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Sample records for autogenous bone dust

  1. Bone formation by autogenous grafting of cultured bone/porous ceramic constructs in a dog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, J.; Ueda, Y.; Ohgushi, H.; Takakura, Y. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Yoshikawa, T. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan). Dept. of Phathology; Uemura, T.; Tateishi, T. [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research (NAIR), Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Center; Enomoto, Y.; Ichijima, K. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan). Dept. of Phathology

    2001-07-01

    Five ml of bone marrow was collected from the humerus of a 6 month old female dog by needle aspiration. The marrow was cultured in T-75 flask and expand the marrow mesenchymal cells. After 1 week in primary culture, cells were released by trypsin treatment, concentrated and loaded onto porous hydroxyapatite (HA) blocks. The marrow/HA constructs were subcultured in the presence of dexamethasone and beta-glycerophosphate (osteogenic medium). After 2 weeks of subculture, the autogenous cultured bone/HA constructs were subcutaneously implanted into the back of the dog. Histological findings of the constructs at 3 weeks after implantation revealed thick layer of lamellar bone together with active osteoblasts lining in many pore areas of the HA. High alkaline phosphatase activity could be detected in the construct. These results indicate that autogenous cultured bone/HA constructs can produce extensive bone formation after implantation in a large animal(dog). Therefore, based upon the fact that human marrow-derived culture bone/HA construct possesses osteogenic potential when it is grafted into nude mice, it can be expected that autogenous human cultured bone/ceramic grafts may be useful to reconstruct bone in the clinical setting. (orig.)

  2. Histological Observation of Autogenous Bone Dust Grafting and Membrane Guided Regeneration Technology to Repair Skull Defects%自体颅骨粉末移植和膜引导再生技术修复兔颅骨缺损的组织学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏建; 陆婷; 陈平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To repair the skull defects by using autogenous skull bone dust grafting and membrane guided regeneration technology, and to investigate its histological evolution. Methods Fifty New Zealand white rabbits were selected. A whole thick defect with the diameter of 1 cm was created in the parietal bone of every rabbit. The defect was grafted with autogenous skull bone dust and two pieces of absorbable membrane on two side. After 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 weeks, the defects were harvested for histological observation. Results Two weeks after operation, a large number of bone meal was observed in the defect area. Inward infiltration of inflammatory cells, capillaries and fibroblasts were observed. Bone meal was swallowed in the central area, new bone was formed in the surrounding area and a clear boundary was observed between the two area. Four weeks after operation, the boundary had moved a lot to the central area. New woven bone was thickened, the connection between the woven bone became more closely. Tissue and cell components had no obvious change compared with 2 weeks after operation. Six weeks after operation, bone meal was almost absorbed, the woven bone became thicker and the connection was more closely. Eight weeks after operation, no bone dust could be observed, a monolayer new bone was formed in the central area. The woven bone in the surrounding area was relatively thick and closely connected with normal bone. The primary bone marrow cavity was formed. Twelve weeks after operation, double new bone was observed in the central area. New bone remodeling and mature bone marrow cavity were also observed. The morphology and composition of bone marrow cavity had no difference compared with normal bone. Conclusion Histological evolution of autogenous bone dust grafting and membrane guided regeneration technology to repair skull defects is guided and induced bone regeneration.%目的:应用自体颅骨粉末移植和膜引导再生技术修复兔颅骨缺损模型

  3. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S;

    2015-01-01

    The individual healing profile of a given bone substitute with respect to osteogenic potential and substitution rate must be considered when selecting adjunctive grafting materials for bone regeneration procedures. In this study, standardized mandibular defects in minipigs were filled with nanocr......The individual healing profile of a given bone substitute with respect to osteogenic potential and substitution rate must be considered when selecting adjunctive grafting materials for bone regeneration procedures. In this study, standardized mandibular defects in minipigs were filled...... with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA...

  4. Reconstruction of mandibular defects with autogenous bone grafts: a review of 30 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multitudes of options are available for reconstruction of functional and cosmetic defects of the mandible, caused by various ailments. At the present time, autogenous bone grafting is the gold standard by which all other techniques of reconstruction of the mandible can be judged. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of different osseous reconstruction options using autogenous bone grafts for mandibular reconstruction. Methods: This Interventional study was conducted at Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, King Edward Medical University/Mayo Hospital Lahore, from January 2008 to July 2009 including one year follow-up. The study was carried out on thirty patients having bony mandibular defects. They were reconstructed with the autogenous bone grafts from different graft donor sites. On post-operative visits they were evaluated for outcome variables. Results: Success rate of autogenous bone grafts in this study was 90%. Only 10% of the cases showed poor results regarding infection, resorption and graft failure. Conclusion: Autogenous bone grafts, non-vascularized or vascularized, are a reliable treatment modality for the reconstruction of the bony mandibular defects with predictable functional and aesthetic outcome. (author)

  5. Histomorphometric Evaluation of Anorganic Bovine Bone Coverage to Reduce Autogenous Grafts Resorption: Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    C Maiorana; Beretta, M.; G B Grossi; Santoro, F.; A. Scott Herford; Nagursky, H; CICCIÙ, M.

    2011-01-01

    Physiologic resorption due to remodeling processes affects autogenous corticocancellous grafts in the treatment of atrophic jawbone alveolar ridges. Such a situation in the past made overgrafting of the recipient site mandatory to get enough bone support to dental implants in order to perform a prosthetic rehabilitation. Anorganic bovine bone, conventionally used to treat alveolar bone deficiencies in implant surgery, showed a high osteoconductive property thanks to its micro and macrostructu...

  6. Alternative method to treat oroantral communication and fistula with autogenous bone graft and platelet rich firbin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielska, Iwona; Borgiel-Marek, Halina; Różanowski, Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    Background Removing a tooth from the jaw results in the occurrence of oroantral communication in beneficial anatomic conditions or in the case of a iatrogenic effect. Popularized treatments of the oroantral communication have numerous faults. Large bone defect eliminates the chance to introduce an implant. Purpose of this work was assessment of the usefulness of autogenous bone graft and PRF in normal bone regeneration in the site of oroantral communication. Material and Methods Bone regeneration in the site of oroantral communication was assessed in 20 patients. Bone defects were supplemented autogenous bone graft from mental protuberance in 14 cases and from oblique line in 6 cases. The graft was covered with a PRF membrane. Results In the study group in all cases closure of the oroantral communication was observed. The average width of the alveolar was 13 mm and the average height was 12.5 mm. In 3 patients an average increase of alveolar height of 1.5 mm was observed. Conclusions This method may be the best option to prepare alveolar for new implant and prosthetic solutions. Key words:Oroantral communication, oroantral fistula, autogenous bone graft, bone regeneration, platelet rich fibrin. PMID:27475687

  7. Histological evaluation of healing after transalveolar maxillary sinus augmentation with bioglass and autogenous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavropoulos, Andreas; Sima, Catalin; Sima, Andrea;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate histologically the outcome of a bioglass and autogenous bone (at 1 : 1 ratio) composite implantation for transalveolar sinus augmentation. METHODS: In 31 patients, during implant installation ca. 4 months after sinus augmentation, biopsies were harvested throug...

  8. Maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery with BioOss (R) mixed with a bone marrow concentrate or autogenous bone : test of principle on implant survival and clinical performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rickert, D.; Vissink, A.; Slot, Jan; Sauerbier, S.; Meijer, H. J. A.; Raghoebar, G. M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess implant survival and 1-year clinical performance of implants placed in the posterior maxilla that had been subjected to maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery with bovine bone mineral (BioOss (R)) mixed with autogenous bone marrow concentrate or autogenous bo

  9. Simultaneous implant placement with ridge augmentation using an autogenous bone ring transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omara, M; Abdelwahed, N; Ahmed, M; Hindy, M

    2016-04-01

    The severely defective socket, in which implant placement within the remaining bone will result in a significantly off-axis implant position, precludes immediate implant placement and requires bone grafting as an initial surgical intervention. The aims of this study were to evaluate autogenous chin bone ring consolidation after the augmentation of severely defective sockets and the clinical application of these rings in the premolar-molar region with simultaneous implant placement in a one-stage procedure. Ten patients with 12 defective sockets were included. Sockets were prepared with a trephine bur. Bone rings with a tapped implant osteotomy were harvested from the chin with a larger trephine bur. Bone rings were fitted in the prepared sockets. An implant drill was used to prepare the bone apical to the ring through its central osteotomy. Implants were screwed through the rings and the apical bone. Patients were examined clinically and radiographically immediately and at 6 months postoperative. Crestal bone changes were measured and evaluated statistically. All grafted sockets showed bone healing with no significant crestal bone resorption and no infection; only one ring showed dehiscence, which healed during the follow-up period. All implants showed radiographic evidence of osseointegration. The autogenous chin bone ring augmentation technique was found to be a reliable alternative method for the management of severely defective sockets. PMID:26644216

  10. Autogenous bone block in the treatment of teeth with hopeless prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nymphea Pandit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autogenous bone graft, although considered as a gold standard, has been relegated to background because of limited quantity and donor site morbidity. Revival of interest in its use has been reflected by its tremendous capacity for regeneration in less than ideal situation. Bone blocks have been used for implant site augmentation, with varied success. Aim: Aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of autogenous bone block in the regeneration of bone, for saving teeth with a hopeless prognosis. Settings and Design: A total of six patients and 12 sites with grade II and III mobile teeth were treated with autogenous bone blocks and fiber splinting. Subjects and Methods: Attachment loss, probing depths, and radiographic bone loss were recorded at baseline and at 12 months interval. Statistical Analysis Used: The Student paired t test was used for evaluation of the changes from baseline to 12 months. Results: At 12 months post-operatively, there was a highly significant amount of bone gain as compared to the baseline. The mean amount of bone loss reduced from 9.41 ± 1.16 to 5.41 ± 1.01. The clinical attachment loss reduced from 7.37 ± 1.24 mm to 3.79 ± 0.89 mm and probing depth reduced from 7 ± 1.67 mm to 5.5 ± 0.63 mm. The grafted bone was observed to have been incorporated with the host bone in most of the sites as evidenced by radiographs. Conclusions: For teeth with hopeless prognosis, this method can be considered to be a very viable alternative to extraction and replacement by costly implants.

  11. Evaluation of ABM/P-15 versus autogenous bone in an ovine lumbar interbody fusion model

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, Blake P.; Lindley, Emily M.; Turner, A. Simon; Seim III, Howard B.; Benedict, James; Burger, Evalina L; Patel, Vikas V.

    2010-01-01

    A prospective, randomized study was performed in an ovine model to compare the efficacy of an anorganic bovine-derived hydroxyapatite matrix combined with a synthetic 15 amino acid residue (ABM/P-15) in facilitating lumbar interbody fusion when compared with autogenous bone harvested from the iliac crest. P-15 is a biomimetic to the cell-binding site of Type-I collagen for bone-forming cells. When combined with ABM, it creates the necessary scaffold to initiate cell invasion, binding, and sub...

  12. Evaluation of ABM/P-15 versus autogenous bone in an ovine lumbar interbody fusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Blake P; Lindley, Emily M; Turner, A Simon; Seim, Howard B; Benedict, James; Burger, Evalina L; Patel, Vikas V

    2010-12-01

    A prospective, randomized study was performed in an ovine model to compare the efficacy of an anorganic bovine-derived hydroxyapatite matrix combined with a synthetic 15 amino acid residue (ABM/P-15) in facilitating lumbar interbody fusion when compared with autogenous bone harvested from the iliac crest. P-15 is a biomimetic to the cell-binding site of Type-I collagen for bone-forming cells. When combined with ABM, it creates the necessary scaffold to initiate cell invasion, binding, and subsequent osteogenesis. In this study, six adult ewes underwent anterior-lateral interbody fusion at L3/L4 and L4/L5 using PEEK interbody rings filled with autogenous bone at one level and ABM/P-15 at the other level and no additional instrumentation. Clinical CT scans were obtained at 3 and 6 months; micro-CT scans and histomorphometry analyses were performed after euthanization at 6 months. Clinical CT scan analysis showed that all autograft and ABM/P-15 treated levels had radiographically fused outside of the rings at the 3-month study time point. Although the clinical CT scans of the autograft treatment group showed significantly better fusion within the PEEK rings than ABM/P-15 at 3 months, micro-CT scans, clinical CT scans, and histomorphometric analyses showed there were no statistical differences between the two treatment groups at 6 months. Thus, ABM/P-15 was as successful as autogenous bone graft in producing lumbar spinal fusion in an ovine model, and it should be further evaluated in clinical studies.

  13. Histological evaluation of the influence of magnetic field application in autogenous bone grafts in rats

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    Ponzoni Deise

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone grafts are widely used in oral and maxillofacial reconstruction. The influence of electromagnetic fields and magnets on the endogenous stimulation of target tissues has been investigated. This work aimed to assess the quality of bone healing in surgical cavities filled with autogenous bone grafts, under the influence of a permanent magnetic field produced by in vivo buried devices. Methods Metal devices consisting of commercially pure martensitic stainless steel washers and titanium screws were employed. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 3 experimental and 3 control groups. A surgical bone cavity was produced on the right femur, and a bone graft was collected and placed in each hole. Two metallic washers, magnetized in the experimental group but not in the control group, were attached on the borders of the cavity. Results The animals were sacrificed on postoperative days 15, 45 and 60. The histological analysis of control and experimental samples showed adequate integration of the bone grafts, with intense bone neoformation. On days 45 and 60, a continued influence of the magnetic field on the surgical cavity and on the bone graft was observed in samples from the experimental group. Conclusion The results showed intense bone neoformation in the experimental group as compared to control animals. The intense extra-cortical bone neoformation observed suggests that the osteoconductor condition of the graft may be more susceptible to stimulation, when submitted to a magnetic field.

  14. Results of autogenous trephine biopsy needle bone grafting in fractures of radius and ulna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhey, S; Shrestha, B P; Pradhan, R L; Pandey, B; Rijal, K P

    2005-01-01

    Cortico-Cancellous bone graft harvested from the anterior iliac crest by the conventional open method is associated with more morbidity and is more time consuming as compared to the percutaneous method using trephine biopsy needle. The aim of the study was to determine whether cancellous bone graft harvested from anterior iliac crest using trephine biopsy needle consistently achieved bone union in comminuted fractures and fractures of more than 3 weeks duration of radius and ulna and also to determine the morbidity at the donor site. Autogenous cancellous bone graft was harvested percutaneously from 28 iliac crests in 16 patients and applied at fracture sites of 30 forearm bones using a 4mm trephine biopsy needle after the fractures had been fixed with plate and screws. The patients were followed up regularly upto 6 to 9 months post - operatively in the OPD to determine the union status of the fractured bones and the morbidity at the donor site. 29 of the 30 fractures of the forearm bones united without any problems. The shaft of a trephine got bent during the harvesting procedure at the beginning of the study due to improper technique. Cancellous bone graft harvested from the anterior iliac crest results in predictable good union results in comminuted fractures of forearm bones and also fractures presenting after 3 weeks of injury. It is also an easier and quicker way of harvesting bone graft and is associated with lesser morbidity and earlier recovery as compared to conventional open method. PMID:16554860

  15. Autogenous iliac crest bone graft versus banked allograft bone in scoliosis surgery in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Takaso, Masashi; Imura, Takayuki; Adachi, Kou; Fukushima, Kensuke; Saito, Wataru; Miyajima, Gennyo; Minatani, Atsushi; Shinntani, Ryousuke; Itoman, Moritoshi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yamazaki, Masashi; Ohtori, Seiji; Sasaki, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    A total of 36 consecutive nonambulatory DMD patients underwent scoliosis surgery. Patients were divided into two groups: the autogenous iliac crest bone graft group (the ICBG group; 20 patients) and the allogenous bone graft group (the ALBG group; 16 patients). The mean preoperative curves measured 87° and 31° at the last follow-up in the ICBG group and 83° and 28° in the ALBG group. In the ICBG group, three (15%) patients had intraoperative sacroiliac joint penetration, five (25%) had iliac ...

  16. Effects of low-level laser therapy on autogenous bone graft stabilized with a new heterologous fibrin sealant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Gonçalves, Jéssica Barbosa; Buchaim, Daniela Vieira; de Souza Bueno, Cleuber Rodrigo; Pomini, Karina Torres; Barraviera, Benedito; Júnior, Rui Seabra Ferreira; Andreo, Jesus Carlos; de Castro Rodrigues, Antonio; Cestari, Tania Mary; Buchaim, Rogério Leone

    2016-09-01

    Autogenous bone grafts are used to repair bone defects, and the stabilization is needed for bone regeneration. Laser photobiomodulation is a modality of treatment in clinical practice for tissue regeneration, and it has therapeutic effects as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic and modulating cellular activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on an autogenous bone graft integration process stabilized with a new heterologous fibrin sealant. Forty rats were divided into two groups: Autogenous Fibrin Graft (AFG, n=20), in which a 5mm dome osteotomy was conducted in the right parietal bone and the graft was adhered to the left side using fibrin sealant; and Autogenous Fibrin Graft Laser (AFGL, n=20), which was subjected to the same procedures as AFG with the addition of LLLT. The treatment was performed immediately following surgery and then three times a week until euthanasia, using an 830nm laser (30mW, 6J/cm(2), 0.116cm(2), 258.6mW/cm(2), 2.9J). Five animals from each group were euthanized at 10, 20, 30 and 40days postoperative, and the samples were submitted to histomorphological and histomorphometric analysis. Partial bone regeneration occurred, with new bone tissue integrating the graft to the recipient bed and small areas of connective tissue. Comparative analysis of the groups at the same intervals revealed minor interfaces in group AFGL, with statistically significant differences (p<0.05) at all of the analyzed intervals (10days p=0.0087, 20days p=0.0012, 30days p<0.0001, 40days p=0.0142). In conclusion, low-level laser therapy stimulated bone regeneration and accelerated the process of integration of autogenous bone grafts. PMID:27497370

  17. Pure orbital blowout fractures reconstructed with autogenous bone grafts: functional and aesthetic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronig, S A J; van der Mooren, R J G; Strabbing, E M; Stam, L H M; Tan, J A S L; de Jongh, E; van der Wal, K G H; Paridaens, D; Koudstaal, M J

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ophthalmic clinical findings following surgical reconstruction with autogenous bone grafts of pure blowout fractures. A retrospective review of 211 patients who underwent surgical repair of an orbital fracture between October 1996 and December 2013 was performed. Following data analysis, 60 patients who were followed up over a period of 1 year were included. A solitary floor fracture was present in 38 patients and a floor and a medial wall fracture in 22 patients. Comparing preoperative findings between these two groups, preoperative diplopia and enophthalmos were almost twice as frequent in the group with additional medial wall fractures: diplopia 8% and 14% and enophthalmos 18% and 55%, respectively. One year following surgery there was no diplopia present in either group. In the solitary floor fracture group, 3% still had enophthalmos. It can be concluded that at 1 year following the repair of pure orbital floor fractures using autogenous bone, good functional and aesthetic results can be obtained. In the group with both floor and medial wall fractures, no enophthalmos was found when both walls were reconstructed. When the medial wall was left unoperated, 29% of patients still suffered from enophthalmos after 1 year.

  18. Maxillary sinus floor augmentation with Bio-Oss or Bio-Oss mixed with autogenous bone as graft in animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Schou, S; Stavropoulos, Andreas;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present systematic review was to test the hypothesis of no differences between the use of Bio-Oss or Bio-Oss mixed with autogenous bone as graft for maxillary sinus floor augmentation (MSFA) applying the lateral window technique, as evaluated in animals. A MEDLINE (Pub...

  19. Full-thickness tissue engineered skin constructed with autogenic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of repairing clinical cutaneous deficiency, autogenic bone marrow mesen-chymal stem cells (BMSCs) were isolated and differentiated into epidermal cells and fibroblasts in vitro supplemented with different inducing factors and biomaterials to construct functional tissue- engineered skin. The results showed that after 72 h induction, BMSCs displayed morphologic changes such as typical epidermal cell arrangement, from spindle shape to round or oval; tonofibrils, melano-somes and keratohyaline granules were observed under a transmission electronic microscope. The differentiated cells expressed epidermal stem cell surface marker CK19 (59.66% ± 4.2%) and epidermal cells differentiation marker CK10. In addition, the induced epidermal cells acquired the anti-radiation capacity featured by lowered apoptosis following exposure to UVB. On the other hand, the collagen microfibrils deposition was noticed under a transmission electronic microscope after differentiating into dermis fibroblasts; RT-PCR identified collagen type I mRNA expression in differentiated cells; radioimmunoassay detected the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) (up to 115.06 pg/mL and 0.84 ng/mL, respectively). Further in vivo implanting BMSCs with scaffold material short-ened skin wound repair significantly. In one word, autogenic BMSCs have the potential to differentiate into epidermal cells and fibroblasts in vitro, and show clinical feasibility acting as epidermis-like and dermis-like seed cells in skin engineering.

  20. Full-thickness tissue engineered skin constructed with autogenic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE LiJuan; PEI XueTao; NAN Xue; WANG YunFang; GUAN LiDong; BAI CiXian; SHI ShuangShuang; YUAN HongFeng; CHEN Lin; LIU DaQing

    2007-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of repairing clinical cutaneous deficiency, autogenic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were isolated and differentiated into epidermal cells and fibroblasts in vitro supplemented with different inducing factors and biomaterials to construct functional tissueengineered skin. The results showed that after 72 h induction, BMSCs displayed morphologic changes such as typical epidermal cell arrangement, from spindle shape to round or oval; tonofibrils, melanosomes and keratohyaline granules were observed under a transmission electronic microscope. The differentiated cells expressed epidermal stem cell surface marker CK19 (59.66%±4.2%) and epidermal cells differentiation marker CK10. In addition, the induced epidermal cells acquired the anti-radiation capacity featured by lowered apoptosis following exposure to UVB. On the other hand, the collagen microfibrils deposition was noticed under a transmission electronic microscope after differentiating into dermis fibroblasts; RT-PCR identified collagen type Ⅰ mRNA expression in differentiated cells;radioimmunoassay detected the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) (up to 115.06pg/mL and 0.84 ng/mL, respectively). Further in vivo implanting BMSCs with scaffold material shortened skin wound repair significantly. In one word, autogenic BMSCs have the potential to differentiate into epidermal cells and fibroblasts in vitro, and show clinical feasibility acting as epidermis-like and dermis-like seed cells in skin engineering.

  1. Instrumented fusion of thoracolumbar fracture with type I mineralized collagen matrix combined with autogenous bone marrow as a bone graft substitute: a four-case report

    OpenAIRE

    Faundez, Antonio; Taylor, Sofia; Kaelin, André

    2006-01-01

    In order to avoid the morbidity from autogenous bone harvesting, bone graft substitutes are being used more frequently in spinal surgery. There is indirect radiological evidence that bone graft substitutes are efficacious in humans. The purpose of this four-case study was to visually, manually, and histologically assess the quality of a fusion mass produced by a collagen hydroxyapatite scaffold impregnated with autologous bone marrow aspirate for posterolateral fusion. Four patients sustained...

  2. Allogeneic and autogenous transplantations of MSCs in treatment of the physeal bone bridge in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbanova Lucie

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this experimental study on New Zealand's white rabbits was to find differences in the results of treating the distal physeal femoral defect by the transplantation of autologous or allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. After the excision of a created bone bridge in the distal physis of the right femur, modified composite scaffold with MSCs was transplanted into the defect. In animal Group A (n = 11 autogenous MSCs were implanted; in animal Group B (n = 15 allogeneic MSCs were implanted. An iatrogenic physeal defect of the left femur of each animal not treated by MSCs transplantation served as control. The rabbits were euthanized four months after the transplantation. The treatment results were evaluated morphometrically (femoral length and valgus deformity measurement and histologically (character and quality of the new cartilage. Results Four months after the transplantation, the right femurs of the animals in Group A were on average longer by 0.50 ± 0.04 cm (p = 0.018 than their left femurs, the right femurs of rabbits in Group B were on average longer by 0.43 ± 0.01 cm (p = 0.028 than their left femurs. 4 months after the therapeutic transplantation of MSCs valgus deformity of the distal part of the right femur of animals in Group A was significantly lower (by 4.45 ± 1.86° than that of their left femur (p = 0.028, in Group B as well (by 3.66 ± 0.95° than that of their left femur p = 0.001. However, no significant difference was found between rabbits with transplanted autogenous MSCs (Group A and rabbits with transplanted allogeneic MSCs (Group B either in the femur length (p = 0.495, or in its valgus deformity (p = 0.1597. After the MSCs transplantation the presence of a newly formed hyaline cartilage was demonstrated histologically in all the animals (both groups. The ability of transplanted MSCs to survive in the damaged physis was demonstrated in vivo by magnetic resonance, in vitro by Perls reaction

  3. Exchanging reamed nailing versus augmentative compression plating with autogenous bone grafting for aseptic femoral shaft nonunion: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang-ying, Ru; Yun-fei, Niu; Yu, Cong; Wen-bo, Kang; Hai-bin, Cang; Jian-ning, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of exchanging reamed nailing (ERN) and augmentative compression plating (ACP) with autogenous bone grafting (BG) for the treatment of aseptic femoral shaft nonunion secondary to the treatment of intramedullary nailing (IMN).Methods: A multicenter retrospective study was performed for 178 patients (180 cases) of aseptic femoral shaft nonunion secondary to first treatment of IMN. All cases were fixed with either ERN (n=87) or ACP ...

  4. Long-term results of the use of autogenous cortical bone columellas to replace the stapes at stapedectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Miklós; Pytel, József; Vóna, Ida; Gerlinger, Imre

    2011-05-01

    The first author has been using an autogenous cortical bone columella to replace the stapes removed during stapedectomy since 1965. The audiograms of 21 of the 271 patients operated on with this method between 1965 and 1989 (i.e. 7.7% of the possible candidates) were available 20-35 (average 26.8) years postoperatively. The operation could be regarded as successful in 20 and unsuccessful in 1 patient in the long run. The audiological data are presented individually as averages of the values obtained at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kHz. The averaged data (n = 21): preoperative air conduction, 58.27; bone conduction, 24.46; and air-bone gap, 33.81 dB. Postoperative best air conduction, 19.07; bone conduction, 14.10; and air-bone gap, 4.97 dB. Postoperative recent air conduction, 45.77; bone conduction, 38.45; and air-bone gap, 7.32 dB. The best values were measured 1-8 (average 1.57) years postoperatively. In relation to the postoperative best value, the recent value of the air-bone gap had deteriorated by 2.35 dB, and that of the bone conduction by 24.35 dB. The small air-bone gap indicates that the deterioration of the hearing is mainly caused by the deterioration of the function of the inner ear and not by that of the conductive apparatus. The progression of the deterioration differs individually (0.3-1.6, average 0.93 dB/year) and accelerates with age. This finding seems to be a problem that does not depend on the operative technique. The data show that the autogenous bone columella ensures the same good and lasting results as the alloplastic solutions; moreover, there is no problem with the incus-prosthesis connection.

  5. High‐Resolution Three‐Dimensional Computed Tomography Analysis of the Clinical Efficacy of Cultured Autogenous Periosteal Cells in Sinus Lift Bone Grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shin; Hoshina, Hideyuki; Nakata, Koh; Yamada, Kazuho; Uematsu, Kohya; Kawase, Tomoyuki; Takagi, Ritsuo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose Sinus lift (SL) using cultured autogenous periosteal cells (CAPCs) combined with autogenous bone and platelet‐rich plasma (PRP) was performed to evaluate the effect of cell administration on bone regeneration, by using high‐resolution three‐dimensional computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods SL with autogenous bone and PRP plus CAPC [CAPC(+)SL] was performed in 23 patients. A piece of periosteum taken from the mandible was cultured in M199 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 6 weeks. As control, 16 patients received SL with autogenous bone and PRP [CAPC(−)SL]. Three‐dimensional CT imaging was performed before and 4 months and 1 year after SL, and stratification was performed based on CT numbers (HUs) corresponding to soft tissue and cancellous or cortical bone. Results The augmented bone in CAPC(+)SL revealed an increase in HUs corresponding to cancellous bone as well as a decrease in HUs corresponding to grafted cortical bone. In addition, HUs corresponding to cancellous bone in the graft bed were increased in CAPC(+)SL but were decreased in CAPC(−)SL. Insertion torque during implant placement was significantly higher in CAPC(+)SL. Conclusion By promoting bone anabolic activity both in augmented bone and graft bed, CAPCs are expected to aid primary fixation and osseointegration of implants in clinical applications. PMID:26017402

  6. Maxillary sinus floor augmentation with Bio-Oss or Bio-Oss mixed with autogenous bone as graft: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Schou, Søren; Stavropoulos, Andreas;

    2012-01-01

    and bone-to-implant contact compared with Bio-Oss. Conclusions: Therefore, the hypothesis of no differences between the use of Bio-Oss or Bio-Oss mixed with autogenous bone as graft for MSFA could neither be confirmed nor rejected. To cite this article: Jensen T, Schou S, Stavropoulos A, Terheyden H......Aims: The objective of the present systematic review was to test the hypothesis of no differences in the implant treatment outcome when Bio-Oss or Bio-Oss mixed with autogenous bone is used as graft for the maxillary sinus floor augmentation (MSFA) applying the lateral window technique. Material......, Holmstrup P. Maxillary sinus floor augmentation with Bio-Oss or Bio-Oss mixed with autogenous bone as graft: a systematic review. Clin. Oral Impl. Res. xx, 2011; 000-000 doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2011.02168.x....

  7. Clinical Comparison of Autogenous Bone Graft with and without Plasma Rich in Growth Factors in the Treatment of Grade II Furcation Involvement of Mandibular Molars

    OpenAIRE

    Lafzi, Ardeshir; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Faramarzi, Masoumeh; Jabali, Sahar; Shayan, Arman

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) is a concentrated suspension of growth factors, which is used to promote periodontal tissue regeneration. The aim of this randomized, controlled, clinical trial was to evaluate of the treatment of grade II mandibular molar furcation involvement using autogenous bone graft with and without PRGF. Materials and methods In this double-blind clinical trial, thirty mandibular molars with grade II furcation involvement in 30 patients were sele...

  8. Biomechanical studies of vertebroplasty by autogenous bone grafting%自体骨椎体成形术的生物力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骅; 王静成; 王永祥

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the biomechanical effects on the injury lumbar spine with vertebroplasty by autogenous bone grafting. Methods Nine cadaver lumbar spine specimens were randomly divided into 3 groups: normal group, fracture group, and fracture with vertebroplasty by autogenous bone grafting group. Data of the rigidity and stress were recorded and analyzed. Result Vertebroplasty by autogenous bone grafting improved stability of the fracture segment obviously (P<0.05), but it was still more instable than normal segment (P<0.05). Conclusion Vertebroplasty by autogenous bone grafting can provide stability partly, but it should be applied combined with internal fixation.%目的 探讨自体骨椎体成形术对损伤腰椎生物力学特性的影响.方法 9具尸体腰椎标本分为正常组、椎体压缩骨折组、自体骨椎体成形术组,分别进行生物力学测试,探讨损伤腰椎力学特性的变化.结果 自体骨椎体成形术能改善损伤腰椎的稳定性,但与正常椎体相比尚有差距,呈显著性差异(P<0.05).结论 自体骨椎体成形术部分改善了损伤腰椎的生物力学稳定性,应与内固定系统联合运用.

  9. Comparison of autogenous bone graft donor site haemostatic agents used in spinal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Copuroglu, Cem; Ercan, Selcuk; Ozcan, Mert; Ciftdemir, Mert; Turan, F. Nesrin; Yalniz, Erol

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of haemostatic agents used at the autograft donor sites in spinal fusion. Methods: The study included 66 patients (26 men, 40 women; mean age: 42.9 years) who underwent spinal fusion surgery between March 1999 and October 2002. Patients were randomly assigned to 4 different groups according to the haemostatic agents used during surgery. In Group 1, bone wax was used on the graft donor site. In Group 2, spongostan was used. In ...

  10. Reconstruction of mandibular defects using nonvascularized autogenous bone graft in Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizito Chioma Ndukwe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the success rate and complications of mandibular reconstruction with nonvascularized bone graft in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: A total of 25 patients who underwent reconstruction of mandibular discontinuity defects between January 2003 and February 2012, at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife constituted the study sample. Relevant information was retrieved from the patients′ records. This information include patients′ demographics (age and sex as well as the type of mandibular defect, cause of the defect, type of mandibular resection done, source of the bone graft used, and the method of graft immobilization. Morbidity associated with the graft procedures were assessed by retrieving information on graft failures, length of hospital stay following surgery, rehabilitation device used and associated graft donor and recipient site complications. Result: There were 12 males and 13 females with a male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The age of the patients ranged from 13 to 73 years with a mean age for males 32.7 ± standard deviation (SD 12.9 and for females 35.0 ± SD 17.1. Jaw defect was caused by resection for tumours and other jaw pathologies in 92% of cases. Complete symphyseal involvement defect was the most common defect recorded 11 (44%. Reconstruction with nonvascularized rib graft accounted for 68% of cases while iliac crest graft was used in 32% of the patients. Successful take of the grafts was recorded in 22 patients while three cases failed. Wound dehiscence (two patients and postoperative wound infection (eight patients were the most common complications recorded. Conclusion: The use of nonvascularized graft is still relevant in the reconstruction of large mandibular defects caused by surgical ablation of benign conditions in Nigerians. Precise surgical planning and execution, extended antibiotic therapy, and meticulous postoperative care

  11. Clinical Comparison of Autogenous Bone Graft with and without Plasma Rich in Growth Factors in the Treatment of Grade II Furcation Involvement of Mandibular Molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafzi, Ardeshir; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Faramarzi, Masoumeh; Jabali, Sahar; Shayan, Arman

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) is a concentrated suspension of growth factors, which is used to promote periodontal tissue regeneration. The aim of this randomized, controlled, clinical trial was to evaluate of the treatment of grade II mandibular molar furcation involvement using autogenous bone graft with and without PRGF. Materials and methods In this double-blind clinical trial, thirty mandibular molars with grade II furcation involvement in 30 patients were selected. The test group received bone graft combined with PRGF, while the control group was treated with bone graft only. Clinical parameters included clinical probing depth (CPD), vertical clinical attachment level (V-CAL), horizontal clinical attachment level (H-CAL), location of gingival margin (LGM), surgically exposed horizontal probing depth of bony defect (E-HPD), vertical depth of bone crest (V-DBC), vertical depth of the base of bony defect (V-DBD), and length of the intrabony defect (LID). After six months, a re-entry surgery was performed. Data were analyzed by SPSS 14, using Kolmogorov, Mann-Whitney U, and paired t-test. Results After 6 months, both treatment methods led to significant improvement in V-CAL and H-CAL and significant decreases in CPD, E-HPD, V-DBD and LID; there was no significant difference in LGM and V-DBC in any of the treated groups compared to the baseline values. Also, none of the parameters showed significant differences between the study groups. Conclusion Although autogenous bone grafts, with or without PRGF, were successful in treating grade II furcation involvement, no differences between the study groups were observed. PMID:23486928

  12. Posterior lumbar inter-body fusion (PLIF) using autogenous bone and cage with pedicle screw instrumentation versus PLIF using cage with pedicle screw instrumentation in adult spondylolisthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dou Yusheng; Hao Dingjun; Wen Shiming

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical outcomes of PLIF using autogenous bone and cage with pedicle screw fixation (group 2) and simple cage fusion with pedicle screw fixation (group 1) in adult spondylolisthesis.Methods: 27 patients with minimum follow-up of 24 months, treated by inter-body fusion with pedicle screw fixation were prospectively studied. Disc space height, degree of slippage and fusion rate had been compared before and after operation between the two groups. Results: After minimum 24 month's follow-up, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the amount of blood loss, duration of hospital stay, back pain,radiating pain, fusion rate, or complication (P>0.05). however, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of disc space height and percentage of slippage (P<0.05). Conclusion: PLIF using autogenous bone and cage with pedicle screw fixation more beneifical to improve fusion rate and prevent long-term instabilities than simple cage fusion with pedicle screw fixation in adult spondylolisthesis.

  13. 浓缩自体骨髓移植配合中药治疗骨不连临床研究%Effect of Concentrated Autogenous Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplant Combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine on Bone Nonunion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹世昌; 焦振华; 王功国; 汉吉健

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To observe the curative effect of concentrated autogenous bone marrow stem cell transplant combined with traditional Chinese medicine on bone nonunion. Methods.. All 50 patients with bone nonunion were divided into treatment group (A group) which treated by percutaneous autogenous bone marrow stem cell transplant combined with traditional Chinese medicine,and control group (B group) which treated by autogenous bone marrow stem cell transplant only,with 25 cases in each group. The growth of the bony callus and the healing time were observed after treatment. The curative effect was evaluated. Results: All patients in A group with fracture eventually healed, the average healing time was 6.8 months. While,22 patients in B group with fracture eventually healed,the average healing time was 8.4 months. There was statistically significant in fracture healing time between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Percutaneous autogenous bone marrow stem cell transplant combined with traditional Chinese medicine can improve osteogenesis and promote fracture healing.%目的:观察自体浓缩骨髓移植结合中药骨愈康对骨不连治疗的效果.方法:浓缩自体骨髓移植阳中药组(A组)采用局部经皮自体骨髓移植结合中药内服治疗骨不连患者25例,另设浓缩自体骨髓移植组(B组)采用单纯自体骨髓移植治疗骨不连患者25例,观察X线所示骨痂形成情况和临床体征,评价2组在治疗前后的骨折愈合情况.结果:A组25例患者骨折最终愈合,平均愈合时间6.8个月.B组22例患者骨折最终愈合,平均愈合时间8.4个月.2组骨折愈合时间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:自体骨髓移植结合中药骨愈康可以改善成骨能力,促进骨折愈合.

  14. "Plug" ósseo autógeno para orifícios de trepanação: nota técnica Autogenic bone plug to seal burr holes: technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSUÉ GUIMARÃES GRANHA VIALOGO

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Vários materiais são utilizados para ocluir os orifícios de trepanação em neurocirurgia, por motivos variados: para evitar fístula liquórica após trepanações, para auxiliar a fixação do "flap" ósseo e por motivos estéticos, na região frontal. Dentre estes materiais citamos os heterólogos (botões de silicone, miniplacas de metal, cera de osso, metilmetacrilato, gelfoam, cimento de polímero vegetal, cerâmica de hidroxiapatita, e os autólogos (pó de osso originado da trepanação, gordura, músculo, aponeurose. Os materiais heterólogos ou sintéticos podem provocar reação de corpo estranho com erosão da pele e exposição do material, tornando necessária sua retirada, em tempo variável no pós-operatório. Há cerca de três anos, o autor vem utilizando um botão ou "plug" ósseo autólogo, feito com surgicel e o pó de osso proveniente da trepanação, com bom resultado estético eliminando as desconfortáveis depressões cranianas pós-trepanação. Apresentamos a técnica de confecção deste prático `plug ósseo autólogo'. Nas neuroendoscopias, praticamente sanou-se o problema da fístula liquórica e reação de corpo estranho. Encorajamos a utilização deste botão ósseo autólogo em nosso meio, como método eficiente, econômico e biologicamente aceitável para ocluir orifícios cranianos de trepanação.Many neurosurgical procedures can be performed by a single burr hole: neuroendoscopy, microvascular decompression, stereotactic procedures, chronic subdural haematomas. It is technically difficult to suture and close the dura, located at the bottom of such holes, which can lately lead to CSF leakage. On the other hand, the surgical material used to seal the burr holes can be divided in heterogenic (metal screws, silicon plugs, gelfoam, bone wax, metilmetacrilate, hidroxiapatite, and autogenic (fat, aponeurosis, muscle, and bone dust from trephination. The heterogenic group always brings the possibility of

  15. Successful use of autogenous bone graft for the treatment of a radius-ulna nonunion in an amputee dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.W. Minto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fracture nonunions represent important complications in orthopedic surgeries. Nonunion repairs or bone defects are surgically challenging. Our aim was to describe a nonunion case, which was repaired with rapid bone recovery. An 8-month-old male mixed breed dog that has been previously operated was presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of São Paulo State University, with a right radius-ulna nonunion and an amputated contralateral forelimb. A cancellous bone graft was collected from a partially amputated limb, in order to correct the nonunion, and used in association with a locking plate. After four weeks, the bone graft had been incorporated into the original bone. Clinical union with good weight bearing was achieved after eight weeks.

  16. Space maintenance in autogenous fresh demineralized tooth blocks with platelet-rich plasma for maxillary sinus bone formation: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Suk; Kang, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, Kyoung-Won; Lee, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    This prospective study evaluated the effectiveness of autogenous fresh demineralized tooth block (Auto-FDT block) with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for maxillary sinus augmentation with simultaneous implant installation. Auto-FDT block with PRP was used in Group 1 (n = 15) and combined graft (allograft and xenograft) powder with PRP was used in Group 2 (n = 15). For up to 2 years after the final prosthesis was installed, clinical and radiographic examinations were performed to evaluate the amount of graft materials, residual alveolar height (RAH), sinus height (SH) after grafting, augmented graft height (AGH) and resorption height (RH). In ten cases, biopsies were harvested for histological and histomorphometric analyses. A total of 59 implants were placed in a severe atrophic posterior maxilla with less than 5 mm of RAH and sinus augmentation. None of the patients developed sinusitis or other complications, such as implant loss. The graft material extracted included one molar (or 2 premolars) in Group 1 and 1.8 cc in Group 2. The radiologic examination revealed the following average between-group difference SH (Group 1, 14.12 ± 1.63 mm vs Group 2, 16.51 ± 1.29 mm) and AGH (Group 1, 11.62 ± 2.22 mm vs Group 2, 13.65 ± 1.35 mm). However, sufficient SH and AGH were observed for the implants in the Auto-FDT block group. Two years after final prosthesis was installed, no between-group difference in the RH was observed (Group 1, 1.23 ± 0.73 mm vs Group 2, 1.77 ± 0.54 mm, P = 0.021). The histomorphometric analysis revealed no between-group difference in the new bone volume (Group 1, 23.13 ± 1.42 % vs Group 2, 24.18 ± 2.19 %, P = 0.548). The results showed that Auto-FDT block with PRP can be used in grafted sinuses for implants with only one extracted molar (or two premolars). Auto-FDT block with PRP promotes new bone formation that is comparable with combined grafts. Auto-FDT block with PRP is as an alternative to bone grafting

  17. Neglected anterior dislocation of shoulder with large Hillsach's lesion & deficient glenoid: Treated by autogenous bone graft & modified Latarjet procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshin, Chetan; Jangira, Vivek; Gupta, Ravi Kumar; Jindal, Rohit

    2015-12-01

    Neglected anterior dislocation of shoulder is rare in spite of the fact that the anterior dislocation of the shoulder is seen in around 90% of the acute cases. Most of the series of neglected dislocation describe posterior dislocation to be far more common.(1) (,2) We hereby report a case of the neglected anterior shoulder dislocation in a 15 year old boy who had a history of epilepsy. There was a large Hill Sachs lesion in humeral head which was impacted in glenoid inferiorly and glenoid was eburnated at that margin. The humeral head was reconstructed with a tricortical iliac graft. Glenoid was reconstructed by transfer of coracoids process of scapula to antero-inferior glenoid (modified Latarjet procedure). This case is unique because management of humeral head defect with bone graft is not mentioned in anterior dislocation.

  18. No advantage to rhBMP-2 in addition to autogenous graft for fracture nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Richelle; Forman, Jordanna; Taormina, David P; Egol, Kenneth A

    2014-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins are a necessary component of the fracture healing cascade. Few studies have delineated the efficacy of iliac crest bone graft and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), especially, in comparison with the gold standard treatment of nonunion, which is autogenous bone graft alone. This study compared the outcome of patients with fracture nonunion treated with autogenous bone graft plus rhBMP-2 adjuvant vs patients treated with autogenous bone graft alone. A total of 118 consecutive patients who were to undergo long bone nonunion surgery with autogenous bone graft (50) or autogenous bone graft plus rhBMP-2 (68) were identified. Surgical intervention included either harvested iliac autogenous bone graft or autogenous bone graft plus 1.5 mg/mL of rhBMP-2 placed in and around the site of nonunion. No differences were found in the distribution of nonunion sites included within each group. Twelve-month follow-up was obtained on 100 of 118 patients (84.7%). Analyses of demographic characteristics (including tobacco), medical comorbidities, previous surgeries, and nonunion type (atrophic vs hypertrophic) did not differ. Postoperative complication rates did not differ. The percentage of patients who progressed to union did not differ. Mean time to union in the autogenous bone graft plus rhBMP-2 group was 6.6 months (±3.9) vs 5.4 (±2.7) months in the autogenous bone graft-only group (P=.06). Rates of revision (16.2% for rhBMP-2 plus autogenous bone graft vs 8% for autogenous bone graft) did not differ statistically (P=.19), nor did 12-month scores of pain and functional assessment. Although rhBMP-2 is a safe adjuvant, there was no benefit seen when rhBMP-2 was added to autogenous bone graft in the treatment of long bone nonunion. Given its high cost, rhBMP-2 should be reconsidered as an aid to autogenous bone graft in the treatment of nonunion. PMID:24972432

  19. 人工骨加自体骨修复中老年外伤性前牙牙槽骨缺损的临床研究%Clinical study of the artificial bone and autogenous bone in repairing traumatic anterior alveolar bone defects in the middle-aged and elderly people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖福琴; 朱菲; 张昊; 张丽军

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨胶原基纳米骨(nHAC)加自体骨修复中老年外伤性前牙牙槽骨缺损的临床疗效.方法 选择23例中老年因外伤前牙牙槽骨缺损需植骨者,用nHAC加术区游离的自体骨修复缺损,采用固定正畸技术对松动牙进行固定.术后1、2、3、6、12个月复诊,术前术后均对病损部位进行临床及X线检查,观察缺损程度及新骨形成和骨密度改变.结果 nHAC加自体骨修复中老年外伤性前牙牙槽骨缺损愈合成功率95.65%,脱位牙复位固定治疗成功率88.23%,所有患者无不良症状和体征,牙槽骨高度和宽度明显得到改善.X线片显示:胶原基纳米骨(nHAC)加自体骨植入区可见新生骨小梁,骨密度增强,骨质疏松有所改善,植入骨与宿主骨组织融为一体,牙槽骨缺损修复.结论 nHAC加自体骨修复外伤性前牙牙槽骨缺损可以增强牙槽骨密度,恢复牙槽骨的丰满度,保留了更多的牙齿,也为义齿修复提供了良好的生理基础.%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of the mixture of nano-hydroxyapative/collagen composite (nHAC)and autogenous bone on repairing traumatic anterior alveolar bone defects in the middle-aged and elderly people.Methods Twenty-three middle-aged and elderly patients,who had traumatic anterior alveolar bone defects and needed bone transplanting,were selected.They were treated with the mixture of nHAC and autogenous bone to repair the traumatic alveolar bone defects.Edgewise appliance was used for reduction and fixation in traumatic dislocated teeth.After1,2,3,6,and 12 months,all the patients needed subsequent visit.Clinical and X-ray examination of bone defects were performed to observe the degree of bone defects,new bone formation,and bone mineral density before and after the treatment.Results Among all the 23 patients,the therapeutic effective rate of using the mixture of nHAC and autogenous bone to repair traumatic anterior alveolar bone defects was 95.65

  20. Applied anatomy of ankle lateral ligament reconstruction with periostum-patellar tendon-bone autogenous graft%自体髌骨膜-髌韧带-骨瓣重建踝外侧韧带的应用解剖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙强; 周捍东; 郑加法

    2011-01-01

    目的 为自体髌骨膜-髌韧带-骨瓣重建踝关节外侧韧带提供解剖学基础.方法 在6侧经防腐同定的成人下肢标本及6侧新鲜标本上观测踝关节外侧韧带起止点及走行径路、髌韧带的解剖形态与起止点,在新鲜标本上摹拟重建手术.结果 髌韧带位置恒定,解剖层次表浅,切取方便,髌骨膜-髌韧带一骨瓣的髌韧带长度(4.1±0.4)cm,距腓前韧带长度(2.4±0.5)cm,跟腓韧带长度(3.1±0.4)cm.结论 (1)髌骨膜-髌韧带-骨瓣的髌韧带具有足够的长度,可形成移植供体;(2)髌骨膜-髌韧带-骨瓣复合体两端分别与骨及软骨创面固定,容易成活和恢复功能;(3)采用自体髌骨膜-髌韧带-骨瓣重建踝外侧韧带具有可行性.%Objective To provide anatomic basis for free autogenous periostum- patellar tendon-bone grafts to reconstruct the lateral ankle ligament.Methods The anatomic properties of lateral ankle and patellar ligaments were observed and measured on 12 adult cadavers, and the reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligament were simulated on 6 fresh specimens.Results The constant locations of the patellar ligament were easy to be incised; The lengths of the patellar ligaments and the calacaneofibular and anterior talofibular ligaments were (41.0 ±4.0)mm, (24.3 ±4.6)mm and (31.3 ±4.2)mm, respectively.Conclusions The anatomic properties of periostum-patellar tendon-bone was similar to that of lateral ankle ligaments, There were periostum-patellar tendon-bone ligament tissue with enough length for the lateral ankle joint ligaments reconstruction.The grafted periostum- patellar tendon-bone easily can survive on recipient site.Autogenous periostum- patellar tendon-bone Grafts could to be used to reconstruct the lateral ankle joint ligaments.

  1. Autogenous Deformation of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autogenous deformation of concrete can be defined as the free deformation of sealed concrete at a constant temperature. A number of observed problems with early age cracking of high-performance concretes can be attributed to this phenomenon. During the last 10 years , this has led to an increased...... focus on autogenous deformation both within concrete practice and concrete research. Since 1996 the interest has been significant enough to hold international, yearly conferences entirely devoted to this subject. The papers in this publication were presented at two consecutive half-day sessions...... at the American Concrete Institute’s Fall Convention in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2002. All papers have been reviewed according to ACI rules. This publication, as well as the sessions, was sponsored by ACI committee 236, Material Science of Concrete. The 12 presentations from 8 different countries indicate...

  2. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway Mediates Inhalant Organic Dust-Induced Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Elizabeth; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Clarey, Dillon; Wyatt, Todd A; Romberger, Debra J; Wells, Adam D; Dusad, Anand; Wang, Dong; Klassen, Lynell W; Mikuls, Ted R; Duryee, Michael J; Poole, Jill A

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture workers have increased rates of airway and skeletal disease. Inhalant exposure to agricultural organic dust extract (ODE) induces bone deterioration in mice; yet, mechanisms underlying lung-bone crosstalk remain unclear. Because Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 are important in mediating the airway consequences of ODE, this study investigated their role in regulating bone responses. First, swine facility ODE stimulated wild-type (WT) bone marrow macrophages to form osteoclasts, and this finding was inhibited in TLR4 knock-out (KO), but not TLR2 KO cells. Next, using an established intranasal inhalation exposure model, WT, TLR2 KO and TLR4 KO mice were treated daily with ODE or saline for 3 weeks. ODE-induced airway neutrophil influx and cytokine/chemokine release were similarly reduced in TLR2 and TLR4 KO animals as compared to WT mice. Utilizing micro-computed tomography (CT), analysis of tibia showed loss of bone mineral density, volume and deterioration of bone micro-architecture and mechanical strength induced by ODE in WT mice were significantly reduced in TLR4 but not TLR2 KO animals. Bone marrow osteoclast precursor cell populations were analyzed by flow cytometry from exposed animals. In WT animals, exposure to inhalant ODE increased osteoclast precursor cell populations as compared to saline, an effect that was reduced in TLR4 but not TLR2 KO mice. These results show that TLR2 and TLR4 pathways mediate ODE-induced airway inflammation, but bone deterioration consequences following inhalant ODE treatment is strongly dependent upon TLR4. Thus, the TLR4 signaling pathway appears critical in regulating the lung-bone inflammatory axis to microbial component-enriched organic dust exposures. PMID:27479208

  3. BMP-2基因修饰自体BMSCs移植促进兔下颌骨牵张成骨新骨形成的实验研究%EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON TRANSPLANTATION OF BMP-2 GENE TRANSFECTED AUTOGENOUS BONE MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS FOR PROMOTING BONE REGENERATION IN RABBIT MANDIBULAR DISTRACTION OSTEOGENESIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄旋平; 周诺; 江献芳; 杨媛媛; 李华; 谢庆条

    2012-01-01

    目的:检测骨形态发生蛋白-2(BMP-2)基因mRNA及其蛋白的表达,探讨BMP-2基因修饰自体骨髓间充质干细胞(BMSCs)移植对兔下颌骨牵张成骨新骨形成的促进作用.方法:取新西兰白兔36只随机分为3组,每组12只.建立牵张成骨动物模型,在固定期第2天,实验组于牵张间隙注射200 μL的BMP-2基因修饰的自体BMSCs液;对照组注射等量自体BMSCs液;空白组注射等量生理盐水.分别于固定2,6周通过逆转录多聚酶链式反应(RT-PCR)、免疫组化等手段检测BMP-2基因mRNA及其蛋白的表达情况.结果:实验组牵张间隙新生骨组织均可见BMP-2基因mRNA和其蛋白强阳性表达.结论:BMP-2基因修饰的自体BMSCs移植能有效促进兔下颌骨牵张成骨新骨形成.%Objective:To examine the expressions of both bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) gene mR-NA and related proteins and investigate the promotive effect of transplantation of BMP-2 gene transfected autogenous bone mesenchymal stem cells on bone regeneration in rabbit mandibular distraction osteogene-sis. Methods: Thirty-six New Zealand's white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups with twelve in each. All objects -were prepared into distraction osteogenesis surgical model on right mandibles. On the 2nd day of consolidation, experimental, control, and blank groups -were injected -with the same amount of 200 juL of the solution with BMP-2 gene transfected autogenous bone mesenchymal stem cells, the solution with autogenous bone mesenchymal stem cells, and physiological saline at distraction gap, respectively. The expressions of BMP-2 mRNA and related proteins -were examined by RT-PCR and immunohistochem-istry at the ends of the 2nd and 6th -week consolidations, respectively. Results: Strongly positive expression of both BMP-2 gene mRNA and related proteins were confirmed on regenerated bone in distraction gap. Conclusion: The transplantation of BMP-2 gene transfected autogenous bone

  4. Horizontal Bone Augmentation Using Autogenous Block Grafts and Particulate Xenograft in the Severe Atrophic Maxillary Anterior Ridges: A Cone-Beam Computerized Tomography Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Alberto; Monje, Florencio; Hernández-Alfaro, Federico; Gonzalez-García, Raúl; Suárez-López del Amo, Fernando; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Montanero-Fernández, Jesús; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to use cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) to assess horizontal bone augmentation using block grafts, harvested from either the iliac crest (IC) or mandibular ramus (MR) combined with particulate xenograft and a collagen membrane for in the severe maxillary anterior ridge defects (cases Class III-IV according to Cadwood and Howell's classification). Fourteen healthy partially edentulous patients requiring extensive horizontal bone reconstruction in the anterior maxilla were selected for the study. Nineteen onlay block grafts (from IC or MR) were placed. The amount of horizontal bone gain was recorded by CBCT at 3 levels (5, 7, and 11 mm from the residual ridge) and at the time of bone grafting as well as the time of implant placement (≈5 months). Both block donor sites provided enough ridge width for proper implant placement. Nonetheless, IC had significantly greater ridge width gain than MR (Student t test) (4.93 mm vs 3.23 mm). This was further confirmed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney test (P = .007). Moreover, mean pristine ridge and grafted ridge values showed a direct association (Spearman coefficient of correlation = .336). A combination of block graft, obtained from the IC or MR, combined with particulate xenograft then covered with an absorbable collagen membrane is a predictable technique for augmenting anterior maxillary horizontal ridge deficiency.

  5. Proteínas morfogenéticas ósseas associadas a osso esponjoso autógeno na reparação de falhas experimentais na calota craniana de coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus Bone morphogenetic proteins associated with autogenous bone graft in the reparation of calvarial experimental defects of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus

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    B.S. Monteiro

    2007-12-01

    ão determinou maior preenchimento ósseo.Aspects of bone repair were evaluated after implantation of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP in different concentrations. They were carried by autogenous bone graft in defects created on skulls of 20 adult, young female rabbits, randomizedly divided into five experimental groups and were observed at five times. After exposure of skull bones, six bone defects on the fronto-parietal region of each animal were performed. The defect I was not filled, the II was completed filled with 3mg of autogenous bone graft and the defects III, IV, V, and VI were filled with autogenous bone graft associated with 0.5; 1; 2 and 5mg of BMP, respectively. In the post-mortem mesoscopic evaluations, it was observed that, independently of the treatment period of the defects, the bony filling began from the borders to the center, and from the botton to the surface of the lessions. The bony filling of the defect I was the smallest when compared with the others defects, in all the observation moments. It was also verified that until 2mg the higher the concentration of BMP used, better was the bone cover. Microscopically, it was verified in the first evaluations, on the seventh day, that the bony growth started from the borders and from the bottom of the lesion, with mobilization and differentiation of cells deriving from the periosteum and the meninges, respectively. In the subsequent evaluations, the osteoblastic activity also derived from "ossification islands" to ossification centers, located in the center of the flaw. The trabecular formation increased proportionally with the concentration of BMP used, and the apposition and bony organization increased proportionally with the time of observation. The presence of cartilaginous tissue was verified in all the flaws. In conclusion, the use the higher concentration of BMP did not determinate the better new bone formation. The association of BMP with autogenous bone graft contributed to the formation of new bony

  6. 9 CFR 113.113 - Autogenous biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.113 Autogenous biologics. Autogenous biologics shall be prepared from... serial or subserial of autogenous bacterial product other than the first serial or subserial...

