatic vessels and also in the inguinal region. A volume of 0.75 to 1.00 mL of cell suspension (1.0-2.2 x 109 stem cells) was administered in each injection site. Lymphoscintigraphy: Whole-body scans were acquired at 20 minutes, 1 hour, and 3 hours after administration of 185 to 259 MBq (5–7mCi) of 99mTc-albumin nanocolloids in the interdigital space of both limbs. The anatomy and function of the lymphatic system were evaluated. Results: Functional assessment before implantation of stem cells showed that 69.2% of the patients had severe lymphatic insufficiency. The 61.5% of patients showed clinical improvement, confirmed by the results of the lymphoscintigraphy. The 46.1% of the cases evaluated showed a clear improvement. The study showed that the isotopic lymphography can evaluate the therapeutic response and its intensity. Conclusion: Lymphoscintigraphy is a useful technique for the evaluation and monitoring of autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with chronic lymphedema. (author)

  1. Autologous cell sources in therapeutic vasculogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szöke, Krisztina; Reinisch, Andreas; Østrup, Esben;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AIMS: Autologous endothelial cells are promising alternative angiogenic cell sources in trials of therapeutic vasculogenesis, in the treatment of vascular diseases and in the field of tissue engineering. A population of endothelial cells (ECs) with long-term proliferative capability...... functional assays, we wanted to evaluate the potential of these EC populations for use in clinical neovascularization. RESULTS: Global gene expression profiling of ECFCs, AT-ECs and the classical EC population, human umbilical vein ECs, showed that the EC populations clustered as unique populations, but very...

  2. Whole Blood Activation Results in Enhanced Detection of T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production by Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Crucian, Brian E.

    2001-01-01

    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a wholeblood activation culture has been described. We compared whole blood culture to standard PBMC culture and determined the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells and monocytes via flow cytometry. For T cells cytokine assessment following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture; (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. In addition, a four-color cytometric analysis was used to allow accurate phenotyping and quantitation of cytokine producing lymphocyte populations. Using this technique we found IFNgamma production to be significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines in conjunction with CD 14. The cytokine pairs used for analysis were IL-1a/IL-12, and IL-10ITNFa. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFalpha equally well in both culture systems. Monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated following whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and

  3. Renal function in high dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell support treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merouani, A; Shpall, E J; Jones, R B; Archer, P G; Schrier, R W

    1996-09-01

    Autologous and allogeneic bone marrow grafting both require cytoreductive therapy but only the allogeneic procedure requires immunosuppressive agents. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation has been reported to be associated with a high incidence of both renal failure and veno-occlusive disease (VOD) of the liver, the combination of which is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. There is less known about the frequency and severity of these complications in patients undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation. In the present study renal, hepatic and other complications were examined in 232 patients with Stages II/III and IV breast cancer who were treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell support with either marrow or peripheral blood progenitor cells. The post-treatment severity of the renal dysfunction was classified as follows: Grade 0, normal renal function [ 25% decrement in GFR but twofold rise in serum creatinine but no need for dialysis; Grade 3 > than twofold rise in serum creatinine and need for dialysis. There were 102 patients (44%) who were classified as Grade 0 and 81 patients (35%) who were classified as Grade 1 renal dysfunction. Severe renal dysfunction (Grades 2 and 3) was observed in 49 of the 232 patients (21%). This severe renal dysfunction of 21% compares with a previously reported 53% incidence of severe renal dysfunction for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Similarly, the frequency of hepatic VOD was less (4.7% or 11 of 232 patients) in this autologous bone marrow transplant study as compared to a reported incidence of hepatic VOD ranging from 22 to 53% in large series of allogeneic bone marrow transplant patients. The severe renal dysfunction (Grades 2 and 3) in the present autologous hematopoietic cell support study correlated most significantly with sepsis, liver and pulmonary dysfunction. The major fall in GFR occurred during chemotherapy but before hematopoietic cell support, thus

  4. A case of monocytic leukemia having preleukemic phase of several year duration following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A boy who died at the age of 10 had received radiotherapy for a swelling on the back of his right foot when he was one year and 4 months old. Around the age of 5 years he began to have frequent nose bleeds. He was examined periodically, but no definite diagnosis was made. At the age of 9 years he became anemic, necessitating frequent blood transfusions. Toward the end of 9 years, immature monocytes began to increase both in the peripheral blood and bone marrow. He died of cerebral hemorrhage. His illness during the 4 year period after he began having nose bleeds was considered not to be aplastic anemia or other type of anemia but to be preleukemia in view of the following findings: 1) increase of atypical lymphocytes and monocytes early in his illness 2) presence of giant platelets early in his illness 3) atypical bone marrow histology and 4) abnormal bone marrow scintigram pattern. (author)

  5. Disseminated Fusarium infection in autologous stem cell transplant recipient

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian Iida Avelino-Silva; Jessica Fernandes Ramos; Fabio Eudes Leal; Leonardo Testagrossa; Yana Sarkis Novis

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated infection by Fusariumis a rare, frequently lethal condition in severely immunocompromised patients, including bone marrow transplant recipients. However, autologous bone marrow transplant recipients are not expected to be at high risk to develop fusariosis. We report a rare case of lethal disseminated Fusariuminfection in an autologous bone marrow transplant recipient during pre-engraftment phase.

  6. Transplantation of mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells for peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the lower extremity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng YANG; Yanxiang WU; Hongmei WANG; Yifeng XU; Bo XU; Xin LU; Yibin ZANG; Fa WANG; Yue ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To assess the clinical efficacy, safety, and feasibility of autologous transplantation of mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) for patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) of the lower extremity. Methods A total of 152 patients with PAOD of the lower extremity were enrolled into this non-controlled observational study from November 2003 to March 2006. All patients received subcutaneous injections of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, 450600 μg/day) for 5 days in order to mobilize stem/progenitor cells; their PBMNCs were collected and transplanted by multiple intramuscular injections into ischemic limbs. Patients were followed up for at least 12 weeks. Results At 12 weeks, primarymanifestations,including lower limb pain and coldness, were significantly improved in 137 (90.1%) of the patients; limb ulcers improved or healed in 46 (86.8%) of the 53 patients, while 25 of the 48 (47.9%) patients with limb gangrene remained steady or improved. Ankle-brachial index (ABI) improved in 33 (22%) of the cases, and TcPO2 increased in 45 (30%) of the cases. Angiography before treatment, and at 12 weeks after treatment, was performed in 10 of the patients and showed formation of new collateral vessels. No severe adverse effects or complications specifically related to cell transplantation were observed. Conclusion Autologous transplantation of G-CSF-mobilized PBMNCs might be a safe and effective treatment for lower limb ischemic disorder.(J Geriatr Cardiol 2006; 3:178-80.)

  7. Application of reticulated platelets to transfusion management during autologous stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parco S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sergio Parco, Fulvia VascottoInstitute for Maternal and Child Health – IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, ItalyBackground: The immature (or reticulated platelet fraction (IPF is rich in nucleic acids, especially RNA, and can be used as a predictive factor for platelet recovery in platelet immunomediated consumption or in postchemotherapy myelosuppression. Our aim was to determine if transfusions with IPF-rich solutions, during autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, reduce the occurrence of bleeding and hemorrhagic complications.Patients and methods: Transfusions were administered to 40 children, affected with hematological pathologies, who underwent autologous peripheral hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation. There were two groups of 20 patients, one group treated with IPF-poor and the other with IPF-rich solutions. In the two groups, the conditioning regimen was the same for the same pathology (hematological pathologies: 14 acute lymphoblastic leukemia; twelve acute myelocytic leukemia; four non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; two Hodgkin's lymphoma; eight solid tumors. A new automated analyzer was used to quantify the IPF: the XE2100 (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan blood cell counter with upgraded software.Results: The 20 patients who received solutions with a high percentage of IPF (3%–9% of total number of infused platelets required fewer transfusions than the 20 patients who received transfusions with a low percentage of IPF (0%–1% of total number of infused platelets: 83 versus 129 (mean of number of transfusions 4.15 versus 6.45 and a significant difference was found between the two groups by using the Mann–Whitney test (P < 0.001. The prophylactic transfusions decreased from three to two per week. There was only one case of massive hemorrhage.Conclusion: The use of IPF solutions reduces the number of transfusions and bleedings after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in pediatric patients.Keywords: children, reticulated

  8. Soluble CD163, a product of monocyte/macrophage activation, is inversely associated with haemoglobin levels in placental malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lin Lin Chua

    Full Text Available In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, activation of monocytes and macrophages (monocytes/macrophages can result in the production of various inflammatory mediators that contribute to immunopathology. Soluble CD163 (sCD163 is a specific marker of monocyte/macrophage activation typically found at increased levels during various inflammatory conditions and can be associated with poor clinical outcomes. To better understand the relationships between levels of sCD163 and clinical parameters in women with placental malaria, we measured plasma sCD163 levels in maternal peripheral and placental blood compartments at delivery and determined their correlations with birth weight and maternal haemoglobin concentrations. sCD163 levels were negatively correlated with birth weight only in the placental compartment (r = -0.145, p = 0.03 and were inversely correlated with maternal haemoglobin concentrations, both in peripheral blood (r = -0.238, p = 0.0004 and in placental blood (r = -0.259, p = 0.0001. These inverse relationships suggest a potential role for monocyte/macrophage activation in the pathogenesis of malaria in pregnancy, particularly in relation to malaria-associated anaemia.

  9. Plerixafor for autologous CD34+ cell mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Salman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Huda Salman, Hillard M LazarusDivision of Hematology-Oncology, Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: High-dose chemotherapy and autologous transplantation of hematopoietic cells is a crucial treatment option for hematologic malignancy patients. Current mobilization regimes often do not provide adequate numbers of CD34+ cells. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and ligand SDF-1 are integrally involved in homing and mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Disruption of the CXCR4/SDF-1 axis by the CXCR4 antagonist, plerixafor, has been demonstrated in Phase II and Phase III trials to improve mobilization when used in conjunction with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF. This approach is safe with few adverse events and produces significantly greater numbers of CD34+ cells when compared to G-CSF alone. New plerixafor initiatives include use in volunteer donors for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant and in other disease targets.Keywords: plerixafor, autologous hematopoietic cell transplant, CD34, lymphoma, myeloma, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF

  10. Nf1+/- monocytes/macrophages induce neointima formation via CCR2 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessler, Waylan K; Kim, Grace; Hudson, Farlyn Z; Mund, Julie A; Mali, Raghuveer; Menon, Keshav; Kapur, Reuben; Clapp, D Wade; Ingram, David A; Stansfield, Brian K

    2016-03-15

    Persons with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) have a predisposition for premature and severe arterial stenosis. Mutations in the NF1 gene result in decreased expression of neurofibromin, a negative regulator of p21(Ras), and increases Ras signaling. Heterozygous Nf1 (Nf1(+/-)) mice develop a marked arterial stenosis characterized by proliferating smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and a predominance of infiltrating macrophages, which closely resembles arterial lesions from NF1 patients. Interestingly, lineage-restricted inactivation of a single Nf1 allele in monocytes/macrophages is sufficient to recapitulate the phenotype observed in Nf1(+/-) mice and to mobilize proinflammatory CCR2+ monocytes into the peripheral blood. Therefore, we hypothesized that CCR2 receptor activation by its primary ligand monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is critical for monocyte infiltration into the arterial wall and neointima formation in Nf1(+/-) mice. MCP-1 induces a dose-responsive increase in Nf1(+/-) macrophage migration and proliferation that corresponds with activation of multiple Ras kinases. In addition, Nf1(+/-) SMCs, which express CCR2, demonstrate an enhanced proliferative response to MCP-1 when compared with WT SMCs. To interrogate the role of CCR2 activation on Nf1(+/-) neointima formation, we induced neointima formation by carotid artery ligation in Nf1(+/-) and WT mice with genetic deletion of either MCP1 or CCR2. Loss of MCP-1 or CCR2 expression effectively inhibited Nf1(+/-) neointima formation and reduced macrophage content in the arterial wall. Finally, administration of a CCR2 antagonist significantly reduced Nf1(+/-) neointima formation. These studies identify MCP-1 as a potent chemokine for Nf1(+/-) monocytes/macrophages and CCR2 as a viable therapeutic target for NF1 arterial stenosis. PMID:26740548

  11. Baseline Gene Expression Signatures in Monocytes from Multiple Sclerosis Patients Treated with Interferon-beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Marta F.; Nurtdinov, Ramil N.; Río, Jordi; Montalban, Xavier; Comabella, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Background A relatively large proportion of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients do not respond to interferon-beta (IFNb) treatment. In previous studies with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), we identified a subgroup of IFNb non-responders that was characterized by a baseline over-expression of type I IFN inducible genes. Additional mechanistic experiments carried out in IFNb non-responders suggested a selective alteration of the type I IFN signaling pathway in the population of blood monocytes. Here, we aimed (i) to investigate whether the type I IFN signaling pathway is up-regulated in isolated monocytes from IFNb non-responders at baseline; and (ii) to search for additional biological pathways in this cell population that may be implicated in the response to IFNb treatment. Methods Twenty RRMS patients classified according to their clinical response to IFNb treatment and 10 healthy controls were included in the study. Monocytes were purified from PBMC obtained before treatment by cell sorting and the gene expression profiling was determined with oligonucleotide microarrays. Results and discussion Purified monocytes from IFNb non-responders were characterized by an over-expression of type I IFN responsive genes, which confirms the type I IFN signature in monocytes suggested from previous studies. Other relevant signaling pathways that were up-regulated in IFNb non-responders were related with the mitochondrial function and processes such as protein synthesis and antigen presentation, and together with the type I IFN signaling pathway, may also be playing roles in the response to IFNb. PMID:23637780

  12. Oxygen-Loaded Nanodroplets Effectively Abrogate Hypoxia Dysregulating Effects on Secretion of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 by Human Monocytes

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    Giulia Rossana Gulino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes play a key role in the inflammatory stage of the healing process. To allow monocyte migration to injured tissues, the balances between secreted matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPs must be finely modulated. However, a reduction of blood supply and local oxygen tension can modify the phenotype of immune cells. Intriguingly, hypoxia might be targeted by new effective oxygenating devices such as 2H,3H-decafluoropentane- (DFP- based oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNs. Here, hypoxia effects on gelatinase/TIMP release from human peripheral monocytes were investigated, and the therapeutic potential of dextran-shelled OLNs was evaluated. Normoxic monocytes constitutively released ~500 ng/mL MMP-9, ~1.3 ng/mL TIMP-1, and ~0.6 ng/mL TIMP-2 proteins. MMP-2 was not detected. After 24 hours, hypoxia significantly altered MMP-9/TIMP-1 balance by reducing MMP-9 and increasing TIMP-1, without affecting TIMP-2 secretion. Interestingly OLNs, not displaying toxicity to human monocytes after cell internalization, effectively counteracted hypoxia, restoring a normoxia-like MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio. The action of OLNs was specifically dependent on time-sustained oxygen diffusion up to 24 h from their DFP-based core. Therefore, OLNs appear as innovative, nonconventional, cost-effective, and nontoxic therapeutic tools, to be potentially employed to restore the physiological invasive phenotype of immune cells in hypoxia-associated inflammation.

  13. Activation of the fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase gene by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 during monocytic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cells from the human leukemia cell line HL-60 undergo terminal monocyte-like differentiation after exposure to either the active circulating form of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3], or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Little is known about the genes that regulate monocytic differentiation. Using clonal variant cells of HL-60 origin, the authors constructed a cDNA library enriched for genes that are induced by 1,25-(OH)2D3. They report that in HL-60, the fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase gene is activated during 1,25-(OH)2D3-induced monocytic differentiation. This gene encodes two closely related mRNAs; one, activated by 1,25-(OH)2D3 at an early stage of HL-60 differentiation, encodes a protein that has homology to mammalian FBPase, a key enzyme in gluconeogenesis, although it does not exhibit its classical enzymatic activity. A second mRNA is activated by 1,25-(OH)2D3 mainly in peripheral blood monocytes. This mRNA is present in kidney as a unique transcript and encodes a protein with FBPase activity. The data also show that this FBPase-encoding mRNA can be activated during monocytic maturation since it was detected in human alveolar macrophages

  14. Reduced constitutive cytokine transcription in isolated monocytes of clinically healthy cats, infected with an FIV strain of low pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipar, A; Boretti, F S; Meli, M M; Failing, K; Reinacher, M; Lutz, H

    2004-04-01

    Twenty-five barrier-maintained cats had been experimentally infected for 9.5 months with an FIV strain of low pathogenicity, FIV Zurich 2. Animals were clinically healthy and did not exhibit any haematological changes. FIV proviral DNA was demonstrated in peripheral blood lymphocytes of all cats and in monocytes of most animals, identifying FIV Zurich 2 as a both lympho- and monocytotropic strain. Monocytes were isolated from FIV-infected cats as well as from age-matched uninfected control cats, short-term cultured and examined for cytokine (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40 and TNF-alpha) transcription by real-time PCR. Constitutive transcription of cytokines in monocytes from FIV-infected cats was restricted to IL-1beta and, in the majority of samples, TNF-alpha. For all cytokines, transcription levels were significantly lower in FIV-infected cats than in control cats. Transcription was often least intense in those samples where FIV infection of the monocyte fraction was not demonstrated. Results show that infection of cats with an FIV strain of low pathogenicity was associated with depression of constitutive cytokine transcription in monocytes even if clinical and haematological changes were not observed. PMID:15010230

  15. HIV-1 infection is associated with changes in nuclear receptor transcriptome, pro-inflammatory and lipid profile of monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renga Barbara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent residual immune activation and lipid dysmetabolism are characteristics of HIV positive patients receiving an highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Nuclear Receptors are transcription factors involved in the regulation of immune and metabolic functions through the modulation of gene transcription. The objective of the present study was to investigate for the relative abundance of members of the nuclear receptor family in monocytic cells isolated from HIV positive patients treated or not treated with HAART. Methods Monocytes isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were used for analysis of the relative mRNA expressions of FXR, PXR, LXR, VDR, RARα, RXR, PPARα, PPARβ, PPARγ and GR by Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The expression of a selected subset of inflammatory and metabolic genes MCP-1, ICAM-1, CD36 and ABCA1 was also measured. Results Monocytes isolated from HIV infected patients expressed an altered pattern of nuclear receptors characterized by a profound reduction in the expressions of FXR, PXR, PPARα, GR, RARα and RXR. Of interest, the deregulated expression of nuclear receptors was not restored under HAART and was linked to an altered expression of genes which supports both an immune activation and altered lipid metabolism in monocytes. Conclusions Altered expression of genes mediating reciprocal regulation of lipid metabolism and immune function in monocytes occurs in HIV. The present findings provide a mechanistic explanation for immune activation and lipid dysmetabolism occurring in HIV infected patients and could lead to the identification of novel potential therapeutic targets.

  16. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine stimulates human monocyte-derived dendritic cell chemotaxis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ha-young LEE; Eun-ha SHIN; Yoe-sik BAE

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) on human monocyte-derived dendritic cell (DC) chemotaxis. Methods: Human DC were generated from peripheral blood monocytes by culturing them with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor and interleukin-4. The effect of SPC on the DC chemotactic migration was measured by chemotaxis assay. Intracellular signaling event involved in the SPC-induced DC chemotaxis was investigated with several inhibitors for specific kinase. The expression of the SPC receptors was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: We found that SPC induced chemotactic migration in immature DC (iDC) and mature DC (mDC). In terms of SPC-induced signaling events, mitogen activated protein kinase activation and Akt activation in iDC and mDC were stimulated. SPC-induced chemotaxis was mediated by extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and phosphoino-sitide-3-kinase, but not by calcium in both iDC and mDC. Although mDC express ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1, but not G protein-coupled receptor 4, iDC do not express any of these receptors. To examine the involvement of sphin-gosine-1-phosphate (SIP) receptors, we checked the effect of an SIP receptor antagonist (VPC23019) on SPC-induced DC chemotaxis. VPC23019 did not affect SPC-induced DC chemotaxis. Conclusion: The results suggest that SPC may play a role in regulating DC trafficking during phagocytosis and the T cell-stimulating phase, and the unique SPC receptor, which is different from SIP receptors, is involved in SPC-induced chemotaxis.

  17. Epigenetic regulation of extracellular-superoxide dismutase in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Tetsuro; Machiura, Masatomo; Makino, Junya; Hara, Hirokazu; Hozumi, Isao; Adachi, Tetsuo

    2013-08-01

    Extracellular-superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is a major SOD isozyme mainly present in the vascular wall and plays an important role in normal redox homeostasis. We previously showed the significant reduction or induction of EC-SOD during human monocytic U937 or THP-1 cell differentiation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), respectively; however, its cell-specific expression and regulation have not been fully elucidated. It has been reported that epigenetic factors, such as DNA methylation and histone modification, are involved in several kinds of gene regulation. In this study, we investigated the involvement of epigenetic factors in EC-SOD expression and determined high levels of DNA methylation within promoter and coding regions of EC-SOD in THP-1 cells compared to those in U937 cells. Moreover, treatment with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-azacytidine, significantly induced the expression of EC-SOD in THP-1 cells, indicating the importance of DNA methylation in the suppression of EC-SOD expression; however, the DNA methylation status did not change during THP-1 cell differentiation induced by TPA. On the other hand, we detected histone H3 and H4 acetylation during differentiation. Further, pretreatment with histone acetyltransferase inhibitors, CPTH2 or garcinol, significantly suppressed the TPA-inducible EC-SOD expression. We also determined the epigenetic suppression of EC-SOD in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Treatment with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)/granulocyte-CSF induced that expression. Overall, these findings provide novel evidence that cell-specific and TPA-inducible EC-SOD expression are regulated by DNA methylation and histone H3 and H4 acetylation in human monocytic cells. PMID:23602908

  18. Monocyte chemoattractants in pigeon aortic atherosclerosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Denholm, E. M.; Lewis, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Atherosclerosis occurs in the aorta of White Carneau pigeons proximal to the celiac bifurcation, where monocyte adhesion and migration into lesions have been demonstrated. This study documents chemoattractants that might be responsible for monocyte adherence and migration. Ten-week-old pigeons were fed either a cholesterol-free (normal) diet or a 0.4% cholesterol diet for 12 or 24 weeks. Birds with a normal diet did not have lesions in the lesion-prone area of the aorta, whereas birds fed a c...

  19. [Introduction and prospect of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Y

    1995-12-01

    The number of hematopoietic stem cells circulating in peripheral blood increases remarkably during the recovery of marrow function after myelosuppressive chemotherapy. In peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, these stem cells are collected and cryopreserved, and then used to restore marrow function after myelodisruptive (high-dose) anticancer therapy, Marrow recovery is faster with this procedure than with autologous bone marrow transplantation. Recently, this procedure has been used after high-dose chemotherapy for chemosensitive solid tumors such as breast cancer. We used high-dose chemotherapy with etoposide and carboplatin, followed by peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, to treat 5 patients with intrathoracic malignant tumors, including small cell lung cancer Neutrophils recovered (> 500 microliters) with 9 to 11 days and platelets recovered (> 5,000 microliters) within 8 to 13 days after the transplantation. No other serious complication was seen. Current topics regarding this procedure, problems to be solved, and prospects for further development are discussed. PMID:8752478

  20. Methods for defining distinct bioenergetic profiles in platelets, lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils, and the oxidative burst from human blood

    OpenAIRE

    Chacko, Balu K; Kramer, Philip A.; Ravi, Saranya; Johnson, Michelle S.; Hardy, Robert W.; Ballinger, Scott W.; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and platelets have long been recognized as having the potential to act as sensitive markers for mitochondrial dysfunction in a broad range of pathological conditions. However, the bioenergetic function of these cells has not been examined from the same donors, yet this is important for the selection of cell types for translational studies. Here, we demonstrate the measurement of cellular bioenergetics in isolated human monocytes, lymphocytes, and platelets, ...

  1. Human Podoplanin-positive Monocytes and Platelets Enhance Lymphangiogenesis Through the Activation of the Podoplanin/CLEC-2 Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Hur, Jin; Jang, Jae Hee; Oh, Il-Young; Choi, Jae-Il; Yun, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Joonoh; Choi, Young-Eun; Ko, Seung-Bum; Kang, Jin-A; Kang, Jeehoon; Lee, Sang Eun; LEE, Hwan; Park, Young-Bae; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Emerging studies suggested that murine podoplanin-positive monocytes (PPMs) are involved in lymphangiogenesis. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the therapeutic lymphangiogenesis of human PPMs by the interaction with platelets. Aggregation culture of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) resulted in cellular aggregates termed hematospheres. During 5-day culture, PPMs expanded exponentially and expressed several lymphatic endothelial cell–specific markers including vascular ...

  2. Patrolling Monocytes Control Tumor Metastasis to the Lung

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Richard N.; Cekic, Caglar; Sag, Duygu; Tacke, Robert; Graham D. Thomas; Nowyhed, Heba; Herrley, Erica; Rasquinha, Nicole; McArdle, Sara; Wu, Runpei; Peluso, Esther; Metzger, Daniel; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Shaked, Iftach; Chodaczek, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    The immune system plays an important role in regulating tumor growth and metastasis. For example, classical monocytes promote tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis; however, how nonclassical “patrolling” monocytes interact with tumors is unknown. Here we show that patrolling monocytes are enriched in the microvasculature of the lung and reduce tumor metastasis to lung in multiple mouse metastatic tumor models. Nr4a1-deficient mice, which specifically lack patrolling monocytes, showed increased ...

  3. Programming of Human Monocytes by the Uteroplacental Environment

    OpenAIRE

    McIntire, Ramsey H.; Ganacias, Karen G.; Hunt, Joan S.

    2008-01-01

    During human pregnancy, monocytes recruited to the uterus (decidua) are modified to promote immune defense and semiallogeneic pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to identify decidual factors involved in programming of monocytes into decidual macrophages by comparing the surface and secretory phenotypes of resting and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)–activated monocytes, unfractionated decidual cells, purified term decidual macrophages, and monocyte-derived macrophages. Surface markers for antigen pr...

  4. The CD85j+ NK cell subset potently controls HIV-1 replication in autologous dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Scott-Algara

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells and dendritic cells (DC are thought to play critical roles in the first phases of HIV infection. In this study, we examined changes in the NK cell repertoire and functions occurring in response to early interaction with HIV-infected DC, using an autologous in vitro NK/DC coculture system. We show that NK cell interaction with HIV-1-infected autologous monocyte-derived DC (MDDC modulates NK receptor expression. In particular, expression of the CD85j receptor on NK cells was strongly down-regulated upon coculture with HIV-1-infected MDDC. We demonstrate that CD85j(+ NK cells exert potent control of HIV-1 replication in single-round and productively HIV-1-infected MDDC, whereas CD85j(- NK cells induce a modest and transient decrease of HIV-1 replication. HIV-1 suppression in MDCC by CD85j(+ NK cells required cell-to-cell contact and did not appear mediated by cytotoxicity or by soluble factors. HIV-1 inhibition was abolished when NK-MDDC interaction through the CD85j receptor was blocked with a recombinant CD85j molecule, whereas inhibition was only slightly counteracted by blocking HLA class I molecules, which are known CD85j ligands. After masking HLA class I molecules with specific antibodies, a fraction of HIV-1 infected MDDC was still strongly stained by a recombinant CD85j protein. These results suggest that CD85j(+ NK cell inhibition of HIV-1 replication in MDDC is mainly mediated by CD85j interaction with an unknown ligand (distinct from HLA class I molecules preferentially expressed on HIV-1-infected MDDC.

