WorldWideScience

Sample records for autoclaving

  1. Autoclave nuclear criticality safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Aquila, D.M. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States); Tayloe, R.W. Jr. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Steam-heated autoclaves are used in gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants to heat large cylinders of UF{sub 6}. Nuclear criticality safety for these autoclaves is evaluated. To enhance criticality safety, systems are incorporated into the design of autoclaves to limit the amount of water present. These safety systems also increase the likelihood that any UF{sub 6} inadvertently released from a cylinder into an autoclave is not released to the environment. Up to 140 pounds of water can be held up in large autoclaves. This mass of water is sufficient to support a nuclear criticality when optimally combined with 125 pounds of UF{sub 6} enriched to 5 percent U{sup 235}. However, water in autoclaves is widely dispersed as condensed droplets and vapor, and is extremely unlikely to form a critical configuration with released UF{sub 6}.

  2. Characterization and behaviour of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete before Autoclaving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, Chr.; Florea, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Schmidt, Wolfram; Msinjili, Nsesheye Susan

    In order to achieve a high quality Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) product, certain steps need to be ensured: the characterization of the raw materials, a proper mixing and correct slurry behaviour to achieve a good green body during green curing. In the current research the emphasis is on all of

  3. NON-AUTOCLAVE SILICATE BRICK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yaglov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a technology for obtaining bricks on the basis of lime-silica mixtures where chemical interactions are practically completely realized in dispersive state at the stage of preparation of binding contact maturing and raw mixture as a whole. The role of forming operation (moulding is changed in principle because in this case conversion of dispersive system into a rock-like solid occurs and due to this the solid obtains complete water-resistance in contact with water immediately after forming operation. Theoretical basis for the developed technology is capability of silicate dispersive substances (hydrated calcium silicate to transit in non-stable state, to form a rock-like water-resistant solid in the moment of mechanical load application during forming process. Specific feature of the proposed method is an exclusion of additional operations for autoclaving of products from the process of obtaining a silicate brick.Synthetic hydrated calcium silicate in contrast to natural ones are more uniform in composition and structure, they contain less impurities and they are characterized by dispersive composition and due to the mentioned advantages they find wider practical application. Contact-condensation binders permit to manipulate product properties on their basis and ensure maximum correspondence to the requirements of the concrete application. Raw material sources for obtaining synthetic hydrated calcium silicates are practically un-limited because calcium-silicon containing substances are found as in various technogenic wastes so in natural compounds as well. So the problem for obtaining hydrated calcium silicates having contact-condensation ability for structure formation becomes more and more actual one. This transition is considered as dependent principally on arrangement rate of substance particles which determined the level of its instability.

  4. Shear reinforced beams in autoclaved aerated concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelius, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Shear behaviour in concrete materials is very well documented, for normal density concrete materials. In this paper results of various tests on low density concrete materials like aerated autoclaved concrete (in the following denoted aircrete) will be presented and analyzed for different combinat....... Codes for designing prefabricated reinforced components of aircrete structures have adopted these recently developed approaches.......Shear behaviour in concrete materials is very well documented, for normal density concrete materials. In this paper results of various tests on low density concrete materials like aerated autoclaved concrete (in the following denoted aircrete) will be presented and analyzed for different...

  5. Out-of-Autoclave Cure Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brian S.

    2015-01-01

    As the size of aerospace composite parts exceeds that of even the largest autoclaves, the development of new out-of-autoclave processes and materials is necessary to ensure quality and performance. Many out-of-autoclave prepreg systems can produce high-quality composites initially; however, due to long layup times, the resin advancement commonly causes high void content and variations in fiber volume. Applied Poleramic, Inc. (API), developed an aerospace-grade benzoxazine matrix composite prepreg material that offers more than a year out-time at ambient conditions and provides exceptionally low void content when out-of-autoclave cured. When compared with aerospace epoxy prepreg systems, API's innovation offers significant improvements in terms of out-time at ambient temperature and the corresponding tack retention. The carbon fiber composites developed with the optimized matrix technology have significantly better mechanical performance in terms of hot-wet retention and compression when compared with aerospace epoxy matrices. These composites also offer an excellent overall balance of properties. This matrix system imparts very low cure shrinkage, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and low density when compared with most aerospace epoxy prepreg materials.

  6. Effects of steam autoclave treatment on Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesca-Espitia, L C; Suvira, M; Rosenbeck, K; Korza, G; Setlow, B; Li, W; Wang, S; Li, Y-Q; Setlow, P

    2016-11-01

    To determine the mechanism of autoclave killing of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores used in biological indicators (BIs) for steam autoclave sterilization, and rates of loss of spore viability and a spore enzyme used in BIs. Spore viability, dipicolinic acid (DPA) release, nucleic acid staining, α-glucosidase activity, protein structure and mutagenesis were measured during autoclaving of G. stearothermophilus spores. Loss of DPA and increases in spore core nucleic acid staining were slower than loss of spore viability. Spore core α-glucosidase was also lost more slowly than spore viability, although soluble α-glucosidase in spore preparations was lost more rapidly. However, spores exposed to an effective autoclave sterilization lost all viability and α-glucosidase activity. Apparently killed autoclaved spores were not recovered by artificial germination in supportive media, much spore protein was denatured during autoclaving, and partially killed autoclave-treated spore preparations did not acquire mutations. These results indicate that autoclave-killed spores cannot be revived, spore killing by autoclaving is likely by protein damage, and spore core α-glucosidase activity is lost more slowly than spore viability. This work provides insight into the mechanism of autoclave killing of spores of an organism used in BIs, and that a spore enzyme in a BI is more stable to autoclaving than spore viability. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Temperature field investigation of the industrial autoclave ASCAMAT-230

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolyanov A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity of the temperature field in the sterilization chambers of industrial autoclaves during heating and cooling phase is one of the problems in the development of new regime for product heat treatment on the preliminary selection and laboratory testing stages. This is the reason of studying the temperature field of the industrial autoclave ASCAMAT-230. The autoclave ASCAMAT-230 is a vertical autoclave of 230 liters capacity heated by three tubular electric heaters. Determination of temperature field parameters has been carried out according to the method for studying the temperature field of periodic devices' heating medium for sterilizing canned food. Six Thermochron iButton temperature loggers have been used to measure the temperatures in the sterilization chamber of the ASCAMAT-230 autoclave. Logger 1 has been put in the place of the standard thermometer installation, loggers 2 and 3, 5 and 6 – in the center and on periphery of the lower and upper parts of the autoclave respectively, logger 4 – in the center of the middle part of the autoclave's sterilization chamber. Temperature measurement in cans with the product has been carried out by temperature loggers from the Ellab TrackSense PRO complex. The loggers have been installed in two cans with homogeneous product located in the upper and lower parts of the autoclave. The time temperature dependences for the entire sterilization process, as well as for the heating and cooling stages have been constructed according to the acquired information. Based on these data conclusions about the uniformity of the temperature field inside the sterilization chamber of the autoclave ASCAMAT-230 during the heating, sterilization and cooling stages have been developed. Some recommendations for using the autoclave ASCAMAT-230 in the preliminary selection and verification of sterilization regimes for canned foods from hydrobionts, and also for the creation of an industrial autoclave control system

  8. Autoclave Testing on Zirconium Alloy Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Petra-Britt; Sell, Hans-Juergen; Garzarolli, Friedrich

    2012-09-01

    The corrosion of Zirconium components like fuel rod claddings and spacer grids is limiting lifetime and duty of these components. In Pressurized and Boiling Water Reactors (PWR and BWR), different corrosion phenomena are of interest. Although in-pile experience is the final proof for a material development, significant experience was gained by autoclave tests, trying to simulate in-pile conditions but reducing time for return of experience by increased temperatures. For PWR application, the uniform corrosion is studied in water at up to 370 deg. C and in high pressure steam at 400 deg. C, and for BWR, the nodular corrosion is studied in high pressure steam at 500-520 deg. C. Particular attention has to be given to the corrosion media, because oxidative traces in the water can significantly affect the corrosion response. An extensive air removal is thus important for all corrosion tests. This links to the different water chemistry conditions that have been investigated as separate effects otherwise difficult to separate under in-pile conditions. Uniform corrosion in 350 deg. C water is usually a cyclic process with repeated rate transitions. In addition, at high exposure times an acceleration of corrosion can occur, e.g. for Zr-Sn alloys with a high Sn content. In 400 deg. C steam, corrosion rate decreases somewhat with increasing time. Uniform corrosion rate of Zr alloys depends on their Sn- and Fe+Cr contents as well as on their annealing parameters with a similar trend as in PWR and on their yield strength, however with an opposite trend compared to BWR conditions. Nodular corrosion of BWR alloys depends on the annealing parameter with a similar trend as in PWR and out-of-reactor also significantly on the Fe+Cr content. The hydrogen pickup fraction (HPUF) depends largely on details of the water chemistry and can particularly depend on autoclave degassing and probably also on autoclave contaminations. Thus any HPUF value from out-of- pile corrosion tests is only

  9. Compaction behavior of out-of-autoclave prepreg materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Léonard; Olivier, Philippe; Cinquin, Jacques

    2017-10-01

    The main challenges with composite parts manufacturing are related to the curing means, mainly autoclaves, the length of their cycles and their operating costs. In order to decrease this dependency, out of autoclave materials have been considered as a solution for high production rate parts such as spars, flaps, etc… However, most out-of-autoclave process do not possess the same maturity as their counterpart, especially concerning part quality1. Some pre-cure processes such as compaction and ply lay-up are usually less of a concern for autoclave manufacturing: the pressure applied during the cycle participates to reduce the potential defects (porosity caused by a poor quality lay-up, bad compaction, entrapped air or humidity…). For out-of-autoclave parts, those are crucial steps which may have many consequences on the final quality of the laminate2. In order to avoid this quality loss, those steps must be well understood.

  10. Out-of-Autoclave Manufacturing of Aerospace Representative Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauberghs, Julien

    The use of carbon fibre reinforced composites for aerospace structures has seen a high increase in recent years, and is still growing. The high stiffness-to-weight ratio of these materials makes them ideal for primary structures on airplanes, satellites, and spacecrafts. Nevertheless, the manufacturing of composites remains very costly since it requires equipment investment such as an autoclave, and very qualified workers. Out-of-autoclave manufacturing technology is very promising since it only requires a traditional oven, while still aiming at similar part quality. However, the absence of positive pressure compared with an autoclave makes it more difficult to achieve low porosity parts. This research investigates the manufacturing of complex features with out-of autoclave prepreg technology. The features studied are tight-radius corners with a curvature change, and ply drop-offs. Ply drop-offs tests were conducted to identify if porosity is higher at ply terminations. In corners, the bagging arrangement was modified to achieve the most uniform thickness in areas of curvature change, even with small radii. The conclusions from these studies provided us with guidelines to manufacture larger representative parts, which included these features. The representative parts were tested for porosity, thickness uniformity, mechanical performance, and glass transition temperature (Tg). A total of four representative parts were manufactured with out-of-autoclave technology, and one more was manufactured with an autoclave to allow for a proper comparison between the two processes. The materials used were MTM45-1 5 harness satin and CYCOM5320 plain weave for the out-of-autoclave parts, and CYCOM5276-1 plain weave for the autoclave part. The effect of ply drop-offs on porosity was found to be negligible. Thickness deviation in corners was attributed to a combination of consumable bridging, prepreg's bulk factor and inter-ply shear. Overall, out-of-autoclave prepregs showed

  11. Autoclavable physically-crosslinked chitosan cryogel as a wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Takayuki; Danjo, So; Sakoguchi, Shogo; Tanaka, Sadao; Yoshinaga, Takuma; Nishimata, Hiroto; Yoshida, Masahiro

    2018-04-01

    Moist wounds were known to heal more rapidly than dry wounds. Hydrogel wound dressings were suitable for the moist wound healing because of their hyperhydrous structure. Chitosan was a strong candidate as a base material for hydrogel wound dressings because the polymer had excellent biological properties that promoted wound healing. We previously developed physically-crosslinked chitosan cryogels, which were prepared solely by freeze-thawing of a chitosan-gluconic acid conjugate (CG) aqueous solution, for wound treatment. The CG cryogels were disinfected by immersing in 70% ethanol before applying to wounds in our previous study. In the present study, we examined the influence of autoclave sterilization (121°C, 20 min) on the characteristics of CG cryogel because complete sterilization was one of the fundamental requirements for medical devices. We found that optimum value of gluconic acid content of CG, defined as the number of the incorporated gluconic acid units per 100 glucosamine units of chitosan, was 11 for autoclaving. An increased crosslinking level of CG cryogel on autoclaving enhanced resistance of the gels to enzymatic degradation. Furthermore, the autoclaved CG cryogels retained favorable biological properties of the pre-autoclaved CG cryogels in that they showed the same hemostatic activity and efficacy in repairing full-thickness skin wounds as the pre-autoclaved CG cryogels. These results showed the great potential of autoclavable CG cryogels as a practical wound dressing. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Autoclave decomposition method for metals in soils and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-López, M; Jonathan, M P; Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F; Salgado-Galeana, J A

    2012-04-01

    Leaching of partially leached metals (Fe, Mn, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) was done using autoclave technique which was modified based on EPA 3051A digestion technique. The autoclave method was developed as an alternative to the regular digestion procedure passed the safety norms for partial extraction of metals in polytetrafluoroethylene (PFA vessel) with a low constant temperature (119.5° ± 1.5°C) and the recovery of elements were also precise. The autoclave method was also validated using two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs: Loam Soil B and Loam Soil D) and the recoveries were equally superior to the traditionally established digestion methods. Application of the autoclave was samples from different natural environments (beach, mangrove, river, and city soil) to reproduce the recovery of elements during subsequent analysis.

  13. No-Oven, No-Autoclave, Composite Processing, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to continue the efforts from the 2010 NASA SBIR Phase I topic X5.03, "No-Oven, No-Autoclave (NONA) Composite...

  14. Identification of autoclave-resistant Anisakis simplex allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Olivares, Fabiola; Rodriguez-Mahillo, Ana I; Careche, Mercedes; Tejada, Margarita; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite able to induce allergic reactions in humans infected when eating raw or undercooked fish parasitized with viable third-stage larvae. Some authors claim that exposure to nonviable Anisakis material can result in allergic symptoms in previously sensitized patients, indicating that parasite allergens are resistant to the thermal treatments of usual cooking procedures. Furthermore, some patients report symptoms after eating canned fish. The aim of this work was the analysis of parasite allergen stability in heating to 121 °C in an autoclave to simulate the thermal process applied to canned fish. Third-stage larvae were subjected to autoclaving for 20, 40, and 80 min, and parasite crude extracts were analyzed by electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and a flow-cytometric basophil activation test. Allergens resistant to autoclaving were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by ion trap mass spectrometry. Protein analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that autoclaving considerably reduced the number and intensity of identifiable protein bands in a time-dependent manner. Several allergens were detected by immunoblotting with a pool of A. simplex allergic patients' sera after autoclaving. Allergens of 9 and 14 kDa resistant to autoclaving were identified as Ani s 4 and Ani s 1 allergens, respectively. Functional analysis showed that allergens retain their capacity to activate basophils even after autoclaving for 80 min. In conclusion, some relevant A. simplex allergens retain their capacity to bind immunoglobulin E and activate basophils after being subjected to autoclaving, which is a method equivalent to that used in industrial canning processes.

  15. Autoclave cycle optimization for high performance composite parts manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Nele, L.; Caggiano, A.; Teti, R.

    2016-01-01

    In aeronautical production, autoclave curing of composite parts must be performed according to a specified diagram of temperature and pressure vs time. Part-tool assembly thermal inertia and shape have a large influence on the heating and cooling rate, and therefore on the dwell time within the target temperature range. When simultaneously curing diverse composite parts, the total autoclave cycle time is driven by the part-tool assembly with the lower heating and cooling rates. With the aim t...

  16. Generating Autoclave-Level Mechanical Properties with Out-of-Autoclave Thermoplastic Placement of Large Composite Aerospace Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Out-of-autoclave thermoplastic tape/tow placement (TP-ATP) is nearing commercialization but suffers a moderate gap in mechanical properties compared with laminates...

  17. BALU: Largest autoclave research facility in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ucan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the large-scale facilities operated at the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade BALU is the world's largest research autoclave. With a loading length of 20m and a loading diameter of 5.8 m the main objective of the facility is the optimization of the curing process operated by components made of carbon fiber on an industrial scale. For this reason, a novel dynamic autoclaving control has been developed that is characterized by peripheral devices to expend the performance of the facility for differential applications, by sensing systems to detect the component state throughout the curing process and by a feedback system, which is capable to intervene into the running autoclave process.

  18. Color stability of shade guides after autoclave sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, Max; Sartori, Neimar; Monteiro, Sylvio; Baratieri, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of 120 autoclave sterilization cycles on the color stability of two commercial shade guides (Vita Classical and Vita System 3D-Master). The specimens were evaluated by spectrophotometer before and after the sterilization cycles. The color was described using the three-dimensional CIELab system. The statistical analysis was performed in three chromaticity coordinates, before and after sterilization cycles, using the paired samples t test. All specimens became darker after autoclave sterilization cycles. However, specimens of Vita Classical became redder, while those of the Vita System 3D-Master became more yellow. Repeated cycles of autoclave sterilization caused statistically significant changes in the color coordinates of the two shade guides. However, these differences are considered clinically acceptable.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved and untreated food waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampio, Elina, E-mail: elina.tampio@mtt.fi [Bioenergy and Environment, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, FI-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Ervasti, Satu; Paavola, Teija [Bioenergy and Environment, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, FI-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles [University of Southampton, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Rintala, Jukka [Bioenergy and Environment, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, FI-31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Autoclaving decreased the formation of NH4-N and H{sub 2}S during food waste digestion. • Stable digestion was achieved with untreated and autoclaved FW at OLR 6 kg VS/m{sup 3}day. • Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. • Highest CH{sub 4} yields were observed at OLR 3 kg VS/m{sup 3}day with untreated FW. • Autoclaved FW produced highest CH{sub 4} yields during OLR 4 kgVS/m{sup 3}day. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved (160 °C, 6.2 bar) and untreated source segregated food waste (FW) was compared over 473 days in semi-continuously fed mesophilic reactors with trace elements supplementation, at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 2, 3, 4 and 6 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d. Methane yields at all OLR were 5–10% higher for untreated FW (maximum 0.483 ± 0.013 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS at 3 kg VS/m{sup 3} d) than autoclaved FW (maximum 0.439 ± 0.020 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS at 4 kg VS/m{sup 3} d). The residual methane potential of both digestates at all OLRs was less than 0.110 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS, indicating efficient methanation in all cases. Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. Reactors fed on autoclaved FW showed lower ammonium and hydrogen sulphide concentrations, probably due to reduced protein hydrolysis as a result of formation of Maillard compounds. In the current study this reduced biodegradability appears to outweigh any benefit due to thermal hydrolysis of ligno-cellulosic components.

  20. Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved and untreated food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tampio, Elina; Ervasti, Satu; Paavola, Teija; Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles; Rintala, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Autoclaving decreased the formation of NH4-N and H 2 S during food waste digestion. • Stable digestion was achieved with untreated and autoclaved FW at OLR 6 kg VS/m 3 day. • Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. • Highest CH 4 yields were observed at OLR 3 kg VS/m 3 day with untreated FW. • Autoclaved FW produced highest CH 4 yields during OLR 4 kgVS/m 3 day. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved (160 °C, 6.2 bar) and untreated source segregated food waste (FW) was compared over 473 days in semi-continuously fed mesophilic reactors with trace elements supplementation, at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 2, 3, 4 and 6 kg volatile solids (VS)/m 3 d. Methane yields at all OLR were 5–10% higher for untreated FW (maximum 0.483 ± 0.013 m 3 CH 4 /kg VS at 3 kg VS/m 3 d) than autoclaved FW (maximum 0.439 ± 0.020 m 3 CH 4 /kg VS at 4 kg VS/m 3 d). The residual methane potential of both digestates at all OLRs was less than 0.110 m 3 CH 4 /kg VS, indicating efficient methanation in all cases. Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. Reactors fed on autoclaved FW showed lower ammonium and hydrogen sulphide concentrations, probably due to reduced protein hydrolysis as a result of formation of Maillard compounds. In the current study this reduced biodegradability appears to outweigh any benefit due to thermal hydrolysis of ligno-cellulosic components

  1. Long Out-time, Out-of-Autoclave Cure Composites, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the size of composite parts exceed that of even the largest autoclaves, new out-of-autoclave processes and materials are necessary to achieve the same level of...

  2. Long Out-time, Out-of-Autoclave Cure Composites, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the size of composite parts exceed that of even the largest autoclaves, new out-of-autoclave processes and materials are necessary to achieve the same level of...

  3. Effect of autoclave processing and gamma irradiation on apparent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of autoclaving and different doses of gamma irradiation on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids of cottonseed meal in male broiler breeders. Samples were irradiated in a gamma cell at total doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy. One package (control) was left at room ...

  4. Alkaline autoclave leaching of refractory uranium-thorium minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, S. A.; Sam, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of an innovative method for processing the Oman placer ores by alkaline leaching in ball mill autoclaves, where grinding and leaching of the refractory minerals take place simultaneously. This was followed by the selective separation of thorium and uranium from lanthanides by autoclave leaching of the hydroxide cake with ammonium carbonate-bicarbonate solutions. The introduced method is based on the fact that thorium and uranium form soluble carbonate complexes with ammonium carbonate, while lanthanides form sparingly soluble double carbonates. It was found that a complete alkaline leaching of Oman placer ores (98.0 P ercent ) was attained at 150 and 175 d egree C within 2.5 and 2h, respectively. Oman placer ores leaching was intensified and accelerated in a ball mill autoclaves as a result of the grinding action of steel balls, removal of the hydroxide layer covering ores grains and the continuous contact of fresh ore grains with alkaline solution. The study of selective carbonate processing of hydroxide cake with ammonium carbonate-bicarbonate solutions on autoclave under pressure revealed that the complete thorium recovery (97.5 P ercent ) with uranium recovery (90.8 P ercent ) and their separation from the lanthanides were attained at 70-80 d egree C during l-2h. The extraction of lanthanides in carbonate solution was low and did not exceed 4.6 P ercent .

  5. Autoclaving practice in microbiology laboratories: report of a survey. The Public Health Laboratory Service Subcommittee on laboratory autoclaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The performance of autoclaves in 27 laboratories, operated in accordance with the normal routine of local practice, has been monitored using thermometric equipment. Sterilising performance was unsatisfactory on 10 of 62 occasions, and cooling was inadequate on 52 of 60 occasions. PMID:649767

  6. The use of solar energy for powering a portable autoclave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dravid, M N; Chandak, A; Phute, S U; Khadse, R K; Adchitre, H R; Kulkarni, S D

    2012-04-01

    Climate change and the depletion of fossil fuels have forced the developed world to look for clean energy alternatives. Solar cooking is developing in Asian and African countries blessed with ample sun, but is still at an early stage. A portable autoclave was developed in India using this technology. The Prince-40 Concentrator provided adequate capacity to autoclave culture media and treat biomedical waste in a small laboratory set-up, and could save electricity worth Rs. 15,000 (188.10 GBP)/year or LPG worth Rs. 37,500 (470.25 GBP)/year. This technology would be of immense use in health centres in rural areas with frequent power cuts or no power supply. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. PREPARATION OF ULTRA-LOW VOLUME WEIGHT AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Koutny

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Autoclaved aerated concrete is a modern construction material that gains its popularity especially due to its thermal insulation performance resulting from low volume weight and porous structure with sufficient mechanical strength. Nowadays, there are attempts to use this material for thermal insulation purposes and to replace current systems, which have many disadvantages, mainly concerning durability. The key for improvement of thermal insulation properties is therefore obtaining a material based on autoclaved aerated concrete with extremely low volume weight (below 200 kg/m ³ ensuring good thermal isolation properties, but with sufficient mechanical properties to allow easy manipulation. This material can be prepared by foaming very fine powder materials such as silica fume or very finely ground sand. This paper deals with the possibilities of preparation and summarizes the basic requirements for successful preparation of such a material.

  8. Autoclave Sterilization of PEDOT:PSS Electrophysiology Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uguz, Ilke; Ganji, Mehran; Hama, Adel; Tanaka, Atsunori; Inal, Sahika; Youssef, Ahmed; Owens, Roisin M; Quilichini, Pascale P; Ghestem, Antoine; Bernard, Christophe; Dayeh, Shadi A; Malliaras, George G

    2016-12-01

    Autoclaving, the most widely available sterilization method, is applied to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) electrophysiology devices. The process does not harm morphology or electrical properties, while it effectively kills E. coli intentionally cultured on the devices. This finding paves the way to widespread introduction of PEDOT:PSS electrophysiology devices to the clinic. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Non-autoclaved aerated concrete with mineral additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'ina, L. V.; Rakov, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of joint grinding of Portland cement clinker, silica and carbonate components and mineral additives to specific surface of 280 - 300 m2/kg on the properties (strength, average density and thermal conductivity) of non-autoclaved aerated concrete, and the porosity of the hardened cement paste produced from Portland cement clinker with mineral additives. The joint grinding of the Portland cement clinker with silica and carbonate components and mineral additives reduces the energy consumption of non-autoclaved aerated concrete production. The efficiency of mineral additives (diopside, wollastonite) is due to the closeness the composition, the type of chemical bonds, physical and chemical characteristics (specific enthalpy of formation, specific entropy) to anhydrous clinker minerals and their hydration products. Considering the influence of these additions on hydration of clinker minerals and formation of hardened cement paste structure, dispersed wollastonite and diopside should be used as mineral additives. The hardness and, consequently, the elastic modulus of diopside are higher than that of hardened cement paste. As a result, there is a redistribution of stresses in the hardened cement paste interporous partitions and hardening, both the partitions and aerated concrete on the whole. The mineral additives introduction allowed to obtain the non-autoclaved aerated concrete with average density 580 kg/m3, compressive strength of 3.3 MPa and thermal conductivity of 0.131 W/(m.°C).

  10. An autoclave treatment reduces the solubility and antigenicity of an allergenic protein found in buckwheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Rikio; Yamato, Masayuki

    2012-06-01

    The effects of an autoclave treatment of buckwheat flour on a 24-kDa allergenic protein were investigated by measuring reduction in solubility and antibody binding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed that the intensity of the major bands, including that of the 24-kDa allergen, was reduced by the autoclave treatment. The protein solubility in buckwheat flour was variably decreased by the autoclave treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis using a monoclonal antibody specific for buckwheat 24-kDa protein showed that the reactivity of protein extracts (10 μg/ml) from buckwheat flour was lowered by the autoclave treatment. The autoclave treatment may reduce the major allergen content of buckwheat. Future studies will determine if autoclaving treatments affect the allergenicity of the 24-kDa buckwheat protein.

  11. Moisture conditions of modern structures made of autoclaved aerated concrete in operation period

    OpenAIRE

    P.S. Zyryanov; G.I. Grinfeld; Р.A. Morozov; I.A. Sogomonyan

    2011-01-01

    In St.-Petersburg and area six organizations making cellular concrete of autoclave hardening operate. At all enterprises the cellular concrete is made by the gas way of pore development by molding technology. The molding technology in practice means that the mass humidity of concrete on an exit from autoclaves will be at level of 35-45 % (great values of humidity correspond to smaller density). The similar situation is observed in other regions: more than 80 % of all autoclave cellular concre...

  12. NASA Out-of-Autoclave Process Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Norman, J.; Clinton, R. G., Jr.; McMahon, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Polymer matrix composites (PMCS) will play a significant role in the construction of large reusable launch vehicles (RLVs), mankind's future major access to low earth orbit and the international space station. PMCs are lightweight and offer attractive economies of scale and automated fabrication methodology. Fabrication of large RLV structures will require non-autoclave methods which have yet to be matured including (1) thermoplastic forming: heated head robotic tape placement, sheet extrusion, pultrusion, molding and forming; (2) electron beam curing: bulk and ply-by-ply automated placement; (3) RTM and VARTM. Research sponsored by NASA in industrial and NASA laboratories on automated placement techniques involving the first 2 categories will be presented.

  13. Evaluation of Out-of-Autoclave (OOA epoxy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Guilherme

    Full Text Available Abstract Epoxy resins (EP usually cure in autoclave to minimize resin voids and to achieve the desired resin/fiber ratio. Cure parameters such as temperature, vacuum and pressure levels are controlled and monitored. Aiming time and cost optimization, new out-of-autoclave (OOA cure processes have been developed lately. This study evaluated the cure cycle and the effect of non-programmed interruptions in an OOA process. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR results show similarities between the resin used and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA and also that the curing system is composed of cyan and sulfur hardeners, codified in industry, as Components of #2511 Resin System. The cure cycle and its interruptions were simulated by dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA. The samples obtained were evaluated by FT-IR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, whose results show that the degree of cure varying between 0.8 to 0.85 was achieved at 120 °C.

  14. An autoclave system for uranium oxide dissolution experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykyri, Mikko

    1985-05-01

    According to the decision in principle of the Council of State of Finland the nuclear energy producers must provide preparedness for carrying out the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. By the present principal concept the spent fuel will be disposed deep into the granitic bedrock. A parameter needed by risk analysis models is the dissolution rate of the uranium oxide matrix in the fuel pellets. In order to approach conditions prevailing deep in the groundwater, and autoclave system for dissolution experiments was developed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The low oxygen content and high pressure at elevated temperatures are simulated in the system. 20 MPa and 100 deg C are the upper operation limits of pressure and temperature. Water can be changed in the experiment autoclave without remarkable pressure and temperature variations. This has been arranged by using three pressure vessels: a supply vessel, a dissolution vessel and a depletion vessel. The extreme vessels serve pressure balancing purposes during water exchange. The water is deoxygenated during a preparation phase in the supply vessel by flushing it with nitrogen gas. Polytetrafluoroethylene is the principal material in contact with the water. A redox electrode couple was developed for potential measurements inside the dissolution vessel. The reference electrode is of Ag/AgCl-type with saturated KC1 electrolyte. A platinum wire operates as a measuring electrode

  15. Pilot scale high solids anaerobic digestion of steam autoclaved municipal solid waste (MSW) pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steam autoclaving is an efficient method for the separation and recovery of nearly all organics from MSW, yet a reliable alternative outlet for the large volume of organics produced has not yet been successfully demonstrated. The material produced by the autoclave contains a high concentration of s...

  16. Out-of-autoclave manufacturing of GLARE panels using resistance heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, B.; Palardy, G.; Teixeira De Freitas, S.; Sinke, J.

    2017-01-01

    Autoclave manufacturing of fibre metal laminates, such as GLARE, is an expensive process.Therefore, there is an increasing interest to find cost effective out-of-autoclave manufacturing processes without diminishing the laminate quality. The aim of this study is to

  17. Cracking in autoclaved aerated concrete: Experimental investigation and XFEM modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferretti, D.; Michelini, E.; Rosati, G.

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to investigate and model cracking development in beams and deep-beams made of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC). Fracture mechanics of AAC has been first studied by performing three-point bending tests on beams, similar to those commonly used for ordinary concrete elements. In some of these tests, crack growth has been also monitored by using ESPI laser technique. In this way, it has been possible to calibrate the main parameters of a proper cohesive law by means of extended finite element inverse analysis. Subsequently, cracking tests have been also performed on deep-beams, whose behavior is more representative of full scale walls. To validate the proposed cohesive law, deep-beam experimental behavior has been finally simulated through XFEM

  18. Cracking in autoclaved aerated concrete: Experimental investigation and XFEM modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, D., E-mail: daniele.ferretti@unipr.it [Department of Civil, Environmental, Land Management Engineering and Architecture, University of Parma, P.co Area delle Scienze 181/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Michelini, E. [Department of Civil, Environmental, Land Management Engineering and Architecture, University of Parma, P.co Area delle Scienze 181/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Rosati, G. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    The paper aims to investigate and model cracking development in beams and deep-beams made of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC). Fracture mechanics of AAC has been first studied by performing three-point bending tests on beams, similar to those commonly used for ordinary concrete elements. In some of these tests, crack growth has been also monitored by using ESPI laser technique. In this way, it has been possible to calibrate the main parameters of a proper cohesive law by means of extended finite element inverse analysis. Subsequently, cracking tests have been also performed on deep-beams, whose behavior is more representative of full scale walls. To validate the proposed cohesive law, deep-beam experimental behavior has been finally simulated through XFEM.

  19. Methane biofiltration using autoclaved aerated concrete as the carrier material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganendra, Giovanni; Mercado-Garcia, Daniel; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Boeckx, Pascal; Ho, Adrian; Boon, Nico

    2015-09-01

    The methane removal capacity of mixed methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) culture in a biofilter setup using autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) as a highly porous carrier material was tested. Batch experiment was performed to optimize MOB immobilization on AAC specimens where optimum methane removal was obtained when calcium chloride was not added during bacterial inoculation step and 10-mm-thick AAC specimens were used. The immobilized MOB could remove methane at low concentration (~1000 ppmv) in a biofilter setup for 127 days at average removal efficiency (RE) of 28.7 %. Unlike a plug flow reactor, increasing the total volume of the filter by adding a biofilter in series did not result in higher total RE. MOB also exhibited a higher abundance at the bottom of the filter, in proximity with the methane gas inlet where a high methane concentration was found. Overall, an efficient methane biofilter performance could be obtained using AAC as the carrier material.

  20. No-Oven, No-Autoclave Composite Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Very large composite structures, such as those used in NASA's Space Launch System, push the boundaries imposed by current autoclaves. New technology is needed to maintain composite performance and free manufacturing engineers from the restraints of curing equipment size limitations. Recent efforts on a Phase II project by Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), have advanced the technology and manufacturing readiness levels of a unique two-part epoxy resin system. Designed for room-temperature infusion of a dry carbon preform, the system includes a no-heat-added cure that delivers 350 F composite performance in a matter of hours. This no-oven, no-autoclave (NONA) composite processing eliminates part-size constraints imposed by infrastructure and lowers costs by increasing throughput and reducing capital-specific, process-flow bottlenecks. As a result of the Phase II activity, NONA materials and processes were used to make high-temperature composite tooling suitable for further production of carbon-epoxy laminates and honeycomb/ sandwich-structure composites with an aluminum core. The technology platform involves tooling design, resin infusion processing, composite part design, and resin chemistry. The various technology elements are combined to achieve a fully cured part. The individual elements are not unusual, but they are combined in such a way that enables proper management of the heat generated by the epoxy resin during cure. The result is a self-cured carbon/ epoxy composite part that is mechanically and chemically stable at temperatures up to 350 F. As a result of the successful SBIR effort, CRG has launched NONA Composites as a spinoff subsidiary. The company sells resin to end users, fabricates finished goods for customers, and sells composite tooling made with NONA materials and processes to composite manufacturers.

  1. Effect of Autoclave Cycles on Surface Characteristics of S-File Evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavian, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Pedram; Mojtahedi, Hamid; Nazeri, Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Presence of surface defects in endodontic instruments can lead to unwanted complications such as instrument fracture and incomplete preparation of the canal. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of autoclave cycles on surface characteristics of S-File by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In this experimental study, 17 brand new S-Files (#30) were used. The surface characteristics of the files were examined in four steps (without autoclave, 1 autoclave cycle, 5 autoclave cycles and 10 autoclave cycles) by SEM under 200× and 1000× magnifications. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software and the paired sample t-test, independent sample t-test and multifactorial repeated measures ANOVA. The level of significance was set at 0.05. New files had debris and pitting on their surfaces. When the autoclave cycles were increased, the mean of surface roughness also increased at both magnifications (Pautoclave increased the surface roughness of the files and this had was directly related to the number of autoclave cycles.

  2. Destruction of spores on building decontamination residue in a commercial autoclave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, P; Sieber, R; Osborne, A; Woodard, A

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted an experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercial autoclave for treating simulated building decontamination residue (BDR). The BDR was intended to simulate porous materials removed from a building deliberately contaminated with biological agents such as Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) in a terrorist attack. The purpose of the tests was to assess whether the standard operating procedure for a commercial autoclave provided sufficiently robust conditions to adequately destroy bacterial spores bound to the BDR. In this study we investigated the effects of several variables related to autoclaving BDR, including time, temperature, pressure, item type, moisture content, packing density, packing orientation, autoclave bag integrity, and autoclave process sequence. The test team created simulated BDR from wallboard, ceiling tiles, carpet, and upholstered furniture, and embedded in the BDR were Geobacillus stearothermophilus biological indicator (BI) strips containing 10(6) spores and thermocouples to obtain time and temperature profile data associated with each BI strip. The results indicated that a single standard autoclave cycle did not effectively decontaminate the BDR. Autoclave cycles consisting of 120 min at 31.5 lb/in2 and 275 degrees F and 75 min at 45 lb/in2 and 292 degrees F effectively decontaminated the BDR material. Two sequential standard autoclave cycles consisting of 40 min at 31.5 lb/in2 and 275 degrees F proved to be particularly effective, probably because the second cycle's evacuation step pulled the condensed water out of the pores of the materials, allowing better steam penetration. The results also indicated that the packing density and material type of the BDR in the autoclave could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the decontamination process.

  3. OPTIMAL CONTROL OF AUTOCLAVE START MODE IN THE PRODUCTION OF NITRIC ACID

    OpenAIRE

    Ладієва, Леся Ростиславівна; Ширма, А. В.

    2015-01-01

    The algorithm of optimal control of autoclave start mode in the production of nitric acid is proposed. By optimality criterion is selected minimum time-autoclave at preset mode with the restriction on the concentration of nitric acid. End time start mode is entered on the terminal part of the cost function. The method of penalties and a gradient procedure is used to solve the problem. The applied algorithm is allowed to bring an autoclave at a given technological regime.Keywords: production o...

  4. Nonlinear Modeling of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Masonry Wall Strengthened using Ferrocement Sandwich Structure

    KAUST Repository

    M., Abdel-Mooty; M., El-Kashef; E., Fahmy; M., Abou-Zeid; M., Haroun

    2011-01-01

    Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) block are used mainly as non-load-bearing walls that provide heat insulation. This results in considerable saving in cooling energy particularly in hot desert environment with large variation of daily and seasonal

  5. Carbon Foam Self-Heated Tooling for Out-of-Autoclave Composites Manufacturing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses NASA's need for non-autoclave composites manufacture. The Constellation program, including the Ares V launch vehicle, will require very...

  6. Leaching of a copper flotation concentrate with ammonium persulfate in an autoclave system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz Turan, M.; Soner Altundoğan, H.

    2014-09-01

    The leaching behavior of a copper flotation concentrate was investigated using ammonium persulfate (APS) in an autoclave system. The decomposition products of APS, active oxygen, and acidic medium were used to extract metals from the concentrate. Leaching experiments were performed to compare the availability of APS as an oxidizing agent for leaching of the concentrate under atmospheric conditions and in an autoclave system. Leaching temperature and APS concentration were found to be important parameters in both leaching systems. Atmospheric leaching studies showed that the metal extractions increased with the increase in APS concentration and temperature (up to 333 K). A similar tendency was determined in the autoclave studies up to 423 K. It was also determined that the metal extractions decreased at temperatures above 423 K due to the passivation of the particle surface by molten elemental sulfur. The results showed that higher copper extractions could be achieved using an autoclave system.

  7. Toxic anterior segment syndrome caused by autoclave reservoir wall biofilms and their residual toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Andrew L; Sorenson, Robert L; Evans, David J

    2016-11-01

    To identify etiology of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) after uneventful phacoemulsification. EyeMD Laser and Surgery Center, Oakland, California. Retrospective case series. Patient charts with TASS were reviewed. Reservoirs of 2 autoclaves associated with these cases were cultured for bacterial contamination. Cultures were performed on 23 other autoclave reservoirs at surgery centers in the local area. The main outcome measures were the incidence of TASS and prevalence of bacterial biofilm contamination of autoclave reservoirs. From 2010 to 2013, 11 935 consecutive cataract surgeries were performed at 1 center by multiple surgeons with no reported TASS. Between January 1, 2014, and January 15, 2015, 10 cases of TASS occurred out of 3003 cataract surgeries; these patients' charts were reviewed. Cultures of 2 Statim autoclave reservoir walls grew Bacillus species, Williamsia species, Mycobacterium mucogenicum, and Candida parapsilosis. Scanning electron microscopy of reservoir wall sections showed prominent biofilm. The 2 autoclaves were replaced in January 2015. Subsequently, 2875 cataract surgeries were performed with no reported TASS (P autoclaves were also contaminated with bacterial biofilms. Toxic anterior segment syndrome was strongly associated with bacterial biofilm contamination of autoclave reservoirs. An etiological mechanism might involve transport of heat-stable bacterial cell antigens in the steam with deposition on surgical instrumentation. Data suggest widespread prevalence of bacterial biofilms on fluid-reservoir walls, despite adherence to manufacturer guidelines for cleaning and maintenance. Prevention or elimination of autoclave fluid-reservoir biofilms might reduce the risk for postoperative TASS. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Experiments and numerical simulations of flow field and heat transfer coefficients inside an autoclave model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamlouch, T.; Roux, S.; Bailleul, J.-L.; Lefèvre, N.; Sobotka, V.

    2017-10-01

    Today's aerospace industrial first priority is the quality improvement of the composite material parts with the reduction of the manufacturing time in order to increase their quality/cost ratio. A fabrication method that could meet these specifications especially for large parts is the autoclave curing process. In fact the autoclave molding ensures the thermal control of the composite parts during the whole curing cycle. However the geometry of the tools as well as their positioning in the autoclave induce non uniform and complex flows around composite parts. This heterogeneity implies non-uniform heat transfers which can directly impact on part quality. One of the main challenges is therefore to describe the flow field inside an autoclave as well as the convective heat transfer from the heated pressurized gas to the composite part and the mold. For this purpose, and given the technical issues associated with instrumentation and measurements in actual autoclaves, an autoclave model was designed and then manufactured based on similarity laws. This tool allows the measurement of the flow field around representative real industrial molds using the PIV technique and the characterization of the heat transfer thanks to thermal instrumentation. The experimental results are then compared with those derived from numerical simulations using a commercial RANS CFD code. This study aims at developing a semi-empirical approach for the prediction of the heat transfer coefficient around the parts and therefore predicts its thermal history during the process with a view of optimization.

  9. Effect of autoclave postpolymerization treatments on the fracture toughness of autopolymerizing dental acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkan, Rukiye; Gürbüz, Ayhan; Yilmaz, Burak; Özel, M Birol; Bağış, Bora

    2012-06-26

    Microwave and water bath postpolymerization have been suggested as methods to improve the mechanical properties of heat and autopolymerizing acrylic resins. However, the effects of autoclave heating on the fracture properties of autopolymerizing acrylic resins have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of various autoclave postpolymerization methods on the fracture properties of 3 different autopolymerizing acrylic resins. Forty-two specimens of 3 different autopolymerizing acrylic resins (Orthocryl, Paladent RR and Futurajet) were fabricated (40x8x4mm), and each group was further divided into 6 subgroups (n=7). Control group specimens remained as processed (Group 1). The first test group was postpolymerized in a cassette autoclave at 135°C for 6 minutes and the other groups were postpolymerized in a conventional autoclave at 130°C using different time settings (5, 10, 20 or 30 minutes). Fracture toughness was then measured with a three-point bending test. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Duncan test (α=0.05). The fracture toughness of Orthocryl and Paladent-RR acrylic resins significantly increased following conventional autoclave postpolymerization at 130°C for 10 minutes (Pautoclave postpolymerized Futurajet was not significantly different than its control specimens (Pautoclaved at 130°C for 10 minutes. Within the limitations of this study, it can be suggested that autoclave postpolymerization is an effective method for increasing the fracture toughness of tested autoploymerized acrylic resins.

  10. Surface roughness of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials following chemical disinfection, autoclave and microwave sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    2013-05-01

    Autoclave sterilization and microwave sterilization has been suggested as the effective methods for the disinfection of elastomeric impressions, but subjecting elastomeric impressions to extreme temperature may have adverse effects on critical properties of the elastomers. To evaluate the effect of chemical disinfection as well as autoclave and microwave sterilization on the surface roughness of elastomeric impression materials. The surface roughness of five commercially available polyvinyl siloxane impression materials (Coltene President, Affinis Perfect impression, Aquasil, 3M ESPE Express and GC Exafast) were evaluated after subjecting them to chemical disinfection, autoclaving and microwave sterilization using a Talysurf Intra 50 instrument. Twenty specimens from each material were fabricated and divided into four equal groups, three experimental and one control (n=25). The differences in the mean surface roughness between the treatment groups were recorded and statistically analyzed. No statistically significant increase in the surface roughness was observed when the specimens were subjected to chemical disinfection and autoclave sterilization, increase in roughness and discoloration was observed in all the materials when specimens were subjected to microwave sterilization. Chemical disinfection did not have a significant effect but, since it is less effective, autoclave sterilization can be considered effective and autoclaving did not show any specimen discoloration as in microwave sterilization. Microwave sterilization may be considered when impressions are used to make diagnostic casts. A significant increase in surface roughness may produce rougher casts, resulting in rougher tissue surfaces for denture and cast restorations. Autoclave sterilization of vinyl polysiloxane elastomeric impressions for 5 minutes at 134°C at 20 psi may be considered an effective method over chemical disinfection and microwave sterilization, because chemical disinfection does

  11. Effect of germination and autoclaving of sprouted finger millet and kidney beans on cyanide content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chove, Bernard E; Mamiro, Peter R S

    2010-10-01

    Cyanide contents of locally purchased brown finger millet (Eleusine corocana L. Gaertner) and brown speckled kidney bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaries var. Rose Coco) were determined using raw, germinated and autoclaved samples. The aim was to establish the extent of cyanide content increase resulting from the germination process and the effectiveness of the autoclaving process on the reduction of cyanide levels in the samples, for safety considerations. Autoclaving was carried out at 121degree C for 20 minutes. It was found that germination increased the cyanide content by 2.11 to 2.14 fold in finger millet for laboratory processed samples. In the case of kidney beans the increment was 1.76 to 1.77 fold for laboratory samples. The increments for field processed samples were in the same range as those for laboratory samples. Autoclaving reduced the cyanide content to between 61.8 and 65.9 % of the original raw contents for finger millet and between 56.6 to 57.8% in the case of kidney beans. The corresponding reductions for field samples were also found to be within the same ranges as the laboratory processed samples. It was concluded that autoclaving significantly reduced the cyanide levels in germinated finger millet and kidney beans.

  12. Face-Sheet Quality Analysis and Thermo-Physical Property Characterization of OOA and Autoclave Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Lort, Richard D., III; Zimmerman, Thomas J.; Sutter, James K.; Pelham, Larry I.; McCorkle, Linda S.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Increased application of polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials in large vehicle structures requires consideration of non-autoclave manufacturing technology. The NASA Composites for Exploration project, and its predecessor, Lightweight Spacecraft Structures and Materials project, were tasked with the development of materials and manufacturing processes for structures that will perform in a heavy-lift-launch vehicle environment. Both autoclave and out of autoclave processable materials were considered. Large PMC structures envisioned for such a vehicle included the payload shroud and the interstage connector. In this study, composite sandwich panels representing 1/16th segments of the barrel section of the Ares V rocket fairing were prepared as 1.8 m x 2.4 m sections of the 10 m diameter arc segment. IM7/977-3 was used as the face-sheet prepreg of the autoclave processed panels and T40-800B/5320-1 for the out of autoclave panels. The core was 49.7 kg/sq m (3.1 lb/cu ft (pcf)) aluminum honeycomb. Face-sheets were fabricated by automated tape laying 153 mm wide unidirectional tape. This work details analysis of the manufactured panels where face-sheet quality was characterized by optical microscopy, cured ply thickness measurements, acid digestion, and thermal analysis.

  13. Investigation of CFRP in aerospace field and improvement of the molding accuracy by using autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamisawa, Takunori

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) has come to be used in a wide range of industries such as sporting goods, fishing tackle and cars because it has a large number of advantages. In this situation, even the passenger aircraft industry also pays attention to the material. CFRP is an ideal material for airplanes because it has a lot of advantages such as light weight and strong, chemical resistance and corrosion resistance. Generally, autoclave is used for molding CFRP in the field of aerospace engineering. Autoclave is a machine that can mold a product by heating and pressurizing material in an evacuated bag. What is examined in this paper is an observation on handmade CFRP by a polarizing microscope. In addition, mechanical characteristics were investigated. Furthermore, an improvement of accuracy in CFRP molding using an autoclave is suggested from viewpoint of thermodynamics.

  14. One-step formation and sterilization of gellan and hyaluronan nanohydrogels using autoclave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Elita; De Rugeriis, Maria Cristina; Di Meo, Chiara; Censi, Roberta; Coviello, Tommasina; Alhaique, Franco; Matricardi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The sterilization of nanoparticles for biomedical applications is one of the challenges that must be faced in the development of nanoparticulate systems. Usually, autoclave sterilization cannot be applied because of stability concerns when polymeric nanoparticles are involved. This paper describes an innovative method which allows to obtain, using a single step autoclave procedure, the preparation and, at the same time, the sterilization of self-assembling nanohydrogels (NHs) obtained with cholesterol-derivatized gellan and hyaluronic acid. Moreover, by using this approach, NHs, while formed in the autoclave, can be easily loaded with drugs. The obtained NHs dispersion can be lyophilized in the presence of a cryoprotectant, leading to the original NHs after re-dispersion in water.

  15. Autoclave and beta-amylolysis lead to reduced in vitro digestibility of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, B Elliot; Janaswamy, Srinivas; Yao, Yuan

    2009-08-12

    In this study, a combination of autoclave and beta-amylolysis was used to modulate the digestibility of normal corn starch (NCS) and wheat starch (WS). The modification procedure comprised three cycles of autoclave at 35% moisture content and 121 degrees C, beta-amylolysis, and one additional cycle of autoclave. Starch materials were sampled at each stage and characterized. The fine structure of starch was determined using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography, the micromorphology of starch dispersion was imaged using cryo-SEM, the crystalline pattern was evaluated using wide-angle X-ray powder diffraction, and the digestibility was measured using Englyst assay. After beta-amylolysis, amylose was enriched (from 25.4 to 33.2% for NCS and from 27.5 to 32.8% for WS) and the branch density was increased (from 5.2 to 7.7% for NCS and from 5.3 to 7.9% for WS). Cryo-SEM images showed that the autoclave treatment led to the formation of a low-swelling, high-density gel network, whereas beta-amylolysis nearly demolished the network structure. The loss of A-type crystalline structure and the formation of B- and V-type structures resulted from autoclave, which suggests the formation of amylose-based ordered structure. Englyst assay indicated that, due to beta-amylolysis, the resistant starch (RS) content was increased to 30 from 11% of native NCS and to 23 from 9% of native WS. In contrast, autoclave showed only minor impact on RS levels. The increase of RS observed in this study is associated with enhanced branch density, which is different from the four types of RS commonly defined.

  16. UV irradiation and autoclave treatment for elimination of contaminating DNA from laboratory consumables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefrides, Lisa A; Powell, Mark C; Donley, Michael A; Kahn, Roger

    2010-02-01

    Laboratories employ various approaches to ensure that their consumables are free of DNA contamination. They may purchase pre-treated consumables, perform quality control checks prior to casework, and use in-house profile databases for contamination detection. It is better to prevent contamination prior to DNA typing than identify it after samples are processed. To this end, laboratories may UV irradiate or autoclave consumables prior to use but treatment procedures are typically based on killing microorganisms and not on the elimination of DNA. We report a systematic study of UV and autoclave treatments on the persistence of DNA from saliva. This study was undertaken to determine the best decontamination strategy for the removal of DNA from laboratory consumables. We have identified autoclave and UV irradiation procedures that can eliminate nanogram quantities of contaminating DNA contained within cellular material. Autoclaving is more effective than UV irradiation because it can eliminate short fragments of contaminating DNA more effectively. Lengthy autoclave or UV irradiation treatments are required. Depending on bulb power, a UV crosslinker may take a minimum of 2h to achieve an effective dose for elimination of nanogram quantities of contaminating DNA (>7250mJ/cm(2)). Similarly autoclaving may also take 2h to eliminate similar quantities of contaminating DNA. For this study, we used dried saliva stains to determine the effective dose. Dried saliva stains were chosen because purified DNA as well as fresh saliva are less difficult to eradicate than dried stains and also because consumable contamination is more likely to be in the form of a collection of dry cells.

  17. A Comparison of the Properties of Carbon Fiber Epoxy Composites Produced by Non-autoclave with Vacuum Bag Only Prepreg and Autoclave Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Yoon; Choi, Chi Hoon; Choi, Won Jong; Hwang, Seong Soon

    2018-05-01

    The non-autoclave curing technique with vacuum bag only (VBO) prepreg has been conceived as a cost-effective manufacturing method for producing high-quality composite part. This study demonstrated the feasibility of improving composite part's performances and established the effective mitigation strategies for manufacturing induced defects, such as internal voids and surface porosity. The experimental results highlighted the fact that voids and surface porosity were clearly dependent on the resin viscosity state at an intermediate dwell stage of the curing process. Thereafter, the enhancement of resin flow could lead to achieving high quality parts with minimal void content (1.3%) and high fiber fraction (53 vol.%). The mechanical testing showed comparable in-plane shear and compressive strength to conventional autoclave. The microscopic observations also supported the evidence of improved interfacial bonding in terms of excellent fiber wet-out and minimal void content for the optimized cure cycle condition.