  7. Mechanical properties of radial bone defects treated with autogenous graft covered with hydroxyapatite in rabbit Propriedades mecânicas de defeito de osso radial tratado com enxerto autógeno coberto com nano-hydroxyapatite em coelho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Sharifi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine biomechanical property of autogenous bone graft covered with hydroxyapatite in the defect of radial bone in rabbit. METHODS: Eighteen adult male New Zealand white rabbits were used which were divided into three groups (I, II, III of six rabbits each. A segmental bone defect of 10 mm in length was created in the middle of the right radial shaft under general effective anesthesia in all rabbits and were stabilized using mini-plate with four screws. The defects In group I were left as such without filler, whereas in group II the defect were filled up with harvested 10 mm rib bone and in group III the defect were packed with rib bone covered with nano-hydroxyapatite. All rabbits in three groups were divided into two subgroups (one month and three months duration with three rabbits in each one. RESULTS: The mechanical property and the mean load for fracturing normal radial bone was recorded 388.2±6 N whereas it was 72.4±12.8 N for group I in 1 month duration which was recorded 182.4±14.2 N for group II and 211.6±10.4 N for group III at the end of 1 month. These values were 97.6±10.2 N for group I and 324.6±8.2 N for group II and 372.6±17.4 N for group III at the end of three months after implantation. CONCLUSION: Implantation of autologous graft covered with hydroxyapatite indicated to have positive effect in integral formation of qualitative callus at the site of fracture and early re-organization of callus to regain mechanical strength too.OBJETIVO: Determinar as propriedades biomecânicas de enxerto ósseo autógeno coberto com hidroxiapatita em defeito do osso radial em coelhos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 18 coelhos adultos, machos, brancos, Nova Zelândia, distribuídos em três grupos (I, II, III de seis coelhos cada. Um defeito segmentar de 10 mm de comprimento foi criado no meio do eixo radial direito sob anestesia geral efetiva em todos os coelhos e foram fixados usando mini-placa com quatro parafusos. Os

  8. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cadavers. The types of allograft bone used for spine surgery include fresh frozen and lyophilized (freeze dried). The ... the most common uses of bone grafts in spine surgery is during spinal fusion. The use of autogenous ...

  9. Transplantation of deproteined bovine cancellous bone combined with autogenous red marrow for repairing bony cavity defect due to benign bone tumor: Compared with autologous bone graft%脱蛋白牛松质骨结合自体红骨髓移植修复骨肿瘤性骨缺损:与自体骨移植材料为对照标准的效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁真奇; 周亮; 练克俭; 康两奇; 郭延杰; 翟文亮; 郭林新

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autologous bone graft was always applied to repair bony cavity defect produced by benign bone tumor.OBJECTIVE: Taking autogenous bone graft for repairing bony cavity defect caused by bone tumor or tumor-like pathological change as control standard, to observe transplantation of deproteined bovine cancellous bone combined with autogenous red marrow in occluding the residual cavity and the density of newly formed bone.DESIGN: A randomized grouping design, controlled observation SETTING: Department of Orthopaedics, the 175 Hospital of Chinese PLA PARTICIPANTS:We recruited 175 cases of bony cavity defect who received treatment in the Department of Orthopaedics, the 175 Hospital of Chinese PLA from July 1993 to July 1998. They were randomly assigned into two groups: experimental group and control group. There were 63 cases treated in the experimental group. The average disease-suffering time was (6.2±2.1) months and bone defect was (136±30) mm3. There were 62 cases treated in the control group. The average disease-suffering time was (6.1±2.3)months, and bone defect was (133±37) mm3.METHODS: Deproteined bovine cancellous bone combined with autogenous red marrow was transplanted in the experimental group and autologous bone graft was applied in the control group. We curetted tumor completely, cauterized the wound with alcohol of 0.95 volume fraction, then curetted the area of cauterization to make it bled. Bone graft was applied.The quantity of implanted bone should be abundant, and disposed compactly. The X-ray films of the first week after operation were used as a standard for density of new bone growth. X-ray films were taken at the 3rd,6th and 8th months postoperatively, and the X-ray films of the eighth months after operation were used as a standard.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To compare the bone union in two groups with a standard of residual cavity occluding and density of bone growth.RESULTS: All patients were followed up for an average of 20 months

  10. Autogenous tooth transplantation: an alternative to replace extracted tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Kamadjaja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gold standard treatment to replace missing tooth is dental implants, however, in certain cases, such as in young patients its placement is contraindicated. Autogenous tooth transplantation, which has been widely done in Scandinavian countries for many years, may become a good alternative to overcome this problem. Purpose: This article attempted to provide information about the indication, treatment planning, surgical technique and the successful result of autogenous tooth transplantation. Case: A fifteen year old male patient presented with large caries and periapical disease of his lower left first molar, which was partially erupted and the roots was not fully formed in radiograph. Case management: Autogenous tooth transplantation procedure was performed consisting of extraction of #36, odontectomy of #38 followed by its implantation to socket #36 and fixation of the transplanted tooth to the adjacent teeth. Post operative evaluation was done on regular basis within 18 months period. There was no complaint, the tooth was clinically stable and no evidence of periodontal problem. Serial radiographs showed healing of alveolar bone and periodontal tissue, and the complete root formation was evident by 18 months post operatively. Conclusion: Autogenous tooth transplantation is a potential alternative to replace extracted tooth. Provided that the case be properly planned and operation carefully performed, successful result of this treatment can be achieved.

  11. 钛网结合异体骨移植联合人骨形成蛋白与自体骨移植在种植前牙槽嵴骨增量中的应用对比%Comparison of Application of Titanium Mesh Combined with Allograft Combined with Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein and Autogenous Bone Transplantation in Alveolar Bone Augmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔延军; 王红光; 程汇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the application of titanium mesh combined with allograft combined with human bone morphogenetic protein and autogenous bone transplantation in alveolar bone augmentation.Methods A total of 46 cases receiving anterior implant plus alveolar bone increment admitted to Tianmen City First People′s Hospital from Jan.2008 to Dec.2011 were randomly divided into two groups according to random-number table method,group A(n =23) using titanium mesh combined with allograft combined with human bone morphogenetic protein,while group B (n =23) using autogenous bone graft.The alveolar ridge width,the incremental effects and postoperative bone implant stability were compared before and after surgery.Results Postoperative average alveolar ridge width of group A was significantly higher than that of group B [(6.9 ±0.5) mm vs (5.6 ±0.3) mm,P <0.01]; the cure rate of group A was 94.1%,of group B was 60.0%,and the clinical efficacy of group A was better than group B with statistically significant difference (P <0.05); no-loosening rate after 4 months implant was 91.2% in group A,50.6% in group B,the sta-bility of group A was much better than group B,with statistically significant difference(P <0.05).Conclu-sion Titanium mesh combined with allogeneic bone graft combined with human bone morphogenetic protein can significantly increase patient alveolar bone mass and help to stabilize the implant after surgery .%目的:比较钛网结合异体骨移植联合人骨形成蛋白与自体骨移植在种植前牙槽嵴骨增量中的应用效果。方法将2008年1月至2011年12月天门市第一人民医院收治的46例前牙种植并行牙槽嵴骨增量的患者依据随机数字表法分为两组:A 组23例,采用钛网结合异体骨移植联合人骨形成蛋白的方法;B 组23例,采用自体骨移植的方法。比较两组患者手术前后牙槽嵴宽度、骨增量效果及术后种植体稳定性。结果术后 A 组牙槽嵴

  12. Computed tomography evaluation of autogenous graft in sinus lift surgery; Analise por tomografia computadorizada do enxerto autogeno na cirurgia de 'sinus lift'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajzen, Sergio Aron; Moscatiello, Rafael Andrade; Lima, Aida Maria Custodio de; Moscatiello, Vitoria Aparecida Muglia; Helio Kiitiro Yamashita [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Mosacatiello, Rafael Muglia; Nishiguchi, Celso Itiro [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Disciplina de Tecnica Operatoria e Cirurgia Experimental; Alves, Maria Teresa de Seixas [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Disciplina de Anatomia Patologica

    2001-02-01

    The objective was to quantify bone formation within autogenous bone grafts and autogenous bone grafts in combination with platelet-rich plasma obtained either from apheresis or centrifugation using computed tomography. This prospective, double-blind study was conducted in 34 male and female adult patients (mean age of 28 years and 8 months), with either unilateral or bilateral pneumatization of the maxillary sinuses, requiring bone graft for dental implant. All patients were submitted to computed tomography examinations prior and six months after sinus lift surgery. Fifty-three maxillary sinuses were operated and divided into three distinct groups: autogenous bone graft, autogenous bone graft in combination with platelet-rich plasma obtained by centrifugation, and autogenous bone graft in combination with platelet-rich plasma obtained by apheresis. The results showed that computed tomography demonstrated bone growth in height and width between the initial and the follow-up computed tomography scans in all three groups. However, no statistical difference was found either for bone height or width. It was concluded that clinical evidence demonstrates the effectiveness of autogenous bone grafts, particularly when used in combination with bone growth factors such as platelet-rich plasma, which allow prosthetic and functional restoration of maxillofacial structures through fixation of dental implants. (author)

  13. Viability of autogenous bone grafts obtained by using bone collectors: histological and microbiological study Viabilidade dos enxertos autógenos obtidos com a utilização de coletores para osso: estudo histológico e microbiológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Blay

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of autogenous bone grafts is considered to be the best choice for reconstructive surgery. In the periodontal literature, the utilization of osseous coagulum was suggested by the end of the sixties. The purpose of this study is to consider the use of bone collectors (bone traps as an alternative method for obtaining material to fill small bone imperfections, such as fenestrations and dehiscences. Thirty samples were obtained from bone drilling during fixture installation in patients (13 men and 17 women, with an average age of 54 years requiring treatment at the Department of Periodontology and Implant Dentistry, University of Santo Amaro. These samples were fixed in 10% neutral formaldehyde for 24 hours and subjected to histological preparation, in order to evaluate the presence of viable osteoblasts. In addition, the material was placed in a fluid thioglycolate medium and incubated for 24 hours at 36 ± 1°C in aerobiosis and anaerobiosis. Bacterial growth evaluation was made by using six different culture media (MacConkey agar, blood agar base, mannitol salt agar, Anaerokit LTD medium, Anaerokit LTD - bile medium, Anaerinsol. The results show that, if proper care is taken to prevent saliva contamination during the surgical procedure, this method of collecting autogenous bone may be useful in situations where small amounts of bone are required.A utilização de enxertos autógenos é considerada a melhor opção nos tratamentos cirúrgicos de reconstrução óssea. Na literatura periodontal, a utilização de coágulo ósseo foi sugerida no final da década de 60. O objetivo deste estudo é considerar a utilização de coletores para osso como um método alternativo de se obter osso autógeno para preenchimento de defeitos ósseos como fenestrações e deiscências. Trinta amostras foram obtidas no processo de perfuração do tecido ósseo, durante a instalação de implantes em pacientes (13 homens e 17 mulheres, com média etária de

  14. Anterior Lumbar Intervertebrai Fusion with Artificial Bone in Place of Autologous Bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐卫国; 陈安民; 冯旭; 印卫锋

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of anterior lumbar intervertebral fusion with artificial bone in place of au-togenous bone was investigated. Porous hydroxyapatite(HA)/ZrO2 ceramics loading bone morpho-genetic protein (BMP) were implanted after removal of lumbar vertebral disc in rabbits. The adja-cent intervertebral discs were also removed by the same way and autogenous illic bone was implan-ted. SEM observation and biomechanical test were carried out. Compound bone had a bit lower os-teoinductive activity than autogenous bone by SEM(Osteoindutive activity of artificial bone in 12weeks was the same as that of autogenous bone in 9 weeks). Biomechanical test revealed that com-pound bone had lower anti-pull strength than autogenous bone (P<0. 001), but there was no sig-nificant difference in anti-pull strength between compound bone at 12th week and autogenous boneat 9th week (P>0.05). It was concluded that compound bone could be applied for anterior spinalfusion, especially for those patients who can't use autogenous bone.

  15. Plasma rico em plaquetas associado ou não ao osso esponjoso autógeno no reparo de falhas ósseas experimentais Platelet rich plasma associated or not to autogenous bone graft on the reparation of experimental bone defects in the rabbits cranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Sayegh Arreguy Silva

    2009-02-01

    do tipo corpo estranho, que atuou negativamente na fase inicial de reparação.The present study evaluated autogenous platelet rich plasma's (PRP influence on the reparation process of four bone defects made on rabbit's skull, associated or not to autogenous bone graft (EOE. Defect I received PRP only; defect II received 3mg of EOE only; defect III received EOE associated to PRP; defect IV was left to heal naturally, serving as control. After each surgery the animals were randomly divided into three groups that were euthanized at 30, 60 and 90 days. In the mesoscopic evaluation bone ingrowth started from the defect's borders to the center and from the bottom to the surface for all observation times on the control (VI and PRP only (I groups. In the groups treated with EOE only (II and EOE associated to PRP (III new bone was observed in the center of the defects. Radiographic analysis showed greater central radiopacity for groups treated with EOE only (II and EOE associated to PRP (III at all observation times. Microscopically in the group treated with EOE associated to PRP (III at 30 days the graft was indistinguishable from new bone present on the border of the defect, associated to a moderate quantity of a very vascularized and cellular fibrous connective tissue. This tissue showed an extracelular eosinophilic amorphous foamy material, associated to an inflammatory process constituted by lymphocytes and in less number by macrophages and multinucleated giant cells that may have negatively influenced early bone formation. At 60 and 90 days occasional spots of lymphocytic inflammation were observed. Both treatments, PRP associated or not to EOE, were similar for the bone ingrowth at the final time of observation; the graft used alone determined early bone reparation and thromboplastine used for the platelet gel formation incited a foreign body-like reaction that acted negatively on the initial reparation.

  16. Effect of fly ash on autogenous shrinkage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipat Termkhajornkit; Toyoharu Nawa; Masashi Nakai; Toshiki Saito [Hokkaido University, Hokkaido (Japan). Division of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering

    2005-03-01

    The correlation between autogenous shrinkage and degree of hydration of fly ash was determined with the selective dissolution method. Then, the relationship between the degree of hydration of fly ash and autogenous shrinkage was examined. The results showed that the degree of hydration of fly ash increased as its Blaine surface area increased. The degree of hydration of fly ash increased with time, and autogenous shrinkage increased corresponding to the increase in the degree of hydration of fly ash. Moreover, it was found that the total quantity of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in cement-fly ash samples affected autogenous shrinkage at early ages, but the long-term influence was very small.

  17. Study of PRF Combined with Autogenous Bone Marrow Stem Cells on Alveolar Bone Defect%PRF复合自体骨髓间充质干细胞修复兔牙槽骨缺损的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文丽; 李淑慧; 陈诚; 李一鸣; 周晶; 吴佩玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察富血小板纤维蛋白(platelet-rich fibrin,PRF)复合自体第3代骨髓间充质干细胞(bone marrow stem cells,BMSCs)修复牙槽骨缺损的能力.方法:取健康雄性2月龄新西兰兔36只,随机分为4组:PRF+BMSCs组、PRF组、BMSCs组、空白对照组,均在全麻下微创拔除下颌左侧中切牙.4组实验动物分别在4、8、12周处死.取其下颌骨进行牙槽骨标本测量,X线观察,组织学观察.结果:牙槽骨标本测量比较:4组牙槽嵴宽度、高度丧失值均存在差异(P<0.05);析因分析示PRF与BMSCs复合使用修复牙槽骨的效果优于单独使用PRF或BMSCs(P<0.05).X线、组织学观察表明术后4、8、12周时拔牙窝骨吸收程度:PRF+ BMSCs组<PRF组<BM-SCs组<空白对照组,PRF+ BMSCs组成骨情况均优于PRF组、BMSCs组、空白对照组.结论:PRF复合自体BMSCs可以促进牙槽骨的再生与修复,具有潜在的临床应用价值.

  18. 乳突尖部分切除加自体骨粉鼓室上壁重建在鼓室成形术中的应用%Mastoidale partial resection and superior tympanic wall reconstruction with autogenous bone meal in tympanoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学华; 纪树芳; 李卡凡; 梅晓峰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of mastoidale partial resection and superior tympanic wall reconstruction with autogenous bone meal in tympanoplasty. Methods A total of 42 patients with chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) were treated with open tympanoplasty. Among these patients,22 patients were treated with autologous bone hearing reconstruction (autologous bone group) and 20 patients were treated with titanium auricular bone reconstruction (titanium auricular bone group) . The dry ear rate,dry ear time,external auditory canal shape,hearing and complication were observed after operation in the two groups. Results The postauricular incisions of all patients in the two groups were primary healing,and there was no postoperative complications such as vertigo, facial nerve paralysis and tinnitus and tinnitus, etc. After operation, the mastoid cavity recovered with good epithelization, and without escharosis, otopiesis or adhesion. The dry ear rate in autologous bone group and titanium auricular bone group was 95.5% (21/22)and 95.0% (19/20) .respectively;there was no significant difference in dry ear rate between the two groups ( P > 0. 05 ). There was no significant difference in dry ear time between the two groups (P >0.05). Before treatment,there was no significant difference in air conduction auditory threshold and air-bone gap between the two groups (P >0. 05). The air conduction auditory threshold and air-bone gap after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment in the two group(P <0. 05). After treatment, the air conduction auditory threshold and air-bone gap in titanium auricular bone group were significantly lower than those in autologous bone group (P < 0. 05). Conclusions Facial nerve monitoring can effectively identify the exposed facial nerve or thin bone canal facial nerve,and could avoid facial nerve injury during surgery. The mastoidale partial resection and superior tympanic wall reconstruction with autogenous bone meal

  19. 镜下髓芯减压BAM骨诱导人工骨治疗股骨头坏死的临床研究%Treatment with BAM artificial bone and autogenous marrow cells implantation after arthroscopic core decompression for ischemic necrosis of femoral head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李康养; 黄永翔; 李艳玲; 马楚平; 易伟宏; 欧迪军

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical effects of treatment with BAM artificial bone and autogenous marrow cells implantation after arthroscopic core decompression for ischemic necrosis of femoral head. MethodS:From 2009 to 2011, 25 cases (30 hips) at Ficat stage II and 5 cases (6 hips) at Ficat stage III were selected, and had arthroscopic core decompression with the assistance of ar-throscopy and the localization of C-shaped fluoroscopic machine. Lesion tissues were cleared completely, internal and external environment of femoral head was improved and transplantation of the BAM induced artificial bone and autogenous marrow cells was performed. Follow up were conducted for 3,12 and 24 months after the operation. Harris hip score,X-ray and MRI were performed to evaluate the stability of staging and clinical effect. Results: All patients were followed up for 12 to 24 months. According to Harris hip score, total excellent and good rate was 86. 11%. X-ray showed good bone repairment, and MRI showed no significant decrease in sign of focal zone. Conclusions:Minimally invasive grafting BAM artificial bone and autogenous marrow cells by core decompression under arthroscopy shows advantage of exact diagnosis and localization, as well as minimally invasion. It is effective in the treatment of ischemic necro-sis of the femoral head at stage II and stage HI A .%目的:评估关节镜辅助下髓芯减压植入BAM骨诱导人工骨与自体骨髓细胞治疗早期股骨头坏死可行性和临床疗效..方法:将2009~2011年确诊的股骨头坏死按Ficat分期Ⅱ期25例30髋,Ⅲ期5例6髋;在C型臂透视定位及关节镜辅助下,有效准确地进行髓芯减压,对股骨头内病变组织清除彻底,改善股骨头内外环境,植入BAM骨诱导人工骨与自体骨髓细胞.术后3、12、24个月进行随诊,以Harris髋关节评分、X线片及MRI观察病变分期稳定性及临床疗效为评价指标.结果:全部病例随访12~24个月,按

  20. 30 CFR 35.20 - Autogenous-ignition temperature test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Autogenous-ignition temperature test. 35.20... Autogenous-ignition temperature test. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this test, referred to hereinafter as the ignition-temperature test, is to determine the lowest autogenous-ignition temperature of a hydraulic...

  1. Autogenous Phenomena in Cement-Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    Denne afhandling er skrevet med henblik på opnåelse af den danske doktorgrad i teknik, dr.techn. Den vedrører autogene fænomener i cementbaserede materialer – primært deformation og ændring af den relative luftfugtighed (RF). I afhandlingen er det belyst, hvordan betydningen af disse fænomener bl...

  2. Miniplate fixation for the repair of segmental mandibular defects filled with autogenous bone in cats Uso de miniplacas na fixação de mandíbulas de gatos com defeitos segmentares preenchidos com osso autógeno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Maria da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of maxillofacial miniplate 1.5 in the repair of segmental mandibular defects filled with autogenous bone in cats. METHODS: Twelve adult cats were divided into two groups. A segmental defect of 4mm was created in one of the hemimandibles and filled with autogenous iliac crest bone graft. The operated hemimandible was fixed with a 1.5mm titanium miniplate. In group 1 (n=6, the defect was performed in the body of the mandible, behind the 1st molar. In group 2 (n=6, the defect was performed between the 4nd premolar and 1st molar, with extraction of the 1st molar. Oral alimentation was reinitiated 24 hours after surgery. Cats were euthanized at 20 weeks postoperative. RESULTS: Incorporation of the graft was suggested by the radiographs taken 20 weeks after surgery. Macroscopic examination confirmed alignment and bone union of operated hemimandibles. Histological examination showed formation of woven bone in rostral and caudal mandible/graft interfaces. The percentage of bone tissue at these areas was measured by the histometry. There was no statistically significant difference between the values of group 1(64.48 ± 4.51 and group 2 (71.69 ± 14.47 (Mann-Whitney's test p= 0.294. CONCLUSION: The use of miniplate 1.5 for the fixation of mandibular defects filled with autogenous bone in cats provided the main goals in the treatment of mandibular fractures: bone union, normal dental occlusion and immediate return to oral alimentation.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o uso de miniplacas na fixação de mandíbulas de gatos com defeitos segmentares preenchidos com osso autógeno. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 12 gatos adultos divididos em dois grupos de seis animais cada. Em uma das hemimandíbulas foi criado um defeito segmentar de 4mm, preenchido com enxerto autógeno do osso ilíaco. A hemimandíbula operada foi fixada com uma miniplaca 1.5 de titânio. No grupo 1, o defeito foi realizado caudalmente ao 1º molar e no grupo 2, entre o 4º pr

  3. Hard and Soft Tissue Management of a Localized Alveolar Ridge Atrophy with Autogenous Sources and Biomaterials: A Challenging Clinical Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoni, D.

    2016-01-01

    Particularly in the premaxillary area, the stability of hard and soft tissues plays a pivotal role in the success of the rehabilitation from both a functional and aesthetic aspect. The present case report describes the clinical management of a localized alveolar ridge atrophy in the area of the upper right canine associated with a thin gingival biotype with a lack of keratinized tissue. An autogenous bone block harvested from the chin associated with heterologous bone particles was used to replace the missing bone, allowing for a prosthetic driven implant placement. Soft tissues deficiency was corrected by means of a combined epithelialized and subepithelial connective tissue graft. The 3-year clinical and radiological follow-up demonstrated symmetric gingival levels of the upper canines, with physiological peri-implant probing depths and bone loss. Thus, the use of autogenous tissues combined with biomaterials might be considered a reliable technique in case of highly aesthetic demanding cases.

  4. Hard and Soft Tissue Management of a Localized Alveolar Ridge Atrophy with Autogenous Sources and Biomaterials: A Challenging Clinical Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Maiorana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Particularly in the premaxillary area, the stability of hard and soft tissues plays a pivotal role in the success of the rehabilitation from both a functional and aesthetic aspect. The present case report describes the clinical management of a localized alveolar ridge atrophy in the area of the upper right canine associated with a thin gingival biotype with a lack of keratinized tissue. An autogenous bone block harvested from the chin associated with heterologous bone particles was used to replace the missing bone, allowing for a prosthetic driven implant placement. Soft tissues deficiency was corrected by means of a combined epithelialized and subepithelial connective tissue graft. The 3-year clinical and radiological follow-up demonstrated symmetric gingival levels of the upper canines, with physiological peri-implant probing depths and bone loss. Thus, the use of autogenous tissues combined with biomaterials might be considered a reliable technique in case of highly aesthetic demanding cases.

  5. Mitigation strategies for autogenous shrinkage cracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Dale P.; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2004-01-01

    of the cement, the addition of saturated lightweight fine aggregates, the use of controlled permeability formwork, and the new concept of "water-entrained" concrete. As with any remedy, new problems may be created by the application of each of these strategies. But, with careful attention to detail in the field......As the use of high-performance concrete has increased, problems with early-age cracking have become prominent. The reduction in water-to-cement ratio, the incorporation of silica fume, and the increase in binder content of high-performance concretes all contribute to this problem. In this paper......, the fundamental parameters contributing to the autogenous shrinkage and resultant early-age cracking of concrete are presented. Basic characteristics of the cement paste that contribute to or control the autogenous shrinkage response include the surface tension of the pore solution, the geometry of the pore...

  6. Comparison of clinical efficacies of single segment transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with cage versus autogenous morselized bone for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: a prospective randomized controlled study%椎间融合器植入与单纯自体颗粒骨植骨治疗退变性腰椎管狭窄症的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘培盛; 刘小臻; 乔雪静; 都文楠; 罗大伟; 郑修军

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical efficacies of single segment transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) with cage versus autogenous morselized bone for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis.Methods A total of 87 patients undergoing single segment TLIF were randomly divided into 2 groups.A cage was implanted into intervertebral space in group A patients while autogenous morselized bone in group B patients.Operative duration,blood loss,length of stay and cost of hospitalization of two groups were recorded.They were followed up at 1 week,12,24 months post-operation.Oswestry disability index (ODI),visual analogue scale (VAS) fusion rates,intervertebral space and foramen height restoration,lumbar lordosis and postoperative complications were compared between two groups.Results No significant inter-group difference existed in operative duration,blood loss or length of stay.However,the average hospitalization cost in group A were 18% higher than that of group B (P < 0.05).Both groups achieved excellent clinical outcomes within 2 years.ODI,VAS score improvement rates and postoperative complication rates were not statistically different.Lumbar fusion rate was 86.7% in group A versus 85.7% in group B after 2 years.And there was no significant difference (P > 0.05).The heights of intervertebral space and foramen in group A achieved a better recovery than those of group B.Both groups had similar improvements of lumbar lordosis.Conclusion For degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis,usage of interbody cage is more effective in terms of recovery of intervertebral space and foraminal height compared with usage of bone graft.However it brings no better clinical efficacy while the usage of autogenous morselized bone is more cost-effective.Two grafting methods yield similar overall clinical outcomes.%目的 比较单节段经椎间孔腰椎椎间融合术(TLIF)手术中椎间融合器植入或单纯自体颗粒骨植骨两种融合方式治疗退变性腰椎管

  7. 聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯和自体骨加强的椎弓根螺钉技术治疗退变性脊柱侧凸的临床疗效比较%Autogenous bone and polymethylmethacrylate augmentation of screw fixation for degenerative scoliosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢杨; 傅强; 陈自强; 石志才; 朱晓东; 孙晓飞; 李明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical effect of autogenous bone and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) augmentation of screw fixation in degenerative scoliosis with osteoporosis. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on 31 consecutive patients with degenerative scoliosis combined with osteoporosis who accepted pedicle screw fixation from December 2000 to December 2006. Fourteen of them underwent fixation with pedicle screw by augmentation with PMMA and the other 17 patients with autogenous bone. Peri-operative data were recorded. Preoperative, postoperative and final follow up corrective effects were compared. Results No significant difference was found in clinical data except for administration time of oral pain relief medicines and surgery cost between the two surgical strategies. Cement leakage was observed in 2 patients in PMMA augmentation group, but there was no evidence of nerve damage. Conclusion There is no difference in surgical effect between two surgery strategies on degenerative scoliosis combined with osteoporosis. Less oral pain medicines are taken in the polymethylmethacrylate-augmented pedicle screw fixation and fusion, but with much more cost and danger of cement leakage.%目的 比较应用聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯( PMMA)和自体骨加强的椎弓根螺钉技术治疗合并骨质疏松的退变性脊柱侧凸的临床疗效.方法 回顾性分析2000年12月至2006年12月手术治疗的31例伴骨质疏松的退变性脊柱侧凸患者,其中14例采用PMMA加强钉道,17例采用自体骨加强钉道.记录并发症等围手术期情况,比较手术前后及随访期间侧凸的矫正效果.结果 两种手术除口服止痛药使用时间和手术费用外,其他临床数据差异无统计学意义,PMMA加强组中2例出现骨水泥渗漏,但未出现神经损伤的症状.结论 两种手术对伴骨质疏松的退变性脊柱侧凸的临床疗效无明显差异,PMMA加强的椎弓根螺钉内固定融合术可减少口服止痛药的用量,

  8. Autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jojić Boris R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Autogenic training is a widespread technique used in psychotherapy. The British school of autogenic training cites a large list of diseases, health states, and life changes, in which autogenic training can be of help. We wanted to explore the application of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents. The sample consisted of a homogeneous group of 31 individuals, with an average age of 17.3±0.2 years, who were diagnosed with adjustment disorder, F 43.2, in accordance with ICD 10 search criteria. OBJECTIVE The aim of our work was to figure out the influence of autogenic training on adjustment disorder, through biophysical and biochemical indicators, and to research the efficacy of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents. METHOD We observed adjustment disorder indicators and their changes in three phases, using initial, final, and control values, which we measured immediately before the beginning, immediately after the completion, and six months after the completion, of the practical course in autogenic training. We measured systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure, brachial pulse rates, cortisol levels in plasma, cholesterol levels in blood, as well as glucose concentrations. During that period, autogenic training was employed as the sole therapy. RESULTS The study confirmed our preliminary assumptions. The measurements we performed showed that arterial blood pressure, pulse rates, cholesterol and cortisol concentrations, after the application of autogenic training among adolescents suffering from adjustment disorder, were lower than the initial values. They remained lower even six months after the completion of the practical course in autogenic training. CONCLUSION We concluded that autogenic training significantly decreases the values of physiological indicators of adjustment disorder, diminishes the effects of stress in an individual, and eases the adaptation of

  9. Modelling autogenous expansion for magnesia concrete in arch dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng JIN; Guoxin ZHANG; Xiaoqing LUO; Chuhan ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Magnesia Concrete is a kind of expansive con-crete used in Chinese hydraulic engineering more and more widely. To evaluate the effects of autogenous expan-sion on the stresses of arch dams, a simple model of auto-genous expansion for Magnesia Concrete in dam engineering is presented. This model is based on three assumptions: 1) the total amount of autogenous expan-sion of Magnesia Concrete is related only to the properties of materials and mixing of concrete; 2) the autogenous expansion of Magnesia Concrete is irreversible due to the irreversibility of hydration reaction of Magnesia in the concrete; 3) the autogenous expansion strain rates of Magnesia Concrete bear a relation between temperature and residual Magnesia per unit volume of concrete. The model is verified by some experimental data of autogen-ous expansion of Magnesia Concrete and field-measured data of an arch dam in China. Embedded into finite ele-ment arch dam simulation software, this model is employed to simulate the effects of autogenous expansion of Magnesia Concrete in hydraulic engineering.

  10. Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  11. Reduction of the Early Autogenous Shrinkage of High Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Saje

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a laboratory investigation on the early autogenous shrinkage of high strength concrete, and the possibilities of its reduction, are presented. Such concrete demonstrates significant autogenous shrinkage, which should, however, be limited in the early stages of its development in order to prevent the occurrence of cracks and/or drop in the load-carrying capacity of concrete structures. The following possibilities for reducing autogenous shrinkage were investigated: the use of low-heat cement, a shrinkage-reducing admixture, steel fibres, premoistened polypropylene fibres, and presoaked lightweight aggregate. In the case of the use of presoaked natural lightweight aggregate, with a fraction from 2 to 4 mm, the early autogenous shrinkage of one-day-old high strength concrete decreased by about 90%, with no change to the concrete's compressive strength in comparison with that of the reference concrete.

  12. Biological and physical properties of autogenous vascularized fibular grafts in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological and biomechanical properties of normal fibulae, fibulae that had had a sham operation, and both vascularized and non-vascularized autogenous grafts were studied in dogs at three months after the operation. The study was designed to quantify and correlate changes in these properties in orthotopic, stably fixed, weight-bearing grafts and to provide a baseline for additional studies of allografts. The grafts were eight centimeters long and internally fixed. The mechanical properties of the grafts were studied by torsional testing. Metabolic turnover of the grafts was evaluated by preoperative labeling of the dogs with 3H-tetracycline for resorption of bone mineral and with 3H-proline for turnover of collagen. Cortical bone area and porosity were measured. Postoperative formation of bone was evaluated by sequential labeling with fluorochrome. The vascularized grafts resembled the fibulae that had had a sham operation and those that had not had an operation with regard to the total number of osteons and the remodeling process, as measured both morphometrically and metabolically. The vascularized grafts were stronger and stiffer than the non-vascularized grafts and were not different from the bones that had had a sham operation. In contrast, the non-vascularized grafts were smaller, weaker, less stiff, and more porotic, had fewer osteons, and demonstrated increased turnover and resorption compared with the vascularized grafts, the bones that had had a sham operation, and the bones that had not been operated on

  13. Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scanning provides information on the extent of primary bone tumors, on possible metastatic disease, on the presence of osteomyelitis prior to observation of roentgenographic changes so that earlier therapy is possible, on the presence of collagen diseases, on the presence of fractures not disclosed by x-ray films, and on the evaluation of aseptic necrosis. However, the total effect and contribution of bone scanning to the diagnosis, treatment, and ultimate prognosis of pediatric skeletal diseases is, as yet, unknown. (auth)

  14. Effects of a buried magnetic field on cranial bone reconstruction in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    de ABREU, Maíra Cavallet; PONZONI, Deise; LANGIE, Renan; ARTUZI, Felipe Ernesto; PURICELLI, Edela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The understanding of bone repair phenomena is a fundamental part of dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of buried magnetic field stimulation on bone repair in rat calvaria after reconstruction with autogenous bone grafts, synthetic powdered hydroxyapatite, or allogeneic cartilage grafts, with or without exposure to magnetic stimulation. Material and Methods Ninety male Wistar rats were divided into 18 groups of five animals each. Critical bone defects were created in the rats’ calvaria and immediately reconstructed with autogenous bone, powdered synthetic hydroxyapatite or allogeneic cartilage. Magnetic implants were also placed in half the animals. Rats were euthanized for analysis at 15, 30, and 60 postoperative days. Histomorphometric analyses of the quantity of bone repair were performed at all times. Results These analyses showed significant group by postoperative time interactions (p=0.008). Among the rats subjected to autogenous bone reconstruction, those exposed to magnetic stimulation had higher bone fill percentages than those without magnetic implants. Results also showed that the quality of bone repair remained higher in the former group as compared to the latter at 60 postoperative days. Conclusions After 60 postoperative days, bone repair was greater in the group treated with autogenous bone grafts and exposed to a magnetic field, and bone repair was most pronounced in animals treated with autogenous bone grafts, followed by those treated with powdered synthetic hydroxyapatite and allogeneic cartilage grafts. PMID:27119765

  15. Morbidity from iliac crest bone harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalk, WWI; Raghoebar, GM; Jansma, J; Boering, G

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The iliac crest is the most common donor site for autogenous bone grafting in maxillofacial surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the morbidity of bone harvesting from the inner table of the anterior iliac crest. Patients and Methods: Sixty-five patients were recall

  16. Estimulação da cicatrização óssea pelo plasma autógeno rico em plaquetas: estudo experimental em coelhos Bone healing stimulation by platelet-rich autogenous plasma: an experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Mitiko Kobaiashi Wilson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O plasma sangüíneo autógeno com alta concentração de plaquetas obtido por centrifugação (plasma rico em plaquetas, ou PRP tem sido utilizado na prática clínica para estimular a cicatrização óssea numa variedade de situações, sob alegação de que ele carrega uma elevada concentração de fatores de crescimento derivados da plaqueta e beta-transformadores, os quais sabidamente estimulam o crescimento e regeneração de diferentes tecidos. No presente estudo, o PRP foi utilizado para reparar uma falha óssea diafisária segmentar de meia espessura e 2 cm de comprimento produzida no radio de coelhos Nova Zelândia. O periósteo foi ressecado na circunferência do local da falha e a cavidade medular foi selada com cera óssea em todos os animais para bloquear a chegada de celular regeneradoras que não fossem do próprio osso, mas dos tecidos vizinhos. Três grupos de 15 animais cada foram planejados, de acordo com o procedimento realizado: 1 falha deixada vazia; 2 falha preenchida com o PRP; e 3 falha preenchida com um material inerte (Gelfoam®. Em cada grupo os animais foram distribuídos em três subgrupos de acordo com o período de observação pós-operatória, de 4, 8 e 12 semanas, respectivamente, depois do qual os animais foram mortos e o radio, ressecado para os estudos histológicos. Radiografias e cintilografias foram obtidas a intervalos de 4 semanas, começando na quarta semana pós-operatória. Cicatrização completa e remodelação foram observadas no grupo 2 já na 8ª semana, enquanto que nos grupos 1 e 3 esse processo era apenas parcial na 12ª. A captação do tecnécio estava aumentada em todos os grupos, assim permanecendo durante todo o período de observação nos grupos 1 e 3, mas diminuindo da 8ª para a 12ª semana no grupo 2, acompanhando o processo de remodelação, com diferenças significantes entre os grupos (pThe autogenous blood plasma with high platelet concentration obtained through centrifugation

  17. [Chronobiologic aspects of autogenic training. Thermometric findings of autogenic training in relation to diurnal periodicity in autonomic dystonia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, F

    1985-01-01

    In a cohort of patients suffering from neuro-dystonia a group of test subjects well acquainted with the techniques of autogenous training and another consisting of patients unfamiliar with these techniques were compared with regard to the rise in the skin temperature in their fingers at various times of the day. Furthermore, the connection between the personal perception of warmth of the test subjects during autogenous training and the actually measured increase the temperature was observed: 1. In the test group as well as among the controls two different patterns of reaction with regard to diurnal fluctuations of the skin temperature occurred which were interpreted as so-called "morning types" and "evening types" respectively. 2. The increase in temperature induced by autogenous training in the test group was always higher than the one in the group of controls. 3. Subject to the circadian reaction pattern of the skin temperature there were fluctuations related to the actual time of day with regard to the increases in temperature induced by autogenous training. 4. There was merely a "slight" correlation between the personal experience or warmth and the measured temperature increase, and the intensity of the temperature experience seems to be influenced more by the relative initial value of the skin temperature than by the objectifyable temperature increase. These results are discussed with regard to practical consequences for the acquisition of autogenous training and its therapeutic application with neuro-dystonic patients. PMID:4002890

  18. Basin Depth Control on the Autogenic Timescale of Fluviodeltaic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, B.; Kim, W.; Piliouras, A.

    2013-12-01

    ABSTRACT Autogenic processes are inherent processes in sediment transport that influence landscape building and leave distinct signatures in the sedimentary record. It is of great interest to understand autogenic processes in order to decouple internal processes from external controls, such as tectonics or climate change. Here we present results from a series of delta-building experiments to determine the variability of the fluviodeltaic autogenic timescale in response to varying basin water depth. This internal timescale was measured as the time that is required for the delta topset to be reworked through a full cycle of storage and release of sediment. The topset aggrades by fluvial sedimentation until it reaches a maximum slope, at which point a large amount of sediment starts to release, typically resulting in strong channelization. This is followed by a period of avulsions, lateral migration, and backfilling of channels on the topset. These storage and release events are repeated. We used time-lapse images to track shoreline positions and observe changes in progradation rate. The changes in topset topography were also used to determine storage and release duration. The experimental results indicate that the autogenic timescales generally increase with increasing basin water depth. These observations may be explained by the amount of time required to build a lobe with an area large enough to trigger a switch from a lobe-building release event to a backfilling storage event. Individual lobes show a similar surface area regardless of basin depth in the experiments. Deeper basin depth simply requires a larger volume to be filled within this area, thus more time to complete one autogenic process. However, when channel depth is significantly smaller than basin depth, e.g., in very deep basins, stochastic variability in sediment transport and channel lateral mobility outweighs the autogenic cyclicity. This study suggests that internal dynamics and its stratigraphic

  19. Measuring techniques for autogenous strain of cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2007-01-01

    Volumetric measurement of autogenous strain is frequently performed by placing the fresh cement paste in a rubber membrane submerged in water. The volume change of the cement paste is measured by the amount of water displaced by the submerged sample. Volumetric and linear measurements of autogenous...... of the volumetric method. Water absorption is driven by a lowering of the water activity in the cement paste due to dissolved salts in the pore fluid and to self-desiccation. From the moment of casting, significant water uptake was registered in all experiments. This water uptake influenced the volumetric...... on the same cement pastes....

  20. Measuring techniques for autogenous strain of cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2006-01-01

    Volumetric measurement of autogenous strain is frequently performed by placing the fresh cement paste in a rubber membrane submerged in water. The volume change of the cement paste is measured by the amount of water displaced by the submerged sample. Volumetric and linear measurements of autogenous...... of the volumetric method. Water absorption is driven by a lowering of the water activity in the cement paste due to dissolved salts in the pore fluid and to self-desiccation. From the moment of casting, significant water uptake was registered in all experiments. This water uptake influenced the volumetric...... on the same cement pastes....

  1. Cracking in cement paste induced by autogenous shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Weiss, Jason

    2009-01-01

    technique allows identification of microcracks while avoiding artefacts induced by unwanted restraint, drying, or temperature variations during sample preparation. Small cylindrical samples of cement paste are cast with steel rods of different diameters in their centre. The rods restrain the autogenous...... shrinkage of the paste and may cause crack formation. The crack pattern is identified by impregnation with gallium and analyzed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. In this study, a non-linear numerical analysis of the samples was performed. Autogenous strain, elastic modulus, fracture energy...

  2. Treatment of Infected Tibial Nonunion with Bone Defect Using Central Bone Grafting Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Gulan, Gordan; Jotanović, Zdravko; Jurdana, Hari; Šestan, Branko; Rapan, Saša; Rubinić, Dušan; Ravlić-Gulan, Jagoda

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of infected tibial nonunion with bone defect represents a challenge for every orthopaedic surgeon. Various methods of treatment have been described for nonunions with infection, bone loss or both. One of them is the central bone grafting technique, which is a safe and effective treatment for nonunions of the tibia. The technique involves placement of autogenous cancellous bone from the iliac crest on the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane with the aim of creating...

  3. Team management of atrophic edentulism with autogenous inlay, veneer, and split grafts and endosseous implants: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, T A; Brown, G K; Johnson, N; Massey, J A; Nunn, B D

    1995-02-01

    Predictable success of autogenous graft and implant reconstructions is critically dependent on preoperative alignment and prosthetic considerations planned by the surgeon and the restorative dentist in a team approach. In such cases the surgeon has an opportunity to place accurate bone grafts that allow implants to be secured in both the correct position and correct axis for good prosthetic restoration. With careful thought, the restorative dentist and surgeon can plan the location, shape, and volume of an implant-graft reconstruction. Nine requirements for successful onlay grating with implants and five case reports illustrating the team approach are presented.

  4. Thermodynamics of Autogenous Self-healing in Cementitious Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, H.

    2014-01-01

    Concrete is a brittle composite cementitious material that easily fractures under tensile loading. Microcracks can appear throughout the concrete prior to application of any load because of temperature-induced strain and autogenous and drying shrinkage. There is no doubt that these cracks provide pr

  5. Measuring autogenous strain of concrete with corrugated moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Qian; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2008-01-01

    A reliable technique to quantify autogenous strain is a prerequisite to numerical modeling in stress calculations for high performance concrete. The introducing of a special kind of corrugated tube mould helps to transforming volume strain measurement into liner strain measurement in horizontal...

  6. Autogenous Metallic Pipe Leak Repair in Potable Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Min; Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Edwards, Marc A

    2015-07-21

    Copper and iron pipes have a remarkable capability for autogenous repair (self-repair) of leaks in potable water systems. Field studies revealed exemplars that metallic pipe leaks caused by nails, rocks, and erosion corrosion autogenously repaired, as confirmed in the laboratory experiments. This work demonstrated that 100% (N = 26) of 150 μm leaks contacting representative bulk potable water in copper pipes sealed autogenously via formation of corrosion precipitates at 20-40 psi, pH 3.0-11.0, and with upward and downward leak orientations. Similar leaks in carbon steel pipes at 20 psi self-repaired at pH 5.5 and 8.5, but two leaks did not self-repair permanently at pH 11.0 suggesting that water chemistry may control the durability of materials that seal the leaks and therefore the permanence of repair. Larger 400 μm holes in copper pipes had much lower (0-33%) success of self-repair at pH 3.0-11.0, whereas all 400 μm holes in carbon steel pipes at 20 psi self-repaired at pH 4.0-11.0. Pressure tests indicated that some of the repairs created at 20-40 psi ambient pressure could withstand more than 100 psi without failure. Autogenous repair has implications for understanding patterns of pipe failures, extending the lifetime of decaying infrastructure, and developing new plumbing materials. PMID:26057741

  7. Repair of the superior sulcus deformity using autogenous costal cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutula, F C; Thomas, O

    1982-05-01

    Superior sulcus deformity is a late sequela of surgical anophthalmos. Many methods have been proposed to treat this difficult problem. A technique using autogenous costal cartilage that has resulted in satisfactory repair is presented. In addition to standard photographs and exophthalmometry measurements to follow these patients, a specific device to accurately measure orbital volume gain after operation was fashioned. PMID:7099560

  8. Guided bone regeneration with local zoledronic acid and titanium barrier: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Serkan; Ozgur, Cem; Yaman, Ferhan; Cakmak, Omer; Saybak, Arif; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanifi; Alan, Hilal; Artas, Gokhan; Nacakgedigi, Onur

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on new bone formation of autogenous blood alone or in combination with zoledronic acid (ZA), a β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) graft or ZA plus a β-TCP graft placed under titanium barriers. For this purpose, eight adult male New Zealand white rabbits were used in the study, each with four titanium barriers fixed around four sets of nine holes drilled in the calvarial bones. The study included four groups, each containing 2 rabbits. In the autogenous blood (AB group), only autogeneous blood was placed under the titanium barriers. The three experimental groups were the AB+ZA group, with autogenous blood plus ZA, the AB+β-TCP group, with autogeneous blood plus a β-TCP graft, and the AB+β-TCP+ZA group, with autogeneous blood plus a β-TCP graft and ZA mixture under the titanium barriers. The animals were sacrificed after 3 months. The amounts of new bone formation identified histomorphometrically were found to be higher after 3 months than at the time of surgery in all groups. The differences between the groups were examined with histomorphometric analysis, and statistically significant differences were identified at the end of the 3 months. The bone formation rate in the AB+β-TCP+ZA group was determined to be significantly higher than that in the other groups (P<0.05). In the AB+ZA and AB+β-TCP groups, the bone formation rate was determined to be significantly higher than that in the AB group (P<0.05). No statistically significant difference in bone formation rate was observed between the AB+β-TCP and AB+ZA groups. Local ZA used with autogeneous blood and/or graft material appears to be a more effective method than the use of autogeneous blood or graft alone in bone augmentation executed with a titanium barrier. PMID:27698687

  9. Análise por tomografia computadorizada do enxerto autógeno na cirurgia de "sinus lift" Computed tomography evaluation of autogenous graft in sinus lift surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Aron Ajzen

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Quantificar a formação óssea nos enxertos com e sem plasma rico em plaquetas, obtido pelos métodos de centrifugação e aférese, comparando os três tipos de enxertos realizados por meio de análise tomográfica. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Este estudo prospectivo, duplo cego, utilizou uma amostra composta de 34 pacientes adultos, de ambos os sexos, com idade média de 48 anos e 8 meses, portadores de pneumatização unilateral ou bilateral dos seios maxilares, que necessitavam de enxertos ósseos, com a finalidade de melhorar as condições locais para a colocação dos implantes dentários. Todos os pacientes realizaram tomografia computadorizada antes da cirurgia. Foram operados 53 seios maxilares, divididos em três grupos: enxerto de plasma rico em plaquetas obtido pelos métodos de aférese, centrifugação e enxerto apenas de osso autógeno. Após seis meses do procedimento cirúrgico foram realizados novos exames de imagem. RESULTADOS: Pela avaliação tomográfica, houve crescimento em altura e em largura nos três grupos quando foram comparados os momentos inicial e final, entretanto, não houve diferença estatística para a altura e para a largura. CONCLUSÃO: Evidências clínicas demonstram a eficácia dos enxertos autógenos, principalmente os associados a fatores indutores de crescimento ósseo, como o plasma rico em plaquetas, recuperando o arcabouço maxilofacial, necessário para a reconstrução protética e funcional por meio de implantes dentários.OBJECTIVE: To quantify bone formation within autogenous bone grafts and autogenous bone grafts in combination with platelet-rich plasma obtained either from aphaeresis or centrifugation using computed tomography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, double-blind study was conducted in 34 male and female adult patients (mean age of 28 years and 8 months, with either unilateral or bilateral pneumatization of the maxillary sinuses, requiring bone graft for dental

  10. Thermodynamics of Autogenous Self-healing in Cementitious Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, H

    2014-01-01

    Concrete is a brittle composite cementitious material that easily fractures under tensile loading. Microcracks can appear throughout the concrete prior to application of any load because of temperature-induced strain and autogenous and drying shrinkage. There is no doubt that these cracks provide preferential access for aggressive agents to penetrate into the concrete, probably causing corrosion of reinforcement steel and degradation of concrete. As a result, the service life of reinforced co...

  11. New insights into autogenous self-healing with NMR tests

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, H; Ye, Guang; Pel, L.

    2015-01-01

    Concrete is a brittle composite cementitious material that easily fractures under tensile loading. Microcracks can appear throughout the concrete prior to application of any load because of temperature-induced strain and autogenous and drying shrinkage. There is no doubt that these cracks provide preferential access for aggressive agents to penetrate into the concrete, probably causing corrosion of reinforcement steel and degradation of concrete. As a result, the service life of reinforced co...

  12. Combined bone grafting: an alternative method for bone healing stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most provocative problem in bone grafting is the effectiveness of healing of the graft. When you use the heterogenous bone graft, it may take one or more than two years for consolidation and union depends on the graft quality and the situation of surrounding blood supply. In our preliminary report seven cases of freeze-dried heterogenous bone graft from the Bangkok Biomaterial Center were mixed with autogenous iliac bone graft from the patient in the ratio of 3:1. After that the healing was checked by clinical examination and X-ray in the periodic follow up. The causes of bone lost are post evacuation of benign bone tumor and post infection of bone after trauma. The result of bony union could be tested by clinical examination and showed in the X-ray films as early as 3 months post grafting

  13. Influence of temperature on autogenous deformation and relative humidity change in hardening cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with autogenous deformation and autogenous relative humidity change (RH change) in hardening cement paste. Theoretical considerations and experimental data are presented, which elucidate the influence of temperature on these properties. This is an important subject in the control...

  14. Autogenous Regulation of Splicing of the Transcript of a Yeast Ribosomal Protein Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabeva, Mariana D.; Post-Beittenmiller, Martha A.; Warner, Jonathan R.

    1986-08-01

    The gene for a yeast ribosomal protein, RPL32, contains a single intron. The product of this gene appears to participate in feedback control of the splicing of the intron from the transcript. This autogenous regulation of splicing provides a striking analogy to the autogenous regulation of translation of ribosomal proteins in Escherichia coli.

  15. Autogenous regulation of splicing of the transcript of a yeast ribosomal protein gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Dabeva, M. D.; Post-Beittenmiller, M A; Warner, J R

    1986-01-01

    The gene for a yeast ribosomal protein, RPL32, contains a single intron. The product of this gene appears to participate in feedback control of the splicing of the intron from the transcript. This autogenous regulation of splicing provides a striking analogy to the autogenous regulation of translation of ribosomal proteins in Escherichia coli.

  16. Autogenous electrolyte, non-pyrolytically produced solid capacitor structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, D.J.; Armstrong, P.S.; Panitz, J.K.G.

    1998-03-17

    A solid electrolytic capacitor is described having a solid electrolyte comprising manganese dioxide dispersed in an aromatic polyamide capable of further cure to form polyimide linkages, the solid electrolyte being disposed between a first electrode made of valve metal covered by an anodic oxide film and a second electrode opposite the first electrode. The electrolyte autogenously produces water, oxygen, and hydroxyl groups which act as healing substances and is not itself produced pyrolytically. Reduction of the manganese dioxide and the water molecules released by formation of imide linkages result in substantially improved self-healing of anodic dielectric layer defects. 2 figs.

  17. Adjuvant auricular electroacupuncture and autogenic training in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Auricular acupuncture and autogenic training in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernateck, M; Becker, M; Schwake, C;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In contrast to psychological interventions the usefulness of acupuncture as an adjuvant therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not yet been demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of auricular electroacupuncture (EA) was directly compared with autogenic training (AT). METHODS: Patients...

  18. Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) Method and System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) method of the present invention is a combined application of physiologic and perceptual training techniques. such as autogenic therapy and biofeedback. This combined therapy approach produces a methodology that is appreciably more effective than either of the individual techniques used separately. The AFTE method enables sufficient magnitude of control necessary to significantly reduce the behavioral and physiologic reactions to severe environmental stressors. It produces learned effects that are persistent over time and are resistant to extinction and it can be administered in a short period of time. The AFTE method may be used efficiently in several applications, among which are the following: to improve pilot and crew performance during emergency flying conditions; to train people to prevent the occurrence of nausea and vomiting associated with motion and sea sickness, or morning sickness in early pregnancy; as a training method for preventing or counteracting air-sickness symptoms in high-performance military aircraft; for use as a method for cardiovascular training, as well as for multiple other autonomic responses, which may contribute to the alleviation of Space Motion Sickness (SMS) in astronauts and cosmonauts; training people suffering from migraine or tension headaches to control peripheral blood flow and reduce forehead and/or trapezius muscle tension; training elderly people suffering from fecal incontinence to control their sphincter muscles; training cancer patients to reduce the nauseagenic effects of chemotherapy; and training patients with Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction (CIP).

  19. Effectiveness of two regeneration materials in autogenous tooth transplantation in larger sockets:an experimental study in beagle dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samjhana Kashaju; Yarning Chen; Ting Chen

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effectiveness of regenerous tissue and bone substitute in autogenous tooth transplantation in the larger recipient socket. Methods:In 3 Beagle dogs, 18 incisors were transplanted to the recipient sockets, 2 mm wider mesio-distally. The regenerous tissue group, the bone substitute group and the control group contained 7, 7 and 4 teeth respectively. No additional material was used in control group. Clinical and radiographic examinations were done every month and were sacrificed 3 months later. Subsequently, decalcified sections were prepared for routine histological evaluation. Ordinal scores for root surface resorption were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results:All donor teeth survived. A statistically significant difference was found among.all three treatment groups(P=0.0001). The proliferating tissue in space positively affected the periodontal healing without any resorption. Inflammatory resorption of the root surface and formation of new bone were observed in the bone substitute group. Surface resorptions of the roots were found in the control group. Conclusion:Proliferating tissues enhance the regeneration of periodontal tissues in larger recipient sockets and prevent root resorption. Sinbone HT is beneficial for the stabilization of the transplanted teeth in larger sockets.

  20. Bone replacement following dental trauma prior to implant surgery - present status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallman, Mats; Mordenfeld, Arne; Strandkvist, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Dento-alveolar trauma often leads to a need for reconstruction of the alveolar crest before an implant can be placed. Although autogenous bone grafts is considered the 'gold standard', this may be associated with patient morbidity and graft resorption. Consequently, the use of bone substitutes has i

  1. Reimplantation of cultivated human bone cells from the posterior maxilla for sinus floor augmentation. Histological results from a randomized controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, N.U.; Stavropoulos, Andreas; Donatsky, O;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present randomized clinical study was to evaluate histologically whether the addition of cultivated, autogenous bone cells to a composite graft of deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and autogenous bone (AB) for sinus floor augmentation (SFA) enhance bone formation...... compared with what achieved after SFA with DBBM + AB alone. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty patients with remaining posterior maxillary alveolar crest height of less than 3 mm received SFA after randomization either with an DBBM and AB composite in a 1 : 1 ratio or with DBBM + AB supplemented with autogenous...... bone cells, which were cultivated from a bone biopsy harvested earlier from the tuberosity area. Four months after SFA, two cylindrical biopsies were taken from the augmented sinuses concomitantly with the implant site preparation by means of a trephine bur. An additional biopsy was taken from...

  2. The outcome of intraoral onlay block bone grafts on alveolar ridge augmentations: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Aloy Prósper, Amparo; Peñarrocha Oltra, David; Peñarrocha Diago, María; Peñarrocha Diago, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to systematically review clinical studies examining the survival and success rates of implants placed with intraoral onlay autogenous bone grafts to answer the following question: do ridge augmentations procedures with intraoral onlay block bone grafts in conjunction with or prior to implant placement influence implant outcome when compared with a control group (guided bone regeneration, alveolar distraction, native bone or short dental implants.)? Material ...

  3. Autogenous Shrinkage of High Strength Lightweight Aggregate Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Qingjun; TIAN Yaogang; WANG Fazhou; ZHANG Feng; HU Shuguang

    2005-01-01

    The characteristic of autogenous shrinkage ( AS ) and its effect on high strength lightweight aggregate concrete (HSLAC) were studied. The experimental results show that the main shrinkage of high strength concrete is AS and the amount of cement can affect the AS of HSLAC remarkably. At the early stage the AS of HSLAC is lower than that of high strength normal concrete, but it has a large growth at the later stage. The AS of high strength normal concrete becomes stable at 90d age, but HSLAC still has a high AS growth. It is found that adjusting the volume rate of lightweight aggregate, mixing with a proper dosage of fly ash and raising the water saturation degree of lightweight aggregate can markedly reduce the AS rate of HSLAC.

  4. Autogenic reaction synthesis of photocatalysts for solar fuel generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, Brian J.; Pol, Vilas G.; Cronauer, Donald C.; Ramanathan, Muruganathan

    2016-04-19

    In one preferred embodiment, a photocatalyst for conversion of carbon dioxide and water to a hydrocarbon and oxygen comprises at least one nanoparticulate metal or metal oxide material that is substantially free of a carbon coating, prepared by heating a metal-containing precursor compound in a sealed reactor under a pressure autogenically generated by dissociation of the precursor material in the sealed reactor at a temperature of at least about 600.degree. C. to form a nanoparticulate carbon-coated metal or metal oxide material, and subsequently substantially removing the carbon coating. The precursor material comprises a solid, solvent-free salt comprising a metal ion and at least one thermally decomposable carbon- and oxygen-containing counter-ion, and the metal of the salt is selected from the group consisting of Mn, Ti, Sn, V, Fe, Zn, Zr, Mo, Nb, W, Eu, La, Ce, In, and Si.

  5. Osteogenic Matrix Cell Sheets Facilitate Osteogenesis in Irradiated Rat Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Uchihara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of large bone defects after resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumors is a significant challenge in orthopedic surgery. Extracorporeal autogenous irradiated bone grafting is a treatment option for bone reconstruction. However, nonunion often occurs because the osteogenic capacity is lost by irradiation. In the present study, we established an autogenous irradiated bone graft model in the rat femur to assess whether osteogenic matrix cell sheets improve osteogenesis of the irradiated bone. Osteogenic matrix cell sheets were prepared from bone marrow-derived stromal cells and co-transplanted with irradiated bone. X-ray images at 4 weeks after transplantation showed bridging callus formation around the irradiated bone. Micro-computed tomography images at 12 weeks postoperatively showed abundant callus formation in the whole circumference of the irradiated bone. Histology showed bone union between the irradiated bone and host femur. Mechanical testing showed that the failure force at the irradiated bone site was significantly higher than in the control group. Our study indicates that osteogenic matrix cell sheet transplantation might be a powerful method to facilitate osteogenesis in irradiated bones, which may become a treatment option for reconstruction of bone defects after resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumors.

  6. Adjuvant auricular electroacupuncture and autogenic training in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernateck, M.; Becker, M.; Schwacke, C.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In contrast to psychological interventions the usefulness of acupuncture as an adjuvant therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not yet been demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of auricular electroacupuncture (EA) was directly compared with autogenic training (AT). METHODS: Patients...

  7. Nanocomposites and bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Roshan; Deng, Meng; Laurencin, Cato T.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.

    2011-12-01

    This manuscript focuses on bone repair/regeneration using tissue engineering strategies, and highlights nanobiotechnology developments leading to novel nanocomposite systems. About 6.5 million fractures occur annually in USA, and about 550,000 of these individual cases required the application of a bone graft. Autogenous and allogenous bone have been most widely used for bone graft based therapies; however, there are significant problems such as donor shortage and risk of infection. Alternatives using synthetic and natural biomaterials have been developed, and some are commercially available for clinical applications requiring bone grafts. However, it remains a great challenge to design an ideal synthetic graft that very closely mimics the bone tissue structurally, and can modulate the desired function in osteoblast and progenitor cell populations. Nanobiomaterials, specifically nanocomposites composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and/or collagen are extremely promising graft substitutes. The biocomposites can be fabricated to mimic the material composition of native bone tissue, and additionally, when using nano-HA (reduced grain size), one mimics the structural arrangement of native bone. A good understanding of bone biology and structure is critical to development of bone mimicking graft substitutes. HA and collagen exhibit excellent osteoconductive properties which can further modulate the regenerative/healing process following fracture injury. Combining with other polymeric biomaterials will reinforce the mechanical properties thus making the novel nano-HA based composites comparable to human bone. We report on recent studies using nanocomposites that have been fabricated as particles and nanofibers for regeneration of segmental bone defects. The research in nanocomposites, highlight a pivotal role in the future development of an ideal orthopaedic implant device, however further significant advancements are necessary to achieve clinical use.

  8. The use of autogenous fascia lata to correct lid and orbital deformities.

    OpenAIRE

    Flanagan, J C; Campbell, C. B.

    1981-01-01

    Autogenous and homologous fascia lata have been used to correct many problems in ophthalmic surgery. This paper has described the use of autogenous fascia late to correct lid retraction secondary to thyroid ophthalmopathy, cicatricial entropion and extruding orbital implants. The surgical procedures have been briefly discussed, as well as the presentation of one clinical example of each procedure the pathologic and immunologic aspects of fascia lata grafts will be reported at a later date.

  9. Eyelid-associated complications after autogenous fat injection for cosmetic forehead augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Paik, Ji-Sun; Cho, Won-Kyung; Park, Gyeong-Sin; Yang, Suk-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Background We report two cases of unilateral upper eyelid swelling with multiple small lumps as an unusual complication of autogenous fat injection for cosmetic forehead augmentation. Case presentation Two female patients were referred to our clinic for unusual unilateral eyelid swelling, with multiple small lumps. The duration of symptoms differed in each case, but both patients had a history of autogenous fat injection for cosmetic forehead augmentation at a local plastic surgery clinic. Th...

  10. Effect of mineral filler type on autogenous shrinkage of self-compacting concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Craeye, Bart; De Schutter, Geert; Desmet, Bram; Vantomme, John; Heirman, Gert; Vandewalle, Lucie; Cizer, Özlem; AGGOUN, S.; E. H. Kadri

    2010-01-01

    Based on an experimental programme, including autogenous shrinkage tests on concrete, ultrasonic monitoring of fresh concrete, and mercury intrusion porosimetry, the influence of the filler type on the autogenous shrinkage of self-compacting concrete has been investigated. The onset of percolating structure formation (time zero) is influenced by the filler type due to a possible accelerating effect of the filler on the cement hydration. Limestone filler accelerates the hydration process, and ...

  11. Changes of Ca2+ activated potassium channels and cellular proliferation in autogenous vein grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱济先; 宋胜云; 马保安; 范清宇

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate changes of Ca2+ activated potassium channels (KCa) in autogenous vein grafts. Methods: Contraction of venous ring was measured by means of perfusion in vitro. The intimal rabbits proliferation of vascular and proliferation of cultured smooth muscle cells(vascular smooth muscle cells, VSMCs)were observed by the means of computerised image analysis and MTT method respectively. Furthermore, whole cell mode of patch clamp was used to record KCa of VSMCs isolated from autogenous vein grafts. Results: One week after transplantation there were no significant differences of contraction and intimal relative thickness between autogenous vein grafts and control. Contraction and intimal relative thickness of autogenous vein graft were significantly increased 2 weeks after transplantation (P<0.05, n=8 vs control), and they was more enhanced 4 weeks after vein transplantation (P<0.01, n=8 vs control).TEA(blocker of Ca2+ activated potassium channels)increased MTT A490 nm value of VSMCs from femoral vein in a dose dependent manner(P<0.05, n=8). KCa current density was significantly attenuated in VSMCs from autogenous vein grafts (1-4) week after transplantation(P<0.05, n=5).Conclusion: KCa is inhibited in autogenous vein graft, which account for vasospasm and intimal proliferation.

  12. Untangling climatic and autogenic signals in peat records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul J.; Baird, Andrew J.; Young, Dylan M.; Swindles, Graeme T.

    2016-04-01

    Raised bogs contain potentially valuable information about Holocene climate change. However, autogenic processes may disconnect peatland hydrological behaviour from climate, and overwrite and degrade climatic signals in peat records. How can genuine climate signals be separated from autogenic changes? What level of detail of climatic information should we expect to be able to recover from peat-based reconstructions? We used an updated version of the DigiBog model to simulate peatland development and response to reconstructed Holocene rainfall and temperature reconstructions. The model represents key processes that are influential in peatland development and climate signal preservation, and includes a network of feedbacks between peat accumulation, decomposition, hydraulic structure and hydrological processes. It also incorporates the effects of temperature upon evapotranspiration, plant (litter) productivity and peat decomposition. Negative feedbacks in the model cause simulated water-table depths and peat humification records to exhibit homeostatic recovery from prescribed changes in rainfall, chiefly through changes in drainage. However, the simulated bogs show less resilience to changes in temperature, which cause lasting alterations to peatland structure and function and may therefore be more readily detectable in peat records. The network of feedbacks represented in DigiBog also provide both high- and low-pass filters for climatic information, meaning that the fidelity with which climate signals are preserved in simulated peatlands is determined by both the magnitude and the rate of climate change. Large-magnitude climatic events of an intermediate frequency (i.e., multi-decadal to centennial) are best preserved in the simulated bogs. We found that simulated humification records are further degraded by a phenomenon known as secondary decomposition. Decomposition signals are consistently offset from the climatic events that generate them, and decomposition

  13. Surgical treatment of multifocal giant cell tumor of carpal bones with preservation of wrist function: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarng, Yih-Wen; Yang, Shan-Wei; Hsu, Chien-Jen

    2009-02-01

    We report a rare case of multifocal giant cell tumor of bone involving the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and scaphoid with soft tissue extension. Following intralesional resection, an autogenous corticocancellous iliac crest bone graft was used to fill the resultant defect and preserve carpal height and radiocarpal motion. Successful union with no recurrence was noted at 1-year follow-up.

  14. Autogenous tendon double bone-tunnel reconstruction technique to repair the posterolateral rotating instability of the elbow%自体肌腱双骨隧道重建技术修复肘关节后外侧旋转不稳定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大海; 李开南; 母建松; 兰海

    2016-01-01

    Background The concept of posterolateral rotatory instability (PLRI)of the elbow was proposed in 1991 by O′Driscoll for the first time.The pathogenic mechanism of PLRI is injury to the radial collateral ligament complex at the elbow,among which the lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL) plays a major role. However, because most physicians know little about the elbow dysfunction caused by such ligament inj ury,missed or delayed diagnosis often prevents timely and effective treatment,leading to seriously impact on the quality of life of patients.Surgical treatment is often very effective,but surgical approaches vary a lot.Rhyou et al established a horizontal bone tunnel cross the humerus for passing through the tendon,but this approach doesn′t allow attachment of the upper end of this ligament on the lateral condyle of the humerus. Sanchez-Sotelo et al. established bone tunnel on ulna and humerus perpendicular to the ligament,and passed longer tendon through the tunnel at an"8"shape,which was immobilized by suture knot.This procedure requires that the tendon have to be a long and thin one while problems such as tendon breakage and suture slippage often happen.The way Dehlinger et al.established the bone tunnel was similar to the present study,i.e.,after passing the bone tunnel;the tendon was only fixed to the bone marrow with suture. This method also has the disadvantage of poor stability and delayed functional exercise.This study used autologous tendon and established humerus and ulna double bone tunnel for ligament reconstruction in 16 patients and the treatment effect is reported below.Methods From January 2008 to December 2013,orthopedics division of our hospital admitted and diagnosed 16 cases of elbow LUCL tear with PLRI patients,of which 11 males and 5 females,aged 19-43 years old,average age of 28.8 years old,7 cases of fresh injuries and 9 cases of old injuries,4 cases of simple ulnar coronoid process fracture,3 cases of elbow dislocation,5 cases of

  15. Autogenous training--an anxiolytic and a factor contributing to the improvement of the quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruden, V

    1999-06-01

    Autogenous training in its narrow sense of meaning belongs to the group of supportive psychotherapeutic techniques. In fact, it is an autosuggestive relaxation. Autogenous training has been for decades successfully used as prevention to anxious reactions. Since anxiety is an etiological factor of numerous psychic and psychosomatic disturbances, positive implications of autogenous training have been considerably broadened. Life without anxiety belongs to a more qualitative form of life. Autogenous training directs the trainee towards introspection and self-analysis. Self-respect (self-esteem) is the consequence of our own work on ourselves.

  16. Reorganization of the Brain and Heart Rhythm During Autogenic Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Keun eKim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The underlying changes in heart coherence that are associated with reported EEG changes in response to meditation have been explored. We measured EEG and heart rate variability (HRV before and during autogenic meditation. Fourteen subjects participated in the study. Heart coherence scores were significantly increased during meditation compared to the baseline. We found near significant decrease in high beta absolute power, increase in alpha relative power and significant increases in lower(alpha and higher(above beta band coherence during 3 minute epochs of heart coherent meditation compared to 3 minute epochs of heart noncoherence at baseline. The coherence and relative power increase in alpha band and absolute power decrease in high beta band could reflect relaxation state during the heart coherent meditation. The coherence increase in the higher(above beta band could reflect cortico-cortical local integration and thereby affect cognitive reorganization, simultaneously with relaxation. Further research is still needed for a confirmation of heart coherence as a simple window for the meditative state.

  17. ANEURYSMAL BONE CYST OF THE CLAVICLE IN CHILDREN (CLINICAL CASES AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тимур Фаизович Зубаиров

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. To examine the results of the treatment of children with aneurysmal cyst of the clavicle. Material and methods. The results of examination and treatment of patients aged 16 and 17 years with a diagnosis of aneurysmal cyst of the clavicle. All patients underwent surgical treatment with the ABC stage delimitation. We used a surgical technique, which consists in open removement of the abnormal tissue with replacement of the bone defect with bone-plastic material or autogenous bone from the iliac crest. Conclusions. The method of treatment of aneurysmal bone cyst of the clavicle must be individualized depending on the location, aggressiveness and extent of the lesion. The use bone-plastic material or autogenous bone from the iliac crest restore the structural integrity of a compromised clavicle gives good results in the observation period of up to 2 years.

  18. Effects of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy and bone grafting on artificial bone defects in minipigs: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrel, M A; Regezi, J A; Fong, B; Hakim-Faal, Z; Rohrer, M; Tran, C; Schiff, T

    2002-06-01

    Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy has been advocated as an adjunct in the enucleation and curettage of locally aggressive lesions of the jaws. Simultaneous autogenous bone grafting has also been advocated to accelerate bone formation and reduce morbidity. There is, however, relatively little scientific basis for either of these hypotheses. In this study, nine Yucatan minipigs had artificial defects created in the mandible, which were treated with liquid nitrogen spray. Half of the defects were grafted with autogenous bone from the chin and half were closed primarily. Two animals were sacrificed 3 days postoperatively to measure the width of necrosis and the rest were sacrificed at 3 months to assess healing and new bone formation. It was found that drilling the artificial defects alone caused bone necrosis for a mean depth of 0.09 mm. Liquid nitrogen cryospray caused a mean depth of bone necrosis of 0.82 mm (range 0.51-1.52 mm). The defects that were bone grafted healed well clinically. Defects not bone grafted showed a 50% rate of wound breakdown and sequestrum formation with delayed healing. Vital staining showed a non-significantly greater rate of bone formation in the grafted defects. Digitally superimposed radiography showed a non-significantly greater bone density in the non-grafted defects at 3 months postoperatively. It appears that liquid nitrogen cryospray does devitalize an area of bone around defects in the mandible. The width of necrosis is usually less than 1 mm and subsequent healing is enhanced by autogenous bone grafting. This has clinical implications. PMID:12190137

  19. Brain structural alterations in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients with autogenous and reactive obsessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Subirà

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a clinically heterogeneous condition. Although structural brain alterations have been consistently reported in OCD, their interaction with particular clinical subtypes deserves further examination. Among other approaches, a two-group classification in patients with autogenous and reactive obsessions has been proposed. The purpose of the present study was to assess, by means of a voxel-based morphometry analysis, the putative brain structural correlates of this classification scheme in OCD patients. Ninety-five OCD patients and 95 healthy controls were recruited. Patients were divided into autogenous (n = 30 and reactive (n = 65 sub-groups. A structural magnetic resonance image was acquired for each participant and pre-processed with SPM8 software to obtain a volume-modulated gray matter map. Whole-brain and voxel-wise comparisons between the study groups were then performed. In comparison to the autogenous group, reactive patients showed larger gray matter volumes in the right Rolandic operculum. When compared to healthy controls, reactive patients showed larger volumes in the putamen (bilaterally, while autogenous patients showed a smaller left anterior temporal lobe. Also in comparison to healthy controls, the right middle temporal gyrus was smaller in both patient subgroups. Our results suggest that autogenous and reactive obsessions depend on partially dissimilar neural substrates. Our findings provide some neurobiological support for this classification scheme and contribute to unraveling the neurobiological basis of clinical heterogeneity in OCD.

  20. Numerical model predictions of autogenic fluvial terraces and comparison to climate change expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ajay B. S.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2016-03-01

    Terraces eroded into sediment (alluvial) and bedrock (strath) preserve an important history of river activity. River terraces are thought to form when a river switches from a period of slow vertical incision and valley widening to fast vertical incision and terrace abandonment. Consequently, terraces are often interpreted to reflect changing external drivers including tectonics, sea level, and climate. In contrast, the intrinsic unsteadiness of lateral migration in rivers may generate terraces even under constant rates of vertical incision without external forcing. To explore this mechanism, we simulate landscape evolution by a vertically incising, meandering river and isolate the age and geometry of autogenic river terraces. Modeled autogenic terraces form for a wide range of lateral and vertical incision rates and are often paired and longitudinally extensive for intermediate ratios of vertical-to-lateral erosion rate. Autogenic terraces have a characteristic reoccurrence time that scales with the time for relief generation. There is a preservation bias against older terraces due to reworking of previously visited parts of the valley. Evolving, spatial differences in bank strength between bedrock and sediment reduce terrace formation frequency and length, favor pairing, and can explain sublinear terrace margins at valley boundaries. Age differences and geometries for modeled autogenic terraces are consistent, in cases, with natural terraces and overlap with metrics commonly attributed to terrace formation due to climate change. We suggest a new phase space of terrace properties that may allow differentiation of autogenic terraces from terraces formed by external drivers.

  1. Is bone transplantation the gold standard for repair of alveolar bone defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Bueno, Daniela Franco; Almeida, Ana Beatriz; Jorgetti, Vanda; Costa, Cristiane Cabral; Gouveia, Cecília Helena; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Fanganiello, Roberto D; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Alonso, Nivaldo

    2014-01-01

    New strategies to fulfill craniofacial bone defects have gained attention in recent years due to the morbidity of autologous bone graft harvesting. We aimed to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of bone tissue engineering strategy using mesenchymal stem cells associated with two matrices (bovine bone mineral and α-tricalcium phosphate), compared to an autologous bone transfer. A total of 28 adult, male, non-immunosuppressed Wistar rats underwent a critical-sized osseous defect of 5 mm diameter in the alveolar region. Animals were divided into five groups. Group 1 (n = 7) defects were repaired with autogenous bone grafts; Group 2 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral free of cells; Group 3 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral loaded with mesenchymal stem cells; Group 4 (n = 5) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate free of cells; and Group 5 (n = 6) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate loaded with mesenchymal stem cells. Groups 2-5 were compared to Group 1, the reference group. Healing response was evaluated by histomorphometry and computerized tomography. Histomorphometrically, Group 1 showed 60.27% ± 16.13% of bone in the defect. Groups 2 and 3 showed 23.02% ± 8.6% (p = 0.01) and 38.35% ± 19.59% (p = 0.06) of bone in the defect, respectively. Groups 4 and 5 showed 51.48% ± 11.7% (p = 0.30) and 61.80% ± 2.14% (p = 0.88) of bone in the defect, respectively. Animals whose bone defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate and mesenchymal stem cells presented the highest bone volume filling the defects; both were not statistically different from autogenous bone. PMID:24551445

  2. Is bone transplantation the gold standard for repair of alveolar bone defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Bueno, Daniela Franco; Almeida, Ana Beatriz; Jorgetti, Vanda; Costa, Cristiane Cabral; Gouveia, Cecília Helena; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Fanganiello, Roberto D; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita

    2014-01-01

    New strategies to fulfill craniofacial bone defects have gained attention in recent years due to the morbidity of autologous bone graft harvesting. We aimed to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of bone tissue engineering strategy using mesenchymal stem cells associated with two matrices (bovine bone mineral and α-tricalcium phosphate), compared to an autologous bone transfer. A total of 28 adult, male, non-immunosuppressed Wistar rats underwent a critical-sized osseous defect of 5 mm diameter in the alveolar region. Animals were divided into five groups. Group 1 (n = 7) defects were repaired with autogenous bone grafts; Group 2 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral free of cells; Group 3 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral loaded with mesenchymal stem cells; Group 4 (n = 5) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate free of cells; and Group 5 (n = 6) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate loaded with mesenchymal stem cells. Groups 2–5 were compared to Group 1, the reference group. Healing response was evaluated by histomorphometry and computerized tomography. Histomorphometrically, Group 1 showed 60.27% ± 16.13% of bone in the defect. Groups 2 and 3 showed 23.02% ± 8.6% (p = 0.01) and 38.35% ± 19.59% (p = 0.06) of bone in the defect, respectively. Groups 4 and 5 showed 51.48% ± 11.7% (p = 0.30) and 61.80% ± 2.14% (p = 0.88) of bone in the defect, respectively. Animals whose bone defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate and mesenchymal stem cells presented the highest bone volume filling the defects; both were not statistically different from autogenous bone. PMID:24551445

  3. Is bone transplantation the gold standard for repair of alveolar bone defects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New strategies to fulfill craniofacial bone defects have gained attention in recent years due to the morbidity of autologous bone graft harvesting. We aimed to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of bone tissue engineering strategy using mesenchymal stem cells associated with two matrices (bovine bone mineral and α-tricalcium phosphate, compared to an autologous bone transfer. A total of 28 adult, male, non-immunosuppressed Wistar rats underwent a critical-sized osseous defect of 5 mm diameter in the alveolar region. Animals were divided into five groups. Group 1 (n = 7 defects were repaired with autogenous bone grafts; Group 2 (n = 5 defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral free of cells; Group 3 (n = 5 defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral loaded with mesenchymal stem cells; Group 4 (n = 5 defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate free of cells; and Group 5 (n = 6 defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate loaded with mesenchymal stem cells. Groups 2–5 were compared to Group 1, the reference group. Healing response was evaluated by histomorphometry and computerized tomography. Histomorphometrically, Group 1 showed 60.27% ± 16.13% of bone in the defect. Groups 2 and 3 showed 23.02% ± 8.6% (p = 0.01 and 38.35% ± 19.59% (p = 0.06 of bone in the defect, respectively. Groups 4 and 5 showed 51.48% ± 11.7% (p = 0.30 and 61.80% ± 2.14% (p = 0.88 of bone in the defect, respectively. Animals whose bone defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate and mesenchymal stem cells presented the highest bone volume filling the defects; both were not statistically different from autogenous bone.

  4. Bone-Marrow Storage and Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present some results from their experiments on bone-marrow storage and transplantation. The main problems with preservation of stored bone marrow are the duration, temperature, adjuvant substances and the significance of viability tests during the conservation processes. The results showed that: • Storage of bone marrow at +4eC produces a progressive decrease in its restoring capacity versus storage time. • While bone marrow stored for 24 h is able to restore 100% of dogs lethally irradiated with 600 rad, after 10 days of storage only 20% of the animals can be restored. • No correlation exists between the actual survival of dogs and that calculated by dye exclusion tests, which indicate a rather high (70%) viability, even after 10 days bone-marrow storage at +4°C. • DNA degradation (depolymerization) measurements of the bone marrow may be used as a supplementary test for checking the viability or restoration potency of bone-marrow cells after storage. • In the freezing process, the optimum contact time between glycerol and the bone-marrow cells is 15 min. Results of experiments regarding certain bone-marrow transplantation problems showed that: • The best time to administer bone marrow is between 24 and 48 h after irradiation. • No survivors were obtained with dogs lethally irradiated with 600 rad by administering autogenic or allogenic DNA extracted from bone marrow, spleen or liver. • Histocompatibility related to sex may play an important role in the bone-marrow graft. The lowest survival of C57BL mice was obtained when the donors were males and the recipients females. • In radioprotection with foetal haemocytopoietic tissues, the donor's age represents one of the main factors. The best results were obtained in experiments on rats, with 19- to 20-day foetal liver (period of complete and maximum haemocytopoietic activity). The tissues mentioned below may be connected with the appearance of certain typical signs of secondary syndrome

  5. The influence of superabsorbent polymers on the autogenous shrinkage properties of cement pastes with supplementary cementitious materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoeck, D.; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; De Belie, N.

    2015-01-01

    shrinkage was determined by manual and automated shrinkage measurements. Autogenous shrinkage was reduced in cement pastes with the supplementary cementitious materials versus Portland cement pastes. At later ages, the rate of autogenous shrinkage is higher due to the pozzolanic activity. Internal curing...

  6. Comparative fine structure of eggs of autogenous and anautogenous Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Belal A; Tewfick, Maha K; Wassim, Nahla M

    2014-12-01

    Culex (Cx.) pipiens is the potential vector human filariasis in Egypt. However, autogenous Cx. pipiens may be less efficient vector of Wuchereria (W.) bancrofti in endemic areas of Egypt compared to anautogenous counterparts. In this study, an attempt was made to differentiate eggs of autogenous and anautogenous Cx. pipiens using scanning electron micrographs. The results indicated that eggs of both species appear to be similar to great extent in surface morphology. Eggs of both forms are black and elongate-oval. Width is greatest at the anterior end. The posterior end is pointed. The micropylar disc is apparent with distinct edge. Exochorionic bridges are angular. Size of both eggs represented by length and width are comparable. In both eggs, length is greater than width. However, eggs of both forms can be distinguished from each other by the exochorionic bridges being longer and thinner in the autogenous eggs than in the anautogenous eggs. PMID:25643517

  7. Cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7-like bacteriophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studier, F. William (Stony Brook, NY); Dubendorff, John W. (Sound Beach, NY)

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to the cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7 and T7-like bacteriophages, in which the RNA polymerase gene is transcribed from a promoter which is recognized by the encoded RNA polymerase. Cloning of T7 autogenes was achieved by reducing the activity of the RNA polymerase sufficiently to permit host cell growth. T7 RNA polymerase activity was controlled by combining two independent methods: lac-repression of the recombinant lac operator-T7 promoter in the autogene and inhibition of the polymerase by T7 lysozyme. Expression systems for producing the RNA polymerases of T7 and other T7-like bacteriophages, and expression systems for producing selected gene products are described, as well as other related materials and methods.

  8. Cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA poly,erases of T7-like bacteriophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studier, F. William (Stony Brook, NY); Dubendorff, John W. (Sound Beach, NY)

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to the cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7 and T7-like bacteriophages, in which the RNA polymerase gene is transcribed from a promoter which is recognized by the encoded RNA polymerase. Cloning of T7 autogenes was achieved by reducing the activity of the RNA polymerase sufficiently to permit host cell growth. T7 RNA polymerase activity was controlled by combining two independent methods: lac-repression of the recombinant lac operator-T7 promoter in the autogene and inhibition of the polymerase by T7 lysozyme. Expression systems for producing the RNA polymerases of T7 and other T7-like bacteriophages, and expression systems for producing selected gene products are described, as well as other related materials and methods.

  9. Cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7-like bacteriophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studier, F.W.; Dubendorff, J.W.

    1998-10-20

    This invention relates to the cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7 and T7-like bacteriophages, in which the RNA polymerase gene is transcribed from a promoter which is recognized by the encoded RNA polymerase. Cloning of T7 autogenes was achieved by reducing the activity of the RNA polymerase sufficiently to permit host cell growth. T7 RNA polymerase activity was controlled by combining two independent methods: lac-repression of the recombinant lac operator-T7 promoter in the autogene and inhibition of the polymerase by T7 lysozyme. Expression systems for producing the RNA polymerases of T7 and other T7-like bacteriophages, and expression systems for producing selected gene products are described, as well as other related materials and methods. 12 figs.

  10. Cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7-like bacteriophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studier, F.W.; Dubendorff, J.W.

    1998-11-03

    This invention relates to the cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7 and T7-like bacteriophages, in which the RNA polymerase gene is transcribed from a promoter which is recognized by the encoded RNA polymerase. Cloning of T7 autogenes was achieved by reducing the activity of the RNA polymerase sufficiently to permit host cell growth. T7 RNA polymerase activity was controlled by combining two independent methods: lac-repression of the recombinant lac operator-T7 promoter in the autogene and inhibition of the polymerase by T7 lysozyme. Expression systems for producing the RNA polymerases of T7 and other T7-like bacteriophages, and expression systems for producing selected gene products are described, as well as other related materials and methods. 12 figs.

  11. Experimental Research on the Autogenous Shrinkage of MK High Performance Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Calcine and mill kaolin were used under agreeable technological conditions to generate matakaolin (MK). The autogenous shrinkage performance of high performance concrete added with MK was researched. It is shown that MK has an effective inhibitory action to early autogenous shrinkage of cement concrete, and the inhibitory action increases with the increase of MK. The autogenous shrinkage values from 24 hours after placement to 56 days are all higher than those of the contrasted concrete, among which, the value of the concrete with 5% MK is the highest. But the total shrinkage values in 56 days are all less than those of the contrasted test pieces. The total contraction after 24 h of placement decreases as the increase of MK, moreover,it is greatly less than that of the contrasted ones.

  12. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...

  13. The Palatal Bone Block Graft for Onlay Grafting Combined with Maxillary Implant Placement: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, Howard; Du Toit, Jonathan; Salama, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce an intraoral bone block harvesting technique--the palatal bone block graft (PBBG)--as an alternative harvest site for autogenous bone blocks. The PBBG technique was used to onlay graft esthetic zone defects simultaneous to implant placement in five patients. Measurable objectives were used to evaluate outcomes, and treatment was reassessed at up to 6 years. Defects of the maxilla were successfully grafted with PBBG in all five cases, and tissues remained stable at 1- and 6-year follow-ups. Harvesting an autogenous bone block from the palate is an advantageous, predictable, and reproducible method for augmenting buccofacial defects at implant placement, and may be considered as an alternative to conventional intraoral bone block donor sites when treating the maxilla.

  14. Autogenic-feedback training - A treatment for motion and space sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.

    1990-01-01

    A training method for preventing the occurrence of motion sickness in humans, called autogenic-feedback training (AFT), is described. AFT is based on a combination of biofeedback and autogenic therapy which involves training physiological self-regulation as an alternative to pharmacological management. AFT was used to reliably increase tolerance to motion-sickness-inducing tests in both men and women ranging in age from 18 to 54 years. The effectiveness of AFT is found to be significantly higher than that of protective adaptation training. Data obtained show that there is no apparent effect from AFT on measures of vestibular perception and no side effects.

  15. The use of absorbable membranes for Guided Bone Regeneration in horizontal localized bone defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamantia VLACHAKI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: One of the most widely used techniques for the reconstruction of horizontal alveolar defects is Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR. Aim of this literature review is to present and evaluate the clinical techniques for horizontal GBR in localized bone defects with the use of bone grafts and barrier absorbable membranes. In order to accomplish this literature review, a survey in website Pubmed was carried out, with key words: GBR in horizontal defects, GBR in localized defects, bone substitutes, absorbable membranes. Experimental animal studies, studies which described the autogenous block techniques and studies which described GBR with nonabsorbable membranes were excluded from this literature review. GBR was found to be a well document and predictable technique for horizontal localized bone defects, in order to place dental implants. Also the use of xenogenous bone graft in combination with absorbable membrane presents a lot of encouraging results, with high success and survival implant rate.

  16. Bone grafting of the floor of the maxillary sinus for the placement of endosseous implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, GM; Vissink, A; Reintsema, H; Batenburg, RHK

    1997-01-01

    This study describes and evaluates a technique to augment the floor of the maxillary sinus and to widen the alveolar crest of the atrophic posterior maxilla with autogenous bone. The subjects were 43 patients whose maxillary alveolar crest was not high enough to permit reliable placement of endosseo

  17. Revision Rotator Cuff Reconstruction for Large Tears With Retraction: A Novel Technique Using Autogenous Tendon and Autologous Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoff, Hillel D

    2015-07-01

    Revision rotator cuff reconstruction for large tears with retraction results in a high rate of recurrent cuff tearing. To try to obtain more consistent results, I conducted a study of a technique that addresses the potential factors involved. Ten patients (7 men, 3 women) were enrolled. Mean age was 58 years. Mean follow-up was 24 months. Mean time between primary and revision cuff surgery was 36 months. The cardinal inclusion criterion was a symptomatic, full-thickness rotator cuff tear with at least 3 cm of retraction in a shoulder that previously underwent rotator cuff repair. Ultrasound was used for postoperative radiographic assessment of cuff integrity. Validated Constant, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder scoring systems were used. Surgical technique included mini-open incision, adequate débridement and mobilization of remaining cuff, reconstitution of cuff defect with autogenous biceps tendon incubated in concentrated autologous bone marrow, and sewing under zero tissue tension. Constant, ASES, and UCLA scores improved significantly (standard error at .001). Ultrasound revealed 0% incidence of full-thickness rotator cuff retearing. In patients with large recurrent retracted rotator cuff tears the technique presented in the current study consistently yields satisfactory clinical results and promotes rotator cuff tissue healing without full-thickness retearing.

  18. Autogenous temporalis fascia patch graft for porous polyethylene (Medpor) sphere orbital implant exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Sagoo, M S; Olver, J M

    2004-01-01

    Background: Temporalis fascia has been recommended for hydroxyapatite sphere exposure. The aim of this study was to identify potential risk factors for exposure of porous polyethylene (Medpor) sphere implants and evaluate the use of autogenous temporalis fascia as a patch graft for exposure.

  19. Autogenous shrinkage in high-performance cement paste: An evaluation of basic mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; van Breugel, Klaas

    2003-01-01

    mechanical and thermodynamical basis. Furthermore, this mechanism is easily applicable in a numerical model when dealing with a continuously changing microstructure. In order to test the numerical model, autogenous deformation and internal relative humidity (RH) of a Portland cement paste were measured...

  20. Effect of Cement Type on Autogenous Deformation of Cement-Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietro, Lura; Ye, Guang; van Breugel, Klaas

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, measurements of non-evaporable water content, chemical shrinkage, autogenous deformation, internal relative humidity (RH), pore solution composition, and early-age elastic modulus are presented and discussed. All experiments were performed on Portland cement and blast-furnace slag ...

  1. Ultra high performance concrete made with rice husk ash for reduced autogenous shrinkage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Breugel, K.; Van Tuan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Ultra High Strength Concrete (UHPC) is generally made with low w/c mixtures and by adding silica fume. Low w/c mixtures, however, exhibit high autogenous shrinkage, while a high amount of silica fume increases the price of these mixtures. For designing ultra high strength mixtures with low autogenou

  2. Silicate minerals for CO2 scavenging from biogas in Autogenerative High Pressure Digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, R.E.F.; Ferrer, I.; Weijma, J.; Lier, van J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Autogenerative High Pressure Digestion (AHPD) is a novel concept that integrates gas upgrading with anaerobic digestion by selective dissolution of CO2 at elevated biogas pressure. However, accumulation of CO2 and fatty acids after anaerobic digestion of glucose resulted in pH 3–5, which is incompat

  3. Autogenous shrinkage of Ducorit S5R ASTM C 1698-09 test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars

    The report deals with experimental measurement of autogenous shrinkage of Ducorit S5R according to the test method ASTM C 1698-09. This test method measures the bulk strain of a sealed cementitious specimen, at constant temperature and not subjected to external forces, from the time of final...

  4. Bone reconstruction of large defects using bone marrow derived autologous stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarelli, Enrico; Donati, Davide; Cenacchi, Annarita; Fornasari, Pier Maria

    2004-04-01

    Bone is a tissue that has the ability to heal itself when fractured. Occasionally, a critical defect can be formed when part of the bone is lost or excised, in this case the bone fails to heal and requires bone reconstruction to prevent a non-union defect. Autogenous cancellous bone is the current gold standard treatment in bone loss. Because the amount of autogenous cancellous bone that can be harvested is limited, the expanding need for bone reconstruction is paired by the growth of interest in the discipline of tissue engineering. Labs worldwide are working to provide the right carrier and the right set of cells that, once retransplanted, will ensure bone repair. Several investigators have focused their attention on a subset of autologous non-hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells contained in the adult bone marrow stroma, referred to as stromal stem cells (SSC), as the appropriate cells to be transplanted. The use of autologous cells is facilitated by less stringent ethical and regulatory issues and does not require the patient to be immunologically suppressed. In pre-clinical and clinical protocols of critical defects in which SSC are employed, two approaches are mainly used: in the first, SSC are derived from bone marrow and directly introduced at the lesion site, in the second, SSC are derived from several sites and are expanded ex vivo before being implanted. Both approaches, equally correct in principle, will have to demonstrate, with definitive evidence of their efficacy, their capability of solving a critical clinical problem such as non-union. In this report we outline the difficulties of working with SSC. PMID:15062758

  5. Role of ferrite and phosphorus plus sulphur in the crack sensitivity of autogenously welded type 309 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Jr., F. J.

    1976-07-01

    A study on autogenous welding of Type 309 thin stainless steel sheet was made after experiencing cracking difficulties on several commercial heats. A relationship exists between the sum of the phosphorus plus sulfur, the ferrite control of the weld metal, and the crack sensitivity of autogenously made welds. A new simple weld test for thin-gage sheet is utilized for studying the susceptibility to cracking. A chemistry modification is suggested to alleviate possible weld cracking when autogenously welding this grade. The principles of crack sensitivity prediction could apply to other austenitic stainless steel types where chemistry limits are such that ferrite is possible.

  6. Silicate-doped hydroxyapatite and its promotive effect on bone mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Ye QIU; In-Sup NOH; Sheng-Min ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Bone defect is one of the most common diseases in clinic. Existing therapeutic approaches have encountered many problems, such as lack of autogenous allogeneic bone and immunological rejection to allogeneic implant. Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) provided solutions for bone repair, since the HA is the main inorganic component of animals' bone. Although HA has good biocompatibility, but only the limited osteogenic capability, which is of significance for modern bone repair materials. Si is an essential trace element in bone tissue, and it has been demonstrated to be able to promote bone formation. Therefore, silicate-doped hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) may serve as a promising material for bone repair, and promote bone regeneration in the repair. The current review discusses development of Si-HA, focusing on its preparation and characterization, in vitro and in vivo evaluations of the material, positive effect of Si-HA on promoting bone formation in clinical applications, and molecular mechanism investigation of such promotive effect.

  7. Temperature dependence of autogenous shrinkage of silica fume cement pastes with a very low water–binder ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, I., E-mail: ippei@dali.nuac.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, ES Building, No. 539, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Teramoto, A. [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Faculty of Engineering, ES Building, No. 546, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Ultra-high-strength concrete with a large unit cement content undergoes considerable temperature increase inside members due to hydration heat, leading to a higher risk of internal cracking. Hence, the temperature dependence of autogenous shrinkage of cement pastes made with silica fume premixed cement with a water–binder ratio of 0.15 was studied extensively. Development of autogenous shrinkage showed different behaviors before and after the inflection point, and dependence on the temperature after mixing and subsequent temperature histories. The difference in autogenous shrinkage behavior poses problems for winter construction because autogenous shrinkage may increase with decrease in temperature after mixing before the inflection point and with increase in temperature inside concrete members with large cross sections.

  8. Gore-Tex small-vessel angioplasty: A suitable substitute for the use of autogenous saphenous vein grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Rinaldi, Raul; Rea, John E.; Gallagher, Michael W.; Laevsky, Marlene J.; Ogburn, Michael; Porter, Robert H.

    1980-01-01

    Autogenous saphenous vein has been the material of choice for small-vessel angioplasty and for circulatory access graft reconstruction. In an effort to conserve autogenous saphenous vein, we used expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts in 45 patients over a 12-month period. We used Gore-Tex* to reconstruct 17 circulatory access grafts, 16 carotid arteries, two brachial arteries, seven femoral arteries, and three popliteal anterior or posterior tibial arteries. The indications for recon...

  9. Treatment of tibial defect and bone nonunion with limb shortening with external fixator and reconstituted bone xenograft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 刘建; 胡蕴玉; 孟国林; 金格勒; 袁志; 王海强; 戴先文

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of external fixator and reconstituted bone xenograft (RBX) in the treatment of tibial bone defect, tibial bone nonunion and congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia with limb shortening. Methods: Twenty patients ( 13 males and 7 females) with tibial bone defect, tibial bone nonunion or congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia with limb shortening were treated with external fixation. Two kinds of external fixators were used: a half ring sulcated external fixator used in 13 patients and a combined external fixator in 7 patients. Foot-drop was corrected at the same time with external fixation in 4 patients. The shortened length of the tibia was in the range of 2-9 cm, with an average of 4.8 cm. For bone grafting, RBX was used in 12 patients, autogenous ilium was used in 3 patients and autogenous fibula was implanted as a bone plug into the medullary canal in 1 case, and no bone graft was used in 4 patients. Results: All the 20 patients were followed-up for 8 months to 7 years, averaging 51 months. Satisfactory function of the affected extremities was obtained. All the shortened extremities were lengthened to the expected length. For all the lengthening area and the fracture sites, bone union was obtained at the last. The average healing time of 12 patients treated with RBX was 4.8 months. Conclusions: Both the half ring sulcated external fixator and the combined external fixator have the advantages of small trauma, simple operation, elastic fixation without stress shielding and non-limitation from local soft tissue conditions, and there is satisfactory functional recovery of affected extremities in the treatment of tibial bone defects, tibial bone nonunion and congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia combined with limb shortening. RBX has good biocompatibility and does not cause immunological rejections. It can also be safely used in treatment of bone nonunion and has reliable effect to promote bone healing.

  10. Within Patient Radiological Comparative Analysis of the Performance of Two Bone Graft Extenders Utilized in Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion: A Retrospective Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Geoffrey; Gage, Gary B.; Neidert, Gary; Adkisson, Huston Davis

    2016-01-01

    Two bone graft extenders differing in chemical composition were implanted contralaterally in 27 consecutive patients undergoing instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion as standard-of-care. Bone marrow aspirate and autogenous bone graft were equally combined either with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) or a hybrid biomaterial [containing hyaluronic acid (HyA) but lacking a calcium salt] and implanted between the transverse processes. Fusion status on each side of the vertebrae was retrospectiv...

  11. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  12. Anatomic study of the lacrimal fossa and lacrimal pathway for bypass surgery with autogenous tissue grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Hai Tao; Zhi-zhong Ma; Hai-Yang Wu; Peng Wang; Cui Han

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To study the microsurgical anatomy of the lacrimal drainage system and to provide anatomical evidence for transnasal endoscopic lacrimal drainage system bypass surgery by autogenous tissue grafting. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 Chinese adult cadaveric heads in 10% formaldehyde, comprising 40 lacrimal ducts were used. The middle third section of the specimens were examined for the following features: the thickness of the lacrimal fossa at the anterior lacrimal crest, vertical ...

  13. Autogenous standard versus inside-out vein graft to repair facial nerve in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jie; WANG Xue-mei; HU Jing; LUO En; QI Meng-chun

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate autogenous vein grafts and inside-out vein grafts as conduits for the defects repair in the rabbit facial nerves.Methods:The 10 mm segments of buccal division of facial nerve were transected for 48 rabbits in this study.Then the gaps were immediately repaired by autogenous vein grafts or inside-out vein grafts in different groups. All the animals underwent the whisker movement test and electrophysiologic test during the following 16 weeks at different time points postoperatively. Subsequently,the histological examination was performed to observe the facial nerve regeneration morphologically.Results:At 8 weeks after operation,the facial nerve regeneration has significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in electrophysiologic test and histological observation. However,at the end of this study,16 weeks after operation,there was no significant difference between inside-out vein grafts and standard vein grafts in enhancing peripheral nerve regeneration.Conclusion:This study suggest that both kinds of vein grafts play positive roles in facial nerve regeneration after being repaired immediately,but the autogenous inside-out vein grafts might accelerate and facilitate axonal regeneration as compared with control.

  14. Synthesis of MgB2 at Low Temperature and Autogenous Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. R. Mackinnon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available High quality, micron-sized interpenetrating grains of MgB2, with high density, are produced at low temperatures (~420 °C < T < ~500 °C under autogenous pressure by pre-mixing Mg powder and NaBH4 and heating in an Inconel 601 alloy reactor for 5–15 h. Optimum production of MgB2, with yields greater than 75%, occurs for autogenous pressure in the range 1.0 MPa to 2.0 MPa, with the reactor at ~500 °C. Autogenous pressure is induced by the decomposition of NaBH4 in the presence of Mg and/or other Mg-based compounds. The morphology, transition temperature and magnetic properties of MgB2 are dependent on the heating regime. Significant improvement in physical properties accrues when the reactor temperature is held at 250 °C for >20 min prior to a hold at 500 °C.

  15. Comprehensive Review of Adipose Stem Cells and Their Implication in Distraction Osteogenesis and Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina W. Morcos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone is one of the most dynamic tissues in the human body that can heal following injury without leaving a scar. However, in instances of extensive bone loss, this intrinsic capacity of bone to heal may not be sufficient and external intervention becomes necessary. Several techniques are available to address this problem, including autogenous bone grafts and allografts. However, all these techniques have their own limitations. An alternative method is the technique of distraction osteogenesis, where gradual and controlled distraction of two bony segments after osteotomy leads to induction of new bone formation. Although distraction osteogenesis usually gives satisfactory results, its major limitation is the prolonged duration of time required before the external fixator is removed, which may lead to numerous complications. Numerous methods to accelerate bone formation in the context of distraction osteogenesis have been reported. A viable alternative to autogenous bone grafts for a source of osteogenic cells is mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow. However, there are certain problems with bone marrow aspirate. Hence, scientists have investigated other sources for mesenchymal stem cells, specifically adipose tissue, which has been shown to be an excellent source of mesenchymal stem cells. In this paper, the potential use of adipose stem cells to stimulate bone formation is discussed.

  16. Bone Substitutes for Peri-Implant Defects of Postextraction Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Letícia Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Placement of implants in fresh sockets is an alternative to try to reduce physiological resorption of alveolar ridge after tooth extraction. This surgery can be used to preserve the bone architecture and also accelerate the restorative procedure. However, the diastasis observed between bone and implant may influence osseointegration. So, autogenous bone graft and/or biomaterials have been used to fill this gap. Considering the importance of bone repair for treatment with implants placed immediately after tooth extraction, this study aimed to present a literature review about biomaterials surrounding immediate dental implants. The search included 56 articles published from 1969 to 2012. The results were based on data analysis and discussion. It was observed that implant fixation immediately after extraction is a reliable alternative to reduce the treatment length of prosthetic restoration. In general, the biomaterial should be used to increase bone/implant contact and enhance osseointegration.

  17. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging guidance ... limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided procedure ...

  18. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bones can also ...

  19. Efficacy of guided bone regeneration using composite bone graft and resorbable collagen membrane in Seibert's Class I ridge defects: radiological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Pushparajan; Ramakrishnan, T; Ambalavanan, N; Emmadi, Pamela; John, Thomas Libby

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate radiologically the efficacy of guided bone regeneration using composite bone graft (autogenous bone graft and anorganic bovine bone graft [Bio-Oss]) along with resorbable collagen membrane (BioMend Extend) in the augmentation of Seibert's class I ridge defects in maxilla. Bone width was evaluated using computerized tomography at day 0 and at day 180 at 2 mm, 4 mm, and 6 mm from the crest. There was a statistically significant increase in bone width between day 0 and day 180 at 2 mm, 4 mm, and 6 mm from the crest. The results of the study demonstrated an increase in bone width of Seibert's class I ridge defects in the maxilla of the study patients. PMID:23964779

  20. A new harvest site for bone graft in anterior cruciate ligament revision surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, Francesco; Papalia, Rocco; Di Martino, Alberto; Rizzello, Giacomo; Allaire, Robert; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2007-05-01

    During revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery, femoral interference screws frequently require removal. This may lead to significant tunnel widening and possible graft fixation failure as a result. Solutions include drilling the revision tunnel in a different location, using stacked interference screws, or using bone graft to fill the defect. Autogenous iliac crest graft and allograft are both used, but there are significant comorbidities associated with each. We developed a new technique for harvesting autogenous bone graft that avoids many of the complications associated with other graft sources. By use of the existing surgical incision from the initial harvest of the bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft, bone from the medial tibial metaphyseal safe zone is harvested via an OATS tube harvester (Arthrex, Naples, FL). A bone plug 1 mm larger in size than the femoral defect is harvested and arthroscopically inserted via a press-fit technique. At 3 months after bone grafting, patients undergo revision ACL reconstruction. The proximal tibial metaphysis is a safe bone graft harvest site in revision ACL surgery and offers an effective method for filling large bony defects, allowing anatomic reconstruction of the ACL after bone healing has occurred. Furthermore, it eliminates the problems associated with allograft or use of a remote graft donor site. PMID:17478290

  1. Chondroblastoma of the patella with aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Honglue; Yan, Mengning; Yue, Bing; Zeng, Yiming; Wang, You

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma of the patella is rare. Aneurysmal bone cysts, which develop from a prior lesion such as a chondroblastoma, are seldom seen in the patella. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man who presented with 2 years of right knee pain without calor, erythema, pain on palpation, or abnormal range of motion. Radiological studies suggested aneurysmal bone cyst. The lesion was excised with curettage and the residual cavity filled with autogenous bone graft. Histopathology revealed chondroblastoma associated with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. In the follow-up period, the patient demonstrated normal joint activities with no pain. Normal configuration of the patella and bone union were shown on plain radiographs. The authors present a review of the literature of all cases of patellar chondroblastoma with aneurysmal bone cyst. This case is the 14th report of aneurysmal bone cyst arising in a chondroblastoma of the patella. According to the literature, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in the study of these lesions. The pathologic diagnosis is based on the presence of chondroblastoma and aneurysmal bone cyst. Treatment of this lesion includes patellectomy, curettage alone, and curettage with bone grafting. Despite the risk of recurrence of this lesion in the patella, the authors first recommend curettage followed by filling the cavity with bone graft. To protect the anterior tension of the patella intraoperatively, the bone window should be made at the medial edge of the patella to perform the curettage and bone grafting.

  2. Chondroblastoma of the patella with aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Honglue; Yan, Mengning; Yue, Bing; Zeng, Yiming; Wang, You

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma of the patella is rare. Aneurysmal bone cysts, which develop from a prior lesion such as a chondroblastoma, are seldom seen in the patella. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man who presented with 2 years of right knee pain without calor, erythema, pain on palpation, or abnormal range of motion. Radiological studies suggested aneurysmal bone cyst. The lesion was excised with curettage and the residual cavity filled with autogenous bone graft. Histopathology revealed chondroblastoma associated with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. In the follow-up period, the patient demonstrated normal joint activities with no pain. Normal configuration of the patella and bone union were shown on plain radiographs. The authors present a review of the literature of all cases of patellar chondroblastoma with aneurysmal bone cyst. This case is the 14th report of aneurysmal bone cyst arising in a chondroblastoma of the patella. According to the literature, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in the study of these lesions. The pathologic diagnosis is based on the presence of chondroblastoma and aneurysmal bone cyst. Treatment of this lesion includes patellectomy, curettage alone, and curettage with bone grafting. Despite the risk of recurrence of this lesion in the patella, the authors first recommend curettage followed by filling the cavity with bone graft. To protect the anterior tension of the patella intraoperatively, the bone window should be made at the medial edge of the patella to perform the curettage and bone grafting. PMID:24683664

  3. A novel approach to human cranial tissue regeneration and frontal sinus obliteration with an autogenous platelet-rich/fibrin-rich composite matrix: 10 patients with a 6-10 year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça-Caridad, Jose; Lopez, Pedro Juiz; Fayos, Francisco Vidal; Miery, Gustavo

    2013-06-01

    Advanced frontal sinus disease non-responsive to conservative therapy has been treated with fat obliteration for decades. More recently, a wide variety of autogenous, allogenic or synthetic materials have also been used. In this study we present a treatment based on totally autogenous procedures and materials that was successfully implemented in 10 patients and followed up for a period of 6-10 years, to evaluate the feasibility of a new approach for the treatment of frontal sinus disease and other related cranial osseous derangements, based on regenerative medicine as an alternative to fat or other obliterating or grafting materials. Platelet-rich and -poor plasma (PRP, PPP) are set to clot with cortical shavings from the skull surface. After surgically stimulating the sinus to encourage cell chemotaxis, migration and homing, the bioactive scaffold is placed and covered with a PPP membrane and a periosteal flap. Ten patients with pathologies ranging from devastating infection to invasive tumours or trauma were treated with this regenerative procedure in a single-stage surgery. All patients had an uneventful recovery with bone formation and no complications or recurrences over the years. The application of modern principles in tissue regeneration and wound healing has resulted in a favourable outcome, with no complications or sequelae, in a series of 10 patients with advanced frontal sinus disease over a long period of time.

  4. Dust Measurements in Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudakov, D; Yu, J; Boedo, J; Hollmann, E; Krasheninnikov, S; Moyer, R; Muller, S; Yu, A; Rosenberg, M; Smirnov, R; West, W; Boivin, R; Bray, B; Brooks, N; Hyatt, A; Wong, C; Fenstermacher, M; Groth, M; Lasnier, C; McLean, A; Stangeby, P; Ratynskaia, S; Roquemore, A; Skinner, C; Solomon, W M

    2008-04-23

    Dust production and accumulation impose safety and operational concerns for ITER. Diagnostics to monitor dust levels in the plasma as well as in-vessel dust inventory are currently being tested in a few tokamaks. Dust accumulation in ITER is likely to occur in hidden areas, e.g. between tiles and under divertor baffles. A novel electrostatic dust detector for monitoring dust in these regions has been developed and tested at PPPL. In DIII-D tokamak dust diagnostics include Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers, visible imaging, and spectroscopy. Laser scattering resolves size of particles between 0.16-1.6 {micro}m in diameter; the total dust content in the edge plasmas and trends in the dust production rates within this size range have been established. Individual dust particles are observed by visible imaging using fast-framing cameras, detecting dust particles of a few microns in diameter and larger. Dust velocities and trajectories can be determined in 2D with a single camera or 3D using multiple cameras, but determination of particle size is problematic. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark dust dynamics modeling, pre-characterized carbon dust has been injected into the lower divertor of DIII-D. Injected dust is seen by cameras, and spectroscopic diagnostics observe an increase of carbon atomic, C2 dimer, and thermal continuum emissions from the injected dust. The latter observation can be used in the design of novel dust survey diagnostics.

  5. Measurement with corrugated tubes of early-age autogenous shrinkage of cement-based material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Qian; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2009-01-01

    The use of a special corrugated mould enables transformation of volume strain into horizontal, linear strain measurement in the fluid stage. This allows continuous measurement of the autogenous shrinkage of cement-based materials since casting, and also effectively eliminates unwanted influence...... on the measuring results from gravity, temperature variation and mould restraint. In this paper the principle of the corrugated tube measurement is described. A systematic study was carried out on the influence on the measuring results of the material properties, size effects and encapsulated air in the corrugated...

  6. A thermal comparator sensor for measuring autogenous deformation in hardening Portland cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Thomas; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2003-01-01

    of the thermal comparator is based on thermal expansion of aluminium. A particular characteristic of the measuring system is the fixation of the thermal comparator sensor to the deforming specimen. The modular system ensures effective thermostatic control of the hydrating cement paste samples. The technique......This paper describes a simple and accurate experimental device specially developed to measure autogenous deformation in hardening cement-based materials. The measuring system consists of a so-called thermal comparator sensor and a modular thermostatically controlled system. The operating principle...

  7. Effect of Oxygen Concentration on Autogenous Ignition Temperature and Pneumatic Impact Ignitability of Nonmetallic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Extensive test data exist on the ignitability of nonmetallic materials in pure oxygen, but these characteristics are not as well understood for lesser oxygen concentrations. In this study, autogenous ignition temperature testing and pneumatic impact testing were used to better understand the effects of oxygen concentration on ignition of nonmetallic materials. Tests were performed using oxygen concentrations of 21, 34, 45, and 100 %. The following materials were tested: PTFE Teflon(Registered Trademark), Buna-N, Silicone, Zytel(Registered Trademark) 42, Viton(registered Trademark) A, and Vespel(Registered Trademark) SP-21.

  8. Stepwise surgical approach to diabetic partial foot amputations with autogenous split thickness skin grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal L. Ramanujam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the surgical treatment of severe diabetic foot infections, substantial soft tissue loss often accompanies partial foot amputations. These sizeable soft tissue defects require extensive care with the goal of expedited closure to inhibit further infection and to provide resilient surfaces capable of withstanding long-term ambulation. Definitive wound closure management in the diabetic population is dependent on multiple factors and can have a major impact on the risk of future diabetic foot complications. In this article, the authors provide an overview of autogenous skin grafting, including anatomical considerations, clinical conditions, surgical approach, and adjunctive treatments, for diabetic partial foot amputations.