  5. Release of interleukin-1 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with tuberculosis and active inflammation.

    OpenAIRE

    Chensue, S. W.; Davey, M P; Remick, D. G.; Kunkel, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    Peripheral blood monocytes from patients with active tuberculosis and acute inflammatory disease showed spontaneous interleukin-1 production when compared with those from control patients or healthy controls. Moreover, interleukin-1 production appeared to be a more specific indicator of active disease than were other commonly used indices, such as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and serum C-reactive protein levels.

  6. Human autologous serum as a substitute for fetal bovine serum in human Schwann cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Goodarzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cell -based and tissue engineered products have opened new horizons in treatment of incurable nervous system disorders. The number of studies on the role of Schwann cells (SC in treating nervous disorders is higher than other cell types. Different protocols have been suggested for isolation and expansion of SC which most of them have used multiple growth factors, mitogens and fetal bovine sera (FBS in culture medium. Because of potential hazards of animal-derived reagents, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of replacing FBS with human autologous serum (HAS on SC's yield and culture parameters. Samples from 10 peripheral nerve biopsies were retrieved and processed under aseptic condition. The isolated cells cultured in FBS (1st group or autologous serum (2nd group. After primary culture the cells were seeded at 10000 cell/cm2 in a 12 wells cell culture plate for each group. At 100% confluency, the cell culture parameters (count, viability, purity and culture duration of 2 groups were compared using paired t-test. The average donors' age was 35.80 (SD=13.35 and except for 1 sample the others cultured successfully. In first group, the averages of cell purity, viability and culture duration were 97% (SD=1.32, 97/33% (SD=1.22 and 11.77 (SD=2.58 days respectively. This parameters were 97.33% (SD=1.00, 97.55% (SD=1.33 and 10.33 days (SD=1.65 in second group. The difference of cell count, purity and viability were not significant between 2 groups (P>0.05. The cells of second group reached to 100% confluency in shorter period of time (P=0.03. The results of this study showed that autologous serum can be a good substitute for FBS in human SC culture. This can reduce the costs and improve the safety of cell product for clinical application.

  7. Monocyte/macrophage-derived soluble CD163

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten N; Abildgaard, Niels; Maniecki, Maciej B;

    2014-01-01

    bone marrow samples than in the matched blood samples, which indicate a localized production of sCD163 within the bone marrow microenvironment. CONCLUSIONS: Soluble CD163 was found to be a prognostic marker in patients with multiple myeloma. This may indicate that macrophages and/or monocytes have an...

  8. Fatal Monocytic Ehrlichiosis in Woman, Mexico, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Gutierrez, Carolina G; Solorzano-Santos, Fortino; Walker, David H; Torres, Javier; Serrano, Carlos A; Gordillo-Perez, Guadalupe

    2016-05-01

    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is a febrile illness caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks. In Mexico, a case of E. chaffeensis infection in an immunocompetent 31-year-old woman without recognized tick bite was fatal. This diagnosis should be considered for patients with fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzyme levels. PMID:27088220

  9. Fatal Monocytic Ehrlichiosis in Woman, Mexico, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Gutierrez, Carolina G.; Solorzano-Santos, Fortino; Walker, David H.; Torres, Javier; Serrano, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is a febrile illness caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks. In Mexico, a case of E. chaffeensis infection in an immunocompetent 31-year-old woman without recognized tick bite was fatal. This diagnosis should be considered for patients with fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzyme levels. PMID:27088220

  10. In vivo imaging of monocyte trafficking with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose labeled monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the ability to monitor in vivo monocyte trafficking would contribute to our understanding of the pathophysiology of various inflammatory disorders, we investigated the feasibility of labeling human monocytes with 18F-FDG. Human monocytes were separated by Ficoll/Hypaque gradient and purity was assessed by flow cytometry. The influence of insulin and/or glucose on labeling efficiency was evaluated. Cell viability and activation was measured with trypan blue exclusion and hydrogen peroxide assays, respectively. Label stability was measured for up to 18 hr, and the effect of insulin pre-incubation on FDG washout was investigated. PET images were acquired in SD rats at various time points after injection of FDG labeled monocytes. Monocytes were >85% pure, and labeling efficiency was 35% for 1x106 cells after 40 min incubation with 2 mCi 18F-FDG without insulin. Pre-incubation with 10∼100 nM insulin significantly increased FDG uptake which reached 400% of baseline levels, whereas presence of glucose or serum decreased FDG uptake. Labeled cells were >90% viable for up to 22 hr, and the labeling process did appear to significantly activate cells, Washout studies however, demonstrated gradual washout of the FDG from monocytes after initial uptake PET images of FDG labeled monocytes in SD rats showed consistent findings. Utilizing insulin effects on cellular glucose metabolism may be a feasible way of labeling monocytes with 18F-FDG for PET imaging. However, gradual washout of FDG after initial uptake poses as a potential problem which needs to be addressed before practical application

  11. Whole Blood Activation Results in Altered T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production Profiles by Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2001-01-01

    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry, a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a whole-blood activation culture has been described. In this study, whole blood activation was compared to traditional PBMC activation and the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells, T cell subsets and monocytes was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: For T cell cytokine assessment (IFNg/IL-10 and IL-21/L-4) following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a Significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture and (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. Four-color analysiS was used to allow assessment of cytokine production by specific T cell subsets. It was found that IFNgamma production was significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were Significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines (IL-1a/IL-12 and TNFa/IL-10) in conjunction with CD14. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFa. equally well in both culture systems, however monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated in whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and TNFa producing

  12. Radiolabelled Autologous Cells: Methods and Standardization for Clinical Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication serves as a useful resource for nuclear medicine physicians, radiologists, radiopharmacists, pharmacologists and other researchers engaged with radiolabelling of autologous products for clinical application. It provides practical guidelines towards clinical work with radiolabelled autologous products and aims to streamline the variety of strategies that have evolved, for example, in the handling of radiolabelled red and white blood cells. The publication highlights the importance of the quality of radiolabelling services, provides advice on safety issues, and also addresses the use of other radiolabelled autologous products and their translation into the clinical environment

  13. Indium-111 autologous leukocyte imaging in pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.R.; Spence, R.A.; Laird, J.D.; Ferguson, W.R.; Kennedy, T.L.

    1986-03-01

    Thirty-nine patients with acute pancreatitis have been assessed using a prognostic factor grading system, abdominal ultrasound, and autologous leukocyte imaging. Both prognostic factor grading and leukocyte imaging can accurately assess the severity of the disease early in its course. All patients with a negative indium-labeled leukocyte image recovered without sequelae, whereas five of the 12 patients with a positive image developed complications, including two deaths. Abdominal ultrasound is of no value in assessing severity, but is a useful method of detecting those patients with gallstone-associated disease. In patients with suspected abscess formation following acute pancreatitis, indium leukocyte imaging does not differentiate between fat necrosis and abscess formation. In this situation, computerized tomography should be carried out before laparotomy is undertaken.

  14. Autologous Stem Cell Transplant for AL Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AL amyloidosis is caused by clonal plasma cells that produce immunoglobulin light chains which misfold and get deposited as amyloid fibrils. Therapy directed against the plasma cell clone leads to clinical benefit. Melphalan and corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment for a number of years and the recent availability of other effective agents (IMiDs and proteasome inhibitors has increased treatment options. Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT has been used in the treatment of AL amyloidosis for many years. It is associated with high rates of hematologic response and improvement in organ function. However, transplant carries considerable risks. Careful patient selection is important to minimize transplant related morbidity and mortality and ensure optimal patient outcomes. As newer more affective therapies become available the role and timing of ASCT in the overall treatment strategy of AL amyloidosis will need to be continually reassessed.

  15. Mycobacterium leprae upregulates IRGM expression in monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Degang; Chen, Jia; Zhang, Linglin; Cha, Zhanshan; Han, Song; Shi, Weiwei; Ding, Ru; Ma, Lan; Xiao, Hong; Shi, Chao; Jing, Zhichun; Song, Ningjing

    2014-08-01

    Leprosy is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium leprae, which evokes a strong inflammatory response and leads to nerve damage. Immunity-related GTPase family M protein (IRGM) plays critical roles in controlling inflammation. The objective of the study was to investigate whether IRGM is involved in the infection of M. leprae. Levels of IRGM were assessed in M. leprae-infected CD4(+) T cells, monocytes, and monocyte-derived macrophages. Data revealed that both protein and mRNA levels of IRGM were increased in monocytes after M. leprae infection. Interestingly, monocyte-derived macrophages showed more prominent IRGM expression with M. leprae infection, whereas the bacteria did not affect IRGM in CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, we assessed levels of IRGM in CD4(+) T cells and monocytes from 78 leprosy patients and 40 healthy controls, and observed upregulated protein level of IRGM in the monocytes from leprosy patients. Also, IRGM expression was inversely correlated with the severity of the disease. These findings suggested a close involvement of IRGM in M. leprae infection and indicated a potential mechanism of defending M. leprae infection. PMID:24469081

  16. Homocysteine alters monocyte-endothelial interaction in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine whether homocysteine induced endothelial damage through monocyte-endothelial interaction and to characterize both cell types in vitro.Methods Radiomethods were performed on monocyte adhesion to/through endothelium and endothelial damage experiments. Results Homocysteine-treated endothelial cells increased monocyte adhesion and transmigration. Homocysteine-treated monocytes induced endothelial detachment, but this effect was blocked by catalase. These effects were increased with higher concentrations of homocysteine. Monocyte surface glycoprotein antibodies CD11b/CD18 and CD14 inhibited these processes.Conclusions Homocysteine alters monocyte-endothelial interaction in vitro, eventually bringing about endothelial damage through release of H2O2. These phenomena are mediated through monocyte surface glycoproteins CD11b/CD18 and CD14. Upregulation of these processes in vivo may contribute to acceleration of atherosclerosis in patients with elevated plasma homocysteine levels.

  17. Homocysteine induces production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-8 in cultured human whole blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-kunZENG; DanielGREMICK; XianWANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether increased plasma L-homocysteine (Hcy) level could promote monocyte chemoattract antprotein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in cultured whole blood. METHODS: Human whole blood or differenttype of peripheral blood cells from health volunteers were incubated with Hcy and/or the inhibitors. MCP-1 and IL-8 level were measured by ELISA assay. RESULTS: Hcy 10-1000 μmol/L induced production of MCP-1and IL-8 in cultured human whole blood (P<0.05). The major cellular source of these chemokines comed from monocytes. Meanwhile,Hcy also promoted the upregulation of MPO level even at the 10 μmol/L in the cultured whole blood.The intracellular ROS, particular the OH radicals, play extremely important role in the Hcy-induced MCP-1 and IL-8 production. CONCLUSION: Increased Hcy level in plasma (hyperhomocysteinemia) induced MCP-1 and IL-8secretion in cultured human whole blood, especially in monocytes via oxidative stress mechanism,

  18. Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria induce a common early response in human monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghai Rohit

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We infected freshly isolated human peripheral monocytes with live bacteria of three clinically important gram-positive bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes and studied the ensuing early transcriptional response using expression microarrays. Thus the observed response was unbiased by signals originating from other helper and effector cells of the host and was not limited to induction by solitary bacterial constituents. Results Activation of monocytes was demonstrated by the upregulation of chemokine rather than interleukin genes except for the prominent expression of interleukin 23, marking it as the early lead cytokine. This activation was accompanied by cytoskeleton rearrangement signals and a general anti-oxidative stress and anti-apoptotic reaction. Remarkably, the expression profiles also provide evidence that monocytes participate in the regulation of angiogenesis and endothelial function in response to these pathogens. Conclusion Regardless of the invasion properties and survival mechanisms of the pathogens used, we found that the early response comprised of a consistent and common response. The common response was hallmarked by the upregulation of interleukin 23, a rather unexpected finding regarding Listeria infection, as this cytokine has been linked primarily to the control of extracellular bacterial dissemination.

  19. HIV/SIV infection primes monocytes and dendritic cells for apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Laforge

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Subversion or exacerbation of antigen-presenting cells (APC death modulates host/pathogen equilibrium. We demonstrated during in vitro differentiation of monocyte-derived macrophages and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs that HIV sensitizes the cells to undergo apoptosis in response to TRAIL and FasL, respectively. In addition, we found that HIV-1 increased the levels of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak molecules and decreased the levels of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 and FLIP proteins. To assess the relevance of these observations in the context of an experimental model of HIV infection, we investigated the death of APC during pathogenic SIV-infection in rhesus macaques (RMs. We demonstrated increased apoptosis, during the acute phase, of both peripheral blood DCs and monocytes (CD14(+ from SIV(+RMs, associated with a dysregulation in the balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic molecules. Caspase-inhibitor and death receptors antagonists prevented apoptosis of APCs from SIV(+RMs. Furthermore, increased levels of FasL in the sera of pathogenic SIV(+RMs were detected, compared to non-pathogenic SIV infection of African green monkey. We suggest that inappropriate apoptosis of antigen-presenting cells may contribute to dysregulation of cellular immunity early in the process of HIV/SIV infection.

  20. Propylthiouracil and peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Van Boekel

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy is a rare manifestation in hyperthyroidism. We describe the neurological manifestations of a 38 year old female with Graves' disease who developed peripheral neuropathy in the course of her treatment with propylthiouracil. After the drug was tapered off, the neurological signs disappeared. Therefore, we call attention for a possible toxic effect on peripheral nervous system caused by this drug.

  1. Peripheral Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or atherectomy may be used to help improve blood flow. What is peripheral artery disease (PAD)? How is peripheral artery disease evaluated? How ... PAD are diabetes, smoking, high cholesterol and high blood pressure. Most cases occur in ... is peripheral artery disease evaluated? Several imaging tests can be used to ...

  2. Autologous stem cell transplantation in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tarabar Olivera; Tukić Ljiljana; Stamatović Dragana; Balint Bela; Elez Marija; Ostojić Gordana; Tatomirović Željka; Marjanović Slobodan

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aim. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantacion (ASCT) has shown to produce long-term disease-free survival in patients with chemotherapysensitive Hodgkin disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate efficacy of ASCT in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease. Methods. Between May 1997 and September 2008, 34 patients with Hodgkin's disease in median age of 25 (range 16-60) years, underwent ASCT. Autologous SCT were performed as consolidation therapy in one poor-ri...

  3. Lumbar herniation following extended autologous latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Sheila Margaret; Fatayer, Hiba; Achuthan, Rajgopal

    2013-01-01

    Background Reconstructive breast surgery is now recognized to be an important part of the treatment for breast cancer. Surgical reconstruction options consist of implants, autologous tissue transfer or a combination of the two. The latissimus dorsi flap is a pedicled musculocutaneous flap and is an established method of autologous breast reconstruction. Lumbar hernias are an unusual type of hernia, the majority occurring after surgery or trauma in this area. The reported incidence of a lumbar...

  4. Specific CXC but not CC chemokines cause elevated monocyte migration in COPD: a role for CXCR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traves, Suzanne L; Smith, Susan J; Barnes, Peter J; Donnelly, Louise E

    2004-08-01

    Leukocyte migration is critical to maintaining host defense, but uncontrolled cellular infiltration into tissues can lead to chronic inflammation. In the lung, such diseases include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a debilitating, respiratory condition characterized by progressive and largely irreversible airflow limitation for which cigarette smoking is the major risk factor. COPD is associated with an increased inflammatory cell influx including increased macrophage numbers in the airways and tissue. Alveolar macrophages develop from immigrating blood monocytes and have the capacity to cause the pathological changes associated with COPD. This study addressed the hypothesis that increased macrophage numbers in COPD are a result of increased recruitment of monocytes from the circulation. Chemotaxis assays of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)/monocytes from nonsmokers, smokers, and COPD patients demonstrated increased chemotactic responses for cells from COPD patients when compared with controls toward growth-related oncogene (GRO)alpha and neutrophil-activating peptide (NAP)-2 but not toward monocyte chemoattractant protein, interleukin-8, or epithelial-derived NAP(ENA)-78. The enhanced chemotactic response toward GROalpha and NAP-2 was not mediated by differences in expression of their cellular receptors, CXCR1 or CXCR2. Receptor expression studies using flow cytometry indicated that in COPD, monocyte expression of CXCR2 is regulated differently from nonsmokers and smokers, which may account for the enhanced migration toward GROalpha and NAP-2. The results highlight the potential of CXCR2 antagonists as therapy for COPD and demonstrate that an enhanced PBMC/monocyte response to specific CXC chemokines in these patients may contribute to increased recruitment and activation of macrophages in the lungs. PMID:15155777

  5. A novel and simple method for the generation of functional human dendritic cells from unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells within 2 days: its application for induction of HIV-1-reactive CD4+ T cells in the hu-PBL SCID mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira eKodama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Because dendritic cells (DCs play a critical role in the regulation of adaptive immune responses, they have been ideal candidates for cell-based immunotherapy of cancers and infections in humans. Generally, monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs were generated from purified monocytes by multiple steps of time-consuming physical manipulations for an extended period cultivation. In this study, we developed a novel, simple and rapid method for the generation of type-1 helper T cell (Th1-stimulating human DCs directly from bulk peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. PBMCs were cultivated in the presence of 20 ng/ml of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, 20 ng/ml of interleukin-4 (IL-4 and 1,000 U/ml of interferon-β (IFN-β for 24 hours followed by 24 hour maturation with a cytokine cocktail containing 10 ng/ml of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, 10 ng/ml of IL-1β and 1 μg/ml of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. The phenotype and biological activity of these new DCs for induction of allogeneic T cell proliferation and cytokine production were comparable to those of the MDDCs. Importantly, these new DCs pulsed with inactivated HIV-1 could generated HIV-1-reactive CD4+ T cell responses in humanized mice reconstituted with autologous PBMCs from HIV-1-negative donors. This simple and quick method for generation of functional DCs will be useful for future studies on DC-mediated immunotherapies.

  6. Monocyte and macrophage regulation of pulmonary fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis I examined the role of circulating monocytes and lung macrophages in the pathogenesis of the early fibrotic, progressive fibrotic and resolution phases of pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis with destruction of lung architecture and consequent respiratory failure and death represents a massive worldwide health burden. Although idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the archetypal and most common cause of lung fibrosis, numerous respiratory diseases can prog...

  7. Autologous rosette-forming T cells as the responding cells in human autologous mixed-lymphocyte reaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios, R; Llorente, L; Alarcón-Segovia, D; Ruíz-Arguelles, A; Díaz-Jouanen, E

    1980-01-01

    Autologous rosette-forming cells (Tar cells) have surface and functional characteristics of post-thymic precursors and among these characteristics there are some that have been identified in the responsive cell of the autologous mixed-lymphocyte reaction (AMLR). We therefore did AMLR with circulating mononuclear cells from normal subjects using as responding cells either total T cells, T cells depleted of Tar cells, or purified Tar cells. The response of Tar cells in AMLR was significantly gr...

  8. An efficient strategy to induce and maintain in vitro human T cells specific for autologous non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Canderan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The efficient expansion in vitro of cytolytic CD8+ T cells (CTLs specific for autologous tumors is crucial both for basic and translational aspects of tumor immunology. We investigated strategies to generate CTLs specific for autologous Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC, the most frequent tumor in mankind, using circulating lymphocytes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Classic Mixed Lymphocyte Tumor Cultures with NSCLC cells consistently failed to induce tumor-specific CTLs. Cross-presentation in vitro of irradiated NSCLC cells by autologous dendritic cells, by contrast, induced specific CTL lines from which we obtained a high number of tumor-specific T cell clones (TCCs. The TCCs displayed a limited TCR diversity, suggesting an origin from few tumor-specific T cell precursors, while their TCR molecular fingerprints were detected in the patient's tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, implying a role in the spontaneous anti-tumor response. Grafting NSCLC-specific TCR into primary allogeneic T cells by lentiviral vectors expressing human V-mouse C chimeric TCRalpha/beta chains overcame the growth limits of these TCCs. The resulting, rapidly expanding CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lines stably expressed the grafted chimeric TCR and specifically recognized the original NSCLC. CONCLUSIONS: This study defines a strategy to efficiently induce and propagate in vitro T cells specific for NSCLC starting from autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes.

  9. Arsenic alters monocyte superoxide anion and nitric oxide production in environmentally exposed children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with alterations in the immune system, studies in experimental models and adults have shown that these effects involve macrophage function; however, limited information is available on what type of effects could be induced in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of As exposure, through the association of inorganic As (iAs) and its metabolites [monomethylated arsenic (MMA) and dimethylated arsenic (DMA)] with basal levels of nitric oxide (NO·-) and superoxide anion (O2·-), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and monocytes, and NO·- and O2·- produced by activated monocytes. Hence, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 87 children (6-10 years old) who had been environmentally exposed to As through drinking water. Levels of urinary As species (iAs, MMA and DMA) were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry, total As (tAs) represents the sum of iAs and its species; tAs urine levels ranged from 12.3 to 1411 μg/g creatinine. Using multiple linear regression models, iAs presented a positive and statistical association with basal NO·- in PBMC (β = 0.0048, p = 0.049) and monocytes (β = 0.0044, p = 0.044), while basal O2·- had a significant positive association with DMA (β = 0.0025, p = 0.046). In activated monocytes, O2·- showed a statistical and positive association with iAs (β = 0.0108, p = 0.023), MMA (β = 0.0066, p = 0.022), DMA (β = 0.0018, p = 0.015), and tAs (β = 0.0013, p = 0.015). We conclude that As exposure in the studied children was positively associated with basal levels of NO·- and O2·- in PBMC and monocytes, suggesting that As induces oxidative stress in circulating blood cells. Additionally, this study showed a positive association of O2·- production with iAs and its metabolites in stimulated monocytes, supporting previous data that suggests that these cells, and particularly the O2·- activation pathway, are relevant targets for As toxicity.

  10. Activated platelet supernatant can augment the angiogenic potential of human peripheral blood stem cells mobilized from bone marrow by G-CSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeehoon; Hur, Jin; Kang, Jin-A; Yun, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Jae-Il; Ko, Seung Bum; Lee, Choon-Soo; Lee, Jaewon; Han, Jung-Kyu; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2014-10-01

    Platelets not only play a role in hemostasis, but they also promote angiogenesis and tissue recovery by releasing various cytokines and making an angiogenic milieu. Here, we examined autologous 'activated platelet supernatant (APS)' as a priming agent for stem cells; thereby enhance their pro-angiogenic potential and efficacy of stem cell-based therapy for ischemic diseases. The mobilized peripheral blood stem cells ((mob)PBSCs) were isolated from healthy volunteers after subcutaneous injection of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. APS was collected separately from the platelet rich plasma after activation by thrombin. (mob)PBSCs were primed for 6h before analysis. Compared to naive platelet supernatants, APS had a higher level of various cytokines, such as IL8, IL17, PDGF and VEGF. APS-priming for 6h induced (mob)PBSCs to express key angiogenic factors, surface markers (i.e. CD34, CD31, and CXCR4) and integrins (integrins α5, β1 and β2). Also (mob)PBSCs were polarized toward CD14(++)/CD16(+) pro-angiogenic monocytes. The priming effect was reproduced by an in vitro reconstruction of APS. Through this phenotype, APS-priming increased cell-cell adhesion and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion. The culture supernatant of APS-primed (mob)PBSCs contained high levels of IL8, IL10, IL17 and TNFα, and augmented proliferation and capillary network formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In vivo transplantation of APS-primed (mob)PBSCs into athymic mice ischemic hindlimbs and Matrigel plugs elicited vessel differentiation and tissue repair. In safety analysis, platelet activity increased after mixing with (mob)PBSCs regardless of priming, which was normalized by aspirin treatment. Collectively, our data identify that APS-priming can enhance the angiogenic potential of (mob)PBSCs, which can be used as an adjunctive strategy to improve the efficacy of cell therapy for ischemic diseases. PMID:25016235

  11. Prion protein induced signaling cascades in monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prion proteins play a central role in transmission and pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The cellular prion protein (PrPC), whose physiological function remains elusive, is anchored to the surface of a variety of cell types including neurons and cells of the lymphoreticular system. In this study, we investigated the response of a mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line to exposure with PrPC fusion proteins synthesized with a human Fc-tag. PrPC fusion proteins showed an attachment to the surface of monocyte/macrophages in nanomolar concentrations. This was accompanied by an increase of cellular tyrosine phosphorylation as a result of activated signaling pathways. Detailed investigations exhibited activation of downstream pathways through a stimulation with PrP fusion proteins, which include phosphorylation of ERK1,2 and Akt kinase. Macrophages opsonize and present antigenic structures, contact lymphocytes, and deliver cytokines. The findings reported here may become the basis of understanding the molecular function of PrPC in monocytes and macrophages

  12. Statins attenuate polymethylmethacrylate-mediated monocyte activation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, Alan J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic osteolysis precipitates aseptic loosening of components, increases the risk of periprosthetic fracture and, through massive bone loss, complicates revision surgery and ultimately is the primary cause for failure of joint arthroplasty. The anti-inflammatory properties of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors belonging to the statin family are well recognized. We investigated a possible role for status in initiating the first stage of the osteolytic cycle, namely monocytic activation. METHODS: We used an in vitro model of the human monocyte\\/macrophage inflammatory response to poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles after pretreat-ing cells with cerivastatin, a potent member of the statin family. Cell activation based upon production of TNF-alpha and MCP-1 cytokines was analyzed and the intracellular Raf-MEK-ERK signal transduction pathway was evaluated using western blot analysis, to identify its role in cell activation and in any cerivastatin effects observed. RESULTS: We found that pretreatment with cerivastatin significantly abrogates the production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and MCP-1 by human monocytes in response to polymethylmethacrylate particle activation. This inflammatory activation and attenuation appear to be mediated through the intracellular Raf-MEK-ERK pathway. INTERPRETATION: We propose that by intervening at the upstream activation stage, subsequent osteoclast activation and osteolysis can be suppressed. We believe that the anti-inflammatory properties of statins may potentially play a prophylactic role in the setting of aseptic loosening, and in so doing increase implant longevity.

