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Sample records for autoclaves

  1. Autoclave nuclear criticality safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Aquila, D.M. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States); Tayloe, R.W. Jr. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Steam-heated autoclaves are used in gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants to heat large cylinders of UF{sub 6}. Nuclear criticality safety for these autoclaves is evaluated. To enhance criticality safety, systems are incorporated into the design of autoclaves to limit the amount of water present. These safety systems also increase the likelihood that any UF{sub 6} inadvertently released from a cylinder into an autoclave is not released to the environment. Up to 140 pounds of water can be held up in large autoclaves. This mass of water is sufficient to support a nuclear criticality when optimally combined with 125 pounds of UF{sub 6} enriched to 5 percent U{sup 235}. However, water in autoclaves is widely dispersed as condensed droplets and vapor, and is extremely unlikely to form a critical configuration with released UF{sub 6}.

  2. Comparison of Autoclave and Out-of-Autoclave Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, James K.; Kenner, W. Scott; Pelham, Larry; Miller, Sandi G.; Polis, Danel L.; Nailadi, Chaitra; Zimmerman, Thomas J.; Lort, Richard D.; Hou, Tan-Hung; Quade, Derek J.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Walker, James; Fikes, John

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Mission Directorate initiated an Advanced Composite Technology Project through the Exploration Technology Development Program in order to support the polymer composite needs for future heavy lift launch architectures. As an example, the large composite dry structural applications on Ares V inspired the evaluation of autoclave and out-of-autoclave (OOA) composite materials. A NASA and industry team selected the most appropriate materials based on component requirements for a heavy lift launch vehicle. Autoclaved and OOA composites were fabricated and results will highlight differences in processing conditions, laminate quality, as well as initial room temperature thermal and mechanical performance. Results from this study compare solid laminates that were both fiber-placed and hand-laid. Due to the large size of heavy-lift launch vehicle composite structures, there is significant potential that the uncured composite material or prepreg will experience significant out-life during component fabrication. Therefore, prepreg out-life was a critical factor examined in this comparison. In order to rigorously test material suppliers recommended out-life, the NASA/Industry team extended the out-time of the uncured composite prepreg to values that were approximately 50% beyond the manufacturers out-time limits. Early results indicate that the OOA prepreg composite materials suffered in both composite quality and mechanical property performance from their extended out-time. However, the OOA materials performed similarly to the autoclaved composites when processed within a few days of exposure to ambient "shop" floor handling. Follow on studies evaluating autoclave and OOA aluminum honeycomb core sandwich composites are planned.

  3. Volume of an Industrial Autoclave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Madaffari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We were able to determine the volume of an industrial autoclave sterilization tank using a technique learned in calculus. By measuring the dimensions of the tank and roughly estimating the equation of curvature at the ends of the tank, we were able to revolve half of the end of the tank around the x axis to get its fluid volume. Adding the two volumes of the ends and the volume of the cylindrical portion on the tank yielded the total volume.

  4. NON-AUTOCLAVE SILICATE BRICK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yaglov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a technology for obtaining bricks on the basis of lime-silica mixtures where chemical interactions are practically completely realized in dispersive state at the stage of preparation of binding contact maturing and raw mixture as a whole. The role of forming operation (moulding is changed in principle because in this case conversion of dispersive system into a rock-like solid occurs and due to this the solid obtains complete water-resistance in contact with water immediately after forming operation. Theoretical basis for the developed technology is capability of silicate dispersive substances (hydrated calcium silicate to transit in non-stable state, to form a rock-like water-resistant solid in the moment of mechanical load application during forming process. Specific feature of the proposed method is an exclusion of additional operations for autoclaving of products from the process of obtaining a silicate brick.Synthetic hydrated calcium silicate in contrast to natural ones are more uniform in composition and structure, they contain less impurities and they are characterized by dispersive composition and due to the mentioned advantages they find wider practical application. Contact-condensation binders permit to manipulate product properties on their basis and ensure maximum correspondence to the requirements of the concrete application. Raw material sources for obtaining synthetic hydrated calcium silicates are practically un-limited because calcium-silicon containing substances are found as in various technogenic wastes so in natural compounds as well. So the problem for obtaining hydrated calcium silicates having contact-condensation ability for structure formation becomes more and more actual one. This transition is considered as dependent principally on arrangement rate of substance particles which determined the level of its instability.

  5. Mechanical Properties of Autoclaved Shell-aggregate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hailong; CUI Chong; LI Xing; Pierre Chevrier; Vanessa Bouchart; TANG Feng

    2011-01-01

    Waste solid propylene oxide sludge(POS)and fly ash were used as main raw material to prepare propylene oxide sludge aggregate(POSA)under the condition of autoclaved(180 ℃,1.0 MPa)curing.Three different test methods namely cylinder compressive strength(CCS),individual aggregate compressive strength(IACS)and strength contribution rate(SCR)proposed were used to characterize the mechanical properties of the autoclaved POSA.POS shell-aggregate with SCR of 94% were prepared under the hydrothermal synthesis and autoclaved curing.The experimental results indicate that CCS and IACS have good consistency in characterizing mechanical properties of POSA.It is suggested that SCR not only can characterize the strength of POSA core,but also can reflect the effect of shell on the performance of POSA.By means of least square method,relationships between CCS and IACS,CCS and SCR,IACS and SCR were deduced.

  6. Shear reinforced beams in autoclaved aerated concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelius, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Shear behaviour in concrete materials is very well documented, for normal density concrete materials. In this paper results of various tests on low density concrete materials like aerated autoclaved concrete (in the following denoted aircrete) will be presented and analyzed for different combinat......Shear behaviour in concrete materials is very well documented, for normal density concrete materials. In this paper results of various tests on low density concrete materials like aerated autoclaved concrete (in the following denoted aircrete) will be presented and analyzed for different...

  7. Out-of-Autoclave Cure Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brian S.

    2015-01-01

    As the size of aerospace composite parts exceeds that of even the largest autoclaves, the development of new out-of-autoclave processes and materials is necessary to ensure quality and performance. Many out-of-autoclave prepreg systems can produce high-quality composites initially; however, due to long layup times, the resin advancement commonly causes high void content and variations in fiber volume. Applied Poleramic, Inc. (API), developed an aerospace-grade benzoxazine matrix composite prepreg material that offers more than a year out-time at ambient conditions and provides exceptionally low void content when out-of-autoclave cured. When compared with aerospace epoxy prepreg systems, API's innovation offers significant improvements in terms of out-time at ambient temperature and the corresponding tack retention. The carbon fiber composites developed with the optimized matrix technology have significantly better mechanical performance in terms of hot-wet retention and compression when compared with aerospace epoxy matrices. These composites also offer an excellent overall balance of properties. This matrix system imparts very low cure shrinkage, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and low density when compared with most aerospace epoxy prepreg materials.

  8. Evaluation of dimensional stability of autoclavable elastomeric impression material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, G P; Anjum, Ayesha; Satish Babu, C L; Shetty, Shilpa

    2011-03-01

    Impressions are important sources of cross contamination between patients and dental laboratories. As a part of infection control impressions contaminated with variety of micro-organisms via blood and oral secretions should be cleaned and disinfected or sterilized before being handled in dental laboratory. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of autoclaving on dimensional stability of elastomeric impression material (polyvinyl siloxane-Affinis). In this in vitro study standardized stainless steel die as per ADA specification number 19 was fabricated. Polyvinyl siloxane (Affinis) light body and putty viscosity elastomeric impression materials were used. A total of 40 impressions of the stainless steel die were made and numeric coding system was used to identify the samples. Measurements were made using a measuring microscope. Distance between the cross lines CD and C'D' reproduced in the impression were measured before autoclaving, immediately after autoclaving and 24 hours after autoclaving and dimensional change was calculated. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. The mean difference in dimensional change between the three groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). However the results revealed that there was higher mean dimensional change immediately after autoclaving when compared to the other 2 time intervals. It is desirable to delay the casting of an autoclavable elastomeric impression material by about 24 hours. Though disinfection of impression is routinely followed autoclaving of impression is an effective method of sterilization.

  9. No-Oven, No-Autoclave, Composite Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to continue the efforts from the 2010 NASA SBIR Phase I topic X5.03, "No-Oven, No-Autoclave (NONA) Composite...

  10. Generating Autoclave-Level Mechanical Properties with Out-of-Autoclave Thermoplastic Placement of Large Composite Aerospace Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Out-of-autoclave thermoplastic tape/tow placement (TP-ATP) is nearing commercialization but suffers a moderate gap in mechanical properties compared with laminates...

  11. Relationship between Structural Characteristics of Fly Ash and Reactivity under Autoclave Curing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The reactivity of autoclaved materials is conventionally estimated by their chemical composition. In this paper, after determining the chemical composition of various types of fly ash, a series of new tests which included X-ray Diffraction (XRD), infrared spectral analysis (IR) and bound water testing, were applied to investigate the performance of autoclaved fly ash products. The relationship between the infrared spectral analysis of Si-O wavenumber (about 1 100 cm-1) and its autoclaved chemical reactivity, and compressive strength of its autoclaved samples, is analyzed. The results show that fly ash with a lower wavenumber will have stronger autoclaved chemical reactivity and higher compressive strength for its autoclaved sample. Thus, the Si-O stretching vibration wavelength can be used to estimate autoclaved chemical reactivity of fly ash, so as to control the quality of fly ash to be autoclaved, and to predict the compressive strength of autoclaved fly ash products.

  12. Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved and untreated food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Autoclaving decreased the formation of NH4-N and H2S during food waste digestion. • Stable digestion was achieved with untreated and autoclaved FW at OLR 6 kg VS/m3day. • Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. • Highest CH4 yields were observed at OLR 3 kg VS/m3day with untreated FW. • Autoclaved FW produced highest CH4 yields during OLR 4 kgVS/m3day. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved (160 °C, 6.2 bar) and untreated source segregated food waste (FW) was compared over 473 days in semi-continuously fed mesophilic reactors with trace elements supplementation, at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 2, 3, 4 and 6 kg volatile solids (VS)/m3 d. Methane yields at all OLR were 5–10% higher for untreated FW (maximum 0.483 ± 0.013 m3 CH4/kg VS at 3 kg VS/m3 d) than autoclaved FW (maximum 0.439 ± 0.020 m3 CH4/kg VS at 4 kg VS/m3 d). The residual methane potential of both digestates at all OLRs was less than 0.110 m3 CH4/kg VS, indicating efficient methanation in all cases. Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. Reactors fed on autoclaved FW showed lower ammonium and hydrogen sulphide concentrations, probably due to reduced protein hydrolysis as a result of formation of Maillard compounds. In the current study this reduced biodegradability appears to outweigh any benefit due to thermal hydrolysis of ligno-cellulosic components

  13. Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved and untreated food waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampio, Elina, E-mail: elina.tampio@mtt.fi [Bioenergy and Environment, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, FI-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Ervasti, Satu; Paavola, Teija [Bioenergy and Environment, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, FI-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles [University of Southampton, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Rintala, Jukka [Bioenergy and Environment, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, FI-31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Autoclaving decreased the formation of NH4-N and H{sub 2}S during food waste digestion. • Stable digestion was achieved with untreated and autoclaved FW at OLR 6 kg VS/m{sup 3}day. • Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. • Highest CH{sub 4} yields were observed at OLR 3 kg VS/m{sup 3}day with untreated FW. • Autoclaved FW produced highest CH{sub 4} yields during OLR 4 kgVS/m{sup 3}day. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved (160 °C, 6.2 bar) and untreated source segregated food waste (FW) was compared over 473 days in semi-continuously fed mesophilic reactors with trace elements supplementation, at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 2, 3, 4 and 6 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d. Methane yields at all OLR were 5–10% higher for untreated FW (maximum 0.483 ± 0.013 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS at 3 kg VS/m{sup 3} d) than autoclaved FW (maximum 0.439 ± 0.020 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS at 4 kg VS/m{sup 3} d). The residual methane potential of both digestates at all OLRs was less than 0.110 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS, indicating efficient methanation in all cases. Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. Reactors fed on autoclaved FW showed lower ammonium and hydrogen sulphide concentrations, probably due to reduced protein hydrolysis as a result of formation of Maillard compounds. In the current study this reduced biodegradability appears to outweigh any benefit due to thermal hydrolysis of ligno-cellulosic components.

  14. Development of autoclave moldable addition-type polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Jones, R. J.; Orell, M. K.; Zakrzewski, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    Chemistry and processing modifications of the poly(Diels Alder) polyimide (PDA) resin were performed to obtain structural composites suitable for 589 K (600 F) service. This work demonstrated that the PDA resin formulation is suitable for service at 589 K (600 F) for up to 125 hours when used in combination with Hercules HTS graphite fiber. Sandwich panels were autoclave molded using PDA/HTS skins and polyimide/glass honeycomb core. Excellent adhesion between honeycomb core and the facing skins was demonstrated. Fabrication ease was demonstrated by autoclave molding three-quarter scale YF-12 wing panels.

  15. Methane biofiltration using Autoclaved Aerated Concrete as the carrier material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganendra, Giovanni; Mercado-Garcia, Daniel; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Boeckx, P.; Ho, Adrian; Boon, N.

    2015-01-01

    The methane removal capacity of mixed methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) culture in a biofilter setup using autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) as a highly porous carrier material was tested. Batch experiment was performed to optimize MOB immobilization on AAC specimens where optimum methane removal was

  16. Long Out-time, Out-of-Autoclave Cure Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the size of composite parts exceed that of even the largest autoclaves, new out-of-autoclave processes and materials are necessary to achieve the same level of...

  17. Porosity and Mechanical Strength of an Autoclaved Clayey Cellular Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Guglielmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the porosity and the mechanical strength of an Autoclaved Clayey Cellular Concrete (ACCC with the binder produced with 75 wt% kaolinite clay and 25 wt% Portland cement. Aluminum powder was used as foaming agent, from 0.2 wt% to 0.8 wt%, producing specimens with different porosities. The results show that the specimens with higher content of aluminum presented pore coalescence, which can explain the lower porosity of these samples. The porosities obtained with the aluminum contents used in the study were high (approximately 80%, what accounts for the low mechanical strength of the investigated cellular concretes (maximum of 0.62 MPa. Nevertheless, comparing the results obtained in this study to the ones for low temperature clayey aerated concrete with similar compositions, it can be observed that autoclaving is effective for increasing the material mechanical strength.

  18. Non-autoclaved aerated concrete with mineral additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'ina, L. V.; Rakov, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of joint grinding of Portland cement clinker, silica and carbonate components and mineral additives to specific surface of 280 - 300 m2/kg on the properties (strength, average density and thermal conductivity) of non-autoclaved aerated concrete, and the porosity of the hardened cement paste produced from Portland cement clinker with mineral additives. The joint grinding of the Portland cement clinker with silica and carbonate components and mineral additives reduces the energy consumption of non-autoclaved aerated concrete production. The efficiency of mineral additives (diopside, wollastonite) is due to the closeness the composition, the type of chemical bonds, physical and chemical characteristics (specific enthalpy of formation, specific entropy) to anhydrous clinker minerals and their hydration products. Considering the influence of these additions on hydration of clinker minerals and formation of hardened cement paste structure, dispersed wollastonite and diopside should be used as mineral additives. The hardness and, consequently, the elastic modulus of diopside are higher than that of hardened cement paste. As a result, there is a redistribution of stresses in the hardened cement paste interporous partitions and hardening, both the partitions and aerated concrete on the whole. The mineral additives introduction allowed to obtain the non-autoclaved aerated concrete with average density 580 kg/m3, compressive strength of 3.3 MPa and thermal conductivity of 0.131 W/(m.°C).

  19. Carbon Foam Self-Heated Tooling for Out-of-Autoclave Composites Manufacturing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Touchstone Research Laboratory, Ltd. (Touchstone) has developed a novel and innovative Out-of-Autoclave (OOA) composites manufacturing process with an electrically...

  20. Economic method of development of canned food sterilization regimes for industry autoclaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolyanov A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of the sterilization equipment AVK-30M for development of sterilization regimes of canned food for industrial autoclaves, particularly for ASCAMAT 230, has been described. Energy consumption of autoclaves during stages of heating and sterilization has been compared as well

  1. PATI RESISTEN SAGU HASIL PROSES HIDROLISIS ASAM DAN AUTOCLAVING-COOLING [Resistant Starch of Sago from Acid Hydrolyzis and Autoclaving-Cooling Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feri Kusnandar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to produce resistant starch (RS from a combination of acid hydrolysis and autoclaving-cooling processes of sago starch. This study compared two methods of starch modification to produce RS, i.e. (1 acid hydrolysis treatment followed by autoclaving-cooling cycles (AH-AC, and (2 autoclaving-cooling cycles followed by acid hydrolysis treatment (AC-AH. The acid hydrolysis used 1 and 2% HCl while autoclaving-cooling process consisted of three-cycle of autoclaving at 121°C for 30 min followed by cooling at 4°C for 72 hrs. Both AH-AC and AC-AH modification methods decreased starch content, altered amylose and amylopectin ratio, and increased RS contents. Both modification methods also yielded nearly flat pasting profiles at both heating and cooling phases as compared to that of native sago starch. At the same HCl concentration, the AH-AC process yielded a higher RS content than that of AC-AH. Among all treatments, the acid hydrolysis treatment using 1% HCl followed by three cycles of autoclaving-cooling process yielded the highest RS content (74.28%. The crystallinity of RS was also lower than of native sago starch, but its A crystalline type remained the same.

  2. Response of MICROTOX organisms to leachates of autoclaved cellular concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latona, M.C.; Neufeld, R.D.; Hu, W.; Kelly, C.; Vallejo, L.E. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1997-08-01

    The MICROTOX bioassay, a toxicity test involving bioluminescent microorganisms, was conducted on aqueous leachates derived from a construction material made using coal fly ash as the key siliceous ingredient. The material is known as autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC). The test indicated an absence of toxic effects attributable to soluble species, which included the priority heavy metals in the filtered leachates. Toxic or inhibitive effects on the test bacteria were observed for the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leachates, but this was probably due to acetic acid in the extractant rather than the solubilized metals. The ASTM (distilled-deionized water extractant) and simulated acid rain leachates, by comparison, produced a repeatable stimulative effect. Stimulation observed in the form of enhanced light output may be a manifestation of hormesis, a phenomenon reportedly caused by exposure to extremely low concentrations (part-per-billion range) of otherwise toxic agents such as heavy metals.

  3. Leachate and radon production from fly ash autoclaved cellular concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latona, M.C.; Neufeld, R.D.; Vallejo, L.E.; Brandon, D.; Hu, W.; Kelly, C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1997-08-01

    Environmental consequences and potential liabilities of autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC) use were assessed by aqueous leaching of crushed samples for metals and organic solvent extractions of solid ACC for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Also, whole ACC blocks were tested for radon exhalation potential. Results show leachate concentrations were typically 10 times below, and always 100 times below the regulatory threshold of applicable drinking water standards. A Microtox bioassay procedure showed no toxic effects due to leached metals. Organic analysis of solvent extracts indicated no release of hazardous PAHs attributable to the fly ash ingredient of ACC. Measured rates of radon exhalation were too low to cause potentially dangerous buildups in confined air spaces. Fly ash ACC may be characterized as an environmentally green construction material based on these findings.

  4. Methane biofiltration using autoclaved aerated concrete as the carrier material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganendra, Giovanni; Mercado-Garcia, Daniel; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Boeckx, Pascal; Ho, Adrian; Boon, Nico

    2015-09-01

    The methane removal capacity of mixed methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) culture in a biofilter setup using autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) as a highly porous carrier material was tested. Batch experiment was performed to optimize MOB immobilization on AAC specimens where optimum methane removal was obtained when calcium chloride was not added during bacterial inoculation step and 10-mm-thick AAC specimens were used. The immobilized MOB could remove methane at low concentration (~1000 ppmv) in a biofilter setup for 127 days at average removal efficiency (RE) of 28.7 %. Unlike a plug flow reactor, increasing the total volume of the filter by adding a biofilter in series did not result in higher total RE. MOB also exhibited a higher abundance at the bottom of the filter, in proximity with the methane gas inlet where a high methane concentration was found. Overall, an efficient methane biofilter performance could be obtained using AAC as the carrier material. PMID:25967655

  5. Numerical modelling of the strength of highly porous aerated autoclaved concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenider, T.; Greil, P. [Univ. of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Materials Science; Schober, G. [Hebel AG, Fuerstenfeldbruck (Germany). Materialtechnische Entwicklung

    1998-12-31

    Highly porous building materials like aerated autoclaved concrete are characterized by low thermal conductivity and high mechanical strength, which both strongly depend on porosity. The influence of porosity distribution on the compressive strength of aerated autoclaved concrete was investigated by using finite element analysis and multiaxial Weibull theory. Calculations of failure probability of microstructures with ordered as well as random pore configurations show a dependence of compressive strength on the Weibull modulus of the matrix material and the size and arrangement of pores. The results of the calculations are compared to experimental data of aerated autoclaved concrete.

  6. Thermal Insulation and Strength of Autoclaved Light Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ruochong; ZHU Jipeng; WU Zhishen; WU Zhiren; LI Min; PENG Changhai

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to develop an autoclaved light concrete (ALC) material with ultra-thermal insulation property and to investigate the relationship between its physical characteristics and mechanical properties. Through tests of dry bulk density and compressive strength, relationship of physical characteristics and mechanical properties of samples were studied,resulting in a material with ultra-thermal insulation property. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were applied to analyze the micro-morphology and elemental composition of samples. To identify the product phases, X-ray diffraction (XRD) was engaged. The test results showed that compressive strength and thermal coefficient were reduced with the increasing of aluminum powder within the mixtures. As a result the optimal thermal coefficient and compressive strength of samples were improved to 0.061 W/(m · k) and 1.2 MPa, respectively. SEM,EDX and XRD analyses showed that calcium silicate hydrate and tobermorite crystal were main resultant phases.

  7. Carbon Foam Self-Heated Tooling for Out-of-Autoclave Composites Manufacturing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses NASA's need for non-autoclave composites manufacture. The Constellation program, including the Ares V launch vehicle, will require very...

  8. Leaching of a copper flotation concentrate with ammonium persulfate in an autoclave system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Deniz Turan; H Soner Altundoan

    2014-01-01

    The leaching behavior of a copper flotation concentrate was investigated using ammonium persulfate (APS) in an autoclave sys-tem. The decomposition products of APS, active oxygen, and acidic medium were used to extract metals from the concentrate. Leaching ex-periments were performed to compare the availability of APS as an oxidizing agent for leaching of the concentrate under atmospheric condi-tions and in an autoclave system. Leaching temperature and APS concentration were found to be important parameters in both leaching sys-tems. Atmospheric leaching studies showed that the metal extractions increased with the increase in APS concentration and temperature (up to 333 K). A similar tendency was determined in the autoclave studies up to 423 K. It was also determined that the metal extractions de-creased at temperatures above 423 K due to the passivation of the particle surface by molten elemental sulfur. The results showed that higher copper extractions could be achieved using an autoclave system.

  9. Effects of surface treatments on the susceptibilities of low temperature degradation by autoclaving in zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Her, Soo-Bok; Chang, Won-Gun; Lim, Bum-Soon

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of surface treatments on the aging susceptibilities by autoclaving in zirconia ceramics. Four commercially available tetragonal zirconia polycrystals and one zirconia-alumina composite were tested. Disk-shaped specimens were prepared and the grain sizes were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope and image analyzer. The specimens were divided into three groups based on surface treatments including heat treatment subsequent to mirror polishing, grinding, and sandblasting. Specimens in each group were autoclaved at 134°C for 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 h. The phases of the specimens were analyzed using an X-ray diffractometer, and the relative amount of the monoclinic phase was calculated and analyzed using Student's t-test and Newman-Keuls multiple comparisons test. Single routine autoclave treatment for sterilization did not promote the phase transformation in zirconia. The phase transformations of all specimens by autoclaving were correlated with grain size, except for the zirconia-alumina composite. Grinding or sandblasting treatments gave rise to increased formation of the monoclinic phase, especially for the zirconia-alumina composite, which showed the highest fraction for the monoclinic phase. The effects of surface treatments on the aging susceptibilities by autoclaving were different in the experimental groups. It is notable that not all zirconia ceramics show similar phase transformation by autoclaving after surface treatments. PMID:22566390

  10. Morphological effects of autoclaved diet on the myenteric neurons of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrícia O Gon(c)alez; Naianne K Clebis; Renata B Mari; Karina M Gagliardo; Sandra R Stabille; Haroldo G Faria; Edson A Liberti; José Roberto Kfoury Jr

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of autoclaved diet on the jejunum neurons of the myenteric plexus of rats during their growth.METHODS: The experimental groups were made up of rats going through weaning whose mothers Received either an autoclaved or a non-autoclaved diet during gestation and lactation, and rats that were fed the same diet as their mothers during the post-weaning period. In order to measure the neurons' body pro-file and to quantify the number of neurons per area, preparations were stained by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-diaphorase method.RESULTS: No significant changes were observed in rats' body weight or in the number of neurons regard-less of the diet used (P > 0.05). There was a decrease in the jejunum-ileum length in rats treated with an autoclaved diet (P < 0.05). An increase in the neuronal cross-sectional area was seen in rats that had Received the autoclaved diet, an effect that was significant for animals undergoing weaning. In addition, all observed factors showed significant differences when related to the age of the animals.CONCLUSION: The autoclaved diet did not alter the quantity of neurons, but increased their cell body area, suggesting changes similar to those observed in pro-tein deficiency.

  11. Effect of Sterilization by Dry Heat or Autoclaving on Bacterial Penetration through Berea Sandstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenneman, G E; McInerney, M J; Crocker, M E; Knapp, R M

    1986-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine why bacteria could penetrate lengths of consolidated sandstone (Berea) faster when the sandstone was sterilized by autoclaving than when dry heat (150 degrees C, 3 h) was used. Changes in permeability, porosity, and pore entrance size of the rock as a result of autoclaving were not sufficient to explain the differences in penetration times observed, but electron dispersion spectroscopy and electron microscopy of the rock revealed changes in mineral composition and clay morphology. Autoclaved cores contained more chloride than dry-heated cores, and the clays of autoclaved cores were aggregated and irregularly shaped. Therefore, the decreases in bacterial penetration rates caused by autoclave sterilization were probably the result of a change in surface charge of the pores of the rock and of a reduction in surface area of clays available for adhesion. The results implied that dry-heat sterilization was preferable to autoclaving when examining biotic and abiotic interactions in a native-state rock model.

  12. Evaluation of dimensional stability and accuracy of autoclavable polyvinyl siloxane impression material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Subash M; Vijitha, D; Karthikeyan, S; Balasubramanian, R; Satish, A

    2013-12-01

    Dimensionally stable autoclavable impressions will be effective in controlling the cross-infection and contamination caused by patient's saliva and other oral secretions. The accuracy of newly introduced autoclavable polyvinyl siloxane impression material was assessed for its dimensional stability and accuracy. A standard metal model (Dentoform, U-501, Columbia) was customised for impression making. The impressions were made using the newly introduced polyvinyl siloxane impression materials (AFFINIS, Coltene/Whaledent AG, 9450 Alstalten, Switzerland). Fifty impressions were made and were divided into two groups A and B of 25 each. Group A was the control sample (non-autoclaved impressions) and group B was the test sample (autoclaved impressions), which was subjected to the steam autoclave procedure at 134 °C for 18 min, casts were poured in type IV gypsum products. The customised metal model, casts obtained from control and test group were subjected to laboratory evaluation with help of a travelling microscope (×10 magnification), and digital vernier calliper (0.01 mm/10 μm accuracy). Data analysis was done using one-way ANOVA and One-Sample t test to evaluate the overall accuracy (P polyvinyl siloxane impression material is accurate and dimensional stable for clinical use when steam autoclaved at 134 °C for 18 min.

  13. The release of 14C—chlorsulfuron bound residue by autoclaving method and its identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOJiangfeng; PINGXiaofei; 等

    1999-01-01

    When individual microorganisms were used to release bound pesticide resdues,it was ussually not take into full account whether the autoclaving method could lead to the release of bound residues.The soil containing bound 14C-chlorsulfuron residues was treated with an autoclave in this study.The results reveal that the bound 14C-chlorsulfuron residue can be released from the soil when treated with the autoclave and the release rate can be remarkably enhanced by adding water into the soil when subjected to such treatment.A TLC analysis showed that the released 14C-residue was one of the degraded products of 14C-chlorsulfuron.After derivatization and analysis using the GC-MS,the released 14C-residue was tentatively identified as 2-amnino-4-hydroxyl-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine.

  14. Modeling and simulation of high-pressure industrial autoclave polyethylene reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure technology for polyethylene production has been widely used by industries around the world. A good model for the reactor fluid dynamics is essential to set the operating conditions of an autoclave reactor. The high-pressure autoclave reactor model developed in this work was based on a non-isothermal dynamic model, where PID control equations are used to maintain the operation at the unstable steady state. The kinetic mechanism to describe the polymerization rate and molecular weight averages are presented. The model is capable of computing temperature, concentration gradients and polymer characteristics. The model was validated for an existing industrial reactor and data for production of homopolymer polyethylene and has represented well the behavior of the autoclave reactor used in ethylene homopolymerization.

  15. Bisphenol-A: an estrogenic substance is released from polycarbonate flasks during autoclaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, A V; Stathis, P; Permuth, S F; Tokes, L; Feldman, D

    1993-06-01

    In studies to determine whether Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced estrogens, the organism was grown in culture media prepared using distilled water autoclaved in polycarbonate flasks. The yeast-conditioned media showed the presence of a substance that competed with [3H]estradiol for binding to estrogen receptors (ER) from rat uterus. However, it soon became clear that the estrogenic substance in the conditioned media was not a product of the yeast grown in culture, but was leached out of the polycarbonate flasks during the autoclaving procedure. [3H]Estradiol displacement activity was monitored by ER RRA, and the active substance was purified from autoclaved medium using a series of HPLC steps. The final purified product was identified as bisphenol-A (BPA) by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. BPA could also be identified in distilled water autoclaved in polycarbonate flasks without the requirement of either the organism or the constituents of the culture medium. Authentic BPA was active in competitive RRAs, demonstrating an affinity approximately 1:2000 that of estradiol for ER. In functional assays, BPA (10-25 nM) induced progesterone receptors in cultured human mammary cancer cells (MCF-7) at a potency of approximately 1:5000 compared to that of estradiol. The BPA effect on PR induction was blocked by tamoxifen. In addition, BPA (25 nM) increased the rate of proliferation of MCF-7 cells assessed by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Thus, BPA exhibited estrogenic activity by both RRA and two functional bioresponse assays. Finally, MCF-7 cells grown in media prepared with water autoclaved in polycarbonate exhibited higher progesterone receptor levels than cells.grown in media prepared with water autoclaved in glass, suggesting an estrogenic effect of the water autoclaved in polycarbonate. Our findings raise the possibility that unsuspected estrogenic activity in the form of BPA may have an impact on experiments employing media autoclaved in

  16. Biochemical methane potential tests of different autoclaved and microwaved lignocellulosic organic fractions of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorini, Isabella; Baldi, Francesco; Carnevale, Ennio Antonio; Corti, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research was to enhance the anaerobic biodegradability and methane production of two synthetic Organic Fractions of Municipal Solid Waste with different lignocellulosic contents by assessing microwave and autoclave pre-treatments. Biochemical Methane Potential assays were performed for 21days. Changes in the soluble fractions of the organic matter (measured by soluble chemical oxygen demand, carbohydrates and proteins), the first order hydrolysis constant kh and the cumulated methane production at 21days were used to evaluate the efficiency of microwaving and autoclaving pretreatments on substrates solubilization and anaerobic digestion. Microwave treatment led to a methane production increase of 8.5% for both the tested organic fractions while autoclave treatment had an increase ranging from 1.0% to 4.4%. Results showed an increase of the soluble fraction after pre-treatments for both the synthetic organic fractions. Soluble chemical oxygen demand observed significant increases for pretreated substrates (up to 219.8%). In this regard, the mediocre results of methane's production led to the conclusion that autoclaving and microwaving resulted in the hydrolysis of a significant fraction of non-biodegradable organic substances recalcitrant to anaerobic digestion.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of strontium carboxylates at room temperature and at high temperature in autoclave vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christgau, Stephan; Ståhl, Kenny; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2006-01-01

    -ray crystallography. Optimum conditions were found at T = 120-1400C, a base-to-acid ratio of 1.2 and 15 min. of reaction-time in an autoclave vessel. Large crystals were readily obtained within a time period of hours. The crystal structures of strontium D-glutamate hexahydrate (I) and strontium di-(hydrogen L...

  18. Moisture conditions of modern structures made of autoclaved aerated concrete in operation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Zyryanov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In St.-Petersburg and area six organizations making cellular concrete of autoclave hardening operate. At all enterprises the cellular concrete is made by the gas way of pore development by molding technology. The molding technology in practice means that the mass humidity of concrete on an exit from autoclaves will be at level of 35-45 % (great values of humidity correspond to smaller density. The similar situation is observed in other regions: more than 80 % of all autoclave cellular concrete in Russia are made by molding technology. The high humidity caused by presence of technological and constructional moisture in an initial stage of operation quickly decreases, reaching gradually operational level. The established humidity of cellular autoclave concrete as a part of protecting walls makes 3–6 % on weight. However the raised humidity of cellular concrete in an operation initial stage causes smaller settlement values of durability of concrete in a laying. Durability of concrete, in turn, influences on bearing capacity of anchorings for ventilated facades, if they are fastened in a body of cellular concrete. Thus, the information on dynamics of change of laying humidity in an operation initial stage allows to estimate terms of reach by designs calculated strength and thermophysical parameters.

  19. Biofiltration of Methane from Ruminants Gas Effluent Using Autoclaved Aerated Concrete as the Carrier Material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganendra, Giovanni; Mercado-Garcia, Daniel; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Peiren, Nico; De Campeneere, Sam; Ho, Adrian; Boon, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The performance of Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria (MOB) immobilized on Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) in a biofilter setup to remove methane from ruminants gas effluent was investigated. Two dairy cows were housed in respiration chambers for two days where the exhaust gas from the chambers w

  20. Autoclave reduction of jarosites and other metal sulfates : a new approach to major waste problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, J.T.L.

    1999-01-01

    Industrial jarosite is a waste product of the zinc industry. It is considered a serious environmental problem, due to the quantity produced and the mobile hazardous metals it contains. Over 50 million tons are already stored worldwide. The jarosite sludge autoclave treatment process described in thi

  1. Autoclave reduction of jarosites and other metal sulfates : a new approach to major waste problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hage, J.L.T.

    1999-01-01

    Industrial jarosite is a waste product of the zinc industry. It is considered a serious environmental problem, due to the quantity produced and the mobile hazardous metals it contains. Over 50 million tons are already stored worldwide. The jarosite sludge autoclave treatment process described in this thesis is a technically and economically feasible alternative to storage, which is only a temporary solution.

  2. Bacteria in crude oil survived autoclaving and stimulated differentially by exogenous bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-Cui; Liu, Ze-Shen; Guo, Peng; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Chen, Jian; Wang, Xing-Biao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Chun-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Autoclaving of crude oil is often used to evaluate the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of bacteria. This may be potentially useful for bioaugmentation and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). However, it is not entirely clear if "endogenous" bacteria (e.g., spores) in/on crude oil survive the autoclaving process, or influence subsequent evaluation of the hydrocarbon-degradation abilities of the "exogenous" bacterial strains. To test this, we inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium with six exogenous bacterial strains (three Dietzia strains, two Acinetobacter strains, and one Pseudomonas strain). The survival of the spore-forming Bacillus and Paenibacillus and the non-spore-forming mesophilic Pseudomonas, Dietzia, Alcaligenes, and Microbacterium was detected using a 16S rRNA gene clone library and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. However, neither bacteria nor bacterial activity was detected in three controls consisting of non-inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium. These results suggest that detection of endogenous bacteria was stimulated by the six inoculated strains. In addition, inoculation with Acinetobacter spp. stimulated detection of Bacillus, while inoculation with Dietzia spp. and Pseudomonas sp. stimulated the detection of more Pseudomonas. In contrast, similar exogenous bacteria stimulated similar endogenous bacteria at the genus level. Based on these results, special emphasis should be applied to evaluate the influence of bacteria capable of surviving autoclaving on the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of exogenous bacteria, in particular, with regard to bioaugmentation and MEOR. Bioaugmentation and MEOR technologies could then be developed to more accurately direct the growth of specific endogenous bacteria that may then improve the efficiency of treatment or recovery of crude oil. PMID:23028421

  3. Bacteria in crude oil survived autoclaving and stimulated differentially by exogenous bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Cui Gong

    Full Text Available Autoclaving of crude oil is often used to evaluate the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of bacteria. This may be potentially useful for bioaugmentation and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR. However, it is not entirely clear if "endogenous" bacteria (e.g., spores in/on crude oil survive the autoclaving process, or influence subsequent evaluation of the hydrocarbon-degradation abilities of the "exogenous" bacterial strains. To test this, we inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium with six exogenous bacterial strains (three Dietzia strains, two Acinetobacter strains, and one Pseudomonas strain. The survival of the spore-forming Bacillus and Paenibacillus and the non-spore-forming mesophilic Pseudomonas, Dietzia, Alcaligenes, and Microbacterium was detected using a 16S rRNA gene clone library and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis. However, neither bacteria nor bacterial activity was detected in three controls consisting of non-inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium. These results suggest that detection of endogenous bacteria was stimulated by the six inoculated strains. In addition, inoculation with Acinetobacter spp. stimulated detection of Bacillus, while inoculation with Dietzia spp. and Pseudomonas sp. stimulated the detection of more Pseudomonas. In contrast, similar exogenous bacteria stimulated similar endogenous bacteria at the genus level. Based on these results, special emphasis should be applied to evaluate the influence of bacteria capable of surviving autoclaving on the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of exogenous bacteria, in particular, with regard to bioaugmentation and MEOR. Bioaugmentation and MEOR technologies could then be developed to more accurately direct the growth of specific endogenous bacteria that may then improve the efficiency of treatment or recovery of crude oil.

  4. Elevated Temperature, Notched Compression Performance of Out of Autoclave Processed Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Sutter, James K.; Dixon, Genevieve D.; Smeltzer, Satn S.

    2013-01-01

    Curved honeycomb sandwich panels composed of carbon fiber reinforced toughened-epoxy polymer facesheets are being evaluated for potential use as payload fairing components on the NASA heavy-lift space launch system (HL-SLS). These proposed composite sandwich panels provide the most efficient aerospace launch structures, and offer mass and thermal advantages when compared with existing metallic payload fairing structures. NASA and industry are investigating recently developed carbon fiber epoxy prepreg systems which can be fabricated using out-of autoclave (OOA) processes. Specifically, OOA processes using vacuum pressure in an oven and thereby significantly reducing the cost associated with manufacturing large (up to 10 m diameter) composite structures when compared with autoclave. One of these OOA composite material systems, CYCOM(R) 5320-1, was selected for manufacture of a 1/16th scale barrel portion of the payload fairing; such that, the system could be compared with the well-characterized prepreg system, CYCOM(R) 977-3, typically processed in an autoclave. Notched compression coupons for each material were obtained from the minimum-gauge flat laminate [60/-60/0]S witness panels produced in this manufacturing study. The coupons were also conditioned to an effective moisture equilibrium point and tested according to ASTM D6484M-09 at temperatures ranging from 25 C up to 177 C. The results of this elevated temperature mechanical characterization study demonstrate that, for thin coupons, the OHC strength of the OOA laminate was equivalent to the flight certified autoclave processed composite laminates; the limitations on the elevated temperature range are hot-wet conditions up to 163 C and are only within the margins of testing error. At 25 C, both the wet and dry OOA material coupons demonstrated greater OHC failure strengths than the autoclave processed material laminates. These results indicate a substantial improvement in OOA material development and

  5. Autoclave inactivation of infectious radioactive laboratory waste contained within a charcoal filtration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model system was developed previously for disposal of solid laboratory waste that is both radioactive and heat sensitive, e.g., HIV. A double polypropylene bag with charcoal vent filter and absorbent was designed to meet requirements for both steam sterilization and disposal as solid radioactive waste. Earlier work demonstrated the effective containment of radioactive gases by the filter and inactivation of organisms as heat sensitive as HIV. The authors sought to broaden the application of this model to ensure inactivation of microorganisms that are more heat resistant than HIV. The efficacy of steam sterilization using water or solutions of iodophor, hypochlorite, or hydrogen peroxide was studied under constant temperature and time conditions. The systems were monitored with internal probes, physical, chemical, and biological indicators. Biological indicators documented inactivation when bags containing hydrogen peroxide (3%) were autoclaved for 60 min at 121C. Synergistic activity between hydrogen peroxide and autoclave conditions significantly reduced processing time

  6. Mathematical Model For Autoclave Curing Of Unsaturated Polyester Based Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan A. Abdul Razak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer process involved in the autoclave curing of fiber-reinforced thermosetting composites is investigated numerically. A model for the prediction of the temperature and the extent of the reaction across the laminate thickness during curing process in the autoclave of unsaturated polyester based composite has been developed. The governing equation for one dimensional heat transfer, and accounting for the heat generation due to the exothermic cure reaction in the composites had been used.  It was found that the temperature at the central of the laminate increases up to the external imposed temperature, because of the thermal conductivity of the resin and fiber. The heat generated by the exothermic reaction of the resin is not adequately removed; the increase in the temperature at the center increases the resins rate reaction, which in turn generates more heat.

  7. A compensation approach to the tool used in autoclave based on FEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ji; Li Yingguang; Li Nanya; and Liao Wenhe

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of the curing process can not control the deformation of composite part prepared in autoclave accurately. And traditional "trial-and-error" tool surface compensation approach is low efficiency, high cost and can not control part deformation quantificationally. In order to address these issues, tool compensation approach based on FEA is presented. Model of multi-field coupling relationship in autoclave is realized. And finite element analysis model of composite part's curing process is developed to analyze part deformation. According to displacement of the part surface nodes after deformation, tool surface which compensated by the displacement of composite part which analyzed by FEA is used to control part deformation. A cylindrical composite part is ana- lyzed to verify the approach, and the result proves the correctness and validity of the approach.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF A HALLOYSITE ADDITIVE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Owsiak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results from the tests of autoclaved aerated concrete with halloysite as a cement additive. Good pozzolanic properties make it a suitable material to be used as a partial replacement of a portion of cement. Basic physical and mechanical properties of the composites with various mineral content are discussed. The compressive strength test results indicate an increase in strength of the AAC containing 2.5 % and 5 % halloysite relative to the reference specimen. Thermal conductivity and density values remained at the same level. Observations of the microstructure in the scanning electron microscope confirmed the results from the XRD tests. Anhydrite was observed in addition to tobermorite. The results from the tests of the autoclaved aerated concretes in which halloysite was incorporated as 7.5 % and 10 % cement replacement showed an increase in compressive strength, density and thermal conductivity values.

  9. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) fiber optic monitoring of composites during cure in an autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druy, Mark A.; Elandjian, Lucy; Stevenson, William A.; Driver, Richard D.; Leskowitz, Garett M.

    1990-01-01

    Real-time in situ monitoring of the chemical states of epoxy resins was investigated during cure in an autoclave using infrared evanescent spectroscopy. Fiber evanescent sensors were developed which may be sandwiched between the plies of the prepreg sample. A short length of sapphire fiber was used as the sensor cell portion of the fiber probe. Heavy metal fluoride glass optical fiber cables were designed for connecting the FTIR spectrometer to the sensor fiber within the autoclave. The sapphire fibers have outstanding mechanical thermal properties which should permit their use as an embedded link in all thermoset composites. The system is capable of operation at a temperature of 250 C for periods up to 8 hours without major changes to the fiber transmission. A discussion of the selection of suitable sensor fibers, the construction of a fiber-optic interface, and the interpretation of in situ infrared spectra of the curing process is presented.

  10. Dimensional stability of a polyvinylsiloxane impression material following ethylene oxide and steam autoclave sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtan, J R; Olin, P S; Rudney, J D

    1991-04-01

    Polyvinlsiloxane impressions were made from a stainless steel master die machined to stimulate five full veneer crown preparations symmetrically placed in an arch form. Three groups of 10 impressions each were made. Treatment groups were sterilized using an ethylene oxide gas and a conventional steam autoclave. Casts were poured and intrapreparation, height, and diameter measurements were made using a stereomicroscope, a digital electronic caliper, and a 1-inch travel dial indicator. Analysis of dimensional changes for the two groups showed that casts made from impressions sterilized by ethylene oxide are acceptable for use in the construction of fixed or removable prostheses. Casts made from impressions sterilized in a steam autoclave can be used for the fabrication of diagnostic casts and some transitional prostheses, but not for routine construction of crowns or fixed partial dentures.

  11. HYACE - a novel autoclave coring equipment for systematic offshore gashydrate sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, H.; Hohnberg, H.J.; Reinelt, R. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Schiffs- und Meerestechnik, Fachgebiet Maritime Technik

    1997-12-31

    HYACE, the acronym for hydrate autoclave coring equipment system, is a research and development project sponsored by the European Union`s Marine Science and Technology Programme MAST. The project was to have started in the fourth quarter of 1997 and is to last 30 months. The main activities of the project will be in the development and prototype testing of an innovative down-hole controlled autoclave coring system. This system will be designed to sample marine sediments at extended down-hole conditions maintaining as many parameters constant as possible. In general terms, the main aim of the project is to contribute to systematic ground truthing of a necessarily ephemeral phenomenon of growing global significance: sampling and analysis of gas hydrates in their natural environment. (MSK)

  12. Interface morphologic characteristics of articles in load-bearing autoclaved cellular concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S.; Wang, L. [China University of Mining and Technology (China)

    1999-06-01

    Using SEM-EDAX, the morphological characteristics within the interfacial zone between the fly ash particles and the lime-cement paste of load-bearing autoclaved cellular concrete is studied. The results shows that with autoclaved curing, the crystals of the hydration product are well developed. The microstructure of the interlocking needle and fibre shaped hydration products is denser than that of natural curing. Under natural curing, the crystallization of the hydration product is low, the particles mainly present in piles. Irregular dispersed grain-shaped hydration products are seen on the breaking face in the early stage of curing. Rod and sheet shaped AFt, AFm phases are seen later. The lack of connecting and interlocking of the hydration products is the main reason for the low strength of natural curing product. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Development and fabrication of an autoclave molded PES/Quartz sandwich radome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Leonard E.; Levin, Stephen D.

    1993-04-01

    A cohesively bonded, thermoplastic composite sandwich radome for a leading edge supersonic aircraft has been built using autoclave processing with PES/Quartz prepreg and a PES coated honeycomb core. Processes were developed for solvent removal, thermoplastic laminate consolidation, surface etching to improve adhesion, honeycomb coating and forming, and ultrasound testing of bond integrity. Environmental testing was also conducted to verify the structural integrity of the radome for its intended application.

  14. Treatment of Clinical Solid Waste Using a Steam Autoclave as a Possible Alternative Technology to Incineration

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Omar Ab Kadir; Nik Norulaini Nik Ab Rahman; Md. Sohrab Hossain; Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker; Venugopal Balakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min) and temperature (111 °C, 121 °C and 131 °C) at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree ...

  15. Autoclaving and clinical recycling: Effects on mechanical properties of orthodontic wires

    OpenAIRE

    Oshagh, M.; M R Hematiyan; Y Mohandes; M R Oshagh; L Pishbin

    2012-01-01

    Background: About half of the orthodontists recycle and reuse orthodontic wires because of their costs. So when talking about reuse and sterilization of wires, their effects on mechanical properties of wires should be clarified. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of sterilization and clinical use on mechanical properties of stainless steel wires. Materials and Methods: Thirty stainless steel orthodontic wires were divided into three equal groups of control, autoclave (ster...

  16. Autoclave leaching of molybdenite concentrates with catalytic additives of nitric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, K. M.; Raspopov, N. A.; Shneerson, Ya. M.; Lapin, A. Yu.; Bitkov, G. A.; Men'shikov, Yu. A.; Paskhin, P. N.; Kirichenko, V. P.

    2010-07-01

    The scientific theoretical prerequisites for the use of small additives of nitric acid for the intensification of the autoclave oxidative leaching (AOL) of sulfide concentrates are checked in order to increase the degree of extraction of the base metal with a simultaneous decrease in the cost of the process. The technological parameters of the AOL conditions applied to molybdenite are also refined, and recommendations for a practical application of the apparatus of the process and for a decrease in its cost are made.

  17. Autoclaved Tumor Bone for Skeletal Reconstruction in Paediatric Patients: A Low Cost Alternative in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Umer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed in this series forty patients of pediatric age who underwent resection for malignant tumors of musculoskeletal system followed by biological reconstruction. Our surgical procedure for reconstruction included (1 wide en bloc resection of the tumor; (2 curettage of tumor from the resected bone; (3 autoclaving for 8 minutes (4 bone grafting from the fibula (both vascularized and nonvascularized fibular grafts used; (5 reimplantation of the autoclaved bone into the host bone defect and fixation with plates. Functional evaluation was done using MSTS scoring system. At final followup of at least 18 months (mean 29.2 months, 31 patients had recovered without any complications. Thirty-eight patients successfully achieved a solid bony union between the graft and recipient bone. Three patients had surgical site infection. They were managed with wound debridement and flap coverage of the defect. Local recurrence and nonunion occurred in two patients each. One patient underwent disarticulation at hip due to extensive local disease and one died of metastasis. For patients with non-union, revision procedure with bone graft and compression plates was successfully used. The use of autoclaved tumor grafts provides a limb salvage option that is inexpensive and independent of external resources and is a viable option for musculoskeletal tumor management in developing countries.

  18. Curing Pressure Influence of Out-of-Autoclave Processing on Structural Composites for Commercial Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios M. Drakonakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoclaving is a process that ensures the highest quality of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP composite structures used in aviation. During the autoclave process, consolidation of prepreg laminas through simultaneous elevated pressure and temperature results in a uniform high-end material system. This work focuses on analyzing in a fundamental way the applications of pressure and temperature separately during prepreg consolidation. A controlled pressure vessel (press-clave has been designed that applies pressure during the curing process while the temperature is being applied locally by heat blankets. This vessel gives the ability to design manufacturing processes with different pressures while applying temperature at desired regions of the composite. The pressure role on the curing extent and its effect on the interlayer region are also tested in order to evaluate the consolidation of prepregs to a completely uniform material. Such studies may also be used to provide insight into the morphology of interlayer reinforcement concepts, which are widely used in the featherweight composites. Specimens manufactured by press-clave, which separates pressure from heat, are analytically tested and compared to autoclaved specimens in order to demonstrate the suitability of the press-clave to manufacture high-quality composites with excessively reduced cost.

  19. Mechanical Characterization of In and Out-of-Autoclave Cured Composite Panels for Large Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Lerch, Bradley A.; Wilmoth, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Two manufacturing demonstration panels (1/16th-arc-segments of 10 m diameter cylinder) were fabricated under the composites part of the Lightweight Space Structures and Materials program. Both panels were of sandwich construction with aluminum core and 8-ply quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy facesheets. One of the panels was constructed with in-autoclave curable unidirectional prepreg (IM7/977-3) and the second with out-of-autoclave unidirectional prepreg (T40-800B/5320-1). Following NDE inspection, each panel was divided into a number of small specimens for material property characterization and a large (0.914 m wide by 1.524 m long) panel for a buckling study. Results from the small specimen tests were used to (a) assess the fabrication quality of each 1/16th arc segment panel and (b) to develop and/or verify basic material property inputs to Finite Element analysis models. The mechanical performance of the two material systems is assessed at the coupon level by comparing average measured properties such as flatwise tension, edgewise compression, and facesheet tension. The buckling response of the 0.914 m wide by 1.524 m long panel provided a comparison between the in- and out-of autoclave systems at a larger scale.

  20. Implementing the concept of «sustainable development» in ukraine by use autoclaved aerated concrete.

    OpenAIRE

    Brynzin, I. V.; Paruta, V. А.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Implementation of the concept of "sustainable development" in Ukraine by the use of autoclaved aerated concrete, in the construction of low- and high-rise buildings and structures. The article describes the main characteristics of autoclaved aerated concrete, from the stage of extraction of raw materials and ending with recycling stage. Justified a broad introduction to the construction industry. Methodology. The results are obtained in the form of an expert opinion by comparing the ...

  1. West Angeles Community Development Corporation final technical report on export market feasibility planning and research for the solar medical autoclave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, G.D.

    1998-04-20

    This report summarizes core findings from an investigation performed by the staff of West Angeles Community Development Corporation (CDC) regarding the feasibility of marketing the Solar Medical Autoclave (``autoclave``) in South Africa. The investigation was completed during 1997, the period prescribed by the Grant Award made by the U.S. Department of Energy on January 1, 1997, and was monitored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  2. An autoclave study of zirconium alloys with and without a hydride rim

    OpenAIRE

    J. Wei, P. Frankel, M. Blat, A. Ambard, R. J. Comstock, Lars Hallstadius, S. Lyon, R.A. Cottis and M. Preuss

    2012-01-01

    Autoclave corrosion experiments were conducted on a number of zirconium alloys in different heat treatment conditions. The alloys tested in the present work were Zircaloy-4, ZIRLOH (ZIRLO is a registered trademark of Westinghouse Electric Company LLC in the USA and may be registered in other countries throughout the world. All rights reserved. Unauthorised use is strictly prohibited.) and two variants of ZIRLO with significantly lower Sn levels, referred to here as A-0·6Sn and A-0·0Sn. Typica...

  3. Autoclave Fully Automatic Feeding and Discharging Can Trolley%杀菌釜全自动进出料台车

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周东; 陈书琼; 陈凯; 林伟杰

    2013-01-01

    针对八宝粥罐头杀菌茏进出杀菌釜一直由人工完成,存在效率低,劳动强度大,可靠性差的问题,提出了一种杀菌釜全自动进出料台车设计方法.主要设计理念为装满八宝粥罐头的杀菌笼放置在台车轨道上,随台车运送到杀菌釜,杀菌釜内有与台车相对应的运送轨道,通过电机控制两端推块翻转,顺利实现将杀菌笼推进和拉出杀菌釜.%For the end of eight-treasure can bactericidal cage feeding and discharging autoclave had been done manuelly with low efficiency, high labor intensity and poor reliability. This paper put forward a kind of autoclave automatic feeding and discharging can trolley design method. The main design concept is the bactericidal cage full of eight-treasure porridge can be put on the tracks and sent to the autoclave with the trolley. There are tracks in the autoclave corresponding to the trolley with controlled the both ends ejector pads roll-over through the motor, push and pull out the bactericidal cage from autoclave smoothly.

  4. Effects of Autoclaving and Mercuric Chloride Sterilization on PAHs Dissipation in a Two-Liquid-Phase Soil Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cong-Ying; WANG Fang; WANG Tao; YANG Xing-Lun; BIAN Yong-Rong; F.O.KENGARA; LI Zeng-Bo; JIANG Xin

    2011-01-01

    A two-liquid-phase (TLP) soil slurry system was employed to quantify the efficiencies of autoclaving and mercuric chloride sterilization in the dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The fates of 11 PAHs (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, dibenzo(a, h)anthracene) were recorded over 113 days of incubation. No microorganisms were detected in the HgCl2-sterilized soil slurries during the whole incubation period, indicating very effective sterilization. However, about 2%-36% losses of PAHs were observed in the HgCl2-sterilized slurry. In contrast to the HgCl2-sterilized soil slurry, some microorganisms survived in the autoclaved soil slurries. Moreover,significant biodegradation of 6 PAHs (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene) was observed in the autoclaved soil slurries. This indicated that biodegradation results of PAHs in the soil slurries, calculated on basis of the autoclaved control, would be underestimated. It could be concluded that the sterilization efficiency and effectiveness of HgCl2 on soil slurry was much higher than those of autoclaving at 121 ℃ for 45 min.

  5. Stress Free Temperature Testing and Residual Stress Calculations on Out-of-Autoclave Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah; Tate, LaNetra C.; Danley, Susan; Sampson, Jeff; Taylor, Brian; Miller, Sandi

    2012-01-01

    Future launch vehicles will require the incorporation large composite parts that will make up primary and secondary components of the vehicle. NASA has explored the feasibility of manufacturing these large components using Out-of-Autoclave impregnated carbon fiber composite systems through many composites development projects. Most recently, the Composites for Exploration Project has been looking at the development of a 10 meter diameter fairing structure, similar in size to what will be required for a heavy launch vehicle. The development of new material systems requires the investigation of the material properties and the stress in the parts. Residual stress is an important factor to incorporate when modeling the stresses that a part is undergoing. Testing was performed to verify the stress free temperature with two-ply asymmetric panels. A comparison was done between three newly developed out of autoclave IM7 /Bismalieimide (BMI) systems. This paper presents the testing results and the analysis performed to determine the residual stress of the materials.

  6. Stress Free Temperature Testing and Calculations on Out-of-Autoclave Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah B.; Tate, LeNetra C.; Danley, Susan E.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Taylor, Brian J.; Sutter, James K.; Miller, Sandi G.

    2013-01-01

    Future launch vehicles will require the incorporation of large composite parts that will make up primary and secondary components of the vehicle. NASA has explored the feasibility of manufacturing these large components using Out-of-Autoclave impregnated carbon fiber composite systems through many composites development projects. Most recently, the Composites for Exploration Project has been looking at the development of a 10 meter diameter fairing structure, similar in size to what will be required for a heavy launch vehicle. The development of new material systems requires the investigation of the material properties and the stress in the parts. Residual stress is an important factor to incorporate when modeling the stresses that a part is undergoing. Testing was performed to verify the stress free temperature with two-ply asymmetric panels. A comparison was done between three newly developed out of autoclave IM7/Bismaleimide (BMI) systems. This paper presents the testing results and the analysis performed to determine the stress free temperature of the materials

  7. A compact and autoclavable system for acute extracellular neural recording and brain pressure monitoring for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotzi, Gian Nicola; Baranauskas, Gytis; Vato, Alessandro; Bonfanti, Andrea; Zambra, Guido; Maggiolini, Emma; Semprini, Marianna; Ricci, Davide; Ansaldo, Alberto; Castagnola, Elisa; Ius, Tamara; Skrap, Miran; Fadiga, Luciano

    2015-02-01

    One of the most difficult tasks for the surgeon during the removal of low-grade gliomas is to identify as precisely as possible the borders between functional and non-functional brain tissue with the aim of obtaining the maximal possible resection which allows to the patient the longer survival. For this purpose, systems for acute extracellular recordings of single neuron and multi-unit activity are considered promising. Here we describe a system to be used with 16 microelectrodes arrays that consists of an autoclavable headstage, a built-in inserter for precise electrode positioning and a system that measures and controls the pressure exerted by the headstage on the brain with a twofold purpose: to increase recording stability and to avoid disturbance of local perfusion which would cause a degradation of the quality of the recording and, eventually, local ischemia. With respect to devices where only electrodes are autoclavable, our design permits the reduction of noise arising from long cable connections preserving at the same time the flexibility and avoiding long-lasting gas sterilization procedures. Finally, size is much smaller and set up time much shorter compared to commercial systems currently in use in surgery rooms, making it easy to consider our system very useful for intra-operatory mapping operations. PMID:25486648

  8. Numeric model of the normative consumption of heat for the colour homogenisation of wood in pressure autoclaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurenda, Ladislav

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a numeric model of the normative consumption of heat for the colour homogenisation of unfrozen wood using saturated steam in pressure autoclaves, in the form of a technically feasible standard. For more effective determination of the objectively necessary consumption of heat for steaming non-frozen wood in a steam autoclave, a program was prepared in EXCEL in the form of a numeric table. Based on the technical and technological data on machinery, the range of colour homogenised wood and the colour-homogenisation regime, the program provides information about normative - the consumption of heat per 1 mł - of colour homogenised wood as well as about the consumption of heat for individual items of the thermal balance off the process of colour homogenisation in a pressure autoclave.

  9. 压力蒸汽灭菌器的性能验证%The Performance Validation of Autoclave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕恒源; 杨海军

    2014-01-01

    Autoclave is a common device of validation. By the performance validation of autoclave, we can confirm that the autoclave can reaches the performance requirements of equipment within the prescribed time, temperature and pressure conditions, reagents can be effective sterilization.%压力蒸汽灭菌器是一种常见的消毒灭菌装置。通过开展灭菌效果验证可确认压力蒸汽灭菌器是否能在规定的时间、温度和压力条件下达到设备性能指标要求,试剂是否能被有效灭菌。

  10. The Design of Autoclave Controlling System%发泡建材蒸压釜控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴滢

    2012-01-01

    发泡建材蒸压釜属大型压力容器,主要介绍了符合蒸压釜相关安全性能规定的控制器设计方法,以及规模蒸压釜群的能源管理系统的设计方法,从而可以实现设备与能源的最优利用.%The autoclave is a kind of large pressure vessel. The design method of autoclave controller, used in the production of aerated concrete, was mainly introduced, as well as the energy management system for scaled autoclave group by which the optimal utilization of facilities and energy could be realized.

  11. Treatment of infectious waste: development and testing of an add-on set for used gravity displacement autoclaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolze, René; Kühling, Jan-Gerd

    2009-06-01

    The safe management of potentially infectious healthcare waste is gaining increasing worldwide importance. In developing countries, simple incinerators are used for the treatment of this type of waste stream. However, as these incinerators produce high emissions and represent the main generators of dioxin and furans in these countries, alternative and cost-effective solutions are needed. As steam treatment systems do not produce persistent organic pollutants, the use of existing (older) medical autoclaves could represent a solution for the treatment of infectious waste. ETLog Health EnviroTech & Logistics, the German-based consulting and engineering company carried out the first research into whether gravity air displacement autoclaves can be used for the safe decontamination of infectious waste. The research showed that it is not possible to decontaminate waste using this type of autoclave. A subsequent research and development phase might, however, make it possible to develop a new process cycle. Tests carried out on the basis of international standards and norms showed that by applying this process cycle and using an add-on set, it is possible to treat healthcare waste using the existing stock of older medical autoclaves. The process cycle and the add-on set developed were tested under existing conditions in Hanoi, Vietnam using the treatment cycle developed for a 13-year-old autoclave. All the parameters for infectious waste decontamination were reached. As modified autoclaves prevent the emission of toxic substances, this approach presents an interim solution, which avoids the impacts on human health and the environment caused by the incineration of healthcare waste.

  12. Autoclaved, previously used intravaginal progesterone devices induces estrus and ovulation in anestrous Toggenburg goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, J M G; Torres, C A A; Maia, A L R S; Brandão, F Z; Bruschi, J H; Viana, J H M; E Oba; Fonseca, J F

    2011-11-01

    Intravaginal progesterone devices are used worldwide for estrus induction in goats. Reused devices are able to induce estrus; however, this can be a health risk within a flock. The objective was to compare new and previously used (and autoclaved) progesterone-releasing intravaginal devices for induction of estrus and ovulation in seasonally anestrous Toggenburg goats. Anestrous goats (n=42) received new intravaginal devices containing 0.3g progesterone (CONTROL), or similar devices previously used for either 6 (USED6) or 12d (USED12) and subsequently autoclaved. All goats received 5mg dinoprost at device insertion and 200 IU eCG 5d later, and all devices were removed after 6d. After device removal, estrus was monitored and females displaying signs of estrus were mated by fertile bucks. Transrectal ovarian ultrasonography was performed after device removal until detection of ovulation. Blood samples were collected for determination of plasma progesterone concentration at different times. There was no difference (P>0.05) among groups CONTROL, USED6 or USED12 for: estrus response (87, 100 or 100%, respectively); duration of estrus (32.3±2.3, 25.2±3.4 or 27.3±4.1h); ovulation rate (100, 88 or 100%); number of ovulations (1.5±0.2, 1.9±0.3 or 1.7±0.3); and pregnancy rate (60, 58 or 67%). Plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations were greater (P<0.05) in CONTROL than in USED6-treated and USED12-treated goats (7.2±1.2, 4.7±0.7 and 4.3±0.6 ng/mL, respectively) at 6h after device insertion; these differences were maintained until 4d after device insertion (3.4±0.4, 2.3±0.2, and 2.5±0.2 ng/mL). Overall, plasma progesterone concentrations were greater (P<0.05) in nulliparous than in lactating goats (3.1±0.8 compared to 2.4±0.6 ng/mL, respectively). In conclusion, autoclaved, previously used intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices resulted in significant lesser plasma progesterone concentrations than new devices, but were similarly effective in inducing estrus

  13. Process test on five-autoclave linkage operation for autoclaved fly ash brick%蒸压粉煤灰砖“五釜联动操作”的工艺试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光建

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the possibility analysis of five-autoclave linkage operation for autoclaving fly ash brick combine of the Tianyie building material company autoclaved fly ash brick production line, the paper describes the improvement on supply steam equipment of autoclave, so as to achieve energy conservation.%结合天业建材公司蒸压粉煤灰砖的生产实践,在对蒸压粉煤灰砖五釜联动操作的可行性分析、研究的基础上,提出了对蒸压釜供汽部分的设备改造方案和蒸压粉煤灰砖五釜联动操作的工艺试验方案,指出砖瓦企业实现节能减排、低碳发展必须抓好关键设备的技术改造、技术创新。

  14. Preparation of Slowly Digestible Starch by Citric Acid-hydrolysis with Autoclaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansong Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study is to produce Slowly Digestible Starch (SDS by a combination of citric acid-hydrolysis and autoclaving from raw corn starch. The effects of citric acid concentration, acid hydrolysis time, temperature and refrigeration and retro gradation time on the formation of SDS were investigated. The optimal process conditions optimized by Box-Benhnken’s central composite design and response surface analysis was as follows: concentration of citric acid is 0.08 M, acid hydrolyzed at 116°C for 14.5 min, and then stored at 0°C for 72 h. Under these optimal conditions, the content of SDS peaked at 19.38%.

  15. Intelligent sensor-model automated control of PMR-15 autoclave processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, S.; Kranbuehl, D.; Loos, A.; Hinds, B.; Koury, J.

    An intelligent sensor model system has been built and used for automated control of the PMR-15 cure process in the autoclave. The system uses frequency-dependent FM sensing (FDEMS), the Loos processing model, and the Air Force QPAL intelligent software shell. The Loos model is used to predict and optimize the cure process including the time-temperature dependence of the extent of reaction, flow, and part consolidation. The FDEMS sensing system in turn monitors, in situ, the removal of solvent, changes in the viscosity, reaction advancement and cure completion in the mold continuously throughout the processing cycle. The sensor information is compared with the optimum processing conditions from the model. The QPAL composite cure control system allows comparison of the sensor monitoring with the model predictions to be broken down into a series of discrete steps and provides a language for making decisions on what to do next regarding time-temperature and pressure.

  16. An Investigation of Steam Curing Pressure Effect on Pozzolan Additive Autoclaved Aerated Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Güçlüer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC is a porous light weight concrete obtained by adding a pore-forming material to a mixture made of finely pulverized siliceous aggregate and inorganic binder (lime and/or cement and hardened by steam cure. In this study fly ash was used instead of siliceous aggregate and experiment samples were obtained by adding 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% silica fume to the cement. Samples were cured under 1560C and 4 bars and 1770C and 8 bars, and were investigated for compressive strength, bulk density and ultrasound pulse velocity to determine their mechanical and physical properties. Microstructure of samples was observed by using SEM and XRD techniques. Samples’ bulk density values and compressive strengths are changing between 0.6-0.7 kg/dm3 and 2.5-4.4 MPa respectively.

  17. Strength properties of autoclaved cellular concrete with high volume fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, W.; Neufeld, R.D.; Vallejo, L.E.; Kelly, C.; Latona, M. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1997-08-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the strength properties of autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC) blocks, a building material that can contain up to 70% w/w of electric utility fly ash. The scope of this investigation covers three phases: (1) a brief literature review; (2) a selection of optimum strength testing methods suitable for ACC materials; and (3) a determination of physical properties of ACC made with US electric utility fly ash, and comparison of such properties to European ACC materials made with sand as the silica source. Optimum laboratory testing methods were selected based on a comprehensive literature search that included American, European, and Chinese standards. The properties examined were compressive, tensile, and flexural strengths. Results showed that block recipe and density influence the compressive, tensile, and flexural strength values. The investigation indicated that the compressive strength of the blocks increases with dry weight density, and decreases as their moisture content increases.

  18. Properties of the wall structures made of autoclaved cellular concrete products on the polyurethane foam adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Gorshkov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents information on a test experiment for the construction of masonry fragments made of autoclaved cellular concrete products (ААС blocks on the polyurethane adhesive and the ensuing structural, thermal and technological tests of this type of masonry in specialized laboratories and testing facilities. It is shown that the use of polyurethane foam adhesive to bond the concrete blocks in the masonry walls is technically and economically feasible. On the basis of the tests it was concluded that the laying of concrete blocks on the polyurethane adhesive may be used in the construction of non-load bearing interior and exterior walls of buildings, including the filling of the external frame openings of monolithic buildings with floor bearing of the masonry on load bearing monolithic floors (with appropriate justification of the settlement.

  19. [Methods Used for Monitoring Cure Reactions in Real-time in an Autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John B.; Wise, Kent L.; Jensen, Brian J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the research was to investigate methods for monitoring cure reactions in real-time in an autoclave. This is of particular importance to NASA Langley Research Center because polyimides were proposed for use in the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) program. Understanding the cure chemistry behind the polyimides would allow for intelligent processing of the composites made from their use. This work has led to two publications in peer-reviewed journals and a patent. The journal articles are listed as Appendix A which is on the instrument design of the research and Appendix B which is on the cure chemistry. Also, a patent has been awarded for the instrumental design developed under this grant which is given as Appendix C. There has been a significant amount of research directed at developing methods for monitoring cure reactions in real-time within the autoclave. The various research efforts can be categorized as methods providing either direct chemical bonding information or methods that provide indirect chemical bonding information. Methods falling into the latter category are fluorescence, dielectric loss, ultrasonic and similar type methods. Correlation of such measurements with the underlying chemistry is often quite difficult since these techniques do not allow monitoring of the curing chemistry which is ultimately responsible for material properties. Direct methods such as vibrational spectroscopy, however, can often be easily correlated with the underlying chemistry of a reaction. Such methods include Raman spectroscopy, mid-IR absorbance, and near-IR absorbance. With the recent advances in fiber-optics, these spectroscopic techniques can be applied to remote on-line monitoring.

  20. 蒸压釜釜盖开裂失效分析%Failure Analysis on Cracking of Autoclave Cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘安霞; 师红旗; 丁毅; 马立群

    2011-01-01

    采用宏微观组织分析、化学成分分析、SEM断口形貌分析、EDS腐蚀产物化学成分分析等手段,分析了321不锈钢釜盖开裂的原因.结果表明,该釜盖的开裂属于氯化物应力腐蚀开裂,蒸压釜的工作介质和工作压力共同导致了釜盖的开裂,并提出了相应的改进措施.%The cracking of autoclave cover was analyzed by morphology and microstnicture analysis, SEM micro-morphology of fracture surface, EDS corrosion products analysis. The results show that the cracking of autoclave cover is attributed to stress corrosion cracking. Working stress and working fluid of the autoclave cover lead to the cracking of the autoclave cover jointly. Finally, the relative protection countermeasures are proposed.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Dimensional Accuracy of Elastomeric Impression Materials when Treated with Autoclave, Microwave, and Chemical Disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Kamble, Suresh S.; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay; Somasundaram, P; Raghav, Shweta; Babaji, Rashmi P; Varghese, T Joju

    2015-01-01

    Background: Impression materials during impression procedure often get infected with various infectious diseases. Hence, disinfection of impression materials with various disinfectants is advised to protect the dental team. Disinfection can alter the dimensional accuracy of impression materials. The present study was aimed to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of elastomeric impression materials when treated with different disinfectants; autoclave, chemical, and microwave method. Materials and...

  2. Comparative analysis of the effect of autoclaving and 10% formalin storage on extracted teeth: A microleakage evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attam Kanika

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study compares the effect of formalin and autoclaving the tooth samples by evaluating microleakage in-vitro . Materials and Methods: Forty-five extracted human permanent incisor teeth were taken and randomly divided into three groups (with different methods of storage and disinfection with 15 teeth each: Group 1: Control-extracted teeth in this group were stored in normal saline, Group 2: the extracted teeth in this group were stored in 10 % formalin for two weeks and Group 3: the extracted teeth were Autoclaved at 121°C, at 15 psi pressure for 40 minutes. In all the groups after the specified storage period, class V cavities were prepared on the labial surface and restoration was performed with Z100 restorative. Finished and polished samples were subjected to 500 cycles of thermocycling. All specimens were immersed in methylene blue for 24 hours. After sectioning, the margins of restora-tion were evaluated for dye leakage at 10 X magnification, using an optical microscope. Data were subjected to nonparametric Kruskal Wallis one way analysis of variance. Inter-group comparisons were performed using the Mann Whitney test ( P < 0.05. Results: The authors found that the microleakage in the formalin group was considerably lower than that in the control group. The autoclave group showed slightly higher mean microleakage, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Both autoclaving and formalin storage affect, to a varying degree, the microleakage values in vitro . The results in the autoclaving group matched those of the control group more closely, with only a slight difference.

  3. Effect of high-dose irradiation and autoclave treatment on microbial safety and quality of ready-to-eat Bulgogi sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Korea, commercialized sauce for ready-to-eat (RTE) Bulgogi is usually manufactured using heat treatment to ensure that it has a long shelf-life. However, heat treatment may adversely affect the taste and flavor of the sauce, thus, the development of suitable sterilizing methods for RTE sauces is necessary to preserve the quality of the sauce during long storage periods. In this study, total bacterial growth, the viscosity, and the sensory properties of Bulgogi sauce were compared between sterilization with gamma irradiation (0–40 kGy) and autoclave treatment during storage at 35 °C for 90 days. No bacterial growth was observed following irradiation at more than 10 kGy or after autoclave treatment. However, the viscosity and sensory properties of samples gamma-irradiated at above 10 kGy or autoclave-treated were significantly changed, even though autoclave treatment induced a burnt taste and flavor. Therefore, a gamma irradiation of 10 kGy was effective to prepare ready-to-eat Bulgogi sauce with microbial safety and original sensory qualities. - Highlights: ► No bacterial growth in gamma-irradiated Bulgogi sauce ≥10 kGy or autoclaved sample was observed. ► Viscosity of irradiated sample at 40 kGy was similar to that of autoclaved sample. ► Sensory properties of irradiated sample >10 kGy or autoclaved sample deteriorated.

  4. Effects of Autoclaving Soy-Free and Soy-Containing Diets for Laboratory Rats on Protein and Energy Values Determined In Vitro and In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Taciak, Marcin; Tuśnio, Anna; Święch, Ewa; Barszcz, Marcin; Staśkiewicz, Łukasz; Skomiał, Jacek; Paradziej-Łukowicz, Jolanta; Pastuszewska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Autoclaving diminishes the nutritional value of rat diets, depending on the duration and temperature of the process and the type of dietary protein. We evaluated in vivo and in vitro the effects of autoclaving on the protein and energy values of soy-free and soy-containing rat diets. The true digestibility and biological value of the dietary protein were determined in a 10-d experiment involving 28-d-old Wistar Crl:WI(Han) male rats fed casein- or soy-containing diet that was autoclaved for 2...

  5. Monitoring cure properties of out-of-autoclave BMI composites using IFPI sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amardeep; Anandan, Sudharshan; Yuan, Lei; Watkins, Steve E.; Chandrashekhara, K.; Xiao, Hai; Phan, Nam

    2016-04-01

    A non-destructive technique for inspection of a Bismaleimide (BMI) composite is presented using an optical fiber sensor. High performance BMI composites are used for Aerospace application for their mechanical strength. They are also used as an alternative to toughened epoxy resins. A femtosecond-laser-inscribed Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) sensor is used to perform real time cure monitoring of a BMI composite. The composite is cured using the out-of-autoclave (OOA) process. The IFPI sensor was used for in-situ monitoring; different curing stages are analyzed throughout the curing process. Temperature-induced-strain was measured to analyze the cure properties. The IFPI structure comprises of two reflecting mirrors inscribed on the core of the fiber using a femtosecond-laser manufacturing process. The manufacturing process makes the sensor thermally stable and robust for embedded applications. The sensor can withstand very high temperatures of up to 850 °C. The temperature and strain sensitivities of embedded IFPI sensor were measured to be 1.4 pm/μepsilon and 0.6 pm/μepsilon respectively.

  6. Preparation and characterization of PLGA nanospheres encapsulated with Autoclaved Leishmania Major (ALM) and Quillaja Saponin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several antigens, adjuvants and delivery systems have been evaluated for induction of protective immune responses against leishmaniasis, but have mostly been inefficient. In this study, poly (d,1-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanospheres as antigen delivery system and Quillaja saponins (QS) as an immunoadjuvant have been used to increase the immune responses against Autoclaved Lieshmania major (ALM). PLGA nanospheres were prepared using a double emulsion (W/O/W) technique. The internal aqueous phase contained ALM and saponin, while the oily phase contained the solution of PLGA in dichloromethane and the external aqueous phase was polyvinylacohol (PVA) 7.5% (W/V) solution. Particulate characteristics were studied by scanning electron microscope and particle size analyzer. The encapsulation efficiency was determined by Lowry method and the release profile of antigen and saponin from nanospheres was evaluated for one week. Nanospheres were spherical in shape having smooth surfaces. Mean diameters for nanospheres loaded with ALM and ALM+QS were 300+-123 nm and 294+-106 nm respectively. Encapsulation efficiencies for ALM and QS were found 71+-14.8% and 55.8+- 23.1% respectively. Evaluation of the release profiles of ALM and QS from nanospheres in one week showed that 44.8 +-0.8% of ALM and 29.5+- 0.21% of QS had been released from naospheres. In conclusion, the prepared nanospheres with desirable size, encapsulation efficiency, and slow rate of release, had acceptable features for future in vivo studies. (author)

  7. Autoclaves for fatigue crack growth tests with unirradiated and irradiated specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For about two years now, research programmes are being carried out in the USA with the purpose of investigating fatigue crack growth in steels for pressure vessels of LWRs under operating conditions, with main emphasis being placed on the determination of the effect of load increase time and constant load time, of the temperature, water chemistry, materials (basic materials and welds), of the stress intensity factor at the beginning of the test, as well as on the effect of irradiation. The results obtained during the first testing phase shall serve as a basis for a revision of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, and also for a specification of new piping steels, including austenitic steels. The autoclaves for stationary and dynamic load used for the testing of unirradiated and irradiated specimens are described and details are given of the methods used for the crack growth measurements and water chemistry studies, along with a brief account of the data acquisition systems applied. The results obtained so far in the testing series are illustrated by means of selected examples. (orig.)

  8. Preparation of New Cementitious System using Fly Ash and Dehydrated Autoclaved Aerated Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUI Zhonghe; LU Jianxin; TIAN Sufang; SHEN Peiliang; DING Sha

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally studied the interaction between pozzolanic material (fly ash) and dehydrated autoclaved aerated concrete (DAAC). The DAAC powder was obtained by grinding aerated concrete waste to particles finer than 75μm and was then heated to temperatures up to 900℃. New cementitious material was prepared by proportioning fly ash and DAAC, named as AF. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was employed to identify the crystalline phases of DAAC before and after rehydration. The hydration process of AF was analyzed by the heat of hydration and non-evaporable water content (Wn). The experimental results show that the highest reactivity of DAAC can be obtained by calcining the powder at 700℃and the dehydrated products are mainlyβ-C2S and CaO. The cumulative heat of hydration and Wn was found to be strongly dependent on the replacement level of fly ash, increasing the replacement level of fly ash lowered them in AF. The strength contribution rates on pozzolanic effect of fly ash in AF are always negative, showing a contrary tendency of that of cement-fly ash system.

  9. CO2 sequestration by carbonation of steelmaking slags in an autoclave reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E-E; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chu, Hsiao-Wen; Wang, Chu-Fang; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2011-11-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) sequestration experiments using the accelerated carbonation of three types of steelmaking slags, i.e., ultra-fine (UF) slag, fly-ash (FA) slag, and blended hydraulic slag cement (BHC), were performed in an autoclave reactor. The effects of reaction time, liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S), temperature, CO(2) pressure, and initial pH on CO(2) sequestration were evaluated. Two different CO(2) pressures were chosen: the normal condition (700 psig) and the supercritical condition (1300 psig). The carbonation conversion was determined quantitatively by using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The major factors that affected the conversion were reaction time (5 min to 12h) and temperature (40-160°C). The BHC was found to have the highest carbonation conversion of approximately 68%, corresponding to a capacity of 0.283 kg CO(2)/kg BHC, in 12h at 700 psig and 160°C. In addition, the carbonation products were confirmed to be mainly in CaCO(3), which was determined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) to analyze samples before and after carbonation. Furthermore, reaction kinetics were expressed with a surface coverage model, and the carbon footprint of the developed technology in this investigation was calculated by a life cycle assessment (LCA). PMID:21889848

  10. Strain rate sensitivity of autoclaved aerated concrete from quasi-static regime to shock loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mespoulet Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quasi-static mechanical behavior of autoclaved aerated concrete is well-known and can be expressed as a function of its density. There are however not much studies dealing with its dynamic behavior and its damping ability when subjected to a mechanical shock or a blast. This study presents experimental results obtained at the Shock Physics Laboratory of THIOT INGENIERIE company. The test specimens are made of YTONG(TM cellular concrete with porosity in the range of 75 to 80%. Experimental tests cover a large strain rate amplitude (higher than 104 s−1 for specimens up to 250 mm. They were carried out with a small compression press and with two facilities dedicated to dynamic material characterization: JUPITER dynamic large press (2 MN, 3 ms rising time and TITAN multi-caliber single-stage gas gun. Results in un-confined conditions show an increase of the compressive strength when strain rate increases (45% increase at 5.102 s−1 but dynamic tests induce damage early in the experiment. This competition between dynamic strength raise and specimen fracture makes the complete compaction curve determination not to be done in unconfined dynamic condition. A 25% increase of the compressive strength has been observed between unconfined and confined condition in Q.S. regime.

  11. Characteristics of autoclave and in-reactor nodular corrosion of Zircaloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y.H.; Rheem, K.S. (Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Republic of Korea)); Chung, H.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Nodular corrosion characteristics of recrystallized Zircaloy-4 were investigated in static autoclave tests at 500{degree}C and 10.3 MPa. The roles of annealing temperature, cooling rate after beta-treating at 1050{degree}C, cold work, and surface treatment in corrosion tests were correlated with the results of microstructural characterization by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. A good correlation was obtained between average size of intermetallic precipitates and weight gain, in contrast to nodule coverage and nodule number density. These results could be best explained by the hypothesis that nodules nucleate in local regions that are depleted of Fe and Cr alloying elements. Some observations were inconsistent with the premise that nodules nucleate on or near intermetallic precipitates. Nodular corrosion characteristics and microstructures of commercial Zircaloy-2 cladding of fuel and gadolinia rods, obtained from several BWRs after burnup of 11--30 MWd/kgU, were also examined. Partial amorphization of intermetallic precipitates in BWR Zircaloy-2, and virtual dissolution and in an extreme case spinodal- like fluctuations of dissolved alloying elements in PWR Zircaloy-4 cladding were observed. Occurrence of nodular oxidation of Zircaloy-2 in BWRs could best be correlated to average size of intermetallic precipitates before irradiation and to fuel cladding operating temperature. For an intermetallic size range of 250--700 nm, nodular oxides were observed at 288{degree}C, but only thick uniform oxide was observed at 307{degree}C. 53 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Nonlinear Modeling of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Masonry Wall Strengthened using Ferrocement Sandwich Structure

    KAUST Repository

    M., Abdel-Mooty

    2011-01-01

    Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) block are used mainly as non-load-bearing walls that provide heat insulation. This results in considerable saving in cooling energy particularly in hot desert environment with large variation of daily and seasonal temperatures. However, due to the relatively low strength there use load bearing walls is limited to single storey and low-rise construction. A system to enhance the strength of the AAC masonry wall in resisting both inplane vertical and combined vertical and lateral loads using ferrocement technology is proposed in this research. The proposed system significantly enhances the load carrying capacity and stiffness of the AAC wall without affecting its insulation characteristics. Ferrocement is made of cement mortar reinforced with closely spaced wire mesh. Full scale wall specimens with height of 2100mm and width of 1820mm were tested with different configuration of ferrocement. A finite elementmodel is developed and verified against the experimentalwork. The results of the finite element model correlates well with the experimental results.

  13. Irradiating or autoclaving chitosan/polyol solutions. Effect on thermogelling chitosan-β-glycerophosphate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of steam sterilization and γ-irradiation on chitosan and thermogelling chitosan-βglycerophosphate (GP) solutions containing polyol additives were investigated. The selected polyols were triethylene glycol, glycerol, sorbitol, glucose and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). They were incorporated to chitosan solutions prior to sterilization in a proportion ranging from 1 to 5% (w/v). The solutions were characterized with respect to their viscosity, thermogelling properties, compressive stress relaxation behavior and chitosan degradation. All polyols reduced the autoclaving-induced viscosity loss and had a positive impact on the solution thermogelling properties and compressive performance of the gels. Steam sterilization in the presence of glucose resulted in a substantial increase in the solution viscosity and gel strength. This was associated with a strong discoloration suggesting chemical alteration of the system. PEG was the most effective agent in preventing hydrolytic degradation of chitosan chains. Gamma-irradiation strongly decreased the chitosan solution viscosity regardless of the presence of additives, even when sterilization was carried out at -80 deg C. Moreover, the thermogelling properties were dramatically altered, and thus, γ-irradiation would not be an appropriate method to sterilize chitosan solutions. In conclusion, polyols are potentially useful additive to maximise the viscoelastic and mechanical properties of chitosan-GP after steam sterilization. (author)

  14. Comparative study and histomorphometric analysis of bone allografts lyophilized and sterilized by autoclaving, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio Machado de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare three sterilization methods (autoclave, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide over non demineralized lyophilized bone allografts. METHODS: Bone allografts were implanted on paravertebral muscles of 21 rats. After 30 days animals were sacrificed and grafts underwent comparative analysis regarding histomorphometric and macroscopic parameters. RESULTS: Allografts that underwent the three sterilization methods presents similar weight gain, cortical thickness similar to control group, and less fibrosis than the control group. Grafts that underwent sterilization in autoclave presented less presence of multinucleated giant cells, although not statistically significant. There was also no statistically significant difference regarding mineralization on the three groups. CONCLUSION: The three sterilization methods cause similar effects on bone allografts regarding macroscopic and histomorphometric parameters.

  15. Drying of Echinodorus macrophyllus and autoclaving and lyophilization of the fluid-extract: effects on the pharmacochemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronam V. Flor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Some pharmaceutical industries of phytomedicines are using conservation procedures (drying, autoclaving, in an attempt to avoid medicinal plants degradation, and of their fluid-extracts. Or, by adopting techniques adequate to foods, which not always are appropriate. On this sense, there is less research with Brazilian plants, causing some difficulties for their use as raw material by the domestic industry. Thus, the effects of drying at various temperatures or irradiation with microwaves, as well as autoclaving or lyophilization of the fluid-extract of samples collected in natura of Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth Micheli, Alismataceae, on the pharmacochemical composition were analyzed. At the research for chemical groups, the preponderating presence of flavones and coumarin derivatives was observed. The chromatographic profiles of the flavonic extracts were analyzed by TLC and HPLC and the levels of total flavonoids were determined. According to the results obtained, qualitative and quantitative changes were caused by the various processes employed.

  16. The Hydrothermal Autoclave Synthesis of the Nanopowders of the Refractory ZrO2 and HfO2 Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Karpovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nanopowders of the transition metal ZrO2 and HfO2 oxides were obtained by the hydrothermal autoclave synthesis. The nanoparticles possess a rounded shape and a size range of 40 to 80 nm (ZrO2, of 10 to 40 nm (HfO2. X-ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopy show that the structure of the nanoparticles is monoclinic.

  17. Induction of cellular and humoral responses by autoclaved and heat-killed antigen of Leishmania donovani in experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagill, Rajeev; Mahajan, Raman; Sharma, Meenakshi; Kaur, Sukhbir

    2009-12-01

    The potential of autoclaved and heat-killed antigen of Leishmania donovani to induce cell-mediated and humoral response has been evaluated in the present study. The vaccines were delivered thrice subcutaneously at an interval of 2 weeks. Two weeks after second booster, BALB/c mice were challenged with 10(7) stationary phase promastigotes of L. donovani. Significant protection was achieved in immunized mice against L. donovani challenge with 69% to 76% and 59% to 64% reduction in parasite load in the liver and spleen respectively. Immunization induced significantly higher level of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in mice immunized with heat-killed antigen followed by autoclaved antigen. The immune response was assessed by quantifying Leishmania-specific antibodies and cytokine production. The antibody response was predominantly of IgG type with increased IgG2a production and lesser amount of IgM. The immunization preferentially stimulates the production of IFN-gamma and IL-2 in splenocytes which suggests a Th1 type response with a concomitant down-regulation of IL-10 and IL-4. These results indicate a potential for the heat-killed and autoclaved antigen as a vaccine which could trigger cell-mediated immune response.

  18. Sorption and precipitation of Mn2+ by viable and autoclaved Shewanella putrefaciens: Effect of contact time

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of Mn(II) by viable and inactivated cells of Shewanella putrefaciens, a non-pathogenic, facultative anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium characterised as a Mn(IV) and Fe(III) reducer, was studied under aerobic conditions, as a function of pH, bacterial density and metal loading. During a short contact time (3-24h), the adsorptive behaviour of live and dead bacteria toward Mn(II) was sufficiently similar, an observation that was reflected in the studies on adsorption kinetics at various metal loadings, effects of pH, bacteria density, isotherms and drifting of pH during adsorption. Continuing the experiment for an additional 2-30days demonstrated that the Mn(II) sorption by suspensions of viable and autoclaved cells differed significantly from one another. The sorption to dead cells was characterised by a rapid equilibration and was described by an isotherm. In contrast, the sorption (uptake) to live bacteria exhibited a complex time-dependent uptake. This uptake began as adsorption and ion exchange processes followed by bioprecipitation, and it was accompanied by the formation of polymeric sugars (EPS) and the release of dissolved organic substances. FTIR, EXAFS/XANES and XPS demonstrated that manganese(II) phosphate was the main precipitate formed in 125ml batches, which is the first evidence of the ability of microbes to synthesise manganese phosphates. XPS and XANES spectra did not detect Mn(II) oxidation. Although the release of protein-like compounds by the viable bacteria increased in the presence of Mn2+ (and, by contrast, the release of carbohydrates did not change), electrochemical analyses did not indicate any aqueous complexation of Mn(II) by the organic ligands. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Experimental Study of Monitoring and Controlling of Composite Cure Process in Autoclave Featured with Fiber Optic Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the aid of the latest fiber optic sensing technology, parameters in the cure process of thermosetting resin-matrix composite, such as temperature, viscosity, void and residual stress, can be monitored entirely and efficiently. In this paper, experiment results of viscosity measurement in composite cure process in autoclave using fiber optic sensors are presented. Based on the sensed information, a computer program is utilized to control the cure process. With this technology,the cure process becomes more apparent and controllable, which will greatly improve the cured products and reduce the cost.

  20. Autoclaved aerated concrete masonry with external insulation. Features of moisture conditions during the initial period of operation (rus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuptaraeva P.D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Building designs at the moment of commissioning include the initial (building and technological moisture. Thermal insulation systems influence on the yield of the initial moisture from the structures. However, there are no specific design requirements about determining initial moisture content in insulation systems.In this article the features of the initial period of operation on an example of aerated concrete are defined: the results of field surveys and calculations are shown and compared. On the basis of this comparison basic advice on the accounting features of the initial period of operation of autoclaved aerated concrete structures with external insulation are given.

  1. Measurement on Hydrate Products Crystallinity Degrees of Autoclaved Silicate Products%蒸压硅酸盐制品水化产物的结晶度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯昌君; 王淑英; 王浩; 袁兵

    2012-01-01

    利用烧失量和酸溶法测定不同固体废物蒸压样品的结合水量和溶出差,研究固体废物蒸压样品中水化产物量、结晶度与其强度的关系.结果表明,粉煤灰、废玻璃、废混凝土蒸压样品的结晶度较低,钢渣蒸压样品的结晶度较高.蒸压样品的溶出差、结合水量和结晶度与水化产物种类有关.蒸压样品的结晶度可间接表达结晶良好的水化产物占总水化产物量的多少,并可用来确定不同蒸压制品的合理养护制度,指导蒸压制品的工艺优化.蒸压样品的结晶度存在合理范围.%The relationships of solid waste autoclaved samples compressive strength and their crystal-Unity degrees, hydrate amounts were studied with dissolved amount difference and bound water a-mount measured with loss on ignition and acid digestion method. The results showed that the crystal-linity degrees of autoclaved samples, such as fly ash, waste glass and waste concrete are in a low level except that the crystallinity degree of autoclaved steel slag sample is higher. The dissolved amount difference, bound water amount and crystallinity degree of the autoclaved samples were related to their hydrate types. The crystallinity degrees of autoclaved samples could be indirectly represented as the ratios of well-crystallized hydrate amounts to total hydrate amounts in the autoclaved samples, and used to determine the autoclaved schedule and guide the technology optimization for autoclaved products. There is a reasonable crystallinity degree range for the compressive strength of autoclaved samples.

  2. Polimerização complementar em autoclave, microondas e estufa de um compósito restaurador direto = The effect of post-cure heating in autoclave, microwave oven and conventional oven on direct composite resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arossi, Guilherme Anziliero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de tornar o processo de confecção de restaurações indiretas mais acessível, reduzindo seus custos com a resina utilizada e os métodos de polimerização complementar, este estudo testou a possibilidade de se utilizar resinas diretas com métodos de polimerização complementar alternativos. Corpos de prova foram confeccionados com a resina Charisma e fotopolimerizados por 20 segundos. Em seguida as amostras foram submetidas à polimerização complementar em autoclave, microondas e estufa. Foram estabelecidos dois grupos controles: um controle negativo, que consistiu na utilização da resina Charisma fotopolimerizada convencionalmente (20s; e um grupo controle positivo, formado por amostras do compósito restaurador indireto Targis. O ensaio de microdureza Knoop foi realizado após uma semana de armazenagem e os resultados submetidos à análise estatística. Os três métodos de polimerização complementar propostos determinaram um aumento na microdureza do compósito restaurador direto quando comparado ao controle negativo (p 0,05. Conclui-se que, considerando o desenho experimental deste estudo, a polimerização complementar em autoclave, microondas ou estufa aumenta a microdureza da resina Charisma previamente fotopolimerizada

  3. Solubility study of nickel ferrite in boric acid using a flow-through autoclave system under high temperature and high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Joon; Choi, Ke Chon; Ha, Yeong Keong [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The solubility of nickel ferrite in an aqueous solution of boric acid was studied by varying the pH at the temperatures ranging from 25 .deg. C to 320 .deg. C. A flow-through autoclave system was specially designed and fabricated to measure the solubility of Fe in hydrothermal solutions under high temperature and pressure. The performance of this flow-through system was directly compared with the conventional static state technique using a batch-type autoclave system. The stability of fluid velocity for the flow-through autoclave system was verified prior to the solubility measurement. The influence of chemical additives, such as boric acid and H2, on the solubility of nickel ferrite was also evaluated.

  4. Production process and equipment selection of autoclaved brick%一种蒸压砖生产工艺流程及设备选型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周占霞

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes how to reduce the added proportion of calcium carbide slurry, improve the auto⁃claved brick quality, and reduce production costs of autoclaved brick by optimizing the production process and equipment selection to eliminate the mud clumping of calcium carbide slurry in autoclaved calcium carbide sludge brick.%通过优化生产工艺流程及设备选型消除电石泥蒸压砖中的电石泥结团,降低电石泥原料添加比例和提高蒸压砖质量,降低蒸压砖生产成本。

  5. Thermophysical characteristics of low density autoclaved aerated concrete and their influence on durability of exterior walls of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Krutilin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental studies of thermophysical characteristics of autoclaved aerated concrete with density of 400 and 500 kg/m3. The dependence of thermal conductivity on temperature and humidity was determined. The boundary humidities were set for which ice is either not formed or its amount is negligible in the pores of the materials at the temperature below zero. The new method of non-isothermal liquid transport coefficient determination was suggested. It was found that one of the basic mechanisms of moving water for cellular concrete samples with a moisture content over 30 % by weight is non-isothermal liquid transport. The effect of humidity on durability of exterior walls is estimated according to cellular concrete frost-resistance tests.

  6. Development of Cooking Test Device with Bantam Autoclave Group%群锅蒸煮实验装置的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明辅; 李淑兰; 陈克利; 别玉

    2011-01-01

    A set of self-made cooking test device with bantam autoclave group is introduced including its principles, main structure, body design , and operation processes. The device is mainly composed of four parts; I is a box and rack supporting the box and two motion systems ; II is the lid movement system for smoothly opening the lid and closing it tightly; IK is a autoclave group base motion system for fixing the autoclaves in the shaft rotating disc supporter and driving axis of the supporter submerged in oil using for heating the autoclaves; IV is a heating measurement and control system to complete heating the oil, measuring, displaying and controlling temperature. Cooking wood or nonwood fibrous material under different conditions in 8 or more autoclaves can simultaneously carried out during one cooking cycle. The advantages of this device are efficient, precise and even temperature control, and reliable seal.%介绍了群锅蒸煮实验装置的基本原理、主要结构、锅体设计、实验过程等.该装置主要结构包括:箱体和机架、箱盖运动系统、蒸煮群锅运动系统、加热测量控制系统.该装置的优点是一次可同时进行8锅以上蒸煮实验,同时还具有加热均匀、温度控制精确、密封可靠、操作简单的特点.

  7. The problems of operational reliability exterior walls of a building based on the autoclaved aerated concrete blocks and possibility of their protection from moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Samofeev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic mechanisms and factors that have destructive effect on the state of autoclaved aerocrete in the exterior walls of operated buildings are shown. These mechanisms are wetting the wall, the effect of moisture during freezing, carbonation hydrosilicate structure-phase of material. The possibilities of protection exterior walls with using hydrophobic multilayered vapor permeable stucco are estimated, which were accepted for protecting facades apartment buildings on the basis autoclaved aerocrete blocks in Bashkiriya.In the Republic of Bashkortostan in October 2010 was put into operation factory for production blocks with capaciry 225,000 m3 per year at OAO "GlavBashStroy" on equipment Masa-Henke, whose products are currently being investigated

  8. INFLUENCE OF WATER-TO-CEMENT RATIO ON AIR ENTRAILMENT IN PRODUCTION OF NON-AUTOCLAVED FOAM CONCRETE USING TURBULENCE CAVITATION TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Gorshkov Pavel Vladimirovich

    2012-01-01

    Non-autoclaved foam concrete is an advanced thermal insulation material. Until recently, foam concrete production has been based on separate preparation of foam and solution, followed by their blending in a mixer. The situation changed when high-quality synthetic foaming agents and turbulence cavitation technology appeared on the market. Every model provides a dependence between the foam concrete strength and the water-to-cement ratio. According to the water-cement ratio we can distinguish st...

  9. 加气混凝土制备工艺影响因素分析%Analysis of Influential Factors on Preparation of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗立群; 程琪林

    2015-01-01

    Aimed at new requirements brought up by domestic building material market, autoclaved aerated concrete has been acclaimed owning to its several particular performance advantages such as lightweight, thermal insulation, acoustic insulation, anti-seismic, etc. After preparation process of auto-claved aerated concrete was briefly summarized, it focused on influence of material characteristics on the properties of the products such as siliceous material, calcareous material, vesicant, water-solid ratio and ad-ditives. Influence mechanism of curing conditions of green body, reaction process of preparation and prod-ucts microstructure on performance of autoclaved aerated concrete were introduced. Eventually, direction of development of autoclaved aerated concrete was prospected in the future.%针对建材市场节能环保产品的需求,加气混凝土制品以其独特的质轻节能、保温隔热、抗震隔音等综合性能优势而备受关注。简述了蒸压加气混凝土的制备过程,重点阐述了制备加气混凝土砌块的硅质材料、钙质材料、发气剂、水料比及添加物等物料特性对制品性能的影响,介绍了坯体养护条件、制备过程反应以及制品微观结构对加气混凝土性能的影响机理,展望了加气混凝土未来的发展方向。

  10. 利用油页岩灰制备蒸压砖的试验研究%Study on preparation of autoclaved brick with oil shale ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高子栋; 潘红

    2015-01-01

    The autoclaved brick is prepared with the oil shale ash, the fly ash, the calcium carbide residue, the gyp⁃sum and the stone chips. The effect on properties of autoclaved brick is studied by changing the ratio of oil shale ash and fly ash. When the ratio of oil shale ash increases, the compressive strength and the flexural strength of au⁃toclaved brick increase first, and then decrease, and the drying shrinkage value keep increasing. When the ratio of oil shale ash is 30%, the strength grade of autoclaved brick could achieves MU15. When the ratio of oil shale ash is 50%, the strength grade of autoclaved brick could also achieve MU10.%采用油页岩灰、粉煤灰、电石渣、石膏、石屑等作为原材料,制备了一种蒸压砖,研究了油页岩灰替代粉煤灰的比例对产品性能的影响。试验结果表明,随油页岩灰比例不断增大,蒸压砖的抗压强度、抗折强度均呈先提高后降低的变化趋势,干燥收缩值不断提高。当油页岩灰替代粉煤灰的比例为30%时,蒸压砖强度等级可达到标准JC239—2001《粉煤灰砖》中的MU15;当油页岩灰替代粉煤灰的比例为50%时,蒸压砖强度等级仍可达到MU10。

  11. An evaluation of corrosion characteristics of materials for cladding (Zr) and heat-exchanger tubes (Ti) of SMART in static autoclaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion characteristics of materials (Low-Sn Zircaloy-4, Zr-1.0Nb, PT-7M, ASTM Gr. 2 Ti, Inconel-600 alloys) for cladding and heat-exchanger tubes of SMART in pure water, ammonia aqueous solutions of pH 9.98 and pH 11.13 at 360 .deg. and in steam at 400 .deg. were evaluated by using static autoclaves

  12. Investigation of the use of fly-ash based autoclaved cellular concrete blocks in coal mines for air duct work. Final report, January 25, 1993--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, M.L. [Ohio Edison Co., Akron, OH (United States)

    1995-06-19

    Coal mines are required to provide ventilation to occupied portions of underground mines. Concrete block is used in this process to construct air duct walls. However, normal concrete block is heavy and not easy to work with and eventually fails dramatically after being loaded due to mine ceiling convergence and/or floor heave. Autoclaved cellular concrete block made from (70{plus_minus}%) coal fly ash is lightweight and less rigid when loaded. It is lighter and easier to use than regular concrete block for underground mine applications. It has also been used in surface construction around the world for over 40 years. Ohio Edison along with eight other electric utility companies, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and North American Cellular Concrete constructed a mobile demonstration plant to produce autoclaved cellular concrete block from utility fly ash. To apply this research in Ohio, Ohio Edison also worked with the Ohio Coal Development Office and CONSOL Inc. to produce autoclaved cellular concrete block not only from coal ash but also from LIMB ash, SNRB ash, and PFBC ash from various clean coal technology projects sponsored by the Ohio Coal Development Office. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the potential for beneficial use of fly ash and clean coal technology by-products in the production of lightweight block.

  13. The effect of multiple autoclave cycles on the surface of rotary nickel-titanium endodontic files: An in vitro atomic force microscopy investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Shashikant Nair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To observe and study the effect of multiple autoclave sterilization cycles, on the surface of nickel-titanium (NiTi files. Materials and Methods: The file used for this study was the M two file (VDW and ProTaper (Dentsply. The apical 5 mm of the files were attached to a silicon wafer and subjected to autoclave cycles under standardized conditions. They were scanned with an AFM after 1, 5, and 10 cycles. The unsterilized files were used as control, before start of the study. Three vertical topographic parameters namely maximum height (MH, root mean square (RMS of surface roughness, and arithmetic mean roughness (AMRwere measured with the atomic force microscope (AFM. Analysis of variance along with Tukey′s test was used to test the differences. Results: The vertical topographic parameters were higher for both the files, right after the first cycle, when compared with the control (P < 0.01. The surface roughness increased sharply for M two when compared to ProTaper, though ProTaper had a rougher surface initially. Conclusions: The study confirmed that the irregularities present on the surface of the file became more prominent with multiple autoclave cycles, a fact that should be kept in mind during their reuse.

  14. 浅谈粉煤灰蒸压釜安装的几个要点%Talking about Several Key Points in the Installation of Fly-ash Autoclaved Kettle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建锋

    2014-01-01

    详细介绍了粉煤灰蒸压釜安装过程中的几个要点,并提出了粉煤灰蒸压釜安装过程中需要注意的事项。%This paper introduces in detail several key points in the installation of fly-ash autoclaved kettle, and puts forward the matters needing attention in the installation of fly-ash autoclaved kettle.

  15. Immunization against leishmaniasis by PLGA nanospheres encapsulated with autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM) and CpG-ODN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Khamesipour, Ali; Jaafari, Mahmoud R

    2011-05-01

    Various adjuvants and delivery systems have been evaluated for increasing the protective immune responses against leishmaniasis and mostly have been shown not to be effective enough. In this study, poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanospheres as an antigen delivery system and CpG-ODN as an immunoadjuvant have been used for the first time to enhance the immune response against autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM). PLGA nanospheres were prepared by a double-emulsion (W/O/W) technique. Particulate characteristics were studied by scanning electron microscopy and particle size analysis. Mean diameter of ALM + CpG-ODN-loaded nanospheres was 300 ± 128 nm. BALB/c mice were immunized three times in 3-week intervals using ALM plus CpG-ODN-loaded nanospheres [(ALM + CpG-ODN)(PLGA)], ALM encapsulated PLGA nanospheres [(ALM)(PLGA)], (ALM)(PLGA) + CpG, ALM + CpG, ALM alone, or phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The intensity of infection induced by L. major challenge was assessed by measuring size of footpad swelling. The strongest protection, showed by significantly (P<0.05) smaller footpad, was observed in mice immunized with (ALM + CpG-ODN)(PLGA). The (ALM)(PLGA), (ALM)(PLGA) + CpG, and ALM + CpG were also showed a significantly (P<0.05) smaller footpad swelling compared to the groups received either PBS or ALM alone. The mice immunized with (ALM + CpG-ODN)(PLGA), (ALM)(PLGA) + CpG, and ALM + CpG showed the highest IgG2a/IgG1 ratio, interferon-γ production, and lowest interleukin-4 production compared to the other groups. It is concluded that when both PLGA nanospheres and CpG-ODN adjuvants were used simultaneously, it induce stronger immune response and enhance protection rate against Leishmania infection.

  16. Immunization against leishmaniasis by PLGA nanospheres loaded with an experimental autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM) and Quillaja saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafaghodi, M; Eskandari, M; Kharazizadeh, M; Khamesipour, A; Jaafari, M R

    2010-12-01

    Immune responses against the Leishmania antigens are not sufficient to protect against a leishmania challenge. Therefore these antigens need to be potentiated by various adjuvants and delivery systems. In this study, Poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanospheres as antigen delivery system and Quillaja saponins (QS) as immunoadjuvant have been used to enhance the immune response against autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM). PLGA nanospheres were prepared by a double-emulsion (W/O/W) technique. Particulate characteristics were studied by scanning electron microscopy and particle size analysis. Mean diameter for nanospheres loaded with ALM+QS was 294 ± 106 nm. BALB/c mice were immunized three times in 3-weeks intervals using ALM plus QS loaded nanospheres [(ALM+QS)PLGA], ALM encapsulated with PLGA nanospheres [(ALM)PLGA], (ALM)PLGA + QS, ALM + QS, ALM alone or PBS. The intensity of infection induced by L. major challenge was assessed by measuring size of footpad swelling. The strongest protection, showed by significantly (P < 0.05) smaller footpad, were observed in mice immunized with (ALM)PLGA. The (ALM+QS)PLGA group showed the least protection and highest swelling, while the (ALM)PLGA+QS, ALM+QS and ALM showed an intermediate protection with no significant difference. The mice immunized with ALM and ALM+QS showed the highest IgG2a/IgG1 ratio (P < 0.01), followed by (ALM)PLGA+QS. The highest IFN-γ and lowest IL-4 production was seen in (ALM)PLGA+QS, ALM+QS groups. The highest parasite burden was observed in (ALM)PLGA+QS and (ALM+QS)PLGA groups. It is concluded that PLGA nanospheres as a vaccine delivery system could increase the protective immune responses, but QS adjuvant has a reverse effect on protective immune responses and the least protective responses were seen in the presence of this adjuvant.

  17. Composite Cryotank Technologies and Development 2.4 and 5.5M out of Autoclave Tank Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Justin R.; Vickers, John; Fikes, John

    2015-01-01

    The Composite Cryotank Technologies and Demonstration (CCTD) project substantially matured composite, cryogenic propellant tank technology. The project involved the design, analysis, fabrication, and testing of large-scale (2.4-m-diameter precursor and 5.5-m-diameter) composite cryotanks. Design features included a one-piece wall design that minimized tank weight, a Y-joint that incorporated an engineered material to alleviate stress concentration under combined loading, and a fluted core cylindrical section that inherently allows for venting and purging. The tanks used out-of-autoclave (OoA) cured graphite/epoxy material and processes to enable large (up to 10-m-diameter) cryotank fabrication, and thin-ply prepreg to minimize hydrogen permeation through tank walls. Both tanks were fabricated at Boeing using automated fiber placement on breakdown tooling. A fluted core skirt that efficiently carried axial loads and enabled hydrogen purging was included on the 5.5-m-diameter tank. Ultrasonic inspection was performed, and a structural health monitoring system was installed to identify any impact damage during ground processing. The precursor and 5.5-m-diameter tanks were tested in custom test fixtures at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Space Flight Center. The testing, which consisted of a sequence of pressure and thermal cycles using liquid hydrogen, was successfully concluded and obtained valuable structural, thermal, and permeation performance data. This technology can be applied to a variety of aircraft and spacecraft applications that would benefit from 30 to 40% weight savings and substantial cost savings compared to aluminum lithium tanks.

  18. Technology status of autoclaved aerated concrete by utilizing mine tailings%利用矿山尾矿制备加气混凝土技术现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗立群; 舒伟

    2014-01-01

    根据发展循环经济和矿山清洁生产的开发思路,简述了矿山尾矿的产出和利用现状。针对尾矿堆存侵占土地、破坏生态环境、导致空气污染、易发生安全事故等危害,介绍了尾矿再选和大宗消纳等综合利用的两大途径。叙述了尾矿制备加气混凝土的技术特征,指出尾矿加气混凝土制品具有尾矿利用量大、节能降耗显著、保温隔热、质轻抗震、加工容易等综合优良性能,阐述了加气混凝土制备机理及其制品的性能表征,重点总结了利用铁尾矿、铜尾矿、黄金尾矿和其它矿山尾矿制备加气混凝土的技术现状。结合加气混凝土的生产和工程应用实际,提出尾矿制备加气混凝土应重点注意矿山尾矿粒度对建材原料的适应性、活化石灰的质量与原料中钙质矿物的影响、注重科学试验和人才培训、加强尾矿建材制品的力学性能研究等实际问题。%According to development idea on circular economy and clean production to exploiting mineral resources ,the present output and harm of producing on mine tailings were briefly reviewed .Tailings stockpiling have terrible effects on the expropriation of land ,the destruction of the ecological environment , causing air pollution ,easy to produce the safety accidents ,etc .Therefore ,two approaches of comprehensive utilization on tailings ,i .e .,recycling of useful components and bulk of consumption were introduced .On the basis of descriptions on the technical features of tailings ,related properties of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) with large amount of tailings utilization ,significant in energy saving ,thermal insulation ,light weight ,easy processing ,aseismatic performance were indicated respectively ,The technical status of utilizing iron tailings ,copper tailings ,gold tailings and other mine tailings to produce autoclaved aerated concrete was summarized intensively after the preparation mechanism

  19. Escherichia coli K-12 survives anaerobic exposure at pH 2 without RpoS, Gad, or hydrogenases, but shows sensitivity to autoclaved broth products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Riggins

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria survive exposure to extreme acid (pH 2 or lower in gastric fluid. Aerated cultures survive via regulons expressing glutamate decarboxylase (Gad, activated by RpoS, cyclopropane fatty acid synthase (Cfa and others. But extreme-acid survival is rarely tested under low oxygen, a condition found in the stomach and the intestinal tract. We observed survival of E. coli K-12 W3110 at pH 1.2-pH 2.0, conducting all manipulations (overnight culture at pH 5.5, extreme-acid exposure, dilution and plating in a glove box excluding oxygen (10% H2, 5% CO2, balance N2. With dissolved O2 concentrations maintained below 6 µM, survival at pH 2 required Cfa but did not require GadC, RpoS, or hydrogenases. Extreme-acid survival in broth (containing tryptone and yeast extract was diminished in media that had been autoclaved compared to media that had been filtered. The effect of autoclaved media on extreme-acid survival was most pronounced when oxygen was excluded. Exposure to H2O2 during extreme-acid treatment increased the death rate slightly for W3110 and to a greater extent for the rpoS deletion strain. Survival at pH 2 was increased in strains lacking the anaerobic regulator fnr. During anaerobic growth at pH 5.5, strains deleted for fnr showed enhanced transcription of acid-survival genes gadB, cfa, and hdeA, as well as catalase (katE. We show that E. coli cultured under oxygen exclusion (<6 µM O2 requires mechanisms different from those of aerated cultures. Extreme acid survival is more sensitive to autoclave products under oxygen exclusion.

  20. Research on use of high calcium desulfurization ash in autoclaved brick%利用高钙固硫灰生产蒸压砖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈滨; 刘恒波; 万军

    2012-01-01

      The paper researches on the process of high calcium desulfurization ash autoclaved brick, and puts forward the ways to use the high calcium, high sulfur and low silicon of fly ash from the circulating fluidized bed boiler.%  对高钙固硫灰生产蒸压砖的生产工艺进行了研究,提出了重点解决循环流化床锅炉粉煤灰的高钙、高硫、低硅难题的有效途径

  1. 基于CATIA的半实物仿真用液压釜的设计与研究%Design and research of autoclave based on CATIA for hardware-in-the-loop simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江; 赵文纯; 鞠海洪

    2012-01-01

    For the design and research of an autoclave for hardware-in-loop simulation, a design method for autoclave based on the CATIA virtual prototype technology was proposed. The 3D modeling was carried out by using CATIA. Then, the weakness of the autoclave was checked and optimized by using CATIA-Analysis in order to improve the safety and reliability of autoclave. Finally, an autoclave which can meet the design requirements was designed.%针对半实物仿真用液压釜进行了设计与研究.提出了基于CATIA虚拟样机技术的的液压釜设计方法,通过CATIA进行三维实体建模,并通过CATIA-Analysis对液压釜薄弱处进行枝核优化,用以提高液压釜使用运行的安全性和可靠性,最终设计出满足要求的液压釜.

  2. Chemical modification of L-glutamine to alpha-amino glutarimide on autoclaving facilitates Agrobacterium infection of host and non-host plants: A new use of a known compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Pralay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental autoclaving of L-glutamine was found to facilitate the Agrobacterium infection of a non host plant like tea in an earlier study. In the present communication, we elucidate the structural changes in L-glutamine due to autoclaving and also confirm the role of heat transformed L-glutamine in Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation of host/non host plants. Results When autoclaved at 121°C and 15 psi for 20 or 40 min, L-glutamine was structurally modified into 5-oxo proline and 3-amino glutarimide (α-amino glutarimide, respectively. Of the two autoclaved products, only α-amino glutarimide facilitated Agrobacterium infection of a number of resistant to susceptible plants. However, the compound did not have any vir gene inducing property. Conclusions We report a one pot autoclave process for the synthesis of 5-oxo proline and α-amino glutarimide from L-glutamine. Xenobiotic detoxifying property of α-amino glutarimide is also proposed.

  3. A pilot-scale steam autoclave system for treating municipal solid waste for recovery of renewable organic content: Operational results and energy usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtman, Kevin M; Bozzi, David V; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Offeman, Richard D; Orts, William J

    2016-05-01

    A pilot-scale (1800 kg per batch capacity) autoclave used in this study reduces municipal solid waste to a debris contaminated pulp product that is efficiently separated into its renewable organic content and non-renewable organic content fractions using a rotary trommel screen. The renewable organic content can be recovered at nearly 90% efficiency and the trommel rejects are also much easier to sort for recovery. This study provides the evaluation of autoclave operation, including mass and energy balances for the purpose of integration into organic diversion systems. Several methods of cooking municipal solid waste were explored from indirect oil heating only, a combination of oil and direct steam during the same cooking cycle, and steam only. Gross energy requirements averaged 1290 kJ kg(-1) material in vessel, including the weight of free water and steam added during heating. On average, steam recovery can recoup 43% of the water added and 30% of the energy, supplying on average 40% of steam requirements for the next cook. Steam recycle from one vessel to the next can reduce gross energy requirements to an average of 790 kJ kg(-1).

  4. Preparation of boron-doped TiO{sub 2} films by autoclaved-sol method at low temperature and study on their photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Xiaona; Tian Baozhu; Chen Feng [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhang Jinlong, E-mail: jlzhang@ecust.edu.c [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001 (China)

    2010-10-29

    A series of uniform and transparent boron-doped TiO{sub 2} films were synthesized from autoclaved-sol without organic solvent at low temperature. As-prepared B-TiO{sub 2} films with two layers were characterized by XRD, DRS, XPS and AFM. The photocatalytic characteristics were measured based on the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) solution under visible or UV light. The results indicated that the anatase phase was the main crystal form of the films, containing a small amount of brookite. The presence of boron caused a red shift in the absorption band of TiO{sub 2} films. The doped boron was mainly presented in the form of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, O-Ti-B and O-Ti-B bonds, confirming that autoclaved-sol synthesis at low temperature allowed for incorporation of boron atoms into the TiO{sub 2} matrix. Transmission of the films was about 90% in the visible region. The 10% (atom) B-TiO{sub 2} film exhibited the best photocatalytic activity both in visible and UV light.

  5. Research on basic mechanical properties of autoclaved fly ash brick%蒸压粉煤灰砖基本力学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘双龙; 闫欢欢

    2011-01-01

    按照《砌墙砖试验方法》(GB/T2542-2003)对蒸压粉煤灰砖进行砖的含水率、抗压强度、抗折强度试验。确定蒸压粉煤灰砖的基本力学指标,为编制辽宁省地方标准《蒸压粉煤灰砖建筑技术规范》提供试验依据。结果表明,蒸压粉煤灰砖含水率为2.96%,抗压强度为11.46MPa,抗折强度为1.68MPa,在实际工程上可替代普通烧结砖使用。%According to the GB/T 2542-2003 of masonry brick test method,the moisture content,compressive strength,transverse strength of the autoclaved fly ash brick are test.The results show that the autoclaved fly ash brick moisture content is 2.96 %,the compressive strength is 11.46 MPa,and the transverse strength is 1.68 MPa,so it can used as a substitute for the common fired brick in project.The mechanics index can provide a basis for the Liaoning standards of fly ash brick construction technical specifications.

  6. A pilot-scale steam autoclave system for treating municipal solid waste for recovery of renewable organic content: Operational results and energy usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtman, Kevin M; Bozzi, David V; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Offeman, Richard D; Orts, William J

    2016-05-01

    A pilot-scale (1800 kg per batch capacity) autoclave used in this study reduces municipal solid waste to a debris contaminated pulp product that is efficiently separated into its renewable organic content and non-renewable organic content fractions using a rotary trommel screen. The renewable organic content can be recovered at nearly 90% efficiency and the trommel rejects are also much easier to sort for recovery. This study provides the evaluation of autoclave operation, including mass and energy balances for the purpose of integration into organic diversion systems. Several methods of cooking municipal solid waste were explored from indirect oil heating only, a combination of oil and direct steam during the same cooking cycle, and steam only. Gross energy requirements averaged 1290 kJ kg(-1) material in vessel, including the weight of free water and steam added during heating. On average, steam recovery can recoup 43% of the water added and 30% of the energy, supplying on average 40% of steam requirements for the next cook. Steam recycle from one vessel to the next can reduce gross energy requirements to an average of 790 kJ kg(-1). PMID:26987737

  7. Clinical Application of Paper-plastic Package's Extension of Autoclave Pack%纸塑包装延长高压灭菌包的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉成华

    2011-01-01

    目的:纸塑包装延长高压灭菌包的临床应用.方法:双层棉包布常规包装高压灭菌按要求存放7d,霉季5d,而纸塑包装可保存6个月.结果:纸塑包装大大延长无菌包的无菌时间.包装安全经济,可靠,并可预防院内感染.%Goal: clinical application of paper-plastic package’s extension of autoclave pack.Method: things regularly packed with double cotton and autoclaving can be stored for 7d, or 5d in mildew season; but thing packed with paper can be stored for 6 months.Result: paper pack greatly expands the asepsis time of sterility pack.The pack is safe and reliable, and can prevent infection in hospital.

  8. On autoclaved aerated concrete block wall and plaster layer anti-crack%浅谈蒸压加气混凝土砌块墙体及粉刷层防裂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林恩凯

    2009-01-01

    According to the comparison on characteristics of the autoclaved aerated concrete block and traditional red brick, the author analyzes causes of wall crack quality common diseases, and provides corresponding control measures, so as to solve the crack problem of the autoclaved aerated concrete block wall and the plaster layer, thus promoting application of the autoclaved aerated concrete block.%通过比较蒸压加气混凝土砌块与传统红砖的特性,分析其墙体裂缝质量通病的原因,并提出相应的控制措施,以解决蒸压加气混凝土砌块墙体及粉刷层的开裂问题,从而推广蒸压加气混凝土砌块的应用.

  9. Optimization Study on Processing Conditions of Corn Resistant Starch by Autoclaving and Acid Hydrolysis Treatment%压热酸解法制备玉米抗性淀粉的工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯铄涵; 阚建全

    2011-01-01

    The resistant starch was prepared with the High amylose corn starch by autoclaving-cooling cycles combined with acids hydrolysis treatment.The effects of concentration of starch solution,autoclaved temperature,autoclaved time and times of autoclaved-cooling cycles on the content of RS were studied in the autoclaved treatment.The type,concentration and treatment time of acids were also studied in the acid hydrolysis process.The results showed that the optimum conditions is: 30% starch solution was autoclaved at 125℃ for 45min,after repeated 2 times,0.15mol/L citric acid hydrolysised for 12h.The yield of resistant starch is up to 39.27%.%以高直链玉米淀粉为原料,研究压热-冷却循环结合酸解法制备抗性淀粉的最佳工艺条件。通过单因素实验和正交实验探讨了压热-冷却循环过程中淀粉溶液浓度、压热温度、压热时间、循环次数以及酸解处理过程中酸的种类、酸的浓度、酸解时间对抗性淀粉得率的影响。结果表明,在淀粉溶液浓度为30%、压热温度125℃、压热时间45min条件下,经过2次压热-冷却循环,然后0.15mol/L柠檬酸水解处理12h,在此条件下抗性淀粉得率可达39.27%。

  10. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a

  11. Pretreatment of banana agricultural waste for bio-ethanol production: individual and interactive effects of acid and alkali pretreatments with autoclaving, microwave heating and ultrasonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, S P M Prince; Gadhe, Abhijit; Rath, Ritika; Vaidya, Atul Narayan; