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Sample records for autoimmune encephalomyelitis mediated

  1. Suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by ultraviolet light is not mediated by isomerization of urocanic acid.

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    Irving, Amy A; Marling, Steven J; Plum, Lori A; DeLuca, Hector F

    2017-01-05

    Ultraviolet B irradiation confers strong resistance against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis. This protection by ultraviolet B is independent of vitamin D production but causes isomerization of urocanic acid, a naturally occurring immunosuppressant. To determine whether UCA isomerization from trans to cis is responsible for the protection against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis afforded by ultraviolet B, trans- or cis-urocanic acid was administered to animals and their disease progression was monitored. Disease incidence was reduced by 74% in animals exposed to ultraviolet B, and skin cis-urocanic acid levels increased greater than 30%. However, increasing skin cis-urocanic acid levels independent of ultraviolet B was unable to alter disease onset or progression. It is unlikely that urocanic acid isomerization is responsible for the ultraviolet B-mediated suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Additional work is needed to investigate alternative mechanisms by which UVB suppresses disease.

  2. Interferon-¿ regulates oxidative stress during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espejo, C.; Penkowa, Milena; Saez-Torres, I.

    2002-01-01

    Neurobiology, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis IFN-d, multiple sclerosis, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress......Neurobiology, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis IFN-d, multiple sclerosis, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress...

  3. Unimpaired Autoreactive T-Cell Traffic Within the Central Nervous System During Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Mediated inhibition of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

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    Korner, Heinrich; Goodsall, Anna L.; Lemckert, Frances A.; Scallon, Bernard J.; Ghrayeb, John; Ford, Andrew L.; Sedgwick, Jonathon D.

    1995-11-01

    The critical role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) as a mediator in autoimmune inflammatory processes is evident from in vivo studies with TNF-blocking agents. However, the mechanisms by which TNF, and possibly also its homologue lymphotoxin α, contributes to development of pathology in rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn disease and in animal models like experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is unclear. Possibilities include regulation of vascular adhesion molecules enabling leukocyte movement into tissues or direct cytokine-mediated effector functions such as mediation of tissue damage. Here we show that administration of a TNF receptor (55 kDa)-IgG fusion protein prevented clinical signs of actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Significantly, the total number of CD4^+ T lymphocytes isolated from the central nervous system of clinically healthy treated versus diseased control animals was comparable. By using a CD45 congenic model of passively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis to enable tracking of myelin basic protein-specific effector T lymphocytes, prevention of clinical signs of disease was again demonstrated in treated animals but without quantitative or qualitative impediment to the movement of autoreactive T lymphocytes to and within the central nervous system. Thus, despite the uninterrupted movement of specific T lymphocytes into the target tissue, subsequent disease development was blocked. This provides compelling evidence for a direct effector role of TNF/lymphotoxin α in autoimmune tissue damage.

  4. [Autoimmune-Mediated Encephalomyelitis: a Heterogeneous Entity in Between Neurology and Psychiatry].

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    Zettl, U K; Dudesek, A; Rimmele, F; Zettl, H; Patejdl, R

    2016-10-01

    Within the last decade, autoantibody-associated encephalitis and encephalomyelitis have stepped into the focus of clinical research and practice. Besides the "classic" autoantibodies against intracellular neuronal antigenes, a growing number of antibodies directed against pre- and postsynaptic surface proteins of neurons have been described since the millennium change. Whereas the "classic" are closely linked to paraneoplastic syndromes, this association is loose for most of the yet known surface antigen-antibodies. The immune-mediated encephalomyelitic syndromes are thus classified not only by their clinical symptoms, but also by their specific antibodies. The definition of the entity of N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor encephalitis is a prominent example. The presented work gives an overview on the clinical and pathological correlates and the underlying immunologic processes of autoantibody-associated encephalitis from a neuropsychiatric perspective. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Green tea EGCG, T-cell function, and T-cell-mediated autoimmune encephalomyelitis

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    Autoimmune diseases are common, disabling immune disorders affecting millions of people. Recent studies indicate that dysregulated balance of different CD4+ T-cell subpopulations plays a key role in immune pathogenesis of several major autoimmune diseases. Green tea and its active ingredient, epigal...

  6. Diazepam treatment reduces inflammatory cells and mediators in the central nervous system of rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Fernández Hurst, Nicolás; Zanetti, Samanta R; Báez, Natalia S; Bibolini, Mario J; Bouzat, Cecilia; Roth, German A

    2017-12-15

    Benzodiazepines are psychoactive drugs and some of them also affect immune cells. We here characterized the inflammatory and infiltrating immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS) during the acute phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in animals treated with Diazepam. Also, we evaluated the expression of Translocator Protein (18kDa) (TSPO), which is a biomarker of neuroinflammatory diseases. The results indicate that Diazepam exerts protective effects on EAE development, decreasing the incidence of the disease and reducing the number of inflammatory cells in CNS, with a concomitant decrease of TSPO levels in brain tissue and CNS inflammatory CD11b + cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Therapeutic options for autoimmune encephalomyelitis].

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    Borisow, N; Prüss, H; Paul, F

    2013-04-01

    Autoantibodies to neuronal tissue are becoming increasingly more important in the evaluation and classification of several neurological diseases, e.g. neuromyelitis optica, paraneoplastic syndromes of the central nervous system (CNS), stiff person syndrome or autoimmune epilepsy. As these disorders are rare, no evidence-based recommendations for therapy are available. Currently, immunomodulating or immunosuppressive drugs are administered in most cases. In paraneoplastic syndromes treatment of the underlying cancer is of considerable importance. This overview summarizes current experiences and recommendations in the treatment of autoimmune neurological disorders.

  8. Secondary B cell receptor diversification is necessary for T cell mediated neuro-inflammation during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Georgina Galicia

    Full Text Available Clinical studies of B cell depletion in Multiple Sclerosis (MS have revealed that B Lymphocytes are involved in the neuro-inflammatory process, yet it remains unclear how B cells can exert pro- and anti-inflammatory functions during MS. Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE is an animal model of MS whereby myelin-specific T cells become activated and subsequently migrate to the Central Nervous System (CNS where they perform pro-inflammatory functions such as cytokine secretion. Typically EAE is induced by immunization of mice of a susceptible genetic background with peptide antigen emulsified in Complete Freund's Adjuvant. However, novel roles for B-lymphocytes in EAE may also be explored by immunization with full-length myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG that contains the B cell conformational epitope. Here we show that full length MOG immunization promotes a chronic disease in mice that depends on antigen-driven secondary diversification of the B cell receptor.Activation-Induced Deaminase (AID is an enzyme that is essential for antigen-driven secondary diversification of the B cell receptor. We immunized AID(-/- mice with the extracellular domain (amino acids 1-120 of recombinant human MOG protein (rhMOG and examined the incidence and severity of disease in AID(-/- versus wild type mice. Corresponding with these clinical measurements, we also evaluated parameters of T cell activation in the periphery and the CNS as well as the generation of anti-MOG antibodies (Ab.AID(-/- mice exhibit reduced severity and incidence of EAE. This suggests that the secondary diversification of the B cell receptor is required for B cells to exert their full encephalogenic potential during rhMOG-induced EAE, and possibly also during MS.

  9. Dendritic cells and anergic type I NKT cells play a crucial role in sulfatide-mediated immune regulation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Maricic, Igor; Halder, Ramesh; Bischof, Felix; Kumar, Vipin

    2014-08-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells can be divided into two groups: type I NKT cells use a semi-invariant TCR, whereas type II express a relatively diverse set of TCRs. A major subset of type II NKT cells recognizes myelin-derived sulfatides and is selectively enriched in the CNS tissue during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We have shown that activation of sulfatide-reactive type II NKT cells by sulfatide prevents induction of EAE. In this article, we have addressed the mechanism of regulation, as well as whether a single immunodominant form of synthetic sulfatide can treat ongoing chronic and relapsing EAE in SJL/J mice. We have shown that the activation of sulfatide-reactive type II NKT cells leads to a significant reduction in the frequency and effector function of myelin proteolipid proteins 139-151/I-A(s)-tetramer(+) cells in lymphoid and CNS tissues. In addition, type I NKT cells and dendritic cells (DCs) in the periphery, as well as CNS-resident microglia, are inactivated after sulfatide administration, and mice deficient in type I NKT cells are not protected from disease. Moreover, tolerized DCs from sulfatide-treated animals can adoptively transfer protection into naive mice. Treatment of SJL/J mice with a synthetic cis-tetracosenoyl sulfatide, but not α-galactosylceramide, reverses ongoing chronic and relapsing EAE. Our data highlight a novel immune-regulatory pathway involving NKT subset interactions leading to inactivation of type I NKT cells, DCs, and microglial cells in suppression of autoimmunity. Because CD1 molecules are nonpolymorphic, the sulfatide-mediated immune-regulatory pathway can be targeted for development of non-HLA-dependent therapeutic approaches to T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Multivalent Soluble Antigen Arrays Exhibit High Avidity Binding and Modulation of B Cell Receptor-Mediated Signaling to Drive Efficacy against Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

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    Hartwell, Brittany L; Pickens, Chad J; Leon, Martin; Berkland, Cory

    2017-06-12

    A pressing need exists for antigen-specific immunotherapies (ASIT) that induce selective tolerance in autoimmune disease while avoiding deleterious global immunosuppression. Multivalent soluble antigen arrays (SAgA PLP:LABL ), consisting of a hyaluronic acid (HA) linear polymer backbone cografted with multiple copies of autoantigen (PLP) and cell adhesion inhibitor (LABL) peptides, are designed to induce tolerance to a specific multiple sclerosis (MS) autoantigen. Previous studies established that hydrolyzable SAgA PLP:LABL , employing a degradable linker to codeliver PLP and LABL, was therapeutic in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in vivo and exhibited antigen-specific binding with B cells, targeted the B cell receptor (BCR), and dampened BCR-mediated signaling in vitro. Our results pointed to sustained BCR engagement as the SAgA PLP:LABL therapeutic mechanism, so we developed a new version of the SAgA molecule using nonhydrolyzable conjugation chemistry, hypothesizing it would enhance and maintain the molecule's action at the cell surface to improve efficacy. "Click SAgA" (cSAgA PLP:LABL ) uses hydrolytically stable covalent conjugation chemistry (Copper-catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition (CuAAC)) rather than a hydrolyzable oxime bond to attach PLP and LABL to HA. We explored cSAgA PLP:LABL B cell engagement and modulation of BCR-mediated signaling in vitro through flow cytometry binding and calcium flux signaling assays. Indeed, cSAgA PLP:LABL exhibited higher avidity B cell binding and greater dampening of BCR-mediated signaling than hydrolyzable SAgA PLP:LABL . Furthermore, cSAgA PLP:LABL exhibited significantly enhanced in vivo efficacy compared to hydrolyzable SAgA PLP:LABL , achieving equivalent efficacy at one-quarter of the dose. These results indicate that nonhydrolyzable conjugation increased the avidity of cSAgA PLP:LABL to drive in vivo efficacy through modulated BCR-mediated signaling.

  11. Toll-Like Receptor 2 mediates in vivo pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and modulates autoimmune encephalomyelitis

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    Alessia ePiermattei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacteria display pro- and anti-inflammatory effects in human and experimental pathology. We show here that both effects are mediated by Toll like receptor 2 (Tlr2, by exploiting a previously characterized Tlr2 variant (Met82Ile. Tlr2 82ile promoted self-specific pro-inflammatory polarization as well as expansion of ag-specific FoxP3+ Tregs, while Tlr2 82met impairs the expansion of Tregs and reduces the production of IFN-γ and IL-17 pro-inflammatory cytokines. Preferential dimerization with Tlr1 or Tlr6 could not explain these differences. In silico, we showed that Tlr2 variant Met82Ile modified the binding pocket for peptidoglycans and participate directly to a putative binding pocket for sugars and Cadherins. The distinct pro- and anti-inflammatory actions impacted on severity, extent of remission and distribution of the lesions within the Central Nervous System of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. Thus, Tlr2 has a janus function in vivo as mediator of the role of bacterial products in balancing pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses.

  12. T cells in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fletcher, J M

    2012-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), which involves autoimmune responses to myelin antigens. Studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS, have provided convincing evidence that T cells specific for self-antigens mediate pathology in these diseases. Until recently, T helper type 1 (Th1) cells were thought to be the main effector T cells responsible for the autoimmune inflammation. However more recent studies have highlighted an important pathogenic role for CD4(+) T cells that secrete interleukin (IL)-17, termed Th17, but also IL-17-secreting gammadelta T cells in EAE as well as other autoimmune and chronic inflammatory conditions. This has prompted intensive study of the induction, function and regulation of IL-17-producing T cells in MS and EAE. In this paper, we review the contribution of Th1, Th17, gammadelta, CD8(+) and regulatory T cells as well as the possible development of new therapeutic approaches for MS based on manipulating these T cell subtypes.

  13. NKT cells can help mediate the protective effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.

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    Waddell, Amanda; Zhao, Jun; Cantorna, Margherita T

    2015-05-01

    Active vitamin D [1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3)] blocks the development of experimental autoimmune diseases. However, the molecular and immunobiological mechanisms underlying 1,25D3's anti-inflammatory properties are not fully understood. We employed a murine model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in order to determine the role of NKT cells in 1,25D3-mediated protection from EAE. Wild-type (WT) mice or mice lacking all NKT cells (CD1d(-/-)) or invariant NKT cells (Jα18(-/-)) were fed control or 1,25D3-supplemented diets. All mice fed with the control diet developed severe EAE. 1,25D3 treatment of WT mice protected them from developing EAE. CD1d(-/-) and Jα18(-/-) mice treated with 1,25D3 were not protected to the same extent as WT mice. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific IL-17 and IFN-γ production was significantly reduced in 1,25D3 WT mice compared with WT but was not decreased in 1,25D3 CD1d(-/-) mice compared with CD1d(-/-) mice. IL-4(-/-) mice were utilized to determine how IL-4 deficiency affects susceptibility to EAE. IL-4(-/-) mice were not protected from developing EAE by α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) or 1,25D3 treatment. Furthermore, 1,25D3 treatment of splenocytes in vitro decreased α-GalCer-induced IL-17 and increased IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 production. 1,25D3 alters the cytokine profile of invariant NKT cells in vitro. These studies demonstrate that NKT cells are important mediators of 1,25D3-induced protection from EAE in mice and NKT cell-derived IL-4 may be an important factor in providing this protection. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. IL-2/neuroantigen fusion proteins as antigen-specific tolerogens in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE): correlation of T cell-mediated antigen presentation and tolerance induction.

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    Mannie, Mark D; Clayson, Barbara A; Buskirk, Elizabeth J; DeVine, Jarret L; Hernandez, Jose J; Abbott, Derek J

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the Ag-targeting activity of cytokine/neuroantigen (NAg) fusion proteins may be associated with mechanisms of tolerance induction. To assess this question, we expressed fusion proteins comprised of a N-terminal cytokine domain and a C-terminal NAg domain. The cytokine domain comprised either rat IL-2 or IL-4, and the NAg domain comprised the dominant encephalitogenic determinant of the guinea pig myelin basic protein. Subcutaneous administration of IL2NAg (IL-2/NAg fusion protein) into Lewis rats either before or after an encephalitogenic challenge resulted in an attenuated course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In contrast, parallel treatment of rats with IL4NAg (IL-4/NAg fusion protein) or NAg lacked tolerogenic activity. In the presence of IL-2R(+) MHC class II(+) T cells, IL2NAg fusion proteins were at least 1,000 times more potent as an Ag than NAg alone. The tolerogenic activity of IL2NAg in vivo and the enhanced potency in vitro were both dependent upon covalent linkage of IL-2 and NAg. IL4NAg also exhibited enhanced antigenic potency. IL4NAg was approximately 100-fold more active than NAg alone in the presence of splenic APC. The enhanced potency of IL4NAg also required covalent linkage of cytokine and NAg and was blocked by soluble IL-4 or by a mAb specific for IL-4. Other control cytokine/NAg fusion proteins did not exhibit a similar enhancement of Ag potency compared with NAg alone. Thus, the IL2NAg and IL4NAg fusion proteins targeted NAg for enhanced presentation by particular subsets of APC. The activities of IL2NAg revealed a potential relationship between NAg targeting to activated T cells, T cell-mediated Ag presentation, and tolerance induction.

  15. Therapeutic effects of cisplatin on rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Li, Xiao-Bo; Schluesener, Hermann J

    2006-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a prototypic Th1-mediated autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), and serves as a model for the human demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis. Cisplatin is a drug widely used in the treatment of a variety of human neoplasias, such as advanced bladder carcinoma, adrenal cortex carcinoma, breast cancer, head and neck or lung carcinoma. Cisplatin binds to DNA and interferes with cellular repair and other mechanism, which eventually result into cell death. It is known that cisplatin can induce immunosuppressive effects through inhibition of T cell activity. Therefore we analyzed the anti-inflammatory effects of cisplatin in a rat EAE model. EAE was induced in male LEW rats by immunizing with a synthetic peptide of guinea pig myelin basic protein. The development of EAE and neurological signs were evaluated by a standard protocol. Immunohistochemistry was applied to show immune cell infiltration into the CNS. Early treatment of EAE rats with cisplatin effectively ameliorated the development of disease and provided a significant protective effect compared to control rats. Further, histological analysis demonstrated that the formation of the typical perivascular cuffs and brain infiltration of monocytes and lymphocytes were complete absent in cisplatin treated rats, while abundant T cell infiltration was seen in the CNS of EAE rats. Our data show that cisplatin has protective effects in EAE, indicating that cisplatin could be a candidate in the treatment of human CNS autoimmunity.

  16. Costimulatory signal blockade in murine relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub, M; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Stadlbauer, T H

    1999-01-01

    Blockade of the CD28-B7 or CD40L-CD40 T cell costimulatory signals prevents induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the effect of simultaneous blockade of these signals in EAE is unknown. We show that administration of either MR1 (to block CD40L) or CTLA4Ig (to block...

  17. Interferon-gamma regulates oxidative stress during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espejo, Carmen; Penkowa, Milena; Sáez-Torres, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an induced inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which shares many clinical and pathological features with and is considered the animal model of multiple sclerosis. There is extensive evidence that EAE is a Th1...

  18. Exquisite peptide specificity of oral tolerance in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Javed, N H; Gienapp, I E; Cox, K L; Whitacre, C C

    1995-08-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), induced in Lewis rats by injection of myelin basic protein (MBP) and adjuvant, is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. Earlier studies from our laboratory have shown that oral administration of guinea pig MBP before encephalitogenic challenge induces T cell anergy and results in the suppression of clinical signs and CNS histopathologic changes of EAE. In contrast, oral administration of rat MBP did not confer a similar degree of protection. This study was undertaken to determine the tolerogenicity of the synthetic peptide 68-88 derived from guinea pig (GP) MBP and rat MBP. These peptides differ by a single amino acid at position 80. Lewis rats fed GP 68-88 were protected from EAE induced with GP 68-88 or rat 68-88. In contrast, feeding rats 68-88 did not protect the animals from challenge with either peptide. Measurement of the frequency of peptide-reactive Th1 cells showed results consistent with the clinical picture. The in vitro proliferative response was significantly suppressed following oral administration of either whole GP MBP, the GP peptide, or the rat peptide, irrespective of clinical status. These results extend our earlier observation at the whole molecule level that GP but not rat MBP confers oral tolerance. These findings suggest that small structural differences at the amino acid level can produce dramatic differences in clinical outcome, with important implications for the design of multiple sclerosis clinical trials.

  19. Lactobacillus helveticus SBT2171 Attenuates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Mice

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    Maya Yamashita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported that Lactobacillus helveticus SBT2171 (LH2171 inhibited the proliferation and inflammatory cytokine production of primary immune cells in vitro, and alleviated collagen-induced arthritis (CIA in mice, a model of human rheumatoid arthritis (RA. In this study, we newly investigated whether LH2171 could relieve the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS, which is an autoimmune disease, but develop the symptoms by different mechanisms from RA. In MS and EAE, main cause of the disease is the abnormality in CD4+ T cell immunity, whereas in RA and CIA, is that in antibody-mediated immunity. The intraperitoneal administration of LH2171 significantly decreased the incidence and clinical score of EAE in mice. LH2171 also reduced the numbers of pathogenic immune cells, especially Th17 cells, in the spinal cord at the peak stage of disease severity. Interestingly, before the onset of EAE, LH2171 administration remarkably decreased the ratio of Th17 cells to CD4+ T cells in the inguinal lymph nodes (LNs, where pathogenic immune cells are activated to infiltrate the central nervous system, including the spinal cord. Furthermore, the expression of interleukin (IL-6, an inflammatory cytokine essential for Th17 differentiation, decreased in the LNs of LH2171-administered mice. Moreover, LH2171 significantly inhibited IL-6 production in vitro from both DC2.4 and RAW264.7 cells, model cell lines of antigen-presenting cells. These findings suggest that LH2171 might down-regulate IL-6 production and the subsequent Th17 differentiation and spinal cord infiltration, consequently alleviating EAE symptoms.

  20. Ctla-4 modulates the differentiation of inducible Foxp3+ Treg cells but IL-10 mediates their function in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Johan Verhagen

    Full Text Available In vitro induced Foxp3+ T regulatory (iTreg cells form a novel and promising target for therapeutic tolerance induction. However, the potential of these cells as a target for the treatment of various immune diseases, as well as the factors involved in their development and function, remain debated. Here, we demonstrate in a myelin basic protein (MBP-specific murine model of CNS autoimmune disease that adoptive transfer of antigen-specific iTreg cells ameliorates disease progression. Moreover, we show that the co-stimulatory molecule CTLA-4 mediates in vitro differentiation of iTreg cells. Finally, we demonstrate that the secreted, immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 controls the ability of antigen-specific iTreg cells to suppress autoimmune disease. Overall, we conclude that antigen-specific iTreg cells, which depend on various immune regulatory molecules for their differentiation and function, represent a major target for effective immunotherapy of autoimmune disease.

  1. Ctla-4 modulates the differentiation of inducible Foxp3+ Treg cells but IL-10 mediates their function in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Johan; Gabryšová, Leona; Shepard, Ella R; Wraith, David C

    2014-01-01

    In vitro induced Foxp3+ T regulatory (iTreg) cells form a novel and promising target for therapeutic tolerance induction. However, the potential of these cells as a target for the treatment of various immune diseases, as well as the factors involved in their development and function, remain debated. Here, we demonstrate in a myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific murine model of CNS autoimmune disease that adoptive transfer of antigen-specific iTreg cells ameliorates disease progression. Moreover, we show that the co-stimulatory molecule CTLA-4 mediates in vitro differentiation of iTreg cells. Finally, we demonstrate that the secreted, immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 controls the ability of antigen-specific iTreg cells to suppress autoimmune disease. Overall, we conclude that antigen-specific iTreg cells, which depend on various immune regulatory molecules for their differentiation and function, represent a major target for effective immunotherapy of autoimmune disease.

  2. Individual behavioral characteristics of wild-type rats predict susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavelaars, A; Heijnen, CJ; Tennekes, R; Bruggink, JE; Koolhaas, JM

    1999-01-01

    Neuroendocrine-immune interactions are thought to be important in determining susceptibility to autoimmune disease. Animal studies have revealed that differences in susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are related to:reactivity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  3. B-Cell Depletion Attenuates White and Gray Matter Pathology in Marmoset Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kap, Yolanda S.; Bauer, Jan; van Driel, Nikki; Bleeker, Wim K.; Parren, Paul W. H. I.; Kooi, Evert-Jan; Geurts, Jeroen J. G.; Laman, Jon D.; Craigen, Jenny L.; Blezer, Erwin; 't Hart, Bert A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of CD20-positive B-cell depletion on central nervous system (CNS) white and gray matter pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in common marmosets, a relevant preclinical model of multiple sclerosis. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was

  4. Bioluminescence in vivo imaging of autoimmune encephalomyelitis predicts disease

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    Steinman Lawrence

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is a widely used animal model to understand not only multiple sclerosis but also basic principles of immunity. The disease is scored typically by observing signs of paralysis, which do not always correspond with pathological changes. Methods Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was induced in transgenic mice expressing an injury responsive luciferase reporter in astrocytes (GFAP-luc. Bioluminescence in the brain and spinal cord was measured non-invasively in living mice. Mice were sacrificed at different time points to evaluate clinical and pathological changes. The correlation between bioluminescence and clinical and pathological EAE was statistically analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. Results Bioluminescence from the brain and spinal cord correlates strongly with severity of clinical disease and a number of pathological changes in the brain in EAE. Bioluminescence at early time points also predicts severity of disease. Conclusion These results highlight the potential use of bioluminescence imaging to monitor neuroinflammation for rapid drug screening and immunological studies in EAE and suggest that similar approaches could be applied to other animal models of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders.

  5. Immunomodulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by helminth ova immunization.

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    Sewell, Diane; Qing, Zhu; Reinke, Emily; Elliot, David; Weinstock, Joel; Sandor, Matyas; Fabry, Zsuzsa

    2003-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS) characterized by chronic inflammatory demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS). The pathology of EAE involves autoimmune CD4(+) T(h)1 cells. There is a striking inverse correlation between the occurrence of parasitic and autoimmune diseases. We demonstrate that in mice with Schistosoma mansoni ova immunization, the severity of EAE is reduced as measured by decreased clinical scores and CNS cellular infiltrates. Disease suppression is associated with immune deviation in the periphery and the CNS, demonstrated by decreased IFN-gamma and increased IL-4, transforming growth factor-beta and IL-10 levels in the periphery, and increased frequency of IL-4 producing neuroantigen-specific T cells in the brain. S. mansoni helminth ova treatment influenced the course of EAE in wild-type mice, but not in STAT6-deficient animals. This indicates that STAT6 plays a critical role in regulating the ameliorating effect of S. mansoni ova treatment on the autoimmune response, and provides the direct link between helminth treatment, T(h)2 environment and improved EAE. As some intestinal helminthic infections induce minimal pathology, they might offer a safe and inexpensive therapy to prevent and/or ameliorate MS.

  6. Ageing and recurrent episodes of neuroinflammation promote progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Biozzi ABH mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peferoen, Laura A. N.; Breur, Marjolein; van de Berg, Sarah; Peferoen-Baert, Regina; Boddeke, Erik H. W. G. M.; van der Valk, Paul; Pryce, Gareth; van Noort, Johannes M.; Baker, David; Amor, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Current therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) reduce the frequency of relapses by modulating adaptive immune responses but fail to limit the irreversible neurodegeneration driving progressive disability. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Biozzi ABH mice recapitulates clinical

  7. Prolonged stimulation of a brainstem raphe region attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Pernille M.; Sloley, Stephanie S.; Vitores, Alberto A.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), a neuroinflammatory disease, has few treatment options, none entirely adequate. We studied whether prolonged electrical microstimulation of a hindbrain region (the nucleus raphe magnus) can attenuate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a murine model of MS induced ...

  8. Differential expression of metallothioneins in the CNS of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espejo, C; Carrasco, J; Hidalgo, J

    2001-01-01

    during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in interferon-gamma receptor knockout mice with two different genetic backgrounds: 129/Sv and C57BL/6x129/Sv.Mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis showed a significant induction of metallothioneins-I+II in the spinal cord white matter......, and to a lower extent in the brain. Interferon-gamma receptor knockout mice suffered from a more severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and interestingly showed a higher metallothioneins-I+II induction in both white and grey matter of the spinal cord and in the brain. In contrast...... to the metallothioneins-I+II isoforms, metallothionein-III expression remained essentially unaltered during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; interferon-gamma receptor knockout mice showed an altered metallothionein-III expression (a slight increase in the spinal cord white matter) only in the C57BL/6x129/Sv...

  9. PET Imaging of Disease Progression and Treatment Effects in the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Rat Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faria, Daniele de Paula; Vlaming, Maria L. H.; Copray, Sjef C. V. M.; Tielen, Frans; Anthonijsz, Herma J. A.; Sijbesma, Jurgen W. A.; Buchpiguel, Carlos A.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; van der Hoorn, Jose W. A.; de Vries, Erik F. J.

    The experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model is a model of multiple sclerosis that closely mimics the disease characteristics in humans. The main hallmarks of multiple sclerosis are neuroinflammation (microglia activation, monocyte invasion, and T-cell infiltration) and demyelination. PET

  10. Interferon-gamma regulates oxidative stress during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espejo, Carmen; Penkowa, Milena; Sáez-Torres, Irene

    2002-01-01

    . Here we analyze the role of IFN-gamma during EAE by using both IFN-gamma receptor-knockout (IFN-gamma R(-/-)) and wild-type mice, both strains immunized with peptide 40-55 from rat myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. The levels of oxidative stress were determined through the analysis......Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an induced inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which shares many clinical and pathological features with and is considered the animal model of multiple sclerosis. There is extensive evidence that EAE is a Th1...... disease eliciting secretion of proinflammatory cytokines like IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha, and it has been suggested that cytokine-induced oxidative stress could have a role in EAE neuropathology. However, the individual roles of these and other cytokines in the pathogenesis of the disease are still uncertain...

  11. Preventive Treatment with Methylprednisolone Paradoxically Exacerbates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Wüst

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids (GCs represent the standard treatment for acute disease bouts in multiple sclerosis (MS patients, for which methylprednisolone (MP pulse therapy is the most frequently used protocol. Here, we compared the efficacy of therapeutic and preventive MP application in MOG35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in C57Bl/6 mice. When administered briefly after the onset of the disease, MP efficiently ameliorated EAE in a dose-dependent manner. Surprisingly, MP administration around the time of immunization was contraindicated as it even increased leukocyte infiltration into the CNS and worsened the disease symptoms. Our analyses suggest that in the latter case an incomplete depletion of peripheral T cells by MP triggers homeostatic proliferation, which presumably results in an enhanced priming of autoreactive T cells and causes an aggravated disease course. Thus, the timing and selection of a particular GC derivative require careful consideration in MS therapy.

  12. Fluoxetine promotes remission in acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xi-qiu; Qiu, Guang; Liu, Xiao-jia; Liu, Shan; Wu, Yongming; Wang, Xinyu; Lu, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to clarify the effects of the antidepressant fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, for its potential use in autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis in a rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The rat EAE model was induced by subcutaneous injection of guinea pig spinal cord homogenate. Rats received fluoxetine via daily intragastric administration, starting 2 weeks prior to immune induction (fluoxetine pretreatment). Clinical scores and pathological changes in EAE rats were analyzed. Changes in serum cytokine levels were assessed by ELISA. Fluoxetine pretreatment significantly promoted remission in EAE. Histologically, fluoxetine-induced neuroprotection was accompanied by reductions in inflammatory foci and in the degree of demyelination in the spinal cord of EAE rats. The increase in serum IFN-γ in the EAE model was also suppressed by fluoxetine administration. These findings suggest that the prophylactic use of fluoxetine can relieve symptoms during remission in the acute EAE model, and these neuroprotective effects are associated with its anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. CD1-dependent regulation of chronic central nervous system inflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teige, Anna; Teige, Ingrid; Lavasani, Shahram

    2004-01-01

    The existence of T cells restricted for the MHC I-like molecule CD1 is well established, but the function of these cells is still obscure; one implication is that CD1-dependent T cells regulate autoimmunity. In this study, we investigate their role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EA...

  14. Protoporphyrin Treatment Modulates Susceptibility to Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in miR-155-Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Zhang

    Full Text Available We previously identified heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 as a specific target of miR-155, and inhibition of HO-1 activity restored the capacity of miR-155-/- CD4+ T cells to promote antigen-driven inflammation after adoptive transfer in antigen-expressing recipients. Protoporphyrins are molecules recognized for their modulatory effect on HO-1 expression and function. In the present study, we investigated the effect of protoporphyrin treatment on the development of autoimmunity in miR-155-deficient mice. MiR-155-mediated control of HO-1 expression in promoting T cell-driven chronic autoimmunity was confirmed since HO-1 inhibition restored susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in miR-155-deficient mice. The increased severity of the disease was accompanied by an enhanced T cell infiltration into the brain. Taken together, these results underline the importance of miR-155-mediated control of HO-1 expression in regulating the function of chronically-stimulated T cells in EAE.

  15. Improvement of preclinical animal models for autoimmune-mediated disorders via reverse translation of failed therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hart, Bert A.; Jagessar, S. Anwar; Kap, Yolanda S.; Haanstra, Krista G.; Philippens, Ingrid H. C. H. M.; Serguera, Che; Langermans, Jan; Vierboom, Michel

    The poor translational validity of autoimmune-mediated inflammatory disease (AIMID) models in inbred and specific pathogen-free (SPF) rodents underlies the high attrition of new treatments for the corresponding human disease. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a frequently used

  16. Probenecid Application Prevents Clinical Symptoms and Inflammation in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainz, Nadine; Wolf, Sandra; Tschernig, Thomas; Meier, Carola

    2016-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Neurological impairments are caused by axonal damage due to demyelination and neuroinflammation within the central nervous system. T cells mediate the neuroinflammation. The activation of T cells is induced by the release of adenosine triphosphate and involves purinergic receptors as well as pannexin (Panx) proteins. As Panx1 is expressed on T cells, we here propose that application of probenecid, a known Panx inhibitor, will prevent the onset of clinical symptoms in a mouse model of MS, the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. EAE-induced mice received daily injections of probenecid. Disease scores, T cell numbers, and microglia activation were compared between experimental groups. Probenecid treatment resulted in lower disease scores as compared to EAE animals. Probenecid-treated animals also displayed fewer inflammatory lesions. Microglia activation was not altered by treatment. In conclusion, probenecid prevented the onset of EAE.

  17. Linomide suppresses chronic-relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DA rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J; Diab, A; Mustafa, M; Levi, M; Wahren, B; Björk, J; Hedlund, G

    1998-10-08

    Linomide (quinoline-3-carboxamide) is a synthetic immunomodulator that suppresses several experimental autoimmune diseases. Here we report the effects of Linomide on chronic progressive and/or relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (PR-EAE), a CD4+ T cell mediated animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). PR-EAE induced in DA rats by inoculation with homogenized guinea pig spinal cord and Freund's complete adjuvant, was strongly suppressed by Linomide administered daily subcutaneously from the day of inoculation. Linomide dose-dependently delayed the interval between immunization and onset of clinical PR-EAE, reduced severity and relapse of clinical PR-EAE, and shortened clinical PR-EAE. These clinical effects were associated with the down-modulation of CNS antigen-induced T cell responses and production of proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha) as well as with upregulation of IL-4 (except in spleen MNC), IL-10 and TGF-beta in both spleen MNC and the spinal cord. These effects indicate that Linomide can suppress PR-EAE and may mediate its suppressive effects by regulation of cytokines.

  18. Identification of gene expression patterns crucially involved in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M. Herrmann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After encounter with a central nervous system (CNS-derived autoantigen, lymphocytes leave the lymph nodes and enter the CNS. This event leads only rarely to subsequent tissue damage. Genes relevant to CNS pathology after cell infiltration are largely undefined. Myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein (MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS, a chronic autoimmune disease of the CNS that results in disability. To assess genes that are involved in encephalitogenicity and subsequent tissue damage mediated by CNS-infiltrating cells, we performed a DNA microarray analysis from cells derived from lymph nodes and eluted from CNS in LEW.1AV1 (RT1av1 rats immunized with MOG 91-108. The data was compared to immunizations with adjuvant alone or naive rats and to immunizations with the immunogenic but not encephalitogenic MOG 73-90 peptide. Here, we show involvement of Cd38, Cxcr4 and Akt and confirm these findings by the use of Cd38-knockout (B6.129P2-Cd38tm1Lnd/J mice, S1P-receptor modulation during EAE and quantitative expression analysis in individuals with MS. The hereby-defined underlying pathways indicate cellular activation and migration pathways mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors as crucial events in CNS tissue damage. These pathways can be further explored for novel therapeutic interventions.

  19. IgG glycan hydrolysis by EndoS inhibits experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benkhoucha Mahdia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, have shown that B cells markedly influence the course of the disease, although whether their effects are protective or pathological is a matter of debate. EndoS hydrolysis of the IgG glycan has profound effects on IgG effector functions, such as complement activation and Fc receptor binding, suggesting that the enzyme could be used as an immunomodulatory therapeutic agent against IgG-mediated diseases. We demonstrate here that EndoS has a protective effect in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide amino acid 35–55 (MOG35-55-induced EAE, a chronic neuroinflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS in which humoral immune responses are thought to play only a minor role. EndoS treatment in chronic MOG35-55-EAE did not impair encephalitogenic T cell priming and recruitment into the CNS of mice, consistent with a primary role of EndoS in controlling IgG effector functions. In contrast, reduced EAE severity coincided with poor serum complement activation and deposition within the spinal cord, suggesting that EndoS treatment impairs B cell effector function. These results identify EndoS as a potential therapeutic agent against antibody-mediated CNS autoimmune disorders.

  20. RGS10 deficiency ameliorates the severity of disease in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Kyung; Kannarkat, George T; Chung, Jaegwon; Joon Lee, Hyun; Graham, Kareem L; Tansey, Malú G

    2016-02-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) family proteins, which are GTPase accelerating proteins (GAPs) that negatively regulate G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), are known to be important modulators of immune cell activation and function. Various single-nucleotide polymorphisms in RGS proteins highly correlate with increased risk for multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune, neurodegenerative disorder. An in-depth search of the gene expression omnibus profile database revealed higher levels of RGS10 and RGS1 transcripts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in MS patients, suggesting potential functional roles for RGS proteins in MS etiology and/or progression. To define potential roles for RGS10 in regulating autoimmune responses, we evaluated RGS10-null and wild-type (WT) mice for susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely studied model of MS. Leukocyte distribution and functional responses were assessed using biochemical, immunohistological, and flow cytometry approaches. RGS10-null mice displayed significantly milder clinical symptoms of EAE with reduced disease incidence and severity, as well as delayed onset. We observed fewer CD3+ T lymphocytes and CD11b+ myeloid cells in the central nervous system (CNS) tissues of RGS10-null mice with myelin oligodendrocyte protein (MOG)35-55-induced EAE. Lymph node cells and splenocytes of immunized RGS10-null mice demonstrated decreased proliferative and cytokine responses in response to in vitro MOG memory recall challenge. In adoptive recipients, transferred myelin-reactive RGS10-null Th1 cells (but not Th17 cells) induced EAE that was less severe than their WT counterparts. These data demonstrate a critical role for RGS10 in mediating autoimmune disease through regulation of T lymphocyte function. This is the first study ever conducted to elucidate the function of RGS10 in effector lymphocytes in the context of EAE. The identification of RGS10 as an important regulator of

  1. Differential effects of B7-1 blockade in the rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallon, L; Chandraker, A; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    1997-01-01

    Blocking the CD28-B7 T cell costimulatory activation pathway protects animals from developing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In the mouse EAE model, selective blockade of B7-1 by specific mAbs has been shown to protect animals from EAE. In the Lewis rat model, we have shown that...

  2. The experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model for proteomic biomarker studies : From rat to human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenling, Therese; Attali, Amos; Luider, Theo M.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MScl) is defined by central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, demyelination and axonal damage. Some of the disease mechanisms are known but the cause of this complex disorder stays an enigma. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model mimicking many

  3. The murine gammaherpesvirus-68 chemokine-binding protein M3 inhibits experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millward, Jason M; Holst, Peter J; Høgh-Petersen, Mette

    2010-01-01

    M3 (AdM3) directly to the CNS to evaluate the capacity of this protein to inhibit neuroinflammation using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. Treatment with the AdM3 vector significantly reduced the clinical severity of EAE, attenuated CNS histopathology, and reduced numbers...

  4. Chemokine expression in GKO mice (lacking interferon-gamma) with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glabinski, A R; Krakowski, M; Han, Y

    1999-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) considered to be an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). The detailed mechanism that specifies accumulation of inflammatory cells within the CNS in these conditions remains a subject...

  5. A role for VAV1 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagodic, Maja; Colacios, Celine; Nohra, Rita

    2009-01-01

    region on rat chromosome 9 regulates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model for multiple sclerosis. Using interval-specific congenic rat lines and association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms with inflammatory phenotypes, we localized the gene of influence to Vav1, which codes for a signal...

  6. Key metalloproteinases are expressed by specific cell types in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Nuttall, Robert K; Edwards, Dylan R

    2004-01-01

    animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We used real-time RT-PCR to profile the expression of all 22 known mouse MMPs, seven ADAMs, and all four known TIMPs in spinal cord from SJL/J mice and mice with adoptively transferred myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific EAE. A significant...

  7. Increased demyelination and axonal damage in metallothionein I+II-deficient mice during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Espejo, C; Martínez-Cáceres, E M

    2003-01-01

    Metallothioneins I+II (MT-I+II) are antioxidant, neuroprotective factors. We previously showed that MT-I+II deficiency during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) leads to increased disease incidence and clinical symptoms. Moreover, the inflammatory response of macrophages and T cells...

  8. Genetic variants of CC chemokine genes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ockinger, J; Stridh, P; Beyeen, A D

    2010-01-01

    regulating neuroinflammation we used a rat model of MS, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and carried out a linkage analysis in an advanced intercross line (AIL). We thereby redefine the Eae18b locus to a 0.88 Mb region, including a cluster...

  9. Oxidative Injury and Iron Redistribution Are Pathological Hallmarks of Marmoset Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunham, Jordon; Bauer, Jan; Campbell, Graham R.; Mahad, Don J.; van Driel, Nikki; van der Pol, Susanne M. A.; 't Hart, Bert A.; Lassmann, Hans; Laman, Jon D.; van Horssen, Jack; Kap, Yolanda S.

    Oxidative damage and iron redistribution are associated with the pathogenesis and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS), but these aspects are not entirely replicated in rodent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models. Here, we report that oxidative burst and injury as well as

  10. Epitope-Specific Tolerance Modes Differentially Specify Susceptibility to Proteolipid Protein-Induced Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Immunization with myelin components can elicit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. EAE susceptibility varies between mouse strains, depending on the antigen employed. BL/6 mice are largely resistant to EAE induction with proteolipid protein (PLP, probably a reflection of antigen-specific tolerance. However, the extent and mechanism(s of tolerance to PLP remain unclear. Here, we identified three PLP epitopes in PLP-deficient BL/6 mice. PLP-sufficient mice did not respond against two of these, whereas tolerance was “leaky” for an epitope with weak predicted MHCII binding, and only this epitope was encephalitogenic. In TCR transgenic mice, the “EAE-susceptibility-associated” epitope was “ignored” by specific CD4 T cells, whereas the “resistance-associated” epitope induced clonal deletion and Treg induction in the thymus. Central tolerance was autoimmune regulator dependent and required expression and presentation of PLP by thymic epithelial cells (TECs. TEC-specific ablation of PLP revealed that peripheral tolerance, mediated by dendritic cells through recessive tolerance mechanisms (deletion and anergy, could largely compensate for a lack of central tolerance. However, adoptive EAE was exacerbated in mice lacking PLP in TECs, pointing toward a non-redundant role of the thymus in dominant tolerance to PLP. Our findings reveal multiple layers of tolerance to a central nervous system autoantigen that vary among epitopes and thereby specify disease susceptibility. Understanding how different modalities of tolerance apply to distinct T cell epitopes of a target in autoimmunity has implications for antigen-specific strategies to therapeutically interfere with unwanted immune reactions against self.

  11. Neuroprotection in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis and Progressive Multiple Sclerosis by Cannabis-Based Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Gareth; Riddall, Dieter R; Selwood, David L; Giovannoni, Gavin; Baker, David

    2015-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the major immune-mediated, demyelinating, neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. Compounds within cannabis, notably Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) can limit the inappropriate neurotransmissions that cause MS-related problems and medicinal cannabis is now licenced for the treatment of MS symptoms. However, the biology indicates that the endocannabinoid system may offer the potential to control other aspects of disease. Although there is limited evidence that the cannabinoids from cannabis are having significant immunosuppressive activities that will influence relapsing autoimmunity, we and others can experimentally demonstrate that they may limit neurodegeneration that drives progressive disability. Here we show that synthetic cannabidiol can slow down the accumulation of disability from the inflammatory penumbra during relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in ABH mice, possibly via blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels. In addition, whilst non-sedating doses of Δ9-THC do not inhibit relapsing autoimmunity, they dose-dependently inhibit the accumulation of disability during EAE. They also appear to slow down clinical progression during MS in humans. Although a 3 year, phase III clinical trial did not detect a beneficial effect of oral Δ9-THC in progressive MS, a planned subgroup analysis of people with less disability who progressed more rapidly, demonstrated a significant slowing of progression by oral Δ9-THC compared to placebo. Whilst this may support the experimental and biological evidence for a neuroprotective effect by the endocannabinoid system in MS, it remains to be established whether this will be formally demonstrated in further trials of Δ9-THC/cannabis in progressive MS.

  12. Time-course expression of CNS inflammatory, neurodegenerative tissue repair markers and metallothioneins during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espejo, C; Penkowa, M; Demestre, M

    2005-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). EAE and MS are characterized by CNS inflammation, demyelination and neurodegeneration. The inflammatory response occurring within the CNS leads to glial activation, dysfunction and death, as well...

  13. Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suppresses dendritic cell function and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhenzhen; Da, Yurong; Xue, Zhenyi; Zhang, Kai; Zhuang, Hao; Peng, Meiyu; Li, Yan; Li, Wen; Simard, Alain; Hao, Junwei; Yao, Zhi; Zhang, Rongxin

    2013-03-01

    Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has been used clinically as an anticancer drug and also has immunosuppressive properties. However, the underlying mechanisms of effects of vorinostat on central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory diseases remain incomplete. Here, this study investigates the effects of vorinostat on human CD14(+) monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and mouse immature DC in vitro. Furthermore, we explore the therapeutic effects and cellular mechanisms of vorinostat on animal model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in vivo. Our findings demonstrate that vorinostat inhibited human CD14(+) monocyte-derived DCs differentiation, maturation, endocytosis, and further inhibited mDCs' stimulation of allogeneic T-cell proliferation. In addition, vorinostat inhibited DC-directed Th1- (Type 1T helper) and Th17-polarizing cytokine production. Furthermore, vorinostat ameliorated Th1- and Th17-mediated EAE by reducing CNS inflammation and demyelination. What's more, Th1 and Th17 cell functions were suppressed in vorinostat-treated EAE mice. Finally, vorinostat suppressed expression of costimulatory molecules of DC in EAE mice. These suggest therapeutic effects of vorinostat on EAE which may by suppress DCs and DCs-mediated Th1 and Th17 cell functions. Our findings warrant further investigation in the potential of vorinostat for the treatment of human multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model for multiple sclerosis (MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Cris S; Farooqi, Nasr; O'Brien, Kate; Gran, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most commonly used experimental model for the human inflammatory demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis (MS). EAE is a complex condition in which the interaction between a variety of immunopathological and neuropathological mechanisms leads to an approximation of the key pathological features of MS: inflammation, demyelination, axonal loss and gliosis. The counter-regulatory mechanisms of resolution of inflammation and remyelination also occur in EAE, which, therefore can also serve as a model for these processes. Moreover, EAE is often used as a model of cell-mediated organ-specific autoimmune conditions in general. EAE has a complex neuropharmacology, and many of the drugs that are in current or imminent use in MS have been developed, tested or validated on the basis of EAE studies. There is great heterogeneity in the susceptibility to the induction, the method of induction and the response to various immunological or neuropharmacological interventions, many of which are reviewed here. This makes EAE a very versatile system to use in translational neuro- and immunopharmacology, but the model needs to be tailored to the scientific question being asked. While creating difficulties and underscoring the inherent weaknesses of this model of MS in straightforward translation from EAE to the human disease, this variability also creates an opportunity to explore multiple facets of the immune and neural mechanisms of immune-mediated neuroinflammation and demyelination as well as intrinsic protective mechanisms. This allows the eventual development and preclinical testing of a wide range of potential therapeutic interventions. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Translational Neuropharmacology. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.164.issue-4 PMID:21371012

  15. SAP Suppresses the Development of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in C57BL6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhe; Ke, Zun-Ji; Geng, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4+ T cell-mediated disease of the CNS. Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a highly conserved plasma protein named for its universal presence in amyloid deposits. Here we report SAP transgenic mice had unexpectedly attenuated EAE due to impaired encephalitogenic responses. Following induction with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein (MOG) peptide 35–55 in CFA, SAP transgenic mice showed reduced spinal cord inflammation with lower severity of EAE attacks as compared with control C57BL/6 mice. However in SAP-KO mice, the severity of EAE is enhanced. Adoptive transfer of Ag-restimulated T cells from wild-type to SAP transgenic mice or transfer of SAP transgenic Ag-restimulated T cells to control mice induced milder EAE. T cells from MOG-primed SAP transgenic mice showed weak proliferative responses. Furthermore, in SAP transgenic mice, there is little infiltration of CD45-positive cells in the spinal cord. In vitro, SAP suppressed the secretion of IL-2 stimulated by P-selectin, and blocked P-selectin binding to T cells. Moreover, SAP could change the affinity between α4-integrin and T cells. These data suggested that SAP could antagonize the development of the acute phase of inflammation accompanying EAE by modulating the function of P-selectin. PMID:21647172

  16. The experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis disease course is modulated by nicotine and other cigarette smoke components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Gao

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have reported that cigarette smoking increases the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS and accelerates its progression. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain unsettled. We have investigated here the effects of the nicotine and the non-nicotine components in cigarette smoke on MS using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model, and have explored their underlying mechanism of action. Our results show that nicotine ameliorates the severity of EAE, as shown by reduced demyelination, increased body weight, and attenuated microglial activation. Nicotine administration after the development of EAE symptoms prevented further disease exacerbation, suggesting that it might be useful as an EAE/MS therapeutic. In contrast, the remaining components of cigarette smoke, delivered as cigarette smoke condensate (CSC, accelerated and increased adverse clinical symptoms during the early stages of EAE, and we identify a particular cigarette smoke compound, acrolein, as one of the potential mediators. We also show that the mechanisms underlying the opposing effects of nicotine and CSC on EAE are likely due to distinct effects on microglial viability, activation, and function.

  17. Parental genes do not codominantly confer susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in F1 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, D C; Wolf, N A; Swanborg, R H

    2001-03-01

    Lewis (LEW) and DA rats are highly susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced with guinea pig myelin basic protein (MBP), but respond to different epitopes. The dominant epitope for LEW rats is MBP73-86, and disease is mediated primarily by Vbeta8.2 Th1 cells. DA rats lack conventional Vbeta8.2 T cells and do not respond to MBP73-86. Rather, DA rats respond to the cryptic epitope MBP63-81, which is not encephalitogenic for LEW rats. Responses to these neuroantigens were investigated in (DAxLEW) F1 hybrids to determine if experimental findings in inbred rats remain valid in more genetically complex models. Surprisingly, MBP63-81, a cryptic epitope for DA rats, induced moderate-to-severe EAE in F1 hosts, whereas MBP73-86, the dominant LEW epitope, was only weakly encephalitogenic in F1 hosts. The poor clinical response to MBP73-86 appears to be a consequence of an inability to expand Vbeta8.2 T cells. These results suggest that parental responses to neuroantigens are poor predictors for determining encephalitogenicity in F1 progeny.

  18. Amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats treated with fucoidan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heechul; Moon, Changjong; Park, Eun-jin; Jee, Youngheun; Ahn, Meejung; Wie, Myung Bok; Shin, Taekyun

    2010-03-01

    We examined whether fucoidan affected the clinical symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats. EAE was induced in Lewis rats that were immunized with guinea-pig myelin basic protein (MBP) and complete Freund's adjuvant. Fucoidan (50 mg/kg, daily) was administered to rats with EAE intraperitoneally, either in the EAE induction phase from either 1 day before immunization to day 7 post-immunization (PI), or the effector phase from day 8 to 14 PI, to test which phase of rat EAE is affected by fucoidan treatment.The onset, severity and duration of EAE paralysis in the fucoidan-treated group in the days 8-14 PI-treated rats, but not in days -1-7 PI-treated rats, were significantly delayed, suppressed and reduced, respectively, compared with the vehicle-treated controls. Treatment with fucoidan reduced the encephalitogenic response and TNF-alpha production during EAE. Moreover, the clinical amelioration coincided with decreased infiltration of inflammatory cells in the EAE-affected spinal cord. The ameliorative effect of fucoidan on clinical paralysis in EAE-affected rats may be mediated, in part, by the suppression of the autoreactive T cell response and inflammatory cytokine production. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Synapsin I deletion reduces neuronal damage and ameliorates clinical progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Fabrizia C; Bellani, Serena; Yekhlef, Latefa; Bergamaschi, Andrea; Finardi, Annamaria; Fesce, Riccardo; Pozzi, Davide; Monzani, Elena; Fornasiero, Eugenio F; Matteoli, Michela; Martino, Gianvito; Furlan, Roberto; Taverna, Stefano; Muzio, Luca; Valtorta, Flavia

    2018-02-01

    The classical view of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis states that inflammation-mediated demyelination is responsible for neuronal damage and loss. However, recent findings show that impairment of neuronal functions and demyelination can be independent events, suggesting the coexistence of other pathogenic mechanisms. Due to the inflammatory milieu, subtle alterations in synaptic function occur, which are probably at the basis of the early cognitive decline that often precedes the neurodegenerative phases in MS patients. In particular, it has been reported that inflammation enhances excitatory synaptic transmission while it decreases GABAergic transmission in vitro and ex vivo. This evidence points to the idea that an excitation/inhibition imbalance occurs in the inflamed MS brain, even though the exact molecular mechanisms leading to this synaptic dysfunction are as yet not completely clear. Along this line, we observed that acute treatment of primary hippocampal neurons in culture with pro-inflammatory cytokines leads to an increased phosphorylation of synapsin I (SynI) by ERK1/2 kinase and to an increase in the frequency of spontaneous synaptic vesicle release events, which is prevented by SynI deletion. In vivo, the ablation of SynI expression is protective in terms of disease progression and neuronal damage in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model of MS. Our results point to a possible key role in MS pathogenesis of the neuronal protein SynI, a regulator of excitation/inhibition balance in neuronal networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. HMGB1 expression patterns during the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Chen, Huoying; Dai, Jiapei; Zou, Huijuan; Gao, Ming; Wu, Hao; Ming, Bingxia; Lai, Lin; Xiao, Yifan; Xiong, Ping; Xu, Yong; Gong, Feili; Zheng, Fang

    2015-03-15

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nonhistone chromatin associated protein, plays different roles according to the expression pattern such as the amount, cell location and sub-cellular location. It has been recently demonstrated that the systemic HMGB1 is associated with autoimmune encephalomyelitis. However, the dynamic change of HMGB1 expression pattern in spinal cords that may be involved in the progression of disease is not fully understood. In this study, the amount, cell location and subcellular location of HMGB1 in adult mice spinal cords during various stages of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are investigated. HMGB1 is expressed in the nuclei of spinal cord resident cells such as some astrocytes, microglia and a few neurons in normal situation. During EAE progression, the total and extracellular HMGB1 in the spinal cord are increased, more HMGB1 positive astrocytes and microglia are observed, and the intra-neurons HMGB1 in the ventral horn and around the central canal localize majorly in the cytoplasm accompanied by the increasing extracellular HMGB1. Blockade of HMGB1 in central nervous system (CNS) locally attenuates the severity of EAE significantly. Our findings indicate that the HMGB1 expression pattern in the spinal cord is associated with the progression of EAE. HMGB1 may be a potential target for autoimmune encephalomyelitis (multiple sclerosis in human) therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High salt drives Th17 responses in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis without impacting myeloid dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jörg, Stefanie; Kissel, Jan; Manzel, Arndt; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Haghikia, Aiden; Gold, Ralf; Müller, Dominik N; Linker, Ralf A

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we have shown that high dietary salt intake aggravates T helper cell (Th) 17 responses and neuroinflammation. Here, we employed in vitro assays for myeloid dendritic cell (mDC) maturation, DC cytokine production, T cell activation and ex vivo analyses in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to investigate whether the salt effect on Th17 cells is further mediated through DCs in vivo. In cell culture, an excess of 40mM sodium chloride did neither affect the generation, maturation nor the function of DCs, but, in different assays, significantly increased Th17 differentiation. During the initiation phase of MOG35-55 EAE, we did not observe altered DC frequencies or co-stimulatory capacities in lymphoid organs, while IL-17A production and Th17 cells in the spleen were significantly increased. Complementary ex vivo analyses of the spinal cord during the effector phase of EAE showed increased frequencies of Th17 cells, but did not reveal differences in phenotypes of CNS invading DCs. Finally, adaption of transgenic mice harboring a MOG specific T cell receptor to a high-salt diet led to aggravated clinical disease only after active immunization. Wild-type mice adapted to a high-salt diet in the effector phase of EAE, bypassing the priming phase of T cells, only displayed mildly aggravated disease. In summary, our data argue for a direct effect of NaCl on Th17 cells in neuroinflammation rather than an effect primarily exerted via DCs. These data may further fuel our understanding on the dietary impact on different immune cell subsets in autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Transplantation of autologous adipose stem cells lacks therapeutic efficacy in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS, characterized by chronic inflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage, is a complicated neurological disease of the human central nervous system. Recent interest in adipose stromal/stem cell (ASCs for the treatment of CNS diseases has promoted further investigation in order to identify the most suitable ASCs. To investigate whether MS affects the biologic properties of ASCs and whether autologous ASCs from MS-affected sources could serve as an effective source for stem cell therapy, cells were isolated from subcutaneous inguinal fat pads of mice with established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a murine model of MS. ASCs from EAE mice and their syngeneic wild-type mice were cultured, expanded, and characterized for their cell morphology, surface antigen expression, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, colony forming units, and inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in vitro. Furthermore, the therapeutic efficacy of the cells was assessed in vivo by transplantation into EAE mice. The results indicated that the ASCs from EAE mice displayed a normal phenotype, typical MSC surface antigen expression, and in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacity, while their osteogenic differentiation capacity was reduced in comparison with their unafflicted control mice. The ASCs from EAE mice also demonstrated increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, specifically an elevation in the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and keratin chemoattractant. In vivo, infusion of wild type ASCs significantly ameliorate the disease course, autoimmune mediated demyelination and cell infiltration through the regulation of the inflammatory responses, however, mice treated with autologous ASCs showed no therapeutic improvement on the disease progression.

  3. Neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy decreases the incidence and severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Chavira-Ramírez, Roberto; Kovacs, Kalman; Berczi, Istvan

    2005-01-01

    Acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, mediated by T lymphocytes. Immunization of Lewis rats with myelin antigens suspended in complete Freund's adjuvant induces EAE. In a previous study on rats we have found that neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL) decreased both the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Here we investigated the effect of NIL on the incidence and severity of EAE and on the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in Lewis rats. NIL, hypophysectomized (Hypox) and sham-operated (Sham) rats were immunized s.c. with guinea-pig brain extract suspended in complete Freund's adjuvant. Untreated rats were used as controls. Water intake, body weight gain, clinical and histopathologic incidence and severity of EAE were evaluated in the operated groups. On killing, plasma adrenocorticotropin and corticosterone levels were measured and adrenals, thymuses and spleens were weighed. Histopathologic lesions were counted in the brain and spinal cord. Water intake and body weight gain were significantly decreased in Sham and Hypox animals with EAE whereas higher intakes persisted in the NIL group. Plasma levels of adrenocorticotropin were within the normal range whereas corticosterone levels increased in Sham and occasionally in NIL animals. Thymus weights were decreased in NIL and Hypox groups. The clinical and histopathologic incidence and severity of EAE were significantly decreased in NIL animals as compared with Sham and Hypox rats. We concluded that NIL affects the cell-mediated immune response and plays a role in the development and progression of EAE in the Lewis rat.

  4. Anergy-associated T cell antigen presentation. A mechanism of infectious tolerance in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannie, M D; Rendall, S K; Arnold, P Y; Nardella, J P; White, G A

    1996-08-01

    CD4+ T cells promote immune responses against foreign Ags while actively suppressing responses against self Ags. To address how CD4+ T cells ensure self-tolerance, we focused on two CD4+ T helper cells specific for myelin basic protein (MBP). GP2.E5/R1 T cells recognized rat MBP (RMBP) as a partial agonist and mediated mild experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), whereas R2 T cells recognized RMBP with full efficacy and mediated severe EAE. GP2.E5/R1 T cells were more susceptible to anergy induction than R2 T cells. Anergic GP2.E5/R1 T cells lacked proliferative reactivity, but expressed both I-A glycoproteins and high levels of radioresistant APC activity. During induction of anergy, these T cells acquired the ability to present MBP. In a separate subsequent culture without further addition of Ag, anergic GP2.E5/R1 T cells elicited full proliferative and IL-2 production responses by R2 T cells. Unlike activations induced via irradiated splenocytes, irradiated anergic T cells elicited anergy in R2 T cells in the form of a postactivational phase of nonresponsiveness. Anergic GP2.E5/R1 T cells not only transferred anergy to pathogenic R2 T cells in vitro, but these anergic T cells also transferred resistance to EAE in Lewis rats subsequently challenged with guinea pig MBP in CFA. Antagonistic signaling by autologous RMBP was more tolerogenic than that of guinea pig MBP in both in vitro and in vivo models of infectious anergy. We conclude that in the presence of tolerogenic mAb, antagonistic signaling by a self protein elicited the coordinate expression of anergy and T cell-mediated APC activity as a mechanism for the genesis and spread of infectious tolerance.

  5. Arg deficiency does not influence the course of Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG35-55)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Freja Aksel; Hulst, Camilla; Bäckström, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inhibition of Abl kinases has an ameliorating effect on the rodent model for multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and arrests lymphocyte activation. The family of Abl kinases consists of the Abl1/Abl and Abl2/Arg tyrosine kinases. While the Abl kinase has been...... extensively studied in immune activation, roles for Arg are incompletely characterized. To investigate the role for Arg in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we studied disease development in Arg-/- mice. Methods: Arg-/- and Arg+/+ mice were generated from breeding of Arg+/- mice on the C57BL/6...... skewing in the frequency of born Arg-/- mice. Loss of Arg function did not affect development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, but reduced the number of splenic B-cells in Arg-/- mice following immunization with MOG peptide. Conclusions: Development of MOG-induced experimental autoimmune...

  6. Metallothionein I+II expression and their role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Hidalgo, J

    2000-01-01

    We examined the expression and roles of neuroprotective metallothionein-I+II (MT-I+II) in the rat CNS in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for the human autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis (MS). EAE caused significant macrophage activation, T-lymphocyte infiltrat......We examined the expression and roles of neuroprotective metallothionein-I+II (MT-I+II) in the rat CNS in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for the human autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis (MS). EAE caused significant macrophage activation, T...... to study the effects of increased MT levels, we administered Zn-MT-II intraperitoneally (i.p.) to rats during EAE. Clinically, Zn-MT-II treatment reduced the severity of EAE symptoms and mortality in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Histopathologically, Zn-MT-II increased reactive astrogliosis...... of action on macrophages, while T lymphocytes are affected locally in the CNS. During EAE, oxidative stress was decreased by Zn-MT-II, which could contribute to the diminished clinical scores observed. None of the effects caused by Zn-MT-II could be attributable to the zinc content. These results suggest MT...

  7. Mechanisms of action of cannabidiol in adoptively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Coral; Torres, Irene Moreno; García-Hernández, Ruth; Campos-Ruíz, Lucía; Esparragoza, Luis Rodríguez; Coronado, María José; Grande, Aranzazu García; García-Merino, Antonio; Sánchez López, Antonio J

    2017-12-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the most important compounds in Cannabis sativa, lacks psychotropic effects, and possesses a high number of therapeutic properties including the amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The aim of this study was to analyse the relative efficacy of CBD in adoptively transferred EAE (at-EAE), a model that allows better delineation of the effector phase of EAE. Splenocytes and lymph nodes from mice with actively induced EAE were cultured in the presence of MOG 35-55 and IL-12 and inoculated intraperitoneally in recipient female C57BL/6J mice. The effects of CBD were evaluated using clinical scores and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the central nervous system, the extent of cell infiltration, axonal damage, demyelination, microglial activation and cannabinoid receptors expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Lymph cell viability, apoptosis, oxidative stress and IL-6 production were measured in vitro. Preventive intraperitoneal treatment with CBD ameliorated the clinical signs of at-EAE, and this improvement was accompanied by a reduction of the apparent diffusion coefficient in the subiculum area of the brain. Inflammatory infiltration, axonal damage, and demyelination were reduced, and cannabinoid receptor expression was modulated. Incubation with CBD decreased encephalitogenic cell viability, increasing early apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreasing IL-6 production. The reduction in viability was not mediated by CB 1 , CB 2 or GPR55 receptors. CBD markedly improved the clinical signs of at-EAE and reduced infiltration, demyelination and axonal damage. The CBD-mediated decrease in the viability of encephalitogenic cells involves ROS generation, apoptosis and a decrease in IL-6 production and may contribute to the therapeutic effect of this compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. New findings and old controversies in the research of multiple sclerosis and its model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharoni, Rina

    2013-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS that is heterogeneous in its clinical manifestation and progression, as well as in its pathological mechanisms. Animal models, in particular the various forms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, have been highly valuable for studying both disease pathology and drug development. Novel technologies, such as advanced imaging systems, as well as systematic research of CNS biopsies and postmortem samples from MS patients, have brought major progress in disease understanding. Consequently, in addition to the sclerotic demyelinated plaques in the white matter, changes in normal-appearing white matter tissue ('pre-plaque') and gray matter pathology are currently regarded as central disease components. This review aims to provide current insights on several central aspects in MS research. In particular, the interplay between inflammation and neurodegeneration mediating the disease, and therapeutic strategies attempting to induce immunomodulation and neuroprotective repair processes, are discussed.

  9. Hyperinducibility of Ia antigen on astrocytes correlates with strain-specific susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, P.T.; ter Meulen, V.; Fontana, A.

    1987-01-01

    In search of a phenotypic marker determining genetically controlled susceptibility to delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in the brain-in particular, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)- the authors have compared the γ-interferon (IFN-γ) induction of Ia molecules on astrocytes and macrophages from rat and mouse strains that are susceptible or resistant to this disease. They focused on Ia expression because DTH reactions to self or foreign antigens are largely mediated by lymphocytes restricted by class II (Ia) antigens of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The data demonstrate that Lewis (fully susceptible) and Brown Norway (BN) (fully resistant) rats are very different in that Lewis astrocytes express much higher levels of Ia than BN astrocytes. Similar data were obtained from an analysis of EAE-susceptible and -resistant mouse strains (SJL and BALB/c, respectively), which suggest that this phenomenon may be universal and not limited to only one mammalian species. At least one gene responsible for Ia hyperinduction is located outside the rat RT-1 or the mouse MHC locus. Animals congenic at the RT-1 or MHC locus of the resistant strain but with background genes of the susceptible strain exhibit intermediate levels of Ia compared to fully resistant and susceptible rodents, which fits well with the reduced EAE susceptibility of these congenic animals. Furthermore, hyperinduction of Ia is astrocyte specific, since peritoneal macrophages of susceptible and resistant strains exhibit identical profiles of Ia induction. Thus, astrocyte Ia hyperinducibility may be a major strain- and tissue-specific factor that contributes to Ia-restricted DTH reactions in the brain

  10. Cerebral biochemical pathways in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and adjuvant arthritis: a comparative metabolomic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert W Lutz

    Full Text Available Many diseases, including brain disorders, are associated with perturbations of tissue metabolism. However, an often overlooked issue is the impact that inflammations outside the brain may have on brain metabolism. Our main goal was to study similarities and differences between brain metabolite profiles of animals suffering from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE and adjuvant arthritis (AA in Lewis rat models. Our principal objective was the determination of molecular protagonists involved in the metabolism underlying these diseases. EAE was induced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA and spinal-cord homogenate (SC-H, whereas AA was induced by CFA only. Naive rats served as controls (n = 9 for each group. Two weeks after inoculation, animals were sacrificed, and brains were removed and processed for metabolomic analysis by NMR spectroscopy or for immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, both inflammatory diseases caused similar, though not identical, changes in metabolites involved in regulation of brain cell size and membrane production: among the osmolytes, taurine and the neuronal marker, N-acetylaspartate, were decreased, and the astrocyte marker, myo-inositol, slightly increased in both inoculated groups compared with controls. Also ethanolamine-containing phospholipids, sources of inflammatory agents, and several glycolytic metabolites were increased in both inoculated groups. By contrast, the amino acids, aspartate and isoleucine, were less concentrated in CFA/SC-H and control vs. CFA rats. Our results suggest that inflammatory brain metabolite profiles may indicate the existence of either cerebral (EAE or extra-cerebral (AA inflammation. These inflammatory processes may act through distinct pathways that converge toward similar brain metabolic profiles. Our findings open new avenues for future studies aimed at demonstrating whether brain metabolic effects provoked by AA are pain/stress-mediated and

  11. Phenotype of Antigen Unexperienced TH Cells in the Inflamed Central Nervous System in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Sophia; Paterka, Magdalena; Birkenstock, Jerome; Zipp, Frauke; Siffrin, Volker; Witsch, Esther

    2017-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, disseminated inflammation of the central nervous system which is thought to be driven by autoimmune T cells. Genetic association studies in multiple sclerosis and a large number of studies in the animal model of the disease support a role for effector/memory T helper cells. However, the mechanisms underlying relapses, remission and chronic progression in multiple sclerosis or the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, are not clear. In particular, there is only scarce information on the role of central nervous system-invading naive T helper cells in these processes. By applying two-photon laser scanning microscopy we could show in vivo that antigen unexperienced T helper cells migrated into the deep parenchyma of the inflamed central nervous system in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, independent of their antigen specificity. Using flow cytometric analyses of central nervous system-derived lymphocytes we found that only antigen-specific, formerly naive T helper cells became activated during inflammation of the central nervous system encountering their corresponding antigen.