  13. Review: the Multiple Roles of Monocytic Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Ahmad Tarmizi Abdul; Ariffin, Nur Azrah Fazera Mohd; Azlan, Maryam

    2016-08-01

    Monocytic microparticles (mMP) are microparticles derived from human monocytes either under in vivo or in vitro conditions. The size of mMP is between 0.1 and 1.0 μm. Apart from the size range, mMPs are also identified based on phosphatidylserine and CD14 expression on their surface, though this is not always the case. Monocytic MP are critical players in inflammation, endothelial cell function, and blood coagulation. They exhibit dual function by either helping the progression of such conditions or limiting it, depending on certain factors. Furthermore, the numbers of mMP are elevated in some autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and metabolic disorders. However, it is unknown whether mMP play an active role in these diseases or are simply biomarkers. The mechanism of mMP modulation is yet to be identified. In this review, we highlight the mechanism of mMP formation and the roles that they play in inflammation, blood coagulation, and different disease settings. PMID:27216803

  14. Prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 release from human monocytes treated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the capacity of counterflow-isolated human monocytes to independently synthesize thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) when stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Independent metabolism was confirmed by establishing different specific activities (dpm/ng) of TxB2 and PGE2 released from LPS-treated cells. For metabolites released during the initial 2-hr treatment period, the specific activity of PGE2 was approximately threefold higher than that of TxB2 regardless of labeling with [3H]arachidonic acid (AA) or [14C]AA. Cells that were pulse-labeled for 2 hr with [3H]AA demonstrated a decreasing PGE2 specific activity over 24 hr, whereas the TxB2 specific activity remained unchanged. In contrast, cells continuously exposed to [14C]AA demonstrated an increasing TxB2 specific activity that approached the level of PGE2 by 24 hr. These results suggest the presence of at least 2 cyclooxygenase metabolic compartments in counterflow-isolated monocytes. Although freshly isolated monocytes have been reported to contain variable numbers of adherent platelets, additional experiments demonstrated that counterflow-isolated platelets are not capable of releasing elevated levels of TxB2 or PGE2 when treated with LPS. It is proposed from these findings that at least two subsets of monocytes exist in peripheral blood that can be distinguished on the basis of independent conversion of AA to TxB2 and PGE2

  15. Tissue-specific induction of ADAMTS2 in monocytes and macrophages by glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Thomas P J; Frankenberger, Marion; Mages, Jörg; Lang, Roland; Meyer, Peter; Hoffmann, Reinhard; Colige, Alain; Ziegler-Heitbrock, Löms

    2008-03-01

    The regulated expression of ADAMTS2 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs), a secreted metalloproteinase involved in the processing of procollagen to collagen, was studied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Stimulation with glucocorticoids (GC) resulted in a pronounced dose- and time-dependent increase of ADAMTS2 mRNA levels in PBMC. The increase of ADAMTS2 expression was specific for CD14++ monocytes (440-fold) and alveolar macrophages (200-fold), whereas CD3+ (T lymphocytes), phytohemagglutinin-activated CD3+ (T lymphocytes), and CD19+ (B lymphocytes) showed no significant changes in ADAMTS2 mRNA after GC treatment. Treatment of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) with GC also resulted in an increase of ADAMTS2 protein in the culture tissue media. Using the GC analog RU486, GC-mediated induction of ADAMTS2 mRNA was blocked, implicating that GC acts specifically via the GC-receptor. In agreement with findings in blood monocytes, cell lines of the monocytic lineage (MM6, THP-1) showed significant GC-induced significant increases in ADAMTS2 mRNA, while in epithelial cells (A549, Calu-3, Colo320, BT-20) and fibroblast (MRC-5, WI-38, and two NHDF-c cell types from adult cheek and upper arm), they showed no or little responsiveness to GC. As macrophages have important functions in immune defense and tissue homeostasis, these findings suggest that GC-mediated specific induction of ADAMTS2 in these cells may play a crucial role in the resolution of inflammation and wound repair. PMID:18084737

  16. Autologous fat grafting: use of closed syringe microcannula system for enhanced autologous structural grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander RW

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Robert W Alexander,1 David Harrell2 1Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Harvest-Terumo Inc, Plymouth, MA, USA Objectives: Provide background for use of acquiring autologous adipose tissue as a tissue graft and source of adult progenitor cells for use in cosmetic plastic surgery. Discuss the background and mechanisms of action of closed syringe vacuum lipoaspiration, with emphasis on accessing adipose-derived mesenchymal/stromal cells and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF for use in aesthetic, structural reconstruction and regenerative applications. Explain a proven protocol for acquiring high-quality autologous fat grafts (AFG with use of disposable, microcannula systems. Design: Explain the components and advantage of use of the patented super luer-lock and microcannulas system for use with the closed-syringe system. A sequential explanation of equipment selection for minimally traumatic lipoaspiration in small volumes is presented, including use of blunt injection cannulas to reduce risk of embolism. Results: Thousands of AFG have proven safe and efficacious for lipoaspiration techniques for large and small structural fat grafting procedures. The importance and advantages of gentle harvesting of the adipose tissue complex has become very clear in the past 5 years. The closed-syringe system offers a minimally invasive, gentle system with which to mobilize subdermal fat tissues in a suspension form. Resulting total nuclear counting of undifferentiated cells of the adipose-derived -SVF suggests that the yield achieved is better than use of always-on, constant mechanical pump applied vacuum systems. Conclusion: Use of a closed-syringe lipoaspiration system featuring disposable microcannulas offers a safe and effective means of harvesting small volumes of nonmanipulated adipose tissues and its accompanying progenitor cells within the SVF. Closed syringes and microcannulas are

  17. Estradiol coupling to human monocyte nitric oxide release is dependent on intracellular calcium transients: evidence for an estrogen surface receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, G B; Prevot, V; Beauvillain, J C; Fimiani, C; Welters, I; Cadet, P; Breton, C; Pestel, J; Salzet, M; Bilfinger, T V

    1999-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that estrogen acutely stimulates constitutive NO synthase (cNOS) activity in human peripheral monocytes by acting on an estrogen surface receptor. NO release was measured in real time with an amperometric probe. 17beta-estradiol exposure to monocytes stimulated NO release within seconds in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas 17alpha-estradiol had no effect. 17beta-estradiol conjugated to BSA (E2-BSA) also stimulated NO release, suggesting mediation by a membrane surface receptor. Tamoxifen, an estrogen receptor inhibitor, antagonized the action of both 17beta-estradiol and E2-BSA, whereas ICI 182,780, a selective inhibitor of the nuclear estrogen receptor, had no effect. We further showed, using a dual emission microfluorometry in a calcium-free medium, that the 17beta-estradiol-stimulated release of monocyte NO was dependent on the initial stimulation of intracellular calcium transients in a tamoxifen-sensitive process. Leeching out the intracellular calcium stores abolished the effect of 17beta-estradiol on NO release. RT-PCR analysis of RNA obtained from the cells revealed a strong estrogen receptor-alpha amplification signal and a weak beta signal. Taken together, a physiological dose of estrogen acutely stimulates NO release from human monocytes via the activation of an estrogen surface receptor that is coupled to increases in intracellular calcium. PMID:10490972

  18. Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients With Life Threatening Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-23

    Purpura, Schoenlein-Henoch; Graft Versus Host Disease; Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Churg-Strauss Syndrome; Hypersensitivity Vasculitis; Wegener's Granulomatosis; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Giant Cell Arteritis; Pure Red Cell Aplasia; Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis; Polyarteritis Nodosa; Autoimmune Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Takayasu Arteritis

  19. Autologous glioma cell vaccine admixed with interleukin-4 gene transfected fibroblasts in the treatment of patients with malignant gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Trejo Alejandro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognosis for malignant gliomas remains dismal. We addressed the safety, feasibility and preliminary clinical activity of the vaccinations using autologous glioma cells and interleukin (IL-4 gene transfected fibroblasts. Methods In University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI protocol 95-033, adult participants with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM or anaplastic astrocytoma (AA received gross total resection (GTR of the recurrent tumors, followed by two vaccinations with autologous fibroblasts retrovirally transfected with TFG-IL4-Neo-TK vector admixed with irradiated autologous glioma cells. In UPCI 99-111, adult participants with newly diagnosed GBM or AA, following GTR and radiation therapy, received two intradermal vaccinations with the TFG-IL4-Neo-TK-transfected fibroblasts admixed with type-1 dendritic cells (DC loaded with autologous tumor lysate. The participants were evaluated for occurrence of adverse events, immune response, and clinical response by radiological imaging. Results and Discussion In UPCI 95-033, only 2 of 6 participants received the vaccinations. Four other participants were withdrawn from the trial because of tumor progression prior to production of the cellular vaccine. However, both participants who received two vaccinations demonstrated encouraging immunological and clinical responses. Biopsies from the local vaccine sites from one participant displayed IL-4 dose-dependent infiltration of CD4+ as well as CD8+ T cells. Interferon (IFN-γ Enzyme-Linked Immuno-SPOT (ELISPOT assay in another human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A2+ participant demonstrated systemic T-cell responses against an HLA-A2-restricted glioma-associated antigen (GAA epitope EphA2883–891. Moreover, both participants demonstrated clinical and radiological improvement with no evidence of allergic encephalitis, although both participants eventually succumbed with the tumor recurrence. In 99-111, 5 of 6 enrolled participants

  20. Effect of prostaglandin I2 analogs on monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human monocyte and macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Kai; Hsieh, Chong-Chao; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Lee, Min-Sheng; Huang, Ming-Yii; Kuo, Chang-Hung; Hung, Chih-Hsing

    2015-08-01

    Chemokines play essential roles during inflammatory responses and in pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is a critical chemokine in the development of atherosclerosis and acute cardiovascular syndromes. MCP-1, by its chemotactic activity, causes diapedesis of monocytes from the lumen to the subendothelial space that leads to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) analogs are used clinically for patients with pulmonary hypertension and have anti-inflammatory effects. However, little is known about the effect of PGI2 analogs on the MCP-1 production in human monocytes and macrophages. We investigated the effects of three conventional (iloprost, beraprost and treprostinil) and one new (ONO-1301) PGI2 analogs, on the expression of MCP-1 expression in human monocytes and macrophages. Human monocyte cell line, THP-1 cell, was treated with PGI2 analogs after LPS stimulation. Supernatants were harvested to measure MCP-1 levels and measured by ELISA. To explore which receptors involved the effects of PGI2 analogs on the expression of MCP-1 expression, IP and EP, PPAR-α and PPAR-γ receptor antagonists were used. Forskolin, a cAMP activator, was used to further confirm the involvement of cAMP on MCP-1 production in human monocytes. Three PGI2 analogs suppressed LPS-induced MCP-1 production in THP-1 cells and THP-1-induced macrophages. Higher concentrations of ONO-1301 also had the suppressive effect. CAY 10449, an IP receptor antagonist, could reverse the effects on MCP-1 production of iloprost on THP-1 cells. Other reported PGI2 receptor antagonists including EP1, EP2, EP4, PPAR-α and PPAR-γ antagonists could not reverse the effect. Forskolin, a cAMP activator, also suppressed MCP-1 production in THP-1 cells. PGI2 analogs suppressed LPS-induced MCP-1 production in human monocytes and macrophages via the IP receptor and cAMP pathway. The new PGI2 analog (ONO-1301) was not better than conventional PGI2 analog in

  1. Role of granulocytes and monocytes in experimental Escherichia coli endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Meddens, M J; Thompson, J.; Bauer, W C; van Furth, R

    1984-01-01

    The role of granulocytes and monocytes during the induction and course of Escherichia coli endocarditis was investigated in rabbits by selectively depleting monocytes from the circulation with the drug VP16-213 and granulocytes and monocytes with nitrogen mustard. For induction, the number of E. coli needed to infect the vegetations in 50% of the rabbits was significantly lower in rabbits with combined granulocytopenia and monocytopenia than in those with selective monocytopenia or in control...

  2. Chimeric autologous/allogeneic constructs for skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Cathy Ann; Tam, Joshua; Steiglitz, Barry M; Bauer, Rebecca L; Peters, Noel R; Wang, Ying; Anderson, R Rox; Allen-Hoffmann, B Lynn

    2014-08-01

    The ideal treatment for severe cutaneous injuries would eliminate the need for autografts and promote fully functional, aesthetically pleasing autologous skin regeneration. NIKS progenitor cell-based skin tissues have been developed to promote healing by providing barrier function and delivering wound healing factors. Independently, a device has recently been created to "copy" skin by harvesting full-thickness microscopic tissue columns (MTCs) in lieu of autografts traditionally harvested as sheets. We evaluated the feasibility of combining these two technologies by embedding MTCs in NIKS-based skin tissues to generate chimeric autologous/allogeneic constructs. Chimeric constructs have the potential to provide immediate wound coverage, eliminate painful donor site wounds, and promote restoration of a pigmented skin tissue possessing hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands. After MTC insertion, chimeric constructs and controls were reintroduced into air-interface culture and maintained in vitro for several weeks. Tissue viability, proliferative capacity, and morphology were evaluated after long-term culture. Our results confirmed successful MTC insertion and integration, and demonstrated the feasibility of generating chimeric autologous/allogeneic constructs that preserved the viability, proliferative capacity, and structure of autologous pigmented skin. These feasibility studies established the proof-of-principle necessary to further develop chimeric autologous/allogeneic constructs for the treatment of complex skin defects. PMID:25102552

  3. In vivo characterization of regenerative peripheral nerve interface function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursu, Daniel C.; Urbanchek, Melanie G.; Nedic, Andrej; Cederna, Paul S.; Gillespie, R. Brent

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Regenerative peripheral nerve interfaces (RPNIs) are neurotized free autologous muscle grafts equipped with electrodes to record myoelectric signals for prosthesis control. Viability of rat RPNI constructs have been demonstrated using evoked responses. In vivo RPNI characterization is the next critical step for assessment as a control modality for prosthetic devices. Approach. Two RPNIs were created in each of two rats by grafting portions of free muscle to the ends of divided peripheral nerves (peroneal in the left and tibial in the right hind limb) and placing bipolar electrodes on the graft surface. After four months, we examined in vivo electromyographic signal activity and compared these signals to muscular electromyographic signals recorded from autologous muscles in two rats serving as controls. An additional group of two rats in which the autologous muscles were denervated served to quantify cross-talk in the electrode recordings. Recordings were made while rats walked on a treadmill and a motion capture system tracked the hind limbs. Amplitude and periodicity of signals relative to gait were quantified, correlation between electromyographic and motion recording were assessed, and a decoder was trained to predict joint motion. Main Results. Raw RPNI signals were active during walking, with amplitudes of 1 mVPP, and quiet during standing, with amplitudes less than 0.1 mVPP. RPNI signals were periodic and entrained with gait. A decoder predicted bilateral ankle motion with greater than 80% reliability. Control group signal activity agreed with literature. Denervated group signals remained quiescent throughout all evaluations. Significance. In vivo myoelectric RPNI activity encodes neural activation patterns associated with gait. Signal contamination from muscles adjacent to the RPNI is minimal, as demonstrated by the low amplitude signals obtained from the Denervated group. The periodicity and entrainment to gait of RPNI recordings suggests the

  4. Autologous Blood Transfusion in Sports: Emerging Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamin, Olivier; De Angelis, Sara; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Saugy, Martial; Leuenberger, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Despite being prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency, blood doping through erythropoietin injection or blood transfusion is frequently used by athletes to increase oxygen delivery to muscles and enhance performance. In contrast with allogeneic blood transfusion and erythropoietic stimulants, there is presently no direct method of detection for autologous blood transfusion (ABT) doping. Blood reinfusion is currently monitored with individual follow-up of hematological variables via the athlete biological passport, which requires further improvement. Microdosage is undetectable, and suspicious profiles in athletes are often attributed to exposure to altitude, heat stress, or illness. Additional indirect biomarkers may increase the sensitivity and specificity of the longitudinal approach. The emergence of "-omics" strategies provides new opportunities to discover biomarkers for the indirect detection of ABT. With the development of direct quantitative methods, transcriptomics based on microRNA or messenger RNA expression is a promising approach. Because blood donation and blood reinfusion alter iron metabolism, quantification of proteins involved in metal metabolism, such as hepcidin, may be applied in an "ironomics" strategy to improve the detection of ABT. As red blood cell (RBC) storage triggers changes in membrane proteins, proteomic methods have the potential to identify the presence of stored RBCs in blood. Alternatively, urine matrix can be used for the quantification of the plasticizer di(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate and its metabolites that originate from blood storage bags, suggesting recent blood transfusion, and have an important degree of sensitivity and specificity. This review proposes that various indirect biomarkers should be applied in combination with mathematical approaches for longitudinal monitoring aimed at improving ABT detection. PMID:27260108

  5. Autologous Immune Enhancement Therapy for Cancer - Our experience since 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Terunuma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer, the major killer disease of the century requires a multi-pronged approach and among the latest modalities of treatments, Immunotherapy occupies a promising role. Immunotherapy for cancer was first started to be practised in the NIH and cell based immunotherapy for cancer is in practice for the past three decades. [1, 2] There are several literatures from various countries on the successful application of cell based Immunotherapies for various solid tumours and haematological malignancies. [3-8] Our team’s association with immune cells started when I was working on RNA transcriptome analysis to understand the immune system in HIV carriers which in turn required in vitro expansion of human Natural Killer (NK cells. [9] This led to the customization of protocols which has resulted in successful in vitro expansion, activation of NK cells and T cells for Immunotherapy. The purpose of Biotherapy institute of Japan (BIJ is to support research and clinical application of immune cells like NK cells, γδT cells, αβT cells, Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL and Dendritic cells (DC for application as Autologous Immune Enhancement Therapy (AIET to fight against cancer. AIET using NK cells, CTLs, DCs etc have been administered for more than 5000 patients since 2004 till date by BIJ. Principle of AIET: For AIET using NK cells, the process involves separation of lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of the patient followed by selective NK cell expansion using the expansion kit (BINKIT, BIJ, JAPAN without feeder layers and then infusion of the expanded-activated NK cells. [10,11] As reports suggest that the activity of peripheral blood NK cells are lower in cancer patients compared to normal individuals [12] and as in vitro expansion of NK cells increases the cytotoxic ability 5 to 10 fold, [13] the NK cells are expanded in vivo and then infused to the patient in AIET. We are also working on combination immunotherapy using NK cells and CTLs and also NK

  6. Ranitidine improves postoperative monocyte and neutrophil function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Nielsen, H; Jensen, S; Moesgaard, F

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The histamine H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine hydrochloride has been shown to improve trauma-, blood transfusion-, and sepsis-induced immunosuppression. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ranitidine on postoperative impairment in monocyte and neutrophil function. METHODS: Twenty......-four patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery were randomized to receive adjuvant treatment with ranitidine hydrochloride (100 mg) administered twice a day intravenously from skin incision for 4 days, followed by oral ranitidine hydrochloride (150 mg) administered twice a day for 5 days (n = 11), or...

  7. Effectiveness of autologous transfusion system in primary total hip and knee arthroplasty.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Schneider, Marco M

    2014-01-01

    Autologous transfusion has become a cost-efficient and useful option in the treatment of patients with high blood loss following major orthopaedic surgery. However, the effectiveness of autologous transfusion in total joint replacement remains controversial.

  8. Improving diagnosis of appendicitis. Early autologous leukocyte scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective nonrandomized study investigating the accuracy and utility of autologous leukocyte scanning in the diagnosis of appendicitis was performed. One hundred patients in whom the clinical diagnosis of appendicitis was uncertain underwent indium 111 oxyquinoline labelling of autologous leukocytes and underwent scanning 2 hours following reinjection. Of 32 patients with proved appendicitis, three scans revealed normal results (false-negative rate, 0.09). Of 68 patients without appendicitis, three scans had positive results (false-positive rate, 0.03; sensitivity, 0.91; specificity, 0.97; predictive value of positive scan, 0.94; predictive value of negative scan, 0.96; and overall accuracy, 0.95). Scan results altered clinical decisions in 19 patients. In 13 cases, the scan produced images consistent with diagnoses other than appendicitis, expediting appropriate management. Early-imaging In 111 oxyquinoline autologous leukocyte scanning is a practical and highly accurate adjunct for diagnosing appendicitis

  9. Differential control of Helios+/− Treg development by monocyte subsets through disparate inflammatory cytokines

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Hui; Yazdanbakhsh, Karina

    2013-01-01

    Control of Helios+/− Treg subset development is mediated through distinct cytokines and monocyte subpopulations.CD16+ monocytes inhibit Helios+ Treg proliferation through IL-12, whereas CD16− monocytes suppress Helios− Treg development through TNF-α.

  10. Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cells combined with Allograft Cancellous Bone in Treatment of Nonunion

    OpenAIRE

    Le Thua Trung Hau; Duc Phu Bui; Nguyen Duy Thang; Pham Dang Nhat; Le Quy Bao; Nguyen Phan Huy; Tran Ngoc Vu; Le Phuoc Quang; Boeckx willy Denis; Mey Albert De

    2015-01-01

    Autologous cancellous bone graft is currently used as a gold standard method for treatment of bone nonunion. However, there is a limit to the amount of autologous cancellous bone that can be harvested and the donor site morbidity presents a major disadvantage to autologous bone grafting. Embedding viable cells within biological scaffolds appears to be extremely promising. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcome of autologous bone marrow stem cells combined with a cancellous bone a...

  11. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles do not modulate the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in human monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Salik Hussain1,*, Faris Al-Nsour1,*, Annette B Rice1, Jamie Marshburn1, Zhaoxia Ji2, Jeffery I Zink2, Brenda Yingling1, Nigel J Walker3, Stavros Garantziotis11Clinical Research Unit, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Institute of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2UC Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 3Division of National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Institute of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA*Both are principal authorsBackground: Cerium dioxide (CeO2 nanoparticles have potential therapeutic applications and are widely used for industrial purposes. However, the effects of these nanoparticles on primary human cells are largely unknown. The ability of nanoparticles to exacerbate pre-existing inflammatory disorders is not well documented for engineered nanoparticles, and is certainly lacking for CeO2 nanoparticles. We investigated the inflammation-modulating effects of CeO2 nanoparticles at noncytotoxic concentrations in human peripheral blood monocytes.Methods: CD14+ cells were isolated from peripheral blood samples of human volunteers. Cells were exposed to either 0.5 or 1 µg/mL of CeO2 nanoparticles over a period of 24 or 48 hours with or without lipopolysaccharide (10 ng/mL prestimulation. Modulation of the inflammatory response was studied by measuring secreted tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, macrophage chemotactic protein-1, interferon-gamma, and interferon gamma-induced protein 10.Results: CeO2 nanoparticle suspensions were thoroughly characterized using dynamic light scattering analysis (194 nm hydrodynamic diameter, zeta potential analysis (-14 mV, and transmission electron microscopy (irregular-shaped particles. Transmission electron microscopy of CD14+ cells exposed to CeO2 nanoparticles revealed that these nanoparticles were efficiently internalized by monocytes and

  12. Use of cryopreserved peripheral mononuclear blood cells in biomonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, Lotte; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1999-01-01

    /T-lymphocytes and monocytes was measured in phytohemaglutinin (PHA)-stimulated cultures at different time intervals. The results showed a higher DNA repair activity in cryopreserved samples compared with fresh samples. We also found differences in mutant frequencies with higher values in fresh samples. A......This study was performed to investigate the effect of storing blood samples by freezing on selected biomarkers and possible implications for biomonitoring. Comparative measurements were performed in order to investigate the use of cryopreserved vs. freshly separated peripheral mononuclear blood...... significant correlation of frequencies was seen when comparing fresh with cryopreserved samples. Furthermore we recommend fresh human plasma used in UDS incubation media....

  13. Breast Imaging after Breast Augmentation with Autologous Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyu Won; Seo, Bo Kyung; Shim, Eddeum; Song, Sung Eun; Cho, Kyu Ran [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Eul Sik [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Ok Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The use of autologous tissue transfer for breast augmentation is an alternative to using foreign implant materials. The benefits of this method are the removal of unwanted fat from other body parts, no risk of implant rupture, and the same feel as real breast tissue. However, sometimes there is a dilemma about whether or not to biopsy for calcifications or masses detected after the procedure is completed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the procedures of breast augmentation with autologous tissues, the imaging features of various complications, and the role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of complications and hidden breast diseases.

  14. Breast Imaging after Breast Augmentation with Autologous Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of autologous tissue transfer for breast augmentation is an alternative to using foreign implant materials. The benefits of this method are the removal of unwanted fat from other body parts, no risk of implant rupture, and the same feel as real breast tissue. However, sometimes there is a dilemma about whether or not to biopsy for calcifications or masses detected after the procedure is completed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the procedures of breast augmentation with autologous tissues, the imaging features of various complications, and the role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of complications and hidden breast diseases.

  15. Breast fistula repair after autologous fat graft: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Maione; Giorgio Pajardi; Valeriano Vinci; Davide Forcellini; Fabio Caviggioli; Francesco Maria Klinger; Marco Klinger

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 55-year-old female patient who attended our clinic for the presence of a scar retraction in the upper pole of the left breast as a complication of breast augmentation. In the scar area, we observed an orifice that probing revealed to be a fistula. The patient was referred to surgical intervention under general anesthesia to obtain scar contracture release using autologous fat graft; one month after autologous fat injection, following healing of the fistula, the patient...