  18. Compact solar autoclave based on steam generation using broadband light-harvesting nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Oara; Feronti, Curtis; Neumann, Albert D; Dong, Anjie; Schell, Kevin; Lu, Benjamin; Kim, Eric; Quinn, Mary; Thompson, Shea; Grady, Nathaniel; Nordlander, Peter; Oden, Maria; Halas, Naomi J

    2013-07-16

    The lack of readily available sterilization processes for medicine and dentistry practices in the developing world is a major risk factor for the propagation of disease. Modern medical facilities in the developed world often use autoclave systems to sterilize medical instruments and equipment and process waste that could contain harmful contagions. Here, we show the use of broadband light-absorbing nanoparticles as solar photothermal heaters, which generate high-temperature steam for a standalone, efficient solar autoclave useful for sanitation of instruments or materials in resource-limited, remote locations. Sterilization was verified using a standard Geobacillus stearothermophilus-based biological indicator.

  19. Compact solar autoclave based on steam generation using broadband light-harvesting nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Oara; Feronti, Curtis; Neumann, Albert D.; Dong, Anjie; Schell, Kevin; Lu, Benjamin; Kim, Eric; Quinn, Mary; Thompson, Shea; Grady, Nathaniel; Nordlander, Peter; Oden, Maria; Halas, Naomi J.

    2013-01-01

    The lack of readily available sterilization processes for medicine and dentistry practices in the developing world is a major risk factor for the propagation of disease. Modern medical facilities in the developed world often use autoclave systems to sterilize medical instruments and equipment and process waste that could contain harmful contagions. Here, we show the use of broadband light-absorbing nanoparticles as solar photothermal heaters, which generate high-temperature steam for a standalone, efficient solar autoclave useful for sanitation of instruments or materials in resource-limited, remote locations. Sterilization was verified using a standard Geobacillus stearothermophilus-based biological indicator. PMID:23836642

  20. Thermal properties of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) recovered from municipal solid waste by steam autoclaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of steam autoclaving on the properties of PET, data which could ultimately be applied to determine the most likely end use of this potentially huge waste stream. Through the course of the study it was determined that stretch blow molding in bottle ...

  1. Autoclave reduction of jarosites and other metal sulfates : a new approach to major waste problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, J.T.L.

    1999-01-01

    Industrial jarosite is a waste product of the zinc industry. It is considered a serious environmental problem, due to the quantity produced and the mobile hazardous metals it contains. Over 50 million tons are already stored worldwide. The jarosite sludge autoclave treatment process described in

  2. The Development of High Temperature Thermoplastic Composite Materials for Additive Manufactured Autoclave Tooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lindahl, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hassen, Ahmed A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In this work, ORNL and Techmer investigated and screened different high temperature thermoplastic reinforced materials to fabricate composite molds for autoclave processes using Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques. This project directly led to the development and commercial release of two printable, high temperature composite materials available through Techmer PM. These new materials are targeted for high temperature tooling made via large scale additive manufacturing.

  3. Hydrothermal carbonization of autoclaved municipal solid waste pulp and anaerobically treated pulp digestate

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the autoclaved organic fraction of municipal solid waste pulp (OFMSW) and the digestate from OFMSW pulp after anaerobic digestion (AD) were processed by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) at 200, 250, and 300 °C for 30 min and 2 h. The focus of this work was to evaluate the potential fo...

  4. Scanning electron microscopy of autoclaved aerated concrete with supplementary raw materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, C.; Florea, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Nisperos, Arturo G.; Pöllmann, Herbert

    Microscopy is a key analysis technology for the understanding of the achieved properties of building materials. In the case of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) it is even more important due to the phase transformation during the hydrothermal hardening. The incorporation of substitution materials in

  5. Sodium carbonate activated slag as cement replacement in autoclaved aerated concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, B.; Straub, C.; Segers, S.; Yu, Q.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to study the suitability of fully replacing cement by sodium carbonate activated slag in producing autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC). The material properties of the product are characterized in terms of green strength development, mechanical properties, pore related properties such

  6. ETUDE DU COMPORTEMENT MECANIQUE DU BETON CELLULAIRE AUTOCLAVE PRODUIT EN ALGERIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R BELOUETTAR

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail présente une étude expérimentale du comportement mécanique du béton cellulaire autoclavé. L’étude est portée essentiellement sur une série d’essais mécaniques en compression quasistatique à différentes vitesses de déformation variables entre 10-4 s-1 et 10 s-1 et à deux états différents (état sec et état saturé d’eau. En général, l’augmentation de la vitesse de déformation donne une augmentation de la contrainte critique du béton cellulaire autoclavé. Le béton cellulaire autoclavé présente une sensibilité à la vitesse de déformation positive. La valeur du module d’élasticité est proche de la valeur standard (1.5 GPa pour un béton cellulaire autoclavé de masse volumique égale à 500-550 kg/m3.

  7. Application of glass recycling by-products in Autoclaved Aerated Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, Chr.; Florea, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Schmidt, Wolfram; Msinjili, Nsesheye Susan

    Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) is a construction material with a large range of applications. In order to generate more sustainable materials, the possibility of the incorporation of by-products and left-over-materials from various processes is investigated. The focus of this research is the

  8. Single Vacuum Bagging and Autoclave Curing System Influence on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Phenolic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Mirzapour

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production of thermoset composite components involves the application of a vacuum bagging and autoclave pressure to minimize void percentage, usually to less than 5%. Phenolic resin systems generate water as a reaction byproduct via condensation reactions during curing at elevated temperatures. In this paper, vacuum bagging and simple manufactured autoclave curing systems are used for manufacturing of asbestos/phenolic composites and the effects of processing conditions on manufactured composites are investigated. The traditional single-vacuum-bag process is unable to manage the volatiles effectively, resulting in inferior laminates having voids. The autoclave process cure cycle (temperature/pressure profiles for the selected composite system is designed to emit volatiles during curing reactions effectively and produce composites with low void contents and excellent mechanical properties. Laminate consolidation quality is characterized by optical photomicrography for the cross-sections and measurements of void content and mechanical properties. The void content of phenolic composites as opposed to other composites increases as pressure increases up to 3 bar and it is then decreased beyond it. A product of 124% lower void content, 13% higher density, 24% higher flexural strength and 27% higher flexural modulus can be fabricated in composites obtainedby autoclave processing.

  9. Incineration or autoclave? A comparative study in isfahan hospitals waste management system (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsi, Ali; Ferdosi, Masoud; Mehrani, Mohammd Javad

    2013-03-01

    Medical wastes are among hazardous wastes and their disposal requires special methods prior to landfilling. Medical wastes are divided into infected and non-infected wastes and the infected wastes require treatment. Incineration is one of the oldest methods for treatment of medical wastes, but their usage have faced wide objections due to emission of hazardous gases such as CO2 and CO as well as Carcinogenic gases such as Dioxins and Furans which are generated as a result of incomplete combustion of compositions like PVCs. Autoclave is one the newest methods of medical wastes treatment which works based on wet disinfection. The statistical population in this descriptive, comparative study includes hospitals located in Isfahan city and the sample hospitals were selected randomly. To environmentally evaluate the Autoclave method, TST (time, steam, temperature) and Spore tests were used. Also, samples were made from incinerator's stack gases and their analyses results were compared with WHO standards. TST and spore tests results were negative in all cases indicating the success of treatment process. The comparison of incinerator's stack gases with WHO standards showed the high concentration of CO in some samples indicating the incomplete combustion. Also, the incineration efficiency in some cases was less than 99.5 percent, which is the efficiency criterion according to the administrative regulations of wastes management law of Iran. No needle stick was observed in Autoclave method during the compaction of bags containing wastes, and the handlers were facing no danger in this respect. The comparison of costs indicated that despite higher capital investment for purchasing autoclave, its current costs (e.g. maintenance, etc) are much less than the incineration method. Totally, due to inappropriate operation of incinerators and lack of air pollution control devices, the use of incinerators doesn't seem rational anymore. Yet, despite the inefficiency of autoclaves in

  10. Incineration or Autoclave? A Comparative Study in Isfahan Hospitals Waste Management System (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsi, Ali; Ferdosi, Masoud; Mehrani, Mohammd Javad

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Medical wastes are among hazardous wastes and their disposal requires special methods prior to landfilling. Medical wastes are divided into infected and non-infected wastes and the infected wastes require treatment. Incineration is one of the oldest methods for treatment of medical wastes, but their usage have faced wide objections due to emission of hazardous gases such as CO2 and CO as well as Carcinogenic gases such as Dioxins and Furans which are generated as a result of incomplete combustion of compositions like PVCs. Autoclave is one the newest methods of medical wastes treatment which works based on wet disinfection. Methods: The statistical population in this descriptive, comparative study includes hospitals located in Isfahan city and the sample hospitals were selected randomly. To environmentally evaluate the Autoclave method, TST (time, steam, temperature) and Spore tests were used. Also, samples were made from incinerator’s stack gases and their analyses results were compared with WHO standards. Findings: TST and spore tests results were negative in all cases indicating the success of treatment process. The comparison of incinerator’s stack gases with WHO standards showed the high concentration of CO in some samples indicating the incomplete combustion. Also, the incineration efficiency in some cases was less than 99.5 percent, which is the efficiency criterion according to the administrative regulations of wastes management law of Iran. No needle stick was observed in Autoclave method during the compaction of bags containing wastes, and the handlers were facing no danger in this respect. The comparison of costs indicated that despite higher capital investment for purchasing autoclave, its current costs (e.g. maintenance, etc) are much less than the incineration method. Discussion: Totally, due to inappropriate operation of incinerators and lack of air pollution control devices, the use of incinerators doesn’t seem rational anymore

  11. High-impact strength acrylic denture base material processed by autoclave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulwahhab, Salwan Sami

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the effect of two different cycles of autoclave processing on the transverse strength, impact strength, surface hardness and the porosity of high-impact strength acrylic denture base material. High Impact Acryl was the heat-cured acrylic denture base material included in the study. A total of 120 specimens were prepared, the specimens were grouped into: control groups in which high-impact strength acrylic resins processed by conventional water-bath processing technique (74°C for 1.5 h then boil for 30 min) and experimental groups in which high-impact strength acrylic resins processed by autoclave at 121°C, 210 kPa .The experimental groups were divided into (fast) groups for 15 min, and (slow) groups for 30 min. To study the effect of the autoclave processing (Tuttnauer 2540EA), four tests were conducted transverse strength (Instron universal testing machine), impact strength (Charpy tester), surface hardness (shore D), and porosity test. The results were analyzed to ANOVA and LSD test. In ANOVA test, there were highly significant differences between the results of the processing techniques in transverse, impact, hardness, and porosity test. The LSD test showed a significant difference between control and fast groups in transverse and hardness tests and a non-significant difference in impact test and a highly significant difference in porosity test; while, there were a highly significant differences between control and slow groups in all examined tests; finally, there were a non-significant difference between fast and slow groups in transverse and porosity tests and a highly significant difference in impact and hardness tests. In the autoclave processing technique, the slow (long) curing cycle improved the tested physical and mechanical properties as compared with the fast (short) curing cycle. The autoclave processing technique improved the tested physical and mechanical properties of High Impact Acryl. Copyright © 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society

  12. Flash autoclave settings may influence eradication but not presence of well-established biofilms on orthopaedic implant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dustin L; Taylor, Nicholas B; Epperson, Richard T; Rothberg, David L

    2017-10-04

    Flash autoclaving is one of the most frequently utilized methods of sterilizing devices, implants or other materials. For a number of decades, it has been common practice for surgeons to remove implantable devices, flash autoclave and then reimplant them in a patient. Data have not yet indicated the potential for biofilms to survive or remain on the surface of orthopaedic-relevant materials following flash autoclave. In this study, monomicrobial and polymicrobial biofilms were grown on the surface of clinically relevant titanium materials and exposed to flash autoclave settings that included varying times and temperatures. Data indicated that when the sterilization and control temperatures of an autoclave were the same, biofilms were able to survive flash autoclaving that was performed for a short duration. Higher temperature and increased duration rendered biofilms non-viable, but none of the autoclave settings had the ability to remove or disperse the presence of biofilms from the titanium surfaces. These findings may be beneficial for facilities, clinics, or hospitals to consider if biofilms are suspected to be present on materials or devices, in particular implants that have had associated infection and are considered for re-implantation. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Quality evaluation of carbonaceous industrial by-products and its effect on properties of autoclave aerated concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomina, E. V.; Lesovik, V. S.; Fomin, A. E.; Kozhukhova, N. I.; Lebedev, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    Argillite is a carbonaceous industrial by-product that is a potential source in environmentally friendly and source-saving construction industry. In this research, chemical and mineral composition as well as particle size distribution of argillite were studied and used to develop autoclave aerated concrete as partial substitute of quartz sand. Effect of the argillite as a mineral admixture in autoclave aerated concrete was investigated in terms of compressive and tensile strength, density, heat conductivity etc. The obtained results demonstrated an efficiency of argillite as an energy-saving material in autoclave construction composites.

  14. Elevated Temperature, Notched Compression Performance of Out of Autoclave Processed Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Sutter, James K.; Dixon, Genevieve D.; Smeltzer, Satn S.

    2013-01-01

    Curved honeycomb sandwich panels composed of carbon fiber reinforced toughened-epoxy polymer facesheets are being evaluated for potential use as payload fairing components on the NASA heavy-lift space launch system (HL-SLS). These proposed composite sandwich panels provide the most efficient aerospace launch structures, and offer mass and thermal advantages when compared with existing metallic payload fairing structures. NASA and industry are investigating recently developed carbon fiber epoxy prepreg systems which can be fabricated using out-of autoclave (OOA) processes. Specifically, OOA processes using vacuum pressure in an oven and thereby significantly reducing the cost associated with manufacturing large (up to 10 m diameter) composite structures when compared with autoclave. One of these OOA composite material systems, CYCOM(R) 5320-1, was selected for manufacture of a 1/16th scale barrel portion of the payload fairing; such that, the system could be compared with the well-characterized prepreg system, CYCOM(R) 977-3, typically processed in an autoclave. Notched compression coupons for each material were obtained from the minimum-gauge flat laminate [60/-60/0]S witness panels produced in this manufacturing study. The coupons were also conditioned to an effective moisture equilibrium point and tested according to ASTM D6484M-09 at temperatures ranging from 25 C up to 177 C. The results of this elevated temperature mechanical characterization study demonstrate that, for thin coupons, the OHC strength of the OOA laminate was equivalent to the flight certified autoclave processed composite laminates; the limitations on the elevated temperature range are hot-wet conditions up to 163 C and are only within the margins of testing error. At 25 C, both the wet and dry OOA material coupons demonstrated greater OHC failure strengths than the autoclave processed material laminates. These results indicate a substantial improvement in OOA material development and

  15. Comparison of Composites Properties Manufactured by Vacuum Process and Autoclave Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Rufei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of prepregs ZT7G/LT-03A(unidirectional carbon fiber prepreg and ZT7G3198P/LT-03A(plain carbon fabric prepreg were used to manufacture three Bateches of composites by vacuum process and autoclave process respectively. The physical properties of the prepregs and mechanical properties of composite were tested. The performance, fiber volume content and porosity of composites manufactured by vacuum cure and autoclave process show that the physical property retention rates of vacuum cured composites are all over 75%, some even more than 100%. Interlaminar shear strength keeps the lowest retention rate and warp tensile strength keeps the highest retention in unidirectional carbon fiber composites. For fabric composite material, compression strength keeps the lowest and warp tensile strength keeps the highest retention. Vacuum cured composites perform lower fiber volume content and higher porosity, which are the main reasons of the lower performance.

  16. Mathematical Model For Autoclave Curing Of Unsaturated Polyester Based Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan A. Abdul Razak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer process involved in the autoclave curing of fiber-reinforced thermosetting composites is investigated numerically. A model for the prediction of the temperature and the extent of the reaction across the laminate thickness during curing process in the autoclave of unsaturated polyester based composite has been developed. The governing equation for one dimensional heat transfer, and accounting for the heat generation due to the exothermic cure reaction in the composites had been used.  It was found that the temperature at the central of the laminate increases up to the external imposed temperature, because of the thermal conductivity of the resin and fiber. The heat generated by the exothermic reaction of the resin is not adequately removed; the increase in the temperature at the center increases the resins rate reaction, which in turn generates more heat.

  17. HYACE - a novel autoclave coring equipment for systematic offshore gashydrate sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, H.; Hohnberg, H.J.; Reinelt, R. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Schiffs- und Meerestechnik, Fachgebiet Maritime Technik

    1997-12-31

    HYACE, the acronym for hydrate autoclave coring equipment system, is a research and development project sponsored by the European Union`s Marine Science and Technology Programme MAST. The project was to have started in the fourth quarter of 1997 and is to last 30 months. The main activities of the project will be in the development and prototype testing of an innovative down-hole controlled autoclave coring system. This system will be designed to sample marine sediments at extended down-hole conditions maintaining as many parameters constant as possible. In general terms, the main aim of the project is to contribute to systematic ground truthing of a necessarily ephemeral phenomenon of growing global significance: sampling and analysis of gas hydrates in their natural environment. (MSK)

  18. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) fiber optic monitoring of composites during cure in an autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druy, Mark A.; Elandjian, Lucy; Stevenson, William A.; Driver, Richard D.; Leskowitz, Garett M.

    1990-01-01

    Real-time in situ monitoring of the chemical states of epoxy resins was investigated during cure in an autoclave using infrared evanescent spectroscopy. Fiber evanescent sensors were developed which may be sandwiched between the plies of the prepreg sample. A short length of sapphire fiber was used as the sensor cell portion of the fiber probe. Heavy metal fluoride glass optical fiber cables were designed for connecting the FTIR spectrometer to the sensor fiber within the autoclave. The sapphire fibers have outstanding mechanical thermal properties which should permit their use as an embedded link in all thermoset composites. The system is capable of operation at a temperature of 250 C for periods up to 8 hours without major changes to the fiber transmission. A discussion of the selection of suitable sensor fibers, the construction of a fiber-optic interface, and the interpretation of in situ infrared spectra of the curing process is presented.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF A HALLOYSITE ADDITIVE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Owsiak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results from the tests of autoclaved aerated concrete with halloysite as a cement additive. Good pozzolanic properties make it a suitable material to be used as a partial replacement of a portion of cement. Basic physical and mechanical properties of the composites with various mineral content are discussed. The compressive strength test results indicate an increase in strength of the AAC containing 2.5 % and 5 % halloysite relative to the reference specimen. Thermal conductivity and density values remained at the same level. Observations of the microstructure in the scanning electron microscope confirmed the results from the XRD tests. Anhydrite was observed in addition to tobermorite. The results from the tests of the autoclaved aerated concretes in which halloysite was incorporated as 7.5 % and 10 % cement replacement showed an increase in compressive strength, density and thermal conductivity values.

  20. The experimental study of heat transfer around molds inside a model autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamlouch, Taleb; Roux, Stéphane; Lefèvre, Nicolas; Bailleul, Jean-Luc; Sobotka, Vincent

    2018-05-01

    The temperature distribution within composite parts manufactured inside autoclaves plays a key role in determining the parts quality at the end of the curing cycle. Indeed, heat transfer between the parts and the surroundings inside an autoclave is strongly coupled with the flow field around the molds and can be modeled through the convective heat transfer coefficient (HTC). The aerodynamically unsuitable geometry of the molds generates complex turbulent non-uniform flows around them accompanied with the presence of dead zones. This heterogeneity can imply non-uniform convective heat transfers leading to temperature gradients inside parts that can be prejudicial. Given this fact, the purpose of this study is to perform experimental measurements in order to describe the flow field and the convective heat transfer behavior around representative industrial molds installed inside a home-made model. A key point of our model autoclave is the ease of use of non-intrusive measuring instruments: the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique and infrared imaging camera for the study of the flow field and the heat transfer coefficient distribution around the molds respectively. The experimental measurements are then compared to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations performed on the computer code ANSYS Fluent 16.0®. This investigation has revealed, as expected, a non-uniform distribution of the convective heat transfer coefficient around the molds and therefore the presence of thermal gradients which can reduce the composite parts quality during an autoclave process. A good agreement has been achieved between the experimental and the numerical results leading then to the validation of the performed numerical simulations.

  1. Cellular Composites with Ambient and Autoclaved Type of Hardening with Application of Nanostructured Binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelyubova, V; Pavlenko, N; Netsvet, D

    2015-01-01

    The research presents the dimensional and structural characteristics of nonhydrational hardening binders - nanostructured binders. Rational areas of their use in composites for construction purposes are given. The paper presents the results of the development of natural hardening foam concrete and aerated autoclaved concrete for thermal insulating and construction and thermal insulating purposes. Thus nanostructured binder (NB) in the composites was used as a primary binder and a high reactive modifier. (paper)

  2. Out-of-Plane Bending Properties of Out-of-Autoclave Thermosetting Prepregs during Forming Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan A. Alshahrani; Mehdi H. Hojjati

    2016-01-01

    In order to predict and model wrinkling which is caused by out of plane deformation due to compressive loading in the plane of the material during composite prepregs forming, it is necessary to quantitatively understand the relative magnitude of the bending stiffness. This study aims to examine the bending properties of out-of-autoclave (OOA) thermosetting prepreg under vertical cantilever test condition. A direct method for characterizing the bending behavior of composite prepregs was develo...

  3. Effect of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of thermally treated Nickel-Titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D; Shen, Y; Peng, B; Haapasalo, M

    2016-10-01

    To compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of HyFlex CM, Twisted Files (TF), K3XF, Race, and K3, and evaluate the effect of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of these instruments both before and after the files were cycled. Five types of NiTi instruments with similar size 30, .06 taper were selected: HyFlex CM, TF, K3XF, Race and K3. Files were tested in a simulated canal with a curvature of 60° and a radius of 3 mm. The number of cycles to failure of each instrument was determined to evaluate cyclic fatigue resistance. Each type of instruments was randomly divided into four experimental groups: group 1 (n = 20), unsterilized instruments; group 2 (n = 20), pre-sterilized instruments subjected to 10 cycles of autoclave sterilization; group 3 (n = 20), instruments tested were sterilized at 25%, 50% and 75% of the mean cycles to failure as determined in group 1, and then cycled to failure; group 4 (n = 20), instruments cycled in the same manner as group 3 but without sterilization. The fracture surfaces of instruments were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). HyFlex CM, TF and K3XF had significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance than Race and K3 in the unsterilized group 1 (P Autoclave sterilization significantly increased the MCF of HyFlex CM and K3XF (P Autoclaving extended the cyclic fatigue life of HyFlex CM and K3XF. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effect of Autoclave Cycles on Surface Characteristics of S-File Evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Razavian, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Pedram; Mojtahedi, Hamid; Nazeri, Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Presence of surface defects in endodontic instruments can lead to unwanted complications such as instrument fracture and incomplete preparation of the canal. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of autoclave cycles on surface characteristics of S-File by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods and Materials: In this experimental study, 17 brand new S-Files (#30) were used. The surface characteristics of the files were examined in four steps (without autocla...

  5. Autoclaved aerated concrete : shaping the evolution of residential construction in the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Bukoski, Steven C.

    1998-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Precast Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) is a proven construction material used in Europe for over 70 years. Introduced to the United States in 1990, construction thus far is limited to commercial and custom borne applications. Premium benefits include energy efficiency and resistance to natural disaster and pests. Despite being the leading residential construction material in Europe and Japan, lumber is the leading material of choice in the ...

  6. Diseño de un biorreactor a partir de un autoclave en deshuso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Salazar-Rojas

    2014-06-01

    Este artículo detalla el proceso de construcción de un prototipo de biorreactor piloto, con todas las características necesarias para su funcionalidad, partiendo de una autoclave obsoleta. Con el fin de dar ejemplo de cómo se puede extender la vida útil de un material de desecho y, además, minimizar costos al obtener un equipo 100% funcional.

  7. Mechanical Characterization of In and Out-of-Autoclave Cured Composite Panels for Large Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Lerch, Bradley A.; Wilmoth, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Two manufacturing demonstration panels (1/16th-arc-segments of 10 m diameter cylinder) were fabricated under the composites part of the Lightweight Space Structures and Materials program. Both panels were of sandwich construction with aluminum core and 8-ply quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy facesheets. One of the panels was constructed with in-autoclave curable unidirectional prepreg (IM7/977-3) and the second with out-of-autoclave unidirectional prepreg (T40-800B/5320-1). Following NDE inspection, each panel was divided into a number of small specimens for material property characterization and a large (0.914 m wide by 1.524 m long) panel for a buckling study. Results from the small specimen tests were used to (a) assess the fabrication quality of each 1/16th arc segment panel and (b) to develop and/or verify basic material property inputs to Finite Element analysis models. The mechanical performance of the two material systems is assessed at the coupon level by comparing average measured properties such as flatwise tension, edgewise compression, and facesheet tension. The buckling response of the 0.914 m wide by 1.524 m long panel provided a comparison between the in- and out-of autoclave systems at a larger scale.

  8. Autoclaved lightweight aerated concrete. ; Manufacture/performance/application. Keiryo kiho concrete. ; Sono seiho kino yoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isome, Y. (Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-10-20

    This paper reviews the manufacturing process, performance, and application of autoclaved lightweight aerated concrete (ALC). ALC is produced by a two-step process composed of molding and autoclaving, using quartz, lime, portland cement, and small quantities of aluminum as raw materials. In the molding step, aluminum reacts with alkali to generate hydrogen gas, thus forming air pores in the slurry. On the other hand, calcium silicate hydrates are produced by the reaction of lime and portland cement with water, resulting in formation of voids in the intergranular spaces vacated by the reacting water. In the autoclaving step, tobermorite (crystalline calcium silicate hydrates) is formed by the reaction of quartz and calcium silicate hydrates under high temperature and high pressure steam, and the intergranular voids are reduced to micropores in size as a result of the hydrothermal reaction. The air-pore and micropore structure adds unique physical properties to the ALC, such as fire resistance, heat insulation, lightness and strength. ALC is widely used as a useful material for homes and multistory buildings. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Cure Cycle Optimization of Rapidly Cured Out-Of-Autoclave Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Anqi; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Xinqing; Yu, Qiyong

    2018-01-01

    Out-of-autoclave prepreg typically needs a long cure cycle to guarantee good properties as the result of low processing pressure applied. It is essential to reduce the manufacturing time, achieve real cost reduction, and take full advantage of out-of-autoclave process. The focus of this paper is to reduce the cure cycle time and production cost while maintaining high laminate quality. A rapidly cured out-of-autoclave resin and relative prepreg were independently developed. To determine a suitable rapid cure procedure for the developed prepreg, the effect of heating rate, initial cure temperature, dwelling time, and post-cure time on the final laminate quality were evaluated and the factors were then optimized. As a result, a rapid cure procedure was determined. The results showed that the resin infiltration could be completed at the end of the initial cure stage and no obvious void could be seen in the laminate at this time. The laminate could achieve good internal quality using the optimized cure procedure. The mechanical test results showed that the laminates had a fiber volume fraction of 59–60% with a final glass transition temperature of 205 °C and excellent mechanical strength especially the flexural properties. PMID:29534048

  10. Curing Pressure Influence of Out-of-Autoclave Processing on Structural Composites for Commercial Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios M. Drakonakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoclaving is a process that ensures the highest quality of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP composite structures used in aviation. During the autoclave process, consolidation of prepreg laminas through simultaneous elevated pressure and temperature results in a uniform high-end material system. This work focuses on analyzing in a fundamental way the applications of pressure and temperature separately during prepreg consolidation. A controlled pressure vessel (press-clave has been designed that applies pressure during the curing process while the temperature is being applied locally by heat blankets. This vessel gives the ability to design manufacturing processes with different pressures while applying temperature at desired regions of the composite. The pressure role on the curing extent and its effect on the interlayer region are also tested in order to evaluate the consolidation of prepregs to a completely uniform material. Such studies may also be used to provide insight into the morphology of interlayer reinforcement concepts, which are widely used in the featherweight composites. Specimens manufactured by press-clave, which separates pressure from heat, are analytically tested and compared to autoclaved specimens in order to demonstrate the suitability of the press-clave to manufacture high-quality composites with excessively reduced cost.

  11. Failure Predictions of Out-of-Autoclave Sandwich Joints with Delaminations Under Flexure Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordendale, Nikolas A.; Goyal, Vinay K.; Lundgren, Eric C.; Patel, Dhruv N.; Farrokh, Babak; Jones, Justin; Fischetti, Grace; Segal, Kenneth N.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis and a test program was conducted to investigate the damage tolerance of composite sandwich joints. The joints contained a single circular delamination between the face-sheet and the doubler. The coupons were fabricated through out-of-autoclave (OOA) processes, a technology NASA is investigating for joining large composite sections. The four-point bend flexure test was used to induce compression loading into the side of the joint where the delamination was placed. The compression side was chosen since it tends to be one of the most critical loads in launch vehicles. Autoclave cure was used to manufacture the composite sandwich sections, while the doubler was co-bonded onto the sandwich face-sheet using an OOA process after sandwich panels were cured. A building block approach was adopted to characterize the mechanical properties of the joint material, including the fracture toughness between the doubler and face-sheet. Twelve four-point-bend samples were tested, six in the sandwich core ribbon orientation and six in sandwich core cross-ribbon direction. Analysis predicted failure initiation and propagation at the pre-delaminated location, consistent with experimental observations. A building block approach using fracture analyses methods predicted failure loads in close agreement with tests. This investigation demonstrated a small strength reduction due to a flaw of significant size compared to the width of the sample. Therefore, concerns of bonding an OOA material to an in-autoclave material was mitigated for the geometries, materials, and load configurations considered.

  12. [Influence of autoclave sterilization on dimensional stability and detail reproduction of 5 additional silicone impression materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tong-kai; Sun, Zhi-hui; Jiang, Yong

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the dimensional stability and detail reproduction of five additional silicone impression materials after autoclave sterilization. Impressions were made on the ISO 4823 standard mold containing several marking lines, in five kinds of additional silicone. All the impressions were sterilized by high temperature and pressure (135 °C, 212.8 kPa) for 25 min. Linear measurements of pre-sterilization and post-sterilization were made with a measuring microscope. Statistical analysis utilized single-factor analysis with pair-wise comparison of mean values when appropriate. Hypothesis testing was conducted at alpha = 0.05. No significant difference was found between the pre-sterilization and post-sterilization conditions for all locations, and all the absolute valuse of linear rate of change less than 8%. All the sterilization by the autoclave did not affect the surfuce detail reproduction of the 5 impression materials. The dimensional stability and detail reproduction of the five additional silicone impression materials in the study was unaffected by autoclave sterilization.

  13. Use of urinary biomarkers to characterize occupational exposure to BTEX in healthcare waste autoclave operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Ata; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Gordi, Elham; Quémerais, Bernadette; Kazemi Moghadam, Vahid; Lu, Wenjing; Hashemi, Fallah; Hoseini, Mohammad

    2018-08-01

    Urinary benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) can be used as a reliable biomarker of exposure to these pollutants. This study was aimed to investigate the urinary BTEX concentration in operators of healthcare waste (HCW) autoclaves. This cross-sectional study was conducted in selected hospitals in Tehran, Iran between April and June 2017. Twenty operators (as the case group) and twenty control subjects were enrolled in the study. Personal urine samples were collected at the beginning and end of the work shift. Urinary BTEX were measured by a headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A detailed questionnaire was used to gather information from subjects. Results showed that the median of urinary benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-p xylene, and o-xylene levels in the exposed group were 3.26, 3.36, 0.84, 3.94 and 4.48 μg/L, respectively. With the exception of ethylbenzene, subjects in the exposed group had significantly higher urinary BTEX levels than control group (p autoclave used were also identified as predictors of urinary BTEX concentrations. The healthcare waste treatment autoclaves can be considered as a significant BTEX exposure source for operators working with these treatment facilities. The appropriate personal protection equipment and control measures capable in reducing BTEX exposure should be provided to HCW workers to reduce their exposures to BTEX. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pressure impact of autoclave treatment on water sorption and pectin composition of flax cellulosic-fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alix, S; Colasse, L; Morvan, C; Lebrun, L; Marais, S

    2014-02-15

    The tensile properties of flax fibres might permit them to be used in composites as reinforcement in organic resin, as long as their mechanical properties are reproducible and their water sorption are reduced. In this study, to minimise the variability of mechanical properties, several samples of flax fibres were blended as a non-woven fabric. In order to reduce the water absorption of this non-woven technical fibres, an autoclave treatment was performed which was expected to remove the pectins and then to reduce the water sorption on their negative charges. The impact of autoclave pressure (0.5, 1 and 2 bars) on water sorption was investigated by using a gravimetric static equilibrium method. The Park model based on the three sorption modes: Langmuir, Henry's law and clustering, was successfully used to simulate the experimental sorption data. The lowest pressure treatments impacted only the Langmuir contribution while the 2 bar autoclave-treatment positively impacted the water resistance in the core of fibres by reducing Henry's absorption rate. This was shown to be related to the chemical modifications at the surface and in the core of fibres. A schematic model is presented relating the water sorption and the pectic composition of the fabric. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Autoclaved Tumor Bone for Skeletal Reconstruction in Paediatric Patients: A Low Cost Alternative in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Umer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed in this series forty patients of pediatric age who underwent resection for malignant tumors of musculoskeletal system followed by biological reconstruction. Our surgical procedure for reconstruction included (1 wide en bloc resection of the tumor; (2 curettage of tumor from the resected bone; (3 autoclaving for 8 minutes (4 bone grafting from the fibula (both vascularized and nonvascularized fibular grafts used; (5 reimplantation of the autoclaved bone into the host bone defect and fixation with plates. Functional evaluation was done using MSTS scoring system. At final followup of at least 18 months (mean 29.2 months, 31 patients had recovered without any complications. Thirty-eight patients successfully achieved a solid bony union between the graft and recipient bone. Three patients had surgical site infection. They were managed with wound debridement and flap coverage of the defect. Local recurrence and nonunion occurred in two patients each. One patient underwent disarticulation at hip due to extensive local disease and one died of metastasis. For patients with non-union, revision procedure with bone graft and compression plates was successfully used. The use of autoclaved tumor grafts provides a limb salvage option that is inexpensive and independent of external resources and is a viable option for musculoskeletal tumor management in developing countries.

  16. Corrosion behaviour of zirconium alloys in the autoclaves of Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordoni, Roberto A.; Olmedo, Ana M.; Villegas, Marina; Miyagusuku, Marcela; Maroto, Alberto J. G.; Sainz, Ricardo A.; Fernandez, Alberto N.; Allemandi, Walter D.

    1999-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of zirconium alloys coupons attached to the holders of the autoclaves located out of core in the primary circuit of Embalse nuclear power plant is described. The Zr-2.5 Nb coupons of the autoclaves at the higher temperature (305 C degrees) and the Zry-4 coupons of the autoclaves at 265 and 305 C degrees installed in 1988 had a normal corrosion behaviour, after 3500 of full power days. While, the Zr-2.5 Nb coupons, at 265 C degrees, showed the presence of white oxide nuclei and a weight gain indicating an abnormal corrosion behaviour which might be attributed to the material microstructure. Complementary tests, made in the period September 1991-April 1993, showed that the abnormal corrosion behaviour observed for the Canadian coupons installed in 1983 was due to a surface contamination of the Zry-4 coupons and due to the microstructure of the Zr-2.5 Nb coupons. The normal corrosion behaviour for both alloys installed in 1986, showed that the resin ingress to the primary circuit that occurred in 1988, do not affect the performance of these materials. (author)

  17. Outgassing of Out-of-Autoclave Composite Primary Structures for Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komus, Alastair

    Out-of-autoclave vacuum-bagged-only (VBO) processing is capable of producing lower cost composite primary structures for small satellites than autoclave processing. However, the outgassing performance of VBO structures in a vacuum environment has not been examined. Panels were manufactured from CYCOM 5320-1 and TC275-1 carbon fiber/epoxy prepreg using VBO processing. The humidity level, pre-cure dwell time, and cure cycle parameters were varied during manufacturing. The degree of cure and glass transition temperature were shown to increase with increasing oven temperature. Processing humidity levels and the length of pre-cure dwell times had no discernable effect on the total mass loss (TML) and collected volatile condensable material (CVCM) that were outgassed under vacuum. Instead the TML was controlled by moisture saturation after manufacturing. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that epoxy oligomers were the primary CVCM. The study showed the VBO laminates had outgassing values that were comparable to the autoclave-cured laminates.

  18. Influence of addition of calcium sulfate dihydrate on drying of autoclaved aerated concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małaszkiewicz, Dorota; Chojnowski, Jacek

    2017-11-01

    The quality of the autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) strongly depends on the chemical composition of the raw materials, as well as on the process of the hydrothermal reaction during autoclaving. Performance parameters depend on material structure: fine micron-scale matrix porosity generated by the packing of thin tobermorite plates and coarse aeration pores arising from the foaming of wet mix. In this study the binder varied in calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4ṡ2H2O) content. Five series of AAC specimens were produced, with gypsum content 0; 0.55; 1.15; 2.3 and 3.5% of dry mass respectively. AAC units were produced in UNIPOL technology. The study presents experimental results of AAC moisture stabilization. The initial moisture content was determined directly after autoclaving. Slower drying process was observed for samples containing over 2% of gypsum. Whereas other performance parameters, compressive and tensile strength, as well as water absorption and capillary rise, were significantly better comparing to the reference AAC samples.

  19. Influence of autoclave sterilization on the surface parameters and mechanical properties of six orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernier, C; Grosgogeat, B; Ponsonnet, L; Benay, G; Lissac, M

    2005-02-01

    Orthodontic wires are frequently packaged in individual sealed bags in order to avoid cross-contamination. The instructions on the wrapper generally advise autoclave sterilization of the package and its contents if additional protection is desired. However, sterilization can modify the surface parameters and the mechanical properties of many types of material. The aim of this research was to determine the influence of one of the most widely used sterilization processes, autoclaving (18 minutes at 134 degrees C, as recommended by the French Ministry of Health), on the surface parameters and mechanical properties of six wires currently used in orthodontics (one stainless steel alloy: Tru-Chrome RMO; two nickel-titanium shape memory alloys: Neo Sentalloy and Neo Sentalloy with Ionguard GAC; and three titanium-molybdenum alloys: TMA(R) and Low Friction TMA Ormco and Resolve GAC). The alloys were analysed on receipt and after sterilization, using surface structure observation techniques, including optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy and profilometry. The mechanical properties were assessed by three-point bending tests. The results showed that autoclave sterilization had no adverse effects on the surface parameters or on the selected mechanical properties. This supports the possibility for practitioners to systematically sterilize wires before placing them in the oral environment.

  20. West Angeles Community Development Corporation final technical report on export market feasibility planning and research for the solar medical autoclave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, G.D.

    1998-04-20

    This report summarizes core findings from an investigation performed by the staff of West Angeles Community Development Corporation (CDC) regarding the feasibility of marketing the Solar Medical Autoclave (``autoclave``) in South Africa. The investigation was completed during 1997, the period prescribed by the Grant Award made by the U.S. Department of Energy on January 1, 1997, and was monitored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  1. A Method for Out-of-autoclave Fabrication of High Fiber Volume Fraction Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    5 Figure 5. (a) (Left) Results showing optimal compaction of an E-glass (similar compaction to S-Glass) laminate at approximately 350...repeatability and a lack in dimensional tolerances versus prepreg composites fabricated in an autoclave. However, recent advancements in process understanding...structure, and while high fvf composite laminates are attainable in autoclave processing, these techniques may not be cost effective (10–15). The out

  2. Effect of autoclave devitalization on autograft incorporation and bone morphogenetic protein of tibia in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak A.G.Y. Asmara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heating process with autoclave is one of limb salvage modalities that are widely used. but the results are not satisfying, due to mechanical bone fragility. However, considering this treatment modality is widely accepted in terms of financial, religion and sociocultural aspects, we conducted a on study rats treated with resection and reconstruction with autoclave heating method to assess bone healing by sequential radiology, histopathologic osteoblasts count, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP.Methods: Thirty six Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups with one group being the autoclave group and others served as control group. In both groups, the tibial diaphysis was extracted en bloc for 7 mm. All groups were kept for 8 weeks and treated under the same condition except the autoclave group, where the extracted bones were put into autoclave at 134°C for 15 minutes and refixed again with k-wire. We performed radiological examination at 5th and 8th week using Lane and Sandhu radiological score. After extraction, the tibial bones were inspected for histological pattern using Salked modified score, osteoblast quantity counting and BMP-2 values.Results: There were statistically significant diffences between control and autoclave group on radiological score at 5th (5.12 ± 1.6 g vs 3.21 ± 2.42, p = 0.023 and 8th week (6.06 ± 1.71 vs 4.29 ± 2.53, p = 0.040, histological score between groups (6.06 ± 1.14 vs 4.14 ± 1.99, p = 0.005, osteoblast count (p < 0.001, and BMP-2 expression,  respectively.Conclusion: Autoclave recycling autograft lowered the speed of graft incorporation and BMP-2 expression. Therefore, autoclave recycling autograft as a method of limb salvage surgery must be reevaluated and not considered to be applied for treatment in bone malignancy.  

  3. Effect of autoclave devitalization on autograft incorporation and bone morphogenetic protein of tibia in Sprague-Dawley rats

    OpenAIRE

    Anak A.G.Y. Asmara; Achmad F. Kamal; Nurjati C. Siregar; Marcel Prasetyo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Heating process with autoclave is one of limb salvage modalities that are widely used. but the results are not satisfying, due to mechanical bone fragility. However, considering this treatment modality is widely accepted in terms of financial, religion and sociocultural aspects, we conducted a on study rats treated with resection and reconstruction with autoclave heating method to assess bone healing by sequential radiology, histopathologic osteoblasts count, and bone morphogeneti...

  4. Monoclinic phase transformation and mechanical durability of zirconia ceramic after fatigue and autoclave aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Yasmine A; Cotes, Caroline; Carvalho, Rodrigo F; Machado, João P B; Leite, Fabíola P P; Souza, Rodrigo O A; Özcan, Mutlu

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of two aging procedures on the biaxial flexural strength of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia ceramics. Disc-shaped zirconia specimens and (ZE: E.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar; ZT: Zirkon Translucent, Zirkonzahn) (N = 80) (∅:12 mm; thickness:1.2 mm, ISO 6872) were prepared and randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 per group) according to the aging procedures: C: Control, no aging; M: mechanical cycling (2 × 10 6 cycles/3.8 Hz/200 N); AUT: Aging in autoclave at 134°C, 2 bar for 24 h; AUT + M: Autoclave aging followed by mechanical cycling. After aging, the transformed monoclinic zirconia (%) were evaluated using X-ray diffraction and surface roughness was measured using atomic force microscopy. The average grain size was measured by scanning electron microscopy and the specimens were submitted to biaxial flexural strength testing (1 mm/min, 1000 kgf in water). Data (MPa) were statistically analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Aging procedures significantly affected (p = 0.000) the flexural strength data but the effect of zirconia type was not significant (p = 0.657). AUT ZT (936.4 ± 120.9 b ) and AUT + M ZE (867.2 ± 49.3 b ) groups presented significantly higher values (p autoclave aging alone or with mechanical aging increased the flexure strength but also induced higher transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic phase in both zirconia materials tested. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1972-1977, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Effect of Autoclaving on Torsional Moment of Two Nickel-Titanium Endodontic Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    titanium endodontic files 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) J. B. King, H. W. Roberts, B. E... Endodontic Journal, doi:10.1111/j.1365- 2591.2011.01958.x 45, 156–161, 2012 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2591.2011.01958.x Wiley Blackwell Publishing, 111 River...autoclaving on torsional strength of two nickel–titanium (NiTi) rotary endodontic files: Twisted Files (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) and GT Series X

  6. Effect of multiple autoclave cycles on the surface roughness of HyFlex CM and HyFlex EDM files: an atomic force microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, K; Uslu, G; Özyürek, T

    2018-02-13

    To compare the effect of autoclave cycles on the surface topography and roughness of HyFlex CM and HyFlex EDM instruments using atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Eight new files of each brand were subdivided into four subgroups (n = 2/each subgroup). One group was allocated as the control group and not subjected to autoclave sterilization. The other three groups were subjected to different numbers (1, 5, and 10) of autoclave sterilization cycles. After the cycle instruments were subjected to AFM analysis. Roughness average (Ra) and the root mean square (RMS) values were chosen to investigate the surface features of endodontic files. The data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tamhane tests at 5% significant level. The lowest Ra and RMS values were observed in the HyFlex EDM files that served as the control and in those subjected to a single cycle of autoclave sterilization (P cycles of autoclave sterilization (P cycles, whereas those of the HyFlex EDM group exhibited a significant change after five autoclave cycles (P cycles of autoclave sterilization. In contrast, the surface roughness values of the HyFlex CM files did not increase until 10 cycles of autoclave sterilization. Present study indicated that autoclave sterilization negatively affected the surface roughness of the tested NiTi files.

  7. Curcumin complexation with cyclodextrins by the autoclave process: Method development and characterization of complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagbani, Turki Al; Nazzal, Sami

    2017-03-30

    One approach to enhance curcumin (CUR) aqueous solubility is to use cyclodextrins (CDs) to form inclusion complexes where CUR is encapsulated as a guest molecule within the internal cavity of the water-soluble CD. Several methods have been reported for the complexation of CUR with CDs. Limited information, however, is available on the use of the autoclave process (AU) in complex formation. The aims of this work were therefore to (1) investigate and evaluate the AU cycle as a complex formation method to enhance CUR solubility; (2) compare the efficacy of the AU process with the freeze-drying (FD) and evaporation (EV) processes in complex formation; and (3) confirm CUR stability by characterizing CUR:CD complexes by NMR, Raman spectroscopy, DSC, and XRD. Significant differences were found in the saturation solubility of CUR from its complexes with CD when prepared by the three complexation methods. The AU yielded a complex with expected chemical and physical fingerprints for a CUR:CD inclusion complex that maintained the chemical integrity and stability of CUR and provided the highest solubility of CUR in water. Physical and chemical characterizations of the AU complexes confirmed the encapsulated of CUR inside the CD cavity and the transformation of the crystalline CUR:CD inclusion complex to an amorphous form. It was concluded that the autoclave process with its short processing time could be used as an alternate and efficient methods for drug:CD complexation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Elevated Temperature, Residual Compressive Strength of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Structure Manufactured Out-of-Autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Sutter, James K.; Burke, Eric R.; Dixon, Genevieve D.; Gyekenyesi, Thomas G.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.

    2012-01-01

    Several 1/16th-scale curved sandwich composite panel sections of a 10 m diameter barrel were fabricated to demonstrate the manufacturability of large-scale curved sections using minimum gauge, [+60/-60/0]s, toughened epoxy composite facesheets co-cured with low density (50 kilograms per cubic meters) aluminum honeycomb core. One of these panels was fabricated out of autoclave (OoA) by the vacuum bag oven (VBO) process using Cycom(Registered Trademark) T40-800b/5320-1 prepreg system while another panel with the same lay-up and dimensions was fabricated using the autoclave-cure, toughened epoxy prepreg system Cycom(Registered Trademark) IM7/977-3. The resulting 2.44 m x 2 m curved panels were investigated by non-destructive evaluation (NDE) at NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) to determine initial fabrication quality and then cut into smaller coupons for elevated temperature wet (ETW) mechanical property characterization. Mechanical property characterization of the sandwich coupons was conducted including edge-wise compression (EWC), and compression-after-impact (CAI) at conditions ranging from 25 C/dry to 150 C/wet. The details and results of this characterization effort are presented in this paper.

  9. The relative safety of gamma-ray, autoclave, and ethylene oxide gas sterilization of thermosetting polyurethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, H

    1995-01-01

    Sterilization of polyurethane (PU) produces 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA), a known carcinogen, and various other compounds. The relationships of the components of PU to the formation of these compounds by sterilization were studied. Specimens of PU fabricated from different combinations of isocyanates and polyols were obtained from dialyzers. The molecular weight of the particular polyol was found to influence the production of MDA by sterilization. Sterilization also produced many unidentified compounds. MDA production was not always associated with the production of the other compounds. Compared with gamma-ray irradiation and ethylene oxide gas (EOG) sterilization, autoclave sterilization eluted more hydrophilic compounds. This phenomenon was significant for PUs produced from smaller-molecular-weight polyols. The combination of autoclave sterilization and a PU produced from a larger-molecular-weight polyol is recommended to minimize the production of potentially toxic compounds. Of the techniques studied, EOG sterilization produced the least amounts of MDA and the other compounds, but the residue of EOG is itself problematic. The risk posed by the amounts of MDA extracted was not significant, but the biological safety of the other compounds remains to be determined.

  10. Evaluation of an autoclave resistant anatomic nose model for the testing of nasal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolitius, Lennart; Frickmann, Hagen; Warnke, Philipp; Ottl, Peter; Podbielski, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    A nose model that allows for the comparison of different modes of sample acquisition as well as of nasal swab systems concerning their suitability to detect defined quantities of intranasal microorganisms, and further for training procedures of medical staff, was evaluated. Based on an imprint of a human nose, a model made of a silicone elastomer was formed. Autoclave stability was assessed. Using an inoculation suspension containing Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, the model was compared with standardized glass plate inoculations. Effects of inoculation time, mode of sampling, and sample storage time were assessed. The model was stable to 20 autoclaving cycles. There were no differences regarding the optimum coverage from the nose and from glass plates. Optimum sampling time was 1 h after inoculation. Storage time after sampling was of minor relevance for the recovery. Rotating the swab around its own axis while circling the nasal cavity resulted in best sampling results. The suitability of the assessed nose model for the comparison of sampling strategies and systems was confirmed. Without disadvantages in comparison with sampling from standardized glass plates, the model allows for the assessment of a correct sampling technique due to its anatomically correct shape.

  11. Treatment of clinical solid waste using a steam autoclave as a possible alternative technology to incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sohrab; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Kadir, Mohd Omar Ab

    2012-03-01

    A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min) and temperature (111 °C, 121 °C and 131 °C) at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree of inactivation of bacteria were 121 °C for 15 minutes (min) for Gram negative bacteria, 121 °C and 131 °C for 60 and 30 min for Gram positive bacteria, respectively. The re-growth of bacteria in sterilized waste was also evaluated in the present study. It was found that bacterial re-growth started two days after the inactivation. The present study recommends that the steam autoclave cannot be considered as an alternative technology to incineration in clinical solid waste management.

  12. Treatment of Clinical Solid Waste Using a Steam Autoclave as a Possible Alternative Technology to Incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Sohrab; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Sarker, Md. Zaidul Islam; Kadir, Mohd Omar Ab

    2012-01-01

    A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min) and temperature (111 °C, 121 °C and 131 °C) at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree of inactivation of bacteria were 121 °C for 15 minutes (min) for Gram negative bacteria, 121 °C and 131 °C for 60 and 30 min for Gram positive bacteria, respectively. The re-growth of bacteria in sterilized waste was also evaluated in the present study. It was found that bacterial re-growth started two days after the inactivation. The present study recommends that the steam autoclave cannot be considered as an alternative technology to incineration in clinical solid waste management. PMID:22690168

  13. Technological parameters influence on the non-autoclaved foam concrete characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartenjeva, Ekaterina; Mashkin, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Foam concretes are used as effective heat-insulating materials. The porous structure of foam concrete provides good insulating and strength properties that make them possible to be used as heat-insulating structural materials. Optimal structure of non-autoclaved foam concrete depends on both technological factors and properties of technical foam. In this connection, the possibility to manufacture heat-insulation structural foam concrete on a high-speed cavity plant with the usage of protein and synthetic foamers was estimated. This experiment was carried out using mathematical planning method, and in this case mathematical models were developed that demonstrated the dependence of operating performance of foam concrete on foaming and rotation speed of laboratory plant. The following material properties were selected for the investigation: average density, compressive strength, bending strength and thermal conductivity. The influence of laboratory equipment technological parameters on technical foam strength and foam stability coefficient in the cement paste was investigated, physical and mechanical properties of non-autoclaved foam concrete were defined based on investigated foam. As a result of investigation, foam concrete samples were developed with performance parameters ensuring their use in production. The mathematical data gathered demonstrated the dependence of foam concrete performance on the technological regime.

  14. Release of bound residues of atrazine from soils through autoclaving and gamma radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, L.E.; Andréa, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The sterilization methods are particularly important to study the influence of microorganisms on the pesticide dissipation in soils. This study, conducted in the laboratories of the Instituto Biológico of São Paulo in august 1996, tested the influence of two methods of soil sterilization - moist heat (autoclaving) and γ radiation - on the release of nonextractable or bound residues. It was studied, as example, bound residues of the herbicide atrazine in two types of soil (gley humic and dark red latosol). In the soil samples submitted to the moist heat sterilization, the recovery of the previously bound residues as reextractable residues was 5.6 and 5.9 times higher than in the control soils, not submitted to any sterilization process. Therefore, the method itself released the residues, indicating that the autoclaving is not the most appropriate method for studies on the influence of microorganisms on the release of bound residues. Otherwise, the γ radiation did not modify the residues recovery when compared to the controls. (author) [pt

  15. Validation of the efficacy of a solar-thermal powered autoclave system for off-grid medical instrument wet sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaseman, Tremayne; Boubour, Jean; Schuler, Douglas A

    2012-10-01

    This work describes the efficacy of a solar-thermal powered autoclave used for the wet sterilization of medical instruments in off-grid settings where electrical power is not readily available. Twenty-seven trials of the solar-thermal powered system were run using an unmodified non-electric autoclave loaded with a simulated bundle of medical instruments and biological test agents. Results showed that in 100% of the trials the autoclave achieved temperatures in excess of 121°C for 30 minutes, indicator tape displayed visible reactions to steam sterilization, and biological tests showed that microbial agents had been eliminated, in compliance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention requirements for efficacious wet sterilization.

