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Sample records for autoimmune diabetic nod

  1. The dual role of scavenger receptor class A in development of diabetes in autoimmune NOD mice.

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    Mami Shimizu

    Full Text Available Human type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that results from the autoreactive destruction of pancreatic β cells by T cells. Antigen presenting cells including dendritic cells and macrophages are required to activate and suppress antigen-specific T cells. It has been suggested that antigen uptake from live cells by dendritic cells via scavenger receptor class A (SR-A may be important. However, the role of SR-A in autoimmune disease is unknown. In this study, SR-A-/- nonobese diabetic (NOD mice showed significant attenuation of insulitis, lower levels of insulin autoantibodies, and suppression of diabetes development compared with NOD mice. We also found that diabetes progression in SR-A-/- NOD mice treated with low-dose polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C was significantly accelerated compared with that in disease-resistant NOD mice treated with low-dose poly(I:C. In addition, injection of high-dose poly(I: C to mimic an acute RNA virus infection significantly accelerated diabetes development in young SR-A-/- NOD mice compared with untreated SR-A-/- NOD mice. Pathogenic cells including CD4+CD25+ activated T cells were increased more in SR-A-/- NOD mice treated with poly(I:C than in untreated SR-A-/- NOD mice. These results suggested that viral infection might accelerate diabetes development even in diabetes-resistant subjects. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that diabetes progression was suppressed in SR-A-/- NOD mice and that acceleration of diabetes development could be induced in young mice by poly(I:C treatment even in SR-A-/- NOD mice. These results suggest that SR-A on antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells may play an unfavorable role in the steady state and a protective role in a mild infection. Our findings imply that SR-A may be an important target for improving therapeutic strategies for type 1 diabetes.

  2. Deficiency of Nuclear Factor-κB c-Rel Accelerates the Development of Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD Mice.

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    Ramakrishnan, Parameswaran; Yui, Mary A; Tomalka, Jeffrey A; Majumdar, Devdoot; Parameswaran, Reshmi; Baltimore, David

    2016-08-01

    The nuclear factor-κB protein c-Rel plays a critical role in controlling autoimmunity. c-Rel-deficient mice are resistant to streptozotocin-induced diabetes, a drug-induced model of autoimmune diabetes. We generated c-Rel-deficient NOD mice to examine the role of c-Rel in the development of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes. We found that both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from c-Rel-deficient NOD mice showed significantly decreased T-cell receptor-induced IL-2, IFN-γ, and GM-CSF expression. Despite compromised T-cell function, c-Rel deficiency dramatically accelerated insulitis and hyperglycemia in NOD mice along with a substantial reduction in T-regulatory (Treg) cell numbers. Supplementation of isogenic c-Rel-competent Treg cells from prediabetic NOD mice reversed the accelerated diabetes development in c-Rel-deficient NOD mice. The results suggest that c-Rel-dependent Treg cell function is critical in suppressing early-onset autoimmune diabetogenesis in NOD mice. This study provides a novel natural system to study autoimmune diabetes pathogenesis and reveals a previously unknown c-Rel-dependent mechanistic difference between chemically induced and spontaneous diabetogenesis. The study also reveals a unique protective role of c-Rel in autoimmune diabetes, which is distinct from other T-cell-dependent autoimmune diseases such as arthritis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, where c-Rel promotes autoimmunity. PMID:27217485

  3. Inhibition of Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD Mice by miRNA Therapy.

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    Duncheng Wang

    Full Text Available Autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic islets in Type 1 diabetes is mediated by both increased proinflammatory (Teff and decreased regulatory (Treg T lymphocytes resulting in a significant decrease in the Treg:Teff ratio. The non-obese diabetic (NOD mouse is an excellent in vivo model for testing potential therapeutics for attenuating the decrease in the Treg:Teff ratio and inhibiting disease pathogenesis. Here we show for the first time that a bioreactor manufactured therapeutic consisting of a complex of miRNA species (denoted as TA1 can effectively reset the NOD immune system from a proinflammatory to a tolerogenic state thus preventing or delaying autoimmune diabetes. Treatment of NOD mice with TA1 resulted in a systemic broad-spectrum upregulation of tolerogenic T cell subsets with a parallel downregulation of Teff subsets yielding a dramatic increase in the Treg:Teff ratio. Moreover, the murine-derived TA1 was highly effective in the inhibition of allorecognition of HLA-disparate human PBMC. TA1 demonstrated dose-responsiveness and exhibited equivalent or better inhibition of allorecognition driven proliferation than etanercept (a soluble TNF receptor. These findings demonstrate that miRNA-based therapeutics can effectively attenuate or arrest autoimmune disease processes and may be of significant utility in a broad range of autoimmune diseases including Type 1 diabetes.

  4. Multifactorial Control of Autoimmune Insulin-Dependent Diabetes in NOD Mice: Lessons for IBD

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    Edward H Leiter

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in nonobese diabetic (NOD mice is an example of a complex multifactorial disease with strong genetic and environmental components. As such, this model may provide insight not only into mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease, but also may provide insight into how the environment may interact with the genome to initiate pathogenesis in humans. NOD mice are characterized by accumulation of unusually high percentages of T lymphocytes in lymphoid organs. Pancreatic beta cell destruction in NOD mice is T lymphocyte-mediated. Complex interactions between the inherently diabetogenic major histocompatibility complex (MHC haplotype of this strain and non-MHC-associated insulin-dependent diabetes susceptibility genes (Idd are required for cytopathic activation of the leukocytic infiltrates in the pancreas (insulitis. Penetrance of the diabetogenic Idd genes is strongly influenced by both dietary and microbiological factors in the environment. Genetic susceptibility is transmitted by hemopoietic stem cells, and specific defects in T immunoregulation have been traced to defects in the development and function of marrow-derived antigen presenting cells. The spontaneous development of diabetes in NOD mice is different from experimentally induced forms of diabetes in mice in several important respects. In addition to the pathognomic development of pancreatic insulitis, the generalized loss of immunoregulatory control of autoreactive T lymphocytes in NOD mice is reflected by development of leukocytic infiltrates into a plethora of organ systems including the submandibular salivary glands, thyroid glands, kidneys and, occasionally, the colon.

  5. Sodium meta-arsenite prevents the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice

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    Sodium meta-arsenite (SA) is an orally available arsenic compound. We investigated the effects of SA on the development of autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice were orally intubated with SA (5 mg/kg/day) from 8 weeks of age for 8 weeks. The cumulative incidence of diabetes was monitored until 30 weeks of age, islet histology was examined, and lymphocytes including T cells, B cells, CD4+ IFN-γ+ cells, CD8+ IFN-γ+ cells, CD4+ IL-4+ cells, and regulatory T cells were analyzed. We also investigated the diabetogenic ability of splenocytes using an adoptive transfer model and the effect of SA on the proliferation, activation, and expression of glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) in splenocytes treated with SA in vitro and splenocytes isolated from SA-treated mice. SA treatment decreased the incidence of diabetes and delayed disease onset. SA treatment reduced the infiltration of immunocytes in islets, and splenocytes from SA-treated mice showed a reduced ability to transfer diabetes. The number of total splenocytes and T cells and both the number and the proportion of CD4+ IFN-γ+ and CD8+ IFN-γ+ T cells in the spleen were significantly reduced in SA-treated NOD mice compared with controls. The number, but not the proportion, of regulatory T cells was decreased in SA-treated NOD mice. Treatment with SA either in vitro or in vivo inhibited proliferation of splenocytes. In addition, the expression of Glut1 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 was decreased by SA treatment. These results suggest that SA reduces proliferation and activation of T cells, thus preventing autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. - Highlights: • SA prevents the development of diabetes and delays the age of onset in NOD mice. • SA decreases the number but not the proportion of T lymphocytes in NOD mice. • SA reduces IFN-γ-producing T lymphocytes in NOD mice. • SA reduces proliferation and activation of T lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. • SA reduces the expression of glucose

  6. Sodium meta-arsenite prevents the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice

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    Lee, Y.S.; Kim, D.; Lee, E.K. [Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, 7-45 Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-ku, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S. [Komipharm International Co. Ltd., 3188, Seongnam-dong, Jungwon-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 462-827 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C.S. [Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, 7-45 Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-ku, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Endocrinology, Internal Medicine, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, 1198 Guwol-Dong, Namdong-Gu, Incheon 405-760 (Korea, Republic of); Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Hospital, 1198 Guwol-Dong, Namdong-Gu, Incheon 405-760 (Korea, Republic of); Jun, H.S., E-mail: hsjun@gachon.ac.kr [Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, 7-45 Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-ku, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); College of Pharmacy and Gachon Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Gachon University, 7-45 Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-ku, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Hospital, 1198 Guwol-Dong, Namdong-Gu, Incheon 405-760 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Sodium meta-arsenite (SA) is an orally available arsenic compound. We investigated the effects of SA on the development of autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice were orally intubated with SA (5 mg/kg/day) from 8 weeks of age for 8 weeks. The cumulative incidence of diabetes was monitored until 30 weeks of age, islet histology was examined, and lymphocytes including T cells, B cells, CD4+ IFN-γ+ cells, CD8+ IFN-γ+ cells, CD4+ IL-4+ cells, and regulatory T cells were analyzed. We also investigated the diabetogenic ability of splenocytes using an adoptive transfer model and the effect of SA on the proliferation, activation, and expression of glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) in splenocytes treated with SA in vitro and splenocytes isolated from SA-treated mice. SA treatment decreased the incidence of diabetes and delayed disease onset. SA treatment reduced the infiltration of immunocytes in islets, and splenocytes from SA-treated mice showed a reduced ability to transfer diabetes. The number of total splenocytes and T cells and both the number and the proportion of CD4+ IFN-γ+ and CD8+ IFN-γ+ T cells in the spleen were significantly reduced in SA-treated NOD mice compared with controls. The number, but not the proportion, of regulatory T cells was decreased in SA-treated NOD mice. Treatment with SA either in vitro or in vivo inhibited proliferation of splenocytes. In addition, the expression of Glut1 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 was decreased by SA treatment. These results suggest that SA reduces proliferation and activation of T cells, thus preventing autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. - Highlights: • SA prevents the development of diabetes and delays the age of onset in NOD mice. • SA decreases the number but not the proportion of T lymphocytes in NOD mice. • SA reduces IFN-γ-producing T lymphocytes in NOD mice. • SA reduces proliferation and activation of T lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. • SA reduces the expression of glucose

  7. Different immunological responses to early-life antibiotic exposure affecting autoimmune diabetes development in NOD mice.

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    Hu, Youjia; Jin, Ping; Peng, Jian; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2016-08-01

    Environmental factors clearly influence the pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease. We have studied gut microbiota as important environmental agents that could affect the initiation or progression of type 1 diabetes especially in the prenatal period. We used neomycin, targeting mainly Gram negative or vancomycin, targeting mainly Gram positive bacteria, to treat pregnant NOD mothers and to study autoimmune diabetes development in their offspring. Neomycin-treated offspring were protected from diabetes, while vancomycin-treated offspring had accelerated diabetes development, and both antibiotics caused distinctly different shifts in gut microbiota composition compared with the offspring from untreated control mice. Our study demonstrated that neomycin treatment of pregnant mothers leads to generation of immune-tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the offspring and these APCs had reduced specific autoantigen-presenting function both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the protection from diabetes mediated by tolerogenic APCs was vertically transmissible to the second generation. In contrast, more diabetogenic inflammatory T cells were found in the lymphoid organs of the offspring from the vancomycin-treated pregnant mothers. This change however was not transmitted to the second generation. Our results suggested that prenatal exposure to antibiotic influenced gut bacterial composition at the earliest time point in life and is critical for consequent education of the immune system. As different bacteria can induce different immune responses, understanding these differences and how to generate self-tolerogenic APCs could be important for developing new therapy for type 1 diabetes. PMID:27178773

  8. Early Treatment of NOD Mice With B7-H4 Reduces the Incidence of Autoimmune Diabetes

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    Wang, Xiaojie; Hao, Jianqiang; Metzger, Daniel L.; Mui, Alice; Ao, Ziliang; Akhoundsadegh, Noushin; Langermann, Solomon; Liu, Linda; Chen, Lieping; Ou, Dawei; Verchere, C. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Autoimmune diabetes is a T cell–mediated disease in which insulin-producing β-cells are destroyed. Autoreactive T cells play a central role in mediating β-cell destruction. B7-H4 is a negative cosignaling molecule that downregulates T-cell responses. In this study, we aim to determine the role of B7-H4 on regulation of β-cell–specific autoimmune responses. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Prediabetic (aged 3 weeks) female NOD mice (group 1, n = 21) were treated with intraperitoneal injections of B7-H4.Ig at 7.5 mg/kg, with the same amount of mouse IgG (group 2, n = 24), or with no protein injections (group 3, n = 24), every 3 days for 12 weeks. RESULTS B7-H4.Ig reduced the incidence of autoimmune diabetes, compared with the control groups (diabetic mice 28.6% of group 1, 66.7% of group 2 [P = 0.0081], and 70.8% of group 3 [group 1 vs. 3, P = 0.0035]). Histological analysis revealed that B7-H4 treatment did not block islet infiltration but rather suppressed further infiltrates after 9 weeks of treatment (group 1 vs. 2, P = 0.0003). B7-H4 treatment also reduced T-cell proliferation in response to GAD65 stimulation ex vivo. The reduction of diabetes is not due to inhibition of activated T cells in the periphery but rather to a transient increase of Foxp3+ CD4+ T-cell population at one week posttreatment (12.88 ± 1.29 vs. 11.58 ± 1.46%; n = 8; P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS Our data demonstrate the protective role of B7-H4 in the development of autoimmune diabetes, suggesting a potential means of preventing type 1 diabetes by targeting the B7-H4 pathway. PMID:21984581

  9. Systemic Toll-like receptor stimulation suppresses experimental allergic asthma and autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

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    Aude Aumeunier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infections may be associated with exacerbation of allergic and autoimmune diseases. Paradoxically, epidemiological and experimental data have shown that some microorganisms can also prevent these pathologies. This observation is at the origin of the hygiene hypothesis according to which the decline of infections in western countries is at the origin of the increased incidence of both Th1-mediated autoimmune diseases and Th2-mediated allergic diseases over the last decades. We have tested whether Toll-like receptor (TLR stimulation can recapitulate the protective effect of infectious agents on allergy and autoimmunity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here, we performed a systematic study of the disease-modifying effects of a set of natural or synthetic TLR agonists using two experimental models, ovalbumin (OVA-induced asthma and spontaneous autoimmune diabetes, presenting the same genetic background of the non obese diabetic mouse (NOD that is highly susceptible to both pathologies. In the same models, we also investigated the effect of probiotics. Additionally, we examined the effect of the genetic invalidation of MyD88 on the development of allergic asthma and spontaneous diabetes. We demonstrate that multiple TLR agonists prevent from both allergy and autoimmunity when administered parenterally. Probiotics which stimulate TLRs also protect from these two diseases. The physiological relevance of these findings is further suggested by the major acceleration of OVA-induced asthma in MyD88 invalidated mice. Our results strongly indicate that the TLR-mediated effects involve immunoregulatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF-beta and different subsets of regulatory T cells, notably CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T cells for TLR4 agonists and NKT cells for TLR3 agonists. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These observations demonstrate that systemic administration of TLR ligands can suppress both allergic and autoimmune responses

  10. mt-Nd2a Modifies Resistance Against Autoimmune Type 1 Diabetes in NOD Mice at the Level of the Pancreatic β-Cell

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    Chen, Jing; Gusdon, Aaron M.; Piganelli, Jon; Leiter, Edward H.; Mathews, Clayton E

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the mitochondrial gene for NADH dehydrogenase 2 (mt-Nd2) can modulate susceptibility to type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS NOD/ShiLtJ mice conplastic for the alloxan resistant (ALR)/Lt-derived mt-Nd2a allele (NOD.mtALR) were created and compared with standard NOD (carrying the mt-Nd2c allele) for susceptibility to spontaneous autoimmune diabetes, or to diabetes elicited by reciprocal adoptive sple...

  11. Overexpression of thioredoxin in islets transduced by a lentiviral vector prolongs graft survival in autoimmune diabetic NOD mice

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    Sytwu Huey-Kang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pancreatic islet transplantation is considered an appropriate treatment to achieve insulin independence in type I diabetic patients. However, islet isolation and transplantation-induced oxidative stress and autoimmune-mediated destruction are still the major obstacles to the long-term survival of graft islets in this potential therapy. To protect islet grafts from inflammatory damage and prolong their survival, we transduced islets with an antioxidative gene thioredoxin (TRX using a lentiviral vector before transplantation. We hypothesized that the overexpression of TRX in islets would prolong islet graft survival when transplanted into diabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD mice. Methods Islets were isolated from NOD mice and transduced with lentivirus carrying TRX (Lt-TRX or enhanced green fluorescence protein (Lt-eGFP, respectively. Transduced islets were transplanted under the left kidney capsule of female diabetic NOD mice, and blood glucose concentration was monitored daily after transplantation. The histology of the islet graft was assessed at the end of the study. The protective effect of TRX on islets was investigated. Results The lentiviral vector effectively transduced islets without altering the glucose-stimulating insulin-secretory function of islets. Overexpression of TRX in islets reduced hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. After transplantation into diabetic NOD mice, euglycemia was maintained for significantly longer in Lt-TRX-transduced islets than in Lt-eGFP-transduced islets; the mean graft survival was 18 vs. 6.5 days (n = 9 and 10, respectively, p Conclusion We successfully transduced the TRX gene into islets and demonstrated that these genetically modified grafts are resistant to inflammatory insult and survived longer in diabetic recipients. Our results further support the concept that the reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenger and antiapoptotic functions of TRX are critical to islet survival after

  12. Prevention of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice by transferring in vitro antigen-pulsed syngeneic dendritic cells

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    Papaccio, G; Nicoletti, F; Pisanti, F A;

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of antigen-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) transfer on the development of diabetes, 5-week-old female NOD mice received a single iv injection of splenic syngeneic DC from euglycemic NOD mice pulsed in vitro with human y globulin (HGG). Eleven of 12 mice were protected from the d...

  13. HEPARANASE AND AUTOIMMUNE DIABETES

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    Charmaine Joy Simeonovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Heparanase (Hpse is the only known mammalian endo-β-D-glucuronidase that degrades the glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate (HS, found attached to the core proteins of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs. Hpse plays a homeostatic role in regulating the turnover of cell-associated HS and also degrades extracellular HS in basement membranes (BMs and the extracellular matrix (ECM, where HSPGs function as a barrier to cell migration. Secreted Hpse is harnessed by leukocytes to facilitate their migration from the blood to sites of inflammation. In the non-obese diabetic (NOD model of autoimmune Type 1 diabetes (T1D, Hpse is also used by insulitis leukocytes to solubilize the islet BM to enable intra-islet entry of leukocytes and to degrade intracellular HS, an essential component for the survival of insulin-producing islet beta cells. Treatment of prediabetic adult NOD mice with the Hpse inhibitor PI-88 significantly reduced the incidence of T1D by ~50% and preserved islet HS. Hpse therefore acts as a novel immune effector mechanism in T1D. Our studies have identified T1D as a Hpse-dependent disease and Hpse inhibitors as novel therapeutics for preventing T1D progression and possibly the development of T1D vascular complications.

  14. Imaging dynamics of CD11c+ cells and Foxp3+ cells in progressive autoimmune insulitis in the NOD mouse model of type 1 diabetes

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    Schmidt-Christensen, Anja; Hansen, Lisbeth; Ilegems, Erwin;

    2013-01-01

    the endocrine pancreas during initiation and progression of insulitis in the NOD mouse. Individual, ACE-transplanted islets of Langerhans were longitudinally and repetitively imaged by stereomicroscopy and two-photon microscopy to follow fluorescently labelled leucocyte subsets. Results We demonstrate that......, in spite of the immune privileged status of the eye, the ACE-transplanted islets develop infiltration and beta cell destruction, recapitulating the autoimmune insulitis of the pancreas, and exemplify this by analysing reporter cell populations expressing green fluorescent protein under the Cd11c or Foxp3...

  15. CRISPR-Cas9-Mediated Modification of the NOD Mouse Genome With Ptpn22R619W Mutation Increases Autoimmune Diabetes.

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    Lin, Xiaotian; Pelletier, Stephane; Gingras, Sebastien; Rigaud, Stephanie; Maine, Christian J; Marquardt, Kristi; Dai, Yang D; Sauer, Karsten; Rodriguez, Alberto R; Martin, Greg; Kupriyanov, Sergey; Jiang, Ling; Yu, Liping; Green, Douglas R; Sherman, Linda A

    2016-08-01

    An allelic variant of protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22), PTPN22(R620W), is strongly associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in humans and increases the risk of T1D by two- to fourfold. The NOD mouse is a spontaneous T1D model that shares with humans many genetic pathways contributing to T1D. We hypothesized that the introduction of the murine orthologous Ptpn22(R619W) mutation to the NOD genome would enhance the spontaneous development of T1D. We microinjected CRISPR-Cas9 and a homology-directed repair template into NOD single-cell zygotes to introduce the Ptpn22(R619W) mutation to its endogenous locus. The resulting Ptpn22(R619W) mice showed increased insulin autoantibodies and earlier onset and higher penetrance of T1D. This is the first report demonstrating enhanced T1D in a mouse modeling human PTPN22(R620W) and the utility of CRISPR-Cas9 for direct genetic alternation of NOD mice. PMID:27207523

  16. Synergistic reversal of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice with anti-CD3 and interleukin-1 blockade

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    Ablamunits, Vitaly; Henegariu, Octavian; Hansen, Jakob Bondo;

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are involved in autoimmune diabetes: among the most prominent is interleukin (IL)-1ß. We postulated that blockade of IL-1ß would modulate the effects of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) in treating diabetes in NOD mice. To test this, we treated hyperglycemic NOD mice with...

  17. Expression of genetically determined diabetes and insulitis in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse at the level of bone marrow-derived cells. Transfer of diabetes and insulitis to nondiabetic (NOD X B10) F1 mice with bone marrow cells from NOD mice

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    The development of autoimmune diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is controlled by at least three recessive loci, including one linked to the MHC. To determine whether any of these genetic loci exert their effects via the immune system, radiation bone marrow chimeras were constructed in which (NOD X B10)F1-irradiated recipients were reconstituted with NOD bone marrow cells. Unmanipulated (NOD X B10)F1 mice, or irradiated F1 mice reconstituted with F1 or B10 bone marrow, did not display insulitis or diabetes. In contrast, insulitis was observed in a majority of the NOD----F1 chimeras and diabetes developed in 21% of the mice. These data demonstrate that expression of the diabetic phenotype in the NOD mouse is dependent on NOD-derived hematopoietic stem cells. Diabetogenic genes in the NOD mouse do not appear to function at the level of the insulin-producing beta cells since NOD----F1 chimeras not only developed insulitis and diabetes but also rejected beta cells within pancreas transplants from newborn B10 mice. These data suggest that the beta cells of the NOD mouse do not express a unique antigenic determinant that is the target of the autoimmune response

  18. Bioluminescence Imaging Reveals Dynamics of Beta Cell Loss in the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse Model

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    John Virostko; Armandla Radhika; Greg Poffenberger; Dula, Adrienne N.; Moore, Daniel J.; Alvin C Powers

    2013-01-01

    We generated a mouse model (MIP-Luc-VU-NOD) that enables non-invasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of beta cell loss during the progression of autoimmune diabetes and determined the relationship between BLI and disease progression. MIP-Luc-VU-NOD mice displayed insulitis and a decline in bioluminescence with age which correlated with beta cell mass, plasma insulin, and pancreatic insulin content. Bioluminescence declined gradually in female MIP-Luc-VU-NOD mice, reaching less than 50% of the ...

  19. Autoimmune diabetes-prone NOD mice express the Lyt2{sup a} (Lyt2.1) and Lyt3{sup a} (Lyt3.1) alleles of CD8

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    Johnson-Tardieu, J.M.; Cornelius, J.G.; Ye, X. [Univ. of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    Predisposition to Type I insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD) has a strong underlying genetic basis involving class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes as well as several non-MHC genetic systems. In the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, a model for human IDD, genes associated with the appearance of immune cell infiltrates in the pancreatic islets (insulitis) and/or overt IDD have been mapped to chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 11, and 17. A recent report has suggested that CD8+ lymphocytes of the NOD mouse might be deficient in the expression of the CD8{Beta} molecule, a protein encoded by a gene on chromosome 6. The CD8{Beta} molecule is a T-cell surface marker, the lack of which could affect selection in the thymus, possibly permitting auto-reactive T-cell clones to populate the peripheral lymphoid tissues. For this reason, we examined the expression of the CD8 molecule by lymphocytes in the NOD mouse. Results indicate that the NOD mouse is not deficient in its transcription of detectable mRNA encoding either the CD8{alpha} or {Beta} subunits. However, the NOD mouse expresses the Lyt2{sup a} and Lyt3{sup a} alleles, suggesting that a portion of chromosome 6 centromeric to the diabetes-susceptibility genetic region is derived from an ancestry common to AKR and, like AKR, the CD8{alpha} and CD8{Beta}3.1 (but not CD8{Beta}3.2) subunits are detected on the cell surface of T lymphocytes of the NOD mouse. Interestingly, though, the CD8{Beta}3.1 molecule may not be expressed in the NOD mouse to the same extent as it is expressed in the AKR/J mouse, suggesting the possibility that the NOD mouse possesses a defect somewhere between transcription and cell surface expression of the CD8{Beta} molecule. 36 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Perinatal tolerance to proinsulin is sufficient to prevent autoimmune diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhala, Gaurang; Chee, Jonathan; Trivedi, Prerak M.; Selck, Claudia; Gurzov, Esteban N.; Graham, Kate L.; Thomas, Helen E.; Kay, Thomas W.H.; Krishnamurthy, Balasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    High-affinity self-reactive thymocytes are purged in the thymus, and residual self-reactive T cells, which are detectable in healthy subjects, are controlled by peripheral tolerance mechanisms. Breakdown in these mechanisms results in autoimmune disease, but antigen-specific therapy to augment natural mechanisms can prevent this. We aimed to determine when antigen-specific therapy is most effective. Islet autoantigens, proinsulin (PI), and islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP) were expressed in the antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of autoimmune diabetes-prone nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice in a temporally controlled manner. PI expression from gestation until weaning was sufficient to completely protect NOD mice from diabetes, insulitis, and development of insulin autoantibodies. Insulin-specific T cells were significantly diminished, were naive, and did not express IFN-γ when challenged. This long-lasting effect from a brief period of treatment suggests that autoreactive T cells are not produced subsequently. We tracked IGRP206–214-specific CD8+ T cells in NOD mice expressing IGRP in APCs. When IGRP was expressed only until weaning, IGRP206–214-specific CD8+ T cells were not detected later in life. Thus, anti-islet autoimmunity is determined during early life, and autoreactive T cells are not generated in later life. Bolstering tolerance to islet antigens in the perinatal period is sufficient to impart lasting protection from diabetes.

  1. The nonconventional MHC class II molecule DM governs diabetes susceptibility in NOD mice.

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    Marc A J Morgan

    Full Text Available The spontaneous destruction of insulin producing pancreatic beta cells in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice provides a valuable model of type 1 diabetes. As in humans, disease susceptibility is controlled by the classical MHC class II genes that guide CD4(+ T cell responses to self and foreign antigens. It has long been suspected that the dedicated class II chaperone designated HLA-DM in humans or H-2M in mice also makes an important contribution, but due to tight linkage within the MHC, a possible role played by DM peptide editing has not been previously tested by conventional genetic approaches. Here we exploited newly established germ-line competent NOD ES cells to engineer a loss of function allele. DM deficient NOD mice display defective class II peptide occupancy and surface expression, and are completely protected against type 1 diabetes. Interestingly the mutation results in increased proportional representation of CD4(+Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells and the absence of pathogenic CD4(+ T effectors. Overall, this striking phenotype establishes that DM-mediated peptide selection plays an essential role in the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

  2. Flow cytometric gating for spleen monocyte and DC subsets: differences in autoimmune NOD mice and with acute inflammation.

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    Dong, Matthew B; Rahman, M Jubayer; Tarbell, Kristin V

    2016-05-01

    The role of antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and other inflammatory diseases is now better understood due to advances in multicolor flow cytometry, gene expression analysis of APC populations, and functional correlation of mouse to human APC populations. A simple but informative nomenclature of conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cell subsets (cDC1, cDC2, pDC) and monocyte-derived populations incorporates these advances, but accurate subset identification is critical. Ambiguous gating schemes and alterations of cell surface markers in inflammatory condition can make comparing results between studies difficult. Both acute inflammation, such as TLR-ligand stimulation, and chronic inflammation as found in mouse models of autoimmunity can alter DC subset gating. Here, we address these issues using in vivo CpG stimulation as an example of acute inflammation and the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse as a model of chronic inflammation.We provide a flow cytometric antibody panel and gating scheme that differentiate 2 monocytic and 3DC subsets in the spleen both at steady state and after CpG stimulation. Using this method, we observed differences in the composition of NOD DCs that have been previously reported, and newly identified increases in the number of NOD monocyte-derived DCs. Finally, we established a protocol for DC phosphoflow to measure the phosphorylation state of intracellular proteins, and use it to confirm functional differences in the identified subsets. Therefore, we present optimized methods for distinguishing monocytic and DC populations with and without inflammation and/or autoimmunity associated with NOD mice.

  3. Type 1 diabetes associated autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahaly, George J; Hansen, Martin P

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is increasing in prevalence worldwide. The economic costs are considerable given the cardiovascular complications and co-morbidities that it may entail. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the loss of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. The pathogenesis of T1D is complex and multifactorial and involves a genetic susceptibility that predisposes to abnormal immune responses in the presence of ill-defined environmental insults to the pancreatic islets. Genetic background may affect the risk for autoimmune disease and patients with T1D exhibit an increased risk of other autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune thyroid disease, Addison's disease, autoimmune gastritis, coeliac disease and vitiligo. Approximately 20%-25% of patients with T1D have thyroid antibodies, and up to 50% of such patients progress to clinical autoimmune thyroid disease. Approximately 0.5% of diabetic patients have concomitant Addison's disease and 4% have coeliac disease. The prevalence of autoimmune gastritis and pernicious anemia is 5% to 10% and 2.6% to 4%, respectively. Early detection of antibodies and latent organ-specific dysfunction is advocated to alert physicians to take appropriate action in order to prevent full-blown disease. Patients and family members should be educated to be able to recognize signs and symptoms of underlying disease.

  4. Early life treatment with vancomycin propagates Akkermansia muciniphila and reduces diabetes incidence in the NOD mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Krych, Lukasz; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris;

    2012-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: Increasing evidence suggests that environmental factors changing the normal colonisation pattern in the gut strongly influence the risk of developing autoimmune diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate, both during infancy and adulthood, whether treatment with vancomycin......, a glycopeptide antibiotic specifically directed against Gram-positive bacteria, could influence immune homeostasis and the development of diabetic symptoms in the NOD mouse model for diabetes. Methods: Accordingly, one group of mice received vancomycin from birth until weaning (day 28), while another group...... received vancomycin from 8 weeks of age until onset of diabetes. Pyrosequencing of the gut microbiota and flow cytometry of intestinal immune cells was used to investigate the effect of vancomycin treatment. Results: At the end of the study, the cumulative diabetes incidence was found to be significantly...

  5. Combined treatment with lisofylline and exendin-4 reverses autoimmune diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease leading to near complete pancreatic β-cell destruction. New evidence suggests that β-cell regeneration is possible, but ongoing autoimmune damage prevents restoration of β-cell mass. We tested the hypothesis that simultaneously blocking autoimmune cytokine damage and supplying a growth-promoting stimulus for β-cells would provide a novel approach to reverse T1DM. Therefore, in this study we combined lisofylline to suppress autoimmunity and exendin-4 to enhance β-cell proliferation for treating autoimmune-mediated diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. We found that this combined therapy effectively reversed new-onset diabetes within a week of therapy, and even maintained euglycemia up to 145 days after treatment withdrawal. The therapeutic effect of this regimen was associated with improved β-cell metabolism and insulin secretion, while reducing β-cell apoptosis. It is possible that such combined therapy could become a new strategy to defeat T1DM in humans

  6. Genetic architecture of early pre-inflammatory stage transcription signatures of autoimmune diabetes in the pancreatic lymph nodes of the NOD mouse reveals significant gene enrichment on chromosomes 6 and 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Regnault

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases are characterized by the stimulation of an excessive immune response to self-tissues by inner and/or outer organism factors. Common characteristics in their etiology include a complex genetic predisposition and environmental triggers as well as the implication of the major histocompatibility (MHC locus on human chromosome 6p21. A restraint number of non-MHC susceptibility genes, part of the genetic component of type 1 diabetes have been identified in human and in animal models, while the complete spectrum of genes involved remains unknown. We elaborate herein patterns of chromosomal organization of 162 genes differentially expressed in the pancreatic lymph nodes of Non-Obese Diabetic mice, carefully selected by early sub-phenotypic evaluation (presence or absence of insulin autoantibodies. Chromosomal assignment of these genes revealed a non-random distribution on five chromosomes (47%. Significant gene enrichment was observed in particular for two chromosomes, 6 and 7. While a subset of these genes coding for secreted proteins showed significant enrichment on both chromosomes, the overall pool of genes was significantly enriched on chromosome 7. The significance of this unexpected gene distribution on the mouse genome is discussed in the light of novel findings indicating that genes affecting common diseases map to recombination “hotspot” regions of mammalian genomes. The genetic architecture of transcripts differentially expressed in specific stages of autoimmune diabetes offers novel venues towards our understanding of patterns of inheritance potentially affecting the pathological disease mechanisms.

  7. Bioluminescence imaging reveals dynamics of beta cell loss in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virostko, John; Radhika, Armandla; Poffenberger, Greg; Dula, Adrienne N; Moore, Daniel J; Powers, Alvin C

    2013-01-01

    We generated a mouse model (MIP-Luc-VU-NOD) that enables non-invasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of beta cell loss during the progression of autoimmune diabetes and determined the relationship between BLI and disease progression. MIP-Luc-VU-NOD mice displayed insulitis and a decline in bioluminescence with age which correlated with beta cell mass, plasma insulin, and pancreatic insulin content. Bioluminescence declined gradually in female MIP-Luc-VU-NOD mice, reaching less than 50% of the initial BLI at 10 weeks of age, whereas hyperglycemia did not ensue until mice were at least 16 weeks old. Mice that did not become diabetic maintained insulin secretion and had less of a decline in bioluminescence than mice that became diabetic. Bioluminescence measurements predicted a decline in beta cell mass prior to the onset of hyperglycemia and tracked beta cell loss. This model should be useful for investigating the fundamental processes underlying autoimmune diabetes and developing new therapies targeting beta cell protection and regeneration.

  8. Pancreatic β-Cells Limit Autoimmune Diabetes via an Immunoregulatory Antimicrobial Peptide Expressed under the Influence of the Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia; Furio, Laetitia; Mecheri, Ramine; van der Does, Anne M; Lundeberg, Erik; Saveanu, Loredana; Chen, Yongquan; van Endert, Peter; Agerberth, Birgitta; Diana, Julien

    2015-08-18

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) expressed by epithelial and immune cells are largely described for the defense against invading microorganisms. Recently, their immunomodulatory functions have been highlighted in various contexts. However how AMPs expressed by non-immune cells might influence autoimmune responses in peripheral tissues, such as the pancreas, is unknown. Here, we found that insulin-secreting β-cells produced the cathelicidin related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) and that this production was defective in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. CRAMP administrated to prediabetic NOD mice induced regulatory immune cells in the pancreatic islets, dampening the incidence of autoimmune diabetes. Additional investigation revealed that the production of CRAMP by β-cells was controlled by short-chain fatty acids produced by the gut microbiota. Accordingly, gut microbiota manipulations in NOD mice modulated CRAMP production and inflammation in the pancreatic islets, revealing that the gut microbiota directly shape the pancreatic immune environment and autoimmune diabetes development. PMID:26253786

  9. E2-2 Dependent Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Control Autoimmune Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Hansen

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diabetes is a consequence of immune-cell infiltration and destruction of pancreatic β-cells in the islets of Langerhans. We analyzed the cellular composition of the insulitic lesions in the autoimmune-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD mouse and observed a peak in recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs to NOD islets around 8-9 weeks of age. This peak coincides with increased spontaneous expression of type-1-IFN response genes and CpG1585 induced production of IFN-α from NOD islets. The transcription factor E2-2 is specifically required for the maturation of pDCs, and we show that knocking out E2-2 conditionally in CD11c+ cells leads to a reduced recruitment of pDCs to pancreatic islets and reduced CpG1585 induced production of IFN-α during insulitis. As a consequence, insulitis has a less aggressive expression profile of the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and a markedly reduced diabetes incidence. Collectively, these observations demonstrate a disease-promoting role of E2-2 dependent pDCs in the pancreas during autoimmune diabetes in the NOD mouse.

  10. E2-2 Dependent Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Control Autoimmune Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lisbeth; Schmidt-Christensen, Anja; Gupta, Shashank; Fransén-Pettersson, Nina; Hannibal, Tine D.; Reizis, Boris; Santamaria, Pere; Holmberg, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diabetes is a consequence of immune-cell infiltration and destruction of pancreatic β-cells in the islets of Langerhans. We analyzed the cellular composition of the insulitic lesions in the autoimmune-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse and observed a peak in recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) to NOD islets around 8–9 weeks of age. This peak coincides with increased spontaneous expression of type-1-IFN response genes and CpG1585 induced production of IFN-α from NOD islets. The transcription factor E2-2 is specifically required for the maturation of pDCs, and we show that knocking out E2-2 conditionally in CD11c+ cells leads to a reduced recruitment of pDCs to pancreatic islets and reduced CpG1585 induced production of IFN-α during insulitis. As a consequence, insulitis has a less aggressive expression profile of the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and a markedly reduced diabetes incidence. Collectively, these observations demonstrate a disease-promoting role of E2-2 dependent pDCs in the pancreas during autoimmune diabetes in the NOD mouse. PMID:26624013

  11. Combining antigen-based therapy with GABA treatment synergistically prolongs survival of transplanted ß-cells in diabetic NOD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jide Tian

    Full Text Available Antigen-based therapies (ABTs very effectively prevent the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D when given to young nonobese diabetic (NOD mice, however, they have little or no ability to reverse hyperglycemia in newly diabetic NOD mice. More importantly, ABTs have not yet demonstrated an ability to effectively preserve residual ß-cells in individuals newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (T1D. Accordingly, there is great interest in identifying new treatments that can be combined with ABTs to safely protect ß-cells in diabetic animals. The activation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptors (GABA-Rs on immune cells has been shown to prevent T1D, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE and rheumatoid arthritis in mouse models. Based on GABA's ability to inhibit different autoimmune diseases and its safety profile, we tested whether the combination of ABT with GABA treatment could prolong the survival of transplanted ß-cells in newly diabetic NOD mice. Newly diabetic NOD mice were untreated, or given GAD/alum (20 or 100 µg and placed on plain drinking water, or water containing GABA (2 or 6 mg/ml. Twenty-eight days later, they received syngenic pancreas grafts and were monitored for the recurrence of hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia reoccurred in the recipients given plain water, GAD monotherapy, GABA monotherapy, GAD (20 µg+GABA (2 mg/ml, GAD (20 µg+GABA (6 mg/ml and GAD (100 µg+GABA (6 mg/ml about 1, 2-3, 3, 2-3, 3-8 and 10-11 weeks post-transplantation, respectively. Thus, combined GABA and ABT treatment had a synergistic effect in a dose-dependent fashion. These findings suggest that co-treatment with GABA (or other GABA-R agonists may provide a new strategy to safely enhance the efficacy of other therapeutics designed to prevent or reverse T1D, as well as other T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  12. Combination of worm antigen and proinsulin prevents type 1 diabetes in NOD mice after the onset of insulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajendra, Jesuthas; Berbudi, Afiat; Hoerauf, Achim; Hübner, Marc P

    2016-03-01

    Animal studies demonstrated that administration of helminth products can protect from autoimmune diseases. However, the success of such administrations is limited in the case of type 1 diabetes, as protection is only provided if the administration is started before the development of insulitis. In this study we investigated whether inclusion of helminth antigen administrations to an antigen-specific treatment with proinsulin improves the protective effect by triggering non-specific regulatory immune responses. Using a combination therapy of intraperitoneal Litomosoides sigmodontis antigen and intranasal pro-insulin, onset of diabetes was prevented in NOD mice after insulitis started, while either administration alone failed to protect. This protection was associated with an increased frequency of regulatory T cells within the pancreatic lymph nodes and a reduced inflammation of the pancreatic islets. This suggests that inclusion of helminth antigens improve the protective effect provided by antigen-specific therapies and represent a new potential therapeutic approach against autoimmune diseases. PMID:26898311

  13. Genetic Analysis of Substrain Divergence in Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simecek, Petr; Churchill, Gary A; Yang, Hyuna; Rowe, Lucy B; Herberg, Lieselotte; Serreze, David V; Leiter, Edward H

    2015-03-03

    The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a polygenic model for type 1 diabetes that is characterized by insulitis, a leukocytic infiltration of the pancreatic islets. During ~35 years since the original inbred strain was developed in Japan, NOD substrains have been established at different laboratories around the world. Although environmental differences among NOD colonies capable of impacting diabetes incidence have been recognized, differences arising from genetic divergence have not been analyzed previously. We use both mouse diversity array and whole-exome capture sequencing platforms to identify genetic differences distinguishing five NOD substrains. We describe 64 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and two short indels that differ in coding regions of the five NOD substrains. A 100-kb deletion on Chromosome 3 distinguishes NOD/ShiLtJ and NOD/ShiLtDvs from three other substrains, whereas a 111-kb deletion in the Icam2 gene on Chromosome 11 is unique to the NOD/ShiLtDvs genome. The extent of genetic divergence for NOD substrains is compared with similar studies for C57BL6 and BALB/c substrains. As mutations are fixed to homozygosity by continued inbreeding, significant differences in substrain phenotypes are to be expected. These results emphasize the importance of using embryo freezing methods to minimize genetic drift within substrains and of applying appropriate genetic nomenclature to permit substrain recognition when one is used.

  14. The Effects of Alpha Interferon on the Development of Autoimmune Thyroiditis in the NOD H2h4 Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Oppenheim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha interferon (αIFN therapy is known to induce thyroid autoimmunity in up to 40% of patients. The mechanism is unknown, but Th1 switching has been hypothesized. The aim of our study was to examine whether αIFN accelerated the development of thyroiditis in genetically susceptible mice. We took advantage of NOD-H2h4, a genetically susceptible animal model, which develops thyroiditis when fed a high iodine diet. Six to eight week old male NOD H2h4 mice were injected with mouse αIFN (200 units or with saline three times a week for 8 weeks. All mice drank iodinated water (0.15%. Mice were sacrificed after 8 weeks of injection. Their thyroids were examined for histology and blood was tested for antithyroglobulin antibody levels. T4 and glucose levels were also assessed. In the IFN-injected group, 6/13 (46.2% developed thyroiditis and/or thyroid antibodies while in the saline-injected group, only 4/13 (30.8% developed thyroiditis and/or thyroid antibodies (p=0.4. The grade of thyroiditis was not different amongst the two groups. None of the mice developed clinical thyroiditis or diabetes mellitus. Our results showed that αIFN treatment did not accelerate thyroiditis in this mouse model. This may imply that αIFN induces thyroiditis in a non-genetically dependent manner, and this would not be detected in a genetically susceptible mouse model if the effect were small. Alternatively, it is possible that αIFN did not induce thyroiditis in mice because, unlike in humans, in mice αIFN does not induce Th1 switching.

  15. Prolonged antibiotic treatment induces a diabetogenic intestinal microbiome that accelerates diabetes in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kirsty; Godovannyi, Artem; Ma, Caixia; Zhang, YiQun; Ahmadi-Vand, Zahra; Dai, Chaunbin; Gorzelak, Monika A; Chan, YeeKwan; Chan, Justin M; Lochner, Arion; Dutz, Jan P; Vallance, Bruce A; Gibson, Deanna L

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence supports that the intestinal microbiome is involved in Type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis through the gut-pancreas nexus. Our aim was to determine whether the intestinal microbiota in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model played a role in T1D through the gut. To examine the effect of the intestinal microbiota on T1D onset, we manipulated gut microbes by: (1) the fecal transplantation between non-obese diabetic (NOD) and resistant (NOR) mice and (2) the oral antibiotic and probiotic treatment of NOD mice. We monitored diabetes onset, quantified CD4+T cells in the Peyer's patches, profiled the microbiome and measured fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). The gut microbiota from NOD mice harbored more pathobionts and fewer beneficial microbes in comparison with NOR mice. Fecal transplantation of NOD microbes induced insulitis in NOR hosts suggesting that the NOD microbiome is diabetogenic. Moreover, antibiotic exposure accelerated diabetes onset in NOD mice accompanied by increased T-helper type 1 (Th1) and reduced Th17 cells in the intestinal lymphoid tissues. The diabetogenic microbiome was characterized by a metagenome altered in several metabolic gene clusters. Furthermore, diabetes susceptibility correlated with reduced fecal SCFAs. In an attempt to correct the diabetogenic microbiome, we administered VLS#3 probiotics to NOD mice but found that VSL#3 colonized the intestine poorly and did not delay diabetes. We conclude that NOD mice harbor gut microbes that induce diabetes and that their diabetogenic microbiome can be amplified early in life through antibiotic exposure. Protective microbes like VSL#3 are insufficient to overcome the effects of a diabetogenic microbiome. PMID:26274050

  16. Costimulation and autoimmune diabetes in BB rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaudette-Zlatanova, BC; Whalen, B; Zipris, D; Yagita, H; Rozing, J; Groen, H; Benjamin, CD; Hunig, T; Drexhage, HA; Ansari, MJ; Leif, J; Mordes, JP; Greiner, DL; Sayegh, MH; Rossini, AA

    2006-01-01

    Costimulatory signals regulate T-cell activation. To investigate the role of costimulation in autoimmunity and transplantation, we studied the BB rat model of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes-prone BB (BBDP) rats spontaneously develop disease when 55-120 days of age. We observed that two anti-CD28 monoclon

  17. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1) accelerates type 1 diabetes in NOD mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Daintain/AIF-1 is over-expressed in the blood of NOD mice suffering from insulitis. ► Daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation in NOD mice. ► Daintain/AIF-1 increases blood glucose levels and triggers type 1 diabetes. ► Daintain/AIF-1 accelerates insulitis, while its antibody prevents insulitis. ► Daintain/AIF-1 enhances the levels of nitric oxide in the pancreases of NOD mice. -- Abstract: A large body of experimental evidence suggests that cytokines trigger pancreatic β-cell death in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1), a specific marker for activated macrophages, is accumulated in the pancreatic islets of pre-diabetic BB rats. In the present study, we demonstrate that daintain/AIF-1 is released into blood and the levels of daintain/AIF-1 in the blood of type 1 diabetes-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice suffering from insulitis are significantly higher than that in healthy NOD mice. When injected intravenously into NOD mice, daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation, increases the concentrations of blood glucose, impairs insulin expression, up-regulates nitric oxide (NO) production in pancreases and accelerates diabetes in NOD mice, while the antibody against daintain/AIF-1 delays or prevents insulitis in NOD mice. These results imply daintain/AIF-1 triggers type 1 diabetes probably via arousing immune cells activation and induction of NO production in pancreas of NOD mice.

  18. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1) accelerates type 1 diabetes in NOD mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yan-Ying, E-mail: biozyy@163.com [College of Life Science and Technology, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu 610041 (China); Huang, Xin-Yuan [College of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan 432000 (China); Chen, Zheng-Wang [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 is over-expressed in the blood of NOD mice suffering from insulitis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation in NOD mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 increases blood glucose levels and triggers type 1 diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 accelerates insulitis, while its antibody prevents insulitis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 enhances the levels of nitric oxide in the pancreases of NOD mice. -- Abstract: A large body of experimental evidence suggests that cytokines trigger pancreatic {beta}-cell death in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1), a specific marker for activated macrophages, is accumulated in the pancreatic islets of pre-diabetic BB rats. In the present study, we demonstrate that daintain/AIF-1 is released into blood and the levels of daintain/AIF-1 in the blood of type 1 diabetes-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice suffering from insulitis are significantly higher than that in healthy NOD mice. When injected intravenously into NOD mice, daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation, increases the concentrations of blood glucose, impairs insulin expression, up-regulates nitric oxide (NO) production in pancreases and accelerates diabetes in NOD mice, while the antibody against daintain/AIF-1 delays or prevents insulitis in NOD mice. These results imply daintain/AIF-1 triggers type 1 diabetes probably via arousing immune cells activation and induction of NO production in pancreas of NOD mice.

  19. Latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult: current knowledge and uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Laugesen, E; Østergaard, J A; Leslie, R D G

    2015-01-01

    Patients with adult-onset autoimmune diabetes have less Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA)-associated genetic risk and fewer diabetes-associated autoantibodies compared with patients with childhood-onset Type 1 diabetes. Metabolic changes at diagnosis reflect a broad clinical phenotype ranging from diabetic ketoacidosis to mild non-insulin-requiring diabetes, also known as latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA). This latter phenotype is the most prevalent form of adult-onset autoimmune dia...

  20. Identification of Candidate Tolerogenic CD8+ T Cell Epitopes for Therapy of Type 1 Diabetes in the NOD Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cailin Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which insulin-producing pancreatic islet β cells are the target of self-reactive B and T cells. T cells reactive with epitopes derived from insulin and/or IGRP are critical for the initiation and maintenance of disease, but T cells reactive with other islet antigens likely have an essential role in disease progression. We sought to identify candidate CD8+ T cell epitopes that are pathogenic in type 1 diabetes. Proteins that elicit autoantibodies in human type 1 diabetes were analyzed by predictive algorithms for candidate epitopes. Using several different tolerizing regimes using synthetic peptides, two new predicted tolerogenic CD8+ T cell epitopes were identified in the murine homolog of the major human islet autoantigen zinc transporter ZnT8 (aa 158–166 and 282–290 and one in a non-β cell protein, dopamine β-hydroxylase (aa 233–241. Tolerizing vaccination of NOD mice with a cDNA plasmid expressing full-length proinsulin prevented diabetes, whereas plasmids encoding ZnT8 and DβH did not. However, tolerizing vaccination of NOD mice with the proinsulin plasmid in combination with plasmids expressing ZnT8 and DβH decreased insulitis and enhanced prevention of disease compared to vaccination with the plasmid encoding proinsulin alone.

  1. Identification of Candidate Tolerogenic CD8+ T Cell Epitopes for Therapy of Type 1 Diabetes in the NOD Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cailin; Burns, Jeremy C.; Robinson, William H.; Utz, Paul J.; Ho, Peggy P.; Steinman, Lawrence; Frey, Alan B.

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which insulin-producing pancreatic islet β cells are the target of self-reactive B and T cells. T cells reactive with epitopes derived from insulin and/or IGRP are critical for the initiation and maintenance of disease, but T cells reactive with other islet antigens likely have an essential role in disease progression. We sought to identify candidate CD8+ T cell epitopes that are pathogenic in type 1 diabetes. Proteins that elicit autoantibodies in human type 1 diabetes were analyzed by predictive algorithms for candidate epitopes. Using several different tolerizing regimes using synthetic peptides, two new predicted tolerogenic CD8+ T cell epitopes were identified in the murine homolog of the major human islet autoantigen zinc transporter ZnT8 (aa 158–166 and 282–290) and one in a non-β cell protein, dopamine β-hydroxylase (aa 233–241). Tolerizing vaccination of NOD mice with a cDNA plasmid expressing full-length proinsulin prevented diabetes, whereas plasmids encoding ZnT8 and DβH did not. However, tolerizing vaccination of NOD mice with the proinsulin plasmid in combination with plasmids expressing ZnT8 and DβH decreased insulitis and enhanced prevention of disease compared to vaccination with the plasmid encoding proinsulin alone. PMID:27069933

  2. Immune regulatory properties of allogeneic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of experimental autoimmune diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Ênio J; Moraes-Vieira, Pedro M M; Moreira-Sá, Carla S R; Almeida, Danilo C; Vieira, Leonardo M; Cunha, Cláudia S; Hiyane, Meire I; Basso, Alexandre S; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro; Câmara, Niels O S

    2012-10-01

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) display immunosuppressive properties, suggesting a promising therapeutic application in several autoimmune diseases, but their role in type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune regulatory properties of allogeneic ADMSC therapy in T cell-mediated autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. ADMSC treatment reversed the hyperglycemia of early-onset diabetes in 78% of diabetic NOD mice, and this effect was associated with higher serum insulin, amylin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 levels compared with untreated controls. This improved outcome was associated with downregulation of the CD4(+) Th1-biased immune response and expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the pancreatic lymph nodes. Within the pancreas, inflammatory cell infiltration and interferon-γ levels were reduced, while insulin, pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1, and active transforming growth factor-β1 expression were increased. In vitro, ADMSCs induced the expansion/proliferation of Tregs in a cell contact-dependent manner mediated by programmed death ligand 1. In summary, ADMSC therapy efficiently ameliorates autoimmune diabetes pathogenesis in diabetic NOD mice by attenuating the Th1 immune response concomitant with the expansion/proliferation of Tregs, thereby contributing to the maintenance of functional β-cells. Thus, this study may provide a new perspective for the development of ADMSC-based cellular therapies for T1D.

  3. Use of autoantigen-loaded phosphatidylserine-liposomes to arrest autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Pujol-Autonell

    Full Text Available The development of new therapies to induce self-tolerance has been an important medical health challenge in type 1 diabetes. An ideal immunotherapy should inhibit the autoimmune attack, avoid systemic side effects and allow β-cell regeneration. Based on the immunomodulatory effects of apoptosis, we hypothesized that apoptotic mimicry can help to restore tolerance lost in autoimmune diabetes.To generate a synthetic antigen-specific immunotherapy based on apoptosis features to specifically reestablish tolerance to β-cells in type 1 diabetes.A central event on the surface of apoptotic cells is the exposure of phosphatidylserine, which provides the main signal for efferocytosis. Therefore, phosphatidylserine-liposomes loaded with insulin peptides were generated to simulate apoptotic cells recognition by antigen presenting cells. The effect of antigen-specific phosphatidylserine-liposomes in the reestablishment of peripheral tolerance was assessed in NOD mice, the spontaneous model of autoimmune diabetes. MHC class II-peptide tetramers were used to analyze the T cell specific response after treatment with phosphatidylserine-liposomes loaded with peptides.We have shown that phosphatidylserine-liposomes loaded with insulin peptides induce tolerogenic dendritic cells and impair autoreactive T cell proliferation. When administered to NOD mice, liposome signal was detected in the pancreas and draining lymph nodes. This immunotherapy arrests the autoimmune aggression, reduces the severity of insulitis and prevents type 1 diabetes by apoptotic mimicry. MHC class II tetramer analysis showed that peptide-loaded phosphatidylserine-liposomes expand antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in vivo. The administration of phosphatidylserine-free liposomes emphasizes the importance of phosphatidylserine in the modulation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cell expansion.We conclude that this innovative immunotherapy based on the use of liposomes constitutes a promising strategy for

  4. HLA-A2–Matched Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells From Type 1 Diabetic Patients, but Not Nondiabetic Donors, Transfer Insulitis to NOD-scid/γcnull/HLA-A2 Transgenic Mice Concurrent With the Expansion of Islet-Specific CD8+ T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Whitfield-Larry, Fatima; Young, Ellen F.; Talmage, Garrick; Fudge, Elizabeth; Azam, Anita; Patel, Shipra; Largay, Joseph; Byrd, Warren; Buse, John; Calikoglu, Ali S.; Shultz, Leonard D.; Frelinger, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of insulin-producing β-cells. NOD mice provide a useful tool for understanding disease pathogenesis and progression. Although much has been learned from studies with NOD mice, increased understanding of human type 1 diabetes can be gained by evaluating the pathogenic potential of human diabetogenic effector cells in vivo. Therefore, our objective in this study was to develop a small-animal model using human ef...

  5. Early over expression of messenger RNA for multiple genes, including insulin, in the Pancreatic Lymph Nodes of NOD mice is associated with Islet Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenbarth George

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autoimmune diabetes (T1D onset is preceded by a long inflammatory process directed against the insulin-secreting β cells of the pancreas. Deciphering the early autoimmune mechanisms represents a challenge due to the absence of clinical signs at early disease stages. The aim of this study was to identify genes implicated in the early steps of the autoimmune process, prior to inflammation, in T1D. We have previously established that insulin autoantibodies (E-IAA predict early diabetes onset delineating an early phenotypic check point (window 1 in disease pathogenesis. We used this sub-phenotype and applied differential gene expression analysis in the pancreatic lymph nodes (PLN of 5 weeks old Non Obese Diabetic (NOD mice differing solely upon the presence or absence of E-IAA. Analysis of gene expression profiles has the potential to provide a global understanding of the disease and to generate novel hypothesis concerning the initiation of the autoimmune process. Methods Animals have been screened weekly for the presence of E-IAA between 3 and 5 weeks of age. E-IAA positive or negative NOD mice at least twice were selected and RNAs isolated from the PLN were used for microarray analysis. Comparison of transcriptional profiles between positive and negative animals and functional annotations of the resulting differentially expressed genes, using software together with manual literature data mining, have been performed. Results The expression of 165 genes was modulated between E-IAA positive and negative PLN. In particular, genes coding for insulin and for proteins known to be implicated in tissue remodelling and Th1 immunity have been found to be highly differentially expressed. Forty one genes showed over 5 fold differences between the two sets of samples and 30 code for extracellular proteins. This class of proteins represents potential diagnostic markers and drug targets for T1D. Conclusion Our data strongly suggest that the

  6. Acceleration of type 1 diabetes mellitus in proinsulin 2–deficient NOD mice

    OpenAIRE

    Thébault-Baumont, Karine; Dubois-Laforgue, Danielle; Krief, Patricia; Briand, Jean-Paul; Halbout, Philippe; Vallon-Geoffroy, Karine; Morin, Joëlle; Laloux, Véronique; Lehuen, Agnès; Carel, Jean-Claude; Jami, Jacques; Muller, Sylviane; Boitard, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Accumulating evidence favors a role for proinsulin as a key autoantigen in diabetes. In the mouse, two proinsulin isoforms coexist. Most studies point to proinsulin 2 as the major isoform recognized by T cells in the NOD mouse. We studied mice in which a null proinsulin 2 mutation was transferred from proinsulin 2–deficient 129 mice onto the NOD background along with 16 genetic markers (including I-Ag7 MHC molecule) associated with diabetes. Intercross mice from the fourth backcross generatio...

  7. Antigen-Experienced CD4lo T Cells Are Linked to Deficient Contraction of the Immune Response in Autoimmune Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Linkes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Following proper activation, naïve “CD4lo” T cells differentiate into effector T cells with enhanced expression of CD4 -“CD4hi” effectors. Autoimmune diabetes-prone NOD mice display a unique set of antigen-experienced “CD4lo” T cells that persist after primary stimulation. Here, we report that a population of such cells remained after secondary and tertiary TCR stimulation and produced cytokines upon antigenic challenge. However, when NOD blasts were induced in the presence of rIL-15, the number of antigen-experienced “CD4lo” T cells was significantly reduced. Clonal contraction, mediated in part by CD95-dependent activation-induced cell death (AICD, normally regulates the accumulation of “CD4hi” effectors. Interestingly, CD95 expression was dramatically reduced on the AICD-resistant NOD “CD4lo” T cells. Thus, while autoimmune disease has often been attributed to the engagement of robust autoimmunity, we suggest that the inability to effectively contract the immune response distinguishes benign autoimmunity from progressive autoimmune diseases that are characterized by chronic T cell-mediated inflammation.

  8. Autoreactive effector/memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infiltrating grafted and endogenous islets in diabetic NOD mice exhibit similar T cell receptor usage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Diz

    Full Text Available Islet transplantation provides a "cure" for type 1 diabetes but is limited in part by recurrent autoimmunity mediated by β cell-specific CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells. Insight into the T cell receptor (TCR repertoire of effector T cells driving recurrent autoimmunity would aid the development of immunotherapies to prevent islet graft rejection. Accordingly, we used a multi-parameter flow cytometry strategy to assess the TCR variable β (Vβ chain repertoires of T cell subsets involved in autoimmune-mediated rejection of islet grafts in diabetic NOD mouse recipients. Naïve CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells exhibited a diverse TCR repertoire, which was similar in all tissues examined in NOD recipients including the pancreas and islet grafts. On the other hand, the effector/memory CD8(+ T cell repertoire in the islet graft was dominated by one to four TCR Vβ chains, and specific TCR Vβ chain usage varied from recipient to recipient. Similarly, islet graft- infiltrating effector/memory CD4(+ T cells expressed a limited number of prevalent TCR Vβ chains, although generally TCR repertoire diversity was increased compared to effector/memory CD8(+ T cells. Strikingly, the majority of NOD recipients showed an increase in TCR Vβ12-bearing effector/memory CD4(+ T cells in the islet graft, most of which were proliferating, indicating clonal expansion. Importantly, TCR Vβ usage by effector/memory CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells infiltrating the islet graft exhibited greater similarity to the repertoire found in the pancreas as opposed to the draining renal lymph node, pancreatic lymph node, or spleen. Together these results demonstrate that effector/memory CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells mediating autoimmune rejection of islet grafts are characterized by restricted TCR Vβ chain usage, and are similar to T cells that drive destruction of the endogenous islets.

  9. Cooperation of invariant NKT cells and CD46+CD256+ T regulatory cells in prevention of autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice treated with α-galactosylceramide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weipeng Li; Fang Ji; Yong Zhang; Ying Wang; Neng yang; Hailiang Ge; Fuqing Wang

    2008-01-01

    CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells and CD4+CD25+regulatory T (Treg) cells are two thymus-derived subsets of regulatory T cells that play an important role in the maintenance of self-tolerance. Yet the functional changes of the two subsets of regulatory T cells in the development of diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice remain unclear, and how NKT cells and CD4+CD25+ Treg cells cooperate functionally in the regulation of autoimmune diabetes is also uncertain.We provide evidence that in NOD mice, an animal model of human type 1 diabetes, the functions of both NKT cells and CD4+CD25+ Treg cells decrease in an age-dependent manner.We show that treatment with α-galactosylceramide increases the size of the CD4+CD25+ Treg cell compartment in NOD mice, and augments the expression of forkhead/winged helix transcription factor and the potency of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells to inhibit proliferation of CD4+CD25- T cells. Our data indicate that NKT cells and CD4+CD25+ Treg cells might cooperate in the prevention of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice treated with α-galactosylceramide. Induced cooperation of NKT cells and CD4+CD25+ Treg cells could serve as a strategy to treat human autoimmune disease, such as type 1 diabetes.

  10. Prime role for an insulin epitope in the development of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, Maki; Abiru, Norio; Moriyama, Hiroaki; Babaya, Naru; Liu, Edwin; Miao, Dongmei; Yu, Liping; Wegmann, Dale R.; Hutton, John C.; Elliott, John F.; Eisenbarth, George S.

    2005-01-01

    A fundamental question about the pathogenesis of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes is whether there are primary autoantigens. For type 1 diabetes it is clear that multiple islet molecules are the target of autoimmunity in man and animal models1,2. It is not clear whether any of the target molecules are essential for the destruction of islet beta cells. Here we show that the proinsulin/insulin molecules have a sequence that is a primary target of the autoimmunity that causes diabetes of the non-...

  11. Latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult: current knowledge and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, E; Østergaard, J A; Leslie, R D G

    2015-01-01

    Patients with adult-onset autoimmune diabetes have less Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA)-associated genetic risk and fewer diabetes-associated autoantibodies compared with patients with childhood-onset Type 1 diabetes. Metabolic changes at diagnosis reflect a broad clinical phenotype ranging from diabetic ketoacidosis to mild non-insulin-requiring diabetes, also known as latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA). This latter phenotype is the most prevalent form of adult-onset autoimmune diabetes and probably the most prevalent form of autoimmune diabetes in general. Although LADA is associated with the same genetic and immunological features as childhood-onset Type 1 diabetes, it also shares some genetic features with Type 2 diabetes, which raises the question of genetic heterogeneity predisposing to this form of the disease. The potential value of screening patients with adult-onset diabetes for diabetes-associated autoantibodies to identify those with LADA is emphasized by their lack of clinically distinct features, their different natural history compared with Type 2 diabetes and their potential need for a dedicated management strategy. The fact that, in some studies, patients with LADA show worse glucose control than patients with Type 2 diabetes, highlights the need for further therapeutic studies. Challenges regarding classification, epidemiology, genetics, metabolism, immunology, clinical presentation and treatment of LADA were discussed at a 2014 workshop arranged by the Danish Diabetes Academy. The presentations and discussions are summarized in this review, which sets out the current ideas and controversies surrounding this form of diabetes. What’s new? Latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA) is an autoimmune diabetes defined by adult-onset, presence of diabetes associated autoantibodies, and no insulin treatment requirement for a period after diagnosis. Immunologically, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibodies are by far the most

  12. Prevention or early cure of type 1 diabetes by intranasal administration of gliadin in NOD mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funda, David; Fundova, Petra; Hansen, Axel Kornerup;

    2014-01-01

    gluten-free diets prevent T1D in animal models. Herewith we investigated whether intranasal (i.n.) administration of gliadin or gluten may arrest the diabetogenic process. I.n. administration of gliadin to 4-week-old NOD mice significantly reduced the diabetes incidence. Similarly, the insulitis......Induction of long-term tolerance to β-cell autoantigens has been investigated both in animal models and in human type 1 diabetes (T1D) in order to prevent the disease. As regards external compounds, the dietary plant protein fraction has been associated with high penetrance of the disease, whereas...... was lowered. Intranasal gliadin also rescued a fraction of prediabetic 13-week-old NOD mice from progressing to clinical onset of diabetes compared to OVA-treated controls. Vaccination with i.n. gliadin led to an induction of CD4+Foxp3+ T cells and even more significant induction of γδ T cells in mucosal...

  13. Effect and mechanisms of human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells on type 1 diabetes in NOD model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianxia; Wang, Yangang; Wang, Fang; Wang, Luan; Yu, Xiaolong; Sun, Ruixia; Wang, Zhongchao; Wang, Li; Gao, Hong; Fu, Zhengju; Zhao, Wenjuan; Yan, Shengli

    2015-02-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that results from an inflammatory destruction of β-cells in islets. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from Wharton's jelly (WJ-MSCs) own a peculiar immunomodulatory feature and might reverse the inflammatory destruction and repair the function of β-cells. Sixty NOD mice were divided into four groups, including normal control group, WJ-MSCs prevention group (before onset), WJ-MSCs treatment group (after onset), and diabetic control group. After homologous therapy, onset time of diabetes, levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fed blood glucose and C-peptide, regulation of cytokines, and islet cells were examined and evaluated. After WJ-MSCs infusion, FPG and fed blood glucose in WJ-MSCs treatment group decreased to normal level in 6-8 days and maintained for 6 weeks. Level of fasting C-peptide of these mice was higher compared to diabetic control mice (P=0.027). In WJ-MSCs prevention group, WJ-MSCs played a protective role for 8-week delayed onset of diabetes, and fasting C-peptide in this group was higher compared to the other two diabetic groups (P=0.013, 0.035). Compared with diabetic control group, frequencies of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs in WJ-MSCs prevention group and treatment group were higher, while levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were lower (Pcells no matter before or after onset of T1DM. WJ-MSCs might be an effective method for T1DM.

  14. A bispecific protein capable of engaging CTLA-4 and MHCII protects non-obese diabetic mice from autoimmune diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Zhao

    Full Text Available Crosslinking ligand-engaged cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4 to the T cell receptor (TCR with a bispecific fusion protein (BsB comprised of a mutant mouse CD80 and lymphocyte activation antigen-3 (LAG-3 has been shown to attenuate TCR signaling and to direct T-cell differentiation toward Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells (Tregs in an allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR. Here, we show that antigen-specific Tregs can also be induced in an antigen-specific setting in vitro. Treatment of non-obese diabetic (NOD female mice between 9-12 weeks of age with a short course of BsB elicited a transient increase of Tregs in the blood and moderately delayed the onset of autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D. However, a longer course of treatment (10 weeks of 4-13 weeks-old female NOD animals with BsB significantly delayed the onset of disease or protected animals from developing diabetes, with only 13% of treated animals developing diabetes by 35 weeks of age compared to 80% of the animals in the control group. Histopathological analysis of the pancreata of the BsB-treated mice that remained non-diabetic revealed the preservation of insulin-producing β-cells despite the presence of different degrees of insulitis. Thus, a bifunctional protein capable of engaging CTLA-4 and MHCII and indirectly co-ligating CTLA-4 to the TCR protected NOD mice from developing T1D.