  12. Kinetics of expression of costimulatory molecules and their ligands in murine relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Navikas, V; Schaub, M

    1998-01-01

    We studied the kinetics of expression of costimulatory molecules and cytokines in the central nervous system (CNS) in murine relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). During the natural course of EAE, B7-2 expression in the CNS correlated with clinical signs, while B7-1 was exclu......We studied the kinetics of expression of costimulatory molecules and cytokines in the central nervous system (CNS) in murine relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). During the natural course of EAE, B7-2 expression in the CNS correlated with clinical signs, while B7...

  13. Genetic variants of CC chemokine genes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ockinger, J; Stridh, P; Beyeen, A D

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disorder of the central nervous system, causing inflammation, demyelination and axonal damage. A limited number of genetic risk factors for MS have been identified, but the etiology of the disease remains largely unknown. For the identification of genes...... regulating neuroinflammation we used a rat model of MS, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and carried out a linkage analysis in an advanced intercross line (AIL). We thereby redefine the Eae18b locus to a 0.88 Mb region, including a cluster...

  14. Increased demyelination and axonal damage in metallothionein I+II-deficient mice during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Espejo, C; Martínez-Cáceres, E M

    2003-01-01

    Metallothioneins I+II (MT-I+II) are antioxidant, neuroprotective factors. We previously showed that MT-I+II deficiency during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) leads to increased disease incidence and clinical symptoms. Moreover, the inflammatory response of macrophages and T cells......, oxidative stress, and apoptotic cell death during EAE were increased by MT-I+II deficiency. We now show for the first time that demyelination and axonal damage are significantly increased in MT-I+II deficient mice during EAE. Furthermore, oligodendroglial regeneration, growth cone formation, and tissue...

  15. Major histocompatibility complex-controlled protective influences on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis are peptide specific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Kjellén, P; Olsson, T

    1997-01-01

    The myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide 63-88-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and its associated T cell cytokine profile are influenced by the rat major histocompatibility complex (MHC). There is an allele-specific protective influence of the MHC class I region, whereas......-101 peptide, except in LEW.1N (RT1 pi) rats which were relatively resistant. Only this strain responded with additional Th2-like and transforming growth factor-beta responses to the peptide in vitro. In vivo depletion of CD8+ cells aggravated the disease in this strain. We conclude that both MHC-controlled...

  16. Differential effects of B7-1 blockade in the rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallon, L; Chandraker, A; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    1997-01-01

    Blocking the CD28-B7 T cell costimulatory activation pathway protects animals from developing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In the mouse EAE model, selective blockade of B7-1 by specific mAbs has been shown to protect animals from EAE. In the Lewis rat model, we have shown...... and either CTLA4Ig or CTLA4IgY100F protected recipients from disease. In vitro studies confirmed the in vivo observations and showed that primed lymph node cells from protected animals had decreased proliferative responses to myelin basic protein as compared with controls, while lymphocytes from animals...

  17. Adoptive autoimmune encephalomyelitis in inbred guinea pigs: immunological and histological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, S H; Lerner, E M; Goode, J H

    1968-03-01

    Major variables which determine the induction and severity of adoptive autoimmune encephalomyelitis are the age and strain of the animal, and the amount of killed mycobacteria in the adjuvant. Control of these factors results in consistent production of this disease in high incidence and in severe form. The pathologic changes in the central nervous system can be correlated with the clinical disease. Maturity of the target tissues in the central nervous system of the newborn appears to be an important factor which distinguishes the response of the guinea pig from that of other species.

  18. Chemokine expression in GKO mice (lacking interferon-gamma) with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glabinski, A R; Krakowski, M; Han, Y

    1999-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) considered to be an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). The detailed mechanism that specifies accumulation of inflammatory cells within the CNS in these conditions remains a subject...... in the CNS of mice with an intact IFN-gamma gene and EAE, was strikingly absent. In vitro experiments confirmed that IFNgamma selectively stimulates astrocytes for IP-10 expression. These results indicate that IP-10 is dependent upon IFN-gamma for its upregulation during this model disease, and document...

  19. Retracted: Metallothionein I+II expression and their role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Following on from the Expression of Concern (10.1002/glia.22466) previously published by GLIA, the following Original Article has been retracted by the journal Editors and Publisher: Metallothionein I+II expression and their role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis By Milena Penkowa and Juan Hidalgo GLIA (2000), 32(3), 247-263 DOI: 10.1002/1098-1136(200012)32:33.0.CO;2-T Discrepancies in the type and number of animals used in experiments performed by Milena Penkowa and reported in Table 1, identified during the course of investigations into Ms Penkowa's research, render the data and conclusions drawn from them unreliable. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Immunoglobulin E-Mediated Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Maurer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of autoimmunity mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE autoantibodies, which may be termed autoallergy, is in its infancy. It is now recognized that systemic lupus erythematosus, bullous pemphigoid (BP, and chronic urticaria, both spontaneous and inducible, are most likely to be mediated, at least in part, by IgE autoantibodies. The situation in other conditions, such as autoimmune uveitis, rheumatoid arthritis, hyperthyroid Graves’ disease, autoimmune pancreatitis, and even asthma, is far less clear but evidence for autoallergy is accumulating. To be certain of an autoallergic mechanism, it is necessary to identify both IgE autoantibodies and their targets as has been done with the transmembrane protein BP180 and the intracellular protein BP230 in BP and IL-24 in chronic spontaneous urticaria. Also, IgE-targeted therapies, such as anti-IgE, must have been shown to be of benefit to patients as has been done with both of these conditions. This comprehensive review of the literature on IgE-mediated autoallergy focuses on three related questions. What do we know about the prevalence of IgE autoantibodies and their targets in different diseases? What do we know about the relevance of IgE autoantibodies in different diseases? What do we know about the cellular and molecular effects of IgE autoantibodies? In addition to providing answers to these questions, based on a broad review of the literature, we outline the current gaps of knowledge in our understanding of IgE autoantibodies and describe approaches to address them.

  1. Immunomodulatory effects of helminths and protozoa in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasseldam, H; Hansen, C S; Johansen, F F

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory CNS disease, which affects about 1 in 1000 individuals in the western world. During the last couple of decades, epidemiological data have accumulated, pointing towards increases in incidence. This has been suggested to be linked to the relatively high hygiene standards that exist in the western world, with reduced exposure to various pathogens, including parasites, as a consequence. Parasites are known to employ various immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory strategies, which enable them to evade destruction by the immune system. This is most likely one of the reasons for the disease-dampening effects, reported in numerous studies investigating parasite infections and autoimmunity. This review will focus on recent advances in the field of parasites as beneficial immunomodulators, in multiple sclerosis and the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Role of passive T-cell death in chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Abdallah, K; Chitnis, T

    2000-01-01

    The mechanisms of chronic disease and recovery from relapses in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, are unknown. Deletion of myelin-specific lymphocytes by apoptosis may play a role in termination of the inflammatory response. One pathway...... of apoptosis is the passive cell death or "cell death by neglect" pathway, which is under the control of the Bcl family of genes. To investigate the role of passive cell death pathway in EAE, we used mice with transgenic expression of the long form of the bcl-x gene (Bcl-x(L)) targeted to the T-cell lineage...... central nervous system (CNS) compared with controls. There was also a decreased number of apoptotic cells in the CNS of Bcl-x(L) transgenic mice when compared with littermates at all time points tested. This is the first report of an autoimmune disease model in Bcl-x(L) transgenic mice. Our data indicate...

  3. Liver Damage and Mortality in a Male Lewis Rat of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarinia, Ameneh; Jalili, Cyrus; Mostafaie, Ali; Parvaneh, Shahram; Pakravan, Nafiseh

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. This is due to migration of peripherally activated lymphocytes to central nervous system leading to inflammatory lesions. However, liver has an anti-inflammatory microenvironment. Myelin expression in the liver of transgenic mice suppresses inflammatory lesions within central nervous system. Considering the notion that the inflammatory events originate from periphery, we investigated if the liver was affected in an animal model for multiple sclerosis. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was induced in male Lewis rats using guinea pig spinal cord and complete Freund's adjuvant. Weight, clinical score, and survival rate were evaluated for 14 days post immunization. Liver sections were taken and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and examined with an Olympus microscope. Mortality was accompanied by liver damage. Sinusoidal congestion, pycnotic nuclei within hepatocytes, hepatocyte necrosis, and severe widespread congestion along with fat accumulation within hepatocytes (fatty degeneration) were observed in liver tissue sections. Liver damage occurs in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The perpetuation of self antigen leading to continuous migration of extrahepatically activated T cells makes an inflammatory milieu in the liver. It follows migration and development of more inflammatory cells and may paralyses tolerance inducing mechanisms. Apart from central nervous system lesion, liver injury may act as synergistic factor for debilitation and mortality.

  4. Vaccination with DNA Encoding an Immunodominant Myelin Basic Protein Peptide Targeted to Fc of Immunoglobulin G Suppresses Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Lobell, Anna; Weissert, Robert; Storch, Maria K.; Svanholm, Cecilia; de Graaf, Katrien L.; Lassmann, Hans; Andersson, Roland; Olsson, Tomas; Wigzell, Hans

    1998-01-01

    We explore here if vaccination with DNA encoding an autoantigenic peptide can suppress autoimmune disease. For this purpose we used experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is an autoaggressive disease in the central nervous system and an animal model for multiple sclerosis. Lewis rats were vaccinated with DNA encoding an encephalitogenic T cell epitope, guinea pig myelin basic protein peptide 68–85 (MBP68–85), before induction of EAE with MBP68–85 in complete Freund's adjuvant....

  5. Protracted, relapsing and demyelinating experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DA rats immunized with syngeneic spinal cord and incomplete Freund's adjuvant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, J C; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Storch, M

    1995-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a model for multiple sclerosis (MS). However, MS is a chronic, relapsing and demyelinating disease, whereas EAE in rats is typically a brief and monophasic disorder showing little demyelination. We demonstrate here that DA rats develop severe...

  6. Altered inflammatory response and increased neurodegeneration in metallothionein I+II deficient mice during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Espejo, C; Martínez-Cáceres, E M

    2001-01-01

    Metallothionein-I+II (MT-I+II) are antioxidant, neuroprotective proteins, and in this report we have examined their roles during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by comparing MT-I+II-knock-out (MTKO) and wild-type mice. We herewith show that EAE susceptibility is higher in MTKO mice...

  7. Genetic analysis of inflammation, cytokine mRNA expression and disease course of relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DA rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, J C; Andersson, M; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    1997-01-01

    Genetic analysis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) can provide clues to the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Identifying the susceptibility genes of DA rats may be particularly rewarding since they are prone to develop a remarkably MS-like chronic and demyelinating disease...

  8. Induction of endogenous Type I interferon within the central nervous system plays a protective role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen; Holm, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Type I interferons (IFN), beta (IFN-β) and the alpha family (IFN-α), act through a common receptor and have anti-inflammatory effects. IFN-β is used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) and is effective against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS. Mice with EAE...

  9. Dietary naringenin supplementation attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by modulating autoimmune inflammatory responses in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autoimmune disease is prevalent in humans. Since conventional therapies have limited efficacy and often come with significant side effects, nutrition may provide an alternative and complementary approach to improving the autoimmune disorders. Naringenin, a flavonoid found in citrus fruits, has been ...

  10. A Nonsecosteroidal Vitamin D Receptor Modulator Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis without Causing Hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songqing Na

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D receptor (VDR agonists are currently the agents of choice for the treatment of psoriasis, a skin inflammatory indication that is believed to involve an autoimmune component. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH2D3], the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D, has shown efficacy in animal autoimmune disease models of multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and type I diabetes. However, the side effect of 1,25-(OH2D3 and its synthetic secosteroidal analogs is hypercalcemia, which is a major impediment in their clinical development for autoimmune diseases. Hypercalcemia develops as a result of the action of VDR agonists on the intestine. Here, we describe the identification of a VDR modulator (VDRM compound A that was transcriptionally less active in intestinal cells and as a result exhibited less calcemic activity in vivo than 1,25-(OH2D3. Cytokine analysis indicated that the VDRM not only modulated the T-helper cell balance from Th1 to Th2 effector function but also inhibited Th17 differentiation. Finally, we demonstrate that the oral administration of compound A inhibited the induction and progress of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice without causing hypercalcemia.

  11. Induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Dark Agouti rats without adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosic-Grujicic, S; Ramic, Z; Bumbasirevic, V; Harhaji, L; Mostarica-Stojkovic, M

    2004-04-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-recognized model for multiple sclerosis (MS) in humans. However, adjuvants used with encephalitogens to induce EAE produce non-specific effects interfering with the mechanisms involved in the autoimmune response to the central nervous system (CNS) tissue. It is therefore important to establish a more suitable model of EAE for analysis of autoimmune phenomena resembling those operative in MS. Here we report that EAE can be induced regularly in Dark Agouti (DA) strain of rats with spinal cord tissue without any adjuvant, as judged by both clinical and histological parameters. The incidence and severity of EAE depended on the origin of the encephalitogen, the rat versus guinea pig spinal cord homogenate being more efficient. Furthermore, EAE could be reinduced in animals which had recovered from disease that had been induced actively with encephalitogen alone, suggesting the role of adjuvant-generated non-specific mechanisms in resistance to reinduction of EAE. Thus, EAE induced in DA rats with encephalitogen alone provides a reproducible model for defining pathogenically relevant events in CNS autoimmunity devoid of the potentially misleading effects of adjuvants.

  12. Repulsive Guidance Molecule-a Is Involved in Th17-Cell-Induced Neurodegeneration in Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

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    Shogo Tanabe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and neurodegeneration in the CNS. Although it is important to prevent neurodegeneration for alleviating neurological disability, the molecular mechanism of neurodegeneration remains largely unknown. Here, we report that repulsive guidance molecule-a (RGMa, known to regulate axonal growth, is associated with neurodegeneration in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a mouse model of MS. RGMa is highly expressed in interleukin-17-producing CD4+ T cells (Th17 cells. We induced EAE by adoptive transfer of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-specific Th17 cells and then inhibited RGMa with a neutralizing antibody. Inhibition of RGMa improves EAE scores and reduces neuronal degeneration without altering immune or glial responses. Th17 cells induce cultured cortical neuron death through RGMa-neogenin and Akt dephosphorylation. Our results demonstrate that RGMa is involved in Th17-cell-mediated neurodegeneration and that RGMa-specific antibody may have a therapeutic effect in MS.

  13. Genetic resistance in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. I. Analysis of the mechanism of LeR resistance using radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelfrey, C.M.; Waxman, F.J.; Whitacre, C.C.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that has been extensively studied in the rat. The Lewis rat is highly susceptible to the induction of EAE, while the Lewis resistant (LeR) rat is known to be resistant. In this paper, we demonstrate that the LeR rat, which was derived from the Lewis strain by inbreeding of fully resistant animals, is histocompatible with the Lewis strain. Radiation chimeras, a tool for distinguishing between immunologic and nonimmunologic resistance mechanisms, were utilized to analyze the cellular mechanisms involved in genetic resistance to EAE. By transplanting bone marrow cells from LeR rats into irradiated Lewis recipients, Lewis rats were rendered resistant to EAE induction. Likewise, transplanting Lewis bone marrow cells into irradiated LeR recipients rendered LeR rats susceptible. Mixed lymphoid cell chimeras using bone marrow, spleen, and thymus cells in Lewis recipient rats revealed individual lymphoid cell types and cell interactions that significantly affected the incidence and severity of EAE. Our results suggest that LeR resistance is mediated by hematopoietic/immune cells, and that cells located in the spleen appear to play a critical role in the resistance/susceptibility to EAE induction. Depletion of splenic adherent cells did not change the patterns of EAE resistance. In vivo cell mixing studies suggested the presence of a suppressor cell population in the LeR spleen preparations which exerted an inhibitory effect on Lewis autoimmune responses. Thus, the mechanism of LeR resistance appears to be different from that in other EAE-resistant animals

  14. Cytokines in relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DA rats: persistent mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and absent expression of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Lorentzen, J C; Mustafa, M I

    1996-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats is typically a brief and monophasic disease with sparse demyelination. However, inbred DA rats develop a demyelinating, prolonged and relapsing encephalomyelitis after immunization with rat spinal cord in incomplete Freund's adjuvant...

  15. Regulatory T cell induction during Plasmodium chabaudi infection modifies the clinical course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro S Farias

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is used as an animal model for human multiple sclerosis (MS, which is an inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by activation of Th1 and/or Th17 cells. Human autoimmune diseases can be either exacerbated or suppressed by infectious agents. Recent studies have shown that regulatory T cells play a crucial role in the escape mechanism of Plasmodium spp. both in humans and in experimental models. These cells suppress the Th1 response against the parasite and prevent its elimination. Regulatory T cells have been largely associated with protection or amelioration in several autoimmune diseases, mainly by their capacity to suppress proinflammatory response. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we verified that CD4(+CD25(+ regulatory T cells (T regs generated during malaria infection (6 days after EAE induction interfere with the evolution of EAE. We observed a positive correlation between the reduction of EAE clinical symptoms and an increase of parasitemia levels. Suppression of the disease was also accompanied by a decrease in the expression of IL-17 and IFN-γ and increases in the expression of IL-10 and TGF-β1 relative to EAE control mice. The adoptive transfer of CD4(+CD25(+ cells from P. chabaudi-infected mice reduced the clinical evolution of EAE, confirming the role of these T regs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data corroborate previous findings showing that infections interfere with the prevalence and evolution of autoimmune diseases by inducing regulatory T cells, which regulate EAE in an apparently non-specific manner.

  16. Evaluation of Marijuana Compounds on Neuroimmune Endpoints in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Barbara L F

    2018-02-21

    Cannabinoid compounds refer to a group of more than 60 plant-derived compounds in Cannabis sativa, more commonly known as marijuana. Exposure to marijuana and cannabinoid compounds has been increasing due to increased societal acceptance for both recreational and possible medical use. Cannabinoid compounds suppress immune function, and while this could compromise one's ability to fight infections, immune suppression is the desired effect for therapies for autoimmune diseases. It is critical, therefore, to understand the effects and mechanisms by which cannabinoid compounds alter immune function, especially immune responses induced in autoimmune disease. Therefore, this unit will describe induction and assessment of the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis (MS), and its potential alteration by cannabinoid compounds. The unit includes three approaches to induce EAE, two of which provide correlations to two forms of MS, and the third specifically addresses the role of autoreactive T cells in EAE. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. The Adaptor Protein Rai/ShcC Promotes Astrocyte-Dependent Inflammation during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulivieri, Cristina; Savino, Maria Teresa; Luccarini, Ilaria; Fanigliulo, Emanuela; Aldinucci, Alessandra; Bonechi, Elena; Benagiano, Marisa; Ortensi, Barbara; Pelicci, Giuliana; D'Elios, Mario Milco; Ballerini, Clara; Baldari, Cosima Tatiana

    2016-07-15

    Th17 cells have been casually associated to the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. We have previously demonstrated that Rai/ShcC, a member of the Shc family of adaptor proteins, negatively regulates Th17 cell differentiation and lupus autoimmunity. In this study, we have investigated the pathogenic outcome of the Th17 bias associated with Rai deficiency on multiple sclerosis development, using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model. We found that, unexpectedly, EAE was less severe in Rai(-/-) mice compared with their wild-type counterparts despite an enhanced generation of myelin-specific Th17 cells that infiltrated into the CNS. Nevertheless, when adoptively transferred into immunodeficient Rai(+/+) mice, these cells promoted a more severe disease compared with wild-type encephalitogenic Th17 cells. This paradoxical phenotype was caused by a dampened inflammatory response of astrocytes, which were found to express Rai, to IL-17. The results provide evidence that Rai plays opposite roles in Th17 cell differentiation and astrocyte activation, with the latter dominant over the former in EAE, highlighting this adaptor as a potential novel target for the therapy of multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. The more the merrier? Scoring, statistics and animal welfare in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palle, Pushpalatha; Ferreira, Filipa M; Methner, Axel; Buch, Thorsten

    2016-12-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a frequently used animal model for the investigation of autoimmune processes in the central nervous system. As such, EAE is useful for modelling certain aspects of multiple sclerosis, a human autoimmune disease that leads to demyelination and axonal destruction. It is an important tool for investigating pathobiology, identifying drug targets and testing drug candidates. Even though EAE is routinely used in many laboratories and is often part of the routine assessment of knockouts and transgenes, scoring of the disease course has not become standardized in the community, with at least 83 published scoring variants. Varying scales with differing parameters are used and thus limit comparability of experiments. Incorrect use of statistical analysis tools to assess EAE data is commonplace. In experimental practice the clinical score is used not only as an experimental readout, but also as a parameter to determine animal welfare actions. Often overlooked factors such as the animal's ability to sense its compromised motoric abilities, drastic though transient weight loss, and also the possibility of neuropathic pain, make the assessment of severity a difficult task and pose a problem for experimental refinement. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Effect of DAB(389)IL-2 immunotoxin on the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, S Michael; Bhopale, Mahendra K; Constantinescu, Cris S; Ciric, Bogoljub; Hilliard, Brendan; Ventura, Elvira; Lavi, Ehud; Rostami, Abdolmohamad

    2007-12-15

    Activated T cells express the high affinity interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R also CD25) that binds interleukin 2 (IL-2) and transduces signals important for the proliferation and survival of these cells. We investigated the effect of the genetically engineered immunotoxin DAB(389)IL-2 on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) mediated by activated myelin-reactive T cells. EAE is the most commonly used animal model of the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS). DAB(389)IL-2 is a recombinant fusion product made of a portion of diphtheria toxin, which contains binding and translocation components of the toxin linked to IL-2. The diphtheria toxin targets and kills cells expressing the high affinity IL-2 receptor and has been successfully used in several autoimmune and neoplastic conditions. We observed a significant suppression of guinea-pig spinal cord homogenate (gpSCH)-MBP induced active EAE in Lewis rats at 2 x 1,600 kU of DAB(389)IL-2 given on days 7 and 9 post-immunization and complete suppression with the same dose on days 7, 8 and 9 or 7, 8, 9 and 10 after immunization during the active disease period. There were reduced mononuclear cell infiltrates of CD4(+), CD8(+), CD25(+) and alphabetaTCR(+) T cells in the spinal cord of treated rats. However, treatment at day 11 or 12 post-immunization led to severe, fatal disease. The toxin added to cultures in vitro or injected in vivo suppressed antigen- and mitogen-induced T cell proliferation. DAB(389)IL-2 treatment in vivo or exposure of encephalitogenic T cells in vitro prior to transfer did have a significant inhibitory effect on adoptive transfer EAE. Our data demonstrate that DAB(389)IL-2 immunotoxin can suppress active and passive EAE if applied at specific, early time points, but can have negative consequences at later time points.

  20. Dose-dependent mechanisms relate to nasal tolerance induction and protection against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H L; Liu, J Q; Bai, X F; vn der Meide, P H; Link, H

    1998-07-01

    Nasal administration of soluble antigens is an exciting means of specifically down-regulating pathogenic T-cell reactivities in autoimmune diseases. The mechanisms by which nasal administration of soluble antigens suppresses autoimmunity are poorly understood. To define further the principles of nasal tolerance induction, we studied the effects of nasal administration of myelin basic protein (MBP) on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the Lewis rat. EAE is a CD4+ T-cell-mediated animal model for human multiple sclerosis. Nasal administration of guinea-pig (gp)-MBP at a dose as low as 30 micrograms/rat can completely prevent gp-MBP-induced EAE, whereas nasal administration of bovine (b)-MBP is not effective even at a much higher dosage. Cellular immune responses, as reflected by T-cell proliferation and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-ELISPOT, were suppressed in rats receiving the two different doses (30 and 600 micrograms/rat) of gp-MBP, but not after administration of b-MBP. Rats tolerized with both doses of gp-MBP had also abrogated MBP-induced IFN-gamma mRNA expression in popliteal and inguinal lymph node mononuclear cells compared with rats receiving phosphate-buffered saline nasally. However, adoptive transfer revealed that only spleen mononuclear cells from rats pretreated with a low dose, but not from those pretreated with a high dose, of gp-MBP transferred protection to actively induced EAE. Low-dose (30 micrograms/rat) gp-MBP-tolerized rats also had high numbers of interleukin-4 (IL-4) mRNA-expressing lymph node cells, while high-dose (600 micrograms/rat) gp-MBP-tolerized rats had low numbers of IL-4 mRNA-expressing lymph node cells. Our data suggest an exquisite specificity of nasal tolerance. Dose-dependent mechanisms also relate to nasal tolerance induction and protection against EAE in the Lewis rat.

  1. Total glucosides of peony attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiling; Ma, Xiaomeng; Zhu, Dong Liang; Chen, Li; Jiang, Ying; Zhou, Linli; Cen, Lei; Pi, Rongbiao; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-07-15

    Total glucosides of peony (TGP), an active compound extracted from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, has wide pharmacological effects on nervous system. Here we examined the effects of TGP on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an established model of multiple sclerosis (MS). The results showed that TGP can reduce the severity and progression of EAE in C57 BL/6 mice. In addition, TGP also down-regulated the Th1/Th17 inflammatory response and prevented the reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase of EAE. These findings suggest that TGP could be a potential therapeutic agent for MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pertussis toxin promotes relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, Maryam; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Javan, Mohammad

    2015-12-15

    Animal models simulate different aspects of human diseases and are essential to get a better understanding of the disease, studying treatments and producing new drugs. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a preferred model in multiple sclerosis research. Common EAE model in Lewis rats is induced using MBP peptide as a myelin antigen which results in a monophasic disease course. In the present study, EAE was induced in Lewis rats by homogenized guinea pig spinal cord along with or without pertussis toxin (PT). When PT was used, EAE turned into remitting-relapsing form and worsen the clinical symptoms. Higher inflammation and oxidative stress marker gene expression was observed when PT was administrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Damage to the Optic Chiasm in Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein–Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl L. Herrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optic chiasm lesions in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG–experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE mice were characterized using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and validated using electron microscopy (EM. MR images were collected from 3 days after induction to remission, approximately 20 days after induction. Hematoxylin and eosin, solochrome cyanin–stained sections, and EM images were obtained from the optic chiasms of some mice approximately 4 days after disease onset when their scores were thought to be the highest. T 2 -weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient map hyperintensities corresponded to abnormalities in the optic chiasms of EAE mice. Mixed inflammation was concentrated at the lateral surface. Degeneration of oligodendrocytes, myelin, and early axonal damage were also apparent. A marked increase in chiasm thickness was observed. T 2 -weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI can detect abnormalities in the optic chiasms of MOG-EAE mice. MRI is an important method in the study of this model toward understanding optic neuritis.

  4. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis from a tissue energy perspective [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshni A Desai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests a key role for tissue energy failure in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS. Studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a commonly used model of MS, have been instrumental in illuminating the mechanisms that may be involved in compromising energy production. In this article, we review recent advances in EAE research focussing on factors that conspire to impair tissue energy metabolism, such as tissue hypoxia, mitochondrial dysfunction, production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, and sodium dysregulation, which are directly affected by energy insufficiency, and promote cellular damage. A greater understanding of how inflammation affects tissue energy balance may lead to novel and effective therapeutic strategies that ultimately will benefit not only people affected by MS but also people affected by the wide range of other neurological disorders in which neuroinflammation plays an important role.

  5. Improvement of preclinical animal models for autoimmune-mediated disorders via reverse translation of failed therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Hart, Bert A; Jagessar, S Anwar; Kap, Yolanda S; Haanstra, Krista G; Philippens, Ingrid H C H M; Serguera, Che; Langermans, Jan; Vierboom, Michel

    2014-09-01

    The poor translational validity of autoimmune-mediated inflammatory disease (AIMID) models in inbred and specific pathogen-free (SPF) rodents underlies the high attrition of new treatments for the corresponding human disease. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a frequently used preclinical AIMID model. We discuss here how crucial information needed for the innovation of current preclinical models can be obtained from postclinical analysis of the nonhuman primate EAE model, highlighting the mechanistic reasons why some therapies fail and others succeed. These new insights can also help identify new targets for treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Absence of PAF receptor alters cellular infiltrate but not rolling and adhesion of leukocytes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, David Henrique; Lacerda-Queiroz, Norinne; de Miranda, Aline Silva; Fagundes, Caio Tavares; Campos, Roberta Dayrell de Lima; Arantes, Rosa Esteves; Vilela, Márcia de Carvalho; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio

    2011-04-18

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a condition induced in some susceptible species to the study of multiple sclerosis (MS). The platelet activating factor (PAF) is an important mediator of immune responses and seems to be involved in MS. However, the participation of PAF in EAE and MS remains controversial. Thus, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of PAF receptor in the pathogenesis of EAE. EAE was induced using an emulsion containing MOG(35-55). EAE-induced PAF receptor knock out (PAFR(-/-)) mice presented milder disease when compared to C57BL/6 wild type (WT) animals. PAFR(-/-) animals had lower inflammatory infiltrates in central nervous system (CNS) tissue when compared to WT mice. However, intravital microscopy in cerebral microvasculature revealed similar levels of rolling and adhering leukocytes in both WT and PAFR(-/-) mice. Interleukine (IL)-17 and chemokines C-C motif legends (CCL)2 and CCL5 were significantly lower in PAFR(-/-) mice when compared to WT mice. Brain infiltrating cluster of differentiation (CD)4(+) leukocytes and IL-17(+) leukocytes was diminished in PAFR(-/-) when compared to WT mice. Taken together, our results suggest that PAF receptor is important in the induction and development of EAE, although it has no influence in rolling and adhesion steps of cell recruitment. The absence of PAF receptor results in milder disease by altering the type of inflammatory mediators and cells that are present in CNS tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue, gut microbes and susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisavljević, S; Lukić, J; Momčilović, M; Miljković, M; Jevtić, B; Kojić, M; Golić, N; Mostarica Stojković, M; Miljković, D

    2016-06-01

    Gut microbiota and gut-associated lymphoid tissue have been increasingly appreciated as important players in pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of multiple sclerosis that can be induced with an injection of spinal cord homogenate emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant in Dark Agouti (DA) rats, but not in Albino Oxford (AO) rats. In this study, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), Peyer's patches (PP) and gut microbiota were analysed in these two rat strains. There was higher proportion of CD4(+) T cells and regulatory T cells in non-immunised DA rats in comparison to AO rats. Also, DA rat MLN and PP cells were higher producers of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ and interleukin-17. Finally, microbial analyses showed that uncultivated species of Turicibacter and Atopostipes genus were exclusively present in AO rats, in faeces and intestinal tissue, respectively. Thus, it is clear that in comparison of an EAE-susceptible with an EAE-resistant strain of rats, various discrepancies at the level of gut associated lymphoid tissue, as well as at the level of gut microbiota can be observed. Future studies should determine if the differences have functional significance for EAE pathogenesis.

  8. Helminth Products Potently Modulate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Downregulating Neuroinflammation and Promoting a Suppressive Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto N. Peón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A negative correlation between the geographical distribution of autoimmune diseases and helminth infections has been largely associated in the last few years with a possible role for such type of parasites in the regulation of inflammatory diseases, suggesting new pathways for drug development. However, few helminth-derived immunomodulators have been tested in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS. The immunomodulatory activities of Taenia crassiceps excreted/secreted products (TcES that may suppress EAE development were sought for. Interestingly, it was discovered that TcES was able to suppress EAE development with more potency than dexamethasone; moreover, TcES treatment was still effective even when inoculated at later stages after the onset of EAE. Importantly, the TcES treatment was able to induce a range of Th2-type cytokines, while suppressing Th1 and Th17 responses. Both the polyclonal and the antigen-specific proliferative responses of lymphocytes were also inhibited in EAE-ill mice receiving TcES in association with a potent recruitment of suppressor cell populations. Peritoneal inoculation of TcES was able to direct the normal inflammatory cell traffic to the site of injection, thus modulating CNS infiltration, which may work along with Th2 immune polarization and lymphocyte activation impairment to downregulate EAE development.

  9. Treg cell resistance to apoptosis in DNA vaccination for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youmin Kang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regulatory T (Treg cells can be induced with DNA vaccinations and protect mice from the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS. Tacrolimus (FK506 has been shown to have functions on inducing immunosuppression and augmenting apoptosis of pathologic T cells in autoimmune disease. Here we examined the therapeutic effect of DNA vaccine in conjunction with FK506 on EAE. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After EAE induction, C57BL/6 mice were treated with DNA vaccine in conjunction with FK506. Functional Treg cells were induced in treated EAE mice and suppressed Th1 and Th17 cell responses. Infiltrated CD4 T cells were reduced while Treg cells were induced in spinal cords of treated EAE mice. Remarkably, the activated CD4 T cells augmented apoptosis, but the induced Treg cells resisted apoptosis in treated EAE mice, resulting in alleviation of clinical EAE severity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: DNA vaccine in conjunction with FK506 treatment ameliorates EAE by enhancing apoptosis of CD4 T cells and resisting apoptosis of induced Treg cells. Our findings implicate the potential of tolerogenic DNA vaccines for treating MS.

  10. Featured Article: Modulation of the OGF-OGFr pathway alters cytokine profiles in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Michael D; Zagon, Ian S; McLaughlin, Patricia J

    2018-02-01

    The endogenous neuropeptide opioid growth factor, chemically termed [Met 5 ]-enkephalin, has growth inhibitory and immunomodulatory properties. Opioid growth factor is distributed widely throughout most tissues, is autocrine and paracrine produced, and interacts at the nuclear-associated receptor, OGFr. Serum levels of opioid growth factor are decreased in patients with multiple sclerosis and in animals with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis suggesting that the OGF-OGFr pathway becomes dysregulated in this disease. This study begins to assess other cytokines that are altered following opioid growth factor or low-dose naltrexone modulation of the OGF-OGFr axis in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis using serum samples collected in mice treated for 10 or 20 days and assayed by a multiplex cytokine assay for inflammatory markers. Cytokines of interest were validated in mice at six days following immunization for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In addition, selected cytokines were validated with serum from MS patients treated with low-dose naltrexone alone or low-dose naltrexone in combination with glatiramer acetate (Copaxone®). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice had elevated levels of 7 of 10 cytokines. Treatment with opioid growth factor or low-dose naltrexone resulted in elevated expression levels of the IL-6 cytokine, and significantly reduced IL-10 values, relative to saline-treated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice. TNF-γ values were increased in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice relative to normal, but were not altered by opioid growth factor or low-dose naltrexone. IFN-γ levels were reduced in opioid growth factor- or low-dose naltrexone-treated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice relative to saline-treated mice at 10 days, and elevated relative to normal values at 20 days. Validation studies revealed that within six days of immunization, opioid growth factor or low

  11. Specific and strain-independent effects of dexamethasone in the prevention and treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, M; Mangano, K; Quattrocchi, C

    2010-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rodents (EAE) is a generally accepted in vivo model for immunopathogenic mechanisms underlying multiple sclerosis (MS). There are, however, different forms of rodent EAE, and therapeutic regimens may affect these forms differently. We have therefore...... predictors of drug efficacy in at least some variants of human MS. Better understanding of the clinical and immunopharmacologic features of these models might prove useful when testing new drug candidates for MS treatment....

  12. Effects of Vaccination with Altered Peptide Ligand on Chronic Pain in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, David H.; Perera, Chamini J.; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Moalem-Taylor, Gila

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a chronic symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS) and affects nearly half of all MS sufferers. A key instigator of this pain is the pro-inflammatory response in MS. We investigated the behavioural effects of immunisation with a mutant peptide of myelin basic protein (MBP), termed altered peptide ligand (APL), known to initiate immune deviation from a pro-inflammatory state to an anti-inflammatory response in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS...

  13. A Mushroom Extract Piwep from Phellinus igniarius Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Inhibiting Immune Cell Infiltration in the Spinal Cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of a mushroom extract from Phellinus igniarius in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. The medicinal mushroom, Phellinus igniarius, contains biologically active compounds that modulate the human immune system. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE was induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG 35–55 in C57BL/6 female mice. A water-ethanol extract of Phellinus igniarius (Piwep was delivered intraperitoneally every other day for the entire experimental course. Three weeks after the initial immunization, demyelination and immune cell infiltration in the spinal cord were examined. Piwep injection profoundly decreased the daily incidence rate and clinical score of EAE. The Piwep-mediated inhibition of the clinical course of EAE was accompanied by suppression of demyelination and infiltration of encephalitogenic immune cells including CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, macrophages, and B cells in the spinal cord. Piwep reduced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 in the spinal cord and integrin-α4 in the lymph node of EAE mice. Piwep also inhibited proliferation of lymphocytes and secretion of interferon-γ in the lymph node of EAE mice. The results suggest that a mushroom extract, Piwep, may have a high therapeutic potential for ameliorating multiple sclerosis progression.

  14. The leukotriene B{sub 4} receptor, BLT1, is required for the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

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    Kihara, Yasuyuki, E-mail: kihara-yasuyuki@umin.net [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yokomizo, Takehiko [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Core Research for Embryonic Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency (Japan); Kunita, Akiko; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Fukayama, Masashi [Department of Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ishii, Satoshi; Shimizu, Takao [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2010-04-09

    Leukotriene B{sub 4} (LTB{sub 4}) is a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophils, macrophages and T cells. These cells are a key component of inflammation and all express BLT1, a high affinity G-protein-coupled receptor for LTB{sub 4}. However, little is known about the neuroimmune functions of BLT1. In this study, we describe a distinct role for BLT1 in the pathology of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and T{sub H}1/T{sub H}17 immune responses. BLT1 mRNA was highly upregulated in the spinal cord of EAE mice, especially during the induction phase. BLT1{sup -/-} mice had delayed onset and less severe symptoms of EAE than BLT1{sup +/+} mice. Additionally, inflammatory cells were recruited to the spinal cord of asymptomatic BLT1{sup +/+}, but not BLT1{sup -/-} mice before the onset of disease. Ex vivo studies showed that both the proliferation and the production of IFN-{gamma}, TNF-{alpha}, IL-17 and IL-6 were impaired in BLT1{sup -/-} cells, as compared with BLT1{sup +/+} cells. Thus, we suggest that BLT1 exacerbates EAE by regulating the migration of inflammatory cells and T{sub H}1/T{sub H}17 immune responses. Our findings provide a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and other T{sub H}17-mediated diseases.

  15. Chronic caffeine treatment attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced by guinea pig spinal cord homogenates in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo Qian; Chen, Yan Yan; Wang, Xin Shi; Wu, Sai Zhen; Yang, Hui Min; Xu, Hui Qin; He, Jin Cai; Wang, Xiao Tong; Chen, Jiang Fan; Zheng, Rong Yuan

    2010-01-14

    Dysfunction of adenosinergic systems has been implicated in the development of multiple sclerosis in humans and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in animals. Caffeine, a non-selective antagonist of adenosine receptors, has been shown to provide protection against myelin oligodendroglia glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE in mice. In this study, we showed that chronic caffeine similarly imparts neuroprotection against EAE induced in rats by guinea pig spinal cord homogenates (GPSCH). GPSCH-induced EAE is characterized by extensive tissue inflammation with a typical chronic disease course. We showed that caffeine decreases the incidence of EAE and attenuates EAE pathology at behavioral, histological (inflammatory cell infiltration and demyelination) and neurochemical (expression of inflammatory cytokines) levels. The attenuation of GPSCH-induced pathology by chronic caffeine treatment was observed at doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg and during both peak and recovery phases of EAE. Furthermore, it was showed that chronic treatment with caffeine up-regulated A1 receptor and TGF-beta mRNAs and suppressed interferon-gamma mRNA in EAE rats. Together with previous reports, our data demonstrates that chronic treatment with caffeine exerts a neuroprotective effect against EAE, possibly through an A(1) receptor-mediated shift from Th1 to Th2 cell function, and provides a neurobiological basis for epidemiological investigation into the possible relationship between caffeine consumption and development of multiple sclerosis in humans.

  16. Effects of vaccination with altered peptide ligand on chronic pain in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis

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    David H Tian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is a chronic symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS and affects nearly half of all MS sufferers. A key instigator of this pain is the pro-inflammatory response in MS. We investigated the behavioural effects of immunisation with a mutant peptide of myelin basic protein (MBP, termed altered peptide ligand (APL, known to initiate immune deviation from a pro-inflammatory state to an anti-inflammatory response in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of MS. Male and female Lewis rats were injected with vehicle control or with varying doses of 50 or 100 µg guinea pig MBP in combination with or without APL. APL-treated animals established significantly lower disease severity compared to encephalitogenic MBP-treated animals. Animals with EAE developed mechanical, but not thermal pain hypersensitivity. Mechanical pain sensitivities were either improved or normalised during periods of clinical disease in male and female APL-treated animals as compared to the encephalitogenic group. No significant changes to thermal latency were observed upon co-immunisation with APL. Together these data indicate that APL ameliorates disease states and selectively mediates an analgesic effect on EAE animals.

  17. Effects of vaccination with altered Peptide ligand on chronic pain in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, David H; Perera, Chamini J; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Moalem-Taylor, Gila

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a chronic symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS) and affects nearly half of all MS sufferers. A key instigator of this pain is the pro-inflammatory response in MS. We investigated the behavioral effects of immunization with a mutant peptide of myelin basic protein (MBP), termed altered peptide ligand (APL), known to initiate immune deviation from a pro-inflammatory state to an anti-inflammatory response in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Male and female Lewis rats were injected with vehicle control or with varying doses of 50 or 100 μg guinea pig MBP in combination with or without APL. APL-treated animals established significantly lower disease severity compared to encephalitogenic MBP-treated animals. Animals with EAE developed mechanical, but not thermal pain hypersensitivity. Mechanical pain sensitivities were either improved or normalized during periods of clinical disease in male and female APL-treated animals as compared to the encephalitogenic group. No significant changes to thermal latency were observed upon co-immunization with APL. Together these data indicate that APL ameliorates disease states and selectively mediates an analgesic effect on EAE animals.

  18. Novel pathogenic epitopes of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delarasse, Cecile; Smith, Paul; Baker, David; Amor, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a minor protein of the central nervous system myelin, is recognized as a potential target in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. The extracellular domain of MOG is commonly used in a wide range of mouse strains and other animals to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an autoimmune animal model of multiple sclerosis, because it is a target for antibody-mediated attack. Previous studies, using selected peptides, have indicated that MOG35–55 peptide is an encephalitogenic epitope in C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice. A more systematic analysis of both T-cell and B-cell responses following immunization of C57BL/6 mice with either recombinant extracellular mouse MOG protein (1–116) or with overlapping peptides spanning the whole sequence of MOG, before assessment of responses to 15 mer and 23 mer peptides was undertaken. The studies identified T-cell responses within the MOG35–55 (extracellular domain) but also two new immunogenic and encephalitogenic T-cell epitopes within residues MOG113–127, MOG120–134 (localized in the transmembrane region) and MOG183–197 (in the second hydrophobic MOG domain). In addition, residue MOG113–127 was found to be a B-cell epitope, suggesting that this may be a useful adjunct for the induction of EAE as well as for immunological studies in C57BL/6 mice, which are increasingly being used to study immune function through the use of transgenic and gene knockout technology. PMID:23876060

  19. Zinc aspartate suppresses T cell activation in vitro and relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in SJL/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoye, Diana; Schubert, Claudia; Goihl, Alexander; Guttek, Karina; Reinhold, Annegret; Brocke, Stefan; Grüngreiff, Kurt; Reinhold, Dirk

    2012-06-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element with a critical role in normal growth and development and in immune homeostasis. Zinc deficiency impairs both the innate and the adaptive immune system and can be normalized by zinc supplementation. On the other end of the spectrum, high dosages of zinc diminish immune cell functions similar to zinc deficiency. Here, we investigated the influence of zinc aspartate on proliferation and cytokine production of stimulated human T cells and mouse splenocytes in vitro. Furthermore, the effect of zinc aspartate was examined in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) with a Th1/Th17 T cell-mediated immunopathogenesis. Zinc aspartate suppressed proliferation as well as IL-2, IL-10 and IL-17 production in stimulated human T cells and mouse splenocytes. Importantly, administration of a medium range dose of 30 μg/day zinc aspartate [1.5 mg/kg body weight (BW)] in a therapeutic manner led to a significant reduction of the clinical severity of the EAE during the first relapse of the disease. A lower zinc aspartate dose (6 μg/day, 0.3 mg/kg BW) had no significant therapeutic effect on the severity of the EAE, while administration of higher zinc aspartate amounts (120 μg/day, 6 mg/kg BW) led to more severe disease. Taken together, our data suggest that zinc aspartate can modulate activation, proliferation and cytokine production of effector T cells in vitro and in vivo and that activated autoreactive T cells may be potential therapeutic targets of tightly controlled zinc supplementation in autoimmune diseases like MS.

  20. Alpha-tocopherol ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis through the regulation of Th1 cells

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    Haikuo Xue

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a serious neurological autoimmune disease, it commonly affects young adults. Vitamin E (Vit E is an important component of human diet with antioxidant activity, which protects the body’s biological systems. In order to assess the effect of Vit E treatment on this autoimmune disease, we established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the animal model of MS, and treated EAE with α-tocopherol (AT which is the main content of Vit E. Materials and Methods:Twenty C57BL/6 adult female mice were used and divided into two groups randomly. EAE was induced with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG, and one group was treated with AT, at a dose of 100 mg/kg on the 3th day post-immunization with MOG, the other group was treated with 1% alcohol. Mice were euthanized on day 14, post-immunization, spleens were removed for assessing splenocytes proliferation and cytokine profile, and spinal cords were dissected to assess the infiltration of inflammatory cells in spinal cord. Results:AT was able to attenuate the severity of EAE and delay the disease progression. H&E staining and fast blue staining indicated that AT reduced the inflammation and the demyelination reaction in the spinal cord. Treatment with AT significantly decreased the proliferation of splenocytes. AT also inhibited the production of IFN-γ (Th1 cytokine, though the other cytokines were only affected slightly. Conclusion:According to the results, AT ameliorated EAE, through suppressing the proliferation of T cells and the Th1 response. AT may be used as a potential treatment for MS.

  1. Reduced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis after intranasal and oral administration of recombinant lactobacilli expressing myelin antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maassen, Catharina B M; Laman, Jon D; van Holten-Neelen, Conny; Hoogteijling, Linsy; Groenewegen, Lizet; Visser, Lizette; Schellekens, Marc M; Boersma, Wim J A; Claassen, Eric

    2003-12-01

    Oral administration of autoantigens is a safe and convenient way to induce peripheral T-cell tolerance in autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS). To increase the efficacy of oral tolerance induction and obviate the need for large-scale purification of human myelin proteins, we use genetically modified lactobacilli expressing myelin antigens. A panel of recombinant lactobacilli was constructed producing myelin proteins and peptides, including human and guinea pig myelin basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid protein peptide 139-151 (PLP(139-151)). In this study we examined whether these Lactobacillus recombinants are able to induce oral and intranasal tolerance in an animal model for multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Lewis rats received soluble cell extracts of Lactobacillus transformants intranasally three times prior to induction of EAE. For the induction of oral tolerance, rats were fed live transformed lactobacilli for 20 days. Ten days after the first oral administration EAE was induced. Intranasal administration of extracts containing guinea pig MBP (gpMBP) or MBP(72-85) significantly inhibited EAE in Lewis rats. Extracts of control transformants did not reduce EAE. Live lactobacilli expressing guinea pig MBP(72-85) fused to the marker enzyme beta-glucuronidase (beta-gluc) were also able to significantly reduce disease when administered orally. In conclusion, these experiments provide proof of principle that lactobacilli expressing myelin antigens reduce EAE after mucosal (intranasal and oral) administration. This novel method of mucosal tolerance induction by mucosal administration of recombinant lactobacilli expressing relevant autoantigens could find applications in autoimmune disease in general, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and uveitis.

  2. In acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, infiltrating macrophages are immune activated, whereas microglia remain immune suppressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainchtein, I D; Vinet, J; Brouwer, N; Brendecke, S; Biagini, G; Biber, K; Boddeke, H W G M; Eggen, B J L

    2014-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by loss of myelin accompanied by infiltration of T-lymphocytes and monocytes. Although it has been shown that these infiltrates are important for the progression of MS, the role of microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, remains ambiguous. Therefore, we have compared the phenotypes of microglia and macrophages in a mouse model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In order to properly discriminate between these two cell types, microglia were defined as CD11b(pos) CD45(int) Ly-6C(neg) , and infiltrated macrophages as CD11b(pos) CD45(high) Ly-6C(pos) . During clinical EAE, microglia displayed a weakly immune-activated phenotype, based on the expression of MHCII, co-stimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86, and CD40) and proinflammatory genes [interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor- α (TNF-α)]. In contrast, CD11b(pos) CD45(high) Ly-6C(pos) infiltrated macrophages were strongly activated and could be divided into two populations Ly-6C(int) and Ly-6C(high) , respectively. Ly-6C(high) macrophages contained less myelin than Ly-6C(int) macrophages and expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α were higher in Ly-6C(int) macrophages. Together, our data show that during clinical EAE, microglia are only weakly activated whereas infiltrated macrophages are highly immune reactive. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Leukemia inhibitory factor protects axons in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via an oligodendrocyte-independent mechanism.

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    Melissa M Gresle

    Full Text Available Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF and Ciliary Neurotrophic factor (CNTF are members of the interleukin-6 family of cytokines, defined by use of the gp130 molecule as an obligate receptor. In the murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model, antagonism of LIF and genetic deletion of CNTF worsen disease. The potential mechanism of action of these cytokines in EAE is complex, as gp130 is expressed by all neural cells, and could involve immuno-modulation, reduction of oligodendrocyte injury, neuronal protection, or a combination of these actions. In this study we aim to investigate whether the beneficial effects of CNTF/LIF signalling in EAE are associated with axonal protection; and whether this requires signalling through oligodendrocytes. We induced MOG₃₅₋₅₅ EAE in CNTF, LIF and double knockout mice. On a CNTF null background, LIF knockout was associated with increased EAE severity (EAE grade 2.1±0.14 vs 2.6±0.19; P<0.05. These mice also showed increased axonal damage relative to LIF heterozygous mice, as indicated by decreased optic nerve parallel diffusivity on MRI (1540±207 µm²-/s vs 1310±175 µm²-/s; P<0.05, and optic nerve (-12.5% and spinal cord (-16% axon densities; and increased serum neurofilament-H levels (2.5 fold increase. No differences in inflammatory cell numbers or peripheral auto-immune T-cell priming were evident. Oligodendrocyte-targeted gp130 knockout mice showed that disruption of CNTF/LIF signalling in these cells has no effect on acute EAE severity. These studies demonstrate that endogenous CNTF and LIF act centrally to protect axons from acute inflammatory destruction via an oligodendrocyte-independent mechanism.

  4. Application of dendritic cells stimulated with Trichinella spiralis excretory-secretory antigens alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronic-Milosavljevic, L J; Radovic, I; Ilic, N; Majstorovic, I; Cvetkovic, J; Gruden-Movsesijan, A

    2013-06-01

    The parasitic nematode, Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis), exerts an immunomodulatory effect on the host immune response through excretory-secretory products (ES L1) released from encysted muscle larvae. Our model of combined T. spiralis infection and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Dark Agouti (DA) rats demonstrated a significant reduction in EAE severity in infected animals. Recently, we have created an immune status characteristic for the live infection by in vivo application of dendritic cells (DCs) stimulated with ES L1 products of T. spiralis muscle larvae. Moreover, these cells were able to ameliorate EAE when applied 7 days before EAE induction. ES L1-stimulated DCs increased production of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β, and decreased production of IFN-γ and IL-17, both at the systemic level and in target organs. A significant increase in the proportion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells was found among spleen cells, and CNS infiltrates from DA rats treated with ES L1-stimulated DCs before EAE induction, compared to controls injected with unstimulated DCs. Regulatory T cells, together with elevated levels of IL-10 and TGF-β, are most likely involved in restraining the production of Th1 and Th17 cytokines responsible for autoimmunity and thus are responsible for the beneficial effect of ES L1-educated DCs on the course of EAE. Our results show that ES L1 antigen-stimulated DCs are able not only to provoke, but also to sustain anti-inflammatory and regulatory responses regardless of EAE induction, with subsequent amelioration of EAE, or even protection from the disease.

  5. Astragaloside IV attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis of mice by counteracting oxidative stress at multiple levels.

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    Yixin He

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease found mostly in young adults in the western world. Oxidative stress induced neuronal apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of MS. In current study, astragaloside IV (ASI, a natural saponin molecule isolated from Astragalus membranceus, given at 20 mg/kg daily attenuated the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in mice significantly. Further studies disclosed that ASI treatment inhibited the increase of ROS and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, down-regulation of SOD and GSH-Px activities, and elevation of iNOS, p53 and phosphorylated tau in central nervous system (CNS as well as the leakage of BBB of EAE mice. Meanwhile, the decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was reversed by ASI. Moreover, ASI regulated T-cell differentiation and infiltration into CNS. In neuroblast SH-SY5Y cells, ASI dose-dependently reduced cellular ROS level and phosphorylation of tau in response to hydrogen peroxide challenge by modulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio. ASI also inhibited activation of microglia both in vivo and in vitro. iNOS up-regulation induced by IFNγ stimulation was abolished by ASI dose-dependently in BV-2 cells. In summary, ASI prevented the severity of EAE progression possibly by counterbalancing oxidative stress and its effects via reduction of cellular ROS level, enhancement of antioxidant defense system, increase of anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory pathways, as well as modulation of T-cell differentiation and infiltration into CNS. The study suggested ASI may be effective for clinical therapy/prevention of MS.

  6. EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase is a modulator of onset and disease severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE.

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    Kathryn M Munro

    Full Text Available The EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase is a major regulator of axonal growth and astrocyte reactivity and is a possible inflammatory mediator. Given that multiple sclerosis (MS is primarily an inflammatory demyelinating disease and in mouse models of MS, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, axonal degeneration and reactive gliosis are prominent clinical features, we hypothesised that endogenous EphA4 could play a role in modulating EAE. EAE was induced in EphA4 knockout and wildtype mice using MOG peptide immunisation and clinical severity and histological features of the disease were then compared in lumbar spinal cord sections. EphA4 knockout mice exhibited a markedly less severe clinical course than wildtype mice, with a lower maximum disease grade and a slightly later onset of clinical symptoms. Numbers of infiltrating T cells and macrophages, the number and size of the lesions, and the extent of astrocytic gliosis were similar in both genotypes; however, EphA4 knockout mice appeared to have decreased axonal pathology. Blocking of EphA4 in wildtype mice by administration of soluble EphA4 (EphA4-Fc as a decoy receptor following induction of EAE produced a delay in onset of clinical symptoms; however, most mice had clinical symptoms of similar severity by 22 days, indicating that EphA4 blocking treatment slowed early EAE disease evolution. Again there were no apparent differences in histopathology. To determine whether the role of EphA4 in modulating EAE was CNS mediated or due to an altered immune response, MOG primed T cells from wildtype and EphA4 knockout mice were passively transferred into naive recipient mice and both were shown to induce disease of equivalent severity. These results are consistent with a non-inflammatory, CNS specific, deleterious effect of EphA4 during neuroinflammation that results in axonal pathology.

  7. Combination of cuprizone and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis to study inflammatory brain lesion formation and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüther, Bernhard Josef; Scheld, Miriam; Dreymueller, Daniela; Clarner, Tim; Kress, Eugenia; Brandenburg, Lars-Ove; Swartenbroekx, Tine; Hoornaert, Chloé; Ponsaerts, Peter; Fallier-Becker, Petra; Beyer, Cordian; Rohr, Sven Olaf; Schmitz, Christoph; Chrzanowski, Uta; Hochstrasser, Tanja; Nyamoya, Stella; Kipp, Markus

    2017-12-01

    Brain-intrinsic degenerative cascades are a proposed factor driving inflammatory lesion formation in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. We recently described a model combining noninflammatory cytodegeneration (via cuprizone) with the classic active experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (Cup/EAE model), which exhibits inflammatory forebrain lesions. Here, we describe the histopathological characteristics and progression of these Cup/EAE lesions. We show that inflammatory lesions develop at various topographical sites in the forebrain, including white matter tracts and cortical and subcortical grey matter areas. The lesions are characterized by focal demyelination, discontinuation of the perivascular glia limitans, focal axonal damage, and neutrophil granulocyte extravasation. Transgenic mice with enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing microglia and red fluorescent protein-expressing monocytes reveal that both myeloid cell populations contribute to forebrain inflammatory infiltrates. EAE-triggered inflammatory cerebellar lesions were augmented in mice pre-intoxicated with cuprizone. Gene expression studies suggest roles of the chemokines Cxcl10, Ccl2, and Ccl3 in inflammatory lesion formation. Finally, follow-up experiments in Cup/EAE mice with chronic disease revealed that forebrain, but not spinal cord, lesions undergo spontaneous reorganization and repair. This study underpins the significance of brain-intrinsic degenerative cascades for immune cell recruitment and, in consequence, MS lesion formation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The mechanism of effective electroacupuncture on T cell response in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Yumei Liu

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA decreased lymphocyte infiltration into the spinal cords of rats presenting with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a disease model used in the study of multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of EA on the EAE. Female Lewis rats were divided into either CFA, EAE, EA, or injection with naloxone after electroacupuncture (NAL groups. Electroacupuncture was administered every day for 21 days. To evaluate proliferation and apoptosis, lymphocytes from rats presenting with EAE were collected and cultured with β-endorphin. Immunohistochemisty, flow cytometry and radio-immunity methods were applied to detect the expression of β-endorphin. Results presented in this report demonstrate that the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects of EA on EAE were related to β-endorphin production that balances the Thl/Th2 and Th17/Treg responses. These results suggest that β-endorphin could be an important component in the development of EA-based therapies used for the treatment of EAE.

  9. Diazepam Inhibits Proliferation of Lymph Node Cells Isolated from Rats with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Hurst, Nicolás; Bibolini, Mario J; Roth, German A

    2015-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease with similarities to human multiple sclerosis involving peripheral activation of autoreactive T cells which infiltrate the central nervous system and react to self antigens leading to damage. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that treatment with diazepam decreases the incidence and histological signs associated with the disease and diminishes immunological responses. The aim of the present work was to evaluate direct effects of diazepam on isolated T cells involved in immune responses during the development of EAE. Animals were sensitized with whole myelin to induce EAE and sacrificed during the acute phase of the disease. In mononuclear cells isolated from popliteal lymph nodes, cell viability, apoptosis induction, proliferation and cytokine production were evaluated. Diazepam did not have a toxic or proapoptotic effect on the cells, at least up to the concentration of 25 μM, but proliferation, CD8+ T-cell activation and proinflammatory cytokine production were dose-dependently decreased. Diazepam has a direct inhibitory effect on the proliferation and activation of T lymphocytes isolated from the main lymphoid organ involved in disease onset and this could be one of the mechanisms that contribute to the beneficial effect previously observed with diazepam in vivo during EAE development. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. A study of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in dogs as a disease model for canine necrotizing encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Hae-Won; Lee, Hee-Chun; Jeon, Joon-Hyeok; Kim, Na-Hyun; Sur, Jung-Hyang; Ha, Jeongim

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the use of dogs with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a disease model for necrotizing encephalitis (NE) was assessed. Twelve healthy dogs were included in this study. Canine forebrain tissues (8 g), including white and grey matter, were homogenized with 4 mL of phosphate-buffered saline for 5 min in an ice bath. The suspension was emulsified with the same volume of Freund's complete adjuvant containing 1 mg/mL of killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Under sedation, each dog was injected subcutaneously with canine brain homogenate at four sites: two in the inguinal and two in the axillary regions. A second injection (booster) was administered to all the dogs using the same procedure 7 days after the first injection. Clinical assessment, magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid analyses, necropsies, and histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations were performed for the dogs with EAE. Out of the 12 animals, seven (58%) developed clinically manifest EAE at various times after immunization. Characteristics of canine EAE models were very similar to canine NE, suggesting that canine EAE can be a disease model for NE in dogs. PMID:25269720

  11. Continued administration of ciliary neurotrophic factor protects mice from inflammatory pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlmann, Tanja; Remington, Leah; Cognet, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that leads to loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes and damage to axons. We show that daily administration (days 8 to 24) of murine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a neurotrophic factor that has been described as a surv......Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that leads to loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes and damage to axons. We show that daily administration (days 8 to 24) of murine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a neurotrophic factor that has been described...... as a survival and differentiation factor for neurons and oligodendrocytes, significantly ameliorates the clinical course of a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. In the acute phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide 35-55, treatment with CNTF did...... not change the peripheral immune response but did reduce the number of perivascular infiltrates and T cells and the level of diffuse microglial activation in spinal cord. Blood brain barrier permeability was significantly reduced in CNTF-treated animals. Beneficial effects of CNTF did not persist after...

  12. A study of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in dogs as a disease model for canine necrotizing encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Hae-Won; Lee, Hee-Chun; Jeon, Joon-Hyeok; Kim, Na-Hyun; Sur, Jung-Hyang; Ha, Jeongim; Jung, Dong-In

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the use of dogs with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a disease model for necrotizing encephalitis (NE) was assessed. Twelve healthy dogs were included in this study. Canine forebrain tissues (8 g), including white and grey matter, were homogenized with 4 mL of phosphate-buffered saline for 5 min in an ice bath. The suspension was emulsified with the same volume of Freund's complete adjuvant containing 1 mg/mL of killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Under sedation, each dog was injected subcutaneously with canine brain homogenate at four sites: two in the inguinal and two in the axillary regions. A second injection (booster) was administered to all the dogs using the same procedure 7 days after the first injection. Clinical assessment, magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid analyses, necropsies, and histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations were performed for the dogs with EAE. Out of the 12 animals, seven (58%) developed clinically manifest EAE at various times after immunization. Characteristics of canine EAE models were very similar to canine NE, suggesting that canine EAE can be a disease model for NE in dogs.

  13. Protective influences on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by MHC class I and class II alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, M; Vingsbo, C; Olsson, T

    1994-01-01

    are resistant. Interestingly, rats with the MHC u haplotype develop an immune response to the MBP 63-88, but do not get EAE. In this study we have used intra-MHC recombinant rat strains to compare the influences of the MHC u with the a haplotype. We discovered the following: 1) The class II region of the MHC...... a haplotype permits EAE and a Th1 type of immune response as measured by IFN-gamma production after in vitro challenge of in vivo-primed T cells with MBP 63-88. 2) The class II region of the u haplotype is associated with a disease-protective immune response characterized by production of not only IFN......Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is influenced by polymorphism of the MHC. We have previously found that Lewis rats with certain MHC haplotypes are susceptible to disease induced with the myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide 63-88, whereas Lewis rats with other MHC haplotypes...

  14. The experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS: utility for understanding disease pathophysiology and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROBINSON, ANDREW P.; HARP, CHRISTOPHER T.; NORONHA, AVERTANO; MILLER, STEPHEN D.

    2014-01-01

    While no single model can exactly recapitulate all aspects of multiple sclerosis (MS), animal models are essential in understanding the induction and pathogenesis of the disease and to develop therapeutic strategies that limit disease progression and eventually lead to effective treatments for the human disease. Several different models of MS exist, but by far the best understood and most commonly used is the rodent model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This model is typically induced by either active immunization with myelin-derived proteins or peptides in adjuvant or by passive transfer of activated myelin-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes. Mouse models are most frequently used because of the inbred genotype of laboratory mice, their rapid breeding capacity, the ease of genetic manipulation, and availability of transgenic and knockout mice to facilitate mechanistic studies. Although not all therapeutic strategies for MS have been developed in EAE, all of the current US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved immunomodulatory drugs are effective to some degree in treating EAE, a strong indicator that EAE is an extremely useful model to study potential treatments for MS. Several therapies, such as glatiramer acetate (GA: Copaxone), and natalizumab (Tysabri), were tested first in the mouse model of EAE and then went on to clinical trials. Here we discuss the usefulness of the EAE model in understanding basic disease pathophysiology and developing treatments for MS as well as the potential drawbacks of this model. PMID:24507518

  15. Differential regulation of CD4(+) T helper cell responses by curcumin in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakasabai, Saravanan; Casalini, Eli; Walline, Crystal C; Mo, Caiqing; Chearwae, Wanida; Bright, John J

    2012-11-01

    Nutraceuticals and phytochemicals are important regulators of human health and diseases. Curcumin is a polyphenolic phytochemical isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa (turmeric) that has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation and wound healing for centuries. Systematic analyses have shown that curcumin exerts its beneficial effects through antioxidant, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties. We and others have shown earlier that curcumin ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model for multiple sclerosis. In this study, we show that C57BL/6 mice induced to develop EAE express elevated levels of interferon (IFN) γ and interleukin (IL)-17 in the central nervous system (CNS) and lymphoid organs that decreased significantly following in vivo treatment with curcumin. The EAE mice also showed elevated expression of IL-12 and IL-23 that decreased after treatment with curcumin. Ex vivo and in vitro treatment with curcumin resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the secretion of IFNγ, IL-17, IL-12 and IL-23 in culture. The inhibition of EAE by curcumin was also associated with an up-regulation of IL-10, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ and CD4(+)CD25(+-)Foxp3(+) Treg cells in the CNS and lymphoid organs. These findings highlight that curcumin differentially regulates CD4(+) T helper cell responses in EAE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intrathecal Fas ligand infusion strengthens immunoprivilege of central nervous system and suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Zhu, Bing; Luo, Liqing; Chen, Yongliang; Paty, Donald W; Cynader, Max S

    2002-08-01

    Fas ligand (FasL) is an essential molecule strongly expressed in some immunoprivileged sites, but is expressed at very low levels in normal CNS. In this study, acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in Lewis rats with guinea pig myelin basic protein. Intrathecal infusion of recombinant FasL before EAE onset dose dependently suppressed acute EAE and alleviated pathological inflammation in lumbosacral spinal cord. This treatment greatly increased apoptosis in CNS inflammatory cells, but did not inhibit systemic immune response to myelin basic protein. Systemic administration of a similar dose of rFasL was ineffective. In vitro, encephalitogenic T cells were highly sensitive to rFasL-induced cell death, and activated macrophages were also susceptible. In addition, in vitro rFasL treatment potentiated the immunosuppressive property of rat cerebrospinal fluid. We conclude that intrathecal infusion of rFasL eliminated the initial wave of infiltrating T cells and macrophages, and therefore blocked the later recruitment of inflammatory cells into CNS. Although Fas receptor expression was observed on spinal cord neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, no damage to these cells or to the myelin structure was detected after rFasL infusion.

  17. Effects of human recombinant-interferon β in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritake, Kosuke; Koh, Chang-Sung; Inoue, Atsushi; Yabuuchi, Fumie; Kitagaki, Kunihiko; Ikoma, Yukihiro; Hayashi, Shigehiro

    2010-11-01

    Although clinical data for beneficial effects of Betaferon, human recombinant-interferon (r-IFN) β-1b, are accumulating, what is less evident is how and why it works. The present study was carried out to examine whether Betaferon suppresses progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The EAE model was employed in guinea pigs in vivo, and mononuclear cell proliferation and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity were assessed in vitro. Betaferon was more reactive in two assays of guinea pigs, mitogen-induced proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity of blood, than in rats and rabbits. Guinea pigs were immunized actively by antigen, porcine myelin basic protein. The neurological deficits were assessed by clinical signs scored daily. Guinea pig Betaferon, replaced with guinea pig albumin (GPA), at 1.2 and 12.0 MIU/kg/day or vehicle was administered subcutaneously daily for 20 days in the immunized guinea pigs. GPA-Betaferon suppressed the manifestation of ataxia or more progression of chronic neurological deficits significantly at 1.2 MIU/kg (p guinea pigs with evidence for higher susceptibility of animal cells/tissues to the human cytokine, in contrast with rodents and rabbits.

  18. Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells promotes partial recovery in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Chen, Weian; Li, Yu'an; Chen, Ying; Ding, Zhangna; Yang, Dehao; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate the efficacy of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE models were established by guinea pig spinal cord homogenate (GPSCH) immunization in Lewis rats. OECs were purified and cultured from the olfactory nerve layer of SD rats, and then transplanted to the EAE models through the vena caudalis (Group A) or into the lateral cerebral ventricle (Group B). Neurological function scores and body weights were daily recorded following transplantation, and histological analysis was performed to assess the pathological changes in EAE rats. Cultured cells mainly exhibited bipolar or tripolar morphology, and the majority of these cells were positive for NGFR p75 staining. Neurological function scoring and the body weight measurement showed that, OEC transplantation could significantly improve the performance of EAE rats, and similar results were observed for the transplantation through the vena caudalis and into the lateral cerebral ventricle. Moreover, the transplanted OECs accumulated to the lesions in the brains of EAE rats, in spite of the different transplantation approaches. However, no significant differences in histopathology (HE and LFB staining) were observed between the OEC-transplanted groups and the control group. OEC transplantation could exert beneficial effects in the treatment of EAE, no matter which the cells were transplanted through the vena caudalis or into the lateral cerebral ventricle. Our findings might provide evidence for the clinical treatment of multiple sclerosis with cell transplantation.

  19. [Protective effects of heat shock preconditioning on the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Feng; Huang, Rong; Xu, Jun; Jin, Shi-Jie; Yang, Yu-Jia

    2007-12-01

    To study the effects of heat shock preconditioning on the expression of heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) and apoptosis of the neuron in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rats. Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, EAE and heat shock preconditioning groups (n=12 each). The EAE animal model was induced with guinea pig myelin basic protein. Heat shock preconditioning was performed 24 hrs prior to the EAE model inducement. No treatment was done in the control group. The neurological signs were observed after immunization. The spinal cords were removed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. HSP70 was detected by immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis of the neuron was measured by TUNEL. Heat shock preconditioning significantly alleviated clinical signs and neuronal injury. HSP70 expression in the heat shock preconditioning group was significantly higher than in the untreated EAE group (21.08 +/- 0.87 vs 10.17 +/- 0.51; P < 0.01). Heat shock preconditioning suppressed apoptosis of the neuron compared with the EAE group (apoptosis rate: 21.92 +/- 1.00% vs 58.92 +/- 1.67%; P < 0.01). Heat shock preconditioning might improve the neurological outcome in EAE rats, possibly through the induction of HSP70 synthesis and the reduction of apoptosis of the neuron in spinal cords.

  20. [Lipids and caplain in guinea pig tissues in the process of development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, R P; Pasichna, E P; Donchenko, H V; Kastrykina, T F; Silonov, S B; Palyvoda, O M; Delemenchuk, N V

    2007-01-01

    The character of some lipids level change--cholesterol and phospholipids--as basic lipid components of cell membranes in the guinea-pig brain and liver tissue, and in serum in conditions of development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) have been investigated on the 11th, 21st, 27th day after inoculation. It has been detected, that the level of the investigated lipids changes wavely and indifferent-direction in the brain tissue on the 21st day of EAE. Similar variability observed in the activity of proteolytic ferment calpain, which is authentically reduced in the brain tissue by the 11th hour and increases up to the test objective level in the subsequent periods of EAE development. In the liver the level of alpha-tocopherol is reduced, while the content of studied lipids does not change. The investigated parameters can be attributed to the factors, which play an essential role in structural stability of cell membranes and their variability in conditions of EAE development is related to the processes of nervous cells demyelinisation and, hence to occurrence of such pathology as multiple sclerosis in people.

  1. Expression of stress-response protein 60 in iritis associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagami, T; Kato, S; Ishikura, R; Nagata, M; Tamai, A; Ohama, E

    1999-01-01

    To study the expression of stress-response proteins in the inflamed iris of rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE was induced in Lewis rats by immunization with homogenized spinal cord of the guinea pig emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) (group EAE). Control rats included those immunized with only CFA (group CFA) and those that were untreated (group Normal). Immunohistochemical study for the localization of stress-response protein (srp) 27, srp 60, srp 72, ubiquitin, and alphaB-crystallin was performed. All rats in group EAE developed iritis, whereas none of the rats in group CFA and group Normal developed iritis. No expression of ubiquitin, alphaB-crystallin, srp 27, srp 60, or srp 72 was seen in the epithelium of the iris in group CFA rats. In the eyes of rats in group EAE, srp 60 was expressed in the epithelium of the iris in 20 of 22 (90.9%), ubiquitin in 4 of 22 (18.2%), and alphaB-crystallin in 3 of 22 (13.6%). In the group Normal rats, only ubiquitin was expressed in the epithelium of the iris in 1 of 6 (16.7%) eyes examined. These results suggest that srp 60 may be a potential uveitogenic antigen in the iris in EAE.

  2. Acquired resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is independent of V beta usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B D; Nardella, J P; McConnell, T J; Mannie, M D

    1997-07-10

    In Lewis rats, activated encephalitogenic T-helper cells elicit a single bout of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recovery from EAE is marked by reduced susceptibility to disease reinduction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a dominant expression of V beta gene segments by encephalitogenic T cells was required for development of recovery-associated resistance. Several polyclonal and monoclonal T cell lines were derived from Lewis rats sensitized with R72-86, a synthetic peptide representing the 72- to 86-amino-acid sequence of rat myelin basic protein (RMBP). The results revealed broad heterogeneity among encephalitogenic T cells specific for R72-86 in regard to V beta expression and CDR3 sequence. Encephalitogenic clones exclusively bearing either V beta 4 or V beta 10 TCR or polyclonal T cells bearing heterogeneous TCR transferred EAE to recipient rats and elicited resistance to EAE as revealed by subsequent challenge with guinea pig (GP)MBP in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Nonpathogenic V beta 3+ and V beta 8.6+ clones specific for the 68-86 and 55-66 regions of MBP, respectively, did not elicit effective protection from EAE. These data indicate that induction of postrecovery resistance to EAE does not depend upon a particular V beta usage.

  3. Therapeutic Potential of Pien Tze Huang on Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Rat

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    Xuemei Qiu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS. There is still lack of commercially viable treatment currently. Pien Tze Huang (PZH, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been proved to have anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and immunoregulatory effects. This study investigated the possible therapeutic effects of PZH on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE rats, a classic animal model of MS. Male Lewis rats were immunized with myelin basic protein (MBP peptide to establish an EAE model and then treated with three doses of PZH. Clinical symptoms, organ coefficient, histopathological features, levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and chemokines as well as MBP and Olig2 were analyzed. The results indicated that PZH ameliorated the clinical severity of EAE rats. It also remarkably reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in the CNS of EAE rats. Furthermore, the levels of IL-17A, IL-23, CCL3, and CCL5 in serum and the CNS were significantly decreased; the p-P65 and p-STAT3 levels were also downregulated in the CNS, while MBP and Olig2 in the CNS of EAE rats had a distinct improvement after PZH treatment. In addition, PZH has no obvious toxicity at the concentration of 0.486 g/kg/d. This study demonstrated that PZH could be used to treat MS.

  4. Serum Neuroinflammatory Disease-Induced Central Nervous System Proteins Predict Clinical Onset of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

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    Itay Raphael

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need in multiple sclerosis (MS patients to develop biomarkers and laboratory tests to improve early diagnosis, predict clinical relapses, and optimize treatment responses. In healthy individuals, the transport of proteins across the blood–brain barrier (BBB is tightly regulated, whereas, in MS, central nervous system (CNS inflammation results in damage to neuronal tissues, disruption of BBB integrity, and potential release of neuroinflammatory disease-induced CNS proteins (NDICPs into CSF and serum. Therefore, changes in serum NDICP abundance could serve as biomarkers of MS. Here, we sought to determine if changes in serum NDICPs are detectable prior to clinical onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE and, therefore, enable prediction of disease onset. Importantly, we show in longitudinal serum specimens from individual mice with EAE that pre-onset expression waves of synapsin-2, glutamine synthetase, enolase-2, and synaptotagmin-1 enable the prediction of clinical disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, we observed differences in serum NDICPs between active and passive immunization in EAE, suggesting hitherto not appreciated differences for disease induction mechanisms. Our studies provide the first evidence for enabling the prediction of clinical disease using serum NDICPs. The results provide proof-of-concept for the development of high-confidence serum NDICP expression waves and protein biomarker candidates for MS.

  5. Combined treatment with ribavirin and tiazofurin attenuates response of glial cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

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    Nedeljković Nadežda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS, a human inflammatory and demyelinating disease. Microglia and astrocytes are glial cells of the central nervous system (CNS that play a dual role in MS and EAE pathology. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of combined treatment with two nucleoside analogues, ribavirin and tiazofurin, on microglia and astrocytes in actively induced EAE. Therapeutic treatment with a combination of these two nucleoside analogues reduced disease severity, mononuclear cell infiltration and demyelination. The obtained histological results indicate that ribavirin and tiazofurin changed activated microglia into an inactive type and attenuated astrocyte reactivity at the end of the treatment period. Since reduction of reactive microgliosis and astrogliosis correlated with EAE suppression, the present study also suggests that the obtained beneficial effect of ribavirin and tiazofurin could be a consequence of their action inside as well as outside the CNS. [Acknowledgments. This work was supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education and Science, Project No: III41014.

  6. Vaccination with DNA encoding an immunodominant myelin basic protein peptide targeted to Fc of immunoglobulin G suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobell, A; Weissert, R; Storch, M K; Svanholm, C; de Graaf, K L; Lassmann, H; Andersson, R; Olsson, T; Wigzell, H

    1998-05-04

    We explore here if vaccination with DNA encoding an autoantigenic peptide can suppress autoimmune disease. For this purpose we used experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is an autoaggressive disease in the central nervous system and an animal model for multiple sclerosis. Lewis rats were vaccinated with DNA encoding an encephalitogenic T cell epitope, guinea pig myelin basic protein peptide 68-85 (MBP68-85), before induction of EAE with MBP68-85 in complete Freund's adjuvant. Compared to vaccination with a control DNA construct, the vaccination suppressed clinical and histopathological signs of EAE, and reduced the interferon gamma production after challenge with MBP68-85. Targeting of the gene product to Fc of IgG was essential for this effect. There were no signs of a Th2 cytokine bias. Our data suggest that DNA vaccines encoding autoantigenic peptides may be useful tools in controlling autoimmune disease.

  7. A cannabigerol derivative suppresses immune responses and protects mice from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Francisco J Carrillo-Salinas

    Full Text Available Phytocannabinoids that do not produce psychotropic effects are considered of special interest as novel therapeutic agents in CNS diseases. A cannabigerol quinone, the compound VCE-003, has been shown to alleviate symptoms in a viral model of multiple sclerosis (MS. Hence, we studied T cells and macrophages as targets for VCE-003 and its efficacy in an autoimmune model of MS. Proliferation, cell cycle, expression of activation markers was assessed by FACs in human primary T cells, and cytokine and chemokine production was evaluated. Transcription was studied in Jurkat cells and RAW264.7 cells were used to study the effects of VCE-003 on IL-17-induced macrophage polarization to a M1 phenotype. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE was induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG₃₅₋₅₅ immunization and spinal cord pathology was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Neurological impairment was evaluated using disease scores. We show here that VCE-003 inhibits CD3/CD28-induced proliferation, cell cycle progression and the expression of the IL-2Rα and ICAM-1 activation markers in human primary T cells. VCE-003 inhibits the secretion of Th1/Th17 cytokines and chemokines in primary murine T cells, and it reduces the transcriptional activity of the IL-2, IL-17 and TNFα promoters induced by CD3/CD28. In addition, VCE-003 and JWH-133, a selective CB2 agonist, dampened the IL-17-induced polarization of macrophages to a pro-inflammatory M1 profile. VCE-003 also prevented LPS-induced iNOS expression in microglia. VCE-003 ameliorates the neurological defects and the severity of MOG-induced EAE in mice through CB2 and PPARγ receptor activation. A reduction in cell infiltrates, mainly CD4+ T cells, was observed, and Th1 and Th17 responses were inhibited in the spinal cord of VCE-003-treated mice, accompanied by weaker microglial activation, structural preservation of myelin sheets and reduced axonal damage. This study highlights the

  8. A cannabigerol derivative suppresses immune responses and protects mice from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Salinas, Francisco J; Navarrete, Carmen; Mecha, Miriam; Feliú, Ana; Collado, Juan A; Cantarero, Irene; Bellido, María L; Muñoz, Eduardo; Guaza, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Phytocannabinoids that do not produce psychotropic effects are considered of special interest as novel therapeutic agents in CNS diseases. A cannabigerol quinone, the compound VCE-003, has been shown to alleviate symptoms in a viral model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Hence, we studied T cells and macrophages as targets for VCE-003 and its efficacy in an autoimmune model of MS. Proliferation, cell cycle, expression of activation markers was assessed by FACs in human primary T cells, and cytokine and chemokine production was evaluated. Transcription was studied in Jurkat cells and RAW264.7 cells were used to study the effects of VCE-003 on IL-17-induced macrophage polarization to a M1 phenotype. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG₃₅₋₅₅) immunization and spinal cord pathology was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Neurological impairment was evaluated using disease scores. We show here that VCE-003 inhibits CD3/CD28-induced proliferation, cell cycle progression and the expression of the IL-2Rα and ICAM-1 activation markers in human primary T cells. VCE-003 inhibits the secretion of Th1/Th17 cytokines and chemokines in primary murine T cells, and it reduces the transcriptional activity of the IL-2, IL-17 and TNFα promoters induced by CD3/CD28. In addition, VCE-003 and JWH-133, a selective CB2 agonist, dampened the IL-17-induced polarization of macrophages to a pro-inflammatory M1 profile. VCE-003 also prevented LPS-induced iNOS expression in microglia. VCE-003 ameliorates the neurological defects and the severity of MOG-induced EAE in mice through CB2 and PPARγ receptor activation. A reduction in cell infiltrates, mainly CD4+ T cells, was observed, and Th1 and Th17 responses were inhibited in the spinal cord of VCE-003-treated mice, accompanied by weaker microglial activation, structural preservation of myelin sheets and reduced axonal damage. This study highlights the therapeutic potential

  9. Correlation of gut microbiota composition with resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats

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    Suzana Stanisavljevic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS. It is widely accepted that autoimmune response against the antigens of the CNS is the essential pathogenic force in the disease. It has recently become increasingly appreciated that activated encephalitogenic cells tend to migrate towards gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT and that interrupted balance between regulatory and inflammatory immunity within the GALT might have decisive role in the initiation and propagation of the CNS autoimmunity. Gut microbiota composition and function has the major impact on the balance in the GALT. Thus, our aim was to perform analyses of gut microbiota in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Albino Oxford (AO rats that are highly resistant to EAE induction and Dark Agouti (DA rats that develop EAE after mild immunization were compared for gut microbiota composition in different phases after EAE induction. Microbial analyses of the genus Lactobacillus and related lactic acid bacteria showed higher diversity of Lactobacillus spp. in EAE-resistant AO rats, while some members of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria (Undibacterium oligocarboniphilum were detected only in faeces of DA rats at the peak of the disease (between 13 and 16 days after induction. Interestingly, Turicibacter sp. that was found exclusively in non-immunized AO, but not in DA rats in our previous study was detected in DA rats that remained healthy 16 days after induction. Similar observation was obtained for the members of Lachnospiraceae. As dominant presence of the members of Lachnospiraceae family in gut microbial community has been linked with mild symptoms of various diseases, it is tempting to assume that Turicibacter sp. and Lachnospiraceae contribute to the prevention of EAE development and the alleviation of the disease symptoms. Further, production of a typical regulatory cytokine interleukin-10 was

  10. Linomide suppresses acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats by counter-acting the imbalance of pro-inflammatory versus anti-inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, A; Michael, L; Wahren, B; Deng, G M; Björk, J; Hedlund, G; Zhu, J

    1998-05-15

    Linomide (quinoline-3-carboxamide) is a synthetic immunomodulator that suppresses several experimental autoimmune diseases. Here we report the effects of Linomide on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a CD4+ T cell-mediated animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). EAE induced in Lewis rats by inoculation with homogenized guinea pig spinal cord and Freund's complete adjuvant was strongly suppressed by Linomide administered daily subcutaneously from the day of inoculation. Linomide dose-dependently delayed the interval between immunization and onset of clinical EAE, and reduced severity of EAE symptoms. These clinical effects were associated with dose-dependent down-modulation of myelin antigens-induced T cell responses and by suppression of the proinflammatory cytokines IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, and upregulation IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-beta as evaluated by in situ hybridization for mRNA expression in spleen mononuclear cells and spinal cord sections. These findings suggest that Linomide could be useful in certain T cell dependent autoimmune diseases.

  11. RAE-1 expression is induced during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and is correlated with microglia cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelloul, Mehdi; Popa, Natalia; Pelletier, Florence; Raguénez, Gilda; Boucraut, José

    2016-11-01

    Retinoic acid early induced transcript-1 (RAE-1) glycoproteins are ligands of the activating immune receptor NKG2D. They are known as stress molecules induced in pathological conditions. We previously reported that progenitor cells express RAE-1 in physiological conditions and we described a correlation between RAE-1 expression and cell proliferation. In addition, we showed that Raet1 transcripts are induced in the spinal cord of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. EAE is a model for multiple sclerosis which is accompanied by microglia proliferation and activation, recruitment of immune cells and neurogenesis. We herein studied the time course expression of the two members of the Raet1 gene family present in C57BL/6 mice, namely Raet1d and Raet1e, in the spinal cord during EAE. We report that Raet1d and Raet1e genes are induced early upon EAE onset and reach a maximal expression at the peak of the pathology. We show that myeloid cells, i.e. macrophages as well as microglia, are cellular sources of Raet1 transcripts. We also demonstrate that only Raet1d expression is induced in microglia, whereas macrophages expressed both Raet1d and Raet1e. Furthermore, we investigated the dynamics of RAE-1 expression in microglia cultures. RAE-1 induction correlated with cell proliferation but not with M1/M2 phenotypic orientation. We finally demonstrate that macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a major factor controlling RAE-1 expression in microglia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Excess circulating alternatively activated myeloid (M2 cells accelerate ALS progression while inhibiting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Ilan Vaknin

    Full Text Available Circulating immune cells including autoreactive T cells and monocytes have been documented as key players in maintaining, protecting and repairing the central nervous system (CNS in health and disease. Here, we hypothesized that neurodegenerative diseases might be associated, similarly to tumors, with increased levels of circulating peripheral myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs, representing a subset of suppressor cells that often expand under pathological conditions and inhibit possible recruitment of helper T cells needed for fighting off the disease.We tested this working hypothesis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and its mouse model, which are characterized by a rapid progression once clinical symptoms are evident. Adaptive transfer of alternatively activated myeloid (M2 cells, which homed to the spleen and exhibited immune suppressive activity in G93A mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (mSOD1 mice at a stage before emergence of disease symptoms, resulted in earlier appearance of disease symptoms and shorter life expectancy. The same protocol mitigated the inflammation-induced disease model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, which requires circulating T cells for disease induction. Analysis of whole peripheral blood samples obtained from 28 patients suffering from sporadic ALS (sALS, revealed a two-fold increase in the percentage of circulating MDSCs (LIN(-/LowHLA-DR(-CD33(+ compared to controls.Taken together, these results emphasize the distinct requirements for fighting the inflammatory neurodegenerative disease, multiple sclerosis, and the neurodegenerative disease, ALS, though both share a local inflammatory component. Moreover, the increased levels of circulating MDSCs in ALS patients indicates the operation of systemic mechanisms that might lead to an impairment of T cell reactivity needed to overcome the disease conditions within the CNS. This high level of suppressive immune cells might

  13. Role of ethanolamine phosphate in the hippocampus of rats with acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado-Llera, D; Puebla-Jiménez, L; Barrios, V; Hernández-Pinto, A; Arilla-Ferreiro, E

    2011-01-01

    Here, we assessed the effects of acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) on the rat hippocampal somatostatinergic system and whether administration of an ethanolamine phosphate salt could prevent the appearance of the clinical signs and the impairment of the somatostatinergic system in this pathological condition. Female Lewis rats were injected in both hindlimb footpads with myelin basic protein from guinea pig brain and complete Freund's adjuvant and were sacrificed when limp tail (grade 1 EAE) or severe hindlimb paralysis (grade 3 EAE) were observed. One group was injected daily with ethanolamine phosphate, starting two days prior to immunization and for 15 days thereafter. The animals were sacrificed 15 days post-immunization. Acute EAE in grade 3 increased anti-myelin basic protein antibodies in rat serum as well as tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ levels in hippocampal extracts. In addition, it decreased the somatostatin receptor density, somatostatin receptor subtype 2 mRNA and protein content, and the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on adenylyl cyclase activity in the hippocampus. The protein levels of the inhibitory G protein subunits αi(1-3), the G protein-coupled receptor kinase isoforms 2, 5 and 6, the phosphorylated cyclic AMP-binding protein and the somatostatin-like immunoreactivity content were unaltered in this brain area. Acute EAE in grade 1 did not modify any of these parameters. Ethanolamine phosphate administration prevented the clinical expression of acute EAE as well as the decrease in the somatostatin receptor density, somatostatin receptor subtype 2 expression and the capacity of somatostatin to inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity at the time-period studied. Furthermore, it blunted the rise in serum anti-myelin basic protein antibodies and hippocampal interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α levels. Altogether, these data suggest that ethanolamine phosphate might provide protection against acute EAE. Copyright

  14. Epimedium flavonoids ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats by modulating neuroinflammatory and neurotrophic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lin-Lin; Lin, Li-Li; Zhang, Lan; Li, Lin

    2012-10-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether epimedium flavonoids (EF) had effect on the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats and to elucidate its underlying mechanisms. EAE was induced by immunization of adult female Lewis rats with partially purified myelin basic protein (MBP) prepared from guinea-pig spinal cord homogenate. EF was administrated intragastrically once a day after immunization until day 14 post immunization (p.i.). Histopathological staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), biochemical methods and western blotting approaches were used to evaluate the disease incidence and severity, neuroinflammatory and neurotrophic response in the central nervous system (CNS). Intragastrical administration of EF (20 and 60 mg/kg) significantly reduced clinical score of neurological deficit in EAE rats; alleviated demyelination and inflammatory infiltration; and inhibited astrocytes activation, production of proinflammatory molecules such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO) and nuclear transcription factor (NF-κB) in the spinal cord of EAE rats. Treatment with EF also enhanced the expression of 2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphohydrolase (CNPase) and nerve growth factor (NGF), increased the number of oligodendrocytes and protected the ultrastructure of myelin sheaths and axons in the spinal cord of EAE rats. Our results showed that EF inhibited the development of partial MBP-induced EAE in rats. This effect involved reducing neuroinflammation and enhancing myelination and neurotrophins and our findings suggest that EF may be useful for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cell Fusion along the Anterior-Posterior Neuroaxis in Mice with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

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    Sreenivasa R Sankavaram

    Full Text Available It is well documented that bone marrow-derived cells can fuse with a diverse range of cells, including brain cells, under normal or pathological conditions. Inflammation leads to robust fusion of bone marrow-derived cells with Purkinje cells and the formation of binucleate heterokaryons in the cerebellum. Heterokaryons form through the fusion of two developmentally differential cells and as a result contain two distinct nuclei without subsequent nuclear or chromosome loss.In the brain, fusion of bone marrow-derived cells appears to be restricted to the complex and large Purkinje cells, raising the question whether the size of the recipient cell is important for cell fusion in the central nervous system. Purkinje cells are among the largest neurons in the central nervous system and accordingly can harbor two nuclei.Using a well-characterized model for heterokaryon formation in the cerebellum (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis - a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we report for the first time that green fluorescent protein-labeled bone marrow-derived cells can fuse and form heterokaryons with spinal cord motor neurons. These spinal cord heterokaryons are predominantly located in or adjacent to an active or previously active inflammation site, demonstrating that inflammation and infiltration of immune cells are key for cell fusion in the central nervous system. While some motor neurons were found to contain two nuclei, co-expressing green fluorescent protein and the neuronal marker, neuron-specific nuclear protein, a number of small interneurons also co-expressed green fluorescent protein and the neuronal marker, neuron-specific nuclear protein. These small heterokaryons were scattered in the gray matter of the spinal cord.This novel finding expands the repertoire of neurons that can form heterokaryons with bone marrow-derived cells in the central nervous system, albeit in low numbers, possibly leading to a novel therapy for spinal cord

  16. Delayed onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Olig1 deficient mice.

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    Xiaoli Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Olig1 is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factor that is essential for oligodendrogenesis and efficient remyelination. However, its role in neurodegenerative disorders has not been well-elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigated the effects of Olig1 deficiency on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS. We show that the mean disease onset of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-induced EAE in Olig1(-/- mice is significantly slower than wide-type (WT mice (19.8 ± 2.2 in Olig1(-/- mice and 9.5 ± 0.3 days in WT mice. In addition, 10% of Olig1(-/- mice did not develop EAE by the end of the observation periods (60 days. The severity of EAE, the extent of demyelination, and the activation of microglial cells and astrocytes in spinal cords, were significantly milder in Olig1(-/- mice compared with WT mice in the early stage. Moreover, the visual function, as assessed by the second-kernel of multifocal electroretinograms, was better preserved, and the number of degenerating axons in the optic nerve was significantly reduced in Olig1(-/- mice. Interestingly, Olig1 deficiency had no effect on T cell response capability, however, it reduced the expression of myelin proteins such as MOG, myelin basic protein (MBP and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG. The expression of Olig2 remained unchanged in the optic nerve and brain, and it was reduced in the spinal cord of Olig1(-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that the Olig1 signaling pathways may be involved in the incidence rate and the severity of neurological symptoms in MS.

  17. Early P2X7R-related astrogliosis in autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Grygorowicz, Tomasz; Wełniak-Kamińska, Marlena; Strużyńska, Lidia

    2016-07-01

    Astrocytes are the main cells responsible for maintenance of brain homeostasis. Undisturbed action and signaling with other cells are crucial for proper functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). Dysfunctional astrocytes may determine the degree of neuronal injury and are associated with several brain pathologies, among which are multiple sclerosis (MS) and the animal model of this disease which is known as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). One of the many functions of astrocytes is their response to CNS damage when they undergo reactive gliosis. Our data reveal that activation of astrocytes occurs in forebrains of immunized rats at a very early stage of EAE, well before the symptomatic phase of the disease. We have noted enhanced expression of GFAP and S100β starting from day 4 post-immunization. Temporal coincidence between the expression of astrocyte activation markers and the expression of connexin 43 and purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) was also observed. Administration of Brilliant blue G, an antagonist of P2X7R, significantly decreases astrogliosis as confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis and observation of decreased levels of GFAP and S100β. The condition of the treated animals was improved and the neurological symptoms of the disease were alleviated. With the knowledge that cerebral astroglia represent the main source of ATP and glutamate which are potentially neurotoxic substances released through P2X7R and connexin hemichannels, we suggest that astroglia may be involved in pathogenesis of MS/EAE at a very early stage through the purinergic/glutamatergic mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prophylactic versus Therapeutic Fingolimod: Restoration of Presynaptic Defects in Mice Suffering from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

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    Tommaso Bonfiglio

    Full Text Available Fingolimod, the first oral, disease-modifying therapy for MS, has been recently proposed to modulate glutamate transmission in the central nervous system (CNS of mice suffering from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE and in MS patients. Our study aims at investigating whether oral fingolimod recovers presynaptic defects that occur at different stages of disease in the CNS of EAE mice. In vivo prophylactic (0.3 mg/kg for 14 days, from the 7th day post immunization, d.p.i, the drug dissolved in the drinking water fingolimod significantly reduced the clinical symptoms and the anxiety-related behaviour in EAE mice. Spinal cord inflammation, demyelination and glial cell activation are markers of EAE progression. These signs were ameliorated following oral fingolimod administration. Glutamate exocytosis was shown to be impaired in cortical and spinal cord terminals isolated from EAE mice at 21 ± 1 d.p.i., while GABA alteration emerged only at the spinal cord level. Prophylactic fingolimod recovered these presynaptic defects, restoring altered glutamate and GABA release efficiency. The beneficial effect occurred in a dose-dependent, region-specific manner, since lower (0.1-0.03 mg/kg doses restored, although to a different extent, synaptic defects in cortical but not spinal cord terminals. A delayed reduction of glutamate, but not of GABA, exocytosis was observed in hippocampal terminals of EAE mice at 35 d.p.i. Therapeutic (0.3 mg/kg, from 21 d.p.i. for 14 days fingolimod restored glutamate exocytosis in the cortex and in the hippocampus of EAE mice at 35 ± 1 d.p.i. but not in the spinal cord, where also GABAergic defects remained unmodified. These results improve our knowledge of the molecular events accounting for the beneficial effects elicited by fingolimod in demyelinating disorders.

  19. Partial deficiency of sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase confers protection in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Andreas Billich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P regulates the egress of T cells from lymphoid organs; levels of S1P in the tissues are controlled by S1P lyase (Sgpl1. Hence, Sgpl1 offers a target to block T cell-dependent inflammatory processes. However, the involvement of Sgpl1 in models of disease has not been fully elucidated yet, since Sgpl1 KO mice have a short life-span. METHODOLOGY: We generated inducible Sgpl1 KO mice featuring partial reduction of Sgpl1 activity and analyzed them with respect to sphingolipid levels, T-cell distribution, and response in models of inflammation. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The partially Sgpl1 deficient mice are viable but feature profound reduction of peripheral T cells, similar to the constitutive KO mice. While thymic T cell development in these mice appears normal, mature T cells are retained in thymus and lymph nodes, leading to reduced T cell numbers in spleen and blood, with a skewing towards increased proportions of memory T cells and T regulatory cells. The therapeutic relevance of Sgpl1 is demonstrated by the fact that the inducible KO mice are protected in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. T cell immigration into the CNS was found to be profoundly reduced. Since S1P levels in the brain of the animals are unchanged, we conclude that protection in EAE is due to the peripheral effect on T cells, leading to reduced CNS immigration, rather than on local effects in the CNS. SIGNIFICANCE: The data suggest Sgpl1 as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

  20. Chloroquine treatment enhances regulatory T cells and reduces the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Rodolfo Thomé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The modulation of inflammatory processes is a necessary step, mostly orchestrated by regulatory T (Treg cells and suppressive Dendritic Cells (DCs, to prevent the development of deleterious responses and autoimmune diseases. Therapies that focused on adoptive transfer of Treg cells or their expansion in vivo achieved great success in controlling inflammation in several experimental models. Chloroquine (CQ, an anti-malarial drug, was shown to reduce inflammation, although the mechanisms are still obscure. In this context, we aimed to access whether chloroquine treatment alters the frequency of Treg cells and DCs in normal mice. In addition, the effects of the prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with CQ on Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE, an experimental model for human Multiple Sclerosis, was investigated as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55 peptide. C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally treated with chloroquine. Results show that the CQ treatment provoked an increase in Treg cells frequency as well as a decrease in DCs. We next evaluated whether prophylactic CQ administration is capable of reducing the clinical and histopathological signs of EAE. Our results demonstrated that CQ-treated mice developed mild EAE compared to controls that was associated with lower infiltration of inflammatory cells in the central nervous system CNS and increased frequency of Treg cells. Also, proliferation of MOG35-55-reactive T cells was significantly inhibited by chloroquine treatment. Similar results were observed when chloroquine was administrated after disease onset. CONCLUSION: We show for the first time that CQ treatment promotes the expansion of Treg cells, corroborating previous reports indicating that chloroquine has immunomodulatory properties. Our results also show that CQ treatment suppress the inflammation in the CNS of

  1. Gray Matter Hypoxia in the Brain of the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Model of Multiple Sclerosis

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    Johnson, Thomas W.; Wu, Ying; Nathoo, Nabeela; Rogers, James A.; Wee Yong, V.; Dunn, Jeff F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a significant inflammatory component and may have significant gray matter (GM) pathophysiology. Brain oxygenation is a sensitive measurement of the balance between metabolic need and oxygen delivery. There is evidence that inflammation and hypoxia are interdependent. In this paper, we applied novel, implanted PO2 sensors to measure hypoxia in cortical and cerebellar GM, in an inflammation-induced mouse model of MS. Objective Quantify oxygenation in cortical and cerebellar GM in the awake, unrestrained experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model and to relate the results to symptom level and disease time-course. Methods C57BL/6 mice were implanted with a fiber-optic sensor in the cerebellum (n = 13) and cortex (n = 24). Animals were induced with stimulation of the immune response and sensitization to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Controls did not have MOG. We measured PO2 in awake, unrestrained animals from pre-induction (baseline) up to 36 days post-induction for EAE and controls. Results There were more days with hypoxia than hyperoxia (cerebellum: 34/67 vs. 18/67 days; cortex: 85/112 vs. 22/112) compared to time-matched controls. The average decline in PO2 on days that were significantly lower than time-matched controls was -8.8±6.0 mmHg (mean ± SD) for the cerebellum and -8.0±4.6 for the cortex. Conversely, the average increase in PO2 on days that were significantly hyperoxic was +3.2±2.8 mmHg (mean ± SD) for the cerebellum and +0.8±2.1 for the cortex. Cortical hypoxia related to increased behavioral deficits. Evidence for hypoxia occurred before measurable behavioral deficits. Conclusions A highly inflammatory condition primed to a white matter (WM) autoimmune response correlates with significant hypoxia and increased variation in oxygenation in GM of both cerebellum and cortex in the mouse EAE model of MS. PMID:27907119

  2. Copaiba Oil Suppresses Inflammatory Cytokines in Splenocytes of C57Bl/6 Mice Induced with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE

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    Débora S. Dias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is a murine autoimmune disease used to study multiple sclerosis. We have investigated the immunomodulatory effects of copaiba oil (100, 50 and 25 µg/mL on NO, H2O2, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17 production in cultured cells from EAE-mice. Copaiba oil (100 µg/mL inhibited H2O2, NO, IFN-γ TNF-α and IL-17 production spontaneously or after ConA and MOG35–55 stimulation. It is suggested that copaiba oil acts on the mechanism of development of EAE by IFN-γ, IL-17 and TNF-α inhibition, modulating the immune response on both Th1 and Th17 cells.

  3. Treatment with the Antipsychotic Agent, Risperidone, Reduces Disease Severity in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

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    Stone, Sarrabeth; Zareie, Pirooz; Kharkrang, Marie; Fong, Dahna; Connor, Bronwen; La Flamme, Anne Camille

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that atypical antipsychotic agents, which are known to antagonize dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2a receptors, have immunomodulatory properties. Given the potential of these drugs to modulate the immune system both peripherally and within the central nervous system, we investigated the ability of the atypical anti-psychotic agent, risperidone, to modify disease in the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS)4, experimental autoimune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We found that chronic oral administration of risperidone dose-dependently reduced the severity of disease and decreased both the size and number of spinal cord lesions. Furthermore, risperidone treatment substantially reduced antigen-specific interleukin (IL)-17a, IL-2, and IL-4 but not interferon (IFN)-γ production by splenocytes at peak disease and using an in vitro model, we show that treatment of macrophages with risperidone alters their ability to bias naïve T cells. Another atypical antipsychotic agent, clozapine, showed a similar ability to modify macrophages in vitro and to reduce disease in the EAE model but this effect was not due to antagonism of the type 1 or type 2 dopamine receptors alone. Finally, we found that while risperidone treatment had little effect on the in vivo activation of splenic macrophages during EAE, it significantly reduced the activation of microglia and macrophages in the central nervous system. Together these studies indicate that atypical antipsychotic agents like risperidone are effective immunomodulatory agents with the potential to treat immune-mediated diseases such as MS. PMID:25116424

  4. Elevated interferon gamma expression in the central nervous system of tumour necrosis factor receptor 1-deficient mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

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    Wheeler, Rachel D; Zehntner, Simone P; Kelly, Lisa M

    2006-01-01

    Inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) can be studied in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The proinflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) are implicated in EAE pathogenesis. Signals through the type 1 TNF receptor (TNFR1...

  5. Induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice deficient in either the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha or its CCR5 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, E H; Kuziel, W A; Owens, T

    2000-01-01

    Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha is a chemokine that is associated with Th1 cytokine responses. Expression and antibody blocking studies have implicated MIP-1alpha in multiple sclerosis (MS) and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We examined the role of MIP-1alpha...

  6. Direct angiotensin AT2-receptor stimulation attenuates T-cell and microglia activation and prevents demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice

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    Valero-Esquitino, Verónica; Lucht, Kristin; Namsolleck, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    In this study we evaluated stimulation of the angiotensin AT2-receptor (AT2R) by the selective non-peptide agonist Compound 21 (C21) as a novel therapeutic concept for the treatment of multiple sclerosis using the model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. C57BL-6 mice were...

  7. Attenuation of autoimmune responses to oxidative specific epitopes, but not nitroso-adducts, is associated with a better clinical outcome in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome.

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    Maes, Michael; Leunis, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways participate in the pathophysiology of a subgroup of patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Increased IgM-related autoimmune responses to oxidative specific epitopes (OSEs), including malondialdehyde (MDA), oleic acid and phosphatidyl inositol (Pi), and nitroso-(NO)-adducts, including NO-tryptophan (NOW), NO-arginine and NO-cysteinyl, are frequently observed in ME/CFS. Autoimmune responses in ME/CFS may be driven by increased bacterial translocation as measured by IgM and IgA responses to LPS of gram negative bacteria. The aim of this study is to examine whether IgM responses to OSEs and NO-adducts are related to a better outcome as measured by the Fibromyalgia and Fatigue Rating Scale (FF). 76 ME/CFS patients with initially abnormal autoimmune responses were treated with care-as-usual, including nutraceuticals with anti-IO&NS effects (NAIOS), such as L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, taurine + lipoic acid, with or without curcumine + quercitine or N-acetyl-cysteine, zinc + glutamine. We found that use of these NAIOS was associated with highly significant reductions in initially increased IgM-mediated autoimmune responses to OSEs and NO-adducts. A greater reduction in autoimmune responses to OSEs during intake of these NAIOS was associated with a lower FF score. Reductions in IgM responses to oleic acid, MDA and Pi, but not in any of the NO-adducts, were associated with reductions in severity of illness. These associations remained significant after adjusting for possible effects of increased bacterial translocation (leaky gut). Our results show that autoimmune responses to OSEs are involved in the pathophysiology of ME/CFS and that these pathways are a new drug target in a subgroup of ME/CFS patients. Although hypernitrosylation and nitrosative stress play a role in ME/CFS, reductions in these pathways are not associated with lowered severity of

  8. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition at disease onset prevents experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis progression through immunoregulatory and neuroprotective actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifarré, Paula; Gutierrez-Mecinas, María; Prado, Judith; Usero, Lorena; Roura-Mir, Carme; Giralt, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Juan; García, Agustina

    2014-01-01

    In addition to detrimental inflammation, widespread axon degeneration is an important feature of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology and a major correlate for permanent clinical deficits. Thus, treatments that combine immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects are beneficial for MS. Using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide 35-55 (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model of MS, we recently showed that daily treatment with the phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor sildenafil at peak disease rapidly ameliorates clinical symptoms and neuropathology (Pifarre et al., 2011). We have now investigated the immunomodulatory and neuroprotective actions of sildenafil treatment from the onset of EAE when the immune response prevails and show that early administration of the drug prevents disease progression. Ultrastructural analysis of spinal cord evidenced that sildenafil treatment preserves axons and myelin and increases the number of remyelinating axons. Immunostaining of oligodendrocytes at different stages of differentiation showed that sildenafil protects immature and mature myelinating oligodendrocytes. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a recognized neuroprotectant in EAE, was up-regulated by sildenafil in immune and neural cells suggesting its implication in the beneficial effects of the drug. RNA microarray analysis of spinal cord revealed that sildenafil up-regulates YM-1, a marker of the alternative macrophage/microglial M2 phenotype that has neuroprotective and regenerative properties. Immunostaining confirmed up-regulation of YM-1 while the classical macrophage/microglial activation marker Iba-1 was down-regulated. Microarray analysis also showed a notable up-regulation of several members of the granzyme B cluster (GrBs). Immunostaining revealed expression of GrBs in Foxp3+-T regulatory cells (Tregs) suggesting a role for these proteases in sildenafil-induced suppression of T effector cells (Teffs). In vitro analysis of

  9. Oral Administration of Lactococcus lactis Expressing Synthetic Genes of Myelin Antigens in Decreasing Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasarello, Kaja; Kwiatkowska-Patzer, Barbara; Lipkowski, Andrzej W; Bardowski, Jacek K; Szczepankowska, Agnieszka K

    2015-05-31

    Multiple sclerosis is a human autoimmunological disease that causes neurodegeneration. One of the potential ways to stop its development is induction of oral tolerance, whose effect lies in decreasing immune response to the fed antigen. It was shown in animal models that administration of specific epitopes of the three main myelin proteins - myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), myelin basic protein (MBP), and proteolipid protein (PLP) - results in induction of oral tolerance and suppression of disease symptoms. Use of bacterial cells to produce and deliver antigens to gut mucosa seems to be an attractive method for oral tolerance induction in treatment of diseases with autoimmune background. Synthetic genes of MOG35-55, MBP85-97, and PLP139-151 myelin epitopes were generated and cloned in Lactococcus lactis under a CcpA-regulated promoter. The tolerogenic effect of bacterial preparations was tested on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, which is the animal model of MS. EAE was induced in rats by intradermal injection of guinea pig spinal cord homogenate into hind paws. Rats were administered preparations containing whole-cell lysates of L. lactis producing myelin antigens using different feeding schemes. Our study demonstrates that 20-fold, but not 4-fold, intragastric administration of autoantigen-expressing L. lactis cells under specific conditions reduces the clinical symptoms of EAE in rats. The present study evaluated the use of myelin antigens produced in L. lactis in inhibiting the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats. Obtained results indicate that application of such recombinant cells can be an attractive method of oral tolerance induction.

  10. Treatment with the antipsychotic agent, risperidone, reduces disease severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    David O'Sullivan

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that atypical antipsychotic agents, which are known to antagonize dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2a receptors, have immunomodulatory properties. Given the potential of these drugs to modulate the immune system both peripherally and within the central nervous system, we investigated the ability of the atypical anti-psychotic agent, risperidone, to modify disease in the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS4, experimental autoimune encephalomyelitis (EAE. We found that chronic oral administration of risperidone dose-dependently reduced the severity of disease and decreased both the size and number of spinal cord lesions. Furthermore, risperidone treatment substantially reduced antigen-specific interleukin (IL-17a, IL-2, and IL-4 but not interferon (IFN-γ production by splenocytes at peak disease and using an in vitro model, we show that treatment of macrophages with risperidone alters their ability to bias naïve T cells. Another atypical antipsychotic agent, clozapine, showed a similar ability to modify macrophages in vitro and to reduce disease in the EAE model but this effect was not due to antagonism of the type 1 or type 2 dopamine receptors alone. Finally, we found that while risperidone treatment had little effect on the in vivo activation of splenic macrophages during EAE, it significantly reduced the activation of microglia and macrophages in the central nervous system. Together these studies indicate that atypical antipsychotic agents like risperidone are effective immunomodulatory agents with the potential to treat immune-mediated diseases such as MS.

  11. GCN2 kinase plays an important role triggering the remission phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Heloisa; Araujo, Leandro P; Maricato, Juliana T; Guereschi, Marcia G; Mariano, Mario; Castilho, Beatriz A; Basso, Alexandre S

    2014-03-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been widely employed as a model to study multiple sclerosis (MS) and indeed has allowed some important advances in our comprehension of MS pathogenesis. Several pieces of evidence suggest that infiltrating Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes are important players leading to CNS demyelination and lesion during the peak of murine EAE. Subsequently, effector T cell responses rapidly decline and the recovery phase of the disease strongly correlates with the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the enrichment of Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells within the target organ. However, the mechanisms leading to the increased presence of Treg cells and to the remission phase of the disease are still poorly understood. Recent researches demonstrated that chemically induced amino-acid starvation response might suppress CNS immune activity. Here we verified an important participation of the general control nonrepressible 2 (GCN2), a key regulator kinase of the amino-acid starvation response, in the development of the remission phase of EAE in C57BL/6 mice. By immunizing wild type C57BL/6 (WT) and GCN2 knock-out mice (GCN2 KO) with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG35-55), it was noticed that GCN2 KO mice did not develop the remission phase of the disease and this was associated with higher levels of CNS inflammation and increased presence of effector T cells (Th1/Th17). These animals also showed lower frequency of Treg cells within the CNS as compared to WT animals. Higher expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and higher frequency of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) were found at the peak of the disease in the CNS of WT animals. Our results suggest that the GCN2 kinase-dependent sensing of IDO activity represents an important trigger to the EAE remission phase. The IDO-mediated immunoregulatory events may include the arresting of effector T cell responses and the differentiation/expansion of Treg cells

  12. Moringin activates Wnt canonical pathway by inhibiting GSK3β in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

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    Giacoppo S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sabrina Giacoppo,1 Thangavelu Soundara Rajan,1 Gina Rosalinda De Nicola,2 Renato Iori,2 Placido Bramanti,1 Emanuela Mazzon1 1IRCCS Centre Neurolesi “Bonino-Pulejo”, Messina, Italy; 2Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Research Centre for Industrial Crops (CREA-CIN, Bologna, Italy Abstract: Aberrant canonical Wnt–β-catenin signaling has been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS, although the results are controversial. The present study aimed to examine the role of the Wnt–β-catenin pathway in experimental MS and also to test moringin (4-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy]-benzyl isothiocyanate, resulting from exogenous myrosinase hydrolysis of the natural phytochemical glucomoringin 4(α-L-rhamnosyloxy-benzyl glucosinolate as a modulator of neuroinflammation via the β-catenin–PPARγ axis. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the most common model of MS, was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with MOG35–55. Released moringin (10 mg/kg glucomoringin +5 µL myrosinase/mouse was administered daily for 1 week before EAE induction and continued until mice were killed on day 28 after EAE induction. Our results clearly showed that the Wnt–β-catenin pathway was downregulated in the EAE model, whereas moringin pretreatment was able to avert this. Moringin pretreatment normalizes the aberrant Wnt–β-catenin pathway, resulting in GSK3β inhibition and β-catenin upregulation, which regulates T-cell activation (CD4 and FoxP3, suppresses the main inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, and COX2, through activation of PPARγ. In addition, moringin attenuates apoptosis by reducing the expression of the Fas ligand and cleaved caspase 9, and in parallel increases antioxidant Nrf2 expression in EAE mice. Taken together, our results provide an interesting discovery in identifying moringin as a modulator of the Wnt–β-catenin signaling cascade and as a new potential therapeutic target for MS treatment. Keywords: Wnt

  13. Arctigenin Suppress Th17 Cells and Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Through AMPK and PPAR-γ/ROR-γt Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Zhang, Zhihui; Zhang, Kai; Xue, Zhenyi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Zimu; Zhang, Lijuan; Gu, Chao; Zhang, Qi; Hao, Junwei; Da, Yurong; Yao, Zhi; Kong, Ying; Zhang, Rongxin

    2016-10-01

    Arctigenin is a herb compound extract from Arctium lappa and is reported to exhibit pharmacological properties, including neuronal protection and antidiabetic, antitumor, and antioxidant properties. However, the effects of arctigenin on autoimmune inflammatory diseases of the CNS, multiple sclerosis (MS), and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that arctigenin-treated mice are resistant to EAE; the clinical scores of arctigenin-treated mice are significantly reduced. Histochemical assays of spinal cord sections also showed that arctigenin reduces inflammation and demyelination in mice with EAE. Furthermore, the Th1 and Th17 cells in peripheral immune organs are inhibited by arctigenin in vivo. In addition, the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and transcription factor T-bet, as well as the Th17 cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F, and transcription factor ROR-γt are significantly suppressed upon arctigenin treatment in vitro and in vivo. Interestedly, Th17 cells are obviously inhibited in CNS of mice with EAE, while Th1 cells do not significantly change. Besides, arctigenin significantly restrains the differentiation of Th17 cells. We further demonstrate that arctigenin activates AMPK and inhibits phosphorylated p38, in addition, upregulates PPAR-γ, and finally suppresses ROR-γt. These findings suggest that arctigenin may have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties via inhibiting Th17 cells, indicating that it could be a potential therapeutic drug for multiple sclerosis or other autoimmune inflammatory diseases.

  14. Comparative Effects of Human Neural Stem Cells and Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells on the Neurobehavioral Disorders of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mice

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    Dae-Kwon Bae

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since multiple sclerosis (MS is featured with widespread demyelination caused by autoimmune response, we investigated the recovery effects of F3.olig2 progenitors, established by transducing human neural stem cells (F3 NSCs with Olig2 transcription factor, in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein- (MOG- induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model mice. Six days after EAE induction, F3 or F3.olig2 cells (1 × 106/mouse were intravenously transplanted. MOG-injected mice displayed severe neurobehavioral deficits which were remarkably attenuated and restored by cell transplantation, in which F3.olig2 cells were superior to its parental F3 cells. Transplanted cells migrated to the injured spinal cord, matured to oligodendrocytes, and produced myelin basic proteins (MBP. The F3.olig2 cells expressed growth and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, nerve growth factor (NGF, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF. In addition, the transplanted cells markedly attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced cytokine levels in the spinal cord and lymph nodes, and protected host myelins. The results indicate that F3.olig2 cells restore neurobehavioral symptoms of EAE mice by regulating autoimmune inflammatory responses as well as by stimulating remyelination and that F3.olig2 progenitors could be a candidate for the cell therapy of demyelinating diseases including MS.

  15. Dendritic cells tip the balance towards induction of regulatory T cells upon priming in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterka, Magdalena; Voss, Jan Oliver; Werr, Johannes; Reuter, Eva; Franck, Sophia; Leuenberger, Tina; Herz, Josephine; Radbruch, Helena; Bopp, Tobias; Siffrin, Volker; Zipp, Frauke

    2017-01-01

    Counter-balancing regulatory mechanisms, such as the induction of regulatory T cells (Treg), limit the effects of autoimmune attack in neuroinflammation. However, the role of dendritic cells (DCs) as the most powerful antigen-presenting cells, which are intriguing therapeutic targets in this context, is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that conditional ablation of DCs during the priming phase of myelin-specific T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) selectively aborts inducible Treg (iTreg) induction, whereas generation of T helper (Th)1/17 cells is unaltered. DCs facilitate iTreg induction by creating a milieu with high levels of interleukin (IL)-2 due to a strong proliferative response. In the absence of DCs, B220 + B cells take over priming of Th17 cells in the place of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), but not the induction of iTreg, thus leading to unregulated, severe autoimmunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of an anti-IL-12 p40 auto-vaccine: protection in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis at the expense of increased sensitivity to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyttenhove, Catherine; Arendse, Berenice; Stroobant, Vincent; Brombacher, Frank; Van Snick, Jacques

    2004-12-01

    IL-12 and IL-23, which share the IL-12 p40 subunit, have been ascribed central roles in many autoimmune disorders. We describe here an anti-IL-12 (alphaIL-12) auto-vaccine that potentially blocks both factors in vivo. Immunization of mice with mouse IL-12 coupled to OVA or Pan DR epitope (PADRE) peptide induced Ab directed against the IL-12 p40 subunit, which prevented IFN-gamma production in response to IL-12 administration in vivo. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an IL-23-dependent disease model, induced in SJL mice with a proteolipid protein (PLP) peptide was almost undetectable after alphaIL-12 vaccination. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced disease in C57BL/6 mice was also significantly inhibited. This protection correlated with inhibited Th1 cytokine responses in vitro and with an increase in the IgG1/IgG2a anti-PLP Ab balance. Detrimental consequences of alphaIL-12 vaccination were evaluated in C57BL/6 mice infected with Leishmania major (L.m.). While delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) suppression and immunoglobulin as well as interleukin production patterns reflected a major shift toward a Th2-type response, L.m. growth was still significantly retarded as compared to that seen in susceptible BALB/c mice. However, vaccinated animals ultimately failed to control parasite expansion. These results suggest that some chronic autoimmune diseases may benefit from alphaIL-12 vaccination at the expense of reduced, but not completely abrogated, cell-mediated immunity.

  17. Natural Docosahexaenoic Acid in the Triglyceride Form Attenuates In Vitro Microglial Activation and Ameliorates Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Mancera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative diseases are associated, at least in part, to an inflammatory process in which microglia plays a major role. The effect of the triglyceride form of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (TG-DHA was assayed in vitro and in vivo to assess the protective and anti-inflammatory activity of this compound. In the in vitro study, BV-2 microglia cells were previously treated with TG-DHA and then activated with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS and Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ. TG-DHA treatment protected BV-2 microglia cells from oxidative stress toxicity attenuating NO production and suppressing the induction of inflammatory cytokines. When compared with DHA in the ethyl-ester form, a significant difference in the ability to inhibit NO production in favor of TG-DHA was observed. TG-DHA inhibited significantly splenocyte proliferation but isolated CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation was unaffected. In a mice model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, 250 mg/kg/day oral TG-DHA treatment was associated with a significant amelioration of the course and severity of the disease as compared to untreated animals. TG-DHA-treated EAE mice showed a better weight profile, which is a symptom related to a better course of encephalomyelitis. TG-DHA may be a promising therapeutic agent in neuroinflammatory processes and merit to be more extensively studied in human neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. Reg-2, a downstream signaling protein in the ciliary neurotrophic factor survival pathway, alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong eJiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, originally described as a neurocytokine that could support the survival of neurons, has been recently found to alleviate demyelination, prevent axon loss, and improve functional recovery in a rat model of acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. However, poor penetration into the brain parenchyma and unfavorable side effects limit the utility of CNTF. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of a protein downstream of CNTF, regeneration gene protein 2 (Reg-2. Using multiple morphological, molecular biology, and electrophysiological methods to assess neuroinflammation, axonal loss, demyelination, and functional impairment, we observed that Reg-2 and CNTF exert similar effects in the acute phase of EAE. Both treatments attenuated axonal loss and demyelination, improved neuronal survival, and produced functional improvement. With a smaller molecular weight and improved penetration into the brain parenchyma, Reg-2 may be a useful substitute for CNTF therapy in EAE and multiple sclerosis.

  19. Deletion of UCP2 in iNOS deficient mice reduces the severity of the disease during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Caroline Aheng

    Full Text Available Uncoupling protein 2 is a member of the mitochondrial anion carrier family that is widely expressed in neurons and the immune cells of humans. Deletion of Ucp2 gene in mice pre-activates the immune system leading to higher resistance toward infection and to an increased susceptibility to develop chronic inflammatory diseases as previously exemplified with the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE, a mouse model for multiple sclerosis. Given that oxidative stress is enhanced in Ucp2-/- mice and that nitric oxide (NO also plays a critical function in redox balance and in chronic inflammation, we generated mice deficient for both Ucp2 and iNos genes and submitted them to EAE. Mice lacking iNos gene exhibited the highest clinical score (3.4+/-0.5 p<0.05. Surprisingly, mice deficient for both genes developed milder disease with reduced immune cell infiltration, cytokines and ROS production as compared to iNos-/- mice.

  20. Efficacy of Synthetic Peptide Corresponding to the ACTH-Like Sequence of Human Immunoglobulin G1 in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turobov, Valery I; Danilkovich, Alexey V; Shevelev, Alexei B; Biryukova, Yulia K; Pozdniakova, Natalia V; Azev, Viatcheslav N; Murashev, Arkady N; Lipkin, Valery M; Udovichenko, Igor P

    2018-01-01

    Peptide immunocortin sequence corresponds to the amino acid residues 11-20 of the variable part of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) heavy chain. Since immunocortin was shown previously to inhibit phagocytosis in peritoneal macrophages and ConA-induced T-lymphocytes proliferation in culture, we suggested that immunocortin administering may be of use for patients with self-immune syndrome. Immunocortin in concentration 10 μM inhibited proliferation of both antigen (myelin)-induced and ConA-induced LN lymphocytes isolated from the lymph nodes of Dark Agouti (DA) rats immunized with chorda shear. The biological trials of the synthetic immunocortin were carried out on the DA rats with induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. These in vivo experiments have shown that intraperitoneal injections of immunocortin in a daily dosage 100 μg per animal reduced symptoms of EAE in DA rats.

  1. Efficacy of Synthetic Peptide Corresponding to the ACTH-Like Sequence of Human Immunoglobulin G1 in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I. Turobov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Peptide immunocortin sequence corresponds to the amino acid residues 11–20 of the variable part of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1 heavy chain. Since immunocortin was shown previously to inhibit phagocytosis in peritoneal macrophages and ConA-induced T-lymphocytes proliferation in culture, we suggested that immunocortin administering may be of use for patients with self-immune syndrome. Immunocortin in concentration 10 μM inhibited proliferation of both antigen (myelin-induced and ConA-induced LN lymphocytes isolated from the lymph nodes of Dark Agouti (DA rats immunized with chorda shear. The biological trials of the synthetic immunocortin were carried out on the DA rats with induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. These in vivo experiments have shown that intraperitoneal injections of immunocortin in a daily dosage 100 μg per animal reduced symptoms of EAE in DA rats.

  2. Sodium salicylate-induced amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats is associated with the suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Changjong; Ahn, Meejung; Jee, Youngheun; Heo, Seungdam; Kim, Seungjoon; Kim, Hyungmin; Sim, Ki-Bum; Koh, Chang-Sung; Shin, Young-Gyun; Shin, Taekyun

    2004-02-12

    We studied the effects of oral administration of sodium salicylate on the expression of the pro-inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 1 and 2, in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Sodium salicylate (200 mg/kg) was administered orally for 13 days after the induction of EAE by immunization with guinea pig myelin basic protein and complete Freund's adjuvant. The onset (P<0.0001) and severity (P<0.05) of EAE paralysis in salicylate-treated animals were delayed and suppressed significantly compared with vehicle-treated controls. Western blot analysis showed that expression of COX-2 and iNOS, but not COX-1, decreased significantly in the spinal cords of salicylate-treated rats compared with vehicle-treated controls (P<0.05) and this finding was paralleled by immunohistochemical observations. These results suggest that the amelioration by salicylate of paralysis in rats with EAE is mediated in part by the suppression of COX and iNOS.

  3. Adeno-Associated Viral-Mediated Catalase Expression Suppresses Optic Neuritis in Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, John; Qi, Xiaoping; Hauswirth, William W.

    1998-11-01

    Suppression of oxidative injury by viral-mediated transfer of the human catalase gene was tested in the optic nerves of animals with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder of primary central nervous system demyelination that has been frequently used as an animal model for the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS). The optic nerve is a frequent site of involvement common to both EAE and MS. Recombinant adeno-associated virus containing the human gene for catalase was injected over the right optic nerve heads of SJL/J mice that were simultaneously sensitized for EAE. After 1 month, cell-specific catalase activity, evaluated by quantitation of catalase immunogold, was increased approximately 2-fold each in endothelia, oligodendroglia, astrocytes, and axons of the optic nerve. Effects of catalase on the histologic lesions of EAE were measured by computerized analysis of the myelin sheath area (for demyelination), optic disc area (for optic nerve head swelling), extent of the cellular infiltrate, extravasated serum albumin labeled by immunogold (for blood-brain barrier disruption), and in vivo H2O2 reaction product. Relative to control, contralateral optic nerves injected with the recombinant virus without a therapeutic gene, catalase gene inoculation reduced demyelination by 38%, optic nerve head swelling by 29%, cellular infiltration by 34%, disruption of the blood-brain barrier by 64%, and in vivo levels of H2O2 by 61%. Because the efficacy of potential treatments for MS are usually initially tested in the EAE animal model, this study suggests that catalase gene delivery by using viral vectors may be a therapeutic strategy for suppression of MS.

  4. Suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by oral administration of myelin antigens: IV. Suppression of chronic relapsing disease in the Lewis rat and strain 13 guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, S A; al-Sabbagh, A; Sobel, R A; Hafler, D A; Weiner, H L

    1991-06-01

    Oral administration of proteins is a long-recognized method of inducing antigen-specific peripheral immune tolerance. We previously showed that oral administration of myelin basic protein suppresses monophasic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the Lewis rat when it is given in association with immunization and prior to disease onset. As a potential therapy for human autoimmune disease, it is crucial to determine whether oral tolerance can ameliorate an ongoing immune response. We therefore asked whether oral administration of myelin antigens, after sensitization and disease expression has occurred, could affect immunological, clinical, or pathological features of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was induced in the Lewis rat and strain 13 guinea pig by immunization with whole guinea pig cord homogenate, complete Freund's adjuvant, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Following recovery from the first attack, animals were orally given bovine myelin, guinea pig myelin, or guinea pig myelin basic protein three times per week for up to 3 months. Animals receiving myelin products orally had decreased severity and frequency of clinical relapses, decreased delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to myelin antigens, diminished inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS), and decreased areas of CNS demyelination. In the rat, guinea pig myelin basic protein was as effective as guinea pig myelin in ameliorating the disease and also resulted in decreased serum anti-myelin basic protein antibody levels. No exacerbation of disease or worsening of pathological findings occurred in the animals given myelin products. These results demonstrate that oral administration of myelin antigens can suppress chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and have direct relevance to therapy of human demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis.

  5. Differential expression of neurotrophic factors and inflammatory cytokines by myelin basic protein-specific and other recruited T cells infiltrating the central nervous system during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhallab, S; Lundberg, C; Gielen, A W; Lidman, O; Svenningsson, A; Piehl, F; Olsson, T

    2002-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that autoimmune reactions in the central nervous system (CNS) not only have detrimental consequences but can also be neuroprotective, and that this effect is mediated by the expression of neuronal growth factors by infiltrating leucocytes. Here we dissect these two phenomena in guinea pig myelin basic protein peptide (gpMBP 63-88)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the Lewis rat. Real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to measure mRNA for the nerve growth factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin (NT)-3. As reference, the well-known proinflammatory mediator molecules interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were quantified. In whole lumbar cord tissue, both the nerve growth factors and the proinflammatory cytokines, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, displayed similar expression patterns, peaking at the height of the disease. Among the infiltrating inflammatory cells isolated and sorted from the CNS, alphabeta+/T-cell receptor (TCR)BV8S2+, but not alphabeta+/TCRBV8S2-, recognized the encephalitogenic MBP peptide. Interestingly, these two populations displayed contrasting expression patterns of nerve growth factors and proinflammatory cytokines with higher inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels in alphabeta+/TCRBV8S2+ cells at all time intervals, whereas the levels of BDNF and NT3 were higher in alphabeta+/TCRBV8S2- cells. We conclude that a potentially important neuroprotective facet of CNS inflammation dominantly prevails within other non-MBP peptide-specific lymphoid cells and that there are independent regulatory mechanisms for neurotrophin and inflammatory cytokine expression during EAE.

  6. Increased severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, chronic macrophage/microglial reactivity, and demyelination in transgenic mice producing tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taupin, V; Renno, T; Bourbonnière, L

    1997-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is an inflammatory cytokine implicated in a number of autoimmune diseases. Apoptotic cell death is induced by TNF-alpha in vitro, and has been suggested as one cause of autoimmune pathology, including autoimmune demyelinating diseases where oligodendrocytes...... are a target of immune attack. TNF-alpha also regulates macrophage activity which could contribute to autoimmune inflammation. We have expressed TNF-alpha at disease-equivalent levels in the central nervous system of transgenic mice, using a myelin basic protein (MBP) promoter. These mice were normal...... and showed no spontaneous pathology, but they developed experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) with greater severity than nontransgenic controls when immunized with MBP in adjuvant. Unlike nontransgenic controls, EAE then progressed to a nonabating demyelinating disease. Macrophage...

  7. IFN-γ signaling to astrocytes protects from autoimmune mediated neurological disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Hindinger

    Full Text Available Demyelination and axonal degeneration are determinants of progressive neurological disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Cells resident within the central nervous system (CNS are active participants in development, progression and subsequent control of autoimmune disease; however, their individual contributions are not well understood. Astrocytes, the most abundant CNS cell type, are highly sensitive to environmental cues and are implicated in both detrimental and protective outcomes during autoimmune demyelination. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE was induced in transgenic mice expressing signaling defective dominant-negative interferon gamma (IFN-γ receptors on astrocytes to determine the influence of inflammation on astrocyte activity. Inhibition of IFN-γ signaling to astrocytes did not influence disease incidence, onset, initial progression of symptoms, blood brain barrier (BBB integrity or the composition of the acute CNS inflammatory response. Nevertheless, increased demyelination at peak acute disease in the absence of IFN-γ signaling to astrocytes correlated with sustained clinical symptoms. Following peak disease, diminished clinical remission, increased mortality and sustained astrocyte activation within the gray matter demonstrate a critical role of IFN-γ signaling to astrocytes in neuroprotection. Diminished disease remission was associated with escalating demyelination, axonal degeneration and sustained inflammation. The CNS infiltrating leukocyte composition was not altered; however, decreased IL-10 and IL-27 correlated with sustained disease. These data indicate that astrocytes play a critical role in limiting CNS autoimmune disease dependent upon a neuroprotective signaling pathway mediated by engagement of IFN-γ receptors.

  8. The lactic acid bacterium Pediococcus acidilactici suppresses autoimmune encephalomyelitis by inducing IL-10-producing regulatory T cells.

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    Kazushiro Takata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Certain intestinal microflora are thought to regulate the systemic immune response. Lactic acid bacteria are one of the most studied bacteria in terms of their beneficial effects on health and autoimmune diseases; one of which is Multiple sclerosis (MS which affects the central nervous system. We investigated whether the lactic acid bacterium Pediococcus acidilactici, which comprises human commensal bacteria, has beneficial effects on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of MS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: P. acidilactici R037 was orally administered to EAE mice to investigate the effects of R037. R037 treatment suppressed clinical EAE severity as prophylaxis and therapy. The antigen-specific production of inflammatory cytokines was inhibited in R037-treated mice. A significant increase in the number of CD4(+ Interleukin (IL-10-producing cells was observed in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs and spleens isolated from R037-treated naive mice, while no increase was observed in the number of these cells in the lamina propria. Because only a slight increase in the CD4(+Foxp3(+ cells was observed in MLNs, R037 may primarily induce Foxp3(- IL10-producing T regulatory type 1 (Tr1 cells in MLNs, which contribute to the beneficial effect of R037 on EAE. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: An orally administered single strain of P. acidilactici R037 ameliorates EAE by inducing IL10-producing Tr1 cells. Our findings indicate the therapeutic potential of the oral administration of R037 for treating multiple sclerosis.