  16. CHOICE THEORY OF CREEP DEFORMATION FOR EVALUATION OF LONG FINE-GRAINED AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE IN VIEW OF FACTORS CARBONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K-S. Bataev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental data on the effect of the age of autoclaved aerated concrete with and without carbonation factor to change its physical and mechanical characteristics, as well as by the amount of creep deformation and degree of reversibility. It was found that the solution of applied problems creep theory for structures of autoclaved aerated concrete, in accordance with their carbonation from the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide, it is necessary to use the theory of elastic-creeping body on the basis of function creep measures in the form proposed by prof. S.V. Alexandrovsky. 

  17. Histologic responses in sixty multibacillary leprosy patients inoculated with autoclaved Mycobacterium leprae and live BCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, W M; McDougall, A C; Fleury, R N; Neves, R; Reyes, O; Binford, C H

    1988-06-01

    Sixty lepromatous or borderline lepromatous patients were submitted to immunotherapy with a mixture of autoclaved Mycobacterium leprae and BCG. The histopathologic findings in skin biopsy specimens taken before and after immunotherapy were evaluated independently by six histopathologists in a workshop setting. Their pooled observations on diagnosis and classification were analyzed to assess the histopathologic changes following various periods of immunotherapy. Expressing the results as the average value of five to six independent observations, there were changes in classification of reversal or upgrading toward the tuberculoid end of the leprosy spectrum in 90.5% of the patients initially classified as lepromatous (LL), and in 83.3% of those initially classified as borderline lepromatous (BL). The histopathologic findings amply support the clinical, bacteriologic and immunological changes following immunotherapy from LL or BL, to BL, mid-borderline (BB) or even borderline tuberculoid (BT) leprosy.

  18. Out-of-autoclave manufacturing of a stiffened thermoplastic carbon fibre PEEK panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, M.; Goggins, J.; Doyle, A.; Weafer, B.; Ward, M.; Bizeul, M.; Canavan, R.; O'Bradaigh, C.; Doyle, K.; Harrison, N.

    2017-10-01

    Out-of-Autoclave manufacturing methods, specifically Automated Tape Placement (ATP) and induction welding, used in the fabrication of a stiffened thermoplastic demonstrator panel, are presented in this study. The demonstrator panel consists of two stiffeners induction welded to a flat skin, to form a typical load bearing aerospace sub-component. The skin of the panel is manufactured from uni-directional Carbon Fibre (CF) Polyetheretherkeytone (PEEK) using laser assisted Automated Tape Placement (ATP) and the stiffeners are press formed from woven CF-PEEK. The stiffeners are fusion bonded to the skin using a continuous induction welding process. A susceptor material is used at the interface to ensure the required heating is concentrated at the weldline. Microscopy was used to examine the manufactured coupons for defects. Destructive testing was carried out to evaluate the strength of the overall assembly. The work shows that assemblies manufactured using continuous induction welding and ATP are suitable for load bearing aerospace applications.

  19. Preparation of extra-small nisin nanoparticles for enhanced antibacterial activity after autoclave treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ranran; Lu, Hao; Li, Man; Zhang, Shuangling; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2018-04-15

    Nisin is applied broadly in the food industry as an antimicrobial peptide. The objective of this study is to prepare nisin nanoparticles using free nisin by a facile nanoprecipitation technique and to investigate their antimicrobial activity after high-temperature processing. Transmission electron microscopic images showed that the size of extra-small nisin nanoparticles with different initial concentrations of nisin (0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5%) was 5, 10 and 15 nm, respectively. The nisin nanoparticles were stable at pH 5.0 with the smallest size. Moreover, nisin nanoparticles exhibited a higher antimicrobial activity than free nisin at a concentration below 2.0 mg/ml after autoclave treatment. These results suggested that nisin nanoparticles could serve as a potential food preservative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Note: CO₂-mineral dissolution experiments using a rocking autoclave and a novel titanium reaction cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Gemma; Rochelle, Christopher A; Wallis, Humphrey C; Rosenqvist, Jörgen; Kilpatrick, Andrew D; Yardley, Bruce W D

    2014-08-01

    A novel titanium reaction cell has been constructed for the study of water-rock-CO2 reactions. The reaction cell has been used within a direct-sampling rocking autoclave and offers certain advantages over traditional "flexible gold/titanium cell" approaches. The main advantage is robustness, as flexible cells are prone to rupture on depressurisation during gas-rich experiments. The reaction cell was tested in experiments during an inter-laboratory comparison study, in which mineral kinetic data were determined. The cell performed well during experiments up to 130 °C and 300 bars pressure. The data obtained were similar to those of other laboratories participating in the study, and also to previously published data.

  1. Methodic aspects of autoclave tests of compact samples on cyclic crack resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhmurskij, V.I.; Gnyp, I.P.; Popov, A.A.; Tarasyuk, G.P.; Dutsyak, I.Z.; Timonin, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory autoclave LAKIM-25 was created for investigation of cyclic and static crack resistance of vessel materials of power plants under the conditions close to operation ones. It enables to investigate the cyclic crack resistance of standard samples of up to 25 mm thickness in water at 623 K and 18 MPa. The friction force changes during tests from 6.1 up to 6.4 kN, therefore it is necessary to correct regularly the force of sample loading, recording the s-n diagram on a drum of UMEh-10TM plant. The periodic record of loading diagram coincides with respect to time with the necessity of controlling the change of sample pliability during crack propagation

  2. Effect Of Ethylene Oxide, Autoclave and Ultra Violet Sterilizations On Surface Topography Of Pet Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem DUZYER

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to investigate the effects of different sterilization methods on electrospun polyester. Ethylene oxide (EO, autoclave (AU and ultraviolet (UV sterilization methods were applied to electrospun fibers produced from polyethylene terephthalate (PET solutions with concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 wt.%. The surface characteristics of the fibers were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM, atomic force microscope (AFM, surface pore size studies and contact angle measurements. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC tests were carried out to characterize the thermal properties. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR tests were performed to analyze the micro structural properties. SEM studies showed that different sterilization methods made significant changes on the surfaces of the fibers depending on the PET concentration. Although the effects were decreased with the increasing polymer concentration, the fiber structure was damaged especially with the EO sterilization. The contact angle values were decreased with the UV sterilization method the most.

  3. Characterization of polymer composites during autoclave manufacturing by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Smith, Wayne W.; Rigas, Elias J.; Granville, Dana

    2001-02-01

    12 The superior engineering properties of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites, primarily the high strength-to- weight ratio, make them suitable to applications ranging from sporting goods to aircraft components (e.g. helicopter blades). Unfortunately, consistent fabrication of components with desired mechanical properties has proven difficult, and has led to high production costs. This is largely due to the inability to monitor and control polymer cure, loosely defined as the process of polymer chain extension and cross- linking. Even with stringent process control, slight variations in the pre-polymer formulations (e.g. prepreg) can influence reaction rates, reaction mechanisms, and ultimately, product properties. In an effort to optimize the performance of thermoset composite, we have integrated fiber optic probes between the plies of laminates and monitored cure by Raman spectroscopy, with the eventual goal of process control. Here we present real-time measurements of two high performance aerospace companies cured within an industrial autoclave.

  4. Effect of autoclave induced low-temperature degradation on the adhesion energy between yttria-stabilized zirconia veneered with porcelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Chun; Waddell, J Neil; Prior, David J; Ting, Stephanie; Girvan, Liz; van Vuuren, Ludwig Jansen; Swain, Michael V

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the effect of autoclave induced low-temperature degradation on the adhesion energy between yttria-stabilized zirconia veneered with porcelain. The strain energy release rate using a four-point bending stable fracture test was evaluated for two different porcelains [leucite containing (VM9) and glass (Zirox) porcelain] veneered to zirconia. Prior to veneering the zirconia had been subjected to 0 (control), 1, 5, 10 and 20 autoclave cycles. The specimens were manufactured to a total bi-layer dimension of 30 mm × 8 mm × 3 mm. Subsequent scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry, electron backscatter diffraction and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed to identify the phase transformation and fracture behavior. The strain energy release rate for debonding of the VM9 specimens were significantly higher (pautoclave cycles lowered the strain energy release rate significantly (pautoclave cycles between 5 and 20. The monoclinic phase reverted back to tetragonal phase after undergoing conventional porcelain firing cycles. EBSD data showed significant changes of the grain size distribution between the control and autoclaved specimen (cycle 20). Increasing autoclave cycles only significantly decreased the adhesion of the VM9 layered specimens. In addition, a conventional porcelain firing schedule completely reverted the monoclinic phase back to tetragonal. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation of TiO2 thin films from autoclaved sol containing needle-like anatase crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Lei; Xu Mingxia; Fang Haibo; Sun Ming

    2006-01-01

    A new inorganic sol-gel method was introduced in this paper to prepare TiO 2 thin films. The autoclaved sol with needle-like anatase crystals was synthesized using titanyl sulfate (TiOSO 4 ) and peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as starting materials. The transparent anatase TiO 2 thin films were prepared on glass slides from the autoclaved sol by sol-gel dip-coating method. A wide range of techniques such as Fourier transform infrared transmission spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), scanning electron microscopes, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible spectrum were applied to characterize the autoclaved sol and TiO 2 thin films. The results indicate that the autoclaved sol is flavescent, semitransparent and stable at room temperature. The anatase crystals of TiO 2 films connect together to form net-like structure after calcined and the films become uniform with increasing heating temperature. The surface of the TiO 2 films contain not only Ti and O elements, but also a small amount of N and Na elements diffused from substrates during heat treatment. The TiO 2 films are transparent and their maximal light transmittances exceed 80% under visible light region

  6. Direct Synthesis of Fe3C-Functionalized Graphene by High Temperature Autoclave Pyrolysis for Oxygen Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach to direct fabrication of few-layer graphene sheets with encapsulated Fe3C nanoparticles from pyrolysis of volatile non-graphitic precursors without any substrate. This one-step autoclave approach is facile and potentially scalable for production. Tested as an electroca...

  7. Autoclaving-Derived Surface Coating with In Vitro and In Vivo Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Efficacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yajuan; Zhi, Zelun; Gao, Qiang; Xie, Meihua; Yu, Meng; Lei, Bo; Li, Peng; Ma, Peter X

    2017-03-01

    Biomedical device-associated infections which engender severe threat to public health require feasible solutions. In this study, block copolymers consisting of antimicrobial, antifouling, and surface-tethering segments in one molecule are synthesized and grafted on polymeric substrates by a facile plasma/autoclave-assisted method. Hetero-bifunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG) with allyl and tosyl groups (APEG-OTs) is first prepared. PEGs with different molecular weights (1200 and 2400 Da) are employed. Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) which has excellent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and thermal/chemical stability, is conjugated with APEG-OTs to generate the block copolymer (APEG-PHMG). Allyl terminated PHMG (A-PHMG) without PEG segments is also synthesized by reacting PHMG with allyl glycidyl ether. The synthesized copolymers are thermal initiated by autoclaving and grafted on plasma pretreated silicone surface, forming permanently bonded bottlebrush-like coatings. Both A-PHMG and APEG 1200/2400 -PHMG coatings exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against gram-positive/negative bacteria and fungus, whereas APEG 1200/2400 -PHMG coatings show superior antifouling activity and long-term reusability to A-PHMG coating. APEG 2400 -PHMG coating demonstrates the most effective in vitro antibiofilm and protein/platelet-resistant properties, as well as excellent hemo/biocompatibility. Furthermore, APEG 2400 -PHMG greatly reduces the bacteria number with 5-log reduction in a rodent subcutaneous infection model. This rationally designed dual-functional antimicrobial and antifouling coating has great potential in combating biomedical devices/implant-associated infections. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Autoclave corrosion of zircaloy-4 cladding samples in LiOH solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, A.

    2010-03-01

    In reactor operation, pH of the cooling water is adjusted by addition of alkaline hydroxides, and LiOH has been found to be the most suitable one. The addition of LiOH above a certain concentration level (depending on temperature) increases the corrosion rate of zirconium and its alloys. Hydrogen pick-up by the metal is also increased, and this effect is used to produce hydrided specimens for different investigations using the corrosion reaction. At the Paul Scherrer Institute several projects were accomplished to investigate the influence of hydrogen in Zircaloy cladding on its mechanical properties. In order to produce hydrided specimens for comparison and for adjusting new equipment, Zircaloy tubing samples were hydrogen charged by autoclave corrosion in lithiated water. Results of the corrosion experiments are outlined in this publication. Because of the great variety of possible experimental parameters these results are still of interest for the scientific community. Autoclave corrosion was accomplished in 0.2 M or 0.5 M LiOH solution at a constant temperature of 340 o C and a pressure of 160 bar. The corrosion rate increases from 84 mg/(dm 2 d) in 0.2 M LiOH to 153 mg/(dm 2 d) in 0.5 M LiOH. The hydrogen pick-up fraction in 0.5 M LiOH amounts to 80%. In 0.5 M LiOH, Zircaloy tubing samples can be charged with ∼ 500 ppm hydrogen in about 40 hours. In the corrosion experiments described in this report a homogeneous distribution of hydrides should be expected (except very high hydride concentrations) because no temperature gradient exists through the tubing wall. Hydrogen stringers are homogeneously distributed with circumferential orientation (stress-relieved tubing samples). (author)

  9. [The influence of autoclave sterilization on surface characteristics and cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 nickel-titanium rotary instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-fen; Zheng, Ping; Xu, Li; Su, Qin

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of autoclave sterilization on surface characteristics and cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 types of nickel-titanium rotary instruments (K3, Mtwo, ProTaper). Three brands of NiTi rotary endodontic instruments of the same size (tip diameter 0.25 mm and constant 0.06 taper) were selected: K3, Mtwo and Protaper (F2). 24 instruments for each brand were used to evaluate the effects of autoclave sterilization on inner character in the as-received condition and after subjection to 0, 1, 5, and 10 sterilization cycles (6 for each group). Time to fracture (TtF) from the start of the test to the moment of file breakage and the length of the fractured fragment were recorded. Means and standard deviations of TtF and fragment length were calculated. The data was analyzed with SPSS13.0 software package. Another 12 NiTi rotary instruments for each brand were used, 6 subjected to 10 autoclave sterilization cycles and the other as control. Scanning electron microscope was used to observe the changes in surface topography and inner character. For cyclic fatigue resistance, when sterilization was not performed, K3 showed the highest value of TtF means and ProTaper the lowest. The differences between each brand were statistically significant (Pinstruments were intensified greatly after 10 cycles of sterilization. Cycle fatigue resistance is different among instruments of different brands. Autoclave sterilization may increase fatigue resistance of the 3 brands. Autoclave sterilization may increase the surface roughness and inner defects in cross section.

  10. Effect of high-dose irradiation and autoclave treatment on microbial safety and quality of ready-to-eat Bulgogi sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin-Gyu; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hun; Han, In-Jun; Yoon, Yohan; Chung, Hyung-Wook; Kim, Eun-Jeong; Gao Meixu; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-01-01

    In Korea, commercialized sauce for ready-to-eat (RTE) Bulgogi is usually manufactured using heat treatment to ensure that it has a long shelf-life. However, heat treatment may adversely affect the taste and flavor of the sauce, thus, the development of suitable sterilizing methods for RTE sauces is necessary to preserve the quality of the sauce during long storage periods. In this study, total bacterial growth, the viscosity, and the sensory properties of Bulgogi sauce were compared between sterilization with gamma irradiation (0–40 kGy) and autoclave treatment during storage at 35 °C for 90 days. No bacterial growth was observed following irradiation at more than 10 kGy or after autoclave treatment. However, the viscosity and sensory properties of samples gamma-irradiated at above 10 kGy or autoclave-treated were significantly changed, even though autoclave treatment induced a burnt taste and flavor. Therefore, a gamma irradiation of 10 kGy was effective to prepare ready-to-eat Bulgogi sauce with microbial safety and original sensory qualities. - Highlights: ► No bacterial growth in gamma-irradiated Bulgogi sauce ≥10 kGy or autoclaved sample was observed. ► Viscosity of irradiated sample at 40 kGy was similar to that of autoclaved sample. ► Sensory properties of irradiated sample >10 kGy or autoclaved sample deteriorated.

  11. Comparative study and histomorphometric analysis of bone allografts lyophilized and sterilized by autoclaving, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio Machado de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare three sterilization methods (autoclave, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide over non demineralized lyophilized bone allografts. METHODS: Bone allografts were implanted on paravertebral muscles of 21 rats. After 30 days animals were sacrificed and grafts underwent comparative analysis regarding histomorphometric and macroscopic parameters. RESULTS: Allografts that underwent the three sterilization methods presents similar weight gain, cortical thickness similar to control group, and less fibrosis than the control group. Grafts that underwent sterilization in autoclave presented less presence of multinucleated giant cells, although not statistically significant. There was also no statistically significant difference regarding mineralization on the three groups. CONCLUSION: The three sterilization methods cause similar effects on bone allografts regarding macroscopic and histomorphometric parameters.

  12. Confirming Sterility of an Autoclaved Infected Femoral Component for Use in an Articulated Antibiotic Knee Spacer: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Steven T; Wright, Coy A; Krute, Christina N; Rivera, Frances E; Carroll, Ronan K; Shaw, Lindsey N

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic spacer designs have proven effective at eradicating infection during a two-stage revision arthroplasty. Temporary reuse of the steam-sterilized femoral component and a new all poly tibia component has been described as an effective articulating antibiotic spacer, but sterility concerns persist. Six explanted cobalt chrome femurs from patients with grossly infected TKA's and six stock femurs inoculated with different bacterial species were confirmed to be bacteria-free after autoclaving under a standard gravity-displacement cycle. The effect of steam sterilization on cobalt chrome fragments contaminated with MRSA biofilm was analyzed microscopically to quantify remaining biofilm. The autoclave significantly reduced the biofilm burden on the cobalt chrome fragments. This study confirmed sterility of the femur after a standard gravity-displacement cycle (132°C, 27 PSIG, 10 minutes). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental Determination of Frost Resistance of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete at Different Levels of Moisture Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, Václav; Maděra, Jiří; Jerman, Miloš; Černý, Robert

    2018-06-01

    The ability of porous building materials to stand up to moisture phase changes induced by alternating environment is described mostly by means of their frost resistance. However, the test conditions defined by relevant standards might not capture the real situation on building site in various locations. In particular, the prescribed full water saturation of analyzed specimens during the whole time of a freeze/thaw experiment presents an ultimate case only but certainly not an everyday reality. Even the materials of surface layers are mostly exposed to such severe conditions just for a limited period of time. In this paper, the experimental analysis of frost resistance of three different types of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) is performed in an extended way, including not only the standard testing but also the investigation of dry- and partially saturated samples. A complementary computational analysis of an AAC building envelope in Central European climate is presented as well, in order to illustrate the likely hygric conditions in the wall. Experimental results show that according to the standard test the loss of compressive strength, as well as the loss of mass after 25 cycles, is acceptable for all studied samples but after 50 cycles only the material with the compressive strength of 4 MPa performs satisfactorily. On the other hand, the tests with initially dried or partially saturated samples indicate a good frost resistance of all studied materials for both 25 and 50 cycles.

  14. Obtaining zeolites from slags and ashes from a waste combustion plant in an autoclave process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grela Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste combustion is associated with the generation of post-processing solid products – waste such as slag and ash. One of the promising technologies in waste management and processing is the synthesis of zeolites and other materials exhibiting sorption properties. The aim of this study was to characterise and assess the physicochemical properties of the waste and the products synthesised from it. This paper presents the possibility of synthesis zeolites from the slag and ash from two waste combustion plants. The investigated waste is classified as hazardous waste and denoted by the EWC code 190111*. The paper presents the results of physicochemical studies of these materials. As a result of synthesis in an autoclave at 140°C with the use of 2 M NaOH, and other compounds, such zeolite forms as chabazite and sodalite were obtained. Textural studies and ion-exchange capacity investigations carried out allowed characterisation of the sorption properties of the materials. It was found that the materials obtained are characterised by the BET specific surface areas of 25.45 m2/g and 16.79 m2/g.

  15. Monitoring cure properties of out-of-autoclave BMI composites using IFPI sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amardeep; Anandan, Sudharshan; Yuan, Lei; Watkins, Steve E.; Chandrashekhara, K.; Xiao, Hai; Phan, Nam

    2016-04-01

    A non-destructive technique for inspection of a Bismaleimide (BMI) composite is presented using an optical fiber sensor. High performance BMI composites are used for Aerospace application for their mechanical strength. They are also used as an alternative to toughened epoxy resins. A femtosecond-laser-inscribed Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) sensor is used to perform real time cure monitoring of a BMI composite. The composite is cured using the out-of-autoclave (OOA) process. The IFPI sensor was used for in-situ monitoring; different curing stages are analyzed throughout the curing process. Temperature-induced-strain was measured to analyze the cure properties. The IFPI structure comprises of two reflecting mirrors inscribed on the core of the fiber using a femtosecond-laser manufacturing process. The manufacturing process makes the sensor thermally stable and robust for embedded applications. The sensor can withstand very high temperatures of up to 850 °C. The temperature and strain sensitivities of embedded IFPI sensor were measured to be 1.4 pm/μepsilon and 0.6 pm/μepsilon respectively.

  16. Preparation and characterization of PLGA nanospheres encapsulated with Autoclaved Leishmania Major (ALM) and Quillaja Saponin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafaghodi, M.; Tabasi, S. Abolghasem Sajadi; Kharazizdeh, M.

    2008-01-01

    Several antigens, adjuvants and delivery systems have been evaluated for induction of protective immune responses against leishmaniasis, but have mostly been inefficient. In this study, poly (d,1-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanospheres as antigen delivery system and Quillaja saponins (QS) as an immunoadjuvant have been used to increase the immune responses against Autoclaved Lieshmania major (ALM). PLGA nanospheres were prepared using a double emulsion (W/O/W) technique. The internal aqueous phase contained ALM and saponin, while the oily phase contained the solution of PLGA in dichloromethane and the external aqueous phase was polyvinylacohol (PVA) 7.5% (W/V) solution. Particulate characteristics were studied by scanning electron microscope and particle size analyzer. The encapsulation efficiency was determined by Lowry method and the release profile of antigen and saponin from nanospheres was evaluated for one week. Nanospheres were spherical in shape having smooth surfaces. Mean diameters for nanospheres loaded with ALM and ALM+QS were 300+-123 nm and 294+-106 nm respectively. Encapsulation efficiencies for ALM and QS were found 71+-14.8% and 55.8+- 23.1% respectively. Evaluation of the release profiles of ALM and QS from nanospheres in one week showed that 44.8 +-0.8% of ALM and 29.5+- 0.21% of QS had been released from naospheres. In conclusion, the prepared nanospheres with desirable size, encapsulation efficiency, and slow rate of release, had acceptable features for future in vivo studies. (author)

  17. Autoclave growth, magnetic, and optical properties of GdB6 nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Wang, Zhen; Li, Qidong; Liu, Huatao; Fan, Qinghua; Dong, Youzhong; Kuang, Quan; Zhao, Yanming

    2017-12-01

    High-quality single crystalline gadolinium hexaboride (GdB6) nanowires have been successfully prepared at very low temperatures of 200-240 °C by a high pressure solid state (HPSS) method in an autoclave with a new chemical reaction route, where Gd, H3BO3, Mg and I2 were used as raw materials. The crystal structure, morphology, valence, magnetic and optical absorption properties were investigated using XRD, FESEM, HRTEM, XPS, SQUID magnetometry and optical measurements. HRTEM images and SAED patterns reveal that the GdB6 nanowires are single crystalline with a preferred growth direction along [001]. The XPS spectrum suggests that the valence of Gd ion in GdB6 is trivalent. The effective magnetic momentum per Gd3+ in GdB6 is about 6.26 μB. The optical properties exhibit weak absorption in the visible light range, but relatively strong absorbance in the NIR and UV range. Low work function and high NIR absorption can make GdB6 nanowires a potential solar radiation shielding material for solar cells or other NIR blocking applications.

  18. Pressure-accelerated azide-alkyne cycloaddition: micro capillary versus autoclave reactor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borukhova, Svetlana; Seeger, Andreas D; Noël, Timothy; Wang, Qi; Busch, Markus; Hessel, Volker

    2015-02-01

    Pressure effects on regioselectivity and yield of cycloaddition reactions have been shown to exist. Nevertheless, high pressure synthetic applications with subsequent benefits in the production of natural products are limited by the general availability of the equipment. In addition, the virtues and limitations of microflow equipment under standard conditions are well established. Herein, we apply novel-process-window (NPWs) principles, such as intensification of intrinsic kinetics of a reaction using high temperature, pressure, and concentration, on azide-alkyne cycloaddition towards synthesis of Rufinamide precursor. We applied three main activation methods (i.e., uncatalyzed batch, uncatalyzed flow, and catalyzed flow) on uncatalyzed and catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. We compare the performance of two reactors, a specialized autoclave batch reactor for high-pressure operation up to 1800 bar and a capillary flow reactor (up to 400 bar). A differentiated and comprehensive picture is given for the two reactors and the three methods of activation. Reaction speedup and consequent increases in space-time yields is achieved, while the process window for favorable operation to selectively produce Rufinamide precursor in good yields is widened. The best conditions thus determined are applied to several azide-alkyne cycloadditions to widen the scope of the presented methodology. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Methods of studying oxide scales grown on zirconium alloys in autoclaves and in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, H.; Bart, G.; Thiele, H.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of water-side corrosion of zirconium alloys has been a field of research for more than 25 years, but the details of the mechanisms involved still cannot be put into a coherent picture. Improved methods are required to establish the details of the microstructure of the oxide scales. A new approach has been made for a general analysis of oxide specimens from scales grown on the zirconium-based cladding alloys of PWR rods in order to analyse the morphology of these scales, the topography of the oxide/metal interface and the crystal structures close to this interface: a) Instead of using the conventional pickling solutions, the Zr-alloys are dissolved using a 'softer' solution (Br 2 in an organic solvent) in order to avoid damage to the oxide at the oxide/metal interface to be analysed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy). A second advantage of this method is easy etching of the grain structure of Zr-alloys for SEM analysis; b) By using the particular properties of the oxide scales, the corrosion-rate-determining innermost part of the oxide layer at the oxide/metal interface can be separated from the rest of the oxide scale and then analysed by SEM, STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and electron diffraction after dissolution of the alloy. Examples are given from oxides grown on Zr-alloys in a pressurized water reactor and in autoclaves. (author) 8 figs., 3 tabs., 9 refs

  20. Nonlinear Modeling of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Masonry Wall Strengthened using Ferrocement Sandwich Structure

    KAUST Repository

    M., Abdel-Mooty

    2011-01-01

    Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) block are used mainly as non-load-bearing walls that provide heat insulation. This results in considerable saving in cooling energy particularly in hot desert environment with large variation of daily and seasonal temperatures. However, due to the relatively low strength there use load bearing walls is limited to single storey and low-rise construction. A system to enhance the strength of the AAC masonry wall in resisting both inplane vertical and combined vertical and lateral loads using ferrocement technology is proposed in this research. The proposed system significantly enhances the load carrying capacity and stiffness of the AAC wall without affecting its insulation characteristics. Ferrocement is made of cement mortar reinforced with closely spaced wire mesh. Full scale wall specimens with height of 2100mm and width of 1820mm were tested with different configuration of ferrocement. A finite elementmodel is developed and verified against the experimentalwork. The results of the finite element model correlates well with the experimental results.

  1. Effects of roasting, blanching, autoclaving, and microwave heating on antigenicity of almond (Prunus dulcis L.) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, M; Teuber, S S; Roux, K H; Sathe, S K

    2002-06-05

    Whole, unprocessed Nonpareil almonds were subjected to a variety of heat processing methods that included roasting (280, 300, and 320 degrees F for 20 and 30 min each; and 335 and 350 degrees F for 8, 10, and 12 min each), autoclaving (121 degrees C, 15 psi, for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min), blanching (100 degrees C for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 min), and microwave heating (1, 2, and 3 min). Proteins were extracted from defatted almond flour in borate saline buffer, and immunoreactivity of the soluble proteins (normalized to 1 mg protein/mL for all samples) was determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antigenic stability of the almond major protein (amandin) in the heat-processed samples was determined by competitive inhibition ELISA using rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against amandin. Processed samples were also assessed for heat stability of total antigenic proteins by sandwich ELISA using goat and rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against unprocessed Nonpareil almond total protein extract. ELISA assays and Western blotting experiments that used both rabbit polyclonal antibodies and human IgE from pooled sera indicated antigenic stability of almond proteins when compared with that of the unprocessed counterpart.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of strontium carboxylates at room temperature and at high temperature in autoclave vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christgau, Stephan; Ståhl, Kenny; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2006-01-01

    A novel method was developed for synthesis of strontium coordination compounds in high yields. The synthesis proceeded along three pathways that provided strontium salts in high purity and high yields, close to 100%, as confirmed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) and powder x......-ray crystallography. Optimum conditions were found at T = 120-1400C, a base-to-acid ratio of 1.2 and 15 min. of reaction-time in an autoclave vessel. Large crystals were readily obtained within a time period of hours. The crystal structures of strontium D-glutamate hexahydrate (I) and strontium di-(hydrogen L......-glutamate) pentahydrate (II) were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction at 295 K and Rietveld refinements (I: Space group P212121, Z=4, a=7.3519(2), b=8.7616(2), c=20.2627(5) Å, and II: Space group P21, Z=2, a=8.7243(1), b=7.2635(1), c=14.6840(2) Å, β=100.5414(7) °). Synthesis at room temperature provided four additional...

  3. The Effect of Slamming Impact on Out-of-Autoclave Cured Prepregs of GFRP Composite Panels for Hulls

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez, J.C.; Townsend, P.; Sanz, E.; Ulzurrum, I. Diez de; Pinilla, P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology that employs an experimental apparatus that reproduces, in pre-impregnated and cured out-of-autoclave Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) panels, the phenomenon of slamming or impact on the bottom of a high-speed boat during planing. The pressure limits in the simulation are defined by employing a finite element model (FEM) that evaluates the forces applied by the cam that hits the panels in the apparatus via microdeformations obtained in the simulation. Th...

  4. Development and Substantiation of Parameters of Environmentally Friendly Technology for Filling the Vertical Mine Workings with Autoclaved Slag-Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uglyanitca Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmentally friendly technology for filling the vertical mine workings with autoclaved slag-concrete, prefabricated on the surface of the mine is presented in the article; the optimal parameters of filling technology are proposed. The developed technology for filling the abandoned vertical mine workings allows ensuring the environmental safety of the territories adjacent to the abandoned mine, utilizing slag dumps and providing the possibility of shaft recovery, if necessary, with minimal labor and material costs.

  5. Characteristics of Chemical and Functional Properties of Modified Cassava Flour (Manihot esculenta) by Autoclaving-Cooling Cycles Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecep Erwan Andriansyah, Raden; Rahman, Taufik; Herminiati, Ainia; Rahman, Nurhaidar; Luthfiyanti, Rohmah

    2017-12-01

    The modified cassava flour can be made using the method of the autoclaving cooling cycle (AAC). The stability of the warming can be seen from the decreasing value of breakdown viscosity, while the stability of the stirring process can be seen by the decreasing value of setback viscosity. The stages of research include: (1) the making of cassava flour, (2) the making of modified cassava flour by the method of treatment of ACC with a variety of flour concentration and autoclaving time, (3) chemical analysis of the moisture, ash, fat, protein, carbohydrate; The functional properties of the pasting characteristics to the initial temperature of the pasting, peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, breakdown viscosity, cold paste viscosity and setback viscosity. The result shows that cassava flour modified by treatment of flour concentration 16% and autoclaving time 41 minutes having pasting code and pasting viscosity which is resistant to high temperature. Flour with this character is flour that is expected to maintain the texture of processed products with a paste form that remains stable. Utilization of modified cassava flour by the ACC method can be applied to the pasting product such as noodle and spaghetti, hoping to support for food diversification program to reduce dependence on wheat flour in Indonesia.

  6. Comparative catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol by polyacrylamide-gold nanocomposite synthesized by hydrothermal autoclaving and conventional heating routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaheldin, Hosam I.

    2017-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in polymeric polyacrylamide (PAAm) matrix were synthesized using conventional heating and autoclaving thermal techniques. The synthesized Au/PAAm nanocomposite was characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The size of the synthesized particles was approximately 6.37 nm and 8.19 nm with the conventional heating and autoclaving thermal techniques, respectively. Electron diffraction x-ray spectroscopy and the Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy were used for the composition and elemental studies, which confirmed that the Au metallic atoms were synthesized and embedded within a PAAm matrix via a coordination bond between the carbonyl (-CONH2) group and the metallic NPs. X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystalline nature of the fabricated AuNPs with face centered cubic of nanocrystals. The catalytic activity of the as-prepared Au/PAAm nanocomposite for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol was studied in the presence of sodium borohydrate. The synthesized AuNPs had an effective catalytic activity; the smaller NPs synthesized NPs with the conventional heating technique had a higher reaction kinetic rate in comparation with those synthesized with the autoclaving technique. Therefore, the Au/PAAm nanocomposite can be widely used as an eco-friendly, non-toxic, a fast and cost-effective product to remove versatile organic pollutants such as aromatic nitro compounds.

  7. Sorption and precipitation of Mn2+ by viable and autoclaved Shewanella putrefaciens: Effect of contact time

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of Mn(II) by viable and inactivated cells of Shewanella putrefaciens, a non-pathogenic, facultative anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium characterised as a Mn(IV) and Fe(III) reducer, was studied under aerobic conditions, as a function of pH, bacterial density and metal loading. During a short contact time (3-24h), the adsorptive behaviour of live and dead bacteria toward Mn(II) was sufficiently similar, an observation that was reflected in the studies on adsorption kinetics at various metal loadings, effects of pH, bacteria density, isotherms and drifting of pH during adsorption. Continuing the experiment for an additional 2-30days demonstrated that the Mn(II) sorption by suspensions of viable and autoclaved cells differed significantly from one another. The sorption to dead cells was characterised by a rapid equilibration and was described by an isotherm. In contrast, the sorption (uptake) to live bacteria exhibited a complex time-dependent uptake. This uptake began as adsorption and ion exchange processes followed by bioprecipitation, and it was accompanied by the formation of polymeric sugars (EPS) and the release of dissolved organic substances. FTIR, EXAFS/XANES and XPS demonstrated that manganese(II) phosphate was the main precipitate formed in 125ml batches, which is the first evidence of the ability of microbes to synthesise manganese phosphates. XPS and XANES spectra did not detect Mn(II) oxidation. Although the release of protein-like compounds by the viable bacteria increased in the presence of Mn2+ (and, by contrast, the release of carbohydrates did not change), electrochemical analyses did not indicate any aqueous complexation of Mn(II) by the organic ligands. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Circulating progesterone concentrations in nonlactating Holstein cows during reuse of intravaginal progesterone implants sanitized by autoclave or chemical disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, L F; Monteiro, P L J; Oliveira, L H; Guardieiro, M M; Drum, J N; Wiltbank, M C; Sartori, R

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations in nonlactating, multiparous Holstein cows (n = 24) treated with 2 types of intravaginal implants containing either 1.0 or 1.9 g of P4 either at the first use or during reuse of the implants after sanitizing the implant by autoclave or chemical disinfection. In a completely randomized design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement and 2 replicates, every cow underwent 2 of 6 treatments. Two sources of P4 [controlled internal drug release (1.9 g of P4) from Zoetis (São Paulo, Brazil), and Sincrogest (1.0 g of P4) from Ourofino (Cravinhos, Brazil)] and 3 types of processing, new (N), reused after autoclave (RA), and reused after chemical disinfection (RC), were used. After inducing luteolysis to avoid endogenous circulating P4, the cows were randomized in 1 of 6 treatments (1.9 g of N, 1.9 g of RA, 1.9 g of RC, 1.0 g of N, 1.0 g of RA, and 1.0 g RC). Cows were treated with the implants for 8 d and during this period blood samples were collected at 0, 2, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 h. Statistical analyses were performed using Proc-Mixed and the mean ± standard error of the mean P4 concentrations were calculated using the Proc-Means procedures of SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). No interaction between treatments was observed. Comparing types of implant, average P4 concentrations during treatments were greater for 1.9 g than 1.0 g (1.46 vs. 1.14 ± 0.04 ng/mL). When types of processing were compared, average P4 concentrations did not differ between autoclaved and new inserts (1.46 vs. 1.37 ± 0.05 ng/mL; respectively), but both were greater than chemically disinfected implants (1.09 ± 0.04 ng/mL). Within 1.9-g P4 inserts, P4 concentrations from autoclaved implants were greater than new, which were greater than chemically disinfected (1.67 ± 0.06 vs. 1.49 ± 0.07 vs. 1.21 ± 0.05 ng/mL; respectively). For 1.0-g P4 implants, P4 concentrations from autoclaved did not differ

  9. Effect of autoclaving on the surfaces of TiN -coated and conventional nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnuolo, G; Ametrano, G; D'Antò, V; Rengo, C; Simeone, M; Riccitiello, F; Amato, M

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of repeated autoclave sterilization cycles on surface topography of conventional nickel-titanium ( NiTi ) and titanium nitride ( TiN )-coated rotary instruments. A total of 60 NiTi rotary instruments, 30 ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer) and 30 TiN -coated AlphaKite (Komet/Gebr. Brasseler), were analysed. Instruments were evaluated in the as-received condition and after 1, 5 and 10 sterilization cycles. After sterilization, the samples were observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), and surface chemical analysis was performed on each instrument with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Moreover, the samples were analysed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and roughness average (Ra) and the root mean square value (RMS) of the scanned surface profiles were recorded. Data were analysed by means of anova followed by Tukey's test. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed the presence of pitting and deep milling marks in all instruments. EDS analysis confirmed that both types of instruments were composed mainly of nickel and titanium, whilst AlphaKite had additional nitride. After multiple autoclave sterilization cycles, SEM examinations revealed an increase in surface alterations, and EDS values indicated changes in chemical surface composition in all instruments. Ra and RMS values of ProTaper significantly increased after 5 (P = 0.006) and 10 cycles (P = 0.002) with respect to the as-received instruments, whilst AlphaKite showed significant differences compared with the controls after 10 cycles (P = 0.03). Multiple autoclave sterilization cycles modified the surface topography and chemical composition of conventional and TiN -coated NiTi rotary instruments. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  10. Relation between Portland cement carbonation, range of clinker burning and some expansive phenomena in the autoclave test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz de Cauna, A.

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availableEn este trabajo se estudia el doble pico que aparece en la región de altas temperaturas de las curvas derivatométricas, realizadas en atmósfera de vapor de agua, de los cementos portland anhidros e hidratados y en general el efecto de la carbonatación sobre los silicatos y aluminatos presentes en los cementos portland, especialmente sobre el perfil de las curvas derivatométricas de los cementos portland anhidros e hidratados. Se recogen y examinan los cambios experimentados en el doble pico al someter los cementos a la acción de diversos tratamientos y de agentes modificantes, tales como el tiempo, el CO2, la hidratación normal, las hidrataciones bajo agua a ebullición, en autoclave y en suspensión acuosa con agitación, la adición de puzolana y de fuertes proporciones de S04Ca. Se estudia y compara, asimismo, el comportamiento al análisis térmico bajo vapor de agua y al ensayo de autoclave de algunos clínkeres y cementos que presentan el doble pico en forma acusada y poco apreciable, respectivamente. De los resultados obtenidos se deducen conclusiones que explican los comportamientos experimentales observados. Las principales conclusiones se refieren a la interpretación de los picos que aparecen en las curvas derivatométricas o de velocidad de pérdida de peso de los cementos portland anhidros e hidratados, y a algunos aspectos de su carbonatación, a la probable existencia de un compuesto intermedio, consecuencia de la incompleta formación del silicato tricálcico y a la explicación de determinadas grandes expansiones producidas en el ensayo de autoclave.

  11. Compressive strength, flexural strength and thermal conductivity of autoclaved concrete block made using bottom ash as cement replacement materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongkeo, Watcharapong; Thongsanitgarn, Pailyn; Pimraksa, Kedsarin; Chaipanich, Arnon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Autoclaved aerated concrete were produced using coal bottom ash as a cement replacement material. ► Coal bottom ash was found to enhance concrete strengths. ► Thermal conductivity of concrete was not significantly affected. ► X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis show tobermorite formation. -- Abstract: The bottom ash (BA) from Mae Moh power plant, Lampang, Thailand was used as Portland cement replacement to produce lightweight concrete (LWC) by autoclave aerated concrete method. Portland cement type 1, river sand, bottom ash, aluminium powder and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ) were used in this study. BA was used to replace Portland cement at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% by weight and aluminium powder was added at 0.2% by weight in order to produce the aerated concrete. Compressive strength, flexural and thermal conductivity tests were then carried out after the concrete were autoclaved for 6 h and left in air for 7 days. The results show that the compressive strength, flexural strength and thermal conductivity increased with increased BA content due to tobermorite formation. However, approximately, 20% increase in both compressive (up to 11.61 MPa) and flexural strengths (up to 3.16 MPa) was found for mixes with 30% BA content in comparison to just around 6% increase in the thermal conductivity. Thermogravimetry analysis shows C–S–H formation and X-ray diffraction confirm tobermorite formation in bottom ash lightweight concrete. The use of BA as a cement replacement, therefore, can be seen to have the benefit in enhancing strength of the aerated concrete while achieving comparatively low thermal conductivity when compared to the results of the control Portland cement concrete.

  12. Polimerização complementar em autoclave, microondas e estufa de um compósito restaurador direto = The effect of post-cure heating in autoclave, microwave oven and conventional oven on direct composite resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arossi, Guilherme Anziliero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de tornar o processo de confecção de restaurações indiretas mais acessível, reduzindo seus custos com a resina utilizada e os métodos de polimerização complementar, este estudo testou a possibilidade de se utilizar resinas diretas com métodos de polimerização complementar alternativos. Corpos de prova foram confeccionados com a resina Charisma e fotopolimerizados por 20 segundos. Em seguida as amostras foram submetidas à polimerização complementar em autoclave, microondas e estufa. Foram estabelecidos dois grupos controles: um controle negativo, que consistiu na utilização da resina Charisma fotopolimerizada convencionalmente (20s; e um grupo controle positivo, formado por amostras do compósito restaurador indireto Targis. O ensaio de microdureza Knoop foi realizado após uma semana de armazenagem e os resultados submetidos à análise estatística. Os três métodos de polimerização complementar propostos determinaram um aumento na microdureza do compósito restaurador direto quando comparado ao controle negativo (p 0,05. Conclui-se que, considerando o desenho experimental deste estudo, a polimerização complementar em autoclave, microondas ou estufa aumenta a microdureza da resina Charisma previamente fotopolimerizada

  13. Experimental evaluation on the influence of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue of new nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotino, Gianluca; Costanzo, Alberto; Grande, Nicola M; Petrovic, Renata; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of autoclave sterilization on cyclic fatigue resistance of rotary endodontic instruments made of traditional and new nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys. Four NiTi rotary endodontic instruments of the same size (tip diameter 0.40 mm and constant .04 taper) were selected: K3, Mtwo, Vortex, and K3 XF prototypes. Each group was then divided into 2 subgroups, unsterilized instruments and sterilized instruments. The sterilized instruments were subjected to 10 cycles of autoclave sterilization. Twelve files from each different subgroup were tested for cyclic fatigue resistance. Means and standard deviations of number of cycles to failure (NCF) and fragment length of the fractured tip were calculated for each group, and data were statistically analyzed (P instruments for each type of file, differences were statistically significant (P instruments did not show significant differences (P > .05) in the mean NCF as a result of sterilization cycles (K3, 424 versus 439 NCF; Mtwo, 409 versus 419 NCF; Vortex, 454 versus 480 NCF). Comparing the results among the different groups, K3 XF (either sterilized or not) showed a mean NCF significantly higher than all other files (P endodontic instruments except for the K3 XF prototypes of rotary instruments that demonstrated a significant increase of cyclic fatigue resistance. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Dimensional Accuracy of Elastomeric Impression Materials when Treated with Autoclave, Microwave, and Chemical Disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamble, Suresh S; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay; Somasundaram, P; Raghav, Shweta; Babaji, Rashmi P; Varghese, T Joju

    2015-09-01

    Impression materials during impression procedure often get infected with various infectious diseases. Hence, disinfection of impression materials with various disinfectants is advised to protect the dental team. Disinfection can alter the dimensional accuracy of impression materials. The present study was aimed to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of elastomeric impression materials when treated with different disinfectants; autoclave, chemical, and microwave method. The impression materials used for the study were, dentsply aquasil (addition silicone polyvinylsiloxane syringe and putty), zetaplus (condensation silicone putty and light body), and impregum penta soft (polyether). All impressions were made according to manufacturer's instructions. Dimensional changes were measured before and after different disinfection procedures. Dentsply aquasil showed smallest dimensional change (-0.0046%) and impregum penta soft highest linear dimensional changes (-0.026%). All the tested elastomeric impression materials showed some degree of dimensional changes. The present study showed that all the disinfection procedures produce minor dimensional changes of impression material. However, it was within American Dental Association specification. Hence, steam autoclaving and microwave method can be used as an alternative method to chemical sterilization as an effective method.

  15. The Effect of Autoclave Sterilization on Resistance to Cyclic Fatigue of Hero Endodontic File #642 (6%) at Two Artificial Curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabiri, Masoud; Ebrahimi, Maziar; Saei, Mohammad Reza

    2017-12-01

    File fracture can interfere with cleaning and shaping of the canal and compromise periradicular healing. Autoclave sterilization may prone the files to fracture. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of Hero642 rotary instrument in two curvatures of 45 and 60 degrees. For this experimental in-vitro study, 90 Nickel-Titanium HERO 642 rotary files #30 with 0.06 taper were selected. They were divided into two groups (curvature of 45 and 60 degree) of 45 files. Each group was then subdivided into 3 subgroups; group I: no sterilization, group II: 5 cycles of sterilization and group III: 10 cycles of sterilization. Files were used in artificial canals until fracture. The cyclic fatigue was measured as the number of cycles before fracture. The data was statically analyzed by Student's t-test and two-way analysis of variance. There was a significant difference in cyclic fatigue of two curvature of 45 and 60 degrees ( p = 0.001). However, sterilization process has no significant effect on cyclic fatigue of HERO files ( p = 0.557). Sterilization had no effect on the cyclic fatigue of HERO 642 files when used in curvature of 45 or 60 degrees.

  16. Evaluation of gamma irradiation and heat treatment by autoclaving in the preparation of microorganism-free carriers for biofertilizer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phua Choo Kwai Hoe; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid

    2009-01-01

    Biofertilizer has been identified as an alternative or complementary to chemical fertilizers to increase soil fertility and crop production in sustainable farming. Biofertilizers are products containing living cells of different types of known microorganisms that may increase crop productivity through N 2 fixation, phosphate solubilization or stimulation of plant growth by synthesising phytohormones. A good biofertilizer product needs a good carrier or substrate. A good carrier should be free from microbial contamination and can optimise the growth of the biofertilizer microorganisms. Compost is commonly used as carrier or substrate for biofertilizer microorganisms. In the present study, compost produced by Nuclear Malaysia using the Natural Farming method was used as carrier for several biofertilizer products. Gamma irradiation and autoclave were used to produce sterile carrier for biofertilizer. The effectiveness for both methods was evaluated. Gamma irradiation at a dose of 50 kGy and autoclaving at 121 degree C for 60 minutes were found effective to produce sterile carriers for biofertilizer products.(Author)

  17. The effect of multiple autoclave cycles on the surface of rotary nickel-titanium endodontic files: An in vitro atomic force microscopy investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ashish Shashikant; Tilakchand, Mahima; Naik, Balaram Damodar

    2015-01-01

    To observe and study the effect of multiple autoclave sterilization cycles, on the surface of nickel-titanium (NiTi) files. The file used for this study was the Mtwo file (VDW) and ProTaper (Dentsply). The apical 5 mm of the files were attached to a silicon wafer and subjected to autoclave cycles under standardized conditions. They were scanned with an AFM after 1, 5, and 10 cycles. The unsterilized files were used as control, before start of the study. Three vertical topographic parameters namely maximum height (MH), root mean square (RMS) of surface roughness, and arithmetic mean roughness (AMR)were measured with the atomic force microscope (AFM). Analysis of variance along with Tukey's test was used to test the differences. The vertical topographic parameters were higher for both the files, right after the first cycle, when compared with the control (P autoclave cycles, a fact that should be kept in mind during their reuse.

  18. Validation of Autoclave Protocols for Successful Decontamination of Category A Medical Waste Generated from Care of Patients with Serious Communicable Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibaldi, Brian T; Reimers, Mallory; Ernst, Neysa; Bova, Gregory; Nowakowski, Elaine; Bukowski, James; Ellis, Brandon C; Smith, Chris; Sauer, Lauren; Dionne, Kim; Carroll, Karen C; Maragakis, Lisa L; Parrish, Nicole M

    2017-02-01

    In response to the Ebola outbreak in 2014, many hospitals designated specific areas to care for patients with Ebola and other highly infectious diseases. The safe handling of category A infectious substances is a unique challenge in this environment. One solution is on-site waste treatment with a steam sterilizer or autoclave. The Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) installed two pass-through autoclaves in its biocontainment unit (BCU). The JHH BCU and The Johns Hopkins biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) clinical microbiology laboratory designed and validated waste-handling protocols with simulated patient trash to ensure adequate sterilization. The results of the validation process revealed that autoclave factory default settings are potentially ineffective for certain types of medical waste and highlighted the critical role of waste packaging in successful sterilization. The lessons learned from the JHH validation process can inform the design of waste management protocols to ensure effective treatment of highly infectious medical waste. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Relation between interlaminar fracture toughness and pressure condition in autoclave molding process of GFRP composite laminates; GFRP sekisoban no autoclave seikei ni okeru atsuryoku joken to sokan hakai jinseichi tono kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, J. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Motogi, S.; Fukuda, T. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-06-15

    Relation between fracture toughness and pressure condition in autoclave molding of GF composite laminates is investigated. Glass/epoxy prepregs are molded under different curing pressures, and UD laminates of [O{sub 8}]T and [O{sub 16}]T are fabricated. The results of the double cantilever beam (DCB) test show that the curing pressure has certain influences on the interlaminar fracture toughness via the change in morphology of matrix resin and fibers between laminae, and via the change in interfacial strength of fiber and matrix. It is also found that the fiber/matrix interfacial strength increases as the curing pressure increases by SEM photographs of the fracture surface in GF UD laminates. 13 refs., 12 figs.

  20. Effect of Stacking Layup on Spring-back Deformation of Symmetrical Flat Laminate Composites Manufactured through Autoclave Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Seman, M. A.; Mezeix, L.; Aminanda, Y.; Rivai, A.; Ali, K. M.

    2017-03-01

    The residual stresses that develop within fibre-reinforced laminate composites during autoclave processing lead to dimensional warpage known as spring-back deformation. A number of experiments have been conducted on flat laminate composites with unidirectional fibre orientation to examine the effects of both the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters on the warpage. This paper extends the study on to the symmetrical layup effect on spring-back for flat laminate composites. Plies stacked at various symmetrical sequences were fabricated to observe the severity of the resulting warpage. Essentially, the experimental results demonstrated that the symmetrical layups reduce the laminate stiffness in its principal direction compared to the unidirectional laminate thus, raising the spring-back warpage with the exception of the [45/-45]S layup due to its quasi-isotropic property.

  1. Direct synthesis of Fe3 C-functionalized graphene by high temperature autoclave pyrolysis for oxygen reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yunjie; Cleemann, Lars N; Xing, Wei; Bjerrum, Niels J; Li, Qingfeng

    2014-08-01

    We present a novel approach to direct fabrication of few-layer graphene sheets with encapsulated Fe3 C nanoparticles from pyrolysis of volatile non-graphitic precursors without any substrate. This one-step autoclave approach is facile and potentially scalable for production. Tested as an electrocatalyst, the graphene-based composite exhibited excellent catalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solution with an onset potential of ca. 1.05 V (vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode) and a half-wave potential of 0.83 V, which is comparable to the commercial Pt/C catalyst. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Mössbauer study of oxide films of Fe-, Sn-, Cr- doped zirconium alloys during corrosion in autoclave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, V. P., E-mail: vpfilippov@mephi.ru; Bateev, A. B.; Lauer, Yu. A. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Mössbauer investigations were used to compare iron atom states in oxide films of binary Zr-Fe, ternary Zr-Fe-Cu and quaternary Zr-Fe-Cr-Sn alloys. Oxide films are received in an autoclave at a temperature of 350–360 °C and at pressure of 16.8 MPa. The corrosion process decomposes the intermetallic precipitates in alloys and forms metallic iron with inclusions of chromium atoms α–Fe(Cr), α–Fe(Cu), α–Fe {sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe {sub 3}O{sub 4} compounds. Some iron ions are formed in divalent and in trivalent paramagnetic states. The additional doping influences on corrosion kinetics and concentration of iron compounds and phases formed in oxide films. It was shown the correlation between concentration of iron in different chemical states and corrosion resistance of alloys.

  3. Comparing two enhancing methods for improving kitchen waste anaerobic digestion: bentonite addition and autoclaved de-oiling pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Duojiao; Duan, Na; Tian, Hailin

    2018-01-01

    The effects of different enhancement methods, including adding bentonite (1.25%, w/w, wet substrate) and autoclaved de-oiling pretreatment (121 °C, 30 minutes), on the anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste (KW) were comparably studied. Mesophilic continuous stirred tank reactors were used under...... different organic loading rates (OLRs) of 1.11 to 1.84 gVS (volatile solid)L−1d−1 and two different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (20 d and 25 d). In this study, two enhancement methods and extending HRT could prevent volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulation and obtain a high methane production at low OLR...... design and process evaluation of a CSTR biogas plant treating with KW based on the laboratory experiment was stated....

  4. Effect of high-dose irradiation and autoclave treatment on microbial safety and quality of ready-to-eat Bulgogi sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Gyu; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hun; Han, In-Jun; Yoon, Yohan; Chung, Hyung-Wook; Kim, Eun-Jeong; Gao, Meixu; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    In Korea, commercialized sauce for ready-to-eat (RTE) Bulgogi is usually manufactured using heat treatment to ensure that it has a long shelf-life. However, heat treatment may adversely affect the taste and flavor of the sauce, thus, the development of suitable sterilizing methods for RTE sauces is necessary to preserve the quality of the sauce during long storage periods. In this study, total bacterial growth, the viscosity, and the sensory properties of Bulgogi sauce were compared between sterilization with gamma irradiation (0-40 kGy) and autoclave treatment during storage at 35 °C for 90 days. No bacterial growth was observed following irradiation at more than 10 kGy or after autoclave treatment. However, the viscosity and sensory properties of samples gamma-irradiated at above 10 kGy or autoclave-treated were significantly changed, even though autoclave treatment induced a burnt taste and flavor. Therefore, a gamma irradiation of 10 kGy was effective to prepare ready-to-eat Bulgogi sauce with microbial safety and original sensory qualities.

  5. Determination of metal concentrations in certified plastic reference materials after small-size autoclave and microwave-assisted digestion followed with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtimäki, Esa; Väisänen, Ari

    2017-01-01

    The digestion methods for the determination of As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn concentrations in plastic samples using microwave-assisted digestion (MW-AD) and small-size autoclave digestion was developed. The certified polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene certified reference materials were used in order to find digestion method working properly for several sample matrices. Efficiency of the digestion methods was evaluated by analyzing the residual carbon in digests by TOC analyzer. MW-AD using a mixture of 7 mL of HNO3 and 3 mL of H2O2 as a digestion solution resulted in excellent recoveries for As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn, and were in the range of 92-107% for all the analytes except Pb in polyethylene material. Autoclave digestion using 5 mL of concentrated HNO3 as a digestion solution resulted in similar recoveries with the exception of a higher As recovery (98%). Tin recovery resulted in low level after both MW-AD and autoclave digestion. Autoclave digestion was further developed resulting in a partially open two-step digestion process especially for the determination of Sn and Cr. The method resulted in higher recoveries of Sn and Cr (87 and 76%) but with the lower concentration of easily volatile As, Cd and Sb.

  6. Humid Heat Autoclaving of Hybrid Nanoparticles Achieved by Decreased Nanoparticle Concentration and Improved Nanoparticle Stability Using Medium Chain Triglycerides as a Modifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Jingxin; Chao, Yanhui; Liang, Yuheng; Zhang, Ning; He, Haibing; Yin, Tian; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Hui; Tang, Xing

    2016-09-01

    Humid heat autoclaving is a facile technique widely used in the sterilization of injections, but the high temperature employed would destroy nanoparticles composed of biodegradable polymers. The aim of this study was to investigate whether incorporation of medium chain triglycerides (MCT) could stabilize nanoparticles composed of poly (ethylene glycol)-b-polycaprolactone (PEG-b-PCL) during autoclaving (121°C, 10 min). Polymeric nanoparticles with different MCT contents were prepared by dialysis. Block copolymer degradation was studied by GPC. The critical aggregation concentrations of nanoparticles at different temperatures were determined using pyrene fluorescence. The size, morphology and weight averaged molecular weight of pristine/autoclaved nanoparticles were studied using DLS, TEM and SLS, respectively. Drug loading content and release profile were determined using RP-HPLC. The protecting effect of MCT on nanoparticles was dependent on the amount of MCT incorporated. Nanoparticles with high MCT contents, which assumed an emulsion-like morphology, showed reduced block copolymer degradation and particle disassociation after incubation at 100°C for 24 h. Nanoparticles with high MCT content showed the lowest critical aggregation concentration (CAC) under either room temperature or 60°C and the lowest particle concentration among all samples. And the particle size, drug loading content, physical stability and release profile of nanoparticles with high MCT contents remained nearly unchanged after autoclaving. Incorporation of high amount of MCT changed the morphology of PEG-b-PCL based nanoparticles to an emulsion-like structure and the nanoparticles prepared could withstand autoclaving due to improved particle stability and decreased particle concentration caused by MCT incorporation.

  7. Rapid synthesis of binary α-NiS–β-NiS by microwave autoclave for rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, Nurul Hayati; Rahman, Md Mokhlesur; Chou, Shu-Lei; Wang Jiazhao; Wexler, David; Liu, Hua-Kun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► NiS has been synthesized by a rapid, one-pot, hydrothermal microwave autoclave method. ► The α-NiS–β-NiS sample synthesized at 160 °C yielded good electrochemical performance in terms of high reversible capacity (320 mAh g −1 at 0.1C up to 100 cycles). ► At high rates, the sample operated at a good fraction of its capacity. - Abstract: To reduce the reaction time, electrical energy consumption, and cost, binary α-NiS–β-NiS has been synthesized by a rapid, one-pot, hydrothermal autoclave microwave method within 15 min at temperatures of 160–180 °C. The microstructure and morphology of the α-NiS–β-NiS products were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At 140 °C, pure hexagonal NiAs-type α-NiS phase was identified from the XRD patterns. With increasing reaction temperature (160–180 °C), the XRD evidence indicates that an increasing fraction of rhombohedral millerite-like β-NiS is formed as a secondary phase. The α-NiS–β-NiS sample synthesized at 160 °C yielded good electrochemical performance in term of high reversible capacity (320 mAh g −1 at 0.1C up to 100 cycles). Even at high rates, the sample operated at a good fraction of its capacity. The likely contributing factor to the superior electrochemical performance of the α-NiS–β-NiS sample could be related to the improved morphology. TEM imaging confirmed that needle-like protrusions connect the clusters of α-NiS particles, and the individual protrusions indicated a very high surface area including folded sheet morphology, which helps to dissipate the surface accumulation of Li + ions and facilitate rapid mobility. These factors help to enhance the amount of lithium intercalated within the material.

  8. An in situ synchrotron energy-dispersive diffraction study of the hydration of oilwell cement systems under high temperature/autoclave conditions up to 130 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colston, Sally L.; Barnes, Paul; Jupe, Andrew C.; Jacques, Simon D.M.; Hall, Christopher; Livesey, Paul; Dransfield, John; Meller, Nicola; Maitland, Geoffrey C.

    2005-01-01

    The technique of synchrotron energy dispersive diffraction has been developed for in situ studies of cement hydration under autoclave conditions. This has been applied to oilwell cements hydrating at typical oilwell temperatures up to 130 deg. C. The results show clearly the detailed interplay between 11 detectable phases, from which a phase transformation scheme has been derived; this illustrates the progression of hydration up to 130 deg. C for two extreme cases, with and without conservation of water content and autoclave pressure. The monosulphate hydrate phases are found to exhibit different stability bounds, with a surprising sequence of the 14-water, 10-water then 12-water monosulphate as temperature/time increases; the latter form is particularly associated with conditions of water/pressure loss. The effect of retarders on C 3 S dissolution and CH formation is negligible above 70 deg. C, whereas the effect on the calcium sulphoaluminate hydrates is more complex, and possible reasons for this are discussed

  9. Development of an autoclave with zirconia crystal windows for in-situ observation of sample surface under primary water conditions of pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumura, Takuya; Totsuka, Nobuo; Arioka, Koji [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Nakajima, Nobuo

    2002-09-01

    Elucidating the mechanism for primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is important for improving the reliability of structural materials in the primary system of pressurized water reactors (PWR). For this purpose, visualization of corrosion material surface in the primary coolant environment is effective, but it was impossible because of lack of suitable window material. Yttria stabilized zirconia was newly selected as a candidate for in-situ window material in the primary coolant environment of PWR. Its sufficient corrosion resistance was proved by measuring the transmissivity of light after being immersed in the primary coolant environment. A new autoclave with two windows of yttria-stabilized zirconia was developed. The corrosion material surfaces of Alloy600 and SUS304 in the primary coolant environment were clearly observed with this autoclave. Observations of cracks generated on the surface of SUS304 specimen, suggest that its generation time depends on temperature. (author)

  10. Reformulating Polycaprolactone Fumarate to Eliminate Toxic Diethylene Glycol: Effects of Polymeric Branching and Autoclave Sterilization on Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M. Brett; Wang, Huan; Spinner, Robert J; Windebank, Anthony J; Yaszemski, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Polycaprolactone fumarate (PCLF) is a cross-linkable derivate of polycaprolactone diol that has been shown to be an effective nerve conduit material that supports regeneration across segmental nerve defects and has warranted future clinical trials. Degradation of the previously studied PCLF (PCLFDEG) releases toxic small molecules of diethylene glycol used as the initiator for the synthesis of polycaprolactone diol. In an effort to eliminate this toxic degradation product we present a strategy for the synthesis of PCLF from either propylene glycol (PCLFPPD) or glycerol (PCLFGLY). PCLFPPD is linear and resembles the previously studied PCLFDEG, while PCLFGLY is branched and exhibits dramatically different material properties. The synthesis and characterization of their thermal, rheological, and mechanical properties are reported. The results show that the linear PCLFPPD has material properties similar to the previously studied PCLFDEG. The branched PCLFGLY exhibits dramatically lower crystalline properties resulting in lower rheological and mechanical moduli, and is therefore a more compliant material. In addition, the question of an appropriate FDA approvable sterilization method is addressed. This study shows that autoclave sterilization on PCLF materials is an acceptable sterilization method for cross-linked PCLF and has minimal effect on the PCLF thermal and mechanical properties. PMID:21911087

  11. Interaction of Aluminum with PHFτ in Alzheimer’s Disease Neurofibrillary Degeneration Evidenced by Desferrioxamine-Assisted Chelating Autoclave Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Harunobu; Shin, Ryong-Woon; Higuchi, Jun; Shibuya, Satoshi; Muramoto, Tamaki; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki

    1999-01-01

    To demonstrate that aluminum III (Al) interacts with PHFτ in neurofibrillary degeneration (NFD) of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain, we developed a “chelating autoclave method” that allows Al chelation by using trivalent-cationic chelator desferrioxamine. Its application to AD brain sections before Morin histochemistry for Al attenuated the positive fluorescence of neurofibrillary tangles, indicating Al removal from them. This method, applied for immunostaining with phosphorylation-dependent anti-τ antibodies, significantly enhanced the PHFτ immunoreactivity of the NFD. These results suggest that each of the phosphorylated epitopes in PHFτ are partially masked by Al binding. Incubation of AD sections with AlCl3 before Morin staining revealed Al accumulation with association to neurofibrillary tangles. Such incubation before immunostaining with the phosphorylation-dependent anti-τ antibodies abolished the immunolabeling of the NFD and this abolition was reversed by the Al chelation. These findings indicate cumulative Al binding to and thereby antigenic masking of the phosphorylated epitopes of PHFτ. Al binding was further documented for electrophoretically-resolved PHFτ on immunoblots, indicating direct Al binding to PHFτ. In vitro aggregation by AlCl3 was observed for PHFτ but was lost on dephosphorylation of PHFτ. Taken together, phosphorylation-dependent and direct PHFτ-Al interaction occurs in the NFD of the AD brain. PMID:10487845

  12. Variation law of gas holdup in an autoclave during the pressure leaching process by using a mixed-flow agitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lei; Liu, Yan; Tang, Jun-jie; Lü, Guo-zhi; Zhang, Ting-an

    2017-08-01

    The multiphase reaction process of pressure leaching is mainly carried out in the liquid phase. Therefore, gas holdup is essential for the gas-liquid-solid phase reaction and the extraction rate of valuable metals. In this paper, a transparent quartz autoclave, a six blades disc turbine-type agitator, and a high-speed camera were used to investigate the gas holdup of the pressure leaching process. Furthermore, experiments determining the effects of agitation rate, temperature, and oxygen partial pressure on gas holdup were carried out. The results showed that when the agitation rate increased from 350 to 600 r/min, the gas holdup increased from 0.10% to 0.64%. When the temperature increased from 363 to 423 K, the gas holdup increased from 0.14% to 0.20%. When the oxygen partial pressure increased from 0.1 to 0.8 MPa, the gas holdup increased from 0.13% to 0.19%. A similar criteria relationship was established by Homogeneous Principle and Buckingham's theorem. Comprehensively, empirical equation of gas holdup was deduced on the basis of experimental data and the similarity theory, where the criterion equation was determined as ɛ = 4.54 × 10-11 n 3.65 T 2.08 P g 0.18. It can be seen from the formula that agitation rate made the most important impact on gas holdup in the pressure leaching process using the mixed-flow agitator.

  13. The improvement of thermal characteristics of autoclave aerated concrete for energy efficient high-rise buildings application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavanov, Pavel; Fomina, Ekaterina; Kozhukhova, Natalia

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, the problem of energy saving is very relevant. One of the ways to reduction energy consumption in construction materials production and construction of civil and industrial high-rise buildings is the application of claddings with heat-insulating performance. The concept of energy efficiency of high-rise buildings is closely related to environmental aspect and sustainability of applied construction materials; reducing service costs; energy saving and microclimate comfortability. A complexity of architectural and structural design as well as aesthetic characteristics of construction materials are also should be considered. The high interest focused on materials with combined properties. This work is oriented on the study of energy efficiency of buildings by improving heat-insulation and strength performance of autoclave aerated concrete. The applied method of sulfate activation of lime allows monitoring phase and structure formation in aerated concrete. The optimal mix design of aerated concrete with the compressive strength up to 8.5 MPa and decreased density up to 760 kg/m3 was proposed. Analysis of structure at macro-and microscale was performed as well as the criteria of an optimal porosity formation was considered a number, size, shape of pore and density of interior partition. SEM analysis and BET method were performed in this research work. The research results demonstrated the correlation between structure and vapor permeability resistance, also it was found that the increase of strength can lead to reduction of thermal conductivity.

  14. Application of autoclaving-cooling cycling treatment to improve resistant starch content of corn-based rice analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, B.; Muslihudin, M.; Akmal, S.

    2018-01-01

    Resistant starch is one important component determining the characteristics of a functional food. The aim of the research was to determine the cooling time optimum in the autoclaving-cooling treatment to increase the resistance starch content corn-based rice analogues, with 6 level of cooling time (0 hours/control, 12 hours, 24 hours, 36 hours, 48 hours and 60 hours). The results showed that cooling at 4°C for 60 hours would increase the resistant starch content (6.27% to 15.38%), dietary fiber content (14.53% to 20.17%); and decrease the digestible starch content (61.81% to 52.70%). Cooling time level at 4°C for 24 hours, would increase the sensory score of corn-based rice analogues then back down until cooling time level of 60 hours. Microscopic analysis of granular structure using SEM indicated that cooling time had a linear correlation with cracks intensity on the granule surface of the corn-based rice analogues. The high content of resistant starch showed that the application of cooling time level at 4°C for 24 hours would improve the functional properties of corn-based rice analogues with sensory characteristics remain favorable to panelists.

  15. Autoclave processing for composite material fabrication. 1: An analysis of resin flows and fiber compactions for thin laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    High quality long fiber reinforced composites, such as those used in aerospace and industrial applications, are commonly processed in autoclaves. An adequate resin flow model for the entire system (laminate/bleeder/breather), which provides a description of the time-dependent laminate consolidation process, is useful in predicting the loss of resin, heat transfer characteristics, fiber volume fraction and part dimension, etc., under a specified set of processing conditions. This could be accomplished by properly analyzing the flow patterns and pressure profiles inside the laminate during processing. A newly formulated resin flow model for composite prepreg lamination process is reported. This model considers viscous resin flows in both directions perpendicular and parallel to the composite plane. In the horizontal direction, a squeezing flow between two nonporous parallel plates is analyzed, while in the vertical direction, a poiseuille type pressure flow through porous media is assumed. Proper force and mass balances have been made and solved for the whole system. The effects of fiber-fiber interactions during lamination are included as well. The unique features of this analysis are: (1) the pressure gradient inside the laminate is assumed to be generated from squeezing action between two adjacent approaching fiber layers, and (2) the behavior of fiber bundles is simulated by a Finitely Extendable Nonlinear Elastic (FENE) spring.

  16. 加气混凝土制备工艺影响因素分析%Analysis of Influential Factors on Preparation of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗立群; 程琪林

    2015-01-01

    Aimed at new requirements brought up by domestic building material market, autoclaved aerated concrete has been acclaimed owning to its several particular performance advantages such as lightweight, thermal insulation, acoustic insulation, anti-seismic, etc. After preparation process of auto-claved aerated concrete was briefly summarized, it focused on influence of material characteristics on the properties of the products such as siliceous material, calcareous material, vesicant, water-solid ratio and ad-ditives. Influence mechanism of curing conditions of green body, reaction process of preparation and prod-ucts microstructure on performance of autoclaved aerated concrete were introduced. Eventually, direction of development of autoclaved aerated concrete was prospected in the future.%针对建材市场节能环保产品的需求,加气混凝土制品以其独特的质轻节能、保温隔热、抗震隔音等综合性能优势而备受关注。简述了蒸压加气混凝土的制备过程,重点阐述了制备加气混凝土砌块的硅质材料、钙质材料、发气剂、水料比及添加物等物料特性对制品性能的影响,介绍了坯体养护条件、制备过程反应以及制品微观结构对加气混凝土性能的影响机理,展望了加气混凝土未来的发展方向。

  17. Effect of Dephytinization by Fermentation and Hydrothermal Autoclaving Treatments on the Antioxidant Activity, Dietary Fiber, and Phenolic Content of Oat Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkaya, H; Özkaya, B; Duman, B; Turksoy, S

    2017-07-19

    Fermentation and hydrothermal methods were tested to reduce the phytic acid (PA) content of oat bran, and the effects of these methods on the dietary fiber (DF) and total phenolic (TP) contents as well as the antioxidant activity (AA) were also investigated. Fermentation with 6% yeast and for 6 h resulted in 88.2% reduction in PA content, while it only resulted in 32.5% reduction in the sample incubated for 6 h without yeast addition. The PA loss in autoclaved oat bran sample (1.5 h, pH 4.0) was 95.2% while it was 41.8% at most in the sample autoclaved without pH adjustment. In both methods, soluble, insoluble, and total DF contents of samples were remarkably higher than the control samples. Also for TP in the oat bran samples, both processes led to 17% and 39% increases, respectively, while AA values were 8% and 15%, respectively. Among all samples, the autoclaving process resulted in the lowest PA and the greatest amount of bioactive compounds.

  18. The effects of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and ProTaper Gold nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyürek, Taha; Yılmaz, Koray; Uslu, Gülşah

    2017-11-01

    It was aimed to compare the cyclic fatigue resistances of ProTaper Universal (PTU), ProTaper Next (PTN), and ProTaper Gold (PTG) and the effects of sterilization by autoclave on the cyclic fatigue life of nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments. Eighty PTU, 80 PTN, and 80 PTG were included to the present study. Files were tested in a simulated canal. Each brand of the NiTi files were divided into 4 subgroups: group 1, as received condition; group 2, pre-sterilized instruments exposed to 10 times sterilization by autoclave; group 3, instruments tested were sterilized after being exposed to 25%, 50%, and 75% of the mean cycles to failure, then cycled fatigue test was performed; group 4, instruments exposed to the same experiment with group 3 without sterilization. The number of cycles to failure (NCF) was calculated. The data was statistically analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests. PTG showed significantly higher NCF than PTU and PTN in group 1 ( p Autoclaving increased the cyclic fatigue resistances of PTN and PTG.

  19. Composite Cryotank Technologies and Development 2.4 and 5.5M out of Autoclave Tank Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Justin R.; Vickers, John; Fikes, John

    2015-01-01

    The Composite Cryotank Technologies and Demonstration (CCTD) project substantially matured composite, cryogenic propellant tank technology. The project involved the design, analysis, fabrication, and testing of large-scale (2.4-m-diameter precursor and 5.5-m-diameter) composite cryotanks. Design features included a one-piece wall design that minimized tank weight, a Y-joint that incorporated an engineered material to alleviate stress concentration under combined loading, and a fluted core cylindrical section that inherently allows for venting and purging. The tanks used out-of-autoclave (OoA) cured graphite/epoxy material and processes to enable large (up to 10-m-diameter) cryotank fabrication, and thin-ply prepreg to minimize hydrogen permeation through tank walls. Both tanks were fabricated at Boeing using automated fiber placement on breakdown tooling. A fluted core skirt that efficiently carried axial loads and enabled hydrogen purging was included on the 5.5-m-diameter tank. Ultrasonic inspection was performed, and a structural health monitoring system was installed to identify any impact damage during ground processing. The precursor and 5.5-m-diameter tanks were tested in custom test fixtures at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Space Flight Center. The testing, which consisted of a sequence of pressure and thermal cycles using liquid hydrogen, was successfully concluded and obtained valuable structural, thermal, and permeation performance data. This technology can be applied to a variety of aircraft and spacecraft applications that would benefit from 30 to 40% weight savings and substantial cost savings compared to aluminum lithium tanks.

  20. The analysis of mechanical properties of non autoclaved aerated concrete with the substitution of fly ash and bottom ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolina, R.; Muhammad, F.

    2018-02-01

    Based on PP. No.85 of 1999 on the management of hazardous and toxic (B3), fly ash and bottom ash wastes are categorized into B3 waste because there are heavy metal oxide contents that can pollute the environment. One form of environmental rescue that can be applied is to utilize waste fly ash and bottom ash in the manufacture of concrete. In this research, fly ash and bottom ash waste are used as substitution of cement and fine aggregate to make lightweight concrete. The purpose of this research is to know the mechanical properties of non-autoclaved aerated lightweight concrete (NAAC) with FA and BA substitution to cement and fine aggregate which is expected to improve the quality of concrete. The NAAC lightweight concrete in this study is divided into 4 categories: normal NAAC lightweight concrete, NAAC lightweight NAAC substituted concrete with FA, NAAC lightweight concrete substituted with BA, and NAAC combined light weight from FA and BA with variations of 10%, 20% And 30%. The test specimen used in cylindrical shape, which was tested at the age of 28 days, amounted to 90 pieces and consisted of 10 variations. Each variation amounted to 9 samples. Based on the test results with FA and BA substitutions of 10%, 20%, and 30%, the highest compressive strength was achieved in samples with FA 30% of 12.687 MPa, maximum tensile strength achieved in samples with FA 30% of 1,540 MPa, The highest absorption was achieved in normal NAAC of 5.66%. Based on the weight of the contents of all samples, samples can be categorized in lightweight concrete, since the weight of the contents is less than 1900 kg / m3.

  1. Escherichia coli K-12 survives anaerobic exposure at pH 2 without RpoS, Gad, or hydrogenases, but shows sensitivity to autoclaved broth products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Riggins

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria survive exposure to extreme acid (pH 2 or lower in gastric fluid. Aerated cultures survive via regulons expressing glutamate decarboxylase (Gad, activated by RpoS, cyclopropane fatty acid synthase (Cfa and others. But extreme-acid survival is rarely tested under low oxygen, a condition found in the stomach and the intestinal tract. We observed survival of E. coli K-12 W3110 at pH 1.2-pH 2.0, conducting all manipulations (overnight culture at pH 5.5, extreme-acid exposure, dilution and plating in a glove box excluding oxygen (10% H2, 5% CO2, balance N2. With dissolved O2 concentrations maintained below 6 µM, survival at pH 2 required Cfa but did not require GadC, RpoS, or hydrogenases. Extreme-acid survival in broth (containing tryptone and yeast extract was diminished in media that had been autoclaved compared to media that had been filtered. The effect of autoclaved media on extreme-acid survival was most pronounced when oxygen was excluded. Exposure to H2O2 during extreme-acid treatment increased the death rate slightly for W3110 and to a greater extent for the rpoS deletion strain. Survival at pH 2 was increased in strains lacking the anaerobic regulator fnr. During anaerobic growth at pH 5.5, strains deleted for fnr showed enhanced transcription of acid-survival genes gadB, cfa, and hdeA, as well as catalase (katE. We show that E. coli cultured under oxygen exclusion (<6 µM O2 requires mechanisms different from those of aerated cultures. Extreme acid survival is more sensitive to autoclave products under oxygen exclusion.

  2. The effect of Sn on autoclave corrosion performance and corrosion mechanisms in Zr–Sn–Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Frankel, P.; Polatidis, E.; Blat, M.; Ambard, A.; Comstock, R.J.; Hallstadius, L.; Hudson, D.; Smith, G.D.W.; Grovenor, C.R.M.; Klaus, M.; Cottis, R.A.; Lyon, S.; Preuss, M.

    2013-01-01

    The desire to improve the corrosion resistance of Zr cladding material for high burn-up has resulted in a general trend among fuel manufacturers to develop alloys with reduced levels of Sn. While commonly accepted, the reason for the improved corrosion performance observed for low-tin zirconium alloys in high-temperature aqueous environments remains unclear. High-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to characterize the oxides formed by autoclave exposure on Zr–Sn–Nb alloys with tin concentration ranging from 0.01 to 0.92 wt.%. The alloys studied included the commercial alloy ZIRLO® (ZIRLO® is a registered trademark of Westinghouse Electric Company LLC in the USA and may be registered in other countries throughout the world. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use is strictly prohibited.) and two variants of ZIRLO with significantly lower tin levels, referred to here as A-0.6Sn and A-0.0Sn. The nature of the oxide grown on tube samples from each alloy was investigated via cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy. Atom probe analysis of ZIRLO demonstrated that the tin present in the alloy passes into the oxide as it forms, with no significant difference in the Sn/Zr ratio between the two. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements on the oxides formed on each alloy revealed that the monoclinic and tetragonal oxide phases display highly compressive in-plane residual stresses with the magnitudes dependent on the phase and alloy. The amount of tetragonal phase present and, more importantly, the level of tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation both decrease with decreasing tin levels, suggesting that tin is a tetragonal oxide phase stabilizing element. It is proposed that in Zr–Nb–Sn alloys with low Sn, the tetragonal phase is mainly stabilized by very small grain size and therefore remains stable throughout the corrosion process. In contrast, alloys with higher tin levels can in addition grow larger, stress stabilized, tetragonal grains that

  3. Chemical modification of L-glutamine to alpha-amino glutarimide on autoclaving facilitates Agrobacterium infection of host and non-host plants: A new use of a known compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Pralay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental autoclaving of L-glutamine was found to facilitate the Agrobacterium infection of a non host plant like tea in an earlier study. In the present communication, we elucidate the structural changes in L-glutamine due to autoclaving and also confirm the role of heat transformed L-glutamine in Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation of host/non host plants. Results When autoclaved at 121°C and 15 psi for 20 or 40 min, L-glutamine was structurally modified into 5-oxo proline and 3-amino glutarimide (α-amino glutarimide, respectively. Of the two autoclaved products, only α-amino glutarimide facilitated Agrobacterium infection of a number of resistant to susceptible plants. However, the compound did not have any vir gene inducing property. Conclusions We report a one pot autoclave process for the synthesis of 5-oxo proline and α-amino glutarimide from L-glutamine. Xenobiotic detoxifying property of α-amino glutarimide is also proposed.

  4. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel: Comparison of In- and Out-of-Autoclave Facesheet Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan Jorge; Myers, David E.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Zalewski, Bart F.; Kellas, Sotiris; Dixon, Genevieve D.; Krivanek, Thomas M.; Gyekenyesi, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panels, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10-m diameter barrel section of the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle, were manufactured and tested under the NASA Composites for Exploration and the NASA Constellation Ares V programs. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.0 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: in-autoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800b/5320-1. Smaller 3 ft. by 5 ft. panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections and tested under compressive loading. Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses were performed to predict the compressive response of each 3 ft. by 5 ft. panel. To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear models yielded good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was correctly predicted that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength. Furthermore, several imperfection studies were performed to investigate the influence of geometric imperfections, fiber angle misalignments, and three-dimensional effects on the compressive response of the panel.

  5. A pilot-scale steam autoclave system for treating municipal solid waste for recovery of renewable organic content: Operational results and energy usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtman, Kevin M; Bozzi, David V; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Offeman, Richard D; Orts, William J

    2016-05-01

    A pilot-scale (1800 kg per batch capacity) autoclave used in this study reduces municipal solid waste to a debris contaminated pulp product that is efficiently separated into its renewable organic content and non-renewable organic content fractions using a rotary trommel screen. The renewable organic content can be recovered at nearly 90% efficiency and the trommel rejects are also much easier to sort for recovery. This study provides the evaluation of autoclave operation, including mass and energy balances for the purpose of integration into organic diversion systems. Several methods of cooking municipal solid waste were explored from indirect oil heating only, a combination of oil and direct steam during the same cooking cycle, and steam only. Gross energy requirements averaged 1290 kJ kg(-1) material in vessel, including the weight of free water and steam added during heating. On average, steam recovery can recoup 43% of the water added and 30% of the energy, supplying on average 40% of steam requirements for the next cook. Steam recycle from one vessel to the next can reduce gross energy requirements to an average of 790 kJ kg(-1). © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Comparative study on the effect of boiling, autoclaving and irradiation treatments of artichoke by-product on growth perfor mance and digestibility of broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekkawy, S.H.; Zakaria, S.M.; El-Faramawy, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Sixty broiler chicks (21 days old) were assigned into six equal groups. artichoke by-product (ABP) was subjected to different treatments (Boiling, autoclaving and gamma irradiation at 75 and 100 kGy). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of using ABP with different treatments on growth performance and their nutrient digestibility. Results revealed that, chicks fed diets containing raw ABP or irradiated with 100 kGy showed the highest values of live body weight, body weight gain, feed intake and dressing percentages compared with those fed a control diet. The lowest values of those parameters resulted by the chicks fed the diets of boiling or autoclaving ABP. Digestibility coefficients of crude protein, nitrogen free extract, crude fiber and organic matter increased by increased by increasing dose level of gamma irradiation. It could be recommended to use ABP in raw state up to 10% replacement of yellow corn without any adverse effects on chick performance. The use of irradiation treatment of ABP at 100 kGy improved remarkable feed utilization and growth performance

  7. STRUCTURAL SOLUTIONS AND SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE THERMAL PROTECTION ANALYSIS OF EXTERIOR WALLS OF BUILDINGS MADE OF AUTOCLAVED GAS-CONCRETE BLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedov Anatolij Ivanovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Relevant structural solutions, physical and mechanical characteristics, coefficients of thermal conductivity for exterior masonry walls made of autoclaved gas-concrete blocks are provided in the article. If a single-layer wall is under consideration, an autoclaved gas-concrete block is capable of performing the two principal functions of a shell structure, including the function of thermal protection and the bearing function. The functions are performed simultaneously. Therefore, the application of the above masonry material means the design development and erection of exterior walls of residential buildings noteworthy for their thermal efficiency. In the event of frameless structures, the height of the residential building in question may be up to 5 stories, while the use of a monolithic or a ready-made frame makes it possible to build high-rise buildings, and the number of stories is not limited in this case. If the average block density is equal to 400…500 kilograms per cubic meter, the designed wall thickness is to be equal to 400 mm. Its thermal resistance may be lower than the one set in the event of the per-element design of the thermal protection (Rreq = 3.41 м2 C/Watt, in Ufa, although it will meet the requirements of the applicable regulations if per-unit power consumption rate is considered.

  8. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a

  9. Investigation of compaction and permeability during the out-of-autoclave and vacuum-bag-only manufacturing of a laminate composite with aligned carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Erin

    Both industry and commercial entities are in the process of using more lightweight composites. Fillers, such as fibers, nanofibers and other nanoconstituents in polymer matrix composites have been proven to enhance the properties of composites and are still being studied in order to optimize the benefits. Further optimization can be studied during the manufacturing process. The air permeability during the out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only (OOA-VBO) cure method is an important property to understand during the optimization of manufacturing processes. Changes in the manufacturing process can improve or decrease composite quality depending on the ability of the composite to evacuate gases such as air and moisture during curing. Therefore, in this study, the axial permeability of a prepreg stack was experimentally studied. Three types of samples were studied: control (no carbon nanofiber (CNF) modification), unaligned CNF modified and aligned CNF modified samples.

  10. Manufacturing and Shear Response Characterization of Carbon Nanofiber Modified CFRP Using the Out-of-Autoclave-Vacuum-Bag-Only Cure Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E. McDonald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interlaminar shear response is studied for carbon nanofiber (CNF modified out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only (OOA-VBO carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP. Commercial OOA-VBO prepregs were coated with a CNF modified epoxy solution and a control epoxy solution without CNF to make CNF modified samples and control samples, respectively. Tensile testingwas used to study the in-plane shear performance of [±45°]4s composite laminates. Significant difference in failure modes between the control and CNF modified CFRPs was identified. The control samples experienced half-plane interlaminar delamination, whereas the CNF modified samples experienced a localized failure in the intralaminar region. Digital image correlation (DIC surface strain results of the control sample showed no further surface strain increase along the delaminated section when the sample was further elongated prior to sample failure. On the other hand, the DIC results of the CNF modified sample showed that the surface strain increased relatively and uniformly across the CFRP as the sample was further elongated until sample failure. The failure mode evidence along with microscope pictures indicated that the CNF modification acted as a beneficial reinforcement inhibiting interlaminar delamination.

  11. Effective enzymatic in situ saccharification of bamboo shoot shell pretreated by dilute alkalic salts sodium hypochlorite/sodium sulfide pretreatment under the autoclave system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Gang-Gang; He, Yu-Cai; Liu, Qiu-Xiang; Kou, Xiao-Qin; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Di, Jun-Hua; Ma, Cui-Luan

    2017-10-01

    In this study, dilute alkali salts (0.6% NaClO, 0.067% Na 2 S) pretreatment at 10% sulfidity under the autoclave system at 120°C for 40min was used for pretreating bamboo shoot shell (BSS). Furthermore, FT-IR, XRD and SEM were employed to characterize the changes in the cellulose structural characteristics (porosity, morphology, and crystallinity) of the pretreated BSS solid residue. After 72h, the reducing sugars and glucose from the enzymatic in situ hydrolysis of 50g/L pretreated BSS in dilute NaClO/Na 2 S media could be obtained at 31.11 and 20.32g/L, respectively. Finally, the obtained BSS-hydrolysates containing alkalic salt NaClO/Na 2 S resulted in slightly negative effects on the ethanol production. Glucose in BSS-hydrolysates was fermented from 20.0 to 0.17g/L within 48h, and an ethanol yield of 0.41g/g glucose, which represents 80.1% of the theoretical yield, was obtained. This study provided an effective strategy for potential utilization of BSS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel. Part 3; 8-ply Out-of-Autoclave Facesheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Myers, David E.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2014-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panels, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10 m diameter barrel section of the heavy lift launch vehicle, were manufactured under the NASA Composites for Exploration program and the NASA Constellation Ares V program. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.000 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: inautoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800B/5320-1. Smaller 3- by 5-ft panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections. These panels were tested under compressive loading at the NASA Langley Research Center. Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses were performed to predict the compressive response of the 3- by 5-ft panels. This manuscript summarizes the experimental and analytical modeling efforts pertaining to the panel composed of 8-ply, T40-800B/5320-1 facesheets (referred to as Panel C). To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear, two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D), models yield good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was predicted correctly that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength.

  13. Manufacturing and Shear Response Characterization of Carbon Nanofiber Modified CFRP Using the Out-of-Autoclave-Vacuum-Bag-Only Cure Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Erin E.; Wallace, Landon F.; Hickman, Gregory J. S.; Hsiao, Kuang-Ting

    2014-01-01

    The interlaminar shear response is studied for carbon nanofiber (CNF) modified out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only (OOA-VBO) carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Commercial OOA-VBO prepregs were coated with a CNF modified epoxy solution and a control epoxy solution without CNF to make CNF modified samples and control samples, respectively. Tensile testingwas used to study the in-plane shear performance of [±45°]4s composite laminates. Significant difference in failure modes between the control and CNF modified CFRPs was identified. The control samples experienced half-plane interlaminar delamination, whereas the CNF modified samples experienced a localized failure in the intralaminar region. Digital image correlation (DIC) surface strain results of the control sample showed no further surface strain increase along the delaminated section when the sample was further elongated prior to sample failure. On the other hand, the DIC results of the CNF modified sample showed that the surface strain increased relatively and uniformly across the CFRP as the sample was further elongated until sample failure. The failure mode evidence along with microscope pictures indicated that the CNF modification acted as a beneficial reinforcement inhibiting interlaminar delamination. PMID:24688435

  14. Energy filtering transmission electron microscopy immunocytochemistry and antigen retrieval of surface layer proteins from Tannerella forsythensis using microwave or autoclave heating with citraconic anhydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Tannerella forsythensis (Bacteroides forsythus), an anaerobic Gram-negative species of bacteria that plays a role in the progression of periodontal disease, has a unique bacterial protein profile. It is characterized by two unique protein bands with molecular weights of more than 200 kDa. It also is known to have a typical surface layer (S-layer) consisting of regularly arrayed subunits outside the outer membrane. We examined the relationship between high molecular weight proteins and the S-layer using electron microscopic immunolabeling with chemical fixation and an antigen retrieval procedure consisting of heating in a microwave oven or autoclave with citraconic anhydride. Immunogold particles were localized clearly at the outermost cell surface. We also used energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) to visualize 3, 3′-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB) reaction products after microwave antigen retrieval with 1% citraconic anhydride. The three-window method for electron spectroscopic images (ESI) of nitrogen by the EFTEM reflected the presence of moieties demonstrated by the DAB reaction with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated secondary antibodies instead of immunogold particles. The mapping patterns of net nitrogen were restricted to the outermost cell surface. PMID:22984898

  15. Studies of Redox Equilibria at Elevated Temperatures 2. An Automatic Divided-Function Autoclave and Cell with Flowing Liquid Junction for Electrochemical Measurements on Aqueous Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsson, Kerstin; Lewis, Derek; Pourbaix, Marian de

    1970-10-15

    An apparatus is described that has been developed for electrochemical studies of aqueous systems at temperatures above 100 deg C. It consists essentially of an electrically heated experimental cell enclosed by a separate pressure-vessel the walls of which are kept cool. This construction eliminates or reduces the problems of sealing electrical connections and of the corrosion of the pressure vessel, that commonly arise with conventional, externally-heated autoclaves. Pressure is applied to the cell by means of compressed air, diaphragm valves at the electrolyte outlet automatically maintaining the pressure in the cell about 1 atm lower than that in the pressure vessel. Two independent streams of electrolyte can be pumped into the experimental cell a special form of which has been developed in which may be formed a galvanic cell with a continuously regenerated flowing-liquid junction. In this form the apparatus enables experiments with, for example, one molal chloride solutions with pH 1-10, at temperatures up to about 250 deg C and under pressures up to about 40 atm. The apparatus has been tested in experiments in which classical measurements of the conductance of some aqueous electrolytes have been repeated. Good agreement with the earlier results has been obtained

  16. Comparison of the effects of diet sterilization by irradiation and autoclaving on the equilibrium between eleven microbe strains seeded in the alimentary tracts of axenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducluzeau, R.; Clara, A.

    1978-01-01

    Eleven obligate or facultative anaerobe strains were seeded successively in the alimentary tracts of 'gnotoxenic' mice. The animals were divided into four groups which received a commercially available diet sterilized by autoclaving or by irradiation (4Mrad) or treated with the two methods in succession and supplemented or not supplemented in vitamins. A series of quantitative differential analyses carried out over a period of seven months on the faeces of the animals did not reveal any significant differences in the equilibrium that became established among the eleven strains in the faecal flora of the four groups of animals. At the end of the experiment quantitative differential analyses were performed of the stomachal and caecal flora of two animals from each group; again no differences were found in the equilibrium of the flora in the animals from the different groups. Any radiolytic products that may have been in the radiation-sterilized diet therefore had no detectable effect on the equilibrium of the microflora that the authors had chosen to establish in the alimentary tract of the 'gnotoxenic' animals. (author)

  17. Manufacturing and shear response characterization of carbon nanofiber modified CFRP using the out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only cure process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Erin E; Wallace, Landon F; Hickman, Gregory J S; Hsiao, Kuang-Ting

    2014-01-01

    The interlaminar shear response is studied for carbon nanofiber (CNF) modified out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only (OOA-VBO) carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Commercial OOA-VBO prepregs were coated with a CNF modified epoxy solution and a control epoxy solution without CNF to make CNF modified samples and control samples, respectively. Tensile testing was used to study the in-plane shear performance of [± 45°]4s composite laminates. Significant difference in failure modes between the control and CNF modified CFRPs was identified. The control samples experienced half-plane interlaminar delamination, whereas the CNF modified samples experienced a localized failure in the intralaminar region. Digital image correlation (DIC) surface strain results of the control sample showed no further surface strain increase along the delaminated section when the sample was further elongated prior to sample failure. On the other hand, the DIC results of the CNF modified sample showed that the surface strain increased relatively and uniformly across the CFRP as the sample was further elongated until sample failure. The failure mode evidence along with microscope pictures indicated that the CNF modification acted as a beneficial reinforcement inhibiting interlaminar delamination.

  18. KOMPOSISI KIMIA DAN KRISTALINITAS TEPUNG PISANG TERMODIFIKASI SECARA FERMENTASI SPONTAN DAN SIKLUS PEMANASAN BERTEKANAN-PENDINGINAN (Chemical Composition and Crystallinity of Modified Banana Flour by Spontaneous Fermentation and Autoclaving-Cooling Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2014-07-01

    (39,13 – 42,68% bk dibandingkan dengan yang satu siklus (29,34 – 35,93% bk. Proses pemanasan bertekananpendinginan menurunkan kristalinitas tepung pisang dari 18,74-20,08% menjadi 6,98-9,52%. Difraksi sinar X menunjukkan granula pati pisang adalah granula tipe C yang merupakan campuran dari granula tipe A dan tipe B. Kata kunci: Tepung pisang termodifikasi, fermentasi spontan, autoclaving-cooling cycles

  19. Follicular dynamics, circulating progesterone, and fertility in Holstein cows synchronized with reused intravaginal progesterone implants that were sanitized by autoclave or chemical disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, L F; Monteiro, P L J; Nascimento, A B; Drum, J N; Spies, C; Prata, A B; Wiltbank, M C; Sartori, R

    2018-04-01

    This experiment aimed to compare circulating progesterone (P4), follicular dynamics, and fertility during reuse of intravaginal P4 implants that were sanitized by autoclave or chemical disinfection in lactating Holstein cows submitted to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). For this, 123 primiparous and 226 multiparous cows from 2 farms, averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 163.9 ± 141.9 d in milk, 35.7 ± 11.3 kg of milk/d, and a body condition score of 2.9 ± 0.5, were enrolled in the study. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments using a completely randomized design and each cow received a reused implant (1.9 g of P4; previously used for 8 d) that was either autoclaved (AUT; n = 177) or chemically disinfected (CHEM; n = 172) on d -10. Also on d -10, cows received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate and 100 μg of GnRH. On d -3, cows received 25 mg of dinoprost (PGF 2α ). A second PGF 2α was given on d -2, along with 1 mg of estradiol cypionate and P4 implant removal. Cows received FTAI on d 0. A subset of cows (n = 143) was evaluated by ultrasound on d -10, -8, -6, -3, -2, 0, and 5 to identify ovarian structures, and blood was sampled on d -10, -3, and -2 for P4 concentrations by RIA. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed at d 32 and 60. Statistical analyses was performed using PROC-MIXED for continuous variables and PROC-GLIMMIX of SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) for binomial variables. The treatments did not differ in circulating P4 on d -10 or -3, but P4 was greater on d -2 in CHEM cows. Ovulation to the treatments on d -10 was associated with lower circulating P4 on d -10 (2.0 vs. 3.1 ng/mL) and resulted in greater P4 on d -3 (4.0 vs. 2.4 ng/mL) and more cows with a corpus luteum on d -3 (100 vs. 40%) than nonovulating cows. Cows that ovulated to d -10 treatments were more likely to have a synchronized new follicular wave (97.9 vs. 63.2%) and had an earlier wave emergence (1.9 vs. 2.6 d), resulting in less cows ovulating a persistent follicle

  20. Autoclave treatment of pig manure does not reduce the risk of transmission and transfer of tetracycline resistance genes in soil: successive determinations with soil column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Gu, Xian; Hao, Yangyang; Hu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of antibiotics, especially tetracycline, in livestock feed adversely affects animal health and ecological integrity. Therefore, approaches to decrease this risk are urgently needed. High temperatures facilitate antibiotic degradation; whether this reduces transmission risk and transfer of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRBs) and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in soil remains unknown. Successive experiments with soil columns evaluated the effects of autoclaving pig manure (APM) on soil TRB populations and TRGs over time at different soil depths. The data showed sharp increases in TRB populations and TRGs in each subsoil layer of PM (non-APM) and APM treatments within 30 days, indicating that TRBs and TRGs transferred rapidly. The level of TRBs in the upper soil layers was approximately 15-fold higher than in subsoils. TRBs were not dependent on PM and APM levels, especially in the late phase. Nevertheless, higher levels of APM led to rapid expansion of TRBs as compared to PM. Moreover, temporal changes in TRB frequencies in total culturable bacteria (TCBs) were similar to TRBs, indicating that the impact of PM or APM on TRBs was more obvious than for TCBs. TRBs were hypothesized to depend on the numbers of TRGs and indigenous recipient bacteria. In the plough layer, five TRGs (tetB, tetG, tetM, tetW, and tetB/P) existed in each treatment within 150 days. Selective pressure of TC may not be a necessary condition for the transfer and persistence of TRGs in soil. High temperatures might reduce TRBs in PM, which had minimal impact on the transmission and transfer of TRGs in soil. Identifying alternatives to decrease TRG transmission remains a major challenge.

  1. Autoclave mediated one-pot-one-minute synthesis of AgNPs and Au-Ag nanocomposite from Melia azedarach bark extract with antimicrobial activity against food pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Alok; Lee, Joong Hee; Yun, Soon-Ii

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of nanoparticles and nanocomposite in pharmaceutical and processed food industry have increased the demand for nontoxic and inert metallic nanostructures. Chemical and physical method of synthesis of nanostructures is most popular in industrial production, despite the fact that these methods are labor intensive and/or generate toxic effluents. There has been an increasing demand for rapid, ecofriendly and relatively cheaper synthesis of nanostructures. Here, we propose a strategy, for one-minute green synthesis of AgNPs and a one-pot one-minute green synthesis of Au-Ag nanocomposite, using Melia azedarach bark aqueous extract as reducing agent. The hydrothermal mechanism of the autoclave technology has been successfully used in this study to accelerate the nucleation and growth of nano-crystals. The study also presents high antimicrobial potential of the synthesized nano solutions against common food and water born pathogens. The multistep characterization and analysis of the synthesized nanomaterial samples, using UV-visible spectroscopy, ICP-MS, FT-IR, EDX, XRD, HR-TEM and FE-SEM, also reveal the reaction dynamics of AgNO3, AuCl3 and plant extract in synthesis of the nanoparticles and nanocomposite. The antimicrobial effectiveness of the synthesized Au-Ag nanocomposite, with high gold to silver ratio, reduces the dependency on the AgNPs, which is considered to be environmentally more toxic than the gold counterpart. We hope that this new strategy will change the present course of green synthesis. The rapidity of synthesis will also help in industrial scale green production of nanostructures using Melia azedarach.

  2. Optimization of thermal conductivity lightweight brick type AAC (Autoclaved Aerated Concrete) effect of Si & Ca composition by using Artificial Neural Network (ANN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli; Wiryawan, G. P.

    2018-03-01

    Lightweight brick is the most important component of building construction, therefore it is necessary to have lightweight thermal, mechanical and aqustic thermal properties that meet the standard, in this paper which is discussed is the domain of light brick thermal conductivity properties. The advantage of lightweight brick has a low density (500-650 kg/m3), more economical, can reduce the load 30-40% compared to conventional brick (clay brick). In this research, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used to predict the thermal conductivity of lightweight brick type Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC). Based on the training and evaluation that have been done on 10 model of ANN with number of hidden node 1 to 10, obtained that ANN with 3 hidden node have the best performance. It is known from the mean value of MSE (Mean Square Error) validation for three training times of 0.003269. This ANN was further used to predict the thermal conductivity of four light brick samples. The predicted results for each of the AAC1, AAC2, AAC3 and AAC4 light brick samples were 0.243 W/m.K, respectively; 0.29 W/m.K; 0.32 W/m.K; and 0.32 W/m.K. Furthermore, ANN is used to determine the effect of silicon composition (Si), Calcium (Ca), to light brick thermal conductivity. ANN simulation results show that the thermal conductivity increases with increasing Si composition. Si content is allowed maximum of 26.57%, while the Ca content in the range 20.32% - 30.35%.

  3. INFLUENCE OF WATER-TO-CEMENT RATIO ON AIR ENTRAILMENT IN PRODUCTION OF NON-AUTOCLAVED FOAM CONCRETE USING TURBULENCE CAVITATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorshkov Pavel Vladimirovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-autoclaved foam concrete is an advanced thermal insulation material. Until recently, foam concrete production has been based on separate preparation of foam and solution, followed by their blending in a mixer. The situation changed when high-quality synthetic foaming agents and turbulence cavitation technology appeared on the market. Every model provides a dependence between the foam concrete strength and the water-to-cement ratio. According to the water-cement ratio we can distinguish strong concrete mixtures (with the water-to-cement ratio equal to 0.3…0.4 and ductile ones (with the water-to-cement ratio equal to 0.5…0.7. Strong concrete mixtures are more durable. The lower the water-to-cement ratio, the higher the foam concrete strength. However super-plastic substances cannot be mixed by ordinary turbulent mixers. Foam concrete produced using the turbulence cavitation technology needs air-entraining, its intensity being dependent on several factors. One of the main factors is the amount of free water, if it is insufficient, the mixture will not be porous enough. A researcher needs to identify the optimal water-to-cement ratio based on the water consumption rate. Practical production of prefabricated concrete products and structures has proven that the reduction of the water-to-cement ratio improves the strength of the product. The task is to find the water-to-cement ratio for the foam concrete mixture to be plastic enough for air entraining. An increase in the ratio causes loss in the strength. The ratio shall vary within one hundredth points. Super-plasticizers are an alternative solution.

  4. Avaliação dos comportamentos mecânico e térmico de laminados de PPS/fibra de carbono processados em autoclave sob diferentes ciclos de consolidação Evaluation of thermal and mechanical behaviors of PPS/carbon fiber laminates processed in autoclave under different consolidation cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana S Marques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Usualmente, um dos processos mais utilizados para fabricação de componentes em termoplásticos estruturais é a moldagem por compressão a quente, porém restringindo-se na obtenção de peças de pequeno e médio porte. Tal restrição deve-se à limitação do tamanho das prensas utilizadas, principalmente pelo custo envolvido. Procurando ampliar a aplicação de compósitos termoplásticos, possibilitando a fabricação de peças maiores e com maior potencial de integração, pelo uso de infra-estrutura já disponível em processadores de compósitos, este trabalho aborda o processamento de laminados de poli(sulfeto de fenileno (PPS reforçado com fibra de carbono em autoclave, pelo uso de quatro diferentes ciclos de consolidação. Os laminados obtidos foram caracterizados por inspeção por ultrassom, análises de DSC para a determinação da cristalinidade e avaliação das propriedades mecânicas em flexão, compressão e cisalhamento interlaminar. Os resultados mostram que laminados obtidos com taxas de resfriamento mais lentas apresentam menor resistência e módulo em compressão, uma vez que o maior grau de cristalinidade (~30% promove maior fragilização da matriz polimérica.One of the most used processes to obtain structural thermoplastic parts is the hot compression molding, which is limited to small and medium size parts because of the size of the press used, mainly related to its cost. This has hampered a wide use of thermoplastic composites in structural applications. In order to extend the application of thermoplastic composites, but still using available infrastructure in composite manufacturers, in this work we investigate the processing of carbon fiber reinforced polyphenylene sulfide (PPS in an autoclave, using four consolidation cycles. The processed laminates were characterized by ultrasound inspection, DSC analyses for the crystallinity determination and mechanical tests to evaluate the compression, flexure and

  5. A novel bioassay to evaluate the potential of Beauveria bassiana strain NI8 and the insect growth regulator novaluron against Lygus lineolaris on a non-autoclaved solid artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla, Maribel; Snodgrass, Gordon; Luttrell, Randall; Jaronski, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A non-autoclaved solid diet was used to evaluate the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) strain NI8 and the insect growth regulator novaluron (Diamond® 0.83EC insecticide) for control of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Hemiptera: Miridae). The diet was composed of toasted wheat germ, ground lima bean meal, soy flour, yolk of chicken eggs, inhibitor, and agar. It was prepared in one step by blending the ingredients in boiling water. The diet was used to bioassay L. lineolaris from the second instar to the adult stage. Fourth and fifth instars and adults of L. lineolaris were more susceptible than second and third instars to infection by B. bassiana , whereas second, third, and fourth instars had higher mortality than fifth instars 10 days after exposure to novaluron. No effects on longevity were observed in adults treated with novaluron when compared with the control, but longevity was significantly different from that of adults exposed to B. bassiana . Adults of L. lineolaris were maintained for over a month without changing the diet. The non-autoclaved diet is semi-liquid before it cools, which facilitates the mechanics of diet packaging similar to food packaging or lepidopteran diet preparation. This solid artificial diet for Lygus bugs provides improved research capacity for studying the ecology and susceptibility of Lygus spp. to a number of different control agents, including beneficial organisms, insect pathogens, and insecticidal toxins being developed for transgenic technologies. PMID:25368059

  6. Hydrothermal interaction of solid wafers of Topopah Spring Tuff with J-13 water and distilled water at 90, 150, and 250{sup 0}C, using Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauss, K.G.; Beiriger, W.J.; Peifer, D.W.; Piwinskii, A.J.

    1985-09-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project has conducted experiments to study the hydrothermal interaction of rock and water representative of a potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results of these experiments help define the near-field repository environment during and shortly after the thermal period that results from the emplacement of nuclear waste. When considered in conjunction with results contained in companion reports, these results can be used to assess our ability to accelerate tests using the surface area/volume parameter and/or temperature. These rock-water interaction experiments were conducted with solid polished wafers cut from both drillcore and outcrop samples of Topopah tuff, using both a natural ground water and distilled water as the reacting fluid. Pre- and post-test characterization of the reacting materials was extensive. Post-test identification and chemical analysis of secondary phases resulting from the hydrothermal interactions were aided by using monoliths of tuff rather than crushed material. All experiments were run in Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves that were periodically sampled at in situ conditions. A total of nine short-term (up to 66-day) experiments were run in this series; these experiments covered the range from 90 to 250{sup 0}C and from 50 to 100 bar. The results obtained from the experiments have been used to evaluate the modeled results produced by calculations using the geochemical reaction process code EQ3/6. 31 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Hydrothermal interaction of solid wafers of Topopah Spring Tuff with J-13 water and distilled water at 90, 150, and 2500C, using Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauss, K.G.; Beiriger, W.J.; Peifer, D.W.; Piwinskii, A.J.

    1985-09-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project has conducted experiments to study the hydrothermal interaction of rock and water representative of a potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results of these experiments help define the near-field repository environment during and shortly after the thermal period that results from the emplacement of nuclear waste. When considered in conjunction with results contained in companion reports, these results can be used to assess our ability to accelerate tests using the surface area/volume parameter and/or temperature. These rock-water interaction experiments were conducted with solid polished wafers cut from both drillcore and outcrop samples of Topopah tuff, using both a natural ground water and distilled water as the reacting fluid. Pre- and post-test characterization of the reacting materials was extensive. Post-test identification and chemical analysis of secondary phases resulting from the hydrothermal interactions were aided by using monoliths of tuff rather than crushed material. All experiments were run in Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves that were periodically sampled at in situ conditions. A total of nine short-term (up to 66-day) experiments were run in this series; these experiments covered the range from 90 to 250 0 C and from 50 to 100 bar. The results obtained from the experiments have been used to evaluate the modeled results produced by calculations using the geochemical reaction process code EQ3/6. 31 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Autoclaved Sand-Lime Products with a Polypropylene Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewa, Paulina; Stępień, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of the research on modifications of silicate bricks with a polypropylene mesh and their influence on physical, mechanical and microstructural properties of such bricks. The main goal of the paper was to determine effects of the polypropylene mesh on sand-lime product parameters. The analysis has focused on compressive strength, water absorption, bulk density and structural features of the material. The obtained product is characterized by improved basic performance characteristics compared to traditional silicate products. Using the polypropylene mesh increased compressive strength by 25% while decreasing the product density. The modified products retain their form and do not disintegrate after losing their bearing capacity.

  9. Radiosterilization and steam autoclaving sterilization effects on phosphite antioxidant stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagoubi, N.; Boucherie, P.; Ferrier, D.

    1997-01-01

    While the radiosterilization by γ rays, is mainly employed for medical devices, this procedure is not commonly used to sterilize and decontaminate raw material and finished product used in the pharmaceutical industry. Depending on the countries, the requirements for obtaining approval to treat this class of product with γ rays may be different. Usually it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to demonstrate not only the integrity of the irradiated product, but olso its efficiency, safety and quality. Our work consists of a comparative study of the effects of γ radiotreatment at 25 kGy and steam sterilisation on phosphite antioxidant incorporated in polypropylene. The γ radiosensitivity compared with thermolability of this antioxidant was studied by reversed phase HPLC, Fourier transform infrared (IRFT) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results obtained proved that the phosphite incorporated into the polymer and treated with the two types of sterilisation is rapidly oxidized in phosphate. Nevertheless, this oxidation is more important when using radiotreatment at 25 kGy. (orig.)

  10. Generating Autoclave-Level Mechanical Properties with Out-of-Autoclave Thermoplastic Placement of Large Composite Aerospace Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While in the 1970's and 1980's, composites were adopted for aerospace structure for increased performance and weight savings, the 1990's and 2000's witnessed the...

  11. Sorption and precipitation of Mn2+ by viable and autoclaved Shewanella putrefaciens: Effect of contact time

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia; Visser, Tom; Avramut, Cristina; de Waard, Helen

    2013-01-01

    of pH, bacterial density and metal loading. During a short contact time (3-24h), the adsorptive behaviour of live and dead bacteria toward Mn(II) was sufficiently similar, an observation that was reflected in the studies on adsorption kinetics

  12. Gamma-ray irradiation, autoclave and ethylene oxide sterilization to thermosetting polyurethane: sterilization to polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Noriko; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichi; Inishita, Takashi; Takenaka, Yoshinori; Suma, Yasunori; Shintani, Hideharu; National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo

    1995-01-01

    Thermosetting polyurethane (PU) is widely used in a large variety of medical devices. 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) was produced from PU by sterilization and it was studied for the relationship between urethane components or polymer characteristics and formation of MDA upon sterilization, using the commercially available dialyzers fabricated with different combination of isocyanate and polyol. We confirmed that the molecular-weight of polyol influenced the production of MDA upon sterilization. (author)

  13. Influence of autoclaved saprotrophic fungal mycelia on proteolytic activity in ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Joanna; Dahm, Hanna; Werner, Antoni

    2007-07-01

    The production of proteolytic enzymes by several strains of ectomycorrhizal fungi i.e., Amanita muscaria (16-3), Laccaria laccata (9-12), L. laccata (9-1), Suillus bovinus (15-4), Suillus bovinus (15-3), Suillus luteus (14-7) on mycelia of Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma virens and Mucor hiemalis and sodium caseinate, yeast extract was evaluated. The strains of A. muscaria (16-3) and L. laccata (9-12) were characterized by the highest activity of the acidic and neutral proteases. Taking the mycelia of saprotrophic fungi into consideration, the mycelium of M. hiemalis was the best inductor for proteolytic activity. The examined ectomycorrhizal fungi exhibited higher activity of acidic proteases than neutral ones on the mycelia of saprotrophic fungi, which may imply the participation of acidic proteases in nutrition.

  14. Effect of autoclaving of sprouted Kidney beans and finger millet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Food Science and Technology, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. .... ingredients promoted in preparation of complementary foods in Tanzania, .... Cooking does little to reduce this toxicity since most of the toxin occurs as ...

  15. Measurement of thermal conductivity of the oxide coating on autoclaved monel-400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dua, A.K.; George, V.C.; Agarwala, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal conductivity of the oxide coating on monel-400 has been measured by a direct method. The oxide coating is applied on an electrically conducting wire having stable characteristics. The wire is placed in a constant temperature bath and a constant direct current is passed through it. The wire gets heated and loses heat to the surrounding. Temperature is measured by considering it as a resistance thermometer. A convection heat transfer coefficient, which is difficult to measure experimentally but is involved in the analytical expression for thermal conductivity, is eliminated by connecting a second uncoated wire of a noble metal having similar surface finish as that of the coated wire in series with it. The accuracy of the method is nearly six percent. However, the method is not easily applicable for very thin (thickness <= 1μ), highly porous coatings and materials having relatively large thermal conductivity. (M.G.B.)

  16. Control over particle size distribution by autoclaving poloxamer-stabilized trimyristin nanodispersions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göke, Katrin; Roese, Elin; Arnold, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are under investigation as delivery systems for poorly water-soluble drugs. The particle size in these dispersions strongly influences important pharmaceutical properties like biodistribution and drug loading capacity; it should be below 500 nm for direct injection into the bl......Lipid nanoparticles are under investigation as delivery systems for poorly water-soluble drugs. The particle size in these dispersions strongly influences important pharmaceutical properties like biodistribution and drug loading capacity; it should be below 500 nm for direct injection...... treatment thus seems to be a promising approach to achieve the desired narrow particle size distribution of such dispersions. Related to the lipid content, suspension particles needed more emulsifier for stabilization than emulsion droplets, and smaller particles more than larger ones....

  17. Autoclave-hardening slag-alkali binder with high water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenevskij, V.V.; Kozyrin, N.A.; Melikhova, N.I.; Narkevich, N.K.; Ryabov, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    The results of investigations into properties of slag-alkali binder, that may be used for concretes of reactor radiation and thermal shieldings, are presented. These concretes have increased chemical stability and mechanical strength, high content of chemically bound water (approximately 14%), that is not lost under heating up to 550 deg C. Dumping and granulated slags of blast-furnace process, sodium-bicarbonate-alkali fusion cake formed at burning of adipic acid residues, technical sodium hydroxide and sodium liquid glass are used as raw material for slag-alkali binder

  18. Autoclaving and clinical recycling: Effects on mechanical properties of orthodontic wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Oshagh

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Although recycle wires were softer than those of control group, relatively small differences and also various properties of available wires have obscured the clinical predictability of their application. There is seemingly no problem in terms of mechanical properties to recycle orthodontic wires.

  19. Pressure-accelerated azide-alkyne cycloaddition : micro capillary versus autoclave reactor performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borukhova, S.; Seeger, A.D.; Noël, T.; Wang, Q.; Busch, M.; Hessel, V.

    2015-01-01

    Pressure effects on regioselectivity and yield of cycloaddition reactions have been shown to exist. Nevertheless, high pressure synthetic applications with subsequent benefits in the production of natural products are limited by the general availability of the equipment. In addition, the virtues and

  20. Settlement determination of operating moisture of autoclaved aerated concrete in different climatic zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastushkov Pavel Pavlovich

    Full Text Available In the process of operation of buildings the moisture state of enveloping structures materials is changing depending on their construction features, properties of the material, temperature and moisture conditions in the premises, climatic conditions of the construction area. Moisture mode determines the operational properties of the enveloping structures of a building. It directly influences the thermal characteristics of enveloping structure and energy efficiency of the applied materials. The analysis of the methods for calculation of moisture behavior of enclosing structures is carried out. The research relevance of operational moisture of AAC is substantiated. Experimental studies and results of the sorption moisturizing and water vapor permeability of leading marks of aerated concrete are carried out. The authors offer the results of numerical calculations of the moisture behavior of aerated concrete in the walls with mark D400 with facade thermal insulation composite systems - with external plaster layers for different climatic zones of construction.

  1. Preparation of Autoclaved Foamed Concrete Block from Fly Ash and Carbide Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Xing

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the comprehensive utilization of solid waste and reduce costs, fly ash, carbide slag, and low-clinker cement were used to produce lightweight foamed concrete block. Granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS was used as composition correction material in the block. The effects of curing temperature and dosage of low-clinker cement on the performance of foamed concrete block were investigated. The optimal material proportioning is obtained: fly ash 58.5%, carbide slag 20%, GBFS 10%, gypsum 1.5% and low-clinker cement 10%. The proper curing regime is “temperature rising 4h-180°C constant temperature 4h-natural cooling”. The results indicate that the compressive strength of the block reaches 3.55 MPa while the density is 616.9 kg/m3. The performance of the product meets JC/T 1062-2007 (China professional standard of foamed concrete block.

  2. Oxide properties of autoclaved zircaloy cladding tubes investigated by the photoelectric polarization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystrand, A.C.

    2000-06-01

    Corrosion of zirconium alloys is an important lifetime limiting factor for the nuclear reactor fuel. The corrosion resistance of a metal is highly dependent on the ability of the surface metal oxide to transport electrons and ions, which is related to the stoichiometry of the oxide and the oxide defect concentration. The Photoelectric Polarization Method (PEP) is a structure sensitive method which earlier has been investigated as a possible method to study the defect structure in zirconium oxides. The purpose of the following work is, by using more optimized experimental equipment, to verify if the PEP method is a suitable method to study the defect structure in zirconium oxides and to predict the corrosion resistance for different zirconium alloys. The conclusions from the experiments are as follows: - The modifications of the experimental setup by means of a new source of light (deuterium lamp) and a new oscilloscope with an amplifier gave distinct Vpep signals. - The photoresponse is negative for all types of cladding and under all kind of oxidation regimes and hence the oxide is a n-type semiconductor with deficiency of oxygen. - The method needs to be verified by testing semiconductors with a known defect concentration

  3. Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites and Methods of Making Same Without the Use of Oven or Autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnell, Thomas J. (Inventor); Rauscher, Michael D. (Inventor); Stienecker, Rick D. (Inventor); Nickerson, David M. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Method embodiments for producing a fiber-reinforced epoxy composite comprise providing a mold defining a shape for a composite, applying a fiber reinforcement over the mold, covering the mold and fiber reinforcement thereon in a vacuum enclosure, performing a vacuum on the vacuum enclosure to produce a pressure gradient, insulating at least a portion of the vacuum enclosure with thermal insulation, infusing the fiber reinforcement with a reactive mixture of uncured epoxy resin and curing agent under vacuum conditions, wherein the reactive mixture of uncured epoxy resin and curing agent generates exothermic heat, and producing the fiber-reinforced epoxy composite having a glass transition temperature of at least about 100.degree. C. by curing the fiber reinforcement infused with the reactive mixture of uncured epoxy resin and curing agent by utilizing the exothermically generated heat, wherein the curing is conducted inside the thermally insulated vacuum enclosure without utilization of an external heat source or an external radiation source.

  4. Autoclave Operator (chem.) 4-52.711--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  5. L-Threonine and its analogue added to autoclaved solid medium suppress trichothecene production by Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kazuyuki; Nakajima, Yuichi; Tanahashi, Yoshikazu; Kitou, Yoshiyuki; Miwa, Akihiro; Kanamaru, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Nishiuchi, Takumi; Kimura, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    Fusarium graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins under certain nutritional conditions. When L-Thr and its analogue L-allo-threonine were added to brown rice flour solid medium before inoculation, trichothecene production after 4 days of incubation was suppressed. A time-course analysis of gene expression demonstrated that L-Thr suppressed transcription of Tri6, a trichothecene master regulator gene, and a terpene cyclase Tri5 gene. Regulation of trichothecene biosynthesis by altering major primary metabolic processes may open up the possibility to develop safe chemicals for the reduction of mycotoxin contamination might be developed.

  6. Spring-back simulation of unidirectional carbon/epoxy L- shaped laminate composites manufactured through autoclave processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, M N M; Mezeix, L; Aminanda, Y; Seman, M A; Rivai, A; Ali, K M

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an original method in predicting the spring-back for composite aircraft structures using non-linear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and is an extension of the previous accompanying study on flat geometry samples. Firstly, unidirectional prepreg lay-up samples are fabricated on moulds with different corner angles (30°, 45° and 90°) and the effect on spring-back deformation are observed. Then, the FEA model that was developed in the previous study on flat samples is utilized. The model maintains the physical mechanisms of spring-back such as ply stretching and tool-part interface properties with the additional mechanism in the corner effect and geometrical changes in the tool, part and the tool-part interface components. The comparative study between the experimental data and FEA results show that the FEA model predicts adequately the spring-back deformation within the range of corner angle tested. (paper)

  7. Spring-back simulation of unidirectional carbon/epoxy L- shaped laminate composites manufactured through autoclave processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Mezeix, L.; Aminanda, Y.; Seman, M. A.; Rivai, A.; Ali, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an original method in predicting the spring-back for composite aircraft structures using non-linear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and is an extension of the previous accompanying study on flat geometry samples. Firstly, unidirectional prepreg lay-up samples are fabricated on moulds with different corner angles (30°, 45° and 90°) and the effect on spring-back deformation are observed. Then, the FEA model that was developed in the previous study on flat samples is utilized. The model maintains the physical mechanisms of spring-back such as ply stretching and tool-part interface properties with the additional mechanism in the corner effect and geometrical changes in the tool, part and the tool-part interface components. The comparative study between the experimental data and FEA results show that the FEA model predicts adequately the spring-back deformation within the range of corner angle tested.

  8. Shear Bond Strengths between Three Different Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Dental Materials and Veneering Ceramic and Their Susceptibility to Autoclave Induced Low-Temperature Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoti Sehgal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment as influencing the shear bond strength between three different commercially available zirconia core materials, namely, Upcera, Ziecon, and Cercon, layered with VITA VM9 veneering ceramic using Universal Testing Machine. The mode of failure between zirconia and ceramic was further analyzed as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed using stereomicroscope. X-ray diffraction and SEM (scanning electron microscope analysis were done to estimate the phase transformation (m-phase fraction and surface grain size of zirconia particles, respectively. The purpose of this study was to simulate the clinical environment by artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment so as the clinical function and nature of the bond between zirconia and veneering material as in a clinical trial of 15 years could be evaluated.

  9. A novel bioassay to evaluate Beauveria bassiana strain NI8 and the insect growth regulator, novaluron, against Lygus lineolaris on a non-autoclaved solid artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detailed life-tables studies or more quantitative estimates of the impact of control agents on TPB life history require a bioassay option to study the impact of prolonged exposure for weeks following contact with the control agent. This is difficult with plant tissue that must be routinely replaced ...

  10. Comparison of response surface methodology and artificial neural network to enhance the release of reducing sugars from non-edible seed cake by autoclave assisted HCl hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shet, Vinayaka B; Palan, Anusha M; Rao, Shama U; Varun, C; Aishwarya, Uday; Raja, Selvaraj; Goveas, Louella Concepta; Vaman Rao, C; Ujwal, P

    2018-02-01

    In the current investigation, statistical approaches were adopted to hydrolyse non-edible seed cake (NESC) of Pongamia and optimize the hydrolysis process by response surface methodology (RSM). Through the RSM approach, the optimized conditions were found to be 1.17%v/v of HCl concentration at 54.12 min for hydrolysis. Under optimized conditions, the release of reducing sugars was found to be 53.03 g/L. The RSM data were used to train the artificial neural network (ANN) and the predictive ability of both models was compared by calculating various statistical parameters. A three-layered ANN model consisting of 2:12:1 topology was developed; the response of the ANN model indicates that it is precise when compared with the RSM model. The fit of the models was expressed with the regression coefficient R 2 , which was found to be 0.975 and 0.888, respectively, for the ANN and RSM models. This further demonstrated that the performance of ANN was better than that of RSM.

  11. Flow behaviour of autoclaved, 20% cold worked, Zr-2.5Nb alloy pressure tube material in the temperature range of room temperature to 800 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dureja, A.K.; Sinha, S.K.; Srivastava, Ankit; Sinha, R.K.; Chakravartty, J.K.; Seshu, P.; Pawaskar, D.N.

    2011-01-01

    Pressure tube material of Indian Heavy Water Reactors is 20% cold-worked and stress relieved Zr-2.5Nb alloy. Inherent variability in the process parameters during the fabrication stages of pressure tube and also along the length of component have their effect on micro-structural and texture properties of the material, which in turn affect its strength parameters (yield strength and ultimate tensile strength) and flow characteristics. Data of tensile tests carried out in the temperature range from room temperature to 800 deg. C using the samples taken out from a single pressure tube have been used to develop correlations for characterizing the strength parameters' variation as a function of axial location along length of the tube and the test temperature. Applicability of Ramberg-Osgood, Holloman and Voce's correlations for defining the post yield behaviour of the material has been investigated. Effect of strain rate change on the deformation behaviour has also been studied.

  12. An X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) study of the Sn L_3 edge in zirconium alloy oxide films formed during autoclave corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulme, Helen; Baxter, Felicity; Babu, R. Prasath; Denecke, Melissa A.; Gass, Mhairi; Steuwer, Axel; Norén, Katarina; Carlson, Stefan; Preuss, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterisation of tin speciation in zirconium alloy metal and oxide films using Sn L_3-XANES. • Chemical environment of tin in Zircaloy-4 and ZIRLO™ oxide films shown to be similar. • Tin in the oxide films is present in both the di- and tetravalent states and oxidises progressively with oxide-layer growth. - Abstract: Application of Sn L_3-XANES to study the oxidation state of alloying additions of tin (1–1.2 wt%) in <2 μm oxide layers formed on nuclear grade zirconium alloy has been demonstrated. Data obtained for metallic and corroded ZIRLO™ (1 wt% Sn) and Zircaloy-4 (1.2 wt% Sn) indicate tin has a similar chemical speciation in both metal alloys but this differs in the oxidised surface layers. By recording XANES at various incident angles to vary the photon penetration depth and amount of the oxide layer probed in the measurement, the authors found evidence that the oxidation of tin progresses with increasing oxide thickness.

  13. Alteration of alkali reactive aggregates autoclaved in different alkali solutions and application to alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete (II) expansion and microstructure of concrete microbar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Duyou; Mei Laibao; Xu Zhongzi; Tang Mingshu; Mo Xiangyin; Fournier, Benoit

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the type of alkalis on the expansion behavior of concrete microbars containing typical aggregate with alkali-silica reactivity and alkali-carbonate reactivity was studied. The results verified that: (1) at the same molar concentration, sodium has the strongest contribution to expansion due to both ASR and ACR, followed by potassium and lithium; (2) sufficient LiOH can completely suppress expansion due to ASR whereas it can induce expansion due to ACR. It is possible to use the duplex effect of LiOH on ASR and ACR to clarify the ACR contribution when ASR and ACR may coexist. It has been shown that a small amount of dolomite in the fine-grained siliceous Spratt limestone, which has always been used as a reference aggregate for high alkali-silica reactivity, might dedolomitize in alkaline environment and contribute to the expansion. That is to say, Spratt limestone may exhibit both alkali-silica and alkali-carbonate reactivity, although alkali-silica reactivity is predominant. Microstructural study suggested that the mechanism in which lithium controls ASR expansion is mainly due to the favorable formation of lithium-containing less-expansive product around aggregate particles and the protection of the reactive aggregate from further attack by alkalis by the lithium-containing product layer

  14. Design and deployment of autoclave pressure vessels for the portable deep-sea drill rig MeBo (Meeresboden-Bohrgerät)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Thomas; Hohnberg, Hans-Jürgen; Wunsch, David; Anders, Erik; Freudenthal, Tim; Huhn, Katrin; Bohrmann, Gerhard

    2017-11-01

    Pressure barrels for sampling and preservation of submarine sediments under in situ pressure with the robotic sea-floor drill rig MeBo (Meeresboden-Bohrgerät) housed at the MARUM (Bremen, Germany) were developed. Deployments of the so-called MDP (MeBo pressure vessel) during two offshore expeditions off New Zealand and off Spitsbergen, Norway, resulted in the recovery of sediment cores with pressure stages equaling in situ hydrostatic pressure. While initially designed for the quantification of gas and gas-hydrate contents in submarine sediments, the MDP also allows for analysis of the sediments under in situ pressure with methods typically applied by researchers from other scientific fields (geotechnics, sedimentology, microbiology, etc.). Here we report on the design and operational procedure of the MDP and demonstrate full functionality by presenting the first results from pressure-core degassing and molecular gas analysis.

  15. PERUBAHAN STRUKTUR PATI GARUT (Maranta arundinaceae SEBAGAI AKIBAT MODIFIKASI HIDROLISIS ASAM, PEMOTONGAN TITIK PERCABANGAN DAN SIKLUS PEMANASAN-PENDINGINAN [Structure Changes of Arrowroot (Maranta arundinaceae Starch as Influenced by Acid Hydrolysis, Debranching and Autoclaving-Cooling Cycle Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didah Nur Faridah1*

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of lintnerization (2.2 N HCl, 2 hours, debranching with pullulanase (1.3 U/g and 10.4 U/g starch and/or three-auctoclaving-cooling cycles at 121oC for 15 minutes on the changes of arrowroot starch structures were studied. The structural modifications of amylose and amylopectin were measured by Gel Permiation Chromatography (GPC, and the distribution of degree of polimerization (DP was analyzed by Fluorophore-Assisted Capillary Electrophoresis (FACE. The GPC profile of native starch using Toyopearl HW-65S gel gave mainly two fractions. Fraction I (Fr. I was a high molecular weight component and Fraction II (Fr. II was a low molecular weight component. After acid modification, the carbohydrate content of Fr. II increased while that of Fr. I decreased. The amount of DP of 6 to 8 increased in all modified arrowroot starches. The GPC and FACE analyses showed that all starch modification techniques caused the structural changes of amylopectin molecules to form short chain amyloses.

  16. A novel bioassay to evaluate the potential of Beauveria bassiana strain NI8 and the Insect growth regulator novaluron against Lygus lineolaris on a non-autoclaved solid artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana and the insect growth regulator novaluron are potential candidates for the control of Lygus lineolaris. Efforts are being made for their use in the Mississippi Delta. B. bassiana and novaluron highly affected TPB survival when they were applied directly...

  17. NONA Cure of Prepreg Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CRG's no-oven, no-autoclave (NONA) cure of OoA or autoclave prepreg materials allows the manufacture of large composite structures without the expensive and...

  18. Infusion Resins for Automated Dry Fiber Placement Products, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the size of composite parts exceed that of even the largest autoclaves, new out-of-autoclave processes and materials are necessary to achieve the same level of...

  19. Infusion Resins for Automated Dry Fiber Placement Products, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the size of composite parts exceed that of even the largest autoclaves, new out-of-autoclave processes and materials are necessary to achieve the same level of...

  20. The Iron Removal in Marmatite Concentrate Pressure Leaching Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-bo, LUO; Ji-kun, WANG; Yin, GAN

    2018-01-01

    To modify the pressure leaching technology of horizontal autoclave using marmatite concentrate, an appropriate increase in the pulp’s residence time in the horizontal autoclave is required. This increase will provide sufficient time for leaching to be completed in the first three chambers of the horizontal autoclave. Adding zinc oxide ore and potassium sulfate in the fourth chamber of the horizontal autoclave is needed to complete preliminary neutralization and iron precipitation in the horizontal autoclave. The pilot plant experimental results of the proposed technology are satisfactory, further shortening the process of pressure leaching and improving its economic efficiency.

  1. Preparation of Clinically Useful Sennoside-reduced Rhubarb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Makoto; Nakada, Yoshinobu; Kajiwara, Kagemasa; Kimura, Minoru; Ishii, Naoaki

    2016-03-20

    The aim of this study was to develop a method of removing sennoside to reduce the cathartic effect of rhubarb while conserving its other pharmacological activities. Rhubarb powder was steam autoclaved at 121°C and 0.14 MPa for 20, 60, or 120 minutes, and HPLC analysis was conducted to determine levels of rhubarb components. Mice were fed non-autoclaved or 20-minute-autoclaved rhubarb extracts. Feces were collected and weighed over a 24-hour period. India ink was orally administered to determine the distance of fecal migration through the intestinal tract. Autoclaving 20, 60, and 120 minutes decreased sennoside A and B to trace levels but only autoclaving 20 minutes conserved most of the (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and (-)-epicatechin gallate contents (i.e., 69%, 90%, 88%, respectively). Therefore only rhubarb autoclaved for 20 minutes was used in subsequent experiments. Fecal output (in g) in mice treated with water (control), autoclaved rhubarb, and non-autoclaved rhubarb was 2.78 ± 0.07, 3.30 ± 0.13 (p = 0.348), and 3.81 ± 0.07 (p = 0.005). India ink migration was far less in mice treated with autoclaved rhubarb vs non-autoclaved rhubarb. Steam autoclaving the rhubarb for 20 minutes reduces sennoside levels and its cathartic activity while conserving its other pharmacological activities.

  2. On the radioimmunological determination of native and heat denaturated protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, E.J.; Glatz, F.; Technische Univ., Vienna

    1981-01-01

    Precipitation radioimmunoassay, solid phase radioimmunoassay and passive hemagglutination were examined for their efficiency in the determination of native or denaturated soy proteins. Native as well as autoclaved soy protein could be determined quantitatively in the precipitation radioimmunoassay, using antisera directed against the native product. In the solid phase technique only the autoclaved soy protein could be detected with high sensitivity. In the passive hemagglutination reaction, no agglutination could be observed with erythrocytes coated with autoclaved soy protein. Only antisera against the denaturated (autoclaved) soy protein agglutinated these erythrocytes. (orig.) [de

  3. Insitu measurement and control of processing properties of composite resins in a production tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranbuehl, D.; Hoff, M.; Haverty, P.; Loos, A.; Freeman, T.

    1988-01-01

    An in situ measuring technique for use in automated composite processing and quality control is discussed. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensors are used to measure processing parameters at four ply positions inside a thick section 192-ply graphite-epoxy composite during cure in an 8 x 4 in. autoclave. Viscosity measurements obtained using the sensors are compared with the viscosities calculated using the Loos-Springer cure process model. Good overall agreement is obtained. In a subsequent autoclave run, the output from the four sensors was used to control the autoclave temperature. Using the 'closed loop' sensor controlled autoclave temperature resulted in a more uniform and more rapid cure cycle.

  4. 76 FR 9449 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... level of performance for existing ore pretreatment processes include calomel-based mercury scrubbers on roasters and venturi scrubbers on autoclaves and ancillary roaster operations. The preamble to the proposed... needed would include calomel-based mercury scrubbers on roasters and venturi scrubbers on autoclaves and...

  5. Perspective technologies of complex reprocessing of molybdenite concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobol', S.I.; Shcherbakov, V.A.; Gedgagov, Eh.I.

    1991-01-01

    The paper deals with a new investigations of autoclave technology. Utilization of one of the most important properties of molybdenite - its high hydropholy-enabled an improvement of specific autoclave leaching output, ensuring a high level of extraction. A possibility to limit direct molybdenum extraction by 70-80% which reduce leaching time 2-4 times

  6. Performance and nutrient intake of Zebu Heifers fed guinea grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen zebu heifors were ted 0. 20. 40 and 60% autoclaved broiler litter in total mixed rations. The effect of treatment was evaluated on feed intake. mean growth rate. digestibility coetlicient and digestible nutrient intake. Autoclaved broiler litter appeared to be well accepted by heiters even when included in ration at 60% of ...

  7. FDTD modeling of EM field inside microwave cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Shiv; Kanth, V Krushna

    2017-01-01

    This book deals with the EM analysis of closed microwave cavities based on a three-dimensional FDTD method. The EM analysis is carried out for (i) rectangular microwave ovens and (ii) hybrid-cylindrical microwave autoclaves at 2.45 GHz. The field distribution is first estimated inside domestic rectangular ovens in xy-, yz-, and zx-plane. Further, the RF leakage from the oven door is determined to study the effect of leakage radiation on wireless communication at 2.45 GHz. Furthermore, the EM analysis of the autoclave is carried out based on 3D FDTD using staircase approximation. In order to show the capability of autoclaves (excited with five source) for curing the aerospace components and materials, the field distribution inside autoclave cavity is studied in presence of aerospace samples. The FDTD based modelling of oven and autoclave are explained with the appropriate expressions and illustrations.

  8. Destruction of Spores on Building Decontamination Residue in a Commercial Autoclave▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, P.; Sieber, R.; Osborne, A.; Woodard, A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted an experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercial autoclave for treating simulated building decontamination residue (BDR). The BDR was intended to simulate porous materials removed from a building deliberately contaminated with biological agents such as Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) in a terrorist attack. The purpose of the tests was to assess whether the standard operating procedure for a commercial autoclave provided sufficiently robust conditions to adequately destroy bacterial spores bound to the BDR. In this study we investigated the effects of several variables related to autoclaving BDR, including time, temperature, pressure, item type, moisture content, packing density, packing orientation, autoclave bag integrity, and autoclave process sequence. The test team created simulated BDR from wallboard, ceiling tiles, carpet, and upholstered furniture, and embedded in the BDR were Geobacillus stearothermophilus biological indicator (BI) strips containing 106 spores and thermocouples to obtain time and temperature profile data associated with each BI strip. The results indicated that a single standard autoclave cycle did not effectively decontaminate the BDR. Autoclave cycles consisting of 120 min at 31.5 lb/in2 and 275°F and 75 min at 45 lb/in2 and 292°F effectively decontaminated the BDR material. Two sequential standard autoclave cycles consisting of 40 min at 31.5 lb/in2 and 275°F proved to be particularly effective, probably because the second cycle's evacuation step pulled the condensed water out of the pores of the materials, allowing better steam penetration. The results also indicated that the packing density and material type of the BDR in the autoclave could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the decontamination process. PMID:17012597

  9. Corrosion behaviour of zirconium alloys out or under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomazet, J.; Billot, P.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes and compares the results obtained after studies carried out in autoclaves, in loops and in reactor in power on the behaviour of some products. Inversions of behaviour are observed between results of studies in autoclaves and after irradiation. On the contrary, a study in loop under thermal flux reproduces the classifying of tested products without however ensure a reliable quantification. Studies in autoclave are nevertheless useful for a first analysis of effects of modifications of manufacturing range. Nevertheless, a deep analysis of involved phenomena requires a better knowledge of corrosion mechanisms. (O.M.)

  10. Effect of radiation treatment on protein quality and vitamin content of animal feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggum, B.O.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of autoclaving and irradiation on the protein quality and vitamin content of various nutrients of laboratory animal diets. The protein quality and its amino acid composition was not significantly affected by a radiation dose as high as 7.0 Mrad, whereas the protein quality of autoclaved diet (102 0 C for 5 minutes) was significantly affected. Vitamin B 1 , B 0 and α-tocopherol appeared to be affected by irradiation, whereas autoclaving reduced the levels of vitamins A, B 1 and E. (author)

  11. Method of continuous pressure leaching of ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiala, P.; Baloun, S.; Polansky, M.

    1987-01-01

    Ore leaching, especially suspensions of ground ore or fine ore fractions from physical treatment was divided into two operations. The former, i.e., ore mixing with technical grade concentrated sulfuric acid proceeded in a separate mixer. The mixture was then transported into an autoclave where the actual leaching proceeded for 2 to 4 hours. The extracted mixture was discharged through the autoclave bottom. The leaching autoclave used can be without any inner structures. The separation of mixing from the actual leaching allows processing ores with high levels of clay components, increasing operating reliability of the facility, reducing consumption of special structural materials and energy, and increasing process efficiency. (E.S.)

  12. Management of an incident of failed sterilization of surgical instruments in a dental clinic in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Chi-Chung Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Conclusion: Rapid response is extremely crucial in minimizing the impact of this incident and relieving the anxiety of the affected patients. Proper recording and documentation of autoclave cycles and regular auditing should be enforced to prevent similar incidents.

  13. Fabrication and thermal stability studies of polyamide 66 containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    by two-step polymerization reaction with adipic acid hexamethylene salt (AH salt) and bis(4-carboxyphenyl) .... polymerization autoclave (Weihai-controlled reactor Ltd,. WHF-2) equipped ... After melt polymerization, the molten copolymer was.

  14. Experimental device to determine the fatigue and crack growth properties in light water reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klausnitzer, E.

    1984-01-01

    This is a comparison and assessment of components including autoclaves, loading systems, test frames, water treatment plant, recording of measured data (inductive transducers, strain gaugages) and control, measurement and recording systems of the experimental system. (DG) [de

  15. Zeolite studies. Aluminium phosphate zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haegh, G.S.; Blindheim, U.

    1983-12-01

    Alpo-zeolites (ALPO4-zeolites) have been synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis in an autoclave from alumina, tetralkylammonium hydroxide and phosphorus acid. Catalysis tests with hydrocarbons indicate that the compounds have good olefinisomerization activity and selectivity.

  16. Energy-Storing Structures: Composite Capacitors and Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    circuit board (PCB) prepreg C electrode dielectric Autoclave-processed structural capacitor • Objective: High energy density, scalable...Continued scaling (lab safety limit  100 J) – Beyond commercial FR4 prepreg  high dielectric additives, super- clean prepregging

  17. Processing and Characterization of Welded Bonds between Thermoset and Thermoplastic Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKnight, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    .... The degradation is reported to decrease the shear strength in an exponential way. A layer of TP (polysulphone PSU) is cocured at the surface of the AS4/3501-6 laminate during its cure cycle in an autoclave...

  18. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of E-Beam and Thermally Curable IPN Thermosets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jensen, Robert

    2002-01-01

    .... E-beam curing of composites and adhesives offers advantages, such as reduced cure shrinkages, over traditional autoclave processing by curing multiple resins through the thickness for thick-section...

  19. Evaluation of nutritional value and protein quality of raw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this present study, the effect of various common processing methods on the ... The rats fed with the experimental diet containing autoclaved SB seeds as a ... Moreover, the protein quality parameters such as true digestibility, biological value, ...

  20. Process for desulfurizing shale oil, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escherich, F

    1922-12-17

    A process is described for the desulfurizing of shale oil or tar, with recovery of valuable oils and hydrocarbons, characterized in that the raw material is heated in an autoclave to a pressure of 100 atmospheres or more.

  1. KAJIAN PENINGKATAN PATI RESISTEN YANG TERKANDUNG DALAM BAHAN PANGAN SEBAGAI SUMBER PREBIOTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raden Haryo Bimo Setiarto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotics are food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria in the colon. Resistant starch (RS is the starch that can not be digested by digestive enzymes and resistant to gastric acid so it can reach the colon to be fermented by probiotic bacteria. There are treatments to increase the content of RS such as: autoclaving-cooling cycling, combination of lintnerized with autoclaving-cooling, and combination of debranching pullulanase with autoclaving-cooling. The results of techno-economical study showed that the combination of fermentation followed by autoclaving-cooling can be used as an alternative technique to increase the content of resistant starch in food more effectively and efficiently.

  2. Afrimedic Vol. 4, No. 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vera

    showed that waste was not segregated into colour ..... Two (16.67%) facilities had provision for autoclaving of ... use of multi chamber incinerator plants and alternative modern technologies (such as microwave) to .... civil society perspective.

  3. NONA Cure of Prepreg Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CRG's no-oven, no-autoclave (NONA) composite processing technology enables the fabrication of high-performance composite parts without the limitations imposed by...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 251 ... ... and autoclaving in the decontamination of dental instruments, Abstract ... Vol 7, No 2 (2005), Effect if bonny light crude oil on the neuroglial ... of tropical ascorbic acid on corneal ulceration induced by alkali burn, Abstract.

  5. Method of processing radioactive rare gase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagusagawa, Atsushi; Tuda, Kazuaki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a safety processing method without using mechanical pumps or pressure-proof containers and, accordingly, with no risk for the leakage of radioactive rare gas. Method: A container filled with zeolige is inserted with a cover being opened into an autoclave. Meanwhile, krypton-containing gases are supplied to an adsorption tower filled with adsorbents, cooled, adsorbed and then heated to desorb adsorbed krypton. The krypton-containing gases are introduced due to the pressure difference to the autoclave thereby causing krypton to adsorb at ambient temperature to zeolite. Then, the inside of the autoclave is heated to desorb krypton and adsorbed moistures from zeolite and the pressure is elevated. After sending the gases under pressure to the adsorption tower, the zeolite-filled container is taken out from the autoclave, tightly closed and then transferred to a predetermined site. (Takahashi, M.)

  6. Production of α-amylase from some thermophilic Aspergillus species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tarla Bitkileri

    ... Agriculture and Livestock, Field Crops Central Research Institute, Biotechnology Research Center, ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... The sterilization of SBM media was performed in the autoclave for 25 min at 110°C. In the sterilization.

  7. [Nutritional evaluation of the seeds of "ipil-ipil" (Leucaena leucocephala), "casco de vaca" (Bauhinia monandra) and scented carob (Albizia lebbeck)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu Peñate, M; Bencomo Hernández, A; Sampere Díaz, E; Farrás Fernández, I; Hernández Triana, M; Porrata Maury, C; Ponce de León Boloy, I

    1988-12-01

    Chemical composition, antinutritional factors and biological protein quality of raw and autoclaved (120 degrees C for 10 min) ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala), casco de vaca (Bauhinia monandra) ard algarrobo de olor (Albizia lebbeck) seeds were determined. The trypsin inhibitor activity was 29, 120, and 150 TIU/mg of sample respectively. Autoclaving eliminated 59, 33 and 100% of the activity. Bauhinia monandra seed depicted a high hemagglutinating activity which was eliminated by autoclaving. Net protein utilization of raw and autoclaved seeds was 31 and 30, 21 and 55 and 29 and 49%, respectively. All seeds were free from cyanide and alkaloids. It is concluded that the relative low protein quality of the seeds would limit their use for human consumption.

  8. Composition and potency characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis purified protein derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) purified protein derivatives (PPDs) are immunologic reagents prepared from cultured filtrates of the type strain ATCC 19698. Traditional production consists of floating culture incubation at 37oC, organism inactivation by autoclaving, coarse filtrat...

  9. Characterization of ferric arsenate-sulfate compounds: Implications for arsenic control in refractory gold processing residues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paktunc, D.; Majzlan, J.; Palatinus, Lukáš; Dutrizac, J.; Klementová, Mariana; Poirier, G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 4 (2013), s. 554-565 ISSN 0003-004X Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : arsenic * ferric arsenate sulfate * autoclave residue * hydrometallurgy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.059, year: 2013

  10. A Low Temperature Synthetic Route to Nanocrystalline TiN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    This method may be extended to the synthesis of other metal nitrides. ... direct current magnetron sputtering17, and mechanical mill- ... recent years, autoclaved synthesis of TiN nanomaterials from ... 3.2 XPS Characterization of the Samples.

  11. Heated Thermoplastic Fiber Placement Head for NASA Langley Research Center, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reduced mass composite materials are crucial to the success of aerospace systems, but are inhibited by expensive autoclave consolidation, especially for large parts....

  12. Optimal Composite Materials using NASA Resins or POSS Nanoparticle Modifications for Low Cost Fabrication of Large Composite Aerospace Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reduced mass composite materials are crucial to the success of aerospace systems, but their adoption is inhibited because they require autoclave consolidation, a...

  13. Effect of decontamination on oxidation of austenitic stainless steel in reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkman, T.

    1984-07-01

    Austenitic stainless steels were oxidized in static autoclaves in light water reactor conditions. After the autoclave treatments the specimens were decontaminated with the aid of alkaline potassium permanganate (AP) and oxalic and citric acid (CITROX) as well as electrochemically in H 3 PO 4 . Alternating oxidation and decontamination tests were performed. An elemental analysis of the surfaces of the specimens was carried out by electron spectroscopy. Changes in structures and thicknesses of the oxide layers were observed. (author)

  14. Influence of irradiation on protein and amino acids in laboratory rodent diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of irradiation treatment on the protein quality and constituent amino acids of laboratory rodent diets is reviewed and compared with other methods of sterilization - autoclaving and ethylene oxide fumigation. Gamma irradiation has been shown to have minimal influence on total protein, protein quality and total and available amino acid levels. Autoclaving reduces amino acid availability and consequently protein quality. Limited evidence shows reduction of certain available amino acids following ethylene oxide fumigation. (author)

  15. Influence of preparation conditions and heat treatment on the properties of supercooled smectic cholesteryl myristate nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Bunjes, H

    2007-01-01

    is less effective even when applying the highest homogenization pressure possible but still leads to dispersions with particles in the colloidal size range. Since sterility is required for parenteral medications and is usually achieved by autoclaving for aqueous systems, the physical and chemical...... chromatography (HPTLC). The results indicate that cholesteryl myristate nanoparticles stabilized with phospholipid/sodium glycocholate, polyvinyl alcohol, poloxamer and poloxamine can be sterilized by autoclaving. Compared to cholesterol ester free dispersions of phospholipids, the phospholipid seems to be more...

  16. Corrosion studies on casing steel in CO2 storage environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Benedictus, T.

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of casing steel N80 in brine plus CO2 was studied in autoclave to simulate the CO2 storage environment. The brine solution used in the study contained 130 g/l NaCl, 22.2 g/l CaCl2 and 4 g/l MgCl2. The CO2 was charged in the autoclave at different pressures (60, 80 and 100 bar)

  17. The effect of bacteria on diatom community structure - The 'antibiotics' approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeCosta, P.M.; Anil, A.C.

    (Guillard and Ryther, 1962) prepared in autoclaved, artificial seawater (MBL) (Cavanaugh, 1975) was used as the control diluent (CONT). Nutrient-enriched f/2 medium prepared in autoclaved, 0.45 µm-filtered, aged seawater [f/2(ASW)] was used... prepared in artificial seawater (MBL). Antibiotic treatment details are provided in the text. Mean ± SD values are shown. n=3. The values in the bracket indicate percentage values compared to CONT. * indicates the treatments that are significantly...

  18. Evaluation of Effects of Sterilization on Mechanical Properties of Orthodontic Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Kannan

    2012-01-01

    Results: Dry heat sterilization, autoclave, 2% glutaraldehyde solution had no effect on ultimate tensile strength, 0.1% yield strength, modulus of elasticity and percentage elongation of stainless steel and elgiloy wires. Tensile strength and yield strength of Nitinol and b-titanium wires together with percentage elongation of b-titanium wires significantly increased following dry heat sterilization and autoclave. No detrimental effects on properties of wires were observed. These sterilization procedures could be safely recommended for sterilization of orthodontic wires.

  19. Behaviour of carbon steel and chromium steels in CO2 environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, B.; Bounie, P.; Guntz, G.; Prouheze, J.C.; Renault, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The behavior in aqueous CO 2 environments of steel with chromium content between 0 and 22% has been studied by autoclave tests. The influence of chromium and molybdenum contents has been investigated particularly on 13 Cr steel. Conventional electrochemical test results are related to the CO 2 autoclave test results. The influence of the environment: temperature, chloride concentration, partial pressure of CO 2 and some amount of H 2 S on the corrosion resistance are discussed

  20. Performance Analysis of Exam Gloves Used for Aseptic Rodent Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoine, Dana M; Bergdall, Valerie K; Freed, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    Aseptic technique includes the use of sterile surgical gloves for survival surgeries in rodents to minimize the incidence of infections. Exam gloves are much less expensive than are surgical gloves and may represent a cost-effective, readily available option for use in rodent surgery. This study examined the effectiveness of surface disinfection of exam gloves with 70% isopropyl alcohol or a solution of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid (HP–PA) in reducing bacterial contamination. Performance levels for asepsis were met when gloves were negative for bacterial contamination after surface disinfection and sham ‘exertion’ activity. According to these criteria, 94% of HP–PA-disinfected gloves passed, compared with 47% of alcohol-disinfected gloves. In addition, the effect of autoclaving on the integrity of exam gloves was examined, given that autoclaving is another readily available option for aseptic preparation. Performance criteria for glove integrity after autoclaving consisted of: the ability to don the gloves followed by successful simulation of wound closure and completion of stretch tests without tearing or observable defects. Using this criteria, 98% of autoclaved nitrile exam gloves and 76% of autoclaved latex exam gloves met performance expectations compared with the performance of standard surgical gloves (88% nitrile, 100% latex). The results of this study support the use of HP–PA-disinfected latex and nitrile exam gloves or autoclaved nitrile exam gloves as viable cost-effective alternatives to sterile surgical gloves for rodent surgeries. PMID:26045458

  1. Performance analysis of exam gloves used for aseptic rodent surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoine, Dana M; Bergdall, Valerie K; Freed, Carrie

    2015-05-01

    Aseptic technique includes the use of sterile surgical gloves for survival surgeries in rodents to minimize the incidence of infections. Exam gloves are much less expensive than are surgical gloves and may represent a cost-effective, readily available option for use in rodent surgery. This study examined the effectiveness of surface disinfection of exam gloves with 70% isopropyl alcohol or a solution of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid (HP-PA) in reducing bacterial contamination. Performance levels for asepsis were met when gloves were negative for bacterial contamination after surface disinfection and sham 'exertion' activity. According to these criteria, 94% of HP-PA-disinfected gloves passed, compared with 47% of alcohol-disinfected gloves. In addition, the effect of autoclaving on the integrity of exam gloves was examined, given that autoclaving is another readily available option for aseptic preparation. Performance criteria for glove integrity after autoclaving consisted of: the ability to don the gloves followed by successful simulation of wound closure and completion of stretch tests without tearing or observable defects. Using this criteria, 98% of autoclaved nitrile exam gloves and 76% of autoclaved latex exam gloves met performance expectations compared with the performance of standard surgical gloves (88% nitrile, 100% latex). The results of this study support the use of HP-PA-disinfected latex and nitrile exam gloves or autoclaved nitrile exam gloves as viable cost-effective alternatives to sterile surgical gloves for rodent surgeries.

  2. Growing Chlorella vulgaris on thermophilic anaerobic digestion swine manure for nutrient removal and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiang-Yuan; Gao, Kun; Zhang, Ren-Chuan; Addy, Min; Lu, Qian; Ren, Hong-Yan; Chen, Paul; Liu, Yu-Huan; Ruan, Roger

    2017-11-01

    Liquid swine manure was subjected to thermophilic anaerobic digestion, ammonia stripping and centrifugation in order to increase the available carbon sources and decrease the ammonia concentration and turbidity. Chlorella vulgaris (UTEX 2714) was grown on minimally diluted (2×, 3× and 4×) autoclaved and non-autoclaved pretreated anaerobic digestion swine manure (PADSM) in a batch-culture system for 7days. Results showed that C. vulgaris (UTEX 2714) grew best on 3× PADSM media, and effectively removed NH 4 + -N, TN, TP and COD by 98.5-99.8%, 49.2-55.4%, 20.0-29.7%, 31.2-34.0% and 99.8-99.9%, 67.4-70.8%, 49.3-54.4%, 73.6-78.7% in differently diluted autoclaved and non-autoclaved PADSM, respectively. Results of chemical compositions indicated that contents of pigment, carbohydrate, protein and lipid in C. vulgaris (UTEX 2714) changed with the culture conditions. Moreover, its fatty acid profiles suggested that this alga could be used as animal feed if cultivated in autoclaved PADSM or as good-quality biodiesel feedstock if cultivated in non-autoclaved PADSM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of sterilization on the properties of CDHA-OCP-beta-TCP biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreley Morejón-Alonso

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the method of sterilization on the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of a new bone repairing material was studied. The material was obtained by thermal hydrolysis of beta-tricalcium phosphate/orthophosphoric acid cement and was composed of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, octacalcium phosphate (OCP, and beta-tricalcium phosphate. Partial decomposition of the OCP was observed after sterilization for the three methods. Decomposition increased to the following sequence of sterilization methods: ethylene oxide; autoclaving; dry oven. On the other hand, mechanical strength decreased with regard to non sterilized material in the sterilization sequence: ethylene oxide; dry oven; autoclaving. The compressive strength was 8.5 ± 1.0; 9.0 ± 1.2; 8.2 ± 0.8 and 6.5 ± 1.0 MPa, whereas diametral tensile strength was 2.1 ± 0.3; 2.5 ± 0.1; 1.9 ± 0.9 and 1.6 ± 0.3 for the material sterilized by ethylene oxide, dry oven, and autoclaving, respectively. Several compositional and microstuctural changes were detected after dry heat and autoclave sterilization. Ethylene oxide sterilization had lesser effect on the chemical composition and strength than dry heat and autoclaving.

  4. Formation and elution of toxic compounds from sterilized medical products: toxic compound formation from irradiated products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintani, Hideharu

    1996-01-01

    No formation of MDA was observed in chain-extended thermoplastic polyurethane (PU) when sterilized by autoclave or γ-ray irradiation. No formation of MDA was observed in nonchain-extended thermoplastic PU when sterilized by γ-ray irradiation. Less than 1 ppm MDA was produced in nonchain-extended thermoplastic PU sterilized by autoclave sterilization. Autoclave sterilization did not produce MDA in thermosetting PU potting material. MDA formation in potting material was promoted by γ-irradiation and increased with increasing irradiation at a quadratic equation of regression. MDA formation at 100 kGy irradiation is a few ppm and < 1 ppm at 25kGy irradiation, therefore the potential risk to human recipients was not significant. The elution of compounds other than MDA from potting material was more problematic. Solvent extracts from potting material presented mutagenicity in the absence of metabolic activity. MDA presented mutagenicity in the presence of metabolic activity, therefore MDA was not the mutagenic trigger. The chemical and biological characteristics of the specific mutagens required to identify in a further study. Negative promotion of MDA formation and a less presence of mutagen in autoclave sterilized potting material indicated that autoclave sterilization was preferable. (Author)

  5. Thermal processing of bone: in vitro response of mesenchymal cells to bone-conditioned medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, K; Caballé-Serrano, J; Schuldt Filho, G; Bosshardt, D D; Schaller, B; Buser, D; Gruber, R

    2015-08-01

    The autoclaving, pasteurization, and freezing of bone grafts to remove bacteria and viruses, and for preservation, respectively, is considered to alter biological properties during graft consolidation. Fresh bone grafts release paracrine-like signals that are considered to support tissue regeneration. However, the impact of the autoclaving, pasteurization, and freezing of bone grafts on paracrine signals remains unknown. Therefore, conditioned medium was prepared from porcine cortical bone chips that had undergone thermal processing. The biological properties of the bone-conditioned medium were assessed by examining the changes in expression of target genes in oral fibroblasts. The data showed that conditioned medium obtained from bone chips that had undergone pasteurization and freezing changed the expression of adrenomedullin, pentraxin 3, BTB/POZ domain-containing protein 11, interleukin 11, NADPH oxidase 4, and proteoglycan 4 by at least five-fold in oral fibroblasts. Bone-conditioned medium obtained from autoclaved bone chips, however, failed to change the expression of the respective genes. Also, when bone-conditioned medium was prepared from fresh bone chips, autoclaving blocked the capacity of bone-conditioned medium to modulate gene expression. These in vitro results suggest that pasteurization and freezing of bone grafts preserve the release of biologically active paracrine signals, but autoclaving does not. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Crack formation in ferritic screws of main steam isolation valves in German boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmill, H.

    1992-01-01

    In connection with crack formations at screws of main steam isolation valves in boiling water reactors, detected for the first time in 1988 in the Federal Republic of Germany, metallographic and fractographic investigations and coating analyses of screw surfaces and crack flanks were performed in order to find out the causes. These and other investigations of damaged screws were accompanied in the years 1989 and 1990 by autoclave tests made in several laboratories. With a view to the mechanical stress of the screws, tightening tests and stress analyses were performed by means of FEM. Repeated autoclave tests were concluded recently by the Stuttgart MPA. Although these tests are not reported here, it can be stated that the results obtained fit in with the overall framework of the results summed up in this report. With regard to the kind of sample stress and the results obtained, two cases have to be distinguished in the autoclave tests discussed in this report. (orig.) [de

  7. Gamma irradiation and heat treatment for sterilization of Mushroom Spent Compost (MSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Foziah Ali; Zainab Harun; Hoe, P.C.K.; Mohd Meswan Maskom; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Mushroom spent compost (MSC) refers to substrate residue from mushroom cultivation. MSC can be used as a material to improve soil properties for farming. MSC is also suitable as a carrier or substrate to hold beneficial microorganisms in bio fertilizer products. The carrier for bio fertilizer products must be sterilized completely before inoculating with bacteria inoculum. In this study, the effects of gamma irradiation and heat on sterilization of MSC were evaluated by microbial enumeration technique. The MSC was packed into polyethylene bags. The packed MSC were irradiated at different doses of 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 kGy, and heat sterilized at different autoclaving time of 0 (control), 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes, separately. The irradiated and autoclaved samples were enumerated for viable colonies. The results showed that MSC was completely sterilized by gamma irradiation at the dose of 30 kGy whilst sterilization by heat required 30 minute autoclaving time. (author)

  8. An evaluation of beta-propiolactone for the sterilization of fermentation media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIMMELFARB, P; READ, R B; LITSKY, W

    1961-11-01

    Twenty-five bacterial species were cultured in basal broth plus 1 of 19 different carbohydrates which were sterilized by Seitz filtration, autoclaving (112 C, 10 min), or exposure to 0.2% beta-propiolactone (BPL). No significant differences were found either in the visual observations for acid and gas, pH, or titrable acidity determinations after 3 days of incubation with any of the three preparations tested. An effort was made to further determine the effect of BPL and heat on carbohydrates by assaying for glucose before and after treatment. Results indicated that glucose was not degraded by 0.2% BPL, however, it was shown that autoclave temperatures caused extensive degradation. Statistical treatment of the results from Warburg studies indicated that BPL-treated glucose showed no appreciable toxic effects, although the actual oxygen uptake was not as great as with Seitz- or autoclave-treated glucose. The application of the BPL sterilization process was discussed.

  9. An Evaluation of β-Propiolactone for the Sterilization of Fermentation Media1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelfarb, Philip; Read, R. B.; Litsky, Warren

    1961-01-01

    Twenty-five bacterial species were cultured in basal broth plus 1 of 19 different carbohydrates which were sterilized by Seitz filtration, autoclaving (112 C, 10 min), or exposure to 0.2% β-propiolactone (BPL). No significant differences were found either in the visual observations for acid and gas, pH, or titrable acidity determinations after 3 days of incubation with any of the three preparations tested. An effort was made to further determine the effect of BPL and heat on carbohydrates by assaying for glucose before and after treatment. Results indicated that glucose was not degraded by 0.2% BPL, however, it was shown that autoclave temperatures caused extensive degradation. Statistical treatment of the results from Warburg studies indicated that BPL-treated glucose showed no appreciable toxic effects, although the actual oxygen uptake was not as great as with Seitz- or autoclave-treated glucose. The application of the BPL sterilization process was discussed. PMID:13907502

  10. Effectiveness of various sterilization methods of contaminated post-fitted molar band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggia Tridianti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molar band as anchoring device may be contaminated during the fitting process. Thus, decontamination process is essential to prevent cross-infection between patients. Purpose: The objective of this research was to determine the amount of bacteria in molar band post-fitted on the patient teeth, after previously undergone pre-sterilization using alcohol and ultrasonic cleaning bath followed by sterilization using dry heat oven and steam autoclave, in order to find the best method in decontamination of post-fitted molar band. Methods: Four molar bands which already fitted on one patient then divided evenly into two groups. The first group was pre-sterilized using alcohol. One of the bands then sterilized using dry heat oven, while the other one was sterilized using steam autoclave. The second group was pre-sterilized using ultrasonic cleaning bath. One band from this group then sterilized using dry heat oven and the other was sterilized using steam autoclave. The next step was to immerse all the bands in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. Using micropipette, the solution was retrieved and dropped upon a petri dish containing Brain Heart Infusion broth. The dish was then stored in an incubator for 24 hours, prior to counting the number of bacteria existed. The same methods were used to the rest of the patients, with total 128 molar bands from 32 patients. Results: There was a profound difference in numbers of bacteria found between those methods of sterilization. However, there was a non significant difference between the two groups which were at the alcohol-steam autoclave group and at the ultrasonic cleaning bath-steam autoclave group. Conclusion: This study showed that steam autoclave is better than for sterilizing molar band, as it left the minimal amount of bacteria in post-fitted molar band.Latar belakang: Molar band merupakan suatu alat penjangkaran yang dapat mengalami kontaminasi selama proses fitting band, sehingga perlu

  11. Influence of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenic reactivity of processed cashew and pistachio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Carmen; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Sanchiz, Africa; Ballesteros, Isabel; Easson, Michael; Grimm, Casey C; Dieguez, M Carmen; Linacero, Rosario; Burbano, Carmen; Maleki, Soheila J

    2018-02-15

    Cashew and pistachio allergies are considered a serious health problem. Previous studies have shown that thermal processing, pressurization and enzymatic hydrolysis may reduce the allergenic properties of food by changing the protein structure. This study assesses the allergenic properties of cashew and pistachio after thermal treatment (boiling and autoclaving), with or without pressure (autoclaving), and multiple enzymatic treatments under sonication, by SDS-PAGE, western blot and ELISA, with serum IgE of allergic individuals, and mass spectroscopy. Autoclaving and enzymatic hydrolysis under sonication separately induced a measurable reduction in the IgE binding properties of pastes made from treated cashew and pistachio nuts. These treatments were more effective with pistachio allergens. However, heat combined with enzymatic digestion was necessary to markedly lower IgE binding to cashew allergens. The findings identify highly effective simultaneous processing conditions to reduce or even abolish the allergenic potency of cashew and pistachio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation of a sup(99m) Tc generator for use in nuclear medicine, using calcinated (10000C) alumina as an adsorber for 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasiglia, H.T.; Enoshita, M.

    1980-12-01

    The preparation of 99 sup(m) Tc generator using calcinated (1000 0 C) alumina as adsorber for 99 Mo is described. The adsorption of 99 Mo and the elution of 99 sup(m) Tc were studied. When the generator is autoclaved (30 minutes, 121 0 C), after the loading of 99 Mo, elution yields of 99 sup(m) Tc fall to the half if compared whith generators not autoclaved. However, by autoclaving 99 Mo loading solution and alumina column separately and than preparing the generator, 80% elution yields of 99 sup(m) Tc were obtained. The contamination of the generator by microorganism is avoided when the loading of the 99 Mo is carried out in a hot-cell under UV ligth. The radioactive, radiochemical, chemical and microbiological purity criteria were examined for 99 sup(m) Tc solutions. The generator is considered safe for medical purposes. (Author) [pt

  13. Utilização de planejamento fatorial no preparo de amostras de detergente em pó para a determinação de fósforo por análise em fluxo Evaluation of sample preparation of the detergent powder using factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Soraia Vital Campos Barbosa da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of detergent powder samples in a microwave oven and autoclave was evaluated. To establish the best experimental conditions a 2(5 factorial design was performed, varying the conditions in autoclave and microwave digestion and flow system parameters for the determination of phosphorus. The best composition was: 0.2 mL sulfuric acid; 500 W power and a 2 min time interval; 6 mmol L-1 of ascorbic acid and 16 mmol L-1 of molybdate to flow system. This factor levels use less reagents than the reference method. No statistically significant differences were found between the autoclave and microwave oven responses at the 95% confidence level.

  14. Clay-based geothermal drilling fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Lee, L.J.; Bernhard, R.P.

    1982-11-01

    The rheological properties of fluids based on fibrous clays such as sepiolite and attapulgite have been systematically examined under conditions similar to those of geothermal wells, i.e. at elevated temperatures and pressures in environments with concentrated brines. Attapulgite- and sepiolite-based fluids have been autoclaved at temperatures in the range from 70 to 800/sup 0/F with the addition of chlorides and hydroxides of Na, K, Ca, and Mg. The rheological properties (apparent and plastic viscosity, fluid loss, gel strength, yield point, and cake thickness) of the autoclaved fluids have been studied and correlated with the chemical and physical changes that occur in the clay minerals during the autoclaving process.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility in SPF mini-pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun-Yeob [College of Animal Life Sciences , Kangwon National University, 192-1 Kangwon Avenue 1, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Back [Swine Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Cheonan, Chungcheongnam-do 330-801 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoo-Yong [College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ohh, Sang-Jip, E-mail: sjohh@kangwon.ac.k [College of Animal Life Sciences , Kangwon National University, 192-1 Kangwon Avenue 1, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility of either soy-based or milk-based diet for specific pathogen-free (SPF) mini-pigs. Gamma irradiation of the diets was done at dosage of 10 kGy with {sup 60}Co whereas autoclaving was executed at 121 {sup o}C for 20 min. Apparent crude protein digestibilities of gamma irradiated diets were higher (p<0.05) than those of autoclaved diets regardless of diet type. Digestibilities of dry matter, gross energy and total carbohydrate in the irradiated diet were higher than those of the autoclaved diet. From the results of nutrient digestibility of mini-pig diets in this study, 10 kGy gamma radiation was suggested as a convenient diet radicidation method that can minimize the decrease in nutrient digestibility on feeding to SPF mini-pigs.

  16. Role of orientation of nucleus of crystal during the process of synthesis of fine crystalline oxides at high temperatures and pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panasyuk, G P; Belan, V N; Voroshilov, I L; Shabalin, D G [IGIC RAS, N. S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)], E-mail: Panasyuk@igic.ras.ru

    2008-07-15

    The structural transformations of hydrargillite Al(OH){sub 3} and boehmite AlOOH were studied on thermovaporous autoclaving and on heat treatment. A special attention was paid to the morphology of initial flocculated and loose hydrargillite crystals, of the again segregating flocculi boehmite intermediate phase, and to the morphology of the end product - corundum single - or polycrystals. It is shown that on thermovaporous autoclaving the intraflocculi orientation of the boehmite crystals is decisive in the corundum single crystals formation. The degree of identity of the boehmite crystals orientation qualifies the sizes of the growing corundum crystals. It is shown, that after heat treatment in air at <1200 deg. C alpha-alumina forms, the habitus of the initial crystals remains unchanged, but at 1400-1500 deg. C in vacuum it alters, and equally oriented alumina grains sinter. Influence of the mutual crystals orientation at different stages of structural transformations is explored. Keywords: autoclaving, hydrargillite, boehmite, corundum.

  17. Applications of life cycle assessment and cost analysis in health care waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Sebastião Roberto; Finotti, Alexandra Rodrigues; Prudêncio da Silva, Vamilson; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Three Health Care Waste (HCW) scenarios were assessed through environmental and cost analysis. ► HCW treatment using microwave oven had the lowest environmental impacts and costs in comparison with autoclave and lime. ► Lime had the worst environmental and economic results for HCW treatment, in comparison with autoclave and microwave. - Abstract: The establishment of rules to manage Health Care Waste (HCW) is a challenge for the public sector. Regulatory agencies must ensure the safety of waste management alternatives for two very different profiles of generators: (1) hospitals, which concentrate the production of HCW and (2) small establishments, such as clinics, pharmacies and other sources, that generate dispersed quantities of HCW and are scattered throughout the city. To assist in developing sector regulations for the small generators, we evaluated three management scenarios using decision-making tools. They consisted of a disinfection technique (microwave, autoclave and lime) followed by landfilling, where transportation was also included. The microwave, autoclave and lime techniques were tested at the laboratory to establish the operating parameters to ensure their efficiency in disinfection. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis, the decision-making tools aimed to determine the technique with the best environmental performance. This consisted of evaluating the eco-efficiency of each scenario. Based on the life cycle assessment, microwaving had the lowest environmental impact (12.64 Pt) followed by autoclaving (48.46 Pt). The cost analyses indicated values of US$ 0.12 kg −1 for the waste treated with microwaves, US$ 1.10 kg −1 for the waste treated by the autoclave and US$ 1.53 kg −1 for the waste treated with lime. The microwave disinfection presented the best eco-efficiency performance among those studied and provided a feasible alternative to subsidize the formulation of the policy for small generators of HCW.

  18. Inbuilt potential of YEM medium and its constituents to generate Ag/Ag₂O nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Yamal

    Full Text Available We discovered that Yeast Extract Mannitol (YEM medium possessed immense potential to generate silver nanoparticles from AgNO3 upon autoclaving, which was evident from (i alteration in color of the medium; (ii peak at ∼410 nm in UV-Vis spectrum due to surface plasmon resonance specific to silver nanoparticles; and (iii TEM investigations. TEM coupled with EDX confirmed that distinct nanoparticles were composed of silver. Yeast extract and mannitol were key components of YEM medium responsible for the formation of nanoparticles. PXRD analysis indicated crystalline geometry and Ag/Ag2O phases in nanoparticles generated with YEM medium, yeast extract and mannitol. Our investigations also revealed that both mannitol and yeast extract possessed potential to convert ∼80% of silver ions in 0.5 mM AgNO3 to nanoparticles, on autoclaving for 30 min at 121°C under a pressure of 1.06 kg/cm(2. Addition of filter sterilized AgNO3 under ambient conditions to pre-autoclaved YEM medium and yeast extract brought about color change due to the formation of silver nanoparticles, but required prolonged duration. In general, even after 72 h intensity of color was significantly less than that recorded following autoclaving. Silver nanoparticles formed at room temperature were more heterogeneous compared to that obtained upon autoclaving. In summary, our findings demonstrated that (i YEM medium and its constituents promote synthesis of silver nanoparticles; and (ii autoclaving enhances rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles by YEM medium, yeast extract and mannitol.

  19. Toxicity Assessment of Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Widely Consumed by Tunisian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ismail, Hanen; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed at assessing the content and the functional properties of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in different varieties of beans widely consumed in Tunisia through soaking, cooking, autoclaving, germination, and their combinations. This study was carried out on three varieties of white beans grown in different localities of Tunisia, namely Twila, Coco, and Beldia, as well as on imported and local canned beans. All bean samples underwent biochemical and immunological evaluation by employing several techniques such as indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), hemagglutinating assay, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Biochemical and immunological analyses indicated that raw dry beans contained a considerable amount of proteins and PHAs. ELISA demonstrated that soaking, either in plain water or in alkaline solution, caused an increase in the concentration of PHA. A slight increase of PHA was produced equally by germination during 4 days in all bean varieties. Cooking or autoclaving of presoaked beans resulted in a complete disappearance of PHA. ELISA test also proved that both imported and local canned beans contained fingerprints of PHA. Hemagglutination assays showed that not only cooked and autoclaved presoaked beans lacked the ability to agglutinate red blood cells but also autoclaved unsoaked beans did. In agar gel immunodiffusion using rabbit anti-PHA serum, raw, soaked, cooked unsoaked, and sprouted beans gave precipitin arc reactions, indicating that PHA existed in immunoreactive form in the tested seeds. SDS-PAGE electrophoretograms showed protein isolates of Twila and Beldia beans to have different profiles through soaking, cooking, and autoclaving processes. This work revealed that the combination of soaking and cooking/autoclaving was the best way in reducing PHA content and its activity in all bean varieties when compared with germination.

  20. Applications of life cycle assessment and cost analysis in health care waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Sebastiao Roberto, E-mail: soares@ens.ufsc.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Finotti, Alexandra Rodrigues, E-mail: finotti@ens.ufsc.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Prudencio da Silva, Vamilson, E-mail: vamilson@epagri.sc.gov.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); EPAGRI, Rod. Admar Gonzaga 1347, Itacorubi, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina 88034-901 (Brazil); Alvarenga, Rodrigo A.F., E-mail: alvarenga.raf@gmail.com [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Ghent University, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Coupure Links 653/9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three Health Care Waste (HCW) scenarios were assessed through environmental and cost analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCW treatment using microwave oven had the lowest environmental impacts and costs in comparison with autoclave and lime. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lime had the worst environmental and economic results for HCW treatment, in comparison with autoclave and microwave. - Abstract: The establishment of rules to manage Health Care Waste (HCW) is a challenge for the public sector. Regulatory agencies must ensure the safety of waste management alternatives for two very different profiles of generators: (1) hospitals, which concentrate the production of HCW and (2) small establishments, such as clinics, pharmacies and other sources, that generate dispersed quantities of HCW and are scattered throughout the city. To assist in developing sector regulations for the small generators, we evaluated three management scenarios using decision-making tools. They consisted of a disinfection technique (microwave, autoclave and lime) followed by landfilling, where transportation was also included. The microwave, autoclave and lime techniques were tested at the laboratory to establish the operating parameters to ensure their efficiency in disinfection. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis, the decision-making tools aimed to determine the technique with the best environmental performance. This consisted of evaluating the eco-efficiency of each scenario. Based on the life cycle assessment, microwaving had the lowest environmental impact (12.64 Pt) followed by autoclaving (48.46 Pt). The cost analyses indicated values of US$ 0.12 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with microwaves, US$ 1.10 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated by the autoclave and US$ 1.53 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with lime. The microwave disinfection presented the best eco-efficiency performance among those studied and provided a feasible

  1. Upgrading The Nutritive Value of Mango Seed Kernel for Poultry by Thermal Treatment and Radiation Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.D

    2007-01-01

    The raw seed kernels of local mango (MSK) varieties (Magnifera indica L.) were analyzed for composition, levels of trypsin inhibitors, tannins, cyanogenetic glucosides, in vitro protein digestibility and apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) as being effected by boiling, autoclaving as well as irradiation processing at doses 5, 10, 15, and 20 kGy. The air-dry mango kernels contained 70, 128, and 67 g kg -1 of crude protein, crude fat, and tannins, respectively. Compared with raw samples, the contents of trypsin inhibitory activity (30 TIU g -1 ) and cyanogenetic glucosides, as hydrocyanic acid, (71 mg kg -1 ) were lowered by boiling, autoclaving and radiation treatments. Only boiling and autoclaving lowered tannin content (67.2 g kg -1 in raw kernel), but irradiation does not introduce any effect. The in vitro protein digestibility and AMEn values of raw MSK were low and the processing methods enhanced the in vitro protein digestibility and AMEn of MSK. The improvements paralleled reductions in trypsin inhibitory activity, cyanogenetic glucosides and tannin contents. Greater improvements were noticed with boiling and autoclaving than with irradiation alone. While autoclaving for 30min plus irradiation treatment up to 20 kGy maximized the in vitro protein digestibility and AMEn value by 139% and 72%, respectively. These results indicate that tannins, trypsin inhibitors and cyanogenetic glucosides, are responsible for poor nutritive value of MSK. The results suggested that the combination of autoclaving for 30 min plus irradiation treatment up to 20 kGy upgraded the nutritive value and that this method is more effective in processing MSK to be used as animal feed.

  2. Large Scale Composite Manufacturing for Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavana, Jacob; Cohen, Leslie J.; Houseal, Keth; Pelham, Larry; Lort, Richard; Zimmerman, Thomas; Sutter, James; Western, Mike; Harper, Robert; Stuart, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Risk reduction for the large scale composite manufacturing is an important goal to produce light weight components for heavy lift launch vehicles. NASA and an industry team successfully employed a building block approach using low-cost Automated Tape Layup (ATL) of autoclave and Out-of-Autoclave (OoA) prepregs. Several large, curved sandwich panels were fabricated at HITCO Carbon Composites. The aluminum honeycomb core sandwich panels are segments of a 1/16th arc from a 10 meter cylindrical barrel. Lessons learned highlight the manufacturing challenges required to produce light weight composite structures such as fairings for heavy lift launch vehicles.

  3. Porosity in Ocean Racing Yacht Composites: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baley, Christophe; Lan, Marine; Davies, Peter; Cartié, Denis

    2015-02-01

    Ocean racing yachts are mainly manufactured from carbon/epoxy composites similar to those used by the aeronautical industry but, with some exceptions such as masts, these structures are not produced in autoclaves. This leads to the presence of higher porosity levels. This paper will first present the different types of porosity found in traditional racing yacht structures. Difficulties in evaluating defect levels will then be discussed and published work characterizing the influence of defects will be reviewed. Current developments to improve racing yacht composite quality such as thin ply technology, out-of-autoclave processing and automated fibre placement will then be described, and their implications for porosity will be discussed.

  4. Production of N2O in soil during decomposition of dead yeast cells with different spatial distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.

    1996-01-01

    Production and sources of N2O were determined in soil columns amended with autoclaved yeast cells either mixed into or added as 0.5 cm(3) lumps to the soil in combination with no or 200 mu g NO3--Ng(-1). At four occasions over a two-week study period, subsets of cores were measured for N2O...... production during 4-hour incubations under atmospheres of ambient air, 10 Pa of C2H2, and N-2, respectively. Denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) was assessed in subsamples of cores that had been incubated continuously under air. Autoclaved yeast provided a C-source readily available for denitrifying...

  5. Examining the Potential of Plasma-Assisted Pretreated Wheat Straw for Enzyme Production by Trichoderma reesei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja

    2012-01-01

    Plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw was investigated for cellulase and xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei fermentation. Fermentations were conducted with media containing washed and unwashed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw as carbon source which was sterilized by autoclavation....... To account for any effects of autoclavation, a comparison was made with unsterilized media containing antibiotics. It was found that unsterilized washed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw (which contained antibiotics) was best suited for the production of xylanases (110 IU ml(-1)) and cellulases (0...... other nonrefined feedstocks suggests that plasma pretreated wheat straw is a promising and suitable substrate for cellulase and hemicellulase production....

  6. Periodic Sorption of Tungstate Ions on Anionite AV-17-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’yachenko Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiple sorption of sodium tungstate resulting from the autoclave-soda digestion of a tungsten-bearing concentrate was studied using anion-exchange resin AV-17-8. The choice of ion exchange resin was carried out under static conditions using highly basic anionites. The sorption and desorption plots for tungstate and carbonate ions were demonstrated under dynamic conditions. The total dynamic capacity of the resin was estimated for each species of the ions in three sorption cycles. The applicability of the AV-17-8 resin as a sorbent in the autoclave-soda process flowsheet was determined.

  7. Relationships between boiling regimes and chemical concentration processes in tube support plate crevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, A.

    2002-01-01

    The results of a test inter-relating crevice boiling regimes and chemical concentration in tube support plate crevices are presented. Testing of highly soluble, non-volatile autoclave chemistries produced characteristic crevice pH and impedance distributions during nucleate boiling, initiation of dryout, steady-state operation, and following shutdown. However, the patterns changed as a function of the solubility and volatility of the autoclave chemistry, the solute concentration, and the presence of residual solutes from previous testing. The changes were related to variations in the rates of concentrated solution formation, transport, volatilization, and precipitation. (authors)

  8. Ultrastructural characterization of rice husk submitted to different pretreatments to optimize its fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhoneux, B de; Gerlache, L; Clemente, A; Roda-Santos, M L; Menaia, J A.G.; Fernandes, T H

    1988-01-01

    Silica distribution in rice husk was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Silica appeared as a solid structure in the outer epidermis and as a dispersed system inside the husk. Pretreatments (steam autoclaving, water autoclaving, alkaline leaching, gamma irradiation, and ultra sound) were applied in order to achieve an improvement in rice husk digestibility. Alkaline leaching removed a significant part of the silica structure, therefore allowing a larger area of exposure of the cell wall polymers to the degrading enzymes. Among the pretreatments, alkaline leaching appeared to be the most useful, while others seemed not to be very successful in attaining the desired effect.

  9. Metals uptake by live yeast and heat-modified yeast residue

    OpenAIRE

    Labuto,Geórgia; Trama,Bianca; Gueller,Geison Castro da Silveira; Guarnieri,Bruna de Souza; Silva,Fernando Vitorino da; Collazo,Roberta

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the biosorption of Cd2+, Cr3+, Pb2+ and Cu2+ at pHs 3, 4, 5 and 6 for Saccharomyces cerevisiae both alive and biologically inactivated by different heating procedures (oven, autoclave or spray dry technique originated from alcohol industry). The material inactivated by autoclave (IA, at 120°C, 30 min) had the best performance for metals uptake: 1.88 ± 0.07 (Cu2+), 2.22 ± 0.02 (Cr3+) and 1.57 ± 0.08 g kg-1 (Pb2+). For Cd2+; while the material inactivate...

  10. Experimental and simulation studies on mineral trapping of CO2 with brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soong, Y.; Goodman, A.L.; McCarthy-Jones, J.R.; Baltrus, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The reaction of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) with brine samples collected from the Oriskany Formation in Indiana County, PA, was investigated in an autoclave reactor under various conditions. A geochemical code, PHREEQC, was used as to simulate the reaction in the autoclave reactor. The combined experimental and modeling data suggests that pH (pH > 9) plays a key role in the formation of carbonate minerals. The effects of temperature and CO 2 pressure have a lesser impact on the formation of carbonate minerals

  11. Application of powder metallurgy to an advanced-temperature nickel-base alloy, NASA-TRW 6-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, J. C.; Ashbrook, R. L.; Waters, W. J.

    1971-01-01

    Bar stock of the NASA-TRW 6-A alloy was made by prealloyed powder techniques and its properties evaluated over a range of temperatures. Room temperature ultimate tensile strength was 1894 MN/sq m (274 500 psi). The as-extruded powder product showed substantial improvements in strength over the cast alloy up to 649 C (1200 F) and superplasticity at 1093 C (2000 F). Both conventional and autoclave heat treatments were applied to the extruded powder product. The conventional heat treatment was effective in increasing rupture life at 649 and 704 C (1200 and 1300 F); the autoclave heat treatment, at 760 and 816 C (1400 and 1500 F).

  12. La chaux et la diatomite comme moyens de lutte alternatifs contre Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Buchholz , Sven; Merkel , Katharina; Spiewok , Sebastian; Pettis , Jeff S.; Duncan , Michael; Spooner-Hart , Robert; Ulrichs , Christian; RITTER , Wolfgang; Neumann , P.

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Aiming at alternative small hive beetle control, slaked lime, powdered limestone and diatomaceous earth (Fossil Shield® FS 95, FS 90.0 and FS 90.0s) were evaluated for their effects on pupation and adult emergence in the laboratory. Limestone, FS 90.0 and FS 95 showed no significant effect. Slaked lime in autoclaved soil prevented pupation, but was lethal only in high dosages of 10 and 15 g per 100 g soil. In non-autoclaved soil, low slaked lime dosages of 0.5 and 5 g ...

  13. Phase transformation of dental zirconia following artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Thomas J; Lawson, Nathaniel C; Janowski, Gregg M; Burgess, John O

    2015-10-01

    Low-temperature degradation (LTD) of yttria-stabilized zirconia can produce increased surface roughness with a concomitant decrease in strength. This study determined the effectiveness of artificial aging (prolonged boiling/autoclaving) to induce LTD of Y-TZP (yttria-tetragonal zirconia-polycrystals) and used artificial aging for transformation depth progression analyses. The null hypothesis is aging techniques tested produce the same amount of transformation, transformation is not time/temperature dependent and LTD causes a constant transformation throughout the Y-TZP samples. Dental-grade Y-TZP samples were randomly divided into nine subgroups (n = 5): as received, 3.5 and 7 day boiling, 1 bar autoclave (1, 3, 5 h), and 2 bar autoclave (1, 3, 5 h). A 4-h boil treatment (n = 2) was performed post-experiment for completion of data. Transformation was measured using traditional X-ray diffraction and low-angle X-ray diffraction. The fraction of t → m transformation increased with aging time. The 3.5 day boil and 2 bar 5 h autoclave produced similar transformation results, while the 7 day boiling treatment revealed the greatest transformation. The surface layer of the aged specimen underwent the most transformation while all samples displayed decreasing transformation with depth. Surface transformation was evident, which can lead to rougher surfaces and increased wear of opposing dentition/materials. Therefore, wear studies addressing LTD of Y-TZP are needed utilizing accelerated aging. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Original Paper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    repair and adaptation of the user guidelines, to overcome the deficiencies and to enable sufficient sterilisation. ... adapt the user guidelines for individual autoclaves. So far four training workshops for users and technicians in ... Air, as a bad heat conductor, produces only after a longer period of time, namely 2 to 3 hours, the.

  15. Fe3C-based oxygen reduction catalysts: synthesis, hollow spherical structures and applications in fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed study of a novel Fe3C-based spherical catalyst with respect to synthetic parameters, nanostructure formation, ORR active sites and fuel cell demonstration. The catalyst is synthesized by high temperature autoclave pyrolysis using decomposing precursors. Below 500 °C, melamine...

  16. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice - Vol 4, No 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flexural Reinforcement of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) with externally bonded Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Sheet · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Nasim Uddin, Kedar V. Shelar, 1 -14. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jcerp.v4i2.29170 ...

  17. Control of Meloidogyne incognita (kofoid and white) chitwood (root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screenhouse experiments were conducted to test the efficacy of cowdung and urine separately and in combination in the control of root-knot nematode of tomato. Equal quantities of cowdung, urine and their mixture were separately made up to one litre with autoclaved soil. Two weeks old seedlings of tomato raised in ...

  18. Statistical analysis and optimization of copper biosorption capability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... metals (Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Cd, Pb, Mg and Zn) were prepared in water and autoclaved for ..... sorption increased by increasing the metal concentration up to 8.6 mg/ml, but ... capacity and facilitate the separation of biomass from.

  19. Effects of kefir as a probiotic source on the performance of goat kids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of kefir as a probiotic on the performance of goat kids during the pre- (45 days) and post-weaning (45 days) periods. Forty eight kids were randomly allocated to four treatment groups: Control, Kefir, Auto-Kefir (autoclaved) and Probiotic (a commercial probiotic). The kids were ...

  20. Radon-222 exhalation from Danish building materials: H + H Industri A/S results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Erik

    1999-01-01

    rate measurements for 10 samples of Danish building materials are reported. Samples include ordinary concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete,autoclaved aerated concrete, bricks, and gypsum board. The maximum mass-specific exhalation rate is about 20 m Bq h"-"1 kg "-"1. Under consideration...

  1. Molecular Cloning and Nucleotide Sequence of the Gene Encoding the Major Peptidoglycan Hydrolase of Lactococcus lactis, a Muramidase Needed for Cell Separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, Girbe; Kok, Jan; Leenhouts, Kees J.; Dabrowska, Magdalena; Venema, Gerhardus; Haandrikman, Alfred J.

    A gene of Lactococcus lactis subsp, cremoris MG1363 encoding a peptidoglycan hydrolase was identified in a genomic library of the strain in pUC19 by screening Escherichia coli transformants for cell wall lysis activity on a medium containing autoclaved, lyophilized Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells,

  2. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Do you have a back-up sterilisation system or boiler if your autoclave is broken? ' ' GA facilities. Are there facilities for general anaesthesia ? ' Oxygen concentrator. Is there a working oxygen concentrator in the theat- re? ' Oxygen cylinders. Do you have oxygen cylinders available, with oxygen in them? Section 3 Utilities.

  3. Enzymatic modification of pectic polysaccharides obtained from sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Beldman, G.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonans and arabinans, purified from an autoclave extract of sugar beet pulp, as well as an acid extracted beet pectin (ABP) were treated with enzymes in order to modify their physico-chemical properties. The enzymes used were arabinofuranosidase B (AF), endo-arabinanase plus

  4. Optimal concentration of selective agents for inhibiting in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alessandra

    (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 3 mg/L 2 ... was adjusted to 5.8 ± 0.1 and autoclaved for 20 min at 121 ± 1°C. Ten seeds were ..... Takamori LM, Machado Neto NB, Vieira LGE, Ribas AF (2015). Optimization of ...

  5. Hydrothermal precipitation of artificial violarite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, W. H.; Toftlund, H.; Warner, T. E.

    2012-01-01

    The nonstoichiometric nickel-ore mineral, violarite, (Ni,Fe)3S4 was prepared as a phase-pure fine powder by a comparatively quick hydrothermal method from an aqueous solution of iron(II) acetate, nickel(II) acetate and DL-penicillamine in an autoclave at 130 °C for 45 h. Powder-XRD showed that th...

  6. based molecular characterization of popular wheat varieties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... 3Agricultural Research Station, Baffa (Mansehra), Pakistan. 4Plant Virology lab. ... of the appearance of the end product, nutritional content ... that have improved the agronomic and quality traits of .... genomic DNA, 10 cm long piece of fresh leaf material from 3 to 4 ... autoclaved doubled distilled water.

  7. Inhibition and Cathalysis as a Method to Improve the Mechanical Properties of a Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protsenko, A. E.; Telesh, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    The possibility of increasing the static flexural strength of polymer composite materials and reducing their anisotropy by vacuum autoclave curing, during which gelation across the whole thickness of prepregs is carried out in a narrow time range, is shown. This is achieved by introducing a preset concentration of catalysts into the less heated layers or inhibitors in the more heated ones of the prepreg.

  8. Processing technology for advanced fibre composites with thermoplastic matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lystrup, Aa. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    Technologies and semi-raw materials for the manufacture of thermoplastic composites with continuous fibres are discussed. Autoclave consolidation, vacuum consolidation and press consolidation are all processes which are suitable for the manufacture of components with a three dimensional geometry. Autoclave consolidation is primarily for high quality components with high fibre content and complex geometry; using vacuum consolidation, very large components can be produced without the need of an autoclave, and the press consolidation technique is a very fast process suitable for mass production of smaller parts. Filament winding is used primarily for the manufacture of rotationally symmetrical components, and some of the technologies in use are winding with a continuously in-situ consolidation, winding inside an oven and room temperature winding followed by an autoclave consolidation. Semi-raw materials for thermoplastic composites exist as both prepregs and postpregs in many different forms, of which many are still under development. Some of the basic processing properties for the different types of semi-raw materials and most commonly used thermoplastic polymers are given. (au) 37 refs.

  9. A one-step single source route to carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been synthesized via directly pyrolyzing ferrocene in the autoclave. The nanotubes with several micrometers in length have outer and inner diameters in the range of 40–100 nm and 20–40 nm, respectively. An yield of ∼70% of CNTs can be obtained without any accessorial solvents and ...

  10. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  11. An Analysis of EM Railgun Cross Section Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-14

    tube does not have to be cured in an autoclave afterwards. The fact that the resin in the prepreg is a thermoplastic rather than a thermoset is...decided that a chromium copper alloy would be used to take advantage of the electrical properties of copper while having a high strength material. The

  12. High-throughput automated parallel evaluation of zinc-based catalysts for the copolymerization of CHO and CO2 to polycarbonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerendonk, van W.J.; Duchateau, R.; Koning, C.E.; Gruter, G.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Copolymn. of CO2 and oxiranes using a high-pressure autoclave typically allows one expt. per reactor per day. A high-throughput parallel setup was developed and validated for the copolymn. of CO2 and cyclohxene oxide (CHO) with two b-diiminato zinc complexes. The catalyst activity is affected by

  13. Atrazine removal in Danish anaerobic aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Philip Grinder; Arildskov, N.P.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    process was abiotic since atrazine was also removed from microbially inhibited autoclaved and chloroform amended controls, although in controls amended with mercury, atrazine removal was slowed down. (ring-U-C-14)- atrazine amended samples showed no mineralization to (CO2)-C-14 or transformation...

  14. Mono-, bi-, and tri-metallic Ni-based catalysts for the catalytic hydrotreatment of pyrolysis liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Wang; Venderbosch, Robbie H.; He, Songbo; Bykova, Maria V.; Khromova, Sofia A.; Yakovlev, Vadim A.; Heeres, Hero J.

    Catalytic hydrotreatment is a promising technology to convert pyrolysis liquids into intermediates with improved properties. Here, we report a catalyst screening study on the catalytic hydrotreatment of pyrolysis liquids using bi- and tri-metallic nickel-based catalysts in a batch autoclave (initial

  15. Infectivity analysis of two variable DNA B components of Mungbean ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    seeds were washed twice with sterile distilled water and sown in pots containing autoclaved .... loop structure is shown as a grey box. An 18-nt additional .... nuclease treatment revealed the presence of a small amount of supercoiled (sc) dsRF ...

  16. The efficacy of crude extract of Aloe secundiflora on Candida Albicans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In- vitro studies on the efficacy of crude extracts of Aloe secundiflora on Candida albicans was conducted. Five mature leaves of Aloe secundiflora were collected and the crude extract was prepared, then autoclaved. The extract was then tested on Candida albicans grown on solid media. The results from these studies ...

  17. Antagonistic activity of selected strains of Bacillus thuringiensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... taining 100 ml of liquid culture of dextrose potato medium, and incubating in darkness ... later autoclaved for 20 min to a temperature of 120°C. The suspension was ... R. solani growth with a percentage of inhibition of 76.88 and 74.66 .... growth may have been inactivated (Dhingra and Sinclair, 1987).

  18. Efficiency of inactivation of trypsin inhibitory activity in some selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trypsin inhibitor (TI) levels in the crop seeds varied between 0.0 in Adansonia digitata and 40.8 TIU/mg in Pterocarpus osun. Efficiency of inactivation of TI by autoclaving ranged from 58.1% in Millettia thonningii to 100% in Sesbania pachycarpa and Lonchocarpus. sericeus. It is concluded that the effect of heat treatment on ...

  19. Hydrodeoxygenation of waste fat for diesel production: Study on model feed with Pt/alumina catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus H.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation of waste fats and oils is a viable method for producing renewable diesel oil. In this study a model feed consisting of oleic acid and tripalmitin in molar ratio 1:3 was hydrotreated at 325°C with 20bars H2 in a stirred batch autoclave with a 5wt% Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst, and samples...

  20. CoMo sulphide-catalyzed hydrodeoxygenation of lignin model compounds: An extended reaction network for the conversion of monomeric and dimeric substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, A.L.; Jastrzebski, R; Bruijnincx, P.C.A.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, extensive hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) studies with a commercial sulfided CoMo/Al2O3 catalyst were performed on a library of ligninmodel compounds at 50 bar hydrogen pressure and 300 °C in dodecane, using a batch autoclave system. The catalyst was activated under hydrogen atmosphere

  1. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for High Volume Composite Part Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lokitz, Bradley S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Springfield, Robert M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    ORNL worked with TruDesign, LLC to develop viable coating solutions to enable the use of large scale 3D printing for both low-temperature and high-temperature composite molds. This project resulted in two commercial products and successfully demonstrated the use of printed molds for autoclave processing for the first time.

  2. Biomechanical pulping of kenaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Ahmed; Masood Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fungal pretreatment of whole kenaf prior to refining on refiner electrical energy consumption, paper strength, and optical properties. We also explored the suitability of whole kenaf biomechanical pulp for making newsprint in terms of ISO brightness and strength properties. Kenaf was sterilized by autoclaving...

  3. REMOVAL OF ADDED NITRATE IN COTTON BURR COMPOST, MULCH COMPOST, AND PEAT: MECHANISMS AND POTENTIAL USE FOR GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted batch tests on the nature and kinetics of removal of added nitrate in cotton burr compost, mulch compost, and sphagnum peat that may be potentially used in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for groundwater nitrate remediation. A rigorous steam autoclaving protocol (...

  4. Mechanics in Composite Materials and Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Gil

    1993-03-01

    This book includes introduction of composite materials, stress, in-plane stiffness of laminates strain rate, ply stress, failure criterion and bending, composite materials micromechanics, composite plates and micromechanics of composite materials. It also deals with process of composite materials such as autoclave vacuum bag degassing process, connection of composite materials, filament winding process, resin transfer molding, sheet molding compound and compression molding.

  5. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice - Vol 4, No 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In-Plane Shear Response of Externally Bonded CFRP on Autoclaved Aerated Concrete · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... Improvement of WSP Effluent Quality for Reuse using Intermittent Slow Sand Filter – The Egerton WSP Pilot Study. P. W. Murage, G. M. Thumbi, D. K. ...

  6. Biodegradation of cassava root sieviate with enzymes extracted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate changes in proximate, sugars and cell wall components of cassava root sieviates (CRS) treated with extracted enzymes obtained from Aspergillus niger (An), Trichoderma viridae (Tv), Rhizopus stolonifer (Rs) and Mucor mucedo (Mm) applied on autoclaved CRS at 250ml/kg. Another ...

  7. Cooking under Pressure: Applying the Ideal Gas Law in the Kitchen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Anderson, Jennifer Y.; Wang, Diane R.

    2010-01-01

    This case study uses a daily cooking scenario to demonstrate how the boiling point of water is directly related to the external pressures in order to reinforce the concepts of boiling and boiling point, apply ideal gas law, and relate chemical reaction rates with temperatures. It also extends its teaching to autoclaves used to destroy…

  8. 76 FR 2056 - Incorporation of Revised ASTM Standards That Provide Flexibility in the Use of Alternatives to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... development of the nervous system, resulting in learning disabilities. Elemental mercury and other forms of... use of mercury- containing thermometers for certain temperature measurement applications. EPA seeks to... in high temperature applications, such as the use of thermometers in autoclaves, traditionally...

  9. The corrosion rate measurement of Inconel 690 on high temperature and pressure by using CMS100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriyono; Satmoko, Ari; Febrianto; Hidayati, N R; Arifal; Sumarno, Ady; Handoyo, Ismu; Prasetjo, Joko

    1999-01-01

    The corrosion rate measurement of Inconel 690 on high temperature and pressure had been done. By using an Autoclave, and temperature can be simulated. For reducing the pressure on Autoclave so its can be measure by Corrosion Measurement System 100(CMS100), the electrodes placement had designed and fabrication on the cover of Autoclave. The electrodes of CMS100 are reference electrode, working electrodes and counter electrodes. The electrodes placement are made and and designed on two packages, these are Salt bridge and Counter-specimen placement. From the result of testing these both of placement are able to 90 bar (pressure) and 280 C (temperature) operation rate measurement was done on temperature variation from 150 0C, 190 0C, 200 0C, 210 0C, 220 0C and 230 0C, and the solution is 0.1 ppm chloride. The pressure experiment is the pressure, which occurred in Autoclave. From the Tafel analysis, even through very little The corrosion current increased from 150 C to 230 C it is 2,54x10-10 a/cm2 to 1,62x10-9 A/cm2, but the the corrosion rate is still zero

  10. Micropropagation of Banana Varieties (Musa spp.) Using Shoot-Tip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    propagation method appears to be unable to supply the increasing demand for ... Explant Preparation and Surface Sterilization. Explants were excised ... of the medium was adjusted to 5.7 using NaOH or HCl (0.1 or 1N) before autoclaving.

  11. Porous Materials - Structure and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents some viewpoints on the description of the pore structure and the modelling of the properties of the porous building materials. Two examples are given , where it has been possible to connect the pore structure to the properties: Shrinkage of autoclaved aerated concrete...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fortification of cassava peel meals in balanced diets for rabbits. Abstract · Vol 31 (2004) - Articles Toxicological Assessment Of Veronia amygdaliana Leaf Meal In Nutrition Of Starter Broiler Chicks Abstract · Vol 31 (2004) - Articles Protein Quality Of Autoclaved Cowpea Varieties As Influenced By Anti-Nutritional Factors

  13. Sterilization by irradiation of feed for axenic or heteroxenic laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Lebe, L.

    1979-01-01

    Sterilization by irradiation of animal feeds is promising. The objective of experiments presented is to determine if integrated dose (44 kGy) has an influence on breeding performances and on animal behavior. Results show that not only nothing abnormal is constated but performances are better than those obtained with an autoclave in an important breeding center in conditions perfectly analyzed [fr

  14. Smallpox and pan-Orthodox Virus Detection by Real-Time 3’-Minor Groove Binder TaqMan Assays Oil the Roche LightCycler and the Cepheid Smart Cycler Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-08

    Bacillus anthracis BA0068 Ames Sterne SPS 97.13.213 Bacillus cereus Bacillus coagulans Bacillus licheniformis Bacillus macerans Bacillus ...megaterium Bacillus polymyxa Bacillus sphaericus Bacillus stearothermophilus Bacillus subtilis subsp. niger Bacillus thuringiensis Bacillus popilliae...varicella- zoster virus, and Bacillus anthracis DNA by LightCycler polymerase chain reaction after autoclaving:

  15. Generation and management of medical waste in Serbia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šerović Radmila M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents generation, quantities and medical waste (MW management in Serbia. It represents assessment methods and total annual MW generation by categories. It was concluded that pharmaceutical (64% and infectious (32% MW production is the largest. According to available data, MW management in Serbia is currently at low level, except when it comes to infectious waste. Research proposed simpler treatment methods in existing autoclaves and complex methods (incineration and plasma-pyrolysis, as well as short-term and long-term solutions. Predicted MW growing amount requires existing capacity increase for processing and new solutions application. Installed autoclaves capacity could be increased by increasing working time, in order to avoid additional investment. However, treatment in autoclave is only suitable for infectious MW. For other medical waste, which main fractions are pharmaceutical and chemical waste, there is no infrastructure. As temporary solution, pharmaceutical waste is treated abroad which in longer period is not financially feasible. Considering that MW treatment in Serbia currently is based on health facilities network equipped with autoclaves, as central (CTF and local (LTF treatments facilities for infectious waste treatment, it is recommended additional capacity implementation for treatment of non-infectious waste to this network, with simultaneous management level optimization of whole MW.

  16. chemical safety and chemical security overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    Wafaa M. Abdou. Chemical Industries Division, National Research Centre, ... substances to attain an acceptably low risk of exposure. Security is: ... Sharing locations of chemicals can publicize targets for theft .... D. Personal Protective Equipments (PPE): ... E. Lighting & Noise Levels ... PPE. ➢ Autoclave or sterilize wastes.

  17. PATTERNS OF SEVEN AND COMPLICATED MALARIA IN CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2011-03-25

    Mar 25, 2011 ... HEALTH CENTERS OF JIMMA ZONE, SOUTHWEST ETHIOPIA ... supplies, characteristics of health care provider, adherence to the ... linked to outcome of services, safety, decline in .... center had Sterilizer /Autoclave, Blood pressure ..... E, Asefa M, J .Chali, T.Fasil. ... satisfaction; Individual perception; Iran.

  18. Extracellular acid protease from Aspergillus niger I1: purification and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... A new strain of Aspergillus niger producing acid protease was isolated and identified by universal primers NL1 and .... Media were autoclaved at 120°C for 20 min. ... molecular weight calibration kit as markers consisting of bovine ... then removed by washing the gel three times with 100 mM ..... New York.

  19. Porous Concrete and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Opekunov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of resource saving problem in the process of mass construction and operation of heated construction installations are considered in the paper. A special attention is paid to necessary application of porous concrete products in the process of the housing construction. The preference is given to the products made of autoclave cellular concrete and cement hydrophobisized cement perlite concrete.

  20. FY 1974 Report on results of Sunshine Project. Research and development of slurry serviceable under geothermal conditions; 1974 nendo chinetsu kankyoka de shiyo kanona deisui no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-30

    Summarized herein are the results of (1) surveys on autoclaves, (2) researches on water/clay-based slurry materials, and (3) surveys on and designs of spent slurry treatment test systems. For the item (1), the autoclaves serviceable at normal working temperature of 250 degrees C and pressure of 500 kg/cm{sup 2} for testing slurry materials were surveyed, to set the maximum temperature of 300 degrees C and pressure of 300 kg/cm{sup 2} and volume of 200 cc. The autoclave satisfying the above conditions is to be purchased. For the item (2), surveys are still underway on agents, e.g., dispersantsand and deflocculants currently available both in Japan and abroad as the slurry components. Several types of dispersants and deflocculants were tested with slurries of low-solid suspensions containing 3 to 5 wt.% of bentonite, to follow their properties changing with content of the agent by a viscometer serviceable at high temperature and pressure, when the slurries are thermally treated at 150 to 200 degrees C. At the same time, the dispersants and deflocculants currently used were tested by an autoclave to follow thermal changes at 200 degrees C by an infrared spectrophotometer. For the item (3), surveys were conducted on spent slurry treatment test systems necessary for studying treatment of spent water/clay-based slurries. (NEDO)

  1. Effect of cooking methods on available and unavailable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... treatment. Key words: Legume grains, available and unavailable carbohydrates, cooking, autoclaving. INTRODUCTION. Grain legumes are foodstuffs of great nutritional signifi- cance to .... amount of disaccharide sucrose, accounting for 3.76 g/100 .... organoleptic properties of food (Tharanathan and.

  2. VC@C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-03-09

    Mar 9, 2012 ... A novel approach to the fabrication of vanadium carbide encapsulated into carbon nanotube (VC@C) core-shell .... mixed solution was transferred into a 600 mL stainless steel autoclave after the solution became suspension. An auto- clave was sealed and maintained at 180. ◦. C for 48 h and then cooled to ...

  3. Biological nitrate removal from synthetic wastewater using a fungal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-04-02

    -stage ... grass, instead of non-autoclaved grass containing natural microbial consortia, as sup- ... 25ºC within a 20 ℓ plastic bag, along with a 1 ℓ conical flask ... of cellulases and xylanases – the two major hydrolytic enzyme.

  4. ISOLATION OF TYPICAL MARINE-BACTERIA BY DILUTION CULTURE - GROWTH, MAINTENANCE, AND CHARACTERISTICS OF ISOLATES UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHUT, F; DEVRIES, EJ; GOTTSCHAL, JC; ROBERTSON, BR; HARDER, W; PRINS, R A; BUTTON, DK

    Marine bacteria in Resurrection Bay near Seward, Alaska, and in the central North Sea off the Dutch coast were cultured in filtered autoclaved seawater following dilution to extinction. The populations present before dilution varied from 0.11 x 10(9) to 1.07 x 10(9) cells per liter. The mean cell

  5. Analysis of boron nitride by flame spectrometry methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegin, G.F.; Chapysheva, G.Ya.; Shilkina, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed for determination of free and total boron contents as well as trace impurities in boron nitride by using autoclave sample decomposition followed by atomic emission and atomic absorption determination. The relative standard deviation is not greater than 0.03 in the determination of free boron 0.012 in the determination of total boron content

  6. Isoflavone content and antioxidant activity of Thai fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... cleaned and soaked in water overnight, then autoclaved at 121°C for 15 min. Sterilized ... rate of 1 ml/min and detection by UV absorbance at 262 nm. The ... color, capsule shape, capsule breakage, capsule leakage and odor.

  7. Innovative transparent armour concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Broos, J.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since WWII transparent armour consists of a multi-layer of glass panels bonded by thin polymer bond-films using an autoclave process. TNO has worked on the development of innovative transparent armour concepts that are lighter and a have better multi-hit capacity. Two new transparent armour

  8. Volatile metabolites profiling of a Chinese mangrove endophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ufuoma

    plant Rhizophora mucronata, produces a mixture of volatile metabolites. As determined ... screened using 2,2'-diphenyl-b-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. This is the ... night prior to autoclaving, two flasks) at room temperature under ... stand at room temperature for 30 min in the dark and absorbance.

  9. Alkylpyrazines produced by bacterial spoilage of heat-treated and gamma-irradiated coconut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinderlerer, J.L.; Kellard, B.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports the sterilisation of coconut by autoclaving or gamma irradiation, followed by storage in water at 25 0 C for 8 weeks. Bacillus subtilis developed after storage in water. The volatile compounds formed as a result of bacterial activity were extracted and identified. (U.K.)

  10. Technetium-99m labeled radiodiagnostic agents for liver and bone marrow scanning and method of preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinski, V.J.; Peacock, F.R.

    1977-01-01

    An improved technetium-99m labeled colloid and method of preparation comprising reducing technetium-99m with stannous oxalate and stabilizing with sodium phytate are described. This radiodiagnostic agent is useful in the scintigraphic examination of the reticuloendothelial system, particularly the liver. In addition, by autoclaving this product with saline, it becomes a superior bone marrow scanning agent

  11. On the Assessment of Susceptor-Assisted Induction Curing of Adhesively Bonded Joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severijns, C.P.A.; Teixeira De Freitas, S.; Poulis, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    The autoclave/oven curing process is known to be the current manufacturing technique that provides the best quality of composite laminates and bonded joints. However, this process implies high acquisition cost and a large ecological footprint. Furthermore, with the current complete aeroplane

  12. Multielement methods of atomic fluorescence analysis of enviromental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigin, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    A multielement method of atomic fluorescence analysis of environmental samples based on sample decomposition by autoclave fluorination and gas-phase atomization of volatile compounds in inductive araon plasma using a nondispersive polychromator is suggested. Detection limits of some elements (Be, Sr, Cd, V, Mo, Te, Ru etc.) for different sample forms introduced in to an analyzer are given

  13. Simple and convenient method for culturing anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Behbehani, M J; Jordan, H V; Santoro, D L

    1982-01-01

    A simple and convenient method for culturing anaerobic bacteria is described. Cultures can be grown in commercially available flasks normally used for preparation of sterile external solutions. A special disposable rubber flask closure maintains anaerobic conditions in the flask after autoclaving. Growth of a variety of anaerobic oral bacteria was comparable to that obtained after anaerobic incubation of broth cultures in Brewer Anaerobic Jars.

  14. 9 CFR 113.455 - Clostridium Perfringens Type D Antitoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Clostridium perfringens Type D. Each serial shall be tested as provided in this section. Any serial found... following words and terms shall mean: (i) International antitoxin unit. (I.U.) That quantity of Epsilon... 0.25 gram of sodium chloride in each 100 ml of distilled water; adjusting the pH to 7.2; autoclaving...

  15. 9 CFR 113.112 - Clostridium Perfringens Type D Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... tested for purity, safety, and potency as prescribed in this section. Any serial found unsatisfactory by... provided in this paragraph. (1) When used in this test, the following words and terms shall mean: (i... distilled water; adjusting the pH to 7.2; autoclaving at 250 °F for 25 minutes; and storing at 4 °C until...

  16. 9 CFR 113.108 - Clostridium Novyi Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... serial found unsatisfactory by any prescribed test shall not be released. (a) Purity test. Final... words and terms shall mean: (i) International antitoxin unit. (I.U.) That quantity of Alpha Antitoxin... chloride in each 100 ml of distilled water; adjusting the pH to 7.2; autoclaving at 121 °C for 25 minutes...

  17. 9 CFR 113.454 - Clostridium Perfringens Type C Antitoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Clostridium perfringens Type C. Each serial shall be tested as provided in this section. Any serial found... following words and terms shall mean: (i) International antitoxin unit. (I.U.) That quantity of Beta... chloride in each 100 ml of distilled water; adjusting the pH to 7.2; autoclaving at 250 °F. for 25 minutes...

  18. 9 CFR 113.109 - Clostridium Sordellii Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prescribed in this section. A serial found unsatisfactory by any prescribed test shall not be released. (a... following words and terms shall mean: (i) International antitoxin unit. (I.U.) That quantity of antitoxin... distilled water; adjusting the pH to 7.2; autoclaving at 121 °C for 25 minutes; and storing at 4 °C until...

  19. [Effects of sterilization and disinfection on mechanical properties of Sentalloy springs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalone, M; Amalto, L; Cocconi, R; Ciafone, E

    1991-01-01

    The Authors evaluated mechanic characteristics of open and close titanium coils after two cycles of simulated usage. Coils undergone to thermic autoclaving didn't show any substantial variation in the forces offered compared to those only disinfected, authorizing reusage with igienic guarantees.

  20. Inhibition of Microbial Growth by Fatty Amine Catalysts from Polyurethane Foam Test Tube Plugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, John A.; Wnuk, Richard J.; Martin, Delano G.

    1975-01-01

    When polyurethane foam test tube plugs are autoclaved, they release volatile fatty amines that inhibit the growth of some microorganisms. The chemical structures of these amines were determined by the use of a gas chromatographmass spectrometer. They are catalysts used to produce the foam. The problem of contaminating growth media with toxic substances released from polymeric materials is discussed. PMID:1096816

  1. Investigation of Maillard reaction involvement in the steam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the possible mechanism of Maillard reaction (MR) involvement in the steam processing of Panax notoginseng (PN) root. Methods: PN root was soaked in water for 24 h and then steamed at 100 °C using an autoclave for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h, respectively. Several indicators associated with MR during ...

  2. Porous rice powder from precipitation of gelatinized flour or starch paste with ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot paste obtained by autoclaving (130oC, 20 psi, 20-30 min) a 5-7% (w/w) rice flour or starch slurry, was precipitated with ethanol (three extractions) to produce a dry, porous, pregelatinized powder with an average particle size of 75.0µm (flour-derived powder), and 41.6µm (starch-derived powder)....

  3. Porous rice powder from the precipitation of gelatinized flour or starch paste with ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot paste obtained by autoclaving (130oC, 20 psi, 20-30 min) a 5-7% (w/w) rice flour or starch slurry was precipitated with ethanol (three extractions) to produce a dry, porous, pregelatinized powder with an average particle size of 75.0µm (flour-derived powder), and 41.6µm (starch-derived powder). ...

  4. Experimental evaluation of cyclic fatigue resistance of four different nickel-titanium instruments after immersion in sodium hypochlorite and/or sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ureyen Kaya BULEM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available NiTi instruments have a high risk of separation due to torsional or flexural fatigue (cyclic fatigue. Chemomechanical preparation, cleaning procedures, chemical disinfection and sterilization cause the corrosion of endodontic instruments that may weaken the fracture resistance of the instruments. Objective To assess the effects of NaOCl immersion and autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of ProFile, FlexMaster, Mtwo and TwistedFiles NiTi instruments (tip size 25, 0.06 taper, n=160. Material and Methods The instruments (n=10 for each subgroup were dynamically immersed in NaOCl; immersed in NaOCl and sterilized in one autoclave cycle; 5 cycles immersed in NaOCl and sterilized in autoclave and not immersed in NaOCl and not sterilized (control group. Dynamic cyclic fatigue resistance was tested. The number of cycles to failure (NCF were statistically analyzed (P.05. Conclusions Cyclic fatigue resistance of the tested NiTi instruments cannot be adversely affected by NaOCl immersion and autoclave sterilization. Production process (TwistedFiles or design (Twisted Files, FlexMaster, Mtwo and ProFile of the instruments can influence their cyclic fatigue resistance.

  5. Some studies on the reaction between fly ash and lime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Blain's air permeability apparatus was used for ... Pulverized lime with high per- centage of CaO (> 80 ... kept in a low-pressure autoclave at an average steam pressure and ... ing the solubility of lime in a solvent containing 1 part by volume of ...

  6. The enhancement of the nutritive value of mango seed kernel through radiation processing and other treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.D.E.

    1999-01-01

    The raw seed kernels of local mango (MSK) varieties (Magnifier indica L.)were analyzed for proximate composition, levels of trypsin inhibitor's, tannins, cyano genetic glucosides, in vitro protein digestibility and apparent metabolizable energy (AME n ) as being affected by boiling, autoclaving, autoclaving as well as radiation processing at doses 5, 10, and 20 KGy. The air-dry mango kernels were found to contain 70, 128, and 67 g kg - 1 of crude protein, crude fat and tannins, respectively. Compared with raw samples the contents of trypsin inhibitory activity (30 TIU g - 1) and cyano genetic glucosides, as hydrocyanic acid, (71 mg g kg - 1) were lowered by boiling, autoclaving and radiation treatments. Only boiling and autoclaving lowered tannins (67.2 g kg - 1) but radiation processing did not have any effect. The in vitro protein digestibility and AME n value by 139% and 72%, respectively. These results indicate that tannins, trypsin inhibitors and cyano genetic glucosides, are responsible for poor nutritive value of MSK

  7. Evaluating Utility Gloves as a Potential Reservoir for Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathy L; Naber, E Donald; Halteman, William A

    2015-08-01

    This pilot study sought to determine the rate and degree to which gram-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus occurred on the inside of utility gloves used at University of Maine at Augusta, Dental Health Programs' dental hygiene clinic. Five steam autoclave utility gloves were randomly selected to serve as control and a convenience sample of 10 used utility gloves were selected from the sterilization area. A sample was collected from a predetermined surface area from the inside of each steam autoclave utility glove and used utility glove. Each sample was used to inoculate a Petri plate containing 2 types of culture media. Samples were incubated at 37° C for 30 to 36 hours in aerobic conditions. Colony forming units (CFU) were counted. Confidence intervals (CI) estimated the rate of contamination with gram-negative K. pneumoniae, E. coli and P. aeruginosa on the inside of steam autoclave utility gloves to be n=33 95% CL [0.000, 0.049], used utility gloves to be n=70, 95% CL [0.000, 0.0303]. Data estimated the rate of contamination with gram-positive S. aureus on the inside of steam autoclave utility gloves to be n=35, 95% CL [0.233, 0.530], used utility gloves to be n=70, 95% CL [0.2730, 0.4975]. Culture media expressed a wide range of CFU from 0 to over 200. The risk of utility glove contamination with gram-negative bacteria is likely low. The expressed growth of S. aureus from steam autoclave utility gloves controls raises questions about the effectiveness and safety of generally accepted sterilization standards for the governmentally mandated use of utility gloves. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  8. Pressure leaching of uranium-bearing Witwatersrand ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovey, H.J.; Stewart, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1955 extensive pressure-leaching testwork has been conducted by Anglo American Research Laboratories (AARL) in laboratory-scale batch autoclaves. In 1958 a small continuous pilot-plant of 45 kg of solids per hour was operated by AARL. In 1974, when high uranium prices were anticipated, Anglo American, encouraged by successful commercial-scale autoclave operations as practised by Outokumpu, Sherritt Gordon, and Impala Platinium, decided to install a continuous pilot plant at Western Deep Levels. At that time the proposed pilot plant was considered to be of prototype size. The project was funded by members of the Nuclear Fuels Corporation (Nufcor). Since its commissioning in February 1977, the pilot plant at Western Deep Levels, which can treat between 10 and 20 tons of dry solids per hour, has been used to test ores from four different mines. The paper compares the uranium extractions and pyrite oxidation obtained in laboratory batch autoclaves with those obtained in the continuous pilot plant. In general, differences in uranium extraction are not great and can be explained; the differences in pyrite oxidation are less well understood. The effect on plant design of the evolution of carbon dioxide during leaching is discussed. Evaluation of the equipment and materials of construction would have been almost impossible in a small-scale batch autoclave. It is doubtful whether such results would have generated the necessary confidence to permit decisions to install a commercial-size plant. The development and performance of the multistage pumps, instrumention, shaft seals and shaft-seal water treatment are discussed. It is concluded that the operation of a large-scale continuous pressure-leaching pilot plant to supplement laboratory batch autoclave tests has been a necessary part of the development of this process [af

  9. Mechanical contribution of lamellar and interlamellar elastin along the mouse aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T E; Lillie, M A; Vogl, A W; Gosline, J M; Shadwick, R E

    2015-10-15

    The mechanical properties of aortic elastin vary regionally, but the microstructural basis for this variation is unknown. This study was designed to identify the relative contributions of lamellar and interlamellar elastin to circumferential load bearing in the mouse thoracic and abdominal aortas. Forces developed in uniaxial tests of samples of fresh and autoclaved aorta were correlated with elastin content and morphology obtained from histology and multiphoton laser scanning microscopy. Autoclaving should render much of the interlamellar elastin mechanically incompetent. In autoclaved tissue force per unit sample width correlated with lamellar elastin content (P≪0.001) but not total elastin content. In fresh tissue at low strain where elastin dominates the mechanical response, forces were higher than in the autoclaved tissue, but force did not correlate with total elastin content. Therefore although interlamellar elastin likely contributed to the stiffness in the fresh aorta, its contribution appeared not in proportion to its quantity. In both fresh and autoclaved tissue, elastin stiffness consistently decreased along the abdominal aorta, a key area for aneurysm development, and this difference could not be fully accounted for on the basis of either lamellar or total elastin content. These findings are relevant to the development of mathematical models of arterial mechanics, particularly for mouse models of arterial diseases involving elastic tissue. In microstructural based models the quantity of each mural constituent determines its contribution to the total response. This study shows elastin's mechanical response cannot necessarily be accounted for on the basis of fibre quantity, orientation, and modulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Larval habitats of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae influences vector competence to Plasmodium falciparum parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouagna Louis C

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of highly competent malaria vectors has been linked to productive larval habitats in the field, but there isn't solid quantitative or qualitative data to support it. To test this, the effect of larval habitat soil substrates on larval development time, pupation rates and vector competence of Anopheles gambiae to Plasmodium falciparum were examined. Methods Soils were collected from active larval habitats with sandy and clay substrates from field sites and their total organic matter estimated. An. gambiae larvae were reared on these soil substrates and the larval development time and pupation rates monitored. The emerging adult mosquitoes were then artificially fed blood with infectious P. falciparum gametocytes from human volunteers and their midguts examined for oocyst infection after seven days. The wing sizes of the mosquitoes were also measured. The effect of autoclaving the soil substrates was also evaluated. Results The total organic matter was significantly different between clay and sandy soils after autoclaving (P = 0.022. A generalized liner model (GLM analysis identified habitat type (clay soil, sandy soil, or lake water and autoclaving (that reduces presence of microbes as significant factors affecting larval development time and oocyst infection intensities in adults. Autoclaving the soils resulted in the production of significantly smaller sized mosquitoes (P = 0.008. Autoclaving clay soils resulted in a significant reduction in Plasmodium falciparum oocyst intensities (P = 0.041 in clay soils (unautoclaved clay soils (4.28 ± 0.18 oocysts/midgut; autoclaved clay soils = 1.17 ± 0.55 oocysts/midgut although no difference (P = 0.480 in infection rates was observed between clay soils (10.4%, sandy soils (5.3% or lake water (7.9%. Conclusion This study suggests an important nutritional role for organic matter and microbial fauna on mosquito fitness and vector competence. It shows that the quality of

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extracts against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus in a microbiological medium and milk of various fat concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Kristen L; Burris, Kellie P; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Davidson, P Michael; Stewart, C Neal

    2014-02-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces are widely used in the preparation of beverages. The calyces contain compounds that exhibit antimicrobial activity, yet little research has been conducted on their possible use in food systems as antimicrobials. Aqueous extracts prepared from the brand "Mi Costenita" were sterilized by membrane filtration (0.22-μm pore size) or autoclaving (121 °C, 30 min) and tested for antimicrobial activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains ATCC 43894 and Cider and Staphylococcus aureus strains SA113 and ATCC 27708 in a microbiological medium and ultrahigh-temperature-processed milk with various fat percentages. Extracts heated by autoclaving exhibited greater activity than did filtered extracts in a microbiological medium. Against E. coli, results of 20 mg/ml filtered extract were not different from those of the control, whereas autoclaved extracts reduced viable cells ca. 3 to 4 log CFU/ml. At 60 mg/ml, both extracts inactivated cells after 24 h. There were reduced populations of both strains of S. aureus (ca. 2.7 and 3 log CFU/ml, respectively) after 24 h of incubation in 40 mg/ml filtered extracts. When grown in autoclaved extracts at 40 mg/ml, both strains of S. aureus were inactivated after 9 h. Autoclaved extracts had decreased anthocyanin content (2.63 mg/liter) compared with filtered extracts (14.27 mg/liter), whereas the phenolic content (48.7 and 53.8 mg/g) remained similar for both treatments. Autoclaved extracts were then tested for activity in milk at various fat concentrations (skim [3.25%]) against a 1:1 mixture of the two strains of E. coli O157:H7 and a 1:1 mixture of the two strains of S. aureus. Extracts at 40 mg/ml inactivated S. aureus after 168 h in skim and whole milk, and E. coli was inactivated after 96 h in 60 mg/ml extract in all fat levels. These findings show the potential use of Hibiscus extracts to prevent the growth of pathogens in foods and beverages.

  12. LC and LD50 values of Bacillus thuringiensis Serovar japonensis strain buibui toxin to Oriental beetle and northern masked chafer larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashtoly, Tamer A; El-Zemaity, Mohamed El-Said; Hussien, Mohamed I; Alm, Steven R

    2009-10-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis serovar japonensis strain Buibui has the potential to be an important control agent for pest scarabs. Bioassays were designed to test B. t. japonensis against two of the major turf and ornamental scarab pests infesting turfgrasses and ornamentals and to serve as a basis for further tests against other scarab pests. LC and LD50 values of B. t. serovarjaponensis strain Buibui toxin and spores were determined by four different bioassays for the oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis (Waterhouse), and northern masked chafer, Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. Oriental beetle larvae were bioassayed in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil from where they were collected (Kingston, RI [native]), in nonautoclaved soil from where the northern masked chafer larvae were collected (Groton, CT [foreign]), and per os. Northern masked chafer larvae were bioassayed in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil from where they were collected (Groton, CT [native]), in nonautoclaved soil from where the oriental beetle larvae were collected (Kingston, RI [foreign]) and per os. LC50 values of 3.93 microg toxin/g autoclaved native soil, 1.80 microg toxin/g nonautoclaved native soil, and 0.42 microg toxin/g nonautoclaved foreign soil and an LD50 value of 0.41 microg per os were determined at 14 d forA. orientalis. LC50 values of 588.28 microg toxin/g autoclaved native soil, 155.10 microg toxin/g nonautoclaved native soil, 265.32 microg toxin/g nonautoclaved foreign soil, and LD50 of 5.21 microg per os were determined at 14 d (soils) and 10 d (per os) for C. borealis. There were significant differences in LC50 values for oriental beetles in autoclaved, nonautoclaved native soil and nonautoclaved foreign soil. There were significant differences in LCo values for northern masked chafers in autoclaved and nonautoclaved native soil. B. t. japonensis can be applied now for control of oriental beetles at rates that are economically competitive with synthetic chemicals. If we can determine the

  13. Elucidating the iodine stress corrosion cracking (SCC) process for zircaloy tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, M.; Shimada, S.; Nishimura, S.; Amano, K.

    1984-01-01

    Several experimental investigations were made to enhance understanding of the iodine stress corrosion cracking (SCC) process for Zircaloy: (1) oxide penetration process, (2) crack initiation process, and (3) crack propagation process. Concerning the effect of the oxide layer produced by conventional steam-autoclaving, no significant difference was found between results for autoclaved and as-pickled samples. Tests with 15 species of metal iodides revealed that only those metal iodides which react thermodynamically with zirconium to produce zirconium tetraiodide (ZrI 4 ) caused SCC of Zircaloy. Detailed SEM examinations were made on the SCC fracture surface of irradiated specimens. The crack propagation rate was expressed with a da/dt=C Ksup(n) type equation by combining results of tests and calculations with a finite element method. (author)

  14. Direct saccharification of milo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-28

    Crude or unrefined milo grain is pulverized to less than 100 mesh, suspended in water, and directly saccharified with enzymes. Thus, 10 kg of pulverized milo (100 mesh) was suspended in 20 liters water, liquified in the presence of bacterial amylase at 90/sup 0/ for 30 minutes and autoclaved for 10 minutes at 120/sup 0/, the liquifaction autoclave procedures were then repeated. The liquified preparation was saccharified in the presence of bacterial glucoamylase at 55/sup 0/ for 72 hours. The percentage saccharification of unrefined milo was 92-97%, which was comparable to that obtained with refined milo or a milo starch preparation. The saccharified milo preparation, when used as a sugar source in glutamic acid, lysine, or inosine fermentation, also showed similar efficiency to that of saccharified milo starch.

  15. Synthesis and some properties of monocrystals. [Monocrystals-SbTiNbO6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popolitov, V I; Yaroslavskij, I M

    1985-01-01

    The Sb2O3-Nb2O5-TiO2- KHF2-H2O2-H2O system was studied in search for new ferroelectric monocrystals containing oxide forms of antimony, niobium and tantalum. The new compounds were synthesized in batch autoclaves at 500-600 deg, temperature gradient along the vertical autoclave axis being 0.2-0.5 degr/cm. The SbTiNbO6 monocrystals formed as a result of hydrothermal synthesis are assigned to rhombic crystal structure, their electric conductivity and dielectric permittivity at room temperature are 10 S xcm and 75, respectively. Differential thermal analysis of samples has shown the presence of phase transformation in them in the 270 to 280 range. Pyroelectric effect has been observed in monocrystals in the -180 to +280 deg range. The synthesized antimony titaniobate is concluded to be a ferroelectric with the Curie point Tsub(C)=280 +- 10 deg.

  16. Studies on residues of 14C malathion in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghezal, F.; Bennaceur, M.

    1991-04-01

    The extractability, the mobility and formation of bound 14C labelled residues in two soils under normal conditions were investigated with malathion. Comparison is made between irradiated and autoclaved soils. The highest concentration of the product is found in the first section (0-4cm) after experiment. Three compounds were found in the soils. 14C malathion is decomposed to 14C02. The degradation is more important in organic matter rich soil. In rich soil, 50% of 14C product is degradated after 17 days. This percentage is only 10%, for poor soil. The 14CO 2 produced in non-sterile soil is 33,05%. This percentage is respectively 10,92% and 3,57% only for irradiated and autoclaved soils

  17. Delamination Resistance Of Laminate Made With VBO MTM46/HTS Prepreg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czarnocki Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A laminate made with the Vacuum Bag Only (VBO prepregs can be cured out of autoclave. Because of low curing pressure such a process can result in deterioration of laminate mechanical properties. They can be significantly lower than those displayed by the autoclave cured ones. The resistance against delamination can be among the most affected. Since this property is a week point of all the laminates it was of particular interest. Delamination resistance of unidirectional laminate made from VBO MTM46/HTS(12K prepreg was in the scope of the presented research and the critical values of the Strain Energy Release Rates and the Paris-type equations corresponding to Mode I, Mode II and Mixed-Mode I/II static and cyclic loadings, respectively, were determined.

  18. The Corrosion Rate Measurement of Inconel 690 on High Temperature andPressure by Using CMS100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriyono; Febrianto

    2000-01-01

    The corrosion rate measurement of Inconel 690 on high temperature andpressure had been done. By using an Autoclave, pressure and temperature canbe simulated. The environment of this experiment is 0.1 ppm of chloridesolution, which permit to dissolved in secondary cooling of steam generator.The corrosion rate measurement was done on temperature between 150 o C and230 o C with step 10 o C. Pressure experiment is the pressure, which occurredin Autoclave. Corrosion rate is measured by CMS100. From the Tafel analysis,corrosion rate of Inconel 690 linearity increased from 6.548 x 10 -5 mpy to4.331 x 10 -4 mpy. It concludes that Inconel 690 is resist on corrosionenvironment, so it's most using on the fabrication of steam generator tubeson the advanced power plant. (author)

  19. Relationship of pressure to temperature rise in overfilled cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, E.J.

    1979-01-01

    Mild steel pressure vessels containing uranium hexafluoride are heated in 96-inch diameter autoclaves to allow the feed material to enter the gaseous diffusion process equipment for enrichment in the uranium 235 isotope. For purposes of safety analysis it is necessary to establish the ability of the instrumentation to shut off the steam supply to the autoclave prior to cylinder rupture if the cylinder has been overfilled. To make this determination requires estimates of the rate of change of pressure with respect to change of temperature at constant volume as a function of the temperature at which the ullage disappears. The paper presents the calculations for the estimation of this rate of change for liquid uranium hexafluoride using the ratio of the coefficients of expansion and compressibility using empirical liquid density data and the Eyring equation of state for liquids. 5 figs. (MB)

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutritional value of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and variability in nutritional value of varieties and breeding lines of dry field beans and peas for chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with day-old broiler type chicks to study the effect of a cobalt-60 source of gamma irradiation and autoclaving on nutritional value of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The variability in nutritional value of varieties and breeding lines of dry field beans and peas was also studied. Total protein (N x 6.25) was not changed appreciably by gamma irradiation (21 Mrad cobalt-60) and autoclaving but solubility in water was decreased. In vitro enzymic digestibility of irradiated bean protein was increased by pepsin alone and with a mixture of trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase. The nutritional value of all varieties of beans, based on chick growth, was significantly improved by gamma irradiation. The irradiated treatment of beans increased nitrogen retention by chicks and decreased uric acid nitrogen excretion in relation to nitrogen intake

  1. Improvements in cross-infection control in general dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, E M; Sarll, D W

    1995-07-08

    A questionnaire about cross-infection control was sent to all GDPs in five FHSAs in the North Western Region. Replies came from 312 dentists, a response rate of 74%. They worked in 185 practices, a response rate of 85%. Gloves were worn routinely by 86% of dentists and 80% of DSAs. Handpieces were autoclaved between patients in 77% of practices. Much however, remains to be improved. DSAs could be better protected if more ultrasonic cleaners were used, eye protection encouraged and heavy duty gloves were available for cleaning instruments. BDA guidelines were reported as being the most influential factor, though it would appear that the media did persuade many practitioners to use autoclavable handpieces and sterilise them after each use.

  2. Effect of peat extract on the hydrolytic enzymes of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawaz, M; Gunasekaran, M

    1988-08-01

    Peat, a partially decomposed plant material rich in minerals and lignocellulose was tested as a substrate for the growth and production of hydrolytic enzymes viz. cellulase, cellobiase and xylanase in Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Three types of peat extracts such as cold, hot water and autoclaved were prepared and tested. Among them, autoclaved extract supported the maximal growth. The intracellular enzyme activities peaked on the fifth day after inoculation irrespective of the media and enzyme tested. Addition of cellobiose and lactose in the medium induced the production of cellulase, xylanase and to a lesser extent cellobiase. Addition of glucose and sucrose to the media resulted in the suppression of all the extracellular enzymes tested. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Utilization of crushed clay brick in cellular concrete production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Aliabdo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research program is to study the effect of using crushed clay brick as an alternative aggregate in aerated concrete. Two series of mixtures were designed to investigate the physico-mechanical properties and micro-structural analysis of autoclave aerated concrete and foamed concrete, respectively. In each series, natural sand was replaced with crushed clay brick aggregate. In both series results showed a significant reduction in unit weight, thermal conductivity and sound attenuation coefficient while porosity has increased. Improvement on compressive strength of autoclave aerated concrete was observed at a percentage of 25% and 50% replacement, while in foamed concrete compressive strength gradually decreased by increasing crushed clay brick aggregate content. A comparatively uniform distribution of pore in case of foamed concrete with natural sand was observed by scanning electron microscope, while the pores were connected mostly and irregularly for mixes containing a percentage higher than 25% clay brick aggregate.

  4. Feasibility of Carbon Fiber/PEEK Composites for Cryogenic Fuel Tank Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, K.; Doyle, A.; O Bradaigh, C. M.; Jaredson, D.

    2012-07-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of CF/PEEK composites for manufacture of cryogenic fuel tanks for Next Generation Space Launchers. The material considered is CF/PEEK tape from Suprem SA and the proposed manufacturing process for the fuel tank is Automated Tape Placement. Material characterization was carried out on test laminates manufactured in an autoclave and also by Automated Tape Placement with in-situ consolidation. The results of the two processes were compared to establish if there is any knock down in properties for the automated tape placement process. A permeability test rig was setup with a helium leak detector and the effect of thermal cycling on the permeability properties of CF/PEEK was measured. A 1/10th scale demonstrator was designed and manufactured consisting of a cylinder manufactured by automated tape placement and an upper dome manufactured by autoclave processing. The assembly was achieved by Amorphous Interlayer Bonding with PEI.

  5. Condensation reactions of glucose and aromatic ring; Glucose to hokokan tono shukugo hanno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komano, T.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T.; Tanaka, C.; Yoshioka, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology; Sugimoto, Y.; Miki, Y. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For artificial coalification, condensation reactions of aromatic ring and activated compounds produced by dehydrating reaction of glucose were studied experimentally. In heat treatment experiment in water, three reaction specimens such as glucose, glucose and phenol, and glucose and benzaldehyde were fed into an autoclave together with distilled water, and subjected to reaction at 180{degree}C under spontaneous pressure for 50 hours. In hydrogenation experiment, the specimens were fed into an autoclave together with tetradecane and sulfurization catalyst, and subjected to reaction at 350{degree}C under initial pressure of 9.8MPa for 2 hours for gas chromatography (GC) analysis of products. As the experimental result, the reaction between glucose and aromatic ring in heat treatment in water occurred between aromatic ring and active fragment with a mean carbon number of 4-5 produced by decomposition of glucose. The reactivity was higher in benzaldehyde addition than phenol addition. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. A Novel Submicron Emulsion System Loaded with Doxorubicin Overcome Multi-Drug Resistance in MCF-7/ADR Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W P; Hua, H Y; Sun, P C; Zhao, Y X

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop the Solutol HS15-based doxorubicin submicron emulsion with good stability and overcoming multi-drug resistance. In this study, we prepared doxorubicin submicron emulsion, and examined the stability after autoclaving, the in vitro cytotoxic activity, the intracellular accumulation and apoptpsis of doxorubicin submicron emulsion in MCF-7/ADR cells. The physicochemical properties of doxorubicin submicron emulsion were not significantly affected after autoclaving. The doxorubicin submicron emulsion significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin submicron emulsion and enhanced cytotoxic activity and apoptotic effects of doxorubicin. These results may be correlated to doxorubicin submicron emulsion inhibitory effects on efflux pumps through the progressive release of intracellular free Solutol HS15 from doxorubicin submicron emulsion. Furthermore, these in vitro results suggest that the Solutol HS15-based submicron emulsion may be a potentially useful drug delivery system to circumvent multi-drug resistance of tumor cells.

  7. Basic studies on carbon steel decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavarotti, M.; Rizzi, R.; Ronchetti, C.

    1982-01-01

    The dissolution of magnetite films grown in autoclave at high temperature on carbon steel has been performed in a dynamic loop in ammoniated citric and oxalic acid solutions at two different temperatures and constant pH. The dissolution process seems to be affected by the dual-layer oxide morphology depending on the growth conditions in the autoclave. The open-circuit potential of the specimens and the corrosion rate measured by the linear polarization method have been monitored. To this aim a particular corrosion cell and a suitable reference electrode have been set up at CISE. Polarization curves have been performed to check the electrochemical processes involved in the anodic and cathodic area. At last the effect of a corrosion inhibitor, of a complexing and a reducing agent and of temperature has also been studied. The work was carried out in the frame of a CNEN research programme for the development of the CIRENE prototype

  8. Polysialates binders preparation and their influence to shear strength of foundry sand mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fridrich

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with polysialates water-glasses preparation. There were used various procedures with the goal to create inorganic polymer on silicon and aluminum base. The one composed of SiO2 and AlO4 tetrahedron chains. For the preparation was concentrated NaOH solution used together with metakaolinite in a way low-temperature synthesis in the presence of alkaline silicate: higher pressure and temperature (autoclave to direct making of alkaline silicate made of sand, NaOH with metakaolinite addition and by melting fritted glass together with metakaolinite and dissolution in autoclave. The dissolving effectivity was evaluated by the concentration of aluminum in alkaline silicate and by the influence to reduce strengths after heat exposition with this inorganic binder.

  9. Bio sorption of Reactive Dye from Textile Wastewater by Non-viable Biomass of Aspergillus niger and Spirogyra sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaf, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Potential of Aspergillus niger fungus and Spirogyra sp., a fresh water green algae, was investigated as a bio sorbents for removal of reactive dye (Synazol) from its multi-component textile wastewater. Pre-treatment of fungal and algal biomass with autoclaving increased the removal of dye more than that pre-treated with gamma-irradiation. The heat dried autoclaved biomass for the 2 organisms exhibited maximum dye removal at ph 3, temperature 30 degree C and 8 g/l (w/v) biomass conc. after 18 h contact time. The results showed that the non-viable biomass possessed high stability and efficiency of dye removal over 3 repeated batches

  10. The effect of synthesis conditions on the formation of titanate nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamar, M.; Yoon, C. R.; Oh, H. J.; Kim, S. J. [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D. H.; Lee, K. S. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H. G. [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    The TiO{sub 2} sol was prepared hydrothermally in an autoclave from aqueous TiOCl{sub 2} solutions as a starting precursor. Hollow fibers were obtained when the sol-gel-derived TiO{sub 2} sol was treated chemically with a NaOH solution and subsequently heated in the autoclave under various conditions. A systematic analysis of the influence of different NaOH concentrations on the formation of nanotubes was carried out. The details of the nanotubular structure were investigated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brauner-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. From the TEM images, the outer and the inner diameters of the tubes were measured to be about 8 and 4 nm, respectively, the lengths were measured to be several hundreds of nanometers.

  11. Embedding of MEMS pressure and temperature sensors in carbon fiber composites: a manufacturing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidinejad, Amir; Joshi, Shiv P.

    2000-06-01

    In this paper embedding of surface mount pressure and temperature sensors in the Carbon fiber composites are described. A commercially available surface mount pressure and temperature sensor are used for embedding in a composite lay- up of IM6/HST-7, IM6/3501 and AS4/E7T1-2 prepregs. The fabrication techniques developed here are the focus of this paper and provide for a successful embedding procedure of pressure sensors in fibrous composites. The techniques for positioning and insulating, the sensor and the lead wires, from the conductive carbon prepregs are described and illustrated. Procedural techniques are developed and discussed for isolating the sensor's flow-opening, from the exposure to the prepreg epoxy flow and exposure to the fibrous particles, during the autoclave curing of the composite laminate. The effects of the autoclave cycle (if any) on the operation of the embedded pressure sensor are discussed.

  12. Vegetable Protein Sources Used as Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Colibar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The comparative effect of using some vegetal raw flours (Glycine hispida, Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia faba, treated by autoclaving, introduced in the feeding white rats, was followed by the presented experiments. Feeding growing rats with diets containing raw grain legumes, as the main source of protein, reduce the rate of growth. This effect attenuates with the aging of rats. Inhibition of growth is the most evident in the consumption of raw beans (by 33% over the control group. Autoclaving reduces the level of anti-nutritive factors (with 0.2% - 36.73% and decreases the growth inhibition (with 10.7% - 27.51%.

  13. Application of the VAW tube digester for metallurgical pressure-leaching processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempf, F.; Pietsch, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    Problems associated with the treatment of complex and refractory ores or concentrates, as well as those related to environmental factors, have led to increased interest in hydrometallurgy under elevated temperatures and pressures. Pressure leaching can be carried out in vertical, horizontal or spherical autoclaves equipped with mechanical agitators. If high throughput capacities are catered for, the division of a conventional plant into several units is inevitable. By contrast, the VAW (Vereinigte Aluminium-Werke Aktiengesellschaft) tube digester enables hydrometallurgical processes to be carried out under pressure and at a high temperature with the use of a basically simple technology, extremely high specific throughput and improved thermal economics being achieved. The advantages of the tube digester over vessel autoclaves are described, and details of laboratory investigations into the applicability of tube digesters to various metallurgical applications are given. Test results are given for the leaching of refractory uranium ores. (author)

  14. Gamma Ray Sterilization of Starr-Edwards Heart Valve Prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, J. R. P.; Alladine, M. F. [London Chest Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1967-09-15

    Starr-Edwards valves have normally been sterilized by exposure to ethylene oxide or by autoclaving. Patients having a prosthetic valve replacement are known to have a higher incidence of endocarditis in comparison with patients in which no prosthesis has been used. Ethylene oxide will only sterilize the surface of the valve and autoclaving has caused distortion of the polytetrafluorethylene ring. Work has been done on the effect of gamma radiation on the components of these valve prostheses and is given in detail. The bacteriological efficiency, at a total absorbed dose of 2. 5 Mrad, has been established. Thirty valves treated by this method have now been inserted and twelve patients have been examined post-operatively for a period of one to two years. All valves are working normally and there has been no evidence of blood-borne infection or malfunction of the valve. (author)

  15. Sterilization of MacConkey agar and CLED medium by gamma-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogokowsky, B; Eisenberg, E; Altmann, G

    1983-10-01

    MacConkey agar and Cystine-Lactose-Electrolyte-Deficient (CLED) agar, media widely used in the bacteriological laboratory and recommended for the detection of urinary tract infections, were sterilized by gamma-radiation at a dose of 1.5 Mrad. Both were modified and adapted to radiation sterilization by adding sodium thioglycollate as a radioprotectant, and by increasing their indicator content. The media performed well when tested with different Enterobacteria and other micro-organisms. Growth and change of indicator reaction were equal in irradiated and autoclaved culture media. Culture media were also evaluated after storage for one month at room temperature and at 4 degrees C and compared well with freshly autoclaved media.

  16. Sterilization of MacConkey agar and CLED medium by. gamma. -radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogokowsky, B; Altmann, G [Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel); Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Medical School); Eisenberg, E [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne. Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1983-10-01

    MacConkey agar and Cystine-Lactose-Electrolyte-Deficient (CLED) agar, media widely used in the bacteriological laboratory and recommended for the detection of urinary tract infections, were sterilized by ..gamma..-radiation at a dose of 1.5 Mrad. Both were modified and adapted to radiation sterilization by adding sodium thioglycollate as a radioprotectant, and by increasing their indicator content. The media performed well when tested with different Enterobacteria and other micro-organisms. Growth and change of indicator reaction were equal in irradiated and autoclaved culture media. Culture media were also evaluated after storage for one month at room temperature and at 4/sup 0/C and compared well with freshly autoclaved media.

  17. Fate of [15N]glycine in peat as determined by 13C and 15N CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzing-Purdie, L.M.; Cheshire, M.V.; Williams, B.L.; Sparling, G.P.; Ratcliffe, C.I.; Ripmeester, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Peat samples, nonsterile, sterilized by γ irradiation or autoclaving, were incubated with [ 15 N]glycine for a period of 6 months. The 13 C NMR data showed the established trend of increased humification with decreasing particle size and that autoclaving had significantly disturbed the humification-particle size distribution. The 15 N CP-MAS NMR spectra showed the presence of [ 15 N]glycine in all fractions after incubation. 15 NH 4 + , a result of either biological or chemical deamination, was one of the main products in the nonsterile peat series. The 15 N spectra also showed resonances corresponding to amine, secondary amide, and pyrrole-type nitrogen and the presence of glycine derivatives and melanoidins. The results presented give the first spectroscopic evidence of the possible involvement of the Maillard reaction in the humification process

  18. Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

  19. Metal dissolution kinetics in organic solvents using rotating ring-disc voltammetry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The effect of a two-phased liquid system - composed of geothermal brine and an organic heat transfer fluid - on the stability of materials used in the energy conversion system was investigated. The principle organic liquids used were isobutane and isopentane. The effects of relative fluid velocity on the corrosion behavior of representative construction materials, austenitic stainless steels, nickel, and copper alloy were determined using an autoclave incorporating a rotating ring-disc electrode. 2 refs., 20 figs. (ACR)

  20. Nosocomial outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, I; Valencia, R; Torres, M J; Cantos, A; Conde, M; Aznar, J

    2006-11-01

    We describe an outbreak of nosocomial endophthalmitis due to a common source, which was determined to be trypan blue solution prepared in the hospital's pharmacy service. We assume that viable bacteria probably gained access to the trypan blue stock solution during cooling after autoclaving. The temporal cluster of Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis was readily perceived on the basis of clinical and microbiological findings, and an exogenous source of contamination was unequivocally identified by means of DNA fingerprinting.

  1. Micropropagation of Dioscorea alata L. from microtubers induced in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    house

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... BAP at 2 to 3 mg l-1 combined with 20 to 30 g l-1 sucrose was more effective than Kin and NAA. It gave rise to .... Murashige and Skoog salt medium (1962) (MS/2) supplemented with Morel ... solution (0.1 N) before autoclaving at 115°C for 30 min under a pressure ...... Nyochembeng LM, Stephen G (1998).

  2. Eudialyte as potential industrial rare metal sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekmarev, A.M.; Chizhevskaya, S.V.; Masloboev, V.A.; Efremova, E.A.; Sharonov, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    The structural features and chemial compostion of eudialyte, zirconium silicate mineral, containing zirconium, niobium, tantalum, rare earth and other elements are considered. A brief review of studies of sulfuric acid decomposition of endialyte, including autoclave one, aimed at extraction of zirconium and other valuable components is given. The leaching methods providing a high direct zirconium yield into the solution, preparation of well-filtered pulps and permitting to realize further reprocessing of solutions by the extraction methods are discussed. 20 refs.; 4 figs

  3. Portable Device Slices Thermoplastic Prepregs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Beverly A.; Boston, Morton W.; Wilson, Maywood L.

    1993-01-01

    Prepreg slitter designed to slit various widths rapidly by use of slicing bar holding several blades, each capable of slicing strip of preset width in single pass. Produces material evenly sliced and does not contain jagged edges. Used for various applications in such batch processes involving composite materials as press molding and autoclaving, and in such continuous processes as pultrusion. Useful to all manufacturers of thermoplastic composites, and in slicing B-staged thermoset composites.

  4. An experimental investigation of the consolidation behaviour of uncured prepregs under processing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon-Pearson, Ollie; Belnoue, Jonathan; Ivanov, Dmitry; Potter, Kevin; Hallett, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology and research study that characterises toughened materials, as is needed for optimisation of composite manufacturing processes. The specific challenge is to cover all of the stages of advanced composite manufacturing: fibre deposition by automatic fibre placement machines, hot or room temperature debulking, and consolidation in an autoclave. In these processes the material experiences a wide range of processing parameters: pressure, load rate, temperatures, an...

  5. EXPRESSION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RECOMBINANT β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    enzyme had an optimum pH and temperature of 6.0 and 40 oC .... were sterilized by autoclave on liquid cycle at 121 oC for 15 ... minutes) at room temperature. ... hydrophobic and ionic interactions stabilize the anionic form of the ..... review. Bioresource Technology, 55(1): 1–33. EasySelectTM Pichia Expression Kit user ...

  6. Service tough composite structures using the Z-direction reinforcement process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Glenn; Magee, Constance; Boyce, Joseph; Bott, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Foster-Miller has developed a new process to provide through thickness reinforcement of composite structures. The process reinforces laminates locally or globally on-tool during standard autoclave processing cycles. Initial test results indicate that the method has the potential to significantly reduce delamination in carbon-epoxy. Laminates reinforced with the z-fiber process have demonstrated significant improvements in mode 1 fracture toughness and compression strength after impact. Unlike alternative methods, in-plane properties are not adversely affected.

  7. Hydrolysis of polycarbonate in sub-critical water in fused silica capillary reactor with in situ Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Z.; Chou, I-Ming; Burruss, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of using fused silica capillary reactor (FSCR) instead of conventional autoclave for studying chemical reactions at elevated pressure and temperature conditions were demonstrated in this study, including the allowance for visual observation under a microscope and in situ Raman spectroscopic characterization of polycarbonate and coexisting phases during hydrolysis in subcritical water.

  8. Mechanical Behaviour of Bolted Joints Under Impact Rates of Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    M. (1995). Bearing Strength of Autoclave and oven cured kevlar / epoxy laminates under static and dynamic loading. Compostes, 451-456. Kretsis, G...Joints in Glass Fibre/ Epoxy Laminates. Composites, Volume 16. No 2. Kolsky, H. (1949). An Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Materials at...elongating the pulse width. The responses are read by the strain gages bonded on the incident and transmission bar with Vishay AE-10 epoxy . The gages

  9. Modeling the curing process of thermosetting resin matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    A model is presented for simulating the curing process of a thermosetting resin matrix composite. The model relates the cure temperature, the cure pressure, and the properties of the prepreg to the thermal, chemical, and rheological processes occurring in the composite during cure. The results calculated with the computer code developed on the basis of the model were compared with the experimental data obtained from autoclave-curved composite laminates. Good agreement between the two sets of results was obtained.

  10. Diagnostics of Polymer Composite Materials and Analysis of Their Production Technology by Using the Method of Acoustic Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkov, O. V.; Protsenko, A. E.; Bryanskii, A. A.; Romashko, R. V.

    2017-09-01

    The strength properties of glass-fiber-reinforced plastics produced by vacuum and vacuum autoclave molding techniques are studied. Based on acoustic emission data, a method of diagnostic and prediction of the bearing capacity of polymer composite materials by using data from three-point bending tests is developed. The method is based on evaluating changes in the exponent of a power function relating the total acoustic emission to the test stress.

  11. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.

    2017-08-01

    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  12. Influence of time and pressure of forming a pattern on mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pacyniak

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the technology of forming patterns on a research station equipped with an autoclave A-600 of Polish company GROM is presented. This study was conducted to determine the influence of pressure and time of forming a pattern on the bending strength. Analysis of the results confirmed that bending strength increases with increasing the pressure. The time of forming a pattern has a similar effect.

  13. Aqueous corrosion study on U-Zr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Titas; Venkatesan, V.; Kumar, Pradeep; Khan, K.B.; Kumar, Arun

    2009-01-01

    In low power or research reactor, U-Zr alloy is a potential candidate for dispersion fuel. Moreover, Zirconium has a low thermal-neutron cross section and uranium alloyed with Zr has excellent corrosion resistance and dimensional stability during thermal cycling. In the present study aqueous corrosion behavior of U-Zr alloy samples was studied in autoclave at 200 deg C temperature. Corrosion rate was determined from weight loss with time. (author)

  14. Synthesis and crystal structure of alkali metal diamido dioxosilicates M2SiO2(NH2)2 with M corresponds to K, Rb and Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, H.; Mengis, H.

    1993-01-01

    SiO 2 - α-quartz - reacts with alkali metal amides MNH 2 (M corresponds to K, Rb, and Cs) in molar ratios from 1:2 to 1:10 at 450 C ≤ T ≤ 600 C and P(NH 3 ) = 6 kbar in autoclaves to diamidodioxosilicates M[SiO 2 (NH 2 ) 2 ]. Crystals of the colourless compounds which hydrolyze rapidly were investigated by X-ray methods. (orig.)

  15. Engineering Photosynthetic Organisms for the Production of Renewable Energy Products and Environmental Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-25

    Standard Form 298 (Rev 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Final Report W911NF-15-1-0055 66342-CH-REP.1 304-414-4062 a. REPORT 14. ABSTRACT 16...centrifuge, Helios gene gun system, gene pulser, qPCR system, bomb calorimeter system, autoclave, orbit shaker, biosafety cabinet, freeze drier... standard growth conditions. Plants were irrigated with no additional nutrients and grown for 8–10 weeks. WT microalgae Chlamydomonas (Chlamydomonas

  16. On the rational technology of low-grade tungsten raw material reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, G.V.; Kulmukhamedov, G.K.; Perlov, P.M.; Zelikman, A.N.; Ivanov, I.M.; Medvedev, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The most rational technology for autoclave alkali reprocessing is presented. It lies in selective extraction of tungsten from alkali, containing the excess soda. It is shown that deep purification of tungsten from silicon, phosphorus and arsenic impurities takes place during tungsten extraction out of alkaline media. The important advantage of alkaline extraction technology is the exclusion of acid usage, possibility of soda regeneration and liquidation of acid flows, which solves the ecological problems

  17. Delignifikasi Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit Dilanjutkan dengan Hidrolisis Bertahap untuk Menghasilkan Glukosa

    OpenAIRE

    Nasruddin

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari proses delignifikasi lignin dari tandan kosong kelapa sawit untuk masing-masing perlakuan dengan berat 500 g dengan larutan NaOH pada konsentrasi 2%; 4%; 6%; dan 8%. Proses delignifikasi berlangsung pada temperatur uap panas dari proses sterilisasi dengan autoclave selama 50 menit; 75 menit; 100 menit; dan 125 menit. Hasil delignifikasi tandan kosong kelapa sawit dicuci dengan air pH 6 – 6,5. Setelah dicuci ditiriskan di atas kawat kasa selama 60 men...

  18. Infection control practices in dental school: A patient perspective from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdul Baseer

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Patients revealed adequate knowledge towards the use of gloves, face mask and spectacles by dentist. However, their knowledge regarding the spread of Hepatitis-B, HIV infection and use of autoclave was poor. Previous visitor of dental clinics showed higher knowledge of infection control as compared to the first time visitors. Many patients expressed their negative attitudes towards dental care due to AIDS and Hepatitis-B concerns.

  19. Survival of Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora (causal agent of soybean stem canker) artificially inoculated in different crop residues

    OpenAIRE

    Grijalba, Pablo; Ridao, Azucena del C.

    2012-01-01

    Stem canker caused by Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora is an important disease of soybean in Argentina. The objective of this study was to determine its survival ability in artificially infested straw under laboratory and field conditions. In laboratory, stem pieces of soybean, maize, sorghum, sunflower, potato and wheat were autoclaved, placed in petri dishes on Potato Dextrose Agar and Water Agar, and inoculated with a 7-day-old pathogen culture. All crop residues were colonized and pro...

  20. Resource recovery from municipal solid waste by mechanical heat treatment: An opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Ibrahim, Nurazim; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz

    2017-04-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) stream in Malaysia consists of 50 to 60 % of food wastes. In general, food wastes are commingled in nature and very difficult to be managed in sustainable manner due to high moisture content. Consequently, by dumping food wastes together with inert wastes to the landfill as final disposal destination incurs large space area and reducing the lifespan of landfill. Therefore, certain fraction of the MSW as such; food wastes (FW) can be diverted from total disposal at the landfill that can improve landfill lifespan and environmental conservation. This study aims to determine the resource characteristics of FW extracted from USM cafeteria by means of mechanical heat treatment in the presence of autoclaving technology. Sampling of FW were conducted by collecting FW samples from disposal storage at designated area within USM campus. FW characteristics was performed prior and autoclaving process. The results have demonstrated that bones fraction was the highest followed by vegetable and rice with 39, 27 and 10%, respectively. Meanwhile, based on autoclaving technique, moisture content of the FW (fresh waste) were able to be reduced ranging from 65-85% to 59-69% (treated waste). Meanwhile, chemical characteristics of treated FW results in pH, TOC, TKN, C/N ratio, TP, and TK 5.12, 27,6%, 1.6%, 17.3%, 0.9% and 0.36%. The results revealed that autoclaving technology is a promising approach for MSW diversion that can be transformed into useful byproducts such as fertilizer, RDF and recyclable items.

  1. Alcohol for cellulosic material using plural ferments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoge, W H

    1977-02-22

    A process is described for producing ethanol (EtOH) from cellulosic materials by first hydrolyzing the material to sugars and then converting the sugars to alcohol by digestion and fermentation. Thus, fibrous cellulosic material obtained from municipal waste slurry was sterilized by autoclaving, followed by inoculation with Trichoderma viride cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From 100 g of raw material, 25 mL of 95% EtOH was produced by this method.

  2. Hydrothermal Crystal Growth of Lithium Tetraborate and Lithium Gamma-Metaborate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    specific reaction conditions, both thermal and chemical. Purification is more likely with small temperature differentials , in a thermodynamic growth regime...7 facilities maintenance, wages , management overhead, etc.) the smaller the operating cost per run, and the faster that the autoclave can pay itself...operation, and not decomposable . Any single entity with symmetry has a point group associated with it—which is a good pedagogical starting point from which

  3. The effects of sterilization on the tensile strength of orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staggers, J A; Margeson, D

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sterilization on the tensile strength of 0.016" beta-titanium, nickel titanium and stainless steel wires. Three common methods of sterilization--autoclaving, dry heat and ethylene oxide--were evaluated in three test trials involving zero, one and five sterilization cycles. For each of the test trials, five pieces each of 0.016" TMA, 0.016" Sentalloy and 0.016" Tru-chrome stainless steel wires were sterilized using a standard autoclave. Five other pieces of each of the same wires were sterilized in a dryclave, while an additional five pieces of each of the three wire types were sterilized using ethylene oxide. The ultimate tensile strengths of the wires were then determined using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. The data were compared for statistical differences using analysis of variance. The results showed that dry heat sterilization significantly increased the tensile strength of TMA wires after one cycle, but not after five cycles. Autoclaving and ethylene oxide sterilization did not significantly alter the tensile strength of TMA wires. Dry heat and autoclave sterilization also significantly increased the tensile strength of Sentalloy wires, but the mean strength after five sterilization cycles was not significantly different than after one cycle. Ethylene oxide sterilization of Sentalloy wires did not significantly alter the tensile strengths of that wire. There were no significant differences in the tensile strengths of the stainless steel wires following zero, one or five cycles for any of the sterilization methods.

  4. Microbial Formation of Ethane in Anoxic Estuarine Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Oremland, Ronald S.

    1981-01-01

    Estuarine sediment slurries produced methane and traces of ethane when incubated under hydrogen. Formation of methane occurred over a broad temperature range with an optimum above 65°C. Ethane formation had a temperature optimum at 40°C. Formation of these two gases was inhibited by air, autoclaving, incubation at 4 and 80°C, and by the methanogenic inhibitor, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. Ethane production was stimulated by addition of ethylthioethanesulfonic acid, and production from ethylthi...

  5. Statement Testimony of Mr. Alan R. Shaffer, Principal Deputy, Defense Research and Engineering Before the United States House of Representatives Committee on Armed Services, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats and Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-20

    Advanced Composite Cargo Aircraft ( ACCA ) platform to assess and validate the structural behavior and cost impact of using large out-of-autoclave...capabilities to fight the current and future wars 3. Improving our acquisition capabilities and accountability . The Department of Defense S&T budget...In fact, the S&T program fared well in comparison to many other discretionary accounts . For instance, the RDT&E budget categories of Advanced

  6. Emergent Rules for Codon Choice Elucidated by Editing Rare Arginine Codons in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-20

    the successful 110 CGU con- versions with the 13 optimized codon substitutions to produce strain C123, in which all 123 AGR codons have been removed...culture medium consisted of LBL autoclaved with 1.5% (wt/vol) Bacto Agar (Fisher), containing the same concentrations of antibiotics as necessary. ColE1...controlling the ef- ficiency of protein translation. Cell 141(2):344–354. 15. Li GW (2015) How do bacteria tune translation efficiency? Curr Opin Microbiol

  7. The Fungi in Old Paper Mixed Bio-sludge Compost and Its Metabolite and PGPR Effect

    OpenAIRE

    森本, 正則; 若山, 晃子; 駒井, 功一郎

    2005-01-01

    [Synopsis] Sometime, the compost products made from bio-sludge and containing paper strips, showed plant growth promoting effect by field application. We have evaluated to separating various fungi from biosludge compost that have PGPR (Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria) effect against some crops by inoculating test into the incubation soil. Test fungi separated from the compost using multiple dilution method and colonization on the PDA agar plate. And, the surface of autoclaved oat serial...

  8. Development of composite aircraft components in INCDT COMOTI, Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca VOICU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the recent research activities within INCDT COMOTI, in the composite materials field. The author makes a short introduction of this field and presents an example of application developed within the composite materials laboratory from INCDT COMOTI, targeting the aeronautic field. The aircraft component is a stator blade made of CFRP composites, integrating new active noise reduction technologies and manufactured by means of the autoclave technology.

  9. Experimental Insights into the Mechanisms of Particle Acceleration by Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolamacchia, T.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    The generation of shock waves is common during explosive volcanic eruptions. Particles acceleration following shock wave propagation has been experimentally observed suggesting the potential hazard related to this phenomenon. Experiments and numerical models focused on the dynamics of formation and propagation of different types of shock waves when overpressurized eruptive mixtures are suddenly released in the atmosphere, using a pseudo-gas approximation to model those mixtures. Nevertheless, the results of several studies indicated that the mechanism of coupling between a gas and solid particles is valid for a limited grain-size range, which at present is not well defined. We are investigating particle acceleration mechanisms using a vertical shock tube consisting of a high-pressure steel autoclave (450 mm long, 28 mm in diameter), pressurized with argon, and a low-pressure 140 mm long acrylic glass autoclave, with the same internal diameter of the HP reservoir. Shock waves are generated by Ar decompression at atmospheric pressures at Pres/Pamb 100:1 to 150:1, through the failure of a diaphragm. Experiments were performed either with empty autoclave or suspending solid analogue particles 150 μm in size inside the LP autoclave. Incident Mach number varied from 1.7 to 2.1. Absolute and relative pressure sensors monitored P histories during the entire process, and a high-speed camera recorded particles movement at 20,000 to 30,000 fps. Preliminary results indicate pressure multiplication at the contact between shock waves and the particles in a time lapse of 100s μs, suggesting a possible different mechanism with respect to gas-particle coupling for particle acceleration.

  10. Gas release from pressurized closed pores in nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, P.; Donnelly, S.E.; Armour, D.G.; Matzke, H.

    1988-01-01

    Gas release from the nuclear fuels UO 2 and UN out of pressurized closed pores produced by autoclave anneals has been studied by Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (TDS). Investigation of gas release during heating and cooling has indicated stress related mechanical effects leading to gas release. This release occurred in a narrow temperature range between about 1000 and 1500 K for UO 2 , but it continued down to ambient temperature for UN. No burst release was observed above 1500 K for UO 2 . (orig.)

  11. CALLUS INDUCTION FROM 15 CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L.) CULTIVARS

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth regulators (PGRs) were used to induce callus in 15 carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.; Caryophyllaceae) cultivars: Orange Sherbert, Avalanche, Magenta, La France, Stripe Red, Marie, Concerto PVP, Snap, Lucky Pierot, Cinnamon Tea, White Love, Siberia, Magesta, Spark Bruno, and Honono no Estejo. Seeds were initially sown on autoclaved moistened filter paper and internodes of surface-sterilized seedlings were used as explants. Most callus was induced in the presence of 0.5 mg/L α-n...

  12. Catalytic valorization of bioethanol to biobutanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riittonen, Toni [Abo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Lab. of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka [Umea Univ. (Sweden). Chemical-Biological Center

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol, or ethyl alcohol, has several physico-chemical disadvantages as engine fuel, such as it's corrosiveness and low energy content. One way to overcome these shortcomings is to upgrade it to higher bioalcohols like 1-butanol. Several catalysts were screened in isobaric minireactors and the most promising ones were subject to further experiments in a high-pressure autoclave batch-reactor setup. (orig.)

  13. Storing of Extracts in Polypropylene Microcentrifuge Tubes Yields Contaminant Peak During Ultra-flow Liquid Chromatographic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kshirsagar, Parthraj R.; Hegde, Harsha; Pai, Sandeep R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: This study was designed to understand the effect of storage in polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials during ultra-flow liquid chromatographic (UFLC) analysis. Materials and Methods: One ml of methanol was placed in polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes (PP material, Autoclavable) and glass vials (Borosilicate) separately for 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 20, 40, and 80 days intervals stored at ?4?C. Results: Contaminant peak was detected in methanol stored in polypropylene m...

  14. Data analysis on reducing damage on equipment's available in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasif Mohamad; Saipo Bahari Abdul Ratan; Ahmad Firdaus Che Hassan; Mazlipah Mohamed Ramlan; Mohd Hazri Mohd Salleh; Ghazali Bachok

    2010-01-01

    Technical Support Division (BST) in the underlying unit of Instrumentation and Automation Center (PIA), has been entrusted to carry out repair work on the equipment's available at Nuclear Malaysia as well as help rehabilitate and provide advisory services to foreign companies in need of our services. These data taken to determine the cause of damage to seek a solution to reduce damage in future. Tools do get involved are autoclave, Water Distiller, Barometer, Vaccum Pump and Chiller and Freezer. (author)

  15. Thawing of ice in porous space of building materials: Experimental monitoring and computational modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, Jan; Maděra, Jiří; Kočí, Václav; Hlaváčová, Zuzana; Černý, Robert

    2017-11-01

    A simple laboratory experiment for the determination of thermal response of a studied sample during thawing is described in the paper. The sample made of autoclaved aerated concrete was partially water saturated and frozen. Then, the temperature development during thawing was recorded, allowing to identify the time scale of the phase change process taking place inside the sample. The experimental data was then used in the inverse analysis, in order to find unknown parameters of the smoothed effective specific heat capacity model.

  16. Perlite as a carrier of phosphate-accumulating bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivankovic, T.; Hrenovic, J.; Sekovanic, L.; Tofant, A.

    2009-01-01

    The phosphate (P)-accumulating bacteria are important for biological P removal from wastewater. Currently, attention is being drawn to the immobilisation of desired bacteria on different carriers in order to achieve a better efficiency of the wastewater treatment. In this study, two size fractions (0.1-1 and 0.1-2 mm) of different forms of expanded perlite (original, autoclaved and magnesium-exchanged) were investigates as possible carriers of P accumulating bacterium. (Author)

  17. Antifungal Metabolites (Monorden, Monocillin IV, and Cerebrosides) from Humicola fuscoatra Traaen NRRL 22980, a Mycoparasite of Aspergillus flavus Sclerotia

    OpenAIRE

    Wicklow, Donald T.; Joshi, Biren K.; Gamble, William R.; Gloer, James B.; Dowd, Patrick F.

    1998-01-01

    The mycoparasite Humicola fuscoatra NRRL 22980 was isolated from a sclerotium of Aspergillus flavus that had been buried in a cornfield near Tifton, Ga. When grown on autoclaved rice, this fungus produced the antifungal metabolites monorden, monocillin IV, and a new monorden analog. Each metabolite produced a clear zone of inhibition surrounding paper assay disks on agar plates seeded with conidia of A. flavus. Monorden was twice as inhibitory to A. flavus mycelium extension (MIC > 28 μg/ml) ...

  18. 2328-IJBCS-Article-Dr Oscar E.M Faton

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Botrytis cinerea à une température de 24 °C. Cet effet bénéfique est obtenu même en absence de tout agent pathogène. En effet,. Windham et al. (1986) ont montré que l'addition de T. harzianum et de T. koningii à un sol préalablement autoclavé a augmenté le pourcentage de germination des semences de tomate et du ...

  19. Ingredients derived from the slaughter of bovines in dog food

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Karina De Carli; Haese, Douglas; Kill, João Luís; Pires, Achicine Furno; Fernandes, Danieli Rankel; Colnago, Geraldo Luiz; Lucas, Wendius Henrique; Gama, Gabriela Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the nutritional levels, apparent digestibility coefficients, and faecal characteristics of dogs fed with four by-products from bovine slaughter: testicles, residue sirloin steak, trachea, and liver. Ingredients were processed and packed in tins for heat treatment in autoclaves. For the digestibility and faeces quality, ingredients were mixed with a reference diet (commercial food) in the proportion of 30g kg-1 test ingredient and 70g kg-1 reference diet (as dry ...

  20. Radiation Sterilization of Two Commonly Culture Media Used for Bacterial Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hifnawi, H.N.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation sterilization of culture media used for the cultivation of bacteria by Co-60 gamma ray was investigated. Nutrient agar and tryptone glucose yeast extract (TGY) media widely used for the propagation of bacteria were sterilized with 15 kGy dose gamma radiation. Seven different bacterial species were grown as well on the radiation sterilized media as on media sterilized by autoclaving in a conventional way

  1. Application of LCR Waves to Inspect Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    the manufacturing of aircraft Aluminum, where alloys for coatings and structural reinforcements are laminated . This process produces a symmetry...AS4), unidirectional, pre-impregnated ( prepreg ) with epoxy matrix (HexPly® 8552 from Hexcel®). Table 1 shows the materials’ properties. The...Figure 5 – Manufacturing of composite parts. Left: cutting machine. Right: Autoclave Table 1. Physical and mechanical properties of prepreg

  2. A Fully Contained Resin Infusion Process for Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composite Fabrication and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Figures iv  Acknowledgments v  1.  Introduction 1  2.  Experimental 2  2.1  Composite Laminate Fabrication...2 Figure 2. Image of fiberglass composite being fabricated using VARTM processing. 2. Experimental 2.1 Composite Laminate Fabrication...style 5 × 5 plain 5 weave prepreg S-2 fiberglass fabric and a honeycomb core cured in an autoclave, much like the composite parts fielded in

  3. Corrosion Protection of Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, R. S.; Nelson, W. B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred.

  4. Evaluation of different sterilization and disinfection methods on commercially made preformed crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Y; Guler, C

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes caused by different sterilization or disinfection methods on the vestibular surface of four commercially made preformed crowns using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Preformed crowns (NuSmile Primary Anterior Crown (NSC), Kinder Krowns (KK), Pedo Pearls (PP) and polycarbonate crowns (PC)) were sterilized and/or disinfected by one of the following techniques: no sterilization or disinfection (G1 control group); steam autoclaving at 134 degrees C (30 psi) for 4 min (G2); steam autoclaving at 134 degrees C (30 psi) for 12 min (G3); steam autoclaving at 121 degrees C (15 psi) for 30 min (G4); and ultrasonication in a bath containing 4% Lysetol AF for 5 min at room temperature (chemical disinfection) (G5). Scanning electron micrographs of the crowns were taken before and after their sterilization or disinfection. The changes on the vestibular surface were then scored for the presence or absence of crazing, contour alteration, fracturing, and vestibular surface changes. The data were analyzed statistically using the chi-square test. No changes were observed before and after sterilization or disinfection in the stereomicroscopic evaluation of the vestibular surface of the crowns. However, all methods in which steam autoclaving was used to sterilize the crowns caused significant (P < 0.05) crazing and contour alterations of the vestibular surface of the crowns when they were examined by SEM. Chemical disinfection using an aldehyde-free disinfectant is the preferred method of disinfection for crowns that have been used previously in other dental patients.

  5. Failure and life cycle evaluation of watering valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, David M; Graciano, Sandy J; Karlstad, John; Leblanc, Mathias; Clark, Tom; Holmes, Scott; Reuter, Jon D

    2011-09-01

    Automated watering systems provide a reliable source of ad libitum water to animal cages. Our facility uses an automated water delivery system to support approximately 95% of the housed population (approximately 14,000 mouse cages). Drinking valve failure rates from 2002 through 2006 never exceeded the manufacturer standard of 0.1% total failure, based on monthly cage census and the number of floods. In 2007, we noted an increase in both flooding and cases of clinical dehydration in our mouse population. Using manufacturer's specifications for a water flow rate of 25 to 50 mL/min, we initiated a wide-scale screening of all valves used. During a 4-mo period, approximately 17,000 valves were assessed, of which 2200 failed according to scoring criteria (12.9% overall; 7.2% low flow; 1.6% no flow; 4.1% leaky). Factors leading to valve failures included residual metal shavings, silicone flash, introduced debris or bedding, and (most common) distortion of the autoclave-rated internal diaphragm and O-ring. Further evaluation revealed that despite normal autoclave conditions of heat, pressure, and steam, an extreme negative vacuum pull caused the valves' internal silicone components (diaphragm and O-ring) to become distorted and water-permeable. Normal flow rate often returned after a 'drying out' period, but components then reabsorbed water while on the animal rack or during subsequent autoclave cycles to revert to a variable flow condition. On the basis of our findings, we recalibrated autoclaves and initiated a preventative maintenance program to mitigate the risk of future valve failure.

  6. Schinus molle: a new source of natural fungitoxicant.

    OpenAIRE

    Dikshit, A; Naqvi, A A; Husain, A

    1986-01-01

    The oil of Schinus molle exhibited the maximum fungitoxic activity during the screening of some essential oils against some common storage and animal pathogenic fungi. It showed absolute toxicity against animal pathogens and mild activity against storage fungi. The effective concentrations of the oil varied from 200 to 900 ppm. The toxicity of the oil persisted up to 80 degrees C and 90 days of storage but declined when autoclaved. It withstood heavy inoculum density. The oil exhibited a narr...

  7. Sterilization of small-size media by gamma--irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimahara, K; Shimada, K [Seikei Univ., Musashino, Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-04-01

    An application of the radiopasteurization method to the culture media of laboratory size was investigated. The radiation dose necessary to diminish the cell counts of the media to 10/sup 00/-3/sup 00/ per 10 ml was found to be not exceed 3,500 krad. Several properties of the irradiated media were also examined in comparison with the autoclaved and tydallized media.

  8. ACTIVITY OF BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM S. KURZ EXTRACTS ON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Filter paper disc (6mm diameter) were cut and sterilized (in Bijou bottles) in oven at 110oC for. 1hour. 28g of Biotech Nutrient agar was dissolved in 1 liter distilled water in a conical flask and autoclaved. (to sterilized it) for 1 hour. 20ml of the sterilized medium was poured into the sterilized Petri dishes, covered and allowed ...

  9. Understanding aerospace composite components' supply chain carbon emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, Mang Hann; Smyth, Beatrice M.; Murphy, Adrian; Butterfield, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines a large structural component and its supply chain. The component is representative of that used in the production of civil transport aircraft and is manufactured from carbon fibre epoxy resin prepreg, using traditional hand layup and autoclave cure. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to predict the component’s production carbon emissions. The results determine the distribution of carbon emissions within the supply chain, identifying the dominant production processes as ca...

  10. Kinetics of passivation of a nickel-base alloy in high temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machet, A. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS-ENSCP (UMR 7045), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France)]|[Framatome ANP, Tour AREVA, F-92084 Paris-la-Defense (France); Galtayries, A.; Zanna, S.; Marcus, P. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS-ENSCP (UMR 7045), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Jolivet, P.; Scott, P. [Framatome ANP, Tour AREVA, F-92084 Paris-la-Defense (France); Foucault, M.; Combrade, P. [Framatome ANP, Centre Technique, F-71205 Le Creusot (France)

    2004-07-01

    The kinetics of passivation and the composition of the surface oxide layer, in high temperature and high pressure water, of a nickel-chromium-iron alloy (Alloy 600) have been investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The samples have been exposed for short (0.4 - 8.2 min) and longer (0 - 400 hours) time periods to high temperature (325 deg. C) and high pressure water (containing boron and lithium) under controlled hydrogen pressure. The experiments were performed in two types of autoclaves: a novel autoclave dedicated to short time periods and a classic static autoclave for the longer exposures. In the initial stage of passivation, a continuous ultra-thin layer of chromium oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is rapidly formed on the surface with an external layer of chromium hydroxide. For longer times of passivation, the oxide layer is in a duplex form with an internal chromium oxide layer and an external layer of nickel hydroxide. The growth of the internal Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide layer has been fitted by three classical models (parabolic, logarithmic and inverse logarithmic laws) for the short passivation times, and the growth curves have been extrapolated to longer passivation periods. The comparison with the experimental results reveals that the kinetics of passivation of Alloy 600 in high temperature and high pressure water, for passivation times up to 400 hours, is well fitted by a logarithmic growth law. (authors)

  11. Kinetics of passivation of a nickel-base alloy in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machet, A.; Galtayries, A.; Zanna, S.; Marcus, P.; Jolivet, P.; Scott, P.; Foucault, M.; Combrade, P.

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of passivation and the composition of the surface oxide layer, in high temperature and high pressure water, of a nickel-chromium-iron alloy (Alloy 600) have been investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The samples have been exposed for short (0.4 - 8.2 min) and longer (0 - 400 hours) time periods to high temperature (325 deg. C) and high pressure water (containing boron and lithium) under controlled hydrogen pressure. The experiments were performed in two types of autoclaves: a novel autoclave dedicated to short time periods and a classic static autoclave for the longer exposures. In the initial stage of passivation, a continuous ultra-thin layer of chromium oxide (Cr 2 O 3 ) is rapidly formed on the surface with an external layer of chromium hydroxide. For longer times of passivation, the oxide layer is in a duplex form with an internal chromium oxide layer and an external layer of nickel hydroxide. The growth of the internal Cr 2 O 3 oxide layer has been fitted by three classical models (parabolic, logarithmic and inverse logarithmic laws) for the short passivation times, and the growth curves have been extrapolated to longer passivation periods. The comparison with the experimental results reveals that the kinetics of passivation of Alloy 600 in high temperature and high pressure water, for passivation times up to 400 hours, is well fitted by a logarithmic growth law. (authors)

  12. Development and evaluation of a tracer-injection hydrothermal technique for studies of waste package interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.E.; Coles, D.G.; Britton, R.C.; Burnell, J.R.

    1986-11-01

    A tracer-injection system has been developed for use in characterizing reactions of waste package materials under hydrothermal conditions. High-pressure liquid chromatographic instrumentation has been coupled with Dickson-type rocking autoclaves to allow injection of selected components into the hydrothermal fluid while maintaining run temperature and pressure. Hydrothermal experiments conducted using this system included the interactions of depleted uranium oxide and Zircaloy-4 metal alloy discs with trace levels of 99 Tc and non-radioactive Cs and I in a simulated groundwater matrix. After waste-package components and simulated waste forms were pre-conditioned in the autoclave systems (usually 4 to 6 weeks), known quantities of tracer-doped fluids were injected into the autoclaves' gold reaction bag at run conditions. Time-sequenced sampling of the hydrothermal fluid providing kinetic data on the reactions of tracers with waste package materials. The injection system facilitates the design of experiments that will better define ''steady-state'' fluid compositions in hydrothermal reactions. The injection system will also allow for the formation of tracer-bearing solid phases in detectable quantities

  13. Application of mathematical model methods for optimization tasks in construction materials technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomina, E. V.; Kozhukhova, N. I.; Sverguzova, S. V.; Fomin, A. E.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the regression equations method for design of construction material was studied. Regression and polynomial equations representing the correlation between the studied parameters were proposed. The logic design and software interface of the regression equations method focused on parameter optimization to provide the energy saving effect at the stage of autoclave aerated concrete design considering the replacement of traditionally used quartz sand by coal mining by-product such as argillite. The mathematical model represented by a quadric polynomial for the design of experiment was obtained using calculated and experimental data. This allowed the estimation of relationship between the composition and final properties of the aerated concrete. The surface response graphically presented in a nomogram allowed the estimation of concrete properties in response to variation of composition within the x-space. The optimal range of argillite content was obtained leading to a reduction of raw materials demand, development of target plastic strength of aerated concrete as well as a reduction of curing time before autoclave treatment. Generally, this method allows the design of autoclave aerated concrete with required performance without additional resource and time costs.

  14. Relating microstructure, sensory and instrumental texture of processed oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SALMENKALLIO-MARTTILA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a part of a larger project aiming to produce new, healthy, and tasty food ingredients from oat. Germination and different heating processes can be used to improve the texture and flavour of cereals. In this study effects of germination and wet and dry heating on the microstructure, instrumental structure and sensory properties of two oat varieties were assessed. The microstructure of native, germinated, autoclaved and extruded grains of the hulled cv. Veli and hull-less cv. Lisbeth was examined by light microscopy, the texture was measured by determining the milling energy and hardness of the grains and sensory characteristics were evaluated with descriptive sensory profile analysis. In cv. Veli the cells of the starchy endosperm were smaller than in cv. Lisbeth and ß-glucan was concentrated in the subaleurone layer. In cv. Lisbeth ß-glucan was evenly distributed in the starchy endosperm. The grains of cv. Lisbeth were more extensively modified in the germination process than the grains of cv. Veli, otherwise the effects of processing on the grains of the two cultivars were similar. Germination caused cell wall degradation, autoclaving and extrusion cooking caused starch gelatinization. Autoclaving resulted in the hardest perceived texture in oat. Gelatinization of starch appeared to contribute more to the hardness of oat groats than the cell wall structure. Of the instrumental methods used in this study the milling energy measurement appeared to be the most useful method for the analysis of the effects of processing on grain structure.;

  15. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto and Different Components in Culture on Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Functional Bacteria In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Li, Jinan; Bu, Dengpan; Nan, Xuemei; Du, Hong

    2016-05-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of live or autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto, their fermented products and media on rumen fermentation and rumen functional bacteria in vitro. Rumen fluid from three multiparous lactating Holstein cows was combined and transferred into serum bottles after diluted. Fifteen serum bottles were divided into five treatments, which were designed as following: CTR (the fermentation of 0.5 g TMR and ruminal fluids from dairy cows), LBS (CTR plus a minimum of 10(11) cfu live Bacillus subtilis natto), ABS (CTR plus a minimum of 10(11) cfu autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto), BSC (CTR plus 1 ml Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation products without bacteria), and BSM (CTR plus 1 ml liquid fermentation medium). When separated from the culture, live Bacillus subtilis natto individually increased the concentrations of ammonia-N (P Bacillus subtilis natto has the similar function with the live bacteria except for the ratio of acetate and propionate. Except B. fibrisolvens, live or autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto did not influence or decreased the 16S rRNA gene quantification of the detected bacteria. BSC and BSM altered the relative expression of certain functional bacteria in the rumen. These results indicated that it was Bacillus subtilis natto thalli that played the important role in promoting rumen fermentation when applied as a probiotic in dairy ration.

  16. The effect of antiviral activity of a green seaweed from the Persian Gulf, Caulerpa sertularioides on Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Zandi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: By considering the daily increase in drug resistance of various viruses, novel antiviral compounds extracted from natural resources – due to their fewer side effects, had always been important to researchers. In the present study, we investigated antiviral activity of the hot water extract of a green seaweed, Caulerpa sertularioides, collected from coastal water of Bushehr in the Persian Gulf, against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1. Methods: The hot water extract of a green seaweed, Caulerpa sertularioides was sterilized by autoclave and filtration methods. After determining its cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50 value, the effect of the extract on the inhibition of HSV-1 replication was examined in Vero cell culture. Results: The extract showed antiviral activity against HSV-1 in both attachment and entry of virus to the Vero cells and also on post attachment stages of virus replication. Inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50 values of the autoclaved extract were 81µg/ml and 126 µg/ml for attachment and post attachment stages, respectively. IC50 values of the filtered extract were 73 µg/ml and 104 µg/ml for attachment and post attachment stages, respectively. CC50 values for autoclaved and filtered extracts were 3140 µg/ml and 3095 µg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The hot water extract of Caulerpa sertularioides of the Persian Gulf had antiviral effect against HSV-1.

  17. Nanotechnological and energy-saving methods of production of building composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shynkevych Olena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The bases of silicate materials’ manufacture of non-autoclave hardening are developed. The realisation opportunity of technological decision complex of using of mineral substances’ structure in silicate materials’ manufacture of non-autoclave hardening and wall's products on their basis is theoretically proved and practically confirmed. The complex activation of mixture with water materials, as slip, defined the transition from autoclave treatment to thermo-moisture one of silicate materials. The possibility of the practical realization of structure mineral substances’ reserve for the energy consumption of silicate material production are proved experimentally. The optimization of the composition and the hardening conditions in the conditions of thermo-moisture treatment on the basis of experimentally-statistical modelling ensured the receipt of materials with the required properties. The analysis connection between hardening conditions and contents has been fulfilled on experimental-statistic models. The changing of silicate materials’ properties under the influence of inorganic modifier’ surface, of hardening conditions and content of gypsum addition have been estimated. Correlation analysis allows to receive new information about the influence of the contents and the hardening conditions on a degree of interrelation between the structure and the properties of building materials. Optimal compositions and the regimes of hardening are recommended for the receipt of wall’s articles of a different purpose.

  18. Use of gamma irradiation for wheat sterilization as a media for cultivation of mushrooms' spawn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amidi, R.; Mostafavi, M.

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, respect to mushrooms, nutritious value cultivation and culture of this valuable crop has increased in our country. Since, today the nuclear techniques for preserving and improving the quality of agricultural products and foods are being the core of consideration and these techniques are being vastly utilized, therefore we can use these techniques to eliminate some of the existing problems which appear during processing of mushrooms. In this research the possibility of using 60 Co gamma irradiation to sterilize the wheat as a medium culture of mushroom mycelia was examined and during several experiments we obtained the suitable gamma irradiation dose rate (10000 Gy) and then, we made a comparison between two methods of wheat sterilization i.e. by the means of; l: autoclave and 2: gamma irradiation with respect to the quality and race of 'Pleuroturs Sajor Caju' mushrooms, mycelium growth. According to the results, at the early stage of experiments no noticeable difference between autoclave and irradiated samples was observed but gradually it was noted that on irradiated culture bed the mycelium growth was infinitely better than those on autoclave wheat. Thus in irradiated seeds grain, since the grain wheat was remained sound, the my celia were grown regularly

  19. Efficient approach for bioethanol production from red seaweed Gelidium amansii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Wi, Seung Gon; Jung, Sera; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Gelidium amansii (GA), a red seaweed species, is a popular source of food and chemicals due to its high galactose and glucose content. In this study, we investigated the potential of bioethanol production from autoclave-treated GA (ATGA). The proposed method involved autoclaving GA for 60min for hydrolysis to glucose. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation processing (SHF) achieved a maximum ethanol concentration of 3.33mg/mL, with a conversion yield of 74.7% after 6h (2% substrate loading, w/v). In contrast, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) produced an ethanol concentration of 3.78mg/mL, with an ethanol conversion yield of 84.9% after 12h. We also recorded an ethanol concentration of 25.7mg/mL from SSF processing of 15% (w/v) dry matter from ATGA after 24h. These results indicate that autoclaving can improve the glucose and ethanol conversion yield of GA, and that SSF is superior to SHF for ethanol production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Binding of navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) lectin to the intestinal cells of the rat and its effect on the absorption of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donatucci, D.A.; Liener, I.E.; Gross, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The main objectives of this investigation were to study the binding of a lectin from navy beans with the epithelial cells of the rat intestine and to assess the effect of such binding on the ability of the intestine to absorb glucose. A Scatchard plot, based on the binding of 125 I-labeled lectin to isolated intestinal epithelial cells, was used to calculate an association constant (Ka) of 15 x 10(6)M-1 and the number of binding sites per cell, 12 x 10(6). Metabolic studies were conducted over a period of 5 d on groups of rats fed raw or autoclaved navy bean flour and casein with or without the purified lectin. Growth, protein digestibility, biological value and net protein utilization were significantly lower in animals that had been fed raw navy bean flour or casein plus lectin than in control groups fed diets containing autoclaved navy bean flour or casein alone. Vascular perfusion was used to measure the rate of uptake of glucose by the intestines of rats that had received the various dietary treatments. The rate of absorption of [ 14 C]glucose by intestines from rats fed raw navy bean flour or casein plus lectin was approximately one-half that of their counterparts fed the autoclaved flour or casein alone. These results provide evidence that the lectin, by virtue of its interference with intestinal absorption, is responsible, at least in part, for the nutritional inferiority of raw navy beans

  1. Optimization and evaluation of thermoresponsive diclofenac sodium ophthalmic in situ gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asasutjarit, Rathapon; Thanasanchokpibull, Suthira; Fuongfuchat, Asira; Veeranondha, Sukitaya

    2011-06-15

    This work was conducted to optimize and evaluate Pluronic F127-based thermoresponsive diclofenac sodium ophthalmic in situ gels (DS in situ gel). They were prepared by cold method and investigated their physicochemical properties i.e., pH, flow ability, sol-gel transition temperature, gelling capacity and rheological properties. An optimized formulation was selected and investigated its physicochemical properties before and after autoclaving, eye irritation potency in SIRC cells and rabbits. In vivo ophthalmic absorption was performed in rabbits. It was found that physicochemical properties of DS in situ gels were affected by formulation compositions. Increment of Pluronic F127 content decreased sol-gel transition temperature of the products while increase in Pluronic F68 concentration tended to increase sol-gel transition temperature. In this study, Carbopol 940 did not affect sol-gel transition temperature but it affected transparency, pH, and gelling capacity of the products. The optimized formulation exhibited sol-gel transition at 32.6 ± 1.1 °C with pseudoplastic flow behavior. It was lost diclofenac sodium content during autoclaving. However, it was accepted as safe for ophthalmic use and could increase diclofenac sodium bioavailability in aqueous humor significantly. In conclusion, the optimized DS in situ gel had potential for using as an alternative to the conventional diclofenac sodium eye drop. However, autoclaving was not a suitable sterilization method for this product. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The safety of non-incineration waste disposal devices in four hospitals of Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshad, Aliasghar; Gholami, Hamid; Farzadkia, Mahdi; Mirkazemi, Roksana; Kermani, Majid

    2014-01-01

    The safe management of hospital waste is a challenge in many developing countries. The aim of this study was to compare volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions and the microbial disinfectant safety in non-incineration waste disposal devices. VOC emissions and microbial infections were measured in four non-incineration waste disposal devices including: autoclave with and without a shredder, dry heat system, and hydroclave. Using NIOSH and US EPA-TO14 guidelines, the concentration and potential risk of VOCs in emitted gases from four devices were assessed. ProSpore2 biological indicators were used to assess the microbial analysis of waste residue. There was a significant difference in the type and concentration of VOCs and microbial infection of residues in the four devices. Emissions from the autoclave with a shredder had the highest concentration of benzene, ethyl benzene, xylene, and BTEX, and emissions from the hydroclave had the highest concentration of toluene. The highest level of microbial infection was observed in the residues of the autoclave without a shredder. There is an increased need for proper regulation and control of non-incinerator devices and for monitoring and proper handling of these devices in developing countries.

  3. The safety of non-incineration waste disposal devices in four hospitals of Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshad, Aliasghar; Gholami, Hamid; Farzadkia, Mahdi; Mirkazemi, Roksana; Kermani, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background: The safe management of hospital waste is a challenge in many developing countries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions and the microbial disinfectant safety in non-incineration waste disposal devices. Methods: VOC emissions and microbial infections were measured in four non-incineration waste disposal devices including: autoclave with and without a shredder, dry heat system, and hydroclave. Using NIOSH and US EPA-TO14 guidelines, the concentration and potential risk of VOCs in emitted gases from four devices were assessed. ProSpore2 biological indicators were used to assess the microbial analysis of waste residue. Results: There was a significant difference in the type and concentration of VOCs and microbial infection of residues in the four devices. Emissions from the autoclave with a shredder had the highest concentration of benzene, ethyl benzene, xylene, and BTEX, and emissions from the hydroclave had the highest concentration of toluene. The highest level of microbial infection was observed in the residues of the autoclave without a shredder. Conclusions: There is an increased need for proper regulation and control of non-incinerator devices and for monitoring and proper handling of these devices in developing countries. PMID:25000113

  4. Heat or gamma irradiation sterilization affects the hypocholesterolemic effect of guar gum in axenic and heteroxenic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Leite, J.I.; Vieira, E.C.; Andrieux, C.

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-two axenic (germ free) or thirty heteroxenic (axenic colonized with human flora) 2.5-3.5 months old female Fisher rats were fed for four weeks either a hypercholesterolemic (hyper) diet or a hyper diet containing 5% guar gum (GG) sterilized by heat or gamma radiation. Axenic s rat fed the irradiated GG diet had had high cholesterolemia than their counterparts fed in autoclave diet (4.50 vs 2.29 mmol/l), whereas the method of sterilization had no effect on plasma cholesterol on axenic hyper or heteroxenic animals fed (7.35 vs 6.51 mg/dl). The levels of hepatic esterified cholesterol were higher in heteroxenic animals fed the irradiated GG diet than in their counterparts fed the autoclave GG diet (5.65 vs 3.57 mmol/g tissue). The composition of volatile fatty acids in the cecal contents of heteroxenic rats was dependent on the method of sterilization regardless of the presence of fiber: the levels of butyrate were 2.88 and 0,85 μmol/g for rats fed the autoclave and irradiated diets, respectively. Gamma radiation abolished the cholesterol-lowering effect of guar gum, whereas sterilization by heat preserved this effect. The hypocholesterolemic effect of guar was reduced by gamma irradiation sterilization and was probably mediated by qualitative changes in the intestinal microflora which interfered with bile acid absorption. (author)

  5. Evaluation of steam sterilization conditions for [18F]fludeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Priscilla F.; Nascimento, Leonardo T.; Valente, Eduardo S.; Silva, Juliana B.; Silveira, Marina B.; Ferreira, Soraya Z.

    2011-01-01

    [ 18 F]Flu deoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography. Sterile filtration of the final product into sterile vials using 0.22 μm filter membrane is usually adopted for 18 FDG. However, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines recommend heat sterilization as the method of choice to ensure sterility of pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this study was to essay different steam sterilization conditions in order to choose the best one for 18 FDG. Three different sterilization conditions were essayed. The first one at 121 deg C for 15 minutes, the second one at 135 deg C for 3.5 minutes and the third one at 133 deg C for 2 minutes. 18 FDG pH-formulation was kept around 6.0. At the end of autoclave cycles, 18 FDG sterility was evaluated by direct inoculation of 18 FDG in culture media and radiochemical purity was determined by TLC and HPLC. Results demonstrated that all essayed conditions were able to ensure 18 FDG sterility, but caused a decrease in radiochemical purity of 18 FDG. Autoclave cycle at 133 deg C for 2 minutes was the best essayed condition for 18 FDG terminal sterilization, once it provided the greater radiochemical purity value and took less time. 18 FDG was able to meet specifications after autoclave cycles, what supports the application of steam sterilization in routine 18 FDG production, in compliance with GMP. (author)

  6. Elution behavior into the high pressured hot water and the organizational change of granite and andesite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Isao; Miyazaki, Akira; Yamaguchi, Tsutomu; kuriyakawa, Michio

    1988-04-01

    In the development of a high temperature rock system, the interaction between the rock and hot water which occurs in a reservoir provides big effects. The decline of the strength and the increase of the permeability are caused by the elusion of the rock on the surface of the hydraulic fracture and the redeposition of the eluded material also causes to narrow or close the channel. However, studies concerning the organizational change of the rock by the hot water or the material change associated with the organizational change are small in number. In this research, Inaba granite and Honkomatsu andesite were treated in heat with an autoclave in order to investigate the organizational changes of the rocks and at the same time, the elusion behavior of the rocks into the hot water was investigated by examining chemical components which were eluded into the fluid and the components remaining on the rock surface. The decreased amount per specific surface area due to the autoclave treatment is the order of 10/sup -3/(gcm/sup -2/) for both rocks and changeable depending upon the heating temperature and the kind of rock. As a result of the analysis of the fluids in the autoclave after the heat treatment, the Si concentration of Honkomatsu andesite was higher in the same temperature and the heating time. (2 figs, 3 tabs, 6 refs)

  7. Parenteral emulsions stabilized with a mixture of phospholipids and PEG-660-12-hydroxy-stearate: evaluation of accelerated and long-term stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumaa, Muhannad; Müller, Bernd W

    2002-09-01

    Different emulsion formulations were prepared using phospholipids (Lipoid S57) and PEG-660-12-hydroxy-stearate (Solutol HS15) as single emulsifiers or in mixtures. The accelerated stability after autoclaving, freezing and centrifugation was investigated. The long-term stability was also studied at different temperatures (4, 20, and 37 degrees C) for 8 months. Emulsion stabilized with phospholipids displayed a stable behavior after the autoclaving and centrifugation, but it broke down after the freezing process. In mixture with Solutol HS15, however, the emulsion showed appropriate shelf stability at different temperatures for 8 months. A change in the particle size of the emulsion prepared only with Solutol HS15 was observed after centrifugation (slight) and after autoclaving (marked). In contrast to phospholipid emulsion, this emulsion (with only Solutol HS15) was less prone to breaking down after the freezing, as no complete phase separation was observed. The results obtained using an emulsifier mixture revealed that a combination of an anionic surfactant (phospholipids) and non-ionic surfactant (PEG-660-12-hydroxy-stearate) improves the emulsion's stability, compared to the emulsion's stability prepared using only a single emulsifier. However, no direct correlation could be found between the accelerated and the long-term stability data.

  8. Effect of the anodization variables in the corrosion resistence of the zircaloy-4 tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, M.E.

    1981-02-01

    The anodization effect in the oxidation of the zircaloy-4 in steam atmosphere at 10,06MPa was investigated. It was also studied how the voltage and the types of electrolytes at several values of pH affect the growing of the anodic oxide film and the performance of the zircaloy-4 in relation to corrosion. Anodizations of zircaloy-4 tubes have been made with voltages ranging from zero to 280V and using electrolytic solutions of Na 2 B 4 O 7 , CH 3 COOH and NaOH in the concentrations of 1,0N, 0,1N and 0,01N. After anodization, the tubes were oxidized in autoclave under steam at 400 0 C and 10,06 MPa during 3 and 14 days. The results show that the anodization inhibit the oxidation process of zircaloy-4, and that this protection increases with the voltage applied for film formation. The relationship between the weight gain after oxidation in autoclave and the anodization voltage is of the exponential type: (σM/A) sub(AC) = Ce sup(-DV). The observed relationship between the applied voltage and the weight gain due to anodization is of the linear type: (σM/A) sub(AN) = aV. Concerning the influence of different electrolytes, it was observed a similar behaviour between them with respect to the thickness of the anodic oxide and the weight gain of zircaloy-4 after the autoclave test. (Author) [pt

  9. The Effect of Three Gums on the Retrogradation of Indica Rice Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Retrograded starch (RS3 was produced from indica rice starch with three kinds of gums (konjac glucomannan, KGM; carrageenan, CA, USA; and gellan, GA, USA by autoclaving, respectively, and the effect of the gums on the retrogradation behavior of starch was estimated. The influences of polysaccharide concentration, sodium chloride concentration, autoclaving time, refrigerated time, and pH value on RS3 formation were discussed. Except for sodium chloride’s persistent restraint on RS3, the others all forced RS3 yields higher at first, but lowered it after the peak value. The influencing sequence of these impact factors was: sodium chloride concentration > polysaccharide concentration > autoclaving time > refrigerated time > pH value. The results also proved that in the three gums, KGM plays the most significant role in RS3 changing. It was concluded that the incorporation of each of these three gums into starch, especially KGM, results in an increase or decrease of RS3 under different conditions. This phenomenon could be taken into consideration when developing starchy food with appropriate amount of RS3.

  10. Evaluation of steam sterilization conditions for [{sup 18}F]fludeoxyglucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Priscilla F.; Nascimento, Leonardo T.; Valente, Eduardo S.; Silva, Juliana B.; Silveira, Marina B.; Ferreira, Soraya Z., E-mail: somafe@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Pesquisa e Producao de Radiofarmacos

    2011-07-01

    [{sup 18}F]Flu deoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG) is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography. Sterile filtration of the final product into sterile vials using 0.22 {mu}m filter membrane is usually adopted for {sup 18}FDG. However, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines recommend heat sterilization as the method of choice to ensure sterility of pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this study was to essay different steam sterilization conditions in order to choose the best one for {sup 18}FDG. Three different sterilization conditions were essayed. The first one at 121 deg C for 15 minutes, the second one at 135 deg C for 3.5 minutes and the third one at 133 deg C for 2 minutes. {sup 18}FDG pH-formulation was kept around 6.0. At the end of autoclave cycles, {sup 18}FDG sterility was evaluated by direct inoculation of {sup 18}FDG in culture media and radiochemical purity was determined by TLC and HPLC. Results demonstrated that all essayed conditions were able to ensure {sup 18}FDG sterility, but caused a decrease in radiochemical purity of {sup 18}FDG. Autoclave cycle at 133 deg C for 2 minutes was the best essayed condition for {sup 18}FDG terminal sterilization, once it provided the greater radiochemical purity value and took less time. {sup 18}FDG was able to meet specifications after autoclave cycles, what supports the application of steam sterilization in routine {sup 18}FDG production, in compliance with GMP. (author)

  11. Nitrogen balance and ruminal assessment in male and female sheeps fed rations containing castor cake under different treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Furtado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Was evaluated the influence of alternative methods of detoxification of castor cake on nitrogen balance and ruminal evaluation in sheep fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous experimental diets. Twenty sheep (ten males and ten females were used in five treatments (castor cake untreated, treated with limestone, treated with urea, treated with phosphate monodicalcium and autoclaved and four repetitions. For nitrogen balance we used a randomized block design, with the blocks according to the sex and the variables pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N in the experimental design was split plot, with plots in the diets subplots and the collection times (0, 2, 5 and 8 hours postprandial.The treatments did not influence N intake, N urinary, urea and N-urea concentration in plasma. The Urinary N was higher in diet containing castor cake treated with phosphate monodicalcium (FOS when compared with those containing castor cake treated by autoclave (ACL. Already the nitrogen balance (BN was higher in diet ACL when compared to FOS diet. The pH and N-NH3 were within the normal range of sheep, being little affected by diet. Diets with methods of detoxification of castor cake promoted moderate changes in nitrogen balance with emphasis on the castor cake autoclaved and treated with limestone. The males sheep showed higher nitrogen balance than females.

  12. ESTERILIZAÇÃO QUÍMICA PARA O CULTIVO IN VITRO DE PORTA-ENXERTO DE PESSEGUEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Peixoto Vargas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The culture media sterilization is typically performed by autoclaving. However, this process may degrade or reduce the action of compounds with desired physiological effect, such as vitamins and growth regulators. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sterilizing agents added to the culture medium in vitro mume 'Rigitano' establishment. For this purpose, nodal segments were inoculated into culture medium prepared considering the following treatments: addition of sodium hypochlorite (0.01 and 0.05 % v/v, chlorine dioxide (0.1, 0.5 and 1% v/v or hydrogen peroxide (0.3, 0.7 and 1.5 %, v/v. The control treatment consisted of the absence of sterilizing, autoclaved and non-autoclaved. In different periods (7, 14 and 21 days, it was determined survival explants, whole contamination, contamination by bacteria, fungi contamination and oxidation. It was found ocurrence of Alternaria, Cladosporim, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Cryptococcus fungal genera. It was conclude that the use of hydrogen peroxide or chlorine dioxide is effective for the chemical sterilization of culture media.

  13. Biomedical waste in laboratory medicine: Audit and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitnis V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathology, microbiology, blood bank and other diagnostic laboratories generate sizable amount of biomedical waste (BMW. The audit of the BMW is required for planning proper strategies. The audit in our laboratory revealed 8 kgs anatomical waste, 600 kgs microbiology waste, 220 kgs waste sharps, 15 kgs soiled waste, 111 kgs solid waste, 480 litres liquid waste along with 33000 litres per month liquid waste generated from labware washing and laboratory cleaning and 162 litres of chemical waste per month. Section wise details are described in the text. Needle sharps are collected in puncture proof containers and the needles autoclaved before sending to needle pit. The glass forms the major sharp category and is disinfected with hypochlorite before washing/recycling. All microbiology waste along with containers/plates/tubes are autoclaved before recycling/disposal. The problem of formalin fixed anatomical waste as histology specimens is pointed out. The formalin containing tissues cannot be sent for incineration for the fear of toxic gas release and the guidelines by the Biomedical waste rule makers need to be amended for the issue. The discarded/infected blood units in blood bank need to be autoclaved before disposal since chemical treatments are difficult or inefficient. The liquid waste management needs more attention and effluent treatment facility needs to be viewed seriously for hospital in general. The segregation of waste at source is the key step and reduction, reuse and recycling should be considered in proper perspectives.

  14. Naturally cured foamed concrete with improved thermal insulation properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashkin Nikolay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to investigation on improvement of thermal insulation properties of non-autoclaved concrete by increasing aggregate stability of foamed concrete mixture. The study demonstrates influence of mineral admixtures on the foam stability index in the mortar mixture and on decrease of foamed concrete density and thermal conductivity. The effect of mineral admixtures on thermal conductivity properties of non-autoclaved concrete was assessed through different ways of their addition: to the foam and to the mortar mixture. The admixtures were milled up to the specific surface area of 300 and 600 m2/kg using an AГO-9 centrifugal attrition mill with continuous operation mode (Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk. Laboratory turbulent foam concrete mixer was used to prepare foamed concrete. Thermal conductivity coefficient was defined by a quick method using “ИTП-MГ 4 “Zond” thermal conductivity meter in accordance with the regulatory documents. The impact of modifiers on the foam structure stability was defined using the foam stability index for the mortar mixture. The research demonstrated the increase in stability of porous structure of non-autoclaved concrete when adding wollastonite and diopside. Improvement of thermal and physical properties was demonstrated, the decrease of thermal conductivity coefficient reaches 0.069 W/(m×°C

  15. Comparison of the effectiveness of sterilizing endodontic files by 4 different methods: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatasubramanian R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sterilization is the best method to counter the threats of microorganisms. The purpose of sterilization in the field of health care is to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. In dentistry, it primarily relates to processing reusable instruments to prevent cross-infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of 4 methods of sterilizing endodontic instruments: Autoclaving, carbon dioxide laser sterilization, chemical sterilization (with glutaraldehyde and glass-bead sterilization. The endodontic file was sterilized by 4 different methods after contaminating it with bacillus stearothermophillus and then checked for sterility by incubating after putting it in test tubes containing thioglycollate medium. The study showed that the files sterilized by autoclave and lasers were completely sterile. Those sterilized by glass bead were 90% sterile and those with glutaraldehyde were 80% sterile. The study concluded that autoclave or laser could be used as a method of sterilization in clinical practice and in advanced clinics; laser can be used also as a chair side method of sterilization.

  16. Metals uptake by live yeast and heat-modified yeast residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geórgia Labuto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the biosorption of Cd2+, Cr3+, Pb2+ and Cu2+ at pHs 3, 4, 5 and 6 for Saccharomyces cerevisiae both alive and biologically inactivated by different heating procedures (oven, autoclave or spray dry technique originated from alcohol industry. The material inactivated by autoclave (IA, at 120°C, 30 min had the best performance for metals uptake: 1.88 ± 0.07 (Cu2+, 2.22 ± 0.02 (Cr3+ and 1.57 ± 0.08 g kg-1 (Pb2+. For Cd2+; while the material inactivated by spray dry (RY presented the higher sorption capacity, 2.30 ± 0.08 g kg-1. The sorption studies showed that the biosorbent materials presented different sorption capacities and an ideal sorption pH. The sorption sites were investigated by potentiometric titration and FT-IR and showed that different heating processes used to inactivate biological samples produce materials with different characteristics and with a diverse sorption capacity due to modification of the available sorption sites. This suggests that inactivation by heating can be an alternative to improve the performance of biosorbents. The main sorption sites for each material were phenolic for live yeast (LY and carboxylic for yeast inactivated by heating in an autoclave (IA.

  17. Evaluation of Laboratory Procedures to Quantify the Neutral Detergent Fiber Content in Forage, Concentrate, and Ruminant Feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Marcília Medrado; Detmann, Edenio; Rocha, Gabriel Cipriano; de Oliveira Franco, Marcia; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião

    2015-01-01

    A comparison was made of measurements of neutral detergent fiber concentrations obtained with AOAC Method 2002.04 and modified methods using pressurized environments or direct use of industrial heat-stable α-amylase in samples of forage (n=37), concentrate (n=30), and ruminant feces (n=39). The following method modifications were tested: AOAC Method 2002.04 with replacement of the reflux apparatus with an autoclave or Ankom(220®) extractor and F57 filter bags, and AOAC Method 2002.04 with replacement of the standardization procedures for α-amylase by a single addition of industrial α-amylase [250 μL of Termamyl 2X 240 Kilo Novo Units (KNU)-T/g] prior to heating the neutral detergent solution. For the feces and forage samples, the results obtained with the modified methods with an autoclave or modification of α-amylase use were similar to those obtained using AOAC Method 2002.04, but the use of the Ankom220 extractor resulted in overestimated values. For the concentrate samples, the modified methods using an autoclave or Ankom220 extractor resulted in positive systematic errors. However, the method using industrial α-amylase resulted in systematic error and slope bias despite that the obtained values were close to those obtained with AOAC Method 2002.04.

  18. Influence of liquid medium on the activity of a low-alpha Fischer-Tropsch catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gormley, R.J.; Zarochak, M.F.; Deffenbaugh, P.W.; Rao, K.R.P.M.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this research was to measure activity, selectivity, and the maintenance of these properties in slurry autoclave experiments with a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalyst that was used in the {open_quotes}FT II{close_quotes} bubble-column test, conducted at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) at LaPorte, Texas during May 1994. The catalyst contained iron, copper, and potassium and was formulated to produce mainly hydrocarbons in the gasoline range with lesser production of diesel-range products and wax. The probability of chain growth was thus deliberately kept low. Principal goals of the autoclave work have been to find the true activity of this catalyst in a stirred tank reactor, unhindered by heat or mass transfer effects, and to obtain a steady conversion and selectivity over the approximately 15 days of each test. Slurry autoclave testing of the catalyst in heavier waxes also allows insight into operation of larger slurry bubble column reactors. The stability of reactor operation in these experiments, particularly at loadings exceeding 20 weight %, suggests the likely stability of operations on a larger scale.

  19. Composition and Potency Characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Purified Protein Derivatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randal T Capsel

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP purified protein derivatives (PPDs are immunologic reagents prepared from cultured filtrates of the type strain. Traditional production consists of floating culture incubation at 37°C, organism inactivation by autoclaving, coarse filtration, and protein precipitation. Three traditional production PPDs were used in this study including lot 9801, which served as a reference and has been used in the field for decades. Alternative production PPDs (0902A and 0902B, in which the autoclaving step was removed, were also analyzed in this study. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed protein smearing in traditional PPDs, but distinct bands were observed in the alternative PPD preparations. Antibody bound distinct protein bands in the alternative PPDs by immunoblot analysis, whereas an immunoreactive smear was observed with the traditional PPDs. Mass spectrometry identified 194 proteins among three PPD lots representing the two different production methods, ten of which were present in all PPDs examined. Selected proteins identified by mass spectrometry were recombinantly expressed and purified from E. coli and evaluated by the guinea pig potency test. Seven recombinant proteins showed greater erythema as compared to the reference PPD lot 9801 in paired guinea pigs and were able to stimulate interferon-gamma production in blood from Johne's positive animals. These results suggest that autoclaving culture suspensions is not a necessary step in PPD production and specific proteins could supplant the PPD antigen for intradermal skin testing procedures and for use as in-vitro assay reagents.

  20. Corrosion of aluminum alloys as a function of alloy composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1969-10-01

    A study was initiated which included nineteen aluminum alloys. Tests were conducted in high purity water at 360 0 C and flow tests (approx. 20 ft/sec) in reactor process water at 130 0 C (TF-18 loop tests). High-silicon alloys and AlSi failed completely in the 360 0 C tests. However, coupling of AlSi to 8001 aluminum suppressed the failure. The alloy compositions containing iron and nickel survived tht 360 0 C autoclave exposures. Corrosion rates varied widely as a function of alloy composition, but in directions which were predictable from previous high-temperature autoclave experience. In the TF-18 loop flow tests, corrosion penetrations were similar on all of the alloys and on high-purity aluminum after 105 days. However, certain alloys established relatively low linear corrosion rates: Al-0.9 Ni-0.5 Fe-0.1 Zr, Al-1.0 Ni-0.15 Fe-11.5 Si-0.8 Mg, Al-1.2 Ni-1.8 Fe, and Al-7.0 Ni-4.8 Fe. Electrical polarity measurements between AlSi and 8001 alloys in reactor process water at temperatures up to 150 0 C indicated that AlSi was anodic to 8001 in the static autoclave system above approx. 50 0 C