  15. NOD mouse model for Sjogren's syndrome: lack of longitudinal stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Lodde; F. Mineshiba; M.R. Kok; J. Wang; C. Zheng; M. Schmidt; A.P. Cotrim; M. Kriete; P.P. Tak; B.J. Baum

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is not only a widely used model for diabetes mellitus type I, but also for the chronic autoimmune disease Sjogren's syndrome (SS), mainly affecting salivary and lacrimal glands. We studied the efficacy of local recombinant serotype 2 adeno-associated vi

  16. Inhibition of diabetes in NOD mice by human pregnancy factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Khan, A.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Benner, R.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical symptoms of Th1 mediated autoimmune diseases regress in many patients during pregnancy. A prominent feature of pregnancy is the presence of human chorionic gonadotrophin hormone (hCG) in blood and urine. In this report we tested the effect of clinical grade hCG (c-hCG) on the development of

  17. Exposure to bisphenol A, but not phthalates, increases spontaneous diabetes type 1 development in NOD mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodin, J.; Kocbach Bølling, A.; Wendt, A.; Eliasson, L.; Becher, R.; Kuper, F.; Løvik, M.; Nygaard, U.C.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells due to a genetic predisposition and can be triggered by environmental factors. We have previously shown that bisphenol A (BPA) accelerates the spontaneous development of diabetes in non-obese diab

  18. Gluten-free but also gluten-enriched (gluten+) diet prevent diabetes in NOD mice; the gluten enigma in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funda, D.P.; Kaas, A.; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, H.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Environmental factors such as nutrition or exposure to infections play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have previously shown that gluten-free, non-purified diet largely prevented diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. In this study we tested...... hypothesis that early introduction of gluten-enriched (gluten+) diet may increase diabetes incidence in NOD mice. METHODS: Standard, gluten-free, gluten+ modified Altromin diets and hydrolysed-casein-based Pregestimil diet were fed to NOD females and diabetes incidence was followed for 310 days. Insulitis...... score and numbers of gut mucosal lymphocytes were determined in non-diabetic animals. RESULTS: A significantly lower diabetes incidence (p diet (5.9%, n = 34) and Pregestimil diet (10%, n = 30) compared to mice on the standard Altromin diet (60.6%, n...

  19. Gluten-Free Diet Only during Pregnancy Efficiently Prevents Diabetes in NOD Mouse Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Studies have documented that the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes is influenced by the intake of gluten. Aims. To investigate the importance of gluten exposure during pregnancy and the subsequent development of autoimmune diabetes in offspring. Methods. Nonobese diabetic mice were divided into 7 groups to receive combinations of gluten-free and standard diet before, during, or after pregnancy. Diabetes incidence in offspring was followed in each group (n = 16–27) for 310 days. Insulitis score and intestinal expression of T-cell transcription factors (RT-QPCR) were evaluated in animals from the different diet groups. Results. If mothers were fed a gluten-free diet only during pregnancy, the development of autoimmune diabetes in offspring was almost completely prevented with an incidence reduction from 62.5% in gluten-consuming mice to 8.3% (p pregnancy. Conclusion. A gluten-free diet exclusively during pregnancy efficiently prevents autoimmune diabetes development in offspring and reduces insulitis and intestinal expression of RORγt (Th17).

  20. Gluten-Free Diet Only during Pregnancy Efficiently Prevents Diabetes in NOD Mouse Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antvorskov, Julie C; Josefsen, Knud; Haupt-Jorgensen, Martin; Fundova, Petra; Funda, David P; Buschard, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Studies have documented that the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes is influenced by the intake of gluten. Aims. To investigate the importance of gluten exposure during pregnancy and the subsequent development of autoimmune diabetes in offspring. Methods. Nonobese diabetic mice were divided into 7 groups to receive combinations of gluten-free and standard diet before, during, or after pregnancy. Diabetes incidence in offspring was followed in each group (n = 16-27) for 310 days. Insulitis score and intestinal expression of T-cell transcription factors (RT-QPCR) were evaluated in animals from the different diet groups. Results. If mothers were fed a gluten-free diet only during pregnancy, the development of autoimmune diabetes in offspring was almost completely prevented with an incidence reduction from 62.5% in gluten-consuming mice to 8.3% (p gluten-free group. The islets of Langerhans were less infiltrated (p Gluten-free during pregnancy. Conclusion. A gluten-free diet exclusively during pregnancy efficiently prevents autoimmune diabetes development in offspring and reduces insulitis and intestinal expression of RORγt (Th17). PMID:27642610

  1. Altered Expression of Somatostatin Receptors in Pancreatic Islets from NOD Mice Cultured at Different Glucose Concentrations In Vitro and in Islets Transplanted to Diabetic NOD Mice In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ludvigsen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatostatin acts via five receptors (sst1-5. We investigated if the changes in pancreatic islet sst expression in diabetic NOD mice compared to normoglycemic mice are a consequence of hyperglycemia or the ongoing immune reaction in the pancreas. Pancreatic islets were isolated from NOD mice precultured for 5 days and further cultured for 3 days at high or low glucose before examined. Islets were also isolated from NOD mice and transplanted to normal or diabetic mice in a number not sufficient to cure hyperglycemia. After three days, the transplants were removed and stained for sst1-5 and islet hormones. Overall, changes in sst islet cell expression were more common in islets cultured in high glucose concentration in vitro as compared to the islet transplantation in vivo to diabetic mice. The beta and PP cells exhibited more frequent changes in sst expression, while the alpha and delta cells were relatively unaffected by the high glucose condition. Our findings suggest that the glucose level may alter sst expressed in islets cells; however, immune mechanisms may counteract such changes in islet sst expression.

  2. Celiac Disease Autoimmunity in Patients with Autoimmune Diabetes and Thyroid Disease among Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiyuan; Zou, Jing; Zhao, Lingling; Cheng, Yan; Cai, Hanqing; Li, Mo; Liu, Edwin; Yu, Liping; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of celiac disease autoimmunity or tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (TGA) amongst patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) in the Chinese population remains unknown. This study examined the rate of celiac disease autoimmunity amongst patients with T1D and AITD in the Chinese population. The study included 178 patients with type 1 diabetes and 119 with AITD where 36 had both T1D and AITD, classified as autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 variant (APS3v). The study also included 145 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), 97 patients with non-autoimmune thyroid disease (NAITD), and 102 healthy controls. Serum islet autoantibodies, thyroid autoantibodies and TGA were measured by radioimmunoassay. TGA positivity was found in 22% of patients with either type 1 diabetes or AITD, much higher than that in patients with T2D (3.4%; pdiseases were present. Routine TGA screening in patients with T1D or AITD will be important to early identify celiac disease autoimmunity for better clinical care of patients. PMID:27427767

  3. Dimethyl sulfoxide inhibits spontaneous diabetes and autoimmune recurrence in non-obese diabetic mice by inducing differentiation of regulatory T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is caused by the destruction of insulin-producing β cells in pancreatic islets by autoimmune T cells. Islet transplantation has been established as an effective therapeutic strategy for T1D. However, the survival of islet grafts can be disrupted by recurrent autoimmunity. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a solvent for organic and inorganic substances and an organ-conserving agent used in solid organ transplantations. DMSO also exerts anti-inflammatory, reactive oxygen species scavenger and immunomodulatory effects and therefore exhibits therapeutic potential for the treatment of several human inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of DMSO in the inhibition of autoimmunity. We treated an animal model of islet transplantation (NOD mice) with DMSO. The survival of the syngeneic islet grafts was significantly prolonged. The population numbers of CD8, DC and Th1 cells were decreased, and regulatory T (Treg) cell numbers were increased in recipients. The expression levels of IFN-γ and proliferation of T cells were also reduced following DMSO treatment. Furthermore, the differentiation of Treg cells from naive CD4 T cells was significantly increased in the in vitro study. Our results demonstrate for the first time that in vivo DMSO treatment suppresses spontaneous diabetes and autoimmune recurrence in NOD mice by inhibiting the Th1 immune response and inducing the differentiation of Treg cells. - Highlights: • We report a therapeutic potential of DMSO in autoimmune diabetes. • DMSO exhibits an immune modulatory effect. • DMSO treatment increases regulatory T cell differentiation. • The increase in STAT5 signaling pathway explains the effect of DMSO in Tregs

  4. Dimethyl sulfoxide inhibits spontaneous diabetes and autoimmune recurrence in non-obese diabetic mice by inducing differentiation of regulatory T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Gu-Jiun [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Sytwu, Huey-Kang [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yu, Jyh-Cherng [Department of General Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Yuan-Wu [School of Dentistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kuo, Yu-Liang [Department of Medical Imaging, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); School of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yu, Chiao-Chi [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of General Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Hao-Ming; Chan, De-Chuan [Department of General Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Shing-Hwa, E-mail: h610129@gmail.com [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of General Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-01-15

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is caused by the destruction of insulin-producing β cells in pancreatic islets by autoimmune T cells. Islet transplantation has been established as an effective therapeutic strategy for T1D. However, the survival of islet grafts can be disrupted by recurrent autoimmunity. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a solvent for organic and inorganic substances and an organ-conserving agent used in solid organ transplantations. DMSO also exerts anti-inflammatory, reactive oxygen species scavenger and immunomodulatory effects and therefore exhibits therapeutic potential for the treatment of several human inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of DMSO in the inhibition of autoimmunity. We treated an animal model of islet transplantation (NOD mice) with DMSO. The survival of the syngeneic islet grafts was significantly prolonged. The population numbers of CD8, DC and Th1 cells were decreased, and regulatory T (Treg) cell numbers were increased in recipients. The expression levels of IFN-γ and proliferation of T cells were also reduced following DMSO treatment. Furthermore, the differentiation of Treg cells from naive CD4 T cells was significantly increased in the in vitro study. Our results demonstrate for the first time that in vivo DMSO treatment suppresses spontaneous diabetes and autoimmune recurrence in NOD mice by inhibiting the Th1 immune response and inducing the differentiation of Treg cells. - Highlights: • We report a therapeutic potential of DMSO in autoimmune diabetes. • DMSO exhibits an immune modulatory effect. • DMSO treatment increases regulatory T cell differentiation. • The increase in STAT5 signaling pathway explains the effect of DMSO in Tregs.

  5. Contrasting Roles of Islet Resident Immunoregulatory Macrophages and Dendritic Cells in Experimental Autoimmune Type 1 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B Thornley

    Full Text Available The innate immune system critically shapes diabetogenic adaptive immunity during type 1 diabetes (T1D pathogenesis. While the role of tissue-infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages in T1D is well established, the role of their tissue-resident counterparts remains undefined. We now demonstrate that islet resident macrophages (IRMs from non-autoimmune mice have an immunoregulatory phenotype and powerfully induce FoxP3+ Tregs in vitro. The immunoregulatory phenotype and function of IRMs is compromised by TLR4 activation in vitro. Moreover, as T1D approaches in NOD mice, the immunoregulatory phenotype of IRMs is diminished as is their relative abundance compared to immunostimulatory DCs. Our findings suggest that maintenance of IRM abundance and their immunoregulatory phenotype may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent and/or cure T1D.

  6. Prevention or early cure of type 1 diabetes by intranasal administration of gliadin in NOD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Funda

    Full Text Available Induction of long-term tolerance to β-cell autoantigens has been investigated both in animal models and in human type 1 diabetes (T1D in order to prevent the disease. As regards external compounds, the dietary plant protein fraction has been associated with high penetrance of the disease, whereas gluten-free diets prevent T1D in animal models. Herewith we investigated whether intranasal (i.n. administration of gliadin or gluten may arrest the diabetogenic process. I.n. administration of gliadin to 4-week-old NOD mice significantly reduced the diabetes incidence. Similarly, the insulitis was lowered. Intranasal gliadin also rescued a fraction of prediabetic 13-week-old NOD mice from progressing to clinical onset of diabetes compared to OVA-treated controls. Vaccination with i.n. gliadin led to an induction of CD4(+Foxp3(+ T cells and even more significant induction of γδ T cells in mucosal, but not in non-mucosal lymphoid compartments. This prevention strategy was characterized by an increased proportion of IL-10 and a decreased proportion of IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ-positive CD4(+Foxp3(+ T cells, and IFN-γ-positive γδ T cells, preferentially in mucosal lymphoid organs. In conclusion, i.n. vaccination with gliadin, an environmental antigen with possible etiological influence in T1D, may represent a novel, safer strategy for prevention or even early cure of T1D.

  7. Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones: Chemistry and Therapeutic Potential in Autoimmune Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chang Chien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinones are a class of aromatic compounds with a 9,10-dioxoanthracene core. So far, 79 naturally occurring anthraquinones have been identified which include emodin, physcion, cascarin, catenarin, and rhein. A large body of literature has demonstrated that the naturally occurring anthraquinones possess a broad spectrum of bioactivities, such as cathartic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, diuretic, vasorelaxing, and phytoestrogen activities, suggesting their possible clinical application in many diseases. Despite the advances that have been made in understanding the chemistry and biology of the anthraquinones in recent years, research into their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential in autoimmune disorders is still at an early stage. In this paper, we briefly introduce the etiology of autoimmune diabetes, an autoimmune disorder that affects as many as 10 million worldwide, and the role of chemotaxis in autoimmune diabetes. We then outline the chemical structure and biological properties of the naturally occurring anthraquinones and their derivatives with an emphasis on recent findings about their immune regulation. We discuss the structure and activity relationship, mode of action, and therapeutic potential of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes, including a new strategy for the use of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes.

  8. NOD Dendritic Cells Stimulated with Lactobacilli Preferentially Produce IL-10 versus IL-12 and Decrease Diabetes Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean N. Manirarora

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs from NOD mice produced high levels of IL-12 that induce IFNγ-producing T cells involved in diabetes development. We propose to utilize the microorganism ability to induce tolerogenic DCs to abrogate the proinflammatory process and prevent diabetes development. NOD DCs were stimulated with Lactobacilli (nonpathogenic bacteria targeting TLR2 or lipoteichoic acid (LTA from Staphylococcus aureus (TLR2 agonist. LTA-treated DCs produced much more IL-12 than IL-10 and accelerated diabetes development when transferred into NOD mice. In contrast, stimulation of NOD DCs with L. casei favored the production of IL-10 over IL-12, and their transfer decreased disease incidence which anti-IL-10R antibodies restored. These data indicated that L. casei can induce NOD DCs to develop a more tolerogenic phenotype via production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. Evaluation of the relative production of IL-10 and IL-12 by DCs may be a very useful means of identifying agents that have therapeutic potential.

  9. Apoptosis of purified CD4+ T cell subsets is dominated by cytokine deprivation and absence of other cells in new onset diabetic NOD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Kaminitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells (Treg play a significant role in immune homeostasis and self-tolerance. Excessive sensitivity of isolated Treg to apoptosis has been demonstrated in NOD mice and humans suffering of type 1 diabetes, suggesting a possible role in the immune dysfunction that underlies autoimmune insulitis. In this study the sensitivity to apoptosis was measured in T cells from new onset diabetic NOD females, comparing purified subsets to mixed cultures. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Apoptotic cells are short lived in vivo and death occurs primarily during isolation, manipulation and culture. Excessive susceptibility of CD25(+ T cells to spontaneous apoptosis is characteristic of isolated subsets, however disappears when death is measured in mixed splenocyte cultures. In variance, CD25(- T cells display balanced sensitivity to apoptosis under both conditions. The isolation procedure removes soluble factors, IL-2 playing a significant role in sustaining Treg viability. In addition, pro- and anti-apoptotic signals are transduced by cell-to-cell interactions: CD3 and CD28 protect CD25(+ T cells from apoptosis, and in parallel sensitize naïve effector cells to apoptosis. Treg viability is modulated both by other T cells and other subsets within mixed splenocyte cultures. Variations in sensitivity to apoptosis are often hindered by fast proliferation of viable cells, therefore cycling rates are mandatory to adequate interpretation of cell death assays. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity of purified Treg to apoptosis is dominated by cytokine deprivation and absence of cell-to-cell interactions, and deviate significantly from measurements in mixed populations. Balanced sensitivity of naïve/effector and regulatory T cells to apoptosis in NOD mice argues against the concept that differential susceptibility affects disease evolution and progression.

  10. [Autoimmune diseases in type 1A diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Molina-Ayala, Mario Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Type 1A diabetes (DM1A) is an autoimmune disease that comprises 10% of patients with diabetes mellitus. Its frequency is gradually increasing in countries like Mexico. Patients with DM1A commonly have hypothyroidism, Addison disease, celiac disease and less common diseases such as polyglandular syndrome. These diseases are related to susceptibility genes such as HLA, CTLA-4 and PTPN22, which induce central and peripheral immunologic tolerance. This review article emphasizes the importance of searching other autoimmune diseases in patients with DM1A, to improve their prognosis and quality of life.

  11. Celiac Disease Autoimmunity in Patients with Autoimmune Diabetes and Thyroid Disease among Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Zhao

    Full Text Available The prevalence of celiac disease autoimmunity or tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (TGA amongst patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD in the Chinese population remains unknown. This study examined the rate of celiac disease autoimmunity amongst patients with T1D and AITD in the Chinese population. The study included 178 patients with type 1 diabetes and 119 with AITD where 36 had both T1D and AITD, classified as autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 variant (APS3v. The study also included 145 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, 97 patients with non-autoimmune thyroid disease (NAITD, and 102 healthy controls. Serum islet autoantibodies, thyroid autoantibodies and TGA were measured by radioimmunoassay. TGA positivity was found in 22% of patients with either type 1 diabetes or AITD, much higher than that in patients with T2D (3.4%; p< 0.0001 or NAITD (3.1%; P < 0.0001 or healthy controls (1%; p<0.0001. The patients with APS3v having both T1D and AITD were 36% positive for TGA, significantly higher than patients with T1D alone (p = 0.040 or with AITD alone (p = 0.017. T1D and AITD were found to have a 20% and 30% frequency of overlap respectively at diagnosis. In conclusion, TGA positivity was high in the Chinese population having existing T1D and/or AITD, and even higher when both diseases were present. Routine TGA screening in patients with T1D or AITD will be important to early identify celiac disease autoimmunity for better clinical care of patients.

  12. IL-2 immunotherapy reveals potential for innate beta cell regeneration in the non-obese diabetic mouse model of autoimmune diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza Diaz-de-Durana

    Full Text Available Type-1 diabetes (T1D is an autoimmune disease targeting insulin-producing beta cells, resulting in dependence on exogenous insulin. To date, significant efforts have been invested to develop immune-modulatory therapies for T1D treatment. Previously, IL-2 immunotherapy was demonstrated to prevent and reverse T1D at onset in the non-obese diabetic (NOD mouse model, revealing potential as a therapy in early disease stage in humans. In the NOD model, IL-2 deficiency contributes to a loss of regulatory T cell function. This deficiency can be augmented with IL-2 or antibody bound to IL-2 (Ab/IL-2 therapy, resulting in regulatory T cell expansion and potentiation. However, an understanding of the mechanism by which reconstituted regulatory T cell function allows for reversal of diabetes after onset is not clearly understood. Here, we describe that Ab/IL-2 immunotherapy treatment, given at the time of diabetes onset in NOD mice, not only correlated with reversal of diabetes and expansion of Treg cells, but also demonstrated the ability to significantly increase beta cell proliferation. Proliferation appeared specific to Ab/IL-2 immunotherapy, as anti-CD3 therapy did not have a similar effect. Furthermore, to assess the effect of Ab/IL-2 immunotherapy well after the development of diabetes, we tested the effect of delaying treatment for 4 weeks after diabetes onset, when beta cells were virtually absent. At this late stage after diabetes onset, Ab/IL-2 treatment was not sufficient to reverse hyperglycemia. However, it did promote survival in the absence of exogenous insulin. Proliferation of beta cells could not account for this improvement as few beta cells remained. Rather, abnormal insulin and glucagon dual-expressing cells were the only insulin-expressing cells observed in islets from mice with established disease. Thus, these data suggest that in diabetic NOD mice, beta cells have an innate capacity for regeneration both early and late in disease

  13. Molecular mechanisms in autoimmune type 1 diabetes: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhiguo; Chang, Christopher; Zhou, Zhiguang

    2014-10-01

    Autoimmune type 1 diabetes is characterized by selective destruction of insulin-secreting beta cells in the pancreas of genetically susceptible individuals. The mechanisms underlying the development of type 1 diabetes are not fully understood. However, a widely accepted point is that type 1 diabetes is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Although most type 1 diabetes patients do not have a family history, genetic susceptibility does play a vital role in beta cell autoimmunity and destruction. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) regions are the strongest genetic determinants, which can contribute 40-50 % of the genetic risk to type 1 diabetes. Other genes, including INS also contribute to disease risk. The mechanisms of the susceptible genes in type 1 diabetes may relate to their respective roles in antigen presentation, beta cell autoimmunity, immune tolerance, and autoreactive T cell response. Environmental susceptibility factors also contribute to the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. From an epigenetic standpoint, the pathologic mechanisms involved in the development of type 1 diabetes may include DNA methylation, histone modification, microRNA, and molecular mimicry. These mechanisms may act through regulating of gene expression, thereby affecting the immune system response toward islet beta cells. One of the characteristics of type 1 diabetes is the recognition of islet autoantigens by autoreactive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and autoantibodies. Autoantibodies against islet autoantigens are involved in autoantigen processing and presentation by HLA molecules. This review will mainly focus on the molecular mechanism by which genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors contribute to the risk of type 1 diabetes. PMID:24752371

  14. Molecular mechanisms in autoimmune type 1 diabetes: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhiguo; Chang, Christopher; Zhou, Zhiguang

    2014-10-01

    Autoimmune type 1 diabetes is characterized by selective destruction of insulin-secreting beta cells in the pancreas of genetically susceptible individuals. The mechanisms underlying the development of type 1 diabetes are not fully understood. However, a widely accepted point is that type 1 diabetes is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Although most type 1 diabetes patients do not have a family history, genetic susceptibility does play a vital role in beta cell autoimmunity and destruction. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) regions are the strongest genetic determinants, which can contribute 40-50 % of the genetic risk to type 1 diabetes. Other genes, including INS also contribute to disease risk. The mechanisms of the susceptible genes in type 1 diabetes may relate to their respective roles in antigen presentation, beta cell autoimmunity, immune tolerance, and autoreactive T cell response. Environmental susceptibility factors also contribute to the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. From an epigenetic standpoint, the pathologic mechanisms involved in the development of type 1 diabetes may include DNA methylation, histone modification, microRNA, and molecular mimicry. These mechanisms may act through regulating of gene expression, thereby affecting the immune system response toward islet beta cells. One of the characteristics of type 1 diabetes is the recognition of islet autoantigens by autoreactive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and autoantibodies. Autoantibodies against islet autoantigens are involved in autoantigen processing and presentation by HLA molecules. This review will mainly focus on the molecular mechanism by which genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors contribute to the risk of type 1 diabetes.

  15. Adult-Onset Autoimmune Diabetes in Europe Is Prevalent With a Broad Clinical Phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawa, Mohammed I; Kolb, Hubert; Schloot, Nanette;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVESSpecific autoantibodies characterize type 1 diabetes in childhood but are also found in adult-onset diabetes, even when initially non-insulin requiring, e.g., with latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA). We aimed to characterize adult-onset autoimmune diabetes.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSWe...

  16. TSG-6 produced by hMSCs delays the onset of autoimmune diabetes by suppressing Th1 development and enhancing tolerogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Daniel J; Wiggins, Lindsey L; Yoon, Nara; Lee, Ryang Hwa

    2013-06-01

    Genetic and immunological screening for type 1 diabetes has led to the possibility of preventing disease in susceptible individuals. Here, we show that human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) and tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6), a protein produced by hMSCs in response to signals from injured tissues, delayed the onset of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice by inhibiting insulitis and augmenting regulatory T cells (Tregs) within the pancreas. Importantly, hMSCs with a knockdown of tsg-6 were ineffective at delaying insulitis and the onset of diabetes in mice. TSG-6 inhibited the activation of both T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in a CD44-dependent manner. Moreover, multiple treatments of TSG-6 rendered APCs more tolerogenic, capable of enhancing Treg generation and delaying diabetes in an adoptive transfer model. Therefore, these results could provide the basis for a novel therapy for the prevention of type 1 diabetes.

  17. A Maternal Gluten-Free Diet Reduces Inflammation and Diabetes Incidence in the Offspring of NOD Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Krych, Lukasz; Buschard, Karsten;

    2014-01-01

    Early-life interventions in the intestinal environment have previously been shown to influence diabetes incidence. We therefore hypothesized that a gluten-free (GF) diet, known to decrease the incidence of type 1 diabetes, would protect against the development of diabetes when fed only during...... the pregnancy and lactation period. Pregnant nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice were fed a GF or standard diet until all pups were weaned to a standard diet. The early-life GF environment dramatically decreased the incidence of diabetes and insulitis. Gut microbiota analysis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed...... to the pancreas. In conclusion, a GF diet during fetal and early postnatal life reduces the incidence of diabetes. The mechanism may involve changes in gut microbiota and shifts to a less proinflammatory immunological milieu in the gut and pancreas....

  18. Gut microbial markers are associated with diabetes onset, regulatory imbalance, and IFN-γ level in NOD mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krych, Lukasz; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Hansen, Axel Kornerup;

    2015-01-01

    between the early gut microbiota and immune parameters of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice in order to select alleged bacterial markers of T1D. Gut microbial composition in feces was analyzed with 454/FLX Titanium (Roche) pyro-sequencing and correlated with diabetes onset age and immune cell populations......Gut microbiota regulated imbalances in the host's immune profile seem to be an important factor in the etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D), and identifying bacterial markers for T1D may therefore be useful in diagnosis and prevention of T1D. The aim of the present study was to investigate the link...... measured in diabetic and non-diabetic mice at 30 weeks of age. The early gut microbiota composition was found to be different between NOD mice that later in life were classified as diabetic or non-diabetic. Those differences were further associated with changes in FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells, CD11b...

  19. The role of the innate immune system in destruction of pancreatic beta cells in NOD mice and humans with type I diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Ningwen; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2016-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterized by T cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. A combination of genetic and environmental factors eventually leads to the loss of functional β cell mass and hyperglycemia. Both innate and adaptive immunity are involved in the development of T1D. In this review, we have highlighted the most recent findings on the role of innate immunity, especially the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), in disease development. In murine models and human studies, different PRRs, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing (or Nod-like) receptors (NLRs), have different roles in the pathogenesis of T1D. These PRRs play a critical role in defending against infection by sensing specific ligands derived from exogenous microorganisms to induce innate immune responses and shape adaptive immunity. Animal studies have shown that TLR7, TLR9, MyD88 and NLPR3 play a disease-predisposing role in T1D, while controversial results have been found with other PRRs, such as TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5 and others. Human studies also shown that TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 are expressed in either islet β cells or infiltrated immune cells, indicating the innate immunity plays a role in β cell autoimmunity. Furthermore, some human genetic studies showed a possible association of TLR3, TLR7, TLR8 or NLRP3 genes, at single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level, with human T1D. Increasing evidence suggest that the innate immunity modulates β cell autoimmunity. Thus, targeting pathways of innate immunity may provide novel therapeutic strategies to fight this disease. PMID:27021275

  20. Type 1 diabetes and polyglandular autoimmune syndrome:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin P Hansen; Nina Matheis; George J Kahaly

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disorder causedby inflammatory destruction of the pancreatic tissue. Theetiopathogenesis and characteristics of the pathologicprocess of pancreatic destruction are well described. Inaddition, the putative susceptibility genes for T1D as amonoglandular disease and the relation to polyglandularautoimmune syndrome (PAS) have also been wellexplored. The incidence of T1D has steadily increasedin most parts of the world, especially in industrializednations. T1D is frequently associated with autoimmuneendocrine and non-endocrine diseases and patients withT1D are at a higher risk for developing several glandularautoimmune diseases. Familial clustering is observed,which suggests that there is a genetic predisposition.Various hypotheses pertaining to viral- and bacterialinducedpancreatic autoimmunity have been proposed,however a definitive delineation of the autoimmunepathomechanism is still lacking. In patients with PAS,pancreatic and endocrine autoantigens either colocalizeon one antigen-presenting cell or are expressed on two/various target cells sharing a common amino acid, whichfacilitates binding to and activation of T cells. The mostprevalent PAS phenotype is the adult type 3 variant orPAS type Ⅲ, which encompasses T1D and autoimmunethyroid disease. This review discusses the findings ofrecent studies showing noticeable differences in thegenetic background and clinical phenotype of T1D eitheras an isolated autoimmune endocrinopathy or within thescope of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome.

  1. Thioreductase containing epitopes inhibit the development of type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin eMalek Abrahimians

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autoreactive CD4+ T cells recognizing islet-derived antigens play a primary role in type 1 diabetes. Specific suppression of such cells therefore represents a strategic target for the cure of the disease. We have developed a methodology by which CD4+ T cells acquire apoptosis-inducing properties on antigen-presenting cells after cognate recognition of natural sequence epitopes. We describe here that inclusion of a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase (thioreductase motif within the flanking residues of a single MHC class II-restricted GAD65 epitope induces GAD65-specific cytolytic CD4+ T cells (cCD4+ T. The latter, obtained either in vitro or by active immunization, acquire an effector memory phenotype and lyse APCs by a Fas-FasL interaction. Further, cCD4+ T cells eliminate by apoptosis activated bystander CD4+ T cells recognizing alternative epitopes processed by the same APC. Active immunization with a GAD65 class II-restricted thioreductase-containing T cell epitope protects mice from diabetes and abrogates insulitis. Passive transfer of in vitro-elicited cCD4+ T cells establishes that such cells are efficient in suppressing autoimmunity. These findings provide strong evidence for a new vaccination strategy to prevent type 1 diabetes.

  2. Tight Junctions, Intestinal Permeability, and Autoimmunity Celiac Disease and Type 1 Diabetes Paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Jeroen; Rozing, Jan; Sapone, Anna; Lammers, Karen; Fasano, Alessio; Fromm, M; Schulzke, JD

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are characterized by tissue damage and loss of function due to an immune response that is directed against specific organs. This review is focused on celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune enteropathy, and type I diabetes (TID), a hyperglycosaemia caused by a destructive autoimmune p

  3. Alcohol facilitates CD1d loading, subsequent activation of NKT cells, and reduces the incidence of diabetes in NOD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Buschard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ethanol ('alcohol' is a partly hydrophobic detergent that may affect the accessibility of glycolipids thereby influencing immunological effects of these molecules. METHODS: The study included cellular in vitro tests using α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer, and in vivo NOD mice experiments detecting diabetes incidence and performing behavioural and bacterial analyses. RESULTS: Alcohol in concentrations from 0.6% to 2.5% increased IL-2 production from NKT cells stimulated with αGalCer by 60% (p<0.05. CD1d expressed on HeLa cells contained significantly increasing amounts of αGalCer with increasing concentrations of alcohol, suggesting that alcohol facilitated the passive loading of αGalCer to CD1d. NOD mice were found to tolerate 5% ethanol in their drinking water without signs of impairment in liver function. Giving this treatment, the diabetes incidence declined significantly. Higher numbers of CD3+CD49b+ NKT cells were found in spleen and liver of the alcohol treated compared to the control mice (p<0.05, whereas the amount of CD4+Foxp3+ regulator T cells did not differ. Increased concentrations of IFN-γ were detected in 24-hour blood samples of alcohol treated mice. Behavioural studies showed no change in attitude of the ethanol-consuming mice, and bacterial composition of caecum samples was not affected by alcohol, disqualifying these as protective mechanisms. CONCLUSION: Alcohol facilitates the uptake of glycolipids and the stimulation of NKT cells, which are known to counteract Type 1 diabetes development. We propose that this is the acting mechanism by which treatment with alcohol reduces the incidence of diabetes in NOD mice. This is corroborated by epidemiology showing beneficial effect of alcohol to reduce the severity of atherosclerosis and related diseases.

  4. Sleeping Beauty Transposon Mutagenesis as a Tool for Gene Discovery in the NOD Mouse Model of Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elso, Colleen M; Chu, Edward P F; Alsayb, May A; Mackin, Leanne; Ivory, Sean T; Ashton, Michelle P; Bröer, Stefan; Silveira, Pablo A; Brodnicki, Thomas C

    2015-12-01

    A number of different strategies have been used to identify genes for which genetic variation contributes to type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis. Genetic studies in humans have identified >40 loci that affect the risk for developing T1D, but the underlying causative alleles are often difficult to pinpoint or have subtle biological effects. A complementary strategy to identifying "natural" alleles in the human population is to engineer "artificial" alleles within inbred mouse strains and determine their effect on T1D incidence. We describe the use of the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon mutagenesis system in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse strain, which harbors a genetic background predisposed to developing T1D. Mutagenesis in this system is random, but a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-polyA gene trap within the SB transposon enables early detection of mice harboring transposon-disrupted genes. The SB transposon also acts as a molecular tag to, without additional breeding, efficiently identify mutated genes and prioritize mutant mice for further characterization. We show here that the SB transposon is functional in NOD mice and can produce a null allele in a novel candidate gene that increases diabetes incidence. We propose that SB transposon mutagenesis could be used as a complementary strategy to traditional methods to help identify genes that, when disrupted, affect T1D pathogenesis. PMID:26438296

  5. Type 1 Diabetes Prone NOD Mice Have Diminished Cxcr1 mRNA Expression in Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils and CD4+ T Lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Haurogné

    Full Text Available In humans, CXCR1 and CXCR2 are two homologous proteins that bind ELR+ chemokines. Both receptors play fundamental roles in neutrophil functions such as migration and reactive oxygen species production. Mouse Cxcr1 and Cxcr2 genes are located in an insulin-dependent diabetes genetic susceptibility locus. The non obese diabetic (NOD mouse is a spontaneous well-described animal model for insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes. In this disease, insulin deficiency results from the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells by autoreactive T lymphocytes. This slow-progressing disease is dependent on both environmental and genetic factors. Here, we report descriptive data about the Cxcr1 gene in NOD mice. We demonstrate decreased expression of mRNA for Cxcr1 in neutrophils and CD4+ lymphocytes isolated from NOD mice compared to other strains, related to reduced NOD Cxcr1 gene promoter activity. Looking for Cxcr1 protein, we next analyze the membrane proteome of murine neutrophils by mass spectrometry. Although Cxcr2 protein is clearly found in murine neutrophils, we did not find evidence of Cxcr1 peptides using this method. Nevertheless, in view of recently-published experimental data obtained in NOD mice, we argue for possible Cxcr1 involvement in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis.

  6. Intranasal vaccination with proinsulin DNA induces regulatory CD4+ T cells that prevent experimental autoimmune diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every, Alison L; Kramer, David R; Mannering, Stuart I; Lew, Andrew M; Harrison, Leonard C

    2006-04-15

    Insulin, an autoantigen in type 1 diabetes, when administered mucosally to diabetes-prone NOD mice induces regulatory T cells (T(reg)) that protect against diabetes. Compared with protein, Ag encoded as DNA has potential advantages as a therapeutic agent. We found that intranasal vaccination of NOD mice with plasmid DNA encoding mouse proinsulin II-induced CD4+ T(reg) that suppressed diabetes development, both after adoptive cotransfer with "diabetogenic" spleen cells and after transfer into NOD mice given cyclophosphamide to accelerate diabetes onset. In contrast to prototypic CD4+ CD25+ T(reg), CD4+ T(reg) induced by proinsulin DNA were both CD25+ and CD25- and not defined by markers such as glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR), CD103, or Foxp3. Intriguingly, despite induction of T(reg) and reduced islet inflammation, diabetes incidence in proinsulin DNA-treated mice was unchanged. However, diabetes was prevented when DNA vaccination was performed under the cover of CD40 ligand blockade, known to prevent priming of CTL by mucosal Ag. Thus, intranasal vaccination with proinsulin DNA has therapeutic potential to prevent diabetes, as demonstrated by induction of protective T(reg), but further modifications are required to improve its efficacy, which could be compromised by concomitant induction of pathogenic immunity. PMID:16585551

  7. Bridging Mice to Men: Using HLA Transgenic Mice to Enhance the Future Prediction and Prevention of Autoimmune Type 1 Diabetes in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serreze, David V; Niens, Marijke; Kulik, John; DiLorenzo, Teresa P

    2016-01-01

    Similar to the vast majority of cases in humans, the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the NOD mouse model is due to T-cell mediated autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic β cells. Particular major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes (designated HLA in humans; and H2 in mice) provide the primary genetic risk factor for T1D development. It has long been appreciated that within the MHC, particular unusual class II genes contribute to the development of T1D in both humans and NOD mice by allowing for the development and functional activation of β cell autoreactive CD4 T cells. However, studies in NOD mice have revealed that through interactions with other background susceptibility genes, the quite common class I variants (K(d), D(b)) characterizing this strain's H2 (g7) MHC haplotype aberrantly acquire an ability to support the development of β cell autoreactive CD8 T cell responses also essential to T1D development. Similarly, recent studies indicate that in the proper genetic context some quite common HLA class I variants also aberrantly contribute to T1D development in humans. This review focuses on how "humanized" HLA transgenic NOD mice can be created and used to identify class I dependent β cell autoreactive CD8 T cell populations of clinical relevance to T1D development. There is also discussion on how HLA transgenic NOD mice can be used to develop protocols that may ultimately be useful for the prevention of T1D in humans by attenuating autoreactive CD8 T cell responses against pancreatic β cells. PMID:27150089

  8. Primary prevention of beta-cell autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes – The Global Platform for the Prevention of Autoimmune Diabetes (GPPAD perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Ziegler

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: It is timely and feasible to establish a platform for primary prevention trials for type 1 diabetes in Europe. This multi-site European infrastructure would perform RCTs, supply data coordination and biorepository, provide cohorts for mechanistic and observational studies, and increase awareness for autoimmune diabetes.

  9. Over-expression of Stat5b confers protection against diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice via up-regulation of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► This is the first study to provide direct evidence of the role of Stat5b in NOD mice. ► Over-expression of wild type Stat5b transgene protects NOD mice against diabetes. ► This protection may be mediated by the up-regulation of CD4+CD25+ Tregs. -- Abstract: The signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family of proteins play a critical role in cytokine signaling required for fine tuning of immune regulation. Previous reports showed that a mutation (L327M) in the Stat5b protein leads to aberrant cytokine signaling in the NOD mice. To further elaborate the role of Stat5b in diabetes, we established a NOD transgenic mouse that over-expresses the wild type Stat5b gene. The incidences of spontaneous diabetes as well as cyclophosphamide-induced diabetes were significantly reduced and delayed in the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice compared to their littermate controls. The total cell numbers of CD4+ T cells and especially CD8+ T cells in the spleen and pancreatic lymph node were increased in the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice. Consistent with these findings, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice showed a higher proliferation capacity and up-regulation of multiple cytokines including IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 as well as anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-xl. Furthermore, the number and proportion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells were significantly increased in transgenic mice although in vitro suppression ability of the regulatory T-cells was not affected by the transgene. Our results suggest that Stat5b confers protection against diabetes in the NOD mice by regulating the numbers and function of multiple immune cell types, especially by up-regulating CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.

  10. Easily obtainable clinical features increase the diagnostic accuracy for later autoimmune diabetes in adults. An evidence based report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgens, M.W.M.D.; Meijer, M.; Peeters, B.; Poulsen, M.N.F.; Rutten, M.J.; Bots, M.L.; Heijden, van der G.J.M.G.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) represents a subgroup of diabetes mellitus. LADA is characterised by adult-onset diabetes and circulating autoimmune antibodies. LADA patients may need a different therapeutic approach than the usual type 2 diabetes mellitus. When LADA is inadeq

  11. Role of Peritoneal Macrophages in Cytomegalovirus-induced Acceleration of Autoimmune Diabetes in BB-rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Luuk Hillebrands

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As one of the natural perturbants, infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV is believed to play a role in the development of Type I diabetes. Using the DP-BB rat model for autoimmune diabetes, we here report about possible mechanisms responsible for R(atCMV-induced accelerated onset of diabetes.

  12. Immunological Basis for Rapid Progression of Diabetes in Older NOD Mouse Recipients Post BM-HSC Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Wang

    Full Text Available Type I diabetes (T1D, mediated by autoreactive T cell destruction of insulin-producing islet beta cells, has been treated with bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cell (BM-HSC transplantation. Older non-obese diabetic (NOD mice recipients (3m, at disease-onset stage receiving syngeneic BM-HSC progressed more rapidly to end-stage diabetes post-transplantation than younger recipients (4-6w, at disease-initiation stage. FACS analyses showed a higher percentage and absolute number of regulatory T cells (Treg and lower proportion of proliferating T conventional cells (Tcon in pancreatic lymph nodes from the resistant mice among the younger recipients compared to the rapid progressors among the older recipients. Treg distribution in spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, blood and thymus between the two groups was similar. However, the percentage of thymic Tcon and the proliferation of Tcon in MLN and blood were lower in the young resistants. These results suggest recipient age and associated disease stage as a variable to consider in BM-HSC transplantation for treating T1D.

  13. Transgenic expression of TGF-β on thyrocytes inhibits development of spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis and increases regulatory T cells in thyroids of NOD.H-2h4 mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Shiguang; Fang, Yujiang; Sharp, Gordon C.; Braley-Mullen, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic NOD.H-2h4 mice expressing TGF-β under control of the thyroglobulin promoter were generated to address the role of TGF-β in development of thyrocyte hyperplasia. In contrast to non-transgenic (Tg−) littermates which develop lymphocytic spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis (L-SAT), all TGF-β transgenic (Tg+) mice given NaI water for 2–7 mo develop thyroid lesions characterized by severe thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia and proliferation (TEC H/P) with fibrosis and less lymphocyte in...

  14. Anterior Hypopituitarism is Rare and Autoimmune Disease is Common in Adults with Idiopathic Central Diabetes Insipidus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Objective: Central diabetes insipidus is a rare clinical condition with a heterogenous aetiology. Up to 40% of cases are classified as idiopathic, though many of these are thought to have an autoimmune basis. Published data has suggested that anterior hypopituitarism is common in childhood onset idiopathic diabetes insipidus. We aimed to assess the incidence of anterior hypopituitarism in a cohort of adult patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Design and Patients: We performed a retrospective review of the databases of two pituitary investigation units. This identified 39 patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. All had undergone MRI scanning and dynamic pituitary testing (either insulin tolerance testing or GHRH\\/arginine and short synacthen testing) to assess anterior pituitary function. Results: One patient had partial growth hormone deficiency; no other anterior pituitary hormonal deficits were found. 33% had at least one autoimmune disease in addition to central diabetes insipidus. Conclusions: Our data suggest that anterior hypopituitarism is rare in adult idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Routine screening of these patients for anterior hypopituitarism may not therefore be indicated. The significant prevalence of autoimmune disease in this cohort supports the hypothesis that idiopathic diabetes insipidus may have an autoimmune aetiology.

  15. The gene expression profile of CD11c+ CD8α- dendritic cells in the pre-diabetic pancreas of the NOD mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Beumer

    Full Text Available Two major dendritic cell (DC subsets have been described in the pancreas of mice: The CD11c+ CD8α- DCs (strong CD4+ T cell proliferation inducers and the CD8α+ CD103+ DCs (T cell apoptosis inducers. Here we analyzed the larger subset of CD11c+ CD8α- DCs isolated from the pancreas of pre-diabetic NOD mice for genome-wide gene expression (validated by Q-PCR to elucidate abnormalities in underlying gene expression networks. CD11c+ CD8α- DCs were isolated from 5 week old NOD and control C57BL/6 pancreas. The steady state pancreatic NOD CD11c+ CD8α- DCs showed a reduced expression of several gene networks important for the prime functions of these cells, i.e. for cell renewal, immune tolerance induction, migration and for the provision of growth factors including those for beta cell regeneration. A functional in vivo BrdU incorporation test showed the reduced proliferation of steady state pancreatic DC. The reduced expression of tolerance induction genes (CD200R, CCR5 and CD24 was supported on the protein level by flow cytometry. Also previously published functional tests on maturation, immune stimulation and migration confirm the molecular deficits of NOD steady state DC. Despite these deficiencies NOD pancreas CD11c+ CD8α- DCs showed a hyperreactivity to LPS, which resulted in an enhanced pro-inflammatory state characterized by a gene profile of an enhanced expression of a number of classical inflammatory cytokines. The enhanced up-regulation of inflammatory genes was supported by the in vitro cytokine production profile of the DCs. In conclusion, our data show that NOD pancreatic CD11c+ CD8α- DCs show various deficiencies in steady state, while hyperreactive when encountering a danger signal such as LPS.

  16. Spectratyping analysis of the islet-reactive T cell repertoire in diabetic NOD Igμnull mice after polyclonal B cell reconstitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sercarz Eli E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non Obese Diabetic mice lacking B cells (NOD.Igμnull mice do not develop diabetes despite their susceptible background. Upon reconstitution of B cells using a chimera approach, animals start developing diabetes at 20 weeks of age. Methods We have used the spectratyping technique to follow the T cell receptor (TCR V beta repertoire of NOD.Igμnull mice following B cell reconstitution. This technique provides an unbiased approach to understand the kinetics of TCR expansion. We have also analyzed the TCR repertoire of reconstituted animals receiving cyclophosphamide treatment and following tissue transplants to identify common aggressive clonotypes. Results We found that B cell reconstitution of NOD.Igμnull mice induces a polyclonal TCR repertoire in the pancreas 10 weeks later, gradually diversifying to encompass most BV families. Interestingly, these clonotypic BV expansions are mainly confined to the pancreas and are absent from pancreatic lymph nodes or spleens. Cyclophosphamide-induced diabetes at 10 weeks post-B cell reconstitution reorganized the predominant TCR repertoires by removing potential regulatory clonotypes (BV1, BV8 and BV11 and increasing the frequency of others (BV4, BV5S2, BV9, BV16-20. These same clonotypes are more frequently present in neonatal pancreatic transplants under the kidney capsule of B-cell reconstituted diabetic NOD.Igμnull mice, suggesting their higher invasiveness. Phenotypic analysis of the pancreas-infiltrating lymphocytes during diabetes onset in B cell reconstituted animals show a predominance of CD19+ B cells with a B:T lymphocyte ratio of 4:1. In contrast, in other lymphoid organs (pancreatic lymph nodes and spleens analyzed by FACS, the B:T ratio was 1:1. Lymphocytes infiltrating the pancreas secrete large amounts of IL-6 and are of Th1 phenotype after CD3-CD28 stimulation in vitro. Conclusions Diabetes in NOD.Igμnull mice appears to be caused by a polyclonal repertoire of T cell

  17. Th1-Like ICOS+ Foxp3+ Treg Cells Preferentially Express CXCR3 and Home to β-Islets during Pre-Diabetes in BDC2.5 NOD Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Kornete

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D occurs through a breakdown of self-tolerance resulting in the autoimmune destruction of the insulin producing β-islets of the pancreas. A numerical and functional waning of CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg cells, prompted by a pancreatic IL-2 deficiency, accompanies Th1 autoimmunity and T1D progression in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice. Recently, we identified a dominant subset of intra-islet Treg cells that expresses the ICOS costimulatory receptor and promotes self-tolerance delaying the onset of T1D. ICOS co-stimulation potently enhances IL-2 induced survival and proliferation, and suppressive activity of Treg cells in situ. Here, we propose an ICOS-dependent mechanism of Treg cell homing to the β-islets during pre-diabetes in the NOD model via upregulation of the CXCR3 chemokine receptor. The islet-specific ICOS+ Treg cell subset preferentially expresses CXCR3 in the pancreatic lymph nodes (pLN in response to Teff cell-mediated pancreatic inflammation, an expression correlating with the onset and magnitude of IFN-γ production by Teff cells in pancreatic sites. We also reveal that intra-pancreatic APC populations and insulin-producing β, but not α nor δ, islet cells secrete the CXCR3 chemokines, CXCL9, 10 and 11, and selectively promote ICOS+ CXCR3+ Treg cell chemotaxis in vitro. Strikingly, islet-derived Treg cells also produce these chemokines suggesting an auto-regulation of homing by this subset. Unlike ICOS- cells, ICOS+ Treg cells adopt a Th1-like Treg phenotype while maintaining their suppressive capacity, characterized by expression of T-bet and CXCR3 and production of IFN-γ in the draining pLNs. Finally, in vivo neutralization of IFN-γ blocked Treg cell CXCR3 upregulation evincing its role in regulating expression of this chemokine receptor by Treg cells. Thus, CXCR3-mediated trafficking of Treg cells could represent a mechanism of homeostatic immunoregulation during diabetogeneesis.

  18. IMMUNOLOGICAL AND METABOLIC FACTORS INTERACTION IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESSION OF MICROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS IN LATENT AUTOIMMUNE DIABETES OF ADULTS (LADA)

    OpenAIRE

    T. V. Saprina; T S Prokhorenko; F. E. Lazarenko; I. N. Vorozhtsova; N V Ryazantseva

    2014-01-01

    Some researchers found that the development of microvascular complications (nephropathy, retinopathy) with latent autoimmune diabetes adults (LADA) occurs much earlier than in type 1 diabetes mellitus. The research devoted to the study of the spectrum and the time of development of microangiopathy in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes of adults, compared to patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Also studied immunological factors (cytokine secretion of mononuclear leukocytes) as ...

  19. Over-expression of Stat5b confers protection against diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice via up-regulation of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Yulan; Purohit, Sharad [Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Georgia Health Sciences University, GA (United States); Department of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Health Sciences University, GA (United States); Chen, Xueqin; Yi, Bing [Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Georgia Health Sciences University, GA (United States); She, Jin-Xiong, E-mail: jshe@georgiahealth.edu [Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Georgia Health Sciences University, GA (United States); Department of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Health Sciences University, GA (United States)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first study to provide direct evidence of the role of Stat5b in NOD mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Over-expression of wild type Stat5b transgene protects NOD mice against diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This protection may be mediated by the up-regulation of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} Tregs. -- Abstract: The signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family of proteins play a critical role in cytokine signaling required for fine tuning of immune regulation. Previous reports showed that a mutation (L327M) in the Stat5b protein leads to aberrant cytokine signaling in the NOD mice. To further elaborate the role of Stat5b in diabetes, we established a NOD transgenic mouse that over-expresses the wild type Stat5b gene. The incidences of spontaneous diabetes as well as cyclophosphamide-induced diabetes were significantly reduced and delayed in the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice compared to their littermate controls. The total cell numbers of CD4{sup +} T cells and especially CD8{sup +} T cells in the spleen and pancreatic lymph node were increased in the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice. Consistent with these findings, CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells from the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice showed a higher proliferation capacity and up-regulation of multiple cytokines including IL-2, IFN-{gamma}, TNF-{alpha} and IL-10 as well as anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-xl. Furthermore, the number and proportion of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T cells were significantly increased in transgenic mice although in vitro suppression ability of the regulatory T-cells was not affected by the transgene. Our results suggest that Stat5b confers protection against diabetes in the NOD mice by regulating the numbers and function of multiple immune cell types, especially by up-regulating CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T cells.

  20. Early life treatment with vancomycin reduces diabetes incidence in NOD mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Vogensen, Finn Kvist;

    treated with the antibiotic vancomycin in four weeks from birth. Diabetes incidence and onset time were compared with a control group and we found that neonate vancomycin treatment attenuates T1D. By changing the gut flora composition in the beginning of life we also demonstrated a disruption...

  1. Autoimmune hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sjogren syndrome Systemic lupus erythematosus Thyroiditis Type 1 diabetes Ulcerative colitis Autoimmune hepatitis may occur in family members of people with autoimmune diseases. There may be a genetic cause. This disease is most common in young girls ...

  2. Contrasting the Genetic Background of Type 1 Diabetes and Celiac Disease Autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Romanos, Jihane; Bakker, Sjoerd F.; Magadi Gopalaiah, Vinod Kumar; de Haas, Esther C.; Trynka, Gosia; Ricano-Ponce, Isis; Steck, Andrea; Chen, Wei-Min; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Simsek, Suat; Rewers, Marian; Mulder, Chris J.; Liu, Ed; Rich, Stephen S.; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CeD) cluster in families and can occur in the same individual. Genetic loci have been associated with susceptibility to both diseases. Our aim was to explore the genetic differences between individuals developing both these diseases (double autoimmunity) ver

  3. Early life treatment with vancomycin reduces diabetes incidence in NOD mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from an uncontrolled T cell mediated destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells in the pancreas. Causal factors include a combination of genetics, early life incidents and the food we eat. The involved adaptive immune response can be down regulated by a regulatory...... immune response and a fine-tuned balance between these immunological components is crucial for characteristics of the disease, such as severity, onset time and recovery. The balance between the regulatory and the adaptive immune response is heavily influenced by early life bacterial stimulation...

  4. Nodding Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-12-19

    Dr. Scott Dowell, a CDC director, discusses the rare illness, nodding syndrome, in children in Africa.  Created: 12/19/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/27/2014.

  5. Dysregulation of T lymphocyte proliferative responses in autoimmunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney K Elizer

    Full Text Available T cells are critically dependent on cellular proliferation in order to carry out their effector functions. Autoimmune strains are commonly thought to have uncontrolled T cell proliferation; however, in the murine model of autoimmune diabetes, hypo-proliferation of T cells leading to defective AICD was previously uncovered. We now determine whether lupus prone murine strains are similarly hyporesponsive. Upon extensive characterization of T lymphocyte activation, we have observed a common feature of CD4 T cell activation shared among three autoimmune strains-NOD, MRL, and NZBxNZW F1s. When stimulated with a polyclonal mitogen, CD4 T cells demonstrate arrested cell division and diminished dose responsiveness as compared to the non-autoimmune strain C57BL/6, a phenotype we further traced to a reliance on B cell mediated costimulation, which underscores the success of B cell directed immune therapies in preventing T cell mediated tissue injury. In turn, the diminished proliferative capacity of these CD4 T cells lead to a decreased, but activation appropriate, susceptibility to activation induced cell death. A similar decrement in stimulation response was observed in the CD8 compartment of NOD mice; NOD CD8 T cells were distinguished from lupus prone strains by a diminished dose-responsiveness to anti-CD3 mediated stimulation. This distinction may explain the differential pathogenetic pathways activated in diabetes and lupus prone murine strains.

  6. STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MITOCHONDRIAL GENE MUTATION AND LATENT AUTOIMMUNE DIABETES MELLITUS IN ADULTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔璨; 李强; 张一娜; 张巾超

    2002-01-01

    Objective.To identify the A3243G mutation of mitochondrial(mt) DNA in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes mellitus in adults (LADA) of Han nationality in the northeast area of China. Methods.Seventy nine diabetics of Han nationality,whose families have resided in the northeast area of China for more than 3 generations,were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (22 cases of type 2 diabetes with maternal inheritance history),Group 2 (34 cases of LADA),Group 3 (23 cases of type 1 diabetes in adolescents).The A3243G of mt DNA was detected in these 79 subjects with the method of PCR RFLP. Results.None of the 79 diabetics studied was positively identified for the A3243G mutation of mt DNA. Conclusion.The A3243G mutation of mt DNA might not be related to the onset of LADA in diabetic population of Han nationality in northeast area of China and there might not be close relationship between A3243G mutation of mt DNA and autoimmunity.

  7. Pancreatic insulin-producing cells differentiated from human embryonic stem cells correct hyperglycemia in SCID/NOD mice, an animal model of diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-feng Hua

    Full Text Available Human pancreatic islet transplantation is a prospective curative treatment for diabetes. However, the lack of donor pancreases greatly limits this approach. One approach to overcome the limited supply of donor pancreases is to generate functional islets from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, a cell line with unlimited proliferative capacity, through rapid directed differentiation. This study investigated whether pancreatic insulin-producing cells (IPCs differentiated from hESCs could correct hyperglycemia in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID/non-obese diabetic (NOD mice, an animal model of diabetes.We generated pancreatic IPCs from two hESC lines, YT1 and YT2, using an optimized four-stage differentiation protocol in a chemically defined culture system. Then, about 5-7 × 10(6 differentiated cells were transplanted into the epididymal fat pad of SCID/NOD mice (n = 20. The control group were transplanted with undifferentiated hESCs (n = 6. Graft survival and function were assessed using immunohistochemistry, and measuring serum human C-peptide and blood glucose levels.The pancreatic IPCs were generated by the four-stage differentiation protocol using hESCs. About 17.1% of differentiated cells expressed insulin, as determined by flow cytometry. These cells secreted insulin/C-peptide following glucose stimulation, similarly to adult human islets. Most of these IPCs co-expressed mature β cell-specific markers, including human C-peptide, GLUT2, PDX1, insulin, and glucagon. After implantation into the epididymal fat pad of SCID/NOD mice, the hESC-derived pancreatic IPCs corrected hyperglycemia for ≥ 8 weeks. None of the animals transplanted with pancreatic IPCs developed tumors during the time. The mean survival of recipients was increased by implanted IPCs as compared to implanted undifferentiated hESCs (P<0.0001.The results of this study confirmed that human terminally differentiated pancreatic IPCs derived from hESCs can correct

  8. Serological markers of enterocyte damage and apoptosis in patients with celiac disease, autoimmune diabetes mellitus and diabetes mellitus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmanová, I; Sánchez, D; Hábová, V; Anděl, M; Tučková, L; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, H

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of mucosal barrier integrity of small intestine might be causative in immune-mediated gastrointestinal diseases. We tested the markers of epithelial apoptosis - cytokeratin 18 caspase-cleaved fragment (cCK-18), and enterocyte damage - intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) in sera of patients with untreated celiac disease (CLD), those on gluten-free diet (CLD-GFD), patients with autoimmune diabetes mellitus (T1D), T1D with insulitis (T1D/INS), and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2D). We found elevated levels of cCK-18 (Pdiabetes.

  9. High-throughput sequencing of islet-infiltrating memory CD4+ T cells reveals a similar pattern of TCR Vβ usage in prediabetic and diabetic NOD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idania Marrero

    Full Text Available Autoreactive memory CD4(+ T cells play a critical role in the development of type 1 diabetes, but it is not yet known how the clonotypic composition and TCRβ repertoire of the memory CD4(+ T cell compartment changes during the transition from prediabetes to diabetes. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze the TCRβ repertoire of sorted islet-infiltrating memory CD4(+CD44(high T cells in 10-week-old prediabetic and recently diabetic NOD mice. We show that most clonotypes of islet-infiltrating CD4(+CD44(high T cells were rare, but high-frequency clonotypes were significantly more common in diabetic than in prediabetic mice. Moreover, although the CD4(+CD44(high TCRβ repertoires were highly diverse at both stages of disease development, dominant use of TRBV1 (Vβ2, TRBV13-3 (Vβ8.1, and TRBV19 (Vβ6 was evident in both prediabetic and diabetic mice. Our findings strongly suggest that therapeutic targeting of cells specifically expressing the dominant TCRβ might reduce pancreatic infiltration in prediabetic mice and attenuate the progression to diabetes.

  10. [Genetic and humoral autoimmunity markers of type 1 diabetes: from theory to practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Elizabeth Rossi da; Mory, Denise; Davini, Elaine

    2008-03-01

    Type 1 A diabetes mellitus (T1AD) results from the autoimmune destruction of the insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells. The largest contribution to genetic susceptibility comes from several genes located in the major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6p21.3 (IDDM1 locus), accounting for at least 40% of the family aggregation of this disease. The highest-risk human leukocyte antigen HLA genotype for T1AD is DR3-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201/DR4-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302, whereas -DR15-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602 haplotype is associated with dominant protection. Three other T1D loci associated with predisposition are the Variable Number for Tandem Repeats (VNTR) near the insulin gene (IDDM2), which accounts to 10% of genetic susceptibility, the Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-associated Antigen (CTLA-4)(IDDM 12) and the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatasis Nonreceptor-type 22 (PTPN22). Many other gene suspected to predispose to autoimmunity have been investigated. T1AD is frequently associated with autoimmune thyroid disease, celiac disase, Addison s disease and many other autoimmune diseases, characterized by organ-specific autoantibodies and related to the same genetic background. Using these autoantibodies, organ specific autoimmunity may be detected before the development of clinical disease preventing significant morbidity. PMID:18438527

  11. Childhood malignancy and maternal diabetes or other auto-immune disease during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Westbom, L; Åberg, A; Källén, B

    2002-01-01

    Among 4380 children born in 1987–1997 of women with a diagnosis of diabetes and alive at the age of one, 10 were registered in the Swedish Cancer Registry before the end of 1998. The odds ratio for having a childhood cancer after maternal diabetes, stratified for year of birth, maternal age, parity, multiple birth, and 500 g birth weight class was 2.25 (95%CI 1.22–4.15). Among 5842 children born during the period 1973–1997 whose mothers had other auto-immune diseases (SLE, rheumatoid arthriti...

  12. Fusion protein His-Hsp65-6IA2P2 prevents type 1 diabetes through nasal immunization in NOD Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shiping; Li, Guoliang; Liu, Kunfeng; Yang, Xue; Cao, Rongyue; Zong, Li; Long, Jun; Jin, Liang; Wu, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Human heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60), is an endogenous β-cells autoantigen, it could postpone the onset of insulitis and sooner type 1 diabetes mellitus. P277 is one of Hsp65 determinants at position 437-469 of amino acids cascaded. Meanwhile, it's already well-known that there were several better anti-diabetic B epitopes, such as insulinoma antigen-2 (IA-2). Currently, fusion protein IA2P2 has constructed in order to enhance its pharmacological efficacy. In addition, added homologous bacterial-derived Hsp65 and His tag were beneficial to protein immunogenicity and purification separately. So, finally we examined a fusion protein His-Hsp65-6IA2P2 could regulate Th2 immune response and reduce natural diabetic incidence in NOD mice. We constructed two express vector pET28a-His-Hsp65-6P277 and pET28a-His-Hsp65-6IA2P2. After purification, we observed that triple intranasal administration of these two fusion protein in 4-week-old NOD mice maintained normal blood glucose and weight, with a lower diabetic or insulitis incidence. Consistent with induced splenic T cells proliferation and tolerance, His-Hsp65-6IA2P2-treated mice performed reduced IFN-γ and increased IL-10 level. In conclusion, we suggested that fusion protein His-Hsp65-6IA2P2 could be reconstructed and purified successively. Furthermore, nasal administration of this fusion protein could rebalance T cells population and prevent T1DM.

  13. Identification and Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Eugenia uniflora Leaves. Characterization of the Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Aqueous Extract on Diabetes Expression in an Experimental Model of Spontaneous Type 1 Diabetes (NOD Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Simon Gonzalez Schumacher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Medical and folklore reports suggest that Eugenia uniflora (E. uniflora is a functional food that contains numerous compounds in its composition, with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects. In the present study, we investigated the best solvents (water, ethanol and methanol/acetone for extracting bioactive compounds of E. uniflora leaves, assessing total phenols and the antioxidant activity of the extracts by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP, 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC assays, identifying hydrolysable tannins and three phenolic compounds (ellagic acid, gallic acid and rutin present in the leaves. In addition, we evaluated the incidence of diabetes, degree of insulitis, serum insulin, hepatic glutathione and tolerance test glucose in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice. Our results suggest that the aqueous extract presents antioxidant activity and high total phenols, which were used as a type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1 treatment in NOD mice. We verified that the chronic consumption of aqueous extract reduces the inflammatory infiltrate index in pancreatic islets, maintaining serum insulin levels and hepatic glutathione, and reducing serum lipid peroxidation as well as the risk for diabetes.

  14. Humanizing Animal Models: A Key to Autoimmune Diabetes Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bresson, Damien; von Herrath, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical evaluation of antibody-based immunotherapies for the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in animal models is often hampered by the fact that the human antibody drug does not cross-react with its mouse counterpart. In this issue of Science Translational Medicine, researchers describe a new mouse model that expresses the human isoform of a molecule targeted by T1D antibody therapies that are currently being tested in clinical trials—the human epsilon chain of the CD3 complex expresse...

  15. Decrease of FOXP3 mRNA in CD4~+ T cells in latent autoimmune diabetes in adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨治芳

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the percentage of peripheral blood CD4+ CD25+ T cells and the expression of F0XP3 mRNA in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adult (LADA). Methods Fresh peripheral blood samples were obtained from 60 patients with LADA,30 patients with type 2 diabetes and 30 age- and sex-matched

  16. Toxin coupled MHC class I tetramers can specifically ablate autoreactive CD8+ T cells and delay diabetes in NOD mice1

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Benjamin G.; Young, Ellen F.; Buntzman, Adam S.; Stevens, Rosemary; Kepler, Thomas B.; Tisch, Roland; Frelinger, Jeffrey A.; Hess, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that self reactive CD8+ T cells are a major factor in development and progression of Type 1 diabetes in animals and humans. Hence, great effort has been expended to define the specificity of autoimmune CD8+ T cells, and to alter their responses. Much work has focused on tolerization of T cells using proteins or peptides. A weakness in this approach is residual autoreactive T cells may be activated and exacerbate disease.

  17. Effect of Associated Autoimmune Diseases on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Incidence and Metabolic Control in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases developing in childhood. The incidence of the disease in children increases for unknown reasons at a rate from 3 to 5% every year worldwide. The background of T1DM is associated with the autoimmune process of pancreatic beta cell destruction, which leads to absolute insulin deficiency and organ damage. Complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of T1DM in genetically predisposed patients. The T1DM-inducing autoimmune process can also affect other organs, resulting in development of additional autoimmune diseases in the patient, thereby impeding diabetes control. The most common T1DM comorbidities include autoimmune thyroid diseases, celiac disease, and autoimmune gastritis; additionally, diabetes can be a component of PAS (Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome). The aim of this review is to assess the prevalence of T1DM-associated autoimmune diseases in children and adolescents and their impact on the course of T1DM. We also present suggestions concerning screening tests. PMID:27525273

  18. NOD2: Ethnic and geographic differences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juleen Cavanaugh

    2006-01-01

    Investigations into the inheritance of the three risk alleles R702W, G908R and 1007fsInsC in NOD2 associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease have demonstrated a remarkable amount of heterogeneity across ethnicities and populations, with regional variation across Europe for example, suggesting local founder effects. In nonCaucasian populations Crohn's disease continues to increase in incidence but this increase appears not to be a consequence of variation in NOD2, further advancing the accumulating evidence for other susceptibility loci.Frequencies of the known alleles are compared across populations in health and disease and evidence for additional alleles in NOD2 is reviewed. Based on its position on chromosome 16 coincident with some other autoimmune disease susceptibility localizations, research has targeted NOD2 variation as the potential cause of other autoimmune disorders. While these investigations have mostly returned negative findings, two diseases,Blau Syndrome and Graft versus Host Disease, have been shown to be caused by risk alleles in NOD2. As is frequent in complex disease investigations, some results await validation, but the identification of NOD2 and the differences within and across population raises intriguing questions about the population genetics of the variation at this locus.

  19. Prolonged exclusive breastfeeding reduces autoimmune diabetes incidence and increases regulatory T-cell frequency in bio-breeding diabetes-prone rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, S.; Visser, J. T. J.; Hillebrands, J. L.; Bos, N. A.; Rozing, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previously, we reported that exclusive breastfeeding delayed and partially protected bio-breeding diabetes-prone (BBDP) rats from spontaneous autoimmune diabetes development. To investigate whether this protection results from modulation of the (mucosal) immune system, the present study w

  20. Autoimmune diabetes is suppressed by treatment with recombinant human tissue Kallikrein-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneva-Radicheva, Lilia; Amatya, Christina; Parker, Camille; Ellefson, Jacob; Radichev, Ilian; Raghavan, Arvind; Charles, Matthew L; Williams, Mark S; Robbins, Mark S; Savinov, Alexei Y

    2014-01-01

    The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) comprises a cascade of proteolytic enzymes and biogenic peptides that regulate several physiological processes. Over-expression of tissue kallikrein-1 and modulation of the KKS shows beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and other parameters relevant to type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, much less is known about the role of kallikreins, in particular tissue kallikrein-1, in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). We report that chronic administration of recombinant human tissue kallikrein-1 protein (DM199) to non-obese diabetic mice delayed the onset of T1D, attenuated the degree of insulitis, and improved pancreatic beta cell mass in a dose- and treatment frequency-dependent manner. Suppression of the autoimmune reaction against pancreatic beta cells was evidenced by a reduction in the relative numbers of infiltrating cytotoxic lymphocytes and an increase in the relative numbers of regulatory T cells in the pancreas and pancreatic lymph nodes. These effects may be due in part to a DM199 treatment-dependent increase in active TGF-beta1. Treatment with DM199 also resulted in elevated C-peptide levels, elevated glucagon like peptide-1 levels and a reduction in dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity. Overall, the data suggest that DM199 may have a beneficial effect on T1D by attenuating the autoimmune reaction and improving beta cell health. PMID:25259810

  1. Autoimmune diabetes is suppressed by treatment with recombinant human tissue Kallikrein-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Maneva-Radicheva

    Full Text Available The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS comprises a cascade of proteolytic enzymes and biogenic peptides that regulate several physiological processes. Over-expression of tissue kallikrein-1 and modulation of the KKS shows beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and other parameters relevant to type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, much less is known about the role of kallikreins, in particular tissue kallikrein-1, in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D. We report that chronic administration of recombinant human tissue kallikrein-1 protein (DM199 to non-obese diabetic mice delayed the onset of T1D, attenuated the degree of insulitis, and improved pancreatic beta cell mass in a dose- and treatment frequency-dependent manner. Suppression of the autoimmune reaction against pancreatic beta cells was evidenced by a reduction in the relative numbers of infiltrating cytotoxic lymphocytes and an increase in the relative numbers of regulatory T cells in the pancreas and pancreatic lymph nodes. These effects may be due in part to a DM199 treatment-dependent increase in active TGF-beta1. Treatment with DM199 also resulted in elevated C-peptide levels, elevated glucagon like peptide-1 levels and a reduction in dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity. Overall, the data suggest that DM199 may have a beneficial effect on T1D by attenuating the autoimmune reaction and improving beta cell health.

  2. HLA, NFKB1 and NFKBIA gene polymorphism profile in autoimmune diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarina, K; Daniela, P; Peter, N; Marianna, R; Pavlina, C; Stepanka, P; Jan, L; Ludmila, T; Michal, A; Marie, C

    2007-02-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is one of the long-time studied autoimmune disorders. The triggering of the autoimmune process has been ascribed to various genes active in the regulation of the cytokine gene transcription including the Rel/NF-kappaB gene family. In our study the gene polymorphism of HLA class II, NFKB1 (nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1) and NFKBIA (inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B) was tested. Patients were divided into the subgroups in relation to the disease type: T1DM in children, T1DM in adults, and Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA). HLA-DRB1 (*)04 and HLA-DQB1 (*)0302 have been detected as risk factors for T1DM in adults and particularly in children (P<0.0001, OR=22.9 and 46.5 respectively). HLA-DRB1 (*)03 has been found as a single risk factor for LADA (P<0.0001, OR=4.9). We detected 15 alleles for the NFKB1 gene polymorphism (CA-repeats) in the Czech population. The alleles were ranging in size from 114-142 bp corresponding to 10-25 CA repeats. Frequency of the A7 allele of NFKB1 gene has been significantly increased in T1DM adults (P<0.01). There was no difference in A and a G allele frequency of NFKBIA gene between the control group and patients, but the association of the AA genotype of NFKBIA gene has been found for LADA (P<0.05). Summarizing our results we concluded that there is a high probability of association of gene polymorphism from Rel/NF-kappaB family with an autoimmune diabetes course. Due to the results obtained in the epidemiological study we have been looking also for the function significance of the genetic predisposition. No significant changes have been observed by real time PCR testing of HLA-DRB1 (*)04 gene and NFKB1 gene expression between T1DM diabetic group with different HLA, NFKB1, NFKBIA genetic background. PMID:17318773

  3. Effector and naturally occurring regulatory T cells display no abnormalities in activation induced cell death in NOD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Kaminitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disturbed peripheral negative regulation might contribute to evolution of autoimmune insulitis in type 1 diabetes. This study evaluates the sensitivity of naïve/effector (Teff and regulatory T cells (Treg to activation-induced cell death mediated by Fas cross-linking in NOD and wild-type mice. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both effector (CD25(-, FoxP3(- and suppressor (CD25(+, FoxP3(+ CD4(+ T cells are negatively regulated by Fas cross-linking in mixed splenocyte populations of NOD, wild type mice and FoxP3-GFP trangeneess. Proliferation rates and sensitivity to Fas cross-linking are dissociated in Treg cells: fast cycling induced by IL-2 and CD3/CD28 stimulation improve Treg resistance to Fas-ligand (FasL in both strains. The effector and suppressor CD4(+ subsets display balanced sensitivity to negative regulation under baseline conditions, IL-2 and CD3/CD28 stimulation, indicating that stimulation does not perturb immune homeostasis in NOD mice. Effective autocrine apoptosis of diabetogenic cells was evident from delayed onset and reduced incidence of adoptive disease transfer into NOD.SCID by CD4(+CD25(- T cells decorated with FasL protein. Treg resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis retain suppressive activity in vitro. The only detectable differential response was reduced Teff proliferation and upregulation of CD25 following CD3-activation in NOD mice. CONCLUSION: These data document negative regulation of effector and suppressor cells by Fas cross-linking and dissociation between sensitivity to apoptosis and proliferation in stimulated Treg. There is no evidence that perturbed AICD in NOD mice initiates or promotes autoimmune insulitis.

  4. Autoimmune central diabetes insipidus in a patient with ureaplasma urealyticum infection and review on new triggers of immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdaca, Giuseppe; Russo, Rodolfo; Spanò, Francesca; Ferone, Diego; Albertelli, Manuela; Schenone, Angelo; Contatore, Miriam; Guastalla, Andrea; De Bellis, Annamaria; Garibotto, Giacomo; Puppo, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes insipidus is a disease in which large volumes of dilute urine (polyuria) are excreted due to vasopressin (AVP) deficiency [central diabetes insipidus (CDI)] or to AVP resistance (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus). In the majority of patients, the occurrence of CDI is related to the destruction or degeneration of neurons of the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. The most common and well recognized causes include local inflammatory or autoimmune diseases, vascular disorders, Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), sarcoidosis, tumors such as germinoma/craniopharyngioma or metastases, traumatic brain injuries, intracranial surgery, and midline cerebral and cranial malformations. Here we have the opportunity to describe an unusual case of female patient who developed autoimmune CDI following ureaplasma urealyticum infection and to review the literature on this uncommon feature. Moreover, we also discussed the potential mechanisms by which ureaplasma urealyticum might favor the development of autoimmune CDI.

  5. Effects of Non-HLA Gene Polymorphisms on Development of Islet Autoimmunity and Type 1 Diabetes in a Population With High-Risk HLA-DR,DQ Genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steck, Andrea K.; Wong, Randall; Wagner, Brandie; Johnson, Kelly; Liu, Edwin; Romanos, Jihane; Wijmenga, Cisca; Norris, Jill M.; Eisenbarth, George S.; Rewers, Marian J.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the effects of non-HLA gene polymorphisms on the risk of islet autoimmunity (IA) and progression to type 1 diabetes in the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young. A total of 1,743 non-Hispanic, white children were included: 861 first-degree relatives and 882 general population children

  6. Longitudinal three-dimensional visualisation of autoimmune diabetes by functional optical coherence imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berclaz, Corinne; Schmidt-Christensen, Anja; Szlag, Daniel;

    2016-01-01

    and vascularisation. The substantially increased backscattering of islets is dominated by the insulin-zinc nanocrystals in the beta cell granules. This translates into a high specificity for the functional beta cell volume of islets. Applying FOCI to a spontaneous mouse model of type 1 diabetes, we quantify......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: It is generally accepted that structural and functional quantitative imaging of individual islets would be beneficial to elucidate the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. We here introduce functional optical coherence imaging (FOCI) for fast, label-free monitoring of beta cell...... tomographic acquisition. In addition, the phase sensitivity allows simultaneous label-free acquisition of vascularisation. RESULTS: We demonstrate that FOCI allows longitudinal quantification of progressive autoimmune insulitis, including the three-dimensional quantification of beta cell volume, inflammation...

  7. Insulin gene polymorphisms in type 1 diabetes, Addison's disease and the polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahner Stefanie

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms within the insulin gene can influence insulin expression in the pancreas and especially in the thymus, where self-antigens are processed, shaping the T cell repertoire into selftolerance, a process that protects from β-cell autoimmunity. Methods We investigated the role of the -2221Msp(C/T and -23HphI(A/T polymorphisms within the insulin gene in patients with a monoglandular autoimmune endocrine disease [patients with isolated type 1 diabetes (T1D, n = 317, Addison's disease (AD, n = 107 or Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT, n = 61], those with a polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II (combination of T1D and/or AD with HT or GD, n = 62 as well as in healthy controls (HC, n = 275. Results T1D patients carried significantly more often the homozygous genotype "CC" -2221Msp(C/T and "AA" -23HphI(A/T polymorphisms than the HC (78.5% vs. 66.2%, p = 0.0027 and 75.4% vs. 52.4%, p = 3.7 × 10-8, respectively. The distribution of insulin gene polymorphisms did not show significant differences between patients with AD, HT, or APS-II and HC. Conclusion We demonstrate that the allele "C" of the -2221Msp(C/T and "A" -23HphI(A/T insulin gene polymorphisms confer susceptibility to T1D but not to isolated AD, HT or as a part of the APS-II.

  8. Multiple endocrinopathies (growth hormone deficiency, autoimmune hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus in Kearns-Sayre syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Berio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Kearns-Sayre syndrome is characterized by onset before 20 years, chronic progressive external opthalmoplegia, pigmentary retinal degeneration, and ataxia (and/or hearth block, and/or high protein content in the cerebrospinal fluid in the presence of mtDNA rearrangements. Multiple endocrine dysfunction associated with this syndrome was rarely reported. In this paper, the Authors report on a female patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome with large heteroplasmic mtDNA deletion, absence of cytochrome c oxidase in many muscle fibers, partial GH deficiency, hypothyroidism and subsequently insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM. Anti-thyroid peroxidase and antithyreoglobulin antibodies were present in high titer in serum while anti-islet cell antibodies were absent. The patient developed thyroiditis with Hashimoto encephalopathy. The presence of GH deficiency, autoimmune thyroiditis with hypothyroidism and IDDM distinguishes this case from others and confirms the association of Kearns-Sayre syndrome with multiple endocrine dysfunction. Hashimoto encephalopathy and anti-thyroideal antibodies suggest that in this patient, predisposed by a genetic factor (a mitochondrial deletion anti-thyroideal antibodies may have contributed to the hypothyroidism and, by interfering with cerebral mitochondrial function, may have caused the encephalopathy. GH deficiency and IDDM can be attributed to oxidative phosphorylation deficiency but the autoimmunity may also have played a role in the production of glandular insufficiencies. It seems important to search for endocrine autoimmunity in every case of KSS.

  9. Evidence of association with type 1 diabetes in the SLC11A1 gene region

    OpenAIRE

    Walker Neil M; Stevens Helen E; Nutland Sarah; Howson Joanna MM; Downes Kate; Yang Jennie HM; Todd John A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Linkage and congenic strain analyses using the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse as a model for human type 1 autoimmune diabetes (T1D) have identified several NOD mouse Idd (insulin dependent diabetes) loci, including Slc11a1 (formerly known as Nramp1). Genetic variants in the orthologous region encompassing SLC11A1 in human chromosome 2q35 have been reported to be associated with various immune-related diseases including T1D. Here, we have conducted association analysis of th...

  10. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibody levels discriminate two subtypes of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 杨琳; 周智广; 黄干; 颜湘

    2003-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical characteristics between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) with different titers of glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody (GADA) and to define the two distinct subtypes of LADA.Methods Sera of 750 patients with an initial diagnosis of T2DM from central south of China were screened for GADA using a radioligand assay. The distribution and frequency of GADA levels were described. Two hundred and ninety-five patients were divided into the T2DM group (n=233) and the LADA group (n=62) to compare the age of onset, body mass index, HbA1c, C-peptide, hypertension, dyslipidemia and chronic diabetic complications. Furthermore, LADA patients with different GADA titers were subdivided to analyze the same indexes as the above. Results The prevalence of LADA (defined as GADA≥0.05, namely GADA positive) was 9.7% in the 750 initially diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. Compared with T2DM, LADA patients were younger at their ages of onset, had lower C-peptide and body mass index, and also had less cases with hypertension and with dyslipidemia. However, only patients with high titer of GADA had poorer beta cell functions and less diabetic complications compared to T2DM and low GADA titer of LADA patients. Patients with low GADA titer were similar to T2DM patients, except that they were prone to develop ketosis more frequently.Conclusions Two clinically distinct subtypes of LADA can be identified by GADA levels in patients initially-diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. Patients with high titer of GADA (GADA≥0.5) subsequently develop more insulin dependency, which are classified as LADA-type 1; while those with lower GADA titer (0.05≤GADA<0.5) and having clinical and metabolic phenotypes of type 2 diabetes are classified as LADA-type 2.

  11. DIABETOGENIC T CELLS INDUCE AUTOIMMUNE DIABETES IN BALB/c MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-lei Zou; Zeng-yu Zhao; Yun-yang Wang; Zhi-qiang Su; Ming Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of T cell and its subsets in the induction of insulitis and type 1 diabetes meilitus(T1DM) in BALB/c mice.Methods Autoimmune diabetes mellitus was developed by intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg streptozotocin(STZ) daily for 5 consecutive days in BALB/c mice as sources of donor cells. Spleen cells from diabetic mice were then cultured for 7 days in the stimulation of interleukin-2 ( IL-2 ) to harvest diabetogenic T cells, which were subsequently transferred into normal BALB/c mice recipients. MTr, ELISA, and HE staining were used to analyze the lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine (IL-2, interferon-γ, IL-4, and IL-10) levels, and pathological changes in pancreatic islets.Results As few as 3 × 106 diabetogenic T cells successfully induced diabetes meilitus in recipients pretreated with STZ twice, whereas transfer of equal amount of normal splenocytes, T cell-depleted diabetogenie splenocytes, or diabetogenic CD4+ T cells alone in recipients receiving STZ twice pretreatment was proved not to induce diabetes mellitus either. A markedly increased lymphocyte proliferation, high levels of interferon-γ and IL-2 in the supematants of diabetogenie T cells were observed. In addition, a markedly enhanced lymphocyte proliferation, a high level of interferon-γ secretion in serum, and numerous lymphocytes infiltration in pancreatic islets were detected in the diabetic mice induced by diabetogenic T cells transfer.Conclusions A novel T1DM murine model is established in STZ-pretreated BALB/c mice by adoptive transfer of diabetogenic T cells. CD4M+ T cells with interferon-γ may promote the onset of diabetes mellitus.

  12. Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some examples of CAM are herbal products, chiropractic , acupuncture , and hypnosis . If you have an autoimmune disease, ... Toll-Free: 877-226-4267 National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH, HHS Phone: ...

  13. Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults: From oral hypoglycemic agents to early insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resham R Poudel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 10% of phenotypic type 2 diabetics have islet autoantibodies and are referred to as having latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA, and they land on early sulfonylurea failure and require insulin. Diagnosing LADA has treatment implications because of high risk of progression to insulin dependency. But often there is delay in insulin therapy, as there are no recommendations for islet antibody testing in adult-onset diabetes currently. LADA clinical risk score can identify adults at high risk who may benefit from antibody testing. The optimal treatment of LADA is not established. Early insulin therapy helps to achieve good metabolic control and better long-term outcomes by preserving b-cells and endogenous C-peptide secretion. Sulfonylureas are better avoided as they exhaust b-cells; glitazones and exenatide have favorable outcomes, whereas metformin needs to be used with caution. Understanding LADA will also bring new windows in managing type 1 diabetes. Information acquisition was done by reviewing the medical literature published since 1987, with particular attention to the natural history, genetic factors, and treatment of LADA.

  14. Association of SUMO4 M55V polymorphism with autoimmune diabetes in Latvian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedimbi, Saikiran K; Shastry, Arun; Park, Yongsoo; Rumba, Ingrida; Sanjeevi, Carani B

    2006-10-01

    Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO4), located in IDDM5, has been identified as a potential susceptibility gene for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The novel polymorphism M55V, causing an amino acid change in the evolutionarily conserved met55 residue has been shown to activate the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), hence the suspected role of SUMO4 in the pathogenicity of T1DM. The M55V polymorphism has been shown to be associated with susceptibility to T1DM in Asians, but not in Caucasians. Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a slowly progressive form of T1DM and SUMO4 M55V has not been studied in LADA to date. The current study aims to test whether Latvians are similar to Caucasians in susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes (T1DM and LADA), with respect to SUMO4 M55V. We studied, age- and sex-matched, Latvian T1DM patients (n = 100) and healthy controls (n = 90) and LADA patients (n = 45) and healthy controls (n = 95). SUMO4 M55V polymorphism was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The allelic frequencies of the A and G alleles were compared with HLA DR3-DR4-positive and HLA DR3-DR4-negative patients to identify any potential relation between HLA DR3-DR4 and SUMO4 M55V. We found no significant association between SUMO4 M55V and T1DM susceptibility in Latvians, the results being in concurrence with the previous studies in Caucasians of British and Canadian origin. Comparison of the A and G alleles with HLA DR3-DR4 did not result in any significant P values. No significant association was found between SUMO4 M55V and LADA. SUMO4 M55V is not associated with susceptibility to T1DM and LADA in Latvians, and Latvians exhibit similarity to other Caucasians with respect to association of SUMO4 M55V with autoimmune diabetes.

  15. Gut microbiota translocation to the pancreatic lymph nodes triggers NOD2 activation and contributes to T1D onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Frederico R C; Françozo, Marcela C S; de Oliveira, Gabriela G; Ignacio, Aline; Castoldi, Angela; Zamboni, Dario S; Ramos, Simone G; Câmara, Niels O; de Zoete, Marcel R; Palm, Noah W; Flavell, Richard A; Silva, João S; Carlos, Daniela

    2016-06-27

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is triggered by both genetic and environmental factors, resulting in the destruction of pancreatic β cells. The disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier and consequent escape of microbial products may be one of these environmental triggers. However, the immune receptors that are activated in this context remain elusive. We show here that during streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1D, the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2), but not NOD1, participates in the pathogenesis of the disease by inducing T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 cells in the pancreatic LNs (PLNs) and pancreas. Additionally, STZ-injected wild-type (WT) diabetic mice displayed an altered gut microbiota compared with vehicle-injected WT mice, together with the translocation of bacteria to the PLNs. Interestingly, WT mice treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics (Abx) were fully protected from STZ-induced T1D, which correlated with the abrogation of bacterial translocation to the PLNs. Notably, when Abx-treated STZ-injected WT mice received the NOD2 ligand muramyl dipeptide, both hyperglycemia and the proinflammatory immune response were restored. Our results demonstrate that the recognition of bacterial products by NOD2 inside the PLNs contributes to T1D development, establishing a new putative target for intervention during the early stages of the disease. PMID:27325889

  16. Investigation of the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) and its interaction with protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2 gene (PTPN2) on risk of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes : The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiksen, B.; Liu, E.; Romanos, J.; Steck, A. K.; Yin, X.; Kroehl, M.; Fingerlin, T. E.; Erlich, H.; Eisenbarth, G. S.; Rewers, M.; Norris, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the association between variants in the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) and protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2 gene (PTPN2), as well as an interaction between VDR and PTPN2 and the risk of islet autoimmunity (IA) and progression to type 1 diabetes (T1D). T

  17. Lessons From Pancreas Transplantation in Type 1 Diabetes: Recurrence of Islet Autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, George W; Vendrame, Francesco; Virdi, Sahil K; Ciancio, G; Chen, Linda; Ruiz, Phillip; Messinger, Shari; Reijonen, Helena K; Pugliese, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes recurrence (T1DR) affecting pancreas transplants was first reported in recipients of living-related pancreas grafts from twins or HLA identical siblings; given HLA identity, recipients received no or minimal immunosuppression. This observation provided critical evidence that type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease. However, T1DR is traditionally considered very rare in immunosuppressed recipients of pancreas grafts from organ donors, representing the majority of recipients, and immunological graft failures are ascribed to chronic rejection. We have been performing simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplants for over 25 years and find that 6-8 % of our recipients develop T1DR, with symptoms usually becoming manifest on extended follow-up. T1DR is typically characterized by (1) variable degree of insulitis and loss of insulin staining, on pancreas transplant biopsy (with most often absent), minimal to moderate and rarely severe pancreas, and/or kidney transplant rejection; (2) the conversion of T1D-associated autoantibodies (to the autoantigens GAD65, IA-2, and ZnT8), preceding hyperglycemia by a variable length of time; and (3) the presence of autoreactive T cells in the peripheral blood, pancreas transplant, and/or peripancreatic transplant lymph nodes. There is no therapeutic regimen that so far has controlled the progression of islet autoimmunity, even when additional immunosuppression was added to the ongoing chronic regimens; we hope that further studies and, in particular, in-depth analysis of pancreas transplant biopsies with recurrent diabetes will help identify more effective therapeutic approaches.

  18. The Effect of Diabetes-Associated Autoantigens on Cell Processes in Human PBMCs and Their Relevance to Autoimmune Diabetes Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Vcelakova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 Diabetes (T1D is considered to be a T-helper- (Th- 1 autoimmune disease; however, T1D pathogenesis likely involves many factors, and sufficient tools for autoreactive T cell detection for the study of this disease are currently lacking. In this study, using gene expression microarrays, we analysed the effect of diabetes-associated autoantigens on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs with the purpose of identifying (prediabetes-associated cell processes. Twelve patients with recent onset T1D, 18 first-degree relatives of the TD1 patients (DRL; 9/18 autoantibody positive, and 13 healthy controls (DV were tested. PBMCs from these individuals were stimulated with a cocktail of diabetes-associated autoantigens (proinsulin, IA-2, and GAD65-derived peptides. After 72 hours, gene expression was evaluated by high-density gene microarray. The greatest number of functional differences was observed between relatives and controls (69 pathways, from which 15% of the pathways belonged to “immune response-related” processes. In the T1D versus controls comparison, more pathways (24% were classified as “immune response-related.” Important pathways that were identified using data from the T1D versus controls comparison were pathways involving antigen presentation by MHCII, the activation of Th17 and Th22 responses, and cytoskeleton rearrangement-related processes. Genes involved in Th17 and TGF-beta cascades may represent novel, promising (prediabetes biomarkers.

  19. Harnessing memory adaptive regulatory T cells to control autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Rui Li; Bas J.G. Baaten; Linda M. Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreatic islets.There is an immediate need to restore both β-cell function and immune tolerance to control disease progression and ultimately cure T1D.Currently,there is no effective treatment strategy to restore glucose regulation in patients with T1D.FoxP3-expressing CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are potential candidates to control autoimmunity because they play a central role in maintaining self-tolerance.However,deficiencies in either naturally occurring Tregs (nTregs) themselves and/or their ability to control pathogenic effector T cells have been associated with T1D.Here,we hypothesize that nTregs can be replaced by FoxP3+ adaptive Tregs (aTregs),which are uniquely equipped to combat autoreactivity in T1D.Unlike nTregs,aTregs are stable and provide long-lived protection.In this review,we summarize the current understanding of aTregs and their potential for use as an immunological intervention to treat T1D.

  20. Prevalence of celiac disease autoimmunity in children with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adlercreutz, Emma H; Svensson, Jannet; Hansen, Dorthe;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim was to determine the prevalence of celiac disease autoimmunity in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) diagnosed in Denmark and Sweden. METHODS: A total of 662 Swedish children with T1D were matched with 1080 Danish children with T1D and 309 healthy children from Sweden and 283...... was equally distributed among 89 children with T1D positive for both IgAG-DGP/tTG and IgG-tTG. CONCLUSION: The discrepancy in levels of IgAG-DGP/tTG and IgG-tTG between Swedish and Danish T1D cohorts was independent of HLA and suggests that regional variations in comorbidity of celiac disease in T1D is caused...

  1. Prevention of Autoimmune Diabetes by Pentoxifylline is Associated with Target Tissue Modulation of Cytokines and the Expression of Fas-FasL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云峰; 章毅; 任如枫; 孙辽; 张志利

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Pentoxifylline (PTX) on type 1 diabetes was investigated by means of the studies on the expressions of cytokine mRNA in pancreas and the Fas-Fasl, on islet cells of NOD mice. NOD mice were treated with FFX from 4-6 wk, and then from 8-12 wk. After treatment, it was found that the incidence of diabetes in NOD mice at ages of 30 wk was reduced to 25% in group of mice treated with PTX, in comparison to 73.3% in case of mice injected with PBS, and the degree of insulitis in the PTX treated mice was lower than that of the PBS injected mice. RT-PCR analysis revealed down-regulatory effect on the expressions of IFN-γ and TNF-α mRNA in PTX treated mice, but there was no any effect on the expression of IL-10. As to the expression of Fas, there was marked decrease in the mean cytoplasmic integral optical density (IOD) in PTX treated mice, but there was little difference between FIX and PBS groups in the expression of FasL. These results indicated that FIX could prevent the development of diabetes in NOD mice, which might be related to the regulation of Th1/Th2 imbalance and the decreased expression of Fas in islet cells.

  2. IMMUNOLOGICAL AND METABOLIC FACTORS INTERACTION IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESSION OF MICROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS IN LATENT AUTOIMMUNE DIABETES OF ADULTS (LADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Saprina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some researchers found that the development of microvascular complications (nephropathy, retinopathy with latent autoimmune diabetes adults (LADA occurs much earlier than in type 1 diabetes mellitus. The research devoted to the study of the spectrum and the time of development of microangiopathy in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes of adults, compared to patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Also studied immunological factors (cytokine secretion of mononuclear leukocytes as one of the possible mechanisms of diabetic angiopathy progression. It has been shown that in LADA, as in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the development of microvascular complications (nephropathy, retinopathy occurs much earlier than in type 1 diabetes mellitus (after a 4-year course of the disease due to a sharp decline in the serum concentration of C peptide. Thus in patients with LADA, having microvascular complications in the supernatants of cell cultures of mononuclear leukocytes determined a significant increase in the concentrations of cytokines IL-2, IL-4, TNFα.

  3. Oral delivery of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-65 and IL10 by Lactococcus lactis reverses diabetes in recent-onset NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Sofie; Gysemans, Conny; Takiishi, Tatiana; Korf, Hannelie; Spagnuolo, Isabella; Sebastiani, Guido; Van Huynegem, Karolien; Steidler, Lothar; Caluwaerts, Silvia; Demetter, Pieter; Wasserfall, Clive H; Atkinson, Mark A; Dotta, Francesco; Rottiers, Pieter; Van Belle, Tom L; Mathieu, Chantal

    2014-08-01

    Growing insight into the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and numerous studies in preclinical models highlight the potential of antigen-specific approaches to restore tolerance efficiently and safely. Oral administration of protein antigens is a preferred method for tolerance induction, but degradation during gastrointestinal passage can impede such protein-based therapies, reducing their efficacy and making them cost-ineffective. To overcome these limitations, we generated a tolerogenic bacterial delivery technology based on live Lactococcus lactis (LL) bacteria for controlled secretion of the T1D autoantigen GAD65370-575 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 in the gut. In combination with short-course low-dose anti-CD3, this treatment stabilized insulitis, preserved functional β-cell mass, and restored normoglycemia in recent-onset NOD mice, even when hyperglycemia was severe at diagnosis. Combination therapy did not eliminate pathogenic effector T cells, but increased the presence of functional CD4(+)Foxp3(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells. These preclinical data indicate a great therapeutic potential of orally administered autoantigen-secreting LL for tolerance induction in T1D. PMID:24677716

  4. Pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 protein is a novel beta-cell-specific autoantigen for type I diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Wu; Koya, Vijay; Li, Yi; Donelan, William; Lin, Peng; Reeves, Westley H; Yang, Li-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) protein is a key transcription factor involved in the regulation of insulin gene expression that is expressed at high levels in the beta-cells of the pancreatic islets. We asked whether Pdx1 is a target of anti-islet autoimmunity in type I diabetes (T1D). Pdx1 autoantibodies (PAAs) were detected in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice using ELISA, western blotting, and radioimmunoprecipitation of [(35)S]-labeled insulinoma cell line-derived Pdx1 protein. PAAs were detected as early as at 5 weeks of age, and generally peaked before the onset of clinically overt diabetes in diabetes-prone female NOD mice. Levels declined substantially after the onset of diabetes. PAAs were not detected in the sera of NOD-scid, C57BL/6, or BALB/c mice. The titers of PAAs in NOD mouse sera were as high as 1/93 750 by ELISA. The fine specificity of PAAs was determined by western blotting using a series of truncated recombinant Pdx1 proteins. The immunodominant epitopes were located to the C-terminus of the Pdx1 (p200-283) in NOD mice. PAAs also were detected in sera from human T1D patients, but the major epitopes were localized to amino acids 159-200 as well as the same region (p200-283) recognized by PAAs from NOD mice. Using [(3)H]thymidine incorporation, the p83 fragment of Pdx1 specifically stimulated proliferation of splenic T cells from recent-onset diabetic NOD mice. The presence of PAAs in prediabetic NOD mice and human T1D patients, and Pdx1-specific T-cell proliferation in NOD mice provide a strong rationale for further investigation of the pathogenic role of immune responses against Pdx1 in T1D.

  5. Autoimmune disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005164 Optimal cut-point of glutamic acid decar-boxylase antibody (GAD-Ab) for differentiating two subtypes of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). LI Xia(李霞), et al. Dept Endocrinol, 2nd Xiangya Hosp, Central South Univ, Changsha, 410011. Chin J Diabetes, 2005;13(1) :34-38. Objective: To investigate the optimal cut-point of glutamate decarboxylase antibody (GAD-Ab) for differentiating two subtypes of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (I. ADA). Methods: The frequency

  6. Serum fatty acids and risk of advanced β cell autoimmunity: a nested case-control study among children with HLA-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Virtanen, SM; Niinistö, Sari; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Salminen, Irma; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari; Kääriä, Suvi; Uusitalo, Liisa; Alfthan, Georg; Kenward, Mike; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, O.; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background/ Objectives: N-3 (omega-3) fatty acids have been reported to decrease the risk for development of ? cell autoimmunity and clinical type 1 diabetes. We set out to examine whether different serum fatty acids are associated with the development of advanced ? cell autoimmunity in children carrying HLA-DQB1-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. Subjects/Methods: Within a cohort, serum total fatty acid composition of 108 children with advanced ? cell autoimm...

  7. Type 1 diabetes: can exercise impair the autoimmune event? The L-arginine/glutamine coupling hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Maurício da Silva; de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo Homem

    2008-06-01

    Prevention of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) requires early intervention in the autoimmune process directed against beta-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, which is believed to result from a disorder of immunoregulation. According to this concept, a T-helper lymphocyte of type 1 (Th1) subset of T-lymphocytes and their cytokine products, the type 1 cytokines [e.g. interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor beta (TNF-beta)] prevail over immunoregulatory (anti-inflammatory) Th2 subset and its cytokine products, i.e. type 2 cytokines (e.g. IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10). This allows type 1 cytokines to initiate a cascade of immune/inflammatory processes in the islet (insulitis), culminating in beta-cell destruction. Activation of sympathetic-corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) axis by psychological stress induces specifically Th1 cell overactivity that determines enhanced glutamine utilization and consequent poor L-arginine supply for nitric oxide (NO)-assisted insulin secretion. This determines the shift of intraislet glutamate metabolism from the synthesis of glutathione (GSH) to that of L-arginine, leading to a redox imbalance that activates nuclear factor kappaB exacerbating inflammation and NO-mediated cytotoxicity. Physical exercise is capable of inducing changes in the pattern of cytokine production and release towards type 2 class and to normalize the glutamine supply to the circulation, which reduces the need for glutamate, whose metabolic fate may be restored in the direction of GSH synthesis and antioxidant defence. Also, the 70-kDa heat shock protein (hsp70), which is immunoregulatory, may modulate exercise-induced anti-inflammation. In this work, we envisage how exercise can intervene in the mechanisms involved in the autoimmune process against beta-cells and how novel therapeutic approaches may be inferred from these observations.

  8. Cell-based interventions to halt autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcala Tabarrozzi, A E; Castro, C N; Dewey, R A; Sogayar, M C; Labriola, L; Perone, M J

    2013-02-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) results from death of insulin-secreting β cells mediated by self-immune cells, and the consequent inability of the body to maintain insulin levels for appropriate glucose homeostasis. Probably initiated by environmental factors, this disease takes place in genetically predisposed individuals. Given the autoimmune nature of T1DM, therapeutics targeting immune cells involved in disease progress have been explored over the last decade. Several high-cost trials have been attempted to prevent and/or reverse T1DM. Although a definitive solution to cure T1DM is not yet available, a large amount of information about its nature and development has contributed greatly to both the improvement of patient's health care and design of new treatments. In this study, we discuss the role of different types of immune cells involved in T1DM pathogenesis and their therapeutic potential as targets and/or modified tools to treat patients. Recently, encouraging results and new approaches to sustain remnant β cell mass and to increase β cell proliferation by different cell-based means have emerged. Results coming from ongoing clinical trials employing cell therapy designed to arrest T1DM will probably proliferate in the next few years. Strategies under consideration include infusion of several types of stem cells, dendritic cells and regulatory T cells, either manipulated genetically ex vivo or non-manipulated. Their use in combination approaches is another therapeutic alternative. Cell-based interventions, without undesirable side effects, directed to block the uncontrollable autoimmune response may become a clinical reality in the next few years for the treatment of patients with T1DM.

  9. Type 1 diabetes: can exercise impair the autoimmune event? The L-arginine/glutamine coupling hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Maurício da Silva; de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo Homem

    2008-06-01

    Prevention of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) requires early intervention in the autoimmune process directed against beta-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, which is believed to result from a disorder of immunoregulation. According to this concept, a T-helper lymphocyte of type 1 (Th1) subset of T-lymphocytes and their cytokine products, the type 1 cytokines [e.g. interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor beta (TNF-beta)] prevail over immunoregulatory (anti-inflammatory) Th2 subset and its cytokine products, i.e. type 2 cytokines (e.g. IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10). This allows type 1 cytokines to initiate a cascade of immune/inflammatory processes in the islet (insulitis), culminating in beta-cell destruction. Activation of sympathetic-corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) axis by psychological stress induces specifically Th1 cell overactivity that determines enhanced glutamine utilization and consequent poor L-arginine supply for nitric oxide (NO)-assisted insulin secretion. This determines the shift of intraislet glutamate metabolism from the synthesis of glutathione (GSH) to that of L-arginine, leading to a redox imbalance that activates nuclear factor kappaB exacerbating inflammation and NO-mediated cytotoxicity. Physical exercise is capable of inducing changes in the pattern of cytokine production and release towards type 2 class and to normalize the glutamine supply to the circulation, which reduces the need for glutamate, whose metabolic fate may be restored in the direction of GSH synthesis and antioxidant defence. Also, the 70-kDa heat shock protein (hsp70), which is immunoregulatory, may modulate exercise-induced anti-inflammation. In this work, we envisage how exercise can intervene in the mechanisms involved in the autoimmune process against beta-cells and how novel therapeutic approaches may be inferred from these observations. PMID:18383559

  10. Genotipificación del gen HLA DQB1 en diabetes autoinmune del adulto (lada HLA DQB1 genotyping in latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA

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    Mariela Caputo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available La diabetes autoinmune es una enfermedad multifactorial causada por factores genéticos predisponentes y ambientales desencadenantes. Se manifiesta en la edad infantojuvenil (diabetes tipo 1, DMID y en la edad adulta (diabetes autoinmune latente del adulto, LADA. La predisposición genética es de tipo poligénico, se ha establecido asociación con alelos polimórficos del gen DQB del sistema HLA, VNTR del gen de insulina y polimorfismos en el gen CTLA4. En el presente trabajo se analizaron las frecuencias de los alelos polimórficos del gen HLA DQB1 en 63 pacientes LADA, 70 pacientes DMID y 79 individuos normales. La tipificación de los alelos del gen DQB1 se llevó a cabo mediante el Kit SSP TM DQ Olerup. Se observó una mayor frecuencia del genotipo *0201-*0302 y *0201-*0201 en ambas poblaciones diabéticas con respecto a normales (pAutoimmune diabetes is a complex, multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. This autoimmune diabetes is commonly manifested in childhood and adolescence with a fast onset (type 1 diabetes, IDDM and it can occur in adult patients with a slow onset with delayed insulin requirement, (latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, LADA . Autoimmune diabetes has strong class II HLA association mainly with DQB gene which constitutes the first susceptibility locus. However, association with the 5’INS- VNTR and CTLA-4 genes has been established. In this study, we analysed the polimorphic allele frequencies of DQB HLA gene in 63 LADA patients, 70 IDDM and 79 control subjects. The HLA DQB1 alleles typing was detected through Olerup SSP TM DQ kit using sequence specific primers. We observed a positive association of *0201-*0302 and *0201-*0201 genotypes in both types of diabetic patients compared to the control group (p<0.05. Moreover, *0201-*0302 genotype was higher in IDDM than in LADA (p<0.05. On the other hand, the *0602 protective allele analysis showed a high prevalence in the

  11. Regulatory T and B lymphocytes in a spontaneous autoimmune polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, S; Sheng, J R; Abraham, P M; Soliven, B

    2016-04-01

    B7-2(-/-) non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice develop a spontaneous autoimmune polyneuropathy (SAP) that mimics the progressive form of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). In this study, we focused on the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs ) and regulatory B cells (Bregs ) in SAP. We found that deletion of B7-2 in female NOD mice led to a lower frequency and number of Tregs and Bregs in spleens and lymph nodes. Tregs but not Bregs suppressed antigen-stimulated splenocyte proliferation, whereas Bregs inhibited the T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokine response. Both Tregs and Bregs induced an increase in CD4(+) interleukin (IL)-10(+) cells, although less effectively in the absence of B7-2. Adoptive transfer studies revealed that Tregs , but not Bregs , suppressed SAP, while Bregs attenuated disease severity when given prior to symptom onset. B cell deficiency in B cell-deficient (muMT)/B7-2(-/-) NOD mice prevented the development of SAP, which would indicate that the pathogenic role of B cells predominates over its regulatory role in this model. We conclude that Bregs and Tregs control the immunopathogenesis and progression of SAP in a non-redundant fashion, and that therapies aimed at expansion of Bregs and Tregs may be an effective approach in autoimmune neuropathies. PMID:26671281

  12. Type 1 Diabetes in Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal Dystrophy Syndrome (APECED): A "Rare" Manifestation in a "Rare" Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierabracci, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS1) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE); the encoded Aire protein plays an important role in the establishment of the immunological tolerance acting as a transcriptional regulator of the expression of organ-specific antigens within the thymus in perinatal age. While a high prevalence for this rare syndrome is reported in Finland and Scandinavia (Norway), autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy syndrome (APECED) cohorts of patients are also detected in continental Italy and Sardinia, among Iranian Jews, as well as in other countries. The syndrome is diagnosed when patients present at least two out of the three fundamental disorders including chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison's disease. Among the associated conditions insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 1 diabetes) has been rarely reported in different series of patients and occurring more frequently in Finnish APECED patients. In this review, we analyze the incidence of Type 1 diabetes as a clinical manifestation of APECED in different populations highlighting the peculiar genetic and immunological features of the disease when occurring in the context of this syndrome. PMID:27420045

  13. Amniotic mesenchymal stem cells enhance wound healing in diabetic NOD/SCID mice through high angiogenic and engraftment capabilities.

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    Sung-Whan Kim

    Full Text Available Although human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (AMMs have been recognised as a promising stem cell resource, their therapeutic potential for wound healing has not been widely investigated. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of AMMs using a diabetic mouse wound model. Quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA results revealed that the angiogenic factors, IGF-1, EGF and IL-8 were markedly upregulated in AMMs when compared with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMs and dermal fibroblasts. In vitro scratch wound assays also showed that AMM-derived conditioned media (CM significantly accelerated wound closure. Diabetic mice were generated using streptozotocin and wounds were created by skin excision, followed by AMM transplantation. AMM transplantation significantly promoted wound healing and increased re-epithelialization and cellularity. Notably, transplanted AMMs exhibited high engraftment rates and expressed keratinocyte-specific proteins and cytokeratin in the wound area, indicating a direct contribution to cutaneous closure. Taken together, these data suggest that AMMs possess considerable therapeutic potential for chronic wounds through the secretion of angiogenic factors and enhanced engraftment/differentiation capabilities.

  14. Oral Tolerance: Therapeutic Implications for Autoimmune Diseases

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    Ana M. C. Faria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral tolerance is classically defined as the suppression of immune responses to antigens (Ag that have been administered previously by the oral route. Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral Ag. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. Oral Ag induces Th2 (IL-4/IL-10 and Th3 (TGF-β regulatory T cells (Tregs plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and LAP+T cells. Induction of oral tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-β, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB, Flt-3 ligand, anti-CD40 ligand and continuous feeding of Ag. In addition to oral tolerance, nasal tolerance has also been shown to be effective in suppressing inflammatory conditions with the advantage of a lower dose requirement. Oral and nasal tolerance suppress several animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE, uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis and diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, colitis and stroke. Oral tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including MS, arthritis, uveitis and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to DNCB, nickel allergy. Positive results have been observed in phase II trials and new trials for arthritis, MS and diabetes are underway. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time and Ag-specific mechanism of action. The successful application of oral tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus oral, formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy and early therapy.

  15. Improved function and proliferation of adult human beta cells engrafted in diabetic immunodeficient NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice treated with alogliptin

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    Jurczyk A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agata Jurczyk,1 Philip diIorio,1 Dean Brostowin,1 Linda Leehy,1 Chaoxing Yang,1 Fumihiko Urano,2 David M Harlan,3 Leonard D Shultz,4 Dale L Greiner,1 Rita Bortell1 1Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, 2Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, 3Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, 4The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME, USA Purpose: Dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors are known to increase insulin secretion and beta cell proliferation in rodents. To investigate the effects on human beta cells in vivo, we utilize immunodeficient mice transplanted with human islets. The study goal was to determine the efficacy of alogliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, to enhance human beta cell function and proliferation in an in vivo context using diabetic immunodeficient mice engrafted with human pancreatic islets. Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic NOD-scid IL2rγnull (NSG mice were transplanted with adult human islets in three separate trials. Transplanted mice were treated daily by gavage with alogliptin (30 mg/kg/day or vehicle control. Islet graft function was compared using glucose tolerance tests and non-fasting plasma levels of human insulin and C-peptide; beta cell proliferation was determined by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation. Results: Glucose tolerance tests were significantly improved by alogliptin treatment for mice transplanted with islets from two of the three human islet donors. Islet-engrafted mice treated with alogliptin also had significantly higher plasma levels of human insulin and C-peptide compared to vehicle controls. The percentage of insulin+BrdU+ cells in human islet grafts from alogliptin-treated mice was approximately 10-fold more than from vehicle control mice, consistent with a significant increase in human beta cell proliferation. Conclusion: Human islet-engrafted immunodeficient mice

  16. Gut microbiome metagenomics analysis suggests a functional model for the development of autoimmunity for type 1 diabetes.

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    Christopher T Brown

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested a bacterial role in the development of autoimmune disorders including type 1 diabetes (T1D. Over 30 billion nucleotide bases of Illumina shotgun metagenomic data were analyzed from stool samples collected from four pairs of matched T1D case-control subjects collected at the time of the development of T1D associated autoimmunity (i.e., autoantibodies. From these, approximately one million open reading frames were predicted and compared to the SEED protein database. Of the 3,849 functions identified in these samples, 144 and 797 were statistically more prevalent in cases and controls, respectively. Genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, adhesions, motility, phages, prophages, sulfur metabolism, and stress responses were more abundant in cases while genes with roles in DNA and protein metabolism, aerobic respiration, and amino acid synthesis were more common in controls. These data suggest that increased adhesion and flagella synthesis in autoimmune subjects may be involved in triggering a T1D associated autoimmune response. Extensive differences in metabolic potential indicate that autoimmune subjects have a functionally aberrant microbiome. Mining 16S rRNA data from these datasets showed a higher proportion of butyrate-producing and mucin-degrading bacteria in controls compared to cases, while those bacteria that produce short chain fatty acids other than butyrate were higher in cases. Thus, a key rate-limiting step in butyrate synthesis is more abundant in controls. These data suggest that a consortium of lactate- and butyrate-producing bacteria in a healthy gut induce a sufficient amount of mucin synthesis to maintain gut integrity. In contrast, non-butyrate-producing lactate-utilizing bacteria prevent optimal mucin synthesis, as identified in autoimmune subjects.

  17. Lack of association of type 2 diabetes susceptibility genotypes and body weight on the development of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes.

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    Christiane Winkler

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate whether type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes and body weight influence the development of islet autoantibodies and the rate of progression to type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Genotyping for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP of the type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes CDKAL1, CDKN2A/2B, FTO, HHEX-IDE, HMGA2, IGF2BP2, KCNJ11, KCNQ1, MTNR1B, PPARG, SLC30A8 and TCF7L2 was obtained in 1350 children from parents with type 1 diabetes participating in the BABYDIAB study. Children were prospectively followed from birth for islet autoantibodies and type 1 diabetes. Data on weight and height were obtained at 9 months, 2, 5, 8, 11, and 14 years of age. RESULTS: None of type 2 diabetes risk alleles at the CDKAL1, CDKN2A/2B, FTO, HHEX-IDE, HMGA2, IGF2BP2, KCNJ11, KCNQ1, MTNR1B, PPARG and SLC30A8 loci were associated with the development of islet autoantibodies or diabetes. The type 2 diabetes susceptible genotype of TCF7L2 was associated with a lower risk of islet autoantibodies (7% vs. 12% by age of 10 years, P = 0.015, P(corrected = 0.18. Overweight children at seroconversion did not progress to diabetes faster than non-overweight children (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.48-2.45, P>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: These findings do not support an association of type 2 diabetes risk factors with islet autoimmunity or acceleration of diabetes in children with a family history of type 1 diabetes.

  18. Treated Autoimmune Thyroid Disease Is Associated with a Decreased Quality of Life among Young Persons with Type 1 Diabetes

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    Alena Spirkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D in children and adolescents is relatively often accompanied by other immunopathological diseases, autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD or celiac disease (CD. Our aim was to assess whether these conditions are associated with changes in the health-related quality of life (HRQOL in pediatric patients with T1D. In a cross-sectional study we identified eligible 332 patients with T1D aged 8–18 years, of whom 248 (75% together with their parents responded to the PedsQL Generic and Diabetes Modules. Compared to 143 patients without thyroid autoantibodies, 40 patients with a thyroxine-treated AITD scored lower in the overall generic HRQOL (P=0.014, as well as in the overall diabetes-specific HRQOL (P=0.013. After adjustment for age, gender, duration of diabetes, type of diabetes treatment, and diabetes control, this association remained statistically significant for the generic HRQOL (P=0.023. Celiac disease was not associated with a change in the generic or diabetes-specific HRQOL (P=0.07  and   P=0.63, resp.. Parental scores showed no association with AITD or celiac disease, except a marginally significant decrease in the overall generic HRQOL (P=0.039 in the T1D + AITD compared to T1D group. Our study indicates that, in pediatric patients with T1D, concomitant thyroxine-treated AITD is associated with lower quality of life.

  19. Study of Tripterygium Associated with Nicotinamide in Treating Late-onset Autoimmune Diabetes Mellitus in Adults

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    刘江华; 段世芳; 刘志文; 刘宗汉; 曹仁贤; 文芳; 文格波

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of Tripterygium polyglycoside (TP) associated with nicotinamide on the islet cell function, immune parameters and lipoperoxide (LPO) in adult patients with late-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus (LADA) Methods: Thirty-six cases of LADA were randomly divided into three groups: TP group (n= 12), treated with TP plus orally taken metformin; combined treatment group (n =12), treated with TP combined with nicotinamide and metformin, and control group (n = 12) treated with metformin alone. They were followed-up for 18 months. Results: (1) Compared with the control group after 9months of treatment, postprandial plasma glucose and LPO in combined treatment group were decreased (P <0.05), and the postprandial C-peptide was higher (P<0.05). At the 18th month, the value of postprandial C-peptide in the TP and combined treatment group was higher than that in the control group. The slL-2R level of both TP and combined treatment groups were lowered (P<0.01); (2) Islet cell antibody (ICA) positive of 5 cases in the TP group and 6 cases in the combined treatment group got converted to the negative respectively, while only one in the control group at the time (P<0.05) ; (3) The level of LPO in the combined treatment group was significantly lower than that in the TP group at the 18th month of treatment (P<0.05).Conclusion: TP combined with nicotinamide played a role in immunity regulation, decreasing the titer of islet cell antibody and slL-2R, which also reduced the production of LPO and had a tendency to improve islet cell function in early LADA patients.

  20. NOD1 and NOD2 signalling links ER stress with inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keestra-Gounder, A Marijke; Byndloss, Mariana X; Seyffert, Núbia; Young, Briana M; Chávez-Arroyo, Alfredo; Tsai, April Y; Cevallos, Stephanie A; Winter, Maria G; Pham, Oanh H; Tiffany, Connor R; de Jong, Maarten F; Kerrinnes, Tobias; Ravindran, Resmi; Luciw, Paul A; McSorley, Stephen J; Bäumler, Andreas J; Tsolis, Renée M

    2016-04-21

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a major contributor to inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn disease and type 2 diabetes. ER stress induces the unfolded protein response, which involves activation of three transmembrane receptors, ATF6, PERK and IRE1α. Once activated, IRE1α recruits TRAF2 to the ER membrane to initiate inflammatory responses via the NF-κB pathway. Inflammation is commonly triggered when pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors or nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors, detect tissue damage or microbial infection. However, it is not clear which PRRs have a major role in inducing inflammation during ER stress. Here we show that NOD1 and NOD2, two members of the NOD-like receptor family of PRRs, are important mediators of ER-stress-induced inflammation in mouse and human cells. The ER stress inducers thapsigargin and dithiothreitol trigger production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in a NOD1/2-dependent fashion. Inflammation and IL-6 production triggered by infection with Brucella abortus, which induces ER stress by injecting the type IV secretion system effector protein VceC into host cells, is TRAF2, NOD1/2 and RIP2-dependent and can be reduced by treatment with the ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholate or an IRE1α kinase inhibitor. The association of NOD1 and NOD2 with pro-inflammatory responses induced by the IRE1α/TRAF2 signalling pathway provides a novel link between innate immunity and ER-stress-induced inflammation.

  1. Moderate Intensity Training Impact on the Inflammatory Status and Glycemic Profiles in NOD Mice

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    Roberto Codella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonobese diabetic (NOD mouse represents a well-established experimental model analogous to human type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D as it is characterized by progressive autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Experiments were designed to investigate the impact of moderate-intensity training on T1D immunomodulation and inflammation. Under a chronic exercise regime, NOD mice were trained on a treadmill for 12 weeks (12 m/min for 30 min, 5 d/wk while age-matched, control animals were left untrained. Prior to and upon completion of the training period, fed plasma glucose and immunological soluble factors were monitored. Both groups showed deteriorated glycemic profiles throughout the study although trained mice tended to be more compensated than controls after 10 weeks of training. An exercise-induced weight loss was detected in the trained mice with respect to the controls from week 6. After 12 weeks, IL-6 and MIP-1β were decreased in the trained animals compared to their baseline values and versus controls, although not significantly. Morphometric analysis of pancreata revealed the presence of larger infiltrates along with decreased α-cells areas in the control mice compared to trained mice. Exercise may exert positive immunomodulation of systemic functions with respect to both T1D and inflammation, but only in a stringent therapeutic window.

  2. Islet autoantibodies in Latvian subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: slow-onset type 1 diabetes or polyendocrine autoimmunity?

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    Shtauvere-Brameus, A; Falorni, A; Rumba, I; Sanjeevi, C B

    2002-04-01

    In Latvia diabetes mellitus is diagnosed using the WHO's clinical criteria; assays for the detection of autoantibodies are not available, and hence slowly progressive autoimmune diabetes is likely to be missed. Autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (IA-2) among patients with clinically diagnosed NIDDM identify group of patients with slow-onset type 1 diabetes or LADA. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of polyendocrine autoimmunity among clinically diagnosed NIDDM patients from Latvia. One hundred NIDDM patients and 100 healthy controls were tested for GAD65 and IA-2 autoantibodies as well as 21-hydroxylase (21-OH) and tissue transglutaminase (TTG) antibodies by RIA assay. Age at onset was >or= 30 years, and duration of disease less than 5 years. Of 100 patients, 85 were on oral hypoglycemic agents and 15 were on insulin. Body mass index (BMI) under 19 was recorded in 1% (1 of 100 cases), while overweight (BMI > 25.5 in females and 27 in males) was documented in 45% (45 of 100 cases). GAD65 antibodies were found in 30 of 100 (30%) and IA-2 antibodies in 40 of 100 (40%) patients. Either GAD65 or IA-2 antibodies were found in 55 of 100 (55%). None of the patients carried antibodies against 21-OH and only 1 of 100 (1%) carried antibodies against TTG. From the results obtained in our study we conclude that in Latvian adult NIDDM subjects, islet autoantibodies identify groups of slow-onset type 1 diabetes but not polyendocrine autoimmunity.

  3. Regulatory CD8{sup +} T cells induced by exposure to all-trans retinoic acid and TGF-{beta} suppress autoimmune diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, Minoru [Department of Internal and Geriatric Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Yasuda, Hisafumi, E-mail: yasuda@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal and Geriatric Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Abe, Yasuhisa; Sasaki, Hirotomo; Shimizu, Mami; Arai, Takashi; Okumachi, Yasuyo; Moriyama, Hiroaki; Hara, Kenta; Yokono, Koichi; Nagata, Masao [Department of Internal and Geriatric Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan)

    2010-03-26

    Antigen-specific regulatory CD4{sup +} T cells have been described but there are few reports on regulatory CD8{sup +} T cells. We generated islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP)-specific regulatory CD8{sup +} T cells from 8.3-NOD transgenic mice. CD8{sup +} T cells from 8.3-NOD splenocytes were cultured with IGRP, splenic dendritic cells (SpDCs), TGF-{beta}, and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for 5 days. CD8{sup +} T cells cultured with either IGRP alone or IGRP and SpDCs in the absence of TGF-{beta} and ATRA had low Foxp3{sup +} expression (1.7 {+-} 0.9% and 3.2 {+-} 4.5%, respectively). In contrast, CD8{sup +} T cells induced by exposure to IGRP, SpDCs, TGF-{beta}, and ATRA showed the highest expression of Foxp3{sup +} in IGRP-reactive CD8{sup +} T cells (36.1 {+-} 10.6%), which was approximately 40-fold increase compared with that before induction culture. CD25 expression on CD8{sup +} T cells cultured with IGRP, SpDCs, TGF-{beta}, and ATRA was only 7.42%, whereas CD103 expression was greater than 90%. These CD8{sup +} T cells suppressed the proliferation of diabetogenic CD8{sup +} T cells from 8.3-NOD splenocytes in vitro and completely prevented diabetes onset in NOD-scid mice in cotransfer experiments with diabetogenic splenocytes from NOD mice in vivo. Here we show that exposure to ATRA and TGF-{beta} induces CD8{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} T cells ex vivo, which suppress diabetogenic T cells in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Perspectives on autoimmunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, I.R.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: HLA and Autoimmunity; Self-Recognition and Symmetry in the Immune System; Immunology of Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus; Multiple Sclerosis; Autoimmunity and Immune Pathological Aspects of Virus Disease; Analyses of the Idiotypes and Ligand Binding Characteristics of Human Monoclonal Autoantibodies to DNA: Do We Understand Better Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Autoimmunity and Rheumatic Fever; Autoimmune Arthritis Induced by Immunization to Mycobacterial Antigens; and The Interaction Between Genetic Factors and Micro-Organisms in Ankylosing Spondylitis: Facts and Fiction.

  5. Different KIRs confer susceptibility and protection to adults with latent autoimmune diabetes in Latvian and Asian Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Arun; Sedimbi, Saikiran K; Rajalingam, Raja; Rumba, Ingrida; Kanungo, Alok; Sanjeevi, C B

    2008-12-01

    KIRs (killer Ig-like receptors) expressed on natural killer (NK) cells are an important component of innate (and adaptive) immunity. They are either activatory or inhibitory, and certain KIRs are known to interact with specific motifs of HLA Class I molecules, which is very crucial in determining whether a cell is targeted to lysis or otherwise. Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a slowly progressive form of autoimmune diabetes, with an adult onset (>30 years). Because autoantibodies and autoimmunity involved are involved in the etiology of LADA, KIRs might play an important role in conferring susceptibility to or protection against the disease. The purpose of this study was to identify killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes, which are associated with susceptibility to and protection against type 1 diabetes in Latvian and Asian Indian patients with LADA. KIR and HLA-C ligand genotyping was performed using PCR-SSP in LADA patients from Latvia (n= 45) with age- and sex-matched controls (n= 92) and from India (n= 86) with controls (n= 98). Results showed that in Latvian patients with LADA, KIRs 2DL1, 2DS2, and 2DS4 were associated with susceptibility and KIR 2DS5 with protection. In Asian Indian LADA patients, KIRs 2DL5 and 3DL1 were associated with susceptibility and KIRs 2DS1 and 2DS3 with protection. Stratification analyses for KIRs that bind to HLA-C1 and C2 were performed. We concluded that KIRs are important in conferring susceptibility (or protection) to adult patients with LADA in both our study populations. However the KIR genes (and their HLA-C ligands) conferring susceptibility or protection in these two populations differ, showing a role of ethnicity in disease susceptibility.

  6. Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults in the United Arab Emirates: Clinical Features and Factors Related to Insulin-Requirement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Maddaloni

    Full Text Available To describe and to characterize clinical features of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA compared to type 1 and type 2 diabetes in the UAE.In this cross-sectional study a dataset including 18,101 subjects with adult-onset (>30 years diabetes was accessed. 17,072 subjects fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data about anthropometrics, demographics, autoantibodies to Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GADA and to Islet Antigen 2 (anti-IA2, HbA1c, cholesterol and blood pressure were extracted. LADA was diagnosed according to GADA and/or anti-IA2 positivity and time to insulin therapy.437 (2.6% patients were identified as LADA and 34 (0.2% as classical type 1 diabetes in adults. Mean age at diagnosis, BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and HbA1c significantly differed between, LADA, type 2 and type 1 diabetes, LADA showing halfway features between type 2 and type 1 diabetes. A decreasing trend for age at diagnosis and waist circumference was found among LADA subjects when subdivided by positivity for anti-IA2, GADA or for both antibodies (p=0.013 and p=0.011 for trend, respectively. There was a gradual downward trend in autoantibody titre in LADA subjects requiring insulin within the first year from diagnosis to subjects not requiring insulin after 10 years of follow-up (p<0.001.This is the first study describing the clinical features of LADA in the UAE, which appear to be different from both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we showed that the clinical phenotype of LADA is dependent on different patterns of antibody positivity, influencing the time to insulin requirement.

  7. Role of Fas-FasL in insulitis in nonobese diabetic mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹峻洋; 王姮

    2004-01-01

    @@ Type 1 diabetes results from autoimmune damage to βcells and insulitis typically characterizes its pathological presentation. Apoptosis could be a main mechanism.There are several pathways of apoptosis including FasFasL. 1 Fas is a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein in the super family of TNF/NGF receptors and FasL (the specific ligand for Fas in vivo) is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein in the super family of TNF. 2 Their interaction for inducing apoptosis is important in many processes. 3 Their malfunction can lead to the overproliferation of the autoreactive immune cells in mice or humans. 4-5 In autoimmune diabetes, specific CDs + T cells may kill β cells by FasL and perforin-granuzyme.Moreover, Fas-FasL also mediates the elimination of autoreactive T cells. 6-11 Diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice is a result of autoimmune damage to βcells. 12 Our study aims at analyzing the significance of Fas-FasL in NOD insulitis, specifically discussing the mechanism of autoimmune diabetes.

  8. Altered BCR signalling quality predisposes to autoimmune disease and a pre-diabetic state

    OpenAIRE

    Königsberger, Sebastian; Prodöhl, Jan; Stegner, David; Weis, Vanessa; Andreas, Martin; Stehling, Martin; Schumacher, Theresa; Böhmer, Ruben; Thielmann, Ina; van Eeuwijk, Judith M M; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Kiefer, Friedemann

    2012-01-01

    The related tyrosine kinases Syk and Zap-70 are key signalling proteins downstream of antigen receptors. A knock-in strategy reveals that the two kinases differentially affect BCR signalling, leading to aberrant B cell section and increased risk of autoimmune disease.

  9. Nel Noddings och omsorgsetiken

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    Gunnel Colnerud

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available NEL NODDINGS AND THE ETHICS OF CARE. Nel Noddings is one of the premierphilosophers of the ethics of care. Her elaboration of this ethics has resul-ted in a complex relation-based theory. Noddings defines care as a conti-nuing, reciprocal relationship between the carer and the cared-for. Thecaring relation is complete only if the cared-for confirms the value of thecare. The ethics of care attaches no importance to principles, since thecarer looks for guidance to the needs of the cared-for, rather than toprinciples of justice. Local and particular ethical decisions are seen as morevalid than universal principles. In this article I discuss a number of pro-blems by applying the ethics of care to all levels and aspects of schooling,from policy to the teacher–student relationship. More recently, Noddingsand philosophers who defend an ethics of justice, e.g. Strike, have agreedthat these theories are complementary. Noddings still argues, though, thatcare is the most adequate ethical theory for moral events in schools. Theconclusion drawn here is that neither the ethics of care nor the ethics ofjustice may be enough to guide teachers in their ethically demanding andcomplex practice.

  10. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 promotes tolerogenic dendritic cells with functional migratory properties in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gabriela B; Gysemans, Conny A; Demengeot, Jocelyne; da Cunha, João Paulo M C M; Vanherwegen, An-Sofie; Overbergh, Lut; Van Belle, Tom L; Pauwels, Femke; Verstuyf, Annemieke; Korf, Hannelie; Mathieu, Chantal

    2014-05-01

    The biologically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], is able to promote the generation of tolerogenic mature dendritic cells (mDCs) with an impaired ability to activate autoreactive T cells. These cells could represent a reliable tool for the promotion or restoration of Ag-specific tolerance through vaccination strategies, for example in type 1 diabetes patients. However, successful transfer of 1,25(OH)2D3-treated mDCs (1,25D3-mDCs) depends on the capacity of 1,25(OH)2D3 to imprint a similar tolerogenic profile in cells derived from diabetes-prone donors as from diabetes-resistant donors. In this study, we examined the impact of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the function and phenotype of mDCs originating from healthy (C57BL/6) and diabetes-prone (NOD) mice. We show that 1,25(OH)2D3 is able to imprint a phenotypic tolerogenic profile on DCs derived from both mouse strains. Both NOD- and C57BL/6-derived 1,25D3-mDCs decreased the proliferation and activation of autoreactive T cells in vitro, despite strain differences in the regulation of cytokine/chemokine expression. In addition, 1,25D3-mDCs from diabetes-prone mice expanded CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and induced intracellular IL-10 production by T cells in vitro. Furthermore, 1,25D3-mDCs exhibited an intact functional migratory capacity in vivo that favors homing to the liver and pancreas of adult NOD mice. More importantly, when cotransferred with activated CD4(+) T cells into NOD.SCID recipients, 1,25D3-mDCs potently dampened the proliferation of autoreactive donor T cells in the pancreatic draining lymph nodes. Altogether, these results argue for the potential of 1,25D3-mDCs to restore Ag-specific immune tolerance and arrest autoimmune disease progression in vivo. PMID:24663679

  11. Changes in the Submandibular Salivary Gland Epithelial Cell Subpopulations During Progression of Sjögren's Syndrome-Like Disease in the NOD/ShiLtJ Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Elise M; Desantis, Kara A; Pagendarm, Nicholas; Nelson, Deirdre A; Enger, Tone; Skarstein, Kathrine; Liaaen Jensen, Janicke; Larsen, Melinda

    2015-09-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune exocrinopathy, is associated with dysfunction of the secretory salivary gland epithelium, leading to xerostomia. The etiology of SS disease progression is poorly understood as it is typically not diagnosed until late stage. Since mouse models allow the study of disease progression, we investigated the NOD/ShiLtJ mouse to explore temporal changes to the salivary epithelium. In the NOD/ShiLtJ model, SS presents secondary to autoimmune diabetes, and SS disease is reportedly fully established by 20 weeks. We compared epithelial morphology in the submandibular salivary glands (SMG) of NOD/ShiLtJ mice with SMGs from the parental strain at 12, 18, and 22 weeks of age and used immunofluorescence to detect epithelial proteins, including the acinar marker, aquaporin 5, ductal cell marker, cytokeratin 7, myoepithelial cell marker, smooth muscle α-actin, and the basal cell marker, cytokeratin 5, while confirming immune infiltrates with CD45R. We also compared these proteins in the labial salivary glands of human SS patients with control tissues. In the NOD/ShiLtJ SMG, regions of lymphocytic infiltrates were not associated with widespread epithelial tissue degradation; however, there was a decrease in the area of the gland occupied by secretory epithelial cells in favor of ductal epithelial cells. We observed an expansion of cells expressing cytokeratin 5 within the ducts and within the smooth muscle α-actin(+) basal myoepithelial population. The altered acinar/ductal ratio within the NOD/ShiLtJ SMG likely contributes to salivary hypofunction, while the expansion of cytokeratin 5 positive-basal cells may reflect loss of function or indicate a regenerative response.

  12. Resistance to Streptozotocin-Induced Autoimmune Diabetes in Absence of Complement C3: Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Play a Role.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Gao

    Full Text Available The contribution of complement to the development of autoimmune diabetes has been proposed recently. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. We hypothesize that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC, which act as regulators in autoimmunity, play a role in resistance to diabetes in absence of complement C3. Indeed, MDSC number was increased significantly in STZ-treated C3-/- mice. These cells highly expressed arginase I and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. Importantly, depletion of MDSC led to the occurrence of overt diabetes in C3-/- mice after STZ. Furthermore, C3-/- MDSC actively suppressed diabetogenic T cell proliferation and prevented/delayed the development of diabetes in arginase and/or iNOS-dependent manner. Both Tregs and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β are crucial for MDSC induction in STZ-treated C3-/- mice as depletion of Tregs or blocking TGF-β bioactivity dramatically decreased MDSC number. These findings indicate that MDSC are implicated in resistance to STZ-induced diabetes in the absence of complement C3, which may be helpful for understanding of mechanisms underlying preventive effects of complement deficiency on autoimmune diseases.

  13. 鼻粘膜免疫融合蛋白Hsp65-6×p277预防NOD小鼠1型糖尿病的发生%Intranasal vaccination with p277 tandem repeat sequences carried by Hsp65 prevented type 1 diabetes in NOD mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金亮; 王宇; 朱爱华; 刘景晶

    2006-01-01

    目的:提高多肽p277的免疫原性,从而提高其对自身免疫性糖尿病的预防作用.方法:将p277 6次重复与Hsp 65融合置于pET28a中构建重组Hsp 65-6×p277表达质粒.该重组质粒在大肠杆菌BL21中以高效可溶形式表达.依次通过细胞裂解、硫酸铵沉淀、双蒸水透析、DEAE纤维素52柱层析纯化获得目的蛋白.用纯化后的融合蛋白Hsp 65-6×p277通过鼻腔给药方式,在不添加任何佐剂的情况下3次免疫4周龄雌性NOD小鼠.每月眼角取血,检测抗体和血糖浓度.结果:初步药效学实验表明融合蛋白Hsp 65-6×p277可抑制NOD小鼠中1型糖尿病的发生.结论:融合蛋白Hsp 65-6×p277有可能发展成为一种具有防治胰岛素依赖性糖尿病作用的疫苗.%AIM: To improve the prevent efficacy of peptide p277 in autoimmune diabetes. METHODS: The recombinant expression plasmid pET28-Hsp65-6×p277 was constructed by inserting 6×p277 which were amplified by PCR into the vector pET28-Hsp65. The plasmid pET28-Hsp65-6×p277 was transformed into E.coli BL21 (DE3) and the fusion protein (Hsp65-6×p277) was expressed effectively as soluble protein after inducing by lactose. The fusion protein was purified and then used to immunize 4-week old female NOD mice with three times of i.n. inoculations in the absence of adjuvants. Serum samples from the immunized mice were collected at monthly interval. The concentrations of blood glucose and antibodies were measured by automatic analyzer. RESULTS: Administration with the Hsp65-6×p277 to NOD mice could prevent the development of diabetes. CONCLUSION: The fusion protein Hsp65-6×p277 might be further developed to a vaccine against insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

  14. Circulating Ribonucleic Acids and Metabolic Stress Parameters May Reflect Progression of Autoimmune or Inflammatory Conditions in Juvenile Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kocic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensing of ribonucleic acids (RNAs by the monocyte/macrophage system occurs through the TLR7/8 Toll-like receptor family, the retinoic acidi–nducible protein I (RIG-I, and the melanoma differentiation–associated protein-5 (MDA-5. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of circulating RNAs, isolated from juvenile type 1 diabetic patients and healthy control children, on the inflammatory, apoptotic, and antiviral response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs isolated from a healthy donor. Obtained effects were compared to the effects of metabolic stress parameters (hyperglycemia, oxidative and nitrosative stress. Forty-eight patients with juvenile type 1 diabetes and control children were included in the study. By performing the chromatographic analysis of circulating RNAs, the peak at the retention time 0.645 min for diabetic and control RNA samples was identified. To determine whether circulating RNAs have an agonistic or antagonistic effect on the signaling pathways involved in inflammatory, apoptotic, and antiviral cascade, their effect on TLR8, RIG-I, MDA-5, MyD88, NF-κB, IRF-3, phosphoIRF-3, IRF-7, RIP, and p38 was evaluated. A significantly lower level was achieved by cultivating PBMCs with circulating RNAs isolated from type 1 diabetic children, compared to the intact PBMCs, in relation to TLR-8, MDA-5, NF-κB, phospho IRF-3, and RIP, while it was higher for Bax. All the metabolic stress conditions up-regulated NF-κB, Bcl-2, and Bax. The NF-κB, determination seems to be the most sensitive parameter that may reflect disease processes associated with the progression of autoimmune or inflammatory conditions, while the IRF3/phosphoIRF3 ratio may suggest an insufficient antiviral response.

  15. A predominant role of integrin alpha 4 in the spontaneous development of autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, X D; Michie, S A; Tisch, R; Karin, N; Steinman, L; McDevitt, H O

    1994-01-01

    To elucidate the role of cell adhesion molecules in the pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and to determine the predominant lymphocytic homing pathway(s) involved in the selective lymphocytic infiltration of pancreatic islets (insulitis), nonobese diabetic mice were treated with monoclonal antibodies specific for the L-selectin and integrin alpha 4 lymphocyte adhesion molecules. Treatment of neonatal mice with either anti-L-selectin or anti-integrin alpha 4 monoclonal antibod...