  16. Autologous bone-marrow mesenchymal cell induced chondrogenesis (MCIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sung Woo; Shetty, Asode Ananthram; Ahmed, Saif; Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Seok Jung

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative and traumatic articular cartilage defects are common, difficult to treat, and progressive lesions that cause significant morbidity in the general population. There have been multiple approaches to treat such lesions, including arthroscopic debridement, microfracture, multiple drilling, osteochondral transplantation and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) that are currently being used in clinical practice. Autologous bone-marrow mesenchymal cell induced chondrogenesis (MCIC) is a single-staged arthroscopic procedure. This method combines a modified microfracture technique with the application of a bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC), hyaluronic acid and fibrin gel to treat articular cartilage defects. We reviewed the current literatures and surgical techniques for mesenchymal cell induced chondrogenesis. PMID:27489409

  17. A review of the application of autologous blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J

    2016-01-01

    Autologous blood transfusion (ABT) has been gradually attracting more attention due to the increasingly prominent problem of blood transfusion safety and blood shortage in recent years. With the rapid development of blood conservation techniques, blood component separation technology, blood transfusion medicine and a constant increase in clinical needs, ABT technology has been expanded and innovated to a large degree. In this study, the development of preoperative autologous blood donation (PABD), acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH), intraoperative and postoperative autotransfusion, and other new technologies and theories are reviewed and existing questions are analyzed. Challenges and applications are also discussed in order to provide reference for peers. PMID:27533770

  18. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates IL-8 induction by the ribotoxin deoxynivalenol in human monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the ribotoxic trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated IL-8 expression were investigated in cloned human monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). DON (250 to 1000 ng/ml) induced both IL-8 mRNA and IL-8 heteronuclear RNA (hnRNA), an indicator of IL-8 transcription, in the human U937 monocytic cell line in a concentration-dependent manner. Expression of IL-8 hnRNA, mRNA and protein correlated with p38 phosphorylation and was completely abrogated by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. DON at 500 ng/ml similarly induced p38-dependent IL-8 protein and mRNA expression in PBMC cultures from healthy volunteers. Significantly increased IL-6 and IL-1β intracellular protein and mRNA expression was also observed in PBMC treated with DON (500 ng/ml) which were also partially p38-dependent. Flow cytometry of PBMC revealed that DON-induced p38 phosphorylation varied among individuals relative to both threshold toxin concentrations (25-100 ng/ml) and relative increases in percentages of phospho-p38+ cells. DON-induced p38 activation occurred exclusively in the CD14+ monocyte population. DON was devoid of agonist activity for human Toll-like receptors 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9. However, two other ribotoxins, emetine and anisomycin, induced p38 phosphorylation in PBMC similarly to DON. Taken together, these data suggest that (1) p38 activation was required for induction of IL-8 and proinflammatory gene expression in the monocyte and (2) DON induced p38 activation in human monocytes via the ribotoxic stress response

  19. Human circulating monocytes can express receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand and differentiate into functional osteoclasts without exogenous stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seta, Noriyuki; Okazaki, Yuka; Kuwana, Masataka

    2008-07-01

    Osteoclast formation from mononuclear precursors is believed to require accessory cells expressing receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL). We recently identified a human cell population originated from circulating CD14(+) monocytes, called monocyte-derived multipotential cells (MOMCs), which can differentiate into several distinct mesenchymal cells, neuron and endothelial cells. This study was undertaken to examine whether MOMCs can differentiate into functional osteoclasts. MOMCs prepared from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers cultured on fibronectin for 7 days at high density (8 x 10(5) cells cm(-2)), but not at regular density (2 x 10(4) cells cm(-2)), resulted in the appearance of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive giant multi-nucleated cells forming actin ring without exogenous osteoclastogenic factors. A subset of these cells showed bone resorption capacity on dentine slices and expression of genes for cathepsin K and calcitonin receptor, characteristic of functional osteoclasts. Such osteoclast differentiation was not observed in high-density culture of circulating monocytes, macrophages or dendritic cells, or the high-density culture of MOMCs on type I collagen. Among cells of the monocyte lineage, untreated MOMCs exclusively showed gene and protein expression of RANKL. When osteoprotegerin/IgG1 Fc chimera was added to high-density MOMC cultures, osteoclast formation was completely inhibited by neutralizing the endogenous RANKL. These results indicate that human MOMCs derived from circulating monocytes can express RANKL and differentiate into functional osteoclasts without RANKL-expressing accessory cells. PMID:18301383

  20. Degraded carrageenan causing colitis in rats induces TNF secretion and ICAM-1 upregulation in monocytes through NF-kappaB activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Benard

    Full Text Available Carrageenan (CGN is a high molecular weight sulphated polysaccharide derived from red seaweeds. In rodents, its degraded forms (dCGN can induce intestinal inflammation associated with macrophage recruitment and activation. The aim of this study was: 1 to analyze the size-dependent effects of dCGN on colon inflammation in vivo, and 2 to correlate these effects with monocyte/macrophage proliferation, cytokine production and expression of various cell surface antigens including ICAM-1 adhesion molecule. Peripheral blood monocytes (PBM and THP-1 monocytic cells were cultured in the presence of either 10 or 40 kDa, dCGN. The 40 kDa, but not the 10 kDa dCGN, induced colitis in in vivo. Degraded CGN inhibited THP-1 cell proliferation in vitro, arresting the cells in G1 phase. In addition, dCGN increased ICAM-1 expression in both PBM and THP-1 cells with a major effect seen after 40 kDa dCGN exposure. Also, dCGN stimulated monocyte aggregation in vitro that was prevented by incubation with anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Finally, dCGN stimulated TNF-alpha expression and secretion by both PBM and THP-1 cells. All these effects were linked to NF-kappaB activation. These data strongly suggest that the degraded forms of CGN have a pronounced effect on monocytes, characteristic of an inflammatory phenotype.

  1. Monocytes/macrophages support mammary tumor invasivity by co-secreting lineage-specific EGFR ligands and a STAT3 activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) promote malignant progression, yet the repertoire of oncogenic factors secreted by TAM has not been clearly defined. We sought to analyze which EGFR- and STAT3-activating factors are secreted by monocytes/macrophages exposed to tumor cell-secreted factors. Following exposure of primary human monocytes and macrophages to supernatants of a variety of tumor cell lines, we have analyzed transcript and secreted protein levels of EGFR family ligands and of STAT3 activators. To validate our findings, we have analyzed TAM infiltration levels, systemic and local protein levels as well as clinical data of primary breast cancer patients. Primary human monocytes and macrophages respond to tumor cell-derived factors by secreting EGFR- and STAT3-activating ligands, thus inducing two important oncogenic pathways in carcinoma cells. Tumor cell-secreted factors trigger two stereotype secretory profiles in peripheral blood monocytes and differentiated macrophages: monocytes secrete epiregulin (EREG) and oncostatin-M (OSM), while macrophages secrete heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and OSM. HB-EGF and OSM cooperatively induce tumor cell chemotaxis. HB-EGF and OSM are co-expressed by TAM in breast carcinoma patients, and plasma levels of both ligands correlate strongly. Elevated HB-EGF levels accompany TAM infiltration, tumor growth and dissemination in patients with invasive disease. Our work identifies systemic markers for TAM involvement in cancer progression, with the potential to be developed into molecular targets in cancer therapy

  2. Leukoreduction system chambers provide a valuable source of functional monocytes for the monocyte activation test by comparison with internationally validated methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Ida Karin

    2016-01-01

    Despite being added to the European Pharmacopoeia in 2010 and strongly supported by the European directive enforcing the "3R's" - Replace, Reduce and Refine, uptake of the monocyte activation test (MAT) in preference over the rabbit pyrogen test for the detection of pyrogens has been limited. This has been attributed to the difficulty in sourcing human monocytes due to the necessity of phlebotomy. This study has attempted to address this issue by evaluating cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from leukoreduction system chambers (LRSCs), a readily available by-product of platelet apheresis, as a source of monocytes for the MAT. Validation was performed by direct comparison with the two most commonly employed primary monocyte sources: fresh whole blood (WB) and PBMCs from fresh blood, assessing their ability to detect a panel of toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands including Pam3CSK4, Lipoteichoic acid, Peptidoglycan, Poly(I:C) and Flagellin, as well as two different endotoxin sources, with IL-1β and IL-6 as the readouts. All three cell sources were able to detect the pyrogens included in the study with comparable sensitivities, with the exception of TLR3 ligand Poly(I:C). The WB assay produced quantifiable, but significantly lower cytokine levels with every pyrogen tested than either of the PBMCs sources used. LRSCs provided an ample and convenient source of PBMCs which were successfully cryopreserved, providing cell banks for each donor, shown to maintain stability for at least a year. The use of cryopreserved PBMCs reduced the time and effort required to set up an assay, and the availability of single donor cell banks will allow investigations into assay variables in the absence of inter-donor variability. Significantly higher sensitivity to Pam3CSK4 was observed with a proportion of donors. This was found to correlate to single nucleotide polymorphisms rs4833095 and rs5743618 of TLR1. This evidence, along with the wide range of other

  3. Monocyte Subsets in Schistosomiasis Patients with Periportal Fibrosis

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    Jamille Souza Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major issue with Schistosoma mansoni infection is the development of periportal fibrosis, which is predominantly caused by the host immune response to egg antigens. Experimental studies have pointed to the participation of monocytes in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the subsets of monocytes in individuals with different degrees of periportal fibrosis secondary to schistosomiasis. Monocytes were classified into classical (CD14++CD16−, intermediate (CD14++CD16+, and nonclassical (CD14+CD16++. The expressions of monocyte markers and cytokines were assessed using flow cytometry. The frequency of classical monocytes was higher than the other subsets. The expression of HLA-DR, IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β was higher in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis as compared to other groups. Although no differences were observed in receptors expression (IL-4R and IL-10R between groups of patients, the expression of IL-12 was lower in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis, suggesting a protective role of this cytokine in the development of fibrosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the three different monocyte populations participate in the immunopathogenesis of periportal fibrosis, since they express high levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines and low levels of regulatory markers.

  4. Transcriptome Analysis in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease on Hemodialysis Disclosing a Key Role for CD16+CX3CR1+ Monocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Schepers, Eva; Houthuys, Erica; Dhondt, Annemieke; De Meyer, Grimbert; Neirynck, Nathalie; Bernaert, Pascal; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Brouckaert, Peter; Vanholder, Raymond; Glorieux, Griet

    2015-01-01

    The risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is increased in chronic kidney disease; in this process micro-inflammation plays an essential role. Responsible mechanisms remain to a large extent unidentified. In this pilot study transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood monocytes was used to identify in an unprejudiced manner which factors could be discriminative for cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. Forty gender- and age-matched, non-diabet...

  5. Pulmonary fat embolism induced intravenous injection of autologous bone marrow in rabbit: CT and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the correlation between CT and pathologic findings of pulmonary fat embolism in rabbits. In 16 rabbits, pulmonary fat embolism was induced by intravenous injection of autologous bone marrow(mean 3.3 mL). Chest CT scans were obtained immediately(within 1 hour), and 1, 3, and 7 days after embolization. The rabbits were divided into four groups. Group 1 underwent CT scanning immediately after embolization, group 2 immediately and 1 day after embolization, group 3 immediately, 1 day and 3 days after embolization, group 4 immediately, 1 day, 3 days and 7 days after embolization. Pathologic specimens were obtained immediately after the last CT scan. The earliest CT findings of pulmonary fat embolism in rabbits were peripheral lung lucency(16/16, 100%), perivascular ground-glass(12/16, 75.0%) and enlargement of the central pulmonary artery(11/16, 68.8%). Pathologically, perivascular ground-glass opacity correlated with extensive perivascular alveolar congestion and enlargement of the central pulmonary artery correlated with perivascular connective tissue edema and reactive pulmonary arterial engorgement. Peripheral lung lucency was probably caused by embolic occlusion of the pulmonary artery and decreased perfusion and air trapping induced by arterial and bronchial spasm associated with hypoxia. CT scans obtained 1 and 3 days after embolization showed nodules and patchy ground-glass opacity and consolidation. Aggregation of nodules resulted in patch opacities. Pathologically, pulmonary nodules correlated with focal inflammation surrounding an artery and parenchymal opacity correlated with parenchymal consolidation and hemorrhagic edema. CT scans and pathologic specimens obtained 7 days after embolization showed improvement of parenchymal lung abnormalities. Pulmonary fat embolism in rabbits show CT and pathologic findings which vary with dynamic change. Typical earliest findings of pulmonary fat embolism were peripheral lung lucency, perivascular ground

  6. Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page Print this page Donating peripheral blood stem cells Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is a nonsurgical procedure to collect ... Donating bone marrow Donor experiences videos Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is one of two methods of ...

  7. In Lysinuric Protein Intolerance system y+L activity is defective in monocytes and in GM-CSF-differentiated macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani Francesca

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the recessive aminoaciduria Lysinuric Protein Intolerance (LPI, mutations of SLC7A7/y+LAT1 impair system y+L transport activity for cationic amino acids. A severe complication of LPI is a form of Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP, in which alveolar spaces are filled with lipoproteinaceous material because of the impaired surfactant clearance by resident macrophages. The pathogenesis of LPI-associated PAP remains still obscure. The present study investigates for the first time the expression and function of y+LAT1 in monocytes and macrophages isolated from a patient affected by LPI-associated PAP. A comparison with mesenchymal cells from the same subject has been also performed. Methods Monocytes from peripheral blood were isolated from a 21-year-old patient with LPI. Alveolar macrophages and fibroblastic-like mesenchymal cells were obtained from a whole lung lavage (WLL performed on the same patient. System y+L activity was determined measuring the 1-min uptake of [3H]-arginine under discriminating conditions. Gene expression was evaluated through qRT-PCR. Results We have found that: 1 system y+L activity is markedly lowered in monocytes and alveolar macrophages from the LPI patient, because of the prevailing expression of SLC7A7/y+LAT1 in these cells; 2 on the contrary, fibroblasts isolated from the same patient do not display the transport defect due to compensation by the SLC7A6/y+LAT2 isoform; 3 in both normal and LPI monocytes, GM-CSF induces the expression of SLC7A7, suggesting that the gene is a target of the cytokine; 4 GM-CSF-induced differentiation of LPI monocytes is comparable to that of normal cells, demonstrating that GM-CSF signalling is unaltered; 5 general and respiratory conditions of the patient, along with PAP-associated parameters, markedly improved after GM-CSF therapy through aerosolization. Conclusions Monocytes and macrophages, but not fibroblasts, derived from a LPI patient clearly display the

  8. Reduction of dendritic cells by granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis in patients with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitz, Grit; Petermann, Sebastian; Liebe, Stefan; Emmrich, Joerg; Ramlow, Wolfgang

    2008-09-01

    The influence of the granulocyte/monocyte apheresis (GMCAP) on cell populations participating in mechanisms of tolerance, e.g. dendritic cells (DCs), is still not very clear. In a first step, we aimed to investigate changes in the DC population of patients suffering from ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 13) compared to healthy subjects (n = 9). In a second step, we studied the changes in peripheral DCs in a small group of patients with active UC before and after Adacolumn apheresis (n = 7). For this purpose, plasmacytoid and myeloid DCs and their maturation markers CD40, CD80, and CD86 were measured using four-color flow cytometry in the peripheral blood. After apheresis, and in acute flare-ups, we identified a significantly lower number of lymphocytes, plasmacytoid, and myeloid DCs. In conclusion, the additional removal of peripheral DCs by GMCAP, which otherwise would contribute to the inflammatory process in the gut, may lead to a higher tolerogeneic status towards luminal antigens. PMID:18253828

  9. Osteoarthritis treatment using autologous conditioned serum after placebo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Marijn; Creemers, Laura B; Auw Yang, Kiem Gie; Raijmakers, Natasja J H; Dhert, Wouter J A; Saris, Daniel B F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Autologous conditioned serum (ACS) is a disease-modifying drug for treatment of knee osteoarthritis, and modest superiority over placebo was reported in an earlier randomized controlled trial (RCT). We hypothesized that when given the opportunity, placebo-treated patients fro

  10. Experimental autologous substitute vascular graft for transplantation surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobori, L; Dallos, G; Gouw, ASH; Nemeth, T; Nemes, B; Fehervari, I; Tegzess, Adam; Slooff, MJH; Perner, F; De Jong, KP

    2000-01-01

    Vascular complications in fiver transplantation are a major cause of graft failure and mortality. The aim of the study was to create autologous vascular graft without risk of rejection. Posterior rectus fascia sheath lined with peritoneum was used for iliac artery replacement in seven mongrel dogs.

  11. SECOND MALIGNANCIES AFTER AUTOLOGOUS HEMATOPOIETIC CELL TRANSPLANTATION IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Danner-Koptik, Karina E; Majhail, Navneet S.; Brazauskas, Ruta; Wang, Zhiwei; Buchbinder, David; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Dilley, Kimberley J.; Frangoul, Haydar A.; Gross, Thomas G.; Hale, Gregory A.; Hayashi, Robert J.; Hijiya, Nobuko; Kamble, Rammurti T.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Marks, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (AHCT) survivors can be at risk for secondary malignant neoplasms (SMNs). We assembled a cohort of 1,487 pediatric AHCT recipients to investigate the incidence and risk factors for SMNs. Primary diagnoses included neuroblastoma (39%), lymphoma (26%), sarcoma (18%), CNS tumors (14%), and Wilms tumor (2%). Median follow-up was 8 years (range,

  12. Bortezomib consolidation after autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Gimsing, Peter; Hjertner, Oyvind;

    2013-01-01

    The Nordic Myeloma Study Group conducted an open randomized trial to compare bortezomib as consolidation therapy given after high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) with no consolidation in bortezomib-naive patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Overall, 370...

  13. Establishment of long-term monocyte suspension cultures from normal human peripheral blood

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    The long-term suspension growth of normal, immature myeloid cells from fresh human cord blood was recently reported and required cells separated on supplemented discontinuous Percoll gradients, growth in media containing hydrocortisone and vitamins D3, and gentle, continuous agitation (13). When normal adult bone marrow (six donors) or blood from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-seropositive donors (nine donors) was used as a source of fresh human leukocytes, only short-term proliferation of myeloid ...

  14. Regeneration of Tissues and Organs Using Autologous Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony Atala

    2010-04-28

    The Joint Commission for Health Care Organizations recently declared the shortage of transplantable organs and tissues a public health crisis. As such, there is about one death every 30 seconds due to organ failure. Complications and rejection are still significant albeit underappreciated problems. It is often overlooked that organ transplantation results in the patient being placed on an immune suppression regimen that will ultimate shorten their life span. Patients facing reconstruction often find that surgery is difficult or impossible due to the shortage of healthy autologous tissue. In many cases, autografting is a compromise between the condition and the cure that can result in substantial diminution of quality of life. The national cost of caring for persons who might benefit from engineered tissues or organs has reached $600 billion annually. Autologous tissue technologies have been developed as an alternative to transplantation or reconstructive surgery. Autologous tissues derived from the patient's own cells are capable of correcting numerous pathologies and injuries. The use of autologous cells eliminates the risks of rejection and immunological reactions, drastically reduces the time that patients must wait for lifesaving surgery, and negates the need for autologous tissue harvest, thereby eliminating the associated morbidities. In fact, the use of autologous tissues to create functional organs is one of the most important and groundbreaking steps ever taken in medicine. Although the basic premise of creating tissues in the laboratory has progressed dramatically, only a limited number of tissue developments have reached the patients to date. This is due, in part, to the several major technological challenges that require solutions. To that end, we have been in pursuit of more efficient ways to expand cells in vitro, methods to improve vascular support so that relevant volumes of engineered tissues can be grown, and constructs that can mimic the

  15. Autologous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Patients With Severe Recalcitrant Atopic Dermatitis: Long-Term Changes of Clinical Severity and Laboratory Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Dong Ho; Ahn, Areum; Kim, Myoung Eun; Cho, Su Mi; Park, Mi Jung

    2016-07-01

    This report evaluated long-term changes in clinical severity and laboratory parameters in 3 adult patients with severe recalcitrant atopic dermatitis (AD) who were treated with intramuscular injections of 50 mg of autologous immunoglobulin G (IgG) twice a week for 4 weeks (autologous immunoglobulin therapy, AIGT) and followed up for more than 2 years after the treatment. We observed the following 4 major findings in these 3 patients during the long-term follow-up after AIGT. (1) Two of the 3 patients showed a long-term clinical improvement for more than 36 weeks after AIGT with a maximum decrease in clinical severity score greater than 80% from baseline. (2) These 2 patients also showed long-term decreases in serum total IgE concentrations and peripheral blood eosinophil count for more than 36 weeks after AIGT with a maximum decrease in the two laboratory parameters of allergic inflammatory greater than 70% from baseline. (3) No significant side effect was observed during the 2 years of follow-up period after the AIGT in all 3 patients. (4) Serum levels of IgG anti-idiotype antibodies to the F(ab')₂ fragment of autologous IgG administered for the treatment were not significantly changed after AIGT in all 3 patients. These findings suggest that AIGT has long-term favorable effects on both clinical severity and laboratory parameters in selected patients with severe recalcitrant AD. Further studies are required to evaluate the clinical usefulness and therapeutic mechanism of AIGT for AD. PMID:27126731

  16. Regulation of HIV-1 transcription in cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Sonia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 has been shown to replicate productively in cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, although replication occurs to a lesser extent than in infected T cells. As cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage become differentiated and activated and subsequently travel to a variety of end organs, they become a source of infectious virus and secreted viral proteins and cellular products that likely initiate pathological consequences in a number of organ systems. During this process, alterations in a number of signaling pathways, including the level and functional properties of many cellular transcription factors, alter the course of HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR-directed gene expression. This process ultimately results in events that contribute to the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. First, increased transcription leads to the upregulation of infectious virus production, and the increased production of viral proteins (gp120, Tat, Nef, and Vpr, which have additional activities as extracellular proteins. Increased viral production and the presence of toxic proteins lead to enhanced deregulation of cellular functions increasing the production of toxic cellular proteins and metabolites and the resulting organ-specific pathologic consequences such as neuroAIDS. This article reviews the structural and functional features of the cis-acting elements upstream and downstream of the transcriptional start site in the retroviral LTR. It also includes a discussion of the regulation of the retroviral LTR in the monocyte-macrophage lineage during virus infection of the bone marrow, the peripheral blood, the lymphoid tissues, and end organs such as the brain. The impact of genetic variation on LTR-directed transcription during the course of retrovirus disease is also reviewed.

  17. Monocyte activation in HIV/HCV coinfection correlates with cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Rempel

    Full Text Available Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV challenges the immune system with two viruses that elicit distinct immune responses. Chronic immune activation is a hallmark of HIV infection and an accurate indicator of disease progression. Suppressing HIV viremia by antiretroviral therapy (ART effectively prolongs life and significantly improves immune function. HIV/HCV coinfected individuals have peripheral immune activation despite effective ART control of HIV viral load. Here we examined freshly isolated CD14 monocytes for gene expression using high-density cDNA microarrays and analyzed T cell subsets, CD4 and CD8, by flow cytometry to characterize immune activation in monoinfected HCV and HIV, and HIV-suppressed coinfected subjects. To determine the impact of coinfection on cognition, subjects were evaluated in 7 domains for neuropsychological performance, which were summarized as a global deficit score (GDS. Monocyte gene expression analysis in HIV-suppressed coinfected subjects identified 43 genes that were elevated greater than 2.5 fold. Correlative analysis of subjects' GDS and gene expression found eight genes with significance after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Correlative expression of six genes was confirmed by qPCR, five of which were categorized as type 1 IFN response genes. Global deficit scores were not related to plasma lipopolysaccharide levels. In the T cell compartment, coinfection significantly increased expression of activation markers CD38 and HLADR on both CD4 and CD8 T cells but did not correlate with GDS. These findings indicate that coinfection is associated with a type 1 IFN monocyte activation profile which was further found to correlate with cognitive impairment, even in subjects with controlled HIV infection. HIV-suppressed coinfected subjects with controlled HIV viral load experiencing immune activation could benefit significantly from successful anti-HCV therapy and may be

  18. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  19. Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Diabetes, Heart Disease a Dangerous Combo Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... unless they are treated. Rheumatoid arthritis is what causes peripheral ulcerative keratitis and death due to a ...

  20. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and level of C-reactive protein, which is produced only when inflammation is present. ... people with occlusive peripheral arterial disease also have coronary artery disease. Amputation of a limb may be necessary if ...

  1. A simple model of radial nerve injury in the rhesus monkey to evaluate peripheral nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Huang, Xijun; Fu, Guo; Gu, Liqiang; Liu, Xiaolin; Wang, Honggang; Hu, Jun; Yi, Jianhua; Niu, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Qingtang

    2014-05-15

    Current research on bone marrow stem cell transplantation and autologous or xenogenic nerve transplantation for peripheral nerve regeneration has mainly focused on the repair of peripheral nerve defects in rodents. In this study, we established a standardized experimental model of radial nerve defects in primates and evaluated the effect of repair on peripheral nerve injury. We repaired 2.5-cm lesions in the radial nerve of rhesus monkeys by transplantation of autografts, acellular allografts, or acellular allografts seeded with autologous bone marrow stem cells. Five months after surgery, regenerated nerve tissue was assessed for function, electrophysiology, and histomorphometry. Postoperative functional recovery was evaluated by the wrist-extension test. Compared with the simple autografts, the acellular allografts and allografts seeded with bone marrow stem cells facilitated remarkable recovery of the wrist-extension functions in the rhesus monkeys. This functional improvement was coupled with radial nerve distal axon growth, a higher percentage of neuron survival, increased nerve fiber density and diameter, increased myelin sheath thickness, and increased nerve conduction velocities and peak amplitudes of compound motor action potentials. Furthermore, the quality of nerve regeneration in the bone marrow stem cells-laden allografts group was comparable to that achieved with autografts. The wrist-extension test is a simple behavioral method for objective quantification of peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:25206757

  2. A simple model of radial nerve injury in the rhesus monkey to evaluate peripheral nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wang; Qingtang Zhu; Xijun Huang; Guo Fu; Liqiang Gu; Xiaolin Liu; Honggang Wang; Jun Hu; Jianhua Yi; Xiaofeng Niu

    2014-01-01

    Current research on bone marrow stem cell transplantation and autologous or xenogenic nerve transplantation for peripheral nerve regeneration has mainly focused on the repair of peripher-al nerve defects in rodents. In this study, we established a standardized experimental model of radial nerve defects in primates and evaluated the effect of repair on peripheral nerve injury. We repaired 2.5-cm lesions in the radial nerve of rhesus monkeys by transplantation of autografts, acellular allografts, or acellular allografts seeded with autologous bone marrow stem cells. Five months after surgery, regenerated nerve tissue was assessed for function, electrophysiology, and histomorphometry. Postoperative functional recovery was evaluated by the wrist-extension test. Compared with the simple autografts, the acellular allografts and allografts seeded with bone marrow stem cells facilitated remarkable recovery of the wrist-extension functions in the rhesus monkeys. This functional improvement was coupled with radial nerve distal axon growth, a higher percentage of neuron survival, increased nerve fiber density and diameter, increased myelin sheath thickness, and increased nerve conduction velocities and peak amplitudes of compound motor action potentials. Furthermore, the quality of nerve regeneration in the bone marrow stem cells-laden allografts group was comparable to that achieved with autografts. The wrist-extension test is a simple behavioral method for objective quantification of peripheral nerve regeneration.

  3. Inflammatory monocytes and the pathogenesis of viral encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Rachael L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Monocytes are a heterogeneous population of bone marrow-derived cells that are recruited to sites of infection and inflammation in many models of human diseases, including those of the central nervous system (CNS. Ly6Chi/CCR2hi inflammatory monocytes have been identified as the circulating precursors of brain macrophages, dendritic cells and arguably microglia in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; Alzheimer’s disease; stroke; and more recently in CNS infection caused by Herpes simplex virus, murine hepatitis virus, Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile virus. The precise differentiation pathways and functions of inflammatory monocyte-derived populations in the inflamed CNS remains a contentious issue, especially in regard to the existence of monocyte-derived microglia. Furthermore, the contributions of monocyte-derived subsets to viral clearance and immunopathology are not well-defined. Thus, understanding the pathways through which inflammatory monocytes migrate to the brain and their functional capacity within the CNS is critical to inform future therapeutic strategies. This review discusses some of the key aspects of inflammatory monocyte trafficking to the brain and addresses the role of these cells in viral encephalitis.