  9. Stepwise surgical approach to diabetic partial foot amputations with autogenous split thickness skin grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujam, Crystal L; Zgonis, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In the surgical treatment of severe diabetic foot infections, substantial soft tissue loss often accompanies partial foot amputations. These sizeable soft tissue defects require extensive care with the goal of expedited closure to inhibit further infection and to provide resilient surfaces capable of withstanding long-term ambulation. Definitive wound closure management in the diabetic population is dependent on multiple factors and can have a major impact on the risk of future diabetic foot complications. In this article, the authors provide an overview of autogenous skin grafting, including anatomical considerations, clinical conditions, surgical approach, and adjunctive treatments, for diabetic partial foot amputations. PMID:27283728

  10. Histological Features and Biocompatibility of Bone and Soft Tissue Substitutes in the Atrophic Alveolar Ridge Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Maiorana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of the atrophic alveolar ridges for implant placement is today a common procedure in dentistry daily practice. The surgical reconstruction provides for the optimization of the supporting bone for the implants and a restoration of the amount of keratinized gingiva for esthetic and functional reasons. In the past, tissue regeneration has been performed with autogenous bone and free gingival or connective tissue grafts. Nowadays, bone substitutes and specific collagen matrix allow for a complete restoration of the atrophic ridge without invasive harvesting procedures. A maxillary reconstruction of an atrophic ridge by means of tissue substitutes and its histological features are then presented.

  11. Chondroblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst of the hamate: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Peter C; Novais, Eduardo N; Shives, Thomas C; Shin, Alexander Y

    2012-03-01

    Chondroblastoma of the carpals is rare, can mimic other benign bone tumors, and presents a diagnostic challenge. There have been few cases of benign tumors involving the hamate, with only one reported case of chondroblastoma, which was treated with complete hamate excision. We present a case of chondroblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst of the hamate treated with curettage, high-speed burring, phenol, and autogenous iliac crest bone grafting. At the time of the most recent radiographic follow-up, there was full graft incorporation, preserved hamate morphology, and no evidence of recurrence.

  12. The use of implantable bone stimulators in nonunion treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael S; Anglen, Jeffrey O

    2010-03-01

    Delayed or failure of bone healing in fracture, osteotomy, and arthrodesis patients continues to be a clinical dilemma. Electromagnetic stimulation is 1 modality demonstrated in many studies to aid bone healing; however, relatively few studies depict the use and complications associated with direct current implantable bone stimulators. Over a 9-year period, we studied a consecutive series of 120 adult patients who underwent implantation of a direct current bone stimulator. The goals of this study were to determine the time until healing, the presence of infection, and the need for additional nonunion surgery or salvage procedure following internal bone stimulator placement for nonunion treatment. Of the factors affecting the time until healing, tobacco smoking was a significant factor associated with increased time until healing. Tobacco smoking and duration of nonunion prior to implantable bone stimulator placement were both significant factors in the need for revision nonunion surgery or salvage procedure after implantable bone stimulator placement. Deep soft tissue infection or osteomyelitis was a significant factor predicting prolonged time to healing, subsequent infection following implantable bone stimulator placement, and the need for revision or salvage surgery. With the relative lack of complications directly attributable to electromagnetic implantable bone stimulators, their use may be an effective adjuvant to stable internal fixation and autogenous bone grafting in healing nonunions. However, the use of implantable bone stimulators in patients with nonunion prior to deep soft tissue infection or osteomyelitis exhibited an increased rate of postoperative infection in this study. PMID:20349861

  13. Assessment of autogenous Type 410S stainless steel welds in replacement steam generator tube support structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To eliminate fretting wear caused by flow-induced vibration in recirculating steam generators, tubes are separated from each other by tube support lattice bars. In the U-bend portion of the tube bundle, rows of tubes are separated by fan bars that radiate from collector bars located in the straight-leg portion of the steam generator. The replacement steam generators constructed by Babcock ampersand Wilcox International use Type 410S stainless steel with a specified maximum hardness of Rb 95 for tube support lattice bars, collector bars, and fan bars. An autogenous weld is used to join the fan bar to the collector bar. Corrosion tests were conducted to assess the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of welded type 410S stainless steel. These tests included constant-extension-rate (CERT) tests and long-term immersion tests on 410S in various welded and heat-treated conditions. The results of this test program demonstrate that, when highly stressed, the as-welded 410S weld joints are susceptible to SCC in steam generator environments. However, highly stressed 410S autogenous welds given a post-weld heat treatment were not susceptible to SCC even under faulted steam generator operating conditions

  14. Autogenous tibial strut grafts used in severe kyphoscoliosis:surgical policies and preliminary results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hui; QIU Yong; WANG Bin; YU Yang; ZHU Ze-zhang ZHU Li-hua

    2005-01-01

    Background Surgery for severe kyphoscoliosis is frequently unsatisfying because of loss of correction, high rate of pseudarthrosis and neurological complications.Several authors reported that the anterior fusion with strut grafts might improve the surgical outcome.This article describes and assesses the surgical strategies and the application of autogenous tibial strut in the treatment of severe kyphoscoliosis.Results The mean preoperative and postoperative kyphosis was 82°and 52°respectively, and the mean scoliosis was 84°and 44°respectively.Complications included pseudarthrosis (2 cases, one with graft fracture and the other with hook displacement), posterior elements fractures (4), pleura penetrations (3, in the plastic surgery of the thoracic cage), dura tear (2), exudative pleuritis (2, in the anterior surgery), and tibia fracture of the harvesting site (1).The mean loss of correction in coronal and sagittal plane was 6° and 7° respectively.Except for 1 case, the patients with incomplete paraplegia showed improvements to varying extents.Conclusion Autogenous tibial strut can provide excellent support to the kyphoscoliotic spine: it reduces pseudarthrodic rate, loss of correction and complications of graft harvest, it also prevents the occurrence of neurological impairment.

  15. Treatment of an Immature Autogenous Arteriovenous Fistula with Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyoung Rae [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in facilitating maturation of autogenous arteriovenous fistulae. There were 12 immature autogenous arteriovenous fistulae. We performed 15 PTAs transvenously. Post-intervention anatomic and clinical successes were estimated, and the 6-month and 1-year primary and secondary patency rates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. All immature fistulae had underlying stenosis (n=20): arteriovenous anastomosis (n=1) and venous outflow (n=19): 1) within 5 cm from the anastomosis (n=10); 2) more than 5 cm but less than 10 cm from the anastomosis (n=5); 3) more than 10 cm from the anastomosis, including central veins (n=4). Six fistulae had two or more stenoses. Repeat intervention was necessary in two patients. The anatomical success rate was 94.3%, and the clinical success rate was 86.7%. The 6-month and 1-year primary patency rates were 72.7% and 54.5%, and the secondary patency rates were 100% and 81.8%, respectively. All immature hemodialysis fistulae have underlying stenosis, most of which are located near the arteriovenous anastomosis. Early interventional procedures are helpful in the salvage and maintenance of immature arteriovenous fistulae, with a high degree of success

  16. Dust particle dynamics in atmospheric dust devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izvekova, Yulia; Popel, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Dust particle dynamics is modeled in the Dust Devils (DDs). DD is a strong, well-formed, and relatively long-lived whirlwind, ranging from small (half a meter wide and a few meters tall) to large (more than 100 meters wide and more than 1000 meters tall) in Earth's atmosphere. We develop methods for the description of dust particle charging in DDs, discuss the ionization processes in DDs, and model charged dust particle motion. Our conclusions are consistent with the fact that DD can lift a big amount of dust from the surface of a planet into its atmosphere. On the basis of the model we perform calculations and show that DDs are important mechanism for dust uplift in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars. Influence of DD electric field on dynamics of dust particles is investigated. It is shown that influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is significant near the ground. At some altitude (more then a quarter of the height of DD) influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is negligible. For the calculation of the dynamics of dust electric field can be approximated by effective dipole located at a half of the height of DD. This work was supported by the Russian Federation Presidential Program for State Support of Young Scientists (project no. MK-6935.2015.2).

  17. Nasal bone grafts from the removed hump used as overlay grafts to camouflage concave lateral crura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubilay, Utku; Erdogdu, Suleyman; Sezen, Ozan Seymen

    2014-01-01

    Alar cartilage consists of a medial crus, middle crus and lateral crus. The lateral crus is an important aesthetic and functional structure of the nose. A 32-year-old male patient with concave lateral crura was operated by the authors. An open rhinoplasty with a dorsal approach to the septum is preferred. The nasal bones harvested from the hump, which is an autogenous graft trimmed and sutured on both concave lateral crura as an overlay camouflage grafts. Satisfactory result was achieved.

  18. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some types of fractures or cancers. Once your body accepts the bone ...

  19. Clinical and Histological Results of Vertical Ridge Augmentation of Atrophic Posterior Mandible with Inlay Technique of Cancellous Equine Bone Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pistilli R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We want to evaluate a new bone block material in the inlay technique, for the vertical bone augmentation of a posterior atrophic mandible, in order to perfom aesthetic and prosthetic rehabilitation and enable implant insertion. Materials & Methods: Inlay technique and the subsequent successful implant rehabilitation in the atrophic right posterior mandible in a 42-year-old woman, was completed using a cancellous equine bone block as grafting material. Results: Three months after surgical procedure both clinical and histological aspects show complete integration of the biomaterial with the surrounding bone and three dental implants were placed. Computed tomography and conventional radiography showed a 5mm mean vertical bone gain. Conclusion: Cancellous equine bone grafts may be an effective alternative to autogenous bone and/or inorganic bovine bone for reconstruction of the posterior mandible using inlay technique.

  20. Bone within a bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.J.; Davies, A.M. E-mail: wendy.turner@roh.nhs.uk; Chapman, S

    2004-02-01

    The 'bone within a bone' appearance is a well-recognized radiological term with a variety of causes. It is important to recognize this appearance and also to be aware of the differential diagnosis. A number of common conditions infrequently cause this appearance. Other causes are rare and some remain primarily of historical interest, as they are no longer encountered in clinical practice. In this review we illustrate some of the conditions that can give the bone within a bone appearance and discuss the physiological and pathological aetiology of each where known.

  1. Late sarcoma development after curettage and bone grafting of benign bone tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picci, Piero, E-mail: piero.picci@ior.it [Bone Tumor Center, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Sieberova, Gabriela [Dept. of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, Bratislava (Slovakia); Alberghini, Marco; Balladelli, Alba; Vanel, Daniel [Bone Tumor Center, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Hogendoorn, Pancras C.W. [Dept. of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Mercuri, Mario [Bone Tumor Center, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    Background and aim: Rarely sarcomas develop in previous benign lesions, after a long term disease free interval. We report the experience on these rare cases observed at a single Institution. Patients and methods: 12 cases curetted and grafted, without radiotherapy developed sarcomas, between 1970 and 2005, 6.5-28 years from curettage (median 18, average 19). Age ranged from 13 to 55 years (median 30, average 32) at first diagnosis; tumors were located in the extremities (9 GCT, benign fibrous histiocytoma, ABC, and solitary bone cyst). Radiographic and clinic documentation, for the benign and malignant lesions, were available. Histology was available for 7 benign and all malignant lesions. Results: To fill cavities, autogenous bone was used in 4 cases, allograft in 2, allograft and tricalcium-phosphate/hydroxyapatite in 1, autogenous/allograft in 1, heterogenous in 1. For 3 cases the origin was not reported. Secondary sarcomas, all high grade, were 8 osteosarcoma, 3 malignant fibrous histiocytoma, and 1 fibrosarcoma. Conclusions: Recurrences with progression from benign tumors are possible, but the very long intervals here reported suggest a different cancerogenesis for these sarcomas. This condition is extremely rare accounting for only 0.26% of all malignant bone sarcomas treated in the years 1970-2005 and represents only 8.76% of all secondary bone sarcomas treated in the same years. This incidence is the same as that of sarcomas arising on fibrous dysplasia, and is lower than those arising on bone infarcts or on Paget's disease. This possible event must be considered during follow-up of benign lesions.

  2. Ortho- and heterotopic bone grafts in bifocal transport osteogenesis for craniofacial reconstruction--an experimental study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, F-J; Mueller, M; Rahmstorf, M; Swennen, G R J; Dempf, R; Schierle, H

    2004-09-01

    Bifocal transport osteogenesis (BTO) is a promising technique for the reconstruction of extended osseous craniofacial defects. Aim of this study was to determine the potential of this technique related to various donor sites of the transport segment. In 10 adult sheep critical size defects of the calvaria were treated by gradual movement of a transport segment consisting either of autogenous regional free calvarial bone grafts (n=5) or autogenous illiac free bone grafts (n=5). Latency period was 5 days; the rate of distraction was 1mm per day and extended approximately 40 days. The consolidation period was 28 days. After harvesting, specimens were investigated by conventional radiography, CT-scans, histologically and by fluorescence. In both groups transport osteogenesis resulted in a complete closure of the critical size defect. Membranous bone formation and remodeling occurred during the entire period of distraction and consolidation. The volumes and thickness of newly formed bone at the defect site were increased significantly when calvarial bone grafts were used (P<0.05). Iliac bone grafts became progrediently smaller during distraction, while the volume of calvarial grafts remained relatively constant (P<0.05). In conclusion, transport segments consisting of calvarial and iliac bone resulted in a reliable closure of craniofacial critical size defects in adult organisms; the application of calvarial bone grafts resulted in an increased extend of bone formation.

  3. Modifications in Autogenous Rib Cartilage Reconstruction of Microtia%改良法肋软骨全耳廓再造术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李意源; 张如鸿; 张群; 许志成; 许枫; 李大涛; 孙楠; 汪诚

    2014-01-01

    Objective To introduce the modifications in autogenous rib cartilage reconstruction of microtia, so as to present more natural and stable morphology of the reconstructed ear. Methods From 2009, 234 cases of microtia were received modified total ear reconstruction by autogenous costal cartilage. Modifications of the two-staged surgery were as follows: Decreasing the needed rib cartilage into 6~8 in donor site;Different cartilage framework in different patient;Designing a U shape cartilage block to support the complex of tragus and antitragus; The negative suction management in the second stage surgery;Using specific bone cement in the second stage surgery for ear elevation. Results All the patients were followed up for more than 6 months, most reconstructed ears were satisfiable in symmetry and stability of the three dimensional morphology and the cranio-auricular angle. Skin color and texture were favorable as well. The most common complication was reduction of the projection angle of the constructed ear caused by hypertrophic scars and severe scar contractures. Conclusion These modifications in autogenous rib cartilage reconstruction of microtia are effective and practical. So far the results of ear reconstruction are satisfactory but not in complete control.%目的:对二期法的肋软骨全耳廓再造术进行改进,以增强再造耳结构的自然性及稳定性。方法自2009起,对234例小耳畸形患者行全耳廓再造,并对肋软骨全耳廓再造法进行了系列改良,措施包括:①供区仅切取第6~8肋软骨;②根据肋软骨厚度不同,采取个性化雕刻;③耳屏对耳屏复合体下方以U型软骨块支撑;④Ⅰ期术后,对耳舟和耳甲腔进行负压管理;⑤Ⅱ期手术时使用特定形状的骨水泥支架进行支撑。结果术后患者均随访6个月以上,在耳廓的位置及三维形态、耳廓皮肤色泽、与健侧耳的对称性等方面多能达到满意效果,再造耳结构及颅

  4. Rapid maxillary expansion in alveolar cleft repaired with a tissue-engineered bone in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jialiang; Tian, Bo; Chu, Fengting; Yang, Chenjie; Zhao, Jun; Jiang, Xinquan; Qian, Yufen

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of orthodontic expansion on graft area of a tissue-engineered bone (TEB) BMSCs/β-TCP, and to find an alternative strategy for the therapy of alveolar cleft. A unilateral alveolar cleft canine model was established and then treated with BMSCs/β-TCP under rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Sequential fluorescent labeling, radiography and helical computed tomography were used to evaluate new bone formation and mineralization in the graft area. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Van Gieson׳s picro fuchsin staining were performed for histological and histomorphometric observation. ALP activity, mineralization and the expression of osteogenic differentiation related genes of BMSCs that grew on the β-TCP scaffold were promoted by their cultivation in osteogenic medium. Based on fact, TEB was constructed. After 8 weeks of treatment with BMSCs/β-TCP followed by RME, new bone formation and mineralization of the dogs were markedly accelerated, and bone resorption was significantly reduced, compared with the untreated dogs, or those only treated with autogenous iliac bone. The treatment with both TEB and RME evidently made the bone trabecula more abundant and the area of bone formation larger. What is more, there were no significant differences between BMSCs/β-TCP group and the group treated with autogenous bone and RME. This study further revealed that TEB was not only a feasible clinical approach for patients with alveolar cleft, but also a potential substituent of autogenous bone, and its combination with RME might be an alternative strategy for the therapy of alveolar cleft.

  5. On Dust Charging Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsintsadze, Nodar L.; Tsintsadze, Levan N.

    2008-01-01

    A general derivation of the charging equation of a dust grain is presented, and indicated where and when it can be used. A problem of linear fluctuations of charges on the surface of the dust grain is discussed.

  6. Retrograde tracing of fluorescent gold after autogenous nerve transplantation on spinal cord injured in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, X; Liu, W; Ding, Ming;

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of the fluorescent gold retrograde tracing autogenous nerve transplantation on spinal cord injured in rats. Methods The animals were divided into two groups, with modified Allen impact method to establish model of spinal cord injury. After 4 weeks......, the transplantation group using autologous sural nerve graft to repair spinal cord injury period and non-transplantation group was only exposed incision without treatment. In the 4, 6 and 8 weeks after operation, the retrograde tracing of FG Fluoro-Gold was performed to discover the recovery of the axial plasma.......01). Conclusion After spinal cord injury, autologous nerve graft was repaired and survived well and promote the recovery of spinal cord injury segment shaft pulp transportation function....

  7. Effect of Autogenous Arc Welding Processes on Tensile and Impact Properties of Ferritic Stainless Steel Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A K Lakshminarayanan; K Shanmugam; V Balasubramanian

    2009-01-01

    The effect of autogeneous arc welding processes on tensile and impact properties of ferritic stainless steel conformed to AISI 409M grade is studied.Rolled plates of 4 mm thickness have been used as the base material for preparing single pass butt welded jointa.Tensile and impact properties,microhardness,microstructure,and fracture surface morphology of continuous current gas tungsten arc welding (CCGTAW),pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW),and plasma arc welding (PAW) joints are evaluated and the results are compared.It is found that the PAW joints of ferritic stainless steel show superior tensile and impact properties when compared with CCGTAW and PCGTAW joints,and this is mainly due to lower heat input,finer fusion zone grain diameter,and higher fusion zone hardness.

  8. Costs and outcomes of endovascular treatment of thrombosed dialysis autogenous fistulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coentrao, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Functional vascular access is a prerequisite for adequate haemodialysis treatment in patients with end-stage renal disease. Autogenous arteriovenous fistulae are considered superior to synthetic grafts and central venous catheters; however, fistulae are not without problems. Fistulae thrombosis has become a clinical challenge in nephrology practice, with relevant clinical implications for dialysis patients. Several studies have reported on the feasibility and relatively high-clinical success rate of the endovascular approach to thrombosed fistulae in recent years. However, as repeated interventions are usually required to achieve long-term access survival, maintenance of a previously thrombosed fistulae could be a highly expensive policy. The goals of this article are to provide the reader an insight into the multiple endovascular approaches for thrombosed arteriovenous fistulae, bearing in mind its clinical effectiveness and financial implications. PMID:23897178

  9. Psychosomatic aspects in idiopathic infertility: effects of treatment with autogenic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Moore, A M; O'Moore, R R; Harrison, R F; Murphy, G; Carruthers, M E

    1983-01-01

    It has long been recognised that there is a relationship between emotional stress and some forms of infertility. We have endeavoured to estimate "stress' levels before and after Autogenic Training in 15 couples with infertility of at least two years' duration. Potential stress markers were: plasma prolactin, total urinary free cortisol and catecholamines, and four psychological tests: Spielberger State-Trait anxiety scale, Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, the Cattell 16 personality factor questionnaire, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. A control group of ten normal couples was included for comparison. The biochemical finding of higher mean prolactin levels in the female patients vs their controls was of particular interest. The significant reduction of the prolactin level, in parallel with decreased anxiety scores following treatment, supports the hypothesis that the elevated prolactin levels in these patients are indeed linked with emotional stress.

  10. Autogenous vaccination for control of yersiniosis (Yersiniosis salmonis in the salmonid aquaculture in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetkovik Aleksandar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to produce an autogenous vaccine from Yersinia ruckeri isolate and to test it’s efficacy in field conditions. Colonies of Yersinia ruckeri biotype I isolated from rainbow trout with haemorrhagic septicemia were cultivated in TSB and inactivated with formalin. The vaccine was diluted and administered by immersion of rainbow trout fry (~ 4.5 g BW in the vacinal suspension. The experimental infection was done 28 days post vaccination by immersing the fry in infectious suspension of the same isolate. Mortality of the control and vaccinated fish was 87% and 11%, respectively. Vaccinated fish showed high level of gained specific resistance to the infection (RPS 87,4%.

  11. Dust-off

    OpenAIRE

    Maycroft, Neil; Cheang, Shu Lea

    2015-01-01

    The fan of a motherboard switches on and off intermittently. It blows household dust, removed from the inside of a computer carcass, into the air. The dust then settles onto the motherboard, to be blown off again. This continual movement of dust is contained in the piece. However, it should remind us that the ceaseless creation and motion of unconfined dust accompanies all stages of the e-waste journey.

  12. Physics of interstellar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Krugel, Endrik

    2002-01-01

    The dielectric permeability; How to evaluate grain cross sections; Very small and very big particles; Case studies of Mie calculus; Particle statistics; The radiative transition probability; Structure and composition of dust; Dust radiation; Dust and its environment; Polarization; Grain alignment; PAHs and spectral features of dust; Radiative transport; Diffuse matter in the Milky Way; Stars and their formation; Emission from young stars. Appendices Mathematical formulae; List of symbols.

  13. Using inverted autogenous veins to substitute arteries in a canine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikeghbalian Saman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : Rapid harvesting of autogenous graft over a wire is an optional way in trauma surgery and it places the inverted conduit so that its adventitial layer is within the lumen of the graft. Our aim of this study was to compare the patency of inverted autogenous graft vs noninverted graft in dogs. Settings and Design : Experimental animal models. Materials and Methods : In this experimental study, 12 dogs were anesthetized and 10 cm of the external jugular vein was excised. The vein was equally divided into two 5-cm sections. One section was inverted and the other was left intact. Afterward, 5 cm of both the femoral arteries were removed and the right (inverted and the left (not inverted arteries were grafted, respectively. The patency of the arteries was evaluated by Color Doppler ultrasonography immediately postoperation and up to 6 months thereafter. Statistical Analysis : Data were analyzed with Fisher′s exact test using SPSS version 15. P value below 0.05 was significant. Results: None of the 12 inverted vein grafts were patent at 3 rd to 14 th days follow-up with Doppler ultrasonography. All of them were completely obstructed by thrombosis. However, 11 (92% of the noninverted vein grafts were patent both at 3 and 6 months follow-up. One of the noninverted grafts was almost completely obstructed with thrombosis (90% and the other 2 were incompletely obstructed with intimal thickening. Conclusions : Despite many favorable results in the previous studies with regard to excellent patency of inverted vein graft, our results were disappointing and we recommend using the graft in the right direction and taking care to preserve the intima intact.

  14. An in vivo tracing study on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in rats exposed to silica dust%骨髓间充质干细胞在染矽尘大鼠体内示踪研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永梅; 黄明; 燕玲; 曾子芳; 吴奇峰; 梁伟辉; 曾小菁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell ( BMMSC) in rats exposed to silica dust.Methods BMMSCs were isolated from 7 specific pathogen free healthy male SD rats through bone marrow adherent method and transfected using lentiviral vector-enhanced green fluorescence protein ( LV-eGFP ) .Then Trypan blue staining and CCK-8 were applied to assay the cellular survival rate and cell proliferation activity before and after transfection, while 8 rats of the same kind were randomly divided into control group and silicotic group, with 4 rats in each group.Silicotic group was injected intratracheally with 1.0 mL silica suspension ( mass concentration was 40 g/L) while control group was given 1.0 mL physiological sodium chloride solution.The transfected BMMSCs were intravenously injected into the caudal veins of rats of the two groups.The lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney and brain were taken and observed under the fluorescence microscopy by frozen section 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks respectively after transplantation.The fluorescence distribution and of BMMSCs transplanted with LV-eGFP were detected, the fluorescence intensity of every organ was calculated by Image-pro plus 6.0.Results When the multiplicity of infection was 50, the transfection efficiency of BMMSCs was 80.00%, the green fluorescence expression was powerful and sustained, and there was not any change found in morphological characteristics of BMMSC after transfection.The respective cellular survival rates had no statistical significant difference between transfected and untransfected BMMSCs with LV-eGFP [ ( 97.67 ±0.60 )% vs (98.03 ±0.56 )%, P >0.05 ] .Cell proliferation activity had no statistical significant difference in main effects of transfection treatment (P >0.05).In the first week after transplantation of BMMSCs transfected with LV-eGFP, the fluorescence expression was observed in tissue sections of each organ in rats of two groups, the stronger fluorescence was

  15. Toxicity of lunar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Linnarsson, Dag; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L; Loftus, David J; Prisk, G Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust...

  16. Repair of the inferior vena cava with autogenous peritoneo-fascial patch graft following abdominal trauma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmiler, Mustafa; Kocogullari, Cevdet Ugur; Yilmaz, Sezgin; Cekirdekci, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal vascular injuries are among the most challenging and lethal injuries in traumatized patients. Inferior vena cava is the most frequently injured vein during the blunt or penetrating trauma. The primary repair, end to end anastomosis, endovascular stenting, or graft interposition with autogenous or synthetic materials should be considered in selected cases. However, in cases the synthetic graft was preferred, intestinal contaminations due to small or large bowel perforation accompanying the trauma have been cited as a limiting factor for the use of such grafts as in the current case. However, a previous history of lower leg variceal surgery prevents the use of great saphenous vein as a graft. So in the present case, the authors report a patient with inferior vena cava injury repaired with autogenous peritoneo-fascial graft. The authors have used APF graft in traumatic inferior vena cava injury for the first time. PMID:18667465

  17. CLINICAL STUDY OF TRANSVERSAL AUGMENTATION IN BONE DEFECTS OF THE MAXILLARY AESTETHIC AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile NICOLAE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scope: To outline the importance of autogenic bone graft addition for correcting bone defects in the frontal and lateral maxillary area, and for achieving outstanding esthetic results in cases of large bone defects. Materials and method: A total number of 478 argumentations has been performed in the implantology and dental clinic of the Emergency Military Hospital Sibiu between 2009 and 2013. Results and discussion: The transversal rehabilitation techniques of frontal maxillary ridges, representing 57.2% of all addressed cases, were the most frequent ones, justifying the fact that the frontal maxillary area, aesthetically sensitive, is of special attention for both patients and specialists. Conclusions: In relation with the magnitude of alveolar bone transversal resorption and soft tissue anatomy, surgical procedures are required for bone addition, for obtaining acceptable aesthetic and functional results. To this end, evaluation of defects and systematization of the suitable addition techniques have been carried out.

  18. Unicameral bone cyst of the lunate in an adult: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alici Tugrul

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of a symptomatic unicameral (simple bone cyst of the lunate in a 42-year- old woman. The lesion was treated with curettage and cancellous autogenous iliac bone grafting. At five years of follow-up the wrist was pain free, there were no limitations of motion, and the radiographs showed complete obliteration of the cavity. To the best of our knowledge, no other unicameral bone cyst of the lunate has been reported in an adult. Cysts with significant cavities at the carpal bones in an adult should be approached cautiously, as they may require early curettage and bone grafting for healing, before collapse and degenerative changes occur.

  19. Comparative studies on the biology and filarial susceptibility of selected blood-feeding and autogenous Aedes togoi sub-colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuluck Junkum

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding and autogenous sub-colonies were selected from a laboratory, stock colony of Aedes togoi, which was originally collected from Koh Nom Sao, Chanthaburi province, Southeast Thailand. Comparative biology and filarial susceptibility between the two sub-colonies (blood-feeding: F11, F13; autogeny: F38, F40 were investigated to evaluate their viability and vectorial capacity. The results of comparison on biology revealed intraspecific differences, i.e., the average egg deposition/gravid female (F11/F38; F13/F40, embryonation rate (F13/F40, hatchability rate (F11/F38; F13/F40, egg width (F11/F38, wing length of females (F13/F40, and wing length and width of males (F11/F38 in the blood-feeding sub-colony were significantly greater than that in the autogenous sub-colony; and egg length (F11/F38 and width (F13/F40, and mean longevity of adult females (F11/F38 and males (F13/F40 in the blood-feeding sub-colony were significantly less than that in the autogenous sub-colony. The results of comparison on filarial susceptibility demonstrated that both sub-colonies yielded similar susceptibilities to Brugia malayi [blood-feeding/autogeny = 56.7% (F11/53.3%(F38, 60%(F13/83.3%(F40] and Dirofilaria immitis [blood-feeding/autogeny = 85.7%(F11/75%(F38, 45%(F13/29.4%(F40], suggesting autogenous Ae. togoi sub-colony was an efficient laboratory vector in study of filariasis.

  20. Effect of Biofeedback-assisted Autogenic Training on Headache Activity and Mood States in Korean Female Migraine Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Eun-Ho; Park, Joo-Eon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Yu, Bum-Hee

    2009-01-01

    Biofeedback with or without combined autogenic training is known to be effective for the treatment of migraine. This study aimed to examine the effect of biofeedback treatment on headache activity, anxiety, and depression in Korean female patients with migraine headache. Patients were randomized into the treatment group (n=17) and monitoring group (n=15). Mood states including anxiety and depression, and psychophysiological variables such as mean skin temperature of the patients were compared...

  1. Comparative studies on the biology and filarial susceptibility of selected blood-feeding and autogenous Aedes togoi sub-colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Anuluck Junkum; Wej Choochote; Atchariya Jitpakdi; Somjai Leemingsawat; Narumon Komalamisra; Narissara Jariyapan; Chavalit Boonyatakorn

    2003-01-01

    Blood-feeding and autogenous sub-colonies were selected from a laboratory, stock colony of Aedes togoi, which was originally collected from Koh Nom Sao, Chanthaburi province, Southeast Thailand. Comparative biology and filarial susceptibility between the two sub-colonies (blood-feeding: F11, F13; autogeny: F38, F40) were investigated to evaluate their viability and vectorial capacity. The results of comparison on biology revealed intraspecific differences, i.e., the average egg deposition/gra...

  2. REDUCTION OF MOBILITY OF PERIODONTALY AFFECTED TEETH AFTER GINGIVAL AUGMENTATION WITH AN AUTOGENOUS GINGIVAL GRAFT (Case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamen Kotsilkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The most severe complication of advanced periodontal lesions is the loss of teeth due to terminal attachment loss and high grade mobility. The goals of the treatment are the improving the plaque control stabilizing of the mobile teeth and arresting of the progression of gingival recession achieving gingival augmentation with adequate vestibulum depth. The autogenous graft is considered to be the most efficient approach where a significant increase of the attached gingiva is needed. OBJECTIVE: This presentation demonstrates the capacity of the autogenous gingival graft approach to reduce the high grade tooth mobility and to augment keratinized gingiva. METHODS: V.T. (46 with moderate generalized periodontitis. The examination reveals thin periodontal biotype, Class IV recessions on 31,41 with III grade mobility and terminal attachment loss, narrow vestibulum and lack of attached gingiva. An autogenous graft technique was selected to achieve simultaneous gingival augmentation and correction of vestibulum depth. RESULTS: A significant and stable increase of the attached gingiva is observed which led to better access for oral hygiene thus creating better conditions for successful long-term outcome. The root coverage was more that 40% and the tooth mobility was decreased to grade I. CONCLUSION: In the limitations of the presented case the free autogenous graft technique seems an appropriate approach in cases with deep Class IV recessions and high grade toot mobility in mandibular frontal area creating proper conditions for effective oral hygiene and decreasing tooth mobility by creating a sufficient amount of attached gingiva needed for the long term maintenance.

  3. Autogene Regenerationserscheinungen in erzgebirgischen Moorwäldern und deren Bedeutung für Schutz und Entwicklung der Moore

    OpenAIRE

    Wendel, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    - Ziele der Arbeit - Ziel vorliegender Arbeit ist, zu analysieren und zu beurteilen, in welchem Umfang autogene Moorregeneration nach anthropogenen Störungen auftritt, welche Voraussetzungen sie erfordert und welche Prozesse von Bedeutung sind. Forstliche und naturschutzfachliche Relevanz der Erkenntnisse sind zu prüfen. - Versuchsanlage und Methoden - Die Versuchsanlage umfasst verschiedene räumliche Skalenebenen und Zeitabschnitte. Im Untersuchungsraum sächsisches Erzgebirge bef...

  4. Randomized controlled analysis-autogenous bone peg graft improved offset hemiarthroplasty in high risk patients: a novel cost effective technique

    OpenAIRE

    Hashmukh Shantilal Varma; Sachin Upadhyay; Nuthan Jagadeesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Femoral neck fractures in elderly with comorbidities are a serious and increasing challenge. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment for early rehabilitation. In present Indian scenario, the two major factors that drive our strategy for treatment are affordability and use of cemented prosthesis in high risk patients. The primary objective is to develop a technique that not only maintains the hip biomechanics after arthroplasty but also cost-effective. Methods: Fifty high ris...

  5. Randomized controlled analysis-autogenous bone peg graft improved offset hemiarthroplasty in high risk patients: a novel cost effective technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashmukh Shantilal Varma

    2016-06-01

    Results: In patients with novel technique value of X was 1 mm+/-0.8 SD, whereas value of X in conventional technique the value of X was significantly higher of about 7.2 mm+/-1.6 SD and this was associated with increased femoral off set 47.2+/-2.0 SD and the correlation was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05. Furthermore, in group B where graft was not used subsidence was found in 6 patients (24%. None was revised during the period of follow up. Conclusions: Our preliminary results indicate that the approach proposed is feasible and effective in the management of intracapsular fracture neck femur in high risk patients with unipolar prosthesis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 1897-1902

  6. Volumetric changes of the graft after maxillary sinus floor augmentation with Bio-Oss and autogenous bone in different ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Schou, Søren; Svendsen, Patricia Anne;

    2012-01-01

    composition was selected at random and placed concomitant with implant placement. Computed tomographies of the maxillary sinuses were obtained preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at euthanasia after 12 weeks. The volumetric changes of the graft were estimated using the Cavalieri principle...

  7. Microstructure Characterization and Stress Corrosion Evaluation of Autogenous and Hybrid Friction Stir Welded Al-Cu-Li 2195 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixian; Arbegast, William J.; Meletis, Efstathios I.

    1997-01-01

    Friction stir welding process is being evaluated for application on the Al-Cu-Li 2195 Super-Light Weight External Tank of the Space Transportation System. In the present investigation Al-Cu-Li 2195 plates were joined by autogenous friction stir welding (FSW) and hybrid FSW (friction stir welding over existing variable polarity plasma arc weld). Optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were utilized to characterize microstructures of the weldments processed by both welding methods. TEM observations of autogenous FSW coupons in the center section of the dynamically-recrystallized zone showed an equiaxed recrystallized microstructure with an average grain size of approx. 3.8 microns. No T(sub 1), precipitates were present in the above-mentioned zone. Instead, T(sub B) and alpha precipitates were found in this zone with a lower population. Alternate immersion, anodic polarization, constant load, and slow strain tests were carried out to evaluate the general corrosion and stress-corrosion properties of autogenous and hybrid FSW prepared coupons. The experimental results will be discussed.

  8. Ultrasonography-guided Balloon Angioplasty in an Autogenous Arteriovenous Fistula: Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Chang [Daejeon St Mary' s Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, June Sik [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    Percutaneous trasnluminal angioplasty (PTA) of a malfunctioning arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in hemodialysis patients requires the use of contrast angiography and fluoroscopy guidance. We attempted to perform this procedure under duplex ultrasound guidance to reduce the amount of contrast agent administered and to reduce the radiation dose during the interventional procedures. From September 2006 to February 2007, 45 patients received interventional treatment due to malfunctioning hemodialysis access in our hospital. Among the patients, we selected 10 patients diagnosed with stenosis of an autogenous arteriovenous fistula based on a physical examination. There were six males and four females aged 51-78 years (mean age, 59 years). Seven of these patients had a Brescia-Cinimo type fistula and three patients had a basilic vein transposition. All procedures were performed in the angiography suite. All procedures that required angioplasty were performed under duplex ultrasound guidance and then contrast angiography was performed to confirm the final patency of the vessels. Conventional angioplasty was also performed under fluoroscopy guidance for any lesions that required an additional angioplasty. The volume flow before and after the PTA and procedure time were recorded. Clinical success was defined as the performance of one or more successful hemodialysis sessions after treatment. Eight of ten patients did not require an additional angioplasty by conventional angiography after the duplex- guided angioplasty. One case showed recoiling of stenosis after the duplex-guided PTA and another case was missed at duplex scanning due to the extremely short nature of the recoiling of stenosis. The mean volume flow before and after PTA was 167 ml/min (range, 80-259 ml/min) and 394.2 ml/min (range, 120-586 ml/min), respectively. No complications associated with the duplex-guide procedure occurred. In nine cases, PTA enabled hemodialysis to be conducted more than one time. In one

  9. The use of bovine screws to promote bone formation using a tibia model in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Marco Aurélio; Pontual, Marco Antônio B; Bez, Leonardo; Benfatti, César Augusto M; Boabaid, Fernanda; Somerman, Martha J; Magini, Ricardo S

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of a unique resorbable bovine bone screw, to stimulate bone formation. Bovine bone screws were inserted in the tibia beagle dogs. Each animal received 8 screws, divided into Groups A (screws + no membranes), B (screws + titanium reinforced membranes) and C (bone defects treated with autogenous bone grafts). Animals were sacrificed at 2, 4 and 6 months. New bone was measured with a periodontal probe and reported an average of 7.4 mm in vertical bone gain for Group B, 3.6 mm for Group A and 1.7 mm for Group C. Submission to Kruskal-Wallis test showed statistical differences between groups (p<0,05). Histological examination revealed an intimate contact between the newly formed bone and the resorbing bone screws. Conclusion: Bovine bone screws provide environment for new bone formation and thus may provide an alternative therapy for enhancing bone formation vertically, including for regenerative procedures as well as prior to implant therapy. PMID:23058228

  10. Operational Dust Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, Jose M.; Basart, Sara; Benincasa, Francesco; Boucher, Olivier; Brooks, Malcolm E.; Chen, Jen-Ping; Colarco, Peter R.; Gong, Sunlin; Huneeus, Nicolas; Jones, Luke; Lu, Sarah; Menut, Laurent; Morcrette, Jean-Jacques; Mulcahy, Jane; Nickovic, Slobodan; Garcia-Pando, Carlos P.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Sekiyama, Thomas T.; Tanaka, Taichu Y.; Terradellas, Enric; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Xiao-Ye; Zhou, Chun-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, numerical prediction of dust aerosol concentration has become prominent at several research and operational weather centres due to growing interest from diverse stakeholders, such as solar energy plant managers, health professionals, aviation and military authorities and policymakers. Dust prediction in numerical weather prediction-type models faces a number of challenges owing to the complexity of the system. At the centre of the problem is the vast range of scales required to fully account for all of the physical processes related to dust. Another limiting factor is the paucity of suitable dust observations available for model, evaluation and assimilation. This chapter discusses in detail numerical prediction of dust with examples from systems that are currently providing dust forecasts in near real-time or are part of international efforts to establish daily provision of dust forecasts based on multi-model ensembles. The various models are introduced and described along with an overview on the importance of dust prediction activities and a historical perspective. Assimilation and evaluation aspects in dust prediction are also discussed.

  11. Temperature of cometary dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Th.; Weidlich, U.

    1988-05-01

    The variation of dust temperature with heliocentric distance for a comet is calculated using the optical constants of an astronomically important silicate. The silicate, described by Drane (1985), is assumed to be similar to cometary dust. The temperatures of cometary dust grains are determined by the energy balance between the absorbed sunlight and emitted thermal radiation, and equilibrium temperatures of dust grains for different radii and heliocentric distances are compared. Deviations between computed and observed temperatures are attributed to variations in the chemical composition of the ablated grains.

  12. Effect of ultraviolet-treated autogenous blood on some hematologic indexes in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative clinical and experimental investigations were carried out on 18 clinically normal horses. It was found that the single transfusion of in vitro UV-treated autogenous blood, following a previously described method, was tolerated well by horses and did not lead to any deviations from the normal indices. Under the effect of the treated blood there was an increase in the hemoglobin content, rise in the erythrocyte and leukocyte count with slightly expressed hyper-leukocytosis and weak neutrophilia (simple regeneration of the blood). The sedimentation of erythrocytes also showed higher rates as early as the first hour following the autohemotransfusion, remaining at the attained level up to the fourth day, while on the sixth day it again came back to the initial value. The contents of calcium and inorganic phosphorus rose, showing a slightly expressed shift to the physiologic level without reaching it. The changes in the phagocytic activity of the blood showed that the autohemotransfusion stimulates phagocytosis. Along with these effects the bacteriostatic titer of the blood, as recorded with the use of the anthrax bacillus as early as the first hour, was likewise favourably affected, the highest titers being observed at the 24th and 48th hour. (author)

  13. Effect of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty on the stenosis of autogenous radiocephalic ateriovenous fistula for hemodialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sun Min; Kim, Jeong Ho; Byun, Sung Su; Kang, Jin MMo; Choi, Sang Tae; Kim, Jong Woo; Kim, Hyung Sik; Choi, Hye Young [Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seonam University College of Medicine, Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) on stenosis of autogenous radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (RCF) for hemodialysis and to determine the factors influencing patency. This retrospective study included 136 patients referred for PTA of RCF stenosis between March 2005 and July 2014. The technical success rate, complications, and patency rate were evaluated. The following factors were analyzed as they might influence patency: age, gender, site and duration of arteriovenous fistula, underlying disease, body mass index, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, peripheral artery or coronary artery occlusive disease, stenosis length/grade, cutting balloon, and balloon size. The initial technical success rate was 91.9% (125/136). Complications included vessel rupture (n = 2) and vessel dissection (n = 2). The patency rates at 6, 12, 24, and 48 months after PTA were 81.9, 67.1, 52.7, and 42.3%, respectively. The patency rate was higher in cases with longer (> 3 cm) stenosis (p = 0.04). Use of cutting balloon and larger size of balloon catheter made the patency longer, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.637, 0.258). PTA is a safe and effective way to manage stenosis in RCF. The length of stenosis was the only factor which affected the patency rate in this study.

  14. A Novel Albumin-Based Tissue Scaffold for Autogenic Tissue Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei-Shan; -Liang Lee, I.; Yu, Wei-Lin; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Jane, Wann-Neng; Shen, Hsin-Hsin

    2014-07-01

    Tissue scaffolds provide a framework for living tissue regeneration. However, traditional tissue scaffolds are exogenous, composed of metals, ceramics, polymers, and animal tissues, and have a defined biocompatibility and application. This study presents a new method for obtaining a tissue scaffold from blood albumin, the major protein in mammalian blood. Human, bovine, and porcine albumin was polymerised into albumin polymers by microbial transglutaminase and was then cast by freeze-drying-based moulding to form albumin tissue scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy and material testing analyses revealed that the albumin tissue scaffold possesses an extremely porous structure, moderate mechanical strength, and resilience. Using a culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a model, we showed that MSCs can be seeded and grown in the albumin tissue scaffold. Furthermore, the albumin tissue scaffold can support the long-term osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. These results show that the albumin tissue scaffold exhibits favourable material properties and good compatibility with cells. We propose that this novel tissue scaffold can satisfy essential needs in tissue engineering as a general-purpose substrate. The use of this scaffold could lead to the development of new methods of artificial fabrication of autogenic tissue substitutes.

  15. Cephalic Arch Stenosis in Autogenous Haemodialysis Fistulas: Treatment With the Viabahn Stent-Graft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawyer, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.shawyer@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk [The Royal London Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Fotiadis, Nicos I., E-mail: fotiadis.nicholas@gmail.com [Royal Marsden Hospital, Radiology Department, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Namagondlu, Girish, E-mail: girish.namagondlu@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk [The Royal London Hospital, Renal Medicine Department (United Kingdom); Iyer, Arun, E-mail: arun.iyer@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk [The Royal London Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Blunden, Mark, E-mail: mark.blunden@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Raftery, Martin, E-mail: martin.raftery@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Yaqoob, Magdi, E-mail: magdi.yaqoob@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk [The Royal London Hospital, Renal Medicine Department (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) is an important and common cause of dysfunction in autogenous haemodialysis fistulas that requires multiple reinterventions and aggressive surveillance. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the Viabahn stent-graft for the management of CAS. Between April 2005 and October 2011, 11 consecutive patients [four men and seven women (mean age 56.7 years)] with CAS and dysfunctional fistulas were treated with insertion of 11 Viabahn stent-grafts. Six stent-grafts were inserted due to residual stenosis after angioplasty and five for fistuloplasty-induced rupture. No patient was lost to follow-up. The technical and clinical success rate was 100 %. Primary access patency rates were 81.8 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.482-0.977] at 6 months and 72.7 % (95 % CI 0.390-0.939) at 12 months. Secondary access patency rates were 90.9 % at 6 months (95 % CI 0.587-0.997). There were no procedure-related complications. Mean follow-up was 543.8 days (range 156-2,282). The use of the Viabahn stent-graft in the management of CAS is technically feasible and, in this small series, showed patency rates that compare favorably with historical data of angioplasty and bare stents.

  16. Response of spinal myoclonus to a combination therapy of autogenic training and biofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kempuraj Duraisamy

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Clinical evidence indicates that certain types of movement disorders are due to psychosomatic factors. Patients with myoclonic movements are usually treated by a variety of therapeutic agents. Autogenic training (AT, a recognized form of psychosomatic therapies, is suitable for certain types of neurological diseases. We describe a patient with myoclonus who failed to respond to conventional medical therapy. His symptoms were exaggerated by psychogenic factors, especially anger. Case presentation A 42-year-old man was admitted to our hospital, Preventive Welfare Clinic, for severe paroxysmal axial myoclonus of the left shoulder and abdominal muscles. The initial diagnosis was "combination of spinal segmental myoclonus and propriospinal myoclonus". The myoclonic movements did not occur during sleep but were aggravated by bathing, alcohol drinking, and anger. Psychological examination indicated hostile attribution. Although considered not to be a case of psychogenic myoclonus, a "psychogenic factor" was definitely involved in the induction of the organic myoclonus. The final diagnosis was "combination of spinal segmental myoclonus and propriospinal myoclonus accompanied by features of psychosomatic disorders". The patient underwent psychosomatic therapy including AT and surface electromyography (EMG-biofeedback therapy and treatment with clonazepam and carbamazepine. Results AT and EMG-biofeedback resulted in shortening the duration and reducing the amplitude and frequency of the myoclonic discharges. Conclusion Psychosomatic therapy with AT and surface EMG-biofeedback produced excellent improvement of myoclonic movements and allowed the reduction of the dosage of conventional medications.

  17. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  18. Comparison of lyophilization, and freezing in honey as techniques to preserve cortical bone allografts used to repair experimental femoral defects in domestic adult cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cats with orthopedic conditions are a prominent part of the clinical work of veterinary. Conditions such as comminuted fractures, bone tumors and non-unions are often difficult to repair and may require the use of bone grafts for treatment. This study evaluated cortical bone allografts preserved in honey, frozen or lyophilized for correcting long bone defects created in the diaphysis of the right femur of domestic cats (n=24. In the control group (n=6, the defect was repaired using autogenous cortical bone graft. In the remaining animals (n=6/group, the defect was repaired with cortical bone allografts preserved in honey, frozen or lyophilized. Success of graft incorporation and length of time for consolidation were assessed through clinical, radiographic and histological evaluations performed up to 180 days. In the control, frozen, honey and lyophylized groups, respectively, success of graft incorporation was 91.6%, 83.3%, 75%, and 25%, with corresponding mean length of time for consolidation of 83.1, 78, 105 and 120 days. Incorporation percentage in the lyophilized group was significantly lower than in the frozen and control groups. In conclusion, bone grafts preserved in honey or frozen were effective for repairing cortical defects in the femurs of cats as compared to autogenous cortical bone grafts.

  19. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  20. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  1. Culture of osteoblasts on bio-derived bones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Xu; YANG Zhi-ming; GE Bao-feng; LIU Xue-mei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of bio-derived bones, as substitutes of autogenous bone grafts and demineralized cadaver bones, on the attachment, spreading and proliferation of isolated osteoblasts. Methods: Osteoblasts were isolated from the calvaria of a fetal rabbit through sequential collagenase digestion. In the attachment study, the osteoblasts labeled with 3H-leucine were incubated with the bio-derived bone materials in sterile microcentrifugale tubes for 15, 90 and 180 minutes, and 24 hours, respectively. The attached cells were collected and the radioactivity was measured with liquid scintillation spectrometry. In the proliferation study, the osteoblasts were cultured with the bio-derived bone materials for 24 hours and 3H-thymidine was added during the last 2 hours of the incubation. The attached cells were collected and the radioactivity was measured with liquid scintillation spectrometry. Osteoblasts were seeded on the bone graft materials for 60 or 120 minutes, 24 or 48 hours, and 3 or 7 days, then the co-culture was processed for scanning electron microscopy to observe the interaction of osteoblasts and the bio-derived bone materials. Results: Osteoblasts attached to the bio-derived bone materials in a time-dependent manner. There were significantly (P<0.05) more attached cells after 180 minutes than after 15 and 90 minutes of incubations (P<0.05). Osteoblasts were proliferated in a large amount on the surface and in the materials. Osteoblasts seeded onto 100 mg bio-derived bones resulted in significantly (P<0.05) more measurable proliferation than those seeded onto 10 mg bones. Osteoblasts appeared round as they attached to the materials, then flattened and spread over with time passing. Conclusions: Bio-derived bones can provide a good environment for the attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts.

  2. 不同方式移植骨髓间充质干细胞在染矽尘大鼠体内的归巢%In vivo homing of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplanted through different ways in rats exposed to silica dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明; 周永梅; 燕玲; 李斌; 吴奇峰; 梁伟辉

    2015-01-01

    背景:骨髓间充质干细胞植入染矽尘大鼠体内能归巢到受损肺部,但何种植入途径在体内的归巢效果更好尚不清楚。  目的:动态比较观察不同途径移植骨髓间充质干细胞在染矽尘大鼠体内的分布情况。  方法:全骨髓贴壁法分离、培养供体大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞,用携带增强型绿色荧光蛋白基因的慢病毒(Lv-eGFP)转染骨髓间充质干细胞。受体大鼠用气管内注入法染尘,再随机分为经静脉组和经气管组,将转染Lv-eGFP的骨髓间充质干细胞分别经静脉、气管途径注入大鼠体内,在移植后的第1,2,3,4周处死大鼠,取心、肝、脾、肺、肾、脑组织进行冰冻切片,荧光显微镜下观察荧光,图文分析软件计算荧光强度。  结果与结论:两组大鼠肺组织均可见强烈、分布广泛且持续的绿色荧光,尤以气管、血管周围明显;两组荧光强度均随时间延长呈轻度减低趋势,但两组每周的荧光强度差异无显著性意义(P>0.05)。两组大鼠其余各脏器早期也均可见荧光,其中肝、脾、心脏组织荧光强、分布广,肾、脑组织荧光相对较弱、分布较稀疏;随时间推移,各组织荧光均逐渐减弱,面积逐渐减少,到后期仅肝、脾组织可见到较弱、散在荧光分布,脑组织荧光几乎不可见。在同一时间点,两组除第1周脑组织荧光强度差异有显著性意义(P0.05)。提示骨髓间充质干细胞经静脉和气管两种途径植入染矽尘大鼠体内归巢至受损肺部的效率相当。%BACKGROUND:Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s transplanted into rats exposed to silica dust can home to the injured lung, but the homing effects via different ways are stil unclear. OBJECTIVE:To comparatively observe the distribution of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s transplanted via different ways into rats exposed to silica dust. METHODS:Bone marrow

  3. Angiogenic factor-enriched platelet-rich plasma enhances in vivo bone formation around alloplastic graft material

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun-Seok; Kim, Jae-Jin; Park, Eun-Jin

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Although most researchers agree that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a good source of autogenous growth factors, its effect on bone regeneration is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether increasing angiogenic factors in the human PRP to enhance new bone formation through rapid angiogenesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS In vitro, the human platelets were activated with application of shear stress, 20 µg/ml collagen, 2 mM CaCl2 and 10U thrombin/1 × 109 platelets. L...

  4. Dust Storms: Why Are Dust Storms a Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Environmental Health, Chemistry, and Toxicology More Resources Dust Storms en español Why are dust storms a concern? A dust storm is a moving ... on Human Health (US Geological Survey) Chemicals in Dust Storms Are these chemicals in MY community? Particulate Matter ...

  5. NASA-Navy Telemedicine: Autogenic Feedback Training Exercises for Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acromite, Michael T.; Cowings, Patricia; Toscano, William; Davis, Carl; Porter, Henry O.

    2010-01-01

    Airsickness is the most significant medical condition affecting naval aviation training. A 2001 study showed that airsickness was reported in 81% of naval aviation students and was associated with 82% of below average flight scores. The cost to a single training air-wing was over $150,000 annually for fuel and maintenance costs alone. Resistent cases are sent to the Naval Aerospace Medical Institute (NAMI) for evaluation and desensitization in the self-paced airsickness desensitization (SPAD) program. This approach is 75% successful, but can take up to 8 weeks at a significant travel cost. NASA Ames Research Center's Autogenic Feedback Training Exercises (AFTE) uses physiological and biofeedback training for motion sickness prevention. It has a remote capability that has been used from Moffett Field, CA to Atlanta, GA . AFTE is administered in twelve (30-minute) training sessions. The success rate for the NASA AFTE program has been over 85%. Methods: Implementation Phases: Phase I: Transfer NASA AFTE to NAMI; NASA will remotely train aviation students at NAMI. Phase II: NAMI-centered AFTE application with NASA oversight. Phase III: NAMI-centered AFTE to remotely train at various Navy sites. Phase IV: NAMI to offer Tri-service application and examine research opportunities. Results: 1. Use available telemedicine connectivity between NAMI and NASA. 2. Save over $2,000 per student trained. 3. Reduce aviation training attrition. 4. Provide standardization of multi-location motion sickness training. 5. Future tri-service initiatives. 6. Data to NASA and Navy for QA and research opportunities.

  6. Autogenic-feedback training exercise is superior to promethazine for control of motion sickness symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.

    2000-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms affect approximately 50% of the crew during space travel and are commonly treated with intramuscular injections of promethazine. The purpose of this paper is to compare the effectiveness of three treatments for motion sickness: intramuscular injections (i.m.) of promethazine, a physiological training method (autogenic-feedback training exercise [AFTE]), and a no-treatment control. An earlier study tested the effects of promethazine on cognitive and psychomotor performance and motion sickness tolerance in a rotating chair. For the present paper, motion sickness tolerance, symptom reports, and physiological responses of these subjects were compared to matched subjects selected from an existing database who received either AFTE or no treatment. Three groups of 11 men, between the ages of 33 and 40 years, were matched on the number of rotations tolerated during their initial rotating-chair motion sickness test. The motion sickness test procedures and the 7-day interval between tests were the same for all subjects. The drug group was tested under four treatment conditions: baseline (no injections), a 25 mg dose of promethazine, a 50 mg dose of promethazine, and a placebo of sterile saline. AFTE subjects were given four 30-minute AFTE sessions before their second, third, and fourth motion sickness tests (6 hours total). The no-treatment control subjects were only given the four rotating-chair tests. Motion sickness tolerance was significantly increased after 4 hours of AFTE when compared to either 25 mg (p effect of promethazine was an inhibition of skin conductance level. The AFTE group showed significantly less heart rate and skin conductance variability during motion sickness tests administered after training.

  7. Clinical trial comparing autogenous fascia lata sling and Gore-Tex suspension in bilateral congenital ptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsamkary MA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mahmoud Ahmed Elsamkary,1 Maged Maher Salib Roshdy1,2 1Ophthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; 2Pediatric Ophthalmology Department, Al Watany Eye Hospital, Cairo, Egypt Purpose: To study the effect of autogenous fascia lata sling (AFLS versus Gore-Tex suspension (GTS regarding the functional and aesthetic outcomes in patients with bilateral congenital ptosis. Patients and methods: A prospective comparative randomized single-center study enrolled 110 patients with bilateral congenital ptosis. One group (n=55 underwent AFLS and the second group (n=55 underwent GTS. Exclusion criteria were good levator function, absent Bell’s phenomenon, and abnormal ocular motility. Follow-up period was 2 years. Functional outcome was measured from digital photos by analysis of upper eyelid margin position relative to the superior limbus and classified as very good (<3 mm, good (3–5 mm, poor (>5 mm, and recurrent. Aesthetic outcome was assessed in terms of lid contour, symmetry of eyelid height, and lid crease presence. Complications were also reported. Results: Failure rate (recurrence and complications was less in AFLS (P=0.035. Symmetrical lid height and good contour were more frequently attained by AFLS (P=0.007 and 0.047, respectively. However, the frequency of very good, good, poor, recurrence, lagopthalmos, ectropion, infection, and formed lid crease individually showed no statistically significant difference (P=0.252, 0.482, 1, 0.489, 0.438, 1, 0.618, and 0.506, respectively. Conclusion: AFLS is a better choice in surgery for patients with bilateral congenital ptosis because it has fewer complications and a lesser recurrence rate than GTS. Keywords: ptosis surgery, surgical outcomes, ptosis recurrence, lagophthalmos

  8. Radioactive dust sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report is the second of a five part series on the technical evaluation of a number of dust monitoring instruments and the characterization of Long-Lived Radioactive Dust (LLRD). The data reported here pertain to an experimental study conducted under laboratory controlled conditions in a Long-Lived Radioactive Dust Test Facility (LLRDTF) designed for this purpose. This study was carried out with a twofold purpose in mind, namely, for the characterization of dust and LLRD, and for the evaluation of a variety of monitoring instruments, including cascade impactors, optical particle counters, nylon cyclones, open face filter samplers, and α-particle personal dosimeters, the latter normally used for α-particle radiation exposure purposes. Several non-radioactive and radioactive dusts were characterized. The non-radioactive dusts were SiC, Al2O3, talcum powder, corn starch and flour, while uranium tailings were used as a radioactive dust. Clear differences in instrument performance were observed for the various measurements made

  9. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer. Surgery is often the main treatment for bone cancer. Other treatments may include amputation, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Because bone cancer can come back after treatment, regular follow-up visits are important. NIH: National ...

  10. Modified Weaver-Dunn Procedure Versus The Use of Semitendinosus Autogenous Tendon Graft for Acromioclavicular Joint Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Galal; Safwat, Hesham; Seddik, Mahmoud; Al-shal, Ehab A.; Al-Sebai, Ibrahim; Negm, Mohame

    2016-01-01

    Background: The optimal operative method for acromioclavicular joint reconstruction remains controversial. The modified Weaver-Dunn method is one of the most popular methods. Anatomic reconstruction of coracoclavicular ligaments with autogenous tendon grafts, widely used in treating chronic acromioclavicular joint instability, reportedly diminishes pain, eliminates sequelae, and improves function as well as strength. Objective: To compare clinical and radiologic outcomes between a modified Weaver-Dunn procedure and an anatomic coracoclavicular ligaments reconstruction technique using autogenous semitendinosus tendon graft. Methods: Twenty patients (mean age, 39 years) with painful, chronic Rockwood type III acromioclavicular joint dislocations were subjected to surgical reconstruction. In ten patients, a modified Weaver-Dunn procedure was performed, in the other ten patients; autogenous semitendinosus tendon graft was used. The mean time between injury and the index procedure was 18 month (range from 9 – 28). Clinical evaluation was performed using the Oxford Shoulder Score and Nottingham Clavicle Score after a mean follow-up time of 27.8 months. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs were compared. Results: In the Weaver-Dunn group the Oxford Shoulder Score improved from 25±4 to 40±2 points. While the Nottingham Clavicle Score increased from 48±7 to 84±11. In semitendinosus tendon graft group, the Oxford Shoulder Score improved from 25±3 points to 50±2 points and the Nottingham Clavicle Score from 48±8 points to 95±8, respectively. Conclusion: Acromioclavicular joint reconstruction using the semitendinosus tendon graft achieved better Oxford Shoulder Score and Nottingham Clavicle Score compared to the modified Weaver-Dunn procedure. PMID:27347245

  11. Components of inhibition in autogenous- and reactive-type obsessive-compulsive disorder: Dissociation of interference control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jie; Liu, Wanting; Lei, Hui; Cai, Lin; Zhong, Mingtian; Dong, Jiaojiao; Zhou, Cheng; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2016-05-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by unwanted, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive, ritualistic behaviors (compulsions). Findings related to the two components of inhibition, namely interference control and behavioral inhibition, among OCD patients have been inconsistent. It might be that this inconsistency is due to the heterogeneity among OCD cases representing multiple subtypes of OCD, such as autogenous obsessions and reactive obsessions types (AOs vs. ROs). AOs and ROs are distinguished by the category of their most disturbing obsessions. The purpose of this study was to systematically examine whether inhibition functions differ between AO and RO patients. We assessed interference control and behavioral inhibition with the emotional Stroop task (EST) and stop-signal task (SST), respectively, in 42 AOs, 55 ROs and 62 healthy controls (HCs) and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a random subset of these subjects (25 AOs, 25 ROs, and 31HCs). Results showed that in the EST, AOs exhibited longer reaction times (RTs) for color-naming positive-, negative-, and neutral-valence word stimulus than both ROs and HCs, and demonstrated larger P2 and less negative N450 amplitudes than HCs and larger P3 amplitudes than ROs and HCs. In the SST, both AOs and ROs showed lengthened stop signal reaction time (SSRT) and reduced Stop-P3 amplitudes in successful inhibition (SI) trials compared to the HC group. These present findings suggest that behavioral inhibition impairment may reflect a common pathology in both the autogenous- and reactive-type OCD patients, whereas interference inhibition impairment appears to be specific to patients with autogenous obsessions. These findings strengthened the insight into the clinical heterogeneity and pathophysiology of OCD. PMID:26995786

  12. Self-organization in irregular landscapes: Detecting autogenic interactions from field data using descriptive statistics and dynamical systems theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, L.; Watts, D.; Khurana, A.; Anderson, J. L.; Xu, C.; Merritts, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The classic signal of self-organization in nature is pattern formation. However, the interactions and feedbacks that organize depositional landscapes do not always result in regular or fractal patterns. How might we detect their existence and effects in these "irregular" landscapes? Emergent landscapes such as newly forming deltaic marshes or some restoration sites provide opportunities to study the autogenic processes that organize landscapes and their physical signatures. Here we describe a quest to understand autogenic vs. allogenic controls on landscape evolution in Big Spring Run, PA, a landscape undergoing restoration from bare-soil conditions to a target wet meadow landscape. The contemporary motivation for asking questions about autogenic vs. allogenic controls is to evaluate how important initial conditions or environmental controls may be for the attainment of management objectives. However, these questions can also inform interpretation of the sedimentary record by enabling researchers to separate signals that may have arisen through self-organization processes from those resulting from environmental perturbations. Over three years at Big Spring Run, we mapped the dynamic evolution of floodplain vegetation communities and distributions of abiotic variables and topography. We used principal component analysis and transition probability analysis to detect associative interactions between vegetation and geomorphic variables and convergent cross-mapping on lidar data to detect causal interactions between biomass and topography. Exploratory statistics revealed that plant communities with distinct morphologies exerted control on landscape evolution through stress divergence (i.e., channel initiation) and promoting the accumulation of fine sediment in channels. Together, these communities participated in a negative feedback that maintains low energy and multiple channels. Because of the spatially explicit nature of this feedback, causal interactions could not

  13. Autogenic incision and terrace formation resulting from abrupt late-glacial base-level fall, lower Chippewa River, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Douglas J.; Larson, Phillip H.; Jol, Harry M.; Running, Garry L.; Loope, Henry M.; Goble, Ronald J.

    2016-08-01

    A paucity of research exists regarding the millennial-scale response of inland alluvial streams to abrupt base-level fall. Studies of modern systems indicate that, over short time scales, the response is a diffusion-like process of upstream-propagating incision. In contrast, evidence from the lower Chippewa River (LCR), located in the upper Midwest of the USA, suggests that autogenic controls operating over time scales of several millennia can overwhelm diffusion, resulting in incision that is prolonged and episodic. During the Last Glacial Maximum, the LCR drained the Chippewa Lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet to the glacial upper Mississippi River (UMR). As a meltwater stream, it aggraded and filled its valley with glacial outwash, as did its largest tributaries, which were also meltwater streams. Its nonglacial tributaries aggraded, too, filling their valleys with locally derived sediment. During deglaciation, the UMR incised at least twice, abruptly lowering the LCR's base level - ~ 15 m at 16 ka or earlier and an additional 40 m at ca. 13.4 ka. Each of these base-level falls initiated incision of the LCR, led by upstream migrating knickpoints. The propagation of incision has, however, been a lengthy process. The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of terrace alluvium indicate that, by 13.5 ka, incision had advanced up the LCR only 15 km, and by 9 ka, only 55 km. The process has also been episodic, resulting in the formation of fill-cut terraces (inferred from GPR surveys and exposures of terrace alluvium) that are younger and more numerous in the upstream direction. Autogenic increases in sediment load and autogenic bed armoring, the result of periodic tributary-stream rejuvenation and preferential winnowing of fines by the incising river, may have periodically caused knickpoint migration and incision to slow and possibly stop, allowing lateral erosion and floodplain formation to dominate. A decline in sediment flux from stabilizing incised tributary

  14. Autogeneous Laser and Hybrid Laser Arc Welding of T-joint Low Alloy Steel with Fiber Laser Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unt, A.; Lappalainen, E.; Salminen, A.

    This paper is focused on the welding of low alloy steels S355 and AH36 in thicknesses 6, 8 and 10 mm in T-joint configuration using either autogeneous laser welding or laser-arc hybrid welding (HLAW) with high power fiber lasers. The aim was to obtain understanding of the factors influencing the size of the fillet and weld geometry through methodologically studying effects of laser power, welding speed, beam alignment relative to surface, air gap, focal point position and order of processes (in case of HLAW) and to get a B quality class welds in all thicknesses after parameter optimization.

  15. Mechanisms of metal dusting corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo

    In this thesis the early stages of metal dusting corrosion is addressed; the development of carbon expanded austenite, C, and the decomposition hereof into carbides. Later stages of metal dusting corrosion are explored by a systematic study of stainless steel foils exposed to metal dusting...... influence of oxygen and carbon on the metal dusting corrosion is explored. The results indicate that exposure to metal dusting conditions have a detrimental effect on the resistance against oxidation and, conversely, that exposure to oxidation has a detrimental effect on the resistance towards metal dusting....... Consequently, a combination of carburizing and oxidizing conditions has a strong mutual catalyzing effect on the metal dusting corrosion....

  16. Composite circumstellar dust grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ranjan; Vaidya, Dipak B.; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5-25 μm. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18 μm. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-type and asymptotic giant branch stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes, shape, composition and dust temperature.

  17. Nano Dust Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a new highly sensitive instrument to confirm the existence of the so-called nano-dust particles, characterize their impact parameters, and...

  18. Dust mite (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a magnified photograph of a dust mite. Mites are carriers (vectors) of many important diseases including typhus (scrub and murine) and rickettsialpox. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease ...

  19. Composite Circumstellar Dust Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ranjan; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5--25$\\rm \\mu m$. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18$\\rm \\mu m$. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-Type \\& AGB stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes; shape; composition and dust temperature.

  20. 腹式呼吸和自生训练对心率及指温影响的初步探讨%The Effects of Abdominal Breathing and Autogenic Training on Heart Rate and Finger Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀阁; 闫克乐

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of autogenic training and abdominal breathing on heart rate and finger temperature. Methods: Forty-five healthy female university students were randomly assigned to three groups:control、autogenic training and deep abdominal breathing groups, and their physiological effects were compared. Results:The result of this experiment showed that both autogenic training and abdominal breathing increased finger temperature significantly, however, the increase magnitude didn't show significant differences in two groups.During autogenic training, the heart rate of autogenic training group declined significantly,the heart rate of deep abdominal breathing group decreased significantly after deep abdominal breathing. The decrease magnitude between the three groups showed no significant differences. Conclusion: Both the present techniques can decrease heart rate and increase finger temperature.

  1. Osteogenesis effect of guided bone regeneration combined with alveolar cleft grafting: assessment by cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, W-L; Zhang, D-Z; Chen, X-J; Yuan, C; Xue, L-F

    2016-06-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) allows for a significantly lower radiation dose than conventional computed tomography (CT) scans and provides accurate images of the alveolar cleft area. The osteogenic effect of guided bone regeneration (GBR) vs. conventional alveolar bone grafting alone for alveolar cleft defects was evaluated in this study. Sixty alveolar cleft patients were divided randomly into two groups. One group underwent GBR using acellular dermal matrix film combined with alveolar bone grafting using iliac crest bone grafts (GBR group), while the other group underwent alveolar bone grafting only (non-GBR group). CBCT images were obtained at 1 week and at 3 months following the procedure. Using Simplant 11.04 software, the bone resorption rate was calculated and compared between the two groups. The bone resorption rate from 1 week to 3 months following bone grafting without the GBR technique was 36.50±5.04%, whereas the bone resorption rate using the GBR technique was 31.69±5.50% (P=0.017). The application of autogenous iliac bone combined with the GBR technique for alveolar bone grafting of alveolar cleft patients can reduce bone resorption and result in better osteogenesis.

  2. Osteogenesis effect of guided bone regeneration combined with alveolar cleft grafting: assessment by cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, W-L; Zhang, D-Z; Chen, X-J; Yuan, C; Xue, L-F

    2016-06-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) allows for a significantly lower radiation dose than conventional computed tomography (CT) scans and provides accurate images of the alveolar cleft area. The osteogenic effect of guided bone regeneration (GBR) vs. conventional alveolar bone grafting alone for alveolar cleft defects was evaluated in this study. Sixty alveolar cleft patients were divided randomly into two groups. One group underwent GBR using acellular dermal matrix film combined with alveolar bone grafting using iliac crest bone grafts (GBR group), while the other group underwent alveolar bone grafting only (non-GBR group). CBCT images were obtained at 1 week and at 3 months following the procedure. Using Simplant 11.04 software, the bone resorption rate was calculated and compared between the two groups. The bone resorption rate from 1 week to 3 months following bone grafting without the GBR technique was 36.50±5.04%, whereas the bone resorption rate using the GBR technique was 31.69±5.50% (P=0.017). The application of autogenous iliac bone combined with the GBR technique for alveolar bone grafting of alveolar cleft patients can reduce bone resorption and result in better osteogenesis. PMID:26876144

  3. Effect of morselized bones on binding of the canine hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Ke-guan; MA De-sheng; HOU Jian-wen; WANG Huan; YAN Jing-long; YU Zhan-ge; LIANG Zhi-zhong

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-cement femoral stems are recognized in clinical use, but there are still some problems. The aim of this research was to make non-cement femoral stems to be press-fit with the medullary cavity. Methods Twenty-four healthy adult mongrel dogs were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. In the right hip joint, an artificial femoral bone replacement surgery was conducted. For the experimental group, the replacement surgery of hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated femoral stems was done, while autogeneous morselized bone was implanted into the medullary cavity. For the control group, morselized bone was not implanted. At postoperative 1, 3, 6 months, a test for interfacial shear characteristics was conducted in the MTS810 Tester. The comparison between the two groups' bone-prostheses in shear strength for their interface from shearing destruction was made. A histological observation to check prosthesis-bone interface contact ratios and bone growth was carried out. Results For the experimental group, shear strength was 0.317 MPa in 1 month, 1.447 MPa in 3 months, and 1.621 MPa in 6 months. For the control group, shear strength was 0.195 MPa in 1 month, 1.023 MPa in 3 months, and 1.483 MPa in 6 months. The difference was statistically significant. Stereomicroscope-based observation showed that the number of trabecular bones in the experimental group was larger than that of the control group, and bone growth of the former group was better than that of the latter group. Inverted microscopic observation showed that the binding degree between the prosthesis and trabecular bone of the experimental group was higher than that of the control group. Comparatively, the experimental group's trabecular bone had more stromal cells. Conclusions The morselized bones can effectively improve the biological bonding strength and bone-contact ratios in the short term for the HA-coated femoral stem and accelerate the bonding process. The use of morselized autogenous bones

  4. Newton to Einstein — dust to dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the relation between the standard Newtonian equations for a pressureless fluid (dust) and the Einstein equations in a double expansion in small scales and small metric perturbations. We find that parts of the Einstein equations can be rewritten as a closed system of two coupled differential equations for the scalar and transverse vector metric perturbations in Poisson gauge. It is then shown that this system is equivalent to the Newtonian system of continuity and Euler equations. Brustein and Riotto (2011) conjectured the equivalence of these systems in the special case where vector perturbations were neglected. We show that this approach does not lead to the Euler equation but to a physically different one with large deviations already in the 1-loop power spectrum. We show that it is also possible to consistently set to zero the vector perturbations which strongly constrains the allowed initial conditions, in particular excluding Gaussian ones such that inclusion of vector perturbations is inevitable in the cosmological context. In addition we derive nonlinear equations for the gravitational slip and tensor perturbations, thereby extending Newtonian gravity of a dust fluid to account for nonlinear light propagation effects and dust-induced gravitational waves

  5. One-sided laser beam welding of autogenous T-joints for 6013-T4 aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We report autogenous T-joints of the 6013-T4 produced by one-sided laser welding. • It is investigated the influence of the process parameters on the weld features. • Beam focal positioning on the sample is a critical parameter in the weld quality. • Tensile strength has some dependence with sheet rolling direction jointed by laser. - Abstract: Autogenous T-joints for aluminium skin-stringer component performed by one-sided laser beam welding process was conducted using a high power Yb-fiber laser. The influence of the shielding gas, seam angle, beam focal position, and beam positioning relative to weld centerline were investigated regarding to weld microstructural features. The joint mechanical behavior was evaluated concerning to the sheet rolling directions. It was observed that a precise control of the process parameters enabled to obtain weld beads with acceptable dimensional and geometric characteristics and minimizing weld defects. Helium shielding gas produced higher aspect ratio welds than those with pure argon. Although, pores were observed in the fusion zone, they represented only about 5% of the weld bead area. The optimal beam positioning should remain up to 0.2 mm relative to junction line, for seam angles between 10° and 15°. The weld mechanical behavior depended on the sheet rolling direction. Joint efficiency up to 85% were obtained after hoop tensile tests when the weld bead longitudinal-section was perpendicular to skin rolling direction and parallel to the stringer rolling direction

  6. Workability’s recreation methodic with application of cupping massage and autogenic training of women student teams’ basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to experimentally subsituate effectiveness of non traditional complex methodic of recreation in female basketball players’ training process. Material: 22 basketball players of women student’s team participated in the research. Pedagogic testing was conducted by 12 tests in special physical and technical fitness. Psycho-physiological testing was conducted by program PSYCHO-DIAGNOSTIC. Groups were trained by identical programs during 9 weeks. Results: we authors observed increased physical and technical fitness of basketball players. Besides, quantity of mistakes in response to visual irritator reduced. It indirectly witnesses about strengthening of nervous processes. There was registered influence of mind on quality of organism’s recreation after physical loads. Conclusions: the authors recommend methodic of cupping massage, combined with autogenic training. Autogenic training implies repeated pronouncing by instructor (or independently by sportswomen of text, describing coming turn by turn natural images. Peculiarities of massage were influence of massage passes on muscles and ligaments. Cupping massage was used after warming up classic massage techniques.

  7. Case report: a case of intractable Meniere's disease treated with autogenic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakai Kimiko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress plays an important role in the onset and course of Meniere's disease. Surgical therapy and intratympanic gentamicin treatment are options for cases that are intractable to conventional medical therapy. Psychotherapy, however, including autogenic training (AT, which can be used for general relaxation, is not widely accepted. This paper describes the successful administration of AT in a subject suffering from intractable Meniere's disease. Case presentation A 51-year-old male patient has suffered from fluctuating right sensorineural hearing loss with vertigo since 1994. In May 2002, he was first admitted to our hospital due to a severe vertigo attack accompanied by right sensorineural hearing loss. Spontaneous nystagmus toward the right side was observed. Since April 2004, he has experienced vertigo spells with right-sided tinnitus a few times per month that are intractable to conventional medical therapy. After four months, tympanic tube insertion was preformed in the right tympanic membrane. Intratympanic injection of dexamethasone was ineffective. He refused Meniett therapy and intratympanic gentamicin injection. In addition to his vertigo spells, he suffered from insomnia, tinnitus, and anxiety. Tranquilizers such as benzodiazepines and antidepressants such as serotonin selective re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs failed to stop the vertigo and only slightly improved his insomnia. In December 2006, the patient began psychological counseling with a psychotherapist. After brief psychological counseling along with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT, he began AT. He diligently and regularly continued his AT training in his home according to a written timetable. His insomnia, tinnitus, and vertigo spells disappeared within a few weeks after only four psychotherapy sessions. In order to master the six standard formulas of AT, he underwent two more sessions. Thereafter, he underwent follow-up for 9 months with no

  8. The Global Geometry of River Drainage Basins and the Signature of Tectonic and Autogenic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachetta, E.; Willett, S.

    2015-12-01

    The plan-form structure of the world's river basins contains extensive information regarding tectonic, paleo-geographic and paleo-climate conditions, but interpretation of this structure is complicated by the need to disentangle these processes from the autogenic behavior of fluvial processes. One method of interpreting this structure is by utilizing the well-established scaling between drainage area and channel slope. Integration of this scaling relationship predicts a relationship between channel length and downstream integrated drainage area, referred to in recent studies as χ (Willett et al., 2014). In this paper, we apply this methodology at a continental scale by calculating χ for the world's river networks using hydrological information from the HydroSHED (Hydrological data and maps based on SHuttleElevation Derivatives at multiple Scales) suite of geo-referenced data sets (drainage directions and flow accumulations). River pixels were identified using a minimum drainage area of 5 km2. A constant value of m/n of 0.45 was assumed. We applied a new method to correct χ within closed basins where base level is different from sea level. Mapping of χ illustrates the geometric stability of a river network, thus highlighting where tectonic or climatic forcing has perturbed the shape and geometry. Each continent shows characteristic features. Continental rift margins on all continents show clear asymmetric escarpments indicating inland migration. Active orogenic belts break up older river basins, but are difficult to interpret because of spatially variable uplift rates. Regions of recent tilting are evident even in cratonic areas by lateral reorganizations of basins. Past and pending river captures are identified on all continents. Very few regions on Earth appear to be in near-equilibrium, though some are identified; for example the Urals appears to provide a stable continental divide for Eurasia. Our analysis of maps of χ at the global scale quantifies a

  9. BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres exhibit enhanced osteoinduction and osteogenicity in large bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Long; Zeng, Jianhua; Yao, Aihua; Tu, Qiquan; Li, Jingtang; Yan, Liang; Tang, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    The regeneration of large bone defects is an osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and osteogenic process that often requires a bone graft for support. Limitations associated with naturally autogenic or allogenic bone grafts have demonstrated the need for synthetic substitutes. The present study investigates the feasibility of using novel hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres as an osteoconductive matrix and a carrier for controlled local delivery of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), a potent osteogenic inducer of bone regeneration. Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres (100±25 μm) with a core (60±18 μm) and a mesoporous shell (180±42 m(2)/g surface area) were prepared by a glass conversion technique and loaded with recombinant human BMP2 (1 μg/mg). There was a gentle burst release of BMP2 from microspheres into the surrounding phosphate-buffered saline in vitro within the initial 48 hours, and continued at a low rate for over 40 days. In comparison with hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres without BMP2 or soluble BMP2 without a carrier, BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres had a significantly enhanced capacity to reconstitute radial bone defects in rabbit, as shown by increased serum alkaline phosphatase; quick and complete new bone formation within 12 weeks; and great biomechanical flexural strength. These results indicate that BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres could be a potential new option for bone graft substitutes in bone regeneration. PMID:25609957

  10. [Distraction osteogenesis of deficient alveolar bone prior to dental rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilo, D; Emodi, O; Aizenbud, D; Rachmiel, A

    2015-07-01

    Implant supported rehabilitation has become very common in treatment plans nowadays, yet many patients lack the vertical and horizontal bone dimensions required for endosseous implant insertion. Distraction osteogenesis is a technique in which bone is generated by progressive elongation of two bone fragments following an osteotomy or corticotomy. Distraction osteogenesis of the alveolar ridge as a treatment modality in implant dentistry is a very useful technique that allows for adequate bone formation suitable for implant insertion. Alveolar distraction can be unidirectional, bidirectional, multidirectional or horizontal. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis can be performed by using intraosseous distraction devices, intraosseous distraction implants or by extraosseous devices which are the most prevalent today. Distraction osteogenesis has many advantages such as gradual lengthening of the bone with no need for an autogenous bone graft and lack of the associated donor site morbidity as well as distraction of the surrounding soft tissue together with the transported bone. One of the major challenges when using alveolar distraction osteogenesis is controlling the vector of distraction, this problem should be further addressed in future researches. We describe different methods for alveolar distraction osteogenesis, including the surgical procedure, latency period, lengthening and consolidation period. We also discuss the advantages, disadvantages and complications of the method. In this manuscript a case of mandibular alveolar deficiency following mandibular fracture and loss of teeth and the alveolar bone is presented. This patient was treated by alveolar distraction osteogenesis with excellent results. This patient was later rehabilitated . using endosseous implants as demonstrated by radiographs. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis provides a method to regain both hard tissue and soft tissue without additional grafting and is an efficient modality in cases of medium

  11. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F. [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Peng, R. D. [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Y. H. [Institute of Complexity Science, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Chen, Z. Y. [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Ye, M. F.; Wang, L. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  12. Chondroblastoma in a metatarsal treated with autogenous fibular graft: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhatt, Sarvdeep S; Bhagwat, Kishan R; Kumar, Vishal; Dhillon, Mandeep Singh

    2012-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a relatively rare tumor that mimics giant cell tumor and displays a predilection for long bones. In the present report, we describe the case of a benign chondroblastoma localized to the second metatarsal in a 20-year-old male who presented with a 2-year history of painless left foot swelling. Treatment of the tumor involved excision of the second metatarsal with use of an autologous structural fibular bone graft to stabilize the metatarsus and second toe. After 27 months of follow-up, the patient was ambulating well in regular shoes, with no clinical or radiographic evidence of tumor recurrence.

  13. Chondroblastoma in a metatarsal treated with autogenous fibular graft: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhatt, Sarvdeep S; Bhagwat, Kishan R; Kumar, Vishal; Dhillon, Mandeep Singh

    2012-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a relatively rare tumor that mimics giant cell tumor and displays a predilection for long bones. In the present report, we describe the case of a benign chondroblastoma localized to the second metatarsal in a 20-year-old male who presented with a 2-year history of painless left foot swelling. Treatment of the tumor involved excision of the second metatarsal with use of an autologous structural fibular bone graft to stabilize the metatarsus and second toe. After 27 months of follow-up, the patient was ambulating well in regular shoes, with no clinical or radiographic evidence of tumor recurrence. PMID:22297106

  14. Bioactive Ca-P scaffolds used for bone reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Jian-ming(阮建明); ZOU Jian-peng(邹俭鹏); Goldie Elisabeth; LIU Bing(刘兵)

    2003-01-01

    Bioactive ceramic scaffolds HA*TCP, aimed to be applied in clinic, were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo models. HA*TCP was supposed as a completely biodegradable material and designed as a scaffold to be used for bone reconstruction or regeneration. Materials processing was proposed and physical properties as well as microstructure feature were characterized. Biological postulation of the relationship between seeding density and proliferation, and viability of human osteoblasts cultured on the porous HA*TCP were quantitatively measured. Bone reconstruction was investigated both in vitro and in vivo by using these biodegradable scaffolds with pore sizes ranged in 200-400 μm in diameter. The degradable scaffold supported cellular proliferation of seeded osteoblasts on the scaffold and shown normal differentiated function in vitro. Seeding density is an important factor for cell attachment and proliferation expression and has been considerably discussed. Suitable pore size of the scaffolds is required if promotion of bone reconstruction is desired. Clinical trials show that HA*TCP scaffolds are successful applied for bone reconstruction and regeneration and can be completely degraded in human body in 12 months. This approach suggests the feasibility of using porous HA*TCP scaffold materials for the transplantation of autogenous osteoblasts to regenerate bone tissue.

  15. Secondary aneurysmal bone cystic change of the chondroblastoma, mistaken for a primary aneurysmal bone cyst in the patella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin Wha; Lee, Hwa Sung

    2014-03-01

    A 29-year-old woman complained of a 3-month history of left knee pain without trauma history. X-ray showed a well-defined osteolytic lesion with a sclerotic margin in the patella and magnetic resonance imaging showed T1-low and T2-high signal intensity with different fluid level. Our impression was an aneurysmal bone cyst. At surgery, the lesion was a blood-filled cystic cavity, surrounded by a gray or brownish tissue. Hemorrhagic soft tissues with recognizable bone fragments were observed. Curettage and autogenous bone graft was done. Microscopically, sheets of tumor cells were intermingled with some areas of eosinophilic chondroid matrix. The tumor cells showed oval-shaped nuclei with moderate eosinophilic cytoplasm. Several multinucleated giant cells and blood filled cystic cavities were observed. The final diagnosis was a chondroblastoma with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. At the post-operative 1.5-year follow-up, grafted bones were well incorporated radiographically and there were no recurrent evidence or any other abnormal symptoms. PMID:24639947

  16. Secondary aneurysmal bone cystic change of the chondroblastoma, mistaken for a primary aneurysmal bone cyst in the patella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin Wha; Lee, Hwa Sung

    2014-03-01

    A 29-year-old woman complained of a 3-month history of left knee pain without trauma history. X-ray showed a well-defined osteolytic lesion with a sclerotic margin in the patella and magnetic resonance imaging showed T1-low and T2-high signal intensity with different fluid level. Our impression was an aneurysmal bone cyst. At surgery, the lesion was a blood-filled cystic cavity, surrounded by a gray or brownish tissue. Hemorrhagic soft tissues with recognizable bone fragments were observed. Curettage and autogenous bone graft was done. Microscopically, sheets of tumor cells were intermingled with some areas of eosinophilic chondroid matrix. The tumor cells showed oval-shaped nuclei with moderate eosinophilic cytoplasm. Several multinucleated giant cells and blood filled cystic cavities were observed. The final diagnosis was a chondroblastoma with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. At the post-operative 1.5-year follow-up, grafted bones were well incorporated radiographically and there were no recurrent evidence or any other abnormal symptoms.

  17. [Bone diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:26946704

  18. Dust exposure in Finnish foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siltanen, E; Koponen, M; Kokko, A; Engström, B; Reponen, J

    1976-01-01

    Dust measurements were made in 51 iron, 9 steel, and 8 nonferrous foundries, at which 4,316 foundrymen were working. The sampling lasted at least two entire shifts or work days continuously during various operations in each foundry. The dust samples were collected at fixed sites or in the breathing zones of the workers. The mass concentration was determined by weighing and the respirable dust fraction was separated by liquid sedimentation. The free silica content was determined by X-ray diffraction. In the study a total of 3,188 samples were collected in the foundries and 6,505 determinations were made in the laboratory. The results indicated a definite difference in the dust exposure during various operations. The highest dust exposures were found during furnace, cupola, and pouring ladle repair. During cleaning work, sand mixing, and shake-out operations excessive silica dust concentrations were also measured. The lowest dust concentrations were measured during melting and pouring operations. Moderate dust concentrations were measured during coremaking and molding operations. The results obtained during the same operations of iron and steel foundries were similar. The distribution of the workers into various exposure categories, the content of respirable dust and quartz, the correlation between respirable dust and total dust, and the correlation between respirable silica and total dust concentrations are discussed. Observations concerning dust suppression and control methods are briefly considered.

  19. Dust exposure in Finnish foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siltanen, E; Koponen, M; Kokko, A; Engström, B; Reponen, J

    1976-01-01

    Dust measurements were made in 51 iron, 9 steel, and 8 nonferrous foundries, at which 4,316 foundrymen were working. The sampling lasted at least two entire shifts or work days continuously during various operations in each foundry. The dust samples were collected at fixed sites or in the breathing zones of the workers. The mass concentration was determined by weighing and the respirable dust fraction was separated by liquid sedimentation. The free silica content was determined by X-ray diffraction. In the study a total of 3,188 samples were collected in the foundries and 6,505 determinations were made in the laboratory. The results indicated a definite difference in the dust exposure during various operations. The highest dust exposures were found during furnace, cupola, and pouring ladle repair. During cleaning work, sand mixing, and shake-out operations excessive silica dust concentrations were also measured. The lowest dust concentrations were measured during melting and pouring operations. Moderate dust concentrations were measured during coremaking and molding operations. The results obtained during the same operations of iron and steel foundries were similar. The distribution of the workers into various exposure categories, the content of respirable dust and quartz, the correlation between respirable dust and total dust, and the correlation between respirable silica and total dust concentrations are discussed. Observations concerning dust suppression and control methods are briefly considered. PMID:184524

  20. Analytical Study of Nonlinear Dust Acoustic Waves in Two-Dimensional Dust Plasma with Dust Charge Variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chang; ZHANG Xiu-Lian

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear dust acoustic waves in two-dimensional dust plasma with dust charge variation is analytically investigated by using the formally variable separation approach. New analytical solutions for the governing equation of this system have been obtained for dust acoustic waves in a dust plasma for the first time. We derive exact analytical expressions for the general case of the nonlinear dust acoustic waves in two-dimensional dust plasma with dust charge variation.

  1. Dust-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of our theoretical research under this grant over the past 3 years was to develop new understanding in a range of topics in the physics of dust-plasma interactions, with application to space and the laboratory. We conducted studies related to the physical properties of dust, waves and instabilities in both weakly coupled and strongly coupled dusty plasmas, and innovative possible applications. A major consideration in our choice of topics was to compare theory with experiments or observations, and to motivate new experiments, which we believe is important for developing this relatively new field. Our research is summarized, with reference to our list of journal publications.

  2. A novel technique for guided bone regeneration using platelet-rich plasma and osteogenic progenitor cells: Literature-based rationale and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, TaeHyun; Grieco, Peter C; Levin, Liran; Intini, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Achieving predictable guided bone regeneration in critical size defects for future endosseous dental implant therapy poses a great challenge to clinicians. A novel technique utilizing autogenous osteogenic progenitor cells, calcium sulfate activated platelet-rich plasma in addition to particulate allograft was successfully used to augment a severely deficient maxillary anterior edentulous ridge. After 6 months of healing, satisfactory radiographic and clinical bone gain was noted with significant increase in alveolar ridge width. Endosseous implants were placed and restored successfully. The techniques with underlying clinical and biologic rationales are presented and discussed in this report.

  3. Electrostatic Characterization of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    To ensure the safety and success of future lunar exploration missions, it is important to measure the toxicity of the lunar dust and its electrostatic properties. The electrostatic properties of lunar dust govern its behavior, from how the dust is deposited in an astronaut s lungs to how it contaminates equipment surfaces. NASA has identified the threat caused by lunar dust as one of the top two problems that need to be solved before returning to the Moon. To understand the electrostatic nature of lunar dust, NASA must answer the following questions: (1) how much charge can accumulate on the dust? (2) how long will the charge remain? and (3) can the dust be removed? These questions can be answered by measuring the electrostatic properties of the dust: its volume resistivity, charge decay, charge-to-mass ratio or chargeability, and dielectric properties.

  4. Talking Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

  5. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker for bone resorption. It is ... resorption include: N-telopeptide (N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx)) – a peptide fragment from the amino terminal ...

  6. Complications of massive allograft reconstruction for bone tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolhasan Borjian

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since the evolution of multi-drug chemotherapy and radiotherapy and new sophisticated surgical techniques, limb salvage and reconstruction, rather than amputation, has become the preferred treatment for patients with bone tumors. One option is allograft replacement. Although allograft has several advantages, it is not without complications. This study was performed to observe these complications in a group of patients treated with allograft replacement for bone tumor resection. The purpose was to gain an overview of the factors predisposing to these complications to minimize their occurrence. METHODS: This retrospective study was performed on patients with benign aggressive and malignant bone tumors undergoing limb reconstruction with allograft between 1997 and 2005 in Al-Zahra and Kashani Hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. Data was collected from patient files, clinical notes, radiographs and a recent physical examination. Complications including local recurrence, fracture of allograft, fixation failure, nonunion, infection, skin necrosis and neurological damage were recorded. RESULTS: Sixty patients including 39 males and 21 females were studied. The mean age of patients was 23 ± 11.7 years. The mean follow-up interval was 28.1 ± 12.4 months (mean ± SD. Complications were allograft fracture in 20%, local recurrence in 16%, fixation failure in 11%, nonunion in 6%, infection in 6%, skin necrosis in 6%, and peroneal nerve palsy in 1% of cases. Most local recurrences (60% were those with a mal-performed biopsy. Most allograft fractures occurred when a short plate was used. CONCLUSIONS: Allograft replacement for bone tumors remains a valid option. To avoid complications, biopsy should be done by a trained surgeon in bone oncology. A long plate is recommended for fixation. Sterility and graft processing must be optimal. Autogenous bone graft must be added at host-allograft junction. KEY WORDS: Bone tumors, bone allograft, limb

  7. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone....... The weak response at the distal forearm during antiresorptive treatment has restricted the use of bone densitometry at this region. We describe a new model for bone densitometry at the distal forearm, by which the response obtained is comparable to the response in other regions where bone densitometry...... is much more expensive and technically complicated. By computerized iteration of single X-ray absorptiometry forearm scans we defined a region with 65% trabecular bone. The region was analyzed in randomized, double-masked, placebo- controlled trials: a 2-year trial with alendronate (n = 69), a 1-year...

  8. Identification of the exploatation dust in road dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this publication is to determine models of explore dust from vehicle brake systems and the presentationof measurement results of the exploitation dust, which is separate from road dust. The following methods and measuring devices were used: T-01M device, screen analysis, analysis of chemical composition with the use of a scanning microscope with Energy Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy (EDS analyser. The measurements for identifying this type of dust were conducted on marked sections of roads: motorway, city road and mountain road. The explored dust was distinguished in the following car systems: brakes, clutch plates, tyres and catalytic converters.

  9. Left in the Dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft ended its seven-year voyage January 15 after a safe landing on earth, bringing back a capsule of comet particles and samples of interstellar dust that exceeded the loftiest of expectations of mission scientists. The ensuing studies of the cosmic treasure are expected to shed light on the origins of the solar system and earth itself.

  10. Sources of zodiacal dust

    CERN Document Server

    Ipatov, S I

    2007-01-01

    Fractions of asteroidal particles, particles originating beyond Jupiter's orbit (including trans-Neptunian particles), and cometary particles originating inside Jupiter's orbit among zodiacal dust are estimated to be about 1/3 each, with a possible deviation from 1/3 up to 0.1-0.2. These estimates were based on the comparison of our models of the zodiacal cloud that use results of numerical integration of the orbital evolution of dust particles produced by asteroids, comets, and trans-Neptunian objects with different observations (e.g., WHAM [Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper spectrometer] observations of spectra of zodiacal light, the number density at different distances from the Sun). The fraction of particles produced by Encke-type comets (with e~0.8-0.9) does not exceed 0.15 of the overall population. The estimated fraction of particles produced by long-period and Halley-type comets among zodiacal dust also does not exceed 0.1-0.15. Though trans-Neptunian particles fit different observations of dust inside Jupite...

  11. Dust devil dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, W.; Miura, H.; Onishchenko, O.; Couedel, L.; Arnas, C.; Escarguel, A.; Benkadda, S.; Fedun, V.

    2016-06-01

    A self-consistent hydrodynamic model for the solar heating-driven onset of a dust devil vortex is derived and analyzed. The toroidal flows and vertical velocity fields are driven by an instability that arises from the inversion of the mass density stratification produced by solar heating of the sandy surface soil. The nonlinear dynamics in the primary temperature gradient-driven vertical airflows drives a secondary toroidal vortex flow through a parametric interaction in the nonlinear structures. While an external tangential shear flow may initiate energy transfer to the toroidal vortex flow, the nonlinear interactions dominate the transfer of vertical-radial flows into a fast toroidal flow. This secondary flow has a vertical vorticity, while the primary thermal gradient-driven flow produces the toroidal vorticity. Simulations for the complex nonlinear structure are carried out with the passive convection of sand as test particles. Triboelectric charging modeling of the dust is used to estimate the charging of the sand particles. Parameters for a Dust Devil laboratory experiment are proposed considering various working gases and dust particle parameters. The nonlinear dynamics of the toroidal flow driven by the temperature gradient is of generic interest for both neutral gases and plasmas.

  12. Dust-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our theoretical research on dust-plasma interactions has concentrated on three main areas: (a)studies of grain charging and applications; (b) waves and instabilities in weakly correlated dusty plasma with applications to space and laboratory plasmas; (c) waves in strongly coupled dusty plasmas.

  13. Significance of changes in transforming growth factor-β mRNA levels in autogenous vein grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤文俊; 萧明第; 袁忠祥

    2004-01-01

    Background This study was designed to investigate changes in mRNA levels of transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β), collagen Ⅰ, and collagen Ⅲ in autogenous vein grafts. Methods Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups with 6 rabbits each. The external jugular veins of the New Zealand rabbits were harvested and grafted into the ipsilateral carotid artery. All rabbits were fed with a standard diet. After the operation, the rabbits were sacrificed at 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks. TGF-β, collagen Ⅰ, and collagen Ⅲ mRNA levels in the venous grafts were measured by semiquantitative methods at every time point. The contralateral external jugular veins were also harvested and analyzed as controls. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was used as an internal standard to normalize all samples for potential variations in mRNA content. In order to observe the expression of TGF-β protein, immunohistochemical SABC methods were used. Results One week postoperation, the mRNA level of TGF-β was upregulated to 1.73±0.19 in the vein graft and 1.21±0.16 in the control vein (P<0.01). High mRNA levels were maintained until week 4 postoperation. The mRNA levels of collagen Ⅰ and collagen Ⅲ were also significantly increased to 2.18±0.21 versus 1.12±0.24 and 1.08±0.13 versus 0.83±0.12, respectively (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining revealed a higher density of TGF-β expression in the vein grafts.Conclusions An uninterrupted increase in mRNA levels of TGF-β, collagen Ⅰ, and collagen Ⅲ is observed in autogenous vein grafts. This increase may be the major cause of intimal hyperplasia, sclerosis, and even graft failure.

  14. Intra-eyebrow frontalis suspension using inverted Y-shaped short autogenous fascia lata for blepharoptosis with poor levator function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yusuke; Nagasao, Tomohisa; Shido, Hirokazu; Fujii, Takako; Kato, Tatsuya; Aoki, Marie; Takada, Keiko; Kishi, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Frontalis suspension using autogenous fascia lata is a common procedure for blepharoptosis with poor levator function. However, donor-site morbidity associated with fascia lata harvest cannot be ignored. In conventional procedures, the required length of the fascia lata is usually >5-12 cm with a lateral thigh skin incision of approximately 5 cm or more. The present study introduces a new frontalis suspension procedure in which the required size (length and width) of the fascia lata and length of lateral thigh incision is much smaller. The harvested fascia lata is tailored to an inverted Y shape and the separated caudal legs are fixed to the tarsus while the cephalic end is grafted inside the eyebrow through a suborbital septum tunnel. In the present study, 11 patients who underwent the new procedure with a minimum of 6 months of follow-up were evaluated. The average length and width of the harvested fascia lata in unilateral ptosis cases were 2.85 and 0.89 cm, respectively. The average length of the lateral thigh incision was 1.25 cm. The margin reflex distance improved in all cases at 6 months postoperatively. The cosmetic result was graded as good to excellent in most of the patients. Trichiasis, widened donor scar, and eyebrow notch were noted as complications. The present method is a good alternative for the treatment of blepharoptosis with poor levator function. It potentially reduces donor-site morbidity as compared with conventional frontalis muscle suspension procedures using autogenous fascia lata.

  15. Hot Dust Acoustic Solitary Waves in Dust Plasma with Variable Dust Charge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段文山; 吕克朴; 赵金保

    2001-01-01

    Considering the variation of dust charges, we have analytically studied the governing equation for the system with the same model as that for cold dust acoustic waves in a demagnetized plasma but with the contribution of hot dust. The result indicates that the governing equation is also a Kortweg-de Vries equation, although its amplitude and width will be smaller compared with the cold dust case.

  16. Bone mesenchymal stem cell sheet transplantation combined with autologous iliac bone for repair of alveolar cleft%骨髓间充质干细胞膜片复合自体髂骨移植修复牙槽嵴裂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈悦; 马海英; 张彦升; 王娟; 时炳正

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Autogenous iliac bone graft for repair of alveolar cleft often cannot achieve a stable therapeutic effect, and the graft resorption rate varies with each individual that is influenced by many factors. OBJECTIVE:To observe the bone resorption after bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel sheet transplantation with autogenous iliac cancelous bone for alveolar cleft repair. METHODS:Bilateral alveolar cleft models were prepared in dogs. Using the self-control method, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel sheet combined with autogenous iliac bone (experimental group) and autogenous iliac bone alone (control group) were respectively implanted into the bilateral alveolar clefts. Mandible CT and microCT were used to compare the bone resorption rate, bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, and bone mineral density. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The bone resorption rate was significantly lower in the experimental group than the control group at 3 and 6 postoperative months (P 0.05). These findings indicate that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel sheet transplantation combined with autogenous iliac bone graft can reduce bone resorption rate and meanwhile, promote new bone formation.%背景:临床上使用自体髂骨移植方法修复牙槽嵴裂,常常不能获得稳定的治疗效果,移植骨吸收率因人而异,受到许多因素的影响。  目的:观察骨髓间充质干细胞膜片复合自体髂骨松质骨块移植修复牙槽嵴裂术后的骨吸收情况。  方法:制备实验犬双侧牙槽嵴裂模型,采用自体对照的办法,在实验犬上颌骨两侧的裂隙分别植入骨髓间充质干细胞膜片复合犬自体髂骨骨块(实验组)和单纯犬自体髂骨骨块(对照组)。通过颌骨CT及micro CT对植骨区的骨吸收率、骨体积分数、骨小梁厚度、骨小梁分离度、骨密度进行比较。  结果与结论:术后3,6个月时实验组的骨吸收率明显低于对照组,差

  17. Healing patterns of critical size bony defects in rats after grafting with bone substitutes soaked in recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: histological and histometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokbel, N; Naaman, N; Nohra, J; Badawi, N

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different bone substitutes soaked in recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on the healing of critical size defects in calvarial bone. Defects were created in 24 Sprague Dawley rats. The rhBMP-2 was diluted to obtain a final concentration of 0.2mg/ml. Rats were divided into four groups and treated as follows: in the first group the defect was filled with anorganic bovine bone mineral (ABBM) and rhBMP-2, the second group was treated with freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) and rhBMP-2, and the third group was treated with autogenous bone (AUTO). In the control group the defects were left untreated. Animals were killed after 8weeks and calcified histological sections prepared. Histometric measurements showed that mean (SD) bone formation was 4.00 (1.69)mm(2) in the ABBM group, 2.56 (1.06)mm(2) in the FDBA group, and 2.30 (0.34)mm(2) in the AUTO group. The difference between the ABBM group and the other 3 groups was significant (p<0.0001) with a mean bone formation of 0.82 (0.25)mm(2) in the control group. There was no significant difference between the FDBA and the AUTO groups (p=0.96). Within the limits of this study we concluded that the addition of rhBMP-2 to bone substitutes was efficacious in regenerating bone in critical size bone defects in calveria in rats. PMID:22939894

  18. Dust processing in elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Villaume, Alexa; Srinivasan, Sundar

    2015-01-01

    We reconsider the origin and processing of dust in elliptical galaxies. We theoretically formulate the evolution of grain size distribution, taking into account dust supply from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and dust destruction by sputtering in the hot interstellar medium (ISM), whose temperature evolution is treated by including two cooling paths: gas emission and dust emission (i.e. gas cooling and dust cooling). With our new full treatment of grain size distribution, we confirm that dust destruction by sputtering is too efficient to explain the observed dust abundance even if AGB stars continue to supply dust grains, and that, except for the case where the initial dust-to-gas ratio in the hot gas is as high as $\\sim 0.01$, dust cooling is negligible compared with gas cooling. However, we show that, contrary to previous expectations, cooling does not help to protect the dust; rather, the sputtering efficiency is raised by the gas compression as a result of cooling. We additionally consider grain grow...

  19. Dust arising during steelmaking processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Popielska-Ostrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper describes the dust arising during steelmaking processes.Design/methodology/approach: Steelmaking dusts may be a viable alternative for obtaining valuable and widely used metal which is zinc. On the other hand, heavy metals, it was as dangerous to the environment, and this in turn means that development of steelmaking dusts in the best possible way.Findings: The analysis of the formation of steelmaking dust.Research limitations/implications: Understanding the mechanism of steelmaking dusts will help to increase the participation of zinc recycling from wastes.Practical implications: Contained zinc in the dust can be recovered from the positive economic effect, and neutralization of hazardous waste to the desired environmental effect.Originality/value: Description of the mechanism of steelmaking dust, with particular emphasis on the distribution of zinc. The information is very important in the development of metal recovery technology from waste.

  20. Analysis on Application Bottleneck of Repairing Bone Defects with Tissue Engineered Bone%组织工程骨修复骨缺损的应用瓶颈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯

    2012-01-01

    Bone defects caused by bone cancer treatment are common in clinical, however the only way to repair the defects is bone graft. According to sources, the bone graft material can be divided into autogenous bone, allograft bone ,xenograft bone and artificial bone substitute materials. The rise of bone tissue engineering brings new options for the treatment of bone defects. The use of artificial bone tissue engineering training not only fixes the large area of bone defect, but also can be prepared and shaped in large quantity according to need,which makes it an ideal bone repair material. Here is to make a review' on the application status of tissue engineered bone in the treatment of bone defects.%骨肿瘤的治疗导致骨缺损很常见,修复缺损的方法是采取骨移植.骨移植材料根据来源大致可分为自体骨、同种异体骨、异种骨和人工骨替代材料.骨组织工程的兴起为骨缺损的治疗带来新的选择.利用骨组织工程培养的人工骨不仅可以修复大面积骨缺损,而且可以按需塑形并大量制备,是一种理想的骨修复材料.现就组织工程骨在治疗骨缺损中的应用现状进行综述.

  1. Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a fall! If you play sports like football, soccer, lacrosse, or ice hockey, always wear all the ... to strengthen your bones is through exercise like running, jumping, dancing, and playing sports. Take these steps ...

  2. Effects of Hydroxyapatite on Bone Graft Resorption in an Experimental Model of Maxillary Alveolar Arch Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Pilanci

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most commonly used treatments use autologous bone grafts to address bony defects in patients with cleft palate. Major disadvantages of autogenous bone grafts include donor site morbidity and resorption. Suggestions to overcome such problems include biomaterials that can be used alone or in combination with bone. We examined the effect of hydroxyapatite cement on bone graft resorption in a rabbit maxillary alveolar defect model. We divided 16 young adult albino New Zealand rabbits into two groups. A defect 1 cm wide was created in each rabbit's maxillary arch. In Group 1, the removed bone was disrupted, and the pieces were replaced in the defect. In the other group, the pieces were replaced after mixing (1:1 with hydroxyapatite cement. Quantitative computed tomographic evaluation of these grafts was performed in axial and coronal planes for each rabbit at 2 and 12 weeks. In axial images at 12 weeks, the group without cement showed mean bone resorption of 15%. In the cement group, a mean volumetric increase of 68% was seen. No resorption occurred when bone grafts were mixed with hydroxyapatite cement. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(3.000: 170-175

  3. Dust storm, northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This large dust storm along the left side of the photo, covers a large portion of the state of Coahuila, Mexico (27.5N, 102.0E). The look angle of this oblique photo is from the south to the north. In the foreground is the Sierra Madre Oriental in the states Coahuila and Nuevo Leon with the Rio Grande River, Amistad Reservoir and Texas in the background.

  4. Transport of Dust Particles in Tokamak Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigarov, A Y; Smirnov, R D; Krasheninnikov, S I; Rognlien, T D; Rozenberg, M

    2006-06-06

    Recent advances in the dust transport modeling in tokamak devices are discussed. Topics include: (1) physical model for dust transport; (2) modeling results on dynamics of dust particles in plasma; (3) conditions necessary for particle growth in plasma; (4) dust spreading over the tokamak; (5) density profiles for dust particles and impurity atoms associated with dust ablation in tokamak plasma; and (6) roles of dust in material/tritium migration.

  5. Antigen-free bovine cancellous bone loaded with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for the repair of tibial bone defects in goat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Donghai; Deng, Liqing; Yang, Zhouyuan; Xie, Xiaowei; Kang, Pengde; Tan, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Antigen-free bovine cancellous bone has good performances of porous network structures and mechanics with antigen extracted. To develop a bioactive scaffold for enhancing bone repair and evaluate its biological property, rhBMP-2 loaded with antigen-free bovine cancellous bone was used to treat tibial bone defect. Twenty-four healthy adult goats were chosen to establish goat defects model and randomly divided into four groups. The goats were treated with rhBMP-2/antigen-free bovine cancellous bone scaffolds (group A), autogenous cancellous bone graft (group B), porous tricalciumphosphate scaffolds (group C) and nothing (group D). Animals were evaluated with radiological and histological methods at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. The gray value of radiographs was used to evaluate the healing of the defects, which revealed that the group A had a better outcome of defect healing compared with group C at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, respectively (p difference between groups A and B was without significance at each time (p > 0.05). The newly formed bone area was calculated from histological sections, and the results indicated that the amount of new bone in group A increased significantly compared with that in group C (p  0.05) at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. In addition, the expression of collagen I and vascular endothelial growth factor by real-time polymerase chain reaction at 12 weeks in group A was significantly higher than that in group C (p = 0.034, p = 0.032, respectively), but no significant differences were found when compared with that in group B (p = 0.36, p = 0.54, respectively). At the same time, group C presented better results than group D on bone defects healing. Therefore, the composites of antigen-free bovine cancellous bone loaded with rhBMP-2 have a good osteoinductive activity and capacity to promote the repair of bone defects. PMID:26801475

  6. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, N. G.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health

  7. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health.

  8. Bone marrow transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical ...

  9. Formation of Cosmic Dust Bunnies

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Lorin S.; Hayes, Ryan L.; Freed, Michael S.; Hyde, Truell W.

    2007-01-01

    Planetary formation is an efficient process now thought to take place on a relatively short astronomical time scale. Recent observations have shown that the dust surrounding a protostar emits more efficiently at longer wavelengths as the protoplanetary disk evolves, suggesting that the dust particles are coagulating into fluffy aggregates, "much as dust bunnies form under a bed." One poorly understood problem in this coagulation process is the manner in which micron-sized, charged grains form...

  10. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  11. A theory for the origin of a self-replicating chemical system. I - Natural selection of the autogen from short, random oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    A general theory is presented for the origin of a self-replicating chemical system, termed an autogen, which is capable of both crude replication and translation (protein synthesis). The theory requires the availability of free energy and monomers to the system, a significant background low-yield synthesis of kinetically stable oligopeptides and oligonucleotides, the localization of the oligomers, crude oligonucleotide selectivity of amino acids during oligopeptide synthesis, crude oligonucleotide replication, and two short peptide families which catalyze replication and translation, to produce a localized group of at least one copy each of two protogenes and two protoenzymes. The model posits a process of random oligomerization, followed by the random nucleation of functional components and the rapid autocatalytic growth of the functioning autogen to macroscopic amounts, to account for the origin of the first self-replicating system. Such a process contains steps of such high probability and short time periods that it is suggested that the emergence of an autogen in a laboratory experiment of reasonable time scale may be possible.

  12. Placement of implants in an ossifying fibroma defect obliterated with demineralized, freeze-dried bone allograft and Plasma-rich growth factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umashankar Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable clinical interest in combining the grafts, particularly bone allografts for support for dental implants, soft-tissue support, periodontal maintenance, and ovate pontic formation. The use of demineralized, freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA offers certain advantages over other graft materials and can avoid the need for a second-site surgery for autogenous donor bone. The advantages of DFDBA include handling properties, osteoinductivity, membrane tenting, and less susceptibility to migration after placement. This article will review available grafting materials and demonstrate a case of ossifying fibroma of the mandible, which was treated by curettage and hollow cavity filled with DFDBA. Six months follow-up period showed successful graft result and this grafted bone form was utilized for implant supported prosthesis.

  13. Nostril Base Augmentation Effect of Alveolar Bone Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojin Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aims of alveolar bone grafting are closure of the fistula, stabilization ofthe maxillary arch, support for the roots of the teeth adjacent to the cleft on each side.We observed nostril base augmentation in patients with alveolar clefts after alveolar bonegrafting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nostril base augmentation effect ofsecondary alveolar bone grafting in patients with unilateral alveolar cleft.Methods Records of 15 children with alveolar clefts who underwent secondary alveolar bonegrafting with autogenous iliac cancellous bone between March of 2011 and May of 2012 werereviewed. Preoperative and postoperative worm’s-eye view photographs and reconstructedthree-dimensional computed tomography (CT scans were used for photogrammetry. Thedepression of the nostril base and thickness of the philtrum on the cleft side were measuredin comparison to the normal side. The depression of the cleft side pyriform aperture wasmeasured in comparison to the normal side on reconstructed three-dimensional CT.Results Significant changes were seen in the nostril base (P=0.005, the philtrum length(P=0.013, and the angle (P=0.006. The CT measurements showed significant changes in thepyriform aperture (P<0.001 and the angle (P<0.001.Conclusions An alveolar bone graft not only fills the gap in the alveolar process but alsoaugments the nostril base after surgery. In this study, only an alveolar bone graft was performedto prevent bias from other procedures. Nostril base augmentation can be achieved byperforming alveolar bone grafts in children, in whom invasive methods are not advised.

  14. [Bone transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands.

  15. [Bone transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands. PMID:16998521

  16. What Is Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by your browser. Home Bone Basics What Is Bone? Publication available in: PDF (57 KB) Related Resources ... Men, and Osteoporosis Osteoporosis Prevention For Your Information Bone Remodeling Throughout life, bone is constantly renewed through ...

  17. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  18. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... White House Lunch Recipes The Facts About Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Kids > The Facts About Broken Bones ... through the skin . continue What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  19. Bone biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  20. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia to ... remove the bone can be done if the biopsy exam shows that there is an abnormal growth ...

  1. Sequential Fluorescent Labeling Observation of Maxillary Sinus Augmentation by a Tissue-engineered Bone Complex in Canine Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-quan Jiang; Shao-yi Wang; Jun Zhao; Xiu-li Zhang; Zhi-yuan Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effects of maxillary sinus floor elevation by a tissue-engineered bone complex of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and autologous osteoblasts in dogs. Methodology Autologous osteoblasts from adult Beagle dogs were cultured in vitro. They were further combined with β-TCP to construct the tissue-engineered bone complex. 12 cases of maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery were made bilaterally in 6 animals and randomly repaired with the following 3 groups of materials: Group A (osteoblasts/β-TCP); Group B (β-TCP); Group C (autogenous bone) (n-4 per group). A polychrome sequential fluorescent labeling was performed post-operatively and the animals were sacrificed 24 weeks after operation for histological observation.Results Our results showed that autologous osteoblasts were successfully expanded and the osteoblastic phenoltypes were confirmed by ALP and Alizarin red staining. The cells could attach and proliferate well on the surface of the β-TCP scaffold. The fluorescent and histological observation showed that the tissue-engineered bone complex had an earlier mineralization and more bone formation inside the scaffold than β-TCP along or even autologous bone. It had also maximally maintained the elevated sinus height than both control groups. Conclusion Porous β-TCP has served as a good scaffold for autologous osteoblasts seeding. The tissue-engineered bone complex with β-TCP and autologous osteoblasts might be a better alternative to autologous bone for the clinical edentulous maxillary sinus augmentation.

  2. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAMα cells and induced to osteogenic status—their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAMα cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAMα cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAMα cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAMα cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: ► Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAMα cells) that have the properties of MSCs. ► HAMα cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. ► Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAMα was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. ► HAMα cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  3. Pallene dust torus observations by the Cosmic Dust Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiß, M.; Srama, R.; Sun, K.-L.; Seiler, M.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Kempf, S.; Spahn, F.

    2014-04-01

    The ISS cameras on-board the Cassini spacecraft have detected a faint dust torus along the orbit of Pallene [1]. It is believed that the source of the torus is the moon Pallene itself, where dust particles are ejected from its surface by micrometeoroid bombardment. Here, we present in-situ dust measurements of the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) on-board of the spacecraft Cassini which confirm the existence of a dust torus of micrometer-sized particles along the orbit of Pallene. The cross-section of the torus has been modeled by a double-Gaussian distribution, resulting in a radial and vertical full width at half maximum of 2300 km and 270 km, respectively, and a maximum particle density of n = 2.7 · 10-3m-3.

  4. Hazards of explosives dusts: Particle size effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Green, G M

    1992-02-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the hazards of military explosives dispersed as dust clouds in a 20-L test chamber. In this report, the effect of particle size for HMX, HNS, RDX, TATB, and TNT explosives dusts is studied in detail. The explosibility data for these dusts are also compared to those for pure fuel dusts. The data show that all of the sizes of the explosives dusts that were studied were capable of sustaining explosions as dust clouds dispersed in air. The finest sizes (<10 [mu]m) of explosives dusts were less reactive than the intermediate sizes (20 to 60 [mu]m); this is opposite to the particle size effect observed previously for the pure fuel dusts. At the largest sizes studied, the explosives dusts become somewhat less reactive as dispersed dust clouds. The six sizes of the HMX dust were also studied as dust clouds dispersed in nitrogen.

  5. The efficacy of hydrothermally obtained carbonated hydroxyapatite in healing alveolar bone defects in rats with or without corticosteroid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Autogenous bone grafting has been the gold standard in clinical cases when bone grafts are required for bone defects in dentistry. The study was undertaken to evaluate multilevel designed carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA obtained by hydrothermal method, as a bone substitute in healing bone defects with or without corticosteroid treatment in rats as assessed by histopathologic methods. Methods. Bone defects were created in the alveolar bone by teeth extraction in 12 rats. The animals were initially divided into two groups. The experimental group was pretreated with corticosteroids: methylprednisolone and dexamethasone, intramuscularly, while the control group was without therapy. Posterior teeth extraction had been performed after the corticosteroid therapy. The extraction defects were fulfilled with hydroxyapatite with bimodal particle sizes in the range of 50-250 μm and the sample from postextocactional defect of the alveolar bone was analyzed pathohystologically. Results. The histopatological investigations confirmed the biologic properties of the applied material. The evident growth of new bone in the alveolar ridge was clearly noticed in both groups of rats. Carbonated HA obtained by hydrothermal method promoted bone formation in the preformed defects, confirming its efficacy for usage in bone defects. Complete resorption of the material’s particles took place after 25 weeks. Conclusion. Hydroxyapatite completely meets the clinical requirements for a bone substitute material. Due to its microstructure, complete resorption took place during the observation period of the study. Corticosteroid treatment did not significantly affect new bone formation in the region of postextractional defects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172026

  6. Bone graft revascularization strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.F. Willems

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of avascular necrotic bone by pedicled bone grafting is a well-known treatment with little basic research supporting its application. A new canine model was used to simulate carpal bone avascular necrosis. Pedicled bone grafting proved to increase bone remodeling and bone blood flow,

  7. Effect of autogenic training on general improvement in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Masae; Kanazawa, Motoyori; Kano, Michiko; Endo, Yuka; Nakaya, Naoki; Hongo, Michio; Fukudo, Shin

    2010-09-01

    Autogenic training (AT) is a useful and comprehensive relaxation technique. However, no studies have investigated the effects of AT on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this study we tested the hypothesis that AT improves symptoms of IBS. Twenty-one patients with IBS were randomly assigned to AT (n = 11, 5 male, 6 female) or control therapy (n = 10, 5 male, 5 female). AT patients were trained intensively, while the control therapy consisted of discussions about patients' meal habits and life styles. All patients answered a question related to adequate relief (AR) of IBS symptoms and four questionnaires: Self-induced IBS Questionnaire (SIBSQ), Self-reported Depression Scale (SDS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Medical Outcome Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). The proportion of AR in the last AT session in the AT group (9/11, 81.8%) was significantly higher than that in the controls (3/10, 30.0%, Chi-square test, p = 0.048). Two subscales of the SF-36, i.e., social functioning and bodily pain, were significantly improved in the AT group (p < 0.05) as compared to the control group. Role emotional (p = 0.051) and general health (p = 0.068) showed a tendency for improvement in the AT group. AT may be useful in the treatment of IBS by enhancing self-control. PMID:19997775

  8. Autogenous regulation of the EcoRII methylase gene at the transcriptional level: effect of 5-azacytidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, S; Friedman, S

    1993-01-01

    mRNA of the EcoRII methylase (M.EcoRII), a type II modification enzyme, was induced when Escherichia coli carrying a cloned M.EcoRII gene was exposed to the bacteriocidal drug 5-azacytidine. Induction occurred only when transcription was initiated from its own promoter. When the 5' promoter sequences were deleted or replaced with the lac promoter sequences, no induction occurred. The induction was independent of the template DNA level, but the presence of an intact M.EcoRII protein was a requirement. The drug is incorporated into DNA which then inhibits M.EcoRII by binding tightly to the enzyme. A deletion within the M.EcoRII coding region caused a marked increase in the basal level of mRNA transcribed from the M.EcoRII promoter, but no induction occurred upon 5-azacytidine treatment. The level could be reduced to normal by M.EcoRII in trans. In vitro, the enzyme bound to the sequences upstream of the transcription start sites and inhibited the initiation of transcription. These experiments indicate that expression of the M.EcoRII gene was autogenously regulated at the transcriptional level. Similar regulation is also noted in another DNA (cytosine-5) methylase, M.MspI. Images PMID:7693455

  9. Saliva amylase as a measure of sympathetic change elicited by autogenic training in patients with functional somatic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiba, Tadashi; Kanbara, Kenji; Ban, Ikumi; Kato, Fumie; Kawashima, Sadanobu; Saka, Yukie; Yamamoto, Kazumi; Nishiyama, Junji; Mizuno, Yasuyuki; Abe, Tetsuya; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of autogenic training (AT) on patients with functional somatic syndrome (FSS) using salivary amylase, the skin temperature of the finger, subjective severity of symptoms, and psychological characteristics as measures. We assessed 20 patients with FSS and 23 healthy controls before and after AT. Baseline levels of salivary amylase prior to an AT session were significantly higher in the FSS group than in the control group. However, this difference was not significant after AT. The skin temperature of the finger increased after AT in both the FSS and control groups. AT contributed to the improvement of somatic symptoms in patients with FSS. Our results regarding psychological characteristics suggest that mood disturbances are deeply involved in the pathology of FSS. Individuals with FSS exhibited elevated levels of sympathetic activity compared with healthy controls. Our data indicates that AT eased dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system in patients with FSS. Thus, salivary amylase may be a useful index of change induced by AT in patients with FSS. PMID:26219656

  10. The effects of autogenic-feedback training on motion sickness severity and heart rate variability in astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, William B.; Cowings, Patricia S.

    1994-01-01

    Space motion sickness (SMS) affects 50 percent of all people during early days of spaceflight. This study describes the results of two Shuttle flight experiments in which autogenic-feedback training (AFT), a physiological conditioning method, was tested as a treatment for this disorder. Of the six who were designated as flight subjects (two women and four men), three were given treatment and three served as controls (i.e., no AFT). Treatment subjects were given 6 hours of preflight AFT. Preflight results showed that AFT produced a significant increase in tolerance to rotating chair motion sickness tests. Further, this increased tolerance was associated with changes in specific physiological responses and reports of reduced malaise. Flight results showed that two of the three control subjects experienced repeated vomiting on the first mission day, while one subject experienced only moderate malaise. Of the three treatment subjects, one experienced mild discomfort, one moderate discomfort, and one severe motion sickness. Only the three control subjects took medication for symptom suppression. Measures of cardiac function reflective of vagal control were shown to be affected especially strongly on the first day of space flight. AFT given for control of heart rate, respiration, and other autonomic activity influenced both the vagal control measures and SMS. These data suggest that AFT may be an effective treatment for space motion sickness; however, this cannot be demonstrated conclusively with the small number of subjects described.

  11. Of data and dust

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephanie Hills

    2016-01-01

    The traditional image of an archive is one of dusty old boxes, books and papers. When your archive is digital, dust spells disaster. An innovative environmental sensor designed and built by a CERN IT specialist has become an essential element in the Laboratory’s data-preservation strategy.   The novel air particle monitoring sensor designed by CERN's Julien Leduc. CERN’s archive holds more than 130 petabytes of data from past and present high-energy physics experiments. Some of it is 40 years old, most of it needs to be kept forever, and all of it is held on tape cartridges (over 20,000 of them). The cartridges are held inside tape libraries with robotic arms that load them into tape drives where they can be read and written. Tape cartridges have many advantages over other data storage media, notably cost and long-term reliability, but topping the list of drawbacks is their vulnerability to contamination from airborne dust particles; a tiny piece of g...

  12. Andromeda's dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draine, B. T.; Aniano, G. [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Krause, Oliver; Groves, Brent; Sandstrom, Karin; Klaas, Ulrich; Linz, Hendrik; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schinnerer, Eva; Schmiedeke, Anika; Walter, Fabian [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Braun, Robert [CSIRO—Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NWS 1710 (Australia); Leroy, Adam, E-mail: draine@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: ganiano@ias.u-psud.fr [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory imaging of M31 is used, with a physical dust model, to construct maps of dust surface density, dust-to-gas ratio, starlight heating intensity, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundance, out to R ≈ 25 kpc. The global dust mass is M {sub d} = 5.4 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, the global dust/H mass ratio is M {sub d}/M {sub H} = 0.0081, and the global PAH abundance is (q {sub PAH}) = 0.039. The dust surface density has an inner ring at R = 5.6 kpc, a maximum at R = 11.2 kpc, and an outer ring at R ≈ 15.1 kpc. The dust/gas ratio varies from M {sub d}/M {sub H} ≈ 0.026 at the center to ∼0.0027 at R ≈ 25 kpc. From the dust/gas ratio, we estimate the interstellar medium metallicity to vary by a factor ∼10, from Z/Z {sub ☉} ≈ 3 at R = 0 to ∼0.3 at R = 25 kpc. The dust heating rate parameter (U) peaks at the center, with (U) ≈ 35, declining to (U) ≈ 0.25 at R = 20 kpc. Within the central kiloparsec, the starlight heating intensity inferred from the dust modeling is close to what is estimated from the stars in the bulge. The PAH abundance reaches a peak q {sub PAH} ≈ 0.045 at R ≈ 11.2 kpc. When allowance is made for the different spectrum of the bulge stars, q {sub PAH} for the dust in the central kiloparsec is similar to the overall value of q {sub PAH} in the disk. The silicate-graphite-PAH dust model used here is generally able to reproduce the observed dust spectral energy distribution across M31, but overpredicts 500 μm emission at R ≈ 2-6 kpc, suggesting that at R = 2-6 kpc, the dust opacity varies more steeply with frequency (with β ≈ 2.3 between 200 and 600 μm) than in the model.

  13. Dust and the Sick Building Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, Finn; Suadicani, Poul; Wohlfahrt Nielsen, Jan;

    1994-01-01

    Farmakologi, bacteria, dust, histamine, disease, gram-negative, indoor climate, sick building syndrome......Farmakologi, bacteria, dust, histamine, disease, gram-negative, indoor climate, sick building syndrome...

  14. PERSPECTIVE: Dust, fertilization and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Lorraine A.

    2006-11-01

    Aerosols, tiny suspended particles in the atmosphere, play an important role in modifying the Earth's energy balance and are essential for the formation of cloud droplets. Suspended dust particles lifted from the world's arid regions by strong winds contain essential minerals that can be transported great distances and deposited into the ocean or on other continents where productivity is limited by lack of usable minerals [1]. Dust can transport pathogens as well as minerals great distance, contributing to the spread of human and agricultural diseases, and a portion of dust can be attributed to human activity suggesting that dust radiative effects should be included in estimates of anthropogenic climate forcing. The greenish and brownish tints in figure 1 show the wide extent of monthly mean mineral dust transport, as viewed by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite Figure 1. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite. The brighter the color, the greater the aerosol loading. Red and reddish tints indicate aerosol dominated by small particles created primarily from combustion processes. Green and brownish tints indicate larger particles created from wind-driven processes, usually transported desert dust. Note the bright green band at the southern edge of the Saharan desert, the reddish band it must cross if transported to the southwest and the long brownish transport path as it crosses the Atlantic to South America. Image courtesy of the NASA Earth Observatory (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov). Even though qualitatively we recognize the extent and importance of dust transport and the role that it plays in fertilizing nutrient-limited regions, there is much that is still unknown. We are just now beginning to quantify the amount of dust that exits one continental region and the

  15. Dust in protoplanetary disks: observations*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters L.B.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid particles, usually referred to as dust, are a crucial component of interstellar matter and of planet forming disks surrounding young stars. Despite the relatively small mass fraction of ≈1% (in the solar neighborhood of our galaxy; this number may differ substantially in other galaxies that interstellar grains represent of the total mass budget of interstellar matter, dust grains play an important role in the physics and chemistry of interstellar matter. This is because of the opacity dust grains at short (optical, UV wavelengths, and the surface they provide for chemical reactions. In addition, dust grains play a pivotal role in the planet formation process: in the core accretion model of planet formation, the growth of dust grains from the microscopic size range to large, cm-sized or larger grains is the first step in planet formation. Not only the grain size distribution is affected by planet formation. Chemical and physical processes alter the structure and chemical composition of dust grains as they enter the protoplanetary disk and move closer to the forming star. Therefore, a lot can be learned about the way stars and planets are formed by observations of dust in protoplanetary disks. Ideally, one would like to measure the dust mass, the grain size distribution, grain structure (porosity, fluffiness, the chemical composition, and all of these as a function of position in the disk. Fortunately, several observational diagnostics are available to derive constrains on these quantities. In combination with rapidly increasing quality of the data (spatial and spectral resolution, a lot of progress has been made in our understanding of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks. An excellent review of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks can be found in Testi et al. (2014.

  16. The Martian Dust Cycle: Observations and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, Melinda A.

    2013-01-01

    The dust cycle is critically important for Mars' current climate system. Suspended atmospheric dust affects the radiative balance of the atmosphere, and thus greatly influences the thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere. Evidence for the presence of dust in the Martian atmosphere can be traced back to yellow clouds telescopically observed as early as the early 19th century. The Mariner 9 orbiter arrived at Mars in November of 1971 to find a planet completely enshrouded in airborne dust. Since that time, the exchange of dust between the planet's surface and atmosphere and the role of airborne dust on Mars' weather and climate has been studied using observations and numerical models. The goal of this talk is to give an overview of the observations and to discuss the successes and challenges associated with modeling the dust cycle. Dust raising events on Mars range in size from meters to hundreds of kilometers. During some years, regional storms merge to produce hemispheric or planet encircling dust clouds that obscure the surface and raise atmospheric temperatures by tens of kelvin. The interannual variability of planet encircling dust storms is poorly understood. Although the occurrence and season of large regional and global dust storms are highly variable from one year to the next, there are many features of the dust cycle that occur year after year. A low-level dust haze is maintained during northern spring and summer, while elevated levels of atmospheric dust occur during northern autumn and winter. During years without global-scale dust storms, two peaks in total dust loading are generally observed: one peak occurs before northern winter solstice and one peak occurs after northern winter solstice. Numerical modeling studies attempting to interactively simulate the Martian dust cycle with general circulation models (GCMs) include the lifting, transport, and sedimentation of radiatively active dust. Two dust lifting processes are commonly represented in

  17. Regular spherical dust spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Humphreys, N; Matravers, D R; Humphreys, Neil; Maartens, Roy; Matravers, David

    1998-01-01

    Physical (and weak) regularity conditions are used to determine and classify all the possible types of spherically symmetric dust spacetimes in general relativity. This work unifies and completes various earlier results. The junction conditions are described for general non-comoving (and non-null) surfaces, and the limits of kinematical quantities are given on all comoving surfaces where there is Darmois matching. We show that an inhomogeneous generalisation of the Kantowski-Sachs metric may be joined to the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi metric. All the possible spacetimes are explicitly divided into four groups according to topology, including a group in which the spatial sections have the topology of a 3-torus. The recollapse conjecture (for these spacetimes) follows naturally in this approach.

  18. Evaluation of the osteogenesis and angiogenesis effects of erythropoietin and the efficacy of deproteinized bovine bone/recombinant human erythropoietin scaffold on bone defect repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Donghai; Deng, Liqing; Xie, Xiaowei; Yang, Zhouyuan; Kang, Pengde

    2016-06-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) could promote the angiogenesis and may also play a role in bone regeneration. This study was conducted to evaluate the osteogenesis and angiogenesis effects of EPO and the efficacy of deproteinized bovine bone/recombinant human EPO scaffold on bone defect repair. Twenty-four healthy adult goats were chosen to build goat defects model and randomly divided into four groups. The goats were treated with DBB/rhEPO scaffolds (group A), porous DBB scaffolds (group B), autogenous cancellous bone graft (group C), and nothing (group D). Animals were evaluated with radiological and histological methods at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. The grey value of radiographs was used to evaluate the healing of the defects and the outcome revealed that the group A had a better outcome of defect healing compared with group B (P  0.05). The newly formed bone area was calculated from histological sections and the results demonstrated that the amount of new bone in group A increased significantly compared with that in group B (P  0.05) at 4, 8, 12 weeks respectively. In addition, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by immunohistochemical testing and real-time polymerase chain reaction at 12 weeks in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (P  0.05). Therefore, EPO has significant effects on bone formation and angiogenesis, and has capacity to promote the repair of bone defects. It is worthy of being recommended to further studies. PMID:27091043

  19. Dust ablation in Pluto's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, Mihaly; Poppe, Andrew; Sternovsky, Zoltan

    2016-04-01

    Based on measurements by dust detectors onboard the Pioneer 10/11 and New Horizons spacecraft the total production rate of dust particles born in the Edgeworth Kuiper Belt (EKB) has been be estimated to be on the order of 5 ṡ 103 kg/s in the approximate size range of 1 - 10 μm. Dust particles are produced by collisions between EKB objects and their bombardment by both interplanetary and interstellar dust particles. Dust particles of EKB origin, in general, migrate towards the Sun due to Poynting-Robertson drag but their distributions are further sculpted by mean-motion resonances as they first approach the orbit of Neptune and later the other planets, as well as mutual collisions. Subsequently, Jupiter will eject the vast majority of them before they reach the inner solar system. The expected mass influx into Pluto atmosphere is on the order of 200 kg/day, and the arrival speed of the incoming particles is on the order of 3 - 4 km/s. We have followed the ablation history as function of speed and size of dust particles in Pluto's atmosphere, and found that volatile rich particles can fully sublimate due to drag heating and deposit their mass in narrow layers. This deposition might promote the formation of the haze layers observed by the New Horizons spacecraft. This talk will explore the constraints on the composition of the dust particles by comparing the altitude of the deposition layers to the observed haze layers.

  20. The Use of Platelet Rich Plasma, Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Different Scaffolds in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - Literature Review in Comparison with Own Clinical Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Heinz Schuckert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this article was to review and critically assess the use of platelet rich plasma, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 and different scaffolds (i.e. tricalciumphosphate, polycaprolactone, demineralized bone matrix and anorganic bovine bone mineral in oral and maxillofacial surgery comparing the relevant literature and own clinical experience.Material and Methods: A literature review was conducted using MEDLINE, MEDPILOT and COCHRANE DATABASE OF SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS. It concentrated on manuscripts and overviews published in the last five years (2006-2010. The key terms employed were platelet rich plasma, bone morphogenetic proteins and their combinations with the above mentioned scaffolds. The results of clinical studies and animal trials were especially emphasized. The statements from the literature were compared with authors’ own clinical data.Results: New publications and overviews demonstrate the advantages of platelet rich plasma in bone regeneration. The results from the literature review were discussed and compared with the publications detailing authors’ own experiences.Conclusions: A favourable outcome concerning newly grown bone was achieved combining platelet rich plasma in addition to optimal matrices with or without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2, depending on the clinical case. As a consequence, the paradigm shift from transplantation of autogenous bone to bone tissue engineering appears promising.

  1. Bone-Forming Capabilities of a Newly Developed NanoHA Composite Alloplast Infused with Collagen: A Pilot Study in the Sheep Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Marin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral or vertical bone augmentation has always been a challenge, since the site is exposed to constant pressure from the soft tissue, and blood supply only exists from the donor site. Although, for such clinical cases, onlay grafting with autogenous bone is commonly selected, the invasiveness of the secondary surgical site and the relatively fast resorption rate have been reported as a drawback, which motivated the investigation of alternative approaches. This study evaluated the bone-forming capability of a novel nanoHA alloplast infused with collagen graft material made from biodegradable polylactic acid/polyglycolic acid versus a control graft material with the same synthesized alloplast without the nanoHA component and collagen infiltration. The status of newly formed bone and the resorption of the graft material were evaluated at 6 weeks in vivo histologically and three dimensionally by means of 3D microcomputed tomography. The histologic observation showed that newly formed bone ingrowth and internal resorption of the block were observed for the experimental blocks, whereas for the control blocks less bone ingrowth occurred along with lower resorption rate of the block material. The three-dimensional observation indicated that the experimental block maintained the external geometry, but at the same time successfully altered the graft material into bone. It is suggested that the combination of numerous factors contributed to the bone ingrowth and the novel development could be an alternative bone grafting choice.

  2. Nonlinear theory of dust lattice mode coupling in dust crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Kourakis, I; Kourakis, Ioannis; Shukla, Padma Kant

    2004-01-01

    Quasi-crystals formed by charged mesoscopic dust grains (dust lattices), observed since hardly a decade ago, are an exciting paradigm of a nonlinear chain. In laboratory discharge experiments, these quasi-lattices are formed spontaneously in the sheath region near a negative electrode, usually at a levitated horizontal equilibrium configuration where gravity is balanced by an electric field. It is long known (and experimentally confirmed) that dust-lattices support linear oscillations, in the longitudinal (acoustic mode) as well as in the transverse, in plane (acoustic-) or off-plane (optic-like mode) directions. Either due to the (typically Yukawa type) electrostatic inter-grain interaction forces or to the (intrinsically nonlinear) sheath environment, nonlinearity is expected to play an important role in the dynamics of these lattices. Furthermore, the coupling between the different modes may induce coupled nonlinear modes. Despite this evidence, the elucidation of the nonlinear mechanisms governing dust cr...

  3. Simulations of Mineral Dust Content With CHIMERE-Dust Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmechtig, C.; Marticorena, B.; Menut, L.; Bergametti, G.

    2006-12-01

    Simulations of the mineral dust cycle have been performed whith CHIMERE-Dust model over a domain that includes North Africa, the Mediterranean basin and the North Tropical Atlantic Ocean (10S-60N and 90W-90E) with a 1°x1° resolution using the ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) meteorological fields for two years, 2000 and 2001. As a validation, we compare the simulated dust concentration fields with photometric data from the AERONET network. From the comparisons between the simulated and measured aerosol optical depth for several stations of the Mediterranean basin, the model appears to reproduce correctly the intensity and occurrences of the dust events. Over Western Africa, the results are not as satisfying since some of the most intense dust events observed on the continent and downwind are not captured by the model. In addition, the simulated events are generally underestimated compared to the measured ones. It appears that these differences in the model performances are connected to the origin of the dust plumes. For example, dust plumes coming from Libya are well simulated while dust plumes originating from the Bodélé depression not as frequent as intense as the observations suggest. Soil properties in these two regions are comparable and typical of very erodible surfaces. We thus focused on the comparison between the ECMWF 10m wind speed fields and 10m wind speed measured at the meteorological stations located in both areas. We noticed that over Libya, the measured and ECMWF 10m wind speed are in very good agreement, while the meteorological model does not reproduce the extrema of the measured wind speed in the Bodélé depression. We found that a crude empirical correction of the 10m wind field in the Bodélé Depression significantly improve the simulations in terms of occurrence and of intensity.

  4. Autogenic training and cognitive self-hypnosis for the treatment of recurrent headaches in three different subject groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Kuile, M M; Spinhoven, P; Linssen, A C; Zitman, F G; Van Dyck, R; Rooijmans, H G

    1994-09-01

    The aims of this study were to (a) investigate the efficacy of autogenic training (AT) and cognitive self-hypnosis training (CSH) for the treatment of chronic headaches in comparison with a waiting-list control (WLC) condition, (b) investigate the influence of subject recruitment on treatment outcome and (c) explore whether the level of hypnotizability is related to therapy outcome. Three different subjects groups (group 1, patients (n = 58) who were referred by a neurological outpatient clinic; group 2, members (n = 48) of the community who responded to an advertisement in a newspaper; and group 3, students (n = 40) who responded to an advertisement in a university newspaper) were allocated at random to a therapy or WLC condition. During treatment, there was a significant reduction in the Headache Index scores of the subjects in contrast with the controls. At post-treatment and follow-up almost no significant differences were observed between the 2 treatment conditions or the 3 referral sources regarding the Headache Index, psychological distress (SCL-90) scores and medication use. Follow-up measurements indicated that therapeutic improvement was maintained. In both treatment conditions, the high-hypnotizable subjects achieved a greater reduction in headache pain at post-treatment and follow-up than did the low-hypnotizable subjects. It is concluded that a relatively simple and highly structured relaxation technique for the treatment of chronic headache subjects may be preferable to more complex cognitive hypnotherapeutic procedures, irrespective of the source of recruitment. The level of hypnotic susceptibility seems to be a subject characteristic which is associated with a more favourable outcome in subjects treated with AT or CSH.

  5. A numerical study on dust devils with implications to global dust budget estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estimates of the contribution of dust devils (DDs) to the global dust budget have large uncertainties because the dust emission mechanisms in DDs are not yet well understood. In this study, a large-eddy simulation model coupled with a dust scheme is used to investigate DD dust entrainment. DDs a...

  6. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I;

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling...

  7. Metals and dust in high redshift AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Maiolino, R; Marconi, A; Schneider, R; Bianchi, S; Pedani, M; Pipino, A; Matteucci, F; Cox, P; Caselli, P

    2006-01-01

    We summarize some recent results on the metallicity and dust properties of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) at high redshift (110). The properties of dust in high-z QSOs are discussed within the context of the dust production mechanisms in the early universe. The dust extinction curve is observed to evolve beyond z>4, and by z~6 it is well described by the properties expected for dust produced by SNe, suggesting that the latter is the main mechanism of dust production in the early universe. We also show that the huge dust masses observed in distant QSOs can be accounted for by SN dust within the observational constraints currently available. Finally, we show that QSO winds, which have been proposed as an alternative mechanism of dust production, may also contribute significantly to the total dust budget at high redshift.

  8. Loess and Eolian Dust Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past environment derived from Loess and Eolian dust (silt-sized material deposited on the Earth surface by the surface winds. Parameter keywords describe...

  9. Wormhole shadows in rotating dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgami, Takayuki; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2016-09-01

    As an extension of our previous work, which investigated the shadows of the Ellis wormhole surrounded by nonrotating dust, in this paper we study wormhole shadows in a rotating dust flow. First, we derive steady-state solutions of slowly rotating dust surrounding the wormhole by solving relativistic Euler equations. Solving null geodesic equations and radiation transfer equations, we investigate the images of the wormhole surrounded by dust for the above steady-state solutions. Because the Ellis wormhole spacetime possesses unstable circular orbits of photons, a bright ring appears in the image, just as in Schwarzschild spacetime. The bright ring looks distorted due to rotation. Aside from the bright ring, there appear weakly luminous complex patterns by the emission from the other side of the throat. These structure could be detected by high-resolution very-long-baseline-interferometry observations in the near future.

  10. Surface System Dust Mitigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will perform a detailed examination of dust mitigation and tolerance strategies for connections and mechanisms to be employed on the lunar...

  11. Dust vortex flows in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, P.K

    2002-12-30

    Coherent nonlinear structures in the form of dust vortex flows have been observed in unmagnetized laboratory dusty plasmas. Our objective here is show that the dynamics of such dust vortices is governed by a modified Navier-Stokes equation (MNSE) and that the stationary solutions of the MNSE can be represented as monopolar as well as a row of identical Stuart and a row of counter-rotating vortices.

  12. Saharan Dust Pollution: Implications for the Sahel?

    OpenAIRE

    De Longueville, Florence; Henry, Sabine; Ozer, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The main source of atmospheric mineral dust is the Sahara desert, which produces about half of the yearly global mineral dust.1 About 12% of the Saharan dust moves northwards to Europe, 28% westwards to the Americas, and 60% southwards to the Gulf of Guinea. Saharan dust storms can lead to particulate matter (PM) levels that exceed internationally recommended levels. Recently, special attention has been paid to the mineral PM air pollution of dust storms, which may be a serious health threat....

  13. Implant surface preparation in the surgical treatment of experimental peri-implantitis with autogenous bone graft and ePTFE membrane in cynomolgus monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Søren; Holmstrup, Palle; Jørgensen, Torben;

    2003-01-01

    peri-implantitis; treatment; implant surface preparation; nonhuman primates; histology; stereology......peri-implantitis; treatment; implant surface preparation; nonhuman primates; histology; stereology...

  14. Suspended dust in Norwegian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to calculations, at least 80 000 people in Oslo and 8 000 in Trondheim were annoyed by too much suspended dust in 2000. The dust concentration is greatest in the spring, presumably because dust is swirling up from melting snow and ice on the streets. Car traffic is the main source of the dust, except for some of the most highly exposed regions where wood-firing from old stoves contributes up to 70 percent of the dust. National targets for air quality include suspended dust, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and benzene. Calculations show that nitrogen dioxide emissions exceeding the limit affected 4 000 people in Oslo and 1 000 people in Trondheim. The sulphur dioxide emissions in the major cities did non exceed the national quality limit; they did exceed the limit in some of the smaller industrial centres. In Trondheim, measurements show that the national limit for benzene was exceeded. Most of the emission of nitrogen dioxide comes from the road traffic. Local air pollution at times causes considerable health- and well-being problems in the larger cities and industrial centres, where a great part of the population may be at risk of early death, infection of the respiratory passage, heart- and lung diseases and cancer

  15. The Student Dust Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, M.; Bagenal, F.; Finley, T.; Christensen, F.; Holland, G.; Bryant, C.; Bunch, N.; Neeland, M.; Chanthawanich, T.; Fernandez, A.; Hoxie, V.; Jenkins, A.; Vaudrin, C.; Krauss, E.; Krauss, O.; Crayton, J.; James, D.; Krauss, C.; Mitchell, C.; Colgan, M.; Grogan, B.; Christofferson, J.

    2005-12-01

    This talk will describe the scientific goals, the technical, and the human challenges of the Student Dust Counter (SDC) experiment for the New Horizons Mission to Pluto. CU's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) organized a team of students to design, fabricate, test, calibrate, and fly SDC, one of seven science instruments onboard New Horizons. The student team was responsible for all phases of this development under the supervision of LASP professionals. Both undergraduate and graduate students worked on this project, representing a variety of disciplines, including Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, Computer Science, Physics, Journalism, and Business. The SDC project is part of the EPO effort of the New Horizons mission. Though it is a student project, the requirements for passing all standard NASA milestones for reviews were identical to other experiments. The students performed at a professional level and SDC was delivered on time and within budget. It is now integrated to the spacecraft awaiting the scheduled launch in January of 2006. To date, SDC provided a group of about 20 students an opportunity to learn first hand how to build instruments, and graduate with years of experience in space exploration.

  16. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003658.htm Bone marrow aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps ...

  17. Bone marrow biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may be taken from the pelvic or breast bone. Sometimes, other areas are used. Marrow is removed ...

  18. Rehabilitation of Avulsed Teeth in Fractured Jaws via Bone Grafting and Implant Placement: Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anshul; Baliga, Shridhar

    2015-07-01

    The maxillofacial region is one of the most injury-prone areas during road traffic accidents, personal violence, falls and sports. Maxillofacial trauma can lead to breakage or avulsion of upper anterior teeth, which may cause significant aesthetic and functional problems. There are many treatment options available for rehabilitation including removable partial dentures, fixed partial dentures, crown and bridges and implant-supported prostheses. Herein, two cases are presented where implant placement was done for upper anterior teeth, which were traumatized or avulsed following maxillofacial trauma. Both patients demonstrated a history of maxillofacial trauma and had undergone open reduction and internal fixation. The first patient had a severe maxillary alveolar defect treated via autogenous bone grafting and a six-month period was given for proper integration of the bone graft. The second patient was a smoker with very poor oral hygiene and a deep bite. Thus, implant placement was not initially justified. PMID:26877745

  19. Rehabilitation of Avulsed Teeth in Fractured Jaws via Bone Grafting and Implant Placement: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The maxillofacial region is one of the most injury-prone areas during road traffic accidents, personal violence, falls and sports. Maxillofacial trauma can lead to breakage or avulsion of upper anterior teeth, which may cause significant aesthetic and functional problems. There are many treatment options available for rehabilitation including removable partial dentures, fixed partial dentures, crown and bridges and implant-supported prostheses.Herein, two cases are presented where implant placement was done for upper anterior teeth, which were traumatized or avulsed following maxillofacial trauma. Both patients demonstrated a history of maxillofacial trauma and had undergone open reduction and internal fixation. The first patient had a severe maxillary alveolar defect treated via autogenous bone grafting and a six-month period was given for proper integration of the bone graft. The second patient was a smoker with very poor oral hygiene and a deep bite. Thus, implant placement was not initially justified.

  20. Influence of Fly Ash and Slag Powder on Autogenous Shrinkage of Cement Mortars%粉煤灰和矿粉对水泥胶砂自收缩的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖佳; 陈雷; 邢昊

    2011-01-01

    试验研究了粉煤灰和矿粉对水泥胶砂自收缩的影响.结果表明:当胶砂比(质量比)为1∶0.5,水胶比(质量比)为0.3时,随水化龄期延长,水泥胶砂自收缩增大,早期自收缩发展急剧.粉煤灰降低了水泥胶砂的自收缩,随着粉煤灰掺量(质量分数)增大,水泥胶砂自收缩减小;掺10%和20%粉煤灰水泥胶砂的21d自收缩较纯水泥胶砂分别下降了21.1%和29.5%.水化早期(5d前),矿粉掺量(质量分数)在10%~20%时,随着矿粉掺量增大,水泥胶砂自收缩降低;掺10%和20%矿粉水泥胶砂的21 d自收缩较纯水泥胶砂分别增加了11.1%和6.6%.%The influence of fly ash and slag powder on the autogenous shrinkage of cement mortars was studied. The experiment test results indicate that the autogenous shrinkage of cement mortar made with 1:0. 5 binder to sand ratio(by mass) and 0. 3 water to binder ratio(by mass) increases with development of hydration. At early age, rate of autogenous shrinkage develops sharply. Addition of fly ash reduces the autogenous shrinkage of cement mortar, and the autogenous shrinkage of cement mortar decreases with increase of fly ash content(by mass). Compared to pure cement mortar, after hydrated for 21 d , the 10% and 20% of fly ash addition reduce autogenous shrinkage of cement mortar by 21. 1% and 29. 5% respectively. Originally within 5 d, the 10%- 20% (by mass) of slag powder addition decreases autogenous shrinkage of cement mortar. Compared to pure cement mortar, after hydrated for 21 d, the 10% and 20% of slag powder addition increase autogenous shrinkage of cement mortar by 11. 1% and 6. 6% respectively.

  1. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors...

  2. Estimation of high altitude Martian dust parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabari, Jayesh; Bhalodi, Pinali

    2016-07-01

    Dust devils are known to occur near the Martian surface mostly during the mid of Southern hemisphere summer and they play vital role in deciding background dust opacity in the atmosphere. The second source of high altitude Martian dust could be due to the secondary ejecta caused by impacts on Martian Moons, Phobos and Deimos. Also, the surfaces of the Moons are charged positively due to ultraviolet rays from the Sun and negatively due to space plasma currents. Such surface charging may cause fine grains to be levitated, which can easily escape the Moons. It is expected that the escaping dust form dust rings within the orbits of the Moons and therefore also around the Mars. One more possible source of high altitude Martian dust is interplanetary in nature. Due to continuous supply of the dust from various sources and also due to a kind of feedback mechanism existing between the ring or tori and the sources, the dust rings or tori can sustain over a period of time. Recently, very high altitude dust at about 1000 km has been found by MAVEN mission and it is expected that the dust may be concentrated at about 150 to 500 km. However, it is mystery how dust has reached to such high altitudes. Estimation of dust parameters before-hand is necessary to design an instrument for the detection of high altitude Martian dust from a future orbiter. In this work, we have studied the dust supply rate responsible primarily for the formation of dust ring or tori, the life time of dust particles around the Mars, the dust number density as well as the effect of solar radiation pressure and Martian oblateness on dust dynamics. The results presented in this paper may be useful to space scientists for understanding the scenario and designing an orbiter based instrument to measure the dust surrounding the Mars for solving the mystery. The further work is underway.

  3. Dust Particle Size Distributions during Spring in Yinchuan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiangfeng Shao; Jiandong Mao

    2016-01-01

    Dust particle size distributions in Yinchuan, China, were measured during March and April 2014, using APS-3321 sampler. The distributions were measured under different dust conditions (background, floating dust, blowing dust, and dust storm) and statistical analyses were performed. The results showed that, under different dust conditions, the instantaneous number concentrations of dust particles differed widely. For example, during blowing sand and dust storm conditions, instantaneous dust pa...

  4. Bone marrow transplant - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transplant - bone marrow - discharge; Stem cell transplant - discharge; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant - discharge; Reduced intensity; Non-myeloablative transplant - discharge; Mini transplant - discharge; Allogenic bone marrow transplant - discharge; ...

  5. Ice nucleation by soil dust compared to desert dust aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehler, O.; Steinke, I.; Ullrich, R.; Höhler, K.; Schiebel, T.; Hoose, C.; Funk, R.

    2015-12-01

    A minor fraction of atmospheric aerosol particles, so-called ice-nucleating particles (INPs), initiates the formation of the ice phase in tropospheric clouds and thereby markedly influences the Earth's weather and climate systems. Whether an aerosol particle acts as an INP depends on its size, morphology and chemical compositions. The INP fraction of certain aerosol types also strongly depends on the temperature and the relative humidity. Because both desert dust and soil dust aerosols typically comprise a variety of different particles, it is difficult to assess and predict their contribution to the atmospheric INP abundance. This requires both accurate modelling of the sources and atmospheric distribution of atmospheric dust components and detailed investigations of their ice nucleation activities. The latter can be achieved in laboratory experiments and parameterized for use in weather and climate models as a function of temperature and particle surface area, a parameter called ice-nucleation active site (INAS) density. Concerning ice nucleation activity studies, the soil dust is of particular interest because it contains a significant fraction of organics and biological components, both with the potential for contributing to the atmospheric INP abundance at relatively high temperatures compared to mineral components. First laboratory ice nucleation experiments with a few soil dust samples indicated their INP fraction to be comparable or slightly enhanced to that of desert dust. We have used the AIDA (Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) cloud simulation chamber to study the immersion freezing ability of four different arable soil dusts, sampled in Germany, China and Argentina. For temperatures higher than about -20°C, we found the INP fraction of aerosols generated from these samples by a dry dispersion technique to be significantly higher compared to various desert dust aerosols also investigated in AIDA experiments. In this contribution, we

  6. Effect of Thermionic Emission on Dust-Acoustic Solitons in a Dust-Electron Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Li-Wen; WANG Zheng-Xiong; LIU Yue; WANG Xiao-Gang

    2007-01-01

    The effects of thermionic emission on dust-acoustic solitons with a very small but finite amplitude in a dustelectron plasma are studied using the reductive perturbation technique. The self-consistent variation of dust charge is taken into account. It is shown that the thermionic emission could significantly increase the dust positive charge. The dependences of the phase velocity, amplitude, and width of such solitons on the dust temperature and the dust work function of dust material are plotted and discussed.

  7. Particle Lifting Processes in Dust Devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neakrase, L. D. V.; Balme, M. R.; Esposito, F.; Kelling, T.; Klose, M.; Kok, J. F.; Marticorena, B.; Merrison, J.; Patel, M.; Wurm, G.

    2016-10-01

    Particle lifting in dust devils on both Earth and Mars has been studied from many different perspectives, including how dust devils could influence the dust cycles of both planets. Here we review our current understanding of particle entrainment by dust devils by examining results from field observations on Earth and Mars, laboratory experiments (at terrestrial ambient and Mars-analog conditions), and analytical modeling. By combining insights obtained from these three methodologies, we provide a detailed overview on interactions between particle lifting processes due to mechanical, thermal, electrodynamical and pressure effects, and how these processes apply to dust devils on Earth and Mars. Experiments and observations have shown dust devils to be effective lifters of dust given the proper conditions on Earth and Mars. However, dust devil studies have yet to determine the individual roles of each of the component processes acting at any given time in dust devils.

  8. Elemental tracers for Chinese source dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小曳; 张光宇; 朱光华; 张德二; 安芷生; 陈拓; 黄湘萍

    1996-01-01

    The mass-particle size distributions of 10 dust-carrying elements in aerosol particles were determined tor 12 sites in desert regions of northern China. The desert dust is proved to he of origin of eolian loess deposited on the Loess Plateau. Their transport to the loess was mainly attributable to the non-dust storm processes under the interglacial climate condition. The impact ot" dust storm on the accumulation of the loess increased in the glacial stage. On the basis of the signatures of 4 dust elements (Al. Fe, Mg and Sc). Chinese dust is believed to have 3 major desert sources (northwestern deserts, northern high dust deserts and northern low dust deserts). With a chemical element balance model, an elemental tracer system is established to proportion the export of China-source dust.

  9. 2002 Kuiper prize lecture: Dust Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Eberhard; Srama, Ralf; Krüger, Harald; Kempf, Sascha; Dikarev, Valeri; Helfert, Stefan; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg

    2005-03-01

    Dust particles, like photons, carry information from remote sites in space and time. From knowledge of the dust particles' birthplace and their bulk properties, we can learn about the remote environment out of which the particles were formed. This approach is called "Dust Astronomy" which is carried out by means of a dust telescope on a Dust Observatory in space. Targets for a dust telescope are the local interstellar medium and nearby star forming regions, as well as comets and asteroids. Dust from interstellar and interplanetary sources is distinguished by accurately sensing their trajectories. Trajectory sensors may use the electric charge signals that are induced when charged grains fly through the detector. Modern in-situ dust impact detectors are capable of providing mass, speed, physical and chemical information of dust grains in space. A Dust Observatory mission is feasible with state-of-the-art technology. It will (1) provide the distinction between interstellar dust and interplanetary dust of cometary and asteroidal origin, (2) determine the elemental composition of impacting dust particles, and (3) monitor the fluxes of various dust components as a function of direction and particle masses.

  10. Surface Modification of Fly Ashes with Carbide Slag and Its Effect on Compressive Strength and Autogenous Shrinkage of Blended Cement Pastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Chengwei; DENG Min; MO Liwu; LIU Kaiwei

    2012-01-01

    Surfaces of grade Ⅲ fly ashes were modified through mixing with carbide slag and calcining at 850 ℃ for 1 h.Mineralogical compositions and surface morphology of fly ashes before and after modification were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM),respectively.Effect of surface-modified fly ashes on compressive strength and autogenous shrinkage of blended cement pastes was investigated.Microstructures of cement pastes were examined by backscattered electron (BSE) imaging and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP).The experimental results showed that β-C2S was formed on the surfaces of fly ashes after modification.Hydration of β-C2S on the surface-modified fly ashes densified interface zone and enhanced bond strength between particles of fly ashes and hydrated clinkers.In addition,surface modification of fly ashes tended to decrease total porosity and 10-50 nm pores of cement pastes.Surface modification of fly ashes increased compressive strength and reduced autogenous shrinkage of cement pastes.

  11. Four Interstellar Dust Candidates from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Cloetens, P.; Davis, A. M.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Fougeray, P.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Grun, E.; Heck, P. R.; Jillier, J. K.; Hoppe, P.; Howard, L.; Hudson, B.; Huss, G. R.

    2011-01-01

    In January 2006, the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, Comet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return of contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approx. 0.1 sq m in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 sq m/day. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a consortium-based project to characterize the collection using nondestructive techniques. The goals and restrictions of the ISPE are described . A summary of analytical techniques is described.

  12. Dust characterization in FTU tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angeli, M., E-mail: deangeli@ifp.cnr.it [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy); Maddaluno, G. [ENEA Unità Tecnica Fusione, C.R. ENEA Frascati, CP65, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Laguardia, L. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy); Ripamonti, D. [Istituto per l’Energetica e le Interfasi – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy); Perelli Cippo, E. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy); Apicella, M.L. [ENEA Unità Tecnica Fusione, C.R. ENEA Frascati, CP65, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Conti, C. [Istituto per la Conservazione e la Valorizzazione dei Beni Culturali – CNR, Milan (Italy); Giacomi, G. [ENEA Unità Tecnica Fusione, C.R. ENEA Frascati, CP65, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Grosso, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Dust present in the vessel of FTU has been collected and analysed. Being FTU a device with full metal plasma facing components for the whole life and equipped with a liquid lithium limiter (LLL) make FTU of special interest from a point of view of dust studies. Analyses were conducted by standard dust analysis methods and by dedicated analysis, as X-rays and neutron diffraction, to investigate the presence of lithium compounds due the presence of the LLL in FTU. Dust collected near the LLL presents a different elemental composition, namely Li compounds, compared to the dust collected in the rest of the vessel; in particular LiO{sub 2}, LiOH, and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. On the basis of these results, the formation of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is proposed via a two steps process. Results of fuel retention measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) method show that fuel retention should not be an issue for FTU.

  13. The global atmospheric loading of dust aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, J. F.; Ridley, D. A.; Haustein, K.; Miller, R. L.; Zhao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral dust is one of the most ubiquitous aerosols in the atmosphere, with important effects on human health and the climate system. But despite its importance, the global atmospheric loading of dust has remained uncertain, with model results spanning about a factor of five. Here we constrain the particle size-resolved atmospheric dust loading and global emission rate, using a novel theoretical framework that uses experimental constraints on the optical properties and size distribution of dust to eliminate climate model errors due to assumed dust properties. We find that most climate models underestimate the global atmospheric loading and emission rate of dust aerosols.

  14. Fibular Allograft and Demineralized Bone Matrix for the Treatment of Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Travis; Morscher, Melanie A; Krahe, Amy M; Adamczyk, Mark J; Weiner, Dennis S

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies documented the use of fibular allograft in the treatment of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) with bone graft epiphysiodesis (BGE). This study describes the results of using a 10-mm diameter premilled fibular allograft packed with demineralized bone matrix placed across the physis in an open surgical approach under image intensification. A review identified 45 cases of BGE using fibular allograft and demineralized bone matrix in 34 patients with a diagnosis of SCFE performed by a single surgeon during an 8-year period. Thirty-four cases (25 patients) had at least 1 year of follow-up and were included in the study. Medical records were reviewed for complications, subsequent surgeries, and time to physeal closure. Of the 34 cases included, there were no cases of acute chondrolysis. Complications included 1 case of bone graft extrusion that required surgical replacement and 1 re-slip requiring surgical stabilization. Five cases of avascular necrosis (AVN) were encountered (1 unstable slip with total head AVN, and 4 stable slips with 3 total head and 1 partial head AVN). In 1 patient, small loose bony fragments were noted on postoperative radiographs that appeared outside of the articular surface of the hip and were asymptomatic. Two patients encountered wound healing issues that resolved with appropriate wound care. In light of the occurrence of AVN in stable cases, BGE with autogenous corticocancellous graft is preferable to BGE with autologous fibular graft for the treatment of SCFE. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e519-e525.].

  15. Glass Frit Clumping And Dusting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J. L.

    2013-09-26

    DWPF mixes a slurry of glass frit (Frit 418) and dilute (1.5 wt%) formic acid solution with high level waste in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). There would be advantages to introducing the frit in a non-slurry form to minimize water addition to the SME, however, adding completely dry frit has the potential to generate dust which could clog filters or condensers. Prior testing with another type of frit, Frit 320, and using a minimal amount of water reduced dust generation, however, the formation of hard clumps was observed. To examine options and behavior, a TTQAP [McCabe and Stone, 2013] was written to initiate tests that would address these concerns. Tests were conducted with four types of glass frit; Frit 320, DWPF Frit 418, Bekeson Frit 418 and Multi-Aspirator Frit 418. The last two frits are chemically identical to DWPF Frit 418 but smaller particles were removed by the respective vendors. Test results on Frit Clumping and Dusting are provided in this report. This report addresses the following seven questions. Short answers are provided below with more detailed answers to follow. 1. Will the addition of a small amount of water, 1.5 wt%, to dry DWPF Frit 418 greatly reduce the dust generation during handling at DWPF? a. Yes, a small scale test showed that adding a little water to the frit greatly reduced dust generation during handling. 2. Will the addition of small amounts of water to the frit cause clumping that will impair frit handling at DWPF? a. No, not with Frit 418. Although clumps were observed to form when 1.5 wt% water was mixed with DWPF Frit 418, then compressed and air-dried overnight, the clumps were easily crushed and did not form the hardened material noted when Frit 320 was tested. 3. What is the measured size distribution of dust generated when dry frit is handled? (This affects the feasibility and choice of processing equipment for removing the dust generating fraction of the frit before it is added to the SME.) a. The size distribution for

  16. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  17. Bosonic string theory with dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a modified bosonic string theory that has a pressureless ‘dust’ field on the string worldsheet. The dust is a real scalar field with unit gradient which breaks conformal invariance. Hamiltonian analysis reveals a time reparametrization constraint linear in the dust field momentum and a spatial diffeomorphism constraint. This feature provides a natural ‘dust time’ gauge in analogy with the parametrized particle. In this gauge we give a Fock quantization of the theory, which is complete and self-consistent in d < 26. The Hamiltonian of the theory is not a constraint; as a consequence the Hilbert space and mass spectrum are characterized by an additional parameter, and includes the usual string spectrum as a special case. The other sectors provide new particle spectra, some of which do not have tachyons. (paper)

  18. Desert Dust and Monsoon Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2014-01-01

    For centuries, inhabitants of the Indian subcontinent have know that heavy dust events brought on by strong winds occur frequently in the pre-monsoon season, before the onset of heavy rain. Yet scientists have never seriously considered the possibility that natural dust can affect monsoon rainfall. Up to now, most studies of the impacts of aerosols on Indian monsoon rainfall have focused on anthropogenic aerosols in the context of climate change. However, a few recent studies have show that aerosols from antropogenic and natural sources over the Indian subcontinent may affect the transition from break to active monsoon phases on short timescales of days to weeks. Writing in Nature Geoscience, Vinoj and colleagues describe how they have shown that desert dust aerosols over the Arabian Sea and West Asia can strenghten the summer monsoon over the Indial subcontinent in a matter of days.

  19. Dust Devil Populations and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Jackson, Brian K.

    2016-08-01

    The highly-skewed diameter and pressure drop distributions of dust devils on Earth and Mars are noted, and challenges of presenting and comparing different types of observations are discussed. The widely-held view that Martian dust devils are larger than Earth's is critically assessed: the question is confounded somewhat by different observation techniques, but some indication of a {˜} 3x larger population on Mars is determined. The largest and most intense (in a relative pressure sense) devils recorded are on Mars, although the largest reported number density is on Earth. The difficulties of concepts used in the literature of `average' diameter, pressure cross section, and area fraction are noted in the context of estimating population-integral effects such as dust lifting.

  20. Dust remobilization in fusion plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Tolias, P; De Angeli, M; De Temmerman, G; Ripamonti, D; Riva, G; Bykov, I; Shalpegin, A; Vignitchouk, L; Brochard, F; Bystrov, K; Bardin, S; Litnovsky, A

    2016-01-01

    The first combined experimental and theoretical studies of dust remobilization by plasma forces are reported. The main theoretical aspects of remobilization are analyzed. In particular, the dominant role of adhesive forces is highlighted and generic remobilization conditions - detachment, sliding, rolling - are formulated. A novel experimental technique is proposed, based on controlled adhesion of dust grains on tungsten samples combined with detailed mapping of the dust deposition profile prior and post plasma exposure. Proof-of-principle experiments in the TEXTOR tokamak and the EXTRAP-T2R reversed-field pinch are presented. The versatile environment of the linear device Pilot-PSI allowed for experiments with different magnetic field topologies and varying plasma conditions that were complemented with camera observations.

  1. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  2. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a ...

  3. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  4. Bone Health and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupsa, Beatrice C; Insogna, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to decreased bone strength and an increased risk of low-energy fractures. Central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements are the gold standard for determining bone mineral density. Bone loss is an inevitable consequence of the decrease in estrogen levels during and following menopause, but additional risk factors for bone loss can also contribute to osteoporosis in older women. A well-balanced diet, exercise, and smoking cessation are key to maintaining bone health as women age. Pharmacologic agents should be recommended in patients at high risk for fracture.

  5. BONE IN OSTEOPETROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteopetrosis, a generalized developmental bone disease due to genetic disturbances, characterized by failure of bone re sorption and continuous bone formation making the bone hard, dense and brittle. Bones of intramembranous ossification and enchondrial ossification are affected genetically and symmetrically. During the process of disease the excess bone formation obliterates the cranial foramina and presses the optic, auditory and facial nerves resulting in defective vision, impaired hearing and facial paralysis. The bone formation in osteopetrosis affects bone marrow function leading to severe anemia and deficient of blood cells. The bone devoid of blood supply due to compression of blood vessels by excess formation of bone are prone to osteomyelitic changes with suppuration and pathological fracture if exposed to infection. Though the condition is chronic progressive, it produces changes leading to fatal condition, it should be studied thoroughly by everyone and hence this article presents a classical case of osteopetrosis with detailed description and discussion for the benefit of readers

  6. Orthodontically guided bone transport in the treatment of alveolar cleft: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Elena; Otero, Marta; Berraquero, Rosario; Wucherpfennig, Begona; Hernández-Godoy, Juan; Guiñales, Jorge; Vincent, Germán; Burgueño, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Conventional treatments are sometimes not possible in certain alveolar cleft cases due to the severity of the gap which separates the fragments. Various management strategies have been proposed, including sequential surgical interventions or delaying treatment until adulthood to then carry out maxillary osteotomies. A further alternative approach has also been proposed, involving the application of bone transport techniques to mobilise the osseous fragments and thereby reduce the gap between lateral fragments and the premaxilla. Case Report We introduce the case of a 10-year-old patient who presented with a bilateral alveolar cleft and a severe gap. Stable occlusion between the premaxilla and the mandible was achieved following orthodontic treatment, making it inadvisable to perform a retrusive osteotomy of the premaxilla in order to close the alveolar clefts. Faced with this situation, it was decided we would employ a bone transport technique under orthodontic guidance using a dental splint. This would enable an osseous disc to be displaced towards the medial area and reduce the interfragmentary distance. During a second surgical intervention, closure of the soft tissues was performed and the gap was filled in using autogenous bone. Conclusions The use of bone transport techniques in selected cases allows closure of the osseous defect, whilst also preserving soft tissues and reducing the amount of bone autograft required. In our case, we were able to respect the position of the premaxilla and, at the same time, generate new tissues at both an alveolar bone and soft tissue level with results which have remained stable over the course of time. Key words:Alveolar cleft, bone transport, graft. PMID:26855699

  7. [Effect of lunar dust on humans: -lunar dust: regolith-].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Miki, Takeo; Higashi, Toshiaki; Horie, Seichi; Tanaka, Kazunari; Mukai, Chiaki

    2010-09-01

    We reviewed the effect of lunar dust (regolith) on humans by the combination of the hazard/exposure of regolith and microgravity of the moon. With regard to the physicochemical properties of lunar dust, the hazard-related factors are its components, fibrous materials and nanoparticles. Animal exposure studies have been performed using a simulant of lunar dust, and it was speculated that the harmful effects of the simulant lies between those of crystalline silica and titanium dioxide. Fibrous materials may not have a low solubility judging from their components. The nanoparticles in lunar dust may have harmful potentials from the view of the components. As for exposure to regolith, there is a possibility that particles larger than ones in earth (1 gravity) are respirable. In microgravity, 1) the deposition of particles of less than 1 µm in diameter in the human lung did not decrease, 2) the functions of macrophages including phagocytosis were suppressed, 3) pulmonary inflammation was changed. These data on hazard/exposure and microgravity suggest that fine and ultrafine particles in regolith may have potential hazards and risks for humans.

  8. Dust transport into Martian polar latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J. R.; Pollack, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    The presence of suspended dust in the Martian atmosphere, and its return to the planet's surface, is implicated in the formation of the polar layered terrain and the dichotomy in perennial CO2 polar cap retention in the two hemispheres. A three dimensional model was used to study Martian global dust storms. The model accounts for the interactive feedbacks between the atmospheric thermal and dynamical states and an evolving radiatively active suspended dust load. Results from dust storm experiments, as well as from simulations in which there is interest in identifying the conditions under which surface dust lifting occurs at various locations and times, indicate that dust transport due to atmospheric eddy motions is likely to be important in the arrival of suspended dust at polar latitudes. The layered terrain in both polar regions of Mars is interpreted as the reality of cyclical episodes of volatile (CO2, H2O) and dust deposition.

  9. Durable Dust Repellent Coating for Metals Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Durable Dust Repellent Coating (DDRC) consists of nano-phase silica, titania, or other oxide coatings to repel dust in a vacuum environment over a wide range of...

  10. Dust Mitigation for the Lunar Surface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The lunar surface is to a large extent covered with a dust layer several meters thick. Known as lunar regolith, it poses a hazard in the form of dust clouds being...

  11. The global distribution of mineral dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dust aerosol particles produced by wind erosion in arid and semi arid regions affect climate and air quality, but the magnitude of these effects is largely unquantified. The major dust source regions include the Sahara, the Arabian and Asian deserts; global annual dust emissions are currently estimated to range between 1000 and 3000 Mt/yr. Dust aerosol can be transported over long distances of thousands of kilometers, e.g. from source regions in the Saharan desert over the North Atlantic, or from the Asian deserts towards the Pacific Ocean. The atmospheric dust load varies considerably on different timescales. While dust aerosol distribution and dust effects are important on global scales, they strongly depend on dust emissions that are controlled on small spatial and temporal scales.

  12. Within patient radiological comparative analysis of the performance of two bone graft extenders utilized in posterolateral lumbar fusion: a retrospective case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey eStewart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two bone graft extenders differing in chemical composition were implanted contralaterally in 27 consecutive patients undergoing instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion as standard of care. Bone marrow aspirate and autogenous bone graft were equally combined either with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP or a hybrid biomaterial (containing hyaluronic acid but lacking a calcium salt and implanted between the transverse processes. Fusion status on each side of the vertebrae was retrospectively graded (1-5 scale on AP planar X-ray at multiple visits as available, through approximately month 12. Additionally, consolidation or resorption since prior visit for each treatment was recorded. Sides receiving β-TCP extender showed marked resorption prior to bone consolidation during the first 6 months. By contrast, sides receiving the hybrid biomaterial containing integrated hyaluronic acid showed rapid bone consolidation by week 6-8, with maintenance of initial bone volume through month 12. Fusion grade was superior for the hybrid biomaterial, differing significantly from β-TCP at day 109 and beyond. Fusion success at >month 12 was 92.9% vs 67.9% for the hybrid biomaterial and β-TCP-treated sides, respectively. The hybrid biomaterial extender demonstrated a shortened time to fusion compared to the calcium-based graft. Mode of action has been demonstrated in the literature to differ between these compositions. Therefore, choice of synthetic biomaterial composition may significantly influence mode of action of cellular events regulating appositional bone growth.

  13. Alkaline leaching of iron and steelmaking dust

    OpenAIRE

    Stafanova, Anna; Aromaa, Jari

    2012-01-01

    Steel production generates significant quantities of dust and sludge in blast furnaces (BF),basic oxygen furnaces (BOF), and electric arc furnaces (EAF). These dusts contain toxicelements, such as heavy metals, and are thus classified as harmful waste making the disposalof them expensive. In addition, direct recycling of dust back to steel production is hindered dueto the presence of zinc. In this literature survey the alkaline leaching of zinc from iron and steelmaking dusts isreviewed. T...

  14. Metal Dusting of Heat-Resistant Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Meshari, Abdulaziz I.

    2008-01-01

    Metal dusting leads to disintegration of such alloys as iron and nickel-based into a ?dust? of particulate metal, metal carbide, carbon, and/or oxide. It occurs in strongly carburising environments at 400-900?C. Literature survey has shown that alloys behave differently in metal dusting conditions based on their composition and the environment. Metal dusting mechanisms for iron and nickel-based alloys have been proposed but, nevertheless, have not been agreed upon and numerous modifications t...

  15. History and Applications of Dust Devil Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Balme, Matthew R.; Gu, Zhaolin; Kahanpää, Henrik; Klose, Martina; Kurgansky, Michael V.; Patel, Manish R.; Reiss, Dennis; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Spiga, Aymeric; Takemi, Tetsuya; Wei, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Studies of dust devils, and their impact on society, are reviewed. Dust devils have been noted since antiquity, and have been documented in many countries, as well as on the planet Mars. As time-variable vortex entities, they have become a cultural motif. Three major stimuli of dust devil research are identified, nuclear testing, terrestrial climate studies, and perhaps most significantly, Mars research. Dust devils present an occasional safety hazard to light structures and have caused several deaths.

  16. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy.

  17. Linear and nonlinear excitations in complex plasmas with nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation and dust size distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Li-Ping; Xue Ju-Kui; Li Yan-Long

    2011-01-01

    Both linear and nonlinear excitation in dusty plasmas have been investigated including the nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation and Gaussian size distribution dust particles.A linear dispersion relation and a Korteweg-de VriesBurgers equation governing the dust acoustic shock waves are obtained.The relevance of the instability of wave and the wave evolution to the dust size distribution and nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation is illustrated both analytically and numerically.The numerical results show that the Gaussian size distribution of dust particles and the nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation have strong common influence on the propagation of both linear and nonlinear excitations.

  18. Thirteen years of Aeolian dust dynamics in a desert region (Negev desert, Israel): analysis of horizontal and vertical dust flux, vertical dust distribution and dust grain size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offer, Z.Y.; Goossens, D.

    2004-01-01

    At Sede Boqer (northern Negev desert, Israel), aeolian dust dynamics have been measured during the period 1988–2000. This study focuses on temporal records of the vertical and horizontal dust flux, the vertical distribution of the dust particles in the atmosphere, and the grain size of the particles

  19. House dust extracts contain potent immunological adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukelman, C.J.; Dijk, H. van; Aerts, P.C.; Rademaker, P.M.; Berrens, L.; Willers, J.M.N.

    1987-01-01

    A crude aqueous extract of house dust and two house dust subfractions were tested for adjuvant activity in a sensitivity assay performed in mice. Evidence is presented that house dust contains at least two potent immunological adjuvants. One of these, present in both subfractions, was probably endot

  20. The dust debris around HR 4796

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jura, M.

    1991-01-01

    The IRAS data strongly suggest that there is dust debris around the main-sequence A star HR 4796. The optical depth of the dust cloud around HR 4796 is probably twice that around Beta Pic, the main-sequence star in the Bright Star Catalog which was previously thought to have the most opaque dust debris cloud.

  1. Modeling of dust deposition in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The deposition of dust particles has a significant influence on the global bio-geochemical cycle. Currently, the lack of spatiotemporal data creates great uncertainty in estimating the global dust budget. To improve our understanding of the fate, transport and cycling of airborne dust, there is a ne...

  2. Radio frequency discharge with dust particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chutov, Y. I.; W. J. Goedheer,; Kravchenko, O. Y.; Zuz, V. M.; Yan, M.; Martins, R.; Ferreira, I.; Fortunato, E.; Kroesen, G.

    2000-01-01

    A 1D PIC/MCC method has been developed for computer simulations of low-pressure RF discharges with dust particles using the method for dust-free discharges. A RF discharge in argon with dust particles distributed uniformly in the interelectrode gap is simulated at parameters providing a possibility

  3. Evaluation of Osteoconductive and Osteogenic Potential of a Dentin-Based Bone Substitute Using a Calvarial Defect Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the osteoconductive and osteogenic properties of processed bovine dentin using a robust rabbit calvarial defect model. In total, 16 New Zealand White rabbits were operated to create three circular defects in the calvaria. One defect was left unfilled, one filled with collected autogenous bone, and the third defect was filled with the dentin-based bone substitute. Following surgery and after a healing period of either 1 or 6 weeks, a CT scan was obtained. Following sacrificing, the tissues were processed for histological examination. The CT data showed the density in the area grafted with the dentin-based material was higher than the surrounding bone and the areas grafted with autologous bone after 1 week and 6 weeks of healing. The area left unfilled remained an empty defect after 1 week and 6 weeks. Histological examination of the defects filled with the dentin product after 6 weeks showed soft tissue encapsulation around the dentin particles. It can be concluded that the rabbit calvarial model used in this study is a robust model for the assessment of bone materials. Bovine dentin is a biostable material; however, it may not be suitable for repairing large 4-wall defects.

  4. Dust levitation about Itokawa's equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, C.; Zimmerman, M.; Takahashi, Y.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: Electrostatic dust motion has been hypothesized to occur on the asteroids, due to the observations of the Eros dust ponds [1] and the potential presence of such a phenomenon on the Moon [2]. There are two phases of electrostatic dust motion: lofting and the subsequent trajectories. The feasibility of electrostatic dust lofting can be assessed by comparing the strength of the electrostatic force to the gravity and cohesion which hold the grain on to the surface [3--5]. The motion of the dust grains after they detach from the surface can be described as either ballistic, escaping, or levitating. We are interested in dust levitation because it could potentially redistribute grains on the surface of an asteroid (for instance, producing the Eros dust ponds) and it could also be hazardous to spacecraft. Specifically, levitating dust could obscure the observations of surface-based spacecraft or possibly trigger obstacle avoidance routines during landing. Dust Levitation: Dust levitation is defined as the altitude oscillation of grains prior to their redeposition on the surface of an asteroid. Levitation occurs about equilibria where the electrostatic and gravity forces on the grain are equal and opposite. An equilibrium state is defined as a position and charge for a specific grain size. We have previously identified equilibria using a 1D plasma model and a simple gravity model for Itokawa [6]. In this simple model, the largest grain that was capable of stable levitation above Itokawa was 3 microns (in radius) [6]. Additionally, we have shown that levitating dust grains follow the variation in the equilibria for a rotating asteroid (i.e., the grain continues to oscillate about an equilibrium state that approaches the surface) [7]. Due to the nonspherical shape of Itokawa, both the gravity and plasma environments are much more complicated than the 1D approximations made in our previous work. Thus, in order to accurately assess the feasibility of dust

  5. Polarized Microwave Radiation from Dust

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarian, A

    2001-01-01

    Observations of cosmic microwave background in the range 10-90 GHz have revealed an anomalous foreground component well correlated with 12 \\mum, 60 \\mum and 100 \\mum emission from interstellar dust. As the recent cross-correlation analysis of WHAM H\\alpha maps with the Tenerife 10 and 15 GHz maps supports an earlier conclusion that the emission does not arise from free-free radiation, the interstellar dust origin of it is left as the only suspect. Two competing models of this emission exist. The more favored at the moment is the spinning dust model, the other is the model that uses grains with strong magnetic response. In the spinning dust model the emission arises from rapid rotation of ultrasmall grains that have dipole moments, while in the other model magnetic grains emit due to thermal vibrations of magnetic dipoles. Both models predict the emission to be partially polarized and this emission can seriously interfere with the CMB polarization measurements. We discuss observational signatures that can be u...

  6. Linear Alkylbenzenesulfonates in indoor Floor Dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolkoff, Peder; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard

    1999-01-01

    The amount of Linear Alkylbenzenesulfonates (LAS) in the particle fraction of floor dust sampled from 7 selected public buildings varied between 34 and 1500 microgram per gram dust, while the contents of the fibre fractions generally were higher with up to 3500 microgram LAS/g dust. The use...... of a cleaning agent with LAS resulted in an increase of the amount of LAS in the floor dust after floor wash relative to just before floor wash. However, the most important source of LAS in the indoor floor dust appears to be residues of detergent in clothing. Thus, a newly washed shirt contained 2960 microgram...

  7. Numerical Prediction of Dust. Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, J. M.; Basart, S.; Benincasa, F.; Boucher, O.; Brooks, M.; Chen, J. P.; Colarco, P. R.; Gong, S.; Huneeus, N.; Jones, L; Lu, S.; Menut, L.; Mulcahy, J.; Nickovic, S.; Morcrette, J.-J.; Perez, C.; Reid, J. S.; Sekiyama, T. T.; Tanaka, T.; Terradellas, E.; Westphal, D. L.; Zhang, X.-Y.; Zhou, C.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Covers the whole breadth of mineral dust research, from a scientific perspective Presents interdisciplinary work including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies Explores the role of dust as a player and recorder of environmental change This volume presents state-of-the-art research about mineral dust, including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies. Dust research is a new, dynamic and fast-growing area of science and due to its multiple roles in the Earth system, dust has become a fascinating topic for many scientific disciplines. Aspects of dust research covered in this book reach from timescales of minutes (as with dust devils, cloud processes, and radiation) to millennia (as with loess formation and oceanic sediments), making dust both a player and recorder of environmental change. The book is structured in four main parts that explore characteristics of dust, the global dust cycle, impacts of dust on the Earth system, and dust as a climate indicator. The chapters in these parts provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of this highly interdisciplinary subject. The contributions presented here cover dust from source to sink and describe all the processes dust particles undergo while travelling through the atmosphere. Chapters explore how dust is lifted and transported, how it affects radiation, clouds, regional circulations, precipitation and chemical processes in the atmosphere, and how it deteriorates air quality. The book explores how dust is removed from the atmosphere by gravitational settling, turbulence or precipitation, how iron contained in dust fertilizes terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and about the role that dust plays in human health. We learn how dust is observed, simulated using computer models and forecast. The book also details the role of dust deposits for climate reconstructions

  8. Dust bands in the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Mark V.; Greenberg, Richard; Dermott, Stanley F.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Burns, Joseph A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the original IRAS observations leading to the discovery of the three dust bands in the asteroid belt and the analysis of data. Special attention is given to an analytical model of the dust band torus and to theories concerning the origin of the dust bands, with special attention given to the collisional equilibrium (asteroid family), the nonequilibrium (random collision), and the comet hypotheses of dust-band origin. It is noted that neither the equilibrium nor nonequilibrium models, as currently formulated, present a complete picture of the IRAS dust-band observations.

  9. Magnetopause displacements: the possible role of dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Large compressions of the magnetopause are proposed to occasionally result from temporary encounters of the magnetosphere with dust streams in interplanetary space. Such streams may have their origin in cometary dust tails or asteroids which cross the inner heliosphere or in meteoroids in Earth's vicinity. Dust ejected from such objects when embedding the magnetosphere for their limited transition time should cause substantial global deformations of the magnetopause/magnetosphere due to the very large dust grain mass and momentum which compensates for the low dust density when contributing to the upstream pressure variation.

  10. Global amount of dust in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Fukugita, Masataka

    2011-01-01

    It is pointed out that the total amount of dust in the Universe that is produced in stellar evolution in the entire cosmic time is consistent with the observed amount, if we add to the dust amount inferred for galactic discs the amount recently uncovered in galactic haloes and the surrounding of galaxies in reddening of the quasar light passing through the vicinity of galaxies. The inventory concerning the dust closes. This implies that dust produced from stars should survive effectively for the cosmic time, and that a substantial amount of dust is produced in the burning phase of evolved stars of intermedaite mass.

  11. Slow strain rate stress corrosion cracking behaviour of as-welded and plasma electrolytic oxidation treated AZ31HP magnesium alloy autogenous laser beam weldment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The joining of a thin section AZ31HP magnesium alloy was accomplished by laser beam welding in the autogenous mode using a Nd-YAG laser system. Micro hardness evaluation and slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) tests in air revealed that the weld metal had near-matching mechanical properties corresponding to that of the parent alloy. However, in terms of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance as assessed by SSRT tests in ASTM D1384 solution, the weldment was found to have higher susceptibility compared to the parent alloy. The fracture in the weld metal/fusion boundary/HAZ interface suggested that the failure was due to the grain coarsening at the very narrow heat affected zone. The resistance to SCC of the parent alloy and the weldment specimens was found to improve slightly by the application of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating from a silicate based electrolyte.

  12. Argus II retinal prosthesis implantation with scleral flap and autogenous temporalis fascia as alternative patch graft material: a 4-year follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matet, Alexandre; Amar, Nawel; Mohand-Said, Saddek; Sahel, José-Alain; Barale, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Argus II retinal prosthesis is composed of an epiretinal electrode array positioned over the macula and connected to an extrascleral electronics case via a silicone cable, running through a sclerotomy. During implantation, the manufacturer recommends to cover the sclerotomy site with a patch of processed human pericardium to prevent postoperative hypotony and conjunctival erosion by the underlying electronics case. Due to biomedical regulations prohibiting the use of this material in France, we developed an alternative technique combining a scleral flap protecting the sclerotomy and an autogenous graft of superior temporalis fascia overlying the electronics case. Methods The purpose of this study is to describe the 4-year outcomes of this modified procedure in three subjects who underwent Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System implantation. Clinical data consisting of intraocular pressure measurements and tolerance in terms of conjunctival erosion or inflammation were retrospectively assessed over a 4-year postoperative follow-up. Results None of the three patients implanted with the modified technique developed ocular hypotony over 4 years. A normal, transient conjunctival inflammation occurred during the first postoperative month but conjunctival erosion was not observed in any of the three patients over 4 years. Four years after implantation, the autogenous temporalis fascia graft remained well tolerated and the retinal prosthesis was functional in all three patients. Conclusion The combination of an autograft of superficial temporalis fascia and a scleral flap efficiently prevented leakage through the sclerotomy site, ocular hypotony, and conjunctival erosion by the extrascleral electronics case. This modified technique is suitable for the implantation of existing and forthcoming retinal prostheses. Superficial temporalis fascia may also be used as alternative to commercial tectonic tissues for scleral wound repair in clinical settings where they

  13. Dust Measurements in the Outer Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Grün, E; Landgraf, M; Grün, Eberhard; Krüger, Harald; Landgraf, Markus

    1999-01-01

    Dust measurements in the outer solar system are reviewed. Only the plasma wave instrument on board Voyagers 1 and 2 recorded impacts in the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt (EKB). Pioneers 10 and 11 measured a constant dust flux of 10-micron-sized particles out to 20 AU. Dust detectors on board Ulysses and Galileo uniquely identified micron-sized interstellar grains passing through the planetary system. Impacts of interstellar dust grains onto big EKB objects generate at least about a ton per second of micron-sized secondaries that are dispersed by Poynting-Robertson effect and Lorentz force. We conclude that impacts of interstellar particles are also responsible for the loss of dust grains at the inner edge of the EKB. While new dust measurements in the EKB are in an early planning stage, several missions (Cassini and STARDUST) are en route to analyze interstellar dust in much more detail.

  14. Analysis of reconstruction using non-vascularized iliac bone graft for patients with mandibular defects%非血管化髂骨移植重建下颌骨缺损的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢富强; 孙健

    2012-01-01

    Objective To make a clinical retrospective analysis of reconstruction using autogenous non-vascularized iliac bone graft for patients with mandibular defects, and then to evaluate the treatment effectiveness and operation announcements of this method. Methods 34 patients who were suffered from discontinued mandibule because of tumor or trauma, were treated with autogenous non-vascularized iliac bone graft. The surgery technique, postoperative outcomes and complications were analyzed. Results In 34 patients adopted non-vascularized iliac bone graft, 31 patients adopted rigid internal fixation with titanium mini plate, 3 patients with bridging titanium plate. 27 bone grafts survived completely, the overall success rate was 79.41%. 3(8.82%) of the bone grafts healed after infection, 4(11.76%) bone grafts lost because of infection. Conclusion The autogenous non-vascularized iliac bone graft is one of the most important way for the reconstruction of mandibular defects. The methods of internal fixation includes titanium mini pate and bridging titanium plate.%目的 对非血管化髂骨移植重建下颌骨缺损的病例进行临床回顾性分析,探讨其治疗效果及手术注意事项.方法 选择因肿瘤和外伤致下颌骨缺损后行自体非血管化髂骨同期移植重建术修复的34例患者为研究对象,分析其手术方法、术后效果及并发症的发生情况.结果 采用游离非血管化髂骨同期移植重建下颌骨缺损的34例患者中,小钛板双排内固定31例,重建板内固定3例.34例患者中,成功病例27例(79.41%),良好病例3例(8.82%),失败病例4例(11.76%).失败原因均为感染而取出植入骨.结论 自体非血管化髂骨移植重建术是下颌骨缺损重建的重要方法之一,内固定的方式有小钛板和重建板.

  15. Regional characteristics of dust events in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShigong; WANGJinyan; ZHOUZijiang; SHANGKezheng; YANGDebao; ZHAO

    2003-01-01

    The regional characteristics of dust events in China has been mainly studied by using the data of dust storm,wind-blown sand and floating dust from 338 observation stations through China from 1954 to 2000.The results of this study are as follows:(1)In China,there are two high frequent areas of dust events,one is located in the area of Minfeng and Hotan in the South xinjiang Basin,the other is situated in the area of Minqin and Jilantai in the Hexi Region.Furthermore,the spatial distributions of the various types of dust events are different.The dust storms mainly occur in the arid and semiarid areas covering the deserts and the areas undergoing desertification in northern China.Wind-blown sand and floating-dust not only occur in the areas where dust storms occur,but also extend to the neighboring areas.The range of wind-blown sand extends northeastward and southeastward,but floating-dust mainly extends southeastward to the low-latitude region such as the East China Plain and the area of the middloe and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.Compared with wind-blown sand,the floating-dust seldom occurs in the high latitude areas such as North xinjiang and Northeast China.(2)The affected areas of dust storms can be divided into seven sub-regions,that is,North Xinjiang Region,South Xinjiang Region,Hexi Region,Qaidam Basin Region,Hetao Region.Northeastem China Region and Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Region.The area of the most frequent occurrence of dust storms and floating-dust is in South Xinjiang Region,and of wind-blown sang in the Hexi Region.In general,the frequency of dust events in all the seven regions shows a decreasing thendency from 1954 to 2000,but there are certain differences between various dust events in different regions.The maximum interannual change and ariance of dust events during this time happened in South Xinjiang Region and Hexi Region.The udst events generally occur most frequently in April in most parts of China.The spring occurred days of dust events

  16. Coupling Mars' Dust and Water Cycles: Effects on Dust Lifting Vigor, Spatial Extent and Seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, M. A.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Haberle, R. M.; Montmessin, F.

    2012-01-01

    The dust cycle is an important component of Mars' current climate system. Airborne dust affects the radiative balance of the atmosphere, thus greatly influencing the thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere. Dust raising events on Mars occur at spatial scales ranging from meters to planet-wide. Although the occurrence and season of large regional and global dust storms are highly variable from one year to the next, there are many features of the dust cycle that occur year after year. Generally, a low-level dust haze is maintained during northern spring and summer, while elevated levels of atmospheric dust occur during northern autumn and winter. During years without global-scale dust storms, two peaks in total dust loading were observed by MGS/TES: one peak occurred before northern winter solstice at Ls 200-240, and one peak occurred after northern winter solstice at L(sub s) 305-340. These maxima in dust loading are thought to be associated with transient eddy activity in the northern hemisphere, which has been observed to maximize pre- and post-solstice. Interactive dust cycle studies with Mars General Circulation Models (MGCMs) have included the lifting, transport, and sedimentation of radiatively active dust. Although the predicted global dust loadings from these simulations capture some aspects of the observed dust cycle, there are marked differences between the simulated and observed dust cycles. Most notably, the maximum dust loading is robustly predicted by models to occur near northern winter solstice and is due to dust lifting associated with down slope flows on the flanks of the Hellas basin. Thus far, models have had difficulty simulating the observed pre- and post- solstice peaks in dust loading. Interactive dust cycle studies typically have not included the formation of water ice clouds or their radiative effects. Water ice clouds can influence the dust cycle by scavenging dust from atmosphere and by interacting with solar and infrared radiation

  17. How Is Bone Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with bone cancer. Accurate diagnosis of a bone tumor often depends on combining information about its location (what bone is affected and even which part of the bone is involved), appearance on x-rays, and appearance under a microscope. ...

  18. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology.In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, ... Bone-density testing interval and transition to osteoporosis in ...

  19. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  20. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It has been called a childhood disease with old age consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps ... stronger. Weight-bearing exercise that forces you to work against gravity is the best exercise for bone. ...

  1. Bone Loss in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DENSITY? Although bone seems as hard as a rock, it’s actually living tissue. Throughout your life, old ... available Bone Loss (.pdf) File: 290 KB 733 Third Avenue, Suite 510, New York, NY 10017 | 800- ...

  2. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or ... marrow makes too many white blood cells Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone ...

  3. In vitro culture of large bone substitutes in a new bioreactor: importance of the flow direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, V [Laboratoire de Recherche sur les Biomateriaux et les Biotechnologies (LR2B, UPRES EA 2603), Universite du Littoral Cote-d' Opale, Boulogne-sur-Mer (France); Hivart, Ph [Laboratoire de Recherche sur les Biomateriaux et les Biotechnologies (LR2B, UPRES EA 2603), Universite du Littoral Cote-d' Opale, Boulogne-sur-Mer (France); Descamps, M [Laboratoire des Materiaux et Procedes, Universite de Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambresis (LMP, UPRES EA 2443), Maubeuge (France); Hardouin, P [Laboratoire de Recherche sur les Biomateriaux et les Biotechnologies (LR2B, UPRES EA 2603), Universite du Littoral Cote-d' Opale, Boulogne-sur-Mer (France)

    2007-09-15

    New biomaterials combined with osteogenic cells are now being developed as an alternative to autogeneous bone grafts when the skeletal defect reaches a critical size. Yet, the size issue appears to be a key obstacle in the development of bone tissue engineering. Bioreactors are needed to allow the in vitro expansion of cells inside large bulk materials under appropriate conditions. However, no bioreactor has yet been designed for large-scale 3D structures and custom-made scaffolds. In this study, we evaluate the efficiency of a new bioreactor for the in vitro development of large bone substitutes, ensuring the perfusion of large ceramic scaffolds by the nutritive medium. The survival and proliferation of cells inside the scaffolds after 7 and 28 days in this dynamic culture system and the impact of the direction of the flow circulation are evaluated. The follow-up of glucose consumption, DNA quantification and microscopic evaluation all confirmed cell survival and proliferation for a sample under dynamic culture conditions, whereas static culture leads to the death of cells inside the scaffolds. Two directions of flow perfusion were assayed; the convergent direction leads to enhanced results compared to divergent flow.

  4. On the Feasibility of Utilizing Allogeneic Bone Blocks for Atrophic Maxillary Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Monje

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This systematic review was aimed at assessing the feasibility by means of survival rate, histologic analysis, and causes of failure of allogeneic block grafts for augmenting the atrophic maxilla. Material and Methods. A literature search was conducted by one reviewer in several databases. Articles were included in this systematic review if they were human clinical trials in which outcomes of allogeneic bone block grafts were studied by means of survival rate. In addition other factors were extracted in order to assess their influence upon graft failure. Results. Fifteen articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and subsequently were analyzed in this systematic review. A total of 361 block grafts could be followed 4 to 9 months after the surgery, of which 9 (2.4% failed within 1 month to 2 months after the surgery. Additionally, a weighed mean 4.79 mm (95% CI: 4.51–5.08 horizontal bone gain was computed from 119 grafted sites in 5 studies. Regarding implant cumulative survival rate, the weighed mean was 96.9% (95% CI: 92.8–98.7%, computed from 228 implants over a mean follow-up period of 23.9 months. Histologic analysis showed that allogeneic block grafts behave differently in the early stages of healing when compared to autogenous block grafts. Conclusion. Atrophied maxillary reconstruction with allogeneic bone block grafts represents a reliable option as shown by low block graft failure rate, minimal resorption, and high implant survival rate.

  5. Bone regeneration in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, Paolo; Duvina, Marco; Barbato, Luigi; Biondi, Eleonora; Nuti, Niccolò; Brancato, Leila; Rose, Giovanna Delle

    2011-01-01

    The edentulism of the jaws and the periodontal disease represent conditions that frequently leads to disruption of the alveolar bone. The loss of the tooth and of its bone of support lead to the creation of crestal defects or situation of maxillary atrophy. The restoration of a functional condition involves the use of endosseous implants who require adequate bone volume, to deal with the masticatory load. In such situations the bone need to be regenerated, taking advantage of the biological p...

  6. BONE MECHANOTRANSDUCTION: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Joana; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Queiroga, Cristina; Lucena, Sónia; Potes, José

    2011-01-01

    This review focus on the bone physiology and mechanotransduction elements and mechanisms. Bone biology and architecture is deeply related to the mechanical environment. Orthopaedic implants cause profound changes in the biomechanics and electrophysiology of the skeleton. In the context of biomedical engineering, a deep reflexion on bone physiology and electromechanics is needed. Strategic development of new biomaterials and devices that respect and promote continuity with bone str...

  7. Gracile bone dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz [Department of Medical Imaging, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead 2145, NSW (Australia); Masel, John [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Sillence, David O. [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Sydney (Australia); Arbuckle, Susan [Department of Anatomical Pathology, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW (Australia); Juttnerova, Vera [Oddeleni Lekarske Genetiky, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2002-09-01

    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  8. Disk evolution: dust and gas*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Disks are a natural by-product of start formation. Just like the formation if a star is a lengthy process that goes through many stages, disks around young stars evolve my processing matter through the disk and dumping it onto the star. The solid and gaseous components of disks do not always evolve together - dust-gas separation can take place, dust grains may grow. In this chapter we attempt a brief overview of processes that shape this evolution, in a way that is useful as a background to the other chapters in this lecture series. As such, the chapter does not aim for completeness or being up to date with some of the most recent developments.

  9. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan;

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the e......Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence...... not extend beyond the end of treatment. Finally, allergen immunotherapy has a poor but improving evidence base (notably on sublingual tablets) and its benefits last after treatment ends. This review identifies needs for deeper physician knowledge on the extent and impact of HDM allergy in respiratory disease...... and therapy of HDM respiratory allergy in practice....

  10. Dust alignment in astrophysical environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarian, Alex; Thiem Hoang, Chi

    Dust is known to be aligned in interstellar medium and the arising polarization is extensively used to trace magnetic fields. What process aligns dust grains was one of the most long-standing problems of astrophysics in spite of the persistent efforts to solve it. For years the Davis-Greenstein paramagnetic alignment was the primary candidate for explaining grain alignment. However, the situation is different now and the most promising mechanism is associated with radiative torques (RATs) acting on irregular grains. I shall present the analytical theory of RAT alignment, discuss the observational tests that support this theory. I shall also discuss in what situations we expect to see the dominance of paramagnetic alignment.

  11. Dynamics of Solar System Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermott, Stanley F.

    2002-01-01

    The ongoing aim of the research is to investigate the dynamical and physical evolution of interplanetary dust particles in order to produce a detailed global model of the zodiacal cloud and its constituent components that is capable of predicting thermal fluxes in mid-infrared wave bands to an accuracy of 1% or better; with the additional aim of exploiting this research as a basis for predicting structure in exozodiacal clouds that may be signatures of unseen planets.

  12. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. PMID:25579825

  13. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær;

    2015-01-01

    the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  14. What's a Funny Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's a Funny Bone? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's a Funny Bone? Print A A A Text Size Have you ... prickly kind of dull pain? That's your funny bone! It doesn't really hurt as much as ...

  15. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the loss ... The sooner you take steps to prevent bone loss, the lower your risk of osteoporosis later in life. If you are skipping menstrual periods, have had ...

  16. EFFECT OF DUST CHARGE FLUCTUATIONS ON KELVIN-HELMHOLTZ INSTABILITY IN A COLD DUST PLASMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Li; Li Zhongyuan; Liu Zhenxing

    2000-01-01

    Effect of dust charge fluctuations on Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability driven by sheared dust flow is investigated in magnetised three-component cold dusty plasma. It is found that the dust charge fluctuations have little effect on the tenuous dust plasma in low-frequency perturbation. For a dense dust plasma, the maximum damping rate of the perturbed wave due to dust charge fluctuations will reach the order of dusty charging frequency. It will affect the existence of the K-H instability in the long wave length perturbation.

  17. Dust amorphization in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Glauser, Adrian M; Watson, Dan M; Henning, Thomas; Schegerer, Alexander A; Wolf, Sebastian; Audard, Marc; Baldovin-Saavedra, Carla

    2009-01-01

    High-energy irradiation of the circumstellar material might impact the structure and the composition of a protoplanetary disk and hence the process of planet formation. In this paper, we present a study on the possible influence of the stellar irradiation, indicated by X-ray emission, on the crystalline structure of the circumstellar dust. The dust crystallinity is measured for 42 class II T Tauri stars in the Taurus star-forming region using a decomposition fit of the 10 micron silicate feature, measured with the Spitzer IRS instrument. Since the sample includes objects with disks of various evolutionary stages, we further confine the target selection, using the age of the objects as a selection parameter. We correlate the X-ray luminosity and the X-ray hardness of the central object with the crystalline mass fraction of the circumstellar dust and find a significant anti-correlation for 20 objects within an age range of approx. 1 to 4.5 Myr. We postulate that X-rays represent the stellar activity and consequ...

  18. On Multifractal of Cantor Dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In-Soo BAEK

    2009-01-01

    We consider quasi-self-similar measures with respect to all real numbers on a Cantor dust.We define a local index function on the real numbers for each quasi-self-similar measure at each point in a Cantor dust.The value of the local index function at the real number zero for all the quasi-self-similar measures at each point is the weak local dimension of the point.We also define transformed measures of a quasi-self-similar measure which are closely related to the local index function.We compute the local dimensions of transformed measures of a quasi-self-similar measure to find the multifractal spectrum of the quasi-self-similar measure.Furthermore we give an essential example for the theorem of local dimension of transformed measure.In fact,our result is an ultimate generalization of that of a selfsimilar measure on a self-similar Cantor set.Furthermore the results also explain the recent results about weak local dimensions on a Cantor dust.

  19. Stone dust requirements and options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Humphreys; Terry O' Beirne [ACIRL (Australia)

    2000-10-01

    This project investigated the level of stone dusting required to inert Australian coals to prevent the propagation of a coal dust explosion. Coal samples from Australian mines were tested to determine individual inerting levels and other explosibility factors. These properties were correlated against other coal properties such as volatile content and vitrinite reflectance. The impacts of ignition energy in the test apparatus and of the presence of methane presence were examined. Results show that the inerting requirements for individual coals are not correlated to volatile content or any other common coal property. For the range of coals mined by underground methods in Australia, the individual inerting requirement varies from 83% to 85% total incombustible content (TIC) which is the stone dust plus ash and moisture from the coal. The impact of methane is to increase the inerting requirement by 5% TIC for the first 1% of methane present. Large-scale testing of one of the Australian coals was undertaken at the Klopperbos facility in South Africa to be compared against the results obtained in the laboratory. The results obtained indicated an inerting requirement of between 81.8% and 86.3% compared to the laboratory results of 84.3% at 5kJ ignition energy.

  20. The Dust & Gas Properties of M83

    CERN Document Server

    Foyle, K; Mentuch, E; Bendo, G; Dariush, A; Parkin, T; Pohlen, M; Sauvage, M; Smith, M W L; Roussel, H; Baes, M; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; Davies, J I; Eales, S A; Madden, S; Page, M J; Spinoglio,

    2012-01-01

    We examine the dust and gas properties of the nearby, barred galaxy M83, which is part of the Very Nearby Galaxy Survey. Using images from the PACS and SPIRE instruments of Herschel, we examine the dust temperature and dust mass surface density distribution. We find that the nuclear, bar and spiral arm regions exhibit higher dust temperatures and masses compared to interarm regions. However, the distribution of dust temperature and mass are not spatially coincident. Assuming a trailing spiral structure, the dust temperature peaks in the spiral arms lie ahead of the dust surface density peaks. The dust mass surface density correlates well with the distribution of molecular gas as traced by CO (J=3-2) images (JCMT) and the star formation rate as traced by H?2 with a correction for obscured star formation using 24 micron emission. Using HI images from THINGS to trace the atomic gas component, we make total gas mass surface density maps and calculate the gas-to-dust ratio. We find a mean gas-to-dust ratio of 84 \\...

  1. Physical properties of suspended dust in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Olafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Olafur; Skrabalova, Lenka; Sigurdardottir, Gudmunda; Branis, Martin; Hladil, Jindrich; Chadimova, Leona; Skala, Roman; Navratil, Tomas; Menar, Sibylle von Lowis of; Thorsteinsson, Throstur

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric Dust Measurements (ADMI 2013) of one of the most active dust sources in Iceland (Mælifellsandur) were conducted during season with high precipitation on August 8th-18th, 2013. We measured mass concentrations (PM2.5 and PM10), particle size distributions in size range 0.3-10μm and number concentrations during rather small dust event. Dust samples of the event were analyzed (morpho-textural observations, optical and scanning-electron microscopy). Two TSI 8520 DustTrak Aerosol Monitors (light-scattering laser photometers that measure aerosol mass concentrations in range 0.001 to 100 mg/m3) and one TSI Optical Particle Sizer (OPS) 3330 (optical scattering from single particle up to 16 different channels - 0.3 to 10 μm - measuring particle size distribution) were used. We measured a dust event which occurred during wet and low wind/windless conditions as result of surface heating in August 2013. Maximum particle number concentration (PM~0.3-10 µm) reached 149954 particles cm-3 min-1 while mass concentration (PMshards with bubbles and 80 % of the particulate matter is volcanic glass rich in heavy metals. Wet dust particles were mobilized within < 4 hours. Here we introduced a comprehensive study on physical properties of the Icelandic dust aerosol and the first scientific study of particle size distributions in an Icelandic dust event including findings on initiation of dust suspension.

  2. Metal Dusting-Mechanisms and Preventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Q.ZHANG; D.J.YOUNG

    2009-01-01

    Metal dusting attacks iron, low and high alloy steels and nickel-or cobalt-base alloys by disintegrating bulk metals and alloys into metal particles in a coke deposit. It occurs in strongly carburising gas atmospheres (carbon activity aC>1) at elevated temperatures (400℃~1000℃). This phenomenon has been studied for decades, but the detailed mechanism is still not well understood. Current methods of protection against metal dusting are either directed to the process conditions-temperature and gas composition-or to the development of a dense adherent oxide layer on the surface of the alloy by selective oxidation. However, metal dusting still occurs by carbon dissolving in the base metal via defects in the oxide scale. The research work at UNSW is aimed at determining the detailed mechanism of metal dusting of both ferritic and austenitic alloys, in particular the microprocesses of graphite deposition, nanoparticle formation and underlying metal destruction. This work was carried out using surface observation, cross-section analysis by focused ion beam and electron microscopic examination of coke deposits at different stages of the reaction. It was found that surface orientation affected carbon deposition and metal dusting at the initial stage of the reaction. Metal dusting occurred only when graphite grew into the metal interior where the volume expansion is responsible for metal disintegration and dusting. It was also found that the metal dusting process could be significantly changed by alterations in alloy chemistry. Germanium was found to affect the iron dusting process by destabilising FeC but increasing the rate of carbon deposition and dusting, which questions the role of cementite in ferritic alloy dusting. Whilst adding copper to iron did not change the carburisation kinetics, cementite formation and coke morphology, copper alloying reduced nickel and nickel-base alloy dusting rates significantly. Application of these fundamental results to the dusting

  3. House dust mites, our intimate associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadchatram, M

    2005-06-01

    House dust mites have lived in human contact from time immemorial. Human dander or dead skin constitutes the major organic component of the house dust ecosystem. Because the mites feed on dander, dust mites and human association will continue to co-exist as part of our environment. Efficient house-keeping practice is the best form of control to reduce infestation. However, special precautions are important when individuals are susceptible or sensitive to dust mites. House dust mites are responsible for causing asthma, rhinitis and contact dermatitis. The respiratory allergies are caused by the inhalation of dead or live mites, their faecal matter or other byproducts. Immune factors are of paramount importance in the development of dust related or mite induced respiratory diseases. House dust mites were found in some 1,000 samples of dust taken from approximately 330 dwellings in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Mattresses, carpets, corners of a bedroom, and floor beneath the bed are favourable dust mite habitats. The incriminating species based on studies here and elsewhere, as well as many other species of dust mites of unknown etiological importance are widely distributed in Malaysian homes. Density of dust mites in Malaysia and Singapore is greater than in temperate countries. Prevention and control measures with reference to subjects sensitive to dust mite allergies, including chemical control described in studies conducted in Europe and America are discussed. However, a cost free and most practical way to remove mites, their faecal matter and other products is to resort to sunning the bedding and carpets to kill the living mites, and then beaten and brushed to remove the dust and other components.

  4. Aerosol optical absorption by dust and black carbon in Taklimakan Desert, during no-dust and dust-storm conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Lu; Wenshou Wei; Mingzhe Liu; Weidong Gao; Xi Han

    2012-01-01

    Aerosol absorption coefficient σap involves the additive contribution of both black carbon aerosol (BC) and dust aerosol.The linear statistical regression analysis approach introduced by Fialho et al.(2005) is used to estimate the absorption exponents of BC and dust aerosol absorption coefficients,and further to separate the contributions of these two types of aerosols from the total light absorption coefficient measured in the hinterland of Taklimakan Desert in the spring of 2006.Absorption coefficients are measured by means of a 7-wavelength Aethalometer from 1 March to 31 May and from 1 November to 28 December,2006.The absorption exponent of BC absorption coefficient α is estimated as (-0.95 ±0.002) under background weather (supposing the observed absorption coefficient is due only to BC); the estimated absorption exponent of dust aerosol absorption coefficient β during the 6 dust storm periods (strong dust storm) is (-2.55 ± 0.009).Decoupling analysis of the measured light absorption coefficients demonstrates that,on average,the light absorptions caused by dust aerosol and BC make up about 50.5% and 49.5% respectively of the total light absorption at 520 nm; during dust weather process periods (dust storm,floating dust,blowing dust),the contribution of dust aerosol to absorption extinction is 60.6% on average; in the hinterland of desert in spring,dust aerosol is also the major contributor to the total aerosol light absorption,more than that of black carbon aerosol.

  5. A Fractal Model for the Capacitance of Lunar Dust and Lunar Dust Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Keller, John W.; Farrell, William M.; Marshall, John; Richard, Denis Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Lunar dust grains and dust aggregates exhibit clumping, with an uneven mass distribution, as well as features that span many spatial scales. It has been observed that these aggregates display an almost fractal repetition of geometry with scale. Furthermore, lunar dust grains typically have sharp protrusions and jagged features that result from the lack of aeolian weathering (as opposed to space weathering) on the Moon. A perfectly spherical geometry, frequently used as a model for lunar dust grains, has none of these characteristics (although a sphere may be a reasonable proxy for the very smallest grains and some glasses). We present a fractal model for a lunar dust grain or aggregate of grains that reproduces (1) the irregular clumpy nature of lunar dust, (2) the presence of sharp points, and (3) dust features that span multiple scale lengths. We calculate the capacitance of the fractal lunar dust analytically assuming fixed dust mass (i.e. volume) for an arbitrary number of fractal levels and compare the capacitance to that of a non-fractal object with the same volume, surface area, and characteristic width. The fractal capacitance is larger than that of the equivalent non-fractal object suggesting that for a given potential, electrostatic forces on lunar dust grains and aggregates are greater than one might infer from assuming dust grains are sphericaL Consequently, electrostatic transport of lunar dust grains, for example lofting, appears more plausible than might be inferred by calculations based on less realistic assumptions about dust shape and associated capacitance.

  6. Do other components of bedding dust affect sensitisation to house dust mites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire; Stanley, Thorsten; Crane, Julian; Siebers, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Bedding dust is a mixture of many components, of which the house dust mite (HDM) allergen, Der p 1, is the most allergenic. There has been little work to investigate the effect of other bedding dust components on HDM sensitisation. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of endotoxin in bedding dust on the allergic response in HDM-sensitised individuals. Twenty-nine house dust mite-sensitised adults were skin prick and allergen patch tested against a sterile solution of their own bedding dust and against a solution containing the same concentration of Der p 1 as the bedding solution for comparison. There was no significant difference in wheal size between the diluted house dust mite solution and the bedding dust in spite of their high levels of endotoxin. Symptomatic subjects had larger, but not statistically significant, responses to commercial house dust mite solution than asymptomatic subjects. Allergen patch test responses were negative in 22/29 of subjects using either bedding dust solutions or comparable diluted house dust mite solutions. An individual's own bedding dust does not appear to contain factors that enhance skin prick test or atopy patch test responses to house dust mites.

  7. Tin in Human Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Jambor, Jaroslav; Smreka, Vâclav

    1993-01-01

    TIN IN HUMAN BONES. The tin content in the bones of 149 skeletons from the 1st - 5th centuries A.D., and of 11 individuals of the recent population was determined. The bone samples were carbonized and analyzed through emission spectroscopy with a.c. excitation. The tin content in bones of recent populations not exposed to extra tin supply is about one order of magnitude higher than is the case with the bones od some populations that lived at the beginning of our era. The distribut...

  8. Bone regeneration with cultured human bone grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, T.; Nakajima, H. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Pathology; Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Ohgushi, H.; Ueda, Y.; Takakura, Y. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Uemura, T.; Tateishi, T. [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research (NAIR), Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Center; Enomoto, Y.; Ichijima, K. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Pathology

    2001-07-01

    From 73 year old female patient, 3 ml of bone marrow was collected from the ilium. The marrow was cultured to concentrate and expand the marrow mesenchymal cells on a culture dish. The cultured cells were then subculturedeither on another culture dish or in porous areas of hydroxyapatite ceramics in the presence of dexamethasone and beta-glycerophosphate (osteo genic medium). The subculturedtissues on the dishes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and subculturedtissues in the ceramics were implanted intraperitoneally into athymic nude mice. Vigorous growth of spindle-shaped cells and a marked formation of bone matrix beneath the cell layers was observed on the subculture dishes by SEM. The intraperitoneally implanted ceramics with cultured tissues revealed thick layer of lamellar bone together with active osteoblasts lining in many pore areas of the ceramics after 8 weeks. The in vitro bone formations on the culture dishes and in vivo bone formation in porous ceramics were detected. These results indicate that we can assemble an in vitro bone/ceramic construct, and due to the porous framework of the ceramic, the construct has osteogenic potential similar to that of autologous cancellous bone. A significant benefit of this method is that the construct can be made with only a small amount of aspirated marrow cells from aged patients with little host morbidity. (orig.)

  9. House dust in seven Danish offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølhave, L.; Schneider, T.; Kjærgaard, S. K.; Larsen, L.; Norn, S.; Jørgensen, O.

    Floor dust from Danish offices was collected and analyzed. The dust was to be used in an exposure experiment. The dust was analyzed to show the composition of the dust which can be a source of airborne dust indoors. About 11 kg of dust from vacuum cleaner bags from seven Danish office buildings with about 1047 occupants (12 751 m 2) was processed according to a standardized procedure yielding 5.5 kg of processed bulk dust. The bulk dust contained 130.000-160.000 CFU g -1 microorganisms and 71.000-90.000 CFU g -1 microfungi. The content of culturable microfungi was 65-123 CFU 30 g -1 dust. The content of endotoxins ranged from 5.06-7.24 EU g -1 (1.45 ng g -1 to 1.01 ng g -1). Allergens (ng g -1) were from 147-159 (Mite), 395-746 (dog) and 103-330 (cat). The macro molecular organic compounds (the MOD-content) varied from 7.8-9.8 mg g -1. The threshold of release of histamine from basophil leukocytes provoked by the bulk dust was between 0.3 and 1.0 mg ml -1. The water content was 2% (WGT) and the organic fraction 33%. 6.5-5.9% (dry) was water soluble. The fiber content was less than 0.2-1.5% (WGT) and the desorbable VOCs was 176-319 μg g -1. Most of the VOC were aldehydes. However, softeners for plastic (DBP and DEHP) were present. The chemical composition includes human and animal skin fragments, paper fibers, glass wool, wood and textilefibers and inorganic and metal particles. The sizes ranged from 0.001-1 mm and the average specific density was 1.0 g m -3. The bulk dust was resuspended and injected into an exposure chamber. The airborne dust was sampled and analyzed to illustrate the exposures that can result from sedimented dirt and dust. The airborne dust resulting from the bulk dust reached concentrations ranging from 0.26-0.75 mg m -3 in average contained 300-170 CFU m -3. The organic fraction was from 55-70% and the water content about 2.5% (WGT). The content of the dust was compared to the similar results reported in the literature and its toxic potency is

  10. Effect of bone marrow and low power lasers on fracture healing with destruction of both periosteum and endosteum in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Thanoon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten mature rabbits of local breed were used in this study; weighing between 1.5 to 1.75 kg and aged about 1–2 years. These animals were divided into two equal groups; in group A destruction of both periosteum and endosteum was done one centimeter from each side of mid-shaft femoral bone fracture, then sufficient amount of autogenously bone marrow was injected directly at the fracture site after immobilization by intramedullary pin. In group B a similar procedure was achieved as in group A, but in additional to that He-Ne infrared laser therapy was used for several sessions. The result of radiological findings indicated that, the fracture healing occurred within group B at fifteen weeks, whereas in group A the healing occurred at eighteen weeks after operation. The implantation of autologous bone marrow enhanced the fracture healing, whereas using of combinations of autologous bone marrow and He-Ne infrared laser therapy hastened the healing.

  11. Dust observations at orbital altitudes surrounding Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L; Weber, T D; Malaspina, D; Crary, F; Ergun, R E; Delory, G T; Fowler, C M; Morooka, M W; McEnulty, T; Eriksson, A I; Andrews, D J; Horanyi, M; Collette, A; Yelle, R; Jakosky, B M

    2015-11-01

    Dust is common close to the martian surface, but no known process can lift appreciable concentrations of particles to altitudes above ~150 kilometers. We present observations of dust at altitudes ranging from 150 to above 1000 kilometers by the Langmuir Probe and Wave instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution spacecraft. Based on its distribution, we interpret this dust to be interplanetary in origin. A comparison with laboratory measurements indicates that the dust grain size ranges from 1 to 12 micrometers, assuming a typical grain velocity of ~18 kilometers per second. These direct observations of dust entering the martian atmosphere improve our understanding of the sources, sinks, and transport of interplanetary dust throughout the inner solar system and the associated impacts on Mars's atmosphere.

  12. Dust observations at orbital altitudes surrounding Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L; Weber, T D; Malaspina, D; Crary, F; Ergun, R E; Delory, G T; Fowler, C M; Morooka, M W; McEnulty, T; Eriksson, A I; Andrews, D J; Horanyi, M; Collette, A; Yelle, R; Jakosky, B M

    2015-11-01

    Dust is common close to the martian surface, but no known process can lift appreciable concentrations of particles to altitudes above ~150 kilometers. We present observations of dust at altitudes ranging from 150 to above 1000 kilometers by the Langmuir Probe and Wave instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution spacecraft. Based on its distribution, we interpret this dust to be interplanetary in origin. A comparison with laboratory measurements indicates that the dust grain size ranges from 1 to 12 micrometers, assuming a typical grain velocity of ~18 kilometers per second. These direct observations of dust entering the martian atmosphere improve our understanding of the sources, sinks, and transport of interplanetary dust throughout the inner solar system and the associated impacts on Mars's atmosphere. PMID:26542578

  13. Lunar Dust and Dusty Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    In the plasma and radiation environment of space, small dust grains from the Moon s surface can become charged. This has the consequence that their motion is determined by electromagnetic as well as gravitational forces. The result is a plasma-like condition known as "dusty plasmas" with the consequence that lunar dust can migrate and be transported by magnetic, electric, and gravitational fields into places where heavier, neutral debris cannot. Dust on the Moon can exhibit unusual behavior, being accelerated into orbit by electrostatic surface potentials as blow-off dust, or being swept away by moving magnetic fields like the solar wind as pick-up dust. Hence, lunar dust must necessarily be treated as a dusty plasma subject to the physics of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). A review of this subject has been given before [1], but a synopsis will be presented here to make it more readily available for lunar scientists.

  14. Dust observations at orbital altitudes surrounding Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L.; Weber, T. D.; Malaspina, D.; Crary, F.; Ergun, R. E.; Delory, G. T.; Fowler, C. M.; Morooka, M. W.; McEnulty, T.; Eriksson, A. I.; Andrews, D. J.; Horanyi, M.; Collette, A.; Yelle, R.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-11-01

    Dust is common close to the martian surface, but no known process can lift appreciable concentrations of particles to altitudes above ~150 kilometers. We present observations of dust at altitudes ranging from 150 to above 1000 kilometers by the Langmuir Probe and Wave instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution spacecraft. Based on its distribution, we interpret this dust to be interplanetary in origin. A comparison with laboratory measurements indicates that the dust grain size ranges from 1 to 12 micrometers, assuming a typical grain velocity of ~18 kilometers per second. These direct observations of dust entering the martian atmosphere improve our understanding of the sources, sinks, and transport of interplanetary dust throughout the inner solar system and the associated impacts on Mars’s atmosphere.

  15. Astrophysics of Dust in Cold Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Draine, B T

    2003-01-01

    Nine lectures reviewing the astrophysics of dust in interstellar clouds. Topics include: (1) Summary of observational evidence concerning interstellar dust: broadband extinction, scattering of starlight, polarization of starlight, spectroscopy of dust, IR and FIR emission, and depletions of grain-forming elements. (2) Optics of interstellar dust grains: dielectric functions of nonconducting and conducting materials, calculational techniques, formulae valid in the Rayleigh limit, Kramers-Kronig relations, microwave emission mechanisms, and X-ray scattering. (3) IR and FIR emission: heating of interstellar dust, including single-photon heating, and resulting IR emission spectrum. (4) Charging of dust grains: collisional charging, photoelectric emission, and resulting charge distribution functions. (5) Dynamics: gas drag, Lorentz force, forces due to anisotropic radiation, and resulting drift velocities. (6) Rotational dynamics: brownian rotation, suprathermal rotation, and effects of starlight torques. (7) Alig...

  16. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  17. [The preparation and characterization of fine dusts carried out in the Clinica del Lavoro di Milano in support of experimental studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occella, E; Maddalon, G; Peruzzo, G F; Foà, V

    1999-01-01

    pestles and rotating drum mills with autogenic grinding load were used for grinding: the size of the treated samples was reduced to 0.05 mm and an extremely fine fraction was extracted, smaller than 7-10 microns, which was used for pneumoconioses research. The characterization of the dust produced was in any case achieved by means of preliminary examination under the optical microscope (polarized light, sometimes supplemented with phase contrast), followed by quantitative analysis using chemical/petrographic, chemical diffraction or, more commonly, petrographic/diffraction techniques. Microscopic examination, if necessary supplemented with photo-micrography, was also used for particle size control, for numerical counting and subsequent reference to weight proportion. For all operational procedures the essential data on instruments and methods are reported. During studies on production, separation of fine dusts and their characterization, partly performed with support from the European Community (EEC/European Coal and Steel Commission), the following topics in particular were addressed: connections between particle size and free silica content in the measurable dust size fraction of the grinding products and in airborne dusts; characteristics of the dusts and risk indices in Italian iron and pyrite mines; possibility of abatement of the ultrafine classes of airborne dusts in pneumatically filled stopes by the addition of salts; comparison of the latest dust selectors used within the European Community; influence of the grinding methods on the results of fibrous and soft mineral measurement using X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:10596545

  18. CRADE OF SAND AND DUST STORM WEATHER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Ruoyun; Tian Cuiying; Bi Baogui; Yang Keming; Wang Youheng; Tuo Ya; Ding Haifang; Zhang Tairen

    2011-01-01

    Background Sand and dust storm,as one of the main disastrous weathers that affect northern China,not only affect the people health and normal life,but cause the short-term climatic changes due to the direct and indirect radiation of the earth-atmosphere system through the dust floating in the sky.The sand end dust weather and its potential harm on the national economy,ecological environment,social activities and other aspects have aroused worldwide concern.

  19. Dust Emissivity Variations In the Milky Way

    OpenAIRE

    Paradis, D.; Bernard, J. -Ph.; Meny, C.

    2009-01-01

    Aims. Dust properties appear to vary according to the environment in which the dust evolves. Previous observational indications of these variations in the far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter (submm) spectral range are scarce and limited to specific regions of the sky. To determine whether these results can be generalised to larger scales, we study the evolution in dust emissivities from the FIR to millimeter (mm) wavelengths, in the atomic and molecular interstellar medium (ISM), along the G...

  20. Propagation of dust-acoustic waves in weakly ionized plasmas with dust-charge fluctuation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K K Mondal

    2004-11-01

    For an unmagnetized partially ionized dusty plasma containing electrons, singly charged positive ions, micron-sized massive negatively charged dust grains and a fraction of neutral atoms, dispersion relations for both the dust-ion-acoustic and the dust-acoustic waves have been derived, incorporating dust charge fluctuation. The dispersion relations, under various conditions, have been exhaustively analysed. The explicit expressions for the growth rates have also been derived.

  1. Saharan dust storms: nature and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudie, A. S.; Middleton, N. J.

    2001-12-01

    This paper reviews recent work on the role of Saharan dust in environmental change, the location and strength of source areas, the transport paths of material away from the desert, the rates of Saharan dust deposition, the nature of that material (including PeriSaharan loess) and the changing rates of dust activity in response to long and short-term climatic changes. The Sahara produces more aeolian soil dust than any other world desert, and Saharan dust has an important impact on climatic processes, nutrient cycles, soil formation and sediment cycles. These influences spread far beyond Africa, thanks to the great distances over which Saharan dust is transported. The precise locations of Saharan dust source areas are not well known, but data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) suggest two major source areas: the Bodélé depression and an area covering eastern Mauritania, western Mali and southern Algeria. Trajectories of long-distance transport are relatively well documented, but the links between source areas and seasonal Saharan dust pathways are not. However, it is possible that Harmattan dust from the Bodélé depression may not be the source of the prominent winter plume over the tropical North Atlantic, as is often suggested in the literature. Few of the data on particle size characteristics of Saharan dust are derived from major source areas or from Africa itself. Saharan dusts sampled from the Harmattan plume and over Europe are dominated by SiO 2 and Al 2O 3, a characteristic they share with North American and Chinese dusts. The concentrations of these two major elements are similar to those found in world rocks. PeriSaharan loess is conspicuous by its relative absence, considering the Sahara's dominance of the global desert dust cycle both in the contemporary era and through the geological past. In recent decades, the frequency of Saharan dust events has varied markedly in response to climatic factors such as drought and anthropogenic

  2. Global Dust Budgets of the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Mikako

    2013-03-01

    Within galaxies, gas and dust are constantly exchanged between stars and the interstellar medium (ISM). The life-cycle of gas and dust is the key to the evolution of galaxies. Despite its importance, it is has been very difficult to trace the life-cycle of gas and dust via observations. The Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory have provided a great opportunity to study the life-cycle of the gas and dust in very nearby galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds. AGB stars are more important contributors to the dust budget in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), while in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), SNe are dominant. However, it seems that the current estimates of the total dust production from AGB stars is insufficient to account for dust present in the ISM. Other dust sources are needed, and supernovae are promising sources. Alternatively the time scale of dust lifetime itself needs some revisions, potentially because they could be unevenly distributed in the ISM or clumps.

  3. Dust measurements at high ecliptic latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguhl, M; Hamilton, D P; Grün, E; Fechtig, H; Kissel, J; Linkert, D; Linkert, G; Riemann, R; Staubach, P; Dermott, S F; Hanner, M S; Polanskey, C; Lindblad, B A; Mann; McDonnell, J A; Morfill, G E; Schwehm, G; Zook, H A

    1995-05-19

    Along Ulysses' path from Jupiter to the south ecliptic pole, the onboard dust detector measured a dust impact rate that varied slowly from 0.2 to 0.5 impacts per day. The dominant component of the dust flux arrived from an ecliptic latitude and longitude of 100 + 10 degrees and 280 degrees +/- 30 degrees which indicates an interstellar origin. An additional flux of small particles, which do not come from the interstellar direction and are unlikely to be zodiacal dust grains, appeared south of -45 degrees latitude. One explanation is that these particles are beta-meteoroids accelerated away from the sun by radiation pressure and electromagnetic forces. PMID:17774227

  4. Limits on Intergalactic Dust During Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Imara, Nia

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter, we constrain the dust-to-gas ratio in the intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshifts. We employ models for dust in the local Universe to contrain the dust-to-gas ratio during the epoch of reionization at redshifts z ~ 6-10. The observed level of reddening of high redshift galaxies implies that the IGM was enriched to an intergalactic dust-to-gas ratio of less than 3% of the Milky Way value by a redshift of z=10.

  5. Mathematical model of dust cleaning process in centrifugal-inertial dust collector

    OpenAIRE

    Batluk, V.; Paranyak, N.; Makarchuk, V.

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of providing air cleaning from dust in various industries, using highly efficient apparatus, with the aim of bringing the volume of harmful emissions to the sanitary standards. The article presents new directions in creating of dust cleaning apparatus, based on the usage of centrifugal, inertial forces, by which the efficiency of dust collection could be significantly increased.

  6. THE MAIN CULPRIT IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS - HOUSE DUST OR HOUSE DUST MITE

    OpenAIRE

    Abhey

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis especially perennial type makes life miserable for the patient. House dust mite is one of the major players causing it. This study is to compare the allergen i n city of house dust mite versus house dust and evaluate any cross - allergenicity between them. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study in a tertiary referral ...

  7. THE MAIN CULPRIT IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS - HOUSE DUST OR HOUSE DUST MITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis especially perennial type makes life miserable for the patient. House dust mite is one of the major players causing it. This study is to compare the allergen i n city of house dust mite versus house dust and evaluate any cross - allergenicity between them. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study in a tertiary referral hospital. MATERIALS & METHODS: Forty patients of allergic rhinitis and well matched controls were subjected to intradermal skin tests to house dust and house dust mite allergen. The skin tests were graded as per standard norms and the responses matched after correlating with different parameters. Statistical analysis was done and the results evaluated. RESULTS: House dust mite was the main allergen, as compared to house dust, responsible for causing allergic rhinitis. The allergen reactivity potential of house dust mite was significantly more as compared to house dust. And, as such there was no statistically significant cross - allergenicity between the two groups. CONCLUSION: House dust mite rather than house dust is the main culprit in causing allergic rhinitis. Hence, precautionary and preventive measures to control the exposure to house dust mite can be undertaken

  8. Effect of nonthermal ion distribution and dust temperature on nonlinear dust-acoustic solitary waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Annou; R Annou

    2012-01-01

    Dust-acoustic solitary waves in unmagnetized dusty plasma whose constituents are inertial charged dust grains, Boltzmannian electrons and nonthermal ions have been investigated by taking into account finite dust temperature. The pseudopotential has been used to study solitary solution. The existence of solitary waves having negative potential is reported.

  9. Modelling Martian dust storms: feedbacks between dust and atmospheric circulation at a hierarchy of scales

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, S.; Spiga, A.; Mulholland, D.

    2010-01-01

    We employ numerical models of Mars at spatial scales ranging from global to a few metres in order to investigate both the impact of increasing dust loading on atmospheric circulations and the role of different atmospheric circulation components on dust lifting, transport and on dust storm decay.

  10. Dust coagulation and fragmentation in molecular clouds. II. The opacity of the dust aggregate size distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, C.W.; Min, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Dominik, C.; Paszun, D.

    2011-01-01

    The dust size distribution in molecular clouds can be strongly affected by ice-mantle formation and (subsequent) grain coagulation. Following previous work where the dust size distribution has been calculated from a state-of-the art collision model for dust aggregates that involves both coagulation

  11. Dust coagulation and fragmentation in molecular clouds: II. The opacity of the dust aggregate size distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.W. Ormel; M. Min; A.G.G.M. Tielens; C. Dominik; D. Paszun

    2011-01-01

    The dust size distribution in molecular clouds can be strongly affected by ice-mantle formation and (subsequent) grain coagulation. Following previous work where the dust size distribution has been calculated from a state-of-the art collision model for dust aggregates that involves both coagulation

  12. Autogenous Fat Transplantation for Facial Depression%自体颗粒脂肪注射移植充填面部软组织凹陷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周同葵; 巩梦童; 贺小虎

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨自体颗粒脂肪注射移植充填矫治面部凹陷的临床应用.方法 标记面部凹陷部位,估计需要填充的脂肪量,取臀部或大腿部为供区.在肿胀麻醉下,用20ml注射器吸脂,吸管采用3.0mm的钝头吸管,负压应控制在20ml注射器内3~5ml左右真空.抽取脂肪颗粒,无菌状况下将所获脂肪颗粒洗去血迹、破碎脂肪细胞和脂滴,反复漂洗,至漂洗液色清透明;静置、分层后取中层饱满的脂肪颗粒注射在面部凹陷部位.结果采用自体脂肪颗粒移植充填矫正面部凹陷26例,其中6例患者经过了3次注射充填;12例患者经过了2次注射充填;8例患者经过了1次注射充填,均获良好效果.结论 利用自体脂肪移植充填矫治面部凹陷,创伤小、并发症低、手术效果明显,相对现有其他治疗方法,是一种较为理想的治疗方法 .%Objective To discuss clinical effect of autogenous fat transplantation on facial depressions. Methods The areas of facial sag were marked and the amount of fat that to be filled was estimated. Fat granulation was harvested from abdomen or thighs with tumescent anaesthesia technique. Ljposuction was performed by using 20 ml syringe with 3.0 mm suction tube,and the special negative pressure was kept (about 3-5 ml vacuum in a 20 mL syringe). The extracted fat granulation was washed to remove the blood,breaking fat cells and lipid drops under sterile conditions until the lotions gets clear. After a standing and layering process,the full fat particles at the middle layer were collected and injected in the site of facial depression. Results Total of 26 cases underwent the autogenous fat transplantation on facial depressions. 6 cases had received 3 times of injections; 12 cases received 2 times of injections ;8 cases received 1 time of injection. The good results were achieved in all cases. Conclusion The autogenous fat'transplantation, with a less invasion,few complications and obviously

  13. Desert dust satellite retrieval intercomparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carboni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work provides a comparison of satellite retrievals of Saharan desert dust aerosol optical depth (AOD during a strong dust event through March 2006. In this event, a large dust plume was transported over desert, vegetated, and ocean surfaces. The aim is to identify and understand the differences between current algorithms, and hence improve future retrieval algorithms. The satellite instruments considered are AATSR, AIRS, MERIS, MISR, MODIS, OMI, POLDER, and SEVIRI. An interesting aspect is that the different algorithms make use of different instrument characteristics to obtain retrievals over bright surfaces. These include multi-angle approaches (MISR, AATSR, polarisation measurements (POLDER, single-view approaches using solar wavelengths (OMI, MODIS, and the thermal infrared spectral region (SEVIRI, AIRS. Differences between instruments, together with the comparison of different retrieval algorithms applied to measurements from the same instrument, provide a unique insight into the performance and characteristics of the various techniques employed. As well as the intercomparison between different satellite products, the AODs have also been compared to co-located AERONET data. Despite the fact that the agreement between satellite and AERONET AODs is reasonably good for all of the datasets, there are significant differences between them when compared to each other, especially over land. These differences are partially due to differences in the algorithms, such as assumptions about aerosol model and surface properties. However, in this comparison of spatially and temporally averaged data, at least as significant as these differences are sampling issues related to the actual footprint of each instrument on the heterogeneous aerosol field, cloud identification and the quality control flags of each dataset.

  14. Dust Reddening in SDSS Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, P F; Hall, P B; Richards, G T; Cooper, A S; Schneider, D P; Vanden Berk, Daniel E; Jester, S; Brinkmann, J; Szokoly, G P; Hopkins, Philip F.; Strauss, Michael A.; Hall, Patrick B.; Richards, Gordon T.; Cooper, Ariana S.; Schneider, Donald P.; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; Jester, Sebastian; Szokoly, Gyula P.

    2004-01-01

    We explore the form of extragalactic reddening toward quasars using a sample of 9566 quasars with redshifts 0 0.1; less than 1% have E_{B-V} > 0.2, where the extinction is relative to quasars with modal colors. Reddening is uncorrelated with the presence of intervening narrow-line absorption systems, but reddened quasars are much more likely to show narrow absorption at the redshift of the quasar than are unreddened quasars. Thus the reddening towards quasars is dominated by SMC-like dust at the quasar redshift.

  15. Argus II retinal prosthesis implantation with scleral flap and autogenous temporalis fascia as alternative patch graft material: a 4-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matet A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Matet,1,2 Nawel Amar,1,2 Saddek Mohand-Said,1–4 José-Alain Sahel,1–7 Pierre-Olivier Barale1,2 1INSERM and DHOS, CHNO des Quinze-Vingts, 2Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 6, Institut de la Vision, 3INSERM, 4CNRS, Paris, France; 5Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, UK; 6Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, 7Académie des Sciences, Institut de France, Paris, France Introduction: The Argus II retinal prosthesis is composed of an epiretinal electrode array positioned over the macula and connected to an extrascleral electronics case via a silicone cable, running through a sclerotomy. During implantation, the manufacturer recommends to cover the sclerotomy site with a patch of processed human pericardium to prevent postoperative hypotony and conjunctival erosion by the underlying electronics case. Due to biomedical regulations prohibiting the use of this material in France, we developed an alternative technique combining a scleral flap protecting the sclerotomy and an autogenous graft of superior temporalis fascia overlying the electronics case. Methods: The purpose of this study is to describe the 4-year outcomes of this modified procedure in three subjects who underwent Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System implantation. Clinical data consisting of intraocular pressure measurements and tolerance in terms of conjunctival erosion or inflammation were retrospectively assessed over a 4-year postoperative follow-up. Results: None of the three patients implanted with the modified technique developed ocular hypotony over 4 years. A normal, transient conjunctival inflammation occurred during the first postoperative month but conjunctival erosion was not observed in any of the three patients over 4 years. Four years after implantation, the autogenous temporalis fascia graft remained well tolerated and the retinal prosthesis was functional in all three patients. Conclusion: The combination of an

  16. Application observation of autogenous broad fascia in eye surgery%自体阔筋膜在眼科手术中的应用观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿方强

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨自体阔筋膜在眼科手术中应用的临床可行性。方法:2005年—2013年根据不同的适应症和治疗目的,将阔筋膜作为悬吊材料、填充材料或修补材料等应用于多种眼部手术中,并观察效果。结果:本组18例21眼阔筋膜移植病例,术后无一例出现感染、排斥反应,可直接观察到的阔筋膜组织未见吸收、脱落或坏死。结论:自体阔筋膜效果持久,生物耐受较好,抗感染能力强,无论是作为上睑下垂、睑外翻手术治疗中的理想的悬吊材料,还是作为巩膜、韧带或肌腱的力学支撑和替代材料,阔筋膜均为很好的选择。%ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical feasibility of using autogenous lata in ophthalmologic operation.Methods From 2005 to 2013, according to the different indications and therapeutic purposes, the fascia lata as suspension material, filling material or repair materials, applied to a variety of eye operation, and observe the effect.Results18 broad fascia transplantation cases, there was no postoperative infection and rejection, can be directly observed, wide fascia tissue did not see absorption and loss or necrosis.Conclusion Autogenous broad fascia effect lasting, biological resistance is good, strong ability to fight infection. Both as a ptosis and ectropion surgery treatment of suspension material, or as support materials, sclera and ligaments and tendons broad ,fascia is a good choice.

  17. Perchlorate in dust fall and indoor dust in Malta: An effect of fireworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Alfred J; Chircop, Cynthia; Micallef, Tamara; Pace, Colette

    2015-07-15

    We report on the presence of perchlorate in the settleable dust of Malta, a small central Mediterranean island. Both dust fall collected directly as it precipitated from atmosphere over a period of one month and deposited indoor dust from domestic residences were studied. Perchlorate was determined by ion chromatography of water extracts of the collected dusts. Dust fall was collected from 43 towns during 2011 to 2013 and indoor dust was sampled from homes in the same localities. Perchlorate was detected in 108 of 153 samples of dust fall (71%) and in 28 of 37 indoor dust samples (76%). Detectable perchlorate in dust fall ranged from 0.52μgg(-1) to 561μgg(-1) with a median value of 6.2μgg(-1); in indoor dust, levels were from 0.79μgg(-1) to 53μgg(-1) with a median value of 7.8μgg(-1), the highest recorded anywhere to date. Statistical analysis suggested that there was no significant difference in perchlorate content of indoor dust and dust fall. Perchlorate levels in dust fall escalate during the summer in response to numerous religious feasts celebrated with fireworks and perchlorate persists at low μgg(-1) concentrations for several months beyond the summer festive period. In Malta, perchlorate derives exclusively from KClO4, imported for fireworks manufacture. Its residue in dust presents an exposure risk to the population, especially via ingestion by hand to mouth transfer. Our results suggest that wherever intensive burning of fireworks takes place, the environmental impact may be much longer lived than realised, mainly due to re-suspension and deposition of contaminated settled dust in the urban environment. PMID:25828411

  18. Perchlorate in dust fall and indoor dust in Malta: An effect of fireworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Alfred J; Chircop, Cynthia; Micallef, Tamara; Pace, Colette

    2015-07-15

    We report on the presence of perchlorate in the settleable dust of Malta, a small central Mediterranean island. Both dust fall collected directly as it precipitated from atmosphere over a period of one month and deposited indoor dust from domestic residences were studied. Perchlorate was determined by ion chromatography of water extracts of the collected dusts. Dust fall was collected from 43 towns during 2011 to 2013 and indoor dust was sampled from homes in the same localities. Perchlorate was detected in 108 of 153 samples of dust fall (71%) and in 28 of 37 indoor dust samples (76%). Detectable perchlorate in dust fall ranged from 0.52μgg(-1) to 561μgg(-1) with a median value of 6.2μgg(-1); in indoor dust, levels were from 0.79μgg(-1) to 53μgg(-1) with a median value of 7.8μgg(-1), the highest recorded anywhere to date. Statistical analysis suggested that there was no significant difference in perchlorate content of indoor dust and dust fall. Perchlorate levels in dust fall escalate during the summer in response to numerous religious feasts celebrated with fireworks and perchlorate persists at low μgg(-1) concentrations for several months beyond the summer festive period. In Malta, perchlorate derives exclusively from KClO4, imported for fireworks manufacture. Its residue in dust presents an exposure risk to the population, especially via ingestion by hand to mouth transfer. Our results suggest that wherever intensive burning of fireworks takes place, the environmental impact may be much longer lived than realised, mainly due to re-suspension and deposition of contaminated settled dust in the urban environment.

  19. Interactive Soil Dust Aerosol Model in the GISS GCM. Part 1; Sensitivity of the Soil Dust Cycle to Radiative Properties of Soil Dust Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlwitz, Jan; Tegen, Ina; Miller, Ron L.

    2000-01-01

    The sensitivity of the soil dust aerosol cycle to the radiative forcing by soil dust aerosols is studied. Four experiments with the NASA/GISS atmospheric general circulation model, which includes a soil dust aerosol model, are compared, all using a prescribed climatological sea surface temperature as lower boundary condition. In one experiment, dust is included as dynamic tracer only (without interacting with radiation), whereas dust interacts with radiation in the other simulations. Although the single scattering albedo of dust particles is prescribed to be globally uniform in the experiments with radiatively active dust, a different single scattering albedo is used in those experiments to estimate whether regional variations in dust optical properties, corresponding to variations in mineralogical composition among different source regions, are important for the soil dust cycle and the climate state. On a global scale, the radiative forcing by dust generally causes a reduction in the atmospheric dust load corresponding to a decreased dust source flux. That is, there is a negative feedback in the climate system due to the radiative effect of dust. The dust source flux and its changes were analyzed in more detail for the main dust source regions. This analysis shows that the reduction varies both with the season and with the single scattering albedo of the dust particles. By examining the correlation with the surface wind, it was found that the dust emission from the Saharan/Sahelian source region and from the Arabian peninsula, along with the sensitivity of the emission to the single scattering albedo of dust particles, are related to large scale circulation patterns, in particular to the trade winds during Northern Hemisphere winter and to the Indian monsoon circulation during summer. In the other regions, such relations to the large scale circulation were not found. There, the dependence of dust deflation to radiative forcing by dust particles is probably

  20. The Maxillary Sinus Membrane Elevation Procedure: Augmentation of Bone around Dental Implants without Grafts—A Review of a Surgical Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Riben

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Long-term edentulism may in many cases result in resorption of the alveolar process. The sinus lift procedure aims to create increased bone volume in the maxillary sinus in order to enable installation of dental implants in the region. The method is over 30 years old, and initially autogenous bone grafts were used and later also different bone substitutes. Since 1997, a limited number of studies have explored the possibility of a graftless procedure where the void under the sinus membrane is filled with a blood clot that enables bone formation. Aim. To describe the evolution of the sinus-lift technique and to review the literature related to the technique with a focus on long-term studies related to the graft-less technique. Methods. The electronic database PubMed was searched, and a systematic review was conducted regarding relevant articles. Results. A relatively few long-term studies using the described technique were found. However, the technique was described as reliable considering the outcome of the existing studies. Conclusion. All investigated studies show high implant survival rates for the graftless technique. The technique is considered to be cost-effective, less time-consuming, and related to lower morbidity since no bone harvesting is needed.

  1. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more-serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss [Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap, http://research.hq.nasa.gov/code_u/bcpr/index.cfm]. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It shows that an extrapolation of the microgravity induced bone loss rates to longer time scales, such as a 2.5 year round-trip to Mars (6 months out at 0 g, 1.5 year stay on Mars at 0.38 g, 6 months back at 0 g), could severely compromise the skeletal system of such a person.

  2. Bone tumors: Nursing care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone tumors represent approximately 5% of childhood malignancies. osteosarcoma is the primary malignant bone tumor, accounting for 60% of cancer with peak incidence in the 2nd decade of life. Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common bone cancer with peak at a slightly younger age. This presentation discusses similarities and differences in the diagnosis and treatment of these two malignancies. Diagnostic procedures include plain radiographs, CT and MRI of the primary site, plain x-ray and CT of the chest, bone scan, and biopsy of the primary tumor. For patients diagnosed with Ewing's sarcoma, a bone marrow aspirate and biopsy will also be required. Our current approach to the treatment of bone tumors includes preoperative combination chemotherapy and en bloc surgical removal of the tumor followed by postoperative chemotherapy. In the case of Ewing's sarcoma, radiation therapy may be employed in addition to surgery, if margins are questionable of instead of surgery, if the tumor is not resectable

  3. BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres exhibit enhanced osteoinduction and osteogenicity in large bone defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong L

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Long Xiong,1 Jianhua Zeng,1 Aihua Yao,2 Qiquan Tu,3 Jingtang Li,1 Liang Yan,4 Zhiming Tang1 1Department of Osteology, People’s Hospital of Jiangxi Province, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Osteology, People’s Hospital of Jiujiang County, Jiujiang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Osteology, The Third Hospital of Nanchang City, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The regeneration of large bone defects is an osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and osteogenic process that often requires a bone graft for support. Limitations associated with naturally autogenic or allogenic bone grafts have demonstrated the need for synthetic substitutes. The present study investigates the feasibility of using novel hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres as an osteoconductive matrix and a carrier for controlled local delivery of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2, a potent osteogenic inducer of bone regeneration. Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres (100±25 µm with a core (60±18 µm and a mesoporous shell (180±42 m2/g surface area were prepared by a glass conversion technique and loaded with recombinant human BMP2 (1 µg/mg. There was a gentle burst release of BMP2 from microspheres into the surrounding phosphate-buffered saline in vitro within the initial 48 hours, and continued at a low rate for over 40 days. In comparison with hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres without BMP2 or soluble BMP2 without a carrier, BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres had a significantly enhanced capacity to reconstitute radial bone defects in rabbit, as shown by increased serum alkaline phosphatase; quick and complete new bone formation within 12 weeks; and great biomechanical flexural strength. These results indicate that BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres could be a potential new option

  4. Effect of a polynomial arbitrary dust size distribution on dust acoustic solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishak-Boushaki, M.; Djellout, D.; Annou, R. [Faculty of Physics, USTHB, P.B. 32 El Alia, Bab-ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria)

    2012-07-15

    The investigation of dust-acoustic solitons when dust grains are size-distributed and ions adiabatically heated is conducted. The influence of an arbitrary dust size-distribution described by a polynomial function on the properties of dust acoustic waves is investigated. An energy-like integral equation involving Sagdeev potential is derived. The solitary solutions are shown to undergo a transformation into cnoidal ones under some physical conditions. The dust size-distribution can significantly affect both lower and upper critical Mach numbers for both solitons and cnoidal solutions.

  5. eblur/dust: a modular python approach for dust extinction and scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Lia

    2016-03-01

    I will present a library of python codes -- github.com/eblur/dust -- which calculate dust scattering and extinction properties from the IR to the X-ray. The modular interface allows for custom defined dust grain size distributions, optical constants, and scattering physics. These codes are currently undergoing a major overhaul to include multiple scattering effects, parallel processing, parameterized grain size distributions beyond power law, and optical constants for different grain compositions. I use eblur/dust primarily to study dust scattering images in the X-ray, but they may be extended to applications at other wavelengths.

  6. Galaxy Zoo: Dust in Spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Karen L; Bamford, Steven; Mosleh, Moein; Lintott, Chris J; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M; Keel, William C; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of dust on spiral galaxies by measuring the inclination-dependence of optical colours for 24,276 well-resolved SDSS galaxies visually classified in Galaxy Zoo. We find clear trends of reddening with inclination which imply a total extinction from face-on to edge-on of 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 and 0.4 magnitudes for the ugri passbands. We split the sample into "bulgy" (early-type) and "disky" (late-type) spirals using the SDSS fracdeV (or f_DeV) parameter and show that the average face-on colour of "bulgy" spirals is redder than the average edge-on colour of "disky" spirals. This shows that the observed optical colour of a spiral galaxy is determined almost equally by the spiral type (via the bulge-disk ratio and stellar populations), and reddening due to dust. We find that both luminosity and spiral type affect the total amount of extinction, with "disky" spirals at M_r ~ -21.5 mags having the most reddening. This decrease of reddening for the most luminous spirals has not been observed before ...

  7. Dust polarization and ISM turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Caldwell, Robert R; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Perhaps the most intriguing result of Planck's dust-polarization measurements is the observation that the power in the E-mode polarization is twice that in the B mode, as opposed to pre-Planck expectations of roughly equal dust powers in E and B modes. Here we show how the E- and B-mode powers depend on the detailed properties of the fluctuations in the magnetized interstellar medium. These fluctuations are classified into the slow, fast, and Alfv\\'en magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, which are determined once the ratio of gas to magnetic-field pressures is specified. We also parametrize models in terms of the power amplitudes and power anisotropies for the three types of waves. We find that the observed EE/BB ratio (and its scale invariance) and positive TE correlation cannot be easily explained in terms of favored models for MHD turbulence. The observed power-law index for temperature/polarization fluctuations also disfavors MHD turbulence. We thus speculate that the 0.1--30 pc length scales probed by these ...

  8. Allergens in Paved Road Dust and Airborne Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Ann G.; Cass, Glen R.; Glovsky, M. Michael; Weiss, Jay

    1999-01-01

    Paved road dust present on the surface of streets in Southern California consists of a complex mixture of soil dust, deposited motor vehicle exhaust particles, tire dust, brake lining wear dust, plant fragments, and other biological materials. The research presented here shows that allergens from at least 20 different source materials are found in the paved road dust. These include pollens and pollen fragments, animal dander, and molds. When paved road dust is resuspended into the atmosphere ...

  9. Dust Charging in Electronegative SiH4 Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Ping; WANG Zheng-Xiong; LIU Yue; LIU Jin-Yuan; WANG Xiao-Gang

    2005-01-01

    @@ We theoretically investigate the dust charging in electronegative silane (SiH4) plasmas, taking into account the effects of UV photodetachment. It is found that UV photodetachment could significantly lower the dust negative charge and even makes dust grains be positively charged under some special conditions. In addition, the other parameters, involving the negative ion and dust number densities, electron temperature and dust radius, have great effects upon the dust charging.

  10. Bone Regeneration in Odontostomatology

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, P; Duvina, M.; Brancato, L.; Delle Rose, G.; Biondi, E.; Civitelli, V.

    2010-01-01

    Maxillary edentulism, together with periodontal disease, is the condition that most frequently induces disruption of alveolar bone tissue. Indeed, the stimulus of the periodontal ligament is lost and the local bone tissue becomes subject to resorption processes that, in the six months following the loss of the tooth, result in alveolar defects or more extensive maxillary atrophy. In both cases, loss of vestibular cortical bone is followed by reduction in the vertical dimension of the alveolar...

  11. Percutaneous Bone Tumor Management

    OpenAIRE

    Gangi, Afshin; Buy, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Interventional radiology plays a major role in the management of bone tumors. Many different percutaneous techniques are available. Some aim to treat pain and consolidate a pathological bone (cementoplasty); others aim to ablate tumor or reduce its volume (sclerotherapy, thermal ablation). In this article, image-guided techniques of primary and secondary bone tumors with vertebroplasty, ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation, laser photocoagulation, cryoablation, and radiofrequency ioniza...

  12. Dust Dynamics in Kelvin-Helmholtz Instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keppens Rony

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI is a fluid instability which arises when two contacting flows have different tangential velocities. As shearing flows are very common in all sorts of (astrophysical fluid setups, the KHI is frequently encountered. In many astrophysical fluids the gas fluid in loaded with additional dust particles. Here we study the influence of these dust particles on the initiation of the KHI, as well as the effect the KHI has on the density distribution of dust species in a range of different particle sizes. This redistribution by the instability is of importance in the formation of dust structures in astrophysical fluids. To study the effect of dust on the linear and nonlinear phase of the KHI, we use the multi-fluid dust + gas module of the MPI-AMRVAC [1] code to perform 2D and 3D simulations of KHI in setups with physical quantities relevant to astrophysical fluids. A clear dependency on dust sizes is seen, with larger dust particles displaying significantly more clumping than smaller ones.

  13. Design and Implementation of Space Dust Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左维; 李春来; 徐琳; 刘剑; 刘建军

    2004-01-01

    Space debris is very dangerous to the security of on-the-orbit spacecrafts, and it is increasing in number at high speed with the expansion of human space exploration. Space debris has become a serious space pollutant noticed by many astronomers. The increase of space dust sources and the development of research on space dust urgently need space dust data sharing and exchanging. It is necessary for us to establish the Space Dust Database to realize the sharing and canonical management of the data. The Space Dust Database (SDD) management system, based on the 3-layer B/S computer mode, was designed and implemented in this paper. The system's features include significantly improved runtime efficiency, good scalability and maintainability. The Space Dust Database can provide some scientific bases for the study of the chemical constituents, mineral composition, origin and sources of space dust, but also provide excellent data services and decision-making support for the protection of space and model construction of space dust.

  14. 30 CFR 56.9315 - Dust control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dust control. 56.9315 Section 56.9315 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... control. Dust shall be controlled at muck piles, material transfer points, crushers, and on haulage...

  15. Martian Arctic Dust Devil, Phoenix Sol 104

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander caught this dust devil in action west-southwest of the lander at 11:16 a.m. local Mars time on Sol 104, or the 104th Martian day of the mission, Sept. 9, 2008. Dust devils have not been detected in any Phoenix images from earlier in the mission, but at least six were observed in a dozen images taken on Sol 104. Dust devils are whirlwinds that often occur when the Sun heats the surface of Mars, or some areas on Earth. The warmed surface heats the layer of atmosphere closest to it, and the warm air rises in a whirling motion, stirring dust up from the surface like a miniature tornado. The dust devil visible in the center of this image just below the horizon is estimated to be about 400 meters (about 1,300 feet) from Phoenix, and 4 meters (13 feet) in diameter. It is much smaller than dust devils that have been observed by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit much closer to the equator. It is closer in size to dust devils seen from orbit in the Phoenix landing region, though still smaller than those. The image has been enhanced to make the dust devil easier to see. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Diffuse Galactic Emission from Spinning Dust Grains

    OpenAIRE

    Draine, B. T.; Lazarian, A.

    1997-01-01

    Spinning interstellar dust grains produce detectable rotational emission in the 10-100 GHz frequency range. We calculate the emission spectrum, and show that this emission can account for the ``anomalous'' Galactic background component which correlates with 100um thermal emission from dust. Implications for cosmic background studies are discussed.

  17. Heterogeneous reactions of sulfur dioxide on dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Yunchuan

    2006-01-01

    The source of urban atmospheric particles is broad, and the major source is the building dust from urban construction. Calcium is the tagged element and Portland cement is the major component of building dust. In this study, CaO was regarded as the representative oxide of building dust,and mixtures were synthesized in terms of the major element ingredients of building dust. The heterogeneous uptake of SO2 on CaO, mixtures, Portland cement and building dust samples was investigated. In situ FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to identify the products of the reactions. In addition, the crystal phases and the surface properties of the samples were characterized by XRD patterns and BET specific surface area. The results show that in the presence of oxygen, sulfur dioxide can be adsorbed to sulfite and further catalytically oxidized to sulfate on the surface of CaO, the mixtures, Portland cement and building dust. The reactivity of SO2 on the surface of dust and oxides is basically a first order. The main ingredient of building dust sample is SiO2, and the one of Portland cement is Ca3SiO5.

  18. The damping of gravitational waves in dust

    CERN Document Server

    Svitek, Otakar

    2008-01-01

    We examine a simple model of interaction of gravitational waves with matter (primarily represented by dust). The aim is to investigate a possible damping effect on the intensity of gravitational wave when passing through media. This might be important for gravitational wave astronomy when the sources are obscured by dust or molecular clouds.

  19. Wind modeling of Chihuahuan Desert dust outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Rivera, Nancy I.; Gill, Thomas E.; Gebhart, Kristi A.; Hand, Jennifer L.; Bleiweiss, Max P.; Fitzgerald, Rosa M.

    The Chihuahuan Desert region of North America is a significant source of mineral aerosols in the Western Hemisphere, and Chihuahuan Desert dust storms frequently impact the Paso del Norte (El Paso, USA/Ciudad Juarez, Mexico) metropolitan area. A statistical analysis of HYSPLIT back trajectory residence times evaluated airflow into El Paso on all days and on days with synoptic (non-convective) dust events in 2001-2005. The incremental probability—a measure of the areas most likely to have been traversed by air masses arriving at El Paso during dusty days—was only strongly positively associated with the region west-southwest of the city, a zone of known dust source areas. Focused case studies were made of major dust events on 15 April and 15 December 2003. Trajectories approached the surface and MM5 (NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model) wind speeds increased at locations consistent with dust sources observed in satellite imagery on those dates. Back trajectory and model analyses suggested that surface cyclones adjacent to the Chihuahuan Desert were associated with the extreme dust events, consistent with previous studies of dust storms in the Southern High Plains to the northeast. The recognition of these meteorological patterns serves as a forecast aid for prediction of dust events likely to impact the Paso del Norte.

  20. The Fate of Saharan Dust Across the Atlantic and Implications for a Central American Dust Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowottnick, E.; Colarco, P.; da Silva, A.; Hlavka, D.; McGill, M.

    2011-01-01

    Saharan dust was observed over the Caribbean basin during the summer 2007 NASA Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4) field experiment. Airborne Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) and satellite observations from MODIS suggest a barrier to dust transport across Central America into the eastern Pacific. We use the NASA GEOS-5 atmospheric transport model with online aerosol tracers to perform simulations of the TC4 time period in order to understand the nature of this barrier. Our simulations are driven by the Modem Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological analyses. We evaluate our baseline simulated dust distributions using MODIS and CALIOP satellite and ground-based AERONET sun photometer observations. GEOS-5 reproduces the observed location, magnitude, and timing of major dust events, but our baseline simulation does not develop as strong a barrier to dust transport across Central America as observations suggest. Analysis of the dust transport dynamics and lost processes suggest that while both mechanisms play a role in defining the dust transport barrier, loss processes by wet removal of dust are about twice as important as transport. Sensitivity analyses with our model showed that the dust barrier would not exist without convective scavenging over the Caribbean. The best agreement between our model and the observations was obtained when dust wet removal was parameterized to be more aggressive, treating the dust as we do hydrophilic aerosols.

  1. The fate of Saharan dust across the Atlantic and implications for a Central American dust barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nowottnick

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Saharan dust was observed over the Caribbean basin during the summer 2007 NASA Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4 field experiment. Airborne Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL and satellite observations from MODIS suggest a barrier to dust transport across Central America into the eastern Pacific. We use the NASA GEOS-5 atmospheric transport model with online aerosol tracers to perform simulations of the TC4 time period in order to understand the nature of this barrier. Our simulations are driven by the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA meteorological analyses. We evaluate our baseline simulated dust distributions using MODIS and CALIOP satellite and ground-based AERONET sun photometer observations. GEOS-5 reproduces the observed location, magnitude, and timing of major dust events, but our baseline simulation does not develop as strong a barrier to dust transport across Central America as observations suggest. Analysis of the dust transport dynamics and lost processes suggest that while both mechanisms play a role in defining the dust transport barrier, loss processes by wet removal of dust are about twice as important as transport. Sensitivity analyses with our model showed that the dust barrier would not exist without convective scavenging over the Caribbean. The best agreement between our model and the observations was obtained when dust wet removal was parameterized to be more aggressive, treating the dust as we do hydrophilic aerosols.

  2. Imaging of Bone Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sopo; Ouyang, Tao; Kanekar, Sangam

    2016-08-01

    Bone marrow is the essential for function of hematopoiesis, which is vital for the normal functioning of the body. Bone marrow disorders or dysfunctions may be evaluated by blood workup, peripheral smears, marrow biopsy, plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT), MRI and nuclear medicine scan. It is important to distinguish normal spinal marrow from pathology to avoid missing a pathology or misinterpreting normal changes, either of which may result in further testing and increased health care costs. This article focuses on the diffuse bone marrow pathologies, because the majority of the bone marrow pathologies related to hematologic disorders are diffuse. PMID:27444005

  3. Bone marrow fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardouin, Pierre; Pansini, Vittorio; Cortet, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Bone marrow fat (BMF) results from an accumulation of fat cells within the bone marrow. Fat is not a simple filling tissue but is now considered as an actor within bone microenvironment. BMF is not comparable to other fat depots, as in subcutaneous or visceral tissues. Recent studies on bone marrow adipocytes have shown that they do not appear only as storage cells, but also as cells secreting adipokines, like leptin and adiponectin. Moreover bone marrow adipocytes share the same precursor with osteoblasts, the mesenchymal stem cell. It is now well established that high BMF is associated with weak bone mass in osteoporosis, especially during aging and anorexia nervosa. But numerous questions remain discussed: what is the precise phenotype of bone marrow adipocytes? What is the real function of BMF, and how does bone marrow adipocyte act on its environment? Is the increase of BMF during osteoporosis responsible for bone loss? Is BMF involved in other diseases? How to measure BMF in humans? A better understanding of BMF could allow to obtain new diagnostic tools for osteoporosis management, and could open major therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24703396

  4. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It is well known that bone remodeling responds to mechanical forces. We are developing two-photon microscopy techniques to study bone tissue and bone cell cultures to better understand the fundamental response mechanism in bone remodeling. Osteoblast and osteoclast cell cultures are being studied, and the goal is to use molecular biology techniques in conjunction with Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) to study the physiology of in-vitro cell cultures in response to various stimuli, such as fluid flow induced shear stress and mechanical stress. We have constructed a two-photon fluorescence microscope for these studies, and are currently incorporating FLIM detection. Current progress will be reviewed. This work is supported by the NASA John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium.

  5. Hypercalciuric Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favus, Murray J.

    2008-09-01

    Hypercalciuria plays an important causal role in many patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. The source of the hypercalciuria includes increased intestinal Ca absorption and decreased renal tubule Ca reabsorption. In CaOx stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH), Ca metabolic balance studies have revealed negative Ca balance and persistent hypercalciuria in the fasting state and during low dietary Ca intake. Bone resorption may also contribute to the high urine Ca excretion and increase the risk of bone loss. Indeed, low bone mass by DEXA scanning has been discovered in many IH patients. Thiazide diuretic agents reduce urine Ca excretion and may increase bone mineral density (BMD), thereby reducing fracture risk. Dietary Ca restriction that has been used unsuccessfully in the treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis in the past may enhance negative Ca balance and accelerate bone loss. DEXA scans may demonstrate low BMD at the spine, hip, or forearm, with no predictable pattern. The unique pattern of bone histologic changes in IH differs from other causes of low DEXA bone density including postmenopausal osteoporosis, male hypogonadal osteoporosis, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Hypercalciuria appears to play an important pathologic role in the development of low bone mass, and therefore correction of urine Ca losses should be a primary target for treatment of the bone disease accompanying IH.

  6. Inorganic analysis of dust fall and office dust in an industrial area of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Qasem M; Momani, Kamal A; Jbarah, Abdel-Aziz Q; Massadeh, Adnan

    2004-10-01

    This article deals with the determination and comparison of heavy metals and water-soluble anions and cations in indoor dust and outdoor dust fall in the petroleum refinery area in Jordan. Three sampling sites were considered in the Jordanian petroleum refinery complex for the collection of dust fall and office dust samples. These samples were analyzed for water-soluble anions (F-, Cl-, Br-, NO3-, C2O4(2-), and SO4(2-)) and cations (Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+) using auto-suppressed ion chromatography. Heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, Fe, and Al) were determined using flame or graphite-furnace atomic absorption. No correlations were found between heavy metal concentrations in dust fall and office dust samples, indicating different sources. High enrichment factors for heavy metals were found in dust-fall samples, except for Fe and Cr. Zinc showed the highest and cadmium the lowest flux rates.

  7. Nano-metric Dust Particles as a Hardly Detectable Component of the Interplanetary Dust Cloud

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I. Simonia; Sh. Nabiyev

    2015-09-01

    The present work introduces the hypothesis of existence of a hardly detectable component of the interplanetary dust cloud and demonstrates that such a component is a dust formation consisting of the dust particles of nano-metric dimensions. This work describes the main physical properties of such a kind of nano-dust, and its possible chemical and mineralogical peculiarities proposes new explanations related to reddening of the dynamically cold transneptunian objects on account of scattering their light by nano-dust of the hardly detectable component of the interplanetary dust cloud. We propose the relation for the coefficient of absorption by the nano-dust and provide results of the statistical analysis of the TNO color index–orbital inclinations. We also present a critical assessment of the proposed hypothesis.

  8. Dust Sensitivity of Absorption-Line Indices

    CERN Document Server

    MacArthur, L A

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the effects of dust extinction on integrated absorption-line indices that are widely used to derive constraints on the ages and metallicities of composite stellar systems. Typically, absorption-line studies have been performed on globular clusters or elliptical galaxies, which are mostly dust-free systems. However, many recent studies of integrated stellar populations have focused on spiral galaxies which may contain significant amounts of dust. It is almost universally assumed that the effects of dust extinction on absorption-line measurements are entirely negligible given the narrow baseline of the spectral features, but no rigorous study has yet been performed to verify this conjecture. In this analysis, we explore the sensitivity of the standard set of Lick absorption-line indices, the higher-order Balmer line indices, the 4000 A break, the near-IR calcium triplet indices, and the Rose indices to dust absorption according to population synthesis models that incorporate a multi-component mod...

  9. Recycling of steelmaking dusts: The Radust concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalkanen H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of dusts and other wastes of steelmaking is becoming to a necessity of two reasons: due to high contents of iron oxides dusts are valuable raw material for steelmaking and tightening environmental legislation makes the landfill disposal of wastes more expensive. Fine dust fractions from various stages of steelmaking route contain besides iron and carbon heavy metals especially zinc and lead and heavy hydrocarbons that are acceptable neither for landfill disposal nor for recycling back to processes without any spe4cial treatments. Some theoretical and practical aspects concerning high temperature treatments of steelmaking dusts for removal of hazardous components and production of clean high iron raw material for recycling is discussed in this paper. The Radust technology developed at Koverhar steelwork in Finland for treatment of the most problematic fine fractions of blast furnace and oxygen converter dusts is shortly presented and discussed.

  10. Ionization and Dust Charging in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Ivlev, A V; Caselli, P

    2016-01-01

    Ionization-recombination balance in dense interstellar and circumstellar environments is a key factor for a variety of important physical processes, such as chemical reactions, dust charging and coagulation, coupling of the gas with magnetic field and the development of magnetorotational instability in protoplanetary disks. We present a self-consistent analytical model which allows us to exactly calculate abundances of charged species in dusty gas, in the regime where the dust-phase recombination dominates over the gas-phase recombination. The model is employed to verify applicability of a conventional approximation of low dust charges in protoplanetary disks, and to discuss the implications for the dust coagulation and the development of the "dead zone" in the disk. Furthermore, the importance of mutually consistent models for the ionization and dust evolution is addressed: These processes are coupled via several mechanisms operating in the disk, and therefore their interplay can be crucial for the ultimate ...

  11. Coke dust enhances coke plant wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistrz, Piotr; Rozwadowski, Andrzej; Burmistrz, Michał; Karcz, Aleksander

    2014-12-01

    Coke plant wastewater contain many toxic pollutants. Despite physico-chemical and biological treatment this specific type of wastewater has a significant impact on environment and human health. This article presents results of research on industrial adsorptive coke plant wastewater treatment. As a sorbent the coke dust, dozen times less expensive than pulverized activated carbon, was used. Treatment was conducted in three scenarios: adsorptive after full treatment with coke dust at 15 g L(-1), biological treatment enhanced with coke dust at 0.3-0.5 g L(-1) and addition of coke dust at 0.3 g L(-1) prior to the biological treatment. The enhanced biological treatment proved the most effective. It allowed additional removal of 147-178 mg COD kg(-1) of coke dust. PMID:25113994

  12. INTERPRETATION OF (596) SCHEILA'S TRIPLE DUST TAILS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange-looking dust cloud around asteroid (596) Scheila was discovered on 2010 December 11.44-11.47. Unlike normal cometary tails, it consisted of three tails and faded within two months. We constructed a model to reproduce the morphology of the dust cloud based on the laboratory measurement of high-velocity impacts and the dust dynamics. As a result, we succeeded in reproducing the peculiar dust cloud by an impact-driven ejecta plume consisting of an impact cone and downrange plume. Assuming an impact angle of 45°, our model suggests that a decameter-sized asteroid collided with (596) Scheila from the direction of (αim, δim) = (60°, –40°) in J2000 coordinates on 2010 December 3. The maximum ejection velocity of the dust particles exceeded 100 m s–1. Our results suggest that the surface of (596) Scheila consists of materials with low tensile strength.

  13. Thermal solidification of stainless steelmaking dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Mo-tang; PENG Ji; PENG Bing; YU Di; TANG Chao-bo

    2008-01-01

    Stainless steelmaking dust makes an environmental problem in the disposal or landfills and has been assigned as a hazardous waste by various government regulatory agencies because it leaches heavy metals to the groundwater or rainwater in the concentrations exceeding the environmental guidelines for solid waste disposal. Solidification of the dust is to stabilize the hazardous components into amorphous silica-alumina-based clays. Various mixtures of stainless steelmaking dust and clay were investigated and the softening temperatures of these mixtures were measured. The results indicate that the mixture of stainless steelmaking dust and clay additive with 1-1 ratio has the lowest softening temperature of 1 100 ℃. The clinkers can pass the TCLP leaching test after being thermally treated at the softening temperature for 15 min. A thermal process for the solidification of stainless steelmaking dust with typical clay is developed and the product is desirable for the production of bricks or disposal and landfill.

  14. Cosmic Dust in the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, J M; Shen, Chuanjian

    2000-01-01

    The past century of interstellar dust has brought us from first ignoring it to finding that it plays an important role in the evolution of galaxies. Current observational results in our galaxy provide a complex physical and chemical evolutionary picture of interstellar dust starting with the formation of small refractory particles in stellar atmospheres to their modification in diffuse and molecular clouds and ultimately to their contribution to star forming regions. Observations of the properties of dust in very young galaxies will be an important probe of the rates of star formation in terms of the production and destruction of dust grains. Future observations of dust at high spectral and spatial resolution will provide detailed information on processes in collapsing clouds up to star formation. Space missions to comets in the next century will first study them in situ but ultimately will bring back pristine nucleus material which will contain the end product of the collapsing protosolar molecular cloud at ...

  15. Experimental study on mechanical and biomechanical reconstruction of bone defect of long bone near joint%长骨近关节端骨缺损的力学和生物力学结构重建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春明; 张伟; 苏云; 王成学; 徐莘香; 卢宝顺

    2005-01-01

    reconstruction methods.DESIGN: A completely randomized experiment with self-control and mutual control.SETTING: Laboratory for Experimental Animals, First Hospital of Jilin University.MATERIALS: Twelve healthy adult hybrid dogs, 5 males and 7 females weighing 12 to 18 kg, were recruited.METHODS: The bone defects near joints were established in upper femoral condyle in the 12 dogs, which were reconstructed by 3 operation styles: only filling with bone cement, filling with bone cement + autogenous ilium bone graft, and filling with bone cement + autogenous ilium bone graft + fixation with L-trapezoid compression plate. There was one dog in each method. The specimens were harvested at the end of weeks 3, 6, 12and 24, respectively, after operation. One week before specimens were harvested the fluorescent labeling was prepared; we conducted vascular perfusion of disulphine blue before the animals were executed.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A series of examinations were carried out, including X-ray film, biomechanical test, intravascular perfusion and tetracycline fluorescent labeling. The bone healing, blood supply recovery and biomechanics were observed in the three groups.RESULTS: The 12 dogs all entered the result analysis. ① Results of Xray examination: Two cases of fracture occurred in experimental side at 6and 12 weeks in group Ⅰ; one case of fracture occurred in experimental side at 6 weeks in group Ⅱ. No fracture happened in group Ⅲ. ② Bone stiffness assayed with biomechanics: It decreased in experimental side as compared to control side by 67% and 70% in group Ⅰ; 66%, 76% and 46% in group Ⅱ; and 8% in group Ⅲ. ③ Specimen observation after operation: Bone formation, callus, and blood supply recovery were significantly better in group Ⅲ than in groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ at all stages.CONCLUSION: The third operation, filling with bone cement + autogenous ilium bone graft + fixation with L-trapezoid compression plate, is an ideal method of bone reconstruction. It can

  16. Dust storm events over Delhi: verification of dust AOD forecasts with satellite and surface observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditi; Iyengar, Gopal R.; George, John P.

    2016-05-01

    Thar desert located in northwest part of India is considered as one of the major dust source. Dust storms originate in Thar desert during pre-monsoon season, affects large part of Indo-Gangetic plains. High dust loading causes the deterioration of the ambient air quality and degradation in visibility. Present study focuses on the identification of dust events and verification of the forecast of dust events over Delhi and western part of IG Plains, during the pre-monsoon season of 2015. Three dust events have been identified over Delhi during the study period. For all the selected days, Terra-MODIS AOD at 550 nm are found close to 1.0, while AURA-OMI AI shows high values. Dust AOD forecasts from NCMRWF Unified Model (NCUM) for the three selected dust events are verified against satellite (MODIS) and ground based observations (AERONET). Comparison of observed AODs at 550 nm from MODIS with NCUM predicted AODs reveals that NCUM is able to predict the spatial and temporal distribution of dust AOD, in these cases. Good correlation (~0.67) is obtained between the NCUM predicted dust AODs and location specific observations available from AERONET. Model under-predicted the AODs as compared to the AERONET observations. This may be mainly because the model account for only dust and no anthropogenic activities are considered. The results of the present study emphasize the requirement of more realistic representation of local dust emission in the model both of natural and anthropogenic origin, to improve the forecast of dust from NCUM during the dust events.

  17. 自体腓骨移植重建桡骨远端骨巨细胞瘤切除后的桡腕关节%Autogenous fibular transplantation and reconstruction of radiocarpal joint after en bloc excision of giant cell tumor of distal radius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张登君; 魏杰; 郭秀生; 宋洁富

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价吻合血管或不吻合血管的自体腓骨近端移植重建桡骨远端骨巨细胞瘤切除术后桡腕关节的方法和疗效. 方法 自2002年2月至2010年2月,对17例桡骨远端骨巨细胞瘤患者行瘤段切除术,之后应用吻合或不吻合血管的自体腓骨近端移植,重建桡腕关节.术后对重建的关节功能及影像学结果进行评价. 结果 17例均获得随访,时间2.0~5.5年,平均3.6年.3例行腓动脉吻合,3例行膝下外侧动脉吻合.所有切口Ⅰ期愈合,桡骨平均切除长度7.6 cm.所有移植骨均愈合,吻合血管移植的骨愈合时间平均为3.7个月;非吻合血管的为7.9个月.无局部复发及肺转移,无移植腓骨吸收等,1例出现尺腕关节间隙变窄,1例出现腕关节退变.术后2年,重建的腕关节平均活动度:背伸47°、掌屈30°、尺偏23°、桡偏14°、前臂旋前55°、旋后62°,握力为对侧的40% ~ 80%.MSTS评分平均为87.6%,其中优6例,良8例,中3例,优良率达82.4%.DASH上肢功能调查表平均为3.48分. 结论 应用自体腓骨近端移植重建桡骨远端骨巨细胞瘤切除术后的桡腕关节,能较好的保留腕关节的功能,是此处关节功能重建有效的方法.吻合血管移植更利于骨愈合,并发症相对较少.%Objective To evaluate the method and curative effect of reconstruction with vascularized or nonvascularized autogenous fibular transplantation of radiocarpal joint after en bloc excision of giant cell tumor of distal radius.Methods Seventeen cases with giant cell tumor of distal radius bone were treated by en bloc resection and reconstruction of wrist joint with vascularized or non-vascularized autogenous fibular transplantation.Postoperative wrist joint function and radiographic outcomes were evaluated.Results Seventeen cases were followed up from 2.0 to 5.5 years (average 3.6 years).Three cases were treated by peroneal artery anastomosis and other 3 cases by inferior lateral genicular

  18. High Latitude Dust in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Joanna E.; Baddock, Matthew; Bradwell, Tom; Crusius, John; Darlington, Eleanor; Gaiero, Diego; Gasso, Santiago; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Hodgkins, Richard; McCulloch, Robert; McKenna-Neuman, Cheryl; Mockford, Tom; Stewart, Helena; Thorsteinsson, Throstur

    2016-01-01

    Natural dust is often associated with hot, subtropical deserts, but significant dust events have been reported from cold, high latitudes. This review synthesizes current understanding of high-latitude (> or = 50degN and > or = 40degS) dust source geography and dynamics and provides a prospectus for future research on the topic. Although the fundamental processes controlling aeolian dust emissions in high latitudes are essentially the same as in temperate regions, there are additional processes specific to or enhanced in cold regions. These include low temperatures, humidity, strong winds, permafrost and niveo-aeolian processes all of which can affect the efficiency of dust emission and distribution of sediments. Dust deposition at high latitudes can provide nutrients to the marine system, specifically by contributing iron to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll oceans; it also affects ice albedo and melt rates. There have been no attempts to quantify systematically the expanse, characteristics, or dynamics of high-latitude dust sources. To address this, we identify and compare the main sources and drivers of dust emissions in the Northern (Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Iceland) and Southern (Antarctica, New Zealand, and Patagonia) Hemispheres. The scarcity of year-round observations and limitations of satellite remote sensing data at high latitudes are discussed. It is estimated that under contemporary conditions high-latitude sources cover >500,000 sq km and contribute at least 80-100 Tg/yr1 of dust to the Earth system (approx. 5% of the global dust budget); both are projected to increase under future climate change scenarios.

  19. Ocular toxicity of authentic lunar dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyers Valerie E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dust exposure is a well-known occupational hazard for terrestrial workers and astronauts alike and will continue to be a concern as humankind pursues exploration and habitation of objects beyond Earth. Humankind’s limited exploration experience with the Apollo Program indicates that exposure to dust will be unavoidable. Therefore, NASA must assess potential toxicity and recommend appropriate mitigation measures to ensure that explorers are adequately protected. Visual acuity is critical during exploration activities and operations aboard spacecraft. Therefore, the present research was performed to ascertain the ocular toxicity of authentic lunar dust. Methods Small (mean particle diameter = 2.9 ± 1.0 μm, reactive lunar dust particles were produced by grinding bulk dust under ultrapure nitrogen conditions. Chemical reactivity and cytotoxicity testing were performed using the commercially available EpiOcularTM assay. Subsequent in vivo Draize testing utilized a larger size fraction of unground lunar dust that is more relevant to ocular exposures (particles Results In vitro testing indicated minimal irritancy potential based on the time required to reduce cell viability by 50% (ET50. Follow-up testing using the Draize standard protocol confirmed that the lunar dust was minimally irritating. Minor irritation of the upper eyelids was noted at the 1-hour observation point, but these effects resolved within 24 hours. In addition, no corneal scratching was observed using fluorescein stain. Conclusions Low-titanium mare lunar dust is minimally irritating to the eyes and is considered a nuisance dust for ocular exposure. No special precautions are recommended to protect against ocular exposures, but fully shielded goggles may be used if dust becomes a nuisance.

  20. Arthroscopic Treatment for Shoulder Instability with Glenoid Bone Loss Using Distal Tibia Allograft Augmentation - Short Term Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ivan; Amar, Eyal; Coady, Catherine M.; Dilman, Daryl B.; Smith, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Background: The results of arthroscopic anterior labral (Bankart) repair have been shown to have high failure rate in patients with significant glenoid bone loss. Several reconstruction procedures using bone graft have been described to overcome the bone loss, including autogenous coracoid transfer to the anterior glenoid (Latarjet procedure) as well as iliac crest autograft and tibial allografts. In recent years, trends toward minimally invasive shoulder surgery along with improvements in technology and technique have led surgeons to expand the application of arthroscopic treatment. Purpose: This study aims to perform a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data to evaluate the clinical and radiological follow up of patient who underwent anatomic glenoid reconstruction using distal tibia allograft for the treatment of shoulder instability with glenoid bone loss at 1-year post operation time point. Methods: Between December 2011 and January 2015, 55 patients underwent arthroscopic stabilization of the shoulder by means of capsule-labral reattachment to glenoid ream and bony augmentation of glenoid bone loss with distal tibial allograft for recurrent instability of the shoulder. Preoperative and postoperative evaluation included general assessment by the western Ontario shoulder instability index (WOSI) questionnaire, preoperative and postoperative radiographs and CT scans. Results: Fifty-five patients have been evaluated with mean age of 29.73 years at time of the index operation. There were 40 males (mean age of 29.66) and 15 female (mean age of 29.93). Minimum follow up time was 12 months. The following adverse effects were recorded: none suffered from recurrent dislocation, 2 patients suffered from bone resorption but without overt instability, 1 patient had malunion due to screw fracture, none of the patients had nonunion. The mean pre-operative WOSI score was 36.54 and the mean postoperative WOSI score was 61.0. Conclusion: Arthroscopic