  16. WJD 5th Anniversary Special Issues(3): Type 1 diabetes Distinct clinical and laboratory characteristics of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults in relation to type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elena; Pipi; Marietta; Marketou; Alexandra; Tsirogianni

    2014-01-01

    Ever since its first appearance among the multiple forms of diabetes,latent autoimmune diabetes in adults(LADA),has been the focus of endless discussions concerning mainly its existence as a special type of diabetes.In this mini-review,through browsing important peer-reviewed publications,(original articles and reviews),we will attempt to refresh our knowledge regarding LADA hoping to enhance our understanding of this controversial diabetes entity.A unique combination of immunological,clinical and metabolic characteristics has been identified in this group of patients,namely persistent islet cell antibodies,high frequency of thyroid and gastric autoimmunity,DR3 and DR4 human leukocyte antigen haplotypes,progressive loss of beta cells,adult disease onset,normal weight,defective glycaemic control,and without tendency to ketoacidosis.Although anthropomorphic measurements are useful as a first line screening,the detection of C-peptide levels and the presence of glutamic acid decarboxylase(GAD)autoantibodies is undoubtedly the sine qua non condi-tion for a confirmatory LADA diagnosis.In point of fact,GAD autoantibodies are far from being solely a biomarker and the specific role of these autoantibodies in disease pathogenesis is still to be thoroughly studied.Nevertheless,the lack of diagnostic criteria and guidelines still puzzle the physicians,who struggle between early diagnosis and correct timing for insulin treatment.

  17. Etiopathogenesis of insulin autoimmunity.

    OpenAIRE

    Åke Lenmark; Moustakas, Antonis K; Papadopoulos, George K; Norio Kanatsuna

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmunity against pancreatic islet beta cells is strongly associated with proinsulin, insulin, or both. The insulin autoreactivity is particularly pronounced in children with young age at onset of type 1 diabetes. Possible mechanisms for (pro)insulin autoimmunity may involve beta-cell destruction resulting in proinsulin peptide presentation on HLA-DR-DQ Class II molecules in pancreatic draining lymphnodes. Recent data on proinsulin peptide binding to type 1 diabetes-associated HLA-DQ2 and ...

  18. Dynamic changes of the Th17/Tc17 and regulatory T cell populations interfere in the experimental autoimmune diabetes pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaochite, Juliana Navarro Ueda; Caliari-Oliveira, Carolina; Davanso, Mariana Rodrigues; Carlos, Daniela; Malmegrim, Kelen Cristina Ribeiro; Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro de Barros; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambelli; Palma, Patricia Vianna Bonini; da Silva, João Santana; Cunha, Fernando Queiróz; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Voltarelli, Júlio César

    2013-03-01

    A balance between proinflammatory (Th17 and Tc17) and anti-inflammatory (regulatory T cells) subsets of T cells is essential to maintain immunological tolerance and prevent the onset of several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes. However, the kinetics of these subsets and disease severity during the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes course has not been determined. Thus, susceptible C57BL/6 mice were administrated with multiple low doses of STZ and we evaluated the frequency/absolute number of these T cell subsets in the pancreatic lymph nodes (PLNs) and spleen and Th1, Th17, Treg cytokine production in the pancreatic tissue. At different time points of the disease progression (6, 11, 18 and 25 days after the last STZ administration), the histopathological alterations were also evaluated by H&E and immunohistochemistry staining. During the initial phase of diabetes development (day 6), we noted increased numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in spleen and PLNs. At the same time, the frequencies of Th17 and Tc17 cells in PLNs were also enhanced. In addition, the early augment of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumoral necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-6 and IL-17 levels in pancreatic tissue correlated with pancreatic islet inflammation and mild β-cell damage. Notably, the absolute number of Treg cells increased in PLNs during over time when compared to control group. Interestingly, increased IL-10 levels were associated with control of the inflammatory process during the late phase of the type 1 diabetes (day 25). In agreement, mice lacking the expression of IL-17 receptor (Il17r) showed impairment in STZ-induced diabetes progression, reduced peri-insulitis and beta cells preservation when compared with wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that dynamic changes of pathogenic Th17/Tc17 and regulatory T cell subsets numbers is associated with early strong inflammation in the pancreatic islets followed by late regulatory profile during the experimental STZ

  19. Linking chronic infection and autoimmune diseases: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, SLC11A1 polymorphisms and type-1 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Paccagnini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The etiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is still unknown; numerous studies are performed to unravel the environmental factors involved in triggering the disease. SLC11A1 is a membrane transporter that is expressed in late endosomes of antigen presenting cells involved in the immunopathogenic events leading to T1DM. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP has been reported to be a possible trigger in the development of T1DM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifty nine T1DM patients and 79 healthy controls were genotyped for 9 polymorphisms of SLC11A1 gene, and screened for the presence of MAP by PCR. Differences in genotype frequency were evaluated for both T1DM patients and controls. We found a polymorphism in the SLC11A1 gene (274C/T associated to type 1 diabetic patients and not to controls. The presence of MAP DNA was also significantly associated with T1DM patients and not with controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The 274C/T SCL11A1 polymorphism was found to be associated with T1DM as well as the presence of MAP DNA in blood. Since MAP persists within macrophages and it is also processed by dendritic cells, further studies are necessary to evaluate if mutant forms of SLC11A1 alter the processing or presentation of MAP antigens triggering thereby an autoimmune response in T1DM patients.

  20. Exploring the induction of preproinsulin-specific Foxp3+ CD4+ Treg cells that inhibit CD8+ T cell-mediated autoimmune diabetes by DNA vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stifter, Katja; Schuster, Cornelia; Schlosser, Michael; Boehm, Bernhard Otto; Schirmbeck, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    DNA vaccination is a promising strategy to induce effector T cells but also regulatory Foxp3+ CD25+ CD4+ Treg cells and inhibit autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes. Little is known about the antigen requirements that facilitate priming of Treg cells but not autoreactive effector CD8+ T cells. We have shown that the injection of preproinsulin (ppins)-expressing pCI/ppins vector into PD-1- or PD-L1-deficient mice induced Kb/A12-21-monospecific CD8+ T cells and autoimmune diabetes. A pCI/ppinsΔA12-21 vector (lacking the critical Kb/A12-21 epitope) did not induce autoimmune diabetes but elicited a systemic Foxp3+ CD25+ Treg cell immunity that suppressed diabetes induction by a subsequent injection of the diabetogenic pCI/ppins. TGF-β expression was significantly enhanced in the Foxp3+ CD25+ Treg cell population of vaccinated/ppins-primed mice. Ablation of Treg cells in vaccinated/ppins-primed mice by anti-CD25 antibody treatment abolished the protective effect of the vaccine and enabled diabetes induction by pCI/ppins. Adoptive transfer of Treg cells from vaccinated/ppins-primed mice into PD-L1−/− hosts efficiently suppressed diabetes induction by pCI/ppins. We narrowed down the Treg-stimulating domain to a 15-residue ppins76–90 peptide. Vaccine-induced Treg cells thus play a crucial role in the control of de novo primed autoreactive effector CD8+ T cells in this diabetes model. PMID:27406624

  1. Exploring the induction of preproinsulin-specific Foxp3(+) CD4(+) Treg cells that inhibit CD8(+) T cell-mediated autoimmune diabetes by DNA vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stifter, Katja; Schuster, Cornelia; Schlosser, Michael; Boehm, Bernhard Otto; Schirmbeck, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    DNA vaccination is a promising strategy to induce effector T cells but also regulatory Foxp3(+) CD25(+) CD4(+) Treg cells and inhibit autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes. Little is known about the antigen requirements that facilitate priming of Treg cells but not autoreactive effector CD8(+) T cells. We have shown that the injection of preproinsulin (ppins)-expressing pCI/ppins vector into PD-1- or PD-L1-deficient mice induced K(b)/A12-21-monospecific CD8(+) T cells and autoimmune diabetes. A pCI/ppinsΔA12-21 vector (lacking the critical K(b)/A12-21 epitope) did not induce autoimmune diabetes but elicited a systemic Foxp3(+) CD25(+) Treg cell immunity that suppressed diabetes induction by a subsequent injection of the diabetogenic pCI/ppins. TGF-β expression was significantly enhanced in the Foxp3(+) CD25(+) Treg cell population of vaccinated/ppins-primed mice. Ablation of Treg cells in vaccinated/ppins-primed mice by anti-CD25 antibody treatment abolished the protective effect of the vaccine and enabled diabetes induction by pCI/ppins. Adoptive transfer of Treg cells from vaccinated/ppins-primed mice into PD-L1(-/-) hosts efficiently suppressed diabetes induction by pCI/ppins. We narrowed down the Treg-stimulating domain to a 15-residue ppins76-90 peptide. Vaccine-induced Treg cells thus play a crucial role in the control of de novo primed autoreactive effector CD8(+) T cells in this diabetes model. PMID:27406624

  2. Suppression of Th1-mediated autoimmunity by embryonic stem cell-derived dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokunori Ikeda

    Full Text Available We herein demonstrate the immune-regulatory effect of embryonic stem cell-derived dendritic cells (ES-DCs using two models of autoimmune disease, namely non-obese diabetic (NOD mice and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. Treatment of pre-diabetic NOD mice with ES-DCs exerted almost complete suppression of diabetes development during the observation period for more than 40 weeks. The prevention of diabetes by ES-DCs was accompanied with significant reduction of insulitis and decreased number of Th1 and Th17 cells in the spleen. Development of EAE was also inhibited by the treatment with ES-DCs, and the therapeutic effect was obtained even if ES-DCs were administrated after the onset of clinical symptoms. Treatment of EAE-induced mice with ES-DCs reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the spinal cord and suppressed the T cell response to the myelin antigen. Importantly, the ES-DC treatment did not affect T cell response to an exogenous antigen. As the mechanisms underlying the reduction of the number of infiltrating Th1 cells, we observed the inhibition of differentiation and proliferation of Th1 cells by ES-DCs. Furthermore, the expression of VLA-4α on Th1 cells was significantly inhibited by ES-DCs. Considering the recent advances in human induced pluripotent stem cell-related technologies, these results suggest a clinical application for pluripotent stem cell-derived dendritic cells as a therapy for T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  3. GENOME WIDE IDENTIFICATION OF NEW GENES AND PATHWAYS IN PATIENTS WITH BOTH AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS AND TYPE 1 DIABETES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, Yaron; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Kahaly, George; Divers, Jasmin; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Dabelea, Dana; Marcovina, Santica; Black, Mary Helen; Pihoker, Catherine; Hasham, Alia; Salehi Hammerstad, Sara; Greenberg, David A.; Lotay, Vaneet; Zhang, Weijia; Monti, Maria Cristina; Matheis, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) and Type 1 diabetes (T1D) frequently occur in the same individual pointing to a strong shared genetic susceptibility. Indeed, the cooccurrence of T1D and AITD in the same individual is classified as a variant of the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 (designated APS3v). Our aim was to identify new genes and mechanisms causing the co-occurrence of T1D+AITD (APS3v) in the same individual using a genome-wide approach. For our discovery set we analyzed 346 Caucasian APS3v patients and 727 gender and ethnicity matched healthy controls. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina Human660W-Quad.v1. The replication set included 185 APS3v patients and 340 controls. Association analyses were performed using the PLINK program, and pathway analyses were performed using the MAGENTA software. We identified multiple signals within the HLA region and conditioning studies suggested that a few of them contributed independently to the strong association of the HLA locus with APS3v. Outside the HLA region, variants in GPR103, a gene not suggested by previous studies of APS3v, T1D, or AITD, showed genome-wide significance (p<5×10−8). In addition, a locus on 1p13 containing the PTPN22 gene showed genome-wide significant associations. Pathway analysis demonstrated that cell cycle, B-cell development, CD40, and CTLA-4 signaling were the major pathways contributing to the pathogenesis of APS3v. These findings suggest that complex mechanisms involving T-cell and B-cell pathways are involved in the strong genetic association between AITD and T1D. PMID:25936594

  4. Generation of Stable Pluripotent Stem Cells From NOD Mouse Tail-Tip Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jun; Ashton, Michelle P.; Sumer, Huseyin; O’Bryan, Moira K.; Brodnicki, Thomas C.; Verma, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The NOD mouse strain has been widely used to investigate the pathology and genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from this unique mouse strain would enable new strategies for investigating type 1 diabetes pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets. The objective of this study was to determine whether somatic fibroblasts from NOD mice could be reprogrammed to become iPSCs, providing an alternative source of stem cells for the p...

  5. Randomized, controlled, parallel-group prospective study to investigate the clinical effectiveness of early insulin treatment in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Janet

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults [LADA] is a type 1 diabetes that is slowly developing. This means many people are treated as having type 2 diabetes at diagnosis as they are adults who are not immediately insulin dependent. LADA can be distinguished from type 2 diabetes by antibody tests. Patients who are antibody positive have an autoimmune reaction which is similar to that of type 1 diabetes and is not found in type 2 diabetes. We would like to examine the best way of treating LADA in the early phase of the conditions, with tablets (similar to type 2 diabetes or with insulin (similar to type 1 diabetes. Methods/design This is an open parallel group prospective randomised trial. Participants need to have a GAD antibody test results of 101 WHO units or more and a diagnosis of diabetes not requiring insulin at diagnosis. Participants will need to have been diagnosed within 12 months and not treated with insulin at study entry. They will be randomised to receive either insulin (NovoMix 30 or tablets (diet treated followed by metformin followed by glitazone (with or without metformin followed by insulin. Primary outcome assessment will be for change in HbA1c and change in fasting C-peptide over 24 months. Secondary outcome measures will include Quality of life, GAD antibody levels, adverse events, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance, and markers of the metabolic syndrome. Discussion This study seeks the best treatment for early LADA in terms of maintaining glycaemic control and maintaining natural insulin production. Trial registration ISRCTN63815121

  6. PECULIARITIES OF THE CYTOKINE PROFILE OF PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS IN COMBINATION WITH AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Kravchun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study objective: study of the nature of changes in the immune system of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM in combination with autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT and without it; comparative analysis of similar indicators of patients with type 1 DM in combination with AIT and without it.Materials and methods. 104 patients at the age of 22 to 62 y.o. (57 women and 47 men took part in the study. They were divided into 4 groups (type 2 DM, type 2 DM and AIT, type 1 DM, type 1 DM and AIT. Groups of patients who were examined regarding the state of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, indicators of the T-cell link of the immune system, concentration of interleukin 4 (IL-4, IL-6, interferon-gamma, and leptin level, were comparable regarding their sex, age, duration of disease.Results. Unidirectional relationship between body mass index (BMI, amount of CD4 +-, CD8+- lymphocytes, level of leptin, IL-4, IL-6 concentrations and BMI and immunoregulatory index of patients with type 2 DM both with AIT and without it was determined. Patients with type 2 DM displayed decreasing activity of the T-cell link of the immune system and increasing of the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines irrespectively of the availability of accompanying AIT, which evidenced primary development of autoimmune processes. At the same time, positivecorrelating relationship between the level of leptin and BMI and immunoregulatory index of patients with type 2 DM both with AIT and without it was revealed (r = 0.83; р < 0.005; r = 0.77; р < 0.01; r = 0.9; р < 0.001, and r = 0.53; р < 0.05 respectively, which demonstrates autoimmune directivity of immune system disorders in combination with metabolic shifts.Conclusion. For the purpose of performance of simultaneous correction of metabolic and immunological disorders of patients with type 2 DM, it is necessary to determine immunological indicators (of the CD+- range of lymphocytes. The latter is caused with higher

  7. PECULIARITIES OF THE CYTOKINE PROFILE OF PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS IN COMBINATION WITH AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Kravchun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Study objective: study of the nature of changes in the immune system of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM in combination with autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT and without it; comparative analysis of similar indicators of patients with type 1 DM in combination with AIT and without it.Materials and methods. 104 patients at the age of 22 to 62 y.o. (57 women and 47 men took part in the study. They were divided into 4 groups (type 2 DM, type 2 DM and AIT, type 1 DM, type 1 DM and AIT. Groups of patients who were examined regarding the state of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, indicators of the T-cell link of the immune system, concentration of interleukin 4 (IL-4, IL-6, interferon-gamma, and leptin level, were comparable regarding their sex, age, duration of disease.Results. Unidirectional relationship between body mass index (BMI, amount of CD4 +-, CD8+- lymphocytes, level of leptin, IL-4, IL-6 concentrations and BMI and immunoregulatory index of patients with type 2 DM both with AIT and without it was determined. Patients with type 2 DM displayed decreasing activity of the T-cell link of the immune system and increasing of the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines irrespectively of the availability of accompanying AIT, which evidenced primary development of autoimmune processes. At the same time, positivecorrelating relationship between the level of leptin and BMI and immunoregulatory index of patients with type 2 DM both with AIT and without it was revealed (r = 0.83; р < 0.005; r = 0.77; р < 0.01; r = 0.9; р < 0.001, and r = 0.53; р < 0.05 respectively, which demonstrates autoimmune directivity of immune system disorders in combination with metabolic shifts.Conclusion. For the purpose of performance of simultaneous correction of metabolic and immunological disorders of patients with type 2 DM, it is necessary to determine immunological indicators (of the CD+- range of lymphocytes. The latter is caused with higher

  8. Longitudinal three-dimensional visualisation of autoimmune diabetes by functional optical coherence imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Berclaz, Corinne; Schmidt-Christensen, Anja; Szlag, Daniel; Extermann, Jerome; Hansen, Lisbeth; Bouwens, Arno; Villiger, Martin; Goulley, Joan; Schuit, Frans; Grapin-Botton, Anne; Lasser, Theo; Holmberg, Dan

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that structural and functional quantitative imaging of individual islets would be beneficial to elucidate the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. We here introduce functional optical coherence imaging (FOCI) for fast, label-free monitoring of beta cell destruction and associated alterations of islet vascularisation.

  9. Peculiarities of antithyroid autoimmunity indicators in type 2 diabetic patients depending on leptin level in blood serum and their dynamics as a result of sodium selenite treatment

    OpenAIRE

    ABRAMOVA N.O.; PASHKOVSKA N.V.; BEREZOVA M.S.

    2015-01-01

    There were studied 46 patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 in order to identify the autoimmune processes directed against thyroid tissue and dependence of those changes on the level of leptin in blood serum. It was established that in patients with high leptin serum level antithyroid antibody titer increased. In order to adjust the levels of antithyroid antibodies sodium selenite was prescribed against the background of standard therapy. Statistically significant reduction in antibodies exp...

  10. Reduced Histone H3 Acetylation in CD4+ T Lymphocytes: Potential Mechanism of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults

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    Xi-yu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA is the result of gene-environment interactions. Histone acetylation regulates gene expression and maybe interpret how environmental factors modify LADA. Hence, we studied the histone acetylation patterns in CD4+ T lymphocytes from LADA patients. Methods. Blood CD4+ T lymphocytes from 28 patients with LADA and 28 healthy controls were obtained to detect histone H3 acetylation and H4 acetylation. The gene expression of histone acetyltransferases (P300 and CREBBP and histone deacetylases (HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC7 was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results. Compared to healthy controls, reduced global H3 acetylation was observed in LADA patients’ CD4+ T lymphocytes (P<0.05. Global level of H4 acetylation was not statistically different. Among LADA, CD4+ T lymphocytes H3 acetylation was associated with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and GADA titer. Compared to healthy controls, the expression of histone acetyltransferases CREBBP in LADA patients was downregulated, and the expression of histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC7 was upregulated. Conclusion. A concerted downregulation of histone H3 acetylation was found in CD4+ T lymphocytes of LADA patients, and this might provide evidence of a novel epigenetic explanation for the pathogenesis of LADA and its complications.

  11. Genetically Engineered Islets and Alternative Sources of Insulin-Producing Cells for Treating Autoimmune Diabetes: Quo Vadis?

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    Feng-Cheng Chou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Islet transplantation is a promising therapy for patients with type 1 diabetes that can provide moment-to-moment metabolic control of glucose and allow them to achieve insulin independence. However, two major problems need to be overcome: (1 detrimental immune responses, including inflammation induced by the islet isolation/transplantation procedure, recurrence autoimmunity, and allorejection, can cause graft loss and (2 inadequate numbers of organ donors. Several gene therapy approaches and pharmaceutical treatments have been demonstrated to prolong the survival of pancreatic islet grafts in animal models; however, the clinical applications need to be investigated further. In addition, for an alternative source of pancreatic β-cell replacement therapy, the ex vivo generation of insulin-secreting cells from diverse origins of stem/progenitor cells has become an attractive option in regenerative medicine. This paper focuses on the genetic manipulation of islets during transplantation therapy and summarizes current strategies to obtain functional insulin-secreting cells from stem/progenitor cells.

  12. Serological evaluation of possible exposure to Ljungan virus and related parechovirus in autoimmune (type 1) diabetes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, A-L; Vaziri-Sani, F; Broberg, P; Elfaitouri, A; Pipkorn, R; Blomberg, J; Ivarsson, S-A; Elding Larsson, H; Lernmark, Å

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to Ljungan virus (LV) is implicated in the risk of autoimmune (type 1) diabetes but possible contribution by other parechoviruses is not ruled out. The aim was to compare children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in 2005-2011 (n = 69) with healthy controls (n = 294), all from the Jämtland County in Sweden, using an exploratory suspension multiplex immunoassay for IgM and IgG against 26 peptides of LV, human parechoviruses (HPeV), Aichi virus and poliovirus in relation to a radiobinding assay (RBA) for antibodies against LV and InfluenzaA/H1N1pdm09. Islet autoantibodies and HLA-DQ genotypes were also determined. 1) All five LV-peptide antibodies correlated to each other (P < 0.001) in the suspension multiplex IgM- and IgG-antibody assay; 2) The LV-VP1_31-60-IgG correlated with insulin autoantibodies alone (P = 0.007) and in combination with HLA-DQ8 overall (P = 0.022) as well as with HLA-DQ 8/8 and 8/X subjects (P = 0.013); 3) RBA detected LV antibodies correlated with young age at diagnosis (P < 0.001) and with insulin autoantibodies (P < 0.001) especially in young HLA-DQ8 subjects (P = 0.004); 4) LV-peptide-VP1_31-60-IgG correlated to RBA LV antibodies (P = 0.009); 5) HPeV3-peptide-IgM and -IgG showed inter-peptide correlations (P < 0.001) but only HPeV3-VP1_1-30-IgG (P < 0.001) and VP1_95-124-IgG (P = 0.009) were related to RBA LV antibodies without relation to insulin autoantibody positivity (P = 0.072 and P = 0.486, respectively). Both exploratory suspension multiplex IgG to LV-peptide VP1_31-60 and RBA detected LV antibodies correlated with insulin autoantibodies and HLA-DQ8 suggesting possible role in type 1 diabetes. It remains to be determined if cross-reactivity or concomitant exposure to LV and HPeV3 contributes to the seroprevalence.

  13. Genetic and Pharmacologic Models for Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Edward H; Schile, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by a partial or total insufficiency of insulin. The premiere animal model of autoimmune T cell-mediated T1D is the NOD mouse. A dominant negative mutation in the mouse insulin 2 gene (Ins2(Akita) ) produces a severe insulin deficiency syndrome without autoimmune involvement, as do a variety of transgenes overexpressed in beta cells. Pharmacologically-induced T1D (without autoimmunity) elicted by alloxan or streptozotocin at high doses can generate hyperglycemia in almost any strain of mouse by direct toxicity. Multiple low doses of streptozotocin combine direct beta cell toxicity with local inflammation to elicit T1D in a male sex-specific fashion. A summary of protocols relevant to the management of these different mouse models will be covered in this overview.

  14. Targeted disruption of the IA-2beta gene causes glucose intolerance and impairs insulin secretion but does not prevent the development of diabetes in NOD mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubosaki, A.; Gross, S.; Miura, J.; Saeki, K.; Zhu, M.; Nakamura, S.; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.; Notkins, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    Insulinoma-associated protein (IA)-2beta, also known as phogrin, is an enzymatically inactive member of the transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase family and is located in dense-core secretory vesicles. In patients with type 1 diabetes, autoantibodies to IA-2beta appear years before the developm

  15. Evidence of Stage- and Age-Related Heterogeneity of Non-HLA SNPs and Risk of Islet Autoimmunity and Type 1 Diabetes: The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young

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    Brittni N. Frederiksen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we examined 20 non-HLA SNPs for association with islet autoimmunity (IA and/or progression to type 1 diabetes (T1D. Our objective was to investigate fourteen additional non-HLA T1D candidate SNPs for stage- and age-related heterogeneity in the etiology of T1D. Of 1634 non-Hispanic white DAISY children genotyped, 132 developed IA (positive for GAD, insulin, or IA-2 autoantibodies at two or more consecutive visits; 50 IA positive children progressed to T1D. Cox regression was used to analyze risk of IA and progression to T1D in IA positive children. Restricted cubic splines were used to model SNPs when there was evidence that risk was not constant with age. C1QTNF6 (rs229541 predicted increased IA risk (HR: 1.57, CI: 1.20–2.05 but not progression to T1D (HR: 1.13, CI: 0.75–1.71. SNP (rs10517086 appears to exhibit an age-related effect on risk of IA, with increased risk before age 2 years (age 2 HR: 1.67, CI: 1.08–2.56 but not older ages (age 4 HR: 0.84, CI: 0.43–1.62. C1QTNF6 (rs229541, SNP (rs10517086, and UBASH3A (rs3788013 were associated with development of T1D. This prospective investigation of non-HLA T1D candidate loci shows that some SNPs may exhibit stage- and age-related heterogeneity in the etiology of T1D.

  16. Rotavirus activates lymphocytes from non-obese diabetic mice by triggering toll-like receptor 7 signaling and interferon production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

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    Jessica A Pane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that rotavirus infection promotes the progression of genetically-predisposed children to type 1 diabetes, a chronic autoimmune disease marked by infiltration of activated lymphocytes into pancreatic islets. Non-obese diabetic (NOD mice provide a model for the human disease. Infection of adult NOD mice with rhesus monkey rotavirus (RRV accelerates diabetes onset, without evidence of pancreatic infection. Rather, RRV spreads to the pancreatic and mesenteric lymph nodes where its association with antigen-presenting cells, including dendritic cells, induces cellular maturation. RRV infection increases levels of the class I major histocompatibility complex on B cells and proinflammatory cytokine expression by T cells at these sites. In autoimmunity-resistant mice and human mononuclear cells from blood, rotavirus-exposed plasmacytoid dendritic cells contribute to bystander polyclonal B cell activation through type I interferon expression. Here we tested the hypothesis that rotavirus induces bystander activation of lymphocytes from NOD mice by provoking dendritic cell activation and proinflammatory cytokine secretion. NOD mouse splenocytes were stimulated with rotavirus and assessed for activation by flow cytometry. This stimulation activated antigen-presenting cells and B cells independently of virus strain and replicative ability. Instead, activation depended on virus dose and was prevented by blockade of virus decapsidation, inhibition of endosomal acidification and interference with signaling through Toll-like receptor 7 and the type I interferon receptor. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells were more efficiently activated than conventional dendritic cells by RRV, and contributed to the activation of B and T cells, including islet-autoreactive CD8+ T cells. Thus, a double-stranded RNA virus can induce Toll-like receptor 7 signaling, resulting in lymphocyte activation. Our findings suggest that bystander activation mediated by type I

  17. Tc17 CD8+ T cells potentiate Th1-mediated autoimmune diabetes in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Amit; Desbois, Sabine; Carrié, Nadège; Lawand, Myriam; Mars, Lennart T; Liblau, Roland S

    2012-09-15

    An increase in IL-17-producing CD8+ T (Tc17) cells has been reported in the peripheral blood of children with recent onset type 1 diabetes (T1D), but their contribution to disease pathogenesis is still unknown. To directly study the pathogenic potential of β cell-specific Tc17 cells, we used an experimental model of T1D based on the expression of the neo-self Ag hemagglutinin (HA) in the β cells of the pancreas. When transferred alone, the IL-17-producing HA-specific CD8+ T cells homed to the pancreatic lymph nodes without causing any pancreatic infiltration or tissue destruction. When transferred together with small numbers of diabetogenic HA-specific CD4+ T cells, a strikingly different phenotype developed. Under these conditions, Tc17 cells sustained disease progression, driving the destruction of β-islet cells, causing hyperglycemia and ultimately death. Disease progression did not correlate with functional or numerical alterations among the HA-specific CD4+ T cells. Rather, the transferred CD8+ T cells accumulated in the pancreatic islets and a considerable fraction converted, under the control of IL-12, to an IFN-γ-producing phenotype. Our data indicate that Tc17 cells are not diabetogenic but can potentiate a Th1-mediated disease. Plasticity of the Tc17 lineage is associated with transition to overt disease in this experimental model of T1D. PMID:22904307

  18. Detection of GAD65 antibodies in diabetes and other autoimmune diseases using a simple radioligand assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, J S; Hejnaes, K R; Moody, A; Karlsen, A E; Marshall, M O; Høier-Madsen, M; Boel, E; Michelsen, B K; Dyrberg, T

    1994-03-01

    Autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) are frequent at or before the onset of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We have developed a simple, reproducible, and quantitative immunoprecipitation radioligand assay using as antigen in vitro transcribed and translated [35S]methionine-labeled human islet GAD65. By using this assay, 77% (77 of 100) of serum samples from recent-onset IDDM patients were positive for GAD65 antibodies compared with 4% (4 of 100) of serum samples from healthy control subjects. In competition analysis with unlabeled purified recombinant human islet GAD65, binding to tracer was inhibited in 74% (74 of 100) of the GAD65-positive IDDM serum samples compared with 2% of the control samples. The levels of GAD antibodies expressed as an index value relative to a standard serum, analyzed with or without competition, were almost identical (r = 0.991). The intra- and interassay variations of a positive control serum sample were 2.9 and 7.6%, respectively (n = 4). The frequency of GAD antibodies was significantly higher with IDDM onset before the age of 30 (80%, 59 of 74) than after the age of 30 (48%, 10 of 21) (P DNA autoantibodies (8% [2 of 25] and 4% [1 of 25] in competition analysis) or rheuma factor autoantibodies [12% (4 of 35) and 3% (1 of 35) in competition analysis] was not different from that in control samples. In contrast, in sera positive for ribonucleoprotein antibodies the frequency of GAD antibodies was significantly increased (73% [51 of 70] and 10% [7 of 70] in competition analysis [P history of IDDM for the presence of this marker. PMID:8314020

  19. CD4+ type II NKT cells mediate ICOS and programmed death-1-dependent regulation of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadri, Nadir; Korpos, Eva; Gupta, Shashank;

    2012-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease that results from T cell-mediated destruction of pancreatic ß cells. CD1d-restricted NKT lymphocytes have the ability to regulate immunity, including autoimmunity. We previously demonstrated that CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells, which carry...... diverse TCRs, prevented T1D in the NOD mouse model for the human disease. In this study, we show that CD4(+) 24aß type II NKT cells, but not CD4/CD8 double-negative NKT cells, were sufficient to downregulate diabetogenic CD4(+) BDC2.5 NOD T cells in adoptive transfer experiments. CD4(+) 24aß NKT cells...... in the pancreas draining lymph nodes. To our knowledge, these results provide for the first time cellular and molecular information on how type II CD1d-restricted NKT cells regulate T1D....

  20. Islet-specific CTL cloned from a type 1 diabetes patient cause beta-cell destruction after engraftment into HLA-A2 transgenic NOD/scid/IL2RG null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy W J Unger

    Full Text Available Despite increasing evidence that autoreactive CD8 T-cells are involved in both the initiation of type 1 diabetes (T1D and the destruction of beta-cells, direct evidence for their destructive role in-vivo is lacking. To address a destructive role for autoreactive CD8 T-cells in human disease, we assessed the pathogenicity of a CD8 T-cell clone derived from a T1D donor and specific for an HLA-A2-restricted epitope of islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic-subunit related protein (IGRP. HLA-A2/IGRP tetramer staining revealed a higher frequency of IGRP-specific CD8 T-cells in the peripheral blood of recent onset human individuals than of healthy donors. IGRP(265-273-specific CD8 T-cells that were cloned from the peripheral blood of a recent onset T1D individual were shown to secrete IFNγ and Granzyme B after antigen-specific activation and lyse HLA-A2-expressing murine islets in-vitro. Lytic capacity was also demonstrated in-vivo by specific killing of peptide-pulsed target cells. Using the HLA-A2 NOD-scid IL2rγ(null mouse model, HLA-A2-restricted IGRP-specific CD8 T-cells induced a destructive insulitis. Together, this is the first evidence that human HLA-restricted autoreactive CD8 T-cells target HLA-expressing beta-cells in-vivo, demonstrating the translational value of humanized mice to study mechanisms of disease and therapeutic intervention strategies.

  1. Cutting Edge: Commensal Microbiota Has Disparate Effects on Manifestations of Polyglandular Autoimmune Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Camilla H F; Yurkovetskiy, Leonid A; Chervonsky, Alexander V

    2016-08-01

    Polyglandular autoimmune inflammation accompanies type 1 diabetes (T1D) in NOD mice, affecting organs like thyroid and salivary glands. Although commensals are not required for T1D progression, germ-free (GF) mice had a very low degree of sialitis, which was restored by colonization with select microbial lineages. Moreover, unlike T1D, which is blocked in mice lacking MyD88 signaling adaptor under conventional, but not GF, housing conditions, sialitis did not develop in MyD88(-/-) GF mice. Thus, microbes and MyD88-dependent signaling are critical for sialitis development. The severity of sialitis did not correlate with the degree of insulitis in the same animal and was less sensitive to a T1D-reducing diet, but it was similar to T1D with regard to microbiota-dependent sexual dimorphism. The unexpected distinction in requirements for the microbiota for different autoimmune pathologies within the same organism is crucial for understanding the nature of microbial involvement in complex autoimmune disorders, including human autoimmune polyglandular syndromes. PMID:27324130

  2. Nod-like receptors have a grip on stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jörg H

    2014-06-11

    Two reports in this issue of Cell Host & Microbe establish that Nod-like receptor proteins NOD1 and NOD2 regulate stem cell function. Burberry et al. (2014) demonstrate that NOD1 and NOD2 synergize with TLRs to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells. Nigro et al. (2014) report that NOD2 provides cytoprotection to intestinal stem cells. PMID:24922568

  3. DMPD: Nod1 and Nod2 in innate immunity and human inflammatory disorders. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18031249 Nod1 and Nod2 in innate immunity and human inflammatory disorders. Le Bour...w Nod1 and Nod2 in innate immunity and human inflammatory disorders. PubmedID 18031249 Title Nod1 and Nod2 in innate immunity and hum...an inflammatory disorders. Authors Le Bourhis L, Benko S

  4. IDO-Expressing Fibroblasts Protect Islet Beta Cells From Immunological Attack and Reverse Hyperglycemia in Non-Obese Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Jalili, Reza B; Kilani, Ruhangiz T; Elizei, Sanam Salimi; Farrokhi, Ali; Khosravi-Maharlooei, Mohsen; Warnock, Garth L; Ao, Ziliang; Marzban, Lucy; Ghahary, Aziz

    2016-09-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) induces immunological tolerance in physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore, we used dermal fibroblasts with stable IDO expression as a cell therapy to: (i) Investigate the factors determining the efficacy of this cell therapy for autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice; (ii) Scrutinize the potential immunological mechanisms. Newly diabetic NOD mice were randomly injected with either 10 × 10(6) (10M) or 15 × 10(6) (15M) IDO-expressing dermal fibroblasts. Blood glucose levels (BGLs), body weight, plasma kynurenine levels, insulitis severity, islet beta cell function, autoreactive CD8(+) T cells, Th17 cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) were then investigated in these mice. IL-1β and cleaved caspase-3 levels were assessed in islets co-cultured with IDO-expressing fibroblasts. BGLs in 83% mice treated with 15M IDO-expressing fibroblasts recovered to normal up to 120 days. However, only 17% mice treated with 10M IDO-expressing cells were reversed to normoglycemia. A 15M IDO-expressing fibroblasts significantly reduced infiltrated immune cells in islets and recovered the functionality of remaining islet beta cells in NOD mice. Additionally, they successfully inhibited autoreactive CD8(+) T cells and Th17 cells as well as increased Tregs in different organs of NOD mice. Islet beta cells co-cultured with IDO-expressing fibroblasts had reduced IL-1β levels and cell apoptosis. Both cell number and IDO enzymatic activity contributes to the efficiency of IDO cell therapy. Optimized IDO-expressing fibroblasts successfully reverse the progression of diabetes in NOD mice through induction of Tregs as well as inhibition of beta cell specific autoreactive CD8(+) T cells and Th17 cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1964-1973, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26743772

  5. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 - a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bănică Diana; Frăţilă Ramona; Sima Alexandra; Vlad Adrian; Timar Romulus

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are characterized by the association of two or more autoimmune diseases. They are classified into two major subtypes, each having its own characteristics. The autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 is defined by the presence of at least two of the following diseases: Addison’s disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus and thyroid autoimmune disease. Other autoimmune diseases belonging to the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 are: primary hypogonadism, myast...

  6. Alterations of renal phenotype and gene expression profiles due to protein overload in NOD-related mouse strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Anupam

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite multiple causes, Chronic Kidney Disease is commonly associated with proteinuria. A previous study on Non Obese Diabetic mice (NOD, which spontaneously develop type 1 diabetes, described histological and gene expression changes incurred by diabetes in the kidney. Because proteinuria is coincident to diabetes, the effects of proteinuria are difficult to distinguish from those of other factors such as hyperglycemia. Proteinuria can nevertheless be induced in mice by peritoneal injection of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA. To gain more information on the specific effects of proteinuria, this study addresses renal changes in diabetes resistant NOD-related mouse strains (NON and NOD.B10 that were made to develop proteinuria by BSA overload. Methods Proteinuria was induced by protein overload on NON and NOD.B10 mouse strains and histology and microarray technology were used to follow the kidney response. The effects of proteinuria were assessed and subsequently compared to changes that were observed in a prior study on NOD diabetic nephropathy. Results Overload treatment significantly modified the renal phenotype and out of 5760 clones screened, 21 and 7 kidney transcripts were respectively altered in the NON and NOD.B10. Upregulated transcripts encoded signal transduction genes, as well as markers for inflammation (Calmodulin kinase beta. Down-regulated transcripts included FKBP52 which was also down-regulated in diabetic NOD kidney. Comparison of transcripts altered by proteinuria to those altered by diabetes identified mannosidase 2 alpha 1 as being more specifically induced by proteinuria. Conclusion By simulating a component of diabetes, and looking at the global response on mice resistant to the disease, by virtue of a small genetic difference, we were able to identify key factors in disease progression. This suggests the power of this approach in unraveling multifactorial disease processes.

  7. In vivo islet protection by a nuclear import inhibitor in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Moore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin-dependent Type 1 diabetes (T1D is a devastating autoimmune disease that destroys beta cells within the pancreatic islets and afflicts over 10 million people worldwide. These patients face life-long risks for blindness, cardiovascular and renal diseases, and complications of insulin treatment. New therapies that protect islets from autoimmune destruction and allow continuing insulin production are needed. Increasing evidence regarding the pathomechanism of T1D indicates that islets are destroyed by the relentless attack by autoreactive immune cells evolving from an aberrant action of the innate, in addition to adaptive, immune system that produces islet-toxic cytokines, chemokines, and other effectors of islet inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that targeting nuclear import of stress-responsive transcription factors evoked by agonist-stimulated innate and adaptive immunity receptors would protect islets from autoimmune destruction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that a first-in-class inhibitor of nuclear import, cSN50 peptide, affords in vivo islet protection following a 2-day course of intense treatment in NOD mice, which resulted in a diabetes-free state for one year without apparent toxicity. This nuclear import inhibitor precipitously reduces the accumulation of islet-destructive autoreactive lymphocytes while enhancing activation-induced cell death of T and B lymphocytes derived from autoimmune diabetes-prone, non-obese diabetic (NOD mice that develop T1D. Moreover, in this widely used model of human T1D we noted attenuation of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in immune cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that a novel form of immunotherapy that targets nuclear import can arrest inflammation-driven destruction of insulin-producing beta cells at the site of autoimmune attack within pancreatic islets during the progression of T1D.

  8. GCN2 and FGF21 are likely mediators of the protection from cancer, autoimmunity, obesity, and diabetes afforded by vegan diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2014-09-01

    Third World quasi-vegan cultures have been characterized by low risks for "Western" cancers, autoimmune disorders, obesity, and diabetes. The relatively low essential amino acid contents of many vegan diets may play a role in this regard. It is proposed that such diets modestly activate the kinase GCN2 - a physiological detector of essential amino acid paucity - within the liver, resulting in up-regulated production of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). FGF21, by opposing the stimulatory effect of growth hormone on hepatic IGF-I production, may be responsible for the down-regulation of plasma IGF-I observed in vegans consuming diets of modest protein content. Decreased IGF-I bioactivity throughout life can be expected to have a favorable impact on cancer risk, as observed in rodents that are calorie restricted or genetically defective in IGF-I activity. Increased FGF21 in vegans might also contribute to their characteristic leanness and low LDL cholesterol by promoting hepatic lipid oxidation while inhibiting lipogenesis. Direct trophic effects of FGF21 on pancreatic beta-cells may help to explain the low risk for diabetes observed in vegans, and the utility of vegan diets in diabetes management. And up-regulation of GCN2 in immune cells, by boosting T regulatory activity, might play some role in the reduced risk for autoimmunity reported in some quasi-vegan cultures. The fact that bone density tends to be no greater in vegans than omnivores, despite consumption of a more "alkaline" diet, might be partially attributable to the fact that FGF21 opposes osteoblastogenesis and decreases IGF-I. If these speculations have merit, it should be possible to demonstrate that adoption of a vegan diet of modest protein content increases plasma FGF21 levels. PMID:25015767

  9. Microsatellite allele A5.1 of MHC class I chain-related gene A is associated with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzina, L; Shtauvere-Brameus, A; Rumba, I; Sanjeevi, C B

    2002-04-01

    NIDDM is one of the most common forms of diabetes. The diagnosis is based on WHO classification, which is a clinical classification and misses the autoimmune diabetes in adults. Therefore, among the clinically diagnosed NIDDM cases, there can be a certain number of patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). The MICA gene is located in the MHC class I region and is expressed by monocytes, keratinocytes, and endothelial cells. Sequence determination of the MICA gene identifies trinucleotide repeat (GCT) microsatellite polymorphism, which identifies 5 alleles with 4, 5, 6, and 9 repetitions of GCT (A4, A5, A6, and A9) or 5 repetitions of GCT with 1 additional G insertion for allele A5.1. From our previous studies, we have shown that microsatellite allele A5 of MICA is associated with IDDM. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that certain MICA alleles are associated with LADA among clinically diagnosed NIDDM. Out of 100 clinically diagnosed NIDDM patients, 49 tested positive for GAD65 and IA-2 antibodies by use of 35S RIA. Samples from these 49 patients and 96 healthy controls were analyzed for MICA by PCR amplification, and fragment sizes were determined in an ABI prism DNA sequencer. Our results show that MICA allele A5.1 is significantly increased in antibody-positive (GAD65 or IA-2) NIDDM patients [35/49 (72%)] when compared to healthy controls [22/96 (23%)] (OR = 8.4; P < 0.0001). However, we do not see any association with each of the antibodies separately. From our study, we conclude that (a) MICA allele A5.1 is associated with LADA and (b) MICA may play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of LADA.

  10. GCN2 and FGF21 are likely mediators of the protection from cancer, autoimmunity, obesity, and diabetes afforded by vegan diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2014-09-01

    Third World quasi-vegan cultures have been characterized by low risks for "Western" cancers, autoimmune disorders, obesity, and diabetes. The relatively low essential amino acid contents of many vegan diets may play a role in this regard. It is proposed that such diets modestly activate the kinase GCN2 - a physiological detector of essential amino acid paucity - within the liver, resulting in up-regulated production of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). FGF21, by opposing the stimulatory effect of growth hormone on hepatic IGF-I production, may be responsible for the down-regulation of plasma IGF-I observed in vegans consuming diets of modest protein content. Decreased IGF-I bioactivity throughout life can be expected to have a favorable impact on cancer risk, as observed in rodents that are calorie restricted or genetically defective in IGF-I activity. Increased FGF21 in vegans might also contribute to their characteristic leanness and low LDL cholesterol by promoting hepatic lipid oxidation while inhibiting lipogenesis. Direct trophic effects of FGF21 on pancreatic beta-cells may help to explain the low risk for diabetes observed in vegans, and the utility of vegan diets in diabetes management. And up-regulation of GCN2 in immune cells, by boosting T regulatory activity, might play some role in the reduced risk for autoimmunity reported in some quasi-vegan cultures. The fact that bone density tends to be no greater in vegans than omnivores, despite consumption of a more "alkaline" diet, might be partially attributable to the fact that FGF21 opposes osteoblastogenesis and decreases IGF-I. If these speculations have merit, it should be possible to demonstrate that adoption of a vegan diet of modest protein content increases plasma FGF21 levels.

  11. Identifying type 1 diabetes candidate genes by DNA microarray analysis of islet-specific CD4+ T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Berry

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease resulting from the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells and is fatal unless treated with insulin. During the last four decades, multiple insulin-dependent diabetes (Idd susceptibility/resistance loci that regulate T1D development have been identified in humans and non-obese diabetic (NOD mice, an established animal model for T1D. However, the exact mechanisms by which these loci confer diabetes risk and the identity of the causative genes remain largely elusive. To identify genes and molecular mechanisms that control the function of diabetogenic T cells, we conducted DNA microarray analysis in islet-specific CD4+ T cells from BDC2.5 TCR transgenic NOD mice that contain the Idd9 locus from T1D-susceptible NOD mice or T1D-resistant C57BL/10 mice. Here we describe in detail the contents and analyses for these gene expression data associated with our previous study [1]. Gene expression data are available at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO repository from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (accession number GSE64674.

  12. A new model defines the minimal set of polymorphism in HLA-DQ and -DR that determines susceptibility and resistance to autoimmune diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Bernard R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanism underlying autoimmune diabetes has been difficult to define. There is a strong genetic contribution and numerous studies associate the major histocompatibility complex, especially the class II region, with predisposition or resistance. However, how these molecules are implicated remains obscure. Presentation of the hypothesis We have supplemented structural analysis with computational biophysical and sequence analyses and propose an heuristic for distinguishing between human leukocyte antigen molecules that predispose to insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and those that are protective. Polar residues at both β37 and β9 suffice to distinguish accurately between class II alleles that predispose to type 1 diabetes and those that do not. The electrostatic potential within the peptide binding pocket exerts a strong influence on diabetogenic epitopes with basic residues. Diabetes susceptibility alleles are predicted to bind autoantigens strongly with tight affinity, prolonged association and altered cytokine expression profile. Protective alleles bind moderately, and neutral alleles poorly or not at all. Non-Asp β57 is a modifier that supplements disease risk but only in the presence of the polymorphic, polar pair at β9 and β37. The nature of β37 determines resistance on one hand, and susceptibility or dominant protection on the other. Conclusion The proposed ideas are illustrated with structural, functional and population studies from the literature. The hypothesis, in turn, rationalizes their results. A plausible mechanism of immune mediated diabetes based on binding affinity and peptide kinetics is discussed. The number of the polymorphic markers present correlates with onset of disease and severity. The molecular elucidation of disease susceptibility and resistance paves the way for risk prediction, treatment and prevention of disease based on analogue peptides. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Eugene

  13. Lack of CCR5 on dendritic cells promotes a proinflammatory environment in submandibular glands of the NOD mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Wildenberg; C.G. van Helden-Meeuwsen; J.P. van de Merwe (Joop); C. Moreno (Christophe); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); M.A. Versnel (Marjan)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the salivary glands. In the NOD mouse, a model for this disease, the development of lymphocytic infiltrates in the salivary glands is preceded by an accumulation of dendritic cells (DC). Given the ke

  14. Polyinosine-polycytidylic acid promotes excessive iodine intake induced thyroiditis in non-obese diabetic mice via Toll-like receptor 3 mediated inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ya-nan; LIU Feng-hua; YU Xiu-jie; LIU Ze-bing; LI Qing-xin; YUAN Ji-hong; ZANG Xiao-yi

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive iodine intake and viral infection are recognized as both critical factors associated with autoimmune thyroid diseases.Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been reported to play an important role in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders.In this study,we aimed to clarify the possible mechanism of TLR3 involved in polyinosinepolycytidylic acid (poly(l:C)) promoting excessive iodine intake induced thyroiditis in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice.Methods Both NOD and BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to four groups:control group (n=5),high iodine intake (HI) group (n=7),poly(l:C) group (n=7) and combination of excessive iodine and poly(l:C) injection (HIP) group (n=7).After 8 weeks,mice were weighed and blood samples were collected.All the mice were sacrificed before dissection of spleen and thyroid gland.Then,thyroid histology,thyroid secreted hormone,expression of CD3+ cells and TLR3 as well as inflammatory mRNA level were evaluated.Results Both NOD and BALB/c mice from HI and HIP group represented goiter and increasing thyroid relative weight.Thyroid histology evidence indicated that only HIP group of NOD mice showed severe thyroiditis with lymphocytes infiltration in majority of thyroid tissue,severe damage of follicles and general fibrosis.Immunofluorescence staining results displayed a large number of CD3+ cells in HIP NOD mice.Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results suggested interferon (IFN)-αincreased over 30 folds and IFN-γ expression was doubled compared with control group,but interleukin (IL)-4 remained unchanged in HIP group of NOD mice thyroid.Meanwhile,over one third decrease of blood total thyroxine (TT4) and increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was observed in HIP group of NOD mice.Only HIP group of NOD mice represented significantly elevation of TLR3 expression.Conclusion Poly(l:C) enhanced excessive dietary iodine induced thyroiditis in NOD mice through increasing TLR3 mediated inflammation.

  15. Sialoadenitis progression in nonobese diabetic mice and its correlation with expression of apoptosis-associated proteins in salivary glands and serum IgG levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Ge; HUA Hong; GAO Yan; LIN Qin; YU Guang-yan

    2007-01-01

    Background Sj(o)gren syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic lymphocytic infiltration and decreased secretion in salivary glands. Apoptosis is one of the possible mechanisms involved in acinar epithelial destruction in SS. The role of apoptosis in the initiation and effect phase of sialoadenitis is still controversial. The aim of this study was to observe the roles of apoptosis-associated proteins and serum IgG levels in sialoadenitis progression in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice.Methods 2-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-week female NOD and matched BALB/c control mice were selected. Saliva and tear flow rate were measured. Serum IgG level was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Number of lymphocyte foci (NLF) in submandibular glands (SMGs) was counted under routine hematoxylin/eosin-stained sections.Expression of Fas, Bcl-2 and procaspase3 proteins as well as apoptotic cells in the SMGs were detected by immunohistochemical staining and by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay respectively.Results Decreased stimulated total flow rate (STFR) and lymphocyte foci in SMGs were first observed in the 10-week NOD group. STFR was negatively correlated with NLF (P<0.05). Serum IgG in NOD mice was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05) and showed a positive correlation with NLF (P<0.05). Fas expression in SMGs acinar cells in NOD mice increased with age and was significantly higher compared with that in the control group. Bcl-2 expression and procaspase3 expression in SMG acinar cells in each NOD group were lower compared with those of the age-matched control mice.Conclusion Abnormal expression of Fas and Bcl-2 in the SMGs and higher level of serum IgG may contribute to the initiation of sialoadenitis and cause the glandular destruction in NOD mice.

  16. Types of pediatric diabetes mellitus defined by anti-islet autoimmunity and random C-peptide at diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that anti-islet autoantibody expression and random serum C-peptide obtained at diagnosis define phenotypes of pediatric diabetes with distinct clinical features. We analyzed 607 children aged diabetes after ex...

  17. Types of pediatric diabetes mellitus defined by anti-islet autoimmunity and random C-peptide at diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that anti-islet autoantibody expression and random serum C-peptide obtained at diagnosis define phenotypes of pediatric diabetes with distinct clinical features. We analyzed 607 children aged <19 yr consecutively diagnosed with diabetes after ex...

  18. The Pancreatic Macrophage Compartment in Health and autoimmune Diabetes: a study on Maturation, Mobility and Matrix interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.B. Geutskens (Sacha)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractType 1 diabetes is a disease that results from a disturbed glucose metabolism due to a deficiency in insulin production. This deficiency is the consequence of immune- mediated damage to the insulin-producing ß-cells. The cause of type 1 diabetes is presently unknown and probably multif

  19. Nodding syndrome, western Uganda, 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Christoph; Rubaale, Tom; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Kipp, Walter; Asaba, George

    2015-07-01

    Nodding syndrome (NS) is a poorly understood condition, which was delineated in 2008 as a new epilepsy syndrome. So far, confirmed cases of NS have been observed in three circumscribed African areas: southern Tanzania, southern Sudan, and northern Uganda. Case-control studies have provided evidence of an association between NS and infection with Onchocerca volvulus, but the causation of NS is still not fully clarified. We report a case of a 15-year old boy with head nodding seizures and other characteristic features of NS from an onchocerciasis endemic area in western Uganda, with no contiguity to the hitherto known areas. We suggest that the existence of NS should be systematically investigated in other areas. PMID:25918208

  20. The Effects of Exogenous and Endogenous Ligands of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor on the Activation of Autoimmune Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Rizq, Hana'A

    2012-01-01

    The aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an important receptor found in immune cells. Itfunctions as a detector of environmental toxins, naturally occurring dietary products, andendogenous tryptophan derivatives for induction of gene transcription responses. Previousreports have implicated stimulation of AhR by various ligands in promoting T cellactivation or regulatory function, with effects on autoimmune disease models. Also, effectsof Ah toxins or natural products on increasing or suppressin...

  1. Autoimmune epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Antonio; Rizzo, Maria Ida; De Virgilio, Armando; Conte, Michela; Gallo, Andrea; Attanasio, Giuseppe; Ruoppolo, Giovanni; de Vincentiis, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Despite the fact that epilepsy is the third most common chronic brain disorder, relatively little is known about the processes leading to the generation of seizures. Accumulating data support an autoimmune basis in patients with antiepileptic drug-resistant seizures. Besides, recent studies show that epilepsy and autoimmune disease frequently co-occur. Autoimmune epilepsy is increasingly recognized in the spectrum of neurological disorders characterized by detection of neural autoantibodies in serum or spinal fluid and responsiveness to immunotherapy. An autoimmune cause is suspected based on frequent or medically intractable seizures and the presence of at least one neural antibody, inflammatory changes indicated in serum or spinal fluid or on MRI, or a personal or family history of autoimmunity. It is essential that an autoimmune etiology be considered in the initial differential diagnosis of new onset epilepsy, because early immunotherapy assures an optimal outcome for the patient. PMID:26626229

  2. Selective destruction of mouse islet beta cells by human T lymphocytes in a newly-established humanized type 1 diabetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Establish a human immune-mediated type 1 diabetic model in NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice. → Using the irradiated diabetic NOD mouse spleen mononuclear cells as trigger. → The islet β cells were selectively destroyed by infiltrated human T cells. → The model can facilitate translational research to find a cure for type 1 diabetes. -- Abstract: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by a T cell-mediated autoimmune response that leads to the loss of insulin-producing β cells. The optimal preclinical testing of promising therapies would be aided by a humanized immune-mediated T1D model. We develop this model in NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice. The selective destruction of pancreatic islet β cells was mediated by human T lymphocytes after an initial trigger was supplied by the injection of irradiated spleen mononuclear cells (SMC) from diabetic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. This resulted in severe insulitis, a marked loss of total β-cell mass, and other related phenotypes of T1D. The migration of human T cells to pancreatic islets was controlled by the β cell-produced highly conserved chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and its receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4, as demonstrated by in vivo blocking experiments using antibody to CXCR4. The specificity of humanized T cell-mediated immune responses against islet β cells was generated by the local inflammatory microenvironment in pancreatic islets including human CD4+ T cell infiltration and clonal expansion, and the mouse islet β-cell-derived CD1d-mediated human iNKT activation. The selective destruction of mouse islet β cells by a human T cell-mediated immune response in this humanized T1D model can mimic those observed in T1D patients. This model can provide a valuable tool for translational research into T1D.

  3. 皮下注射胰岛素抑制胰岛β细胞凋亡预防NOD鼠糖尿病%Inhibition of islet β cell apoptosis and prevention diabetes by subcutaneous administration of insulin in NOD mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋铁建; 周智广; 苏恒

    2006-01-01

    目的:观察皮下注射胰岛素免疫干预对非肥胖糖尿病(non-obese diabetic,NOD)鼠胰岛炎、β细胞凋亡和糖尿病的影响,并探讨其诱导免疫耐受的机制.方法:60只NOD雌鼠随机分为胰岛素处理组(n=34)和磷酸盐缓冲液(phosphate buffered saline,PBS)对照组(n=28),分别于4周、12周、20周、28周皮下注射中效胰岛素优泌林N(Humulin N)6 U(60 μL)+不完全弗氏佐剂(incomplete Freund's adjuvant,IFA)60 μL,对照组予PBS(60 μL)+IFA(60μL).于12周龄观察胰岛炎和胰岛β细胞凋亡;检测胰岛Fas和FasL的表达;测定血清IL-4和IFN-γ浓度,以及胰岛内I-Aβg7,IL-1β,IFN-γ,Fas,IL-4mRNA的表达水平.结果:NOD鼠皮下注射胰岛素加IFA组30周龄和52周龄时发病率仅为21.4%和28.6%,而皮下PBS加IFA组为71.4%和85.7%(P<0.05).胰岛素组胰岛炎积分比对照组低,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).胰岛素组胰岛Fas抗原表达和β细胞凋亡率均比PBS对照组低(均P<0.05).胰岛素组胰岛内I-Aβg7,IFN-γ,IL-1β,Fas mRNA表达较PBS对照组低(均P<0.05),而IL-4mRNA表达较对照组高(P<0.05);胰岛素组血清IL-4比PBS组高,IFN-γ比PBS组低(均P<0.05).结论:皮下注射胰岛素能诱导NOD鼠的免疫耐受而预防糖尿病的发生,但不能阻断胰岛炎的进展.皮下注射胰岛素能诱导调节性T细胞产生,使全身和胰岛局部T细胞由Th1向Th2转型,从而抑制Fas介导的β细胞凋亡而预防糖尿病.

  4. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Rajko

    2003-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is an unresolving, hepatocellular inflammation of unknown cause that is characterized by the presence of periportal hepatitis on histologic examination, tissue autoantibodies in serum, and hypergammaglobulinemia. By international consensus, the designation autoimmune hepatitis has replaced alternative terms for the condition. Three types of autoimmune hepatitis have been proposed based on immunoserologic findings. Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) (or both) in serum. Seventy percent of patients with type 1 of autoimmune hepatitis are women. This type is the most common form and accounts for at least 80% of cases. Type 2 is characterized by the presence of antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (anti-LKM1) in serum. Patients with this type of autoimmune hepatitis are predominantly children. Type 3 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antibodies to soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) in serum. There are no individual features that are pathognomonic of autoimmune hepatitis, and its diagnosis requires the confident exclusion of other conditions. The large majority of patients show satisfactory response to corticosteroid (usually prednisone or prednisolone) therapy. For the past 30 years it has been customary to add azathioprine as a "steroid sparing" agent to allow lower doses of steroids to be used and remission, once achieved, can be sustained in many patients with azathioprine alone after steroid withdrawal. Patients with autoimmune hepatitis who have decompensated during or after corticosteroid therapy are candidates for liver transplantation.

  5. Relationship between gestational diabetes and thyroid autoimmunity%妊娠糖尿病与甲状腺自身免疫的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔艳花; 张丹丹; 王倩

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究妊娠糖尿病与甲状腺功能异常及甲状腺自身抗体阳性的相关性.方法 选取妊娠糖尿病患者共80例作为妊娠糖尿病组,另外选择糖耐量正常孕妇36名作为正常对照组.同时选择产后18 ~ 120个月曾诊断为妊娠糖尿病者作为曾患妊娠糖尿病组(36例),并以产后18~96个月的正常妊娠者28名作为随访对照组.检测4组受试者空腹血糖、餐后2h血糖、游离T4、促甲状腺激素(TSH)、血脂水平,以及谷氨酸脱羧酶65(GAD65)抗体、甲状腺过氧化物酶抗体(TPOAb)、甲状腺球蛋白抗体(TgAb).曾患妊娠糖尿病组根据甲状腺自身抗体情况分为甲状腺自身抗体阳性组与阴性组,统计两个亚组糖代谢异常的发生情况.结果 妊娠糖尿病组空腹血糖、餐后2h血糖高于其他组(P均’<0.05),4组间血脂水平差异没有统计学意义(P均>0.05).与正常对照组相比,妊娠糖尿病组游离T4、TSH水平差异均没有统计学意义(P均>0.05).妊娠糖尿病组GAD65抗体阳性者有4例,曾患妊娠糖尿病组有3例.分别与正常对照组及随访对照组相比,妊娠糖尿病组及曾患妊娠糖尿病组TPOAb、TgAb阳性发生率均增加(x2=7.459,P<0.05).曾患妊娠糖尿病组总体TSH水平异常的发生率、同时存在TSH水平异常及甲状腺自身抗体阳性的发生率显著高于其他3组(x2=5.925,8.766,P均<0.05).曾患妊娠糖尿病组47.2%(17/36)在随访时发生高血糖,甲状腺抗体阳性组60.0%(6/10)出现糖代谢异常,而甲状腺抗体阴性组42.3%(11/26)有糖代谢异常,但两组间差异没有统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 产后甲状腺自身免疫与糖代谢受损无关.妊娠糖尿病可能是发生甲状腺自身免疫异常的危险因素.%Objective To investigate the relationship between thyroid dysfunction,positive thyroid autoimmune antibodies and gestational diabetes.Methods Eighty patients with gestational diabetes were chosen as

  6. Mature high-affinity immune responses to (pro)insulin anticipate the autoimmune cascade that leads to type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Achenbach, Peter; Koczwara, Kerstin; Knopff, Annette; Naserke, Heike; Ziegler, Anette-G.; Bonifacio, Ezio

    2004-01-01

    Children at risk for type 1 diabetes can develop early insulin autoantibodies (IAAs). Many, but not all, of these children subsequently develop multiple islet autoantibodies and diabetes. To determine whether disease progression is reflected by autoantibody maturity, IAA affinity was measured by competitive radiobinding assay in first and subsequent IAA-positive samples from children followed from birth in the BABYDIAB cohort. IAA affinity in first positive samples ranged from less than 106 l...

  7. Is pancreas development abnormal in the non-obese diabetic mouse, a spontaneous model of type I diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Homo-Delarche

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive genetic and immunological research, the complex etiology and pathogenesis of type I diabetes remains unresolved. During the last few years, our attention has been focused on factors such as abnormalities of islet function and/or microenvironment, that could interact with immune partners in the spontaneous model of the disease, the non-obese diabetic (NOD mouse. Intriguingly, the first anomalies that we noted in NOD mice, compared to control strains, are already present at birth and consist of 1 higher numbers of paradoxically hyperactive ß cells, assessed by in situ preproinsulin II expression; 2 high percentages of immature islets, representing islet neogenesis related to neonatal ß-cell hyperactivity and suggestive of in utero ß-cell stimulation; 3 elevated levels of some types of antigen-presenting cells and FasL+ cells, and 4 abnormalities of extracellular matrix (ECM protein expression. However, the colocalization in all control mouse strains studied of fibroblast-like cells (anti-TR-7 labeling, some ECM proteins (particularly, fibronectin and collagen I, antigen-presenting cells and a few FasL+ cells at the periphery of islets undergoing neogenesis suggests that remodeling phenomena that normally take place during postnatal pancreas development could be disturbed in NOD mice. These data show that from birth onwards there is an intricate relationship between endocrine and immune events in the NOD mouse. They also suggest that tissue-specific autoimmune reactions could arise from developmental phenomena taking place during fetal life in which ECM-immune cell interaction(s may play a key role.

  8. A cluster of coregulated genes determines TGF-beta-induced regulatory T-cell (Treg) dysfunction in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alise, Anna Morena; Ergun, Ayla; Hill, Jonathan A; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

    2011-05-24

    Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) originate in the thymus, but the Treg phenotype can also be induced in peripheral lymphoid organs or in vitro by stimulation of conventional CD4(+) T cells with IL-2 and TGF-β. There have been divergent reports on the suppressive capacity of these TGF-Treg cells. We find that TGF-Tregs derived from diabetes-prone NOD mice, although expressing normal Foxp3 levels, are uniquely defective in suppressive activity, whereas TGF-Tregs from control strains (B6g7) or ex vivo Tregs from NOD mice all function normally. Most Treg-typical transcripts were shared by NOD or B6g7 TGF-Tregs, except for a small group of differentially expressed genes, including genes relevant for suppressive activity (Lrrc32, Ctla4, and Cd73). Many of these transcripts form a coregulated cluster in a broader analysis of T-cell differentiation. The defect does not map to idd3 or idd5 regions. Whereas Treg cells from NOD mice are normal in spleen and lymph nodes, the NOD defect is observed in locations that have been tied to pathogenesis of diabetes (small intestine lamina propria and pancreatic lymph node). Thus, a genetic defect uniquely affects a specific Treg subpopulation in NOD mice, in a manner consistent with a role in determining diabetes susceptibility. PMID:21543717

  9. Iodine and tri-iodo-thyronine reduce the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in the autoimmune prone BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Rasmussen, Aase Krogh; Bock, Troels;

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid hormones modulate the immune system and metabolism, influence insulin secretion, and cause decreased glucose tolerance. Thyroid hormones have been described to change the incidence of spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis in Bio-Breeding/Worcester (BB) rats but it is unknown how these hormones...... iodine (NaI) or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) neonatally or with tri-iodo-thyronine (T3) during adolescence. At the age of 19 weeks the incidence of T1DM and the degree of insulitis were evaluated. The influence of T3 treatment on the beta cell mass was evaluated in Wistar rats by unbiased...

  10. Statistical evaluation of multiple-locus linkage data in experimental species and its relevance to human studies: Application to nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse and human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risch, N. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)); Ghosh, S.; Todd, J.A.

    1993-09-01

    Common, familial human disorders generally do not follow Mendelian inheritance patterns, presumably because multiple loci are involved in disease susceptibility. One approach to mapping genes for such traits in humans is to first study an analogous form in an animal model, such as mouse, by using inbred strains and backcross experiments. Here the authors describe methodology for analyzing multiple-locus linkage data from such experimental backcrosses, particularly in light of multilocus genetic models, including the effects of epistasis. They illustrate these methods by using data from backcrosses involving nonobese diabetic mouse, which serves as an animal model for human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. They show that it is likely that a minimum of nine loci contribute to susceptibility, with strong epistasis effects among these loci. Three of the loci actually confer a protective effect in the homozygote, compared with the heterozygote. Further, they discuss the relevance of these studies for analogous studies of the human form of the trait. Specifically, they show that the magnitude of the gene effect in the experimental backcross is likely to correlate only weakly, at best, with the expected magnitude of effect for a human form, because in humans the gene effect will depend more heavily on disease allele frequencies than on the observed penetrance ratios; such allele frequencies are unpredictable. Hence, the major benefit from animal studies may be a better understanding of the disease process itself, rather than identification of cells through comparison mapping in humans by using regions of homology. 12 refs., 7 tabs.

  11. E2f1-deficient NOD/SCID mice have dry mouth due to a change of acinar/duct structure and the down-regulation of AQP5 in the salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Keitaro; Narita, Takanori; Matsuki-Fukushima, Miwako; Okabayashi, Ken; Ito, Tatsuro; Senpuku, Hidenobu; Sugiya, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice have been used as a model for dry mouth. NOD mice lacking the gene encoding E2f1, a transcription factor, develop hyposalivation more rapidly progressively than control NOD mice. However, the model mice are associated with an underlying disease such as diabetes. We have now established E2f1-deficient NOD/severe combined immunodeficiency disease (NOD/SCID.E2f1(-/-)) mice to avoid the development of diabetes (Matsui-Inohara et al., Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 234(12):1525-1536, 2009). In this study, we investigated the pathophysiological features of dry mouth using NOD/SCID.E2f1(-/-) mice. In NOD/SCID.E2f1(-/-) mice, the volume of secreted saliva stimulated with pilocarpine is about one third that of control NOD/SCID mice. In behavioral analysis, NOD/SCID.E2f1(-/-) mice drank plenty of water when they ate dry food, and the frequency and time of water intake were almost double compared with control NOD/SCID mice. Histological analysis of submandibular glands with hematoxylin-eosin stain revealed that NOD/SCID.E2f1(-/-) mice have more ducts than NOD/SCID mice. In western blot analysis, the expression of aquaporin 5 (AQP5), a marker of acinar cells, in parotid and in submandibular glands of NOD/SCID.E2f1(-/-) mice was lower than in NOD/SCID mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of parotid and submandibular acini revealed that the localization of AQP5 in NOD/SCID.E2f1(-/-) mice differs from that in NOD/SCID mice; AQP5 was leaky and diffusively localized from the apical membrane to the cytosol in NOD/SCID.E2f1(-/-) mice. The ubiquitination of AQP5 was detected in submandibular glands of NOD/SCID.E2f1(-/-) mice. These findings suggest that the change of acinar/duct structure and the down-regulation of AQP5 in the salivary gland cause the pathogenesis of hyposalivation in NOD/SCID.E2f1(-/-) mice.

  12. Etiopathogenesis of Insulin Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Kanatsuna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmunity against pancreatic islet beta cells is strongly associated with proinsulin, insulin, or both. The insulin autoreactivity is particularly pronounced in children with young age at onset of type 1 diabetes. Possible mechanisms for (proinsulin autoimmunity may involve beta-cell destruction resulting in proinsulin peptide presentation on HLA-DR-DQ Class II molecules in pancreatic draining lymphnodes. Recent data on proinsulin peptide binding to type 1 diabetes-associated HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 is reviewed and illustrated by molecular modeling. The importance of the cellular immune reaction involving cytotoxic CD8-positive T cells to kill beta cells through Class I MHC is discussed along with speculations of the possible role of B lymphocytes in presenting the proinsulin autoantigen over and over again through insulin-carrying insulin autoantibodies. In contrast to autoantibodies against other islet autoantigens such as GAD65, IA-2, and ZnT8 transporters, it has not been possible yet to standardize the insulin autoantibody test. As islet autoantibodies predict type 1 diabetes, it is imperative to clarify the mechanisms of insulin autoimmunity.

  13. Caring and Competence: Nel Noddings' Curriculum Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Stephen J.

    Nel Noddings makes the case that producing caring and competent people ought to be the principal goal of education, suggesting that educators establish the conditions in which students with differing interests, capacities, and needs can achieve things that are educationally worthwhile. This paper considers how Noddings approaches two questions…

  14. Achieving Consensus Through Professionalized Head Nods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae

    2014-01-01

    While the interactional functions of head nodding in everyday Japanese conversation have been frequently studied, a discourse on head nodding as a professional communicative practice has yet to be explored. With the method of multimodal conversation analysis, the current study examines the role o...

  15. Evolutionary origin of rhizobium Nod factor signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streng, A.; Camp, Op den R.; Bisseling, T.; Geurts, R.

    2011-01-01

    For over two decades now, it is known that the nodule symbiosis between legume plants and nitrogen fixing rhizobium bacteria is set in motion by the bacterial signal molecule named nodulation (Nod) factor.1 Upon Nod factor perception a signaling cascade is activated that is also essential for endomy

  16. Fatal Attraction: Interactions between antigen-presenting cells and islets of Langerhans in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. Rosmalen (Judith)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe onset of diabetes mellitus is characterized by various symptoms, all the result of a disturbed glucose metabolism. The main symptoms are thirst and an excessive production of urine. The disturbed glucose metabolism underlying these symptoms is due to an absolute deficiency of insulin

  17. Differential expression analysis of nuclear oligomerization domain proteins NOD1 and NOD2 in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qing-Hua; Yi, Shi-Bai; Ding, Xu; Zhang, Hui-Xian; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xiao-Chun; Lu, Dan-Qi; Lin, Hao-Ran

    2012-11-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing proteins-1 and -2 (NOD1 and NOD2) are members of the NOD-like receptors (NLRs) family. They are both cytoplasmic receptors, and sense microbial infections/danger molecules to induce host innate immune response. In this study, the full-length ORF sequences of NOD1 and NOD2 were cloned, and the putative amino acid sequences were identified in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The complete open reading frame (ORF) of grouper NOD1 contained 2823 bp encoding a 940 amino acid protein. Grouper NOD2 cDNA contained a 2967 bp ORF, encoding a protein of 988 amino acid residues. Both grouper NOD1 and NOD2 had similar domains to human and fish counterparts. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that grouper NOD1 clustered with grass carp, zebrafish and channel catfish, while NOD2 was most closely related to fugu. Expression patterns of grouper NOD1 and NOD2 were next studied. NOD1 had the highest level of expression in skin while NOD2 in trunk kidney. Post Vibrio alginolyticus (strain EcGS020401), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or PolyI:C challenges, gene expression of grouper NOD1 and NOD2 was stimulated to different extents. NOD1 showed a significant enhancement after LPS stimulation, but NOD2 increased more significantly after PolyI:C invasion, indicating that NOD1 and NOD2 may exert different effects on the eradication of bacteria and virus. The adaptor protein RIP-like-interacting CLARP kinase (RICK) and downstream molecule interleukin-8 (IL-8) were also induced at different levels after stimulation, which indicated that NOD1 and NOD2 signal transduction was involved in grouper innate immune protection against bacterial and viral infections.

  18. Large Gliadin Peptides Detected in the Pancreas of NOD and Healthy Mice following Oral Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne W. Bruun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluten promotes type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD mice and likely also in humans. In NOD mice and in non-diabetes-prone mice, it induces inflammation in the pancreatic lymph nodes, suggesting that gluten can initiate inflammation locally. Further, gliadin fragments stimulate insulin secretion from beta cells directly. We hypothesized that gluten fragments may cross the intestinal barrier to be distributed to organs other than the gut. If present in pancreas, gliadin could interact directly with the immune system and the beta cells to initiate diabetes development. We orally and intravenously administered 33-mer and 19-mer gliadin peptide to NOD, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice and found that the peptides readily crossed the intestinal barrier in all strains. Several degradation products were found in the pancreas by mass spectroscopy. Notably, the exocrine pancreas incorporated large amounts of radioactive label shortly after administration of the peptides. The study demonstrates that, even in normal animals, large gliadin fragments can reach the pancreas. If applicable to humans, the increased gut permeability in prediabetes and type 1 diabetes patients could expose beta cells directly to gliadin fragments. Here they could initiate inflammation and induce beta cell stress and thus contribute to the development of type 1 diabetes.

  19. Loss of immune tolerance to IL-2 in type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérol, Louis; Lindner, John M.; Caudana, Pamela; Nunez, Nicolas Gonzalo; Baeyens, Audrey; Valle, Andrea; Sedlik, Christine; Loirat, Delphine; Boyer, Olivier; Créange, Alain; Cohen, José Laurent; Rogner, Ute Christine; Yamanouchi, Jun; Marchant, Martine; Leber, Xavier Charles; Scharenberg, Meike; Gagnerault, Marie-Claude; Mallone, Roberto; Battaglia, Manuela; Santamaria, Pere; Hartemann, Agnès; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Piaggio, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by a chronic, progressive autoimmune attack against pancreas-specific antigens, effecting the destruction of insulin-producing β-cells. Here we show interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a non-pancreatic autoimmune target in T1D. Anti-IL-2 autoantibodies, as well as T cells specific for a single orthologous epitope of IL-2, are present in the peripheral blood of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and patients with T1D. In NOD mice, the generation of anti-IL-2 autoantibodies is genetically determined and their titre increases with age and disease onset. In T1D patients, circulating IgG memory B cells specific for IL-2 or insulin are present at similar frequencies. Anti-IL-2 autoantibodies cloned from T1D patients demonstrate clonality, a high degree of somatic hypermutation and nanomolar affinities, indicating a germinal centre origin and underscoring the synergy between cognate autoreactive T and B cells leading to defective immune tolerance. PMID:27708334

  20. Usefulness of postmortem biochemistry in identification of ketosis: Diagnosis of ketoacidosis at the onset of autoimmune type 1 diabetes in an autopsy case with cold exposure and malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Naoto; Michiue, Tomomi; Chen, Jian-Hua; Oritani, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Takaki

    2016-09-01

    A severely malnourished, Japanese female in her twenties was found dead in her apartment. On autopsy, most of the findings from the internal examination were suggestive of hypothermia. Postmortem biochemistry, however, showed severely increased levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and blood and urine glucose levels. Levels of acetone, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetate in various body fluids were also highly increased, indicating ketosis. The serum insulin and c-peptide levels were severely low, and subsequent testing was positive for anti-GAD antibodies. Immunohistochemical examination of the pancreatic islet cells revealed few insulin-positive cells but many glucagon-positive cells on staining. Furthermore, slight invasion of CD8-positive lymphocytes in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans was observed. Results of immunostaining of the pancreatic and bronchial epithelial tissues were partly positive for the Influenza A virus. We concluded that severe ketoacidosis associated with rapid-onset hyperglycemia due to autoimmune type 1 diabetes (AT1D) had occurred shortly before death. However, the ketosis was accompanied by hypothermia and malnutrition as well as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Therefore, we retrospectively collected biochemical data on cases of hypothermia and malnutrition and compared them with the present case. Serum glucose, acetone, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid can be used for screening and diagnosis to distinguish DKA from ketosis due to hypothermia and malnutrition. Therefore, in the present case, we diagnosed that the natural cause of death was due to AT1D. In conclusion, screening investigations for relevant biochemical markers can provide essential information for the diagnosis of metabolic disturbances, which fail to demonstrate characteristic autopsy findings. PMID:27591535

  1. Cholinergic Stimulation Prevents the Development of Autoimmune Diabetes: Evidence for the Modulation of Th17 Effector Cells via an IFNγ-Dependent Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Junu A.; Bashir, Ghada; Qureshi, Mohammed M.; Mohamed, Yassir A.; Azzi, Jamil; al-Ramadi, Basel K.; Fernández-Cabezudo, Maria J.

    2016-01-01

    Type I diabetes (T1D) results from T cell-mediated damage of pancreatic β-cells and loss of insulin production. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway represents a physiological link connecting the central nervous and immune systems via vagus nerve, and functions to control the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Using the multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLD-STZ) model to induce experimental autoimmune diabetes, we investigated the potential of regulating the development of hyperglycemia through administration of paraoxon, a highly specific acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI). We demonstrate that pretreatment with paraoxon prevented hyperglycemia in STZ-treated C57BL/6 mice. This correlated with a reduction in T cell infiltration into pancreatic islets and preservation of the structure and functionality of β-cells. Gene expression analysis of pancreatic tissue revealed that increased peripheral cholinergic activity prevented STZ-mediated loss of insulin production, this being associated with a reduction in IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17 proinflammatory cytokines. Intracellular cytokine analysis in splenic T cells demonstrated that inhibition of AChE led to a shift in STZ-induced immune response from a predominantly disease-causing IL-17-expressing Th17 cells to IFNγ-positive Th1 cells. Consistent with this conclusion, inhibition of AChE failed to prevent STZ-induced hyperglycemia in IFNγ-deficient mice. Our results provide mechanistic evidence for the prevention of murine T1D by inhibition of AChE and suggest a promising strategy for modulating disease severity. PMID:27790217

  2. Effect of 'antidiabetis' herbal preparation on serum glucose and fructosamine in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petlevski, R; Hadzija, M; Slijepcevic, M; Juretic, D

    2001-05-01

    The antihyperglycemic effect of the Antidiabetis herbal preparation ((Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris), Millefollii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Morii folium (Morus nigra L.), Valeriane radix (Valleriana officinalis L.), Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L.)), patent No. P-9801091 Zagreb, Croatia was investigated. Two extracts were prepared: ethanol extract (extract 1), and ethanol extract from which ethanol was evaporated on a rotatory evaporator at a temperature of 45 degrees C (extract 2). Extract 1 and extract 2 were administered (in experiment 1) to alloxan-induced non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice in the same dose of 20 mg/kg. Blood glucose was determined before, and 10, 30, 60 and 120 min after the preparation administration. Extract 1 and extract 2 decreased the level of blood glucose by 10 and 20%, respectively, of the initial value (at 0 min, mean = 22.6 +/- 8.3 mmol/l). Serum levels of glucose and fructosamine were determined in NOD mice, NOD mice administered extract 2 in a dose of 20 mg/kg of extract 2, and NOD mice administered acarbose in a dose of 25 mg/100 g chow, in order to verify the hypoglycemic action of extract 2 (in experiment 2). Extract 2 and acarbose were admixed to the chow. The duration of treatment was 7 days. Significantly lower glucose (P < 0.05) and fructosamine (P < 0.001) levels were recorded in extract 2 treated NOD mice as compared with NOD mice. Study results showed extract 2 to significantly decrease the level of glucose and fructosamine in alloxan induced NOD mice. Our future studies will be focused on the search of active principles of the extracts. PMID:11297848

  3. Evolutionary origin of rhizobium Nod factor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streng, Arend; op den Camp, Rik; Bisseling, Ton; Geurts, René

    2011-10-01

    For over two decades now, it is known that the nodule symbiosis between legume plants and nitrogen fixing rhizobium bacteria is set in motion by the bacterial signal molecule named nodulation (Nod) factor. Upon Nod factor perception a signaling cascade is activated that is also essential for endomycorrhizal symbiosis (Fig. 1). This suggests that rhizobium co-opted the evolutionary far more ancient mycorrhizal signaling pathway in order to establish an endosymbiotic interaction with legumes. As arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of the Glomeromycota phylum can establish a symbiosis with the fast majority of land plants, it is most probable that this signaling cascade is wide spread in plant kingdom. However, Nod factor perception generally is considered to be unique to legumes. Two recent breakthroughs on the evolutionary origin of Rhizobium Nod factor signaling demonstrate that this is not the case. The purification of Nod factor-like molecules excreted by the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices and the role of the LysM-type Nod factor receptor PaNFP in the non-legume Parasponia andersonii provide novel understanding on the evolution of rhizobial Nod factor signaling.

  4. Potential mechanisms explaining why hydrolyzed casein-based diets outclass single amino acid-based diets in the prevention of autoimmune diabetes in diabetes-prone BB rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J. T. J.; Bos, N. A.; Harthoorn, L. F.; Stellaard, F.; Beijer-Liefers, S.; Rozing, J.; van Tol, E. A. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background It remains controversial whether avoidance of dietary diabetogenic triggers, such as cow's milk proteins, can prevent type 1 diabetes in genetically susceptible individuals. Here, different extensive casein hydrolysates (HC) and single amino acid (AA) formulations were tested for their ef

  5. A novel technique for the in vivo imaging of autoimmune diabetes development in the pancreas by two-photon microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Coppieters

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D is characterized by the immune-mediated destruction of beta cells in the pancreas. Little is known about the in vivo dynamic interactions between T cells and beta cells or the kinetic behavior of other immune cell subsets in the pancreatic islets. Utilizing multiphoton microscopy we have designed a technique that allows for the real-time visualization of diabetogenic T cells and dendritic cells in pancreatic islets in a live animal, including their interplay with beta cells and the vasculature. Using a custom designed stage, the pancreas was surgically exposed under live conditions so that imaging of islets under intact blood pressure and oxygen supply became possible. We demonstrate here that this approach allows for the tracking of diabetogenic leukocytes as well as vascularization phenotype of islets and accumulation of dendritic cells in islets during diabetes pathogenesis. This technique should be useful in mapping crucial kinetic events in T1D pathogenesis and in testing the impact of immune based interventions on T cell migration, extravasation and islet destruction.

  6. Epilepsy as an Autoimmune Disease

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap; John J Millichap

    2014-01-01

    Investigators at University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, and Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, conducted a retrospective population-level study of the relationship between epilepsy and 12 common autoimmune diseases: type 1 diabetes mellitus, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease, Hashimoto thyroiditis, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, Sjogren syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and celiac ...

  7. Aberrant accumulation of the diabetes autoantigen GAD65 in Golgi membranes in conditions of ER stress and autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phelps, Edward A; Cianciaruso, Chiara; Michael, Iacovos P;

    2016-01-01

    , an important autocrine and paracrine signaling molecule and a survival factor in islets. We show that ER stress in primary beta cells perturbs the palmitoylation cycle controlling GAD65 endomembrane distribution, resulting in aberrant accumulation of the palmitoylated form in trans-Golgi membranes......Pancreatic islet beta cells are particularly susceptible to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is implicated in beta cell dysfunction and loss during the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The peripheral membrane protein GAD65 is an autoantigen in human T1D. GAD65 synthesizes GABA....... The palmitoylated form has heightened immunogenicity, exhibiting increased uptake by antigen presenting cells and T cell stimulation compared to the non-palmitoylated form. Similar accumulation of GAD65 in Golgi membranes is observed in human beta cells in pancreatic sections from GAD65 autoantibody positive...

  8. Autoimmune synaptopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Sarah J; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Vincent, Angela

    2016-02-01

    Autoantibodies targeting proteins at the neuromuscular junction are known to cause several distinct myasthenic syndromes. Recently, autoantibodies targeting neurotransmitter receptors and associated proteins have also emerged as a cause of severe, but potentially treatable, diseases of the CNS. Here, we review the clinical evidence as well as in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence that autoantibodies account for myasthenic syndromes and autoimmune disorders of the CNS by disrupting the functional or structural integrity of synapses. Studying neurological and psychiatric diseases of autoimmune origin may provide new insights into the cellular and circuit mechanisms underlying a broad range of CNS disorders. PMID:26806629

  9. Achalasia in a Patient with Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome Type II

    OpenAIRE

    Amr, Bashar S.; Mamillapalli, Chaitanya

    2015-01-01

    Achalasia is a rare disease characterized by aperistalsis of the esophageal body and failure of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax. The etiology of this disease remains unknown. Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II is a well-identified disease characterized by the occurrence of autoimmune Addison's disease in combination with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. We report a case that suggests autoimmunity and immunogenicity as a probable contributing factor fo...

  10. Can CD44 Be a Mediator of Cell Destruction? The Challenge of Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assayag-Asherie, Nathalie; Sever, Dror; Bogdani, Marika; Johnson, Pamela; Weiss, Talya; Ginzberg, Ariel; Perles, Sharon; Weiss, Lola; Sebban, Lora Eshkar; Turley, Eva A; Okon, Elimelech; Raz, Itamar; Naor, David

    2015-01-01

    CD44 is a multi-functional receptor with multiple of isoforms engaged in modulation of cell trafficking and transmission of apoptotic signals. We have previously shown that injection of anti-CD44 antibody into NOD mice induced resistance to type 1 diabetes (T1D). In this communication we describe our efforts to understand the mechanism underlying this effect. We found that CD44-deficient NOD mice develop stronger resistance to T1D than wild-type littermates. This effect is not explained by the involvement of CD44 in cell migration, because CD44-deficient inflammatory cells surprisingly had greater invasive potential than the corresponding wild type cells, probably owing to molecular redundancy. We have previously reported and we show here again that CD44 expression and hyaluronic acid (HA, the principal ligand for CD44) accumulation are detected in pancreatic islets of diabetic NOD mice, but not of non-diabetic DBA/1 mice. Expression of CD44 on insulin-secreting β cells renders them susceptible to the autoimmune attack, and is associated with a diminution in β-cells function (e.g., less insulin production and/or insulin secretion) and possibly also with an enhanced apoptosis rate. The diabetes-supportive effect of CD44 expression on β cells was assessed by the TUNEL assay and further strengthened by functional assays exhibiting increased nitric oxide release, reduced insulin secretion after glucose stimulation and decreased insulin content in β cells. All these parameters could not be detected in CD44-deficient islets. We further suggest that HA-binding to CD44-expressing β cells is implicated in β-cell demise. Altogether, these data agree with the concept that CD44 is a receptor capable of modulating cell fate. This finding is important for other pathologies (e.g., cancer, neurodegenerative diseases) in which CD44 and HA appear to be implicated. PMID:26624007

  11. Autoimmun pankreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjordside, Eva; Novovic, Srdan; Schmidt, Palle Nordblad;

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare inflammatory disease. AIP has characteristic histology, serology and imaging findings. Two types of AIP exist, type 1, which is a part of the systemic immunoglobulin G4-related disease, and type 2, which is only localized to the pancreas. Patients with type 1...

  12. Autoimmun hypophysitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Therese; Hagen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    during pregnancy or postpartum, but also occurs in males and children. AH is often associated with other autoimmune diseases, most frequently with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The symptoms are caused by enlargement of the pituitary gland and disturbances of the hormone function. Treatment is either...

  13. The role of NOD1 and NOD2 in host defense against chlamydial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yan; Lei, Wenbo; He, Zhansheng; Li, Zhongyu

    2016-09-01

    Chlamydial species are common intracellular parasites that cause various diseases, mainly characterized by persistent infection, which lead to inflammatory responses modulated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The best understood PRRs are the extracellular Toll-like receptors, but recent significant advances have focused on two important proteins, NOD1 and NOD2, which are members of the intracellular nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain receptor family and are capable of triggering the host innate immune signaling pathways. This results in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which is vital for an adequate host defense against intracellular chlamydial infection. NOD1/2 ligands are known to derive from peptidoglycan, and the latest research has resolved the paradox of whether chlamydial species possess this bacterial cell wall component; this finding is likely to promote in-depth investigations into the interaction between the NOD proteins and chlamydial pathogens. In this review, we summarize the basic characteristics and signal transduction functions of NOD1 and NOD2 and highlight the new research on the roles of NOD1 and NOD2 in the host defense against chlamydial infection.

  14. Prolactin as an Adjunct for Type 1 Diabetes Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop, Colin M; Tsai, Sue; Shrivastava, Vipul; Santamaria, Pere; Huang, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is caused by autoimmune destruction of β-cells. Although immunotherapy can restore self-tolerance thereby halting continued immune-mediated β-cell loss, residual β-cell mass and function is often insufficient for normoglycemia. Using a growth factor to boost β-cell mass can potentially overcome this barrier and prolactin (PRL) may fill this role. Previous studies have shown that PRL can stimulate β-cell proliferation and up-regulate insulin synthesis and secretion while reducing lymphocytic infiltration of islets, suggesting that it may restore normoglycemia through complementary mechanisms. Here, we test the hypothesis that PRL can improve the efficacy of an immune modulator, the anticluster of differentiation 3 monoclonal antibody (aCD3), in inducing diabetes remission by up-regulating β-cell mass and function. Diabetic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice were treated with a 5-day course of aCD3 with or without a concurrent 3-week course of PRL. We found that a higher proportion of diabetic mice treated with the aCD3 and PRL combined therapy achieved diabetes reversal than those treated with aCD3 alone. The aCD3 and PRL combined group had a higher β-cell proliferation rate, an increased β-cell fraction, larger islets, higher pancreatic insulin content, and greater glucose-stimulated insulin release. Lineage-tracing analysis found minimal contribution of β-cell neogenesis to the formation of new β-cells. Although we did not detect a significant difference in the number or proliferative capacity of T cells, we observed a higher proportion of insulitis-free islets in the aCD3 and PRL group. These results suggest that combining a growth factor with an immunotherapy may be an effective treatment paradigm for autoimmune diabetes.

  15. Effect of dietary gluten on dendritic cells and innate immune subsets in BALB/c and NOD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Larsen

    Full Text Available The innate immune system is known to play an important role in oral tolerance to dietary antigens. This is important in development of celiac disease (CD but may also be important in type 1 diabetes (T1D, and could potentially explain the reduced incidence of T1D in mice receiving a gluten-free (GF diet. The direct in vivo effect of gluten on innate cells, and particularly dendritic cells (DC is not sufficiently clarified. Therefore, we wished to investigate the innate cell populations of spontaneous diabetic NOD mice and healthy BALB/c mice kept on a GF or a standard (STD gluten containing diet. We studied, by flow cytometry and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, if dietary gluten induces changes in the activation of DCs and distribution of selected innate cells in lymphoid, pancreatic and intestinal tissues in BALB/c and NOD mice. We found that a GF diet increased the percentage of macrophages in BALB/c spleen and of CD11c+ DCs in BALB/c and NOD spleen. Strictly gluten-free (SGF diet increased the percentage of CD103+ DCs in BALB/c mice and decreased percentages of CD11b+ DCs in mesenteric and pancreatic lymph nodes in BALB/c mice. SGF diet in BALB/c mice also decreased DC expression of CD40, CCR7 and MHC-II in pancreatic lymph nodes. In conclusion, GF diet changes the composition of the innate immune system in BALB/c and NOD mice and increases expression of DC activation markers in NOD mice. These results contribute to the explanation of the low diabetes incidence in GF NOD mice. This mechanism may be important in development of type 1 diabetes, celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

  16. The non-obese diabetic mouse strain as a model to study CD8+ T cell function in relapsing and progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prenitha Mercy eIgnatius Arokia Doss

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurodegenerative disease resulting from an autoimmune attack on central nervous system myelin. While CD4+ T cell function in MS pathology has been extensively studied, there is also strong evidence that CD8+ T lymphocytes play a key role. Intriguingly, CD8+ T cells accumulate in great numbers in the CNS in progressive MS, a form of the disease that is refractory to current disease-modifying therapies which target the CD4+ T cell response. Here, we discuss the function of CD8+ T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a mouse model of MS. In particular, we describe EAE in non-obese diabetic (NOD background mice, which develop a pattern of disease characterized by multiple attacks and remissions followed by a progressively worsening phase. This is highly reminiscent of the pattern of disease observed in nearly half of MS patients. Particular attention is paid to a newly described transgenic mouse strain (1C6 on the NOD background whose CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are directed against the encephalitogenic peptide MOG[35-55]. Use of this model will give us a more complete picture of the role(s played by distinct T cell subsets in CNS autoimmunity.

  17. Postnatal events in intestinal gene expression and splenic cell composition is altered in NOD mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damlund, Dina Silke Malling; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Kristensen, Matilde Bylov;

    2013-01-01

    free mice, certain chemokines, including Cxcl2 encoding macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 and involved in attraction of neutrophils was downregulated in the gut epithelium. The non-obese diabetes (NOD) mouse is widely used as a model for studying the pathogenesis of T1D. The neonatal gut...... microbiota seems to play an important role in the development and control of T1D. We hypothesized that NOD mice in the perinatal period respond differently than mice not prone to develop T1D (C57/Bl6), and we investigated the differences in postnatal expression of genes in gut, spleen, liver and pancreas......Evidence suggests that colonisation pattern of the gut in the early postnatal period is highly correlated with the risk of developing type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have recently shown that colonization in SPF mice accelerates gut maturation and that at postnatal day (PND) 1, in comparison with germ...

  18. Interaction between NOD2 and CARD9 involves the NOD2 NACHT and the linker region between the NOD2 CARDs and NACHT domain

    OpenAIRE

    Parkhouse, Rhiannon; Boyle, Joseph P; Mayle, Sophie; Sawmynaden, Kovilen; Rittinger, Katrin; Monie, Tom P.

    2014-01-01

    NOD2 activation by muramyl dipeptide causes a proinflammatory immune response in which the adaptor protein CARD9 works synergistically with NOD2 to drive p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling. To date the nature of the interaction between NOD2 and CARD9 remains undetermined. Here we show that this interaction is not mediated by the CARDs of NOD2 and CARD9 as previously suggested, but that NOD2 possesses two interaction sites for CARD9; one in the CARD–NACHT linker and one in the NA...

  19. Interaction between NOD2 and CARD9 involves the NOD2 NACHT and the linker region between the NOD2 CARDs and NACHT domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhouse, Rhiannon; Boyle, Joseph P; Mayle, Sophie; Sawmynaden, Kovilen; Rittinger, Katrin; Monie, Tom P

    2014-08-25

    NOD2 activation by muramyl dipeptide causes a proinflammatory immune response in which the adaptor protein CARD9 works synergistically with NOD2 to drive p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling. To date the nature of the interaction between NOD2 and CARD9 remains undetermined. Here we show that this interaction is not mediated by the CARDs of NOD2 and CARD9 as previously suggested, but that NOD2 possesses two interaction sites for CARD9; one in the CARD-NACHT linker and one in the NACHT itself. PMID:24960071

  20. Responses against islet antigens in NOD mice are prevented by tolerance to proinsulin but not IGRP

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy, Balasubramanian; Nadine L Dudek; McKenzie, Mark D.; Anthony W Purcell; Brooks, Andrew G.; Gellert, Shane; Colman, Peter G; Harrison, Leonard C.; Lew, Andrew M.; Helen E. Thomas; Kay, Thomas W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by immune responses against several autoantigens expressed in pancreatic β cells. T cells specific for proinsulin and islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit–related protein (IGRP) can induce T1D in NOD mice. However, whether immune responses to multiple autoantigens are caused by spreading from one to another or whether they develop independently of each other is unknown. As cytotoxic T cells specific for IGRP were not detected in transge...

  1. Comparison of vascular complications between adults latent autoimmune diabetes and type 2 diabetes%成人隐匿性自身免疫糖尿病与2型糖尿病的血管并发症比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓华; 周智广; 李霞; 黄红光; 李长罗; 林健; 杨琳

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the prevalence of microvascular and macrovascular complications between adult latent autoimmune diabetes(LADA)and type 2 diabetic subjects.Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 203 LADA(GADA positive)and 203 T2DM(GADA negative)subjects matched with age,gender and duration as well as family history of diabetes.Parameters of microvascular(albuminuria、eyeground microscopy or fundus fluorescence photography,electromyogram)and macrovascular complications(electrocardiogram,blood pressure,blood lipid,body mass index)as well as blood sugar were compared.Results ①Microvascular complications:Compared with T2DM,LADA cases showed higher prevalence of diabetic nephropathy(39.9%vs.28.6%,P<0.05)and similar prevalence in diabetic neuropathy and retinopathy(P>0.05).②Macrovascular complications:LADA cases presented lower prevalence of hypertension(38.9%vs.55.7%,P<0.01),lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (33.0%vs.45.3%,P<0.01=,but similar orevalence of coronarv heart disease (CHD) and erebral infarction(CVD)(P>0.05).Conclusion LADA patients present less metabolic syndrome,hypertension and more diabetic nephropathy compared with T2DM.%目的 探讨成人隐匿性自身免疫糖尿病(LADA)与2型糖尿病(T2DM)血管并发症(包括微血管病变及相关大血管疾病)的差异.方法 比较203例LADA患者与年龄、性别、糖尿病病程及糖尿病家族史匹配的T2DM患者24 h尿白蛋白、眼底检查或荧光造影、心电图、肌电图、血压、血脂、体质指数、空腹血糖、餐后2h血糖、糖化血红蛋白、C肽等方面的差异.结果 ①微血管病变:LADA患者较T2DM患者糖尿病肾病的患病率高(39.9%vs.28.6%,P<0.05),而2组间视网膜病变和周围神经病变的患病率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).②大血管病变:LADA患者较T2DM患者高血压、代谢综合征的患病率低(38.9%vs.55.7%,P<0.01;33.0%vs.45.3%,P<0.01),2组间冠心病及脑梗死的患病率

  2. Cytotoxic T-cells from T-cell receptor transgenic NOD8.3 mice destroy beta-cells via the perforin and Fas pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Nadine L; Thomas, Helen E; Mariana, Lina; Sutherland, Robyn M; Allison, Janette; Estella, Eugene; Angstetra, Eveline; Trapani, Joseph A; Santamaria, Pere; Lew, Andrew M; Kay, Thomas W H

    2006-09-01

    Cytotoxic T-cells are the major mediators of beta-cell destruction in type 1 diabetes, but the molecular mechanisms are not definitively established. We have examined the contribution of perforin and Fas ligand to beta-cell destruction using islet-specific CD8(+) T-cells from T-cell receptor transgenic NOD8.3 mice. NOD8.3 T-cells killed Fas-deficient islets in vitro and in vivo. Perforin-deficient NOD8.3 T-cells were able to destroy wild-type but not Fas-deficient islets in vitro. These results imply that NOD8.3 T-cells use both pathways and that Fas is required for beta-cell killing only when perforin is missing. Consistent with this theory, transgenic NOD8.3 mice with beta-cells that do not respond to Fas ligation were not protected from diabetes. We next investigated the mechanism of protection provided by overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1) in beta-cells of NOD8.3 mice. SOCS-1 islets remained intact when grafted into NOD8.3 mice and were less efficiently killed in vitro. However, addition of exogenous peptide rendered SOCS-1 islets susceptible to 8.3 T-cell-mediated lysis. Therefore, NOD8.3 T-cells use both perforin and Fas pathways to kill beta-cells and the surprising blockade of NOD8.3 T-cell-mediated beta-cell death by SOCS-1 overexpression may be due in part to reduced target cell recognition. PMID:16936188

  3. Autoimmune Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Leypoldt, Frank; Wandinger, Klaus-Peter; Bien, Christian G; Dalmau, Josep

    2013-01-01

    The term autoimmune encephalitis is used to describe a group of disorders characterised by symptoms of limbic and extra-limbic dysfunction occurring in association with antibodies against synaptic antigens and proteins localised on the neuronal cell surface. In recent years there has been a rapidly expanding knowledge of these syndromes resulting in a shift in clinical paradigms and new insights into pathogenic mechanisms. Since many patients respond well to immunosuppressive treatment, the r...

  4. Autoimmun pankreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjordside, Eva; Novovic, Srdan; Schmidt, Palle Nordblad;

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare inflammatory disease. AIP has characteristic histology, serology and imaging findings. Two types of AIP exist, type 1, which is a part of the systemic immunoglobulin G4-related disease, and type 2, which is only localized to the pancreas. Patients with type 1...... are predominantly older men, have involvement of other organs and more often experience relapse than patients with type 2. Both types respond well to steroid treatment. The most important differential diagnose is pancreatic cancer....

  5. Ex vivo expanded human regulatory T cells delay islet allograft rejection via inhibiting islet-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production in CD34+ stem cells-reconstituted NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xiao

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is an autoimmune disease caused by immune-mediated destruction of insulin-secreting β cells of the pancreas. Near complete dependence on exogenous insulin makes T1DM very difficult to control, with the result that patients are exposed to high blood glucose and risk of diabetic complications and/or intermittent low blood glucose that can cause unconsciousness, fits and even death. Allograft transplantation of pancreatic islets restores normoglycemia with a low risk of surgical complications. However, although successful immediately after transplantation, islets are progressively lost, with most of the patients requiring exogenous insulin within 2 years post-transplant. Therefore, there is an urgent requirement for the development of new strategies to prevent islet rejection. In this study, we explored the importance of human regulatory T cells in the control of islets allograft rejection. We developed a pre-clinical model of human islet transplantation by reconstituting NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice with cord blood-derived human CD34+ stem cells and demonstrated that although the engrafted human immune system mediated the rejection of human islets, their survival was significantly prolonged following adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded human Tregs. Mechanistically, Tregs inhibited the infiltration of innate immune cells and CD4+ T cells into the graft by down-regulating the islet graft-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Our findings might contribute to the development of clinical strategies for Treg therapy to control human islet rejection. We also show for the first time that CD34+ cells-reconstituted NOD-scid IL2rγnull mouse model could be beneficial for investigating human innate immunity in vivo.

  6. Rotavirus acceleration of type 1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice depends on type I interferon signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane, Jessica A; Fleming, Fiona E; Graham, Kate L; Thomas, Helen E; Kay, Thomas W H; Coulson, Barbara S

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus infection is associated with childhood progression to type 1 diabetes. Infection by monkey rotavirus RRV accelerates diabetes onset in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, which relates to regional lymph node infection and a T helper 1-specific immune response. When stimulated ex vivo with RRV, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) from naïve NOD mice secrete type I interferon, which induces the activation of bystander lymphocytes, including islet-autoreactive T cells. This is our proposed mechanism for diabetes acceleration by rotaviruses. Here we demonstrate bystander lymphocyte activation in RRV-infected NOD mice, which showed pDC activation and strong upregulation of interferon-dependent gene expression, particularly within lymph nodes. The requirement for type I interferon signalling was analysed using NOD mice lacking a functional type I interferon receptor (NOD.IFNAR1(-/-) mice). Compared with NOD mice, NOD.IFNAR1(-/-) mice showed 8-fold higher RRV titers in lymph nodes and 3-fold higher titers of total RRV antibody in serum. However, RRV-infected NOD.IFNAR1(-/-) mice exhibited delayed pDC and lymphocyte activation, no T helper 1 bias in RRV-specific antibodies and unaltered diabetes onset when compared with uninfected controls. Thus, the type I interferon signalling induced by RRV infection is required for bystander lymphocyte activation and accelerated type 1 diabetes onset in genetically susceptible mice. PMID:27405244

  7. Responses against islet antigens in NOD mice are prevented by tolerance to proinsulin but not IGRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Balasubramanian; Dudek, Nadine L; McKenzie, Mark D; Purcell, Anthony W; Brooks, Andrew G; Gellert, Shane; Colman, Peter G; Harrison, Leonard C; Lew, Andrew M; Thomas, Helen E; Kay, Thomas W H

    2006-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by immune responses against several autoantigens expressed in pancreatic beta cells. T cells specific for proinsulin and islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP) can induce T1D in NOD mice. However, whether immune responses to multiple autoantigens are caused by spreading from one to another or whether they develop independently of each other is unknown. As cytotoxic T cells specific for IGRP were not detected in transgenic NOD mice tolerant to proinsulin, we determined that immune responses against proinsulin are necessary for IGRP-specific T cells to develop. On the other hand, transgenic overexpression of IGRP resulted in loss of intra-islet IGRP-specific T cells but did not protect NOD mice from insulitis or T1D, providing direct evidence that the response against IGRP is downstream of the response to proinsulin. Our results suggest that pathogenic proinsulin-specific immunity in NOD mice subsequently spreads to other antigens such as IGRP. PMID:17143333

  8. Responses against islet antigens in NOD mice are prevented by tolerance to proinsulin but not IGRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Balasubramanian; Dudek, Nadine L.; McKenzie, Mark D.; Purcell, Anthony W.; Brooks, Andrew G.; Gellert, Shane; Colman, Peter G.; Harrison, Leonard C.; Lew, Andrew M.; Thomas, Helen E.; Kay, Thomas W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by immune responses against several autoantigens expressed in pancreatic β cells. T cells specific for proinsulin and islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit–related protein (IGRP) can induce T1D in NOD mice. However, whether immune responses to multiple autoantigens are caused by spreading from one to another or whether they develop independently of each other is unknown. As cytotoxic T cells specific for IGRP were not detected in transgenic NOD mice tolerant to proinsulin, we determined that immune responses against proinsulin are necessary for IGRP-specific T cells to develop. On the other hand, transgenic overexpression of IGRP resulted in loss of intra-islet IGRP-specific T cells but did not protect NOD mice from insulitis or T1D, providing direct evidence that the response against IGRP is downstream of the response to proinsulin. Our results suggest that pathogenic proinsulin-specific immunity in NOD mice subsequently spreads to other antigens such as IGRP. PMID:17143333

  9. Alpha-1 antitrypsin protein and gene therapies decrease autoimmunity and delay arthritis development in mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson Mark A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT is a multi-functional protein that has anti-inflammatory and tissue protective properties. We previously reported that human AAT (hAAT gene therapy prevented autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice and suppressed arthritis development in combination with doxycycline in mice. In the present study we investigated the feasibility of hAAT monotherapy for the treatment of chronic arthritis in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA, a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Methods DBA/1 mice were immunized with bovine type II collagen (bCII to induce arthritis. These mice were pretreated either with hAAT protein or with recombinant adeno-associated virus vector expressing hAAT (rAAV-hAAT. Control groups received saline injections. Arthritis development was evaluated by prevalence of arthritis and arthritic index. Serum levels of B-cell activating factor of the TNF-α family (BAFF, antibodies against both bovine (bCII and mouse collagen II (mCII were tested by ELISA. Results Human AAT protein therapy as well as recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV8-mediated hAAT gene therapy significantly delayed onset and ameliorated disease development of arthritis in CIA mouse model. Importantly, hAAT therapies significantly reduced serum levels of BAFF and autoantibodies against bCII and mCII, suggesting that the effects are mediated via B-cells, at least partially. Conclusion These results present a new drug for arthritis therapy. Human AAT protein and gene therapies are able to ameliorate and delay arthritis development and reduce autoimmunity, indicating promising potential of these therapies as a new treatment strategy for RA.

  10. The multiple autoimmune syndromes. A clue for the autoimmune tautology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Castiblanco, John; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Pineda-Tamayo, Ricardo; Levy, Roger A; Gómez-Puerta, José; Dias, Carlos; Mantilla, Ruben D; Gallo, Juan Esteban; Cervera, Ricard; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio

    2012-12-01

    The multiple autoimmune syndromes (MAS) consist on the presence of three or more well-defined autoimmune diseases (ADs) in a single patient. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and genetic characteristics of a large series of patients with MAS. A cluster analysis and familial aggregation analysis of ADs was performed in 84 patients. A genome-wide microsatellite screen was performed in MAS families, and associated loci were investigated through the pedigree disequilibrium test. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), and Sjögren's syndrome together were the most frequent ADs encountered. Three main clusters were established. Aggregation for type 1 diabetes, AITD, SLE, and all ADs as a trait was found. Eight loci associated with MAS were observed harboring autoimmunity genes. The MAS represent the best example of polyautoimmunity as well as the effect of a single genotype on diverse phenotypes. Its study provides important clues to elucidate the common mechanisms of ADs (i.e., autoimmune tautology).

  11. Effect of prophylactic insulin treatment on the number of ER-MP23+ macrophages in the pancreas of NOD mice. Is the prevention of diabetes based on beta-cell rest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A; Rosmalen, J G; Homo-Delarche, F; Dardenne, M; Drexhage, H A

    1996-01-01

    Prophylactic insulin treatment has been shown to have beneficial effects in type 1 diabetes, both in humans and in various animal models of the disease. In experimental models, the protective effect of prophylactic insulin treatment was observed in two parameters: (1) progression of insulitis and (2

  12. Autoimmune Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Amy M. L.; Britton, Jeffrey W.; McKeon, Andrew; So, Elson; Lennon, Vanda A.; Shin, Cheolsu; Klein, Christopher J.; Watson, Robert E.; Kotsenas, Amy L.; Lagerlund, Terrence D.; Cascino, Gregory D.; Worrell, Gregory A.; Wirrell, Elaine C.; Nickels, Katherine C.; Aksamit, Allen J.; Noe, Katherine H.; Pittock, Sean J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe clinical characteristics and immunotherapy responses in patients with autoimmune epilepsy. Design Observational, retrospective case series. Setting Mayo Clinic Health System. Patients Thirty-two patients with an exclusive (n=11) or predominant (n = 21) seizure presentation in whom an autoimmune etiology was suspected (on the basis of neural autoantibody [91%], inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid [31%], or magnetic resonance imaging suggesting inflammation [63%]) were studied. All had partial seizures: 81% had failed treatment with 2 or more anti-epileptic drugs and had daily seizures and 38% had seizure semiologies that were multifocal or changed with time. Head magnetic resonance imaging was normal in 15 (47%) at onset. Electroencephalogram abnormalities included interictal epileptiform discharges in 20; electrographic seizures in 15; and focal slowing in 13. Neural autoantibodies included voltage-gated potassium channel complex in 56% (leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 specific, 14; contactin-associated proteinlike 2 specific, 1); glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 in 22%; collapsin response-mediator protein 5 in 6%; and Ma2, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and ganglionic acetylcholine receptor in 1 patient each. Intervention Immunotherapy with intravenous methylprednisolone; intravenous immune globulin; and combinations of intravenous methylprednisolone, intravenous immune globulin, plasmapheresis, or cyclo-phosphamide. Main Outcome Measure Seizure frequency. Results After a median interval of 17 months (range, 3–72 months), 22 of 27 (81%) reported improvement postimmunotherapy; 18 were seizure free. The median time from seizure onset to initiating immunotherapy was 4 months for responders and 22 months for nonresponders (P<.05). All voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody–positive patients reported initial or lasting benefit (P<.05). One voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody–positive patient was seizure free after

  13. [Autoimmune epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeck, M; Zacharia, A; Rossetti, A O

    2010-05-01

    There is increasing recognition of an autoimmune origin of pharmacoresistant epileptic disorders. Besides the paraneoplastic limbic encephalopathies (LE), reports of syndromes of non-paraneoplastic LE are increasingly reported in the last 5-10 years. Three antibodies are now relatively well described: Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-(NMDA) antibodies. We review clinical syndromes, associated imaging and laboratory findings. While most reports arise from adult populations, children and adolescents are also concerned as evidenced by increasing observations. Early recognition is mandatory, since early immunomodulatory treatment appears to be related to significantly better outcome. PMID:20499581

  14. Reply to Noddings, Darwall, Wren, and Fullinwider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slote, Michael

    2010-01-01

    I respond to Noddings with further clarification of the notion of empathy and also argue that previous care ethics has put too much of an exclusive emphasis on relationships. I respond to Darwall by pointing out some implausible implications of his own and Kantian views about respect and by showing how a sentimentalist approach can avoid those…

  15. Update in Endocrine Autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The endocrine system is a common target in pathogenic autoimmune responses, and there has been recent progress in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune endocrine diseases.

  16. NOD-like Receptors: master regulators of inflammation and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansi eSaxena

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytosolic NOD-like receptors (NLRs have been associated with human diseases including infections, cancer, and autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. These innate immune pattern recognition molecules are essential for controlling inflammatory mechanisms through induction of cytokines, chemokines and antimicrobial genes. Upon activation, some NLRs form multi-protein complexes called inflammasomes, while others orchestrate caspase-independent Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB and Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling. Moreover, NLRs and their downstream signaling components engage in an intricate crosstalk with cell death and autophagy pathways, both critical processes for cancer development. Recently, increasing evidence has extended the concept that chronic inflammation caused by abberant NLR signaling is a powerful driver of carcinogenesis, where it abets genetic mutations, tumor growth and progression. In this review, we explore the rapidly expanding area of research regarding the expression and functions of NLRs in different types of cancers. Furthermore, we particularly focus on how maintaining tissue homeostasis and regulating tissue repair may provide a logical platform for understanding the liaisons between the NLR-driven inflammatory responses and cancer. Finally, we outline novel therapeutic approaches that target NLR signaling and speculate how these could be developed as potential pharmaceutical alternatives for cancer treatment.

  17. Insulitis in human type 1 diabetes: a comparison between patients and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In't Veld, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Human type 1 diabetes (T1D) is considered to be an autoimmune disease, with CD8+ T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity being directed against the insulin-producing beta cells, leading to a gradual decrease in beta cell mass and the development of chronic hyperglycemia. The histopathologically defining lesion in recent-onset T1D patients is insulitis, a relatively subtle leucocytic infiltration present in approximately 10% of the islets of Langerhans from children with recent-onset (nature of the infiltrate, its heterogeneous distribution in the pancreas and the nature of the patient population, material for research is extremely rare and limited to a cumulative total of approximately 150 cases collected over the past century. Most studies on the etiopathogenesis of T1D have therefore focused on the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model, which shares many genetic and immunological disease characteristics with human T1D, although its islet histopathology is remarkably different. In view of these differences and in view of the limited success of clinical immune interventions based on observations in the NOD mouse, there is a renewed focus on studying the pathogenetic process in patient material. PMID:25005747

  18. Autoimmune pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, Sönke; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2009-01-01

    bile duct. Obstructive jaundice is a common symptom at presentation, and pancreatic cancer represents an important clinical differential diagnosis. In late stages of the disease, the normal pancreatic parenchyma is often replaced by large amounts of fibrosis. Histologically, there seem to be two...... AIP responds to steroid treatment, also a trial with steroids, can help to differentiate AIP from pancreatic cancer. OUTLOOK AND DISCUSSION: This review presents the pathological, radiologic and laboratory findings of AIP. Moreover, the treatment and pathogenesis are discussed.......BACKGROUND: Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a relatively newly recognized type of pancreatitis that is characterized by diffuse or focal swelling of the pancreas due to lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and fibrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A PubMed literature search was...

  19. Progress of cancer experimental research in NOD/SCID mice%NOD/SCID小鼠平台上的肿瘤实验研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙冰; 吴世凯; 宋三泰

    2008-01-01

    非肥胖糖尿病/严重联合免疫缺陷(non-obese diabetes-SCID mice, NOD/SCID)小鼠具有T、B淋巴细胞联合免疫缺陷、NK细胞活性低下、无循环补体、巨噬细胞和抗原提呈细胞功能损害等特性,近年已成为人类肿瘤移植瘤的最佳研究模型.NOD/SCID鼠的人类血液系统肿瘤模型能够研究造血微环境、白血病细胞的分化调控机制和潜在的治疗靶点,并且建立在此平台上的体内药敏实验,可以指导临床化疗方案设计,目前已显示出突出的疗效.乳腺癌等实体瘤原代肿瘤组织的移植瘤模型,也显示出可复制人类肿瘤特点的优势.此外,NOD/SCID鼠可进行肿瘤干细胞的筛选和鉴定,并寻找针对肿瘤干细胞的特异性治疗靶点.目前的研究已展现了NOD/SCID鼠在肿瘤研究领域的广阔前景.

  20. Celiac disease and autoimmune thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch'ng, Chin Lye; Jones, M Keston; Kingham, Jeremy G C

    2007-10-01

    Celiac disease (CD) or gluten sensitive enteropathy is relatively common in western populations with prevalence around 1%. With the recent availability of sensitive and specific serological testing, many patients who are either asymptomatic or have subtle symptoms can be shown to have CD. Patients with CD have modest increases in risks of malignancy and mortality compared to controls. The mortality among CD patients who comply poorly with a gluten-free diet is greater than in compliant patients. The pattern of presentation of CD has altered over the past three decades. Many cases are now detected in adulthood during investigation of problems as diverse as anemia, osteoporosis, autoimmune disorders, unexplained neurological syndromes, infertility and chronic hypertransaminasemia of uncertain cause. Among autoimmune disorders, increased prevalence of CD has been found in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune liver diseases and inflammatory bowel disease. Prevalence of CD was noted to be 1% to 19% in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, 2% to 5% in autoimmune thyroid disorders and 3% to 7% in primary biliary cirrhosis in prospective studies. Conversely, there is also an increased prevalence of immune based disorders among patients with CD. The pathogenesis of co-existent autoimmune thyroid disease and CD is not known, but these conditions share similar HLA haplotypes and are associated with the gene encoding cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4. Screening high risk patients for CD, such as those with autoimmune diseases, is a reasonable strategy given the increased prevalence. Treatment of CD with a gluten-free diet should reduce the recognized complications of this disease and provide benefits in both general health and perhaps life expectancy. It also improves glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and enhances the absorption of medications for associated hypothyroidism and osteoporosis. It

  1. The autoimmune tautology

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Although autoimmune diseases exhibit contrasting epidemiological features, pathology, and clinical manifestations, three lines of evidence demonstrate that these diseases share similar immunogenetic mechanisms (that is, autoimmune tautology). First, clinical evidence highlights the co-occurrence of distinct autoimmune diseases within an individual (that is, polyautoimmunity) and within members of a nuclear family (that is, familial autoimmunity). Second, physiopathologic evidence indicates th...

  2. Testing agents for prevention or reversal of type 1 diabetes in rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian W Grant

    Full Text Available We report the results of an independent laboratory's tests of novel agents to prevent or reverse type 1 diabetes (T1D in the non-obese diabetic (NOD mouse, BioBreeding diabetes prone (BBDP rat, and multiple autoimmune disease prone (MAD rat models. Methods were developed to better mimic human clinical trials, including: prescreening, randomization, blinding, and improved glycemic care of the animals. Agents were suggested by the research community in an open call for proposals, and selected for testing by an NIDDK appointed independent review panel. Agents selected for testing to prevent diabetes at later stages of progression in a rodent model were a STAT4 antagonist (DT22669, alpha1 anti-trypsin (Aralast NP, celastrol (a natural product with anti-inflammatory properties, and a Macrophage Inflammatory Factor inhibitor (ISO-092. Agents tested for reversal of established T1D in rodent models were: alpha1 anti-trypsin (Aralast NP, tolerogenic peptides (Tregitopes, and a long-acting formulation of GLP-1 (PGC-GLP-1. None of these agents were seen to prevent or reverse type 1 diabetes, while the positive control interventions were effective: anti-CD3 treatment provided disease reversal in the NOD mouse, dexamethasone prevented T1D induction in the MAD rat, and cyclosporin prevented T1D in the BBDP rat. For some tested agents, details of previous formulation, delivery, or dosing, as well as laboratory procedure, availability of reagents and experimental design, could have impacted our ability to confirm prior reports of efficacy in preclinical animal models. In addition, the testing protocols utilized here provided detection of effects in a range commonly used in placebo controlled clinical trials (for example, 50% effect size, and thus may have been underpowered to observe more limited effects. That said, we believe the results compiled here, showing good control and repeatability, confirm the feasibility of screening diverse test agents in an

  3. Infections and autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    The high percentage of disease-discordant pairs of monozygotic twins demonstrates the central role of environmental factors in the etiology of autoimmune diseases. Efforts were first focussed on the search for triggering factors. The study of animal models has clearly shown that infections may trigger autoimmune diseases, as in the case of Coxsackie B4 virus in type I diabetes and the encephalomyocarditis virus in autoimmune myositis, two models in which viruses are thought to act by increasing immunogenicity of autoantigens secondary to local inflammation. The induction of a Guillain-Barré syndrome in rabbits after immunization with a peptide derived from Campylobacter jejuni is explained by mimicry between C. jejuni antigens and peripheral nerve axonal antigens. Other models involve chemical modification of autoantigens, as in the case of iodine-induced autoimmune thyroiditis. These mechanisms have so far only limited clinical counterparts (rheumatic fever, Guillain-Barré syndrome and drug-induced lupus or myasthenia gravis) but one may assume that unknown viruses may be at the origin of a number of chronic autoimmune diseases, such as type I diabetes and multiple sclerosis) as illustrated by the convergent data incriminating IFN-alpha in the pathophysiology of type I diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus. Perhaps the difficulties met in identifying the etiologic viruses are due to the long lag time between the initial causal infection and onset of clinical disease. More surprisingly, infections may also protect from autoimmune diseases. Western countries are being confronted with a disturbing increase in the incidence of most immune disorders, including autoimmune and allergic diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, and some lymphocyte malignancies. Converging epidemiological evidence indicates that this increase is linked to improvement of the socio-economic level of these countries, posing the question of the causal relationship and more precisely the

  4. Clinical implications of shared genetics and pathogenesis in autoimmune diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhernakova, Alexandra; Withoff, Sebo; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2013-01-01

    Many endocrine diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus, Graves disease, Addison disease and Hashimoto disease, originate as an autoimmune reaction that affects disease-specific target organs. These autoimmune diseases are characterized by the development of specific autoantibodies and by the pr

  5. Nod2 mediates susceptibility to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Meinzer

    Full Text Available Nucleotide oligomerisation domain 2 (NOD2 is a component of the innate immunity known to be involved in the homeostasis of Peyer patches (PPs in mice. However, little is known about its role during gut infection in vivo. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an enteropathogen causing gastroenteritis, adenolymphitis and septicaemia which is able to invade its host through PPs. We investigated the role of Nod2 during Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. Death was delayed in Nod2 deleted and Crohn's disease associated Nod2 mutated mice orogastrically inoculated with Y. pseudotuberculosis. In PPs, the local immune response was characterized by a higher KC level and a more intense infiltration by neutrophils and macrophages. The apoptotic and bacterial cell counts were decreased. Finally, Nod2 deleted mice had a lower systemic bacterial dissemination and less damage of the haematopoeitic organs. This resistance phenotype was lost in case of intraperitoneal infection. We concluded that Nod2 contributes to the susceptibility to Y. pseudotuberculosis in mice.

  6.  An autoimmune polyglandular syndrome complicated with celiac disease and autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieli-Crimi, Romina; Núñez, Concepción; Estrada, Lourdes; López-Palacios, Natalia

    2016-01-01

     Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) is a combination of different autoimmune diseases. The close relationship between immune-mediated disorders makes it mandatory to perform serological screening periodically in order to avoid delayed diagnosis of additional autoimmune diseases. We studied a patient with type 1 diabetes (T1D) who later developed an autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) and was referred to our hospital with a serious condition of his clinical status. The patient was suffering from an advance stage of celiac disease (CD), the delay in its diagnosis and in the establishment of a gluten-free dietled the patient to a severe proteincalorie malnutrition. Later, the patient developed an autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). We consider that clinical deterioration in patients with APS should alert physicians about the possible presence of other immune-mediated diseases. Periodic screening for autoantibodies would help to prevent delayed diagnosis and would improve patient's quality of life. PMID:27236159

  7. Selective destruction of mouse islet beta cells by human T lymphocytes in a newly-established humanized type 1 diabetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yong, E-mail: yongzhao@uic.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Guo, Chengshan; Hwang, David; Lin, Brian; Dingeldein, Michael; Mihailescu, Dan; Sam, Susan; Sidhwani, Seema [Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Zhang, Yongkang [Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Jain, Sumit [Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Skidgel, Randal A. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Prabhakar, Bellur S. [Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Mazzone, Theodore [Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Holterman, Mark J. [Department of Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Establish a human immune-mediated type 1 diabetic model in NOD-scid IL2r{gamma}{sup null} mice. {yields} Using the irradiated diabetic NOD mouse spleen mononuclear cells as trigger. {yields} The islet {beta} cells were selectively destroyed by infiltrated human T cells. {yields} The model can facilitate translational research to find a cure for type 1 diabetes. -- Abstract: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by a T cell-mediated autoimmune response that leads to the loss of insulin-producing {beta} cells. The optimal preclinical testing of promising therapies would be aided by a humanized immune-mediated T1D model. We develop this model in NOD-scid IL2r{gamma}{sup null} mice. The selective destruction of pancreatic islet {beta} cells was mediated by human T lymphocytes after an initial trigger was supplied by the injection of irradiated spleen mononuclear cells (SMC) from diabetic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. This resulted in severe insulitis, a marked loss of total {beta}-cell mass, and other related phenotypes of T1D. The migration of human T cells to pancreatic islets was controlled by the {beta} cell-produced highly conserved chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and its receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4, as demonstrated by in vivo blocking experiments using antibody to CXCR4. The specificity of humanized T cell-mediated immune responses against islet {beta} cells was generated by the local inflammatory microenvironment in pancreatic islets including human CD4{sup +} T cell infiltration and clonal expansion, and the mouse islet {beta}-cell-derived CD1d-mediated human iNKT activation. The selective destruction of mouse islet {beta} cells by a human T cell-mediated immune response in this humanized T1D model can mimic those observed in T1D patients. This model can provide a valuable tool for translational research into T1D.

  8. Human platelets produced in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice upon transplantation of human cord blood CD34(+) cells are functionally active in an ex vivo flow model of thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Isabelle I; Thijs, Tim; Brunaud, Christine; De Meyer, Simon F; Thys, Johan; Vanhoorelbeke, Karen; Deckmyn, Hans

    2009-12-01

    Xenotransplantation systems have been used with increasing success to better understand human hematopoiesis and thrombopoiesis. In this study, we demonstrate that production of human platelets in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice after transplantation of unexpanded cord-blood CD34(+) cells was detected within 10 days after transplantation, with the number of circulating human platelets peaking at 2 weeks (up to 87 x 10(3)/microL). This rapid human platelet production was followed by a second wave of platelet formation 5 weeks after transplantation, with a population of 5% still detected after 8 weeks, attesting for long-term engraftment. Platelets issued from human hematopoietic stem cell progenitors are functional, as assessed by increased CD62P expression and PAC1 binding in response to collagen-related peptide and thrombin receptor-activating peptide activation and their ability to incorporate into thrombi formed on a collagen-coated surface in an ex vivo flow model of thrombosis. This interaction was abrogated by addition of inhibitory monoclonal antibodies against human glycoprotein Ibalpha (GPIbalpha) and GPIIb/IIIa. Thus, our mouse model with production of human platelets may be further explored to study the function of genetically modified platelets, but also to investigate the effect of stimulators or inhibitors of human thrombopoiesis in vivo.

  9. NOD1 and NOD2 receptors in mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala): Inductive expression and downstream signalling in ligand stimulation and bacterial infections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Banikalyan Swain; Madhubanti Basu; Mrinal Samanta

    2013-09-01

    Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)1 and NOD2 are important cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and key members of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family. They sense a wide range of bacteria or their products and play a key role in inducing innate immunity. This report describes the role of NOD1 and NOD2 receptors signalling in innate immunity in the Indian major carp, mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala). Tissue-specific expression analysis of NOD1 and NOD2 genes by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed their wide distribution in various organs/tissues. In the untreated fish, the highest expression of NOD1 and NOD2 was detected in liver and blood, respectively. Stimulation with NOD1- and NOD2-specific ligands, i.e. iE-DAP and MDP, activated NOD1 and NOD2 receptor signalling in vivo and in vitro resulting in significant ( < 0.05) induction of downstream signalling molecule RICK, and the effector molecules IL-1, IL-8 and IFN- in the treated group as compared to their controls. In response to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections, NOD1 and NOD2 receptors signalling were activated and IL-1, IL-8 and IFN- were induced. These findings highlight the important role of NOD receptors in eliciting innate immune response during the pathogenic invasion to the fish.

  10. Autism and Autoimmune Disease: A Family Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, John; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Described in a family in which the youngest boy has early infantile autism, Addison's disease, and moniliasis and two older boys have autoimmune disease with hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease, moniliasis, and either alopecia totalis or diabetes mellitus, while the oldest boy and parents are symptom free. (KW)

  11. Increased prevalence of autoimmunity in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K H; Cleemann, L; Hjerrild, B E;

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with Turner syndrome (TS) are prone to develop autoimmune conditions such as coeliac disease (CD), thyroiditis and type 1 diabetes (T1DM). The objective of the present study was to examine TS of various karyotypes for autoantibodies and corresponding diseases. This was investigated...

  12. The autoimmune tautology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Although autoimmune diseases exhibit contrasting epidemiological features, pathology, and clinical manifestations, three lines of evidence demonstrate that these diseases share similar immunogenetic mechanisms (that is, autoimmune tautology). First, clinical evidence highlights the co-occurrence of distinct autoimmune diseases within an individual (that is, polyautoimmunity) and within members of a nuclear family (that is, familial autoimmunity). Second, physiopathologic evidence indicates that the pathologic mechanisms may be similar among autoimmune diseases. Lastly, genetic evidence shows that autoimmune phenotypes might represent pleiotropic outcomes of the interaction of non-specific disease genes.

  13. Questions and Answers on Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dermatomyositis . What are some of the treatments for autoimmune diseases? Of first importance in treating any autoimmune disease ... being researched. What is the family connection in autoimmune diseases? The ability to develop an autoimmune disease is ...

  14. Structural models of zebrafish (Danio rerio NOD1 and NOD2 NACHT domains suggest differential ATP binding orientations: insights from computational modeling, docking and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Maharana

    Full Text Available Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1 and NOD2 are cytosolic pattern recognition receptors playing pivotal roles in innate immune signaling. NOD1 and NOD2 recognize bacterial peptidoglycan derivatives iE-DAP and MDP, respectively and undergoes conformational alternation and ATP-dependent self-oligomerization of NACHT domain followed by downstream signaling. Lack of structural adequacy of NACHT domain confines our understanding about the NOD-mediated signaling mechanism. Here, we predicted the structure of NACHT domain of both NOD1 and NOD2 from model organism zebrafish (Danio rerio using computational methods. Our study highlighted the differential ATP binding modes in NOD1 and NOD2. In NOD1, γ-phosphate of ATP faced toward the central nucleotide binding cavity like NLRC4, whereas in NOD2 the cavity was occupied by adenine moiety. The conserved 'Lysine' at Walker A formed hydrogen bonds (H-bonds and Aspartic acid (Walker B formed electrostatic interaction with ATP. At Sensor 1, Arg328 of NOD1 exhibited an H-bond with ATP, whereas corresponding Arg404 of NOD2 did not. 'Proline' of GxP motif (Pro386 of NOD1 and Pro464 of NOD2 interacted with adenine moiety and His511 at Sensor 2 of NOD1 interacted with γ-phosphate group of ATP. In contrast, His579 of NOD2 interacted with the adenine moiety having a relatively inverted orientation. Our findings are well supplemented with the molecular interaction of ATP with NLRC4, and consistent with mutagenesis data reported for human, which indicates evolutionary shared NOD signaling mechanism. Together, this study provides novel insights into ATP binding mechanism, and highlights the differential ATP binding modes in zebrafish NOD1 and NOD2.

  15. Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accessed 9/2/2015. Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy Summary. Dysautonomia International . http://www.dysautonomiainternational.org/page.php?ID= ... page Basic Information In Depth Information Basic Information Dysautonomia International offers an information page on Autoimmune autonomic ...

  16. Risk of Celiac Disease Autoimmunity is Modified by Non-HLA Genetic Markers During the First Year of Clinical Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adlercreutz, Emma H.; Hansen, Dorthe; Mortensen, Henrik B.;

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study plotted the prevalence of celiac disease associated antibodies in relation to demographic patterns, genetic and metabolic markers during the first year after diagnosis in a multinational cohort of children with T1D. Material and Methods: Sera from a total of 261 children (128 males...... measuring IgG-tTG. Children positive in both assays in two consecutive samples were defined as having celiac disease autoimmunity (CDA). Associations between CDA and genotypes of HLA, IL18 rap, CCR 5, PTPN2 and correlations with islet autoantibodies (ICA, GADA, IA2 and IA) and HbA1C and C-peptide were...

  17. Solar Radiation and Vitamin D: Mitigating Environmental Factors in Autoimmune Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the environmental role of vitamin D and solar radiation as risk reduction factors in autoimmune disease. Five diseases are considered: multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune disease of the thyroid, and inflammatory bowel disease. Clinical relevant studies and factors that may indicate evidence that autoimmune disease is a vitamin D-sensitive disease are presented. Studies that have resulted in prevention or amelioration of some autoimmune dis...

  18. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Cells Contribute to the Stromal Myofibroblasts in Leukemic NOD/SCID Mouse In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Shirasaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported that chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML cells converted into myofibroblasts to create a microenvironment for proliferation of CML cells in vitro. To analyze a biological contribution of CML-derived myofibroblasts in vivo, we observed the characters of leukemic nonobese diabetes/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID mouse. Bone marrow nonadherent mononuclear cells as well as human CD45-positive cells obtained from CML patients were injected to the irradiated NOD/SCID mice. When the chimeric BCR-ABL transcript was demonstrated in blood, human CML cells were detected in NOD/SCID murine bone marrow. And CML-derived myofibroblasts composed with the bone marrow-stroma, which produced significant amounts of human vascular endothelial growth factor A. When the parental CML cells were cultured with myofibroblasts separated from CML cell-engrafted NOD/SCID murine bone marrow, CML cells proliferated significantly. These observations indicate that CML cells make an adequate microenvironment for their own proliferation in vivo.

  19. Diagnostic value of carboxypeptidase-H autoantibodies in detecting latent autoimmune diabetes in adults%羧基肽酶-H自身抗体对LADA的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周智广; 杨琳; 黄干; 颜湘; 彭健; William Hagopian

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of carboxypeptidase-H (CPH) autoantibodies in Chinese patients with the latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). Methods One hundred and fifty-four Type 1 diabetes,104 Type 2 diabetes, and 144 healthy people were enrolled. Recombinant human CPH (54 kD) was labeled by in vitro translation with 35S-methionine and used to evaluate autoantibodies to CPH (CPH-Ab). Radioimmunoassay was applied to detect antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-Ab), intracellular part of protein tyrosine phosphatase-like protein (IA2ic-Ab), and autoantibodies to insulin (IAA). Results No differences in CPH-Ab prevalence were found among Type 1 diabetic patients (5/154, 3.2%), Type 2 diabetic subjects (6/104, 5.7%),and the healthy controls (3/144, 2.1%). The prevalences of GAD-Ab, IA2ic-Ab,and IAA were 15.4% (16/104), 2.9% (3/104), and 2.3% (1/43),respectively in Type 2 diabetes. All IA2ic-Ab or IAA-positive patients with Type 2 diabetes were GAD-Ab-positive. No GAD-Ab- or IAA-positive subjects were observed in CPH-Ab-positive patients with Type 2 diabetes. Conclusion CPH-Ab may provide some diagnostic value for LADA, and improve the sensitivity in diagnosing LADA in Chinese when combined with GAD-Ab test in Type 2 diabetes.%目的:探讨羧基肽酶H(carboxypeptidase H,CPH)自身抗体检测对成人隐匿性自身免疫性糖尿病(LADA)的诊断价值.方法:选择1型糖尿病患者154例,2型糖尿病患者104例,健康对照144例.重组人CPH在体外翻译时用35S-甲硫氨酸标记,采用免疫沉淀法检测血清CPH抗体滴度.谷氨酸脱羧酶抗体(GAD-Ab)、酪氨酸磷酸酶细胞内段抗体(IA2ic-Ab)和胰岛素自身抗体(IAA)均采用放射免疫分析法检测.结果:CPH抗体频率在1型糖尿病患者(5/154,3.2%),2型糖尿病患者(6/104,5.7%)和健康对照(3/144,2.1%)间差异无显著性(P>0.05).2型糖尿病患者GAD-Ab,IA2ic-Ab和IAA频率分别为15.4%(16/104),2.9%(3/104)和2.3%(1/43),且IA2ic-Ab

  20. Regulatory T-cells and autoimmunity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Choileain, Niamh

    2012-02-03

    Approximately 20% of the population is affected by autoimmune or inflammatory diseases mediated by an abnormal immune response. A characteristic feature of autoimmune disease is the selective targeting of a single cell type, organ or tissue by certain populations of autoreactive T-cells. Examples of such diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), all of which are characterized by chronic inflammation, tissue destruction and target organ malfunction. Although strong evidence links most autoimmune diseases to specific genes, considerable controversy prevails regarding the role of regulatory T-cell populations in the disease process. These cells are now also believed to play a key role in mediating transplantation tolerance and inhibiting the induction of tumor immunity. Though the concept of therapeutic immune regulation aimed at treating autoimmune pathology has been validated in many animal models, the development of strategies for the treatment of human autoimmune disorders remains in its infancy. The main obstacles to this include the conflicting findings of different model systems, as well as the contrasting functions of regulatory T-cells and cytokines involved in the development of such disorders. This review examines the role of regulatory T-cells in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and describes the therapeutic potential of these cells for the prevention of immune-mediated pathologies in the future. Although much remains to be learned about such pathologies, a clearer understanding of the mechanisms by which regulatory T-cells function will undoubtedly lead to exciting new possibilities for immunotherapeutics.

  1. Quantitative analysis of protein and gene expression in salivary glands of Sjogren's-like disease NOD mice treated by bone marrow soup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Misuno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bone marrow cell extract (termed as BM Soup has been demonstrated to repair irradiated salivary glands (SGs and restore saliva secretion in our previous study. In the present study, we aim to investigate if the function of damaged SGs in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice can be restored by BM Soup treatment and the molecular alterations associated with the treatment. METHODS: Whole BM cells were lysed and soluble intracellular contents ("BM Soup" were injected I.V. into NOD mice. Tandem mass tagging with 2-D liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to quantify proteins in the submandibular glands (SMGs between untreated and BM Soup-treated mice. Quantitative PCR was used to identify genes with altered expression in the treated mice. RESULTS BM SOUP: restored salivary flow rates to normal levels and significantly reduced the focus scores of SMGs in NOD mice. More than 1800 proteins in SMG cells were quantified by the proteomic approach. Many SMG proteins involved in inflammation and apoptosis were found to be down-regulated whereas those involved in salivary gland biology and development/regeneration were up-regulated in the BM Soup-treated mice. qPCR analysis also revealed expression changes of growth factors and cytokines in the SMGs of the treated NOD mice. CONCLUSION: BM Soup treatment is effective to restore the function of damaged SGs in NOD mice. Through gene/protein expression analysis, we have found that BM Soup treatment might effectuate via inhibiting apoptosis, focal adhesion and inflammation whereas promoting development, regeneration and differentiation of the SG cells in NOD mice. These findings provide important insights on the potential mechanisms underlying the BM Soup treatment for functional restoration of damaged SGs in NOD mice. Additional studies are needed to further confirm the identified target genes and their related signaling pathways that are responsible for the BM Soup treatment.

  2. Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2015-01-01

    For >30 years, insulin has been the drug of choice for the medical treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus. However, the use of oral hypoglycaemic agents has increased during the past 1–2 decades, so a recent comparison of treatment with glibenclamide, metformin or insulin in women with gestat......For >30 years, insulin has been the drug of choice for the medical treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus. However, the use of oral hypoglycaemic agents has increased during the past 1–2 decades, so a recent comparison of treatment with glibenclamide, metformin or insulin in women...... with gestational diabetes mellitus is highly relevant....

  3. Effect of dietary gluten on dendritic cells and innate immune subsets in BALB/c and NOD mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Weile, Christian; Antvorskov, Julie Christine;

    2015-01-01

    The innate immune system is known to play an important role in oral tolerance to dietary antigens. This is important in development of celiac disease (CD) but may also be important in type 1 diabetes (T1D), and could potentially explain the reduced incidence of T1D in mice receiving a gluten-free...... of the low diabetes incidence in GF NOD mice. This mechanism may be important in development of type 1 diabetes, celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity.......The innate immune system is known to play an important role in oral tolerance to dietary antigens. This is important in development of celiac disease (CD) but may also be important in type 1 diabetes (T1D), and could potentially explain the reduced incidence of T1D in mice receiving a gluten......-free (GF) diet. The direct in vivo effect of gluten on innate cells, and particularly dendritic cells (DC) is not sufficiently clarified. Therefore, we wished to investigate the innate cell populations of spontaneous diabetic NOD mice and healthy BALB/c mice kept on a GF or a standard (STD) gluten...

  4. Sirolimus for Autoimmune Disease of Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-22

    Autoimmune Pancytopenia; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS); Evans Syndrome; Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune; Autoimmune Neutropenia; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Rheumatoid Arthritis

  5. Predominant Occupation of the Class I MHC Molecule H-2Kwm7 with a Single Self-peptide Suggests a Mechanism for its Diabetes-protective Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brims, D.; Qian, J; Jarchum, I; Mikesh, L; Palmieri, E; Ramagopal, U; Malashkevich, V; Chaparro, R; Lund, T; et. al.

    2010-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by T cell-mediated destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic {beta} cells. In both humans and the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of T1D, class II MHC alleles are the primary determinant of disease susceptibility. However, class I MHC genes also influence risk. These findings are consistent with the requirement for both CD{sup 4+} and CD{sup 8+} T cells in the pathogenesis of T1D. Although a large body of work has permitted the identification of multiple mechanisms to explain the diabetes-protective effect of particular class II MHC alleles, studies examining the protective influence of class I alleles are lacking. Here, we explored this question by performing biochemical and structural analyses of the murine class I MHC molecule H-2K{sup wm7}, which exerts a diabetes-protective effect in NOD mice. We have found that H-2K{sup wm7} molecules are predominantly occupied by the single self-peptide VNDIFERI, derived from the ubiquitous protein histone H2B. This unexpected finding suggests that the inability of H-2K{sup wm7} to support T1D development could be due, at least in part, to the failure of peptides from critical {beta}-cell antigens to adequately compete for binding and be presented to T cells. Predominant presentation of a single peptide would also be expected to influence T-cell selection, potentially leading to a reduced ability to select a diabetogenic CD{sup 8+} T-cell repertoire. The report that one of the predominant peptides bound by T1D-protective HLA-A*31 is histone derived suggests the potential translation of our findings to human diabetes-protective class I MHC molecules.

  6. Antiaging Gene Klotho Attenuates Pancreatic β-Cell Apoptosis in Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi; Sun, Zhongjie

    2015-12-01

    Apoptosis is the major cause of death of insulin-producing β-cells in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Klotho is a recently discovered antiaging gene. We found that the Klotho gene is expressed in pancreatic β-cells. Interestingly, halplodeficiency of Klotho (KL(+/-)) exacerbated streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes (a model of T1DM), including hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, diminished islet insulin storage, and increased apoptotic β-cells. Conversely, in vivo β-cell-specific expression of mouse Klotho gene (mKL) attenuated β-cell apoptosis and prevented STZ-induced diabetes. mKL promoted cell adhesion to collagen IV, increased FAK and Akt phosphorylation, and inhibited caspase 3 cleavage in cultured MIN6 β-cells. mKL abolished STZ- and TNFα-induced inhibition of FAK and Akt phosphorylation, caspase 3 cleavage, and β-cell apoptosis. These promoting effects of Klotho can be abolished by blocking integrin β1. Therefore, these cell-based studies indicated that Klotho protected β-cells by inhibiting β-cell apoptosis through activation of the integrin β1-FAK/Akt pathway, leading to inhibition of caspase 3 cleavage. In an autoimmune T1DM model (NOD), we showed that in vivo β-cell-specific expression of mKL improved glucose tolerance, attenuated β-cell apoptosis, enhanced insulin storage in β-cells, and increased plasma insulin levels. The beneficial effect of Klotho gene delivery is likely due to attenuation of T-cell infiltration in pancreatic islets in NOD mice. Overall, our results demonstrate for the first time that Klotho protected β-cells in T1DM via attenuating apoptosis. PMID:26340932

  7. NOD-like receptors in lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eChaput

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The lung is a particularly vulnerable organ at the interface of the body and the exterior environment. It is constantly exposed to microbes and particles by inhalation. The innate immune system needs to react promptly and adequately to potential dangers posed by these microbes and particles, while at the same time avoiding extensive tissue damage. NOD-like receptors (NLRs represent a group of key sensors for microbes and damage in the lung. As such they are important players in various infectious as well as acute and chronic sterile inflammatory diseases, such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD, acute lung injury/ARDS, pneumoconiosis and asthma. Activation of most known NLRs leads to the production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and/or to the induction of cell death. We will review NLR functions in the lung during infection and sterile inflammation.

  8. Phenotyping of Nod1/2 double deficient mice and characterization of Nod1/2 in systemic inflammation and associated renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Stroo

    2012-10-01

    It is indispensable to thoroughly characterize each animal model in order to distinguish between primary and secondary effects of genetic changes. The present study analyzed Nod1 and Nod2 double deficient (Nod1/2 DKO mice under physiological and inflammatory conditions. Nod1 and Nod2 are members of the Nucleotide-binding domain and Leucine-rich repeat containing Receptor (NLR family. Several inflammatory disorders, such as Crohn's disease and asthma, are linked to genetic changes in either Nod1 or Nod2. These associations suggest that Nod1 and Nod2 play important roles in regulating the immune system. Three-month-old wildtype (Wt and Nod1/2 DKO mice were sacrificed, body and organ weight were determined, and blood was drawn. Except for lower liver weight in Nod1/2 DKO mice, no differences were found in body/organ weight between both strains. Leukocyte count and composition was comparable. No significant changes in analyzed plasma biochemical markers were found. Additionally, intestinal and vascular permeability was determined. Nod1/2 DKO mice show increased susceptibility for intestinal permeability while vascular permeability was not affected. Next we induced septic shock and organ damage by administering LPS+PGN intraperitoneally to Wt and Nod1/2 DKO mice and sacrificed animals after 2 and 24 hours. The systemic inflammatory and metabolic response was comparable between both strains. However, renal response was different as indicated by partly preserved kidney function and tubular epithelial cell damage in Nod1/2 DKO at 24 hours. Remarkably, renal inflammatory mediators Tnfα, KC and Il-10 were significantly increased in Nod1/2 DKO compared with Wt mice at 2 hours. Systematic analysis of Nod1/2 DKO mice revealed a possible role of Nod1/2 in the development of renal disease during systemic inflammation.

  9. The expression of the beta cell-derived autoimmune ligand for the killer receptor nkp46 is attenuated in type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamutal Gur

    Full Text Available NK cells rapidly kill tumor cells, virus infected cells and even self cells. This is mediated via killer receptors, among which NKp46 (NCR1 in mice is prominent. We have recently demonstrated that in type 1 diabetes (T1D NK cells accumulate in the diseased pancreas and that they manifest a hyporesponsive phenotype. In addition, we found that NKp46 recognizes an unknown ligand expressed by beta cells derived from humans and mice and that blocking of NKp46 activity prevented diabetes development. Here we investigated the properties of the unknown NKp46 ligand. We show that the NKp46 ligand is mainly located in insulin granules and that it is constitutively secreted. Following glucose stimulation the NKp46 ligand translocates to the cell membrane and its secretion decreases. We further demonstrate by using several modalities that the unknown NKp46 ligand is not insulin. Finally, we studied the expression of the NKp46 ligand in type 2 diabetes (T2D using 3 different in vivo models and 2 species; mice and gerbils. We demonstrate that the expression of the NKp46 ligand is decreased in all models of T2D studied, suggesting that NKp46 is not involved in T2D.

  10. Autoimmune pancreatitis: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis has emerged over the last 40 years from a proposed concept to a well established and recognized entity. As an efficient mimicker of pancreatic carcinoma, its early and appropriate recognition are crucial. With mounting understanding of its pathogenesis and natural history, significant advances have been made in the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis. The characteristic laboratory features and imaging seen in autoimmune pancreatitis are reviewed along with some of the proposed diagnostic criteria and treatment algorithms.

  11. Multiple mechanisms involved in diabetes protection by lipopolysaccharide in non-obese diabetic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation has been proposed to be important for islet cell inflammation and eventually β cell loss in the course of type 1 diabetes (T1D) development. However, according to the “hygiene hypothesis”, bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an agonist on TLR4, inhibits T1D progression. Here we investigated possible mechanisms for the protective effect of LPS on T1D development in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. We found that LPS administration to NOD mice during the prediabetic state neither prevented nor reversed insulitis, but delayed the onset and decreased the incidence of diabetes, and that a multiple-injection protocol is more effective than a single LPS intervention. Further, LPS administration suppressed spleen T lymphocyte proliferation, increased the generation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), reduced the synthesis of strong Th1 proinflammatory cytokines, and downregulated TLR4 and its downstream MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Most importantly, multiple injections of LPS induced a potential tolerogenic dendritic cell (DC) subset with low TLR4 expression without influencing the DC phenotype. Explanting DCs from repeated LPS-treated NOD mice into NOD/SCID diabetic mice conferred sustained protective effects against the progression of diabetes in the recipients. Overall, these results suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in the protective effects of LPS against the development of diabetes in NOD diabetic mice. These include Treg induction, down-regulation of TLR4 and its downstream MyD88-dependent signaling pathway, and the emergence of a potential tolerogenic DC subset. - Highlights: • Administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) prevented type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. • Downregulating TLR4 level and MyD88-dependent pathway contributed to protection of LPS. • LPS administration also hampered DC maturation and promoted Treg differentiation

  12. Multiple mechanisms involved in diabetes protection by lipopolysaccharide in non-obese diabetic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Cao, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Wang, Hongjie [Section of Neurobiology, Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Port Saint Lucie, FL (United States); Yin, Guoxiao; Du, Jiao; Xia, Fei; Lu, Jingli [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Xiang, Ming, E-mail: xiangming@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation has been proposed to be important for islet cell inflammation and eventually β cell loss in the course of type 1 diabetes (T1D) development. However, according to the “hygiene hypothesis”, bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an agonist on TLR4, inhibits T1D progression. Here we investigated possible mechanisms for the protective effect of LPS on T1D development in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. We found that LPS administration to NOD mice during the prediabetic state neither prevented nor reversed insulitis, but delayed the onset and decreased the incidence of diabetes, and that a multiple-injection protocol is more effective than a single LPS intervention. Further, LPS administration suppressed spleen T lymphocyte proliferation, increased the generation of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs), reduced the synthesis of strong Th1 proinflammatory cytokines, and downregulated TLR4 and its downstream MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Most importantly, multiple injections of LPS induced a potential tolerogenic dendritic cell (DC) subset with low TLR4 expression without influencing the DC phenotype. Explanting DCs from repeated LPS-treated NOD mice into NOD/SCID diabetic mice conferred sustained protective effects against the progression of diabetes in the recipients. Overall, these results suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in the protective effects of LPS against the development of diabetes in NOD diabetic mice. These include Treg induction, down-regulation of TLR4 and its downstream MyD88-dependent signaling pathway, and the emergence of a potential tolerogenic DC subset. - Highlights: • Administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) prevented type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. • Downregulating TLR4 level and MyD88-dependent pathway contributed to protection of LPS. • LPS administration also hampered DC maturation and promoted Treg differentiation.

  13. Limiting Behavior of Weighted Sums of NOD Random Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De Hua QIU; Ping Yan CHEN

    2011-01-01

    The strong laws of large numbers and laws of the single logarithm for weighted sums of NOD random variables are established.The results presented generalize the corresponding results of Chen and Gan [5]in independent sequence case.

  14. American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Its 25th Anniversary With #25FOR25 Campaign During National Autoimmune Disease Awareness Month AARDA officially kicks of National Autoimmune ... will benefit AARDA. Click here to read more. Autoimmune Disease Awareness Month AARDA and the NCAPG held two ...

  15. Solar Radiation and Vitamin D: Mitigating Environmental Factors in Autoimmune Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry K. Schwalfenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the environmental role of vitamin D and solar radiation as risk reduction factors in autoimmune disease. Five diseases are considered: multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune disease of the thyroid, and inflammatory bowel disease. Clinical relevant studies and factors that may indicate evidence that autoimmune disease is a vitamin D-sensitive disease are presented. Studies that have resulted in prevention or amelioration of some autoimmune disease are discussed. An example of the utility of supplementing vitamin D in an unusual autoimmune disease, idiopathic thrombocytic purpura, is presented.

  16. Induction of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+regulatory T cell response by glatiramer acetate in type 1 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoliang Cui; Yuebo Zhang; Zhenwei Gong; Jingwu Z Zhang; Ying Qin Zang

    2009-01-01

    Glatiramer acetate (GA) is an immunomodulatory peptide drug used to treat multiple sclerosis. Its treatment ef-fect has been expanded to other autoimmune conditions such as uveoretinitis, inflammatory bowel disease, graft re-jection and hepatic fibrosis. Here, we report that GA was effective in altering the clinical course of diabetes in cyclo-phosphamide (CY)-potentiated non-obese diabetic (CY-NOD) mice. Treatment with GA significantly reduced the dia-betic rate in the mice and ameliorated insulitis, which coincided with increased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+T cell response in treated mice. GA treatment led to increased expression of transcription factor Foxp3 and elevated production of interleukin-4 (IL-4) both in vivo and in vitro. It was evident that the effect of GA on up-regulation of Foxp3 was me-diated partially through IL-4. IL-4 was found to maintain Foxp3 expression and regulatory function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). This study provides new evidence that GA has treatment potential for type 1 diabetes through the induction of Tregs and that increased IL-4 production is partially responsible for the enhanced Treg's function in GA treatment.

  17. 初诊成人自身免疫性糖尿病心血管疾病风险评估%Evaluation of the cardiovascular disease risk in newly diagnosed adult with latent autoimmune diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜玉茗; 陈艳华; 宋利华

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cardiovascular disease risk of the newly diagnosed adult latent autoimmune diabetes ( LADA) . Methods: After determination of diabetes autoantibodies ,132 cases newly diagnosed diabetes were divided into LADA group (n = 60) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) group (n =72) . At the same time,46 cases from physical examination center were selected in normal controls group (NC group) , whoes age and body mass index matched with LADA group. The high-sensitivity C-reac-tive protein ( hs-CRP) level and the carotid intima medial thickness ( CIMT) in three groups were compared. Results: 1. The concentration of hs-CRP and the levels of CIMT in the LADA group was significantly higher than NC group, (P0. 05) , also were between LADA without AS group and T2DM without AS group(P >0. 05) . There were no statistical significance between LADA group and T2DM group in the incidence of AS and carotid atherosclerosis plaque(P = 0. 489, P = 0. 920) , the proportion of moderate risk group and high risk group of cardiovascular disease between two group were also no significant difference ( P > 0.05, P>0.05). 3. In LAD A group, LDL-C, FPG, HbAlc, 2hPG, hs-CRP showed a significant linear correlation with CIMT(P = 0. 001-0. 044) . Conclusion: The elevated hs-CRP levels and CIMT levels in newly diagnosed LADA indicated that its risk of cardiovascular disease was increased. The hs-CRP and CIMT levels in newly diagnosed LADA and newly diagnosed T2DM was no significant difference .%目的:临床评估初诊成人隐匿性自身免疫糖尿病(Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults,LADA)心血管疾病风险.方法:初诊糖尿病(Diabetes mellitus,DM)患者,共132例,经糖尿病自身抗体检测后分为LADA组和2型糖尿病(Type 2 diabetes mellitus,T2DM)组(其中LADA组60例,T2DM组72例).同时从体检中心选取与LADA组年龄、体重指数相匹配的健康对照(Normal controls,NC)组46例.观察高敏C反应蛋白(High-sensitivity C-reactive protein

  18. THE AUTOIMMUNE ECOLOGY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Manuel eAnaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases (ADs represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. These conditions share common immunopathogenic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology, which explain the clinical similarities they have among them as well as their familial clustering (i.e., coaggregation. As part of the autoimmune tautology, the influence of environmental exposure on the risk of developing ADs is paramount (i.e., the autoimmune ecology. In fact, environment, more than genetics, shapes immune system. Autoimmune ecology is akin to exposome, that is all the exposures - internal and external - across the lifespan, interacting with hereditary factors (both genetics and epigenetics to favor or protect against autoimmunity and its outcomes. Herein we provide an overview of the autoimmune ecology, focusing on the immune response to environmental agents in general, and microbiota, cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, socioeconomic status, gender and sex hormones, vitamin D, organic solvents and vaccines in particular. Inclusion of the autoimmune ecology in disease etiology and health will improve the way personalized medicine is currently conceived and applied.

  19. Bistability in autoimmune diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas; Mosekilde, Erik; Lund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases damage host tissue, which, in turn, may trigger a stronger immune response. Systems characterized by such positive feedback loops can display co-existing stable steady states. In a mathematical model of autoimmune disease, one steady state may correspond to the healthy state...

  20. The Autoimmune Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Alzate, Maria A; Molano-Gonzalez, Nicolas; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. These conditions share common immunopathogenic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology), which explain the clinical similarities they have among them as well as their familial clustering (i.e., coaggregation). As part of the autoimmune tautology, the influence of environmental exposure on the risk of developing ADs is paramount (i.e., the autoimmune ecology). In fact, environment, more than genetics, shapes immune system. Autoimmune ecology is akin to exposome, that is all the exposures - internal and external - across the lifespan, interacting with hereditary factors (both genetics and epigenetics) to favor or protect against autoimmunity and its outcomes. Herein, we provide an overview of the autoimmune ecology, focusing on the immune response to environmental agents in general, and microbiota, cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, socioeconomic status (SES), gender and sex hormones, vitamin D, organic solvents, and vaccines in particular. Inclusion of the autoimmune ecology in disease etiology and health will improve the way personalized medicine is currently conceived and applied.

  1. Glutathione S-transferases and malondialdehyde in the liver of NOD mice on short-term treatment with plant mixture extract P-9801091.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petlevski, R; Hadzija, M; Slijepcević, M; Juretić, D; Petrik, J

    2003-04-01

    Changes in the concentration of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in the liver of normal and diabetic NOD mice with and without treatment with the plant extract P-9801091. The plant extract P-9801091 is an antihyperglycaemic preparation containing Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum of fi cinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Millefoliiherba (Achillea millefolium L.), Mori folium (Morus nigra L.), Valerianae radix (Valeriana of ficinalis L.) and Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L). Hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus is responsible for the development of oxidative stress (via glucose auto-oxidation and protein glycation), which is characterized by increased lipid peroxide production (MDA is a lipid peroxidation end product) and/or decreased antioxidative defence (GST in the liver is predominantly an alpha enzyme, which has antioxidative activity). The catalytic concentration of GSTs in the liver was significantly reduced in diabetic NOD mice compared with normal NOD mice (p < 0.01), while the concentration of MDA showed a rising tendency (not significant). The results showed that statistically significant changes in antioxidative defence occurred in the experimental model of short-term diabetes mellitus. A 7-day treatment with P-9801091 plant extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg body mass led to a significant increase in the catalytic concentration of GSTs in the liver of diabetic NOD mice (p < 0.01) and a decrease in MDA concentration (not significant), which could be explained by its antihyperglycaemic effect. PMID:12722130

  2. Transient B-cell depletion with anti-CD20 in combination with proinsulin DNA vaccine or oral insulin: immunologic effects and efficacy in NOD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanashyam Sarikonda

    Full Text Available A recent type 1 diabetes (T1D clinical trial of rituximab (a B cell-depleting anti-CD20 antibody achieved some therapeutic benefit in preserving C-peptide for a period of approximately nine months in patients with recently diagnosed diabetes. Our previous data in the NOD mouse demonstrated that co-administration of antigen (insulin with anti-CD3 antibody (a T cell-directed immunomodulator offers better protection than either entity alone, indicating that novel combination therapies that include a T1D-related autoantigen are possible. To accelerate the identification and development of novel combination therapies that can be advanced into the clinic, we have evaluated the combination of a mouse anti-CD20 antibody with either oral insulin or a proinsulin-expressing DNA vaccine. Anti-CD20 alone, given once or on 4 consecutive days, produced transient B cell depletion but did not prevent or reverse T1D in the NOD mouse. Oral insulin alone (twice weekly for 6 weeks was also ineffective, while proinsulin DNA (weekly for up to 12 weeks showed a trend toward modest efficacy. Combination of anti-CD20 with oral insulin was ineffective in reversing diabetes in NOD mice whose glycemia was controlled with SC insulin pellets; these experiments were performed in three independent labs. Combination of anti-CD20 with proinsulin DNA was also ineffective in diabetes reversal, but did show modest efficacy in diabetes prevention (p = 0.04. In the prevention studies, anti-CD20 plus proinsulin resulted in modest increases in Tregs in pancreatic lymph nodes and elevated levels of proinsulin-specific CD4+ T-cells that produced IL-4. Thus, combination therapy with anti-CD20 and either oral insulin or proinsulin does not protect hyperglycemic NOD mice, but the combination with proinsulin offers limited efficacy in T1D prevention, potentially by augmentation of proinsulin-specific IL-4 production.

  3. Activation of NOD receptors by Neisseria gonorrhoeae modulates the innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogiorgos, Nikolaos; Mekasha, Samrawit; Yang, Yibin; Kelliher, Michelle A; Ingalls, Robin R

    2014-05-01

    NOD1 and NOD2 are members of the NOD-like receptor family of cytosolic pattern recognition receptors that recognize specific fragments of the bacterial cell wall component peptidoglycan. Neisseria species are unique amongst Gram-negative bacteria in that they turn over large amounts of peptidoglycan during growth. We examined the ability of NOD1 and NOD2 to recognize Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and determined the role of NOD-dependent signaling in regulating the immune response to gonococcal infection. Gonococci, as well as conditioned medium from mid-logarithmic phase grown bacteria, were capable of activating both human NOD1 and NOD2, as well as mouse NOD2, leading to the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB and polyubiquitination of the adaptor receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 2. We identified a number of cytokines and chemokines that were differentially expressed in wild type versus NOD2-deficient macrophages in response to gonococcal infection. Moreover, NOD2 signaling up-regulated complement pathway components and cytosolic nucleic acid sensors, suggesting a broad impact of NOD activation on innate immunity. Thus, NOD1 and NOD2 are important intracellular regulators of the immune response to infection with N. gonorrhoeae. Given the intracellular lifestyle of this pathogen, we believe these cytosolic receptors may provide a key innate immune defense mechanism for the host during gonococcal infection. PMID:23884094

  4. Type I autoimmune hepatitis, inverted psoriasis with psoriatic arthropathy and type 2 diabetes mellitus as complications of a chronic B virus hepatitis treated with interferon - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Săraci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 31 year old male patient, admitted in the 3rd Medical Clinic Cluj-Napoca for asthenia, fatigue, effort hepatalgia,pain located in the legs and small joints of the hands. Patient has been diagnosed a year ago with chronic B viral hepatitis and receivedPeginterferon alpha 2a treatment. After performing clinical and paraclinical exams we established that patient suffers from type I autoimmunehepatitis, inverted psoriasis with psoriatic arthropathy, recent onset of type II diabetes mellitus. These conditions are likely to appear consecutivelyto Interferon therapy. The markers for B virus hepatitis (Ag-HBs, IgM-HBc, AgHBe, ADN-HBV were negative. The evolution was favorableafter therapy with immunosuppressants, corticoids, oral antidiabetics and antisecretors.

  5. The nodC, nodG, and glgX genes of Rhizobium tropici strain PRF 81.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luciana Ruano; Marcelino, Francismar Corrêa; Barcellos, Fernando Gomes; Rodrigues, Elisete Pains; Megías, Manuel; Hungria, Mariangela

    2010-08-01

    Rhizobium tropici is a diazotrophic microsymbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that encompasses important but still poorly studied tropical strains, and a recent significant contribution to the knowledge of the species was the publication of a genomic draft of strain PRF 81, which revealed several novel genes [Pinto et al. Funct Int Gen 9:263-270, 2009]. In this study, we investigated the transcription of nodC, nodG, and glgX genes, located in the nod operon of PRF 81 strain, by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR. All three genes showed low levels of transcription when the cells were grown until exponential growth phase in the presence of common-bean-seed exudates or of the root nod-gene inducer naringenin. However, when cells at the exponential phase of growth were incubated with seed exudates, transcription occurred after only 5 min, and nodC, nodG, and glgX were transcribed 121.97-, 14.86-, and 50.29-fold more than the control, respectively, followed by a rapid decrease in gene transcription. Much lower levels of transcription were observed in the presence of naringenin; furthermore, maximum transcription required 8 h of incubation for all three genes. In light of these results, the mechanisms of induction of the nodulation genes by flavonoids are discussed.

  6. p62/SQSTM1 enhances NOD2-mediated signaling and cytokine production through stabilizing NOD2 oligomerization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangwook Park

    Full Text Available NOD2 is a cytosolic pattern-recognition receptor that senses muramyl dipeptide of peptidoglycan that constitutes the bacterial cell wall, and plays an important role in maintaining immunological homeostasis in the intestine. To date, multiple molecules have shown to be involved in regulating NOD2 signaling cascades. p62 (sequestosome-1; SQSTM1 is a multifaceted scaffolding protein involved in trafficking molecules to autophagy, and regulating signal cascades activated by Toll-like receptors, inflammasomes and several cytokine receptors. Here, we show that p62 positively regulates NOD2-induced NF-κB activation and p38 MAPK, and subsequent production of cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. p62 associated with the nucleotide binding domain of NOD2 through a bi-directional interaction mediated by either TRAF6-binding or ubiquitin-associated domains. NOD2 formed a large complex with p62 in an electron-dense area of the cytoplasm, which increased its signaling cascade likely through preventing its degradation. This study for the first time demonstrates a novel role of p62 in enhancing NOD2 signaling effects.

  7. Serum uric acid is associated with new-onset diabetes in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: The LIFE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiik, Benedicte P; Larstorp, Anne C K; Høieggen, Aud;

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear whether serum uric acid (SUA) is associated with development of new-onset diabetes (NOD) in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The aim of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis that SUA predicts development of NOD in these patients....

  8. Association of NOD1 and NOD2 genes polymorphisms with Helicobacter pylori related gastric cancer in a Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Wang; Zhao-Shan Zhang; Chun-Jie Liu; Li Zhang; Jian-Ming Jiang; Dan Ma; Hao-Xia Tao; Sheng-Ling Yuan; Yan-Chun Wang; Ling-Chun Wang; Hao Liang

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the association between the tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (TagSNPs) of NOD1 and NOD2 and the risk of developing gastric cancer.METHODS:We conducted a hospital-based case-control study including 296 incident gastric cancer patients and 160 gastritis controls.Eight TagSNPs in the NOD1 and NOD2 genes were selected from the Hapmap database using the haploview software and genotyped by the Sequenom MassArray system.The serum levels of anti-Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) IgG were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to indicate H.pylori infection.The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression,including sex and age as confounding factors.RESULTS:The NOD1 rs2907749 GG genotype showed a decreased risk for gastric cancer (OR 0.50,95% CI:0.26-0.95,P =0.04) while the rs7789045 TT genotype showed an increased risk (OR 2.14,95% CI:1.20-3.82,P =0.01).An elevated susceptibility to gastric cancer was observed in the subjects with H.pylori infection and the NaOD1 rs7789045 TT genotype (OR 2.05,95% CI:1.07-3.94,P =0.03) or the NOD2 rs7205423 GC genotype (OR 2.52,95% CI:1.05-6.04,P =0.04).Haplotype analysis suggested that the distribution of AGT (rs2907749,rs2075820 and rs7789045) in NOD1 between the cases and control groups was significantly different (P corrected:0.04),and the diplotype AGT/AGT was associated with an elevated gastric cancer risk (OR 1.98,95%CI:1.04-3.79,P =0.04).The association of the NOD1 rs7789045 Tr genotype and the diplotype AGT/AGT was significant with H.pylori-related diffuse-type gastric cancer (OR 3.00,95% CI:1.38-6.53,P =0.01; OR 4.02,95% CI:1.61-10.05,P < 0.01,respectively).CONCLUSION:Genetic polymorphisms in NOD1 and NOD2 may interact with H.pylori infection and may play important roles in promoting the development of gastric cancer in the Chinese population.

  9. The protein ATG16L1 suppresses inflammatory cytokines induced by the intracellular sensors Nod1 and Nod2 in an autophagy-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbara, Matthew T; Ellison, Lisa K; Ramjeet, Mahendrasingh; Travassos, Leonardo H; Jones, Nicola L; Girardin, Stephen E; Philpott, Dana J

    2013-11-14

    The peptidoglycan sensor Nod2 and the autophagy protein ATG16L1 have been linked to Crohn's disease (CD). Although Nod2 and the related sensor, Nod1, direct ATG16L1 to initiate anti-bacterial autophagy, whether ATG16L1 affects Nod-driven inflammation has not been examined. Here, we uncover an unanticipated autophagy-independent role for ATG16L1 in negatively regulating Nod-driven inflammatory responses. Knockdown of ATG16L1 expression, but not that of ATG5 or ATG9a, specifically enhanced Nod-driven cytokine production. In addition, autophagy-incompetent truncated forms of ATG16L1 regulated Nod-driven cytokine responses. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that ATG16L1 interfered with poly-ubiquitination of the Rip2 adaptor and recruitment of Rip2 into large signaling complexes. The CD-associated allele of ATG16L1 was impaired in its ability to regulate Nod-driven inflammatory responses. Overall, these results suggest that ATG16L1 is critical for Nod-dependent regulation of cytokine responses and that disruption of this Nod1- or Nod2-ATG16L1 signaling axis could contribute to the chronic inflammation associated with CD.

  10. 胃转流手术对肥胖型成人隐匿性自身免疫糖尿病降糖效果的观察%Effects of gastric bypass on latent autoimmune diabetes in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张野; 高连中; 闫四梅; 贾元利

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical therapeutic effects of gastric bypass (GBP) on obesity-latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA). Methods Eleven patients with obesity-LADFA underwent GBP. The blood glucose concentrations, Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-I), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAIc). Results The glucose concentrations of the 11 patients were dramatic decline, and their OGTT values were significantly higher one month after GBP (all P < 0.01). 4 cases had been followed up for one year, although they did not take any drugs their glucose concentrations returned to normal (all P<0.01). The levels of HOME-IR and HbAIc 6 months after GBP in 7 cases were significantly lower than those before GBP (all P<0.01). The symptoms of diabetes-related complications had been mitigated at different degrees. Three cases showed postoperative gastric emptying dysfunction, which was recovered after conservative treatment. Conclusion GBP is safe and effective in treating obesity-LADA.%目的 探讨胃转流术治疗肥胖型成人隐匿性自身免疫糖尿病(LADA)的临床疗效.方法 11例肥胖型LADA患者接受胃转流术治疗,观察手术前后血糖,口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)、稳态模型胰岛素抵抗(HOMA-IR)、糖化血红蛋白(HbAIc)、的改变.结果 11例患者术后1个月血糖均有明显下降,葡萄糖耐量试验明显增强(均P<0.01),4例术后随访1年,血糖在正常范围,不需药物控制,患者7例术后6月,HOMA-IR、HbAIc显著低于手术前(均P<0.01),糖尿病相关并发症均有不同程度缓解,3例手术后并发胃排空障碍,经保守治疗后痊愈.结论 胃转流术能有效治疗肥胖型LADA,手术安全可行.

  11. Autoimmunity in visual loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Axel; Wong, Sui; Plant, Gordon T

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of autoimmune disorders which can affect visual function. There are a very large number of mechanisms in the visual pathway which could potentially be the targets of autoimmune attack. In practice it is the retina and the anterior visual pathway (optic nerve and chiasm) that are recognised as being affected in autoimmune disorders. Multiple Sclerosis is one of the commonest causes of visual loss in young adults because of the frequency of attacks of optic neuritis in that condition, however the basis of the inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis and the confirmation of autoimmunity is lacking. The immune process is known to be highly unusual in that it is not systemic and confined to the CNS compartment. Previously an enigmatic partner to Multiple Sclerosis, Neuromyelitis Optica is now established to be autoimmune and two antibodies - to Aquaporin4 and to Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein - have been implicated in the pathogenesis. The term Chronic Relapsing Inflammatory Optic Neuropathy is applied to those cases of optic neuritis which require long term immunosuppression and hence are presumed to be autoimmune but where no autoimmune pathogenesis has been confirmed. Optic neuritis occurring post-infection and post vaccination and conditions such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and various vasculitides may cause direct autoimmune attack to visual structures or indirect damage through occlusive vasculopathy. Chronic granulomatous disorders such as Sarcoidosis affect vision commonly by a variety of mechanisms, whether and how these are placed in the autoimmune panoply is unknown. As far as the retina is concerned Cancer Associated Retinopathy and Melanoma Associated Retinopathy are well characterised clinically but a candidate autoantibody (recoverin) is only described in the former disorder. Other, usually monophasic, focal retinal inflammatory disorders (Idiopathic Big Blind Spot Syndrome, Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy and Acute Macular

  12. Autoimmunity in Immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoric, Krista; Koontz, Jessica B.; Mattox, Daniel; Tarrant, Teresa K.

    2013-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) comprise a diverse group of clinical disorders with varied genetic defects. Paradoxically, a substantial proportion of PID patients develop autoimmune phenomena in addition to having increased susceptibility to infections from their impaired immunity. Although much of our understanding comes from data gathered through experimental models, there are several well-characterized PID that have improved our knowledge of the pathways that drive autoimmunity. The goals of this review will be to discuss these immunodeficiencies and to review the literature with respect to the proposed mechanisms for autoimmunity within each put forth to date. PMID:23591608

  13. Autoimmunity and the Gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Campbell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases have increased dramatically worldwide since World War II. This is coincidental with the increased production and use of chemicals both in industrial countries and agriculture, as well as the ease of travel from region to region and continent to continent, making the transfer of a pathogen or pathogens from one part of the world to another much easier than ever before. In this review, triggers of autoimmunity are examined, principally environmental. The number of possible environmental triggers is vast and includes chemicals, bacteria, viruses, and molds. Examples of these triggers are given and include the mechanism of action and method by which they bring about autoimmunity.

  14. Functional Roles of NOD1 in Odontoblasts on Dental Pulp Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Hosokawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries-related pathogens are first recognized by odontoblasts and induce inflammatory events that develop to pulpitis. Generally, initial sensing of microbial pathogens is mediated by pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptor and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD; however, little is known about NODs in odontoblasts. In this study, the levels of NODs expressed in rat odontoblastic cell line, KN-3, were assessed by flow cytometry and the levels of chemokines in NOD-specific ligand-stimulated KN-3 cells were analyzed by real-time PCR and ELISA. The signal transduction pathway activated with NOD-specific ligand was assessed by blocking assay with specific inhibitors and reporter assay. In KN-3 cells, the expression level of NOD1 was stronger than that of NOD2 and the production of chemokines, such as CINC-1, CINC-2, CCL20, and MCP-1, was upregulated by stimulation with NOD1-specific ligand, but not with NOD2-specific ligand. CINC-2 and CCL20 production by stimulation with NOD1-specific ligand was reduced by p38 MAPK and AP-1 signaling inhibitors. Furthermore, the reporter assay demonstrated AP-1 activation in NOD1-specific ligand-stimulated KN-3 cells. These findings indicated that NOD1 expressed in odontoblasts functions to upregulate the chemokines expression via p38-AP-1 signaling pathway and suggested that NOD1 may play important roles in the initiation and progression of pulpitis.

  15. Comparative genomic analysis of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis NOD1 and NOD2 receptors and their functional role in in-vitro cellular immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Brahma

    Full Text Available Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD-like receptors (NLRs are innate immune receptors that recognize bacterial cell wall components and initiate host immune response. Structure and function of NLRs have been well studied in human and mice, but little information exists on genetic composition and role of these receptors in innate immune system of water buffalo--a species known for its exceptional disease resistance. Here, a comparative study on the functional domains of NOD1 and NOD2 was performed across different species. The NOD mediated in-vitro cellular responses were studied in buffalo peripheral blood mononuclear cells, resident macrophages, mammary epithelial, and fibroblast cells. Buffalo NOD1 (buNOD1 and buNOD2 showed conserved domain architectures as found in other mammals. The domains of buNOD1 and buNOD2 showed analogy in secondary and tertiary conformations. Constitutive expressions of NODs were ubiquitous in different tissues. Following treatment with NOD agonists, peripheral lymphocytes showed an IFN-γ response along-with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Alveolar macrophages and mammary epithelial cells showed NOD mediated in-vitro immune response through NF-κB dependent pathway. Fibroblasts showed pro-inflammatory cytokine response following agonist treatment. Our study demonstrates that both immune and non-immune cells could generate NOD-mediated responses to pathogens though the type and magnitude of response depend on the cell types. The structural basis of ligand recognition by buffalo NODs and knowledge of immune response by different cell types could be useful for development of non-infective innate immune modulators and next generation anti-inflammatory compounds.

  16. Autoimmune Pancreatitis: A Succinct Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Putra; Xiaoying Liu

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis is a rare type of chronic pancreatitis with characteristic clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic findings. Diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis is often challenging due to its low incidence and nonspecific clinical and radiologic findings. Patients with autoimmune pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer share similar clinical presentations, including obstructive jaundice, abdominal pain and weight loss. Due to these overlapping features, autoimmune pancreatitis patients...

  17. The Non-Immune RIP-kb Mouse is a Useful Host for Islet Transplantation, as the Diabetes is Spontaneous, Mild and Predictable

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherland, Robyn M; Mountford, Joanne N.; Allison, Janette; Harrison, Leonard C.; Lew, Andrew M.

    2002-01-01

    Chemically-induced diabetic mice and spontaneously diabetic NOD mice have been valuable as recipients for experimental islet transplantation. However, their maintenance often requires parenteral insulin. Diabetogenic chemicals can be cytotoxic to the host’s immune system and to other organs some of which are often used as the transplant site. Procurement of diabetic cohorts in the NOD mouse is problematic due to variability in the age of disease onset. We show that RIP-Kb mice, which spontane...

  18. Changes in microRNA expression contribute to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in prediabetic NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggli, Elodie; Gattesco, Sonia; Caille, Dorothée; Briet, Claire; Boitard, Christian; Meda, Paolo; Regazzi, Romano

    2012-07-01

    During the initial phases of type 1 diabetes, pancreatic islets are invaded by immune cells, exposing β-cells to proinflammatory cytokines. This unfavorable environment results in gene expression modifications leading to loss of β-cell functions. To study the contribution of microRNAs (miRNAs) in this process, we used microarray analysis to search for changes in miRNA expression in prediabetic NOD mice islets. We found that the levels of miR-29a/b/c increased in islets of NOD mice during the phases preceding diabetes manifestation and in isolated mouse and human islets exposed to proinflammatory cytokines. Overexpression of miR-29a/b/c in MIN6 and dissociated islet cells led to impairment in glucose-induced insulin secretion. Defective insulin release was associated with diminished expression of the transcription factor Onecut2, and a consequent rise of granuphilin, an inhibitor of β-cell exocytosis. Overexpression of miR-29a/b/c also promoted apoptosis by decreasing the level of the antiapoptotic protein Mcl1. Indeed, a decoy molecule selectively masking the miR-29 binding site on Mcl1 mRNA protected insulin-secreting cells from apoptosis triggered by miR-29 or cytokines. Taken together, our findings suggest that changes in the level of miR-29 family members contribute to cytokine-mediated β-cell dysfunction occurring during the initial phases of type 1 diabetes. PMID:22537941

  19. Autoimmune liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pietro Invernizzi; Ian R Mackay

    2008-01-01

    The liver was one of the earliest recognized sites among autoimmune diseases yet autoimmune hepatitis,primary biliary cirrhosis,primary sclerosing cholangitis,and their overlap forms,are still problematic in diagnosis and causation.The contributions herein comprise 'pairs of articles' on clinical characteristics,and concepts of etiopathogenesis,for each of the above diseases,together with childhood autoimmune liver disease,overlaps,interpretations of diagnostic serology,and liver transplantation.This issue is timely,since we are witnessing an ever increasing applicability of immunology to a wide variety of chronic diseases,hepatic and non-hepatic,in both developed and developing countries.The 11 invited expert review articles capture the changing features over recent years of the autoimmune liver diseases,the underlying immunomolecular mechanisms of development,the potent albeit still unexplained genetic influences,the expanding repertoire of immunoserological diagnostic markers,and the increasingly effective therapeutic possibilities.

  20. Psychoneuroimmunology of autoimmune disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M P; Fozdar, M

    1996-01-01

    The interactions between the immune system and psychological states are both intricate and intriguing. Research at a molecular level has thrown considerable light on the previously ill-defined area of psychoneuroimmunology. In this report, we explore the psychoneuroimmunology of autoimmune disorders, particularly rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus. Animal models of these diseases have provided a particularly useful window on complex psychoneuroimmunological interactions. Observations about the effect of stress on the onset and course of autoimmune disorders has added to our understanding of psychoneuroimmunological interactions. These interactions are bi-directional, as reflected in the autoimmune-mediated neuropsychiatric manifestations of systemic lupus. Exploring the role of various neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the stress response may have important therapeutic implications for autoimmune disorders.

  1. A cluster of coregulated genes determines TGF-β–induced regulatory T-cell (Treg) dysfunction in NOD mice

    OpenAIRE

    D'Alise, Anna Morena; Ergun, Ayla; Hill, Jonathan A.; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) originate in the thymus, but the Treg phenotype can also be induced in peripheral lymphoid organs or in vitro by stimulation of conventional CD4+ T cells with IL-2 and TGF-β. There have been divergent reports on the suppressive capacity of these TGF-Treg cells. We find that TGF-Tregs derived from diabetes-prone NOD mice, although expressing normal Foxp3 levels, are uniquely defective in suppressive activity, whereas TGF-Tregs from control strains (B6g7) or ex...

  2. Silica, Silicosis and Autoimmunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Michael Pollard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation of dust containing crystalline silica is associated with a number of acute and chronic diseases including systemic autoimmune diseases. Evidence for the link with autoimmune disease comes from epidemiological studies linking occupational exposure to crystalline silica dust with the systemic autoimmune diseases SLE, SSc and RA. Although little is known regarding the mechanism by which silica exposure leads to systemic autoimmune disease, there is a voluminous literature on silica exposure and silicosis that may help identify immune processes that precede development of autoimmunity. The pathophysiology of silicosis consists of deposition of silica particles in the alveoli of the lung. Ingestion of these particles by macrophages initiates an inflammatory response which stimulates fibroblasts to proliferate and produce collagen. Silica particles are encased by collagen leading to fibrosis and the nodular lesions characteristic of the disease. The steps in the development of silicosis, including acute and chronic inflammation and fibrosis, have different molecular and cellular requirements suggesting that silica-induced inflammation and fibrosis may be mechanistically separate. Significantly, it is unclear whether silica-induced inflammation and fibrosis contribute similarly to the development of autoimmunity. Nonetheless, the findings from human and animal model studies are consistent with an autoimmune pathogenesis that begins with activation of the innate immune system leading to proinflammatory cytokine production, pulmonary inflammation leading to activation of adaptive immunity, breaking of tolerance, autoantibodies and tissue damage. The variable frequency of these immunological features following silica exposure suggests substantial genetic involvement and gene/environment interaction in silica-induced autoimmunity. However numerous questions remain unanswered.

  3. Vaccines and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, M; Chiappini, E; Galli, L

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines have eradicated or controlled many infectious diseases, saving each year millions of lives and quality of life of many other millions of people. In spite of the success of vaccines over the last two centuries, parents (and also some health care workers) gloss over the devastating consequences of diseases, which are now avoided thanks to vaccines, and direct their attention to possible negative effects of immunization. Three immunological objections are raised: vaccines cause antigenic overload, natural immunity is safer and better than vaccine-induced immunity, and vaccines induce autoimmunity. The last point is examined in this review. Theoretically, vaccines could trigger autoimmunity by means of cytokine production, anti-idiotypic network, expression of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigens, modification of surface antigens and induction of novel antigens, molecular mimicry, bystander activation, epitope spreading, and polyclonal activation of B cells. There is strong evidence that none of these mechanisms is really effective in causing autoimmune diseases. Vaccines are not a source of autoimmune diseases. By contrast, absolute evidence exists that infectious agents can trigger autoimmune mechanisms and that they do cause autoimmune diseases.

  4. NOD1-Mediated Mucosal Host Defense against Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Watanabe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of the stomach with Helicobacter pylori is an important risk factor for gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma. Although it has been well established that persistent colonization by H. pylori is associated with adaptive Th1 responses, the innate immune responses leading to these Th1 responses are poorly defined. Recent studies have shown that the activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1 in gastric epithelial cells plays an important role in innate immune responses against H. pylori. The detection of H. pylori-derived ligands by cytosolic NOD1 induces several host defense factors, including antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, and chemokines. In this paper, we review the molecular mechanisms by which NOD1 contributes to mucosal host defense against H. pylori infection of the stomach.

  5. Follicular Helper T Cells in Autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherm, Martin G; Ott, Verena B; Daniel, Carolin

    2016-08-01

    The development of multiple disease-relevant autoantibodies is a hallmark of autoimmune diseases. In autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D), a variable time frame of autoimmunity precedes the clinically overt disease. The relevance of T follicular helper (TFH) cells for the immune system is increasingly recognized. Their pivotal contribution to antibody production by providing help to germinal center (GC) B cells facilitates the development of a long-lived humoral immunity. Their complex differentiation process, involving various stages and factors like B cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6), is strictly controlled, as anomalous regulation of TFH cells is connected with immunopathologies. While the adverse effects of a TFH cell-related insufficient humoral immunity are obvious, the role of increased TFH frequencies in autoimmune diseases like T1D is currently highlighted. High levels of autoantigen trigger an excessive induction of TFH cells, consequently resulting in the production of autoantibodies. Therefore, TFH cells might provide promising approaches for novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27324759

  6. NOD2 mutations and colorectal cancer - Where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branquinho, Diogo; Freire, Paulo; Sofia, Carlos

    2016-04-27

    Due to the overwhelming burden of colorectal cancer (CRC), great effort has been placed on identifying genetic mutations that contribute to disease development and progression. One of the most studied polymorphisms that could potentially increase susceptibility to CRC involves the nucleotide-binding and oligomerization-domain containing 2 (NOD2) gene. There is growing evidence that the biological activity of NOD2 is far greater than previously thought and a link with intestinal microbiota and mucosal immunity is increasingly sought after. In fact, microbial composition may be an important contributor not only to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) but also to CRC. Recent studies have showed that deficient NOD2 function confers a communicable risk of colitis and CRC. Despite the evidence from experimental models, population-based studies that tried to link certain NOD2 polymorphisms and an increase in CRC risk have been described as conflicting. Significant geographic discrepancies in the frequency of such polymorphisms and different interpretations of the results may have limited the conclusions of those studies. Since being first associated to IBD and CRC, our understanding of the role of this gene has come a long way, and it is tempting to postulate that it may contribute to identify individuals with susceptible genetic background that may benefit from early CRC screening programs or in predicting response to current therapeutic tools. The aim of this review is to clarify the status quo of NOD2 mutations as genetic risk factors to chronic inflammation and ultimately to CRC. The use of NOD2 as a predictor of certain phenotypic characteristics of the disease will be analyzed as well. PMID:27152134

  7. Analysis of antigen specific T cells in diabetes - Lessons from pre-clinical studies and early clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Balasubramanian; Selck, Claudia; Chee, Jonathan; Jhala, Guarang; Kay, Thomas W H

    2016-07-01

    Antigen-specific immune tolerance promises to provide safe and effective therapies to prevent type 1 diabetes (T1D). Antigen-specific therapy requires two components: well-defined, clinically relevant autoantigens; and safe approaches to inducing tolerance in T cells specific for these antigens. Proinsulin is a critical autoantigen in both NOD mice, based on knockout mouse studies and induction of immune tolerance to proinsulin preventing disease whereas most antigens cannot, and also in human T1D based on proinsulin-specific T cells being found in the islets of affected individuals and the early appearance of insulin autoantibodies. Effective antigen-specific therapies that prevent T1D in humans have not yet been developed although doubt remains about the best molecular form of the antigen, the dose and the route of administration. Preclinical studies suggest that antigen specific therapy is most useful when administered before onset of autoimmunity but this time-window has not been tested in humans until the recent "pre-point" study. There may be a 'window of opportunity' during the neonatal period when 'vaccine' like administration of proinsulin for a short period may be sufficient to prevent diabetes. After the onset of autoimmunity, naive antigen-specific T cells have differentiated into antigen-experienced memory cells and the immune responses have spread to multiple antigens. Induction of tolerance at this stage becomes more difficult although recent studies have suggested generation of antigen-specific TR1 cells can inhibit memory T cells. Preclinical studies are required to identify additional 'help' that is required to induce tolerance to memory T cells and develop protocols for effective therapy in individuals with established autoimmunity. PMID:27083395

  8. Drawing parts together: the philosophy of education of Nel Noddings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Stone

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay honors the career and writings of American philosopher ofEducation, Nel Noddings on her first visit to Sweden in Spring 2006. Thetitle is taken from a recent interview in which she discussed connectionsbetween her biography and scholarly contributions. The interview aug-ments analysis of major texts from Noddings out of which the essay’sauthor posits her ‘philosophy of education.’ Following an introductionand biographical situating, sections focus on education and schools, caretheory and teaching, and approaches and thematics within her philo-sophic writings. The essay closes with recognition of Noddings’s interna-tional significance in both philosophy and education.

  9. DMPD: NOD-like receptors (NLRs): bona fide intracellular microbial sensors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18585455 NOD-like receptors (NLRs): bona fide intracellular microbial sensors. Shaw...tml) (.csml) Show NOD-like receptors (NLRs): bona fide intracellular microbial sensors. PubmedID 18585455 Ti...tle NOD-like receptors (NLRs): bona fide intracellular microbial sensors. Authors

  10. Plant recognition of Bradyrhizobium japonicum nod factors. Final report, September 15, 1992--March 14, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, G.

    1998-01-01

    This grant had three objectives: (1) isolate and identify the unique nod factor metabolites made by different wild-type B. japonicum strains; (2) investigate the biological activity of these unique nod factors, especially as it relates to host range; and (3) initiate studies to define the mechanism of plant recognition of the nod factors. This report summarizes the results of this research.

  11. Update on Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Korc

    2004-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex multi-system disorder that may be classified as autoimmune mediated type 1 diabetes, or as insulin resistance associated type 2 diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, there is selective loss of the beta cells within the endocrine islets, as a consequence of T-cell and cytokine mediated destruction of these cells, perhaps in conjunction with destruction of the peri-islet Schwann cells. In type 2 diabetes, the etiology of the resistance ranges from post-receptor defects in...

  12. Diabetes classification: grey zones, sound and smoke: Action LADA 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leslie, R D G; Kolb, H; Schloot, N C;

    2008-01-01

    those who are initially insulin dependent. Ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) are each exclusive forms of diabetes which are, at least initially, clinically distinct from type 2 diabetes and type 1 diabetes, and each have a different natural history from these...

  13. Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 2: An Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah Karamifar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "nAutoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS type 2 is characterized by the presence of Addison's disease, in association with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. APS type 2 occurs most often in middle aged females and is rare in children. Here an 11 year old boy is reported with Addison's disease who developed symptom's of diabetes mellitus, goiter, malabsorption, macrocytic anemia and keratitis. APS type 2 occurs most often in middle aged females and is quite rare in children but one should think to autoimmune poly glandular syndrome type II in patient at any age especially in patients with Addison's disease.

  14. Autoimmune thyroid disease and other non-endocrine autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović-Đilas Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction, Autoimmune diseases are chronic conditions initiated by the loss of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. They constitute heterogeneous group of disorders, in which multiple alterations in the immune system result in a spectrum of syndromes that either target specific organs or affect the body systematically. Recent epidemiological studies have shown a possible shift of one autoimmune disease to another or the fact that more than one autoimmune disease may coexist in a single patient or in the same family. Numerous autoimmune diseases have been shown to coexist frequently with thyroid autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune thyroid disease and other organ specific non-endocrine autoimmune diseases. This part of the study reviews the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease coexisting with: pernicious anaemia, vitiligo, celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, miastenia gravis, alopecia areata and sclerosis multiplex, and several recommendations for screening have been given. Autoimmune thyroid disease and other organ non-specific non-endocrine autoimmune diseases. Special attention is given to the correlation between autoimmune thyroid disease and rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, syndrome Sjögren, systemic sclerosis and mixed connective tissue disease. Conclusions. Screening for autoimmune thyroid diseases should be recommended in everyday clinical practice, in patients with primary organ-specific or organ non-specific autoimmune disease. Other­wise, in patients with primary thyroid autoimmune disease, there is no good reason of seeking for all other autoimmune diseases, although these patients have a greater risk of developing other autoimmune disease. Economic aspects of medicine require further analyzing of these data, from cost/benefit point of view to justified either mandatory screening or medical practitioner judgment.

  15. The first nation-wide multicenter study for adult onset latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA) in China : The outcome and significance of LADA China Study%关于中国成人自身免疫糖尿病的首项全国性多中心研究——LADA China研究的结果与意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向宇飞; 周智广

    2013-01-01

    LADA China研究是在中国新诊断2型糖尿病患者中首次开展的一项全国多中心调查.该项研究的最新研究成果已在Diabetes杂志(2013)发表.本文介绍LADA China研究的主要成果,并进一步讨论其重要的临床意义.%LADA China Study is the first nation-wide muliicenter study for adult onset latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA) in Chinese.We have published the data on Diabetes in 2013.In this article,we briefly introduce the results and the significance to clinical practice.

  16. The autoimmune tautology: an in silico approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Ricardo A; Restrepo-Montoya, Daniel; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2012-01-01

    There is genetic evidence of similarities and differences among autoimmune diseases (AIDs) that warrants looking at a general panorama of what has been published. Thus, our aim was to determine the main shared genes and to what extent they contribute to building clusters of AIDs. We combined a text-mining approach to build clusters of genetic concept profiles (GCPs) from the literature in MedLine with knowledge of protein-protein interactions to confirm if genes in GCP encode proteins that truly interact. We found three clusters in which the genes with the highest contribution encoded proteins that showed strong and specific interactions. After projecting the AIDs on a plane, two clusters could be discerned: Sjögren's syndrome-systemic lupus erythematosus, and autoimmune thyroid disease-type1 diabetes-rheumatoid arthritis. Our results support the common origin of AIDs and the role of genes involved in apoptosis such as CTLA4, FASLG, and IL10.

  17. Autoimmunity and Asbestos Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean C. Pfau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a body of evidence supporting an association between asbestos exposure and autoantibodies indicative of systemic autoimmunity, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA, a strong epidemiological link has never been made to specific autoimmune diseases. This is in contrast with another silicate dust, crystalline silica, for which there is considerable evidence linking exposure to diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Instead, the asbestos literature is heavily focused on cancer, including mesothelioma and pulmonary carcinoma. Possible contributing factors to the absence of a stronger epidemiological association between asbestos and autoimmune disease include (a a lack of statistical power due to relatively small or diffuse exposure cohorts, (b exposure misclassification, (c latency of clinical disease, (d mild or subclinical entities that remain undetected or masked by other pathologies, or (e effects that are specific to certain fiber types, so that analyses on mixed exposures do not reach statistical significance. This review summarizes epidemiological, animal model, and in vitro data related to asbestos exposures and autoimmunity. These combined data help build toward a better understanding of the fiber-associated factors contributing to immune dysfunction that may raise the risk of autoimmunity and the possible contribution to asbestos-related pulmonary disease.

  18. Vaccines and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Paz, Ziv; Israeli, Eitan; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2009-11-01

    Vaccines have been used for over 200 years and are the most effective way of preventing the morbidity and mortality associated with infections. Like other drugs, vaccines can cause adverse events, but unlike conventional medicines, which are prescribed to people who are ill, vaccines are administered to healthy individuals, thus increasing the concern over adverse reactions. Most side effects attributed to vaccines are mild, acute and transient; however, rare reactions such as hypersensitivity, induction of infection, and autoimmunity do occur and can be severe and even fatal. The rarity and subacute presentation of post-vaccination autoimmune phenomena means that ascertaining causality between these events can be difficult. Moreover, the latency period between vaccination and autoimmunity ranges from days to years. In this article, on the basis of published evidence and our own experience, we discuss the various aspects of the causal and temporal interactions between vaccines and autoimmune phenomena, as well as the possible mechanisms by which different components of vaccines might induce autoimmunity.

  19. Complement and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballanti, Eleonora; Perricone, Carlo; Greco, Elisabetta; Ballanti, Marta; Di Muzio, Gioia; Chimenti, Maria Sole; Perricone, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    The complement system is a component of the innate immune system. Its main function was initially believed to be limited to the recognition and elimination of pathogens through direct killing or stimulation of phagocytosis. However, in recent years, the immunoregulatory functions of the complement system were demonstrated and it was determined that the complement proteins play an important role in modulating adaptive immunity and in bridging innate and adaptive responses. When the delicate mechanisms that regulate this sophisticated enzymatic system are unbalanced, the complement system may cause damage, mediating tissue inflammation. Dysregulation of the complement system has been involved in the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of several autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitides, Sjögren's syndrome, antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Complement deficiencies have been associated with an increased risk to develop autoimmune disorders. Because of its functions, the complement system is an attractive therapeutic target for a wide range of diseases. Up to date, several compounds interfering with the complement cascade have been studied in experimental models for autoimmune diseases. The main therapeutic strategies are inhibition of complement activation components, inhibition of complement receptors, and inhibition of membrane attack complex. At present, none of the available agents was proven to be both safe and effective for treatment of autoimmune diseases in humans. Nonetheless, data from preclinical studies and initial clinical trials suggest that the modulation of the complement system could constitute a viable strategy for the treatment of autoimmune conditions in the decades to come.

  20. Transient B-Cell Depletion with Anti-CD20 in Combination with Proinsulin DNA Vaccine or Oral Insulin: Immunologic Effects and Efficacy in NOD Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanashyam Sarikonda; Sowbarnika Sachithanantham; Yulia Manenkova; Tinalyn Kupfer; Amanda Posgai; Clive Wasserfall; Philip Bernstein; Laura Straub; Pagni, Philippe P.; Darius Schneider; Teresa Rodriguez Calvo; Marilyne Coulombe; Kevan Herold; Gill, Ronald G.; Mark Atkinson

    2013-01-01

    A recent type 1 diabetes (T1D) clinical trial of rituximab (a B cell-depleting anti-CD20 antibody) achieved some therapeutic benefit in preserving C-peptide for a period of approximately nine months in patients with recently diagnosed diabetes. Our previous data in the NOD mouse demonstrated that co-administration of antigen (insulin) with anti-CD3 antibody (a T cell-directed immunomodulator) offers better protection than either entity alone, indicating that novel combination therapies that i...

  1. Shock: A possible presenting manifestation of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subodh Banzal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome Type II (APS II, also known as polyglandular autoimmune syndrome Type II or Schmidt syndrome, is constellations of multiple endocrine gland insufficiencies. It is a rare, but most common of the immunoendocrinopathy syndrome. It is characterized by the obligatory occurrence of autoimmune Addison′s disease in combination with thyroid autoimmune diseases and/or Type I diabetes, hypogonadism, hypophysitis, myasthenia gravis, vitiligo, alopecia, pernicious anemia, and celiac disease. Here, we report a case of 38-year-old female patient presented with shock, further diagnosed to have APS II.

  2. Caring and Agency: Noddings on Happiness in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Hanan

    2013-01-01

    In this short essay I express my own deep sympathy with Nel Noddings's ethic of care and applaud her stubborn resistance in "Happiness and Education" to what John Dewey would have called false dualisms, such as those between intelligence and emotion, theory and practice, or vocation and academic studies.However, I question whether…

  3. Caring for the Ethical Ideal: Nel Noddings on Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Nel Noddings is arguably one of the premier philosophers of moral education in the English-speaking world today. Although she is outside the mainstream theory, research, and practice traditions of cognitive-developmentalism (the Kohlberg legacy) and of character education (which is in public ascendancy), her body of work is unrivalled for…

  4. Coupling of Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL: static case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the joining of the programs Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL, developed in the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) and in the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) respectively is described. The first one allows to study the neutronic of a nuclear reactor and the second one allows to carry out the analysis of hot channel of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Nod1 D is a program that it solves by nodal methods type finite element those diffusion equations in multigroup, and it is the static part of Nod Kin that it solves the diffusion equation in their time dependent part. For another side HOTCHANNEL is based on a mathematical model constituted by four conservation equations (two of mass conservation, one of motion quantity and one of energy), which are solved applying one discretization in implicit finite differences. Both programs have been verified in independent form using diverse test problems. In this work the modifications that were necessary to carry out to both for obtaining a coupled program that it provides the axial distribution of the neutron flux, the power, the burnup and the void fraction, among others parameters as much as neutronic as thermal hydraulics are described. Those are also mentioned limitations, advantages and disadvantages of the final product to which has been designated Nod1 D-HotChn. Diverse results for the Cycle 1 of the Laguna Verde Unit 1 reactor of the Nucleo electric central comparing them with those obtained directly with the CoreMasterPresto code are provided. (Author)

  5. Head Nodding Seizures and O.Volvulus Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Head nodding (HN syndrome, a new epilepsy disorder in sub-Sahara Africa, is described in 62 patients studied prospectively at the University of Ulm, Germany; Haydom Lutheran Hospital, Tanzania; and other centers in Austria, Tanzania, and Canada.

  6. Alteration of the thymic T cell repertoire by rotavirus infection is associated with delayed type 1 diabetes development in non-obese diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Webster

    Full Text Available Rotaviruses are implicated as a viral trigger for the acceleration of type 1 diabetes in children. Infection of adult non-obese diabetic (NOD mice with rotavirus strain RRV accelerates diabetes development, whereas RRV infection in infant NOD mice delays diabetes onset. In this study of infant mice, RRV titers and lymphocyte populations in the intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN and thymus of NOD mice were compared with those in diabetes-resistant BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Enhanced intestinal RRV infection occurred in NOD mice compared with the other mouse strains. This was associated with increases in the frequency of CD8αβ TCRαβ intraepithelial lymphocytes, and their PD-L1 expression. Virus spread to the MLN and T cell numbers there also were greatest in NOD mice. Thymic RRV infection is shown here in all mouse strains, often in combination with alterations in T cell ontogeny. Infection lowered thymocyte numbers in infant NOD and C57BL/6 mice, whereas thymocyte production was unaltered overall in infant BALB/c mice. In the NOD mouse thymus, effector CD4(+ T cell numbers were reduced by infection, whereas regulatory T cell numbers were maintained. It is proposed that maintenance of thymic regulatory T cell numbers may contribute to the increased suppression of inflammatory T cells in response to a strong stimulus observed in pancreatic lymph nodes of adult mice infected as infants. These findings show that rotavirus replication is enhanced in diabetes-prone mice, and provide evidence that thymic T cell alterations may contribute to the delayed diabetes onset following RRV infection.

  7. Autoimmunity in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    Compared to the clear trend observed in previous years, the number of peer-reviewed articles published during 2015 and retrieved using the "autoimmunity" key word declined by 4 %, while remaining 5 % of immunology articles. On the other hand, a more detailed analysis of the published articles in leading immunology and autoimmunity journals revealed exciting scenarios, with fascinating lines of evidence being supported by convincing data and likely followed by rapid translational or clinical developments. As examples, the study of the microbiome, the development of new serum or other tissue biomarkers, and a more solid understanding of disease pathogenesis and tolerance breakdown mechanisms have been central issues in the past year. Furthermore and similar to the oncology field, progress in the understanding of single autoimmune condition is becoming most specific with psoriatic and rheumatoid arthritis being ideal paradigms with treatment options diverging after decades of common therapies, as illustrated by IL17-targeting approaches. The ultimate result of these advances is towards personalized medicine with an ideal approach being tailored on a single patient, based on a finely tuned definition of the immunogenetics, epigenetics, microbiome, and biomarkers. Finally, experimental reports suggest that cancer-associated immune mechanisms or the role of T and B cell subpopulations should be better understood in autoimmune diseases. While we hailed the 2014 literature in the autoimmunity world as part of an annus mirabilis, we should not be mistaken in the strong stimulus of research in autoimmunity represented by the 2015 articles that will be summarized in this article. PMID:27422713

  8. Common mechanisms of autoimmune diseases (the autoimmune tautology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2012-09-01

    The fact that autoimmune diseases share subphenotypes, physiopathological mechanisms and genetic factors has been called autoimmune tautology, and indicates that they have a common origin. The autoimmune phenotypes vary depending on the target cell and the affected organ, gender, ancestry, trigger factors and age at onset. Ten shared characteristics supporting this logical theory are herein reviewed.

  9. Epigenomics of autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhawna; Hawkins, R David

    2015-03-01

    Autoimmune diseases are complex disorders of largely unknown etiology. Genetic studies have identified a limited number of causal genes from a marginal number of individuals, and demonstrated a high degree of discordance in monozygotic twins. Studies have begun to reveal epigenetic contributions to these diseases, primarily through the study of DNA methylation, but chromatin and non-coding RNA changes are also emerging. Moving forward an integrative analysis of genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic data, with the latter two coming from specific cell types, will provide an understanding that has been missed from genetics alone. We provide an overview of the current state of the field and vision for deriving the epigenomics of autoimmunity.