  4. Differential regulation of human T cell responsiveness by mucosal versus blood monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, L; Braunstein, J; Golling, M; Schürmann, G; Autschbach, F; Möller, P; Meuer, S

    1996-04-01

    Human intestinal T lymphocytes are constantly exposed to a large number of foreign antigens without developing a systemic immune response. One crucial mechanisms leading to this intestinal hyporesponsiveness is based on impaired signal transduction through the T cell receptor/CD3 complex in lamina propria T lymphocytes (LP-T). In this study, we addressed the question whether a lack of co-stimulatory/progression signals might also contribute to LP-T hyporesponsiveness. To this end, isolated human monocyte populations from the intestinal lamina propria were obtained and their phenotypes as well as their capacity to promote T cell activation studied. Here, we demonstrate that lamina propria macrophages (LP-MO), in contrast to peripheral blood monocytes (PB-MO), do not support proliferation of either LP-T or PB-T. This may be due to the low expression of ligands (CD54, CD58, CD80) for the T cell accessory receptors CD11/18, CD2 and CD28/CTLA-4 on mucosal macrophages. Thus, down-regulation of both recognition/competence and co-stimulatory/progression signals contribute to intestinal hypo- or unresponsiveness. PMID:8625989

  5. CHI3L1 nuclear localization in monocyte derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rosa, Michelino; Tibullo, Daniele; Saccone, Salvatore; Distefano, Gisella; Basile, Maria Sofia; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Malaguarnera, Lucia

    2016-02-01

    Chitinase-3-like-1 protein (CHI3L1) is a glycosyl hydrolase (GH) highly expressed in a variety of inflammatory diseases at infectious and non-infectious etiology. CHI3L1 is produced by a wide variety of cells including monocyte-derived macrophages cell lines such as polarized M1 and M2 type macrophages, osteoclasts and Kupffer cells. In this study we have examined the expression of CHI3L1 during the differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells. Magnetically-isolated peripheral blood monocytes were differentiated toward immature DCs (iDC) and mature DCs (mDCs) through a combination of factors and cytokines. Our result showed, for the first time, that CHI3L1 is expressed during the process of differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells in time dependent manner. Furthermore, the CHI3L1 is evenly distributed in cytoplasm and in the nucleus of both the iDCs and mDCs. These results suggest that CHI3L1 may play crucial role in the DCs immunoresponse. PMID:26466985

  6. Development of human connective tissue mast cells from purified blood monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnetzki, B M; Figdor, C G; Kolde, G; Vroom, T; Aalberse, R; de Vries, J E

    1984-01-01

    Highly purified subfractions of human peripheral blood monocytes, when cultured in the presence of 30% L cell supernatant and 30% horse serum, assumed all the characteristics that define human connective tissue mast cells. After three weeks of culture, 75% of the cells developed metachromasia and granular chloroacetate esterase staining, and their intracellular histamine levels increased from 0.0 to 50.5 ng/10(6) cells. On electron microscopy, the cells developed intracytoplasmic granules with all the features typical for mature and immature mast cells. Cultured cells bound 55 pg 125I-IgE/10(6) cells, while labelling was negligible with cells prior to culture and with heat-denatured 125I-IgE. Fluorescent staining with anti-IgE increased slightly as well, while staining with monoclonal anti-monocyte and anti-HLA-Dr markers decreased. Purified lymphocytes did not assume mast cell characteristics, and lymphokines did not induce or enhance in vitro mast cell development or IgE binding. The data therefore further support the concept that connective tissue mast cells arise from the monocytoid lineage. Images Figure 1 PMID:6698581

  7. Autorosette formation of erythrocytes on peripheral blood mononuclear cells in dogs vaccinated with canine distemper live-virus vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, J. P.; Yang, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    A time course study of the peripheral blood leukocytes of dogs vaccinated with canine distemper live virus (a paramyxovirus) vaccines showed that autorosette-forming leukocytes appeared from day 3 to day 10 after vaccination. The number of these cells peaked at day 7 when as many as 35% of mononuclear cells formed rosettes with autologous erythrocytes. In contrast, in nonvaccinated dogs, only 0.6 +/- 0.3% (standard error of the mean) of mononuclear cells formed rosettes throughout the 2-week ...

  8. Autograft HIV-DNA Load Predicts HIV-1 Peripheral Reservoir After Stem Cell Transplantation for AIDS-Related Lymphoma Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zanussi, Stefania; Bortolin, Maria Teresa; Pratesi, Chiara; Tedeschi, Rosamaria; Basaglia, Giancarlo; Abbruzzese, Luciano; Mazzucato, Mario; Spina, Michele; Vaccher, Emanuela; Tirelli, Umberto; Rupolo, Maurizio; Michieli, Mariagrazia; Di Mascio, Michele; De Paoli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a widely used procedure for AIDS-related lymphomas, and it represents an opportunity to evaluate strategies curing HIV-1 infection. The association of autograft HIV-DNA load with peripheral blood HIV-1 reservoir before ASCT and its contribution in predicting HIV-1 reservoir size and stability during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) after transplantation are unknown. Aiming to obtain information suggesting new functional cure strategies b...

  9. Functional role of CD11c+ monocytes in atherogenesis associated with hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monocyte activation and migration into the arterial wall are key events in atherogenesis associated with hypercholesterolemia. CD11c/CD18, a beta2 integrin expressed on human monocytes and a subset of mouse monocytes, has been shown to play a distinct role in human monocyte adhesion on endothelial c...

  10. Isolation of Human Monocytes by Double Gradient Centrifugation and Their Differentiation to Macrophages in Teflon-coated Cell Culture Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menck, Kerstin; Behme, Daniel; Pantke, Mathias; Reiling, Norbert; Binder, Claudia; Pukrop, Tobias; Klemm, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Human macrophages are involved in a plethora of pathologic processes ranging from infectious diseases to cancer. Thus they pose a valuable tool to understand the underlying mechanisms of these diseases. We therefore present a straightforward protocol for the isolation of human monocytes from buffy coats, followed by a differentiation procedure which results in high macrophage yields. The technique relies mostly on commonly available lab equipment and thus provides a cost and time effective way to obtain large quantities of human macrophages. Briefly, buffy coats from healthy blood donors are subjected to a double density gradient centrifugation to harvest monocytes from the peripheral blood. These monocytes are then cultured in fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) Teflon-coated cell culture bags in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The differentiated macrophages can be easily harvested and used for subsequent studies and functional assays. Important methods for quality control and validation of the isolation and differentiation steps will be highlighted within the protocol. In summary, the protocol described here enables scientists to routinely and reproducibly isolate human macrophages without the need for cost intensive tools. Furthermore, disease models can be studied in a syngeneic human system circumventing the use of murine macrophages. PMID:25226391

  11. Equine monocyte-derived macrophage cultures and their applications for infectivity and neutralization studies of equine infectious anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, M R; Issel, C J; Montelaro, R C

    1998-03-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has been shown to infect cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. These primary cells are intrinsically difficult to obtain, to purify and to culture in vitro for extended periods of time. As a result, most in vitro studies concerning this lentivirus make use of primary equine fibroblasts or transformed canine or feline cell lines. We describe methods that yield reproducibly pure cultures of equine blood monocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The in vitro differentiation of these cells into mature equine macrophage was verified using various cytochemical staining methods. The equine monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) cultures were found to replicate cell-adapted and field strains of EIAV more efficiently than cultures of fully differentiated equine splenic macrophage. Having established reproducible and fully differentiated cultures of equine macrophage, in vitro assays of virus infectivity and serum neutralization were developed using the in vivo target cell of EIAV. These procedures, while developed for the EIAV system, should be equally useful for in vitro cultures of other macrophage-tropic pathogens of horses. PMID:9628225

  12. Short-term culture of monocytes as an in vitro evaluation system for bionanomaterials designated for medical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishatskaya, Ekaterina Igorevna; Nikitovic, Dragana; Vasilievich, Alexander Shabanov; Tzanakakis, George N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Menzianova, Natalia Gennadievna

    2016-10-01

    We studied the feasibility of using a short-term culture of monocytes, isolated from peripheral donor blood, to assess the biological activity of different types of bionanomaterials (BNM): biodegradable polimeric particles, fiber and film substrates of micro- and nano-dimensions, fullerenes (F) and nanodiamonds (ND), which are either currently in use and/or potentially applicable in medicine. Additionally, the effect of creating a protein corona on ND and F particles was investigated. The cellular reduction of (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) is a well-established tool for assessing the viability/metabolic activity of cells. The scanning electron microscopy assay can detect fine changes in cell morphology. In the present study BNM have been shown to affect; in a size, chemical composition and morphological characteristics-dependent manner, the ability of monocytes to reduce MTT as well as their morphology. Moreover, the specific effects of ND and F on MTT reduction and cell morphology were exhibited in a dose-dependent manner and sensitive to the formation of surface protein corona. Our results suggest that short-term culture of monocytes is a sensitive model system for assessing the biological effects of BMPs in vitro. PMID:27554598

  13. Identifying early inflammatory changes in monocyte-derived macrophages from a population with IQ-discrepant episodic memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Downer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cells of the innate immune system including monocytes and macrophages are the first line of defence against infections and are critical regulators of the inflammatory response. These cells express toll-like receptors (TLRs, innate immune receptors which govern tailored inflammatory gene expression patterns. Monocytes, which produce pro-inflammatory mediators, are readily recruited to the central nervous system (CNS in neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: This study explored the expression of receptors (CD11b, TLR2 and TLR4 on circulating monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs isolated from healthy elderly adults who we classified as either IQ memory-consistent (high-performing, HP or IQ memory-discrepant (low-performing, LP. RESULTS: The expression of CD11b, TLR4 and TLR2 was increased in MDMs from the LP group when compared to HP cohort. MDMs from both groups responded robustly to treatment with the TLR4 activator, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, in terms of cytokine production. Significantly, MDMs from the LP group displayed hypersensitivity to LPS exposure. INTERPRETATION: Overall these findings define differential receptor expression and cytokine profiles that occur in MDMs derived from a cohort of IQ memory-discrepant individuals. These changes are indicative of inflammation and may be involved in the prodromal processes leading to the development of neurodegenerative disease.

  14. An effect of wrapping peripheral nerve anastomosis with pedicled muscle flap on nerve regeneration in experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naumenko L.Yu.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite intrinsic capacity of peripheral nerves to regenerate, functional outcomes of peripheral nerves injury remain poor. Nerve ischemia, intra-/perineurial fibrosis and neuroma formation contribute a lot to that. Several authors demonstrated beneficial effects of increased vascularization at the site of injury on peripheral nerves regeneration. The use of highly vascularized autologous tissues (greater omentum as a source of peripheral nerves neovascularization shows promising re-sults. We proposed a surgical technique in which injured peripheral nerves anastomosis was wrapped in a pedicled muscular flap and performed morphological assessment of the efficacy of such technique with the aid of immunohistochemistry. 14 rats (which underwent sciatic nerve transection were operated according to proposed technique. Another 14 rats, in which only end-to-end nerve anastomosis (without muscular wrapping was performed served as controls. Morphological changes were evaluated at 3 weeks and 3 months periods. Higher blood vessel and axon counts were observed in experimental groups at both checkpoints. There was also an increase in Schwann cells and macrophages counts, and less collagen content in pe-ripheral nerves of experimental groups. Axons in neuromas of experimental groups showed a higher degree of arrangement. We conclude that proposed surgical technique provides better vascularisation of injured peripheral nerves, which is beneficial for nerve regeneration.

  15. Peripheral neuroepithelioma of the kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, K W; Ha, D. H.; Jung, W. H.

    1995-01-01

    Peripheral neuroepithelioma is a rare tumor, comprising less than 1% of all soft tissue malignancies arising from the peripheral nonautonomic nervous system. Most peripheral neuroepitheliomas reported were located in the extremities, thoraco-pulmonary region, and pelvic areas, and as many as 30% of cases were associated with peripheral nerve. We report one case of peripheral neuroepithelioma arising in the kidney, mimicking renal cell carcinoma on the CT scan.

  16. Transcriptome analysis in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis disclosing a key role for CD16+CX3CR1+ monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schepers

    Full Text Available The risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is increased in chronic kidney disease; in this process micro-inflammation plays an essential role. Responsible mechanisms remain to a large extent unidentified. In this pilot study transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood monocytes was used to identify in an unprejudiced manner which factors could be discriminative for cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. Forty gender- and age-matched, non-diabetic, non-smoking subjects with CRP 60 mL/min/1.73m2 and a history of cardiovascular event (CVE, 10 patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis without previous cardiovascular event (CKD5HD and 10 with a previous cardiovascular event (CKD5HD/CVE. Monocytes were isolated and their mRNA was submitted to focused transcriptome analysis using a macroarray platform containing ca. 700 genes associated with macrophage functional capacity. The macroarray data indicated 9 genes (8 upregulated and 1 downregulated with a significant differential expression in CKD5HD/CVE vs. CVE alone, after excluding genes differentially expressed in CKD5HD vs.For FCGR3A (CD16 and CX3CR1 (chemokine receptor the upregulation vs. control and vs. CVE could be confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR for all CKD5HD patients. Furthermore, CX3CR1 relative expression on monocytes correlated with CRP. Flow cytometric analysis of purified monocytes confirmed a significant increase in the percentage of CD16 positive monocytes in all CKD5HD patients vs. control and CVE. The present study indicates the importance of a specific pro-inflammatory monocyte subpopulation, positive for CD16 and the co-expressed chemokine receptor, CX3CR1, discriminative for CKD5HD patients.

  17. Selective release of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors by minced skin in vitro supports the effectiveness of autologous minced micrografts technique for chronic ulcer repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertusi, Ginevra; Tiberio, Rossana; Graziola, Francesca; Boggio, Paolo; Colombo, Enrico; Bozzo, Chiarella

    2012-01-01

    A new effective surgical procedure to repair chronic ulcers called minced micrografts technique has been recently reported. The technique consists in spreading a finely minced skin sample upon the wound bed. In this study, we investigate the in vitro release of cytokines (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1α, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor), chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and growth-related oncogene-α), and growth factors (platelet-derived growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and nerve growth factor) by minced (referred to as the minced sample) vs. not minced (referred to as the whole sample) human skin biopsy samples from the same donor. Factor release in the culture medium at different time points was detected using a multiplexed protein assay. The minced sample, which could behave like the skin fragments used in vivo in the autologous minced micrografts technique, expressed higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1α, platelet-derived growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor, and lower levels of interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, growth related oncogene-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor compared with the whole sample. In conclusion, mincing of healthy skin may allow appropriate regulation of the inflammatory phase of wound healing and could induce overexpression of some growth factors, which facilitates the proliferative phase of healing. PMID:22304391

  18. Characteristics of lymphocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood and lymph nodes of patients with ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zh. Shubina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More and more data suggest that ovarian cancer (OC is an immunogenic tumor. Clinical trials dealing with immunotherapy based on activated natural killer (NK cells and dendritic cells (DC are under way. Mononuclear cells (MNCs from both peripheral blood and lymph nodes (LN are proposed to be used as a source of immunity effectors. This paper characterizes peripheral blood and LN effector cells in patients with OC. The peripheral blood displayed T cell subpopulations: T helper cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and NK cells. LN showed virtually no expression of NK cell antigens, but exhibited the expression of markers of DC and T regulatory cells at the same time. The cytotoxic activity of MNCs against autologous tumor cells was higher than that against the K562 cell line. OC tissue samples were observed to contain low tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte counts.

  19. Susceptibility and Response of Human Blood Monocyte Subsets to Primary Dengue Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Kok Loon; Chen, Weiqiang; Balakrishnan, Thavamalar; Toh, Ying Xiu; Fink, Katja; Wong, Siew-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Human blood monocytes play a central role in dengue infections and form the majority of virus infected cells in the blood. Human blood monocytes are heterogeneous and divided into CD16− and CD16+ subsets. Monocyte subsets play distinct roles during disease, but it is not currently known if monocyte subsets differentially contribute to dengue protection and pathogenesis. Here, we compared the susceptibility and response of the human CD16− and CD16+ blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue viru...

  20. Lactic acid delays the inflammatory response of human monocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Katrin, E-mail: katrin.peter@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Rehli, Michael, E-mail: michael.rehli@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); RCI Regensburg Center for Interventional Immunology, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Singer, Katrin, E-mail: katrin.singer@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Renner-Sattler, Kathrin, E-mail: kathrin.renner-sattler@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Kreutz, Marina, E-mail: marina.kreutz@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); RCI Regensburg Center for Interventional Immunology, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-02-13

    Lactic acid (LA) accumulates under inflammatory conditions, e.g. in wounds or tumors, and influences local immune cell functions. We previously noted inhibitory effects of LA on glycolysis and TNF secretion of human LPS-stimulated monocytes. Here, we globally analyze the influence of LA on gene expression during monocyte activation. To separate LA-specific from lactate- or pH-effects, monocytes were treated for one or four hours with LPS in the presence of physiological concentrations of LA, sodium lactate (NaL) or acidic pH. Analyses of global gene expression profiles revealed striking effects of LA during the early stimulation phase. Up-regulation of most LPS-induced genes was significantly delayed in the presence of LA, while this inhibitory effect was attenuated in acidified samples and not detected after incubation with NaL. LA targets included genes encoding for important monocyte effector proteins like cytokines (e.g. TNF and IL-23) or chemokines (e.g. CCL2 and CCL7). LA effects were validated for several targets by quantitative RT-PCR and/or ELISA. Further analysis of LPS-signaling pathways revealed that LA delayed the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) as well as the degradation of IκBα. Consistently, the LPS-induced nuclear accumulation of NFκB was also diminished in response to LA. These results indicate that the broad effect of LA on gene expression and function of human monocytes is at least partially caused by its interference with immediate signal transduction events after activation. This mechanism might contribute to monocyte suppression in the tumor environment. - Highlights: • Lactic acid broadly delays LPS-induced gene expression in human monocytes. • Expression of important monocyte effector molecules is affected by lactic acid. • Interference of lactic acid with TLR signaling causes the delayed gene expression. • The profound effect of lactic acid might contribute to immune suppression in tumors.

  1. Role of Monocytes and Bacteria in Staphylococcus epidermidis Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Bancsi, Maurice J. L. M. F.; Veltrop, Marcel H. A. M.; Bertina, Rogier M.; Thompson, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The endocardial vegetation which is formed in the course of bacterial endocarditis (BE) contains tissue factor (TF)-dependent procoagulant activity. Earlier studies showed that monocytes are the main source of TF in the vegetations. The TF activity (TFA) of vegetations isolated from Streptococcus sanguis-infected rabbits depended on the numbers of bacteria as well as monocytes in the vegetation. In this study, we investigated whether for Staphylococcus epidermidis, a frequent pathogen in BE, ...

  2. Lactic acid delays the inflammatory response of human monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lactic acid (LA) accumulates under inflammatory conditions, e.g. in wounds or tumors, and influences local immune cell functions. We previously noted inhibitory effects of LA on glycolysis and TNF secretion of human LPS-stimulated monocytes. Here, we globally analyze the influence of LA on gene expression during monocyte activation. To separate LA-specific from lactate- or pH-effects, monocytes were treated for one or four hours with LPS in the presence of physiological concentrations of LA, sodium lactate (NaL) or acidic pH. Analyses of global gene expression profiles revealed striking effects of LA during the early stimulation phase. Up-regulation of most LPS-induced genes was significantly delayed in the presence of LA, while this inhibitory effect was attenuated in acidified samples and not detected after incubation with NaL. LA targets included genes encoding for important monocyte effector proteins like cytokines (e.g. TNF and IL-23) or chemokines (e.g. CCL2 and CCL7). LA effects were validated for several targets by quantitative RT-PCR and/or ELISA. Further analysis of LPS-signaling pathways revealed that LA delayed the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) as well as the degradation of IκBα. Consistently, the LPS-induced nuclear accumulation of NFκB was also diminished in response to LA. These results indicate that the broad effect of LA on gene expression and function of human monocytes is at least partially caused by its interference with immediate signal transduction events after activation. This mechanism might contribute to monocyte suppression in the tumor environment. - Highlights: • Lactic acid broadly delays LPS-induced gene expression in human monocytes. • Expression of important monocyte effector molecules is affected by lactic acid. • Interference of lactic acid with TLR signaling causes the delayed gene expression. • The profound effect of lactic acid might contribute to immune suppression in tumors

  3. Comparison of monocyte-derived dendritic cells from colorectal cancer patients, non-small-cell-lung-cancer patients and healthy donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvistborg, P; Bechmann, C M; Pedersen, A W;

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are bone marrow-derived professional antigen presenting cells. Due to their role as potent inducers of immune responses, these cells are widely used as adjuvant in experimental clinical settings for cancer immune therapy. We have developed a DC-based vaccine using autologous...... blood monocytes loaded with allogeneic tumor cell lysate rich in cancer/testis antigens. This vaccine has at present been tested for activity in three phase II clinical trials including two cohorts of patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) and one cohort of patients with advanced non-small-cell-lung-cancer...... (NSCLC). In the present paper we retrospectively compare the maturation profile based on surface marker expression on DCs generated from the three patient cohorts and between cancer patient cohorts and a cohort of healthy donors. Vaccines were generated under cGMP conditions and phenotypic profiles of DC...

  4. Constructions of Peripherality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Helen Frances Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    rural area of Northern Ireland, and the manner in which peripherality is constructed by a variety of different actors in this debate. In the case discussed in the article, peripherality is constructed in different ways by different actors, yet the debate becomes somewhat polarised into the environmental......In this paper I focus on the concept of peripheralisation. In particular, I consider how peripheries can be discursively constructed in the debates surrounding planning cases, and how this might serve to legitimate particular interests. This is related to the case of a proposed golf resort in a...... values of a periphery versus the ‘need’ for economic development in such a periphery. In this paper I will analyse these constructions of peripherality and discuss the manner in which different framings of the region affects planning, and perhaps legitimates certain developments. This offers a...

  5. Computer-assisted selection of donor sites for autologous grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Zdzislaw; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian U.; Sader, Robert; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Gerhardt, Paul; Horch, Hans-Henning

    1997-05-01

    A new method is proposed for a precise planning of autologous bone grafts in cranio- and maxillofacial surgery. In patients with defects of the facial skeleton, autologous bone transplants can be harvested from various donor sites in the body. The preselection of a donor site depends i.a. on the morphological fit of the available bone mass and the shape of the part that is to be transplanted. A thorough planning and simulation of the surgical intervention based on 3D CT studies leads to a geometrical description and the volumetric characterization of the bone part to be resected and transplanted. Both, an optimal fit and a minimal lesion of the donor site are guidelines in this process. We use surface similarity and voxel similarity measures in order to select the optimal donor region for an individually designed transplant.

  6. Importance of mesenchymal stem cells in autologous fat grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trojahn Kølle, Stig-Frederik; Oliveri, Roberto S; Glovinski, Peter Viktor;

    2012-01-01

    the fat graft with adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) before transplantation. We have reviewed original studies published on fat transplantation enriched with ASC. We found four murine and three human studies that investigated the subject after a sensitive search of publications. In...... the human studies, so-called cell assisted lipotransfer (CAL) increased the ASC concentration 2-5 times compared with non-manipulated fat grafts, which caused a questionable improvement in survival of fat grafts, compared with that of traditional lipofilling. In contrast, in two of the murine studies......Autologous fat grafting (lipofilling) enables repair and augmentation of soft tissues and is increasingly used both in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. Autologous fat has several advantages, including biocompatibility, versatility, natural appearance, and low donor site morbidity. The main...

  7. SECOND AUTOLOGOUS STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION FOR RELAPSED LYMPHOMA AFTER A PRIOR AUTOLOGOUS TRANSPLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sonali M.; van Besien, Koen; Carreras, Jeanette; Bashey, Asad; Cairo, Mitchell S.; Freytes, Cesar O.; Gale, Robert Peter; Hale, Gregory A.; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Holmberg, Leona A.; Keating, Armand; Maziarz, Richard T.; McCarthy, Philip L.; Navarro, Willis H.; Pavlovsky, Santiago; Schouten, Harry C.; Seftel, Matthew; Wiernik, Peter H.; Vose, Julie M.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Hari, Parameswaran

    2012-01-01

    We determined treatment-related mortality (TRM), progression free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) after a second autologous HCT (HCT2) for patients with lymphoma relapse after a prior HCT (HCT1). Outcomes for patients with either Hodgkin lymphoma (HL, n=21) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, n=19) receiving HCT2 reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) were analyzed. The median age at HCT2 was 38 years (range, 16–61) and 22 (58%) patients had a Karnofsky performance score less than 90. HCT2 was performed >1 year after HCT1 in 82%. The probability of TRM at day 100 was 15% (95% CI, 3–22%). The 1, 3 and 5 yr probabilities of PFS were 50% (95% CI, 34–66%), 36% (95% CI, 21–52%) and 30% (95% CI, 16–46%), respectively. Corresponding probabilities of survival were 65% (95% CI, 50–79%), 36% (95% CI, 22–52%) and 30% (95% CI, 17–46%), respectively. At a median follow up of 72 months (range, 12–124 months) after HCT2, 29 patients (73%) have died, 18 (62%) secondary to relapsed lymphoma. The outcomes of patients with HL and NHL were similar. In summary, this series represents the largest reported group of patients with relapsed lymphomas undergoing SCT2 following failed SCT1, and with long-term follow-up. Our series suggests that SCT2 is feasible in patients relapsing after prior HCT1, with a lower TRM than that reported for allogeneic transplant in this setting. HCT2 should be considered for patients with relapsed HL or NHL after HCT1 without alternative allogeneic stem cell transplant options. PMID:18640574

  8. Higher infection of dengue virus serotype 2 in human monocytes of patients with G6PD deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Chang Chao

    Full Text Available The prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is high in Asia. An ex vivo study was conducted to elucidate the association of G6PD deficiency and dengue virus (DENV infection when many Asian countries are hyper-endemic. Human monocytes from peripheral mononuclear cells collected from 12 G6PD-deficient patients and 24 age-matched controls were infected with one of two DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2 strains-the New Guinea C strain (from a case of dengue fever or the 16681 strain (from a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever with a multiplicity of infection of 0.1. The infectivity of DENV-2 in human monocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry. Experimental results indicated that the monocytes of G6PD-deficient patients exhibited a greater levels of infection with DENV-2 New Guinea C strain than did those in healthy controls [mean+/-SD:33.6%+/-3.5 (27.2% approximately 39.2% vs 20.3%+/-6.2 (8.0% approximately 30.4%, P<0.01]. Similar observations were made of infection with the DENV-2 16681 strain [40.9%+/-3.9 (35.1% approximately 48.9% vs 27.4%+/-7.1 (12.3% approximately 37.1%, P<0.01]. To our knowledge, this study demonstrates for the first time higher infection of human monocytes in G6PD patients with the dengue virus, which may be important in increasing epidemiological transmission and perhaps with the potential to develop more severe cases pathogenically.

  9. Bone marrow transplantation in miniature swine: I. Autologous and SLA matched allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a successful bone marrow transplant protocol in MHC-inbred miniature swine (MS). Three groups of MS were studied: irradiation controls, autologous bone marrow transplants and SLA matched bone marrow allografts. One day prior to irradiation, all animals underwent Hickman catheter placement via the external jugular vein. Bone marrow was harvested by direct mechanical removal of marrow from four long bones in Groups 2 and 3 one day prior to irradiation. All animals received 900 rads of midline body radiation from a Cobalt-60 source, were treated 1 g of cephalothin IV bid from day 1 to 14, 20 mg of genetamicin IV bid, from day 4 through 14 and 250 to 350 ml of fresh, irradiated whole blood from blood group identical donors on days 7, 11 and 14. Bone marrow was filtered, washed, stored overnight at 4 C and reinfused one to six hr after irradiation. Engraftment was defined by return of the peripheral WBC to 1000/mm3. All six animals in Group 1 died of aplasia between days 7 and 12. Marrow engrafted in eight of 12 animals in Group 2 and 7 of 10 animals in Group 3. This model provides a means to study the biological characteristics of bone marrow transplantation in immunologically well characterized large animals and should prove useful as a model for bone marrow transplants in man

  10. Clinical outcomes after autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Juan; JI Bing-xin; SU Li; DONG Hui-qing; SUN Xue-jing; LIU Cong-yan

    2006-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a continuously disabling disease and it is unresponsive to high dose steroid and immunomodulation with disease progression. The autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has been introduced in the treatment of refractory forms of multiple sclerosis. In this study, the clinical outcomes followed by ASCT were evaluated for patients with progressive MS.Methods Twenty-two patients with secondary progressive MS were treated with ASCT. Peripheral blood stem cells were obtained by leukapheresis after mobilization with granulocyte colony stimulating factor. Etoposide,melphalan, carmustin and cytosine arabinoside were administered as conditioning regimen. Outcomes were evaluated by the expanded disability status scale and progression free survival. No maintenance treatment was administered during a median follow-up of 39 months (range, 6 to 59 months).Results No death occurred following the treatment. The overall confirmed progression free survival rate was77% up to 59 months after transplantation which was significantly higher compared with pre-transplantation (P=0.000). Thirteen patients (59%) had remarkable improvement in neurological manifestations, four (18%)stabilized their disability status and five (23%) showed clinical recurrence of active symptoms.Conclusions ASCT as a therapy is safe and available. It can improve or stabilize neurological manifestations in most patients with progressive MS following failure of conventional therapy.

  11. [High dosage chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckser, R; Kier, P; Buxhofer, V; Kittl, E; Tatzreiter, G; Vedovelli, H; Zelenka, P; Hübl, G; Hinterberger, W

    2000-01-01

    Between 1992 and 1999 15 patients (pts.) suffering from multiple myeloma (MM) were treated with high-dose chemotherapy and consecutive autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASTx). 10/15 pts underwent two courses of ASTx (tandem- or double ASTx). So 25 ASTx were performed in these 15 pts. in total. All pts. were under 60 a. of age. 13/15 pts. received 6 cycles of chemotherapy on an average according to the VAD-protocol (Vincristin, Adriamycin, Dexamethason). Mobilisation of peripheral hematopoietic stem cells was performed with high-dose cyclophosphamide and hematopoietic growth-factors (CSFs). The conditioning protocol consisted of high-dose melphalan (200-225 mg/m2) in 24/25 ASTx. In one single case total body irradiation (TBI) plus melphalan 140 mg/m2 was used. 2/15 pts. died within 30 days from ASTx; one patient from interstitial pneumonia after TBI, and the other, who was in a very advanced stage of his disease with multiple pretreatment courses before ASTx. The overall survival (OS) was in the mean 68 months, the progression-free survival (PFS) after ASTx 21 m respectively. In pts. with MM high-dose melphalan (up to 225 mg/m2) without TBI plus ASTx is a safe and effective procedure when performed in the early course of the disease. PMID:11261278

  12. Total Marrow Irradiation as Part of Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Asian Patients with Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chiang Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the outcomes of melphalan 200 mg/m2 (HDM200 and 8 Gy total marrow irradiation (TMI delivered by helical tomotherapy plus melphalan 140 mg/m2 (HDM140 + TMI 8 Gy in newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM Asian patients. Between 2007 and 2010, nine consecutive myeloma patients who were scheduled to undergo autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT were studied. The patients received three cycles of vincristine-adriamycin-dexamethasone (VAD regimen as induction chemotherapy, and if they had a partial response, peripheral blood stem cells were collected by dexamethasone-etoposide-cyclophosphamide-cisplatin (DECP. In arm A, six patients received the HDM200. In arm B, three patients received HDM140 + TMI 8 Gy. In arm B, the neutropenic duration was slightly longer than in arm A (P=0.048. However, hematologic recovery (except for neutrophils, transfusion requirement, median duration of hospitalization, and the dose of G-CSF were similar in both arms. The median duration of overall survival and event-free survival was similar in the two arms (P=0.387. As a conditioning regiment, HDM140 + TMI 8 Gy provide another chance for MM Asian patients who were not feasible for HDM200.

  13. Cytometric analysis of surface molecules of leucocytes and phagocytic activity of granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages in cows with pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzki, P; Kostro, K; Brodzki, A; Niemczuk, K; Lisiecka, U

    2014-10-01

    Pyometra is a serious problem in dairy cow herds, causing large economic losses due to infertility. The development of pyometra depends mainly on the immunological status of the cow. The aim of the study was a comparative evaluation of selected indicators involving non-specific and specific immunity in cows with pyometra and in cows without inflammation of the uterus. The study was performed in 20 cows, which were divided into two groups: pyometra group and healthy group, each comprising 10 cows, based on the results of cytological and ultrasonographic tests. A flow cytometric analysis was performed for the surface molecules CD4, CD8, CD14, CD21, CD25 and CD4(+) CD25(+) on leucocytes, and the phagocytic activity was determined from granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages in the peripheral blood and uterine washings, respectively. It was demonstrated that the percentage of phagocytic granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages in both the peripheral blood and uterine washings was significantly lower in cows with pyometra compared with the healthy group (p pyometra group, along with a significantly higher (p pyometra may be caused by a bacterial infection and the presence of blocking agents (IL-10), released by the increasing number of CD8(+) lymphocytes what leads to the advanced inflammation of uterus. PMID:25124985

  14. From fresh heterologous oocyte donation to autologous oocyte banking

    OpenAIRE

    Stoop, D.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Today, oocyte donation has become well established, giving rise to thousands of children born worldwide annually. The introduction of oocyte cryopreservation through vitrification allows the introduction of egg banking, improving the efficiency and comfort of oocyte donation. Moreover, the vitrification technique can now enable autologous donation of oocytes to prevent future infertility. Methods: We evaluated fresh heterologous oocyte donation in terms of obstetrical and perina...

  15. Treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency by autologous fat injection

    OpenAIRE

    Leuchter, I; Pasche, P; Hohlfeld, J.; Schweizer, V

    2007-01-01

    Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is a structural or a functional trouble which causes an hypernasal speech. Velopharyngeal flaps, speech therapy and augmentation velopharyngoplasty using different implants have all been used to address this trouble. We present our results after autologous fat injection in 9 patients with mild velopharyngeal insufficiency (7 soft palate clefts, 1 functional VPI, 1 myopathy). Fourteen injections were made between 2004 and 2007. The degree of hypernasal speech...

  16. Locally Advanced Breast Cancer: Autologous Versus Implant-based Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Tanos, Grigorios; Prousskaia, Elena; Chow, Whitney; Angelaki, Anna; Cirwan, Cleona; Hamed, Hisham; Farhadi, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent papers and guidelines agree that patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) should be offered breast reconstruction. Yet, the type of reconstruction in this group of patients is still a point of controversy. Methods: One hundred fourteen patients, treated for LABC from 2007 to 2013, were divided into 3 groups based on the reconstructive option: no reconstruction (NR), implant-based/expander-based reconstruction (IBR), and autologous tissue reconstruction (ATR). We ...

  17. Autologous miniature punch skin grafting in stable vitiligo

    OpenAIRE

    Savant S

    1992-01-01

    Autologous split thickness miniature punch skin grafting is one of the surgical modes of treatment of stable vitiligo. Out of 87 different sites, of stable vitiligo, occurring in 62 cases, (32 focal, 22 segmental and 8 generalised) 75 sites showed total repigmentation with excellent cosmetic colour match. Out of the 62 cases, 46 cases who were treated postsurgically with PUVA therapy repigmented within 2 ½ to 3 months, 10 cases, who received no treatment postsurgically repigmented by 3...

  18. Autologous Fat Transfer in a Patient with Lupus Erythematosus Profundus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimi Yoon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lupus erythematosus profundus, a form of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus, is a rare inflammatory disease involving in the lower dermis and subcutaneous tissues. It primarily affects the head, proximal upper arms, trunk, thighs, and presents as firm nodules, 1 to 3 cm in diameter. The overlying skin often becomes attached to the subcutaneous nodules and is drawn inward to produce deep, saucerized depressions. We present a rare case of lupus erythematosus profundus treated with autologous fat transfer.

  19. Long term results in refractory tennis elbow using autologous blood

    OpenAIRE

    Naseem ul Gani; Hayat Ahmad Khan; Younis Kamal; Munir Farooq; Hina Jeelani; Adil Bashir Shah

    2014-01-01

    Tennis elbow (TE) is one of the commonest myotendinosis. Different treatment options are available and autologous blood injection has emerged as the one of the acceptable modalities of treatment. Long term studies over a larger group of patients are however lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these patients on longer durations. One-hundred and twenty patients of TE, who failed to respond to conventional treatment including local steroid injections were taken up for this prospec...

  20. Long Term Results in Refractory Tennis Elbow Using Autologous Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Gani, Naseem ul; Khan, Hayat Ahmad; Kamal, Younis; Farooq, Munir; Jeelani, Hina; Shah, Adil Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tennis elbow (TE) is one of the commonest myotendinosis. Different treatment options are available and autologous blood injection has emerged as the one of the acceptable modalities of treatment. Long term studies over a larger group of patients are however lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these patients on longer durations. One-hundred and twenty patients of TE, who failed to respond to conventional treatment including local steroid injections were taken up for this prospec...

  1. Fenestration of bone flap during interval autologous cranioplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Ha Son Nguyen; Ninh Doan; Christopher Wolfla; Glen Pollock

    2015-01-01

    Background: Symptomatic extra-axial fluid may complicate cranioplasty and require urgent evacuation. Fenestration (F) of the bone flap may encourage extra-axial fluid absorption; however, literature has not explored this technique. Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients who underwent interval autologous cranioplasty were divided into two groups: Fenestration, n = 24, and no fenestration (NF), n = 8. Fenestration involves placement of twist-drill holes 1-2 cm apart throughout the bone fl...

  2. Use of Autologous Platelet Gel in Bariatric Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Chad; Vang, See; Christensen, Kevin; Isler, Jack; Vollstedt, Keith; Holt, David

    2006-01-01

    Gastric bypass surgery is a common corrective procedure for obesity that is associated with many risks. Recent studies describing the use of autologous platelet gel (APG) have shown promise in preventing certain operative complications and improved healing processes. These improvements have been credited to the concentrated platelets and growth factors present in APG, as well as the native concentrations of fibrinogen. There are numerous applications for the use of APG in surgery, and the lis...

  3. The first experience of autologous chondrocytes transplantation after lumbar microdiscectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Pedachenko, Eugene; Khyzhnyak, Mykhaylo; Gorbatyuk, Kostyantyn; Pedachenko, Yuriy; Krasilenko, Elena; Shabliy, Volodymyr

    2014-01-01

    The purpose. To develop and provide into clinical practice the hi-tech method of autologous chondrocytes transplantation for treatment of patients with intervertebral discs herniation after lumbar microdiscectomy.Material and methods. The chondrocytes were isolated from tissues of intervertebral disc hernia, cultivated and preserved, and administrated as percutaneous puncture in the operated intervertebral disc (3 months after microdiscectomy).We plan to study the influence of transplanted au...

  4. Management of Contaminated Autologous Grafts in Plastic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Centeno, Robert F; Desai, Ankit R; Watson, Marla E

    2008-01-01

    Background: Contamination of autologous grafts unfortunately occurs in plastic surgery, but the literature provides no guidance for management of such incidents. Methods: American Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery members were asked to complete an online survey that asked about the number and causes of graft contaminations experienced, how surgeons dealt with the problem, the clinical outcomes, and patient disclosure. Results: Nineteen hundred surgeons were asked to participate in the surv...

  5. Facial Fat Necrosis Following Autologous Fat Transfer and its Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sweta Rai; Marsland, Alexander M; Vishal Madan

    2014-01-01

    Autologous fat transfer (AFT) is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the...

  6. Autologous Fat Transfer: An Aesthetic and Functional Refinement for Parotidectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre G. Vico; Axel Delange; Axel De Vooght

    2014-01-01

    Parotidectomy is a surgical procedure associated to functional (Frey’s syndrome) as well as aesthetic (facial asymmetry) complications that can be very disturbing for the patient. Several procedures have been described to primarily avoid or secondarily reconstruct the facial defect and treat the neurological iatrogenic syndrome. Autologous fat transfer was primarily used in 10 cases to avoid such complications. It is an easy technique widely used in cosmetic and reconstructive surgery. Th...

  7. Autologous Blood Injection to Model Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sansing, Lauren H.; Kasner, Scott E.; McCullough, Louise; Agarwal, Puneet; Welsh, Frank A.; Kariko, Katalin

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of the pathophysiology of injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) requires a reproducible animal model. While ICH accounts for 10-15% of all strokes, there remains no specific effective therapy. The autologous blood injection model in mice involves the stereotaxic injection of arterial blood into the basal ganglia mimicking a spontaneous hypertensive hemorrhage in man. The response to hemorrhage can then be studied in vivo and the neurobehavioral defi...

  8. High dose ionizing irradiation induces an early and transient increase in peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cells; L`exposition aigue aux radiations ionisantes induit un recrutement transitoire des progeniteurs hematopoietiques au niveau du sang peripherique: implications therapeutiques potentielles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouet, M.; Mathieu, J.; Grenier, N.; Vetillard, J.; Chauvelot, F.; Thierry, D.; Mestries, J.C.; Herodin, F. [Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, La Tronche, 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees - Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1997-12-31

    Nonhuman primates exposed to ionizing radiation exhibit an early and transient increase in peripheral blood committed hematopoietic progenitor cells. The management of bone marrow aplasia secondary to accidental irradiation could be based in part on the re-infusion of those circulating autologous progenitors following a period of ex vivo expansion with cytokines. (authors)

  9. Circulating monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in women with gestational diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Kuzmicki

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 has been implicated as a key factor in the recruitment and activation of peripheral blood leukocytes in atherosclerotic lesions and adipose tissue. Elevated levels of circulating MCP-1 have been found in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, as well as with coronary artery disease. In this study we compared serum MCP-1 concentrations between pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and non-pregnant healthy women. The group studied consisted of 62 patients with GDM (mean age 30.1 +/- 5.0 years at 29.0 +/- 3.5 week of gestation, 64 pregnant women with NGT (mean age 30.0 +/- 4.7 years at 29.2 +/- 2.9 week of gestation and 34 non-pregnant healthy women (mean age 29.8 +/- 4.7 years. Serum MCP-1 concentration was measured using an enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay. Median MCP-1 concentrations did not differ significantly between women with GDM (median 342.3 [interquartile range 267.9-424.4] pg/ml and NGT (338.0 [274.7-408.2] pg/ml, but were markedly lower than those found in non-pregnant women (485.2 [409.6-642.4] pg/ml, p<0.0001. After adjusting for glucose, the difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women remained highly significant (p<0.0001. In GDM patients MCP-1 levels correlated significantly with fasting glucose (r=0.2665, p=0.0363, insulin (r=0.4330, p=0.0004, HOMA-IR (r=0.4402, p=0.0003, ISQUICKI (r=-0.4402, p=0.0003, HbA1c (r=0.2724, p=0.0322, as well as with prepregnancy and current BMI (r=0.3501, p=0.0057 and r=0.3250, p=0.0106, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed that MCP1 concentrations were significantly predicted only by plasma glucose ( beta=0.3489, p=0.00004. Our results suggest that MCP1 levels are decreased in pregnant women, irrespective of their glucose tolerance status.

  10. Carotid Repair Using Autologous Adipose-Derived Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Harald; Gulati, Rajiv; Boilson, Barry; Witt, Tyra; Harbuzariu, Adriana; Kleppe, Laurel; Dietz, Allan B.; Lerman, Amir; Simari, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Adipose tissue is an abundant source of endothelial cells as well as stem and progenitor cells which can develop an endothelial phenotype. It has been demonstrated that these cells have distinct angiogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. However, whether these cells have the capacity to directly improve large vessel form and function following vascular injury remains unknown. To define whether delivery of adipose-derived endothelial cells (ADECs) would improve healing of injured carotid arteries, a rabbit model of acute arterial injury was employed. Methods Autologous rabbit ADECS were generated utilizing defined culture conditions. To test the ability of ADECs to enhance carotid artery repair, cells were delivered intra-arterially following acute balloon injury. Additional delivery studies were performed following functional selection of cells prior to delivery. Results Following rabbit omental fat harvest and digestion, a proliferative, homogenous, and distinctly endothelial population of ADECs was identified. Direct delivery of autologous ADECs resulted in marked re-endothelialization 48 hours following acute vascular injury as compared to saline controls (82.2 ±26.9% vs 4.2±3.0% pADECs that were selected for their ability to take up acetylated LDL significantly improved vasoreactivity and decreased intimal formation following vascular injury. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that ADECs represent an autologous source of proliferative endothelial cells which demonstrate the capacity to rapidly improve re-endothelialization, improve vascular reactivity, and decrease intimal formation in a carotid artery injury model. PMID:19286583

  11. Delayed Cranioplasty: Outcomes Using Frozen Autologous Bone Flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hng, Daniel; Bhaskar, Ivan; Khan, Mumtaz; Budgeon, Charley; Damodaran, Omprakash; Knuckey, Neville; Lee, Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    Reconstruction of skull defects following decompressive craniectomy is associated with a high rate of complications. Implantation of autologous cryopreserved bone has been associated with infection rates of up to 33%, resulting in considerable patient morbidity. Predisposing factors for infection and other complications are poorly understood. Patients undergoing cranioplasty between 1999 and 2009 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Records and imaging were reviewed retrospectively. Demographics, the initial craniectomy and subsequent cranioplasty surgeries, complications, and outcomes were recorded. A total of 187 patients underwent delayed cranioplasty using autologous bone flaps cryopreserved at -30°C following decompressive craniectomy. Indications for craniectomy were trauma (77.0%), stroke (16.0%), subarachnoid hemorrhage (2.67%), tumor (2.14%), and infection (2.14%). There were 64 complications overall (34.2%), the most common being infection (11.2%) and bone resorption (5.35%). After multivariate analysis, intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak was significantly associated with infection, whereas longer duration of surgery and unilateral site were associated with resorption. Cranioplasty using frozen autologous bone is associated with a high rate of infective complications. Intraoperative CSF leak is a potentially modifiable risk factor. Meticulous dissection during cranioplasty surgery to minimize the chance of breaching the dural or pseudodural plane may reduce the chance of bone flap. PMID:26269726

  12. Clinical Allogeneic and Autologous Islet Cell Transplantation: Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Matsumoto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Islet cell transplantation is categorized as a β-cell replacement therapy for diabetic patients who lack the ability to secrete insulin. Allogeneic islet cell transplantation is for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, and autologous islet cell transplantation is for the prevention of surgical diabetes after a total pancreatectomy. The issues of allogeneic islet cell transplantation include poor efficacy of islet isolation, the need for multiple donor pancreata, difficulty maintaining insulin independence and undesirable side effects of immunosuppressive drugs. Those issues have been solved step by step and allogeneic islet cell transplantation is almost ready to be the standard therapy. The donor shortage will be the next issue and marginal and/or living donor islet cell transplantation might alleviate the issue. Xeno-islet cell transplantation, β-cell regeneration from human stem cells and gene induction of the naïve pancreas represent the next generation of β-cell replacement therapy. Autologous islet cell transplantation after total pancreatectomy for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis with severe abdominal pain is the standard therapy, even though only limited centers are able to perform this treatment. Remote center autologous islet cell transplantation is an attractive option for hospitals performing total pancreatectomies without the proper islet isolation facilities.

  13. Cell tracking and therapy evaluation of bone marrow monocytes and stromal cells using SPECT and CMR in a canine model of myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merrifield Peter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical application of stem cell therapy for myocardial infarction will require the development of methods to monitor treatment and pre-clinical assessment in a large animal model, to determine its effectiveness and the optimum cell population, route of delivery, timing, and flow milieu. Objectives To establish a model for a in vivo tracking to monitor cell engraftment after autologous transplantation and b concurrent measurement of infarct evolution and remodeling. Methods We evaluated 22 dogs (8 sham controls, 7 treated with autologous bone marrow monocytes, and 7 with stromal cells using both imaging of 111Indium-tropolone labeled cells and late gadolinium enhancement CMR for up to12 weeks after a 3 hour coronary occlusion. Hearts were also examined using immunohistochemistry for capillary density and presence of PKH26 labeled cells. Results In vivo Indium imaging demonstrated an effective biological clearance half-life from the injection site of ~5 days. CMR demonstrated a pattern of progressive infarct shrinkage over 12 weeks, ranging from 67–88% of baseline values with monocytes producing a significant treatment effect. Relative infarct shrinkage was similar through to 6 weeks in all groups, following which the treatment effect was manifest. There was a trend towards an increase in capillary density with cell treatment. Conclusion This multi-modality approach will allow determination of the success and persistence of engraftment, and a correlation of this with infarct size shrinkage, regional function, and left ventricular remodeling. There were overall no major treatment effects with this particular model of transplantation immediately post-infarct.

  14. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) enhances lipopolysaccharide-stimulated tissue factor in human monocytes and monocyte-derived microvesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Julie C.; Thomas W Klein; Goldberger, Bruce A.; Sleasman, John W.; Mackman, Nigel; Goodenow, Maureen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunomodulatory effects in humans of Δ9−Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana are controversial. Tissue factor (TF), the activator of the extrinsic coagulation cascade, is increased on circulating activated monocytes and is expressed on microvesicles released from activated monocytes during inflammatory conditions, which perpetuate coagulopathies in a number of diseases. In view of the increased medicinal use of marijuana, effects of THC on human mono...

  15. TRAIL+ monocytes and monocyte-related cells cause lung damage and thereby increase susceptibility to influenza–Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Gregory T; Davidson, Sophia; Crotta, Stefania; Branzk, Nora; Papayannopoulos, Venizelos; Wack, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection is a major cause of influenza-associated mortality; however, the mechanisms underlying pathogenesis or protection remain unclear. Using a clinically relevant mouse model, we identify immune-mediated damage early during coinfection as a new mechanism causing susceptibility. Coinfected CCR2−/− mice lacking monocytes and monocyte-derived cells control bacterial invasion better, show reduced epithelial damage and are overall more resistant than wild-type contr...

  16. Monocyte Trafficking to the Brain with Stress and Inflammation: A Novel Axis of Immune-to-Brain Communication that Influences Mood and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S Wohleb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stressors cause physiological, immunological, and behavioral alterations in humans and rodents that can be maladaptive and negatively affect quality of life. Several lines of evidence indicate that psychological stress disrupts key functional interactions between the immune system and brain that ultimately affects mood and behavior. For example, activation of microglia, the resident innate immune cells of the brain, has been implicated as a key regulator of mood and behavior in the context of prolonged exposure to psychological stress. Emerging evidence implicates a novel neuroimmune circuit involving microglia activation and sympathetic outflow to the peripheral immune system that further reinforces stress-related behaviors by facilitating the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes to the brain. Evidence from various rodent models, including repeated social defeat (RSD, revealed that trafficking of monocytes to the brain promoted the establishment of anxiety-like behaviors following prolonged stress exposure. In addition, new evidence implicates monocyte trafficking from the spleen to the brain as key regulator of recurring anxiety following exposure to prolonged stress. The purpose of this review is to discuss mechanisms that cause stress-induced monocyte re-distribution in the brain and how dynamic interactions between microglia, endothelial cells, and brain macrophages lead to maladaptive behavioral responses.

  17. Delayed lipogranuloma of the cheek following autologous fat injection: report of 2 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hee Eun; Kim, Hee Tae; Lee, Cha Hee; Bae, Jung Ho

    2014-01-01

    We presented 2 cases of lipogranuloma of the cheek following autologous fat injection. Facial autologous fat injection for soft tissue augmentation is a frequently used technique in the field of plastic surgery. Although this procedure was thought to be a safe procedure without foreign body reactions, there had been several case reports on lipogranuloma following autologous fat injection, especially into the periorbital area. In our cases, we experienced delayed lipogranulomas of the cheek ar...

  18. Injection of porous polycaprolactone beads containing autologous myoblasts in a dog model of fecal incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sung-Bum; Lee, Hye Seung; Lim, Jae-Young; Oh, Se Heang; Kim, Sang Joon; Hong, Sa-Min; Jang, Je-Ho; Cho, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Sung-Min; Lee, Jin Ho

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have examined whether bioengineering can improve fecal incontinence. This study designed to determine whether injection of porous polycaprolactone beads containing autologous myoblasts improves sphincter function in a dog model of fecal incontinence. Methods The anal sphincter of dogs was injured and the dogs were observed without and with (n = 5) the injection of porous polycaprolactone beads containing autologous myoblasts into the site of injury. Autologous myoblasts pu...

  19. A curated compendium of monocyte transcriptome datasets of relevance to human monocyte immunobiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinchai, Darawan; Boughorbel, Sabri; Presnell, Scott; Quinn, Charlie; Chaussabel, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Systems-scale profiling approaches have become widely used in translational research settings. The resulting accumulation of large-scale datasets in public repositories represents a critical opportunity to promote insight and foster knowledge discovery. However, resources that can serve as an interface between biomedical researchers and such vast and heterogeneous dataset collections are needed in order to fulfill this potential. Recently, we have developed an interactive data browsing and visualization web application, the Gene Expression Browser (GXB). This tool can be used to overlay deep molecular phenotyping data with rich contextual information about analytes, samples and studies along with ancillary clinical or immunological profiling data. In this note, we describe a curated compendium of 93 public datasets generated in the context of human monocyte immunological studies, representing a total of 4,516 transcriptome profiles. Datasets were uploaded to an instance of GXB along with study description and sample annotations. Study samples were arranged in different groups. Ranked gene lists were generated based on relevant group comparisons. This resource is publicly available online at http://monocyte.gxbsidra.org/dm3/landing.gsp. PMID:27158452

  20. STAT3 activation in monocytes accelerates liver cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an important transcription factor ubiquitously expressed in different cell types. STAT3 plays an essential role in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Aberrantly hyper-activated STAT3 signaling in cancer cells and in the tumor microenvironment has been detected in a wide variety of human cancers and is considered an important factor for cancer initiation, development, and progression. However, the role of STAT3 activation in monocytes in the development of HCC has not been well understood. Immunohistochemical analysis of phosphorylated STAT3 was performed on tissue microarray from HCC patients. Using a co-culture system in vivo, HCC cell growth was determined by the MTT assay. In vivo experiments were conducted with mice given diethylinitrosamine (DEN), which induces HCC was used to investigate the role of STAT3 expression in monocytes on tumor growth. Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression of cell proliferation and cell arrest associated genes in the tumor and nontumor tissue from liver. Phosphorylated STAT3 was found in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue samples and was expressed in tumor cells and also in monocytes. Phosphorylated STAT3 expression in monocyte was significantly correlated to advanced clinical stage of HCC and a poor prognosis. Using a co-culture system in vivo, monocytes promoted HCC cell growth via the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. The STAT3 inhibitor, NSC 74859, significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo in mice with diethylinitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC. In this animal model, blockade of STAT3 with NSC 74859 induced tumor cell apoptosis, while inhibiting both tumor cells and monocytes proliferation. Furthermore, NSC 74859 treatment suppressed cancer associated inflammation in DEN-induce HCC. Our data suggest constitutively activated STAT3 monocytes promote liver tumorigenesis in clinical patients and animal experiments. Thus, STAT3 in tumor

  1. STAT3 activation in monocytes accelerates liver cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Wen-Yong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 is an important transcription factor ubiquitously expressed in different cell types. STAT3 plays an essential role in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Aberrantly hyper-activated STAT3 signaling in cancer cells and in the tumor microenvironment has been detected in a wide variety of human cancers and is considered an important factor for cancer initiation, development, and progression. However, the role of STAT3 activation in monocytes in the development of HCC has not been well understood. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis of phosphorylated STAT3 was performed on tissue microarray from HCC patients. Using a co-culture system in vivo, HCC cell growth was determined by the MTT assay. In vivo experiments were conducted with mice given diethylinitrosamine (DEN, which induces HCC was used to investigate the role of STAT3 expression in monocytes on tumor growth. Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression of cell proliferation and cell arrest associated genes in the tumor and nontumor tissue from liver. Results Phosphorylated STAT3 was found in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue samples and was expressed in tumor cells and also in monocytes. Phosphorylated STAT3 expression in monocyte was significantly correlated to advanced clinical stage of HCC and a poor prognosis. Using a co-culture system in vivo, monocytes promoted HCC cell growth via the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. The STAT3 inhibitor, NSC 74859, significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo in mice with diethylinitrosamine (DEN-induced HCC. In this animal model, blockade of STAT3 with NSC 74859 induced tumor cell apoptosis, while inhibiting both tumor cells and monocytes proliferation. Furthermore, NSC 74859 treatment suppressed cancer associated inflammation in DEN-induce HCC. Conclusion Our data suggest constitutively activated STAT3 monocytes promote liver tumorigenesis in clinical

  2. Epicubenol and Ferruginol induce DC from human monocytes and differentiate IL-10-producing regulatory T cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epicubenol and 19-hydroxyferruginol (Ferruginol) are sesquiterpenes isolated from the black heartwood of Cryptomeria japonica. Dendritic cells (DC) are specialized antigen-presenting cells that monitor the antigenic environment and activate naive T cells. The role of DC is not only to sense danger but also to tolerize the immune system to antigens encountered in the absence of maturation/inflammatory stimuli. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects of Epicubenol and Ferruginol on the phenotypic and functional maturation of human monocytes-derived DC in vitro. Human monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days under standard conditions, followed by another 2 days with Epicubenol or Ferruginol. The expression levels of CD1a, CD83, and HLA-DR as expressed by mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) on Epicubenol-primed DC or Ferruginol-primed DC were enhanced. Allogeneic Epicubenol-primed DC or Ferruginol-primed DC co-cultured with naive T cells at 1:5 ratio, secreted IL-10 and TGF-β, but little IL-4. Moreover, T cells that develop in co-culture of Epicubenol-primed DC or Ferruginol-primed DC and naive T cells at 1:5 ratio suppressed the proliferation of autologous T cells at Treg cells: Ttarget cells and this suppression of proliferation was inhibited by anti-IL-10 mAb. The expression of FoxP3 mRNA on T cells that develop in co-culture of Epicubenol-primed DC or Ferruginol-primed DC and naive T cells was lower. From these results, Epicubenol and Ferruginol may induce IL-10-producing Treg 1 cells from naive T cells by modulating DC function. It seems that Epicubenol and Ferruginol appear to be a target for tolerance after transplantation and in autoimmune diseases

  3. About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Updated:Mar 23,2016 Peripheral artery disease (PAD) ... critical regions of the body. Quick Facts about PAD View an illustration of PAD The most common ...

  4. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset peripheral neuropathy is related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during service when the disease ...

  5. Autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; ZHAO Shi; MAO Hong; ZHOU Ling; WANG Zhong-jing; WANG Hong-xiang

    2011-01-01

    Background Autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation was first reported in 2007 to treat type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and achieved encouraging effect,but whether similar outcome can be achieved in type 2 DM is not well demonstrated.The objective of this study was to determine the effect of combination of autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation (BMT) and hyperbaric oxygen treatment on type 2 DM.Methods The study involved 31 patients with type 2 DM (aged 33 to 62 years) from January 2009 to January 2011 in the Central Hospital of Wuhan,China.Clinical variables (body mass index,duration of DM,insulin requirement,oral hypoglycemic drugs,time free from insulin,time free from oral drugs) and laboratory variables (hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)),mononuclear cells infused,and C-peptide in four time points) were assessed.Purified bone marrow stem cells were infused into major pancreatic arteries.Follow-up was performed at the 30,90,180,360,540 and 720 days (mean 321 days) after BMT.Results Mean HbA1c values showed a significant reduction during follow-up in all patients after BMT.It decreased by more than 1.5% (from 8.7% to 7.1%) as quickly as at 30 days after BMT.Afterwards mean HbA1c fluctuated between plus or minus 0.5% until 24 months rather than declined continuously.At 90 days after the combined therapy C-peptide increased significantly compared with baseline (P <0.0001).But in other time points C-peptide was similar with baseline data (P>0.3).All patients had insulin and/or oral hypoglycemic drugs reduced to different levels.The dose of insulin of 7 patients (7/26,27%) reduced for a period of time after BMT.Conclusions Combined therapy of intrapancreatic BMT and hyperbaric oxygen treatment can improve glucose control and reduce the dose of insulin and/or oral hypoglycemic drugs in type 2 DM patients,but it only improve pancreatic β-cell function transiently.Further randomized controlled clinical trials involved more patients will be required to

  6. Peripheral neuropathy in Lyme borreliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kindstrand, Eva

    1999-01-01

    Tick-transmitted Lyme borreliosis (LB) is frequently associated with manifestations from the peripheral nervous system. One aim of the thesis was to describe the relationship between peripheral neuropathy and LB by prospective studies of a) LB in some defined neurological conditions with peripheral nerve engagement and b) peripheral neuropathy in the late dermatological LB manifestation acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA). A second aim was to evaluate the effect of ant...

  7. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) inhibits the intestinal-like differentiation of monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoettl, T; Hausmann, M; Herlyn, M; Gunckel, M; Dirmeier, A; Falk, W; Herfarth, H; Schoelmerich, J; Rogler, G

    2006-07-01

    Monocytes (MO) migrating into normal, non-inflamed intestinal mucosa undergo a specific differentiation resulting in a non-reactive, tolerogenic intestinal macrophage (IMAC). Recently we demonstrated the differentiation of MO into an intestinal-like macrophage (MAC) phenotype in vitro in a three-dimensional cell culture model (multi-cellular spheroid or MCS model). In the mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in addition to normal IMAC, a reactive MAC population as well as increased levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is found. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of MCP-1 on the differentiation of MO into IMAC. MCS were generated from adenovirally transfected HT-29 cells overexpressing MCP-1, macrophage inflammatory protein 3 alpha (MIP-3alpha) or non-transfected controls and co-cultured with freshly elutriated blood MO. After 7 days of co-culture MCS were harvested, and expression of the surface antigens CD33 and CD14 as well as the intracellular MAC marker CD68 was determined by flow-cytometry or immunohistochemistry. MCP-1 and MIP-3alpha expression by HT-29 cells in the MCS was increased by transfection at the time of MCS formation. In contrast to MIP-3alpha, MCP-1 overexpression induced a massive migration of MO into the three-dimensional aggregates. Differentiation of IMAC was disturbed in MCP-1-transfected MCS compared to experiments with non-transfected control aggregates, or the MIP-3alpha-transfected MCS, as indicated by high CD14 expression of MO/IMAC cultured inside the MCP-1-transfected MCS, as shown by immunohistochemistry and FACS analysis. Neutralization of MCP-1 was followed by an almost complete absence of monocyte migration into the MCS. MCP-1 induced migration of MO into three-dimensional spheroids generated from HT-29 cells and inhibited intestinal-like differentiation of blood MO into IMAC. It may be speculated that MCP-1 could play a role in the disturbed IMAC differentiation in IBD mucosa

  8. Hydrodynamic regulation of monocyte inflammatory response to an intracellular pathogen.

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    Shankar J Evani

    Full Text Available Systemic bacterial infections elicit inflammatory response that promotes acute or chronic complications such as sepsis, arthritis or atherosclerosis. Of interest, cells in circulation experience hydrodynamic shear forces, which have been shown to be a potent regulator of cellular function in the vasculature and play an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis. In this study, we have examined the effect of shear forces due to blood flow in modulating the inflammatory response of cells to infection. Using an in vitro model, we analyzed the effects of physiological levels of shear stress on the inflammatory response of monocytes infected with chlamydia, an intracellular pathogen which causes bronchitis and is implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. We found that chlamydial infection alters the morphology of monocytes and trigger the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6. We also found that the exposure of chlamydia-infected monocytes to short durations of arterial shear stress significantly enhances the secretion of cytokines in a time-dependent manner and the expression of surface adhesion molecule ICAM-1. As a functional consequence, infection and shear stress increased monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells under flow and in the activation and aggregation of platelets. Overall, our study demonstrates that shear stress enhances the inflammatory response of monocytes to infection, suggesting that mechanical forces may contribute to disease pathophysiology. These results provide a novel perspective on our understanding of systemic infection and inflammation.

  9. Modulation of monocyte/macrophage-derived cytokine and chemokine profile by persistent Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection leads to chronic inflammation

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    Penelope Mavromara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available HCV infection presents a major public health problem, with more than 170 million people infected worldwide. Chronicity and persistence of infection constitute the hallmark of the disease. Although HCV is a hepatotropic virus, subsets of immune cells have been found to be permissive to infection and viral replication. Peripheral blood monocytes, attracted to the site of infection and differentiated into macrophages, and resident hepatic macrophages, known as Kupffer cells, are important mediators of innate immunity, through production of several chemokines and cytokines in addition to their phagocytic activity. HCV proteins have been shown to modulate the cytokine and chemokine production profile of monocytes/macrophages, as it is suggested by both in vitro and clinical studies. This modified expression profile appears crucial for the establishment of aberrant inflammation that leads to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. Prognostic Significance of Monocytes and Monocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated with R-CHOP

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    Chongyang Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To evaluate the prognostic significance of monocytes and monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL under R-CHOP chemotherapy. Methods: Flow cytometry (FCM was applied to measure M-MDSCs (CD14+ HLA-DRlow/− M-MDSCs. Results: Analysis of 144 patients with DLBCL under R-CHOP treatment showed that the 5-year overall survival rate was 61.09% (95% CI: 43.72%-72.56% and the average survival time of patients with monocytes (% ≥ 8% was shorter than those with monocytes (% 2 (P = 0.0397, meanwhile, there was no significant difference in survival of patients with monocytes (% ≥ 8% compared to patients with monocytes (% Conclusion: Our results indicated that monocytes (% and M-MDSCs combined with R-IPI may be a simple and efficient immunological index to evaluate prognosis.

  11. The photodynamic effect of Victoria blue BO on peripheral blood mononuclear and leukemic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedorowicz, M. [Hugo Kollatay Univ. of Agriculture, Krakow (Poland); Pituch-Noworolska, A.; Zembala, M. [Polish-American Children`s Hospital, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Clinical Immunology

    1997-05-01

    The photodynamic effect of Victoria blue BO (VB-BO) and photoirradiation on peripheral blood mononuclear cells was studied. The cells were preincubated with VB-BO followed by photoirradiation and overnight culture. The highest percentage of dead cells (propidium iodide assay in flow cyctometry) was seen in the monocyte population. The lymphocytes showed a lower sensitivity to VB-BO photodynamic action than the monocytes (12% vs 80% of PI-positive cells). The effect of VB-BO and phototreatment on lymphocyte function was studied using a mitogen-induced proliferation assay. A decrease of mitogen response was observed. The VB-BO and photoirradiation were also used on leukemic cells. The leukemic cells from acute myeloid leukemia and B precursors leukemia were sensitive to VB-BO photodynamic action. The high VB-BO sensitivity of monocytes and leukemic cells (myeloid and lymphoid B derived) suggests possible application of VB-BO for selective depletion of monocytes or sensitive leukemic cells. (author).

  12. [Ganglia of peripheral nerves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatagiba, M; Penkert, G; Samii, M

    1993-01-01

    The authors present two different types of ganglion affecting the peripheral nerves: extraneural and intraneural ganglion. Compression of peripheral nerves by articular ganglions is well known. The surgical management involves the complete removal of the lesion with preservation of most nerve fascicles. Intraneural ganglion is an uncommon lesion which affects the nerve diffusely. The nerve fascicles are usually intimately involved between the cysts, making complete removal of all cysts impossible. There is no agreement about the best surgical management to be applied in these cases. Two possibilities are available: opening of the epineural sheath lengthwise and pressing out the lesion; or resection of the affected part of the nerve and performing a nerve reconstruction. While in case of extraneural ganglion the postoperative clinical evolution is very favourable, only long follow up studies will reveal in case of intraneural ganglion the best surgical approach. PMID:8128785

  13. Painful peripheral neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Bo; Xu-sheng HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Painful peripheral neuropathy (PPN) is characterized by neuropathic pain (NP), which is accompanied by dysfunction of motor, sensory and autonomic nervous system. It always involves small nerve fibers, including A δ and C fibers. PPN can be classified into two types according to etiology: hereditary and acquired. Pain of PPN can manifest as spontaneous pain and stimulus-evoked pain (allodynia, hyperalgesia and hyperpathia). The manifestation of typical cases is length-dependent, which firstly...

  14. Peripheral Realism Revisited

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    Luis Schenoni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we summarize the precepts of Peripheral Realism, its place in the intellectual history of International Relations Theory, its contributions to interpreting Latin American international politics and its insights for the future. After revising the intellectual merits and tenets of the theory in the four initial sections, we show how it predicted the behavior of Latin American states under unipolarity. Finally, we review its implications for a world where China may hold economic primacy.

  15. Peripheral Realism Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Schenoni; Carlos Escudé

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this article we summarize the precepts of Peripheral Realism, its place in the intellectual history of International Relations Theory, its contributions to interpreting Latin American international politics and its insights for the future. After revising the intellectual merits and tenets of the theory in the four initial sections, we show how it predicted the behavior of Latin American states under unipolarity. Finally, we review its implications for a world where China may hold ...

  16. Kinetics of leukocyte sequestration in the lungs of acutely septic primates: A study using 111In-labeled autologous leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To further clarify the role of leukocytes in the pathogenesis of ARDS, we studied the localization and kinetics of leukocyte migration using 111In-labeled autologous white cell scans (111In wbc scans) in four primates made acutely septic with infusions of Escherichia coli. Whole body images were obtained with a gamma camera and were acquired on computer every 15 min beginning immediately after the E. coli infusion. Simultaneous measurements of C5a and peripheral blood leukocyte count were also obtained. Within 5 min of initiating sepsis, three major events occurred: complement activation as measured by the production of C5a, a profound fall in peripheral leukocyte count, and a significant increase in the sequestration of leukocytes in the lungs. The pulmonary sequestration reached a peak at 15 min with a mean of 152% of baseline activity. This sequestration consisted of a population that was predominantly neutrophils. Damage to the pulmonary capillary endothelium was demonstrated by an increase in extravascular lung water. The results support a role for neutrophils and complement as mediators in the pathogenesis of ARDS

  17. Autologous blood transfusion in patients undergoing hip replacement surgery

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    Tešić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Autologous blood transfusion is a set of procedures done in order to collect a patient’s blood and reinfuse it during or after a surgical intervention. The aim is to meet the patient’s need for blood products without allogeneic transfusion. By observing the hemoglobin and hematocrit values during blood donation in the pre-operative and post-operative period and by counting transfused blood units, the aim of this article was to detect whether there was any difference between the patients receiving autologous blood and those receiving only allogeneic blood. Material and Methods. This prospective study was performed at the General Hospital ”Đorđe Joanović” Zrenjanin from October 24th, 2011 to January 24th, 2013. The study included 60 patients who were divided into the experimental group of 30 patients who had been transfused autologous blood and the control group of 30 patients who had been transfused only allogeneic blood. Results. The average values of hemoglobin and hematocrit in the first and the second donation were 148.9 g/l and 44.2%, and 138.7 g/l and 40.8%, respectively. Oral iron preparation was given to 12 patients for two weeks before the first donation. The level of hemoglobin and hematocrit in both groups of patients had approximately the same values in the pre-operative and post-operative period. In the post-operative period, 2.53 units were transfused per patient in the experimental group and 3.73 units were transfused per patient in the control group. Conclusion. Administration of pre-operatively donated autogenous blood reduces the number of transfused deplasmatised erythrocytes units in comparison to the number of units transfused to the patients receiving only allogeneic blood products. The pre-operative use of oral iron preparations increases hemoglobin values significantly.

  18. Identification of Siglec-9 as the receptor for MUC16 on human NK cells, B cells, and monocytes

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    Rancourt Claudine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MUC16 is a cell surface mucin expressed at high levels by epithelial ovarian tumors. Following proteolytic cleavage, cell surface MUC16 (csMUC16 is shed in the extracellular milieu and is detected in the serum of cancer patients as the tumor marker CA125. csMUC16 acts as an adhesion molecule and facilitates peritoneal metastasis of ovarian tumors. Both sMUC16 and csMUC16 also protect cancer cells from cytotoxic responses of natural killer (NK cells. In a previous study we demonstrated that sMUC16 binds to specific subset of NK cells. Here, we identify the csMUC16/sMUC16 binding partner expressed on immune cells. Results Analysis of immune cells from the peripheral blood and peritoneal fluid of ovarian cancer patients indicates that in addition to NK cells, sMUC16 also binds to B cells and monocytes isolated from the peripheral blood and peritoneal fluid. I-type lectin, Siglec-9, is identified as the sMUC16 receptor on these immune cells. Siglec-9 is expressed on approximately 30-40% of CD16pos/CD56dim NK cells, 20-30% of B cells and >95% of monocytes. sMUC16 binds to the majority of the Siglec-9pos NK cells, B cells and monocytes. sMUC16 is released from the immune cells following neuraminidase treatment. Siglec-9 transfected Jurkat cells and monocytes isolated from healthy donors bind to ovarian tumor cells via Siglec-9-csMUC16 interaction. Conclusions Recent studies indicate that csMUC16 can act as an anti-adhesive agent that blocks tumor-immune cell interactions. Our results demonstrate that similar to other mucins, csMUC16 can also facilitate cell adhesion by interacting with a suitable binding partner such as mesothelin or Siglec-9. Siglec-9 is an inhibitory receptor that attenuates T cell and NK cell function. sMUC16/csMUC16-Siglec-9 binding likely mediates inhibition of anti-tumor immune responses.

  19. Circulating monocytes from healthy individuals and COPD patients

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    Piitulainen Eeva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by incompletely reversible airflow obstruction associated with inflammation in which monocytes/macrophages are the predominant inflammatory cells. The only known genetic factor related to COPD is inherited PiZZ deficiency of α1-antitrypsin (AAT, an inhibitor of serine proteases. Methods We investigated the basal and LPS-stimulated release of pro-inflammatory molecules from blood monocytes isolated from age and gender matched healthy (n = 30 and COPD (n = 20 individuals with and without AAT deficiency. Results After 18 h of cell culture the basal release of MMP-9 was 2.5-fold, p Conclusions The basal and LPS-stimulated secretion of specific pro-inflammatory molecules from circulating monocytes differs between healthy and COPD subjects. These findings may be valuable for further studies on the mechanisms involved in recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells in COPD.

  20. EFFECTS OF MYOCARDIAL CYTOSOLIC FRACTION AND LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE UPON MONOCYTIC FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Matveeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Complicated systemic inflammatory response syndrome in patients undergone open-heart surgery is an important issue of cardiac surgery. The conditions and trigger mechanisms leading to such a complication remain unclear.We studied the impact of mechanincal myocardial injury products released into blood during open-heart surgery, lipopolysaccharides and their combination on isolated monocytes.It was found that mechanically injured myocardial tissue can be a source of intracellular heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70. The content of Hsp70 in the cytosolic cardiomyocyte fraction responsible for mechanical myocardial injury modeling corresponds to the level of proinflammatory cytokine production by monocytes and the density of TLR4 surface expression. The study results confirm the synergy and potentiation of the combined impact of mechanical myocardial injury products and lipopolysaccharides on the levels of cytokine production by monocytes.

  1. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells in innate and adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Beatriz; Ardavín, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Monocytes have been classically considered essential elements in relation with innate immune responses against pathogens, and inflammatory processes caused by external aggressions, infection and autoimmune disease. However, although their potential to differentiate into dendritic cells (DCs) was discovered 14 years ago, their functional relevance with regard to adaptive immune responses has only been uncovered very recently. Studies performed over the last years have revealed that monocyte-derived DCs play an important role in innate and adaptive immunity, due to their microbicidal potential, capacity to stimulate CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses and ability to regulate Immunoglobulin production by B cells. In addition, monocyte-derived DCs not only constitute a subset of DCs formed at inflammatory foci, as previously thought, but also comprise different subsets of DCs located in antigen capture areas, such as the skin and the intestinal, respiratory and reproductive tracts. PMID:18362945

  2. Influence of phthalates on cytokine production in monocytes and macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Bendtzen, Klaus; Boas, Malene; Frederiksen, Hanne; Nielsen, Claus H; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this systematic review is to summarise the present knowledge on the influence of phthalates on monocyte and macrophage production and secretion of cytokines, an influence which......-α secretion/production from monocytes or macrophages. A summary of cytokine measurements was not possible since few studies were comparable in study design and due to insufficient reporting of raw data for most of the included studies. CONCLUSION: Results from this review have suggested that at least one...... phthalate (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) has the ability to enhance tumour necrosis factor-α production/secretion from monocytes/macrophages in vitro, but also observed ex vivo. Influence of other phthalates on other cytokines has only been investigated in few studies. Thus, in vitro studies on primary human...

  3. Facial fat necrosis following autologous fat transfer and its management

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    Sweta Rai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous fat transfer (AFT is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the benefits and risks of AFT highlighting common causes of fat graft failure.

  4. Ocular toxicity following high dose chemotherapy and autologous transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, P; Hulette, C; Khawly, J A; Elkordy, M; Hussein, A; Vredenburgh, J J; Jaffe, G J; Peters, W P

    1996-07-01

    A 49-year-old woman received an autologous transplant for breast cancer. Six weeks later she noticed visual disturbance of the left eye which correlated with a visual field abnormality. There was a milder degree of visual disturbance in the right eye. Treatment with high-dose steroids partially stabilized the problem, which was felt to be an ischemic optic neuropathy. She ultimately died of respiratory failure. Pathology of the optic nerves revealed demyelination. Visual disturbances following high-dose chemotherapy are uncommon; the pathology to date has not been elucidated. Steroid therapy may be useful. PMID:8832031

  5. Autologous Fat Grafting: The Science Behind the Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielins, Elizabeth R; Brett, Elizabeth A; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C

    2016-04-01

    An invaluable part of the plastic surgeon's technical arsenal for soft tissue contouring, fat grafting continues to be plagued by unpredictable outcomes, resulting in either reoperation and/or patient dissatisfaction. Thus, extensive research has been conducted into the effects of adipose tissue procurement, processing, and placement on fat graft quality at both the cellular level and in terms of overall volume retention. Herein, we present an overview of the vast body of literature in these areas, with additional discussion of cell-assisted lipotransfer as a therapy to improve volume retention, and on the controversial use of autologous fat in the setting of prior irradiation. PMID:26961989

  6. Autologous Blood Injection for Treatment of Tennis Elbow

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi Mobarakeh, Mahmood; Nemati, Ali; Fazli, Ali; Fallahi, Amirhossein; Safari, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Background Tennis elbow (TE) is a common myotendinosis. It was first described by Runge in 1873; different modes of treatment are used in management of TE. Objectives This study aimed to report the results of autologous blood injection (ABI) in the treatment of TE. Materials and Methods A prospective case study was performed to evaluate the results of ABI in the management of TE. The level of pain based on Nirschl phase scale (NPS) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) was calculated before and 1...

  7. Differential migration and activation profile of monocytes after trophoblast interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Grasso

    Full Text Available Macrophages at the maternal-placental interface coordinate opposite demands under the control of trophoblast cells such as the response against pathogens on one hand, and apoptotic cell clearance and wound healing with the production of suppressor cytokines. Here, we investigated whether trophoblast cells induce maternal monocyte activation towards an alternative activated macrophage profile and whether bacterial or viral stimuli modulate their migratory properties. We used an in vitro model of the maternal-placental interface represented by co-cultures of CD14+ cells isolated from fertile women with first trimester trophoblast cell line (Swan-71 cells in the presence or absence of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP stimuli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, peptidoglycan (PGN or poly [I:C]. Maternal CD14+ cells showed increased CD16 and CD39 expression, both markers associated to an alternative activation profile, with no changes in CD80 expression after trophoblast cell interaction. These changes were accompanied by increased IL-10 and decreased IL-12 production by CD14+ cells. After stimulation with LPS, PGN or poly [I:C], monocytes co-cultured with trophoblast cells had lower production of TNF-α and IL-1β compared with non co-cultured monocytes. Interestingly, monocyte migration towards trophoblast cells was prevented in the presence of LPS or PGN but not after 24h of stimulation with poly [I:C]. LPS or PGN also decreased CCR5, CXCL-8 and CCL5 expression. Finally, trophoblast cells co-cultured with monocytes in the presence of pathological stimuli failed to increase chemokine expression, indicating a bidirectional effect. In conclusion, trophoblast might 'instruct' maternal monocytes to express an alternative activation profile and restrain their early recruitment under pathological threats as one of the first strategies to avoid potential tissue damage at the maternal-placental interface.

  8. Neutrophil and monocyte responses to downhill running: Intracellular contents of MPO, IL-6, IL-10, pstat3, and SOCS3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vyver, M; Engelbrecht, L; Smith, C; Myburgh, K H

    2016-06-01

    High-intensity exercise results in immune activation. This study determined whether (a) there is concordance between serum MPO and neutrophil and/or monocyte intracellular MPO content; (b) peripheral blood mononuclear cells respond to inflammatory interleukins (ILs) by increasing intracellular signaling. Healthy male (n = 12) volunteers participated in high-intensity running (12 × 5 min, 10% decline, 15 km/h). Blood sample (pre, post, 4 h) analyses included serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) and creatine kinase (CK). Intracellular IL-6, IL-10, MPO and STAT3/SOCS3 signaling were assessed in mononuclear cells. CK (1573 ± 756 u/L), MMP-9 (101 ± 27 ng/mL), neutrophil (9.89 ± 0.76 × 10(9) cells/L) and monocyte counts (1 ± 0.08 × 10(9) cells/L) increased at 4 h. At 4 h serum (7.1 ± 1.3 ng/mL) and monocyte MPO (1.7-fold) increased, whereas neutrophil MPO decreased (0.8-fold). Intracellular monocyte IL-10 and IL-6 decreased by 15% and 20-30%, respectively, coinciding with elevations in serum IL-10 of 14.5 ± 4.7 pg/mL and IL-6 of 5.4 ± 2.9 pg/mL, suggesting immune cell cytokine release in response to exercise. Intracellular PBMC p-STAT3 to total STAT3 ratio increased from pre to 4 h. Circulating monocytes are responsive to increased serum IL-6 suggesting a negative feedback loop via STAT3 signaling. PMID:26059973

  9. Pulmonary heart valve replacement using stabilized acellular xenogeneic scaffolds; effects of seeding with autologous stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpa Marius Mihai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We hypothesized that an ideal heart valve replacement would be acellular valve root scaffolds seeded with autologous stem cells. To test this hypothesis, we prepared porcine acellular pulmonary valves, seeded them with autologous adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs and implanted them in sheep and compared them to acellular valves.

  10. Cytomegalovirus Viral Load and Virus-specific Immune Reconstitution after Peripheral Blood Stem Cell versus Bone Marrow Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, A; Riddell, S. R.; Storek, J.; Stevens-Ayers, T; Storer, B; Zaia, J A; Forman, S; Negrin, R S; Chauncey, T.; Bensinger, W.; Boeckh, M.

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) products contain more T cells and monocytes when compared to bone marrow (BM), leading to fewer bacterial and fungal infections. CMV viral load and disease as well as CMV-specific immune reconstitution were compared in patients enrolled in a randomized trial comparing PSBC and BM transplantation. There was a higher rate of CMV infection and disease during the first 100 days after transplantation among PBSC recipients (any antigenemia/DNAemia: PBSC, 63% vs. BM...

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging-based computational modelling of blood flow and nanomedicine deposition in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Shaolie S.; Zhang, Yongjie; Fu, Xiaoyi; Brunner, Gerd; Singh, Jaykrishna; Hughes, Thomas J.R.; Shah, Dipan; Decuzzi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is generally attributed to the progressive vascular accumulation of lipoproteins and circulating monocytes in the vessel walls leading to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. This is known to be regulated by the local vascular geometry, haemodynamics and biophysical conditions. Here, an isogeometric analysis framework is proposed to analyse the blood flow and vascular deposition of circulating nanoparticles (NPs) into the superficial femoral artery (SFA)...

  12. Glucocorticoid mediated regulation of inflammation in human monocytes is associated with depressive mood and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tiefu; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Pruitt, Christopher; Hong, Suzi

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is observed in various conditions, including depression and obesity, which are also often related. Glucocorticoid (GC) resistance and desensitization of peripheral GC receptors (GRs) are often the case in HPA dysregulation seen in depression, and GC plays a critical role in regulation of inflammation. Given the growing evidence that inflammation is a central feature of some depression cases and obesity, we aimed to investigate the immune-regulatory role of GC-GR in relation to depressive mood and obesity in 35 healthy men and women. Depressive mood and level of obesity were assessed, using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-Ia) and body mass index (BMI), respectively. We measured plasma cortisol levels via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated intracellular tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production by monocytes, using flow cytometry. Cortisol sensitivity was determined by the difference in monocytic TNF production between the conditions of 1 and 0μM cortisol incubation ("cortisol-mediated inflammation regulation, CoMIR"). GR vs. mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism for CoMIR was examined by using mifepristone and spironolactone. A series of multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate independent contribution of depressive mood vs. obesity after controlling for age, gender, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and plasma cortisol in predicting CoMIR. CoMIR was explained by somatic subcomponents of depressive mood (BDI-S: β=-0.499, p=0.001), or BMI (β=-0.466, pinitial indication that greater obesity and somatic depressive symptoms were associated with smaller efficacy of the blockers, which warrants further investigation. Our findings, although in a preclinical sample, signify the shared pathophysiology of immune dysregulation in depression and obesity and warrant further mechanistic investigation. PMID:26829709

  13. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands regulate monocyte Fcγ receptor expression and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Prexy; Fatehchand, Kavin; Patel, Hemal; Fang, Huiqing; Justiniano, Steven E; Mo, Xiaokui; Jarjoura, David; Tridandapani, Susheela; Butchar, Jonathan P

    2013-04-26

    Fcγ receptor (FcγR) clustering on monocytes/macrophages results in phagocytosis and inflammatory cytokine production, which serve to eliminate antibody-opsonized targets and activate neighboring immune cells. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which recognizes a range of both bacterial and fungal components, elicits strong proinflammatory responses in these cells when stimulated by ligands, either natural or synthetic. Thus, we explored the possibility that TLR2 agonists could strengthen FcγR activity within the context of antibody therapy. Human peripheral blood monocytes treated with the TLR2 agonist Pam2CSK4 showed significantly enhanced FcγR-mediated cytokine production as well as phagocytic ability. An examination of the molecular mechanism behind this enhancement revealed increased expression of both FcγRIIa and the common γ subunit following Pam2CSK4 treatment. Interestingly however, expression of the inhibitory receptor FcγRIIb was also modestly increased. Further investigation revealed that Pam2CSK4 also dramatically decreased the expression of SHIP, the major mediator of FcγRIIb inhibitory activity. Using a murine Her2/neu solid tumor model of antibody therapy, we found that Pam2CSK4 significantly enhanced the ability of anti-Her2 antibody to reduce the rate of tumor growth. To verify that the FcγR enhancement was not unique to the diacylated Pam2CSK4, we also tested Pam3CSK4, a related triacylated TLR2 agonist. Results showed significant enhancement in FcγR function and expression. Taken together, these findings indicate that TLR2 activation can positively modulate FcγR and suggest that TLR2 agonists should be considered for testing as adjuvants for antitumor antibody therapy. PMID:23504312

  14. Enhanced expression of extracellular calcium sensing receptor in monocyte-differentiated versus undifferentiated HL-60 cells: potential role in regulation of a nonselective cation channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Ye, C.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Sanders, J. L.; Vassilev, P. M.; Brown, E. M.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) have been used widely as a model for studying the differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro. After treatment with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)], HL-60 cells differentiate into cells with the phenotype of monocytes/macrophages. We previously showed that peripheral blood monocytes and the murine J774 monocytic cell line express the CaR, and myeloid progenitors in the bone marrow and myeloid cells in peripheral blood other than monocytes express lower levels of the CaR. Therefore, we investigated whether undifferentiated HL-60 cells express a functional G protein-coupled, extracellular calcium (Ca(2+)(o))-sensing receptor (CaR) and if the expression of the CaR increases as these cells differentiate along the monocytic lineage. The use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with CaR-specific primers, followed by sequencing of the amplified products, identified an authentic CaR transcript in undifferentiated HL-60 cells. Both immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis using a CaR-specific antiserum detected low levels of CaR protein expression in undifferentiated HL-60 cells. The levels of CaR protein increased considerably following treatment of the cells with PMA (50 nM) or 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (100 nM) for 5 days. Northern analysis using a CaR-specific riboprobe identified CaR transcripts in undifferentiated HL-60 cells, but CaR mRNA levels did not change appreciably after treatment with either agent, suggesting that upregulation of CaR protein occurs at a translational level. PMA-treated HL-60 cells expressed a nonselective cation channel (NCC), and the calcimimetic CaR activator, NPS R-467, but not its less active stereoisomer, NPS S-467, as well as the polycationic CaR agonist, neomycin, activated this NCC, demonstrating that the CaR expressed in these cells is functionally active. Therefore, HL-60 cells exhibit an increase in Ca

  15. Primary human monocyte differentiation regulated by Nigella sativa pressed oil

    OpenAIRE

    Mat Mahaya C; Mohamed Azman S; Hamid Shahrul S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Oxidized low density lipoprotein plays an important role in development of foam cells in atherosclerosis. The study was focused on regulation of primary human monocyte growth and CD11b expression in presence of Nigella sativa oil. Methods Primary human monocytes were isolated from whole blood and grown at 37°C and 5% CO2 saturation for five days prior to treatment with Nigella sativa oil. The cells were plated and washed before treatment with ox-LDL (10 μg/ml) as positive ...

  16. Monocyte cell membrane-derived nanoghosts for targeted cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, S.; Gnanasammandhan, M. K.; Xie, C.; Huang, K.; Cui, M. Y.; Chan, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    Core-shell type `nanoghosts' were synthesized with a drug-loaded biodegradable PLGA core and a monocyte cell membrane-derived shell. The nanoghosts were monodisperse with an average size coated nanoparticle controls in metastatic MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines.Core-shell type `nanoghosts' were synthesized with a drug-loaded biodegradable PLGA core and a monocyte cell membrane-derived shell. The nanoghosts were monodisperse with an average size coated nanoparticle controls in metastatic MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07588b

  17. Monocyte-derived macrophages exhibit distinct and more restricted HIV-1 integration site repertoire than CD4(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Yik Lim; Vongrad, Valentina; Shilaih, Mohaned; Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Kuster, Herbert; Kouyos, Roger; Günthard, Huldrych F; Metzner, Karin J

    2016-01-01

    The host genetic landscape surrounding integrated HIV-1 has an impact on the fate of the provirus. Studies analysing HIV-1 integration sites in macrophages are scarce. We studied HIV-1 integration site patterns in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and activated CD4(+) T cells derived from seven antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated HIV-1-infected individuals whose cells were infected ex vivo with autologous HIV-1 isolated during the acute phase of infection. A total of 1,484 unique HIV-1 integration sites were analysed. Their distribution in the human genome and genetic features, and the effects of HIV-1 integrase polymorphisms on the nucleotide selection specificity at these sites were indistinguishable between the two cell types, and among HIV-1 isolates. However, the repertoires of HIV-1-hosting gene clusters overlapped to a higher extent in MDMs than in CD4(+) T cells. The frequencies of HIV-1 integration events in genes encoding HIV-1-interacting proteins were also different between the two cell types. Lastly, HIV-1-hosting genes linked to clonal expansion of latently HIV-1-infected CD4(+) T cells were over-represented in gene hotspots identified in CD4(+) T cells but not in those identified in MDMs. Taken together, the repertoire of genes targeted by HIV-1 in MDMs is distinct from and more restricted than that of CD4(+) T cells. PMID:27067385

  18. Monocyte-derived macrophages exhibit distinct and more restricted HIV-1 integration site repertoire than CD4+ T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Yik Lim; Vongrad, Valentina; Shilaih, Mohaned; Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Kuster, Herbert; Kouyos, Roger; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Metzner, Karin J.

    2016-01-01

    The host genetic landscape surrounding integrated HIV-1 has an impact on the fate of the provirus. Studies analysing HIV-1 integration sites in macrophages are scarce. We studied HIV-1 integration site patterns in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and activated CD4+ T cells derived from seven antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated HIV-1-infected individuals whose cells were infected ex vivo with autologous HIV-1 isolated during the acute phase of infection. A total of 1,484 unique HIV-1 integration sites were analysed. Their distribution in the human genome and genetic features, and the effects of HIV-1 integrase polymorphisms on the nucleotide selection specificity at these sites were indistinguishable between the two cell types, and among HIV-1 isolates. However, the repertoires of HIV-1-hosting gene clusters overlapped to a higher extent in MDMs than in CD4+ T cells. The frequencies of HIV-1 integration events in genes encoding HIV-1-interacting proteins were also different between the two cell types. Lastly, HIV-1-hosting genes linked to clonal expansion of latently HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells were over-represented in gene hotspots identified in CD4+ T cells but not in those identified in MDMs. Taken together, the repertoire of genes targeted by HIV-1 in MDMs is distinct from and more restricted than that of CD4+ T cells. PMID:27067385

  19. Fatal lymphoproliferation and acute monocytic leukemia-like disease following infectious mononucleosis in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Hehlmann, R.; Walther, B; ZÖLLNER, N.; Wolf, Hans J.; Deinhardt, F; Schmid, M.

    1981-01-01

    Three elderly patients are reported, in whom serologically confirmed recent infectious mononucleosis is followed by fatal lymphoproliferation (case 1), by acute monocytic leukemia (case 2), and by acute probably monocytic leukemia (case 3).

  20. DMPD: Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17056121 Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. Hasko G, Pacher...e Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. Authors Hasko G, Pacher

  1. Interferon beta 2/B-cell stimulatory factor type 2 shares identity with monocyte-derived hepatocyte-stimulating factor and regulates the major acute phase protein response in liver cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Gauldie, J.; C. Richards; Harnish, D; Lansdorp, P.; Baumann, H

    1987-01-01

    One of the oldest and most preserved of the homeostatic responses of the body to injury is the acute phase protein response associated with inflammation. The liver responds to hormone-like mediators by the increased synthesis of a series of plasma proteins called acute phase reactants. In these studies, we examined the relationship of hepatocyte-stimulating factor derived from peripheral blood monocytes to interferon beta 2 (IFN-beta 2), which has been cloned. Antibodies raised against fibrob...

  2. Defining Molecular Phenotypes of Mesenchymal and hematopoietic Stem Cells derived from Peripheral blood of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia patients for regenerative stem cell therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Pravin D. Potdar; Rambhadur P Subedi

    2011-01-01

    Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) is a clonal myeloid disorder affecting all age groups, characterized by accumulation of immature blast cells in bone marrow and in peripheral blood. Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation is a present treatment for cure of ALL patients, which is very expensive, invasive process and may have possibility of transplantation of malignant stem cells to patients. In the present study, we hypothesized to isolate large number of normal Mesenchymal & Hematopoietic stem...

  3. Role of soluble gp130 in the tumour necrosis factor-α expression and its production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jablonskaca

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In our previous study we found that rhsIL-6R, along with recombinant human interleukin-6, plays a regulatory role in the immune response by modulating the tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α expression and its production by peripheral blood mononuclearcells (PBMC. We also suggested that sIL-6R with IL-6 secreted by human PMN (neutrophils influenced the TNF-α expression and its production by autologous PBMC.

  4. Dengue viral RNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells are associated with disease severity and preexisting dengue immune status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anon Srikiatkhachorn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with dengue viruses (DENV causes a wide range of manifestations from asymptomatic infection to a febrile illness called dengue fever (DF, to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. The in vivo targets of DENV and the relation between the viral burden in these cells and disease severity are not known. METHOD: The levels of positive and negative strand viral RNA in peripheral blood monocytes, T/NK cells, and B cells and in plasma of DF and DHF cases were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: Positive strand viral RNA was detected in monocytes, T/NK cells and B cells with the highest amounts found in B cells. Viral RNA levels in CD14+ cells and plasma were significantly higher in DHF compared to DF, and in cases with a secondary infection compared to those undergoing a primary infection. The distribution of viral RNA among cell subpopulations was similar in DF and DHF cases. Small amounts of negative strand RNA were found in a few cases only. The severity of plasma leakage correlated with viral RNA levels in plasma and in CD14+ cells. CONCLUSIONS: B cells were the principal cells containing DENV RNA in peripheral blood, but overall there was little active DENV RNA replication detectable in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Secondary infection and DHF were associated with higher viral burden in PBMC populations, especially CD14+ monocytes, suggesting that viral infection of these cells may be involved in disease pathogenesis.

  5. Developmentally regulated monocyte recruitment and bone resorption are modulated by functional deletion of the monocytic chemoattractant protein-1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, D T; Alsulaimani, F; Ding, Y; Marks, S C

    2002-08-01

    Tooth eruption involves the movement of a tooth from its site of development within the alveolar bone to its functional position in the oral cavity. Because this process is dependent upon monocytes and formation of osteoclasts, it represents an excellent model for examination of these processes under developmental regulation. We investigated the functional role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in monocyte recruitment and its impact on bone resorption by examining each parameter in MCP-1(-/-) mice as compared with wild-type controls during tooth eruption. The peak number of monocytes occurred on day 5 in the MCP-1(-/-) mice and on day 9 in the wild-type mice. The peak number of osteoclasts followed the same pattern, occurring sooner in the MCP-1(-/-) (day 5) than in wild-type mice (day 9). Consistent with this, MCP-1(-/-) mice had an accelerated rate of tooth eruption in the early phase when the teeth first entered the oral cavity as compared with the wild-type mice. However, there was accelerated eruption in the wild-type group in the later phase of tooth eruption. When examined at the molecular level, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin-11 and -6 were expressed at considerably higher levels in the experimental group with accelerated tooth eruption. This is the first report identifying these factors as potential modulators of bone resorption that can accelerate the rate of tooth eruption. We conclude that, at early timepoints, monocyte recruitment occurs by MCP-1-independent mechanisms. However, at a later timepoint, MCP-1 may play a contributory role in the recruitment of monocytic cells, allowing the wild-type animals to catch up. PMID:12151080

  6. Normal human monocytes exposed to glioma cells acquire myeloid-derived suppressor cell-like properties

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Jennifer C.; Gonzalez, Guido C.; Zhang, Lei; Ibrahim, George; Kelly, John J.; Gustafson, Michael P.; Yi LIN; Dietz, Allan B.; Forsyth, Peter A; Yong, V. Wee; Parney, Ian F.

    2009-01-01

    Glioblastoma patients are immunosuppressed, yet glioblastomas are highly infiltrated by monocytes/macrophages. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC; immunosuppressive myeloid cells including monocytes) have been identified in other cancers and correlate with tumor burden. We hypothesized that glioblastoma exposure causes normal monocytes to assume an MDSC-like phenotype and that MDSC are increased in glioblastoma patients. Healthy donor human CD14+ monocytes were cultured with human gliobla...

  7. Alteration of Skin Properties with Autologous Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh L. Thangapazham

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dermal fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells found between the skin epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. They are primarily responsible for synthesizing collagen and glycosaminoglycans; components of extracellular matrix supporting the structural integrity of the skin. Dermal fibroblasts play a pivotal role in cutaneous wound healing and skin repair. Preclinical studies suggest wider applications of dermal fibroblasts ranging from skin based indications to non-skin tissue regeneration in tendon repair. One clinical application for autologous dermal fibroblasts has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA while others are in preclinical development or various stages of regulatory approval. In this context, we outline the role of fibroblasts in wound healing and discuss recent advances and the current development pipeline for cellular therapies using autologous dermal fibroblasts. The microanatomic and phenotypic differences of fibroblasts occupying particular locations within the skin are reviewed, emphasizing the therapeutic relevance of attributes exhibited by subpopulations of fibroblasts. Special focus is provided to fibroblast characteristics that define regional differences in skin, including the thick and hairless skin of the palms and soles as compared to hair-bearing skin. This regional specificity and functional identity of fibroblasts provides another platform for developing regional skin applications such as the induction of hair follicles in bald scalp or alteration of the phenotype of stump skin in amputees to better support their prosthetic devices.

  8. Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Intrathecal Transplantation in Chronic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapy is being widely explored in the management of stroke and has demonstrated great potential. It has been shown to assist in the remodeling of the central nervous system by inducing neurorestorative effect through the process of angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and reduction of glial scar formation. In this study, the effect of intrathecal administration of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs is analyzed on the recovery process of patients with chronic stroke. 24 patients diagnosed with chronic stroke were administered cell therapy, followed by multidisciplinary neurorehabilitation. They were assessed on functional independence measure (FIM objectively, along with assessment of standing and walking balance, ambulation, and hand functions. Out of 24 patients, 12 improved in ambulation, 10 in hand functions, 6 in standing balance, and 9 in walking balance. Further factor analysis was done. Patients of the younger groups showed higher percentage of improvement in all the areas. Patients who underwent cell therapy within 2 years after the stroke showed better changes. Ischemic type of stroke had better recovery than the hemorrhagic stroke. This study demonstrates the potential of autologous BMMNCs intrathecal transplantation in improving the prognosis of functional recovery in chronic stage of stroke. Further clinical trials are recommended. This trial is registered with NCT02065778.

  9. SHIPi Enhances Autologous and Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fernandes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is a highly effective procedure enabling long-term survival for patients with hematologic malignancy or heritable defects. Although there has been a dramatic increase in the success rate of HSCT over the last two decades, HSCT can result in serious, sometimes untreatable disease due to toxic conditioning regimens and Graft-versus-Host-Disease. Studies utilizing germline knockout mice have discovered several candidate genes that could be targeted pharmacologically to create a more favorable environment for transplant success. SHIP1 deficiency permits improved engraftment of hematopoietic stem-progenitor cells (HS-PCs and produces an immunosuppressive microenvironment ideal for incoming allogeneic grafts. The recent development of small molecule SHIP1 inhibitors has opened a different therapeutic approach by creating transient SHIP1-deficiency. Here we show that SHIP1 inhibition (SHIPi mobilizes functional HS-PC, accelerates hematologic recovery, and enhances donor HS-PC engraftment in both allogeneic and autologous transplant settings. We also observed the expansion of key cell populations known to suppress host-reactive cells formed during engraftment. Therefore, SHIPi represents a non-toxic, new therapeutic that has significant potential to improve the success and safety of therapies that utilize autologous and allogeneic HSCT.

  10. Autologous Blood Injection and Wrist Immobilisation for Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Massy-Westropp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study explored the effect of autologous blood injection (with ultrasound guidance to the elbows of patients who had radiologically assessed degeneration of the origin of extensor carpi radialis brevis and failed cortisone injection/s to the lateral epicondylitis. Methods. This prospective longitudinal series involved preinjection assessment of pain, grip strength, and function, using the patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation. Patients were injected with blood from the contralateral limb and then wore a customised wrist support for five days, after which they commenced a stretching, strengthening, and massage programme with an occupational therapist. These patients were assessed after six months and then finally between 18 months and five years after injection, using the patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation. Results. Thirty-eight of 40 patients completed the study, showing significant improvement in pain; the worst pain decreased by two to five points out of a 10-point visual analogue for pain. Self-perceived function improved by 11–25 points out of 100. Women showed significant increase in grip, but men did not. Conclusions. Autologous blood injection improved pain and function in a worker’s compensation cohort of patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis, who had not had relief with cortisone injection.

  11. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha is correlated with monocyte infiltration in mouse lipid lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckless, Jill; Rubin, Edward M.; Verstuyft, Judy B.; Metcalfe, James C.; Grainger, David J.

    1999-01-11

    The infiltration of monocytes into the vascular wall and their transformation into lipid-laden foam cells characterize early atherogenesis. This focal accumulation of lipids, together with smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, and the synthesis of extracellular matrix in the intima of large arteries result in the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque. The extent to which the plaque is infiltrated with monocytes appears to be an important determinant of plaque stability. It has been proposed that macrophages secrete an excess of matrix-degrading enzymes over their inhibitors, resulting in conversion of a stable plaque into anunstable plaque that is likely to rupture, resulting in acutemyocardial infarction. Macrophages and T cells constitute {approx}40 percent of the total population of cells in the lipid core region of atherosclerotic plaques. Their recruitment to the lesion may depend on alterations in the adhesive properties of the endothelial surface. Increased endothelial cell permeability and endothelial cell activation are among the earliest changes associated with developing lesions of atherosclerosis. Many of the cell adhesion molecules involved in monocyte recruitment are expressed at low or undetectable levels on normal endothelium but are substantially elevated on the endothelium overlaying atherosclerotic lesions In addition to endothelial cell activation, numerous chemotactic cytokines have also been postulated to be involved in monocyte recruitment. For example, interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) are direct chemoattractants for human monocytes but additionally induce cytoskeletal changes in the endothelium that result in increased permeability. This increased permeability, together with stimulated expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, plays an important part in the local inflammation mediated by TNF-a and IL-1. In addition, a large number of other proinflammatory cytokines, including macrophage

  12. [Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Agnieszka; Starosławska, Elzbieta; Kubiatowski, Tomasz; Kieszko, Dariusz; Cisek, Paweł; Patyra, Krzysztof Ireneusz; Surdyka, Dariusz; Mocarska, Agnieszka; Burdan, Franciszek

    2013-11-01

    Modern cancer therapy prolongs patients life but commonly increases incidence of treatment-related complications. One of such adverse effect is a neurotoxicity, which usually manifestates as peripheral neuropathies (CIPN), characterised by various sensory (tingling, numbness, pain), motor (foot and hands drop, fastening buttons difficulties) and autonomic (constipation, arythmia) abnormalities as well as pain. Despite of intensive epidemiological and clinical studies, standardized diagnostic criteria and methods of the neuropathy prevention and treatment have not been fully established. The most commonly used form of treatment is symptomatic therapy, including anticonvulsant and antidepressant drugs. Proper education of patients and their families of symptoms and neuropathy consequences is desirable to reduce anxiety and stress. PMID:24575651

  13. Aminopeptidase N/CD13 is associated with raft membrane microdomains in monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarrete Santos, A; Roentsch, J; Danielsen, E M; Langner, J; Riemann, D

    2000-01-01

    fractions of monocytes were characterized by the presence of GM1 ganglioside as raft marker molecule and by the high level of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. Furthermore, similar to polarized cells, rafts in monocytic cells lack Na(+), K(+)-ATPase. Cholesterol depletion of monocytes by methyl...

  14. DMPD: LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11257452 LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes. Guha M, Mackman N. Ce...ll Signal. 2001 Feb;13(2):85-94. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show LPS induction of gene expression in human... monocytes. PubmedID 11257452 Title LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes. Authors Guha M, Ma

  15. DMPD: Monocyte/macrophage traffic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12960230 Monocyte/macrophage traffic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. Kim WK, Corey S, ...Show Monocyte/macrophage traffic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. PubmedID 12960230 Title Monocyte/macrophage tr...affic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. Authors Kim WK, Corey S, Alvarez X, Williams K

  16. Selective Expansion of the Monocytic Lineage Directed by Bacterial Infection1

    OpenAIRE

    Serbina, Natalya V.; Hohl, Tobias M.; Cherny, Mathew; Pamer, Eric G.

    2009-01-01

    CCR2-mediated recruitment of Ly6Chigh monocytes is essential for defense against a range of microbial pathogens. Although our understanding of monocyte trafficking to inflammatory sites is increasing, how innate immune inflammation influences monocyte development and maturation during microbial infection remains undefined. Herein, we demonstrate that infection with the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes specifically and selectively promotes monopoiesis. Systemic infection...

  17. File list: His.Bld.20.AllAg.Monocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Monocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Monocytes hg19 Unclassified Blood Monocytes SRX581533,SRX581546,SR...X147741,SRX147742,SRX581544,SRX581532,SRX581534,SRX581545 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Monocytes.bed ...

  17. File list: Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ hg19 Unclassified Blood Monocytes-CD14+ SRX749793,...SRX749797 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+.bed ...

  18. File list: Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Monocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Monocytes hg19 TFs and others Blood Monocytes SRX093183,SRX212318,...SRX093184 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Monocytes.bed ...

  19. File list: Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.Monocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.Monocytes hg19 Unclassified Blood Monocytes SRX581533,SRX581546,SR...X147741,SRX147742,SRX581532,SRX581544,SRX581534,SRX581545 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.Monocytes.bed ...

  20. File list: His.Bld.50.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.50.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+ hg19 Histone Blood Monocytes-CD14+ SRX186755,SRX18...1545,SRX181493,SRX181489 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Bld.50.AllAg.Monocytes-CD14+.bed ...