  9. CD27 natural killer cell subsets play different roles during the pre-onset stage of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Yang, Yan; Li, Daling; Ming, Bingxia; Chen, Huoying; Sun, Yan; Xiao, Yifan; Lai, Lin; Zou, Huijuan; Xu, Yong; Xiong, Ping; Tan, Zheng; Gong, Feili; Zheng, Fang

    2016-08-01

    NK cells participate in the development of human multiple sclerosis (MS) and mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), but the roles of different NK cell subsets in disease onset remain poorly understood. In this study, murine NK cells were divided into CD27(high) and CD27(low/-) subsets. The CD27(high) subset was decreased and the CD27(low/-) subset was increased in lymphoid organs during the pre-onset stage of EAE. Compared with the counterpart in naïve mice, the CD27(high) subset showed lower expression of Ly49D, Ly49H and NKG2D, and less production of IFN-γ, whereas the CD27(low/-) subset showed similar expression of the above mentioned surface receptors but higher cytotoxic activity in EAE mice. Compared with the CD27(high) subset, the CD27(low/-) subset exhibited increased promotion of DC maturation and no significant inhibition of T cells proliferation and Th17 cells differentiation in vitro Additionally, adoptive transfer of the CD27(low/-) subset, but not the CD27(high) subset, exacerbated the severity of EAE. Collectively, our data suggest the CD27 NK cell subsets play different roles in controlling EAE onset, which provide a new understanding for the regulation of NK cell subsets in early autoimmune disease. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. BCG and BCG/DNAhsp65 vaccinations promote protective effects without deleterious consequences for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzella-Pezavento, Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves; Guerino, Clara Pires Fujiara; Chiuso-Minicucci, Fernanda; França, Thais Graziela Donegá; Ishikawa, Larissa Lumi Watanabe; Masson, Ana Paula; Silva, Célio Lopes; Sartori, Alexandrina

    2013-01-01

    A prime-boost strategy conserving BCG is considered the most promising vaccine to control tuberculosis. A boost with a DNA vaccine containing the mycobacterial gene of a heat shock protein (pVAXhsp65) after BCG priming protected mice against experimental tuberculosis. However, anti-hsp65 immunity could worsen an autoimmune disease due to molecular mimicry. In this investigation, we evaluated the effect of a previous BCG or BCG/pVAXhsp65 immunization on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) development. Female Lewis rats were immunized with BCG or BCG followed by pVAXhsp65 boosters. The animals underwent EAE induction and were daily evaluated for weight loss and clinical score. They were euthanized during recovery phase to assess immune response and inflammatory infiltration at the central nervous system. Previous immunization did not aggravate or accelerate clinical score or weight loss. In addition, this procedure clearly decreased inflammation in the brain. BCG immunization modulated the host immune response by triggering a significant reduction in IL-10 and IFN-γ levels induced by myelin basic protein. These data indicated that vaccination protocols with BCG or BCG followed by boosters with pVAXhsp65 did not trigger a deleterious effect on EAE evolution.

  11. BCG and BCG/DNAhsp65 Vaccinations Promote Protective Effects without Deleterious Consequences for Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves Zorzella-Pezavento

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A prime-boost strategy conserving BCG is considered the most promising vaccine to control tuberculosis. A boost with a DNA vaccine containing the mycobacterial gene of a heat shock protein (pVAXhsp65 after BCG priming protected mice against experimental tuberculosis. However, anti-hsp65 immunity could worsen an autoimmune disease due to molecular mimicry. In this investigation, we evaluated the effect of a previous BCG or BCG/pVAXhsp65 immunization on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE development. Female Lewis rats were immunized with BCG or BCG followed by pVAXhsp65 boosters. The animals underwent EAE induction and were daily evaluated for weight loss and clinical score. They were euthanized during recovery phase to assess immune response and inflammatory infiltration at the central nervous system. Previous immunization did not aggravate or accelerate clinical score or weight loss. In addition, this procedure clearly decreased inflammation in the brain. BCG immunization modulated the host immune response by triggering a significant reduction in IL-10 and IFN-γ levels induced by myelin basic protein. These data indicated that vaccination protocols with BCG or BCG followed by boosters with pVAXhsp65 did not trigger a deleterious effect on EAE evolution.

  12. Oral administration of probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve, does not exacerbate neurological symptoms in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshihide; Kato, Ikuo; Nanno, Masanobu; Shida, Kan; Shibuya, Kazumoto; Matsuoka, Yoshiaki; Onoue, Masaharu

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the safety of two probiotic bacterial strains, Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) and Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult (BbY), these probiotics were orally administered to Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the experimental model of human multiple sclerosis. We examined three experimental designs by combining different antigen types and probiotic administration periods: (1) EAE was induced with a homogenate of guinea pig spinal cord as the sensitizing antigen, and LcS was orally administered from one week before this sensitization until the end of the experiment; (2) EAE was induced using guinea pig originated myelin basic protein (MBP) as the sensitizing antigen, and LcS was orally administered from one week before this sensitization to the end of the experiment; (3) EAE was induced using guinea pig MBP as the sensitizing antigen, and the probiotic strains (LcS and BbY) were administered starting in infancy (two weeks old) and continued until the end of the experiment. In experiment 1, oral administration of LcS tended to suppress the development of neurological symptoms. Differences in neurological symptoms between the control group and the administration groups did not reach statistical significance in experiments 2 and 3. These results support the notion that neither LcS nor BbY exacerbates autoimmune disease.

  13. Hsp65-producing Lactococcus lactis prevents experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice by inducing CD4+LAP+ regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Rafael M; Oliveira, Rafael P; Medeiros, Samara R; Gomes-Santos, Ana C; Alves, Andrea C; Loli, Flávia G; Guimarães, Mauro A F; Amaral, Sylvia S; da Cunha, André P; Weiner, Howard L; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson; Faria, Ana M C

    2013-02-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) participate in the cellular response to stress and they are hiperexpressed in inflammatory conditions. They are also known to play a major role in immune modulation, controlling, for instance, autoimmune responses. In this study, we showed that oral administration of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain that produces and releases LPS-free Hsp65 prevented the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice. This was confirmed by the reduced inflammatory cell infiltrate and absence of injury signs in the spinal cord. The effect was associated with reduced IL-17 and increased IL-10 production in mesenteric lymph node and spleen cell cultures. Hsp65-producing-L. lactis-fed mice had a remarkable increase in the number of natural and inducible CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD4+LAP+ (Latency-associated peptide) Tregs - which express the membrane-bound TGF-β - in spleen, inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes as well as in spinal cord. Moreover, many Tregs co-expressed Foxp3 and LAP. In vivo depletion of LAP+ cells abrogated the effect of Hsp65-producing L. lactis in EAE prevention and worsened disease in medium-fed mice. Thus, Hsp65-L.lactis seems to boost this critical regulatory circuit involved in controlling EAE development in mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hsp65-producing Lactococcus lactis prevents experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice by inducing CD4+LAP+ regulatory T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Rafael M.; Oliveira, Rafael P.; Medeiros, Samara R.; Gomes-Santos, Ana C.; Alves, Andrea C.; Loli, Flávia G.; Guimarães, Mauro A.F.; Amaral, Sylvia S.; da Cunha, André P.; Weiner, Howard L.; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson; Faria, Ana M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) participate in the cellular response to stress and they are hiperexpressed in inflammatory conditions. They are also known to play a major role in immune modulation, controlling, for instance, autoimmune responses. In this study, we showed that oral administration of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain that produces and releases LPS-free Hsp65 prevented the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice. This was confirmed by the reduced inflammatory cell infiltrate and absence of injury signs in the spinal cord. The effect was associated with reduced IL-17 and increased IL-10 production in mesenteric lymph node and spleen cell cultures. Hsp65-producing-L. lactis-fed mice had a remarkable increase in the number of natural and inducible CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD4+LAP+ (Latency-associated peptide) Tregs - which express the membrane-bound TGF-β - in spleen, inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes as well as in spinal cord. Moreover, many Tregs co-expressed Foxp3 and LAP. In vivo depletion of LAP+ cells abrogated the effect of Hsp65-producing L. lactis in EAE prevention and worsened disease in medium-fed mice. Thus, Hsp65-L.lactis seems to boost this critical regulatory circuit involved in controlling EAE development in mice. PMID:22939403

  15. Brain leukocyte infiltration initiated by peripheral inflammation or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis occurs through pathways connected to the CSF-filled compartments of the forebrain and midbrain.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Charlotte; Strazielle, Nathalie; Ghersi-Egea, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been considered as a preferential pathway of circulation for immune cells during neuroimmune surveillance. In order to evaluate the involvement of CSF-filled spaces in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis, we performed a time-course analysis of immune cell association with the CSF-containing ventricles, velae, and cisterns in two active models of this disease. Methods Guinea-pig spi...

  16. Valproic Acid attenuates disease symptoms and increases endogenous myelin repair by recruiting neural stem cells and oligodendrocyte progenitors in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazhoohan, Saeed; Satarian, Leila; Asghari, Ali-Akbar; Salimi, Mehdi; Kiani, Sahar; Mani, Ali-Reza; Javan, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    inefficient remyelination of demyelinated plaques in multiple sclerosis (ms) leads to secondary axon degeneration and progressive disability. therapies that potentiate remyelination would be of immense help for managing MS. Here, we report the effects of valproic acid (VPA) on focal experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (fEAE). fEAE was induced in Wistar rats by immunizing the animals with guinea pig spinal cord homogenate emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant and with pertussis toxin (PT) injection into the spinal cord at the level of T8 vertebra on day 18 after immunization. VPA 300 mg/kg was applied for 4 days after or 8 days before PT administration. Behavioral evaluation, histological assessment and immunohistofluorescence assays were used to evaluate the outcomes. VPA administration had no effect on the development of symptoms, but after discontinuing VPA, animals showed faster recovery. Eight days of pretreatment with VPA accelerated the recovery phase of EAE and increased the number of remyelinated axons in the lesion area. VPA pretreatment also increased the recruitment of neural stem cells and oligodendrocyte precursors within the lesion. Results suggest VPA as a potential therapy for remyelinating the lesions in MS and for faster recovery from disease relapses. The effect of VPA seems to be mediated by endogenous progenitors recruitment. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Time-Dependent Increases in Protease Activities for Neuronal Apoptosis in Spinal Cords of Lewis Rats During Development of Acute Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arabinda; Guyton, M. Kelly; Matzelle, Denise D.; Ray, Swapan K.; Banik, Naren L.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by axonal demyelination and neurodegeneration, the latter having been inadequately explored in the MS animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The purpose of this study was to examine the time-dependent correlation between increased calpain and caspase activities and neurodegeneration in spinal cord tissues from Lewis rats with acute EAE. An increase in TUNEL-positive neurons and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in EAE spinal cords suggested that neuronal death was a result of apoptosis on days 8–10 following induction of EAE. Increases in calpain expression in EAE correlated with activation of pro-apoptotic proteases, leading to apoptotic cell death beginning on day 8 of EAE, which occurred before the appearance of visible clinical symptoms. Increases in calcineurin expression and decreases in phospho-Bad (p-Bad) suggested Bad activation in apoptosis during acute EAE. Increases in the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-9 showed the involvement of mitochondria in apoptosis. Further, caspase-8 activation suggested induction of the death receptor–mediated pathway for apoptosis. Endoplasmic reticulum stress leading to caspase-3 activation was also observed, indicating that multiple apoptotic pathways were activated following EAE induction. In contrast, cell death was mostly a result of necrosis on the later day (day 11), when EAE entered a severe stage. From these findings, we conclude that increases in calpain and caspase activities play crucial roles in neuronal apoptosis during the development of acute EAE. PMID:18521931

  18. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits the differentiation and migration of T(H17 cells to protect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Jae-Hoon Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin D(3, the most physiologically relevant form of vitamin D, is an essential organic compound that has been shown to have a crucial effect on the immune responses. Vitamin D(3 ameliorates the onset of the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE; however, the direct effect of vitamin D(3 on T cells is largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an in vitro system using cells from mice, the active form of vitamin D(3 (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 suppresses both interleukin (IL-17-producing T cells (T(H17 and regulatory T cells (Treg differentiation via a vitamin D receptor signal. The ability of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 (1,25(OH(2D(3 to reduce the amount of IL-2 regulates the generation of Treg cells, but not T(H17 cells. Under T(H17-polarizing conditions, 1,25(OH(2D(3 helps to increase the numbers of IL-10-producing T cells, but 1,25(OH(2D(3's negative regulation of T(H17 development is still defined in the IL-10(-/- T cells. Although the STAT1 signal reciprocally affects the secretion of IL-10 and IL-17, 1,25(OH(2D(3 inhibits IL-17 production in STAT1(-/- T cells. Most interestingly, 1,25(OH(2D(3 negatively regulates CCR6 expression which might be essential for T(H17 cells to enter the central nervous system and initiate EAE. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our present results in an experimental murine model suggest that 1,25(OH(2D(3 can directly regulate T cell differentiation and could be applied in preventive and therapeutic strategies for T(H17-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  19. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells mediate tolerance induction in autoimmune disease.

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    Wegner, Anja; Verhagen, Johan; Wraith, David C

    2017-05-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS) T cells aberrantly recognize self-peptides of the myelin sheath and attack the central nervous system (CNS). Antigen-specific peptide immunotherapy, which aims to restore tolerance while avoiding the use of non-specific immunosuppressive drugs, is a promising approach to combat autoimmune disease, but the cellular mechanisms behind successful therapy remain poorly understood. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been studied intensively in the field of cancer and to a lesser extent in autoimmunity. Because of their suppressive effect on the immune system in cancer, we hypothesized that the development of MDSCs and their interaction with CD4 + T cells could be beneficial for antigen-specific immunotherapy. Hence, changes in the quantity, phenotype and function of MDSCs during tolerance induction in our model of MS were evaluated. We reveal, for the first time, an involvement of a subset of MDSCs, known as polymorphonuclear (PMN)-MDSCs, in the process of tolerance induction. PMN-MDSCs were shown to adopt a more suppressive phenotype during peptide immunotherapy and inhibit CD4 + T-cell proliferation in a cell-contact-dependent manner, mediated by arginase-1. Moreover, increased numbers of tolerogenic PMN-MDSCs, such as observed over the course of peptide immunotherapy, were demonstrated to provide protection from disease in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A T Helper Cell 2 (Th2) Immune Response against Non-self Antigens Modifies the Cytokine Profile of Autoimmune T Cells and Protects against Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis

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    Falcone, Marika; Bloom, Barry R.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), and the most commonly used experimental model for multiple sclerosis. It is mediated by autoreactive T cell clones exhibiting a T helper cell (Th) 1 cytokine profile. Nonencephalitogenic T lymphocytes specific for self or exogenous antigens have been found to suppress encephalitogenic T cell responses and to protect against autoimmune disease. The mechanisms by which exogenous antigens modulate autoimmunity are not fully understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a Th2-type immune response against an exogenous, nonself antigen, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), by releasing IL-4 in the microenvironment, could shift the cytokine profile of encephalitogenic T cells from an inflammatory Th1 to a protective Th2 type. SJL/J mice were preimmunized with the KLH in incomplete Freund's adjuvant to induce a population of Th2 memory cells that would be expected to release Th2 cytokines when activated by the specific antigen at the time of EAE induction. Four weeks later, mice received an encephalitogenic challenge containing guinea pig myelin in complete Freund's adjuvant with or without KLH. All KLH primed animals not receiving the exogenous antigen at the time of EAE induction developed a severe clinical disease indistinguishable from control mice not KLH primed. In contrast, animals preimmunized and challenged with the encephalitogenic inoculum containing KLH showed either no, or markedly reduced, clinical signs. Enzyme-linked immunospot analysis demonstrated that KLH-specific T cells in the primed mice were producing IL-4 characteristic of Th2 cells. In the KLH-primed and restimulated mice, the cytokine profile of the autoreactive, myelin basic protein–specific T cells was shifted from an inflammatory Th1 towards a protective Th2 type. We infer that the presence of IL-4 secreted by KLH-specific memory Th2 cells in the lymphoid system microenvironment

  1. A T helper cell 2 (Th2) immune response against non-self antigens modifies the cytokine profile of autoimmune T cells and protects against experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, M; Bloom, B R

    1997-03-03

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), and the most commonly used experimental model for multiple sclerosis. It is mediated by autoreactive T cell clones exhibiting a T helper cell (Th) 1 cytokine profile. Nonencephalitogenic T lymphocytes specific for self or exogenous antigens have been found to suppress encephalitogenic T cell responses and to protect against autoimmune disease. The mechanisms by which exogenous antigens modulate autoimmunity are not fully understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a Th2-type immune response against an exogenous, nonself antigen, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), by releasing IL-4 in the microenvironment, could shift the cytokine profile of encephalitogenic T cells from an inflammatory Th1 to a protective Th2 type. SJL/J mice were preimmunized with the KLH in incomplete Freund's adjuvant to induce a population of Th2 memory cells that would be expected to release Th2 cytokines when activated by the specific antigen at the time of EAE induction. Four weeks later, mice received an encephalitogenic challenge containing guinea pig myelin in complete Freund's adjuvant with or without KLH. All KLH primed animals not receiving the exogenous antigen at the time of EAE induction developed a severe clinical disease indistinguishable from control mice not KLH primed. In contrast, animals preimmunized and challenged with the encephalitogenic inoculum containing KLH showed either no, or markedly reduced, clinical signs. Enzyme-linked immunospot analysis demonstrated that KLH-specific T cells in the primed mice were producing IL-4 characteristic of Th2 cells. In the KLH-primed and restimulated mice, the cytokine profile of the autoreactive, myelin basic protein-specific T cells was shifted from an inflammatory Th1 towards a protective Th2 type. We infer that the presence of IL-4 secreted by KLH-specific memory Th2 cells in the lymphoid system microenvironment in

  2. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the Wistar rat: dependence of MBP-specific T cell responsiveness on B7 costimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Jia-Sheng; Ma, Bao-Li; Mamula, Mark J

    2002-05-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of human multiple sclerosis that requires the activation of autoreactive T cells for the expression of pathology. EAE has been most frequently studied in the Lewis rat model as well as in several murine models of EAE including the PLJ and B10PL strains. In the present study we describe a novel model of EAE induced in the Wistar rat strain by immunization with guinea pig spinal cord antigens and pertussis toxin (PT). T cell responses were induced to myelin basic protein. Autoreactive T cells could be totally blocked by the in vitro treatment with CTLA4Ig, a protein that blocks the costimulation of autoreactive T cells. The addition of IL-2 could reverse the inhibition seen in vitro with CTLA4Ig. The effects of inhibition of B7 costimulation were also examined by an analysis of cytokine responses and IL-2 receptor on T cells. CTLA4Ig treatment in vitro reduced the expression of IL-2 receptor on T cells, enhanced T cell apoptosis and decreased the synthesis of IL-2, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. CTLA4Ig treatment had no effect on IL-10 synthesis by T cells, a cytokine implicated in the functions of regulatory T cell subsets. Overall, our studies support the rationale of B7 blocking therapies as a potential treatment for models of multiple sclerosis. The induction of EAE in the Wistar rat provides yet another novel model in which to examine the regulation of T cell autoimmunity.

  3. Molecular and genetic requirements for preferential recruitment of TCRBV8S2+ T cells in Lewis rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissert, R; Svenningsson, A; Lobell, A; de Graaf, K L; Andersson, R; Olsson, T

    1998-01-15

    The underlying mechanisms behind the preferential expression of select TCRBV products in certain autoimmune illnesses, such as multiple sclerosis and some models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have principally remained enigmatic. In this study, we examined the mutual role of nonself- vs self-origin of antigenic myelin basic protein (MBP) peptides and given MHC haplotypes in relation to the relative frequency of activated TCRBV8S2+ T lymphocytes in the Lewis (LEW) rat EAE model. Inbred MHC (RT1) congenic LEW rats (LEW (RT1l), LEW.1AV1 (RT1av1), and LEW.1W (RT1u)) were immunized with the 63 to 88 peptide of the guinea pig MBP (MBPGP63-88). Additionally, LEW rats were immunized with the corresponding autologous rat sequence (MBPRAT63-88). Although EAE ensued in all MBP peptide/LEW rat strain combinations, only LEW rats immunized with the heterologous MBPGP63-88 peptide elicited T cell responses encompassing a bias toward TCRBV8S2 expression, as determined by flow cytometric analyses. Reduction of TCRBV8S2+ T cells led to mitigation of disease severity in LEW rats immunized with MBPGP63-88, but not with MBPRAT63-88, indicating that critical encephalitogenic characteristics are associated with this T cell subset. We conclude that the preferential recruitment of TCRBV8S2+ T cells in the LEW rat EAE model is due to selective, high-avidity recognition of the nonself-MBPGP63-88 in the context of the RT1.Bl molecule. This inference lends support to the notion that the highly restricted TCR repertoire of the self-MBP-reactive T cells in certain genetically predisposed multiple sclerosis patients may have its source in a multistep molecular mimicry event.

  4. Functional genomics analysis of vitamin D effects on CD4+ T cells in vivo in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    KAUST Repository

    Zeitelhofer, Manuel

    2017-02-15

    Vitamin D exerts multiple immunomodulatory functions and has been implicated in the etiology and treatment of several autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). We have previously reported that in juvenile/adolescent rats, vitamin D supplementation protects from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of MS. Here we demonstrate that this protective effect associates with decreased proliferation of CD4+ T cells and lower frequency of pathogenic T helper (Th) 17 cells. Using transcriptome, methylome, and pathway analyses in CD4+ T cells, we show that vitamin D affects multiple signaling and metabolic pathways critical for T-cell activation and differentiation into Th1 and Th17 subsets in vivo. Namely, Jak/Stat, Erk/Mapk, and Pi3K/Akt/mTor signaling pathway genes were down-regulated upon vitamin D supplementation. The protective effect associated with epigenetic mechanisms, such as (i) changed levels of enzymes involved in establishment and maintenance of epigenetic marks, i.e., DNA methylation and histone modifications; (ii) genome-wide reduction of DNA methylation, and (iii) up-regulation of noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs, with concomitant down-regulation of their protein-coding target RNAs involved in T-cell activation and differentiation. We further demonstrate that treatment of myelin-specific T cells with vitamin D reduces frequency of Th1 and Th17 cells, down-regulates genes in key signaling pathways and epigenetic machinery, and impairs their ability to transfer EAE. Finally, orthologs of nearly 50% of candidate MS risk genes and 40% of signature genes of myelin-reactive T cells in MS changed their expression in vivo in EAE upon supplementation, supporting the hypothesis that vitamin D may modulate risk for developing MS.

  5. Inhibition of Myeloperoxidase at the Peak of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Restores Blood-Brain-Barrier Integrity and Ameliorates Disease Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Ray, Avijit; Miller, Nichole M; Hartwig, Danielle; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Dittel, Bonnie N

    2015-11-12

    Oxidative stress is thought to contribute to disease pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS) disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a potent peroxidase that generates toxic radicals and oxidants, is increased in the CNS during MS. However, the exact mechanism whereby MPO drives MS pathology is not known. We addressed this question by inhibiting MPO in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) using our non-toxic MPO inhibitor KYC. We found that therapeutic administration of KYC for five days starting at the peak of disease significantly attenuated EAE disease severity, reduced myeloid cell numbers and permeability of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). These data indicate that inhibition of MPO by KYC restores BBB integrity thereby limiting migration of myeloid cells into the CNS that drive EAE pathogenesis. In addition, these observations indicate that KYC may be an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of MS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Periplocoside A prevents experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by suppressing IL-17 production and inhibits differentiation of Th17 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Ni, Jia; Chen, Zhen-hua; Li, Xin; Zhang, Ru-jun; Tang, Wei; Zhao, Wei-min; Yang, Yi-fu; Zuo, Jian-ping

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic effect of Periplocoside A (PSA), a natural product isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Periploca sepium Bge, in MOG(35-55) (myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Female C57BL/6 mice immunized with MOG(35-55) were treated with (50 mg/kg or 25 mg/kg) or without PSA following immunization and continuously throughout the study. The degree of CNS inflammation was evaluated by H&E staining. Anti-MOG-specific recall responses were analyzed by [3H]-Thymidine incorporation, ELISA, and RT-PCR. The proportion of IL-17-producing T cells was measured by flow cytometry. Oral administration of PSA significantly reduced the incidence and severity of EAE, which closely paralleled the inhibition of MOG(35-55)-specific IL-17 production. Importantly, PSA inhibited the transcription of IL-17 mRNA and RORgammat. Further studies examining intracellular staining and adoptive transfer EAE validated the direct suppressive effect of PSA on Th17 cells. In vitro studies also showed that PSA significantly inhibited the differentiation of Th17 cells from murine purified CD4+ T cells in a dose-dependent manner. PSA ameliorated EAE by suppressing IL-17 production and inhibited the differentiation of Th17 cells in vitro. Our results provide new insight into the potential mechanisms underlying the immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects of PSA.

  7. Hyaluronan Anchored to Activated CD44 on Central Nervous System Vascular Endothelial Cells Promotes Lymphocyte Extravasation in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Clayton W.; Foster, Scott C.; Matsumoto, Steven G.; Preston, Marnie A.; Xing, Rubing; Bebo, Bruce F.; Banine, Fatima; Berny-Lang, Michelle A.; Itakura, Asako; McCarty, Owen J. T.; Sherman, Larry S.

    2012-01-01

    The extravasation of lymphocytes across central nervous system (CNS) vascular endothelium is a key step in inflammatory demyelinating diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) and its receptor, CD44, have been implicated in this process but their precise roles are unclear. We find that CD44−/− mice have a delayed onset of EAE compared with wild type animals. Using an in vitro lymphocyte rolling assay, we find that fewer slow rolling (<1 μm/s) wild type (WT) activated lymphocytes interact with CD44−/− brain vascular endothelial cells (ECs) than with WT ECs. We also find that CD44−/− ECs fail to anchor HA to their surfaces, and that slow rolling lymphocyte interactions with WT ECs are inhibited when the ECs are treated with a pegylated form of the PH20 hyaluronidase (PEG-PH20). Subcutaneous injection of PEG-PH20 delays the onset of EAE symptoms by ∼1 day and transiently ameliorates symptoms for 2 days following disease onset. These improved symptoms correspond histologically to degradation of HA in the lumen of CNS blood vessels, decreased demyelination, and impaired CD4+ T-cell extravasation. Collectively these data suggest that HA tethered to CD44 on CNS ECs is critical for the extravasation of activated T cells into the CNS providing new insight into the mechanisms promoting inflammatory demyelinating disease. PMID:22865853

  8. Paranodal myelin retraction in relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yan; Frederick, Terra J.; Huff, Terry B.; Goings, Gwendolyn E.; Miller, Stephen D.; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2011-10-01

    How demyelination is initiated is a standing question for pathology of multiple sclerosis. By label-free coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging of myelin lipids, we investigate myelin integrity in the lumbar spinal cord tissue isolated from naïve SJL mice, and from mice at the onset, peak acute, and remission stages of relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Progressive demyelinating disease is initially characterized by the retraction of paranodal myelin both at the onset of disease and at the borders of acute demyelinating lesions. Myelin retraction is confirmed by elongated distribution of neurofascin proteins visualized by immunofluorescence. The disruption of paranodal myelin subsequently exposes Kv1.2 channels at the juxtaparanodes and lead to the displacement of Kv1.2 channels to the paranodal and nodal domains. Paranodal myelin is partially restored during disease remission, indicating spontaneous myelin regeneration. These findings suggest that paranodal domain injury precedes formation of internodal demyelinating lesions in relapsing EAE. Our results also demonstrate that CARS microscopy is an effective readout of myelin disease burden.

  9. Microwave & Magnetic (M2) Proteomics Reveals CNS-Specific Protein Expression Waves that Precede Clinical Symptoms of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Itay; Mahesula, Swetha; Purkar, Anjali; Black, David; Catala, Alexis; Gelfond, Jonathon A. L.; Forsthuber, Thomas G.; Haskins, William E.

    2014-09-01

    Central nervous system-specific proteins (CSPs), transported across the damaged blood-brain-barrier (BBB) to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood (serum), might be promising diagnostic, prognostic and predictive protein biomarkers of disease in individual multiple sclerosis (MS) patients because they are not expected to be present at appreciable levels in the circulation of healthy subjects. We hypothesized that microwave & magnetic (M2) proteomics of CSPs in brain tissue might be an effective means to prioritize putative CSP biomarkers for future immunoassays in serum. To test this hypothesis, we used M2 proteomics to longitudinally assess CSP expression in brain tissue from mice during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS. Confirmation of central nervous system (CNS)-infiltrating inflammatory cell response and CSP expression in serum was achieved with cytokine ELISPOT and ELISA immunoassays, respectively, for selected CSPs. M2 proteomics (and ELISA) revealed characteristic CSP expression waves, including synapsin-1 and α-II-spectrin, which peaked at day 7 in brain tissue (and serum) and preceded clinical EAE symptoms that began at day 10 and peaked at day 20. Moreover, M2 proteomics supports the concept that relatively few CNS-infiltrating inflammatory cells can have a disproportionally large impact on CSP expression prior to clinical manifestation of EAE.

  10. Amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice by photobiomodulation induced by 670 nm light.

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    Kamaldeen A Muili

    Full Text Available The approved immunomodulatory agents for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS are only partially effective. It is thought that the combination of immunomodulatory and neuroprotective strategies is necessary to prevent or reverse disease progression. Irradiation with far red/near infrared light, termed photobiomodulation, is a therapeutic approach for inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Data suggests that near-infrared light functions through neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. We sought to investigate the clinical effect of photobiomodulation in the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE model of multiple sclerosis.The clinical effect of photobiomodulation induced by 670 nm light was investigated in the C57BL/6 mouse model of EAE. Disease was induced with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG according to standard laboratory protocol. Mice received 670 nm light or no light treatment (sham administered as suppression and treatment protocols. 670 nm light reduced disease severity with both protocols compared to sham treated mice. Disease amelioration was associated with down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α and up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 in vitro and in vivo.These studies document the therapeutic potential of photobiomodulation with 670 nm light in the EAE model, in part through modulation of the immune response.

  11. Idazoxan attenuates spinal cord injury by enhanced astrocytic activation and reduced microglial activation in rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Shi; Chen, Yan-Yan; Shang, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Zhen-Guo; Chen, Guo-Qian; Han, Zhao; Shao, Bei; Yang, Hui-Min; Xu, Hui-Qin; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Zheng, Rong-Yuan

    2009-02-09

    Idazoxan, an imidazoline 2 receptor (I(2)R) ligand, has been shown to protect against brain injury in several animal models of neurological disorders. In the present study we investigated the effect of idazoxan on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. EAE was induced by immunizing Wistar rats with guinea pig spinal cord homogenates emulsified in CFA, followed by daily treatment of idazoxan (0, 0.5 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg, 4.5 mg/kg, i.p, bid) for 10 days. The results showed that the treatment of idazoxan (1.5 mg/kg and 4.5 mg/kg) significantly decreased the incidence and alleviated inflammatory cell infiltration and demyelination in spinal cords and cerebral cortex. Furthermore, the protective effect of idazoxan on EAE was associated with the enhanced astrocytic activation and attenuated microglial activation and with the subsequent down-regulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-12p40 and IFN-gamma and up-regulated expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta(1). Thus, the daily treatment of the I(2)R ligand idazoxan for 10 days attenuates EAE pathology by differential modulation of astrocytic and microglial activations, raising a possibility that the I(2)R ligand may be a novel strategy for treating EAE.

  12. [Expression of the stress-response protein 60 in iritis in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis--an immunohistochemical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagami, T; Kato, S; Ohama, E

    1997-04-01

    Uveitis of unknown etiology is known to occur in association with various systemic disorders. We did an immunohistochemical study on the expression of stress-response proteins (srp's) in iritis associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is regarded as a model of multiple sclerosis. EAE was induced in Lewis rats by sensitization with homogenized spinal cord of guinea pig in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) (Group EAE). For controls, we used rats sensitized with CFA only (Group CFA) and untreated rats (normal controls). All rats developed iritis in Group EAE. In Group CFA, no rats developed iritis. No expression of ubiquitin, alpha B-crystallin, srp 27, srp 60, or srp 72 was seen in the epithelium of the iris of the rats in Group CFA. In the rats in Group EAE, srp 60 was expressed in the epithelium of the iris in 20/22 (90.9%) of the eyes examined, ubiquitin in 4/22 (18.2%), and alpha B-crystallin in 3/22 (13.6%). In the untreated rats, only ubiquitin was expressed in the epithelium of the iris in 1/6 (16.7%) of the eyes examined. These results suggest that srp 60, 60 kDa srp, plays an important role in the occurrence of iritis associated with EAE.

  13. Differential role of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in the brain of rats with chronic relapsing autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanuma, N; Shin, T; Kogure, K; Matsumoto, Y

    1999-04-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms of relapses of the clinical signs in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the cytokine profile of chronic relapsing EAE (CR-EAE) in rats was determined by competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By immunization with guinea pig spinal cord homogenate and treatment with low-dose cyclosporin A (CsA), rats developed two attacks of EAE with remission in between. Cytokine analysis revealed that the level of TNF-alpha mRNA increased at the first and second attacks with transient disappearance at the remission phase. In contrast, the level of IFN-gamma mRNA was suppressed at the first attack by CsA and peaked at the second attack. Intraventricular administration of IFN-gamma prior to onset of disease signs induced more relapses, or a severe lethal form. In addition, the intraventricular injection of TNF-alpha caused the persistence of the clinical signs. These findings suggest that TNF-alpha contributes to the first and second attacks of CR-EAE, while IFN-gamma is not required for the first attack but is closely related to the relapse of the disease. With regard to anti-inflammatory cytokines, the levels of both TGF-beta1 and IL-10 mRNA at the second attack were higher than those at the first attack. Taken together, differential involvement of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma is closely associated with the clinical features of CR-EAE.

  14. Studies on T-cell receptors involved in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis using the complementary peptide recognition approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, C J; Simmons, R D; Willenborg, D O; Vandenbark, A A; Hashim, G A; Carnegie, P R

    1995-08-01

    Based upon Blalock's complementary recognition approach, a complementary or antisense peptide (CP) was designed to the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) epitope peptide, rat myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide 72-82. This peptide (EAE CP) was shown to have some sequence similarities to T-cell receptors (TCR) and MHC II molecules in a sequence homology search. Solid-phase binding assays demonstrated specific and high affinity binding (3 and 4 microM) between the EAE CP and the rat and guinea pig EAE epitope peptides (Rt72-82 and Gp69-82), respectively. This EAE CP was also found to be immunogenic in rats in an ear swelling test for delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions and an ELISA for antibody responses. However, a rabbit antibody generated to EAE CP was shown to be unable to stain the V beta 8+ EAE susceptible T-cells in immunofluorescence analyses. This EAE CP was also used in attempts to down-regulate EAE and the results showed that prior immunization with EAE CP in complete Freund's adjuvant could not prevent the Lewis rats from developing EAE. Although the data on sense-antisense peptide interaction were positive and the EAE CP was immunogenic, the inability of EAE CP to regulate EAE indicates that the CP approach may not be generally applicable.

  15. Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells Generated with Tofacitinib Ameliorate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis through Modulation of Th17/Treg Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that dendritic cells (DCs play a pivotal role in triggering self-specific responses. Conversely, tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs, a specialized subset, induce tolerance and negatively regulate autoreactive responses. Tofacitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor developed by Pfizer for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, is probable to be a promising candidate for inducing tolDCs. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of tolDCs induced by tofacitinib in a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein- (MOG- specific experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model and to investigate their effects on Th17/Treg balance in the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS. Our results revealed that tofacitinib-treated DCs maintained a steady semimature phenotype with a low level of proinflammatory cytokines and costimulatory molecules. DCs treated by tofacitinib also induced antigen-specific T cells hyporesponsiveness in a concentration-dependent manner. Upon intravenous injection into EAE mice, MOG pulsed tolDCs significantly dampened disease activity, and adoptive cell therapy (ACT disturbed Th17/Treg balance with a remarkable decrease of Th1/Th17 cells and an increase in regulatory T cells (Tregs. Overall, DCs modified by tofacitinib exhibited a typical tolerogenic phenotype, and the antigen-specific tolDCs may represent a new avenue of research for the development of future clinical treatments for MS.

  16. PI3Kγ drives priming and survival of autoreactive CD4(+ T cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Comerford

    Full Text Available The class IB phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma enzyme complex (PI3Kγ functions in multiple signaling pathways involved in leukocyte activation and migration, making it an attractive target in complex human inflammatory diseases including MS. Here, using pik3cg(-/- mice and a selective PI3Kγ inhibitor, we show that PI3Kγ promotes development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. In pik3cg(-/- mice, EAE is markedly suppressed and fewer leukocytes including CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells, granulocytes and mononuclear phagocytes infiltrate the CNS. CD4(+ T cell priming in secondary lymphoid organs is reduced in pik3cg(-/- mice following immunisation. This is attributable to defects in DC migration concomitant with a failure of full T cell activation following TCR ligation in the absence of p110γ. Together, this results in suppressed autoreactive T cell responses in pik3cg(-/- mice, with more CD4(+ T cells undergoing apoptosis and fewer cytokine-producing Th1 and Th17 cells in lymphoid organs and the CNS. When administered from onset of EAE, the orally active PI3Kγ inhibitor AS605240 caused inhibition and reversal of clinical disease, and demyelination and cellular pathology in the CNS was reduced. These results strongly suggest that inhibitors of PI3Kγ may be useful therapeutics for MS.

  17. In Acute Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, Infiltrating Macrophages Are Immune Activated, Whereas Microglia Remain Immune Suppressed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vainchtein, I. D.; Vinet, J.; Brouwer, N.; Brendecke, S.; Biagini, G.; Biber, K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Eggen, B. J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by loss of myelin accompanied by infiltration of T-lymphocytes and monocytes. Although it has been shown that these infiltrates are important for the progression of MS, the role of

  18. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by altering balance among CD4+ T cell subsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies suggest that green tea component epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) may have a beneficial effect in reducing the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases; however, the underlying mechanism(s) are not well understood. In this study, we determined the effect of EGCG on the development of experiment...

  19. Modulation of Multiple Sclerosis and its Animal Model experimental Autoimmune encephalomyelitis by Food and Gut Microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoogen, Ward J.; Laman, Jon D.; 't Hart, Bert A.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurological disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS), leading to demyelination, axonal damage, and symptoms such as fatigue and disability. Although the cause of MS is not known, the infiltration of peripherally

  20. Reduced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis after intranasal and oral administration of recombinant lactobacilli expressing myelin antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B.M. Maassen (Kitty); J.D. Laman (Jon); C. van Holten-Neelen; L. Hoogteijling (L.); L. Groenewegen (Lizet); L. Visser (Lizette); M.M. Schellekens (M.); W.G. Boersma (Wim); H.J.H.M. Claassen (Eric)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOral administration of autoantigens is a safe and convenient way to induce peripheral T-cell tolerance in autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS). To increase the efficacy of oral tolerance induction and obviate the need for large-scale purification of human myelin proteins, we

  1. Reduced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis after intranasal and oral administration of recombinant lactobacilli expressing meyelin antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen, C.B.M.; Holten-Neelen, van J.C.P.A.; Groenewegen, L.; Hoogteijling, L.; Visser, L.; Boersma, W.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Oral administration of autoantigens is a safe and convenient way to induce peripheral T-cell tolerance in autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS). To increase the efficacy of oral tolerance induction and obviate the need for large-scale purification of human myelin proteins, we use

  2. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase by N-acetyl lysyltyrosylcysteine amide reduces experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-induced injury and promotes oligodendrocyte regeneration and neurogenesis in a murine model of progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoliang; Zheng, Shikan; Zhang, Hao

    2018-02-07

    It is known that oxidative stress produced by proinflammatory myeloid cells plays an important role in demyelination and neuronal injury in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a pro-oxidative enzyme released from myeloid cells during inflammation. It has been shown that MPO-dependent oxidative stress plays important roles in inducing tissue injury in many inflammatory diseases. In this report, we treated NOD experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice, a murine model of progressive MS, with N-acetyl lysyltyrosylcysteine amide (KYC), a novel specific MPO inhibitor. Our data showed that KYC treatment not only attenuated MPO-mediated oxidative stress but also reduced demyelination and axonal injury in NOD EAE mice. More importantly, we found that KYC treatment increased oligodendrocyte regeneration and neurogenesis in NOD EAE mice. Taken together, our data suggests that targeting MPO should be a good therapeutic approach for reducing oxidative injury and preserving neuronal function in progressive MS patients.

  3. Reduced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis after intranasal and oral administration of recombinant lactobacilli expressing myelin antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Maassen, Kitty; Laman, Jon; Holten-Neelen, C.; Hoogteijling, L.; Groenewegen, Lizet; Visser, Lizette; Schellekens, M.; Boersma, Wim; Claassen, Eric

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOral administration of autoantigens is a safe and convenient way to induce peripheral T-cell tolerance in autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS). To increase the efficacy of oral tolerance induction and obviate the need for large-scale purification of human myelin proteins, we use genetically modified lactobacilli expressing myelin antigens. A panel of recombinant lactobacilli was constructed producing myelin proteins and peptides, including human and guinea pig myelin b...

  4. Time course and cellular localization of interleukin-10 mRNA and protein expression in autoimmune inflammation of the rat central nervous system.

    OpenAIRE

    Jander, S.; Pohl, J.; D'Urso, D.; Gillen, C.; Stoll, G.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis of the Lewis rat is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by a self-limiting monophasic course. In this study, we analyzed the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 at the mRNA and protein level in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis actively induced with the encephalitogenic 68-86 peptide of guinea pig myelin basic protein. Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase ch...

  5. Transient decomplementation of mice delays onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and impairs MOG-specific T cell response and autoantibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terényi, Nóra; Nagy, Nándor; Papp, Krisztián; Prechl, József; Oláh, Imre; Erdei, Anna

    2009-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. In both MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), it is thought that infiltrating CD4(+) T cells initiate an inflammatory process and collect other immune effectors to mediate tissue damage. The pathophysiology of the disease however remains unclear. Here we focus on the role of the complement system in the pathomechanism of EAE, employing mice with transiently depleted complement activity achieved by a single injection of cobra venom factor (CVF) 2 days before the induction of the disease. Our results show that in decomplemented C57BL/6 mice immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide 35-55, the onset of the disease is significantly delayed. In SJL/J mice which develop a relapsing-remitting form of EAE after injection with proteolipid protein (PLP) peptide 139-151, the attenuation of both phases could be observed in CVF-treated animals. In C57BL/6 mice the level of MOG specific autoantibodies and their complement activating capacity evaluated on day 21 were found significantly reduced in animals transiently decomplemented before induction of the disease. The in vitro response of T cells isolated from the lymph nodes of MOG-immunized animals at the onset of EAE was also investigated. We found that the proliferative capacity of MOG-specific T lymphocytes derived from CVF treated animals is significantly reduced, in agreement with the histology of the spinal cords showing a decreased infiltration of CD4(+) T cells in these mice. Our data suggest, that lack of systemic complement at the time of induction of EAE delays the onset and attenuates the course of the disease most probably via diminishing the response of MOG-specific T cells and production of autoantibodies.

  6. Intestinal barrier dysfunction develops at the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and can be induced by adoptive transfer of auto-reactive T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Nouri

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with a pathogenesis involving a dysfunctional blood-brain barrier and myelin-specific, autoreactive T cells. Although the commensal microbiota seems to affect its pathogenesis, regulation of the interactions between luminal antigens and mucosal immune elements remains unclear. Herein, we investigated whether the intestinal mucosal barrier is also targeted in this disease. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the prototypic animal model of MS, was induced either by active immunization or by adoptive transfer of autoreactive T cells isolated from these mice. We show increased intestinal permeability, overexpression of the tight junction protein zonulin and alterations in intestinal morphology (increased crypt depth and thickness of the submucosa and muscularis layers. These intestinal manifestations were seen at 7 days (i.e., preceding the onset of neurological symptoms and at 14 days (i.e., at the stage of paralysis after immunization. We also demonstrate an increased infiltration of proinflammatory Th1/Th17 cells and a reduced regulatory T cell number in the gut lamina propria, Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes. Adoptive transfer to healthy mice of encephalitogenic T cells, isolated from EAE-diseased animals, led to intestinal changes similar to those resulting from the immunization procedure. Our findings show that disruption of intestinal homeostasis is an early and immune-mediated event in EAE. We propose that this intestinal dysfunction may act to support disease progression, and thus represent a potential therapeutic target in MS. In particular, an increased understanding of the regulation of tight junctions at the blood-brain barrier and in the intestinal wall may be crucial for design of future innovative therapies.

  7. Loss of the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl leads to enhanced inflammation in the CNS and delayed removal of myelin debris during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Anne L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Axl, together with Tyro3 and Mer, constitute the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases. In the nervous system, Axl and its ligand Growth-arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6 are expressed on multiple cell types. Axl functions in dampening the immune response, regulating cytokine secretion, clearing apoptotic cells and debris, and maintaining cell survival. Axl is upregulated in various disease states, such as in the cuprizone toxicity-induced model of demyelination and in multiple sclerosis (MS lesions, suggesting that it plays a role in disease pathogenesis. To test for this, we studied the susceptibility of Axl-/- mice to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model for multiple sclerosis. Methods WT and Axl-/- mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55 peptide emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant and injected with pertussis toxin on day 0 and day 2. Mice were monitored daily for clinical signs of disease and analyzed for pathology during the acute phase of disease. Immunological responses were monitored by flow cytometry, cytokine analysis and proliferation assays. Results Axl-/- mice had a significantly more severe acute phase of EAE than WT mice. Axl-/- mice had more spinal cord lesions with larger inflammatory cuffs, more demyelination, and more axonal damage than WT mice during EAE. Strikingly, lesions in Axl-/- mice had more intense Oil-Red-O staining indicative of inefficient clearance of myelin debris. Fewer activated microglia/macrophages (Iba1+ were found in and/or surrounding lesions in Axl-/- mice relative to WT mice. In contrast, no significant differences were noted in immune cell responses between naïve and sensitized animals. Conclusions These data show that Axl alleviates EAE disease progression and suggests that in EAE Axl functions in the recruitment of microglia/macrophages and in the clearance of debris following demyelination. In addition, these data

  8. Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction Develops at the Onset of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, and Can Be Induced by Adoptive Transfer of Auto-Reactive T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Mehrnaz; Bredberg, Anders; Weström, Björn; Lavasani, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with a pathogenesis involving a dysfunctional blood-brain barrier and myelin-specific, autoreactive T cells. Although the commensal microbiota seems to affect its pathogenesis, regulation of the interactions between luminal antigens and mucosal immune elements remains unclear. Herein, we investigated whether the intestinal mucosal barrier is also targeted in this disease. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the prototypic animal model of MS, was induced either by active immunization or by adoptive transfer of autoreactive T cells isolated from these mice. We show increased intestinal permeability, overexpression of the tight junction protein zonulin and alterations in intestinal morphology (increased crypt depth and thickness of the submucosa and muscularis layers). These intestinal manifestations were seen at 7 days (i.e., preceding the onset of neurological symptoms) and at 14 days (i.e., at the stage of paralysis) after immunization. We also demonstrate an increased infiltration of proinflammatory Th1/Th17 cells and a reduced regulatory T cell number in the gut lamina propria, Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes. Adoptive transfer to healthy mice of encephalitogenic T cells, isolated from EAE-diseased animals, led to intestinal changes similar to those resulting from the immunization procedure. Our findings show that disruption of intestinal homeostasis is an early and immune-mediated event in EAE. We propose that this intestinal dysfunction may act to support disease progression, and thus represent a potential therapeutic target in MS. In particular, an increased understanding of the regulation of tight junctions at the blood-brain barrier and in the intestinal wall may be crucial for design of future innovative therapies. PMID:25184418

  9. A fusion protein consisting of IL-16 and the encephalitogenic peptide of myelin basic protein constitutes an antigen-specific tolerogenic vaccine that inhibits experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannie, Mark D; Abbott, Derek J

    2007-08-01

    To test a novel concept for the generation of tolerogenic vaccines, fusion proteins were constructed encompassing a tolerogenic or biasing cytokine and the major encephalitogenic peptide of guinea pig myelin basic protein (GPMBP; i.e., neuroantigen or NAg). The cytokine domain was predicted to condition APC while simultaneously targeting the covalently linked encephalitogenic peptide to the MHC class II Ag processing pathway of those conditioned APC. Rats were given three s.c. injections of cytokine-NAg in saline 1-2 wk apart and then at least 1 wk later were challenged with NAg in CFA. The rank order of tolerogenic activity in the Lewis rat model of EAE was NAgIL16 > IL2NAg > IL1RA-NAg, IL13NAg >or= IL10NAg, GPMBP, GP69-88, and saline. NAgIL16 was also an effective inhibitor of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis when administered after an encephalitogenic challenge during the onset of clinical signs. Covalent linkage of the NAg and IL-16 was required for inhibition of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These data identify IL-16 as an optimal cytokine partner for the generation of tolerogenic vaccines and indicate that such vaccines may serve as Ag-specific tolerogens for the treatment of autoimmune disease.

  10. Cytokine production in the central nervous system of Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: dynamics of mRNA expression for interleukin-10, interleukin-12, cytolysin, tumor necrosis factor alpha and tumor necrosis factor beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Ljungdahl, A; Höjeberg, B

    1995-01-01

    The kinetics of mRNA expression in the central nervous system (CNS) for a series of putatively disease-promoting and disease-limiting cytokines during the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats were studied. Cytokine mRNA-expressing cells were detected in cryosect......The kinetics of mRNA expression in the central nervous system (CNS) for a series of putatively disease-promoting and disease-limiting cytokines during the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats were studied. Cytokine mRNA-expressing cells were detected...

  11. Induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice deficient in either the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha or its CCR5 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, E H; Kuziel, W A; Owens, T

    2000-01-01

    Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha is a chemokine that is associated with Th1 cytokine responses. Expression and antibody blocking studies have implicated MIP-1alpha in multiple sclerosis (MS) and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We examined the role of MIP-1alpha......-type mice in Th1 cytokine gene expression, the kinetics and severity of disease, and infiltration of the central nervous system by lymphocytes, macrophages and granulocytes. RNase protection assays showed comparable accumulation of mRNA for the chemokines interferon-inducible protein-10, RANTES, macrophage...

  12. Myelin basic protein-reactive T cells persist in an inactive state in the bone marrow of Lewis rats that have recovered from autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmand, Taba; Wolf, Norbert A; Swanborg, Robert H

    2009-04-30

    Lewis rats immunized with guinea pig myelin basic protein residues 68-86 develop acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and recover. The predominant T cell receptor expressed by the encephalitogenic T cells is TCRBV8S2. They persist in bone marrow many weeks after recovery. CD3 is down-regulated, but >90% express CD4. They fail to proliferate to GPMBP68-86 unless a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor is added to the cultures. Perhaps these are memory T cells that are maintained in a suppressed state in BM by a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism.

  13. The effects of fasudil on the permeability of the rat blood-brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier following experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X N; Fu, J; Wang, W Z

    2011-10-28

    Dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) is a primary characteristic of multiple sclerosis (MS). We evaluated the protective effects of fasudil, a selective ROCK inhibitor, in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) that was induced by guinea-pig spinal cord. In addition, we studied the effects of fasudil on BBB and BSCB permeability. We found that fasudil partly alleviated EAE-dependent damage by decreasing BBB and BSCB permeability. These results provide rationale for the development of selective inhibitors of Rho kinase as a novel therapy for MS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Myelin Basic Protein-Reactive T Cells Persist in an Inactive State in the Bone Marrow of Lewis Rats that have Recovered from Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kheradmand, Taba; Wolf, Norbert A.; Swanborg, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Lewis rats immunized with guinea pig myelin basic protein residues 68-86 develop acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and recover. The predominant T cell receptor expressed by the encephalitogenic T cells is TCRBV8S2. They persist in bone marrow many weeks after recovery. CD3 is down-regulated, but > 90% express CD4. They fail to proliferate to GPMBP68-86 unless a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor is added to the cultures. Perhaps these are memory T cells that are maintained in a sup...

  15. Insulin-like growth factor I treatment reduces demyelination and up-regulates gene expression of myelin-related proteins in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, D L; Liu, X; Hudson, L D; Webster, H D

    1995-01-01

    To compare effects of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and placebo treatment on lesions that resemble those seen during active demyelination in multiple sclerosis, we induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats with an emulsion containing guinea pig spinal cord and Freund's adjuvant. On day 12-13, pairs of rats with the same degree of weakness were given either IGF-I or placebo intravenously twice daily for 8 days. After 8 days of placebo or IGF-I (200 micrograms/day o...

  16. Antineuroinflammatory and neurotrophic effects of CNTF and C16 peptide in an acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marong eFang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimentalallergic encephalomyelitis (EAE is an animal model for inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease, i.e., multiple sclerosis (MS. In the present study, we investigated the antineuroinflammatory/neuroprotective effects of C16, an ανβ3 integrin-binding peptide, and recombinant rat ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, a cytokine that was originally identified as a survival factor for neurons, in an acute rodent EAE model. In this model, C16 peptide was injected intravenously every day for 2 weeks, and CNTF was delivered into the cerebral ventricles with Alzet miniosmotic pumps. Disease severity was assessed weekly using a scale ranging from 0 to 5. Multiple histological and molecular biological assays were employed to assess inflammation, axonal loss, neuronal apoptosis, white matter demyelination, and gliosis in the brain and spinal cord of different groups. Our results showed that the EAE induced rats revealed a significant increase in inflammatory cells infiltration, while C16 treatment could inhibit the infiltration of leukocytes and macrophages down to 2/3-1/3 of vehicle treated EAE control (P<0.05. The delayed onset of disease, reduced clinical score (P<0.01 in peak stage and more rapid recovery also were achieved in C16 treated group. Besides impairing inflammation, CNTF treatment also exerted direct neuroprotective effects, decreasing demyelination and axon loss score (P<0.05 Vs vehicle treated EAE control, and reducing the neuronal death from 40%-50% to 10%-20% (P<0.05. Both treatments suppressed the expression of cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-when compared with the vehicle control (P<0.05. Combined treatment with C16 and CNTF produced more obvious functional recovery and neuroprotective effects than individually treatment (P<0.05. These results suggested that combination treatment with C16 and CNTF, which target different neuroprotection pathways, may be an effective therapeutic alternative to

  17. The role of kinin receptors in preventing neuroinflammation and its clinical severity during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael C Dutra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating and neuroinflammatory disease of the human central nervous system (CNS. The expression of kinins is increased in MS patients, but the underlying mechanisms by which the kinin receptor regulates MS development have not been elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by immunization with MOG(35-55 peptide emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant and injected with pertussis toxin on day 0 and day 2. Here, we report that blockade of the B(1R in the induction phase of EAE markedly suppressed its progression by interfering with the onset of the immune response. Furthermore, B(1R antagonist suppressed the production/expression of antigen-specific T(H1 and T(H17 cytokines and transcription factors, both in the periphery and in the CNS. In the chronic phase of EAE, the blockade of B(1R consistently impaired the clinical progression of EAE. Conversely, administration of the B(1R agonist in the acute phase of EAE suppressed disease progression and inhibited the increase in permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB and any further CNS inflammation. Of note, blockade of the B(2R only showed a moderate impact on all of the studied parameters of EAE progression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results strongly suggest that kinin receptors, mainly the B(1R subtype, play a dual role in EAE progression depending on the phase of treatment through the lymphocytes and glial cell-dependent pathways.

  18. Prenatal maternal immune activation increases anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in offspring with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi-Zolbanin, J; Doosti, M-H; Kosari-Nasab, M; Salari, A-A

    2015-05-21

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to result from a combination of genetics and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence indicate that significant prevalence of anxiety and depression-related disorders in MS patients can influence the progression of the disease. Although we and others have already reported the consequences of prenatal maternal immune activation on anxiety and depression, less is known about the interplay between maternal inflammation, MS and gender. We here investigated the effects of maternal immune activation with Poly I:C during mid-gestation on the progression of clinical symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE; a mouse model of MS), and then anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in non-EAE and EAE-induced offspring were evaluated. Stress-induced corticosterone and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in EAE-induced offspring were also measured. Maternal immune activation increased anxiety and depression in male offspring, but not in females. This immune challenge also resulted in an earlier onset of the EAE clinical signs in male offspring and enhanced the severity of the disease in both male and female offspring. Interestingly, the severity of the disease was associated with increased anxiety/depressive-like behaviors and elevated corticosterone or TNF-α levels in both sexes. Overall, these data suggest that maternal immune activation with Poly I:C during mid-pregnancy increases anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and the clinical symptoms of EAE in a sex-dependent manner in non-EAE or EAE-induced offspring. Finally, the progression of EAE in offspring seems to be linked to maternal immune activation-induced dysregulation in neuro-immune-endocrine system. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE): lesion visualization on a 3 tesla Clinical whole-body system after intraperitoneal contrast injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckl, S.; Naegele, T.; Klose, U. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Medical School, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Herrmann, M.; Gaertner, S.; Weissert, R. [Dept. of Neurology, Medical School, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Schick, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical School, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Kueker, W. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Medical School, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Dept. of Neuroradiology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, England (United Kingdom)

    2004-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the intravital visibility of CNS lesions in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal correlate of multiple sclerosis, using a 3-Tesla (T) wholebody MR system. Materials and Methods: Three healthy Dark Agouti (DA) rats and 16 DA rats with clinical signs of EAE were examined on a 3T whole body-system using a normal wrist coil. In total, 25 examinations were preformed using T2- and T1-weighted images in transverse and sagittal orientation with a slice thickness of 2 mm or 1 mm (voxel size up to 0.2 x 0.2 x 1 mm). Sedation was achieved by intraperitoneal injection of ketamine and xylazine. In addition, T1-weighted images were obtained after the instillation of 1.0 ml of gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) (0.5 mmol/ml) into the peritoneal cavity. Results: T2- and T1-weighted images of the brain and spinal cord with high spatial and contrast resolution could be obtained in all animals. The anatomical details of the olfactory bulb glomeruli, cerebellum foliae, ventricles and corpus callosum were clearly visible. The EAE lesions presented as hyperintense area in T2-weighted images and could be demonstrated in all clinically affected animals by MRI and histologically verified. In total, the 16 affected rats had 28 cerebral and 2 spinal cord lesions (range 1 to 4, median 2). Contrast enhancement was noted in 12 animals and ranked as severe in ten and moderate in two cases. No adverse effects were noted due to sedation or intraperitoneal contrast injection. Conclusions: The intravital demonstration of cerebral and spinal cord EAE lesions in rats is possible on a 3T whole-body MR scanner using a normal wrist coil. Intraperitoneal injection of ketamine/xylazine and contrast agent is an easy, safe and effective procedure in rats. (orig.)

  20. Gene expression in the spinal cord in female lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced with myelin basic protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley R Inglis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the best available model of multiple sclerosis, can be induced in different animal strains using immunization with central nervous system antigens. EAE is associated with inflammation and demyelination of the nervous system. Micro-array can be used to investigate gene expression and biological pathways that are altered during disease. There are few studies of the changes in gene expression in EAE, and these have mostly been done in a chronic mouse EAE model. EAE induced in the Lewis with myelin basic protein (MBP-EAE is well characterised, making it an ideal candidate for the analysis of gene expression in this disease model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MBP-EAE was induced in female Lewis rats by inoculation with MBP and adjuvants. Total RNA was extracted from the spinal cords and used for micro-array analysis using AffimetrixGeneChip Rat Exon 1.0 ST Arrays. Gene expression in the spinal cords was compared between healthy female rats and female rats with MBP-EAE. Gene expression in the spinal cord of rats with MBP-EAE differed from that in the spinal cord of normal rats, and there was regulation of pathways involved with immune function and nervous system function. For selected genes the change in expression was confirmed with real-time PCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: EAE leads to modulation of gene expression in the spinal cord. We have identified the genes that are most significantly regulated in MBP-EAE in the Lewis rat and produced a profile of gene expression in the spinal cord at the peak of disease.

  1. Anti-S-nitrosocysteine antibodies are a predictive marker for demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: implications for multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullerne, Anne I; Rodriguez, Jose J; Touil, Tarik; Brochet, Bruno; Schmidt, Stephan; Abrous, Nora D; Le Moal, Michel; Pua, Jeffrey R; Jensen, Mark A; Mayo, Willy; Arnason, Barry G W; Petry, Klaus G

    2002-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by inflammation within the CNS. This inflammatory response is associated with production of nitric oxide (NO) and NO-related species that nitrosylate thiols. We postulated that MS patients would exhibit an antibody (Ab) response directed against proteins containing S-nitrosocysteine (SNO-cysteine) and showed that anti-NO-cysteine Abs of the IgM isotype are in fact present in the sera of some MS patients (Boullerne et al., 1995). We report here the presence of a seemingly identical Ab response directed against SNO-cysteine in an acute model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced in Lewis rats with the 68-84 peptide of guinea pig myelin basic protein (MBP(68-84)). Serum levels of anti-SNO-cysteine Abs peaked 1 week before the onset of clinical signs and well before the appearance of anti-MBP(68-84) Abs. The anti-SNO-cysteine Ab peak titer correlated with the extent of subsequent CNS demyelination, suggesting a link between Ab level and CNS lesion formation. In relapsing-remitting MS patients, we found elevated anti-SNO-cysteine Ab at times of relapse and normal values in most patients judged to be in remission. Two-thirds of patients with secondary progressive MS had elevated anti-SNO-cysteine Ab levels, including those receiving interferon beta-1b. The data show that a rise in circulating anti-SNO-cysteine Ab levels precedes onset of EAE. Anti-SNO-cysteine Abs are also elevated at times of MS attacks and in progressive disease, suggesting a possible role for these Abs, measurable in blood, as a biological marker for clinical activity.

  2. Exacerbation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in P2X7R-/- mice: evidence for loss of apoptotic activity in lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lanfen; Brosnan, Celia F

    2006-03-01

    The purinergic receptor P2X7R is a nucleotide-gated ion channel that has been proposed to function as a major regulator of inflammation. In this study we examined the role of this receptor in regulating inflammation in the CNS by determining the effects of the loss of this receptor (P2X7R-/-) on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis. We show here that P2X7R-/- mice developed more severe clinical and pathological expression of EAE than wild type (WT) controls and that spleen and lymph node cells from P2X7R-/- mice proliferated more vigorously to Ag in vitro. Bone marrow (BM) radiation chimeras revealed that enhanced susceptibility to EAE was detected in chimeric mice of WT host engrafted with P2X7R-/- BM cells, indicating that the genotype of the BM cells regulated disease susceptibility. Coculture of P2X7R-/- macrophages with WT lymphocytes and vice versa showed that enhanced proliferative activity resided within the P2X7R-/- lymphocyte population and correlated with reduced levels of IFN-gamma and NO and apoptosis of lymphocytes. mRNA and protein for IFN-gamma were also significantly reduced in the CNS of P2X7R-/- mice with EAE. FACS analysis of cells isolated from the CNS showed significantly fewer annexin V/propidium iodide-positive lymphocytes in the CNS of P2X7R-/- mice early in the disease, and TUNEL staining of inflamed CNS tissues supported this result. From these data we conclude that enhanced susceptibility of P2X7R-/- mice to EAE reflects a loss of apoptotic activity in lymphocytes, supporting an important role for this receptor in lymphocyte homeostasis.

  3. The extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein elicits atypical experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rat and Macaque species.

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    Alan D Curtis

    Full Text Available Atypical models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE are advantageous in that the heterogeneity of clinical signs appears more reflective of those in multiple sclerosis (MS. Conversely, models of classical EAE feature stereotypic progression of an ascending flaccid paralysis that is not a characteristic of MS. The study of atypical EAE however has been limited due to the relative lack of suitable models that feature reliable disease incidence and severity, excepting mice deficient in gamma-interferon signaling pathways. In this study, atypical EAE was induced in Lewis rats, and a related approach was effective for induction of an unusual neurologic syndrome in a cynomolgus macaque. Lewis rats were immunized with the rat immunoglobulin variable (IgV-related extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (IgV-MOG in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA followed by one or more injections of rat IgV-MOG in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA. The resulting disease was marked by torticollis, unilateral rigid paralysis, forelimb weakness, and high titers of anti-MOG antibody against conformational epitopes of MOG, as well as other signs of atypical EAE. A similar strategy elicited a distinct atypical form of EAE in a cynomolgus macaque. By day 36 in the monkey, titers of IgG against conformational epitopes of extracellular MOG were evident, and on day 201, the macaque had an abrupt onset of an unusual form of EAE that included a pronounced arousal-dependent, transient myotonia. The disease persisted for 6-7 weeks and was marked by a gradual, consistent improvement and an eventual full recovery without recurrence. These data indicate that one or more boosters of IgV-MOG in IFA represent a key variable for induction of atypical or unusual forms of EAE in rat and Macaca species. These studies also reveal a close correlation between humoral immunity against conformational epitopes of MOG, extended confluent demyelinating plaques in

  4. Genetic background can result in a marked or minimal effect of gene knockout (GPR55 and CB2 receptor in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis models of multiple sclerosis.

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    Sofia Sisay

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids and some phytocannabinoids bind to CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, transient receptor potential vanilloid one (TRPV1 receptor and the orphan G protein receptor fifty-five (GPR55. Studies using C57BL/10 and C57BL/6 (Cnr2 (tm1Zim CB2 cannabinoid receptor knockout mice have demonstrated an immune-augmenting effect in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE models of multiple sclerosis. However, other EAE studies in Biozzi ABH mice often failed to show any treatment effect of either CB2 receptor agonism or antagonism on inhibition of T cell autoimmunity. The influence of genetic background on the induction of EAE in endocannabinoid system-related gene knockout mice was examined. It was found that C57BL/6.GPR55 knockout mice developed less severe disease, notably in female mice, following active induction with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 peptide. In contrast C57BL/6.CB2 (Cnr2 (Dgen receptor knockout mice developed augmented severity of disease consistent with the genetically and pharmacologically-distinct, Cnr2 (tm1Zim mice. However, when the knockout gene was bred into the ABH mouse background and EAE induced with spinal cord autoantigens the immune-enhancing effect of CB2 receptor deletion was lost. Likewise CB1 receptor and transient receptor potential vanilloid one knockout mice on the ABH background demonstrated no alteration in immune-susceptibility, in terms of disease incidence and severity of EAE, in contrast to that reported in some C57BL/6 mouse studies. Furthermore the immune-modulating influence of GPR55 was marginal on the ABH mouse background. Whilst sedative doses of tetrahydrocannabinol could induce immunosuppression, this was associated with a CB1 receptor rather than a CB2 receptor-mediated effect. These data support the fact that non-psychoactive doses of medicinal cannabis have a marginal influence on the immune response in MS. Importantly, it adds a note of caution for the translational

  5. Bee Venom Acupuncture Alleviates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Upregulating Regulatory T Cells and Suppressing Th1 and Th17 Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Jung; Jang, Minhee; Choi, Jonghee; Lee, Gihyun; Min, Hyun Jung; Chung, Won-Seok; Kim, Jong-In; Jee, Youngheun; Chae, Younbyoung; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Sung Joong; Cho, Ik-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The protective and therapeutic mechanism of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) in neurodegenerative disorders is not clear. We investigated whether treatment with BVA (0.25 and 0.8 mg/kg) at the Zusanli (ST36) acupoints, located lateral from the anterior border of the tibia, has a beneficial effect in a myelin basic protein (MBP)(68-82)-induced acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rat model. Pretreatment (every 3 days from 1 h before immunization) with BVA was more effective than posttreatment (daily after immunization) with BVA with respect to clinical signs (neurological impairment and loss of body weight) of acute EAE rats. Treatment with BVA at the ST36 acupoint in normal rats did not induce the clinical signs. Pretreatment with BVA suppressed demyelination, glial activation, expression of cytokines [interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-17, IL-17A, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-1β], chemokines [RANTES, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α], and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB (p65 and phospho-IκBα) signaling pathways in the spinal cord of acute EAE rats. Pretreatment with BVA decreased the number of CD4(+), CD4(+)/IFN-γ(+), and CD4(+)/IL-17(+) T cells, but increased the number of CD4(+)/Foxp3(+) T cells in the spinal cord and lymph nodes of acute EAE rats. Treatment with BVA at six placebo acupoints (SP9, GB39, and four non-acupoints) did not have a positive effect in acute EAE rats. Interestingly, onset and posttreatment with BVA at the ST36 acupoint markedly attenuated neurological impairment in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)(35-55)-induced chronic EAE mice compared to treatment with BVA at six placebo acupoints. Our findings strongly suggest that treatment with BVA with ST36 acupoint could delay or attenuate the development and progression of EAE by upregulating regulatory T cells and

  6. Suppression of Th1-mediated autoimmunity by embryonic stem cell-derived dendritic cells.

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    Tokunori Ikeda

    Full Text Available We herein demonstrate the immune-regulatory effect of embryonic stem cell-derived dendritic cells (ES-DCs using two models of autoimmune disease, namely non-obese diabetic (NOD mice and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. Treatment of pre-diabetic NOD mice with ES-DCs exerted almost complete suppression of diabetes development during the observation period for more than 40 weeks. The prevention of diabetes by ES-DCs was accompanied with significant reduction of insulitis and decreased number of Th1 and Th17 cells in the spleen. Development of EAE was also inhibited by the treatment with ES-DCs, and the therapeutic effect was obtained even if ES-DCs were administrated after the onset of clinical symptoms. Treatment of EAE-induced mice with ES-DCs reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the spinal cord and suppressed the T cell response to the myelin antigen. Importantly, the ES-DC treatment did not affect T cell response to an exogenous antigen. As the mechanisms underlying the reduction of the number of infiltrating Th1 cells, we observed the inhibition of differentiation and proliferation of Th1 cells by ES-DCs. Furthermore, the expression of VLA-4α on Th1 cells was significantly inhibited by ES-DCs. Considering the recent advances in human induced pluripotent stem cell-related technologies, these results suggest a clinical application for pluripotent stem cell-derived dendritic cells as a therapy for T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  7. In myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, increased autoimmune activity against 5-HT is associated with immuno-inflammatory pathways and bacterial translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Michael; Ringel, Karl; Kubera, Marta; Anderson, George; Morris, Gerwyn; Galecki, Piotr; Geffard, Michel

    2013-09-05

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is accompanied by activation of immuno-inflammatory pathways, increased bacterial translocation and autoimmune responses to serotonin (5-HT). Inflammation is known to damage 5-HT neurons while bacterial translocation may drive autoimmune responses. This study has been carried out to examine the autoimmune responses to 5-HT in ME/CFS in relation to inflammation and bacterial translocation. We examined 5-HT antibodies in 117 patients with ME/CFS (diagnosed according to the centers for disease control and prevention criteria, CDC) as compared with 43 patients suffering from chronic fatigue (CF) but not fulfilling the CDC criteria and 35 normal controls. Plasma interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, neopterin and the IgA responses to Gram-negative bacteria were measured. Severity of physio-somatic symptoms was measured using the fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome rating scale (FF scale). The incidence of positive autoimmune activity against 5-HT was significantly higher (pimmune disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A new formulation of cannabidiol in cream shows therapeutic effects in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Galuppo, Maria; Pollastro, Federica; Grassi, Gianpaolo; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2015-10-21

    The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of a new formulation of alone, purified cannabidiol (CBD) (>98 %), the main non-psychotropic cannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, as a topical treatment in an experimental model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most commonly used model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Particularly, we evaluated whether administration of a topical 1 % CBD-cream, given at the time of symptomatic disease onset, could affect the EAE progression and if this treatment could also recover paralysis of hind limbs, qualifying topical-CBD for the symptomatic treatment of MS. In order to have a preparation of 1 % of CBD-cream, pure CBD have been solubilized in propylene glycoland basic dense cream O/A. EAE was induced by immunization with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein peptide (MOG35-55) in C57BL/6 mice. After EAE onset, mice were allocated into several experimental groups (Naïve, EAE, EAE-1 % CBD-cream, EAE-vehicle cream, CTRL-1 % CBD-cream, CTRL-vehicle cream). Mice were observed daily for signs of EAE and weight loss. At the sacrifice of the animals, which occurred at the 28(th) day from EAE-induction, spinal cord and spleen tissues were collected in order to perform histological evaluation, immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis. Achieved results surprisingly show that daily treatment with topical 1 % CBD-cream may exert neuroprotective effects against EAE, diminishing clinical disease score (mean of 5.0 in EAE mice vs 1.5 in EAE + CBD-cream), by recovering of paralysis of hind limbs and by ameliorating histological score typical of disease (lymphocytic infiltration and demyelination) in spinal cord tissues. Also, 1 % CBD-cream is able to counteract the EAE-induced damage reducing release of CD4 and CD8α T cells (spleen tissue localization was quantified about 10,69 % and 35,96 % of positive staining respectively in EAE mice) and expression of the main pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as several other

  9. Nitrosative stress and nitrated proteins in trichloroethene-mediated autoimmunity.

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    Gangduo Wang

    Full Text Available Exposure to trichloroethene (TCE, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, has been linked to a variety of autoimmune diseases (ADs including SLE, scleroderma and hepatitis. Mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of ADs are largely unknown. Earlier studies from our laboratory in MRL+/+ mice suggested the contribution of oxidative/nitrosative stress in TCE-induced autoimmunity, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC supplementation provided protection by attenuating oxidative stress. This study was undertaken to further evaluate the contribution of nitrosative stress in TCE-mediated autoimmunity and to identify proteins susceptible to nitrosative stress. Groups of female MRL +/+ mice were given TCE, NAC or TCE + NAC for 6 weeks (TCE, 10 mmol/kg, i.p., every 4th day; NAC, ∼ 250 mg/kg/day via drinking water. TCE exposure led to significant increases in serum anti-nuclear and anti-histone antibodies together with significant induction of iNOS and increased formation of nitrotyrosine (NT in sera and livers. Proteomic analysis identified 14 additional nitrated proteins in the livers of TCE-treated mice. Furthermore, TCE exposure led to decreased GSH levels and increased activation of NF-κB. Remarkably, NAC supplementation not only ameliorated TCE-induced nitrosative stress as evident from decreased iNOS, NT, nitrated proteins, NF-κB p65 activation and increased GSH levels, but also the markers of autoimmunity, as evident from decreased levels of autoantibodies in the sera. These findings provide support to the role of nitrosative stress in TCE-mediated autoimmune response and identify specific nitrated proteins which could have autoimmune potential. Attenuation of TCE-induced autoimmunity in mice by NAC provides an approach for designing therapeutic strategies.

  10. A SELDI mass spectrometry study of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: sample preparation, reproducibility, and differential protein expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Sausan; Broadwater, Laurie; Li, Shuo; Freeman, Ernest J; McDonough, Jennifer; Gregory, Roger B

    2013-05-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is widely used as a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Mitochondrial dysfunction appears to play a role in the development of neuropathology in MS and may also play a role in disease pathology in EAE. Here, surface enhanced laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (SELDI-MS) has been employed to obtain protein expression profiles from mitochondrially enriched fractions derived from EAE and control mouse brain. To gain insight into experimental variation, the reproducibility of sub-cellular fractionation, anion exchange fractionation as well as spot-to-spot and chip-to-chip variation using pooled samples from brain tissue was examined. Variability of SELDI mass spectral peak intensities indicates a coefficient of variation (CV) of 15.6% and 17.6% between spots on a given chip and between different chips, respectively. Thinly slicing tissue prior to homogenization with a rotor homogenizer showed better reproducibility (CV = 17.0%) than homogenization of blocks of brain tissue with a Teflon® pestle (CV = 27.0%). Fractionation of proteins with anion exchange beads prior to SELDI-MS analysis gave overall CV values from 16.1% to 18.6%. SELDI mass spectra of mitochondrial fractions obtained from brain tissue from EAE mice and controls displayed 39 differentially expressed proteins (p≤ 0.05) out of a total of 241 protein peaks observed in anion exchange fractions. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that protein fractions from EAE animals with severe disability clearly segregated from controls. Several components of electron transport chain complexes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6b1, subunit 6C, and subunit 4; NADH dehydrogenase flavoprotein 3, alpha subcomplex subunit 2, Fe-S protein 4, and Fe-S protein 6; and ATP synthase subunit e) were identified as possible differentially expressed proteins. Myelin Basic Protein isoform 8 (MBP8) (14.2 k

  11. Restrained Th17 response and myeloid cell infiltration into the central nervous system by human decidua-derived mesenchymal stem cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Beatriz; Gallego, Marta I; Flores, Ana I; Bornstein, Rafael; Puente-Bedia, Alba; Hernández, Javier; de la Torre, Paz; García-Zaragoza, Elena; Perez-Tavarez, Raquel; Grande, Jesús; Ballester, Alicia; Ballester, Sara

    2016-03-17

    Multiple sclerosis is a widespread inflammatory demyelinating disease. Several immunomodulatory therapies are available, including interferon-β, glatiramer acetate, natalizumab, fingolimod, and mitoxantrone. Although useful to delay disease progression, they do not provide a definitive cure and are associated with some undesirable side-effects. Accordingly, the search for new therapeutic methods constitutes an active investigation field. The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to modify the disease course is currently the subject of intense interest. Decidua-derived MSCs (DMSCs) are a cell population obtained from human placental extraembryonic membranes able to differentiate into the three germ layers. This study explores the therapeutic potential of DMSCs. We used the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model to evaluate the effect of DMSCs on clinical signs of the disease and on the presence of inflammatory infiltrates in the central nervous system. We also compared the inflammatory profile of spleen T cells from DMSC-treated mice with that of EAE control animals, and the influence of DMSCs on the in vitro definition of the Th17 phenotype. Furthermore, we analyzed the effects on the presence of some critical cell types in central nervous system infiltrates. Preventive intraperitoneal injection of DMSCs resulted in a significant delay of external signs of EAE. In addition, treatment of animals already presenting with moderate symptoms resulted in mild EAE with reduced disease scores. Besides decreased inflammatory infiltration, diminished percentages of CD4(+)IL17(+), CD11b(+)Ly6G(+) and CD11b(+)Ly6C(+) cells were found in infiltrates of treated animals. Early immune response was mitigated, with spleen cells of DMSC-treated mice displaying low proliferative response to antigen, decreased production of interleukin (IL)-17, and increased production of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. Moreover, lower RORγT and higher GATA-3

  12. [Immune-mediated encephalomyelitis following varicella-zoster virus infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Takayoshi; Takasaki, Hirotaka; Tanaka, Masatsugu; Numata, Ayumi; Yamazaki, Etsuko; Segawa, Fuminori; Fujisawa, Shin; Maruta, Atsuo; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Kanamori, Heiwa

    2012-04-01

    A 40-year-old Japanese man with acute myeloid leukemia received allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. On day 101, varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection occurred, but was improved by administration of acyclovir and immunoglobulin. On day 119, he complained of numbness and double vision, and he was admitted due to exacerbation of the symptoms. The findings of cerebrospinal fluid and magnetic resonance image examination were consistent with the diagnosis of immune-mediated encephalomyelitis (IMEM). Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy was effective and his neurological findings dramatically improved without recurrence. IMEM is a rare non-infectious inflammatory demyelinating disease that can occur after transplantation. We herein describe a case report with a review of the associated literature.

  13. Selective enrichment of Th1 CD45RBlow CD4+ T cells in autoimmune infiltrates in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renno, T; Zeine, R; Girard, J M

    1994-01-01

    The cytokine effector status of CD4+ T cells from lymph nodes (LN) and the central nervous system (CNS) of SJL/J mice immunized with autoantigen in adjuvant for the induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) was compared. CD4+ T cells were FACS sorted based on the levels of expres......The cytokine effector status of CD4+ T cells from lymph nodes (LN) and the central nervous system (CNS) of SJL/J mice immunized with autoantigen in adjuvant for the induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) was compared. CD4+ T cells were FACS sorted based on the levels...

  14. Codelivery of antigen and an immune cell adhesion inhibitor is necessary for efficacy of soluble antigen arrays in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua O Sestak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS are typified by the misrecognition of self-antigen and the clonal expansion of autoreactive T cells. Antigen-specific immunotherapies (antigen-SITs have long been explored as a means to desensitize patients to offending self-antigen(s with the potential to retolerize the immune response. Soluble antigen arrays (SAgAs are composed of hyaluronic acid (HA cografted with disease-specific autoantigen (proteolipid protein peptide and an ICAM-1 inhibitor peptide (LABL. SAgAs were designed as an antigen-SIT that codeliver peptides to suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a murine model of MS. Codelivery of antigen and cell adhesion inhibitor (LABL conjugated to HA was essential for SAgA treatment of EAE. Individual SAgA components or mixtures thereof reduced proinflammatory cytokines in cultured splenocytes from EAE mice; however, these treatments showed minimal to no in vivo therapeutic effect in EAE mice. Thus, carriers that codeliver antigen and a secondary “context” signal (e.g., LABL in vivo may be an important design criteria to consider when designing antigen-SIT for autoimmune therapy.

  15. BJ-1108, a 6-Amino-2,4,5-trimethylpyridin-3-ol analogue, regulates differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells to ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Youra; Timilshina, Maheshwor; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Jeong, Byeong-Seon; Chang, Jae-Hoon

    2017-02-28

    CD4 + T cells play an important role in the initiation of an immune response by providing help to other cells. Among the helper T subsets, interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-secreting T helper 1 (Th1) and IL-17-secreting T helper 17 (Th17) cells are indispensable for clearance of intracellular as well as extracellular pathogens. However, Th1 and Th17 cells are also associated with pathogenesis and contribute to the progression of multiple inflammatory conditions and autoimmune diseases. In the current study, we found that BJ-1108, a 6-aminopyridin-3-ol analogue, significantly inhibited Th1 and Th17 differentiation in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner, with no effect on proliferation or apoptosis of activated T cells. Moreover, BJ-1108 inhibited differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells in ovalbumin (OVA)-specific OT II mice. A complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)/OVA-induced inflammatory model revealed that BJ-1108 can reduce generation of proinflammatory Th1 and Th17 cells. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that BJ-1108 delayed onset of disease and suppressed experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) disease progression by inhibiting differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells. BJ-1108 treatment ameliorates inflammation and EAE by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 cells differentiation. Our findings suggest that BJ-1108 is a promising novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammation and autoimmune disease.

  16. Persistent activation of microglia is associated with neuronal dysfunction of callosal projecting pathways and multiple sclerosis-like lesions in relapsing--remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine; Wang, Yue; Kivisäkk, Pia

    2007-01-01

    callosal projecting neurons. There was significant impairment of retrograde labeling of NeuN-positive callosal projecting neurons and reduction in the labelling of their transcallosal axons. These data demonstrate a novel paradigm of cortical and callosal neuropathology in a mouse model of MS, perpetuated......Cortical pathology, callosal atrophy and axonal loss are substrates of progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we describe cortical, periventricular subcortical lesions and callosal demyelination in relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in SJL mice that are similar...... to lesions found in MS. Unlike the T-cell infiltrates that peak during acute disease, we found that microglia activation persists through the chronic disease phase. Microglia activation correlated with abnormal phosphorylation of neurofilaments in the cortex and stripping of synaptic proteins in cortical...

  17. Inhibition of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats by nasal administration of encephalitogenic MBP peptides: synergistic effects of MBP 68-86 and 87-99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J Q; Bai, X F; Shi, F D; Xiao, B G; Li, H L; Levi, M; Mustafa, M; Wahren, B; Link, H

    1998-08-01

    Induction of mucosal tolerance by inhalation of soluble peptides with defined T cell epitopes is receiving much attention as a means of specifically down-regulating pathogenic T cell reactivities in autoimmune and allergic disorders. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced in the Lewis rat by immunization with myelin basic protein (MBP) and Freund's adjuvant (CFA) is mediated by CD4+ T cells specific for the MBP amino acid sequences 68-86 and 87-99. To further define the principles of nasal tolerance induction, we generated three different MBP peptides (MBP 68-86, 87-99 and the non-encephalitogenic peptide 110-128), and evaluated whether their nasal administration on day -11, -10, -9, -8 and -7 prior to immunization with guinea pig MBP (gp-MBP) + CFA confers protection to Lewis rat EAE. Protection was achieved with the encephalitogenic peptides MBP 68-86 and 87-99, MBP 68-86 being more potent, but not with MBP 110-128. Neither MBP 68-86 nor 87-99 at doses used conferred complete protection to gp-MBP-induced EAE. In contrast, nasal administration of a mixture of MBP 68-86 and 87-99 completely blocked gp-MBP-induced EAE even at lower dosage compared to that being used for individual peptides. Rats tolerized with MBP 68-86 + 87-99 nasally showed decreased T cell responses to MBP reflected by lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays. Rats tolerized with MBP 68-86 + 87-99 also had abrogated MBP-reactive IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA expression in lymph node cells compared to rats receiving MBP 110-128 nasally, while similar low levels of MBP-reactive transforming growth factor-beta and IL-4 mRNA expressing cells were observed in the two groups. Nasal administration of MBP 68-86 + 87-99 only slightly inhibited guinea pig spinal cord homogenate-induced EAE, and passive transfer of spleen mononuclear cells from MBP 68-86 + 87-99-tolerized rats did not protect naïve rats from EAE. Finally, we show that nasal administration of

  18. Glycine receptor antibody mediated Progressive Encephalomyelitis with Rigidity and Myoclonus (PERM): a rare but treatable neurological syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, W M; Howard, R; Chalmers, R M; Woodhall, M R; Waters, P; Vincent, A; Wickremaratchi, M M

    2014-04-01

    A 40-year-old man presented with respiratory compromise and was intubated. After tracheostomy, he was found to have ophthalmoplegia, severe limb rigidity, stimulus-sensitive myoclonus and autonomic dysfunction. For 1 week before admission, there had been a prodromal illness with low mood, hallucinations and limb myoclonus. Serum glycine receptor antibodies were strongly positive: we diagnosed progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus. Despite a relapse, he has done well following immunotherapies. The clinical syndrome of encephalomyelitis with rigidity, described in 1976, often has a severe progressive course. A minority of patients have glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies. The association with glycine receptor antibody was first reported in 2008, and we briefly review subsequent case reports to illustrate the range of clinical features. The antibody is likely to be disease mediating, although this remains unproven. The spectrum of diagnosable and treatable antibody mediated neurological syndromes is expanding. It is vital to recognise these conditions early to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  19. Selective enrichment of Th1 CD45RBlow CD4+ T cells in autoimmune infiltrates in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renno, T; Zeine, R; Girard, J M

    1994-01-01

    The cytokine effector status of CD4+ T cells from lymph nodes (LN) and the central nervous system (CNS) of SJL/J mice immunized with autoantigen in adjuvant for the induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) was compared. CD4+ T cells were FACS sorted based on the levels of expres...... stained in perivascular infiltrates in frozen sections from the brains of animals with active EAE was 10-fold higher.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  20. Fine T cell receptor repertoire analysis of spinal cord T cells responding to the major and minor epitopes of myelin basic protein during rat autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Y; Jee, Y; Sugisaki, M; Kim, G; Tanuma, N

    2000-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is a disease induced by neuroantigen-reactive T cells bearing particular types of T cell receptor (TCR). Although the nature of TCRs of encephalitogenic T cells has been partially delineated using encephalitogenic T cell clones established in vitro, the entire TCR repertoire formed in situ after immunization with neuroantigen remains unclear. In the present study, we immunized Lewis rats with myelin basic protein (MBP) and its fragment peptides and determined the TCR repertoire of spinal cord T cells formed after the immunization by CDR3 spectra-typing. It was revealed that the oligoclonal expansion of Vbeta2, Vbeta8.2, and Vbeta17 spectratypes was detectable after immunization with guinea pig MBP and its immunodominant epitope, the 68-88 sequence, whereas immunization with a peptide containing a minor epitope induced Vbeta10 expansion. Immunization with rat MBP induced much broader TCR Vbeta expansion (all of the above Vbetas plus Vbeta3). These findings suggest that TCRs activated by immunization with guinea pig MBP used as heteroclitic immunogen recognize autoantigen, rat MBP. Furthermore, the strategy used in this study gives insight into the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease and provides useful information for designing TCR-based immunotherapy.

  1. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Autoimmune or Immune-mediated Pathogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghui Wen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC, the two main forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, is still unclear, but both autoimmune and immune-mediated phenomena are involved. Autoimmune phenomena include the presence of serum and mucosal autoantibodies against intestinal epithelial cells in either form of IBD, and against human tropomyosin fraction five selectively in UC. In addition, perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA are common in UC, whereas antibodies against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA are frequently found in CD. Immune-mediate phenomena include a variety of abnormalities of humoral and cell-mediated immunity, and a generalized enhanced reactivity against intestinal bacterial antigens in both CD and UC. It is currently believed that loss of tolerance against the indigenous enteric flora is the central event in IBD pathogenesis. Various complementary factors probably contribute to the loss of tolerance to commensal bacteria in IBD. They include defects in regulatory T-cell function, excessive stimulation of mucosal dendritic cells, infections or variants of proteins critically involved in bacterial antigen recognition, such as the products of CD-associated NOD2/CARD15 mutations.

  2. Interferon gamma, interleukin 4 and transforming growth factor beta in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats: dynamics of cellular mRNA expression in the central nervous system and lymphoid cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Mustafa, M; Ljungdahl, A

    1995-01-01

    to limit central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. In lymphoid organs, primed MBP 63-88 reactive T cells showed an interesting time-dependent evolution of their cytokine production in vitro. Thus, early after immunization there was a conspicuous MBP 63-88-induced production of both IFN-gamma and IL-4......-beta) both in sections of spinal cords and the antigen-induced expression of these cytokines by lymphoid cells after stimulation with a dominant encephalitogenic peptide of MBP (MBP 63-88) during the course of actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats. In spinal cords...... autoimmunity systemically....

  3. Absence of Notch1 in murine myeloid cells attenuates the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by affecting Th1 and Th17 priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Miriam; Monsalve, Eva M; López-López, Susana; Ruiz-García, Almudena; Mellado, Susana; Caminos, Elena; García-Ramírez, José Javier; Laborda, Jorge; Tranque, Pedro; Díaz-Guerra, María José M

    2017-12-01

    Inhibition of Notch signalling in T cells attenuates the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Growing evidence indicates that myeloid cells are also key players in autoimmune processes. Thus, the present study evaluates the role of the Notch1 receptor in myeloid cells on the progression of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35-55 -induced EAE, using mice with a myeloid-specific deletion of the Notch1 gene (MyeNotch1KO). We found that EAE progression was less severe in the absence of Notch1 in myeloid cells. Thus, histopathological analysis revealed reduced pathology in the spinal cord of MyeNotch1KO mice, with decreased microglia/astrocyte activation, demyelination and infiltration of CD4 + T cells. Moreover, these mice showed lower Th1 and Th17 cell infiltration and expression of IFN-γ and IL-17 mRNA in the spinal cord. Accordingly, splenocytes from MyeNotch1KO mice reactivated in vitro presented reduced Th1 and Th17 activation, and lower expression of IL-12, IL-23, TNF-α, IL-6, and CD86. Moreover, reactivated wild-type splenocytes showed increased Notch1 expression, arguing for a specific involvement of this receptor in autoimmune T cell activation in secondary lymphoid tissues. In summary, our results reveal a key role of the Notch1 receptor in myeloid cells for the initiation and progression of EAE. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Modification of the FoxP3 transcription factor principally affects inducible T regulatory cells in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Johan Verhagen

    Full Text Available T regulatory (Treg cells expressing the transcription factor FoxP3 play a key role in protection against autoimmune disease. GFP-FoxP3 reporter mice have been used widely to study the induction, function and stability of both thymically- and peripherally-induced Treg cells. The N-terminal modification of FoxP3, however, affects its interaction with transcriptional co-factors; this can alter Treg cell development and function in certain self-antigen specific animal models. Interestingly, Treg cell function can be negatively or positively affected, depending on the nature of the model. In this study, we focused on the effect of the GFP-FoxP3 reporter on Treg cell development and function in the Tg4 mouse model. In this model, T cells express a transgenic T cell receptor (TCR specific for the Myelin Basic Protein (MBP peptide Ac1-9, making the animals susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a disease akin to multiple sclerosis in humans. Unlike diabetes-susceptible mice, Tg4 FoxP3(gfp mice did not develop spontaneous autoimmune disease and did not demonstrate augmented susceptibility to induced disease. Concurrently, thymic generation of natural Treg cells was not negatively affected. The induction of FoxP3 expression in naive peripheral T cells was, however, significantly impaired as a result of the transgene. This study shows that the requirements for the interaction of FoxP3 with co-factors, which governs its regulatory ability, differ not only between natural and inducible Treg cells but also between animal models of diseases such as diabetes and EAE.

  5. Different Mechanisms of Inflammation Induced in Virus and Autoimmune-Mediated Models of Multiple Sclerosis in C57BL6 Mice

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    Abhinoy Kishore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the human central nervous system (CNS. Neurotropic demyelinating strain of MHV (MHV-A59 or its isogenic recombinant strain RSA59 induces MS-like disease in mice mediated by microglia, along with a small population of T cells. The mechanism of demyelination is at least in part due to microglia-mediated myelin stripping, with some direct axonal injury. Immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG induces experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a mainly CD4+ T-cell-mediated disease, although CD8+ T cells may play a significant role in demyelination. It is possible that both autoimmune and nonimmune mechanisms such as direct viral toxicity may induce MS. Our study directly compares CNS pathology in autoimmune and viral-induced MS models. Mice with viral-induced and EAE demyelinating diseases demonstrated similar patterns and distributions of demyelination that accumulated over the course of the disease. However, significant differences in acute inflammation were noted. Inflammation was restricted mainly to white matter at all times in EAE, whereas inflammation initially largely involved gray matter in acute MHV-induced disease and then is subsequently localized only in white matter in the chronic disease phase. The presence of dual mechanisms of demyelination may be responsible for the failure of immunosuppression to promote long-term remission in many MS patients.

  6. IL17 Mediates Pelvic Pain in Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis (EAP.

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    Stephen F Murphy

    Full Text Available Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS is the most common form of prostatitis, accounting for 90-95% of all diagnoses. It is a complex multi-symptom syndrome with unknown etiology and limited effective treatments. Previous investigations highlight roles for inflammatory mediators in disease progression by correlating levels of cytokines and chemokines with patient reported symptom scores. It is hypothesized that alteration of adaptive immune mechanisms results in autoimmunity and subsequent development of pain. Mouse models of CPPS have been developed to delineate these immune mechanisms driving pain in humans. Using the experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP in C57BL/6 mice model of CPPS we examined the role of CD4+T-cell subsets in the development and maintenance of prostate pain, by tactile allodynia behavioral testing and flow cytometry. In tandem with increased CD4+IL17A+ T-cells upon EAP induction, prophylactic treatment with an anti-IL17 antibody one-day prior to EAP induction prevented the onset of pelvic pain. Therapeutic blockade of IL17 did not reverse pain symptoms indicating that IL17 is essential for development but not maintenance of chronic pain in EAP. Furthermore we identified a cytokine, IL7, to be associated with increased symptom severity in CPPS patients and is increased in patient prostatic secretions and the prostates of EAP mice. IL7 is fundamental to development of IL17 producing cells and plays a role in maturation of auto-reactive T-cells, it is also associated with autoimmune disorders including multiple sclerosis and type-1 diabetes. More recently a growing body of research has pointed to IL17's role in development of neuropathic and chronic pain. This report presents novel data on the role of CD4+IL17+ T-cells in development and maintenance of pain in EAP and CPPS.

  7. Reversal of paralysis and reduced inflammation from peripheral administration of β-amyloid in TH1 and TH17 versions of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Grant, Jacqueline L; Ghosn, Eliver Eid Bou; Axtell, Robert C; Herges, Katja; Kuipers, Hedwich F; Woodling, Nathan S; Andreasson, Katrin; Herzenberg, Leonard A; Herzenberg, Leonore A; Steinman, Lawrence

    2012-08-01

    β-Amyloid 42 (Aβ42) and β-amyloid 40 (Aβ40), major components of senile plaque deposits in Alzheimer's disease, are considered neurotoxic and proinflammatory. In multiple sclerosis, Aβ42 is up-regulated in brain lesions and damaged axons. We found, unexpectedly, that treatment with either Aβ42 or Aβ40 peptides reduced motor paralysis and brain inflammation in four different models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) with attenuation of motor paralysis, reduction of inflammatory lesions in the central nervous system (CNS), and suppression of lymphocyte activation. Aβ42 and Aβ40 treatments were effective in reducing ongoing paralysis induced with adoptive transfer of either autoreactive T helper 1 (T(H)1) or T(H)17 cells. High-dimensional 14-parameter flow cytometry of peripheral immune cell populations after in vivo Aβ42 and Aβ40 treatment revealed substantial modulations in the percentage of lymphoid and myeloid subsets during EAE. Major proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were reduced in the blood after Aβ peptide treatment. Protection conferred by Aβ treatment did not require its delivery to the brain: Adoptive transfer with lymphocytes from donors treated with Aβ42 attenuated EAE in wild-type recipient mice, and Aβ deposition in the brain was not detected in treated EAE mice by immunohistochemical analysis. In contrast to the improvement in EAE with Aβ treatment, EAE was worse in mice with genetic deletion of the amyloid precursor protein. Therefore, in the absence of Aβ, there is exacerbated clinical EAE disease progression. Because Aβ42 and Aβ40 ameliorate experimental autoimmune inflammation targeting the CNS, we might now consider its potential anti-inflammatory role in other neuropathological conditions.

  8. Progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is associated with up-regulation of major sodium transporters in the mouse kidney cortex under a normal salt diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Packialakshmi, Balamurugan; Xiao, Yao; Nurmukhambetova, Saule; Lees, Jason R

    2017-07-01

    Recent demonstrations of exacerbation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by high salt diets prompted us to study whether EAE stimulated Na absorption by the renal cortex, a primary regulatory site for Na balance, even under a normal NaCl diet. We found that as EAE progressed from mild to severe symptoms, there were parallel increases in the protein abundance of NHE3 and αENaC and the Na,K-ATPase activity with an affiliated elevation of its β1-subunit protein. These effects are associated with increases in the protein levels of the well-known regulators SGK1 and scaffold NHERF2, and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. These effects of EAE could not be explained by reduction in water or food intake. We conclude that EAE progression is associated with up-regulation of major Na transporters, which is most likely driven by increased expression of SGK1 and NHERF2 and activation of ERK1/2. These data suggest that EAE progression increases Na absorption by the renal cortex. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Evaluation of the co-registration capabilities of a MRI/PET compatible bed in an Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model

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    Esposito, Giovanna, E-mail: giovanna.esposito@unito.it [Molecular and Preclinical Imaging Center, University of Torino (Italy); D' angeli, Luca; Bartoli, Antonietta [Molecular and Preclinical Imaging Center, University of Torino (Italy); Chaabane, Linda [INSPE-Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132 Milano (Italy); Terreno, Enzo [Molecular and Preclinical Imaging Center, University of Torino (Italy)

    2013-02-21

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with {sup 18}F-FDG is a promising tool for the detection and evaluation of active inflammation in animal models of neuroinflammation. MRI is a complementary imaging technique with high resolution and contrast suitable to obtain the anatomical data required to analyze PET data. To combine PET and MRI modalities, we developed a support bed system compatible for both scanners that allowed to perform imaging exams without animal repositioning. With this approach, MRI and PET data were acquired in mice with Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this model, it was possible to measure a variation of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake proportional to the degree of disease severity which is mainly related to Central Nervous System (CNS) inflammation. Against the low resolved PET images, the co-registered MRI/PET images allowed to distinguish the different brain structures and to obtain a more accurate tracer evaluation. This is essential in particular for brain regions whose size is of the order of the spatial resolution of PET.

  10. Evaluation of the co-registration capabilities of a MRI/PET compatible bed in an Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Giovanna; D'angeli, Luca; Bartoli, Antonietta; Chaabane, Linda; Terreno, Enzo

    2013-02-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with 18F-FDG is a promising tool for the detection and evaluation of active inflammation in animal models of neuroinflammation. MRI is a complementary imaging technique with high resolution and contrast suitable to obtain the anatomical data required to analyze PET data. To combine PET and MRI modalities, we developed a support bed system compatible for both scanners that allowed to perform imaging exams without animal repositioning. With this approach, MRI and PET data were acquired in mice with Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this model, it was possible to measure a variation of 18F-FDG uptake proportional to the degree of disease severity which is mainly related to Central Nervous System (CNS) inflammation. Against the low resolved PET images, the co-registered MRI/PET images allowed to distinguish the different brain structures and to obtain a more accurate tracer evaluation. This is essential in particular for brain regions whose size is of the order of the spatial resolution of PET.

  11. Development and Pre-Clinical Evaluation of Recombinant Human Myelin Basic Protein Nano Therapeutic Vaccine in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mice Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghobashy, Medhat A.; Elmeshad, Aliaa N.; Abdelsalam, Rania M.; Nooh, Mohammed M.; Al-Shorbagy, Muhammad; Laible, Götz

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant human myelin basic protein (rhMBP) was previously produced in the milk of transgenic cows. Differences in molecular recognition of either hMBP or rhMBP by surface-immobilized anti-hMBP antibodies were demonstrated. This indicated differences in immunological response between rhMBP and hMBP. Here, the activity of free and controlled release rhMBP poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles (NPs), as a therapeutic vaccine against multiple sclerosis (MS) was demonstrated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model. Following optimization of nanoformulation, discrete spherical, rough-surfaced rhMBP NPs with high entrapment efficiency and controlled release pattern were obtained. Results indicated that rhMBP was loaded into and electrostatically adsorbed onto the surface of NPs. Subcutaneous administration of free or rhMBP NPs before EAE-induction reduced the average behavioral score in EAE mice and showed only mild histological alterations and preservation of myelin sheath, with rhMBP NPs showing increased protection. Moreover, analysis of inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-10) in mice brains revealed that pretreatment with free or rhMBP NPs significantly protected against induced inflammation. In conclusion: i) rhMBP ameliorated EAE symptoms in EAE animal model, ii) nanoformulation significantly enhanced efficacy of rhMBP as a therapeutic vaccine and iii) clinical investigations are required to demonstrate the activity of rhMBP NPs as a therapeutic vaccine for MS.

  12. Two-step activation of T cells, clonal expansion and subsequent Th1 cytokine production, is essential for the development of clinical autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Y; Matsumoto, Y

    2001-06-01

    Lewis rats immunized with guinea pig myelin basic protein (GPBP) emulsified with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) do not develop experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, we found that GPBP/IFA with pertussis toxin (PT) administration induced full-blown EAE. By comparing the immunological status of rats immunized with GPBP/IFA plus PT [PT (+) rats] with that of rats immunized with GPBP/IFA alone [PT (-) rats], we tried to elucidate the pathomechanisms of EAE. Analysis of the TCR clonality by CDR3 spectratyping revealed that Vbeta8.2 and Vbeta10 expansion of T cells occurred in both PT (-) and PT (+) rats, indicating that activation of T cells at this level is not sufficient for the development of clinical EAE. Quantitation of cytokine mRNA and protein revealed that PT (-) rats showed a Th2-dominant, while PT (+) rats showed a Th1-dominant, cytokine profile. Furthermore, administration of IL-12, but not of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, induced clinical EAE in GPBP/IFA-immunized animals. Taken together, two-step activation, activation of T cells bearing a particular type of TCR by antigen immunization and subsequent overproduction of Th1 cytokines, mainly IL-12 production, induced by appropriate adjuvants is essential for the development of clinical EAE.

  13. Ginger extract modulates the expression of IL-12 and TGF-β in the central nervous system and serum of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

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    Abdollah Jafarzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main function of IL-12 is differentiation of naive T cells intoTh1 cells and TGF-β is a powerful immunoregulatory cytokine. The immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of ginger have also been reported in some studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginger extract on the expression of IL-12 and TGF-β in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE.Materials and Methods: EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant. The mice were administered intra-peritoneally with ginger extracts or PBS, from day +3 to +30. On day 31, mice were scarified and the expression of IL-12 and TGF-β mRNA in the spinal cord were determined by using real time-PCR. The serum levels of cytokines were measured by ELISA.Results: In PBS-treated EAE mice, the expression of IL-12 P35 and IL-12 P40 mRNA in the CNS and the mean serum levels of IL-12 were significantly higher than those of healthy group (p

  14. Rational design and synthesis of altered peptide ligands based on human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 epitope: inhibition of chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.

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    Tselios, Theodore; Aggelidakis, Mihalis; Tapeinou, Anthi; Tseveleki, Vivian; Kanistras, Ioannis; Gatos, Dimitrios; Matsoukas, John

    2014-11-04

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the etiology of MS remains unclear, there is evidence T-cell recognition of immunodominant epitopes of myelin proteins, such as the 35-55 epitope of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), plays a pathogenic role in the induction of chronic EAE. Cyclization of peptides is of great interest since the limited stability of linear peptides restricts their potential use as therapeutic agents. Herein, we have designed and synthesized a number of linear and cyclic peptides by mutating crucial T cell receptor (TCR) contact residues of the human MOG35-55 epitope. In particular, we have designed and synthesized cyclic altered peptide ligands (APLs) by mutating Arg41 with Ala or Arg41 and Arg46 with Ala. The peptides were synthesized in solid phase on 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin (CLTR-Cl) using the Fmoc/t-Bu methodology. The purity of final products was verified by RP-HPLC and their identification was achieved by ESI-MS. It was found that the substitutions of Arg at positions 41 and 46 with Ala results in peptide analogues that reduce the severity of MOG-induced EAE clinical symptoms in C57BL/6 mice when co-administered with mouse MOG35-55 peptide at the time of immunization.

  15. Sagittal Plane Kinematic Gait Analysis in C57BL/6 Mice Subjected to MOG35-55 Induced Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

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    Fiander, Maximillian Dj; Chedrawe, Matthew Aj; Lamport, Anna-Claire; Akay, Turgay; Robertson, George S

    2017-11-04

    Kinematic gait analysis in the sagittal plane has frequently been used to characterize motor deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS). We describe the application of these techniques to identify gait deficits in a mouse model of MS, known as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Paralysis and motor deficits in mice subjected to EAE are typically assessed using a clinical scoring scale. However, this scale yields only ordinal data that provides little information about the precise nature of the motor deficits. EAE disease severity has also been assessed by rotarod performance, which provides a measure of general motor coordination. By contrast, kinematic gait analysis of the hind limb in the sagittal plane generates highly precise information about how movement is impaired. To perform this procedure, reflective markers are placed on a hind limb to detect joint movement while a mouse is walking on a treadmill. Motion analysis software is used to measure movement of the markers during walking. Kinematic gait parameters are then derived from the resultant data. We show how these gait parameters can be used to quantify impaired movements of the hip, knee, and ankle joints in EAE. These techniques may be used to better understand disease mechanisms and identify potential treatments for MS and other neurodegenerative disorders that impair mobility.

  16. Complement inhibitors to treat IgM-mediated autoimmune hemolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Diana; Zeerleder, Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Complement activation in autoimmune hemolytic anemia may exacerbate extravascular hemolysis and may occasionally result in intravascular hemolysis. IgM autoantibodies as characteristically found in cold autoantibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia, in cold agglutinin disease but also in a considerable

  17. Effects of beta 2 adrenergic agonists on axonal injury and mitochondrial metabolism in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z W; Qin, X Y; Che, F Y; Xie, G; Shen, L; Bai, Y Y

    2015-10-28

    The primary aims of this study were to investigate mitochondrial metabolism during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model axonal injury and to determine the correlation among neurological function scores, pathological changes, and the activities of the BB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-BB), catalase (CAT), and calpain in the brain tissues of EAE rats. Another goal was to preliminarily define the mechanism of mitochondrial metabolism resulting from the effect of beta 2 adrenergic agonists in the process of EAE animal model axonal damage. EAE was induced in specific pathogen free Wistar rats by guinea pig spinal cord homogenate, complete Freund's adjuvant, and pertussis vaccine. We recorded the behavioral change in EAE rats, detected pathological changes in central nervous tissue, and observed the changes of the CK-BB, CAT, and calpain in the EAE rat brain and spinal cord. The results indicated that the average neurologic function score increased in the EAE group compared to that of the controls (P < 0.01). In addition, CAT and CK-BB activities significantly decreased and the calpain activity significantly increased compared with those of the control group (P < 0.05). The decrease of the activity of central nervous CK-BB and CAT content, as well as the increase of calpain activity at the highest time point were considered to be the consequences of EAE. Furthermore, the results revealed that use of salbutamol could alleviate disease symptoms and reduce the recurrence of the EAE disease.

  18. Astrocyte matricellular proteins that control excitatory synaptogenesis are regulated by inflammatory cytokines and correlate with paralysis severity during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

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    Pennelope K. Blakely

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The matricellular proteins, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC and SPARC-like 1 (SPARCL1, are produced by astrocytes and control excitatory synaptogenesis in the central nervous system. While SPARCL1 directly promotes excitatory synapse formation in vitro and in the developing nervous system in vivo, SPARC specifically antagonizes the synaptogenic actions of SPARCL1. We hypothesized these proteins also help maintain existing excitatory synapses in adult hosts, and that local inflammation in the spinal cord alters their production in a way that dynamically modulates motor synapses and impacts the severity of paralysis during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in mice. Using a spontaneously remitting EAE model, paralysis severity correlated inversely with both expression of synaptic proteins and the number of synapses in direct contact with the perikarya of motor neurons in spinal grey matter. In both remitting and non-remitting EAE models, paralysis severity also correlated inversely with sparcl1:sparc transcript and SPARCL1:SPARC protein ratios directly in lumbar spinal cord tissue. In vitro, astrocyte production of both SPARCL1 and SPARC was regulated by T cell-derived cytokines, causing dynamic modulation of the SPARCL1:SPARC expression ratio. Taken together, these data support a model whereby proinflammatory cytokines inhibit SPARCL1 and/or augment SPARC expression by astrocytes in spinal grey matter that, in turn, cause either transient or sustained synaptic retraction from lumbar spinal motor neurons thereby regulating hind limb paralysis during EAE. Ongoing studies seek ways to alter this SPARCL1:SPARC expression ratio in favor of synapse reformation/maintenance and thus help to modulate neurologic deficits during times of inflammation. This could identify new astrocyte-targeted therapies for diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

  19. A Cyclic Altered Peptide Analogue Based on Myelin Basic Protein 87–99 Provides Lasting Prophylactic and Therapeutic Protection Against Acute Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

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    Mary Emmanouil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, amide-linked cyclic peptide analogues of the 87–99 myelin basic protein (MBP epitope, a candidate autoantigen in multiple sclerosis (MS, are tested for therapeutic efficacy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. Cyclic altered peptide analogues of MBP87–99 with substitutions at positions 91 and/or 96 were tested for protective effects when administered using prophylactic or early therapeutic protocols in MBP72–85-induced EAE in Lewis rats. The Lys91 and Pro96 of MBP87–99 are crucial T-cell receptor (TCR anchors and participate in the formation of trimolecular complex between the TCR-antigen (peptide-MHC (major histocompability complex for the stimulation of encephalitogenic T cells that are necessary for EAE induction and are implicated in MS. The cyclic peptides were synthesized using Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis (SPPS applied on the 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarboxyl/tert-butyl Fmoc/tBu methodology and combined with the 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin (CLTR-Cl. Cyclo(91–99[Ala96]MBP87–99, cyclo(87–99[Ala91,96]MBP87–99 and cyclo(87–99[Arg91, Ala96]MBP87–99, but not wild-type linear MBP87–99, strongly inhibited MBP72–85-induced EAE in Lewis rats when administered using prophylactic and early therapeutic vaccination protocols. In particular, cyclo(87–99[Arg91, Ala96]MBP87–99 was highly effective in preventing the onset and development of clinical symptoms and spinal cord pathology and providing lasting protection against EAE induction.

  20. Brain leukocyte infiltration initiated by peripheral inflammation or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis occurs through pathways connected to the CSF-filled compartments of the forebrain and midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Charlotte; Strazielle, Nathalie; Ghersi-Egea, Jean-François

    2012-08-07

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been considered as a preferential pathway of circulation for immune cells during neuroimmune surveillance. In order to evaluate the involvement of CSF-filled spaces in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis, we performed a time-course analysis of immune cell association with the CSF-containing ventricles, velae, and cisterns in two active models of this disease. Guinea-pig spinal cord homogenate-induced EAE in rat and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced EAE in mouse were used. Leukocyte distribution and phenotypes were investigated by immunohistochemistry in serial sections of brain areas of interest, as well as in CSF withdrawn from rat. Immune cells associated with the choroid plexuses were quantified. Freund's adjuvant-induced peripheral inflammation in the absence of brain antigen led to a subtle but definite increase in the number of myeloid cells in the extraventricular CSF spaces. In both rats and mice, EAE was characterized by a sustained and initial infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes within forebrain/midbrain fluid-filled compartments such as the velum interpositum and ambient cisterns, and certain basal cisterns. Leukocytes further infiltrated periventricular and pericisternal parenchymal areas, along perivascular spaces or following a downward CSF-to-tissue gradient. Cells quantified in CSF sampled from rats included lymphocytes and neutrophils. The distinctive pattern of cell distribution suggests that both the choroid plexus and the vessels lying in the velae and cisterns are gates for early leukocyte entry in the central nervous system. B-cell infiltration observed in the mouse model was restricted to CSF-filled extraventricular compartments. These results identified distinctive velae and cisterns of the forebrain and midbrain as preferential sites of immune cell homing following peripheral and early central inflammation and point to a role of CSF

  1. In situ Ia expression on brain cells in the rat: autoimmune encephalomyelitis-resistant strain (BN) and susceptible strain (Lewis) compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Y; Kawai, K; Fujiwara, M

    1989-01-01

    In order to examine in situ Ia expression on brain cells of various strains of rat, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in both EAE-susceptible (LEW) and EAE-resistant (BN) strains. For induction of EAE in the resistant strain, two methods were applied: one was injection of guinea-pig myelin basic protein (GPBP) in complete Freund's adjuvant into LBNF1----BN chimeras; the other was transfer of GPBP-reactive T-line cells from BN rats into syngeneic rats. LBNF----BN chimeras developed clinical EAE, whereas BN rats that received T-line cells did not. However, histological EAE was apparent in both groups. Immunohistochemical examination using two different monoclonal antibodies (OX3 and OX6) against rat Ia antigens revealed that microglia of LEW, BN and chimera rats expressed Ia antigens in the central nervous system (CNS) with EAE. On the other hand, astrocytes were negative for Ia antigens in all the strains. Furthermore, quantitative analysis was undertaken in order to compare the density of Ia-positive microglia in the BN CNS with that in the LEW CNS. It was revealed that the density of Ia-positive microglia in the vicinity of perivascular inflammatory cell aggregates was essentially the same in both strains regardless of the difference in methods of EAE induction or histological severity of the disease. Ia-positive microglia remote from inflammatory cell aggregates were somewhat fewer in rats with mild histological EAE. However, no strain difference was noted in this analysis. Therefore, we concluded that in situ Ia-inducibility on the brain cells of EAE-resistant rats is not different from that of EAE-susceptible rats. Although Ia-positive microglia in both strains may be involved in the immune responses in the CNS, it is unlikely that the difference in Ia-inducibility on brain cells would contribute to strain-specific susceptibility to EAE. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2785488

  2. Brain leukocyte infiltration initiated by peripheral inflammation or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis occurs through pathways connected to the CSF-filled compartments of the forebrain and midbrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Charlotte

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF has been considered as a preferential pathway of circulation for immune cells during neuroimmune surveillance. In order to evaluate the involvement of CSF-filled spaces in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a model of multiple sclerosis, we performed a time-course analysis of immune cell association with the CSF-containing ventricles, velae, and cisterns in two active models of this disease. Methods Guinea-pig spinal cord homogenate-induced EAE in rat and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced EAE in mouse were used. Leukocyte distribution and phenotypes were investigated by immunohistochemistry in serial sections of brain areas of interest, as well as in CSF withdrawn from rat. Immune cells associated with the choroid plexuses were quantified. Results Freund’s adjuvant-induced peripheral inflammation in the absence of brain antigen led to a subtle but definite increase in the number of myeloid cells in the extraventricular CSF spaces. In both rats and mice, EAE was characterized by a sustained and initial infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes within forebrain/midbrain fluid-filled compartments such as the velum interpositum and ambient cisterns, and certain basal cisterns. Leukocytes further infiltrated periventricular and pericisternal parenchymal areas, along perivascular spaces or following a downward CSF-to-tissue gradient. Cells quantified in CSF sampled from rats included lymphocytes and neutrophils. The distinctive pattern of cell distribution suggests that both the choroid plexus and the vessels lying in the velae and cisterns are gates for early leukocyte entry in the central nervous system. B-cell infiltration observed in the mouse model was restricted to CSF-filled extraventricular compartments. Conclusion These results identified distinctive velae and cisterns of the forebrain and midbrain as preferential sites of immune cell homing following

  3. [Inhibiton of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats by nasal administration of encephalitogenic MBP peptides: synergistic effects of MBP 68-86 and 87-99].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Yang, Shuo; Peng, Hai-sheng; Qiao, Hui; Cao, Jing-yan; Jin, Lian-hong; Li, Hu-lun

    2007-02-01

    To explore the synergistic effect of MBP 68-86 and 87-99, on the inhibition of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rat by nasal administration. Three different MBP peptides(MBP 68-86, 87-99, and the non-encephalitogenic peptide 110-128) were synthesized and administrated nasally to Lewis rat on day-11, -10, -9, -8 and -7 prior to immunization with the guinea pig MBP (gp-MBP)+CFA, which was used to induce EAE. The protective effect on Lewis rat from EAE by the MBP peptides was evaluated. Protection was achieved with the encephalitogenic peptides MBP 68-86 and 87-99, MBP 68-86 being more potent, but not with MBP 110-128. Neither MBP 68-86 nor 87-99 used alone conferred complete protection to gp-MBP-induced EAE. In contrast, nasal administration of a mixture of MBP 68-86 and 87-99 completely blocked gp-MBP-induced EAE even at lower dosage than being used alone. Rats tolerized with MBP 68-86+87-99 nasally showed decreased T cell responses to MBP, reflected by lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays. Rats tolerized with MBP 68-86+87-99 also had abrogated MBP-reactive IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha mRNA expression in lymph node cells compared to rats receiving MBP 110-128 nasally, while similar low levels of MBP-reactive TGF-beta and IL-4 mRNA expressing cells were observed in the two groups. Nasal administration of encephalitogenic MBP peptides can induce antigen-specific T cell tolerance and confer incomplete protection to gp-MBP-induced EAE, and MBP 68-86 and 87-99 have synergistic effects. Non-regulatory mechanisms are proposed to be responsible for tolerance development after nasal peptide administration.

  4. In Vivo Quantification of Inflammation in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Rats Using Fluorine-19 Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reveals Immune Cell Recruitment outside the Nervous System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhong

    Full Text Available Progress in identifying new therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS can be accelerated by using imaging biomarkers of disease progression or abatement in model systems. In this study, we evaluate the ability to noninvasively image and quantitate disease pathology using emerging "hot-spot" 19F MRI methods in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE rat, a model of MS. Rats with clinical symptoms of EAE were compared to control rats without EAE, as well as to EAE rats that received daily prophylactic treatments with cyclophosphamide. Perfluorocarbon (PFC nanoemulsion was injected intravenously, which labels predominately monocytes and macrophages in situ. Analysis of the spin-density weighted 19F MRI data enabled quantification of the apparent macrophage burden in the central nervous system and other tissues. The in vivo MRI results were confirmed by extremely high-resolution 19F/1H magnetic resonance microscopy in excised tissue samples and histopathologic analyses. Additionally, 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of intact tissue samples was used to assay the PFC biodistribution in EAE and control rats. In vivo hot-spot 19F signals were detected predominantly in the EAE spinal cord, consistent with the presence of inflammatory infiltrates. Surprising, prominent 19F hot-spots were observed in bone-marrow cavities adjacent to spinal cord lesions; these were not observed in control animals. Quantitative evaluation of cohorts receiving cyclophosphamide treatment displayed significant reduction in 19F signal within the spinal cord and bone marrow of EAE rats. Overall, 19F MRI can be used to quantitatively monitored EAE disease burden, discover unexpected sites of inflammatory activity, and may serve as a sensitive biomarker for the discovery and preclinical assessment of novel MS therapeutic interventions.

  5. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: Association with mutual regulation of RelA (p65)/NF-{kappa}B and phospho-I{kappa}B in the CNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Insun; Ha, Danbee [College of Veterinary Medicine and Applied Radiological Science Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Ginnae [Department of Marine Life Science, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Eunjin; Joo, Haejin [College of Veterinary Medicine and Applied Radiological Science Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jee, Youngheun, E-mail: yhjee@jejunu.ac.kr [College of Veterinary Medicine and Applied Radiological Science Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} The phosphorylation of RelA's inhibitory factor I{kappa}B and subsequent RelA activation are important to the disease process of EAE. {yields} The expression of RelA and phospho-I{kappa}B was markedly increased in the initiation and during the progression of EAE. {yields} TPCK-treated EAE mice showed lower incidence of EAE with less severe symptoms and quicker recovery than vehicle-treated EAE mice. {yields} TPCK significantly suppressed the MOG{sub 35-55}-specific T cell proliferation by reducing the production of IFN-{gamma} and IL-17 cytokines in EAE. {yields} The NF-{kappa}B cascade's activity increased gradually with the development of symptoms and brain pathology of EAE. -- Abstract: Recently emerging evidence that the NF-{kappa}B family plays an important role in autoimmune disease has produced very broad and sometimes paradoxical conclusions. In the present study, we elucidated that the activation of RelA (p65) of NF-{kappa}B and I{kappa}B dissociation assumes a distinct role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) progression by altering I{kappa}B phosphorylation and/or degradation. In the present study of factors that govern EAE, the presence and immunoreactivity of nuclear RelA and phospho-I{kappa}B were recorded at the initiation and peak stage, and degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} progressed rapidly at an early stage then stabilized during recovery. The immunoreactivity to RelA and phospho-I{kappa}B occurred mainly in inflammatory cells and microglial cells but only slightly in astrocytes. Subsequently, the blockade of I{kappa}B dissociation from NF-{kappa}B reduced the severity of disease by decreasing antigen-specific T cell response and production of IL-17 in EAE. Thus, blocking the dissociation of I{kappa}B from NF-{kappa}B can be utilized as a strategy to inhibit the NF-{kappa}B signal pathway thereby to reduce the initiation, progression, and severity of EAE.

  6. Exacerbation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in prion protein (PrPc-null mice: evidence for a critical role of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourdain Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cellular prion protein (PrPc is a host-encoded glycoprotein whose transconformation into PrP scrapie (PrPSc initiates prion diseases. The role of PrPc in health is still obscure, but many candidate functions have been attributed to the protein, both in the immune and the nervous systems. Recent data show that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is worsened in mice lacking PrPc. Disease exacerbation has been attributed to T cells that would differentiate into more aggressive effectors when deprived of PrPc. However, alternative interpretations such as reduced resistance of neurons to autoimmune insult and exacerbated gliosis leading to neuronal deficits were not considered. Method To better discriminate the contribution of immune cells versus neural cells, reciprocal bone marrow chimeras with differential expression of PrPc in the lymphoid or in the central nervous system (CNS were generated. Mice were subsequently challenged with MOG35-55 peptide and clinical disease as well as histopathology were compared in both groups. Furthermore, to test directly the T cell hypothesis, we compared the encephalitogenicity of adoptively transferred PrPc-deficient versus PrPc-sufficient, anti-MOG T cells. Results First, EAE exacerbation in PrPc-deficient mice was confirmed. Irradiation exacerbated EAE in all the chimeras and controls, but disease was more severe in mice with a PrPc-deleted CNS and a normal immune system than in the reciprocal construction. Moreover, there was no indication that anti-MOG responses were different in PrPc-sufficient and PrPc-deficient mice. Paradoxically, PrPc-deficient anti-MOG 2D2 T cells were less pathogenic than PrPc-expressing 2D2 T cells. Conclusions In view of the present data, it can be concluded that the origin of EAE exacerbation in PrPc-ablated mice resides in the absence of the prion protein in the CNS. Furthermore, the absence of PrPc on both neural and immune cells does not

  7. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: Association with mutual regulation of RelA (p65)/NF-κB and phospho-IκB in the CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Insun; Ha, Danbee; Ahn, Ginnae; Park, Eunjin; Joo, Haejin; Jee, Youngheun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The phosphorylation of RelA's inhibitory factor IκB and subsequent RelA activation are important to the disease process of EAE. → The expression of RelA and phospho-IκB was markedly increased in the initiation and during the progression of EAE. → TPCK-treated EAE mice showed lower incidence of EAE with less severe symptoms and quicker recovery than vehicle-treated EAE mice. → TPCK significantly suppressed the MOG 35-55 -specific T cell proliferation by reducing the production of IFN-γ and IL-17 cytokines in EAE. → The NF-κB cascade's activity increased gradually with the development of symptoms and brain pathology of EAE. -- Abstract: Recently emerging evidence that the NF-κB family plays an important role in autoimmune disease has produced very broad and sometimes paradoxical conclusions. In the present study, we elucidated that the activation of RelA (p65) of NF-κB and IκB dissociation assumes a distinct role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) progression by altering IκB phosphorylation and/or degradation. In the present study of factors that govern EAE, the presence and immunoreactivity of nuclear RelA and phospho-IκB were recorded at the initiation and peak stage, and degradation of IκBα progressed rapidly at an early stage then stabilized during recovery. The immunoreactivity to RelA and phospho-IκB occurred mainly in inflammatory cells and microglial cells but only slightly in astrocytes. Subsequently, the blockade of IκB dissociation from NF-κB reduced the severity of disease by decreasing antigen-specific T cell response and production of IL-17 in EAE. Thus, blocking the dissociation of IκB from NF-κB can be utilized as a strategy to inhibit the NF-κB signal pathway thereby to reduce the initiation, progression, and severity of EAE.

  8. Active induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by MOG35-55 peptide immunization is associated with differential responses in separate compartments of the choroid plexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Nivetha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing awareness that, aside from producing cerebrospinal fluid, the choroid plexus (CP might be a key regulator of immune activity in the central nervous system (CNS during neuroinflammation. Specifically, the CP has recently been posited to control entry of sentinel T cells into the uninflamed CNS during the early stages of neuroinflammatory diseases, like multiple sclerosis (MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. As the CP is compartmentalized into a stromal core containing fenestrated capillaries devoid of typical blood–brain barrier properties, surrounded by a tight junction-expressing choroidal epithelium, each of these compartments might mount unique responses that instigate the neuroinflammatory process. Methods To discern responses of the respective CP stromal capillary and choroidal epithelial tissues during evolving neuroinflammation, we investigated morphology and in situ expression of 93 immune-related genes during early stages of EAE induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG35-55. Specifically, 3-D immunofluorescent imaging was employed to gauge morphological changes, and laser capture microdissection was coupled to an Immune Panel TaqMan Low Density Array to detail alterations in gene expression patterns at these separate CP sites on days 9 and 15 post-immunization (p.i.. To resolve CP effects due to autoimmunity against MOG peptide, from those due to complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA and pertussis toxin (PTX included in the immunization, analysis was performed on MOG-CFA/PTX-treated, CFA/PTX-treated, and naïve cohorts. Results The CP became swollen and displayed significant molecular changes in response to MOG-CFA/PTX immunization. Both stromal capillary and choroidal epithelial tissues mounted vigorous, yet different, changes in expression of numerous genes over the time course analyzed - including those encoding adhesion

  9. IFN-γ protects from lethal IL-17 mediated viral encephalomyelitis independent of neutrophils

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    Savarin Carine

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interplay between IFN-γ, IL-17 and neutrophils during CNS inflammatory disease is complex due to cross-regulatory factors affecting both positive and negative feedback loops. These interactions have hindered the ability to distinguish the relative contributions of neutrophils, Th1 and Th17 cell-derived effector molecules from secondary mediators to tissue damage and morbidity. Methods Encephalitis induced by a gliatropic murine coronavirus was used as a model to assess the direct contributions of neutrophils, IFN-γ and IL-17 to virus-induced mortality. CNS inflammatory conditions were selectively manipulated by adoptive transfer of virus-primed wild-type (WT or IFN-γ deficient (GKO memory CD4+ T cells into infected SCID mice, coupled with antibody-mediated neutrophil depletion and cytokine blockade. Results Transfer of GKO memory CD4+ T cells into infected SCID mice induced rapid mortality compared to recipients of WT memory CD4+ T cells, despite similar virus control and demyelination. In contrast to recipients of WT CD4+ T cells, extensive neutrophil infiltration and IL-17 expression within the CNS in recipients of GKO CD4+ T cells provided a model to directly assess their contribution(s to disease. Recipients of WT CD4+ T cells depleted of IFN-γ did not express IL-17 and were spared from mortality despite abundant CNS neutrophil infiltration, indicating that mortality was not mediated by excessive CNS neutrophil accumulation. By contrast, IL-17 depletion rescued recipients of GKO CD4+ T cells from rapid mortality without diminishing neutrophils or reducing GM-CSF, associated with pathogenic Th17 cells in CNS autoimmune models. Furthermore, co-transfer of WT and GKO CD4+ T cells prolonged survival in an IFN-γ dependent manner, although IL-17 transcription was not reduced. Conclusions These data demonstrate that IL-17 mediates detrimental clinical consequences in an IFN-γ-deprived environment, independent of

  10. Genetic analysis of inflammation, cytokine mRNA expression and disease course of relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DA rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, J C; Andersson, M; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    1997-01-01

    -MHC genes were decisive since a high incidence of SPR-EAE only occurred in rats with DA non-MHC genes. Analysis of cytokine mRNA expression and infiltrating cells in the spinal cords of congenic strains revealed that the av1 haplotype associated with a high CD4/CD8 ratio and expression of m......RNA for interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), but not for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) or interleukin-10 (IL-10). In contrast, the other MHC haplotypes (h, l, u) associated with low CD4/CD8 ratios and mRNA expression for TGF-beta and IL-10, but not for IFN-gamma. DA non-MHC genes determined the intensity...... of inflammation since the number of cells expressing MHC class II, CD4 and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) was higher in DA rats than in LEW.1AV1 and PVG.1AV1 rats which also carry the av1 haplotype. We conclude that the MHC haplotype of DA rats favors a prolonged proinflammatory autoimmune response associated...

  11. Single dose of glycoengineered anti-CD19 antibody (MEDI551) disrupts experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by inhibiting pathogenic adaptive immune responses in the bone marrow and spinal cord while preserving peripheral regulatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ding; Blazek, Monica; Ireland, Sara; Ortega, Sterling; Kong, Xiangmei; Meeuwissen, Anouk; Stowe, Ann; Carter, Laura; Wang, Yue; Herbst, Ronald; Monson, Nancy L

    2014-11-15

    Plasma cells and the autoreactive Abs they produce are suspected to contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, but recent attempts to target these components of humoral immunity have failed. MEDI551, an anti-CD19 Ab that depletes mature B cells including plasma cells may offer a compelling alternative that reduces pathogenic adaptive immune responses while sparing regulatory mechanisms. Indeed, our data demonstrate that a single dose of MEDI551, given before or during ongoing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, disrupts development of the disease. Leukocyte infiltration into the spinal cord is significantly reduced, as well as short-lived and long-lived autoreactive CD138(+) plasma cells in the spleen and bone marrow, respectively. In addition, potentially protective CD1d(hi)CD5(+) regulatory B cells show resistance to depletion, and myelin-specific Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells are expanded. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MEDI551 disrupts experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by inhibiting multiple proinflammatory components whereas preserving regulatory populations. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Therapeutic Potential of IL-17-Mediated Signaling Pathway in Autoimmune Liver Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Bernuzzi, Francesca; Lleo, Ana; Ma, Xiong; Invernizzi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence reveals that various cytokines and tissue microenvironments contribute to liver inflammation and autoimmunity, and IL-17 family is one of highlights acknowledged. Although the implication of IL-17 family in most common autoimmune diseases (such as psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis) has been extensively characterized, the role of this critical family in pathophysiology of autoimmune liver diseases (AILD) still needs to be clarified. In the review, we look into the intriguing biology of IL-17 family and further dissect on the intricate role of IL-17-mediated pathway in AILD. Considering encouraging data from preclinical and clinical trials, IL-17 targeted therapy has shown promises in several certain autoimmune conditions. However, blocking IL-17-mediated pathway is just beginning, and more fully investigation and reflection are required. Taking together, targeting IL-17-mediated responses may open up new areas of potential clinical treatment for AILD. PMID:26146463

  13. Peripheral phosphodiesterase 4 inhibition produced by 4-[2-(3,4-Bis-difluoromethoxyphenyl)-2-[4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-phenyl]-ethyl]-3-methylpyridine-1-oxide (L-826,141) prevents experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Craig S.; Earl, Nathalie; Frenette, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Administration of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors suppresses the pathogenesis associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present study, we compared the effects of rolipram and 4-[2-(3,4-bis-difluoromethoxyphenyl)-2...

  14. Evaluation of a radiolabelled peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligand in the central nervous system inflammation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: a possible probe for imaging multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattner, F.; Katsifis, A.; Ballantyne, P. [ANSTO, Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Lucas Heights (Australia); Staykova, M.; Willenborg, D.O. [Australian National University Medical School, The Canberra Hospital, Neurosciences Research Unit, Woden, Canberra (Australia)

    2005-04-01

    Peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs) are upregulated on macrophages and activated microglia, and radioligands for the PBRs can be used to detect in vivo neuroinflammatory changes in a variety of neurological insults, including multiple sclerosis. Substituted 2-phenyl imidazopyridine-3-acetamides with high affinity and selectivity for PBRs have been prepared that are suitable for radiolabelling with a number of positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) isotopes. In this investigation, the newly developed high-affinity PBR ligand 6-chloro-2-(4'-iodophenyl)-3-(N,N-diethyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-acetamide, or CLINDE, was radiolabelled with{sup 123}I and its biodistribution in the central nervous system (CNS) of rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) evaluated. EAE was induced in male Lewis rats by injection of an emulsion of myelin basic protein and incomplete Freund's adjuvant containing Mycobacterium butyricum. Biodistribution studies with{sup 123}I-CLINDE were undertaken on EAE rats exhibiting different clinical disease severity and compared with results in controls. Disease severity was confirmed by histopathology in the spinal cord of rats. The relationship between inflammatory lesions and PBR ligand binding was investigated using ex vivo autoradiography and immunohistochemistry on rats with various clinical scores. {sup 123}I-CLINDE uptake was enhanced in the CNS of all rats exhibiting EAE when compared to controls. Binding reflected the ascending nature of EAE inflammation, with lumbar/sacral cord > thoracic cord > cervical cord > medulla. The amount of ligand binding also reflected the clinical severity of disease. Ex vivo autoradiography and immunohistochemistry revealed a good spatial correspondence between radioligand signal and foci of inflammation and in particular ED-1{sup +} cells representing macrophages and microglia. These results demonstrate the ability of {sup 123}I

  15. IFN-gamma signaling in the central nervous system controls the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis independently of the localization and composition of inflammatory foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Eunyoung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a model for multiple sclerosis, presents typically as ascending paralysis. However, in mice in which interferon-gamma (IFNγ signaling is disrupted by genetic deletion, limb paralysis is accompanied by atypical deficits, including head tilt, postural imbalance, and circling, consistent with cerebellar/vestibular dysfunction. This was previously attributed to intense cerebellar and brainstem infiltration by peripheral immune cells and formation of neutrophil-rich foci within the CNS. However, the exact mechanism by which IFNγ signaling prohibits the development of vestibular deficits, and whether the distribution and composition of inflammatory foci within the CNS affects the course of atypical EAE remains elusive. Methods We induced EAE in IFNγ-/- mice and bone marrow chimeric mice in which IFNγR is not expressed in the CNS but is intact in the periphery (IFNγRCNSKO and vice versa (IFNγRperiKO. Blood-brain barrier permeability was determined by Evans blue intravenous administration at disease onset. Populations of immune cell subsets in the periphery and the CNS were quantified by flow cytometry. CNS tissues isolated at various time points after EAE induction, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for composition of inflammatory foci and patterns of axonal degeneration. Results Incidence and severity of atypical EAE were more pronounced in IFNγRCNSKO as compared to IFNγRperiKO mice. Contrary to what we anticipated, cerebella/brainstems of IFNγRCNSKO mice were only minimally infiltrated, while the same areas of IFNγRperiKO mice were extensively populated by peripheral immune cells. Furthermore, the CNS of IFNγRperiKO mice was characterized by persistent neutrophil-rich foci as compared to IFNγRCNSKO. Immunohistochemical analysis of the CNS of IFNγ-/- and IFNγR chimeric mice revealed that IFNγ protective actions are exerted through microglial STAT1

  16. Biomimetic Nanosponges for Treating Antibody-Mediated Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yao; Fang, Ronnie H; Zhang, Liangfang

    2018-04-18

    Autoimmune diseases are characterized by overactive immunity, where the body's defense system launches an attack against itself. If left unchecked, this can result in the destruction of healthy tissue and significantly affect patient well-being. In the case of type II autoimmune hypersensitivities, autoreactive antibodies attack the host's own cells or extracellular matrix. Current clinical treatment modalities for managing this class of disease are generally nonspecific and face considerable limitations. In this Topical Review, we cover emerging therapeutic strategies, with an emphasis on novel nanomedicine platforms. Specifically, the use of biomimetic cell membrane-coated nanosponges that are capable of specifically binding and neutralizing pathological antibodies will be explored. There is significant untapped potential in the application of nanotechnology for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, and continued development along this line may help to eventually change the clinical landscape.

  17. A novel antigen-toxin chimeric protein: myelin basic protein-pseudomonas exotoxin (MBP-PE 40) for treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, T; Steinberger, I; Soffer, D; Beraud, E; Ben-Nun, A; Lorberboum-Galski, H

    1999-06-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP), is a major component of the central nervous system (CNS) myelin. MBP can stimulate T cells that migrate into the CNS, initiating a cascade of events that result in perivascular infiltration and demyelination. EAE is an inflammatory and demyelinating autoimmune disease of the CNS that serves as a model for the human disease Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Taking advantage of the fact that EAE can be mediated by T cells, able to recognize MBP or its peptides, we developed a new approach to target anti-MBP T cells by fusing an MBP-sequence to a toxin. In the new chimeric protein, an oligonucleotide coding for the guinea pig MBP encephalitogenic moiety (residues 68-88) was fused to a cDNA encoding a truncated form of the PE gene (PE40). The chimeric gene termed MBP-PE was expressed in E. coli and highly purified. MBP-PE chimeric protein was cytotoxic to various anti-MBP T cells. Moreover, treatment with the novel MBP-toxin blocked the clinical signs of EAE as well as CNS inflammation and demyelination. A chimeric protein such as MBP-PE40 presents a novel prototype of chimeric proteins, composed of antigen/peptide-toxin, that could prove to be an efficient and specific immunotherapeutic agent for autoimmune diseases in which a known antigen is involved.

  18. Cytomegalovirus-associated encephalomyelitis in an immunocompetent adult: a two-stage attack of direct viral and delayed immune-mediated invasions. case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daida, Kensuke; Ishiguro, Yuta; Eguchi, Hiroto; Machida, Yutaka; Hattori, Nobutaka; Miwa, Hideto

    2016-11-17

    It is clinically rare to find cytomegalovirus (CMV)-associated encephalomyelitis in immunocompetent adults. Here, we present the case of an adult patient who developed acute transverse myelitis that was followed by immune-mediated disseminated encephalomyelitis. A 38-year-old man developed acute paraplegia with paresthesia below the level of the T7-8 dermatome. Both brain and spinal cord MRIs performed at admission appeared normal. Corticosteroid therapy was initiated, with the later addition of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins. After polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated the presence of CMV DNA in his cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), anti-viral therapy was added. Forty days after symptom onset, despite an initial positive response to this therapy, he developed dysarthria and truncal ataxia. Repeated magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated progressively expanding lesions involving not only the spinal cord but also the cerebral white matter, suggestive of extensive immune-mediated demyelination involving the central nervous system (CNS), as is observed in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). This case report underscores the importance of careful patient observation following the initial diagnosis of a CMV-associated CNS infection, such as transverse myelitis, on the possibility that post-infectious ADEM may appear.

  19. CX3CL1 (fractalkine and CX3CR1 expression in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: kinetics and cellular origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsson Tomas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS. It is associated with local activation of microglia and astroglia, infiltration of activated macrophages and T cells, active degradation of myelin and damage to axons and neurons. The proposed role for CX3CL1 (fractalkine in the control of microglia activation and leukocyte infiltration places this chemokine and its receptor CX3CR1 in a potentially strategic position to control key aspects in the pathological events that are associated with development of brain lesions in MS. In this study, we examine this hypothesis by analyzing the distribution, kinetics, regulation and cellular origin of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 mRNA expression in the CNS of rats with an experimentally induced MS-like disease, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-induced autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. Methods The expression of CX3CL1 and its receptor CX3CR1 was studied with in situ hybridization histochemical detection of their mRNA with radio labeled cRNA probes in combination with immunohistochemical staining of phenotypic cell markers. Both healthy rat brains and brains from rats with MOG EAE were analyzed. In defined lesional stages of MOG EAE, the number of CX3CR1 mRNA-expressing cells and the intensity of the in situ hybridization signal were determined by image analysis. Data were statistically evaluated by ANOVA, followed by Tukeyprimes multiple comparison test. Results Expression of CX3CL1 mRNA was present within neuronal-like cells located throughout the neuraxis of the healthy rat. Expression of CX3CL1 remained unaltered in the CNS of rats with MOG-induced EAE, with the exception of an induced expression in astrocytes within inflammatory lesions. Notably, the brain vasculature of healthy and encephalitic animals did not exhibit signs of CX3CL1 mRNA expression. The receptor, CX3CR1, was expressed by microglial cells in all regions of the healthy brain

  20. Glutamine antagonist-mediated immune suppression decreases pathology but delays virus clearance in mice during nonfatal alphavirus encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Victoria K; Glowinski, Rebecca; Braxton, Alicia M; Potter, Michelle C; Slusher, Barbara S; Griffin, Diane E

    2017-08-01

    Infection of weanling C57BL/6 mice with the TE strain of Sindbis virus (SINV) causes nonfatal encephalomyelitis associated with hippocampal-based memory impairment that is partially prevented by treatment with 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON), a glutamine antagonist (Potter et al., J Neurovirol 21:159, 2015). To determine the mechanism(s) of protection, lymph node and central nervous system (CNS) tissues from SINV-infected mice treated daily for 1 week with low (0.3mg/kg) or high (0.6mg/kg) dose DON were examined. DON treatment suppressed lymphocyte proliferation in cervical lymph nodes resulting in reduced CNS immune cell infiltration, inflammation, and cell death compared to untreated SINV-infected mice. Production of SINV-specific antibody and interferon-gamma were also impaired by DON treatment with a delay in virus clearance. Cessation of treatment allowed activation of the antiviral immune response and viral clearance, but revived CNS pathology, demonstrating the ability of the immune response to mediate both CNS damage and virus clearance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Psoriasis and cardiovascular risk: Immune-mediated crosstalk between metabolic, vascular and autoimmune inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Kölliker Frers

    2015-03-01

    Results and conclusions: Psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis diseases illustrate that immune-mediated activated crossroads of inflammation beyond enhanced cardiovascular risk factors are the result of an interplay between different proatherogenic mediators derived from metabolic, vascular and autoimmune joint and skin inflamed target tissue. Consistent with this point of view, psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis diseases offer an invaluable opportunity to reinforce our knowledge about atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

  2. Fungal-derived cues promote ocular autoimmunity through a Dectin-2/Card9-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B R; Lee, E J; Snow, P E; Vance, E E; Iwakura, Y; Ohno, N; Miura, N; Lin, X; Brown, G D; Wells, C A; Smith, J R; Caspi, R R; Rosenzweig, H L

    2017-12-01

    Uveitis (intraocular inflammation) is a leading cause of loss of vision. Although its aetiology is largely speculative, it is thought to arise from complex genetic-environmental interactions that break immune tolerance to generate eye-specific autoreactive T cells. Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), induced by immunization with the ocular antigen, interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP), in combination with mycobacteria-containing complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), has many clinical and histopathological features of human posterior uveitis. Studies in EAU have focused on defining pathogenic CD4 + T cell effector responses, such as those of T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, but the innate receptor pathways precipitating development of autoreactive, eye-specific T cells remain poorly defined. In this study, we found that fungal-derived antigens possess autoimmune uveitis-promoting function akin to CFA in conventional EAU. The capacity of commensal fungi such as Candida albicans or Saccharomyces cerevisae to promote IRBP-triggered EAU was mediated by Card9. Because Card9 is an essential signalling molecule of a subgroup of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) important in host defence, we evaluated further the proximal Card9-activating CLRs. Using single receptor-deficient mice we identified Dectin-2, but not Mincle or Dectin-1, as a predominant mediator of fungal-promoted uveitis. Conversely, Dectin-2 activation by α-mannan reproduced the uveitic phenotype of EAU sufficiently, in a process mediated by the Card9-coupled signalling axis and interleukin (IL)-17 production. Taken together, this report relates the potential of the Dectin-2/Card9-coupled pathway in ocular autoimmunity. Not only does it contribute to understanding of how innate immune receptors orchestrate T cell-mediated autoimmunity, it also reveals a previously unappreciated ability of fungal-derived signals to promote autoimmunity. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  3. N-Acetylcysteine protects against trichloroethene-mediated autoimmunity by attenuating oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gangduo; Wang, Jianling; Ma, Huaxian; Ansari, G.A.S.; Khan, M. Firoze, E-mail: mfkhan@utmb.edu

    2013-11-15

    Exposure to trichloroethene (TCE), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, is known to induce autoimmunity both in humans and animal models. However, mechanisms underlying TCE-mediated autoimmunity remain largely unknown. Previous studies from our laboratory in MRL +/+ mice suggest that oxidative stress may contribute to TCE-induced autoimmune response. The current study was undertaken to further assess the role of oxidative stress in TCE-induced autoimmunity by supplementing with an antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Groups of female MRL +/+ mice were given TCE, NAC or TCE + NAC for 6 weeks (TCE, 10 mmol/kg, i.p., every 4th day; NAC, 250 mg/kg/day through drinking water). TCE exposure led to significant increases in serum levels of anti-nuclear, anti-dsDNA and anti-Sm antibodies. TCE exposure also led to significant induction of anti-malondiadelhyde (MDA)- and anti-hydroxynonenal (HNE)-protein adduct antibodies which were associated with increased ANA in the sera along with increased MDA-/HNE-protein adducts in the livers and kidneys, and increases in protein oxidation (carbonylation) in the sera, livers and kidneys, suggesting an overall increase in oxidative stress. Moreover, TCE exposure also resulted in increased release of IL-17 from splenocytes and increases in IL-17 mRNA expression. Remarkably, NAC supplementation attenuated not only the TCE-induced oxidative stress, IL-17 release and mRNA expression, but also the markers of autoimmunity, as evident from decreased levels of ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-Sm antibodies in the sera. These results provide further support to a role of oxidative stress in TCE-induced autoimmune response. Attenuation of TCE-induced autoimmunity in mice by NAC provides an approach for preventive and/or therapeutic strategies. - Highlights: • TCE led to increased autoantibodies, supporting its potential to induce autoimmunity. • TCE exposure led to increases in lipid perioxidation and protein carbonyls. • TCE exposure resulted in

  4. NMR and molecular dynamics studies of an autoimmune myelin basic protein peptide and its antagonist : structural implications for the MHC II (I-Au)–peptide complex from docking calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzakos, A.G.; Fuchs, P.; van Nuland, N.A.J.; Troganis, A.; Tselios, T.; Deraos, S.; Gerothanassis, I.P.; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis can be induced in susceptible animals by immunodominant determinants of myelin basic protein (MBP). To characterize the molecular features of antigenic sites important for designing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis suppressing molecules, we report

  5. Susceptibility and resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and neuritis in the guinea pig correlate with the induction of procoagulant and anticoagulant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geczy, C L; Roberts, I M; Meyer, P; Bernard, C C

    1984-12-01

    Activation of macrophage procoagulant activity (MPCA) is involved in the manifestation of EAE and EAN in susceptible guinea pigs and provides a mechanism for the deposition of fibrin, which is a feature of histologic lesions of EAE. Peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) from susceptible (strain 13) guinea pigs immunized with either central or peripheral nervous tissue antigens produce procoagulant activity when incubated with the immunogen in vitro. The production of the procoagulant is quantitative and antigen-specific and is maximal at the time of clinical signs of the disease. After recovery, the production of procoagulant activity decreased. The MPCA test was able to discriminate the biochemical differences existing between chicken and mammalian peripheral nerve proteins, thus providing a quantitative and sensitive indicator of cell-mediated immunity in EAE and EAN. The autoimmune response to brain and nerve antigens in nonsusceptible (strain 2) guinea pigs was coincident with the antigen-specific production of a cell-bound anticoagulant activity by stimulated mononuclear cells. The production of anticoagulant activity followed the same sequence of time changes after immunization as that of the MPCA in susceptible guinea pigs, and high immunizing doses of nerve antigens induced high levels of anticoagulant activity. The same cells produced high levels of procoagulant when incubated with tuberculin or lipopolysaccharide. The recalcification time of normal plasma was prolonged by the anticoagulant, and the decreased clotting time of plasma induced by the procoagulant activity obtained by incubating sensitized strain 13 PEC with myelin basic protein was suppressed by the anticoagulant produced by culturing sensitized strain 2 PEC with myelin basic protein. Preliminary evidence indicates that the anticoagulant has properties similar to antithrombin III. The anticoagulant could play a role in the control of effector cell function, and therefore in recovery from clinical

  6. Accelerated Central Nervous System Autoimmunity in BAFF-Receptor-Deficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Susan S.; Richman, David P.; Zamvil, Scott S.; Agius, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    B cell activating factor (BAFF) is critical for B cell survival, a function that is mediated by BAFF receptor, (BAFF-R). The role of BAFF (or BAFF-R) in the multiple sclerosis model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), was examined using BAFF-R-deficient mice. BAFF-R deficiency resulted in paradoxically increased severity of EAE induced by myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide 35-55. Inflammatory foci in BAFF-R-deficient mice comprised increased numbers of activated m...

  7. Mechanism of action and efficacy of RX-111, a thieno[2,3-c]pyridine derivative and small molecule inhibitor of protein interaction with glycosaminoglycans (SMIGs), in delayed-type hypersensitivity, TNBS-induced colitis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nicholas; Koppel, Juraj; Zsila, Ferenc; Juhas, Stefan; Il'kova, Gabriela; Kogan, Faina Yurgenzon; Lahmy, Orly; Wildbaum, Gizi; Karin, Nathan; Zhuk, Regina; Gregor, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Elucidate the mechanism of action of the small molecule inhibitor of protein binding to glycosaminoglycans, RX-111 and assay its anti-inflammatory activity in animal models of inflammatory disease. The glycosaminoglycan, heparin, was used in the mechanism of action study of RX-111. Human T lymphocytes and umbilical vein endothelial cells were used to assay the in vitro activity of RX-111. Mouse and rat models of disease were used to assay the anti-inflammatory activity of RX-111 in vivo. Circular dichroism and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy were used to study the binding of RX-111 to the glycosaminoglycan, heparin. T lymphocyte rolling on endothelial cells under shear flow was used to assay RX-111 activity in vitro. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and tri-nitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats were used to assay anti-inflammatory activity of RX-111 in vivo. RX-111 was shown to bind directly to heparin. It inhibited leukocyte rolling on endothelial cells under shear flow and reduced inflammation in the mouse model of DTH. RX-111 was efficacious in the mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease, TNBS-induced colitis and the rat model of multiple sclerosis, EAE. RX-111 exercises its broad spectrum anti-inflammatory activity by a singular mechanism of action, inhibition of protein binding to the cell surface GAG, heparan sulfate. RX-111 and related thieno[2,3-c]pyridine derivatives are potential therapeutics for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  8. Immune modulation by a tolerogenic myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)10-60 containing fusion protein in the marmoset experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kap, Y. S.; van Driel, N.; Arends, R.; Rouwendal, G.; Verolin, M.; Blezer, E.; Lycke, N.; 't Hart, Bert A.

    Current therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease, mostly target general cell populations or immune molecules, which may lead to a compromised immune system. A more directed strategy would be to re-enforce tolerance of the autoaggressive T cells that drive

  9. Immune modulation by a tolerogenic myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)10-60 containing fusion protein in the marmoset experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.S. Kap (Yolanda); N. van Driel (Nikki); R. Arends (Roel); G. Rouwendal; M. Verolin; E. Blezer (Erwin); N. Lycke; B.A. 't Hart (Bert)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSummary: Current therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease, mostly target general cell populations or immune molecules, which may lead to a compromised immune system. A more directed strategy would be to re-enforce tolerance of the

  10. Immune modulation by a tolerogenic myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)10-60 containing fusion protein in the marmoset experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kap, Y. S.; van Driel, N.; Arends, R.; Rouwendal, G.; Verolin, M.; Blezer, E.; Lycke, N.; 't Hart, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Current therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease, mostly target general cell populations or immune molecules, which may lead to a compromised immune system. A more directed strategy would be to re-enforce tolerance of the autoaggressive T cells

  11. Humanized in vivo Model for Autoimmune Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    guinea - pig polyclonal anti-insulin (1:100 dilution, Abcam Ab7842-500, Cambridge, MA) and a secondary goat anti- guinea - pig Alexa-fluor 568 (1:100 dilu...which is reported to accelerate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (a mouse model of multiple sclerosis). Our reasoning was that, as T cells...HL, Sobel RA, Kuchroo VK. IL-10 is critical in the regulation of autoimmune encephalomyelitis as demonstrated by studies of IL-10- and IL-4

  12. Studies on autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the guinea pig. II. An in vitro investigation on the nature, properties, and specificity of the serum-demyelinating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebar, R; Boutry, J M; Vincent, C; Robineaux, R; Voisin, G A

    1976-05-01

    Complement-dependent demyelinating activity of whole brain homogenate (WBH)-induced experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) sera was tested on long term tissue cultures of in vitro myelinated fetal guinea pig cerebellum. Complement-fixing (CF) auto-antibodies were shown to be the responsible agents, as demonstrated in experiments where all reagents belonged to the same species: guinea pigs of outbred (Hartley) and even of inbred (S2 or S13) strains. These antibodies were of the IgG2 class as shown by Sephadex G-200 and DEAE cellulose fractionation experiments. The corresponding auto-antigen was present in the homogenate and myelin of the central nervous system (CNS) tissue. It was different from the encephalitogenic basic protein of CNS myelin (BP), as shown in experiments where the demyelinating auto-antibodies were induced, detected, and absorbed by WBH or by CNS myelin but not by BP. They were neither induced by nor cross-reacting with cerebroside and peripheral nervous system (PNS) tissue.

  13. Layers of dendritic cell-mediated T cell tolerance, their regulation and the prevention of autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Thomas Mayer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The last decades of Nobel prize-honored research have unequivocally proven a key role of dendritic cells (DCs at controlling both T cell immunity and tolerance. A tight balance between these opposing DC functions ensures immune homeostasis and host integrity. Its perturbation could explain pathological conditions such as the attack of self tissues, chronic infections and tumor immune evasion. While recent insights into the complex DC network help to understand the contribution of individual DC subsets to immunity, the tolerogenic functions of DCs only begin to emerge. As these consist of many different layers, the definition of a ‘tolerogenic DC’ is subjected to variation. Moreover, the implication of DCs and DC subsets in the suppression of autoimmunity are incompletely resolved. In this review, we point out conceptual controversies and dissect the various layers of DC-mediated T cell tolerance. These layers include central tolerance, Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, anergy/deletion and negative feedback regulation. The mode and kinetics of antigen presentation is highlighted as an additional factor shaping tolerance. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between layers of tolerance as well as their differential regulation during inflammation. Furthermore, potential technical caveats of DC depletion models are considered. Finally, we summarize our current understanding of DC-mediated tolerance and its role for the suppression of autoimmunity. Understanding the mechanisms of DC-mediated tolerance and their complex interplay is fundamental for the development of selective therapeutic strategies, e.g. for the modulation of autoimmune responses or for the immunotherapy of cancer.

  14. Pharmacological targeting of IDO-mediated tolerance for treating autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penberthy, W Todd

    2007-04-01

    Cells at the maternal-fetal interface express indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) to consume all local tryptophan for the express purpose of starving adjacent maternal T cells of this most limiting and essential amino acid. This stops local T cell proliferation to ultimately result in the most dramatic example of immune tolerance, acceptance of the fetus. By contrast, inhibition of IDO using 1-methyl-tryptophan causes a sudden catastrophic rejection of the mammalian fetus. Immunomodulatory factors including IFNgamma, TNFalpha, IL-1, and LPS use IDO induction in responsive antigen presenting cells (APCs) also to transmit tolerogenic signals to T cells. Thus it makes sense to consider IDO induction towards tolerance for autoimmune diseases in general. Approaches to cell specific therapeutic IDO induction with NAD precursor supplementation to prevent the collateral non-T cell pathogenesis due to chronic TNFalpha-IDO activated tryptophan depletion in autoimmune diseases are reviewed. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid most immediately because it is the only precursor for the endogenous biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Both autoimmune disease and the NAD deficiency disease pellagra occur in women at greater than twice the frequency of occurrence in men. The importance of IDO dysregulation manifest as autoimmune pellagric dementia is genetically illustrated for Nasu-Hakola Disease (or PLOSL), which is caused by a mutation in the IDO antagonizing genes TYROBP/DAP12 or TREM2. Loss of function leads to psychotic symptoms rapidly progressing to presenile dementia likely due to unchecked increases in microglial IDO expression, which depletes neurons of tryptophan causing neurodegeneration. Administration of NAD precursors rescued entire mental hospitals of dementia patients literally overnight in the 1930's and NAD precursors should help Nasu-Hakola patients as well. NAD depletion mediated by peroxynitrate PARP1 activation is one of the few

  15. The effect of 1, 25(OH)2 D3 (calcitriol) alone and in combination with all-trans retinoic acid on ROR-γt, IL-17, TGF-β, and FOXP3 gene expression in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parastouei, Karim; Mirshafiey, Abbas; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Shiri-Shahsavar, Mohammad Reza; Solaymani-Mohammadi, Farid; Chahardoli, Reza; Alvandi, Ehsan; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar

    2018-04-01

    It has been shown that calcitriol and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) have modulatory effects on the immune system. The present study investigates the synergistic effects of combination treatment of calcitriol and ATRA in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). The mice were allocated to four preventive groups, each consisting of eight animals, ATRA (250 μg/mouse), calcitriol (100 ng/mouse), combination of ATRA and calcitriol (125  μg/mouse and 50 ng/mouse) and vehicle groups. EAE was induced by MOG35-55 peptide in female C57BL/6 mice. Treatments were initiated at day 1 before immunization and continued every other day throughout the study until the day 21 post-immunization. Splenocytes were isolated from EAE-induced mice and the expression of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor gamma t (ROR-γt), Interleukin-17 (IL-17), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) genes was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of FOXP3 and TGF-β genes in the splenocytes of combination-treated and calcitriol alone-treated mice was significantly increased compared to vehicle group (P ROR-γt and IL-17 genes in the splenocytes of ATRA, calcitriol and combination- treated mice was significantly reduced compared to those of vehicle- treated mice (P ROR-γt was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the combination group than in the mice treated by ATRA or calcitriol alone. This study demonstrated that treatment with combination of calcitriol and ATRA can be considered as a new strategy for MS prevention and treatment.

  16. Chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the guinea pig. Presence of anti-M2 antibodies in central nervous system tissue and the possible role of M2 autoantigen in the induction of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebar, R; Baudrimont, M; Vincent, C

    1989-04-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) can be transferred adoptively with T cells sensitized to the basic protein of myelin (BP). However, in the guinea pig, the chronic form of EAE has not been found to be inducible with BP alone, nor has it been adoptively transferred. An antibody response to the central nervous system (CNS) myelin autoantigens was looked for in serum and target CNS tissue in S13 guinea pigs with isologous CNS tissue-induced chronic EAE. Antibody activity was estimated by an immunoenzymatic technique and by autoradiography, using immunoprecipitated and electrophoresed relevant radiolabelled antigens. In serum, IgG antibody response to BP and M2 reached its maximum level 30 to 40 d after immunization and then declined progressively until it became undetectable. On the other hand, while anti-BP antibodies were seldom detected in CNS tissue acid extract, anti-M2 IgG antibodies were always present in CNS tissue of chronic EAE animals, and the amount of these antibodies were related to the severity of symptoms and lesions. No antibody response to proteolipid or to galactocerebroside was detected in serum or CNS tissue. BP-immunized controls showed no chronic EAE and no response to M2 in their serum or CNS tissue. Inasmuch as M2 has been shown to be a glycoprotein of CNS myelin, and anti-M2 antibodies to have a demyelinating property, the latter would be responsible for CNS tissue demyelination in chronic EAE. A shared role of BP and M2 in the induction of chronic EAE in the guinea pig is suggested.

  17. Heat shock proteins and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE): I. Immunization with a peptide of the myelin protein 2',3' cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase that is cross-reactive with a heat shock protein alters the course of EAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, G; Kotilinek, L; Schlievert, P; Clark, H B; Trotter, J; Horvath, E; Gao, E; Cox, M; Braun, P E

    1996-05-15

    We describe sequence similarity and immunologic cross-reactivity between a peptide of the mycobacterial hsp, HSP65, and the myelin protein 2',3' cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase (CNP). We demonstrate that immunization with the homologous cross-reactive CNP peptide (hsp-CNP peptide) has significant biological consequences. Rats immunized with hsp-CNP peptide in either complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) produce large amounts of peptide-specific antibody. Isotypes of antibodies in animals immunized with peptide in CFA are IgG1 and IgG2a. Isotypes of antibodies in rats immunized with peptide in IFA are predominantly IgG1, with low titers of IgG2a. T cell proliferative responses to HSP65 are present in rats immunized with peptide in CFA. T cell responses to HSP65 initially are absent in rats immunized with peptide in IFA but develop over time. T cell proliferative responses to hsp-CNP peptide were not detected. None of the groups of rats developed clinical or histologic evidence of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). To induce EAE, rats preimmunized with hsp-CNP peptide were challenged with guinea pig spinal cord (GPSC) emulsified in CFA. Rats preimmunized with peptide in CFA developed severe EAE. Rats preimmunized with hsp-CNP peptide in IFA were protected from EAE, with both a lower incidence and severity of disease. Injecting the murine monoclonal antibody recognizing the shared HSP65 and CNP epitope did not protect against EAE. Our data suggest that a Th2 pattern of immune response to a CNP peptide that itself is non-encephalitogenic protects against EAE. Immune responses to either hsp or myelin proteins cross-reactive with hsp may play an important role in the development of EAE.

  18. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is protective against autoimmune-mediated demyelination by inhibiting effector T cell proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Mei

    Full Text Available Quetiapine (Que, a commonly used atypical antipsychotic drug (APD, can prevent myelin from breakdown without immune attack. Multiple sclerosis (MS, an autoimmune reactive inflammation demyelinating disease, is triggered by activated myelin-specific T lymphocytes (T cells. In this study, we investigated the potential efficacy of Que as an immune-modulating therapeutic agent for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a mouse model for MS. Que treatment was initiated on the onset of MOG(35-55 peptide induced EAE mice and the efficacy of Que on modulating the immune response was determined by Flow Cytometry through analyzing CD4(+/CD8(+ populations and the proliferation of effector T cells (CD4(+CD25(- in peripheral immune organs. Our results show that Que dramatically attenuates the severity of EAE symptoms. Que treatment decreases the extent of CD4(+/CD8(+ T cell infiltration into the spinal cord and suppresses local glial activation, thereby diminishing the loss of mature oligodendrocytes and myelin breakdown in the spinal cord of EAE mice. Our results further demonstrate that Que treatment decreases the CD4(+/CD8(+ T cell populations in lymph nodes and spleens of EAE mice and inhibits either MOG(35-55 or anti-CD3 induced proliferation as well as IL-2 production of effector T cells (CD4(+CD25(- isolated from EAE mice spleen. Together, these findings suggest that Que displays an immune-modulating role during the course of EAE, and thus may be a promising candidate for treatment of MS.

  19. Antagonizing the alpha(4)beta(1) Integrin, but Not alpha(4)beta(7), Inhibits Leukocytic Infiltration of the Central Nervous System in Rhesus Monkey Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanstra, Krista G.; Hofman, Sam O.; Estevao, Dave M. Lopes; Blezer, Erwin L. A.; Bauer, Jan; Yang, Li-Li; Wyant, Tim; Csizmadia, Vilmos; 't Hart, Bert A.; Fedyk, Eric R.

    2013-01-01

    The immune system is characterized by the preferential migration of lymphocytes through specific tissues (i.e., tissue tropism). Tissue tropism is mediated, in part, by the alpha(4) integrins expressed by T lymphocytes. The alpha(4)beta(1) integrin mediates migration of memory T lymphocytes into the

  20. Disruption of the β2-integrin CD11d (αDβ2) gene fails to protect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jillian E.; Webb, Matthew S.; Hu, Jane; Staunton, Don; Barnum, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    The fourth member of the β2-integrin family of adhesion molecules, CD11d (αDβ2), is expressed on a wide variety of immune cells, however its function in autoimmune diseases, including EAE remains unknown. We induced EAE in wild type and CD11d-/- C57BL/6 mice using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55) peptide. The clinical course and histopathology of EAE was identical in both groups of mice throughout the disease course. There were no significant differences in the infiltration of leukocyte subsets into the central nervous system or in the production of cytokines from T cells isolated from the spleen or spinal cord from both groups of mice. Our data demonstrate that CD11d is not required for the development of EAE and, to date, is the only β2-integrin molecule whose deletion does not result in attenuated disease. PMID:17254640

  1. PK11195 binding to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor as a marker of microglia activation in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vowinckel, E; Reutens, D; Becher, B

    1997-01-01

    examined the utility of using in vitro and in vivo ligand binding to the PBR as a measure of lesion activity in autoimmune CNS demyelinating diseases. Applying a combined autoradiography and immunohistochemical approach to spinal cord and brain tissues from mice with EAE, we found a correlation at sites...... tomography (PET) imaging with [11C]-PK11195 showed ligand uptake only at sites of active MS lesions defined by magnetic resonance imaging criteria. Our results indicate the potential to develop markers suitable for both in vitro and in vivo use, which will serve to help correlate phenotypic and functional...... of inflammatory lesions between [3H]-PK11195 binding and immunoreactivity for the activated microglial/macrophage marker Mac-1/CD11b. In MS tissues, [3H]-PK11195 binding correlated with sites of immunoreactivity for the microglial/macrophage marker CD68, at the edges of chronic active plaques. Positron emission...

  2. Hapten-Induced Contact Hypersensitivity, Autoimmune Reactions, and Tumor Regression: Plausibility of Mediating Antitumor Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan A. Erkes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Haptens are small molecule irritants that bind to proteins and elicit an immune response. Haptens have been commonly used to study allergic contact dermatitis (ACD using animal contact hypersensitivity (CHS models. However, extensive research into contact hypersensitivity has offered a confusing and intriguing mechanism of allergic reactions occurring in the skin. The abilities of haptens to induce such reactions have been frequently utilized to study the mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD to induce autoimmune-like responses such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia and to elicit viral wart and tumor regression. Hapten-induced tumor regression has been studied since the mid-1900s and relies on four major concepts: (1 ex vivo haptenation, (2 in situ haptenation, (3 epifocal hapten application, and (4 antigen-hapten conjugate injection. Each of these approaches elicits unique responses in mice and humans. The present review attempts to provide a critical appraisal of the hapten-mediated tumor treatments and offers insights for future development of the field.

  3. Allogeneic Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Ameliorate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Regulating Self-Reactive T Cell Responses and Dendritic Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs have emerged as a promising therapy for autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS. Administration of MSCs to MS patients has proven safe with signs of immunomodulation but their therapeutic efficacy remains low. The aim of the current study has been to further characterize the immunomodulatory mechanisms of adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ASCs in vitro and in vivo using the EAE model of chronic brain inflammation in mice. We found that murine ASCs (mASCs suppress T cell proliferation in vitro via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase- (COX- 1/2 activities. mASCs also prevented the lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced maturation of dendritic cells (DCs in vitro. The addition of the COX-1/2 inhibitor indomethacin, but not the iNOS inhibitor L-NAME, reversed the block in DC maturation implicating prostaglandin (PG E2 in this process. In vivo, early administration of murine and human ASCs (hASCs ameliorated myelin oligodendrocyte protein- (MOG35-55- induced EAE in C57Bl/6 mice. Mechanistic studies showed that mASCs suppressed the function of autoantigen-specific T cells and also decreased the frequency of activated (CD11c+CD40high and CD11c+TNF-α+ DCs in draining lymph nodes (DLNs. In summary, these data suggest that mASCs reduce EAE severity, in part, through the impairment of DC and T cell function.

  4. Autoimmunity in Arabidopsis acd11 Is Mediated by Epigenetic Regulation of an Immune Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palma, K.; Thorgrimsen, S.; Malinovsky, F.G.

    2010-01-01

    Certain pathogens deliver effectors into plant cells to modify host protein targets and thereby suppress immunity. These target modifications can be detected by intracellular immune receptors, or Resistance (R) proteins, that trigger strong immune responses including localized host cell death....... The accelerated cell death 11 (acd11) "lesion mimic" mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibits autoimmune phenotypes such as constitutive defense responses and cell death without pathogen perception. ACD11 encodes a putative sphingosine transfer protein, but its precise role during these processes is unknown......, and that cell death in other lesion mimic mutants may also be caused by inappropriate activation of R genes. Moreover, SDG8 is required for basal and R protein-mediated pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis, revealing the importance of chromatin remodeling as a key process in plant innate immunity....

  5. Imaging micro-glial/macrophage activation in spinal cords of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis rats by Positron Emission Tomography using the mitochondrial 18 kDa translocator protein radioligand [18F]DPA-714

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abourbeh, Galith; Theze, Benoit; Dubois, Albertine; Tavitian, Bertrand; Boisgard, Raphael; Maroy, Renaud; Brulon, Vincent; Fontyn, Yoann; Dolle, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS. Activated micro-glia/macrophages play a key role in the immuno-pathogenesis of MS and its corresponding animal models, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Micro-glia activation begins at early stages of the disease and is associated with elevated expression of the 18 kDa mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO). Thus, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of micro-glial activation using TSPO-specific radioligands could be valuable for monitoring disease-associated neuro-inflammatory processes. EAE was induced in rats using a fragment of myelin basic protein, yielding acute clinical disease that reflects extensive spinal cord inflammation. Enhanced TSPO expression in spinal cords of EAE rats versus those of controls was confirmed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Biodistribution studies in control and EAE rats were performed using the TSPO radioligand [ 18 F]DPA-714 [N,N-diethyl-2-(2-(4-(2-fluoroethoxy)phenyl)-5,7-dimethylpyrazolo[1,5- a]pyrimidin-3-yl)acetamide]. At 1 h after injection, almost fivefold higher levels of [ 18 F]DPA-714 were measured in spinal cords of EAE rats versus controls. The specific binding of [ 18 F]DPA-714 to TSPO in spinal cords was confirmed in competition studies, using unlabeled (R,S)-PK11195 [(R,S)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-1-(2-chlorophenyl) - isoquinoline-3-carboxamide)] or DPA-714 in excess. MicroPET studies affirm that this differential radioactivity uptake in spinal cords of EAE versus control rats could be detected and quantified. Using [ 18 F]DPA-714, neuro-inflammation in spinal cords of EAE-induced rats could be visualized by PET, offering a sensitive technique for monitoring neuro-inflammatory lesions in the CNS and particularly in the spinal cord. In addition to current MRI protocols, this approach could provide molecular images of neuro-inflammation for detection, monitoring, and research in MS. (authors)

  6. Membrane-bound Dickkopf-1 in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells suppresses T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Wook-Jin; Park, Jong-Hyun; Henegariu, Octavian; Yilmaz, Saliha; Hao, Liming; Bothwell, Alfred L M

    2017-10-01

    Induction of tolerance is a key mechanism to maintain or to restore immunological homeostasis. Here we show that Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells use Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) to regulate T-cell-mediated tolerance in the T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis model. Treg cells from DKK-1 hypomorphic doubleridge mice failed to control CD4 + T-cell proliferation, resulting in CD4 T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis. Thymus-derived Treg cells showed a robust expression of DKK-1 but not in naive or effector CD4 T cells. DKK-1 expression in Foxp3 + Treg cells was further increased upon T-cell receptor stimulation in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, Foxp3 + Treg cells expressed DKK-1 in the cell membrane and the functional inhibition of DKK-1 using DKK-1 monoclonal antibody abrogated the suppressor function of Foxp3 + Treg cells. DKK-1 expression was dependent on de novo protein synthesis and regulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway but not by the canonical Wnt pathway. Taken together, our results highlight membrane-bound DKK-1 as a novel Treg-derived mediator to maintain immunological tolerance in T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis. © 2017 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Laquinimod interferes with migratory capacity of T cells and reduces IL-17 levels, inflammatory demyelination and acute axonal damage in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Christiane; Stadelmann, Christine; Pförtner, Ramona; Raymond, Emanuel; Feigelson, Sara; Alon, Ronen; Timan, Bracha; Hayardeny, Liat; Brück, Wolfgang

    2010-10-08

    We investigated the effect of laquinimod on inflammatory demyelination, axonal damage, cytokine profiles and migratory capacities of lymphocytes in C57BL/6 mice with active EAE induced with MOG(35-55) peptide. The mice were treated at disease induction and after disease onset. Spinal cords were assessed histologically. Cytokines and adhesive properties were analyzed in splenocytes. Preventive and therapeutic laquinimod treatment reduced clinical signs, inflammation, and demyelination. VLA-4-mediated adhesiveness and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-17 were down-regulated in treated animals. Within lesions, treated mice showed similar axonal densities, but less acute axonal damage than controls. Laquinimod might thus protect myelin and axons by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines and impairing the migratory capacity of lymphocytes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. End-point effector stress mediators in neuroimmune interactions: their role in immune system homeostasis and autoimmune pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Mirjana; Stanojevic, Stanislava; Kustrimovic, Natasa; Leposavic, Gordana

    2012-04-01

    Much evidence has identified a direct anatomical and functional link between the brain and the immune system, with glucocorticoids (GCs), catecholamines (CAs), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) as its end-point mediators. This suggests the important role of these mediators in immune system homeostasis and the pathogenesis of inflammatory autoimmune diseases. However, although it is clear that these mediators can modulate lymphocyte maturation and the activity of distinct immune cell types, their putative role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease is not yet completely understood. We have contributed to this field by discovering the influence of CAs and GCs on fine-tuning thymocyte negative selection and, in particular, by pointing to the putative CA-mediated mechanisms underlying this influence. Furthermore, we have shown that CAs are implicated in the regulation of regulatory T-cell development in the thymus. Moreover, our investigations related to macrophage biology emphasize the complex interaction between GCs, CAs and NPY in the modulation of macrophage functions and their putative significance for the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammatory diseases.

  9. Ameliorating Role Exerted by Al-Hijamah in Autoimmune Diseases: Effect on Serum Autoantibodies and Inflammatory Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, Hussam; Abdel-Aziz, Nada; Ahmed, Nagwa Sayed; Mahmoud, Hany Salah; Barghash, Ayman; Nasrat, Abdullah; Nabo, Manal Mohamed Helmy; El Sayed, Salah Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have common properties characterized by abnormal blood chemistry with high serum autoimmune antibodies, and inflammatory mediators. Those causative pathological substances (CPS) cannot be excreted by physiological mechanisms. Current treatments for autoimmune diseases involve steroids, cytotoxic drugs, plasmapheresis and monoclonal antibodies. Wet cupping therapy (WCT) of prophetic medicine is called Al-hijamah that treats numerous diseases having different etiology and pathogenesis via a pressure-dependent and size-dependent non-specific filtration then excretion of CPS causing clearance of blood and interstitial fluids. Al-hijamah clears blood passing through the fenestrated skin capillaries. Medical bases of Al-hijamah were reported in the evidence-based Taibah mechanism (Taibah theory). Al-hijamah was reported to be an excellent treatment for rheumatoid arthritis that improved patients’ blood chemistry and induced significant clinical improvement and pharmacological potentiation. Al-hijamah improved the natural immunity and suppressed the pathological immunity through decreasing the serum level of autoantibodies, inflammatory mediators, and serum ferritin (a key player in autoimmunity). Al-hijamah reduced significantly pain severity, number of swollen joints and disease activity with no significant side effects. Main steps of Al-hijamah are skin suction (cupping), scarification (sharatmihjam in Arabic) and second suction (triple S technique) that is better therapeutically than the traditional WCT (double S technique). Whenever an excess noxious substance is to be removed from patients’ blood and interstitial fluids, Al-hijamah is indicated. Shartatmihjam is a curative treatment in prophetic teachings according to the prophetic hadeeth: “Cure is in three: in shartatmihjam, oral honey and cauterization. I do not recommend my nation to cauterize”. Al-hijamah may have better therapeutic benefits than plasmapheresis. Al-hijamah may be

  10. Green tea EGCG, T cells, and T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the proposed health benefits of consuming green tea is its protective effect on autoimmune diseases. Research on the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases has made significant progression in the past few years and several key concepts have been revised. T cells, particularly CD4+ T helper...

  11. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in antigen-presenting cells controls Th17-mediated autoimmune arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluml, S.; Sahin, E.; Saferding, V.; Goncalves-Alves, E.; Hainzl, E.; Niederreiter, B.; Hladik, A.; Lohmeyer, T.; Brunner, J.S.; Bonelli, M.; Koenders, M.I.; Berg, W.B. van den; Superti-Furga, G.; Smolen, J.S.; Schabbauer, G.; Redlich, K.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Autoreactive T cells are a central element in many systemic autoimmune diseases. The generation of these pathogenic T cells is instructed by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). However, signaling pathways in APCs that drive autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, are not

  12. Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M.R.; Irani, S.R.; Leite, M.I.; Nithi, K.; Vincent, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The syndrome of progressive encephalopathy with limb rigidity has been historically termed progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM) or stiff-person syndrome plus. Methods: The case is presented of a previously healthy 28-year-old man with a rapidly fatal form of PERM developing over 2 months. Results: Serum antibodies to both NMDA receptors (NMDAR) and glycine receptors (GlyR) were detected postmortem, and examination of the brain confirmed an autoimmune encephalomyelitis, with particular involvement of hippocampal pyramidal and cerebellar Purkinje cells and relative sparing of the neocortex. No evidence for an underlying systemic neoplasm was found. Conclusion: This case displayed not only the clinical features of PERM, previously associated with GlyR antibodies, but also some of the features associated with NMDAR antibodies. This unusual combination of antibodies may be responsible for the particularly progressive course and sudden death. PMID:21775733

  13. Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE-Induced Elevated Expression of the E1 Isoform of Methyl CpG Binding Protein 2 (MeCP2E1: Implications in Multiple Sclerosis (MS-Induced Neurological Disability and Associated Myelin Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Khorshid Ahmad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic neurological disease characterized by the destruction of central nervous system (CNS myelin. At present, there is no cure for MS due to the inability to repair damaged myelin. Although the neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has a beneficial role in myelin repair, these effects may be hampered by the over-expression of a transcriptional repressor isoform of methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2 called MeCP2E1. We hypothesize that following experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE-induced myelin damage, the immune system induction of the pathogenic MeCP2E1 isoform hampers the myelin repair process by repressing BDNF expression. Using an EAE model of MS, we identify the temporal gene and protein expression changes of MeCP2E1, MeCP2E2 and BDNF. The expression changes of these key biological targets were then correlated with the temporal changes in neurological disability scores (NDS over the entire disease course. Our results indicate that MeCP2E1 mRNA levels are elevated in EAE animals relative to naïve control (NC and active control (AC animals during all time points of disease progression. Our results suggest that the EAE-induced elevations in MeCP2E1 expression contribute to the repressed BDNF production in the spinal cord (SC. The sub-optimal levels of BDNF result in sustained NDS and associated myelin damage throughout the entire disease course. Conversely, we observed no significant differences in the expression patterns displayed for the MeCP2E2 isoform amongst our experimental groups. However, our results demonstrate that baseline protein expression ratios between the MeCP2E1 versus MeCP2E2 isoforms in the SC are higher than those identified within the dorsal root ganglia (DRG. Thus, the DRG represents a more conducive environment than that of the SC for BDNF production and transport to the CNS to assist in myelin repair. Henceforth, the sub-optimal BDNF levels we report in the SC

  14. Adiponectin Suppresses T Helper 17 Cell Differentiation and Limits Autoimmune CNS Inflammation via the SIRT1/PPARγ/RORγt Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Guo, Yawei; Ge, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Zhihui; Da, Yurong; Li, Wen; Zhang, Zimu; Xue, Zhenyi; Li, Yan; Ren, Yinghui; Jia, Long; Chan, Koon-Ho; Yang, Fengrui; Yan, Jun; Yao, Zhi; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Rongxin

    2017-09-01

    T helper 17 (Th17) cells are vital components of the adaptive immune system involved in the pathogenesis of most autoimmune and inflammatory syndromes, and adiponectin(ADN) is correlated with inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and type II diabetes. However, the regulatory effects of adiponectin on pathogenic Th17 cell and Th17-mediated autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) inflammation are not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that ADN could inhibit Th1 and Th17 but not Th2 cells differentiation in vitro. In the in vivo study, we demonstrated that ADN deficiency promoted CNS inflammation and demyelination and exacerbated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of human MS. Furthermore, ADN deficiency increased the Th1 and Th17 cell cytokines of both the peripheral immune system and CNS in mice suffering from EAE. It is worth mentioning that ADN deficiency predominantly promoted the antigen-specific Th17 cells response in autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In addition, in vitro and in vivo, ADN upregulated sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and inhibited retinoid-related orphan receptor-γt (RORγt); the key transcription factor during Th17 cell differentiation. These results systematically uncovered the role and mechanism of adiponectin on pathogenic Th17 cells and suggested that adiponectin could inhibit Th17 cell-mediated autoimmune CNS inflammation.

  15. Immunomodulatory effects of dietary non-digestible oligosaccharides in T cell-mediated autoimmune arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogier, R.; Ederveen, T.; Hartog, A.; Walgreen, B.; Van Den Bersselaar, L.; Helsen, M.; Vos, P.; Garssen, J.; Willemsen, L.; Van Den Berg, W.; Koenders, M.; Abdollahi-Roodsaz, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates the relevance of intestinal microbiota in shaping the immune response and supports its contribution to the development of autoimmune diseases. Prebiotic non-digestible oligosaccharides are known to selectively support growth of commensal Bifidobacteria and

  16. Toxicogenomic analysis reveals profibrogenic effects of trichloroethylene in autoimmune-mediated cholangitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Anna K; Sullivan, Bradley P; Kassel, Karen M; Joshi, Nikita; Luyendyk, James P

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to environmental chemicals increases the risk of developing autoimmune liver disease. However, the identity of specific chemical perpetrators and the mechanisms whereby environmental chemicals modify liver disease is unclear. Previous studies link exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) with the development of autoimmune liver disease and exacerbation of autoimmunity in lupus-prone MRL mice. In this study, we utilized NOD.c3c4 mice, which spontaneously develop autoimmune cholangitis bearing resemblance to some features of primary biliary cirrhosis. Nine-week-old female NOD.c3c4 mice were given TCE (0.5 mg/ml) or its vehicle (1% Cremophor-EL) in drinking water for 4 weeks. TCE had little effect on clinical chemistry, biliary cyst formation, or hepatic CD3+ T-cell accumulation. Hepatic microarray profiling revealed a dramatic suppression of early growth response 1 (EGR1) mRNA in livers of TCE-treated mice, which was verified by qPCR and immunohistochemical staining. Consistent with a reported link between reduced EGR1 expression and liver fibrosis, TCE increased hepatic type I collagen (COL1A1) mRNA and protein levels in livers of NOD.c3c4 mice. In contrast, TCE did not increase COL1A1 expression in NOD.ShiLtJ mice, which do not develop autoimmune cholangitis. These results suggest that in the context of concurrent autoimmune liver disease with a genetic basis, modification of hepatic gene expression by TCE may increase profibrogenic signaling in the liver. Moreover, these studies suggest that NOD.c3c4 mice may be a novel model to study gene-environment interactions critical for the development of autoimmune liver disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Multiple, sclerosis: clinical feature, pathogenesis and current therapeutical approaches; Encephalomyelitis disseminata: Klinik, Pathogenese und aktuelle Therapiekonzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkelbach, S.; Koelmel, C.; Schimrigk, K. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Neurologische Klinik

    2000-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered as a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease. Caused by central nervous system demyelination and axonal damage varying clinical signs do occur either with relapsing-remitting or with chronic progressive course. Based on pathogenetic considerations immunomodulative and immunosuppressive therapeutical approaches are used to limit the disease progression. Clinical symptoms, diagnostic criteria, pathogenetical considerations, and consecutive therapeutical interventions are summarized. (orig.) [German] Die Encephalomyelitis disseminata oder Multiple Sklerose (ED oder MS) gilt als T-Zell-vermittelte Autoimmunerkrankung. Schubfoermig oder chronisch progredient kommt es im Zentralnervensystem infolge einer Demyelinisierung der weissen Substanz und axonaler Schaedigungen zu einer Vielzahl neurologischer Symptome. Basierend auf pathogenetischen Erkenntnissen werden derzeit immunmodulative und immunsuppressive Therapien eingesetzt, die den Krankheitsverlauf zumindest bremsen. Klinische Symptome, diagnostische Kriterien, pathogenetische Ueberlegungen und sich daraus ableitende Therapiekonzepte werden zusammenfassend dargestellt. (orig.)

  18. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis commonly have other autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease, an autoimmune disease in ... 2 can also have any of the above autoimmune disorders. What are the symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis? The ...

  19. Genetically Engineered Human Islets Protected From CD8-mediated Autoimmune Destruction In Vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaldumbide, Arnaud; Alkemade, Gonnie; Carlotti, Francoise; Nikolic, Tatjana; Abreu, Joana R. F.; Engelse, Marten A.; Skowera, Anja; de Koning, Eelco J.; Peakman, Mark; Roep, Bart O.; Hoeben, Rob C.; Wiertz, Emmanuel J. H. J.

    Islet transplantation is a promising therapy for type 1 diabetes, but graft function and survival are compromised by recurrent islet autoimmunity. Immunoprotection of islets will be required to improve clinical outcome. We engineered human beta cells to express herpesvirus-encoded immune-evasion

  20. Estrogen-mediated downregulation of AIRE influences sexual dimorphism in autoimmune diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragin, Nadine; Bismuth, Jacky; Cizeron-Clairac, Géraldine; Biferi, Maria Grazia; Berthault, Claire; Serraf, Alain; Nottin, Rémi; Klatzmann, David; Cumano, Ana; Barkats, Martine; Le Panse, Rozen

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases affect 5% to 8% of the population, and females are more susceptible to these diseases than males. Here, we analyzed human thymic transcriptome and revealed sex-associated differences in the expression of tissue-specific antigens that are controlled by the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), a key factor in central tolerance. We hypothesized that the level of AIRE is linked to sexual dimorphism susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. In human and mouse thymus, females expressed less AIRE (mRNA and protein) than males after puberty. These results were confirmed in purified murine thymic epithelial cells (TECs). We also demonstrated that AIRE expression is related to sexual hormones, as male castration decreased AIRE thymic expression and estrogen receptor α–deficient mice did not show a sex disparity for AIRE expression. Moreover, estrogen treatment resulted in downregulation of AIRE expression in cultured human TECs, human thymic tissue grafted to immunodeficient mice, and murine fetal thymus organ cultures. AIRE levels in human thymus grafted in immunodeficient mice depended upon the sex of the recipient. Estrogen also upregulated the number of methylated CpG sites in the AIRE promoter. Together, our results indicate that in females, estrogen induces epigenetic changes in the AIRE gene, leading to reduced AIRE expression under a threshold that increases female susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. PMID:26999605

  1. T cells targeting a neuronal paraneoplastic antigen mediate tumor rejection and trigger CNS autoimmunity with humoral activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachère, Nathalie E; Orange, Dana E; Santomasso, Bianca D; Doerner, Jessica; Foo, Patricia K; Herre, Margaret; Fak, John; Monette, Sébastien; Gantman, Emily C; Frank, Mayu O; Darnell, Robert B

    2014-11-01

    Paraneoplastic neurologic diseases (PND) involving immune responses directed toward intracellular antigens are poorly understood. Here, we examine immunity to the PND antigen Nova2, which is expressed exclusively in central nervous system (CNS) neurons. We hypothesized that ectopic expression of neuronal antigen in the periphery could incite PND. In our C57BL/6 mouse model, CNS antigen expression limits antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell expansion. Chimera experiments demonstrate that this tolerance is mediated by antigen expression in nonhematopoietic cells. CNS antigen expression does not limit tumor rejection by adoptively transferred transgenic T cells but does limit the generation of a memory population that can be expanded upon secondary challenge in vivo. Despite mediating cancer rejection, adoptively transferred transgenic T cells do not lead to paraneoplastic neuronal targeting. Preliminary experiments suggest an additional requirement for humoral activation to induce CNS autoimmunity. This work provides evidence that the requirements for cancer immunity and neuronal autoimmunity are uncoupled. Since humoral immunity was not required for tumor rejection, B-cell targeting therapy, such as rituximab, may be a rational treatment option for PND that does not hamper tumor immunity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Induction of a protein-targeted catalytic response in autoimmune prone mice: antibody-mediated cleavage of HIV-1 glycoprotein GP120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, Natalia A; Vorobiev, Ivan I; Alexandrova, Elena S; Reshetnyak, Andrew V; Telegin, Georgy B; Khaidukov, Sergey V; Avalle, Bérangère; Karavanov, Alexander; Morse, Herbert C; Thomas, Daniel; Friboulet, Alain; Gabibov, Alexander G

    2006-01-10

    We have induced a polyclonal IgG that degrades the HIV-1 surface antigen, glycoprotein gp120, by taking advantage of the susceptibility of SJL mice to a peptide-induced autoimmune disorder, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Specific pathogen-free SJL mice were immunized with structural fragments of gp120, fused in-frame with encephalitogenic peptide MBP(85-101). It has resulted in a pronounced disease-associated immune response against antigens. A dramatic increase of gp120 degradation level by purified polyclonal IgG from immunized versus nonimmunized mice has been demonstrated by a newly developed fluorescence-based assay. This activity was inhibited by anti-mouse immunoglobulin antibodies as well as by Ser- and His-reactive covalent inhibitors. A dominant proteolysis site in recombinant gp120 incubated with purified polyclonal IgG from immunized mice was shown by SDS-PAGE. The SELDI-based mass spectrometry revealed that these antibodies exhibited significant specificity toward the Pro484-Leu485 peptide bond. The sequence surrounding this site is present in nearly half of the HIV-I variants. This novel strategy can be generalized for creating a catalytic vaccine against viral pathogens.

  3. Spasticity in multiple sclerosis: Contribution of inflammation, autoimmune mediated neuronal damage and therapeutic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patejdl, Robert; Zettl, Uwe K

    2017-09-01

    In contrast to other diseases that go along with spasticity (e.g. spinal cord injury), spasticity in chronic autoimmune diseases involving the CNS is complicated by the ongoing damage of neuronal networks that leads to permanent changes in the clinical picture of spasticity. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most frequent autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and spasticity is one of the most disabling symptoms. It occurs in more than 80% MS patients at some point of the disease and is associated with impaired ambulation, pain and the development of contractures. Besides causing cumulative structural damage, neuroinflammation occurring in MS leads to dynamic changes in motor circuit function and muscle tone that are caused by cytokines, prostaglandins, reactive oxygen species and stress hormones that affect neuronal circuits and thereby spasticity. The situation is complicated further by the fact that therapeutics used for the immunotherapy of MS may worsen spasticity and drugs used for the symptomatic treatment of spasticity have been shown to have the potential to alter immune cell function and CNS autoimmunity itself. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the immunologic pathways that are involved in the development, maintenance, dynamic changes and pharmacological modulation of spasticity in MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanism of action and efficacy of RX-111, a thieno[2,3-c]pyridine derivative and small molecule inhibitor of protein interaction with glycosaminoglycans (SMIGs), in delayed-type hypersensitivity, TNBS-induced colitis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harris, N.; Koppel, J.; Zsila, F.; Juhás, Štefan; Ilková, G.; Kogan, F. Y.; Lahmy, O.; Wildbaum, G.; Karin, N.; Zhuk, R.; Gregor, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 4 (2016), s. 285-294 ISSN 1023-3830 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : small molecule drug * glycosaminoglycan * heparin binding protein * heparan sulfate * inflammation * autoimmune disease Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.659, year: 2016

  5. Functional Role of Milk Fat Globule-Epidermal Growth Factor VIII in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses and Inflammatory/Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Su Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation involves a series of complex biological processes mediated by innate immunity for host defense against pathogen infection. Chronic inflammation is considered to be one of the major causes of serious diseases, including a number of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases, cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological diseases. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8 is a secreted protein found in vertebrates and was initially discovered as a critical component of the milk fat globule. Previously, a number of studies have reported that MFG-E8 contributes to various biological functions including the phagocytic removal of damaged and apoptotic cells from tissues, the induction of VEGF-mediated neovascularization, the maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis, and the promotion of mucosal healing. Recently, emerging studies have reported that MFG-E8 plays a role in inflammatory responses and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. This review describes the characteristics of MFG-E8-mediated signaling pathways, summarizes recent findings supporting the roles of MFG-E8 in inflammatory responses and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases, and discusses MFG-E8 targeting as a potential therapeutic strategy for the development of anti-inflammatory/autoimmune disease drugs.

  6. p85α recruitment by the CD300f phosphatidylserine receptor mediates apoptotic cell clearance required for autoimmunity suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Linjie; Choi, Seung-Chul; Murakami, Yousuke; Allen, Joselyn; Morse, Herbert C., III; Qi, Chen-Feng; Krzewski, Konrad; Coligan, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic cell (AC) clearance is essential for immune homeostasis. Here we show that mouse CD300f (CLM-1) recognizes outer membrane-exposed phosphatidylserine, and regulates the phagocytosis of ACs. CD300f accumulates in phagocytic cups at AC contact sites. Phosphorylation within CD300f cytoplasmic tail tyrosine-based motifs initiates signals that positively or negatively regulate AC phagocytosis. Y276 phosphorylation is necessary for enhanced CD300f-mediated phagocytosis through the recruitment of the p85α regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). CD300f-PI3K association leads to activation of downstream Rac/Cdc42 GTPase and mediates changes of F-actin that drive AC engulfment. Importantly, primary macrophages from CD300f-deficient mice have impaired phagocytosis of ACs. The biological consequence of CD300f deficiency is predisposition to autoimmune disease development, as FcγRIIB-deficient mice develop a systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease at a markedly accelerated rate if CD300f is absent. In this report we identify the mechanism and role of CD300f in AC phagocytosis and maintenance of immune homeostasis.

  7. The interleukin-15 system suppresses T cell-mediated autoimmunity by regulating negative selection and nT(H)17 cell homeostasis in the thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Mau-Sheng; Huang, Shih-Ting; Tsai, Ming-Han; Yen, Ching-Cheng; Lai, Yein-Gei; Liou, Yae-Huei; Lin, Chih-Kung; Liao, Nan-Shih

    2015-01-01

    The interleukin-15 (IL-15) system is important for regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses, however, its role in autoimmune disease remained unclear. Here we found that Il15(-/-) and Il15ra(-/-) mice spontaneously developed late-onset autoimmune phenotypes. CD4(+) T cells of the knockout mice showed elevated autoreactivity as demonstrated by the induction of lymphocyte infiltration in the lacrimal and salivary glands when transferred into nude mice. The antigen-presenting cells in the thymic medullary regions expressed IL-15 and IL-15Rα, whose deficiency resulted in insufficient negative selection and elevated number of natural IL-17A-producing CD4(+) thymocytes. These findings reveal previously unknown functions of the IL-15 system in thymocyte development, and thus a new layer of regulation in T cell-mediated autoimmunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Autoimmune gastritis mediated by CD4+ T cells promotes the development of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Long M; Khurana, Shradha S; Bellone, Clifford J; Capoccia, Benjamin J; Sagartz, John E; Kesman, Russell A; Mills, Jason C; DiPaolo, Richard J

    2013-04-01

    Chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for cancer, including gastric cancers and other gastrointestinal cancers. For example, chronic inflammation caused by autoimmune gastritis (AIG) is associated with an increased risk of gastric polyps, gastric carcinoid tumors, and possibly adenocarcinomas. In this study, we characterized the progression of gastric cancer in a novel mouse model of AIG. In this model, disease was caused by CD4(+) T cells expressing a transgenic T-cell receptor specific for a peptide from the H(+)/K(+) ATPase proton pump, a protein expressed by parietal cells in the stomach. AIG caused epithelial cell aberrations that mimicked most of those seen in progression of human gastric cancers, including chronic gastritis followed by oxyntic atrophy, mucous neck cell hyperplasia, spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia, dysplasia, and ultimately gastric intraepithelial neoplasias. Our work provides the first direct evidence that AIG supports the development of gastric neoplasia and provides a useful model to study how inflammation drives gastric cancer. ©2013 AACR.

  9. Rabies, encephalomyelitis: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peloso, Raul; Gonzalez, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    The authors present a 14 year old patient who started with walking and swallowing difficulty; followed by fever, abdominal and lower back pain. Mechanical breathing difficulties required a respiratory mechanic assistance. The diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome was thought at first. Since the patient have had previous contact with a bat two months before the symptoms began, this suggested rabies as the main diagnosis, which was later confirmed by hair-bulb, cornea, oral mucosa and salival immunofluorescence. The brain and spinal cord MRI showed focal lesions in T2 and FLAIR sequences, compatible with encephalomyelitis. (author)

  10. Galectin-3 in autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Felipe L; Gatto, Mariele; Bassi, Nicola; Luisetto, Roberto; Ghirardello, Anna; Punzi, Leonardo; Doria, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Galectin-3 (gal-3) is a β-galactoside-binding lectin, which regulates cell-cell and extracellular interactions during self/non-self-antigen recognition and cellular activation, proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. It plays a significant role in cellular and tissue pathophysiology by organizing niches that drive inflammation and immune responses. Gal-3 has some therapeutic potential in several diseases, including chronic inflammatory disorders, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Gal-3 exerts a broad spectrum of functions which differs according to its intra- or extracellular localization. Recombinant gal-3 strategy has been used to identify potential mode of action of gal-3; however, exogenous gal-3 may not reproduce the functions of the endogenous gal-3. Notably, gal-3 induces monocyte-macrophage differentiation, interferes with dendritic cell fate decision, regulates apoptosis on T lymphocytes and inhibits B-lymphocyte differentiation into immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells. Considering the influence of these cell populations in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, gal-3 seems to play a role in development of autoimmunity. Gal-3 has been suggested as a potential therapeutic agent in patients affected with some autoimmune disorders. However, the precise role of gal-3 in driving the inflammatory process in autoimmune or immune-mediated disorders remains elusive. Here, we reviewed the involvement of gal-3 in cellular and tissue events during autoimmune and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  11. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; Akute disseminierte Enzephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Politi, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Grunwald, I.Q.; Roth, C.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an acute widespread autoimmune demyelinating condition, which principally affects the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. It usually follows an infection or vaccination. The typical presentation is that of multifocal neurologic disturbances accompanied by change in mental status. CSF analysis reveals lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated protein content, but may also yield normal results. MRI is regarded as the diagnostic imaging modality of choice and typically demonstrates involvement of deep cerebral hemispheric and subcortical white matter as well as lesions in the basal ganglia, gray-white junction, diencephalon, brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord. Unlike multiple sclerosis (MS), ADEM has a monophasic course and a favorable long-term prognosis. (orig.) [German] Die akute disseminierte Enzephalomyelitis (ADEM) ist eine akut auftretende autoimmune demylinisierende Erkrankung der weissen Substanz, die hauptsaechlich Gehirn und Rueckenmark befaellt. Ueblicherweise tritt sie nach einer Infektion oder Impfung auf. Die Entwicklung einer fokalen oder multifokalen neurologischen Funktionsstoerung ist das Kennzeichen der klinischen Praesentation der ADEM. Lymphozytaere Pleozytose und Eiweisserhoehung sind typische Befunde in der Liquoruntersuchung. Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) ist die Untersuchungsmethode der Wahl. Die ADEM-Laesionen sind typischerweise gross, multipel und asymmetrisch. Sie koennen in den Gross- und Kleinhirnhemisphaeren, im Hirnstamm und im Rueckenmark lokalisiert sein. Die subkortikale und die zentrale weisse Substanz sind am haeufigsten befallen. Weniger haeufig ist die graue Substanz der Thalami und der Basalganglien betroffen. Im Gegensatz zur Multiplen Sklerose (MS) ist die Prognose der ADEM im Allgemeinen guenstig. (orig.)

  12. L-selectin is not required for T cell-mediated autoimmune diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedline, Randall H; Wong, Carmen P; Steeber, Douglas A; Tedder, Thomas F; Tisch, Roland

    2002-03-15

    Administration of anti-L-selectin (CD62L) mAb to neonatal nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice mediates long term protection against the development of insulitis and overt diabetes. These results suggested that CD62L has a key role in the general function of beta cell-specific T cells. To further examine the role of CD62L in the development of type 1 diabetes, NOD mice lacking CD62L were established. The onset and frequency of overt diabetes were equivalent among CD62L(+/+), CD62L(+/-), and CD62L(-/-) NOD littermates. Furthermore, patterns of T cell activation, migration, and beta cell-specific reactivity were similar in NOD mice of all three genotypes. Adoptive transfer experiments with CD62L(-/-) CD4(+) T cells prepared from BDC2.5 TCR transgenic mice revealed no apparent defects in migration to pancreatic lymph nodes, proliferation in response to beta cell Ag, or induction of diabetes in NOD.scid recipients. In conclusion, CD62L expression is not essential for the development of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice.

  13. Immune complex-mediated autoimmunity in a patient With Smith-Magenis syndrome (del 17p11.2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianying; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C; Vilboux, Thierry; Smith, Ann C M; Peterson, Erik J

    2014-08-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a sporadic congenital disorder involving multiple organ systems caused by chromosome 17p11.2 deletions. Smith-Magenis syndrome features craniofacial and skeletal anomalies, cognitive impairment, and neurobehavioral abnormalities. In addition, some SMS patients may exhibit hypogammaglobulinemia. We report the first case of SMS-associated autoimmunity in a woman who presented with adult onset of multiple autoimmune disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, and autoimmune hepatitis. Molecular analysis using single-nucleotide polymorphism array confirmed a de novo 3.8-Mb deletion (breakpoints, chr17: 16,660,721-20,417,975), resulting in haploinsufficiency for TACI (transmembrane activator and CAML interactor). Our data are consistent with potential loss of function for the BAFF (B cell-activating factor) receptor TACI as a contributing factor to human autoimmune phenomena.

  14. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Note: Javascript is disabled or ... is no cure or approved treatment for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). However, some symptoms ...

  15. A selective and potent CXCR3 antagonist SCH 546738 attenuates the development of autoimmune diseases and delays graft rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenh Chung-Her

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CXCR3 receptor and its three interferon-inducible ligands (CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 have been implicated as playing a central role in directing a Th1 inflammatory response. Recent studies strongly support that the CXCR3 receptor is a very attractive therapeutic target for treating autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and psoriasis, and to prevent transplant rejection. We describe here the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological characterizations of a novel and potent small molecule CXCR3 antagonist, SCH 546738. Results In this study, we evaluated in vitro pharmacological properties of SCH 546738 by radioligand receptor binding and human activated T cell chemotaxis assays. In vivo efficacy of SCH 546738 was determined by mouse collagen-induced arthritis, rat and mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and rat cardiac transplantation models. We show that SCH 546738 binds to human CXCR3 with a high affinity of 0.4 nM. In addition, SCH 546738 displaces radiolabeled CXCL10 and CXCL11 from human CXCR3 with IC50 ranging from 0.8 to 2.2 nM in a non-competitive manner. SCH 546738 potently and specifically inhibits CXCR3-mediated chemotaxis in human activated T cells with IC90 about 10 nM. SCH 546738 attenuates the disease development in mouse collagen-induced arthritis model. SCH 546738 also significantly reduces disease severity in rat and mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis models. Furthermore, SCH 546738 alone achieves dose-dependent prolongation of rat cardiac allograft survival. Most significantly, SCH 546738 in combination with CsA supports permanent engraftment. Conclusions SCH 546738 is a novel, potent and non-competitive small molecule CXCR3 antagonist. It is efficacious in multiple preclinical disease models. These results demonstrate that therapy with CXCR3 antagonists may serve as a new strategy for treatment of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and

  16. CD39 mediated regulation of Th17-cell effector function is impaired in juvenile autoimmune liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Liberal, Rodrigo; Grant, Charlotte R.; Ma, Yun; Csizmadia, Eva; Jiang, Zhenghui Gordon; Heneghan, Michael A.; Yee, Eric U.; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego; Robson, Simon C.; Longhi, Maria Serena

    2016-01-01

    Background & aims: T-helper-type 17 (Th17) cells are involved in autoimmune tissue damage. CD39 is an ectonucleotidase that catalyzes extracellular ATP/ADP hydrolysis, culminating in the generation of immunosuppressive adenosine. Functional CD39 expression confers immunosuppressive properties upon immune cells. As the proportion of CD39 lymphocytes is decreased in juvenile autoimmune liver disease (AILD), we have explored whether decreased CD39 expression is present on Th17 cells and whet...

  17. Evidence for inflammation and activation of cell-mediated immunity in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS): increased interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, PMN-elastase, lysozyme and neopterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Michael; Twisk, Frank N M; Kubera, Marta; Ringel, Karl

    2012-02-01

    There is evidence that inflammatory pathways and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) play an important role in the pathophysiology of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS). Activation of inflammatory and CMI pathways, including increased levels of cytokines, is known to induce fatigue and somatic symptoms. Given the broad spectrum inflammatory state in ME/CFS, the aim of this study was to examine whether inflammatory and CMI biomarkers are increased in individuals with ME/CFS. In this study we therefore measured plasma interleukin-(IL)1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, and PMN-elastase, and serum neopterin and lysozyme in 107 patients with ME/CFS, 37 patients with chronic fatigue (CF), and 20 normal controls. The severity of ME/CFS was measured with the Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (FF) Rating Scale. Serum IL-1, TNFα, neopterin and lysozyme are significantly higher in patients with ME/CFS than in controls and CF patients. Plasma PMN-elastase is significantly higher in patients with ME/CFS than in controls and CF patients and higher in the latter than in controls. Increased IL-1 and TNFα are significantly correlated with fatigue, sadness, autonomic symptoms, and a flu-like malaise; neopterin is correlated with fatigue, autonomic symptoms, and a flu-like malaise; and increased PMN-elastase is correlated with concentration difficulties, failing memory and a subjective experience of infection. The findings show that ME/CFS is characterized by low-grade inflammation and activation of CMI. The results suggest that characteristic symptoms of ME/CFS, such as fatigue, autonomic symptoms and a flu-like malaise, may be caused by inflammatory mediators, e.g. IL-1 and TNFα. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. T helper type 1 and 17 cells determine efficacy of interferon-beta in multiple sclerosis and experimental encephalomyelitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Axtell, R.C.; Jong, B.A. de; Boniface, K.; Voort, L.F. van der; Bhat, R.; Sarno, P. De; Naves, R.; Han, M.; Zhong, F.; Castellanos, J.G.; Mair, R.; Christakos, A.; Kolkowitz, I.; Katz, L.; Killestein, J.; Polman, C.H.; Waal Malefyt, R. de; Steinman, L.; Raman, C.

    2010-01-01

    Interferon-beta (IFN-beta) is the major treatment for multiple sclerosis. However, this treatment is not always effective. Here we have found congruence in outcome between responses to IFN-beta in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).

  19. Autoimmune disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000816.htm Autoimmune disorders To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An autoimmune disorder occurs when the body's immune system attacks and ...

  20. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in dengue viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Sulaiman, Wan Aliaa; Inche Mat, Liyana Najwa; Hashim, Hasnur Zaman; Hoo, Fan Kee; Ching, Siew Mooi; Vasudevan, Ramachandran; Mohamed, Mohd Hazmi; Basri, Hamidon

    2017-09-01

    Dengue is the most common arboviral disease affecting many countries worldwide. An RNA virus from the flaviviridae family, dengue has four antigenically distinct serotypes (DEN-1-DEN-4). Neurological involvement in dengue can be classified into dengue encephalopathy immune-mediated syndromes, encephalitis, neuromuscular or dengue muscle dysfunction and neuro-ophthalmic involvement. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune mediated acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system following recent infection or vaccination. This monophasic illness is characterised by multifocal white matter involvement. Many dengue studies and case reports have linked ADEM with dengue virus infection but the association is still not clear. Therefore, this article is to review and discuss concerning ADEM in dengue as an immune-medicated neurological complication; and the management strategy required based on recent literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cerebellar white matter inflammation and demyelination in chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, B.; Sørensen, P. S.; Juhler, M.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, demyelination, inflammation, immunology, neuropathology......Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, demyelination, inflammation, immunology, neuropathology...

  2. B Cells in Autoimmune Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hampe, Christiane S.

    2012-01-01

    The role of B cells in autoimmune diseases involves different cellular functions, including the well-established secretion of autoantibodies, autoantigen presentation and ensuing reciprocal interactions with T cells, secretion of inflammatory cytokines, and the generation of ectopic germinal centers. Through these mechanisms B cells are involved both in autoimmune diseases that are traditionally viewed as antibody mediated and also in autoimmune diseases that are commonly classified as T cell...

  3. IgM-mediated autoimmune responses directed against multiple neoepitopes in depression: new pathways that underpin the inflammatory and neuroprogressive pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Michael; Mihaylova, Ivana; Kubera, Marta; Leunis, Jean-Claude; Geffard, Michel

    2011-12-01

    There is evidence that depression is accompanied by oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), as indicated by increased free radical levels, lipid peroxidation, and lowered antioxidant levels. The aims of the present study are to examine whether depression is accompanied by autoimmune responses directed against a) neoepitopes that are formed following O&NS damage; and b) the major anchorage molecules, i.e. palmitic and myristic acids and S-farnesyl-L-cysteine. We examined serum IgM antibodies to the conjugated fatty acids, palmitic and myristic acids; acetylcholine; S-farnesyl-L-cysteine; and NO-modified adducts in 26 depressed patients and 17 normal controls. Severity of depression was measured with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and severity of fatigue and somatic (F&S) symptoms with the Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (FF) Rating Scale. The prevalences and mean values for the serum IgM levels directed against conjugated palmitic and myristic acids, acetylcholine, S-farnesyl-L-cysteine; and the conjugated NO adducts, NO-tyrosine, NO-phenylalanine, NO-aspartate, NO-histidine, and NO-creatine were significantly higher in depressed patients than in normal controls. The autoimmune responses were significantly related to FF symptoms, such as fatigue and a flu-like malaise, whereas the indicants of nitrosative stress were related to gastro-intestinal and autonomic symptoms. Depression is characterized by IgM-related autoimmune responses directed against a) neoepitopes that are normally not detected by the immune system but that due to damage by O&NS have become immunogenic; and b) anchorage epitopes, i.e. palmitic and myristic acids, and S-farnesyl-L-cysteine. These autoimmune responses play a role in the inflammatory and O&NS pathophysiology of depression and may mediate the cellular dysfunctions that contribute to neuroprogression, e.g. aberrations in signal transduction, cellular differentiation and apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All

  4. First-in-class inhibitor of the T cell receptor for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto, Aldo; Reyes-Garau, Diana; Jiménez, M Angeles; Carrasco, Esther; Moreno, Beatriz; Martínez-Pasamar, Sara; Cortés, José R; Perona, Almudena; Abia, David; Blanco, Soledad; Fuentes, Manuel; Arellano, Irene; Lobo, Juan; Heidarieh, Haleh; Rueda, Javier; Esteve, Pilar; Cibrián, Danay; Martinez-Riaño, Ana; Mendoza, Pilar; Prieto, Cristina; Calleja, Enrique; Oeste, Clara L; Orfao, Alberto; Fresno, Manuel; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Alcamí, Antonio; Bovolenta, Paola; Martín, Pilar; Villoslada, Pablo; Morreale, Antonio; Messeguer, Angel; Alarcon, Balbino

    2016-12-21

    Modulating T cell activation is critical for treating autoimmune diseases but requires avoiding concomitant opportunistic infections. Antigen binding to the T cell receptor (TCR) triggers the recruitment of the cytosolic adaptor protein Nck to a proline-rich sequence in the cytoplasmic tail of the TCR's CD3ε subunit. Through virtual screening and using combinatorial chemistry, we have generated an orally available, low-molecular weight inhibitor of the TCR-Nck interaction that selectively inhibits TCR-triggered T cell activation with an IC 50 (median inhibitory concentration) ~1 nM. By modulating TCR signaling, the inhibitor prevented the development of psoriasis and asthma and, furthermore, exerted a long-lasting therapeutic effect in a model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis. However, it did not prevent the generation of a protective memory response against a mouse pathogen, suggesting that the compound might not exert its effects through immunosuppression. These results suggest that inhibiting an immediate TCR signal has promise for treating a broad spectrum of human T cell-mediated autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. The Innate Immune Receptor CD14 Mediates Lymphocyte Migration in EAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Halmer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis is the most common autoimmune disease of the central nervous system in young adults and histopathologically characterized by inflammation, demyelination and gliosis. It is considered as a CD4+ T cell-mediated disease, but also a disease-promoting role of the innate immune system has been proposed, based e.g. on the observation that innate immune receptors modulate disease severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Recent studies of our group provided first evidence for a key role of the innate immune LPS receptor (CD14 in pathophysiology of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. CD14-deficient experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice showed increased clinical symptoms and enhanced infiltration of monocytes and neutrophils in brain and spinal cord. Methods: In the current study, we further investigated the causes of the disease aggravation by CD14-deficiency and examined T cell activation, also focusing on the costimulatory molecules CTLA-4 and CD28, and T cell migration capacity over the blood brain barrier by FACS analysis, in vitro adhesion and transmigration assays. Results: In the results, we observed a significantly increased migration of CD14-deficient lymphocytes across an endothelial monolayer. In contrast, we did not see any differences in expression levels of TCR/CTLA-4 or TCR/CD28 and lymphocyte adhesion to endothelial cells from CD14-deficient compared to wildtype mice. Conclusion: The results demonstrate an important role of CD14 in migration of lymphocytes, and strengthen the importance of innate immune receptors in adaptive immune disorders, such as multiple sclerosis.

  6. Role of Complement in Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Berentsen, Sigbj?rn

    2015-01-01

    Summary The classification of autoimmune hemolytic anemias and the complement system are reviewed. In autoimmune hemolytic anemia of the warm antibody type, complement-mediated cell lysis is clinically relevant in a proportion of the patients but is hardly essential for hemolysis in most patients. Cold antibody-mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemias (primary cold agglutinin disease, secondary cold agglutinin syndrome and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria) are entirely complement-mediated disorder...

  7. [Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becheur, M; Bouslama, B; Slama, H; Toumi, N E H

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare condition in children which differs from the adult form. It is defined by immune-mediated destruction of red blood cells caused by autoantibodies. Characteristics of the autoantibodies are responsible for the various clinical entities. Classifications of autoimmune hemolytic anemia include warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia, cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria. For each classification, this review discusses the epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, laboratory evaluation, and treatment options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Protective Effects of Glutamine Antagonist 6-Diazo-5-Oxo-l-Norleucine in Mice with Alphavirus Encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Sivabalan; Baxter, Victoria K.; Schultz, Kimberly L. W.; Slusher, Barbara S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inflammation is a necessary part of the response to infection but can also cause neuronal injury in both infectious and autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). A neurovirulent strain of Sindbis virus (NSV) causes fatal paralysis in adult C57BL/6 mice during clearance of infectious virus from the CNS, and the virus-specific immune response is implicated as a mediator of neuronal damage. Previous studies have shown that survival is improved in T-cell-deficient mice and in mice with pharmacological inhibition of the inflammatory response and glutamate excitotoxicity. Because glutamine metabolism is important in the CNS for the generation of glutamate and in the immune system for lymphocyte proliferation, we tested the effect of the glutamine antagonist DON (6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine) on the outcome of NSV infection in mice. DON treatment for 7 days from the time of infection delayed the onset of paralysis and death. Protection was associated with reduced lymphocyte proliferation in the draining cervical lymph nodes, decreased leukocyte infiltration into the CNS, lower levels of inflammatory cytokines, and delayed viral clearance. In vitro studies showed that DON inhibited stimulus-induced proliferation of lymphocytes. When in vivo treatment with DON was stopped, paralytic disease developed along with the inflammatory response and viral clearance. These studies show that fatal NSV-induced encephalomyelitis is immune mediated and that antagonists of glutamine metabolism can modulate the immune response and protect against virus-induced neuroinflammatory disease. IMPORTANCE Encephalomyelitis due to infection with mosquito-borne alphaviruses is an important cause of death and of long-term neurological disability in those who survive infection. This study demonstrates the role of the virus-induced immune response in the generation of neurological disease. DON, a glutamine antagonist, inhibited the proliferation of lymphocytes in response to

  9. Protective Effects of Glutamine Antagonist 6-Diazo-5-Oxo-l-Norleucine in Mice with Alphavirus Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Sivabalan; Baxter, Victoria K; Schultz, Kimberly L W; Slusher, Barbara S; Griffin, Diane E

    2016-10-15

    Inflammation is a necessary part of the response to infection but can also cause neuronal injury in both infectious and autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). A neurovirulent strain of Sindbis virus (NSV) causes fatal paralysis in adult C57BL/6 mice during clearance of infectious virus from the CNS, and the virus-specific immune response is implicated as a mediator of neuronal damage. Previous studies have shown that survival is improved in T-cell-deficient mice and in mice with pharmacological inhibition of the inflammatory response and glutamate excitotoxicity. Because glutamine metabolism is important in the CNS for the generation of glutamate and in the immune system for lymphocyte proliferation, we tested the effect of the glutamine antagonist DON (6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine) on the outcome of NSV infection in mice. DON treatment for 7 days from the time of infection delayed the onset of paralysis and death. Protection was associated with reduced lymphocyte proliferation in the draining cervical lymph nodes, decreased leukocyte infiltration into the CNS, lower levels of inflammatory cytokines, and delayed viral clearance. In vitro studies showed that DON inhibited stimulus-induced proliferation of lymphocytes. When in vivo treatment with DON was stopped, paralytic disease developed along with the inflammatory response and viral clearance. These studies show that fatal NSV-induced encephalomyelitis is immune mediated and that antagonists of glutamine metabolism can modulate the immune response and protect against virus-induced neuroinflammatory disease. Encephalomyelitis due to infection with mosquito-borne alphaviruses is an important cause of death and of long-term neurological disability in those who survive infection. This study demonstrates the role of the virus-induced immune response in the generation of neurological disease. DON, a glutamine antagonist, inhibited the proliferation of lymphocytes in response to infection, prevented the

  10. Cinnamon ameliorates experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in mice via regulatory T cells: implications for multiple sclerosis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation and/or maintenance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) during an autoimmune insult may have therapeutic efficacy in autoimmune diseases. Although several immunomodulatory drugs and molecules are available, most present significant side effects over long-term use. Cinnamon is a commonly used natural spice and flavoring material used for centuries throughout the world. Here, we have explored a novel use of cinnamon powder in protecting Tregs and treating the disease process of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Oral feeding of cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum) powder suppresses clinical symptoms of relapsing-remitting EAE in female PLP-TCR transgenic mice and adoptive transfer mouse model. Cinnamon also inhibited clinical symptoms of chronic EAE in male C57/BL6 mice. Dose-dependent study shows that cinnamon powder at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt/d or higher significantly suppresses clinical symptoms of EAE in mice. Accordingly, oral administration of cinnamon also inhibited perivascular cuffing, maintained the integrity of blood-brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier, suppressed inflammation, normalized the expression of myelin genes, and blocked demyelination in the central nervous system of EAE mice. Interestingly, cinnamon treatment upregulated Tregs via reduction of nitric oxide production. Furthermore, we demonstrate that blocking of Tregs by neutralizing antibodies against CD25 abrogates cinnamon-mediated protection of EAE. Taken together, our results suggest that oral administration of cinnamon powder may be beneficial in MS patients and that no other existing anti-MS therapies could be so economical and trouble-free as this approach.

  11. MRI findings of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sei Jung; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Chung, Tae Sub; Lee, So Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    Acute disseminate encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a demyelinating disease of probable autoimmune etiology. The MR images of patients with clinically suspected ADEM were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical symptoms occurred 5 days to 1 month after viral upper respiratory infection (4) and Coxsakie viral infection (1). The symptoms had begun with fever (3), headache (3), sore throat (1), and drowsy mental state (1), which progressed with monophasic course to altered mental change (2), extremity weakness (2), seizure (1) and/or cerebellar symptom (1). MRI findings of ADEM showed patchy (4), non hemorrhagic (5), asymmetric (5) high signal intensity lesions on T2-weighted images. The number of the lesions was mostly multiple (4). The lesions mainly involved the brain stem (3) and subcortical while matter (3). Follow-up MR images of 13 days to 20 days after high dose steroid therapy showed marked improvement in two of three, which well corrected with clinical manifestations. MR finding of multiple, patchy, nonhemorrhagic and asymmetric lesions in subcortical white matter and brain stem on T2-weighted images seem to be characteristic features of ADEM, but nonspecific. Therefore, clinical correlation is required in evaluating ADEM.

  12. Eosinophils in Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diny, Nicola L; Rose, Noel R; Čiháková, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes that contribute to initiation and modulation of inflammation. Their role in asthma and parasitic infections has long been recognized. Growing evidence now reveals a role for eosinophils in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the function of eosinophils in inflammatory bowel diseases, neuromyelitis optica, bullous pemphigoid, autoimmune myocarditis, primary biliary cirrhosis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and other autoimmune diseases. Clinical studies, eosinophil-targeted therapies, and experimental models have contributed to our understanding of the regulation and function of eosinophils in these diseases. By examining the role of eosinophils in autoimmune diseases of different organs, we can identify common pathogenic mechanisms. These include degranulation of cytotoxic granule proteins, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, release of proteases degrading extracellular matrix, immune modulation through cytokines, antigen presentation, and prothrombotic functions. The association of eosinophilic diseases with autoimmune diseases is also examined, showing a possible increase in autoimmune diseases in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and non-allergic asthma. Finally, we summarize key future research needs.

  13. Eosinophils in Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Čiháková

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes that contribute to initiation and modulation of inflammation. Their role in asthma and parasitic infections has long been recognized. Growing evidence now reveals a role for eosinophils in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the function of eosinophils in inflammatory bowel diseases, neuromyelitis optica, bullous pemphigoid, autoimmune myocarditis, primary biliary cirrhosis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and other autoimmune diseases. Clinical studies, eosinophil-targeted therapies, and experimental models have contributed to our understanding of the regulation and function of eosinophils in these diseases. By examining the role of eosinophils in autoimmune diseases of different organs, we can identify common pathogenic mechanisms. These include degranulation of cytotoxic granule proteins, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, release of proteases degrading extracellular matrix, immune modulation through cytokines, antigen presentation, and prothrombotic functions. The association of eosinophilic diseases with autoimmune diseases is also examined, showing a possible increase in autoimmune diseases in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and non-allergic asthma. Finally, we summarize key future research needs.

  14. MicroRNA mediated network motifs in autoimmune diseases and its crosstalk between genes, functions and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabahar, Archana; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are incurable but suppressible diseases whose molecular mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. In this work, we selected five systemic autoimmune diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (ATD) and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Heterogeneous data such as miRNA, transcription factor (TF), target genes and protein-protein interactions involved in these AIDs were integrated to understand their roles at different functional levels of miRNA such as transcription initiation, gene regulatory network formation and post transcriptional regulation. To understand the functional characteristics of these complex biological networks, they can be simplified as network motifs (sub networks) and motif-motif interacting pairs (MMIs). The network motif patterns and motif-motif interacting pairs that occur for the selected five diseases were identified. To further understand the functional association between AIDs, functions and pathways were determined using gene set enrichment analysis and five selected immune signaling pathways (ISPs). The crosstalk within AIDs and between the immune signaling pathways (ISPs) could provide novel insights in deciphering disease mechanisms. This study represents the first investigation of miRNA-TF regulatory network for AIDs and its association with ISPs using sub-network motifs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. T Cell-Mediated Beta Cell Destruction: Autoimmunity and Alloimmunity in the Context of Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L. Burrack

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D results from destruction of pancreatic beta cells by T cells of the immune system. Despite improvements in insulin analogs and continuous blood glucose level monitoring, there is no cure for T1D, and some individuals develop life-threatening complications. Pancreas and islet transplantation have been attractive therapeutic approaches; however, transplants containing insulin-producing cells are vulnerable to both recurrent autoimmunity and conventional allograft rejection. Current immune suppression treatments subdue the immune system, but not without complications. Ideally a successful approach would target only the destructive immune cells and leave the remaining immune system intact to fight foreign pathogens. This review discusses the autoimmune diabetes disease process, diabetic complications that warrant a transplant, and alloimmunity. First, we describe the current understanding of autoimmune destruction of beta cells including the roles of CD4 and CD8 T cells and several possibilities for antigen-specific tolerance induction. Second, we outline diabetic complications necessitating beta cell replacement. Third, we discuss transplant recognition, potential sources for beta cell replacement, and tolerance-promoting therapies under development. We hypothesize that a better understanding of autoreactive T cell targets during disease pathogenesis and alloimmunity following transplant destruction could enhance attempts to re-establish tolerance to beta cells.

  16. Toll-Like Receptor Mediated Modulation of T Cell Response by Commensal Intestinal Microbiota as a Trigger for Autoimmune Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Rogier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In autoimmune diseases, a disturbance of the balance between T helper 17 (Th17 and regulatory T cells (Tregs is often observed. This disturbed balance is also the case in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Genetic predisposition to RA confers the presence of several polymorphisms mainly regulating activation of T lymphocytes. However, the presence of susceptibility factors is neither necessary nor sufficient to explain the disease development, emphasizing the importance of environmental factors. Multiple studies have shown that commensal gut microbiota is of great influence on immune homeostasis and can trigger the development of autoimmune diseases by favoring induction of Th17 cells over Tregs. However the mechanism by which intestinal microbiota influences the Th cell balance is not completely understood. Here we review the current evidence supporting the involvement of commensal intestinal microbiota in rheumatoid arthritis, along with a potential role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs in modulating the relevant Th cell responses to trigger autoimmunity. A better understanding of TLR triggering by intestinal microbiota and subsequent T cell activation might offer new perspectives for manipulating the T cell response in RA patients and may lead to the discovery of new therapeutic targets or even preventive measures.

  17. Plasminogen Deficiency Delays the Onset and Protects from Demyelination and Paralysis in Autoimmune Neuroinflammatory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Maureen A; Gao, Zhen; McElhinney, Kathryn E; Thornton, Sherry; Flick, Matthew J; Lane, Adam; Degen, Jay L; Ryu, Jae Kyu; Akassoglou, Katerina; Mullins, Eric S

    2017-04-05

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory, demyelinating disease of the CNS. Fibrinogen deposition at sites of blood-brain barrier breakdown is a prominent feature of neuroinflammatory disease and contributes to disease severity. Plasminogen, the primary fibrinolytic enzyme, also modifies inflammatory processes. We used a murine model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), to evaluate the hypothesis that the loss of plasminogen would exacerbate neuroinflammatory disease. However, contrary to initial expectations, EAE-challenged plasminogen-deficient (Plg - ) mice developed significantly delayed disease onset and reduced disease severity compared with wild-type (Plg + ) mice. Similarly, pharmacologic inhibition of plasmin activation with tranexamic acid also delayed disease onset. The T-cell response to immunization was similar between genotypes, suggesting that the contribution of plasminogen was downstream of the T-cell response. Spinal cords from EAE-challenged Plg - mice demonstrated significantly decreased demyelination and microglial/macrophage accumulation compared with Plg + mice. Although fibrinogen-deficient mice or mice with combined deficiencies of plasminogen and fibrinogen had decreased EAE severity, they did not exhibit the delay in EAE disease onset, as seen in mice with plasminogen deficiency alone. Together, these data suggest that plasminogen and plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis is a key modifier of the onset of neuroinflammatory demyelination. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Multiple sclerosis is a severe, chronic, demyelinating disease. Understanding the pathobiology related to the autoreactive T-cell and microglial/macrophage demyelinating response is critical to effectively target therapeutics. We describe for the first time that deficiency of plasminogen, the key fibrinolytic enzyme, delays disease onset and protects from the development of the paralysis associated with a murine model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune

  18. Therapeutic plasma exchange in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borras-Novell, Cristina; García Rey, Enric; Perez Baena, Luis Francisco; Jordan Garcia, Iolanda; Catella Cahiz, Dolors; Cambra, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that is probably due to an autoimmune mechanism with an acute presentation and a monophasic course. The management of patients with ADEM is based on supportive therapy, corticosteroids, and intravenous immunoglobulin, and in selected cases, with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). The aim of our study is to evaluate the efficacy of TPE, as adjuvant therapy in pediatric patients with ADEM. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with the diagnosis of ADEM between 2009 and 2011 to which TPE was indicated and were admitted in the ICU of Hospital Sant Joan de Deu (Spain). The diagnosis of ADEM was made by clinical and laboratory criteria and by the presence of compatible lesions on cranio-spinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). For signaling TPE, we followed the guidelines established by the American Association of Apheresis (ASFA) in 2010. Five cases were identified. The predominant neurological symptoms in our patients were: altered level of consciousness, seizures, motor deficits, cranial nerve disorders, and aphasia. Most important demyelinating lesions were located in cortical and subcortical white matter of the brain and highlighted brainstream. Patients performed between 4 and 5 sessions, with no reported side effects. Progressive clinical improvement was evident in all patients, with good neurosensory response to stimulation, cessation of seizures, and recovery of limb mobility. Nowadays, one patient's right paresis persists and another suffers epileptic seizures. None of the cases in our series presented new episodes of demyelination. Due to the suggested immune-mediated pathogenesis of ADEM, treatment is based on immunomodulatory agents, being glucocorticoids the most important ones. The treatment can be complemented with intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis. Available data suggests that plasma exchange is beneficial

  19. BAFF Promotes Th17 Cells and Aggravates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Qin; Wang, Julie; Su, Wenru; Han, Yuan-Ping; Fan, Huimin; Liu, Zhongmin; Stohl, William; Zheng, Song Guo

    2011-01-01

    Background BAFF, in addition to promoting B cell survival and differentiation, may affect T cells. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of BAFF on Th17 cell generation and its ramifications for the Th17 cell-driven disease, EAE. Methodology/Principal Findings Th17 cells were increased in BAFF-Tg B6 (B6.BTg) mice and decreased in B6.Baff−/− mice. Th17 cells in B6.Baff−/− mice bearing a BAFF Tg (B6.Baff−/−.BTg mice) were identical to those in B6.BTg mice, indicating that membrane BAFF is dispensable for Th17 cell generation as long as soluble BAFF is plentiful. In T + non-T cell criss-cross co-cultures, Th17 cell generation was greatest in cultures containing B6.BTg T cells and lowest in cultures containing B6.Baff−/− T cells, regardless of the source of non-T cells. In cultures containing only T cells, Th17 cell generation followed an identical pattern. CD4+ cell expression of CD126 (IL-6R α chain) was increased in B6.BTg mice and decreased in B6.Baff−/− mice, and activation of STAT3 following stimulation with IL-6 + TGF-β was also greatest in B6.BTg cells and lowest in B6.Baff−/− cells. EAE was clinically and pathologically most severe in B6.BTg mice and least severe in B6.Baff−/− mice and correlated with MOG35–55 peptide-induced Th17 cell responses. Conclusions/Significance Collectively, these findings document a contribution of BAFF to pathogenic Th17 cell responses and suggest that BAFF antagonism may be efficacious in Th17 cell-driven diseases. PMID:21897850

  20. BAFF promotes Th17 cells and aggravates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhou

    Full Text Available BAFF, in addition to promoting B cell survival and differentiation, may affect T cells. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of BAFF on Th17 cell generation and its ramifications for the Th17 cell-driven disease, EAE.Th17 cells were increased in BAFF-Tg B6 (B6.BTg mice and decreased in B6.Baff(-/- mice. Th17 cells in B6.Baff(-/- mice bearing a BAFF Tg (B6.Baff(-/-.BTg mice were identical to those in B6.BTg mice, indicating that membrane BAFF is dispensable for Th17 cell generation as long as soluble BAFF is plentiful. In T + non-T cell criss-cross co-cultures, Th17 cell generation was greatest in cultures containing B6.BTg T cells and lowest in cultures containing B6.Baff(-/- T cells, regardless of the source of non-T cells. In cultures containing only T cells, Th17 cell generation followed an identical pattern. CD4(+ cell expression of CD126 (IL-6R α chain was increased in B6.BTg mice and decreased in B6.Baff(-/- mice, and activation of STAT3 following stimulation with IL-6 + TGF-β was also greatest in B6.BTg cells and lowest in B6.Baff(-/- cells. EAE was clinically and pathologically most severe in B6.BTg mice and least severe in B6.Baff(-/- mice and correlated with MOG(35-55 peptide-induced Th17 cell responses.Collectively, these findings document a contribution of BAFF to pathogenic Th17 cell responses and suggest that BAFF antagonism may be efficacious in Th17 cell-driven diseases.

  1. Interferon regulatory factor-7 modulates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, Mohammad; Mony, Jyothi T; Lobner, Morten

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with unknown etiology. Interferon-beta (IFN-beta), a member of the type I IFN family, is used as a therapeutic for MS and the IFN signaling pathway is implicated in MS susceptibility. Inte...

  2. Conventional housing conditions attenuate the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Arndt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS has remained unclear, but a causative contribution of factors outside the central nervous system (CNS is conceivable. It was recently suggested that gut bacteria trigger the activation of CNS-reactive T cells and the development of demyelinative disease. METHODS: C57BL/6 (B6 mice were kept either under specific pathogen free or conventional housing conditions, immunized with the myelin basic protein (MBP-proteolipid protein (PLP fusion protein MP4 and the development of EAE was clinically monitored. The germinal center size of the Peyer's patches was determined by immunohistochemistry in addition to the level of total IgG secretion which was assessed by ELISPOT. ELISPOT assays were also used to measure MP4-specific T cell and B cell responses in the Peyer's patches and the spleen. Ear swelling assays were performed to determine the extent of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions in specific pathogen free and conventionally housed mice. RESULTS: In B6 mice that were actively immunized with MP4 and kept under conventional housing conditions clinical disease was significantly attenuated compared to specific pathogen free mice. Conventionally housed mice displayed increased levels of IgG secretion in the Peyer's patches, while the germinal center formation in the gut and the MP4-specific TH17 response in the spleen were diminished after immunization. Accordingly, these mice displayed an attenuated delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH reaction in ear swelling assays. CONCLUSIONS: The data corroborate the notion that housing conditions play a substantial role in the induction of murine EAE and suggest that the presence of gut bacteria might be associated with a decreased immune response to antigens of lower affinity. This concept could be of importance for MS and calls for caution when considering the therapeutic approach to treat patients with antibiotics.

  3. Autoimmune gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulnigg-Dabsch, Stefanie

    2016-10-01

    Autoimmune gastritis is a chronic inflammatory disease with destruction of parietal cells of the corpus and fundus of the stomach. The known consequence is vitamin B12 deficiency and, consequently, pernicious anemia. However, loss of parietal cells reduces secretion of gastric acid which is also required for absorption of inorganic iron; thus, iron deficiency is commonly found in patients with autoimmune gastritis. This usually precedes vitamin B12 deficiency and is found mainly in young women. Patients with chronic iron deficiency, especially those refractory to oral iron therapy, should therefore be evaluated for the presence of autoimmune gastritis.

  4. Epstein-Barr virus in tumor-infiltrating B cells of myasthenia gravis thymoma: an innocent bystander or an autoimmunity mediator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Paola; Marcuzzo, Stefania; Franzi, Sara; Galbardi, Barbara; Maggi, Lorenzo; Motta, Teresio; Ghislandi, Raffaella; Buzzi, Antonella; Spinelli, Luisella; Novellino, Lorenzo; Baggi, Fulvio; Antozzi, Carlo; Conforti, Fabio; De Pas, Tommaso Martino; Barberis, Massimo; Bernasconi, Pia; Mantegazza, Renato

    2017-01-01

    The thymus plays a key role in myasthenia gravis (MG), a B cell-mediated autoimmune disorder affecting neuromuscular junction. Most MG patients have thymic abnormalities, including hyperplasia and thymoma, a neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with autoimmune diseases and tumors. Recently, we showed EBV persistence and reactivation in hyperplastic MG thymuses, suggesting that EBV might contribute to intra-thymic B cell dysregulation in MG patients. Here, we investigated EBV involvement in thymoma-associated MG, by searching for EBV markers in MG (n=26) and non-MG (n=14) thymomas. EBV DNA and EBV-encoded small nuclear RNA (EBER) 1 transcript were detected in 14/26 (53.8%) and 22/26 (84.6%) MG thymomas, and only in 3 of 14 (21.4%) non-MG thymomas. Latent EBNA2 and late gp350/220 lytic transcripts were undetectable in all, but one, thymomas, and early lytic BZLF1 transcript was absent in all samples, suggesting that early infection events and EBV reactivation were very rare in thymomas. EBER1 and 2-positive cells were detected in MG, but not in non-MG, thymomas, as well as cells expressing EBV latency proteins (EBNA1, LMP1, LMP2A), that were mainly of B cell phenotype, indicating EBV association with MG rather than with thymoma. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 transcriptional levels were higher in MG than non-MG thymomas and positively correlated with EBER1 levels, suggesting a role for EBERs in TLR3 activation. Our findings show that EBV is commonly present in thymoma-infiltrating B cells of myasthenic patients, indicating a contribution of EBV to B cell-mediated autoreactivity in MG associated with thymic tumor. PMID:29221139

  5. Bell's palsy and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, A; Gallo, A; Fusconi, M; Marinelli, C; Macri, G F; de Vincentiis, M

    2012-12-01

    To review our current knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of Bell's palsy, including viral infection or autoimmunity, and to discuss disease pathogenesis with respect to pharmacotherapy. Relevant publications on the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and histopathology of Bell's palsy from 1975 to 2012 were analysed. Bell's palsy is an idiopathic peripheral nerve palsy involving the facial nerve. It accounts for 60 to 75% of all cases of unilateral facial paralysis. The annual incidence of Bell's palsy is 15 to 30 per 100,000 people. The peak incidence occurs between the second and fourth decades (15 to 45 years). The aetiology of Bell's palsy is unknown but viral infection or autoimmune disease has been postulated as possible pathomechanisms. Bell's palsy may be caused when latent herpes viruses (herpes simplex, herpes zoster) are reactivated from cranial nerve ganglia. A cell-mediated autoimmune mechanism against a myelin basic protein has been suggested for the pathogenesis of Bell's palsy. Bell's palsy may be an autoimmune demyelinating cranial neuritis, and in most cases, it is a mononeuritic variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurologic disorder with recognised cell-mediated immunity against peripheral nerve myelin antigens. In Bell's palsy and GBS, a viral infection or the reactivation of a latent virus may provoke an autoimmune reaction against peripheral nerve myelin components, leading to the demyelination of cranial nerves, especially the facial nerve. Given the safety profile of acyclovir, valacyclovir, and short-course oral corticosteroids, patients who present within three days of the onset of symptoms should be offered combination therapy. However it seems logical that in fact, steroids exert their beneficial effect via immunosuppressive action, as is the case in some other autoimmune disorders. It is to be hoped that (monoclonal) antibodies and/or T-cell immunotherapy might provide more specific treatment guidelines in the

  6. MRI in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldemeyer, K.S. (Div. of Neuroradiology, Dept. of Radiology, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Smith, R.R. (Div. of Neuroradiology, Dept. of Radiology, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Harris, T.M. (Div. of Neuroradiology, Dept. of Radiology, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Edwards, M.K. (Div. of Neuroradiology, Dept. of Radiology, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States))

    1994-04-01

    A retrospective analysis of CT and MRI studies in 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was performed. MRI was the definitive modality for the assessment of the lesions of ADEM: all patients had abnormalities consistent with the clinical diagnosis. Ten had abnormalities in the brain, three spinal cord lesions, and three showed evidence of optic neuritis. CT was normal in 6 of the 7 patients in which it was performed. (orig.)

  7. 9 CFR 113.308 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.308 Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... conducted by the Department have established that horses having Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis antibody...

  8. Autoimmune pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Dajčman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autoimmune pancreatitis is a recently described type of pancreatitis of presumed autoimmune etiology. Autoimmune pancreatitis is often misdiagnosed as pancreatic cancer difficult, since their clinical presentations are often similar. The concept of autoimmune pancreatitis was first published in 1961. Since then, autoimmune pancreatitis has often been treated not as an independent clinical entity but rather as a manifestation of systemic disease. The overall prevalence and incidence of the disease have yet to be determined, but three series have reported the prevalence as between 5 and 6 % of all patients with chronic pancreatitis. Patient vary widely in age, but most are older than 50 years. Patients with autoimmune pancreatitis usually complain of the painless jaundice, mild abdominal pain and weight loss. There is no laboratory hallmark of the disease, even if cholestatic profiles of liver dysfunction with only mild elevation of amylase and lipase levels have been reported.Conclusions: Proposed diagnostic criteria contains: (1 radiologic imaging, diffuse enlargement of the pancreas and diffusely irregular narrowing of the main pancreatic duct, (2 laboratory data, elevated levels of serum ã-globulin and/or IgG, specially IgG4, or the presence of autoantibodies and (3 histopathologic examination, fibrotic change with dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the pancreas. For correct diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis, criterion 1 must be present with criterion 2 and/or 3. Autoimmune pancreatitis is frequently associated with rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren’s syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, tubulointersticial nephritis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis. Pancreatic biopsy using an endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy is the most important diagnostic method today. Treatment with corticosteroids leads to the and resolution of pancreatic inflamation, obstruction and

  9. A Rare Sequela of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kodadhala; Saravana Devulapalli; Mohankumar Kurukumbi; Annapurni Jayam-Trouth

    2014-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a demyelinating disease, typically occurring in children following a febrile infection or a vaccination. Primary and secondary immune responses contribute to inflammation and subsequent demyelination, but the exact pathogenesis is still unknown. Diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is strongly suggested by temporal relationship between an infection or an immunization and the onset of neurological symptoms. Biopsy is definitive. In general, ...

  10. A rationally designed CD4 analogue inhibits experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Bradford A.; McDonnell, James M.; Marini, Joseph C.; Korngold, Robert

    1994-04-01

    EXPERIMENTAL allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an acute inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that can be elicited in rodents and is the major animal model for the study of multiple sclerosis (MS)1,2. The pathogenesis of both EAE and MS directly involves the CD4+ helper T-cell subset3-5. Anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies inhibit the development of EAE in rodents6-9, and are currently being used in human clinical trials for MS. We report here that similar therapeutic effects can be achieved in mice using a small (rationally designed) synthetic analogue of the CD4 protein surface. It greatly inhibits both clinical incidence and severity of EAE with a single injection, but does so without depletion of the CD4+ subset and without the inherent immunogenicity of an antibody. Furthermore, this analogue is capable of exerting its effects on disease even after the onset of symptoms.

  11. Treatment of autoimmune anterior uveitis with recombinant TCR ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamus, Grazyna; Burrows, Gregory G; Vandenbark, Arthur A; Offner, Halina

    2006-06-01

    To determine protective properties of recombinant TCR ligands (RTLs) as a new treatment for experimental autoimmune anterior uveitis (AU). RTLs comprise the rat RT1.B beta1alpha1 domains, linked either to the guinea pig MBP69-89 peptide (RTL201), to the corresponding rat MBP69-89 peptide (RTL200), or to the cardiac myosin peptide CM-2 (RTL203). AU associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was actively induced in Lewis rats by injection of myelin basic protein emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or passively by the transfer of pathogenic T cells. Rats received five daily doses each of 300 microg RTL201 in saline, intravenously. Control rats received the same dose of RTL203 or an "empty" beta1alpha1 protein (no peptide). The rats were evaluated for the suppression of clinical and histologic signs of AU. RTL201 prevented active and passive AU and reduced the clinical symptoms of established AU. RTL201 completely prevented clinical and histologic AU in the treated rats, compared with disease progression in the untreated rats or those treated with an "empty" construct. The suppression of clinical AU correlated with a significant reduction in inflammatory cells infiltrating the eyes of the RTL201-treated rats. Furthermore, RTL201 inhibited T cell proliferation, DTH responses, and cytokine mRNA expression in the eye, in contrast to the untreated rats. In comparison with RTL201, RTL200 was less effective in protecting the eye from AU. RTL203 also significantly inhibited clinical AU, but not EAE. RTL constructs suppressed clinical and histologic AU by inhibiting the systemic activation of specific T cells and preventing the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the eye. These findings suggest a possible clinical application of this novel class of peptide/MHC class II constructs in patients with AU that is mediated by T-cell responses to known antigenic peptides.

  12. Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus: glycine and NMDA receptor antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M R; Irani, S R; Leite, M I; Nithi, K; Vincent, A; Ansorge, O

    2011-08-02

    The syndrome of progressive encephalopathy with limb rigidity has been historically termed progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM) or stiff-person syndrome plus. The case is presented of a previously healthy 28-year-old man with a rapidly fatal form of PERM developing over 2 months. Serum antibodies to both NMDA receptors (NMDAR) and glycine receptors (GlyR) were detected postmortem, and examination of the brain confirmed an autoimmune encephalomyelitis, with particular involvement of hippocampal pyramidal and cerebellar Purkinje cells and relative sparing of the neocortex. No evidence for an underlying systemic neoplasm was found. This case displayed not only the clinical features of PERM, previously associated with GlyR antibodies, but also some of the features associated with NMDAR antibodies. This unusual combination of antibodies may be responsible for the particularly progressive course and sudden death.

  13. Methodological Challenges in Protein Microarray and Immunohistochemistry for the Discovery of Novel Autoantibodies in Paediatric Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschl, Patrick; Ramberger, Melanie; Höftberger, Romana; Jöhrer, Karin; Baumann, Matthias; Rostásy, Kevin; Reindl, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare autoimmune-mediated demyelinating disease affecting mainly children and young adults. Differentiation to multiple sclerosis is not always possible, due to overlapping clinical symptoms and recurrent and multiphasic forms. Until now, immunoglobulins reactive to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG antibodies) have been found in a subset of patients with ADEM. However, there are still patients lacking autoantibodies, necessitating the identification of new autoantibodies as biomarkers in those patients. Therefore, we aimed to identify novel autoantibody targets in ADEM patients. Sixteen ADEM patients (11 seronegative, 5 seropositive for MOG antibodies) were analysed for potential new biomarkers, using a protein microarray and immunohistochemistry on rat brain tissue to identify antibodies against intracellular and surface neuronal and glial antigens. Nine candidate antigens were identified in the protein microarray analysis in at least two patients per group. Immunohistochemistry on rat brain tissue did not reveal new target antigens. Although no new autoantibody targets could be found here, future studies should aim to identify new biomarkers for therapeutic and prognostic purposes. The microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry methods used here have several limitations, which should be considered in future searches for biomarkers. PMID:28327523

  14. Understanding Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are they? Points To Remember About Autoimmune Diseases Autoimmune diseases refer to problems with the immune system, ... Infectious Diseases Website: https://www.niaid.nih.gov/diseases-conditions/autoimmune-diseases American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association Website: https:// ...

  15. Autoimmun hypophysitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Therese; Hagen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    during pregnancy or postpartum, but also occurs in males and children. AH is often associated with other autoimmune diseases, most frequently with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The symptoms are caused by enlargement of the pituitary gland and disturbances of the hormone function. Treatment is either......Autoimmune hypophysitis (AH) - often referred to as lymphocytic hypophysitis - is a rare disease that affects the pituitary gland and causes inflammation. The disease enlarges the pituitary gland and the clinical presentations are lack of pituitary function and headaches. AH is mostly seen in women...

  16. Autoimmun hypophysitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Therese; Hagen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    during pregnancy or postpartum, but also occurs in males and children. AH is often associated with other autoimmune diseases, most frequently with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The symptoms are caused by enlargement of the pituitary gland and disturbances of the hormone function. Treatment is either......Autoimmune hypophysitis (AH) - often referred to as lymphocytic hypophysitis - is a rare disease that affects the pituitary gland and causes inflammation. The disease enlarges the pituitary gland and the clinical presentations are lack of pituitary function and headaches. AH is mostly seen in women...... immunosuppressive treatment or surgery....

  17. Autoimmun hypophysitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Therese; Hagen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    during pregnancy or postpartum, but also occurs in males and children. AH is often associated with other autoimmune diseases, most frequently with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The symptoms are caused by enlargement of the pituitary gland and disturbances of the hormone function. Treatment is either...

  18. Autoimmune sialadenitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guntinas-Lichius, O.; Vissink, A.; Ihrler, S.

    Using the European-American classification criteria the diagnosis of autoimmune sialadenitis in Sjogren's syndrome can generally be easily established or excluded. In addition, sonography performed by the ENT physician is helpful in diagnosing and especially in follow-up screening for MALT

  19. Genetic analysis of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.; Rosenwasser, O.A.; O`Neill, J.K.; Turk, J.L. [Royal College of Surgeons of England, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-15

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that exhibits many pathologic similarities with multiple sclerosis. While products of the MHC are known to control the development of EAE, it is clear that non-MHC products also influence susceptibility. The chromosomal locations of these were investigated in selective crosses between MHC class II-compatible, EAE-susceptible Biozzi ABH, and low responder nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. The disease was dominant and highly influenced by gender in the backcross one (BC{sub 1}) generation. Female mice were significantly more susceptible than male mice. Segregation of disease frequency of female animals in this cross suggested that EAE was controlled by a major locus. Although microsatellite-based exclusion mapping indicated that a number of regions on chromosomes 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 18 showed evidence of linkage (p<0.05) compared with expected random distributions of alleles, disease susceptibility was most strongly linked (p<0.05) to chromosome 7. However, by selectively analyzing animals that were either severely affected or almost normal, additional susceptibility loci were mapped on chromosomes 18 and 11 that were linked (p<0.001) to resistance and the development of severe disease, respectively. The data indicate a major locus on chromosome 7, affecting initiation and severity of EAE that is probably modified by several other unlinked loci. These localizations may provide candidate loci for the analysis of human autoimmune-demyelinating disease. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Continuing Education Event Resources Disability and ME-CFS Diagnosis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir To diagnose myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), a patient’s doctor or healthcare provider ...

  1. Psychosis: an autoimmune disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Diwani, Adam A J; Pollak, Thomas A; Irani, Sarosh R; Lennox, Belinda R

    2017-11-01

    Psychotic disorders are common and disabling. Overlaps in clinical course in addition to epidemiological and genetic associations raise the possibility that autoimmune mechanisms may underlie some psychoses, potentially offering novel therapeutic approaches. Several immune loci including the major histocompatibility complex and B-cell markers CD19 and CD20 achieve genome-wide significance in schizophrenia. Emerging evidence suggests a potential role via neurodevelopment in addition to classical immune pathways. Additionally, lymphocyte biology is increasingly investigated. Some reports note raised peripheral CD19 + and reduced CD3 + lymphocyte counts, with altered CD4 : CD8 ratios in acute psychosis. Also, post-mortem studies have found CD3 + and CD20 + lymphocyte infiltration in brain regions that are of functional relevance to psychosis. More specifically, the recent paradigm of neuronal surface antibody-mediated (NSAb) central nervous system disease provides an antigen-specific model linking adaptive autoimmunity to psychopathology. NSAbs bind extracellular epitopes of signalling molecules that are classically implicated in psychosis such as NMDA and GABA receptors. This interaction may cause circuit dysfunction leading to psychosis among other neurological features in patients with autoimmune encephalitis. The detection of these cases is crucial as autoimmune encephalitis is ameliorated by commonly available immunotherapies. Meanwhile, the prevalence and relevance of these antibodies in people with isolated psychotic disorders is an area of emerging scientific and clinical interest. Collaborative efforts to achieve larger sample sizes, comparison of assay platforms, and placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials are now needed to establish an autoimmune contribution to psychosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Primary sleep disorders can cause long-term sleep disturbance in patients with autoimmune mediated limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kirstie N; Kelly, Thomas P; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2013-07-01

    Antibody mediated limbic encephalitis causes a sub acute encephalopathy with an amnestic syndrome, seizures and often an affective prodrome. Sleep disturbance including abnormal dream sleep and insomnia are described in a percentage of long-term survivors but there are very few detailed assessments of sleep disturbance in patients beyond the acute phase of illness. The objectives of this study were to understand the causes of sleep disturbance in the long-term survivors of antibody mediated limbic encephalitis. We screened twelve patients under long-term follow up with sleep questionnaires and went on to perform detailed sleep studies (polysomnography) in those who reported sleep disturbance. Two were found to have persistent, severe central and obstructive sleep apnoea and two others to have restless legs and periodic limb movements of sleep. This highlights the need to investigate sleep disturbance in this group of patients. Effective treatments may be available to improve quality of life and daytime function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern, Western and Venezuelan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aréchiga-Ceballos, N; Aguilar-Setién, A

    2015-08-01

    Summary Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis is a mosquito-borne infection that causes severe neurological disease and fatalities in horses and humans in the Americas. Consequently, the equine alphaviruses (Eastern, Western and Venezuelan) are of considerable concern worldwide and are notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health. In addition, these diseases are considered a potent potential biological weapon, emphasising the need to develop an effective vaccine. Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis is caused by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV), Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV) or Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV), which are related members of the Alphavirus genus in the Togaviridae family. Although related, the three viruses are genetically and antigenically distinct. The disease is characterised by fever, anorexia, depression and clinical signs of encephalomyelitis, and may be fatal in up to 90% of cases, for both humans and horses, particularly in the case of EEE. Surviving horses develop lifelong immunity but may have permanent neuropathology. The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific information available on the evolution of EEE, WEE and VEE, and any potential vaccines.

  4. [Autoimmune channelopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, M; Delrieu, J; Astudillo, L

    2011-12-01

    Autoimmune channelopathies are rare neuromuscular diseases that have been characterized clinically for several decades but for which the evidence of associated antibodies has only been recently demonstrated. Ion channels have an important role of activation, inhibition and regulation in neuromuscular transmission. Myasthenia gravis, generally associated with the presence of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody, is the best-known channelopathy. Other anti-channel antibodies, including voltage-dependent, are associated with several neurological diseases, as illustrated by anti-voltage-gated calcium channels found in Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome and paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia, and anti-voltage-gated potassium channels found in neuromyotonia, Morvan's syndrome and limbic encephalitis. The treatment of autoimmune channelopathies is logically based on corticosteroids, immunosuppressant drugs, intravenous immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis. Copyright © 2011 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Autoimmun pankreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjordside, Eva; Novovic, Srdan; Schmidt, Palle Nordblad

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare inflammatory disease. AIP has characteristic histology, serology and imaging findings. Two types of AIP exist, type 1, which is a part of the systemic immunoglobulin G4-related disease, and type 2, which is only localized to the pancreas. Patients with type...... are predominantly older men, have involvement of other organs and more often experience relapse than patients with type 2. Both types respond well to steroid treatment. The most important differential diagnose is pancreatic cancer....

  6. Treatment with Rutin - A Therapeutic Strategy for Neutrophil-Mediated Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases - Anti-inflammatory Effects of Rutin on Neutrophils -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abd Nikfarjam

    2017-03-01

    due to its inhibiting NO and TNF-α productions, as well as MPO activity, in activated human neutrophils. Treatment with rutin may be considered as a therapeutic strategy for neutrophil-mediated inflammatory/ autoimmune diseases.

  7. Direct demonstration of the infiltration of murine central nervous system by Pgp-1/CD44high CD45RB(low) CD4+ T cells that induce experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeine, R; Owens, T

    1992-01-01

    In experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), autoimmune T cells infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) and initiate demyelinating pathology. We have used flow cytometry to directly analyse the migration to the CNS of MBP-reactive CD4+ T cells labelled with a lipophilic fluorescent dye...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological... § 866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological...

  9. Lentiviral-mediated administration of IL-25 in the CNS induces alternative activation of microglia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiorino, C; Khorooshi, R; Ruffini, F

    2013-01-01

    was partly inhibited and the CNS protected from immune-mediated damage. To our knowledge, this is the first example of M2 shift (alternative activation) induced in vivo on CNS-resident myeloid cells by gene therapy, and may constitute a promising strategy to investigate the potential role of protective...... immune system, namely macrophages. We used a lentiviral-mediated gene therapy approach to deliver IL-25 to the central nervous system (CNS) in two mouse models of neuroinflammation, entorhinal cortex lesion and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In both, we found that IL-25 gene therapy was able...... to modulate CNS myeloid cells, either infiltrating macrophages or resident microglia, towards an anti-inflammatory, tissue-protective phenotype, as testified by the increase in markers such as Arginase-1 (Arg1), Mannose receptor 1 (CD206) and Chitinase 3-like 3 (Ym1). As a consequence, neuroinflammation...

  10. Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Rakhi

    2015-06-01

    Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is defined as the destruction of circulating red blood cells (RBCs) in the setting of anti-RBC autoantibodies that optimally react at 37°C. The pathophysiology of disease involves phagocytosis of autoantibody-coated RBCs in the spleen and complement-mediated hemolysis. Thus far, treatment is aimed at decreasing autoantibody production with immunosuppression or reducing phagocytosis of affected cells in the spleen. The role of complement inhibitors in warm AIHA has not been explored. This article addresses the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of warm AIHA and highlights the role of complement in disease pathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHepatitis autoimun merupakan penyakit inflamasi hati yang berat dengan penyebab pasti yang tidak diketahui yang mengakibatkan morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Semua usia dan jenis kelamin dapat dikenai dengan insiden tertinggi pada anak perempuan usia prepubertas, meskipun dapat didiagnosis pada usia 6 bulan. Hepatitis autoimun dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 2 bagian berdasarkan adanya antibodi spesifik: Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA dengan anti-actin specificity dan/atau Anti Nuclear Antibody (ANA pada tipe 1 dan Liver-Kidney Microsome antibody (LKM1 dan/atau anti-liver cytosol pada tipe 2. Gambaran histologisnya berupa “interface hepatitis”, dengan infiltrasi sel mononuklear pada saluran portal, berbagai tingkat nekrosis, dan fibrosis yang progresf. Penyakit berjalan secara kronik tetapi keadaan yang berat biasanya menjadi sirosis dan gagal hati.Tipe onset yang paling sering sama dengan hepatitis virus akut dengan gagal hati akut pada beberapa pasien; sekitar sepertiga pasien dengan onset tersembunyi dengan kelemahan dan ikterik progresif ketika 10-15% asimptomatik dan mendadak ditemukan hepatomegali dan/atau peningkatan kadar aminotransferase serum. Adanya predominasi perempuan pada kedua tipe. Pasien LKM1 positif menunjukkan keadaan lebih akut, pada usia yang lebih muda, dan biasanya dengan defisiensi Immunoglobulin A (IgA, dengan durasi gejala sebelum diagnosis, tanda klinis, riwayat penyakit autoimun pada keluarga, adanya kaitan dengan gangguan autoimun, respon pengobatan dan prognosis jangka panjang sama pada kedua tipe.Kortikosteroid yang digunakan secara tunggal atau kombinasi azathioprine merupakan terapi pilihan yang dapat menimbulkan remisi pada lebih dari 90% kasus. Strategi terapi alternatif adalah cyclosporine. Penurunan imunosupresi dikaitkan dengan tingginya relap. Transplantasi hati dianjurkan pada penyakit hati dekom-pensata yang tidak respon dengan pengobatan medis lainnya.Kata kunci : hepatitis Autoimmune

  12. Cyclosporine Treatment in a Patient with Concurrent Autoimmune Urticaria and Autoimmune Hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Hye Young; Kim, Hei Sung; Kim, Hyung Ok; Park, Young Min

    2009-01-01

    Patients with autoimmune urticaria show a higher rate of seropositivity for other autoantibodies and often have a history of autoimmune conditions. They also tend to have more severe symptoms and to have a poor response to conventional antihistamine treatment. Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder in which progressive liver injury is thought to be the result of a T-cell-mediated immunologic attack against liver cells in genetically predisposed individuals. While the associat...

  13. Autophagy Is Required for Neutrophil-Mediated Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhisek Bhattacharya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy, an intracellular degradation and energy recycling mechanism, is emerging as an important regulator of immune responses. However, the role of autophagy in regulating neutrophil functions is not known. We investigated neutrophil biology using myeloid-specific autophagy-deficient mice and found that autophagy deficiency reduced neutrophil degranulation in vitro and in vivo. Mice with autophagy deficiency showed reduced severity of several neutrophil-mediated inflammatory and autoimmune disease models, including PMA-induced ear inflammation, LPS-induced breakdown of blood-brain barrier, and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. NADPH oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species generation was also reduced in autophagy-deficient neutrophils, and inhibition of NADPH oxidase reduced neutrophil degranulation, suggesting NADPH oxidase to be a player at the intersection of autophagy and degranulation. Overall, this study establishes autophagy as an important regulator of neutrophil functions and neutrophil-mediated inflammation in vivo.

  14. Associated Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... celiac disease are type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroid disease. The tendency to develop autoimmune diseases is believed ... confusion, weight loss, and coma (if left untreated). Thyroid Disease There are two common forms of autoimmune thyroid ...

  15. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis (formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis). This group of tests ...

  16. Increased autoimmune activity against 5-HT: a key component of depression that is associated with inflammation and activation of cell-mediated immunity, and with severity and staging of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Michael; Ringel, Karl; Kubera, Marta; Berk, Michael; Rybakowski, Janusz

    2012-02-01

    Depression is characterized by inflammation and cell-mediated immune (CMI) activation and autoimmune reactions directed against a multitude of self-epitopes. There is evidence that the inflammatory response in depression causes dysfunctions in the metabolism of 5-HT, e.g. lowering the 5-HT precursor tryptophan, and upregulating 5-HT receptor mRNA. This study has been undertaken to examine autoimmune activity directed against 5-HT in relation to CMI activation and inflammation. 5-HT antibodies were examined in major depressed patients (n=109) versus normal controls (n=35) in relation to serum neopterin and lysozyme, and plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines (PIC), i.e. interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα). Severity of depression was assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and severity of fatigue and somatic symptoms with the Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (FF) Rating Scale. The incidence of anti-5-HT antibody activity was significantly higher in depressed patients (54.1%), and in particular in those with melancholia (82.9%), than in controls (5.7%). Patients with positive 5-HT antibodies showed increased serum neopterin and lysozyme, and plasma TNFα and IL-1; higher scores on the HDRS and FF scales, and more somatic symptoms, including malaise and neurocognitive dysfunctions. There was a significant association between autoimmune activity to 5-HT and the number of previous depressive episodes. The autoimmune reactions directed against 5-HT might play a role in the pathophysiology of depression and the onset of severe depression. The strong association between autoimmune activity against 5-HT and inflammation/CMI activation is explained by multiple, reciprocal pathways between these factors. Exposure to previous depressive episodes increases the incidence of autoimmune activity directed against 5-HT, which in turn may increase the likelihood to develop new depressive episodes. These findings suggest that sensitization

  17. A Rare Sequela of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kodadhala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a demyelinating disease, typically occurring in children following a febrile infection or a vaccination. Primary and secondary immune responses contribute to inflammation and subsequent demyelination, but the exact pathogenesis is still unknown. Diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is strongly suggested by temporal relationship between an infection or an immunization and the onset of neurological symptoms. Biopsy is definitive. In general, the disease is self-limiting and the prognostic outcome is favorable with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. Locked-in syndrome describes patients who are awake and conscious but have no means of producing limb, speech, or facial movements. Locked-in syndrome is a rare complication of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We present a case of incomplete locked-in syndrome occurring in a 34-year-old male secondary to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Our case is unique, as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis occurred in a 34-year-old which was poorly responsive to immunosuppression resulting in severe disability.

  18. A rare sequela of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodadhala, Vijay; Devulapalli, Saravana; Kurukumbi, Mohankumar; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni

    2014-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a demyelinating disease, typically occurring in children following a febrile infection or a vaccination. Primary and secondary immune responses contribute to inflammation and subsequent demyelination, but the exact pathogenesis is still unknown. Diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is strongly suggested by temporal relationship between an infection or an immunization and the onset of neurological symptoms. Biopsy is definitive. In general, the disease is self-limiting and the prognostic outcome is favorable with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. Locked-in syndrome describes patients who are awake and conscious but have no means of producing limb, speech, or facial movements. Locked-in syndrome is a rare complication of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We present a case of incomplete locked-in syndrome occurring in a 34-year-old male secondary to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Our case is unique, as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis occurred in a 34-year-old which was poorly responsive to immunosuppression resulting in severe disability.

  19. Update in Endocrine Autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The endocrine system is a common target in pathogenic autoimmune responses, and there has been recent progress in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune endocrine diseases.

  20. Role of Complement in Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berentsen, Sigbjørn

    2015-01-01

    Summary The classification of autoimmune hemolytic anemias and the complement system are reviewed. In autoimmune hemolytic anemia of the warm antibody type, complement-mediated cell lysis is clinically relevant in a proportion of the patients but is hardly essential for hemolysis in most patients. Cold antibody-mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemias (primary cold agglutinin disease, secondary cold agglutinin syndrome and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria) are entirely complement-mediated disorders. In cold agglutinin disease, efficient therapies have been developed in order to target the pathogenic B-cell clone, but complement modulation remains promising in some clinical situations. No established therapy exists for secondary cold agglutinin syndrome and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria, and the possibility of therapeutic complement inhibition is interesting. Currently, complement modulation is not clinically documented in any autoimmune hemolytic anemia. The most relevant candidate drugs and possible target levels of action are discussed. PMID:26696798

  1. Role of Complement in Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berentsen, Sigbjørn

    2015-09-01

    The classification of autoimmune hemolytic anemias and the complement system are reviewed. In autoimmune hemolytic anemia of the warm antibody type, complement-mediated cell lysis is clinically relevant in a proportion of the patients but is hardly essential for hemolysis in most patients. Cold antibody-mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemias (primary cold agglutinin disease, secondary cold agglutinin syndrome and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria) are entirely complement-mediated disorders. In cold agglutinin disease, efficient therapies have been developed in order to target the pathogenic B-cell clone, but complement modulation remains promising in some clinical situations. No established therapy exists for secondary cold agglutinin syndrome and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria, and the possibility of therapeutic complement inhibition is interesting. Currently, complement modulation is not clinically documented in any autoimmune hemolytic anemia. The most relevant candidate drugs and possible target levels of action are discussed.

  2. Human LT-alpha-mediated resistance to autoimmune diabetes is induced in NOD, but not NOD-scid, mice and abrogated by IL-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, S; Satoh, J; Takahashi, K; Sakata, Y; Nakazawa, T; Miyazaki, J; Toyota, T

    2001-01-01

    Systemic administration of human lymphotoxin-alpha (hLT-alpha) made NOD mice resistant not only to spontaneous autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus but also to cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced diabetes and diabetes transfer by diabetic NOD spleen cells (triple resistance). In this study we analyzed the mechanisms of hLT-alpha-induced resistance, focusing on (1) hLT-alpha-induced resistance in the pancreatic beta cell, (2) CY-resistant suppressor cells, (3) suppression of induction or function of effector cells for beta cell destruction, or (4) others. To examine the first possibility in vitro, a NOD-derived beta cell line (MIN6N) was pretreated with hLT-alpha and then mixed with diabetic NOD spleen cells and MIN6N cell viability was measured. Treatment with hLT-alpha did not protect MIN6N cells but rather enhanced cytotoxicity. Next NOD-scid mice were pretreated with hLT-alpha and then transferred with diabetic NOD spleen. All the recipients developed diabetes. These results excluded the first possibility. The second possibility was also excluded by a cotransfer experiment, in which diabetic NOD spleen cells were cotransferred to NOD-scid mice with nontreated or hLT-alpha-treated nondiabetic NOD spleens. There was no significant difference in diabetes incidence between the two groups. To observe the third possibility, spleen cells of hLT-alpha-treated triple-resistant NOD mice were transferred to NOD-scid mice. Diabetes developed in the recipients, although the onset of diabetes was slightly delayed. Finally, hLT-alpha-treated triple-resistant NOD mice developed diabetes 1 week after daily IL-12 treatment. In summary, hLT-alpha administration made NOD mice resistant to effector cells for beta cell destruction. This resistance was induced in NOD, but not in NOD-scid, mice, indicating that lymphocytes were obligatory for the resistance. However, it was not mediated by transferable suppressor cells. Because effector cells were present in hLT-alpha-treated NOD spleen and

  3. Spinal cord hydrolysate ameliorate immunological reaction in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowska-Patzer, Barbara; Michałkiewicz, Jacek; Kubiszewska, Izabela; Zielińska, Joanna; Kasarello, Kaja; Kurzepa, Katarzyna; Lipkowski, Andrzej W

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the hydrolysate of pig spinal cord proteins to induce oral tolerance in the animal model of sclerosis multiplex - experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. The female Lewis rats were fed with hydrolysate of pig spinal cord proteins in two doses for one week before immunization, which was induced by injection of guinea pig spinal cord homogenate. At the peak of clinical symptoms (the 13th day post immunization) the rats were sacrificed and the spleen removed. Splenocytes were suspended in a culture medium and placed in microculture plates. The cells were stimulated with homogenate. The cells were cultured for seven days. Proliferation of splenocytes was estimated by means of methyl-3H thymidine incorporation. In supernatants of cultures of splenocytes the level of cytokines INF-gamma, IL-10, IL-4, and TGF-gamma was measured. It was demonstrated that homogenate-induced splenocytes of hydrolysate-fed rats gave rise to low proliferation as compared to the controls used. The IFN-gamma was inhibited in hydrolysate-fed animals. The hydrolysate of pig spinal cord proteins has a modulatory effect on the immune reaction, particularly on the orally-induced antigen-specific modulation of autoimmune response.

  4. Immunopathology of Japanese macaque encephalomyelitis is similar to multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Tiffany C; Manoharan, Minsha; Rawlings-Rhea, Stephanie D; Tagge, Ian; Kohama, Steven G; Hollister-Smith, Julie; Ferguson, Betsy; Woltjer, Randall L; Frederick, Meredith C; Pollaro, James; Rooney, William D; Sherman, Larry S; Bourdette, Dennis N; Wong, Scott W

    2016-02-15

    Japanese macaque encephalomyelitis (JME) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that occurs spontaneously in a colony of Japanese macaques (JM) at the Oregon National Primate Research Center. Animals with JME display clinical signs resembling multiple sclerosis (MS), and magnetic resonance imaging reveals multiple T2-weighted hyperintensities and gadolinium-enhancing lesions in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we undertook studies to determine if JME possesses features of an immune-mediated disease in the CNS. Comparable to MS, the CNS of animals with JME contain active lesions positive for IL-17, CD4+ T cells with Th1 and Th17 phenotypes, CD8+ T cells, and positive CSF findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. STUDIES ON EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lester S.

    1938-01-01

    The action of the virus of equine encephalomyelitis in the guinea pig brain has been studied, and various histological changes have been described in detail. After peripheral inoculation (as in the pad) the earliest detectable pathologic change in the nervous system is the accumulation of leucocytes within the lumen of blood vessels, and the proliferation of the vascular adventitia. This precedes the appearance of any significant perivascular cuffing, and may or may not be accompanied by a few polymorphonuclear leucocytes in the tissue. The typical lesion is a fairly well circumscribed focus of polymorphonuclear leucocytes accompanying the blood vessel changes described above. The leucocytes may be numerous or sparse, and may or may not be accompanied by neuronal destruction. In early cases, before the onset of symptoms, such circumscribed lesions appear in small number irregularly scattered through the gray matter. The neo- and olfactory cortices are the principal sites of predilection, although basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, and lower olfactory centers may also be involved. The hippocampus is much less affected than other parts of the brain. A rough distinction is made between inflammatory and degenerative lesions, a distinction which depends on the relationship between the neuronal destruction and the exudative changes in any given site. These two types are described, and their significance is discussed. After intracerebral inoculation, the inflammatory changes are much less marked than after peripheral inoculation. This is due not to insufficient time for the development of lesions but to a different type of pathological process. Following intracerebral inoculation, there is primary destruction of neurones, involving especially the hippocampus, and also large areas of the neo-cortex. This change, similar to ischemic necrosis, is regarded in part as a non-specific reaction of especially vulnerable tissue. PMID:19870810

  6. Presumptive diagnosis of Avian encephalomyelitis in Japanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A report of Avian encephalomyelitis outbreak in two flocks of adult Japanese quail is presented. High mortalities, tremor, ataxia and lateral recumbency were the prominent clinical signs observed. Absence of gross pathology and microscopic lesions of gliosis, neuronal degeneration, meningitis, congested blood vessel with ...

  7. Epidemiology of Viliuisk encephalomyelitis in Eastern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Suk; Zhdanova, Svetlana N; Vladimirtsev, Vsevolod A; Platonov, Fyodor A; Osakovskiy, Vladimir L; Subbotina, Ekaterina L; Broytman, Oleg; Danilova, Al'bina P; Nikitina, Raisa S; Chepurnov, Alexander A; Krivoshapkin, Vadim G; Gajdusek, D Carleton; Savilov, Yevgeniy D; Garruto, Ralph M; Goldfarb, Lev G

    2010-01-01

    Viliuisk encephalomyelitis is a disorder that starts, in most cases, as an acute meningoencephalitis. Survivors of the acute phase develop a slowly progressing neurologic syndrome characterized by dementia, dysarthria, and spasticity. An epidemic of this disease has been spreading throughout the Yakut Republic of the Russian Federation. Although clinical, neuropathologic, and epidemiologic data suggest infectious etiology, multiple attempts at pathogen isolation have been unsuccessful. Detailed clinical, pathologic, laboratory, and epidemiologic studies have identified 414 patients with definite Viliuisk encephalomyelitis in 15 of 33 administrative regions of the Yakut Republic between 1940 and 1999. All data are documented in a Registry. The average annual Viliuisk encephalomyelitis incidence rate at the height of the epidemic reached 8.8 per 100,000 population and affected predominantly young adults. The initial outbreak occurred in a remote isolated area of the middle reaches of Viliui River; the disease spread to adjacent areas and further in the direction of more densely populated regions. The results suggest that intensified human migration from endemic villages led to the emergence of this disease in new communities. Recent social and demographic changes have presumably contributed to a subsequent decline in disease incidence. Based on the largest known set of diagnostically verified Viliuisk encephalomyelitis cases, we demonstrate how a previously little-known disease that was endemic in a small indigenous population subsequently reached densely populated areas and produced an epidemic involving hundreds of persons.

  8. Autoimmune Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Shounak; Takahashi, Naoki; Chari, Suresh T

    2017-07-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a chronic fibroinflammatory disease of the pancreas that belongs to the spectrum of immunoglobulin G-subclass4-related diseases (IgG4-RD) and typically presents with obstructive jaundice. Idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis (IDCP) is a closely related but distinct disease that mimics AIP radiologically but manifests clinically most commonly as recurrent acute pancreatitis in young individuals with concurrent inflammatory bowel disease. IgG4 levels are often elevated in AIP and normal in IDCP. Histologically, lymphoplasmacytic acinar inflammation and storiform fibrosis are seen in both. In addition, the histologic hallmark of IDCP is the granulocyte epithelial lesion: intraluminal and intraepithelial neutrophils in medium-sized and small ducts with or without granulocytic acinar inflammation often associated with destruction of ductal architecture. Initial treatment of both AIP and IDCP is with oral corticosteroids for duration of 4 weeks followed by a gradual taper. Relapses are common in AIP and relatively uncommon in IDCP, a relatively rare disease for which the natural history is not well understood. For patients with relapsing AIP, treatment with immunomodulators and more recently rituximab has been recommended. Although rare instances of pancreaticobiliary malignancy has been reported in patients with AIP, overall the lifetime risk of developing pancreatic cancer does not appear to be elevated.

  9. Oral Tolerance: Therapeutic Implications for Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. C. Faria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral tolerance is classically defined as the suppression of immune responses to antigens (Ag that have been administered previously by the oral route. Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral Ag. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. Oral Ag induces Th2 (IL-4/IL-10 and Th3 (TGF-β regulatory T cells (Tregs plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and LAP+T cells. Induction of oral tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-β, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB, Flt-3 ligand, anti-CD40 ligand and continuous feeding of Ag. In addition to oral tolerance, nasal tolerance has also been shown to be effective in suppressing inflammatory conditions with the advantage of a lower dose requirement. Oral and nasal tolerance suppress several animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE, uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis and diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, colitis and stroke. Oral tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including MS, arthritis, uveitis and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to DNCB, nickel allergy. Positive results have been observed in phase II trials and new trials for arthritis, MS and diabetes are underway. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time and Ag-specific mechanism of action. The successful application of oral tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus oral, formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy and early therapy.

  10. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Antico, Antonio; Villalta, Danilo

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastric neoplasms: intestinal type and type I gastric carcinoid. Here, we review the association of autoimmune gastritis with gastric cancer and other autoimmune features present in gastric neoplasms. PMID:29373557

  11. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Bizzaro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastric neoplasms: intestinal type and type I gastric carcinoid. Here, we review the association of autoimmune gastritis with gastric cancer and other autoimmune features present in gastric neoplasms.

  12. Regulatory T-cells and autoimmunity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Choileain, Niamh

    2012-02-03

    Approximately 20% of the population is affected by autoimmune or inflammatory diseases mediated by an abnormal immune response. A characteristic feature of autoimmune disease is the selective targeting of a single cell type, organ or tissue by certain populations of autoreactive T-cells. Examples of such diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), all of which are characterized by chronic inflammation, tissue destruction and target organ malfunction. Although strong evidence links most autoimmune diseases to specific genes, considerable controversy prevails regarding the role of regulatory T-cell populations in the disease process. These cells are now also believed to play a key role in mediating transplantation tolerance and inhibiting the induction of tumor immunity. Though the concept of therapeutic immune regulation aimed at treating autoimmune pathology has been validated in many animal models, the development of strategies for the treatment of human autoimmune disorders remains in its infancy. The main obstacles to this include the conflicting findings of different model systems, as well as the contrasting functions of regulatory T-cells and cytokines involved in the development of such disorders. This review examines the role of regulatory T-cells in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and describes the therapeutic potential of these cells for the prevention of immune-mediated pathologies in the future. Although much remains to be learned about such pathologies, a clearer understanding of the mechanisms by which regulatory T-cells function will undoubtedly lead to exciting new possibilities for immunotherapeutics.

  13. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Bizzaro; Antonio Antico; Danilo Villalta

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastri...

  14. Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebman, Howard A; Weitz, Ilene C

    2017-03-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is an acquired autoimmune disorder resulting in the production of antibodies directed against red blood cell antigens causing shortened erythrocyte survival. The disorders can present as a primary disorder (idiopathic) or secondary to other autoimmune disorders, malignancies, or infections. Treatment involves immune modulation with corticosteroids and other agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Progressive Encephalomyelitis With Rigidity: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraba, Ranka; Jušić, Anica; Sruk, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objective: The most prominent clinical features of progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity (PER) are painful spasms and rigidity accompanied by clinical signs of brainstem and spinal cord involvement. In initial reports, PER had fatal outcome. Later, clinical improvement related to corticosteroid therapy has been described in some cases. The objective of this study was to signify a reputed clinical significance of corticosteroid therapy in PER. Methods: Case report. Results: A 50-year-old man developed progressive syndrome of tonic extensor spasms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed areas of signal changes in cervical spinal cord and lower brainstem, whereas cerebrospinal fluid analysis indicated subacute encephalomyelitis. His condition dramatically improved on oral corticosteroid therapy. Clinical improvement was accompanied by normalization of MRI findings. Conclusion: For this patient with PER, corticosteroid therapy was a dramatically effective and life-saving treatment, although initiated rather late in the course of the disease. PMID:20397447

  16. Distinct Immune Responses in Resistant and Susceptible Strains of Mice during Neurovirulent Alphavirus Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcsar, Kirsten A; Baxter, Victoria K; Abraham, Rachy; Nelson, Ashley; Griffin, Diane E

    2015-08-01

    Susceptibility to alphavirus encephalomyelitis is dependent on a variety of factors, including the genetic background of the host. Neuroadapted Sindbis virus (NSV) causes uniformly fatal disease in adult C57BL/6 (B6) mice, but adult BALB/c (Bc) mice recover from infection. In B6 mice, fatal encephalomyelitis is immune mediated rather than a direct result of virus infection. To identify the immunological determinants of host susceptibility to fatal NSV-induced encephalomyelitis, we compared virus titers and immune responses in adult B6 and Bc mice infected intranasally with NSV. B6 mice had higher levels of virus replication, higher levels of type I interferon (IFN), and slower virus clearance than did Bc mice. B6 mice had more neuronal apoptosis, more severe neurologic disease, and higher mortality than Bc mice. B6 mice had more infiltration of inflammatory cells and higher levels of IL1b, IL-6, TNFa, Csf2, and CCL2 mRNAs and interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IFN-γ, and C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2) protein in brains than Bc mice. However, Bc mice had more brain antibody at day 7 and a higher percentage of CD4(+) T cells. CD4(+) T cells in the brains of Bc mice included fewer Th17 cells and more regulatory T cells (Tregs) producing IL-10 than B6 mice, accompanied by higher levels of Il2 and Cxcl10 mRNAs. In the absence of IL-10, resistant Bc mice became susceptible to fatal encephalomyelitis after NSV infection. These studies demonstrate the importance of the immune response and its regulation in determining host survival during alphavirus encephalomyelitis. Mosquito-borne alphavirus infections are an important cause of encephalomyelitis in humans. The severity of disease is dependent both on the strain of the virus and on the age and genetic background of the host. A neurovirulent strain of Sindbis virus causes immune-mediated fatal encephalomyelitis in adult C57BL/6 mice but not in BALB/c mice. To determine the host-dependent immunological

  17. A monoclonal antibody to alpha 4-integrin reverses the MR-detectable signs of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, S J; Karlik, S J; Rice, G P; Horner, H C

    1995-01-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the CNS characterized by blood-brain barrier breakdown, cerebral edema formation, lymphocyte infiltration, and demyelination, and is used as an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). MR imaging is important for the diagnosis of MS and for the evaluation of potential new therapies. In this study, T2-weighted and T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR imaging was used to evaluate the effectiveness of an antiadhesion therapy in EAE. Leukocyte-endothelial adhesion at the blood-brain barrier is considered an essential step in the mediation of CNS leukocyte infiltration in EAE. AN100226m, a monoclonal antibody to alpha 4 integrin has been previously shown to reverse the clinical and histologic signs of EAE by blocking this interaction. In the present study, AN100226m treatment in acute EAE significantly decreased contrast enhancement of the CNS parenchyma indicating closure of the blood-brain barrier. The percentage of pixels due to leakage of contrast material in T1-weighted images decreased to < 4% in AN100226m-treated animals whereas it was increased to 15% in control animals (P < .05, Mann-Whitney rank sum test). A decrease in CNS abnormalities associated with cerebral edema and inflammation was also observed on T2-weighted images (P < .05, Mann-Whitney rank sum test). Thus, an antibody to alpha 4 integrin reversed the blood-brain barrier permeability changes characteristic of acute EAE. In addition, the further accumulation of inflammatory edema was prevented and preexisting edema was resolved.

  18. Interleukin 10 modulation of pathogenic Th17 cells during fatal alphavirus encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcsar, Kirsten A; Baxter, Victoria K; Greene, Ivorlyne P; Griffin, Diane E

    2014-11-11

    Mosquito-borne alphaviruses are important causes of epidemic encephalomyelitis. Neuronal cell death during fatal alphavirus encephalomyelitis is immune-mediated; however, the types of cells involved and their regulation have not been determined. We show that the virus-induced inflammatory response was accompanied by production of the regulatory cytokine IL-10, and in the absence of IL-10, paralytic disease occurred earlier and mice died faster. To determine the reason for accelerated disease in the absence of IL-10, immune responses in the CNS of IL-10(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice were compared. There were no differences in the amounts of brain inflammation or peak virus replication; however, IL-10(-/-) animals had accelerated and increased infiltration of CD4(+)IL-17A(+) and CD4(+)IL-17A(+)IFNγ(+) cells compared with WT animals. Th17 cells infiltrating the brain demonstrated a pathogenic phenotype with the expression of the transcription factor, Tbet, and the production of granzyme B, IL-22, and GM-CSF, with greater production of GM-CSF in IL-10(-/-) mice. Therefore, in fatal alphavirus encephalomyelitis, pathogenic Th17 cells enter the CNS at the onset of neurologic disease and, in the absence of IL-10, appear earlier, develop into Th1/Th17 cells more often, and have greater production of GM-CSF. This study demonstrates a role for pathogenic Th17 cells in fatal viral encephalitis.

  19. Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus: the first pediatric case with glycine receptor antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damásio, Joana; Leite, M Isabel; Coutinho, Ester; Waters, Patrick; Woodhall, Mark; Santos, Manuela A; Carrilho, Inês; Vincent, Angela

    2013-04-01

    Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus is characterized by rigidity, painful muscle spasms, hyperekplexia, and brainstem signs. Recently, glycine receptor alpha 1 antibodies have been described in adult patients with progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus. We describe a pediatric case. A 14-month-old child developed startle-induced episodes of generalized rigidity and myoclonus, axial hyperextension, and trismus, without impairment of consciousness. Episodes occurred during wakefulness and sleep, lasted seconds, and were accompanied by moaning, tachypnea, and oxygen desaturation. Imaging, cerebrospinal fluid, endocrine, metabolic, and genetic screening findings were normal or negative. She was treated with intravenous steroids and immunoglobulins with resolution of symptoms, but she relapsed weeks later. At this time, episodes were more severe. Glycine receptor alpha 1 antibodies were found in serum (titer of 1:200, later 1:320) and cerebrospinal fluid (titer of 1:2). Treatment was restarted with intravenous steroids and immunoglobulins, with major improvement, and she began treatment with oral steroids. She had 4 milder relapses, with improvement after treatment adjustments. To our knowledge, this is the first pediatric case of progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus associated with glycine receptor alpha 1 antibodies, a potentially severe but treatable antibody-mediated neurological disorder.

  20. Hyper Acute Demyelinating Encephalomyelitis of Childhood: A Rare Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Suman; Gupta, Ashutosh; Agarwal, Neha; Chaturvedi, Sujata; Jha, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    A young child with catastrophic neurological illness diagnosed as a rare variant of acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM). She succumbed to her illness despite of aggressive and appropriate management. Malignant demyelinating encephalomyelitis should be considered in children who are refractory to the treatment of ADEM.

  1. Autoimmune hepatitis: an uncommon presentation of thymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendogni, Paolo; Rosso, Lorenzo; Tosi, Davide; Palleschi, Alessandro; Righi, Ilaria; Minonzio, Francesca; Fusco, Nicola; Nosotti, Mario

    2016-11-11

    In a substantial proportion of patients with thymoma, many different types of paraneoplastic syndromes are observed. The association between thymoma and autoimmune liver diseases, however, has been found in very few cases. We report the case of a 31-year-old man affected by autoimmune hepatitis associated with myasthenia gravis and thymoma, successfully treated with extended thymectomy. The patient is free from neoplastic and hepatic disease 4 years after surgery. Eighteen months after thymectomy, an exacerbation of hepatitis was successfully treated with steroids. To the authors' knowledge, only 7 cases of myasthenia gravis associated with thymoma and autoimmune hepatitis have been reported in the English-language literature. The exact role of thymoma in immune-mediated hepatitis is unclear. It seems likely that thymoma-associated T-cell abnormalities, due to the presence of thymoma, may have a role in the development of this rare clinical triad of autoimmune hepatitis, thymoma and myasthenia gravis.

  2. Rhesus anti-D immunoglobulin in chronic autoimmune neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, AEJ; van der Hoeven, JH

    Objective - To investigate the effect of Rhesus anti-D immunoglobulin (anti-D) in patients with an autoimmune demyelinating neuropathy. Material and methods - Three patients with an autoimmune mediated neuropathy received 1000 IU anti-D weekly for 2 months. Results - Two patients worsened gradually

  3. Sirolimus for Autoimmune Disease of Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Autoimmune Pancytopenia; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS); Evans Syndrome; Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune; Autoimmune Neutropenia; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Rheumatoid Arthritis

  4. Hepatocyte growth factor mediates mesenchymal stem cell–induced recovery in multiple sclerosis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lianhua; Lennon, Donald P; Caplan, Arnold I; DeChant, Anne; Hecker, Jordan; Kranso, Janet; Zaremba, Anita; Miller, Robert H

    2012-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a potential therapy for a range of neural insults. In animal models of multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disease that targets oligodendrocytes and myelin, treatment with human MSCs results in functional improvement that reflects both modulation of the immune response and myelin repair. Here we demonstrate that conditioned medium from human MSCs (MSC-CM) reduces functional deficits in mouse MOG35–55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and promotes the development of oligodendrocytes and neurons. Functional assays identified hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its primary receptor cMet as critical in MSC-stimulated recovery in EAE, neural cell development and remyelination. Active MSC-CM contained HGF, and exogenously supplied HGF promoted recovery in EAE, whereas cMet and antibodies to HGF blocked the functional recovery mediated by HGF and MSC-CM. Systemic treatment with HGF markedly accelerated remyelination in lysolecithin-induced rat dorsal spinal cord lesions and in slice cultures. Together these data strongly implicate HGF in mediating MSC-stimulated functional recovery in animal models of multiple sclerosis.

  5. Autoimmune Disease in Children and Adolescents with Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blegvad, Christoffer; Egeberg, Alexander; Tind Nielsen, Tilde E.

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease, which, in studies among adults, have been shown to cluster with autoimmune disease. The aim of this cross-sectional register study was to examine possible associations between 9 pre-selected autoimmune diseases and psoriasis in children...... arthritis (adjusted OR 6.61; 2.75-15.87) and vitiligo (adjusted OR 4.76; 1.71-13.20) showed strong associations with psoriasis. In addition to increased risk of selected autoimmune diseases, the presence of psoriasis was associated with increased risk of multiple concurrent autoimmune diseases compared...

  6. GCN2 and FGF21 are likely mediators of the protection from cancer, autoimmunity, obesity, and diabetes afforded by vegan diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2014-09-01

    Third World quasi-vegan cultures have been characterized by low risks for "Western" cancers, autoimmune disorders, obesity, and diabetes. The relatively low essential amino acid contents of many vegan diets may play a role in this regard. It is proposed that such diets modestly activate the kinase GCN2 - a physiological detector of essential amino acid paucity - within the liver, resulting in up-regulated production of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). FGF21, by opposing the stimulatory effect of growth hormone on hepatic IGF-I production, may be responsible for the down-regulation of plasma IGF-I observed in vegans consuming diets of modest protein content. Decreased IGF-I bioactivity throughout life can be expected to have a favorable impact on cancer risk, as observed in rodents that are calorie restricted or genetically defective in IGF-I activity. Increased FGF21 in vegans might also contribute to their characteristic leanness and low LDL cholesterol by promoting hepatic lipid oxidation while inhibiting lipogenesis. Direct trophic effects of FGF21 on pancreatic beta-cells may help to explain the low risk for diabetes observed in vegans, and the utility of vegan diets in diabetes management. And up-regulation of GCN2 in immune cells, by boosting T regulatory activity, might play some role in the reduced risk for autoimmunity reported in some quasi-vegan cultures. The fact that bone density tends to be no greater in vegans than omnivores, despite consumption of a more "alkaline" diet, might be partially attributable to the fact that FGF21 opposes osteoblastogenesis and decreases IGF-I. If these speculations have merit, it should be possible to demonstrate that adoption of a vegan diet of modest protein content increases plasma FGF21 levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of CD8^+ T Cells in Murine Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Sheng-Le; Pernis, Benvenuto

    1992-05-01

    The course of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis, is affected by immunoregulatory T lymphocytes. When animals are immunized with encephalitogenic peptide of myelin basic protein and recover from the first episode of EAE, they become resistant to a second induction of this disease. Animals depleted of CD8^+ T cells by antibody-mediated clearance were used to examine the role of CD8^+ T cells in EAE. These cells were found to be major participants in the resistance to a second induction of EAE but were not essential for spontaneous recovery from the first episode of the disease.

  8. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies (ANCA) in autoimmune liver diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, C.; Kallenberg, Cees

    1999-01-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA) are autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of neutrophil granulocytes and monocytes. ANCA have been detected in serum from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (mainly ulcerative colitis) and autoimmune mediated liver diseases

  9. Diagnosis and Management of the Overlap Syndromes of Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert J Czaja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hepatitis may have cholestatic features that are outside the classical phenotype and that resemble findings in other immune-mediated liver diseases. These cholestatic phenotypes have been designated ‘overlap syndromes’.

  10. The MicroRNA-21 in Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaowen; Wan, Xiaochun; Ruan, Qingguo

    2016-06-03

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is an oncomiR and significantly upregulated in a wide range of cancers. It is strongly involved in apoptosis and oncogenesis, since most of its reported targets are tumor suppressors. Recently, miR-21 was found to be correlated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and may play an essential role in regulating autoimmune responses. In particular, miR-21 promotes Th17 cell differentiation, which mediates the development of multiple autoimmune diseases. In this article, we review the current research on the mechanisms that regulate miR-21 expression, the potential of miR-21 as a diagnostic biomarker for autoimmune disease and the mechanisms by which miR-21 promotes the development of autoimmune disease. We also discussed the therapeutic potential of targeting miR-21 in treating patients with autoimmune disease.

  11. [Thymoma and autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilloux, Y; Frih, H; Bernard, C; Broussolle, C; Petiot, P; Girard, N; Sève, P

    2018-01-01

    The association between thymoma and autoimmunity is well known. Besides myasthenia gravis, which is found in 15 to 20% of patients with thymoma, other autoimmune diseases have been reported: erythroblastopenia, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory myopathies, thyroid disorders, Isaac's syndrome or Good's syndrome. More anecdotally, Morvan's syndrome, limbic encephalitis, other autoimmune cytopenias, autoimmune hepatitis, and bullous skin diseases (pemphigus, lichen) have been reported. Autoimmune diseases occur most often before thymectomy, but they can be discovered at the time of surgery or later. Two situations require the systematic investigation of a thymoma: the occurrence of myasthenia gravis or autoimmune erythroblastopenia. Nevertheless, the late onset of systemic lupus erythematosus or the association of several autoimmune manifestations should lead to look for a thymoma. Neither the characteristics of the patients nor the pathological data can predict the occurrence of an autoimmune disease after thymectomy. Thus, thymectomy usefulness in the course of the autoimmune disease, except myasthenia gravis, has not been demonstrated. This seems to indicate the preponderant role of self-reactive T lymphocytes distributed in the peripheral immune system prior to surgery. Given the high infectious morbidity in patients with thymoma, immunoglobulin replacement therapy should be considered in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia who receive immunosuppressive therapy, even in the absence of prior infection. Copyright © 2017 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Bistability in autoimmune diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas; Mosekilde, Erik; Lund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases damage host tissue, which, in turn, may trigger a stronger immune response. Systems characterized by such positive feedback loops can display co-existing stable steady states. In a mathematical model of autoimmune disease, one steady state may correspond to the healthy state...... and another to an autoimmune steady state characterized by widespread tissue damage and immune activation. We show how a triggering event may move the system from the healthy to the autoimmune state and how transient immunosuppressive treatment can move the system back to the healthy state....

  13. Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and encephalomyelitis disseminata/multiple sclerosis show remarkable levels of similarity in phenomenology and neuroimmune characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Encephalomyelitis disseminata’ (multiple sclerosis) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are both classified as diseases of the central nervous system by the World Health Organization. This review aims to compare the phenomenological and neuroimmune characteristics of MS with those of ME/CFS. Discussion There are remarkable phenomenological and neuroimmune overlaps between both disorders. Patients with ME/CFS and MS both experience severe levels of disabling fatigue and a worsening of symptoms following exercise and resort to energy conservation strategies in an attempt to meet the energy demands of day-to-day living. Debilitating autonomic symptoms, diminished cardiac responses to exercise, orthostatic intolerance and postural hypotension are experienced by patients with both illnesses. Both disorders show a relapsing-remitting or progressive course, while infections and psychosocial stress play a large part in worsening of fatigue symptoms. Activated immunoinflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative (O+NS) pathways and autoimmunity occur in both illnesses. The consequences of O+NS damage to self-epitopes is evidenced by the almost bewildering and almost identical array of autoantibodies formed against damaged epitopes seen in both illnesses. Mitochondrial dysfunctions, including lowered levels of ATP, decreased phosphocreatine synthesis and impaired oxidative phosphorylation, are heavily involved in the pathophysiology of both MS and ME/CFS. The findings produced by neuroimaging techniques are quite similar in both illnesses and show decreased cerebral blood flow, atrophy, gray matter reduction, white matter hyperintensities, increased cerebral lactate and choline signaling and lowered acetyl-aspartate levels. Summary This review shows that there are neuroimmune similarities between MS and ME/CFS. This further substantiates the view that ME/CFS is a neuroimmune illness and that patients with MS are immunologically primed to

  14. MRI in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following Semple antirabies vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, J.M.K. [Department of Neurology, Nizam`s Institute of Medical Sciences, Panjagutta, Hyderabad (India)

    1998-07-01

    I reviewed MRI findings in five patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following vaccination with Semple antirabies vaccine. MRI in two patients with encephalitis features showed multiple white matter lesions in the cerebrum, cerebellar peduncles and brain stem. Two patients who had features of cord involvement showed signal alterations in the cord extending over a few segments. Asymptomatic lesions in the cerebrum were seen in two patients. In a patient with encephalomyelitis MRI 50 days later showed resolution of the lesions. The white matter lesions described were indistinguishable from those seen in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following other infections. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 26 refs.

  15. CXCL1 can be regulated by IL-6 and promotes granulocyte adhesion to brain capillaries during bacterial toxin exposure and encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Monica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granulocytes generally exert protective roles in the central nervous system (CNS, but recent studies suggest that they can be detrimental in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the most common model of multiple sclerosis. While the cytokines and adhesion molecules involved in granulocyte adhesion to the brain vasculature have started to be elucidated, the required chemokines remain undetermined. Methods CXCR2 ligand expression was examined in the CNS of mice suffering from EAE or exposed to bacterial toxins by quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. CXCL1 expression was analyzed in IL-6-treated endothelial cell cultures by quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA. Granulocytes were counted in the brain vasculature after treatment with a neutralizing anti-CXCL1 antibody using stereological techniques. Results CXCL1 was the most highly expressed ligand of the granulocyte receptor CXCR2 in the CNS of mice subjected to EAE or infused with lipopolysaccharide (LPS or pertussis toxin (PTX, the latter being commonly used to induce EAE. IL-6 upregulated CXCL1 expression in brain endothelial cells by acting transcriptionally and mediated the stimulatory effect of PTX on CXCL1 expression. The anti-CXCL1 antibody reduced granulocyte adhesion to brain capillaries in the three conditions under study. Importantly, it attenuated EAE severity when given daily for a week during the effector phase of the disease. Conclusions This study identifies CXCL1 not only as a key regulator of granulocyte recruitment into the CNS, but also as a new potential target for the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

  16. Psoriasis as an autoimmune disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Owczarczyk-Saczonek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is known that psoriasis belongs to the group of autoimmune diseases and may coexist with other diseases in this group. Most often patients have psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune thyroid diseases and multiple sclerosis. The coexistence of these disorders can be a diagnostic and therapeutic problem (there is controversy over the use of corticosteroids. The common pathogenesis is still not explained. We know that the loss of immunotolerance leads to formation of autoreactive Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes which recognize self-antigens and lead to their destruction in the target organ. Some features of immune mechanisms, observed in psoriasis, suggest its autoimmune background. In psoriasis the main role is played by the activation of the axis IL-12/Th1/IFN- and Th17/Il-23. Il-12 probably acts on naive T cells and the Th1 response is initiated. Il-23 maintains the Th1-mediated inflammatory reaction, stimulates maturation and effects of Th17, and maintains a certain amount of memory cells. We also observe dysfunction of Treg cells, which are responsible for the destruction of autoreactive lymphocytes. In addition, psoriatic keratinocytes have increased resistance to apoptosis, which eliminate damaged cells so that they cannot be recognized as a foreign antigen. However, researchers have suggested that initially the polyclonal activation of T lymphocytes is induced by superantigens (e.g. streptococcal M protein, peptidoglycan or skin trauma (Koebner phenomenon, whereas in the later phase self-antigens in the epidermis are recognized by autoreactive T cells (keratin K 17, HPV 5 proteins L1, Pso p27, leading to autoimmunity.

  17. American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... List Common Thread Women & Autoimmunity Diagnosis Tips Coping Tools Support Groups Education Modules Caregivers Patient/Caregiver Relationship The Male Caregiver AD Knowledge Base Autoimmune Disease List Common ...

  18. THE AUTOIMMUNE ECOLOGY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Manuel eAnaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases (ADs represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. These conditions share common immunopathogenic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology, which explain the clinical similarities they have among them as well as their familial clustering (i.e., coaggregation. As part of the autoimmune tautology, the influence of environmental exposure on the risk of developing ADs is paramount (i.e., the autoimmune ecology. In fact, environment, more than genetics, shapes immune system. Autoimmune ecology is akin to exposome, that is all the exposures - internal and external - across the lifespan, interacting with hereditary factors (both genetics and epigenetics to favor or protect against autoimmunity and its outcomes. Herein we provide an overview of the autoimmune ecology, focusing on the immune response to environmental agents in general, and microbiota, cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, socioeconomic status, gender and sex hormones, vitamin D, organic solvents and vaccines in particular. Inclusion of the autoimmune ecology in disease etiology and health will improve the way personalized medicine is currently conceived and applied.

  19. Update in endocrine autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S

    2008-10-01

    The endocrine system is a common target in pathogenic autoimmune responses, and there has been recent progress in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune endocrine diseases. Rapid progress has recently been made in our understanding of the genetic factors involved in endocrine autoimmune diseases. Studies on monogenic autoimmune diseases that include endocrine phenotypes like autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked have helped reveal the role of key regulators in the maintenance of immune tolerance. Highly powered genetic studies have found and confirmed many new genes outside of the established role of the human leukocyte antigen locus with these diseases, and indicate an essential role of immune response pathways in these diseases. Progress has also been made in identifying new autoantigens and the development of new animal models for the study of endocrine autoimmunity. Finally, although hormone replacement therapy is still likely to be a mainstay of treatment in these disorders, there are new agents being tested for potentially treating and reversing the underlying autoimmune process. Although autoimmune endocrine disorders are complex in etiology, these recent advances should help contribute to improved outcomes for patients with, or at risk for, these disorders.

  20. Diagnosis and classification of autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Garrett F; Tuscano, Emily T; Tuscano, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Uncompensated autoantibody-mediated red blood cell (RBC) consumption is the hallmark of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). Classification of AIHA is pathophysiologically based and divides AIHA into warm, mixed or cold-reactive subtypes. This thermal-based classification is based on the optimal autoantibody-RBC reactivity temperatures. AIHA is further subcategorized into idiopathic and secondary with the later being associated with a number of underlying infectious, neoplastic and autoimmune disorders. In most cases AIHA is confirmed by a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT). The standard therapeutic approaches to treatment of AIHA include corticosteroids, splenectomy, immunosuppressive agents and monoclonal antibodies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis and encephalomyelitis: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shian, W.J. [Department of Pediatrics, Tao-Yuan Veterans Hospital, No. 100, Sec 3, Cheng-Kung Rd, City of Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (Taiwan, Province of China); Chi, C.S. [Department of Pediatrics, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the clinical and brain MR characteristics of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encephalitis and encephalomyelitis. Clinical and 30 MR findings of 29 patients with EBV encephalitis or encephalomyelitis were retrospectively reviewed. Patients included 24 with encephalitis, 3 with encephalomyelitis, and 2 with brain-stem encephalitis. Altered consciousness, seizures, visual hallucination, and acute psychotic reaction were the common presentations. Eight patients had positive MR findings. These included T2 prolongation over gray and white matter, periventricular leukomalacia, and brain atrophy. Transient T2 prolongation over gray and white matter was found in one patient. Our results indicate that EBV encephalitis and encephalomyelitis have a wide range of both clinical and MR findings. The MR lesions may disappear in a short period, so the timing for the MR scan may be critical. (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: Typical Radiologic Findings: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulgarin R, Luis G; Posada A, Marcela; Sanchez M, Luisa C

    2011-01-01

    A 28-year-old female patient developed neurological symptoms after a classical episode of dengue. The physical examination reveled no fever, no neurological focalization, and an altered mental status (Glasgow 12/15). Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. The patient showed clinical improvement following treatment with steroids. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is classically described as a uniphasic syndrome occurring in association with systemic viral infection (parainfectious encephalomyelitis) or immunization or vaccination (post vaccination encephalomyelitis). Pathologically, there is perivascular inflammation, edema, and demyelination within the CNS. Clinically, patients present with rapidly progressing focal or multifocal neurologic dysfunction. The treatment for ADEM is targeted at suppressing inflammation in the brain through the use of anti-inflammatory drugs such as intravenous corticosteroids.

  3. Treatment of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) by a rationally designed cyclic analogue of myelin basic protein (MBP) epitope 72-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselios, T; Daliani, I; Deraos, S; Thymianou, S; Matsoukas, E; Troganis, A; Gerothanassis, I; Mouzaki, A; Mavromoustakos, T; Probert, L; Matsoukas, J

    2000-12-18

    In this report the rational design, synthesis and pharmacological properties of an amide-linked cyclic antagonist analogue of the guinea pig myelin basic protein epitope MBP(72-85) are described. Design of the potent cyclic analogue was based on 2D NOESY nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics studies carried out in the linear antagonist Ala81MBP(72-85). The cyclic antagonist completely prevented the induction of experimental allergic/autoimmune encephalomyelitis when coinjected with linear and cyclic agonist analogues MBP(72-85) and cyclo(2-9)MBP(72-85).

  4. Therapeutic Development of Mesenchymal Stem Cells or Their Extracellular Vesicles to Inhibit Autoimmune-Mediated Inflammatory Processes in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhi Sharma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since being discovered over half a century ago, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been investigated extensively to characterize their cellular and physiological influences. MSCs have been shown to possess immunosuppressive capacity through inhibiting lymphocyte activation/proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine secretion while simultaneously demonstrating limited allogenic reactivity, which subsequently led to the evaluation of therapeutic feasibility to treat inflammatory diseases. Although regulatory constraints have restricted MSC development pharmacologically, limited clinical studies have shown encouraging results using MSC infusions to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; but, more trials will have to be performed to conclusively determine the clinical efficacy of MSCs to treat SLE. Moreover, there are some data to suggest that MSCs possess tumorigenic potential and that the immunosuppressive influence can be dramatically affected by both donor variability and ex vivo expansion. Given that recent studies have found that the immunosuppressive effects of MSCs are a result, at least in part, to extracellular vesicle (EV secretion, the use of MSC-derived EVs has been suggested as a cell-free therapeutic alternative. Despite the positive data observed using EVs isolated from human MSCs to suppress inflammatory responses in vitro and in inhibiting autoimmune disease pathogenesis in preclinical work, there are no studies to date examining EVs from MSCs to treat SLE in humans or animal models. Considering that EVs are not subject to the strict regulatory constraints of stem cell-based pharmacological development and are more readily standardized with regard to industrial-scale production and storage, this review outlines the anti-inflammatory biology of MSCs and the scientific evidence supporting the potential use of EVs derived from human MSCs to treat patients with SLE.

  5. Psoriasis and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticherling, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Psoriasis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory human skin diseases. Though clinically well characterized, the exact etiological and pathogenic mechanisms are still not known in detail. Current knowledge indicates distinct overlap to other inflammatory as well as autoimmune disorders. However, the one or more relevant autoantigens could not be characterized so-far. On the other side, several autoimmune diseases were shown to be associated with psoriasis. In addition, serological autoimmune phenomena, namely diverse circulating specific autoantibodies could be demonstrated in the past. A matter of current debate is if psoriasis is a primary autoimmune disease or secondarily evolving into autoimmunity as seen in other chronic inflammatory diseases. Related to this aspect is the concept of autoinflammation versus autoimmunity where psoriasis shares mechanisms of both entities. Though T-cells remain among the most important cellular players in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and current therapeutic strategies successfully target these cells or their products irrespective of these concepts, autoimmunity if relevant will add to the treatment armamentarium by using protective and prophylactic antigen-specific modalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antibody-Mediated Rejection of the Heart in the Setting of Autoimmune Demyelinating Polyneuropathy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Kathryn J. Lindley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR is caused by the production of donor-specific antibodies (DSA which lead to allograft injury in part via complement activation. The inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies (IDP are inflammatory disorders of the nervous system, involving both cellular and humoral immune mechanisms directed against myelin. Case Report. A 58-year-old man five years after heart transplant presented with progressive dyspnea, imbalance, dysphagia, and weakness. Nerve conduction studies and electromyogram were consistent with IDP. Plasmapheresis and high-dose steroids resulted in improvement in neurologic symptoms. Within two weeks, he was readmitted with anasarca and acute renal failure, requiring intravenous furosemide and inotropic support. Echocardiogram and right heart catheterization revealed reduced cardiac function and elevated filling pressures. DSA was positive against HLA DR53, and endomyocardial biopsy revealed grade 1R chronic inflammation, with strong capillary endothelial immunostaining for C4d. Plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG were initiated. His anasarca and renal failure subsequently resolved, echocardiogram showed improved function off inotropes, and anti-DR53 MFI was reduced by 57%. Conclusions. This is an example of a single immune-mediated process causing concurrent IDP and AMR. The improvement in cardiac function and neurologic symptoms with plasmapheresis, IVIG, and high-dose steroids argues for a unifying antibody-mediated mechanism.

  7. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: What is ME/CFS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CFS? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disabling ...

  8. [Diagnostic Workup and Treatment of Antibody-Related Encephalomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patejdl, R; Winkelmann, A; Ehler, J; Zettl, H; Meister, S; Zettl, U K

    2016-10-01

    The results of laboratory tests for antineuronal antibodies in immune-mediated encephalitis nowadays are not only relevant for diagnostic purposes but are instead closely connected to outcome measures and treatment response. Besides the mere detection of antibodies, investigating the cerebrospinal fluid is indispensible to rule out an infectious etiology of encephalitis prior to the initiation of immunosuppressive treatment, whereas imaging studies are relevant to gain information on the temporal course of disease and for ruling out other etiologies, e. g. hippocampal gliomas. This work gives an overview on the clinical course and findings of laboratory, electroencephalography (EEG) and imaging studies in relevant types of autoimmune mediated encephalitis. Furthermore, it gives a synopsis on contemporary treatment strategies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. [Abdominal pain in progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguier, J; Serratrice, J; Lachaud, A; Belenotti, P; Benyamine, A; Verschueren, A; Boucraut, J; Attarian, S; Weiller, P-J

    2015-04-01

    Stiff-person syndrome is rare neurological disease, associating trunk rigidity and painful muscular spasms. A clinical variant of stiff person syndrome is the progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), which includes neurological cognitive disturbances. We report a 73-year-old woman initially addressed for abdominal pain, anorexia and severe weight-loss, for whom diagnosis of PERM was made. Because of its various clinical presentations, sometimes without evidence for neurological disease, the diagnosis of PERM is delayed. The presence of antineuropile antibodies associated with muscular spasms at electromyogram are strong evidence for this diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Myalgic encephalomyelitis, chronic fatigue syndrome: An infectious disease.

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    Underhill, R A

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis also known as chronic fatigue syndrome or ME/CFS has not been established. Controversies exist over whether it is an organic disease or a psychological disorder and even the existence of ME/CFS as a disease entity is sometimes denied. Suggested causal hypotheses have included psychosomatic disorders, infectious agents, immune dysfunctions, autoimmunity, metabolic disturbances, toxins and inherited genetic factors. Clinical, immunological and epidemiological evidence supports the hypothesis that: ME/CFS is an infectious disease; the causal pathogen persists in patients; the pathogen can be transmitted by casual contact; host factors determine susceptibility to the illness; and there is a population of healthy carriers, who may be able to shed the pathogen. ME/CFS is endemic globally as sporadic cases and occasional cluster outbreaks (epidemics). Cluster outbreaks imply an infectious agent. An abrupt flu-like onset resembling an infectious illness occurs in outbreak patients and many sporadic patients. Immune responses in sporadic patients resemble immune responses in other infectious diseases. Contagion is shown by finding secondary cases in outbreaks, and suggested by a higher prevalence of ME/CFS in sporadic patients' genetically unrelated close contacts (spouses/partners) than the community. Abortive cases, sub-clinical cases, and carrier state individuals were found in outbreaks. The chronic phase of ME/CFS does not appear to be particularly infective. Some healthy patient-contacts show immune responses similar to patients' immune responses, suggesting exposure to the same antigen (a pathogen). The chronicity of symptoms and of immune system changes and the occurrence of secondary cases suggest persistence of a causal pathogen. Risk factors which predispose to developing ME/CFS are: a close family member with ME/CFS; inherited genetic factors; female gender; age; rest/activity; previous exposure to stress or toxins

  11. Stress proteins, autoimmunity, and autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, J B; Jarjour, W N

    1991-01-01

    At birth, the immune system is biased toward recognition of microbial antigens in order to protect the host from infection. Recent data suggest that an important initial line of defense in this regard involves autologous stress proteins, especially conserved peptides of hsp60, which are presented to T cells bearing gamma delta receptors by relatively nonpolymorphic class lb molecules. Natural antibodies may represent a parallel B cell mechanism. Through an evolving process of "physiological" autoreactivity and selection by immunodominant stress proteins common to all prokaryotes, B and T cell repertoires expand during life to meet the continuing challenge of infection. Because stress proteins of bacteria are homologous with stress proteins of the host, there exists in genetically susceptible individuals a constant risk of autoimmune disease due to failure of mechanisms for self-nonself discrimination. That stress proteins actually play a role in autoimmune processes is supported by a growing body of evidence which, collectively, suggests that autoreactivity in chronic inflammatory arthritis involves, at least initially, gamma delta cells which recognize epitopes of the stress protein hsp60. Alternate mechanisms for T cell stimulation by stress proteins undoubtedly also exist, e.g., molecular mimicry of the DR beta third hypervariable region susceptibility locus for rheumatoid arthritis by a DnaJ stress protein epitope in gram-negative bacteria. While there still is confusion with respect to the most relevant stress protein epitopes, a central role for stress proteins in the etiology of arthritis appears likely. Furthermore, insight derived from the work thus far in adjuvant-induced arthritis already is stimulating analyses of related phenomena in autoimmune diseases other than those involving joints. Only limited data are available in the area of humoral autoimmunity to stress proteins. Autoantibodies to a number of stress proteins have been identified in SLE and

  12. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: A Review of Eleven Cases in Childhood in North of Iran

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    Ali Nikkhah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder. The pathogenesis is unclear, but it is thought to be immune-mediated. The prognosis is favorable, with most children making a full recovery. Objectives: The present report analyzed different clinical presentations, response to treatment and outcome in a series of 11 patients with ADEM who referred to our tertiary center in north of Iran from 2010 to 2014. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective simple descriptive review, eleven cases with ADEM admitted in the neurology ward from 2010 to 2014 were enrolled. The clinical findings and laboratory and imaging results of patients were reviewed. All of these cases were evaluated with neurological examination, serologic tests for bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis (especially, herpes simplex virus and brain MRI without contrast. After discharge, patients were followed for at least six months (6 to 12 months clinically and radiologically. Results: Of 11 children, 8 were male and 3 female. Their ages ranged between 4 and 10 years. The mean interval between the preceding infection and symptoms of encephalomyelitis was nine days. The most common presenting symptoms were ataxia in 45.4%, fever and headache in 36.4% and altered consciousness in 18.2% of patients. Neurological examination revealed pyramidal motor signs such as brisk deep tendon reflexes (hyperreflexia (81.8%, cranial nerve involvement (18.2%, dysarthria (9.1% and abnormal movements (9.1%. We followed up these patients in long-term for 6 to 12 months. Only in 1 child who received IVIG, mild ataxia had reminded. Conclusions: The prognosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is favorable. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of ADEM would probably reduce morbidity.

  13. Vaccines, adjuvants and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Luísa Eça; Baker, Britain; Perricone, Carlo; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines and autoimmunity are linked fields. Vaccine efficacy is based on whether host immune response against an antigen can elicit a memory T-cell response over time. Although the described side effects thus far have been mostly transient and acute, vaccines are able to elicit the immune system towards an autoimmune reaction. The diagnosis of a definite autoimmune disease and the occurrence of fatal outcome post-vaccination have been less frequently reported. Since vaccines are given to previously healthy hosts, who may have never developed the disease had they not been immunized, adverse events should be carefully accessed and evaluated even if they represent a limited number of occurrences. In this review of the literature, there is evidence of vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in both experimental models as well as human patients. Adjuvants and infectious agents may exert their immune-enhancing effects through various functional activities, encompassed by the adjuvant effect. These mechanisms are shared by different conditions triggered by adjuvants leading to the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome). In conclusion, there are several case reports of autoimmune diseases following vaccines, however, due to the limited number of cases, the different classifications of symptoms and the long latency period of the diseases, every attempt for an epidemiological study has so far failed to deliver a connection. Despite this, efforts to unveil the connection between the triggering of the immune system by adjuvants and the development of autoimmune conditions should be undertaken. Vaccinomics is a field that may bring to light novel customized, personalized treatment approaches in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Kunjin flaviviral encephalomyelitis in an Arabian gelding in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, S Y; Horadagoda, N; Mogg, T D

    2012-08-01

    Flaviviruses, including Kunjin virus, are arboviruses that cause encephalomyelitis in humans and horses. This case report describes an Arabian gelding exhibiting neurological signs of flavivirus encephalomyelitis, the diagnostic investigation and confirmation of an unreported case of Kunjin virus equine encephalomyelitis in Australia. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. Prolactin and Autoimmunity

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    Vânia Vieira Borba

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The great asymmetry of autoimmune diseases between genders represents one of the most enigmatic observations among the mosaic of autoimmunity. Sex hormones are believed to play a crucial role on this dimorphism. The higher prevalence of autoimmunity among women at childbearing ages, disease onset/relapses during pregnancy, and post-partum are some of the arguments that support this hypothesis. Certainly, motherhood represents one of the most remarkable challenges for the immune system, which not only has to allow for the conceptus, but also has to deal with complex endocrine alterations. Hormonal homeostasis is known to exert a crucial influence in achieving a competent and healthy immune system. Prolactin (PRL has a bioactive function acting as a hormone and a cytokine. It interferes with immune system modulation, mainly inhibiting the negative selection of autoreactive B lymphocytes. Likewise, hyperprolactinemia has been described in relation to the pathogenesis and activity of several autoimmune disorders. Dopamine is an effective inhibitor of PRL secretion due to either a direct influence on the hypophysis or stimulation of postsynaptic dopamine receptors in the hypothalamus, arousing the release of the PRL inhibitory factor. Hence, dopamine agonists have proven to offer clinical benefits among autoimmune patients and represent a promising therapy to be explored. In this review, we attempt to provide a critical overview of the link between PRL, autoimmune diseases, and motherhood.

  16. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, a rare post-malaria neurological complication: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Joana; Casella, Isabel; Ascenção, Bianca Branco; Luis, Nuno Pinto; Gonçalves, Ana Catarina; Brito, Ana Paula; Sá, Joana Estalagem; Parreira, Mário; Lopes, Delfim; Poças, José

    2018-03-21

    There are four neurological complications that can occur after malaria treatment at a time when the patient is aparasitaemic: delayed cerebellar ataxia, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, post-malaria neurological syndrome and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). The authors describe a case of a 54-year-old male who presented with encephalopathy and generalized seizures forty-three days after complete recovery from acute malaria by Plasmodium falciparum. Diagnosis of post-malaria ADEM was made based on the acute onset of the neurological symptoms, characteristic findings in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and prompt response to steroid therapy. ADEM is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that usually arises after an infection or vaccination. Its occurrence after malaria infection is relatively rare, and to the best of our knowledge there are only thirteen cases described in the literature. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Interleukin-10 overexpression promotes Fas-ligand-dependent chronic macrophage-mediated demyelinating polyneuropathy.

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    Dru S Dace

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Demyelinating polyneuropathy is a debilitating, poorly understood disease that can exist in acute (Guillain-Barré syndrome or chronic forms. Interleukin-10 (IL-10, although traditionally considered an anti-inflammatory cytokine, has also been implicated in promoting abnormal angiogenesis in the eye and in the pathobiology of autoimmune diseases such as lupus and encephalomyelitis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overexpression of IL-10 in a transgenic mouse model leads to macrophage-mediated demyelinating polyneuropathy. IL-10 upregulates ICAM-1 within neural tissues, promoting massive macrophage influx, inflammation-induced demyelination, and subsequent loss of neural tissue resulting in muscle weakness and paralysis. The primary insult is to perineural myelin followed by secondary axonal loss. Infiltrating macrophages within the peripheral nerves demonstrate a highly pro-inflammatory signature. Macrophages are central players in the pathophysiology, as in vivo depletion of macrophages using clodronate liposomes reverses the phenotype, including progressive nerve loss and paralysis. Macrophage-mediate demyelination is dependent on Fas-ligand (FasL-mediated Schwann cell death. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings mimic the human disease chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP and may also promote further understanding of the pathobiology of related conditions such as acute idiopathic demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP or Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  18. Triggers and drivers of autoimmunity: lessons from coeliac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollid, Ludvig M.; Jabri, Bana

    2013-01-01

    Preface Coeliac disease, an inflammatory disease of the small intestine, shares key features with autoimmune disorders, such as susceptibility genes, presence of autoantibodies and T cell-mediated destruction of specific cells. Strikingly, however, continuous exposure to the exogenous dietary antigen gluten and gluten-specific adaptive immunity are required to maintain immunopathology. These observations challenge the notion that autoimmunity requires adaptive immune activation towards self-antigens. Using coeliac disease as an example, we propose that other exogenous factors might be identified as drivers of autoimmune processes, in particular when evidence for T cells with specificity for self-antigens is lacking. PMID:23493116

  19. Tubulointerstitial Nephritis in a Patient With Probable Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Mia; Herlin, Troels; Rittig, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is caused by a nonmalignant defective Fas-mediated apoptosis. The main clinical manifestations are chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and autoimmune cytopenia. Most patients with ALPS have a FAS germline mutation. ALPS has occasionally been......-vessel vasculitis with normal glomeruli and inflammation in the interstitium. The patient responded to prednisolone treatment and obtained a full renal recovery. Symptoms of connective tissue disorder supervened and after the development of more pronounced splenomegaly, a diagnosis of ALPS was confirmed....

  20. Alphavirus Encephalomyelitis: Mechanisms and Approaches to Prevention of Neuronal Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Diane E

    2016-07-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses are important causes of death and long-term neurologic disability due to encephalomyelitis. Studies of mice infected with the alphavirus Sindbis virus have shown that outcome is dependent on the age and genetic background of the mouse and virulence of the infecting virus. Age-dependent susceptibility reflects the acquisition by neurons of resistance to virus replication and virus-induced cell death with maturation. In mature mice, the populations of neurons most susceptible to infection are in the hippocampus and anterior horn of the spinal cord. Hippocampal infection leads to long-term memory deficits in mice that survive, while motor neuron infection can lead to paralysis and death. Neuronal death is immune-mediated, rather than a direct consequence of virus infection, and associated with entry and differentiation of pathogenic T helper 17 cells in the nervous system. To modulate glutamate excitotoxicity, mice were treated with an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonists or a glutamine antagonist. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 protected hippocampal neurons but not motor neurons, and mice still became paralyzed and died. α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonists GYKI-52466 and talampanel protected both hippocampal and motor neurons and prevented paralysis and death. Glutamine antagonist 6-diazo-5-l-norleucine protected hippocampal neurons and improved memory generation in mice surviving infection with an avirulent virus. Surprisingly, in all cases protection was associated with inhibition of the antiviral immune response, reduced entry of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system, and delayed virus clearance, emphasizing the importance of treatment approaches that include prevention of immunopathologic damage.

  1. Human neutrophils in auto-immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieblemont, Nathalie; Wright, Helen L; Edwards, Steven W; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    Human neutrophils have great capacity to cause tissue damage in inflammatory diseases via their inappropriate activation to release reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteases and other tissue-damaging molecules. Furthermore, activated neutrophils can release a wide variety of cytokines and chemokines that can regulate almost every element of the immune system. In addition to these important immuno-regulatory processes, activated neutrophils can also release, expose or generate neoepitopes that have the potential to break immune tolerance and result in the generation of autoantibodies, that characterise a number of human auto-immune diseases. For example, in vasculitis, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) that are directed against proteinase 3 or myeloperoxidase are neutrophil-derived autoantigens and activated neutrophils are the main effector cells of vascular damage. In other auto-immune diseases, these neutrophil-derived neoepitopes may arise from a number of processes that include release of granule enzymes and ROS, changes in the properties of components of their plasma membrane as a result of activation or apoptosis, and via the release of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs). NETs are extracellular structures that contain chromatin that is decorated with granule enzymes (including citrullinated proteins) that can act as neo-epitopes to generate auto-immunity. This review therefore describes the processes that can result in neutrophil-mediated auto-immunity, and the role of neutrophils in the molecular pathologies of auto-immune diseases such as vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We discuss the potential role of NETs in these processes and some of the debate in the literature regarding the role of this phenomenon in microbial killing, cell death and auto-immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mediatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarvard, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Mediatization research shares media effects studies' ambition of answering the difficult questions with regard to whether and how media matter and influence contemporary culture and society. The two approaches nevertheless differ fundamentally in that mediatization research seeks answers...... research is concerned with long-term structural changes involving media, culture, and society, i.e. the influences of the media are understood in relation to how media are implicated in social and cultural changes and how these processes come to create new conditions for human communication and interaction....... From the perspective of mediatization research, the most important effect of the media stems from their embeddedness in culture and society....

  3. Autoimmune gastritis: Pathologist's viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coati, Irene; Fassan, Matteo; Farinati, Fabio; Graham, David Y; Genta, Robert M; Rugge, Massimo

    2015-11-14

    Western countries are seeing a constant decline in the incidence of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, coupled with a rising epidemiological and clinical impact of autoimmune gastritis. This latter gastropathy is due to autoimmune aggression targeting parietal cells through a complex interaction of auto-antibodies against the parietal cell proton pump and intrinsic factor, and sensitized T cells. Given the specific target of this aggression, autoimmune gastritis is typically restricted to the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa. In advanced cases, the oxyntic epithelia are replaced by atrophic (and metaplastic) mucosa, creating the phenotypic background in which both gastric neuroendocrine tumors and (intestinal-type) adenocarcinomas may develop. Despite improvements in our understanding of the phenotypic changes or cascades occurring in this autoimmune setting, no reliable biomarkers are available for identifying patients at higher risk of developing a gastric neoplasm. The standardization of autoimmune gastritis histology reports and classifications in diagnostic practice is a prerequisite for implementing definitive secondary prevention strategies based on multidisciplinary diagnostic approaches integrating endoscopy, serology, histology and molecular profiling.

  4. Nutrition, geoepidemiology, and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Carlo; Tsuneyama, Koichi

    2010-03-01

    As well represented by the impaired immune function of malnourished individuals encountered in developing countries and the incidence of specific diseases following local nutrient deficiencies, nutrition and immunity have been linked to each other for centuries while the specific connection between dietary factors and autoimmunity onset or modulation is a more recent acquisition. Autoimmune diseases manifest limited prevalence rates in developing countries while numerous immunity-related claims have been proposed in the field of functional foods. Nevertheless, over the past years multiple lines of evidence have supported a major role for specific dietary factors (including vitamin D, vitamin A, selenium, zinc, omega-3 fatty acids, probiotics, and flavanols) in determining the immune responses involved in infections, allergies, and autoimmune diseases. Interestingly, the link between nutrition and autoimmunity may well contribute to the geoepidemiology observed for numerous conditions. In general terms, most data that will be discussed herein were obtained in experimental or animal models while human data from real-life clinical settings or randomized clinical trials remain largely unsatisfactory. Our current knowledge on the beneficial impact of nutrition on autoimmunity prompts us to encourage the search for evidence-based nutrition to support the everyday diet choices of patients. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Collagen-induced arthritis in nonhuman primates: multiple epitopes of type II collagen can induce autoimmune-mediated arthritis in outbred cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozuru, Y; Yamane, S; Fujimoto, K; Terao, K; Honjo, S; Nagai, Y; Sawitzke, A D; Terato, K

    1998-03-01

    To define which regions of the type II collagen (CII) molecule result in anticollagen antibody production and the subsequent development of autoantibodies in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) nonhuman primate model. Male and female cynomolgus monkeys (2-6 of each sex per group) were immunized with either chicken (Ch), human, or monkey (Mk) CII, or with cyanogen bromide (CB)-generated peptide fragments of ChCII emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant. Monkeys were observed for the development of arthritis, and sera were collected and analyzed for anticollagen antibody specificity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overt arthritis developed in all groups of monkeys immunized with intact CII and with all major CB peptide fragments of ChCII except CB8. Onset and severity of arthritis correlated best with serum anti-MkCII antibody levels. The levels of IgG autoantibody to MkCII were a result of the cross-reactivity rate of anti-heterologous CII antibodies with MkCII, which was based on the genetic background of individual monkeys rather than on sex differences. CII from several species and disparate regions of the CII molecule were able to induce autoantibody-mediated arthritis in outbred cynomolgus monkeys. The strong anti-MkCII response suggests that epitope spreading or induction of broad-based CII cross-reactivity occurred in these animals. Autoantibody levels to MkCII were higher in CIA-susceptible monkeys than in resistant monkeys, despite comparable antibody levels in response to the various immunizations of CII. These results closely parallel the type of anticollagen responses found in sera from rheumatoid arthritis patients. Perhaps this can be accounted for by similar major histocompatibility complex heterogenicity associated with an outbred population, or maybe this is a primate-specific pattern of reactivity to CII.

  6. Unusual features of Self-Peptide/MHC Binding by Autoimmune T Cell Receptors

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    Nicholson,M.; Hahn, M.; Wucherpfennig, K.

    2005-01-01

    Structural studies on T cell receptors (TCRs) specific for foreign antigens demonstrated a remarkably similar topology characterized by a central, diagonal TCR binding mode that maximizes interactions with the MHC bound peptide. However, three recent structures involving autoimmune TCRs demonstrated unusual interactions with self-peptide/MHC complexes. Two TCRs from multiple sclerosis patients bind with unconventional topologies, and both TCRs are shifted toward the peptide N terminus and the MHC class II {beta} chain helix. A TCR from the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model binds in a conventional orientation, but the structure is unusual because the self-peptide only partially fills the binding site. For all three TCRs, interaction with the MHC bound self-peptide is suboptimal, and only two or three TCR loops contact the peptide. Optimal TCR binding modes confer a competitive advantage for antimicrobial T cells during an infection, whereas altered binding properties may permit survival of a subset of autoreactive T cells during thymic selection.

  7. [Autoimmune thyroid disease and other non-endocrine autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilas, Ljiljana Todorović; Icin, Tijana; Paro, Jovanka Novaković; Bajkin, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are chronic conditions initiated by the loss of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. They constitute heterogeneous group of disorders, in which multiple alterations in the immune system result in a spectrum of syndromes that either target specific organs or affect the body systematically. Recent epidemiological studies have shown a possible shift of one autoimmune disease to another or the fact that more than one autoimmune disease may coexist in a single patient or in the same family. Numerous autoimmune diseases have been shown to coexist frequently with thyroid autoimmune diseases. AUTOIMMNUNE THYROID DISEASE AND OTHER ORGAN SPECIFIC NON-ENDOCRINE AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: This part of the study reviews the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease coexisting with: pernicious anaemia, vitiligo, celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, miastenia gravis, alopecia areata and sclerosis multiplex, and several recommendations for screening have been given. AUTOIMMUNE THYROID DISEASE AND OTHER ORGAN NON-SPECIFIC NON-ENDOCRINE AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: Special attention is given to the correlation between autoimmune thyroid disease and rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, syndrome Sjögren, systemic sclerosis and mixed connective tissue disease. Screening for autoimmune thyroid diseases should be recommended in everyday clinical practice, in patients with primary organ-specific or organ non-specific autoimmune disease. Otherwise, in patients with primary thyroid autoimmune disease, there is no good reason of seeking for all other autoimmune diseases, although these patients have a greater risk of developing other autoimmune disease. Economic aspects of medicine require further analyzing of these data, from cost/benefit point of view to justified either mandatory screening or medical practitioner judgment.

  8. Pemphigus autoimmunity: Hypotheses and realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grando, Sergei A

    2011-01-01

    The goal of contemporary research in pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus is to achieve and maintain clinical remission without corticosteroids. Recent advances of knowledge on pemphigus autoimmunity scrutinize old dogmas, resolve controversies, and open novel perspectives for treatment. Elucidation of intimate mechanisms of keratinocyte detachment and death in pemphigus has challenged the monopathogenic explanation of disease immunopathology. Over 50 organ-specific and non-organ-specific antigens can be targeted by pemphigus autoimmunity, including desmosomal cadherins and other adhesion molecules, PERP cholinergic and other cell membrane (CM) receptors, and mitochondrial proteins. The initial insult is sustained by the autoantibodies to the cell membrane receptor antigens triggering the intracellular signaling by Src, epidermal growth factor receptor kinase, protein kinases A and C, phospholipase C, mTOR, p38 MAPK, JNK, other tyrosine kinases, and calmodulin that cause basal cell shrinkage and ripping desmosomes off the CM. Autoantibodies synergize with effectors of apoptotic and oncotic pathways, serine proteases, and inflammatory cytokines to overcome the natural resistance and activate the cell death program in keratinocytes. The process of keratinocyte shrinkage/detachment and death via apoptosis/oncosis has been termed apoptolysis to emphasize that it is triggered by the same signal effectors and mediated by the same cell death enzymes. The natural course of pemphigus has improved due to a substantial progress in developing of the steroid-sparing therapies combining the immunosuppressive and direct anti-acantholytic effects. Further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms mediating immune dysregulation and apoptolysis in pemphigus should improve our understanding of disease pathogenesis and facilitate development of steroid-free treatment of patients. PMID:21939410

  9. Acute encephalomyelitis with multiple herpes viral reactivations during abatacept therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideto; Takayama, Ayami; Ito, Takumi; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi

    2013-05-09

    To describe the case of a patient who had been receiving abatacept, a T-cell costimulatory molecule blocker for rheumatoid arthritis, and developed an acute encephalomyelitis associated with reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). A 61-year-old woman receiving abatacept therapy for rheumatoid arthritis developed a disturbance of consciousness. MRI indicated multifocal parenchymal lesions in the brainstem, supratentorial areas and cervical spinal cord. Although steroid therapy significantly improved the neurological symptoms and MRI findings, the patient died of sepsis aggravated by coinfection with a fungal infection. Retrospectively, a PCR assay revealed continued systemic reactivation of VZV, EBV and CMV. Acute encephalomyelitis may be associated with VZV EBV and CMV reactivation during abatacept therapy. Clinicians must be aware of the possibility of acute encephalomyelitis associated with herpes virus reactivation during abatacept therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

  10. Blueberry Phenolics Reduce Gastrointestinal Infection of Patients with Cerebral Venous Thrombosis by Improving Depressant-Induced Autoimmune Disorder via miR-155-Mediated Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Meng, Hao; Liu, Tianyi; Feng, Yingli; Qi, Yuan; Zhang, Donghuan; Wang, Honglei

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) often causes human depression, whereas depression-induced low immunity makes the patients susceptible to gastrointestinal infection. Blueberry possesses antidepressant properties which may improve autoimmunity and reduce gastrointestinal infection. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) performs antidepressant function and can be regulated by miR-155, which may be affected by blueberry. To explore the possible molecular mechanism, blueberry compounds were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Activity of compounds was tested by using HT22 cells. The present study tested 124 patients with CVT-induced mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies—Depression Scale [CES-D] ≥16) and gastrointestinal infection. Patients were randomly assigned to blueberry extract group (BG, received 10 mg blueberry extract daily) and placebo group (PG, received 10 mg placebo daily). After 3 months, depression, gastrointestinal infection and lipid profiles were investigated. Serum miR-155 and BDNF were measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and or Western Blot. Blueberry treatment improved depressive symptoms and lipid profiles, and also reduced gastrointestinal infection in the BG group (P blueberry extracts were the main phenolic acids with 0.18, 0.85, 0.26, 0.72, 0.66, 0.4,1, and 1.92 mg/g of gentisic acid, chlorogenic acid, [2]-epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, p-anisic acid, and quercetin in blueberry extracts, respectively. Phenolics in blueberry are possible causal agents in improving antidepressant activity and reducing gastrointestinal infection. Administration of blueberry increased BDNF expression and miR-155. Blueberry cannot affect BDNF level when miR-155 is overexpressed or inhibited. Phenolics from blueberry reduced gastrointestinal infection of patients with CVT by improving antidepressant activity via upregulation of miR-155-mediated BDNF. PMID:29230173

  11. Epigenetics and Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Ronderos, Paula; Montoya-Ortiz, Gladis

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetics is defined as the study of all inheritable and potentially reversible changes in genome function that do not alter the nucleotide sequence within the DNA. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modification, nucleosome positioning, and microRNAs (miRNAs) are essential to carry out key functions in the regulation of gene expression. Therefore, the epigenetic mechanisms are a window to understanding the possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of complex diseases such as autoimmune diseases. It is noteworthy that autoimmune diseases do not have the same epidemiology, pathology, or symptoms but do have a common origin that can be explained by the sharing of immunogenetic mechanisms. Currently, epigenetic research is looking for disruption in one or more epigenetic mechanisms to provide new insights into autoimmune diseases. The identification of cell-specific targets of epigenetic deregulation will serve us as clinical markers for diagnosis, disease progression, and therapy approaches. PMID:22536485

  12. Headache in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Seby; Hajj-Ali, Rula A

    2014-03-01

    Autoimmune diseases are a group of heterogeneous inflammatory disorders characterized by systemic or localized inflammation, leading to ischemia and tissue destruction. These include disorders like systemic lupus erythematosus and related diseases, systemic vasculitides, and central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis (primary or secondary). Headache is a very common manifestation of CNS involvement of these diseases. Although headache characteristics can be unspecific and often non-diagnostic, it is important to recognize because headache can be the first manifestation of CNS involvement. Prompt recognition and treatment is necessary not only to treat the headache, but also to help prevent serious neurological sequelae that frequently accompany autoimmune diseases. In this review, we discuss headache associated with autoimmune diseases along with important mimics. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  13. Susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (model of multiple sclerosis) and anxiety in genetically heterogeneous rats

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Membrives, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Las respuestas al estrés del eje hipotalámico-pituitario-adrenal (HPA) juegan un papel decisivo tanto en la conducta ansiosa como en el funcionamiento del sistema inmune (IS). Es sabido que los niveles elevados de glucocorticoides (GC) desempeñan un papel protector ante la encefalomielitis experimental autoinmune (EAE), fiable modelo animal de la esclerosis múltiple. En esta Tesis, nos propusimos investigar si un determinado perfil ansioso podría corresponderse con un perfil específico de sen...

  14. Continued administration of ciliary neurotrophic factor protects mice from inflammatory pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlmann, Tanja; Remington, Leah; Cognet, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that leads to loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes and damage to axons. We show that daily administration (days 8 to 24) of murine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a neurotrophic factor that has been described as a surv......Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that leads to loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes and damage to axons. We show that daily administration (days 8 to 24) of murine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a neurotrophic factor that has been described...... it was withdrawn. After cessation of CNTF treatment, inflammation and symptoms returned to control levels. However, slight but significantly higher numbers of oligodendrocytes, NG2-positive cells, axons, and neurons were observed in mice that had been treated with high concentrations of CNTF. Our results show...

  15. Cannabinoid treatment renders neurons less vulnerable than oligodendrocytes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasseldam, Henrik; Johansen, Flemming Fryd

    2011-01-01

    and demyelination. Furthermore, the cytokines IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, RANTES, and TGF-ß were significantly reduced as were the cellular infiltration with regulatory T cells. We suggest that cannabinoids in low doses are neuroprotective through a reduction in calpain 1 expression. Our study implies that long-term low...

  16. Neuroprotection without immunomodulation is not sufficient to reduce first relapse severity in experimental <