  10. Higher susceptibility of NOD/LtSz-scid Il2rg-/- NSG mice to xenotransplanted lung cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanaji N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nobuhiro Kanaji,1 Akira Tadokoro,1 Kentaro Susaki,1 Saki Yokokura,1 Kiyomi Ohmichi,2 Reiji Haba,2 Naoki Watanabe,1 Shuji Bandoh,1 Tomoya Ishii,1 Hiroaki Dobashi,1 Takuya Matsunaga11Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology, Rheumatology and Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan; 2Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa, JapanPurpose: No lung cancer xenograft model using non-obese diabetic (NOD-scid Il2rg-/- mice has been reported. The purpose of this study is to select a suitable mouse strain as a xenogenic host for testing tumorigenicity of lung cancer.Materials and methods: We directly compared the susceptibility of four immunodeficient mouse strains, c-nu, C.B-17 scid, NOD-scid, and NOD/LtSz-scid Il2rg-/- (NSG mice, for tumor formation from xenotransplanted lung cancer cell lines. Various numbers (101–105 cells/head of two lung cancer cell lines, A549 and EBC1, were subcutaneously inoculated and tumor sizes were measured every week up to 12 weeks.Results: When 104 EBC1 cells were inoculated, no tumor formation was observed in BALB/c-nu or C.B-17 scid mice. Tumors developed in two of the five NOD-scid mice (40% and in all the five NSG mice (100%. When 103 EBC1 cells were injected, no tumors developed in any strain other than NSG mice, while tumorigenesis was achieved in all the five NSG mice (100%, P=0.0079 within 9 weeks. NSG mice similarly showed higher susceptibility to xenotransplantation of A549 cells. Tumor formation was observed only in NSG mice after inoculation of 103 or fewer A549 cells (40% vs 0% in 15 NSG mice compared with others, respectively, P=0.0169. We confirmed that the engrafted tumors originated from inoculated human lung cancer cells by immunohistochemical staining with human cytokeratin and vimentin.Conclusion: NSG mice may be the most suitable strain for testing tumorigenicity of lung cancer, especially if only a few cells

  11. Coupling of Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL: static case; Acoplamiento de Nod1D y HOTCHANNEL: caso estatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez T, A.M. [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ovando C, R. [IIE-Gcia. de Energia Nuclear, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: rovando@iie.org.mx

    2003-07-01

    In this work the joining of the programs Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL, developed in the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) and in the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) respectively is described. The first one allows to study the neutronic of a nuclear reactor and the second one allows to carry out the analysis of hot channel of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Nod1 D is a program that it solves by nodal methods type finite element those diffusion equations in multigroup, and it is the static part of Nod Kin that it solves the diffusion equation in their time dependent part. For another side HOTCHANNEL is based on a mathematical model constituted by four conservation equations (two of mass conservation, one of motion quantity and one of energy), which are solved applying one discretization in implicit finite differences. Both programs have been verified in independent form using diverse test problems. In this work the modifications that were necessary to carry out to both for obtaining a coupled program that it provides the axial distribution of the neutron flux, the power, the burnup and the void fraction, among others parameters as much as neutronic as thermal hydraulics are described. Those are also mentioned limitations, advantages and disadvantages of the final product to which has been designated Nod1 D-HotChn. Diverse results for the Cycle 1 of the Laguna Verde Unit 1 reactor of the Nucleo electric central comparing them with those obtained directly with the CoreMasterPresto code are provided. (Author)

  12. [Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becheur, M; Bouslama, B; Slama, H; Toumi, N E H

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare condition in children which differs from the adult form. It is defined by immune-mediated destruction of red blood cells caused by autoantibodies. Characteristics of the autoantibodies are responsible for the various clinical entities. Classifications of autoimmune hemolytic anemia include warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia, cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria. For each classification, this review discusses the epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, laboratory evaluation, and treatment options. PMID:26575109

  13. Genetics of autoimmune diseases: a multistep process.

    OpenAIRE

    Johannesson, Martina; Hultqvist, Malin; Holmdahl, Rikard

    2006-01-01

    It has so far been difficult to identify genes behind polygenic autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), and type I diabetes (T1D). With proper animal models, some of the complexity behind these diseases can be reduced. The use of linkage analysis and positional cloning of genes in animal models for RA resulted in the identification of one of the genes regulating severity of arthritis in rats and mice, the Ncf1 gene. The Ncf1 gene encodes for the Ncf1 pr...

  14. Autoimmune muscular pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalakas, M C

    2005-05-01

    The T cell-mediated mechanism responsible for Polymyositis and inclusion Body Myositis and the complement-mediated microangiopathy associated with Dermatomyositis are reviewed. The management of autoimmune myopathies with the presently available immunotherapeutic agents as well as new therapies and ongoing trials are discussed.

  15. Autoimmune pancreatitis and cholangitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niraj; Jani; James; Buxbaum

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis(AIP) is part of a systemic fibrosclerotic process characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with immunoglobulin G subtype-4(Ig G4) positive cells. It characteristically presents with biliary obstruction due to mass-like swelling of the pancreas. Frequently AIP is accompanied by extra-pancreaticmanifestations including retroperitoneal fibrosis, thyroid disease, and salivary gland involvement. Auto-antibodies, hypergammaglobulemia, and prompt resolution of pancreatic and extrapancreatic findings with steroids signify its autoimmune nature. Refractory cases are responsive to immunomodulators and rituximab. Involvement of the biliary tree, termed IgG 4 associated cholangiopathy, mimics primary sclerosing cholangitis and is challenging to manage. High IgG 4 levels and swelling of the pancreas with a diminutive pancreatic duct are suggestive of autoimmune pancreatitis. Given similarities in presentation but radical differences in management and outcome, differentiation from pancreatic malignancy is of paramount importance. There is controversy regarding the optimal diagnostic criterion and steroid trials to make the diagnosis. Additionally, the retroperitoneal location of the pancreas and requirement for histologic sampling, makes tissue acquisition challenging. Recently, a second type of autoimmune pancreatitis has been recognized with similar clinical presentation and steroid response though different histology, serologic, and extrapancreatic findings.

  16. Autoimmunity and Turner's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lleo, Ana; Moroni, Luca; Caliari, Lisa; Invernizzi, Pietro

    2012-05-01

    Turner Syndrome (TS) is a common genetic disorder, affecting female individuals, resulting from the partial or complete absence of one sex chromosome, and occurring in approximately 50 per 100,000 liveborn girls. TS is associated with reduced adult height and with gonadal dysgenesis, leading to insufficient circulating levels of female sex steroids and to infertility. Morbidity and mortality are increased in TS but average intellectual performance is within the normal range. TS is closely associated to the presence of autoantibodies and autoimmune diseases (AID), especially autoimmune thyroiditis and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the fact that the strong association between TS and AID is well known and has been widely studied, the underlying immunopathogenic mechanism remains partially unexplained. Recent studies have displayed how TS patients do not show an excess of immunogenic risk markers. This is evocative for a higher responsibility of X-chromosome abnormalities in the development of AID, and particularly of X-genes involved in immune response. For instance, the long arm of the X chromosome hosts a MHC-locus, so the loss of that region may lead to a deficiency in immune regulation. Currently no firm guidelines for diagnosis exist. In conclusion, TS is a condition associated with a number of autoimmune manifestations. Individuals with TS need life-long medical attention. As a consequence of these findings, early diagnosis and regular screening for potential associated autoimmune conditions are essential in the medical follow-up of TS patients. PMID:22154619

  17. Autoimmune paediatric liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giorgina Mieli-Vergani; Diego Vergani

    2008-01-01

    Liver disorders with a likely autoimmune pathogenesis in childhood include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC),and de novo AIH after liver transplantation.AIH is divided into two subtypes according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA,type 1) or liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM1,type 2).There is a female predominance in both.LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely,at a younger age,and commonly have partial IgA deficiency,while duration of symptoms before diagnosis,clinical signs,family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders,response to treatment,and long-term prognosis are similar in both groups. The most common type of paediatric sclerosing cholangitis is ASC.The clinical,biochemical, immunological,and histological presentation of ASC is often indistinguishable from that of AIH type 1.In both,there are high IgG,non-organ specific autoantibodies,and interface hepatitis.Diagnosis is made by cholangiography.Children with ASC respond to immunosuppression satisfactorily and similarly to AIH in respect to remission and relapse rates,times to normalization of biochemical parameters, and decreased inflammatory activity on follow up liver biopsies. However,the cholangiopathy can progress.There may be evolution from AIH to ASC over the years,despite treatment.De novo AIH after liver transplantation affects patients not transplanted for autoimmune disorders and is strikingly reminiscent of classical AIH,including elevated titres of serum antibodies, hypergammaglobulinaemia,and histological findings of interface hepatitis,bridging fibrosis,and collapse.Like classical AIH,it responds to treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine.De novo AIH post liver transplantation may derive from interference by calcineurin inhibitors with the intrathymic physiological mechanisms of T-cell maturation and selection.Whether this condition is a distinct entity or a form of

  18. Cytokines and Cytokine Profiles in Human Autoimmune Diseases and Animal Models of Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Kunz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The precise pathomechanisms of human autoimmune diseases are still poorly understood. However, a deepened understanding of these is urgently needed to improve disease prevention and early detection and guide more specific treatment approaches. In recent years, many new genes and signalling pathways involved in autoimmunity with often overlapping patterns between different disease entities have been detected. Major contributions were made by experiments using DNA microarray technology, which has been used for the analysis of gene expression patterns in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, among which were rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, systemic sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and type-1 diabetes. In systemic lupus erythematosus, a so-called interferon signature has been identified. In psoriasis, researchers found a particular immune signalling cluster. Moreover the identification of a new subset of inflammatory T cells, so-called Th17 T cells, secreting interleukin (IL-17 as one of their major cytokines and the identification of the IL-23/IL-17 axis of inflammation regulation, have significantly improved our understanding of autoimmune diseases. Since a plethora of new treatment approaches using antibodies or small molecule inhibitors specifically targeting cytokines, cellular receptors, or signalling mechanisms has emerged in recent years, more individualized treatment for affected patients may be within reach in the future.

  19. Population-Level Evidence for an Autoimmune Etiology of Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Mei-Sing; Kohane, Isaac; Cai, Tianxi; Gorman, Mark P.; Mandl, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Importance Epilepsy is a debilitating condition, often with neither a known etiology nor an effective treatment. Autoimmune mechanisms have been increasingly identified. Objective To conduct a population-level study investigating the relationship between epilepsy and several common autoimmune diseases. Design, Setting, and Participant A retrospective population-based study using claims from a nation-wide employer-provided health insurance plan in the United States. Subjects were beneficiaries enrolled between 1999 and 2006 (n= 2,518,034). Main Outcomes and Measures We examined the relationship between epilepsy and 12 autoimmune diseases: type 1 diabetes, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, Graves’ disease, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, Sjögren’s syndrome, myasthenia gravis and celiac disease. Results The risk of epilepsy is significantly heightened among patients with autoimmune diseases (OR 3.8, 95% CI 3.6–4.0, P<0.001), and is especially pronounced in children (OR 5.2, 95% CI 4.1–6.5; P<0.001). Elevated risk is consistently observed across all 12 autoimmune diseases. Conclusions and Relevance Epilepsy and AD frequently co-occur and patients with either condition should undergo surveillance for the other. The potential role of autoimmunity must be given due consideration in epilepsy, so we are not overlooking a treatable etiology. PMID:24687183

  20. 成人隐匿性自身免疫性糖尿病早期血浆SERPING1的变化及意义%Clinical Significance of Plasma Protease C1 Inhibitor in Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦雯; 张佳俐; 夏宁

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine plasma levels of protease C1 inhibitor (SERPING1) in adult patients with latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA), and their clinical significance thereof. Methods The levels of SERPING1 were detected and compared between LADA, type 1 diabetes (T1DM), type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and healthy control groups. The correlation between plasma levels of SERPING1 and other clinical indicators such as age, disease course, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FPG), 2 h postprandial plasma glucose (2 hPG), fasting c-peptide (FCP) and 2 h postprandi-al C peptide (2 hCP) was analyzed. Multi-factor regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were used to evaluate the predictive effect of SERPING1 in LADA at the early stage. Results The level of SERPING1 was significantly higher in LADA group than that of T2DM group and control group (P < 0.05). There was a negative correlation between SERPING1 and FCP, and a positive correlation between SERPING1 and HbA1c, FPG and 2 hPG (P<0.05). There were no significant correlation between SERPING1 and age, disease course and 2 hCP. FCP was analyzed by regression equation (P<0.05), and which was the main influence factor of the plasma level of SERPING1. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of SERPING1 was 0.613 (P<0.05), 95%CI 0.514-0.712. The optimal cut-point of SERPING1 for early prediction of LADA was 289.71 mg/L, and the sensitivity and specificity were 69%and 48%respectively. Conclusion SERPING1 combined with other indicators will be useful for identifying LADA from T2DM at the early stage.%目的:检测成人隐匿性自身免疫性糖尿病(LADA)患者早期血浆中C1酯酶抑制物(SERPING1)的水平,探讨其临床意义。方法检测LADA组患者SERPING1水平,并与1型糖尿病(T1DM)组、2型糖尿病(T2DM)组和正常对照组进行比较。对SERPING1与年龄、病程、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)、空腹血糖(FPG)、餐后2 h血糖(2 hPG

  1. Pancreatic islet-specific T-cell clones from nonobese diabetic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Haskins, K; Portas, M; Bergman, B.; Lafferty, K; Bradley, B

    1989-01-01

    We have produced a panel of islet-specific T-cell clones from nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. These clones proliferate and make interleukin 2 in an antigen-specific manner in response to NOD antigen-presenting cells and islet cells. Most of the clones respond to islet-cell antigen from different mouse strains but only in the presence of antigen-presenting cells bearing the class II major histocompatibility complex of the NOD mouse. In vivo, the clones mediate the destruction of islet, but not p...

  2. Reduced iNKT cells numbers in type 1 diabetes patients and their first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beristain-Covarrubias, Nonantzin; Canche-Pool, Elsy; Gomez-Diaz, Rita; Sanchez-Torres, Luvia E; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney

    2015-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by the specific destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have been associated with development of T1D. Class I MHC-restricted T cell-associated molecule (CRTAM) is expressed on activated iNKT, CD8(+), and CD4(+) T cells, and it is associated with the pro-inflammatory profiles of these cells. Crtam gene expression in CD3(+) lymphocytes from non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice is associated with T1D onset. However, expression of CRTAM on T cells from patients with T1D has not yet been evaluated. We compared iNKT cell (CD3(+)Vα24(+)Vβ11(+)) numbers and CRTAM expression in a Mexican population with recent-onset T1D and their first-degree relatives with control families. Remarkably, we found lower iNKT cell numbers in T1D families, and we identified two iNKT cell populations in some of the families. One iNKT cell population expressed high iTCR levels (iNKT(hi)), whereas another expressed low levels (iNKT(lo)) and also expressed CRTAM. These findings support a probable genetic determinant of iNKT cell numbers and a possible role for these cells in T1D development. This study also suggests that CRTAM identifies recently activated iNKT lymphocytes.

  3. Autoimmune disease classification by inverse association with SNP alleles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sirota

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS performed across autoimmune diseases, there is a great opportunity to study the homogeneity of genetic architectures across autoimmune disease. Previous approaches have been limited in the scope of their analysis and have failed to properly incorporate the direction of allele-specific disease associations for SNPs. In this work, we refine the notion of a genetic variation profile for a given disease to capture strength of association with multiple SNPs in an allele-specific fashion. We apply this method to compare genetic variation profiles of six autoimmune diseases: multiple sclerosis (MS, ankylosing spondylitis (AS, autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Crohn's disease (CD, and type 1 diabetes (T1D, as well as five non-autoimmune diseases. We quantify pair-wise relationships between these diseases and find two broad clusters of autoimmune disease where SNPs that make an individual susceptible to one class of autoimmune disease also protect from diseases in the other autoimmune class. We find that RA and AS form one such class, and MS and ATD another. We identify specific SNPs and genes with opposite risk profiles for these two classes. We furthermore explore individual SNPs that play an important role in defining similarities and differences between disease pairs. We present a novel, systematic, cross-platform approach to identify allele-specific relationships between disease pairs based on genetic variation as well as the individual SNPs which drive the relationships. While recognizing similarities between diseases might lead to identifying novel treatment options, detecting differences between diseases previously thought to be similar may point to key novel disease-specific genes and pathways.

  4. Update on autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Teufel; Peter R Galle; Stephan Kanzler

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a necroinflammatory liver disease of unknown etiology that occurs in children and adults of all ages. Characteristics are its autoimmune features, hyperglobulinemia (IgG), and the presence of circulating autoantibodies, as well as a response to immunosuppressant drugs. Current treatment consists of prednisone and azathioprine and in most patients this disease has become very treatable. Over the past 2 years, a couple of new insights into the genetic aspects, clinical course and treatment of AIH have been reported, which will be the focus of this review. In particular, we concentrate on genome-wide microsatellite analysis, a novel mouse model of AIH, the evaluation of a large AIH cohort for overlap syndromes,suggested novel criteria for the diagnosis of AIH, and the latest studies on treatment of AIH with budenoside and mycophenolate mofetil.

  5. [Diagnostics of autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beleznay, Zsuzsanna; Regenass, Stephan

    2008-09-01

    Autoantibodies play a key role in diagnostic laboratories as markers of autoimmune diseases. In addition to their role as markers they mediate diverse effects in vivo. Autoantibodies with protective effect have been described. Natural protective IgM autoantibodies against tumour-antigens of malignant cells or their precursors may contribute to increased survival rates of carcinoma patients. In a mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus it has been shown that anti-dsDNA IgM autoantibodies protect from glomerular damage. In contrast, a direct pathogenic role of autoantibodies has been well established e.g. in myasthenia gravis or in Goodpasture syndrome. Similarly autoantibodies against SSA Ro52 are detrimental in neonatal lupus erythematosus with congenital heart block. Moreover, putatively protective autoantibodies may become pathogenic during the course of the disease such as the onconeuronal autoantibodies whose pathogenicity depends on their compartmentalisation. In patients with paraneoplastic syndromes tumour cells express proteins that are also naturally present in the brain. Anti-tumour autoantibodies which temporarily suppress tumour growth can provoke an autoimmune attack on neurons once having crossed the blood-brain barrier and cause specific neurological symptoms. Only a restricted number of autoantibodies are useful follow-up markers for the effectiveness of treatment in autoimmune diseases. Certain autoantibodies hold prognostic value and appear years or even decades before the diagnosis of disease such as the antimitochondrial antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis or anti-citrullinated protein (CCP)-antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis. It is crucial to know whether the autoantibodies in question recognise linear or conformational epitopes in order to choose the appropriate detection methods. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy remains a very useful tool for confirmation of results of commercially available immunoassays and for detection of

  6. Autoimmune Progesterone Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Bemanian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone induced dermatitis is a rare disorder. It typically occurs in females due to anautoimmune phenomenon to endogenous progesterone production, but can also be caused byexogenous intake of a synthetic progestin. Here in, we present a case of autoimmune progesterone anaphylaxis (AIPA observed in an adolescent female.The patient is an 18-year-old Caucasian female with no significant past medical history and noprior exogenous hormone use, who presented to her primary care physician complaining of cyclic skin eruptions with dyspnea, cough and respiratory distress. She noted that her symptoms occurred monthly, just prior to her menses. An intradermal skin test using 0.1 cml of progesterone was performed. The patient developed a 15mm wheal after 15 minutes, confirming the diagnosis of AIPA.The patient was started on a continuous regimen of an oral conjugated estrogen (0.625mg. The skin eruptions and respiratory symptoms have not returned since the initiation of this therapy.Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis manifests via the occurrence of cyclic skin eruptions.Women with the disorder commonly present with dermatologic lesions in the luteal phase of themenstrual cycle, if there are any other organ involvement in addition to skin (e.g. lung, GI thereaction should be called as autoimmune progesterone anaphylaxis. Diagnosis of AIPA is confirmed by performing a skin allergen test using progesterone.

  7. Autoimmune thyroid disease and other non-endocrine autoimmune diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Todorović-Đilas Ljiljana; Ičin Tijana; Novaković-Paro Jovanka; Bajkin Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Introduction, Autoimmune diseases are chronic conditions initiated by the loss of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. They constitute heterogeneous group of disorders, in which multiple alterations in the immune system result in a spectrum of syndromes that either target specific organs or affect the body systematically. Recent epidemiological studies have shown a possible shift of one autoimmune disease to another or the fact that more than one autoimmune disease may coexist in a...

  8. Cardiopulmonary Bypass Down-Regulates NOD Signaling and Inflammatory Response in Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi Ping; Huang, Shungen; Zhou, Huiting; Xie, Yi; Pan, Jian; Li, Yanhong; Wang, Jiang Huai; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to examine the impact of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on expression and function of NOD1 and NOD2 in children with congenital heart disease (CHD), in an attempt to clarify whether NOD1 and NOD2 signaling is involved in the modulation of host innate immunity against postoperative infection in pediatric CHD patients. Peripheral blood samples were collected from pediatric CHD patients at five different time points: before CPB, immediately after CPB, and 1, 3, and 7 days after CPB. Real-time PCR, Western blot, and ELISA were performed to measure the expression of NOD1 and NOD2, their downstream signaling pathways, and inflammatory cytokines at various time points. Proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and TNF-α levels in response to stimulation with either the NOD1 agonist Tri-DAP or the NOD2 agonist MDP were significantly reduced after CPB compared with those before CPB, which is consistent with a suppressed inflammatory response postoperatively. The expression of phosphorylated RIP2 and activation of the downstream signaling pathways NF-κB p65 and MAPK p38 upon Tri-DAP or MDP stimulation in PBMCs were substantially inhibited after CPB. The mRNA level of NOD1 and protein levels of NOD1 and NOD2 were also markedly decreased after CPB. Our results demonstrated that NOD-mediated signaling pathways were substantially inhibited after CPB, which correlates with the suppressed inflammatory response and may account, at least in part, for the increased risk of postoperative infection in pediatric CHD patients. PMID:27622570

  9. The Ubiquitin Ligase XIAP Recruits LUBAC for NOD2 Signaling in Inflammation and Innate Immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Rune Busk; Nachbur, Ueli; Yabal, Monica;

    2012-01-01

    -linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type-2 (XLP-2). Here, we demonstrate that the RING domain of XIAP is essential for NOD2 signaling and that XIAP contributes to exacerbation of inflammation-induced hepatitis in experimental mice. We find that XIAP ubiquitylates RIPK2 and recruits the linear ubiquitin chain assembly...... signaling. We conclude that XIAP and LUBAC constitute essential ubiquitin ligases in NOD2-mediated inflammatory signaling and propose that deregulation of NOD2 signaling contributes to XLP-2 pathogenesis....

  10. Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 3 with Anorexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Kahara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old man with diabetes mellitus visited our hospital with complaints of anorexia and weight loss (12 kg/3 months. He had megaloblastic anemia, cobalamin level was low, and autoantibody to intrinsic factor was positive. He was treated with intramuscular cyanocobalamin, and he was able to consume meals. GAD autoantibody and ICA were positive, and he was diagnosed with slowly progressive type 1 diabetes mellitus (SPIDDM. Thyroid autoantibodies were positive. According to these findings, he was diagnosed with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 with SPIDDM, pernicious anemia, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Extended periods of cobalamin deficiency can cause serious complications such as ataxia and dementia, and these complications may not be reversible if replacement therapy with cobalamin is delayed. Although type 1 diabetes mellitus with coexisting pernicious anemia is very rare in Japan, physicians should consider the possibility of pernicious anemia when patients with diabetes mellitus have cryptogenic anorexia with the finding of significant macrocytosis (MCV > 100 fL.

  11. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Autoimmune or Immune-mediated Pathogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghui Wen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC, the two main forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, is still unclear, but both autoimmune and immune-mediated phenomena are involved. Autoimmune phenomena include the presence of serum and mucosal autoantibodies against intestinal epithelial cells in either form of IBD, and against human tropomyosin fraction five selectively in UC. In addition, perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA are common in UC, whereas antibodies against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA are frequently found in CD. Immune-mediate phenomena include a variety of abnormalities of humoral and cell-mediated immunity, and a generalized enhanced reactivity against intestinal bacterial antigens in both CD and UC. It is currently believed that loss of tolerance against the indigenous enteric flora is the central event in IBD pathogenesis. Various complementary factors probably contribute to the loss of tolerance to commensal bacteria in IBD. They include defects in regulatory T-cell function, excessive stimulation of mucosal dendritic cells, infections or variants of proteins critically involved in bacterial antigen recognition, such as the products of CD-associated NOD2/CARD15 mutations.

  12. Protective effect of berberine on serum glucose levels in non-obese diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, Wei-Han; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2012-03-01

    Among the active components in traditional anti-diabetic herbal plants, berberine which is an isoquinoline alkaloid exhibits promising potential for its potent anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic effects. However, the berberine effect on serum glucose levels in type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects still remains unknown. This study investigated berberine's effects on serum glucose levels using non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice that spontaneously develop T1D. The NOD mice were randomly divided into four groups, administered water with 50, 150, and 500 mg berberine/kg bw, respectively, through 14 weeks. ICR mice were also selected as a species control group to compare with the NOD mice. Changes in body weight, oral glucose challenge, and serum glucose levels were determined to identify the protective effect of berberine on T1D. After the 14-week oral supplementation, berberine decreased fasting serum glucose levels in NOD mice close to the levels in normal ICR mice in a dose dependent manner. Serum berberine levels showed a significantly (Pberberine-administered NOD mice. Our results suggested that berberine supplemented at appropriate doses for 14 weeks did not cause toxic side effects, but improved hyperglycemia in NOD mice.

  13. Evidence for the involvement of NOD2 in regulating colonic epithelial cell growth and survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheena M Cruickshank; Louise Wakenshaw; John Cardone; Peter D Howdle; Peter J Murray; Simon R Carding

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the function of NOD2 in colonic epithelial cells (CEC).METHODS: A combination of in vivo and in vitro analyses of epithelial cell turnover in the presence and absence of a functional NOD2 protein and, in response to enteric Salmonella typhimurium infection, were used. shRNA interference was also used to investigate the consequences of knocking down NOD2 gene expression on the growth and survival of colorectal carcinoma cell lines.RESULTS: In the colonic mucosa the highest levels of NOD2 expression were in proliferating crypt epithelial cells. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP), that is recognized by NOD2, promoted CEC growth in vitro. By contrast, the growth of NOD2-deficient CECs was impaired. In vivo CEC proliferation was also reduced and apoptosis increased in Nod2-/- mice, which were also evident following enteric Salmonella infection. Furthermore, neutralization of NOD2 mRNA expression in human colonic carcinoma cells by shRNA interference resulted in decreased survival due to increased levels of apoptosis.CONCLUSION: These findings are consistent with the involvement of NOD2 protein in promoting CEC growth and survival. Defects in proliferation by CECs in cases of CD may contribute to the underlying pathology of disrupted intestinal homeostasis and excessive inflammation.

  14. Diabetes preventive gluten-free diet decreases the number of caecal bacteria in non-obese diabetic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Ling, Fenjung; Anne, Kaas;

    2006-01-01

    Background A gluten-free diet reduces the incidence of diabetes mellitus in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, but the mechanism is not known. The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of the diet on the caecal bacterial flora, which may affect the intestinal physiology and mediate...... disease prevention. Methods Two groups of NOD mice from the age of 3 weeks were fed either a gluten-free diet or a standard diet. Each diabetic mouse, when diagnosed, along with a non-diabetic mouse from the same diet group and two nondiabetic mice from the alternate diet group were euthanized and sampled...... for classical bacteriological examination. Results Nine out of 19 (47%) standard-fed mice and 1 out of 19 (5%) gluten-free-fed mice developed diabetes (p diet had significantly fewer aerobically (p

  15. Epilepsy in systemic autoimmune disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Ignacio

    2014-09-01

    Autoimmunity and inflammation have been implicated as causative factors of seizures and epilepsy. Autoimmune disorders can affect the central nervous system as an isolated syndrome or be part of a systemic disease. Examples of systemic autoimmune disorders include systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, rheumatic arthritis, and Sjögren syndrome. Overall, there is a 5-fold increased risk of seizures and epilepsy in children with systemic autoimmune disorders. Various etiologic factors have been implicated in causing the seizures in these patients, including direct inflammation, effect on blood vessels (vasculitis), and production of autoantibodies. Potential treatments for this autoimmune injury include steroids, immunoglobulins, and other immune-modulatory therapies. A better understanding of the mechanisms of epileptogenesis in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases could lead to targeted treatments and better outcomes. PMID:25510945

  16. Are human endogenous retroviruses triggers of autoimmune diseases?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Bjørn A; Villesen, Palle; Nissen, Kari K;

    2016-01-01

    factors. Viruses including human endogenous retroviruses have long been linked to the occurrence of autoimmunity, but never proven to be causative factors. Endogenous viruses are retroviral sequences embedded in the host germline DNA and transmitted vertically through successive generations in a Mendelian...... manner. In this study by means of genetic epidemiology, we have searched for the involvement of endogenous retroviruses in three selected autoimmune diseases: multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis. We found that at least one human endogenous retroviral locus......Autoimmune diseases encompass a plethora of conditions in which the immune system attacks its own tissue, identifying them as foreign. Multiple factors are thought to contribute to the development of immune response to self, including differences in genotypes, hormonal milieu, and environmental...

  17. Mycobacterial heat shock protein 65 and experimental autoimmune uveitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊杰

    2010-01-01

    @@ Uveitis, common cause of human visual disability and blindness, is an inflammatory eye disease of unknown etiology. Human autoimmune uveiti, which characterizes inflammation of different tissues of the eyes, is diverse and complex. Approximately 50% of patients with uveitis were found to occur in families in which clustering of other underlying systemic autoimmune diseases has been observed (multiplex families) such as diabetes, sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Behcet disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), and others [1-3]. Animal models of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), which represent different forms of clinical uveitis, have been widely used for studying the immunopathological mechanisms of uveitis to develop preventive or therapeutic strategies because of the difficulties in obtaining tissues from a patient's inflamed eye for experiments [4].

  18. p21 is associated with the proliferation and apoptosis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells from non-obese diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Z; Jiang, J; Xia, Y; Yue, X; Yan, M; Tao, T; Cao, X; Da, Z; Liu, H; Liu, H; Miao, Y; Li, L; Wang, Z

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that autologous and allogeneic transplantation of the BM-MSCs had therapeutic effects on T1DM, whereas the BM-MSCs from the NOD mice itself did not have this therapeutic effect. We previously demonstrated that Bone Marrow (BM) -MSCs from the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice had the abnormal migration and adhesion. So we hypothesized that the proliferation and apoptosis of the BM-MSCs from the NOD mice were dysregulated. Our team compared the proliferation and apoptosis between NOD mice and imprinting control region (ICR) mice. Then we assessed whether the NF-κB-p53/p21 pathway was involved in the process. The cell proliferation ability of the BM-MSCs from the NOD mice were significantly decreased, while the percent of apoptotic cells was increased compared to those from the ICR mice. The p21 expression was significantly increased in the NOD-MSCs. The p65 level was enhanced in the BM-MSCs from the NOD mice when compared to the ICR mice, coincided with the expression of p21. Expressions of p65 and p21 were significantly decreased in the -BM-MSCs treated with p65 inhibitor. The knockdown p21 expression reversed the abnormal proliferation, colony formation and apoptosis of the BM-MSCs from the NOD mice. These data provide important preclinical references supporting the basis for further development of autologous MSC-based therapies for type1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

  19. Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Crea; Carla Bizzarri; Marco Cappa

    2011-01-01

    The two major autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) include Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AT); both of which are characterized by infiltration of the thyroid by T and B cells reactive to thyroid antigens, by the production of thyroid autoantibodies and by abnormal thyroid function (hyperthyroidism in GD and hypothyroidism in AT). While the exact etiology of thyroid autoimmunity is not known, it is believed to develop when a combination of genetic susceptibility and environment...

  20. Etiology of Organ-Specific Autoimmunity: Basic Research and Clinical Implications in IBD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S Eisenbarth

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmunity develops in the setting of genetic susceptibility and can be monogenic (eg, autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I with Addison’s disease, mucocutaneous candidiasis and hypoparathyroidism, which is autosomal recessive with the causative gene on the tip of chromosome 21 or polygenic (usually with important alleles within the major histocompatibility complex [eg, type I diabetes]. In addition to genetic susceptibility, many autoimmune disorders can be classified into etiological categories (oncogenic, drug-induced, diet-induced, infectious or idiopathic. For most autoimmune disorders there are multiple target autoantigens and, for type I diabetes, a combinatorial approach (eg, expression of at least two autoantibodies of insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase and/or ICA512/IA-2 is the best predictor of diabetes risk. Finally, antigen-specific therapies hold promise for the prevention and therapy of autoimmunity, eg, parenteral or oral therapy with insulin delays or prevents type I diabetes in animal models, and a small pilot trial of parenteral insulin in humans suggests that such therapy may similarly prevent diabetes in humans.

  1. Th1/Th17 Plasticity Is a Marker of Advanced β Cell Autoimmunity and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert-Hartwall, Linnea; Honkanen, Jarno; Salo, Harri M.; Nieminen, Janne K.; Luopajärvi, Kristiina; Härkönen, Taina; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Ilonen, Jorma; Peet, Aleksandr; Tillmann, Vallo; Knip, Mikael; Knip, Mikael; Koski, Katriina; Koski, Matti; Härkönen, Taina; Ryhänen, Samppa; Hämäläinen, Anu-Maaria; Ormisson, Anne; Peet, Aleksandr; Tillmann, Vallo; Ulich, Valentina; Kuzmicheva, Elena; Mokurov, Sergei; Markova, Svetlana; Pylova, Svetlana; Isakova, Marina; Shakurova, Elena; Petrov, Vladimir; Dorshakova, Natalya V.; Karapetyan, Tatyana; Varlamova, Tatyana; Ilonen, Jorma; Kiviniemi, Minna; Alnek, Kristi; Janson, Helis; Uibo, Raivo; Salum, Tiit; von Mutius, Erika; Weber, Juliane; Ahlfors, Helena; Kallionpää, Henna; Laajala, Essi; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Moulder, Robert; Nieminen, Janne; Ruohtula, Terhi; Vaarala, Outi; Honkanen, Hanna; Hyöty, Heikki; Kondrashova, Anita; Oikarinen, Sami; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; De Goffau, Marcus C.; Welling, Gjalt; Alahuhta, Kirsi; Virtanen, Suvi M.

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation of IL-17 immunity and detrimental effects of IL-17 on human islets have been implicated in human type 1 diabetes. In animal models, the plasticity of Th1/Th17 cells contributes to the development of autoimmune diabetes. In this study, we demonstrate that the upregulation of the IL-17 pathway and Th1/Th17 plasticity in peripheral blood are markers of advanced β cell autoimmunity and impaired β cell function in human type 1 diabetes. Activated Th17 immunity was observed in the late stage of preclinical diabetes in children with β cell autoimmunity and impaired glucose tolerance, but not in children with early β cell autoimmunity. We found an increased ratio of IFN-γ/IL-17 expression in Th17 cells in children with advanced β cell autoimmunity, which correlated with HbA1c and plasma glucose concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test, and thus impaired β cell function. Low expression of Helios was seen in Th17 cells, suggesting that Th1/Th17 cells are not converted thymus-derived regulatory T cells. Our results suggest that the development of Th1/Th17 plasticity may serve as a biomarker of disease progression from β cell autoantibody positivity to type 1 diabetes. These data in human type 1 diabetes emphasize the role of Th1/Th17 plasticity as a potential contributor to tissue destruction in autoimmune conditions. PMID:25480564

  2. Autoantibodies in autoimmune liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Asli Gamze

    2015-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic hepatitis of unknown etiology characterized by clinical, histological, and immunological features, generally including circulating autoantibodies and a high total serum and/or gamma globulin. Liver-related autoantibodies are very significant for the correct diagnosis and classification of autoimmune liver diseases (AILD), namely autoimmune hepatitis types 1 and 2 (AIH-1 and 2), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and the sclerosing cholangitis types in adults and children. This article intends to review recent studies that investigate autoantibodies in autoimmune liver diseases from a microbiological perspective.

  3. Implication of NOD1 and NOD2 for the differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Sik Kim

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs and Nod-like receptors (NLRs are known to trigger an innate immune response against microbial infection. Although studies suggest that activation of TLRs modulate the function of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, little is known about the role of NLRs on the MSC function. In this study, we investigated whether NOD1 and NOD2 regulate the functions of human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs. The genes of TLR2, TLR4, NOD1, and NOD2 were expressed in hUCB-MSCs. Stimulation with each agonist (Pam(3CSK(4 for TLR2, LPS for TLR4, Tri-DAP for NOD1, and MDP for NOD2 led to IL-8 production in hUCB-MSC, suggesting the expressed receptors are functional in hUCB-MSC. CCK-8 assay revealed that none of agonist influenced proliferation of hUCB-MSCs. We next examined whether TLR and NLR agonists affect osteogenic-, adipogenic-, and chondrogenic differentiation of hUCB-MSCs. Pam(3CSK(4 and Tri-DAP strongly enhanced osteogenic differentiation and ERK phosphorylation in hUCB-MSCs, and LPS and MDP also slightly did. Treatment of U0126 (MEK1/2 inhibitor restored osteogenic differentiation enhanced by Pam(3CSK(4. Tri-DAP and MDP inhibited adipogenic differentiation of hUCB-MSCs, but Pam(3CSK(4 and LPS did not. On chondrogenic differentiation, all TLR and NLR agonists could promote chondrogenesis of hUCB-MSCs with difference in the ability. Our findings suggest that NOD1 and NOD2 as well as TLRs are involved in regulating the differentiation of MSCs.

  4. Neuropathology of autoimmune encephalitides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jan; Bien, Christian G

    2016-01-01

    In recent years a large number of antibody-associated or antibody-defined encephalitides have been discovered. These conditions are often referred to as autoimmune encephalitides. The clinical features include prominent epileptic seizures, cognitive and psychiatric disturbance. These encephalitides can be divided in those with antibodies against intracellular antigens and those with antibodies against surface antigens. The discovery of new antibodies against targets on the surface of neurons is especially interesting since patients with such antibodies can be successfully treated immunologically. This chapter focuses on the pathology and the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in these encephalitides and discusses some of the questions that are raised in this exciting new field. It is important to realise, however, that because of the use of antibodies to diagnose the patients, and their improvement with treatment, there are relatively few biopsy or postmortem reports, limiting the neuropathological data and conclusions that can be drawn. For this reason we especially focus on the most frequent autoimmune encephalitides, those with antibodies to the NMDA receptor and with antibodies to the known protein components of the VGKC complex. Analysis of these encephalitides show completely different pathogenic mechanisms. In VGKC complex encephalitis, antibodies seem to bind to their target and activate complement, leading to destruction and loss of neurons. On the other hand, in NMDAR encephalitis, complement activation and neuronal degeneration seems to be largely absent. Instead, binding of antibodies leads to a decrease of NMDA receptors resulting in a hypofunction. This hypofunction offers an explanation for some of the clinical features such as psychosis and episodic memory impairment, but not for the frequent seizures. Thus, additional analysis of the few human brain specimens present and the use of specific animal models are needed to further understand the effects

  5. Neuropathology of autoimmune encephalitides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jan; Bien, Christian G

    2016-01-01

    In recent years a large number of antibody-associated or antibody-defined encephalitides have been discovered. These conditions are often referred to as autoimmune encephalitides. The clinical features include prominent epileptic seizures, cognitive and psychiatric disturbance. These encephalitides can be divided in those with antibodies against intracellular antigens and those with antibodies against surface antigens. The discovery of new antibodies against targets on the surface of neurons is especially interesting since patients with such antibodies can be successfully treated immunologically. This chapter focuses on the pathology and the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in these encephalitides and discusses some of the questions that are raised in this exciting new field. It is important to realise, however, that because of the use of antibodies to diagnose the patients, and their improvement with treatment, there are relatively few biopsy or postmortem reports, limiting the neuropathological data and conclusions that can be drawn. For this reason we especially focus on the most frequent autoimmune encephalitides, those with antibodies to the NMDA receptor and with antibodies to the known protein components of the VGKC complex. Analysis of these encephalitides show completely different pathogenic mechanisms. In VGKC complex encephalitis, antibodies seem to bind to their target and activate complement, leading to destruction and loss of neurons. On the other hand, in NMDAR encephalitis, complement activation and neuronal degeneration seems to be largely absent. Instead, binding of antibodies leads to a decrease of NMDA receptors resulting in a hypofunction. This hypofunction offers an explanation for some of the clinical features such as psychosis and episodic memory impairment, but not for the frequent seizures. Thus, additional analysis of the few human brain specimens present and the use of specific animal models are needed to further understand the effects

  6. A Retrospective Longitudinal Cohort Study of Antihypertensive Drug Use and New-Onset Diabetes in Taiwanese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ya Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antihypertensive drugs have been linked to new-onset diabetes (NOD; however, data on the effect of these drugs on the development of NOD in hypertensive patients has not been well determined in a clinical setting. The aim was to investigate the association between antihypertensive drugs and NOD in Taiwan. We conducted a retrospective study of hypertensive Taiwanese patients receiving antihypertensive drugs treatment between January 2006 and December 2011. Clinical information and laboratory parameters were collected by reviewing the medical records. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs of NOD associated with antihypertensive drug use; nondiabetic subjects served as the reference group. A total of 120 NOD cases were identified in 1001 hypertensive patients during the study period. The risk of NOD after adjusting sex, age, baseline characteristics, and lipid profiles was higher among users of thiazide diuretics (OR, 1.65; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.12–2.45 and nondihydropyridine (non-DHP calcium channel blockers (CCBs (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.01–3.75 than among nonusers. Other antihypertensive drug classes were not associated with risk of NOD. Our results show that patients with hypertension who take thiazide diuretics and non-DHP CCBs are at higher risk of developing NOD than those who take other classes of antihypertensive drugs in Taiwan.

  7. New insights into disease-specific absence of complement factor H related protein C in mouse models of spontaneous autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Gaurav; Ferreira, Viviana P; Skerka, Christine; Zipfel, Peter F; Banda, Nirmal K

    2014-11-01

    Complement factor H (CFH) protein is an inhibitor of the alternative pathway of complement (AP) both in the fluid phase and on the surface of host cells. Mouse and human complement factor H-related (CFHR) proteins also belong to the fH family of plasma glycoproteins. The main goal of the current study was to compare the presence of mRNA for two mCFHR proteins in spontaneously developing autoimmune diseases in mice such as dense deposit disease (DDD), diabetes mellitus (DM), basal laminar deposits (BLD), collagen antibody-induced arthrits (CAIA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here we report for the first time that the CFHR-C mRNA was universally absent in the liver from three strains of lupus-prone mice and in a diabetic-prone mouse strain. The mRNA levels (pg/ng) for CFH and CFHR-B in MRL-lpr/lpr, at 9 wks and 23 wks were 707.2±44.4, 54.5±5.75 and 729±252.9, 74.04±22.76, respectively. The mRNA levels for CFH and CFHR-B in NZB/NZW mice, at 9 wks and 54 wks were 579.9±23.8, 58.8±1.41 and 890.3±135.2, 63.30±9.2, respectively. CFHR-C protein was absent in the circulation of MRL-lpr/lpr and NZB/NZW mice before and after the development of lupus. Similarly, mRNA and protein for CFHR-C was universally absent in liver and other organs and in the circulation of NOD mice before and after the development of DM. In contrast, the mRNAs for CFH, CFHR-B and CFHR-C were universally present in the liver from mice with and without DDD, BLD and CAIA. The levels of mRNA for CFHR-B in mice with and without BLD were ∼4 times higher than the mice with lupus. The complete absence of mRNA for CFHR-C in lupus and diabetic-prone strains indicates that polymorphic variation within the mouse CFHR family exists and raises the possibility that such variation contributes to lupus and diabetic phenotypes. PMID:25033230

  8. Autoimmune diseases in Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia (ALiCCS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmqvist, Anna Sällfors; Olsen, Jørgen H.; Mellemkjaer, Lene;

    2015-01-01

    all autoimmune diseases combined, corresponding to an AER of 67 per 100 000 person-years. The SHRRs were significantly increased for autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (16.3), Addison's disease (13.9), polyarteritis nodosa (5.8), chronic rheumatic heart disease (4.5), localised scleroderma (3......OBJECTIVES: The pattern of autoimmune diseases in childhood cancer survivors has not been investigated previously. We estimated the risk for an autoimmune disease after childhood cancer in a large, population-based setting with outcome measures from comprehensive, nationwide health registries.......6), idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (3.4), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (3.1), pernicious anaemia (2.7), sarcoidosis (2.2), Sjögren's syndrome (2.0) and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (1.6). The SHRRs for any autoimmune disease were significantly increased after leukaemia (SHRR 1.6), Hodgkin's lymphoma (1...

  9. MHC class II polymorphisms, autoreactive T-cells and autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue eTsai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes, also known as human leukocyte antigen genes (HLA in humans, are the prevailing contributors of genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases such as Type 1 Diabetes (T1D, Multiple Sclerosis (MS, and Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, among others (Todd and Wicker, 2001;MacKay et al., 2002;Hafler et al., 2007. Although the pathways through which MHC molecules afford autoimmune risk or resistance remain to be fully mapped out, it is generally accepted that they do so by shaping the central and peripheral T cell repertoires of the host towards autoimmune proclivity or resistance, respectively. Disease-predisposing MHC alleles would both spare autoreactive thymocytes from central tolerance and bias their development towards a pathogenic phenotype. Protective MHC alleles, on the other hand, would promote central deletion of autoreactive thymocytes and skew their development towards non-pathogenic phenotypes. This interpretation of the data is at odds with two other observations: that in MHC-heterozygous individuals, resistance is dominant over susceptibility; and that it is difficult to understand how deletion of one or a few clonal autoreactive T cell types would suffice to curb autoimmune responses driven by hundreds if not thousands of autoreactive T cell specificities. This review provides an update on current advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying MHC class II-associated autoimmune disease susceptibility and/or resistance and attempts to reconcile these seemingly opposing concepts.

  10. Coeliac disease in endocrine diseases of autoimmune origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miśkiewicz, Piotr; Kępczyńska-Nyk, Anna; Bednarczuk, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Coeliac disease (CD, sometimes called gluten-sensitive enteropathy or nontropical sprue) is an inflammatory disorder of the small intestine of autoimmune origin. It occurs in genetically predisposed people and is induced by a gluten protein, which is a component of wheat. The prevalence of histologically confirmed CD is estimated in screening studies of adults in the United States and Europe to be between 0.2% and 1.0%. The results of previous studies have indicated that the prevalence of CD is increased in patients with other autoimmune disorders such as: autoimmune thyroid diseases, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and Addison's disease. A coincidence of the above diseases constitutes autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS). The high prevalence of CD in APS is probably due to the common genetic predisposition to the coexistent autoimmune diseases. The majority of adult patients have the atypical or silent type of the disease. This is the main reason why CD so often goes undiagnosed or the diagnosis is delayed. CD, if undiagnosed and untreated, is associated with many medical disorders including haematological (anaemia), metabolical (osteopenia/osteoporosis), obstetric-gynaecological (infertility, spontaneous abortions, late puberty, early menopause), neurological (migraine, ataxia, epilepsy) as well as with an increased risk of malignancy, especially: enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma, small intestine adenocarcinoma, and oesophageal and oropharyngeal carcinomas. Early introduction of a gluten-free diet and lifelong adherence to this treatment decreases the risk of these complications. PMID:22744631

  11. Higher susceptibility of NOD/LtSz-scid Il2rg−/− NSG mice to xenotransplanted lung cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No lung cancer xenograft model using non-obese diabetic (NOD)-scid Il2rg−/− mice has been reported. The purpose of this study is to select a suitable mouse strain as a xenogenic host for testing tumorigenicity of lung cancer. We directly compared the susceptibility of four immunodeficient mouse strains, c-nu, C.B-17 scid, NOD-scid, and NOD/LtSz-scid Il2rg−/− (NSG) mice, for tumor formation from xenotransplanted lung cancer cell lines. Various numbers (101–105 cells/head) of two lung cancer cell lines, A549 and EBC1, were subcutaneously inoculated and tumor sizes were measured every week up to 12 weeks. When 104 EBC1 cells were inoculated, no tumor formation was observed in BALB/c-nu or C.B-17 scid mice. Tumors developed in two of the five NOD-scid mice (40%) and in all the five NSG mice (100%). When 103 EBC1 cells were injected, no tumors developed in any strain other than NSG mice, while tumorigenesis was achieved in all the five NSG mice (100%, P=0.0079) within 9 weeks. NSG mice similarly showed higher susceptibility to xenotransplantation of A549 cells. Tumor formation was observed only in NSG mice after inoculation of 103 or fewer A549 cells (40% vs 0% in 15 NSG mice compared with others, respectively, P=0.0169). We confirmed that the engrafted tumors originated from inoculated human lung cancer cells by immunohistochemical staining with human cytokeratin and vimentin. NSG mice may be the most suitable strain for testing tumorigenicity of lung cancer, especially if only a few cells are available

  12. Effect of iodide on Fas, Fas-ligand and Bcl-w mRNA expression in thyroid of NOD mice pretreated with methimazole

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    L.H.B. Boechat

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonobese diabetic (NOD mice and a derived strain, NOD.H.2h4, have been used as a model for experimental spontaneous thyroiditis and thyroiditis induced by iodide excess after a goiter-inducing period. Some authors have proposed that iodide, given after methimazole or propylthiouracil, is capable of inducing apoptosis in thyroid cells and that anti-thyroid drugs can modulate the expression of apoptosis components such as Fas and its ligand (Fas-L. Here we evaluated the effect of potassium iodide (20 µg/animal for 4 days, ip given to NOD mice at the 10th week of life after exposure to methimazole (1 mg/ml in drinking water from the 4th to the 10th week of life. Fas, Fas-L and Bcl-w expression were analyzed semiquantitatively by RT-PCR immediately after potassium iodide administration (group MI44D or at week 32 (MI32S. Control groups were added at 10 (C10 and 32 weeks (C32, as well as a group that received only methimazole (CM10. An increase in the expression of Fas-L and Bcl-w (P<0.01, ANOVA was observed in animals of group MI44D, while Fas was expressed at higher levels (P = 0.02 in group C32 (72.89 ± 47.09 arbitrary units when compared to group C10 (10.8 ± 8.55 arbitrary units. Thus, the analysis of Fas-L and Bcl-w expression in the MI44D group and Fas in group C32 allowed us to detect two different patterns of expression of these apoptosis components in thyroid tissue of NOD mice.

  13. Mast Cell and Autoimmune Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yunzhi Xu; Guangjie Chen

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells are important in innate immune system. They have been appreciated as potent contributors to allergic reaction. However, increasing evidence implicates the important role of mast cells in autoimmune disease like rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Here we review the current stage of knowledge about mast cells in autoimmune diseases.

  14. Aetiopathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego Vergani; Giorgina Mieli-Vergani

    2008-01-01

    The histological hallmark of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a dense portal mononuclear cell infiltrate that invades the surrounding parenchyma and comprises T and B lymphocytes,macrophages,and plasma cells.An unknown but powerful stimulus must be promoting the formation of this massive inflammatory cellular reaction that is likely to initiate and perpetuate liver damage.An autoimmune attack can follow different pathways to inflict damage on hepatocytes.Liver damage is likely to be orchestrated by CD4+T lymphocytes recognizing an autoantigenic liver peptide.To trigger an autoimmune response,the peptide must be embraced by an HLA class Ⅱ molecule and presented to naive CD4+T helper (Th0) cells by professional antigen presenting cells,with the co-stimulation of ligand-ligand fostering interaction between the two cells.Th0 cells become activated,differentiate into functional phenotypes according to the cytokines prevailing in the microenvironment and the nature of the antigen,and initiate a cascade of immune reactions determined by the cytokines produced by the activated T cells.Th1 cells,arising in the presence of the macrophage-derived interleukin (IL)-12,secrete mainly IL-2 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ),which activate macrophages,enhance expression of HLA class Ⅰ (increasing liver cell vulnerability to a CD8+T cell cytotoxic attack),and induce expression of HLA class Ⅱ molecules on hepatocytes.Th2 cells,which differentiate from Th0 if the microenvironment is rich in IL-4,produce mainly IL-4,IL-10,and IL-13 which favour autoantibody production by B lymphocytes.Physiologically,Th1 and Th2 antagonize each other.Th17 cells,a recently described population,arise in the presence of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and IL-6 and appear to have an important effector role in inflammation and autoimmunity.The process of autoantigen recognition is strictly controlled by regulatory mechanisms,such as those exerted by CD4+CD25+regulatory T cells,which derive from Th0

  15. The role of parvovirus B19 in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jonathan R

    2016-04-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is a single-stranded DNA virus which preferentially targets the erythroblasts in the bone marrow. B19 infection commonly causes erythema infectiosum, arthralgia, fetal death, transient aplastic crisis in patients with shortened red cell survival, and persistent infection in people who are immunocompromised. Less common clinical manifestations include atypical skin rashes, neurological syndromes, cardiac syndromes, and various cytopenias. B19 infection has also been associated with development of a variety of different autoimmune diseases, including rheumatological, neurological, neuromuscular, cardiovascular, haematological, nephrological and metabolic. Production of a variety of autoantibodies has been demonstrated to occur during B19 infection and these have been shown to be key to the pathogenesis of the particular disease process in a significant number of cases, for example, production of rheumatoid factor in cases of B19-associated rheumatoid arthritis and production of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in patients with B19-associated type 1 diabetes mellitus. B19 infection has also been associated with the development of multiple autoimmune diseases in 12 individuals. Documented mechanisms in B19-associated autoimmunity include molecular mimicry (IgG antibody to B19 proteins has been shown to cross react with a variety of recognised human autoantigens, including collagen II, keratin, angiotensin II type 1 receptor, myelin basic protein, cardiolipin, and platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb/IIIa), B19-induced apoptosis with presentation of self-antigens to T lymphocytes, and the phospholipase activity of the B19 unique VP1 protein. PMID:26644521

  16. Nod2: A Critical Regulator of Ileal Microbiota and Crohn’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidiq, Tabasum; Yoshihama, Sayuri; Downs, Isaac; Kobayashi, Koichi S.

    2016-01-01

    The human intestinal tract harbors large bacterial community consisting of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic strains, which are constantly interacting with the intestinal immune system. This interaction elicits a non-pathological basal level of immune responses and contributes to shaping both the intestinal immune system and bacterial community. Recent studies on human microbiota are revealing the critical role of intestinal bacterial community in the pathogenesis of both systemic and intestinal diseases, including Crohn’s disease (CD). NOD2 plays a key role in the regulation of microbiota in the small intestine. NOD2 is highly expressed in ileal Paneth cells that provide critical mechanism for the regulation of ileal microbiota through the secretion of anti-bacterial compounds. Genome mapping of CD patients revealed that loss of function mutations in NOD2 are associated with ileal CD. Genome-wide association studies further demonstrated that NOD2 is one of the most critical genetic factor linked to ileal CD. The bacterial community in the ileum is indeed dysregulated in Nod2-deficient mice. Nod2-deficient ileal epithelia exhibit impaired ability of killing bacteria. Thus, altered interactions between ileal microbiota and mucosal immunity through NOD2 mutations play significant roles in the disease susceptibility and pathogenesis in CD patients, thereby depicting NOD2 as a critical regulator of ileal microbiota and CD. PMID:27703457

  17. Inhibition of Nod2 signaling and target gene expression by curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nod2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor that detects a conserved moiety of bacterial peptidoglycan and subsequently activates proinflammatory signaling pathways. Mutations in Nod2 have been implicated to be linked to inflammatory granulomatous disorders, such as Crohn’s disease and Bla...

  18. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) NOD1 and NOD2 Receptors and Their Functional Role in In-Vitro Cellular Immune Response

    OpenAIRE

    Brahma, Biswajit; Kumar, Sushil; De, Bidhan Chandra; Mishra, Purusottam; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Gaur, Deepak; Chopra, Meenu; Gautam, Devika; Mahanty, Sourav; Malik, Hrudananda; Malakar, Dhruba; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are innate immune receptors that recognize bacterial cell wall components and initiate host immune response. Structure and function of NLRs have been well studied in human and mice, but little information exists on genetic composition and role of these receptors in innate immune system of water buffalo—a species known for its exceptional disease resistance. Here, a comparative study on the functional domains of NOD1 and...

  19. Application of NOD/SCID Mice in Research of Experimental Hematology-Review%NOD/SCID小鼠在实验血液学研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文俊; 杨文华; 史哲新; 杨向东; 王慧娟

    2008-01-01

    NOD/SCID(非肥胖糖尿病/重症联合免疫缺陷)小鼠是在SCID(重症联合免疫缺陷)小鼠的基础上与非肥胖性糖尿病小鼠(NOD/Lt)品系回交的免疫缺陷鼠.NOD/SCID小鼠既有先天免疫缺陷,又有T和B淋巴细胞缺乏,各种肿瘤细胞可以植入,且较少发生排斥反应及移植物抗宿主病(GVHD),所以NOD/SCID小鼠逐渐成为血液学实验研究的有用工具.本文从NOD/SCID小鼠的生物学特性及其在建立人类白血病模型、干细胞移植、药物研究及NOD/SCID小鼠应用中存在的不足和改良等方面综合述评.

  20. Differential Secondary Reconstitution of In Vivo-Selected Human SCID-Repopulating Cells in NOD/SCID versus NOD/SCID/γ chainnull Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanbao Cai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanized bone-marrow xenograft models that can monitor the long-term impact of gene-therapy strategies will help facilitate evaluation of clinical utility. The ability of the murine bone-marrow microenvironment in NOD/SCID versus NOD/SCID/γ chainnull mice to support long-term engraftment of MGMTP140K-transduced human-hematopoietic cells following alkylator-mediated in vivo selection was investigated. Mice were transplanted with MGMTP140K-transduced CD34+ cells and transduced cells selected in vivo. At 4 months after transplantation, levels of human-cell engraftment, and MGMTP140K-transduced cells in the bone marrow of NOD/SCID versus NSG mice varied slightly in vehicle- and drug-treated mice. In secondary transplants, although equal numbers of MGMTP140K-transduced human cells were transplanted, engraftment was significantly higher in NOD/SCID/γ chainnull mice compared to NOD/SCID mice at 2 months after transplantation. These data indicate that reconstitution of NOD/SCID/γ chainnull mice with human-hematopoietic cells represents a more promising model in which to test for genotoxicity and efficacy of strategies that focus on manipulation of long-term repopulating cells of human origin.

  1. Endocrine autoimmunity in Turner syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Turner syndrome is caused by numeric and structural abnormalities of the X chromosome. An increased frequency of autoimmunity as well as an elevated incidence of autoantibodies was observed in Turner patients. The aim of this study was to conduct a retrospective analysis of the incidence of autoimmunity in 66 Italian patients affected by Turner syndrome. Methods Sixty-six unselected and consecutive Italian Turner patients were recruited. The association between age, karyotype and the presence of clinical/pre-clinical autoimmune disorders and of autoantibodies was examined. Results Out of the 66 Turner patients, 26 had thyroid autoimmune disorders (39.4%), 14 patients had Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism (21.2%) and 12 patients had circulating anti-thyroid antibodies, echographic pattern of diffuse hypoechogenicity and normal thyroid hormone levels (18.2%). None were affected by Graves’ disease. We analyzed the overall incidence of thyroid autoimmunity within the 3 different age groups 0–9.9, 10–19.9 and 20–29.9 years. No statistically significant difference was observed in the incidence of thyroid autoimmunity within the age-groups (χ2-test p > 0.05). Out of the 66 patients, 31 patients had the 45,X karyotype; within this first group 14 out of 31 patients were affected by autoimmune thyroid disease. A second group of 29 patients included 19 patients with mosaicism, 5 patients with deletions and 5 patients with ring chromosome; out of these 29 patients 7 were affected by autoimmune thyroid disease. A third group included 6 patients with X isochromosome; 5 out of 6 were affected by autoimmune thyroid disease. A statistically significant difference in the frequency of thyroid autoimmunity within the different karyotype groups was observed (χ2-test p = 0.0173). When comparing the X isochromosome group with the pooled group of other karyotypes, of note, the frequency of thyroid autoimmunity was

  2. Functions of NOD-like receptors (NLRs in human diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei eZhong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD-like receptors (NLRs are highly conserved cytosolic pattern recognition receptors that perform critical functions in surveying the intracellular environment for the presence of infection, noxious substances, and metabolic perturbations. Sensing of these danger signals by NLRs leads to their oligomerization into large macromolecular scaffolds and the rapid deployment of effector signaling cascades to restore homeostasis. While some NLRs operate by recruiting and activating inflammatory caspases into inflammasomes, others trigger inflammation via alternative routes including the NF-κB, MAPK and IRF pathways. The critical role of NLRs in development and physiology is demonstrated by their clear implications in human diseases. Mutations in the genes encoding NLRP3 or NLRP12 lead to hereditary periodic fever syndromes, while mutations in CARD15 that encodes NOD2 are linked to Crohn’s disease or Blau’s syndrome. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified a number of risk alleles encompassing NLR genes in a host of diseases including allergic rhinitis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, multi-bacillary leprosy, vitiligo, early-onset menopause, and bone density loss in elderly women. Animal models have allowed the characterization of underlying effector mechanisms in a number of cases. In this review, we highlight the functions of NLRs in health and disease and discuss how the characterization of their molecular mechanisms provides new insights into therapeutic strategies for the management of inflammatory pathologies.

  3. SOCS, inflammation and autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko eYoshimura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines play essential roles in innate and adaptive immunity. However, excess cytokines or dysregulation of cytokine signaling can cause a variety of diseases, including allergies, autoimmune diseases, inflammation, and cancer. Most cytokines utilize the so-called Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT pathway. This pathway is negatively regulated by various mechanisms including suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS proteins. SOCS proteins bind to JAK or cytokine receptors, thereby suppressing further signaling events. Especially, SOCS1 and SOCS3 are strong inhibitors of JAK, because these two contain kinase inhibitory region (KIR at the N-terminus. Studies using conditional knockout mice have shown that SOCS proteins are key physiological as well as pathological regulators of immune homeostasis. Recent studies have also demonstrated that SOCS1 and SOCS3 are important regulators of helper T cell differentiation and functions.

  4. Adult autoimmune enteropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that autoimmune enteropathy involving the small bowel may occur in adults as well as in children. Apparently, the endoscopic and histological changes are similar to celiac disease before treatment, but these are not altered by any form of dietary restriction, including a gluten-free diet. As in celiac disease, histologic changes in gastric and colonic biopsies have also been recorded. Anti enterocyte antibodies detected with immunofluorescent methods have been reported by a few laboratories, but these antibodies appear not to be specific and may simply represent epiphenomena. A widely available, reproducible and quantitative anti-enterocyte antibody assay is needed that could be applied in small bowel disorders that have the histological appearance of celiac disease, but fail to respond to a gluten-free diet.

  5. Psychoneuroimmunology - psyche and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2012-01-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology is a relatively young field of research that investigates interactions between central nervous and immune system. The brain modulates the immune system by the endocrine and autonomic nervous system. Vice versa, the immune system modulates brain activity including sleep and body temperature. Based on a close functional and anatomical link, the immune and nervous systems act in a highly reciprocal manner. From fever to stress, the influence of one system on the other has evolved in an intricate manner to help sense danger and to mount an appropriate adaptive response. Over recent decades, reasonable evidence has emerged that these brain-to-immune interactions are highly modulated by psychological factors which influence immunity and autoimmune disease. For several diseases, the relevance of psychoneuroimmunological findings has already been demonstrated.

  6. Pathophysiology of autoimmune polyneuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalakas, Marinos C

    2013-06-01

    The most common autoimmune neuropathies include the acute inflammatory polyneuropathy [the Guillain-Barré Syndrome(s)]; chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and IgM anti-MAG-antibody mediated paraproteinemic neuropathy. These neuropathies occur when immunologic tolerance to peripheral nerve components (myelin, Schwann cell, axon, and motor or ganglionic neurons) is lost. Based on the immunopathologic similarities with experimental allergic neuritis induced after immunization with nerve proteins, disease transfer experiments with the patients' serum or with intraneural injections, and immunocytochemical studies on the patients' nerves, it appears that both cellular and humoral factors, either independently or in concert with each other, play a role in the cause of these neuropathies. Although in some of them there is direct evidence for autoimmune reactivity mediated by specific antibodies or autoreactive T lymphocytes, in others the underlying immune-mediated mechanisms have not been fully elucidated, in spite of good response to immunotherapies. The review highlights the factors associated with breaking the T-cell tolerance, the T-cell activation and costimulatory molecules, the immunoregulatory T-cells and relevant cytokines and the antibodies against peripheral nerve glycolipids or glycoproteins that seem to be of pathogenic relevance. Antigens in the nodal, paranodal and juxtaparanodal regions are discussed as potentially critical targets in explaining conduction failure and rapid recovery. Based on the immunopathologic network believed to play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of these neuropathies, future therapeutic directions are highlighted using new biological agents against T-cells, cytokines, B-cells, transmigration and transduction molecules.

  7. Cannabinoids and autoimmune diseases: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchan, Valeria; David, Paula; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2016-06-01

    Cannabinoids have shown to have a variety effects on body systems. Through CB1 and CB2 receptors, amongst other, they exert an effect by modulating neurotransmitter and cytokine release. Current research in the role of cannabinoids in the immune system shows that they possess immunosuppressive properties. They can inhibit proliferation of leucocytes, induce apoptosis of T cells and macrophages and reduce secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In mice models, they are effective in reducing inflammation in arthritis, multiple sclerosis, have a positive effect on neuropathic pain and in type 1 diabetes mellitus. They are effective as treatment for fibromyalgia and have shown to have anti-fibrotic effect in scleroderma. Studies in human models are scarce and not conclusive and more research is required in this field. Cannabinoids can be therefore promising immunosuppressive and anti-fibrotic agents in the therapy of autoimmune disorders. PMID:26876387

  8. What caused the increase of autoimmune and allergic diseases: A decreased or an increased exposure to luminal microbial components?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofa Qin

    2007-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR The dramatic increase of allergic and autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis (eczema), allergic rhinitis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, including both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis), multiple sclerosis,and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type Ⅰ diabetes)in the developed countries in the last century[1-3] is a big puzle.

  9. Th1/Th17 plasticity is a marker of advanced β cell autoimmunity and impaired glucose tolerance in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinert-Hartwall, Linnea; Honkanen, Jarno; Salo, Harri M; Nieminen, Janne K; Luopajärvi, Kristiina; Härkönen, Taina; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Ilonen, Jorma; Peet, Aleksandr; Tillmann, Vallo; Knip, Mikael; Vaarala, Outi; Harmsen, Hermanus

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation of IL-17 immunity and detrimental effects of IL-17 on human islets have been implicated in human type 1 diabetes. In animal models, the plasticity of Th1/Th17 cells contributes to the development of autoimmune diabetes. In this study, we demonstrate that the upregulation of the IL-17 pa

  10. Cytosolic proteins NODs involved in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses%参与免疫及炎症反应调控的胞浆蛋白NODs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡巢凤

    2004-01-01

    Nucleotide- binding oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins are members of a growing family of cytosolic factors related to the apoptosis regulator Apaf-1 and a class of plant disease resistance proteins. NOD proteins have been implicated in the induction of NF-κB activity and in the activation of caspases. Biochemical evidence has unraveled the role of NOD1 and NOD2 as intraceUular sensors of bacterial peptidoglycan. Notably, genetic variation in the genes encoding the NOD proteins NOD2, cryopyrin and C Ⅱ TA inhmnans is associated with inflammatory disease or increased susceptibility to bacterial infections. NOD proteins may be involved in the recognition of microorganisms and regulation of inflammatory responses.

  11. [Autoimmune pancreatitis as an element of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrla, Przemysław; Nowak, Tomasz; Gil, Jerzy; Adamiec, Cezary; Bobula, Mariusz; Saracyn, Marek

    2016-05-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis constantly belongs to diseases which often causes significant diagnostic problem and often runs out with surgical intervention as considered to be a pancreatic cancer. Important although usually underestimated problems are polyglandular syndromes, which may consist of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) problem as well. This case report is an example of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS), which was connected with the surgical treatment with biliary bypass anastomosis because of the unresectable lesion in the head of pancreas. The definite remission of the pancreatic lesion finally came after a steroid therapy. Differentiation between neoplastic and inflammatory pancreatic tumors very often remains a serious clinical problem. On grounds of imaging and cytopathology exams it is often difficult to decide about the nature of a lesion. The negative result of cytopathological biopsy examination does not finally settle straightforward diagnosis. Diagnostic problems affect also autoimmune pancreatitis. It is worth to undertake attempts to differentiate pancreatic lesions especially in cases of concomitance with other autoimmune polyglandular syndromes. That is because it is connected with completely different treatment and outcome. We should remember about diagnostic criteria of autoimmune pancreatitis. Appropriate diagnosis for patients with AIP gives them a chance to avoid serious surgical resection and possible complications.

  12. The role of melatonin in autoimmune and atopic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Calvo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is the main secretory product synthesized and secreted by the pineal gland during the night. Melatonin is a pleitropic molecule with a wide distribution within phylogenetically distant organisms and has a great functional versatility, including the regulation of circadian and seasonal rhythms and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It also possesses the capacity to modulate immune responses by regulation of the TH1/TH2 balance and cytokine production. Immune system eradicates infecting organisms without serious injury to host tissues, but sometimes these responses are inadequately controlled, giving rise to called hypersensitivity diseases, or inappropriately targeted to host tissues, causing the autoimmune diseases. In clinical medicine, the hypersensitivity diseases include the allergic or atopic diseases and the hallmarks of these diseases are the activation of TH2 cells and the production of IgE antibody. Regarding autoimmunity, at the present time we know that the key events in the development of autoimmunity are a failure or breakdown of the mechanisms normally responsible for maintaining self-tolerance in B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, or both, the recognition of self-antigens by autoreactive lymphocytes, the activation of these cells to proliferate and differentiate into effector cells, and the tissue injury caused by the effector cells and their products. Melatonin treatment has been investigated in atopic diseases, in several animal models of autoimmune diseases, and has been also evaluated in clinical autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the role of melatonin in atopic diseases (atopic dermatitis and asthma and in several autoimmune diseases, such as arthritis rheumatoid, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel diseases.

  13. ATPase Cycle of the Nonmotile Kinesin NOD Allows Microtubule End Tracking and Drives Chromosome Movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Sindelar, C; Mulko, N; Collins, K; Kong, S; Hawley, R; Kull, F

    2009-01-01

    Segregation of nonexchange chromosomes during Drosophila melanogaster meiosis requires the proper function of NOD, a nonmotile kinesin-10. We have determined the X-ray crystal structure of the NOD catalytic domain in the ADP- and AMPPNP-bound states. These structures reveal an alternate conformation of the microtubule binding region as well as a nucleotide-sensitive relay of hydrogen bonds at the active site. Additionally, a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of the nucleotide-free microtubule-NOD complex shows an atypical binding orientation. Thermodynamic studies show that NOD binds tightly to microtubules in the nucleotide-free state, yet other nucleotide states, including AMPPNP, are weakened. Our pre-steady-state kinetic analysis demonstrates that NOD interaction with microtubules occurs slowly with weak activation of ADP product release. Upon rapid substrate binding, NOD detaches from the microtubule prior to the rate-limiting step of ATP hydrolysis, which is also atypical for a kinesin. We propose a model for NOD's microtubule plus-end tracking that drives chromosome movement.

  14. Role of Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization Domain-Containing (NOD 2 in Host Defense during Pneumococcal Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijmen J Hommes

    Full Text Available Streptococcus (S. pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing (NOD 2 is a pattern recognition receptor located in the cytosol of myeloid cells that is able to detect peptidoglycan fragments of S. pneumoniae. We here aimed to investigate the role of NOD2 in the host response during pneumococcal pneumonia. Phagocytosis of S. pneumoniae was studied in NOD2 deficient (Nod2-/- and wild-type (Wt alveolar macrophages and neutrophils in vitro. In subsequent in vivo experiments Nod2-/- and Wt mice were inoculated with serotype 2 S. pneumoniae (D39, an isogenic capsule locus deletion mutant (D39Δcps or serotype 3 S. pneumoniae (6303 via the airways, and bacterial growth and dissemination and the lung inflammatory response were evaluated. Nod2-/- alveolar macrophages and blood neutrophils displayed a reduced capacity to internalize pneumococci in vitro. During pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae D39 Nod2-/- mice were indistinguishable from Wt mice with regard to bacterial loads in lungs and distant organs, lung pathology and neutrophil recruitment. While Nod2-/- and Wt mice also had similar bacterial loads after infection with the more virulent S. pneumoniae 6303 strain, Nod2-/- mice displayed a reduced bacterial clearance of the normally avirulent unencapsulated D39Δcps strain. These results suggest that NOD2 does not contribute to host defense during pneumococcal pneumonia and that the pneumococcal capsule impairs recognition of S. pneumoniae by NOD2.

  15. Treated of type 1 diabetes mellitus in non-obese diabetic mice by transplantation of allogeneic bone marrow and pancreatic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice provide a model for type 1 diabetes mellitus. We previously showed that allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) can prevent and treat insulitis and overt diabetes in NOD mice. However, ABMT alone could not be used to treat overt diabetes in NOD mice whose islets had been completely destroyed. To provide insulin-producing cells, pancreatic tissue from newborn mice was grafted under the renal capsules in combination with ABMT. The aims of concomitant ABMT are as follows. (i) It induces immunological tolerance to the donor-type major histocompatibility complex determinants and permits the host to accept subsequent pancreatic allografts from the bone marrow donor. (ii) ABMT replaces abnormal stem cells with normal stem cells. After transplantation of bone marrow plus newborn pancreas, NOD mice showed reduction of the glycosuria and a normal response in the glucose-tolerance test. Immunohistological study revealed the presence of clustered insulin-containing beta cells in the grafted pancreatic transplants. ABMT may become a viable treatment of established type 1 diabetes mellitus in humans

  16. Fulminant type 1 diabetes:report of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tong; XIAO Xin-hua; LI Wen-hui; YUAN Tao; SUN Xiao-fang; WANG Heng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Type 1 diabetes is classified as either autoimmune (type 1A)or idiopathic(type 1B)diabetes.1Recently,fulminant type 1 diabetes has been identified as a new subtyDe Of idiopathic diabetes.2,3It is characterized by an abrupt onset of diabetic ketoacidosis within a short period of time(4 days on average),complete destruction of pancreatic β cells.

  17. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease (AIED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to order. Mention “VEDA” to receive a 15% discount. Paid Advertisement Disclaimer Information on this website is ... treatment of autoimmune inner ear disease. Although drug companies are not directly studying treatments for inner ear ...

  18. Neutrophils in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Xiao, Yang; Xu, Aimin; Zhou, Zhiguang

    2016-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that afflicts millions of people worldwide. It occurs as the consequence of destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells triggered by genetic and environmental factors. The initiation and progression of the disease involves a complicated interaction between β-cells and immune cells of both innate and adaptive systems. Immune cells, such as T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells, have been well documented to play crucial roles in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. However, the particular actions of neutrophils, which are the most plentiful immune cell type and the first immune cells responding to inflammation, in the etiology of this disease might indeed be unfairly ignored. Progress over the past decades shows that neutrophils might have essential effects on the onset and perpetuation of type 1 diabetes. Neutrophil-derived cytotoxic substances, including degranulation products, cytokines, reactive oxygen species and extracellular traps that are released during the process of neutrophil maturation or activation, could cause destruction to islet cells. In addition, these cells can initiate diabetogenic T cell response and promote type 1 diabetes development through cell-cell interactions with other immune and non-immune cells. Furthermore, relevant antineutrophil therapies have been shown to delay and dampen the progression of insulitis and autoimmune diabetes. Here, we discuss the relationship between neutrophils and autoimmune type 1 diabetes from the aforementioned aspects to better understand the roles of these cells in the initiation and development of type 1 diabetes. PMID:27181374

  19. Autoimmune Hepatitis and PSC Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Diego; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina

    2008-02-01

    This article describes the connection between autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The two conditions have chronicity, liver inflammation, and a positive autoimmune serology in common; they differ in terms of gender distribution and bile duct damage. There is evidence suggesting that AIH and PSC are immune-mediated diseases. PSC and AIH could lie within the spectrum of the same disease process. Future studies should determine how frequently AIH evolves to PSC.

  20. Endocrine autoimmunity in Turner syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Grossi, Armando; Crinò, Antonino; Luciano, Rosa; Lombardo, Antonietta; Cappa, Marco; Fierabracci, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Background Turner syndrome is caused by numeric and structural abnormalities of the X chromosome. An increased frequency of autoimmunity as well as an elevated incidence of autoantibodies was observed in Turner patients. The aim of this study was to conduct a retrospective analysis of the incidence of autoimmunity in 66 Italian patients affected by Turner syndrome. Methods Sixty-six unselected and consecutive Italian Turner patients were recruited. The association between age, karyotype and t...

  1. Inibição da expressão de ciclooxigenase 2 em feridas cutâneas de camundongos NOD submetidos à terapia a laser de baixa intensidade Inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 expression in NOD mice cutaneous wound by low-level laser therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Lourdes Julião Vieira Rocha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A terapia a laser de baixa intensidade (LLLT tem sido relatada como importante moduladora da cicatrização de feridas cutâneas aumentando a proliferação fibroblástica associada ao aumento da expressão da citocina fator transformador de crescimento- β2 (TGF-βB2. OBJETIVO: No presente estudo foram avaliados os efeitos da LLLT sobre a expressão da enzima ciclooxigenase 2 (COX2 no sítio do reparo tecidual utilizando o modelo experimental com camundongos diabéticos não obesos (NOD para estudar a cicatrização de feridas cutâneas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 30 camundongos NOD, destes 14 ficaram diabéticos e foram divididos em dois grupos: o grupo I (n=7 foi submetido a um procedimento cirúrgico de feridas cutâneas e o grupo II (n=7 foi submetido a um procedimento cirúrgico de feridas cutâneas e tratados com LLLT. O grupo II foi submetido à LLLT nos seguintes parâmetros: 15 mW de potência, dose de 3,8 J/cm² e tempo de aplicação de 20 segundos. Após sete dias do ato cirúrgico e após aplicação do laser, os animais foram eutanasiados com sobredose de anestesia e amostras das feridas foram colhidas para posterior análise histopatológica, histomorfométrica e imuno-histoquímica. RESULTADOS: A LLLT promoveu a inibição da expressão da COX2 em feridas cutâneas de camundongos diabéticos. CONCLUSÃO: Em conjunto, os resultados sugeriram que a LLLT é capaz de modular negativamente a expressão da enzima COX2 contribuindo para o controle da resposta inflamatória em feridas cutâneas de camundongos NOD.BACKGROUND: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT has been reported to modulate the healing of wounds by inducing an increase in fibroblast number associated with increased expression of the cytokine transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the effect of LLLT on expression of COX2 at the site of tissue repair was evaluated, using an experimental model with non obese diabetic mice (NOD to study

  2. Immuno-neuro-endocrine networks: A study on the inflammatory state of circulating monocytes and CD4+ T cells in psychiatric and endocrine autoimmune disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. Drexhage (Roos)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis deals with immune aspects of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autoimmune thyroid disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus and therefore we give a short introduction to each disease.

  3. Psoriasis and autoimmune skin diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poljački Mirjana N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Presuming that psoriasis is an autoimmune skin disease, the aim of this study was to establish its association with other autoimmune skin diseases. The material was obtained at the Dermatovenereological Clinic Clinical Center Novi Sad. Material and methods This 10-year retrospective study (1990-1999 included 1743 psoriasis patients. The control group consisted of 7492 nonpsoriatic dermatological patients. Results Association of psoriasis with other dermatological diseases of autoimmune nature has been established in 13 (0.74 % patients. The most frequent association was with lichen ruber planus in five patients, with alopecia areata and vitiligo in three patients, and in one with bullous pemphigoid and herpetiform dermatitis. Using Fisher's test no significant association was established. Discussion and conclusion According to literature data association of psoriasis with other autoimmune diseases is well known, but rare, which is in accordance with our results. The question arises whether this association is the matter of poor coexistence or the matter of genetic mutations. However, once established, these associations can further highlight the autoimmune nature of psoriasis. The research of autoimmunity would lead us to epithelial cells in thymus, and their badly learnt cognitive function about what is own, and what is not.

  4. Interactions between Nod-like Receptors and Intestinal Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel R de Zoete

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide oligomerization domain (Nod-like Receptors (NLRs are cytosolic sensors that mediate the activation of Caspase-1 and the subsequent processing and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, as well as an inflammatory cell death termed pyroptosis. While a multitude of bacteria have been shown to activate one or more NLRs under in vitro conditions, the exact impact of NLR activation during the course of colonization, both of pathogenic and commensal nature, is less understood. In this review, we will focus on the role of intestinal NLRs during the various stages of infection with common gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens, as well as NLR function in controlling and shaping the microbiota.

  5. Different Pathophysiological Phenotypes among Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    autoimmune diabetes (LADA) (GAD antibody titer >= 20 IE/ml and not T1D), secondary diabetes (recent history of pancreatitis, pancreatectomy or pancreas amylase > 65U/l, and GAD negativity), steroid-induced diabetes (oral glucocorticoid-treated subjects), insulinopenic (f-P-C-peptide

  6. Tests for genetic interactions in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morahan, Grant; Mehta, Munish; James, Ian;

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between genetic and environmental factors lead to immune dysregulation causing type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune disorders. Recently, many common genetic variants have been associated with type 1 diabetes risk, but each has modest individual effects. Familial clustering of type 1...... diabetes has not been explained fully and could arise from many factors, including undetected genetic variation and gene interactions....

  7. Ultraviolet radiation and autoimmune disease: insights from epidemiological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review examines the epidemiological evidence that suggests ultraviolet radiation (UVR) may play a protective role in three autoimmune diseases: multiple sclerosis, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis. To date, most of the information has accumulated from population studies that have studied the relationship between geography or climate and autoimmune disease prevalence. An interesting gradient of increasing prevalence with increasing latitude has been observed for at least two of the three diseases. This is most evident for multiple sclerosis, but a similar gradient has been shown for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Europe and North America. Seasonal influences on both disease incidence and clinical course and, more recently, analytical studies at the individual level have provided further support for a possible protective role for UVR in some of these diseases but the data are not conclusive. Organ-specific autoimmune diseases involve Th1 cell-mediated immune processes. Recent work in photoimmunology has shown ultraviolet B (UVB) can specifically attenuate these processes through several mechanisms which we discuss. In particular, the possible contribution of an UVR-induced increase in serum vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) levels in the beneficial immunomodulation of these diseases is discussed

  8. Systemic and neurologic autoimmune disorders associated with seizures or epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Angela; Crino, Peter B

    2011-05-01

    In this article, we review the incidence and significance of seizures in well-established autoimmune disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS), diabetes mellitus, celiac disease, thyroid disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The five following presentations discuss the incidence and possible pathogenesis of epilepsies that are found in these well-known autoimmune conditions. There is a large body of evidence describing the clinical presentation of seizures with MS and SLE, and showing that refractory epilepsy can complicate these already challenging disorders. However, the mechanisms involved are complex and generally not well understood. Neurologic syndromes, including seizure disorders, can also be a feature of celiac disease (CD) or subclinical CD, sometimes associated with cerebral calcification. The association between type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and epilepsy is unclear and requires more definitive epidemiologic analysis, despite the fact that antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase may provide a link between the two conditions. The association between thyroid disorders and encephalopathies, often termed Hashimoto's encephalopathy, is well known but the pathogenic significance of antithyroid antibodies in this condition is still debated. In general, the relationships between autoimmune mechanisms and seizures in these conditions are unclear; the seizures are likely to be caused by a variety of mechanisms, including ischemia, neuronal damage, and specific and nonspecific immunity. PMID:21542840

  9. Cloning of nod gene regions from mesquite rhizobia and bradyrhizobia and nucleotide sequence of the nodD gene from mesquite rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P M; Golly, K F; Virginia, R A; Zyskind, J W

    1995-09-01

    Nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between bacteria and the tree legume mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) is important for the maintenance of many desert ecosystems. Genes essential for nodulation and for extending the host range to mesquite were isolated from cosmid libraries of Rhizobium (mesquite) sp. strain HW17b and Bradyrhizobium (mesquite) sp. strain HW10h and were shown to be closely linked. All of the cosmid clones of rhizobia that extended the host range of Rhizobium (Parasponia) sp. strain NGR234CS to mesquite also supported nodulation of a Sym- mesquite strain. The cosmid clones of bradyrhizobia that extended the host range of Rhizobium (Parasponia) sp. strain NGR234CS to mesquite were only able to confer nodulation ability in the Sym- mesquite strain if they also contained a nodD-hybridizing region. Subclones containing just the nodD genes of either genus did not extend the host range of Rhizobium (Parasponia) sp. to mesquite, indicating that the nodD gene is insufficient for mesquite nodulation. The nodD gene region is conserved among mesquite-nodulating rhizobia regardless of the soil depth from which they were collected, indicating descent from a common ancestor. In a tree of distance relationships, the NodD amino acid sequence from mesquite rhizobia clusters with homologs from symbionts that can infect both herbaceous and tree legumes, including Rhizobium tropici, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv; phaseoli, Rhizobium loti, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. PMID:7574650

  10. Cloning of nod gene regions from mesquite rhizobia and bradyrhizobia and nucleotide sequence of the nodD gene from mesquite rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P M; Golly, K F; Virginia, R A; Zyskind, J W

    1995-09-01

    Nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between bacteria and the tree legume mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) is important for the maintenance of many desert ecosystems. Genes essential for nodulation and for extending the host range to mesquite were isolated from cosmid libraries of Rhizobium (mesquite) sp. strain HW17b and Bradyrhizobium (mesquite) sp. strain HW10h and were shown to be closely linked. All of the cosmid clones of rhizobia that extended the host range of Rhizobium (Parasponia) sp. strain NGR234CS to mesquite also supported nodulation of a Sym- mesquite strain. The cosmid clones of bradyrhizobia that extended the host range of Rhizobium (Parasponia) sp. strain NGR234CS to mesquite were only able to confer nodulation ability in the Sym- mesquite strain if they also contained a nodD-hybridizing region. Subclones containing just the nodD genes of either genus did not extend the host range of Rhizobium (Parasponia) sp. to mesquite, indicating that the nodD gene is insufficient for mesquite nodulation. The nodD gene region is conserved among mesquite-nodulating rhizobia regardless of the soil depth from which they were collected, indicating descent from a common ancestor. In a tree of distance relationships, the NodD amino acid sequence from mesquite rhizobia clusters with homologs from symbionts that can infect both herbaceous and tree legumes, including Rhizobium tropici, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv; phaseoli, Rhizobium loti, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

  11. New approach for in vivo detection of insulitis in type I diabetes: activated lymphocyte targeting with 123I-labelled interleukin 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insulitis is considered the histopathological hallmark of type I diabetes. In the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, diabetes has never been observed in the absence of insulitis. The in vivo detection of insulitis could be of relevance for early prediction of diabetes. As approximately 15% of islet-infiltrating lymphocytes express interleukin 2 receptors, the authors have labelled recombinant inter-leukin 2 with 123I and used this radiopharmaceutical to detect insulitis by gamma camera imaging. The authors studied 71 prediabetic NOD and 27 normal Balb/c mice. Labelled α-lactalbumin was used as the control protein. In the first set of experiments the tissue distribution of radiolabelled interleukin 2 in isolated organs from animals sacrificed at different time points was studied. Higher radioactivity was detected in the pancreas of NOD mice injected with labelled interleukin 2, as compared to NOD mice receiving labelled α-lactalbumin. In another set of experiments, gamma camera images have been acquired after injection of 123I-labelled interleukin 2. Radioactivity in the pancreatic region of prediabetic NOD and Balb/c mice showed similar kinetics to those observed by single organ counting, with higher accumulation in the pancreatic region of NOD mice. Finally, a positive correlation was found between the radioactivity in the pancreas and the extent of lymphocytic infiltration. This study demonstrates that 123I-labelled interleukin 2 administered intravenously accumulates specifically in the inflamed pancreas of diabetes-prone NOD mice, suggesting its potential application in human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  12. A rare presentation of hypopituitarism in hepatic overlap syndrome of autoimmune hepatitis and autoimmune cholangitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta V; Singh H.; Talapatra P; Ray S

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune cholangitis is the antimitochondrial antibody-negative autoimmune hepatopathy with clinical and histological features similar to that of primary biliary cirrhosis. Autoimmune cholangitis has a predominant cholestatic phase. However, transaminasemia might be dominant in certain patients, indicating associated autoimmune hepatitis. Such an autoimmune hepatopathy has been termed as hepatic overlap syndrome. Due to the autoimmune nature of the disease, associated diseases of other orga...

  13. Effect of cholera toxoid-proinsulin conjugate and cholera toxin B subunit admixtures on spontaneous autoimmune diabetes%霍乱毒素B亚单位-胰岛素原融合蛋白抗糖尿病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玲; 张大兵; 任宏; 欧阳凤秀; 姜庆五

    2005-01-01

    目的观察雌性非肥胖糖尿病(NOD)小鼠口服胰岛素和霍乱毒素B亚单位-胰岛素原融合蛋白(CTB-proinsulin)+霍乱毒素B亚单位五聚体(CTB五聚体)对糖尿病发生的影响,为社区非肥胖性糖尿病干预提供参考依据.方法40只雌性3~4周龄NOD小鼠随机分为4组:分别给予磷酸缓冲液(PBS)500μl,胰岛素(insulin)1 mg,CTB-proinsulin 100μg+CTG五聚体1μg,CTB-proinsulin 300μg+CTG五聚体3μg.每周灌胃2次至12周龄;从12周龄起,动态监测小鼠尿糖、血糖至26周龄,观察糖尿病的发生,比较不同抗原诱导免疫耐受的作用.结果与PBS组比较,CTB-proinsulin+CTG五聚体与胰岛素均能延缓、减少NOD小鼠糖尿病的发生,26周龄时小鼠糖尿病的累积发病率:PBS组100%,CTB-proinsulin100μg+CTG五聚体1μg组、CTGproinsulin 300μg+CTG五聚体3μg组和胰岛素组分别为40%,40%和50%(P<0.010).各组生存时间分布有差别.结论不同剂量组的CTB-proinsulin+CTG五聚体与胰岛素能够提高NOD鼠生存率,并可达到与胰岛素相同保护作用而所需抗原剂量较小.

  14. NOD/SCID孕鼠淋巴细胞表型检测和NK细胞活性分析%Lymphocyte phenotyping and NK cell activity analysis in pregnant NOD/SCID mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林羿; 王通; 狄静芳; 曾山; 黄锦桃; 冯铮; 曾耀英

    2005-01-01

    目的观察NOD/SCID小鼠免疫状况和生育力特征,并分析NK细胞亚群对同基因交配组合NOD/SCID×NOD/SCID妊娠结局的影响.方法采用流式细胞术对未孕和孕13.5 d的NOD/SCID小鼠进行淋巴细胞表型分析,并系统地观察和比较NOD/SCID×NOD/SCID和BALB/c×BALB/c小鼠的生育力特征.分别采用多聚次黄苷酸-胞苷酸(polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid,poly I:C)或抗asialoGM1单抗(anti-asialo GM1)刺激或抑制NK细胞活性,并分别观察这些因素对妊娠结局的影响.结果 与对照组NOD/SCID小鼠相比,poly I:C处理组NOD/SCID×NOD/SCID小鼠平均每窝产仔数增多,而注射抗asialo GM1单抗则使胚胎吸收率增高,进而平均每窝产仔数显著减少.结论在NOD/SCID小鼠孕期母-胎界面保持适当水平的NK细胞活性对妊娠结局有利.

  15. GPS-MBA: computational analysis of MHC class II epitopes in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ruikun; Liu, Zexian; Ren, Jian; Ma, Chuang; Gao, Tianshun; Zhou, Yanhong; Yang, Qing; Xue, Yu

    2012-01-01

    As a severe chronic metabolic disease and autoimmune disorder, type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects millions of people world-wide. Recent advances in antigen-based immunotherapy have provided a great opportunity for further treating T1D with a high degree of selectivity. It is reported that MHC class II I-A(g7) in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse and human HLA-DQ8 are strongly linked to susceptibility to T1D. Thus, the identification of new I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes would be of great help to further experimental and biomedical manipulation efforts. In this study, a novel GPS-MBA (MHC Binding Analyzer) software package was developed for the prediction of I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes. Using experimentally identified epitopes as the training data sets, a previously developed GPS (Group-based Prediction System) algorithm was adopted and improved. By extensive evaluation and comparison, the GPS-MBA performance was found to be much better than other tools of this type. With this powerful tool, we predicted a number of potentially new I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes. Furthermore, we designed a T1D epitope database (TEDB) for all of the experimentally identified and predicted T1D-associated epitopes. Taken together, this computational prediction result and analysis provides a starting point for further experimental considerations, and GPS-MBA is demonstrated to be a useful tool for generating starting information for experimentalists. The GPS-MBA is freely accessible for academic researchers at: http://mba.biocuckoo.org.

  16. AUTOIMMUNE EPIDERMAL BLISTERING DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune bullous skin diseases (ABDs are uncommon, potentially fatal diseases of skin and mucous membranes which are associated with deposits of autoantibodies and complement against distinct molecules of the epidermis and dermal/epidermal basement membrane zone (BMZ. These autoantibodies lead to a loss in skin molecular integrity, which manifests clinically as formation of blisters or erosions. In pemphigus vulgaris, loss of adhesion occurs within the epidermis. The pioneering work of Ernst H. Beutner, Ph.D. and Robert E. Jordon, M.D. confirmed the autoimmune nature of these diseases. Walter F. Lever, M.D. contributed significantly to our understanding of the histopathologic features of these diseases. Walter Lever, M.D. and Ken Hashimoto, M.D. contributed electron microscopic studies of these diseases, especially in pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid. In bullous pemphigoid (BP, linear IgA bullous dermatosis, epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH, loss of adhesion takes place within or underneath the BMZ. Classic EBA demonstrates extensive skin fragility; DH is commonly associated with gluten-sensitive enteropathy, and manifests clinically with pruritic papulovesicles on the extensor surfaces of the extremities and the lumbosacral area. The clinical spectrum of bullous pemphigoid includes tense blisters, urticarial plaques, and prurigo-like eczematous lesions. Pemphigoid gestationis mostly occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy, and mucous membrane pemphigoid primarily involves the oral mucosa and conjunctivae and leads to scarring. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis manifests with tense blisters in a „cluster of jewels”-like pattern in childhood (chronic bullous disease of childhood and is more clinically heterogeneous in adulthood. Many of the autoantigens in these disorders are known and have been well characterized. ABDs may be influenced by both genetic and exogenous factors. The diagnoses of

  17. Estrogens and autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Capellino, Silvia; Sulli, Alberto; Serioli, Bruno; Secchi, Maria Elena; Villaggio, Barbara; Straub, Rainer H

    2006-11-01

    Sex hormones are implicated in the immune response, with estrogens as enhancers at least of the humoral immunity and androgens and progesterone (and glucocorticoids) as natural immune-suppressors . Several physiological, pathological, and therapeutic conditions may change the serum estrogen milieu and/or peripheral conversion rate, including the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, postpartum period, menopause, being elderly, chronic stress, altered circadian rhythms, inflammatory cytokines, and use of corticosteroids, oral contraceptives, and steroid hormonal replacements, inducing altered androgen/estrogen ratios and related effects. In particular, cortisol and melatonin circadian rhythms are altered, at least in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and partially involve sex hormone circadian synthesis and levels as well. Abnormal regulation of aromatase activity (i.e., increased activity) by inflammatory cytokine production (i.e., TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6) may partially explain the abnormalities of peripheral estrogen synthesis in RA (i.e., increased availability of 17-beta estradiol and possible metabolites in synovial fluids) and in systemic lupus erythematosus, as well as the altered serum sex-hormone levels and ratio (i.e., decreased androgens and DHEAS). In the synovial fluids of RA patients, the increased estrogen concentration is observed in both sexes and is more specifically characterized by the hydroxylated forms, in particular 16alpha-hydroxyestrone, which is a mitogenic and cell proliferative endogenous hormone. Local effects of sex hormones in autoimmune rheumatic diseases seems to consist mainly in modulation of cell proliferation and cytokine production (i.e., TNF-alpha, Il-1, IL-12). In this respect, it is interesting that male patients with RA seem to profit more from anti-TNFalpha strategies than do female patients. PMID:17261796

  18. Therapeutic manipulation of natural killer (NK) T cells in autoimmunity: are we close to reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Y; Diana, J; Ghazarian, L; Beaudoin, L; Lehuen, A

    2013-01-01

    T cells reactive to lipids and restricted by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecules represent more than 15% of all lymphocytes in human blood. This heterogeneous population of innate cells includes the invariant natural killer T cells (iNK T), type II NK T cells, CD1a,b,c-restricted T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. These populations are implicated in cancer, infection and autoimmunity. In this review, we focus on the role of these cells in autoimmunity. We summarize data obtained in humans and preclinical models of autoimmune diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and atherosclerosis. We also discuss the promise of NK T cell manipulations: restoration of function, specific activation, depletion and the relevance of these treatments to human autoimmune diseases. PMID:23199318

  19. The effect of NOD2 on the microbiota in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, Mackenzie L; Burch, Jason M; Grimes, Catherine Leimkuhler

    2016-08-01

    Recent advancements toward the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) indicate great promise for long-term remission. CD patients suffer from a complex host of dysregulated interactions between their innate immune system and microbiome. The most predominant link to the onset of CD is a genetic mutation in the innate immune receptor nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing 2 (NOD2). NOD2 responds to the presence of bacteria and stimulates the immune response. Mutations to NOD2 promote low diversity and dysbiosis in the microbiome, leading to impaired mucosal barrier function. Current treatments suppress the immune response rather than enhancing the function of this critical protein. New progress toward stabilizing NOD2 signaling through its interactions with chaperone proteins holds potential in the development of novel CD therapeutics. PMID:27035071

  20. A RIPK2 inhibitor delays NOD signalling events yet prevents inflammatory cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nachbur, Ueli; Stafford, Che A; Bankovacki, Aleksandra;

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD) receptors recognize antigens including bacterial peptidoglycans and initiate immune responses by triggering the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through activating NF-κB and MAP kinases. Receptor interacting protein kinase ...

  1. Backchannel Head Nods in Danish First Meeting Encounters with a Humanoid Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsager, Anders; Segato, Nicolaj; Rehm, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    investigate the use of head nods in communications between a user and a humanoid robot (Nao) that they meet for the first time. Contrary to the virtual agent case, the robot elicited less talking from the user when it was using head nods as a feedback signal. A follow-up experiment revealed that the physical...... embodiment of the robot had a huge impact on the users' behavior in the first encounters....

  2. The autoimmune puzzle - shared and specific genetics of immune-related diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhernakova, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Immune-mediated disorders are common diseases affecting 5-10% of the population. They include two sets of diseases: the classical autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and coeliac disease; and inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis, asthma a

  3. Autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-02-03

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder which has been associated with a number of other auto-immune conditions. However, there are no reports in the medical literature of an association with microscopic (lymphocytic) colitis. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with several autoimmune conditions, including lymphocytic colitis, who presented with an acute hepatitis. On the basis of the clinical features, serology, and histopathology, we diagnosed autoimmune hepatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis, and lends support to the theory of an autoimmune etiology for lymphocytic colitis.

  4. Type 1 diabetes pathogenesis - Prevention???

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C S Muralidhara Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is multi-faceted, including, autoimmunity, genetics and environment. Autoimmunity directed against pancreatic islet cells results in slowly progressive selective beta-cell destruction ("Primary autoimmune insulitis", culminating over years in clinically manifested insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM. Circulating serum autoantibodies directed against the endocrine cells of the islets of Langerhans (Islet cell autoantibodies - ICAb are an important hallmark of this disease. Assays for islet cell autoantibodies have facilitated the investigation and understanding of several facets in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. Their applications have extended into clinical practice and have opened new avenues for early preclinical prediction and preventive prophylaxis in IDDM/type 1 DM. Recently, surprisingly, differences in insulin content between T1DM islets, as well as, ′patchy′ or ′lobular′ destruction of islets have been described. These unique pathobiological phenomena, suggest that beta cell destruction may not always be inexorable and inevitably complete/total, and thus raise hopes for possible therapeutic interruption of beta cell autoimmunity - destruction and cure of type 1 diabetes. "Recurrent or secondary autoimmune insulitis" refers to the rapid reappearance of islet cell autoantibodies post pancreas transplant, and selective islet beta cell destruction in the grafted pancreas [never forgetting or "anamnestic" beta cell destructive memory], in the absence of any graft pancreas rejection [monozygotic twin to twin transplantation]. The one definite environmental factor is congenital rubella, because of which a subset of children subsequently develop type 1 diabetes. The putative predisposing factors are viruses, gluten and cow′s milk. The putative protective factors include gut flora, helminths, viral infections, and Vitamin D. Prevention of T1DM can include: Primary prevention strategies

  5. Therapeutic apheresis in autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambauer R

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Rolf Bambauer,1 Reinhard Latza,2 Carolin Bambauer,3 Daniel Burgard,4 Ralf Schiel5 1Institute for Blood Purification, Homburg, 2Laboratorium of Medicine, St Ingbert, 3Main Hospital Darmstadt, Darmstadt, 4Herz Zentrum, Cardiology, Völklingen, 5Inselklinik Heringsdorf GmbH, Seeheilbad Heringsdorf, Germany Abstract: Systemic autoimmune diseases based on an immune pathogenesis produce autoantibodies and circulating immune complexes, which cause inflammation in the tissues of various organs. In most cases, these diseases have a bad prognosis without treatment. Therapeutic apheresis in combination with immunosuppressive therapies has led to a steady increase in survival rates over the last 35 years. Here we provide an overview of the most important pathogenic aspects indicating that therapeutic apheresis can be a supportive therapy in some systemic autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory eye disease. With the introduction of novel and effective biologic agents, therapeutic apheresis is indicated only in severe cases, such as in rapid progression despite immunosuppressive therapy and/or biologic agents, and in patients with renal involvement, acute generalized vasculitis, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, pulmonary, cardiac, or cerebral involvement. In mild forms of autoimmune disease, treatment with immunosuppressive therapies and/or biologic agents seems to be sufficient. The prognosis of autoimmune diseases with varying organ manifestations has improved considerably in recent years, due in part to very aggressive therapy schemes. Keywords: therapeutic apheresis, autoimmune diseases, systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory eye disease

  6. SCID与NOD/SCID小鼠部分免疫指标的比较%Comparison of some immune indexes between SCID and NOD/SCID mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝智慧; 孔丽娟; 王成; 王欣丽; 傅谨凤; 李兰芳

    2016-01-01

    目的 测定SCID和NOD/SCID小鼠的免疫器官质量、血常规指标以及部分血液生化指标(immunoglobulin G,IgG),分析比较2个免疫缺陷小鼠在免疫方面的特点.方法 对4~8、12~ 16和20~24周龄SCID与NOD/SCID小鼠眼眶静脉采血,测定血常规指标,剖取胸腺和脾脏进行称质量比较.对4~6、8~ 10、16~18周龄的SCID和NOD/SCID小鼠眼眶静脉采血,测定比较血清IgG含量.结果 a.同周龄SCID与NOD/SCID小鼠胸腺质量差异无显著性.3个年龄段(4~8、12~16和20~24周龄)的NOD/SCID小鼠脾脏显著低于各组SCID小鼠(P<0.05),SCID小鼠脾脏随年龄增加趋势明显;b.NOD/SCID小鼠白细胞数(white blood cell count,WBC)、淋巴细胞绝对值(lymphocytes,LYM#)、红细胞数(red blood cell,RBC)、血红蛋白含量(hemoglobin,HGB)及平均血红蛋白浓度(mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration,MCHC)显著低于同周龄SCID小鼠(P<0.05),高龄SCID小鼠白细胞水平和淋巴细胞百分比显著高于低龄(4~8周龄)SCID鼠(P<0.05).c.NOD/SCID小鼠血清IgG含量显著低于SCID小鼠(P<0.05).结论 SCID与NOD/SCID小鼠部分免疫指标存在显著性差异.

  7. Pankreaskrankheiten und Diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Galonska M; Hartje I; Büchsel R

    2012-01-01

    Pankreatogener Diabetes entsteht nach akuter oder chronischer Pankreatitis, nach Pankreasresektion, bei einem Pankreaskarzinom sowie bei autoimmuner Pankreatitis. Bei der chronischen Pankreatitis haben die Krankheitsdauer, die Ätiologie sowie das Auftreten von Kalzifikationen Bedeutung für das Ausmaß der endokrinen Dysfunktion. Die Ätiologie und das Ausmaß der Operation bestimmen die Ausprägung der endokrinen Dysfunktion nach Pankreasresektion. Etwa 85 % der Patienten mit Autoimmunp...

  8. Autoimmune pancreatitis. An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare disease, the pathophysiological understanding of which has been greatly improved over the last years. The most common form, type 1 AIP belongs to the IgG4-related diseases and must be distinguished from type 2 AIP, which is a much rarer entity associated with chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Clinically, there is an overlap with pancreatic cancer. Imaging and further criteria, such as serological and histological parameters are utilized for a differentiation between both entities in order to select the appropriate therapy and to avoid the small but ultimately unnecessary number of pancreatectomies. The diagnostics of AIP are complex, whereby the consensus criteria of the International Association of Pancreatology have become accepted as the parameters for discrimination. These encompass five cardinal criteria and one therapeutic criterion. By applying these criteria AIP can be diagnosed with a sensitivity of 84.9 %, a specificity of 100 % and an accuracy of 93.8 %. The diagnosis of AIP is accomplished by applying several parameters of which two relate to imaging. As for the routine diagnostics of the pancreas these are ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Important for the differential diagnosis is the exclusion of signs of local and remote tumor spread for which CT and MRI are established. The essential diagnostic parameter of histology necessitates sufficient sample material, which cannot usually be acquired by a fine needle biopsy. CT or MRI are the reference standard methods for identification of the optimal puncture site and imaging-assisted (TruCut) biopsy. In patients presenting with unspecific upper abdominal pain, painless jaundice combined with the suspicion of a pancreatic malignancy in imaging but a mismatch of secondary signs of malignancy, AIP should also be considered as a differential diagnosis. As the diagnosis of AIP only partially relies on imaging radiologists also

  9. Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zen Yoh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Before the concept of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP was established, this form of pancreatitis had been recognized as lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis or non-alcoholic duct destructive chronic pancreatitis based on unique histological features. With the discovery in 2001 that serum IgG4 concentrations are specifically elevated in AIP patients, this emerging entity has been more widely accepted. Classical cases of AIP are now called type 1 as another distinct subtype (type 2 AIP has been identified. Type 1 AIP, which accounts for 2% of chronic pancreatitis cases, predominantly affects adult males. Patients usually present with obstructive jaundice due to enlargement of the pancreatic head or thickening of the lower bile duct wall. Pancreatic cancer is the leading differential diagnosis for which serological, imaging, and histological examinations need to be considered. Serologically, an elevated level of IgG4 is the most sensitive and specific finding. Imaging features include irregular narrowing of the pancreatic duct, diffuse or focal enlargement of the pancreas, a peri-pancreatic capsule-like rim, and enhancement at the late phase of contrast-enhanced images. Biopsy or surgical specimens show diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration containing many IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. A dramatic response to steroid therapy is another characteristic, and serological or radiological effects are normally identified within the first 2 or 3 weeks. Type 1 AIP is estimated as a pancreatic manifestation of systemic IgG4-related disease based on the fact that synchronous or metachronous lesions can develop in multiple organs (e.g. bile duct, salivary/lacrimal glands, retroperitoneum, artery, lung, and kidney and those lesions are histologically identical irrespective of the organ of origin. Several potential autoantigens have been identified so far. A Th2-dominant immune reaction and the activation of

  10. Diabetes in Population Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Moltke, Ida; Albrechtsen, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an increasing health problem worldwide with particularly high occurrence in specific subpopulations and ancestry groups. The high prevalence of T2D is caused both by changes in lifestyle and genetic predisposition. A large number of studies have sought to identify...... on glucose-stimulated plasma glucose, serum insulin levels, and T2D. The variant defines a specific subtype of non-autoimmune diabetes characterized by decreased post-prandial glucose uptake and muscular insulin resistance. These and other recent findings in population isolates illustrate the value...

  11. [Infectious agents and autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebeling-Navarro, C; Madrid-Marina, V; Camarena-Medellín, B E; Peralta-Zaragoza, O; Barrera, R

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the molecular aspects of the relationships between infectious agents and autoimmune diseases, the mechanisms of immune response to infectious agents, and the more recent hypotheses regarding the cause of autoimmune diseases are discussed. The antigens are processed and selected by their immunogenicity, and presented by HLA molecules to the T cell receptor. These events initiate the immune response with the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Although there are several hypotheses regarding the cause of autoimmune diseases and too many findings against and in favor of them, there is still no conclusive data. All these hypothesis and findings are discussed in the context of the more recent advances. PMID:1615352

  12. PD-1, gender, and autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Ravi K.; Hahn, Bevra H.; Singh, Ram Pyare

    2010-01-01

    Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2) are responsible for inhibitory T cell signaling that helps mediate the mechanisms of tolerance and immune homeostasis. The PD-1:PD-L signaling pathway has been shown to play an important role in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune conditions, chronic infection, and cancer. Recently, investigators have explored the role of sex hormones in modulating the pathway in autoimmune conditions. Exploring the effects of sex hormones on the PD-1:PD-L pathway could shed light on the gender biased nature of many autoimmune conditions as well as aide in the development of therapeutics targeting the immune system. PMID:20433954

  13. Autoimmunity in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischner, M; Prokocimer, M; Zolberg, A; Shaklai, M

    1988-08-01

    Seventy-nine patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were evaluated for the presence of autoimmune diseases and autoantibodies. One patient has polymyositis and two additional patients presented with features suggestive of pernicious anaemia and chronic active hepatitis. The Coombs' direct test was positive in 7% and immune thrombocytopenia was present in 8.1% of patients. Five (7%) patients had M-protein in the serum. No increased frequency of other autoantibodies was noted in our study group. We conclude that the propensity to develop antibodies is restricted only to the haematopoietic system and that there is no increased frequency of non-haematological autoimmune diseases in chronic lymphatic leukaemia. PMID:3249703

  14. Coeliac disease with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    Two patients are described who have developed autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in association with their coeliac disease. Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia may represent an extension of immunological disorders linked with coeliac disease, centred on the histocompatibility antigen B8.

  15. The properties of NodD were affected by mere variation in length within its hinge region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bihe Hou; Fengqing Li; Xiaoer Yang; Cruofan Hong

    2009-01-01

    In Rhizobium leguminosarum by. viciae, NodD, a member of the LysR-type transcriptional regulators, while auto-regulating, activates transcription of other nod genes in the presence of naringenin. A hinge region of NodD was previously identified in our lab-oratory as a functional region independent of its N-terminal DNA-binding and C-terminal regulatory domain. Further study was carried out to see the possible effect of the length variation in the hinge region on NodD's properties. To our surprise, as many as seven classes of phenotypes were observed. Class Ⅰ is deficient of activating nodA transcription and abolishes auto-regulation; class Ⅱ is able to acti-vate nodA transcription independently of naringenin and abolishes auto-regulation; class Ⅲ retains auto-regulating but partial activating ability; class Ⅳ is able to activate transcription independently of narin-genin and retains auto-regulation; in class Ⅴ, nod A is transcribed constitutively but the transcription level is drastically down-regulated in the presence of narin-genin; in class Ⅵ, nodA is transcribed constitutively with higher induction ratio; in class Ⅶ, nodA is tran-scribed constitutively with lower induction ratio. To learn more about the possible mechanism, circular permutation assays were done, which showed that the length variation of the hinge of NodD caused by mutation led to the change in bend angles of nod pro-moter. This finding should help to get an insight into how transcriptional regulation is mediated by NodD at the molecular level as well as to understand the regulatory system of this important family.

  16. Activation of nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2 by human cytomegalovirus initiates innate immune responses and restricts virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kapoor

    Full Text Available Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2 is an important innate immune sensor of bacterial pathogens. Its induction results in activation of the classic NF-κB pathway and alternative pathways including type I IFN and autophagy. Although the importance of NOD2 in recognizing RNA viruses has recently been identified, its role in sensing DNA viruses has not been studied. We report that infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV results in significant induction of NOD2 expression, beginning as early as 2 hours post infection and increasing steadily 24 hours post infection and afterwards. Infection with human herpesvirus 1 and 2 does not induce NOD2 expression. While the HCMV-encoded glycoprotein B is not required for NOD2 induction, a replication competent virion is necessary. Lentivirus-based NOD2 knockdown in human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs and U373 glioma cells leads to enhanced HCMV replication along with decreased levels of interferon beta (IFN-β and the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL8. NOD2 induction in HCMV-infected cells activates downstream NF-κB and interferon pathways supported by reduced nuclear localization of NF-κB and pIRF3 in NOD2 knockdown HFFs. Stable overexpression of NOD2 in HFFs restricts HCMV replication in association with increased levels of IFN-β and IL8. Similarly, transient overexpression of NOD2 in U373 cells or its downstream kinase, RIPK2, results in decreased HCMV replication and enhanced cytokine responses. However, overexpression of a mutant NOD2, 3020insC, associated with severe Crohn's disease, results in enhanced HCMV replication and decreased levels of IFN-β in U373 cells. These results show for the first time that NOD2 plays a significant role in HCMV replication and may provide a model for studies of HCMV recognition by the host cell and HCMV colitis in Crohn's disease.

  17. Identification of benzimidazole diamides as selective inhibitors of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2 signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Rickard

    Full Text Available NOD2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor that assembles with receptor-interacting protein (RIP-2 kinase in response to the presence of bacterial muramyl dipeptide (MDP in the host cell cytoplasm, thereby inducing signals leading to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The dysregulation of NOD2 signaling has been associated with various inflammatory disorders suggesting that small-molecule inhibitors of this signaling complex may have therapeutic utility. To identify inhibitors of the NOD2 signaling pathway, we utilized a cell-based screening approach and identified a benzimidazole diamide compound designated GSK669 that selectively inhibited an MDP-stimulated, NOD2-mediated IL-8 response without directly inhibiting RIP2 kinase activity. Moreover, GSK669 failed to inhibit cytokine production in response to the activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR-2, tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR-1 and closely related NOD1, all of which share common downstream components with the NOD2 signaling pathway. While the inhibitors blocked MDP-induced NOD2 responses, they failed to block signaling induced by NOD2 over-expression or single stranded RNA, suggesting specificity for the MDP-induced signaling complex and activator-dependent differences in NOD2 signaling. Investigation of structure-activity relationship allowed the identification of more potent analogs that maintained NOD2 selectivity. The largest boost in activity was achieved by N-methylation of the C2-ethyl amide group. These findings demonstrate that the NOD2 signaling pathway is amenable to modulation by small molecules that do not target RIP2 kinase activity. The compounds we identified should prove useful tools to investigate the importance of NOD2 in various inflammatory processes and may have potential clinical utility.

  18. Identification of Benzimidazole Diamides as Selective Inhibitors of the Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization Domain 2 (NOD2) Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, David J.; Sehon, Clark A.; Kasparcova, Viera; Kallal, Lorena A.; Zeng, Xin; Montoute, Monica N.; Chordia, Tushar; Poore, Derek D.; Li, Hu; Wu, Zining; Eidam, Patrick M.; Haile, Pamela A.; Yu, Jong; Emery, John G.; Marquis, Robert W.; Gough, Peter J.; Bertin, John

    2013-01-01

    NOD2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor that assembles with receptor-interacting protein (RIP)-2 kinase in response to the presence of bacterial muramyl dipeptide (MDP) in the host cell cytoplasm, thereby inducing signals leading to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The dysregulation of NOD2 signaling has been associated with various inflammatory disorders suggesting that small-molecule inhibitors of this signaling complex may have therapeutic utility. To identify inhibitors of the NOD2 signaling pathway, we utilized a cell-based screening approach and identified a benzimidazole diamide compound designated GSK669 that selectively inhibited an MDP-stimulated, NOD2-mediated IL-8 response without directly inhibiting RIP2 kinase activity. Moreover, GSK669 failed to inhibit cytokine production in response to the activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-1 and closely related NOD1, all of which share common downstream components with the NOD2 signaling pathway. While the inhibitors blocked MDP-induced NOD2 responses, they failed to block signaling induced by NOD2 over-expression or single stranded RNA, suggesting specificity for the MDP-induced signaling complex and activator-dependent differences in NOD2 signaling. Investigation of structure-activity relationship allowed the identification of more potent analogs that maintained NOD2 selectivity. The largest boost in activity was achieved by N-methylation of the C2-ethyl amide group. These findings demonstrate that the NOD2 signaling pathway is amenable to modulation by small molecules that do not target RIP2 kinase activity. The compounds we identified should prove useful tools to investigate the importance of NOD2 in various inflammatory processes and may have potential clinical utility. PMID:23936340

  19. Treating young adults with type 2 diabetes or monogenic diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Katharine R

    2016-06-01

    It is increasingly recognised that diabetes in young adults has a wide differential diagnosis. There are many monogenic causes, including monogenic beta-cell dysfunction, mitochondrial diabetes and severe insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes in the young is becoming more prevalent, particularly after adolescence. It's important to understand the clinical features and diagnostic tools available to classify the different forms of young adult diabetes. Classic type 1 diabetes is characterised by positive β-cell antibodies and absence of endogenous insulin secretion. Young type 2 diabetes is accompanied by metabolic syndrome with obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Monogenic β-cell dysfunction is characterised by non-autoimmune, C-peptide positive diabetes with a strong family history, while mitochondrial diabetes features deafness and other neurological involvement. Severe insulin resistance involves a young-onset metabolic syndrome often with a disproportionately low BMI. A suspected diagnosis of monogenic diabetes is confirmed with genetic testing, which is widely available in specialist centres across the world. Treatment of young adult diabetes is similarly diverse. Mutations in the transcription factors HNF1A and HNF4A and in the β-cell potassium ATP channel components cause diabetes which responds to low dose and high dose sulfonylurea agents, respectively, while glucokinase mutations require no treatment. Monogenic insulin resistance and young-onset type 2 diabetes are both challenging to treat, but first line management involves insulin sensitisers and aggressive management of cardiovascular risk. Outcomes are poor in young-onset type 2 diabetes compared to both older onset type 2 and type 1 diabetes diagnosed at a similar age. The evidence base for treatments in monogenic and young-onset type 2 diabetes relies on studies of moderate quality at best and largely on extrapolation from work conducted in older type 2 diabetes subjects. Better quality

  20. NOD1和NOD2基因多态性与胃癌遗传易感性的研究%Association of variants of NOD1 and NOD2 genes with susceptibility to gastric cancer in a Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路滟; 徐耀初; 沈洪兵

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test the hypotheses that the genetic variants of NOD1 and NOD2 were associated with H. pylori-related gastric cancer susceptibility. Methods A case-control study of 1 053 patients with incident gastric cancer and 1 100 cancer-free controls in a high-risk Chinese Han population was performed to detect the associations of functional polymorphisms in NOD1 and NOD2 with gastric cancer risk in Chinese population, and to clarify the mechanism and risk genotypes of gastric cancer. Results Stratified analyses indicated that NOD1 rs2906766 C allele had significantly in-creased risk of gastric cancer among older (adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.02-1.65), smoker (adjusted OR = 1.38, 95% C/ = 1.05~1.82) and individuals without H.pylori (adjusted OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.03~1.79). However, no significant association was found between NOD2 rs3135500 A>G genotypes and gastric cancer risk. Conclusions Our results indicate that the genetic variant in NOD1 rs2906766 OT, may modulate the risk of gastric cancer in the Chinese population. However, further studies with functional evaluation of the SNP are warranted to replicate and extend the sig-nificance of the findings.%目的 探索NOD1和NOD2功能性单核苷酸多态性(single nucleotide polymorphisms,SNPs)位点与胃癌易感性的关系.方法 采用病例对照研究设计,比较病例组与对照组先天免疫反应信号通路相关基因NOD1和NOD2功能SNPs的频率差异.结果 携带NOD1 rs2906766 C等位基因,可显著增加60岁及以上的个体(调整OR=1.30,95% CI=1.02~1.65)、吸烟者(调整OR=1.38,95% CI=1.05~1.82)和H.pylori阴性者(调整OR=1.36,95% CI=1.03~1.79)发生胃癌的风险,但没有发现NOD2 rs3135500位点A>G的改变与中国人群胃癌的发生有关联.结论 NOD1基因rs2906766位点C>T的改变与中国人群胃癌的遗传易感性有关联,但需要在更大样本中验证这一结果,并开展功能学研究以揭示其潜在的生物学机制.

  1. Autoimmune Skin Diseases in the Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, W M

    1981-01-01

    Diagnoses of autoimmune skin diseases require very careful observation of the skin lesions, and selection of an intact vesicle for histopathological examination. If available, immunofluorescent studies can be very useful in confirming the diagnosis of autoimmune skin disease. Seven autoimmune skin diseases are briefly reviewed. Therapy must be aggressive and owner warned of the guarded prognosis.

  2. Nonirradiated NOD/SCID-Human Chimeric Animal Model for Primary Human Multiple Myeloma : A Potential in Vivo Culture System

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shang-Yi; Tien, Hwei-Fang; Su, Fang-Hsein; Hsu, Su-Ming

    2004-01-01

    The NOD/SCID human chimeric animal model was generated by implanting of human fetal bones (FBs) into subcutaneous sites of NOD/SCID mice (NOD/SCID-hu+), followed by inoculation of primary bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs) obtained from patients with multiple myeloma (MM) into the FBs. The BMNCs from 30 patients with MM were inoculated, and 28 (93%) of them revealed evidence of tumor growth of myeloma cells (MCs) in the NOD/SCID-hu+ mice. Intriguingly, 17 (61%) of the 28 patients’ BMNCs in...

  3. Islet endocrine-cell behavior from birth onward in mice with the nonobese diabetic genetic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelegri, C; Rosmalen, J G; Durant, S; Throsby, M; Alvès, V; Coulaud, J; Esling, A; Pléau, J M; Drexhage, H A; Homo-Delarche, F

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glucagon-producing alpha cells play a crucial role during the perinatal period. Because of their peri-islet localization near the early dendritic and macrophage cell infiltration, we thought it pertinent to investigate alpha cells in greater depth in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, a well-

  4. Development of Type 1 Diabetes: Monocytes and dendritic cells in the pancreas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.C. Welzen-Coppens (Jojanneke)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis focuses on the presence of precursors for dendritic cells and the characterization of dendritic cell subsets in the normal pancreas in mice and humans as well as in the pancreas of the NOD mouse, a type 1 diabetes mouse model. Therefore, we give a short introduction to dendri

  5. Pancreatic Tuberculosis or Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ayesha Salahuddin; Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Isolated pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis is a challenging diagnosis due to its rarity and variable presentation. Pancreatic tuberculosis can mimic pancreatic carcinoma. Similarly, autoimmune pancreatitis can appear as a focal lesion resembling pancreatic malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration provides an effective tool for differentiating between benign and malignant pancreatic lesions. The immune processes involved in immunoglobulin G4 relate...

  6. Autoimmune Epilepsy Guidelines for Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-01-01

    Investigators at the Children’s Hospital at Westmead, University of Sydney, Australia, and John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK, describe 13 children (11 female; mean age 6 years, range 1-13 years) seen over a period of 3.5 years with suspected autoimmune epilepsy.

  7. Autoimmune Epilepsy Guidelines for Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at the Children’s Hospital at Westmead, University of Sydney, Australia, and John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK, describe 13 children (11 female; mean age 6 years, range 1-13 years seen over a period of 3.5 years with suspected autoimmune epilepsy.

  8. American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to navigate the health-care system in the age of the Affordable Care Act. News in the world of AARDA’s Grassroots ... was the “Status of Autoimmune Disease in the Age of the Affordable Care Act. Watch the briefing video View the power ...

  9. Therapeutic apheresis in autoimmune diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambauer, Rolf; Latza, Reinhard; Bambauer, Carolin; Burgard, Daniel; Schiel, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases based on an immune pathogenesis produce autoantibodies and circulating immune complexes, which cause inflammation in the tissues of various organs. In most cases, these diseases have a bad prognosis without treatment. Therapeutic apheresis in combination with immunosuppressive therapies has led to a steady increase in survival rates over the last 35 years. Here we provide an overview of the most important pathogenic aspects indicating that therapeutic apheresis can be a supportive therapy in some systemic autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory eye disease. With the introduction of novel and effective biologic agents, therapeutic apheresis is indicated only in severe cases, such as in rapid progression despite immunosuppressive therapy and/or biologic agents, and in patients with renal involvement, acute generalized vasculitis, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, pulmonary, cardiac, or cerebral involvement. In mild forms of autoimmune disease, treatment with immunosuppressive therapies and/or biologic agents seems to be sufficient. The prognosis of autoimmune diseases with varying organ manifestations has improved considerably in recent years, due in part to very aggressive therapy schemes.

  10. An autosomal locus causing autoimmune disease: Autoimmune polyglandular disease type I assigned to chromosome 21

    OpenAIRE

    Aaltonen, Johanna; Björses, Petra; Sandkuijl, Lodewijk; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Peltonen, Leena Johanna

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAutoimmune polyglandular disease type I (APECED) is an autosomal recessive autoimmune disease characterized by a variable combination of the failure of the endocrine glands. The pathogenesis of this unique autoimmune disease is unknown; unlike many other autoimmune diseases, APECED does not show association to specific HLA haplotypes. Unravelling the APECED locus will identify a novel gene outside the HLA loci influencing the outcome of autoimmune diseases. We have assigned the di...

  11. Long-Term Quantitative Biodistribution and Side Effects of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs Engraftment in NOD/SCID Mice following Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine François

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on the fate of infused mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and long-term side effects after irradiation exposure. We addressed these questions using human MSCs (hMSCs intravenously infused to nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID mice submitted to total body irradiation (TBI or local irradiation (abdominal or leg irradiation. The animals were sacrificed 3 to 120 days after irradiation and the quantitative and spatial distribution of hMSCs were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Following their infusion into nonirradiated animals, hMSCs homed to various tissues. Engraftment depended on the dose of irradiation and the area exposed. Total body irradiation induced an increased hMSC engraftment level compared to nonirradiated mice, while local irradiations increased hMSC engraftment locally in the area of irradiation. Long-term engraftment of systemically administered hMSCs in NOD/SCID mice increased significantly in response to tissue injuries produced by local or total body irradiation until 2 weeks then slowly decreased depending on organs and the configuration of irradiation. In all cases, no tissue abnormality or abnormal hMSCs proliferation was observed at 120 days after irradiation. This work supports the safe and efficient use of MSCs by injection as an alternative approach in the short- and long-term treatment of severe complications after radiotherapy for patients refractory to conventional treatments.

  12. Angiopoietin-like 5 and IGFBP2 stimulate ex vivo expansion of human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells as assayed by NOD/SCID transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng Cheng; Kaba, Megan; Iizuka, Satoru; Huynh, HoangDinh; Lodish, Harvey F

    2008-04-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the basis of bone marrow transplantation and are attractive target cells for hematopoietic gene therapy, but these important clinical applications have been severely hampered by difficulties in ex vivo expansion of HSCs. In particular, the use of cord blood for adult transplantation is greatly limited by the number of HSCs. Previously we identified angiopoietin-like proteins and IGF-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) as new hormones that, together with other factors, can expand mouse bone marrow HSCs in culture. Here, we measure the activity of multipotent human severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)-repopulating cells (SRCs) by transplantation into the nonobese diabetic SCID (NOD/SCID) mice; secondary transplantation was performed to evaluate the self-renewal potential of SRCs. A serum-free medium containing SCF, TPO, and FGF-1 or Flt3-L cannot significantly support expansion of the SRCs present in human cord blood CD133+ cells. Addition of either angiopoietin-like 5 or IGF-binding protein 2 to the cultures led to a sizable expansion of HSC numbers, as assayed by NOD/SCID transplantation. A serum-free culture containing SCF, TPO, FGF-1, angiopoietin-like 5, and IGFBP2 supports an approximately 20-fold net expansion of repopulating human cord blood HSCs, a number potentially applicable to several clinical processes including HSC transplantation.

  13. Pneumonia and in-hospital mortality in the context of neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia (NOD) in stroke and a new NOD step-wise concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickenstein, G W; Riecker, A; Höhlig, C; Müller, R; Becker, U; Reichmann, H; Prosiegel, M

    2010-09-01

    The aim of our work was to develop a step-wise concept for investigating neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia (NOD) that could be used by both trained nursing staff as well as swallowing therapists and physicians to identify patients with NOD at an early stage and so enable an appropriate therapy to be started. To achieve this objective, we assessed uniform terminology and standard operating procedures (SOP) in a new NOD step-wise concept. In-house stroke mortality rates and rates of pneumonia were measured over time (2003-2009) in order to show improvements in quality of care. In addition, outcome measures in a stroke-unit monitoring system were studied after neurorehabilitation (day 90) assessing quality of life (QL) and patient feedback. An investigation that was carried out in the context of internal and external quality assurance stroke projects revealed a significant correlation between the NOD step-wise concept and low rates of pneumonia and in-house mortality. The quality of life measures show a delta value that can contribute to "post-stroke" depression. The NOD step-wise concept (NSC) should, on the one hand, be capable of being routinely used in clinical care and, on the other, being able to fulfil the requirements of being scientifically based for investigating different stages of swallowing disorders. The value of our NSC relates to the effective management of clinical resources and the provision of adequate diagnostic and therapeutic options for different grades of dysphagia. We anticipate that our concept will provide substantial support to physicians, as well as swallowing therapists, in clinical settings and rehabilitation facilities, thereby promoting better guidance and understanding of neurogenic dysphagia as a concept in acute and rehabilitation care, especially stroke-unit settings.

  14. Autoimmune hepatitis in India: profile of an uncommon disease

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    Baba Chalamalasetty S

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH has been reported to show considerable geographical variation in frequency and clinical manifestations. It is considered a rare cause of liver disease in India. The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence, clinical, biochemical and histological profile of AIH in this part of the world. Methods Patients presenting with acute or chronic liver disease between January 1999 and June 2002 were evaluated prospectively. AIH was diagnosed using the international autoimmune hepatitis group criteria. Workup included clinical, biochemical, USG, viral markers, UGI endoscopy, AI markers (ANA, SMA, Anti-LKM, AMA, RF, p-ANCA using indirect immunofluorescence and liver biopsy if possible. Results Forty-one of 2401 (1.70% patients were diagnosed to have autoimmune liver disease. Out of these, 38 had autoimmune hepatitis and the rest 3 had primary biliary cirrhosis. The mean age of the patients of autoimmune hepatitis was 36.2 (15.9 years, 34 (89.4% were females, and the duration of symptoms was 20.3 (20.5 months. Nineteen (50% of them presented with chronic hepatitis, 13 (34.2% as cirrhosis, 5 (13.1% with acute hepatitis and 1 (2.6% with cholestatic hepatitis. The presentations were jaundice in 21 (55.2%, pedal edema and hepatomegaly in 17 (44.7%, splenomegaly in 13 (34.2%, encephalopathy, abdominal pain in 9 (23.6% and fever in 8 (21%. Twelve had esophageal varices and 3 had bled. Biochemical parameters were ALT 187 (360 U/L, AST 157 (193 U/L, ALP 246 (254 U/L, globulin 4.1 (1.6 g/dL, albumin 2.8 (0.9 g/dL, bilirubin 5.2 (7.4 mg/dL, prothrombin time 17 (7 sec and ESR 47 (17 sec. The autoimmune markers were SMA (24, ANA (15, both SMA and ANA (4, AMA (1, rheumatoid factor (2, pANCA (1, and Anti-LKM in none. Thirty (79% patients had definite AIH and eight (21% had probable AI hepatitis. Associated autoimmune diseases was seen in 15/38 (39.4%, diabetes 4, hypothyroidism 3, vitiligo 2, thrombocytopenia 2

  15. NOD2 and ATG16L1 polymorphisms affect monocyte responses in Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dylan M Glubb; Richard B Gearry; Murray L Barclay; Rebecca L Roberts; John Pearson; Jacqui I Keenan; Judy McKenzie; Robert W Bentley

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether polymorphisms in NOD2 and ATG16L1 affect cytokine responses and mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) survival in monocytes from Crohn's disease (CD) patients.METHODS: Monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood of CD patients of known genotype for common single nucleotide polymorphisms of NOD2 and ATG16L1 .Monocytes were challenged with MAP and bacterial persistence assessed at subsequent time-points. Cytokine responses were assayed using a Milliplex multi-analyte profiling assay for 13 cytokines.RESULTS: Monocytes heterozygous for a NOD2 polymorphism (R702W, P268S, or 1007fs) were more permissive for growth of MAP (P = 0.045) than those without. There was no effect of NOD2 genotype on subsequent cytokine expression. The T300A polymorphism of ATG16L1 did not affect growth of MAP in our model (P= 0.175), but did increase expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-10 (P = 0.047) and IL-6 (P = 0.019).CONCLUSION: CD-associated polymorphisms affected the elimination of MAP from ex vivo monocytes (NOD2 ), or expression of certain cytokines (ATG16L1 ), implying independent but contributory roles in the pathogenesis of CD.

  16. Establishment of Retinoblastoma Model in NOD-SCID Mice and Study of Metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zhang; Yongping Li; Xiufeng Zhong; Wenge Huang; Li Nie; Wenxin Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To establish model of retinoblastoma subcutaneously in NOD-SCID mice and study rules of formation and distribution of retinoblastoma metastasis.Methods: Retinoblastoma cells SO-RB50 were inoculated subcutaneously in NOD-SCID mice. Animal acts and tumor formation, growth and metastasis in NOD-SCID mice were observed. Primary and metastatic tumors were studied pathohistologically by HE and immunohistochemical staining.Results: The latent periods of tumor growth were 12~19 days and the taken rate of tumor was 100%. 32 days later, 5 NOD-SCID mice were found with tumors that had metastasized to areas mainly located in the abdominal cavity and the side of the kidney; the metastatic time of tumors in the mice also differed. The tumor cells of the primary nodules and the metastasis were similar with human retinoblastoma cells and positive in immunohistochemical staining of NSE.Conclusion: The subcutaneous model of retinoblastoma in NOD-SCID mice showed a high taken rate and a short latent period of tumor, which had a high metastatic rate and was the best model in research of behaviors of retinoblastoma at present.

  17. The use of stem cells for the treatment of autoimmune diseases

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    S.B. Rosa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases constitute a heterogeneous group of conditions commonly treated with anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressant and immunomodulating drugs, with satisfactory results in most cases. Nevertheless, some patients become resistant to conventional therapy. The use of high doses of drugs in such cases results in the need for bone marrow reconstitution, a situation which has stimulated research into the use of hematopoietic stem cells in autoimmune disease therapy. Stem cell transplantation in such diseases aims to destroy the self-reacting immune cells and produce a new functional immune system, as well as substitute cells for tissue damaged in the course of the disease. Significant results, such as the reestablishment of tolerance and a decrease in the recurrence of autoimmune disease, have been reported following stem cell transplantation in patients with autoimmune disease in Brazil and throughout the world. These results suggest that stem cell transplantation has the potential to become an important therapeutic approach to the treatment of various autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, systemic sclerosis, Crohn's disease, autoimmune blood cytopenias, and type I diabetes mellitus.

  18. [New insights in steroid diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurir, Tina Ticinović; Bozić, Josko; Markotić, Anita; Novak, Anela

    2012-10-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are the cornerstone in the treatment of numerous chronic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. GC treatment is accompanied by significant metabolic adverse effects, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and diabetes, visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia and skeletal muscle atrophy. GCs are the most common cause of drug-induced diabetes mellitus. However, not everyone treated with glucocorticoids develops diabetes. Predictors of development of diabetes are age, weight, family history of diabetes mellitus, or personal history of gestational diabetes. There is evidence that patients with decreased insulin secretory reserve are much more likely to develop diabetes. Diabetes from topical steroid use is uncommon, but high-dose steroids have been associated with significant hyperglycemia, including development of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome and even diabetic ketoacidosis in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Several mechanisms contribute to the development of hyperglycemia and steroid-induced diabetes, including decreased peripheral insulin sensitivity, increased hepatic glucose production, and inhibition of pancreatic insulin production and secretion. Physicians treating patients with GCs should be aware of the induction of metabolic disturbances and should not solely rely on fasting measurements. In addition, our review indicates that insulin therapy could be considered when treating patients on GC therapy. PMID:23814973

  19. Autoimmune diseases in pregnancy: maternal and fetal outcomes

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    Pavithra M. Vengetesh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of autoimmune connective tissue disorders on the outcomes of pregnancy and the influence of treatment on pregnancy. Methods: Thirty-seven antenatal patients with autoimmune connective tissue diseases, comprising of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE, primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS, Mixed Connective Tissue Diseases (MCTD, ankylosing spondylitis and Takayasu arteritis were analysed. Results: Multigravidas constituted 89.4% and were associated with bad obstetric history. Before diagnosis and treatment, serious maternal complications of eclampsia and thromboembolism were observed in patients with SLE and APS. The live birth rates were 9% and 2.4% respectively in patients with SLE and APS. With appropriate treatment- aspirin, heparin and immunosuppressant, the live birth rates were raised to 70% in SLE and 100% in APS patients. Investigation for autoimmune disease in recurrent pregnancy loss is important. A rare association between MCTD and congenital anomaly - Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata was observed. Preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction and preterm labour were the common complications noted. Conclusions: Active disease at onset of pregnancy, presence of Anti-ds DNA antibodies and secondary APS were strong predictors of poor pregnancy outcomes among patients with SLE. Vigilant monitoring during pregnancy is required for favourable outcomes. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(1.000: 9-14

  20. Possible activation of auto-immune thyroiditis from continuous subcutaneous infusion of genapol-containing insulin.

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    Chantelau, E

    2000-09-01

    A case of a type 1 diabetic woman with auto-immune thyroiditis is reported, in whom repeated exposure to insulin containing Genapol(R) (polyethylen-polypropylenglycol) over 3 years reproducibly parallels with an increase of serum TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) above the normal limit. Previously, adverse effects of Genapol(R) insulin have been related to its intraperitoneal application, and thought to be restricted to anti-insulin-immunity; activating effects on thyroid auto-immunity have been repeatedly disputed. We suggest that Genapol(R) insulin should be replaced by other insulin preparations with a better safety record.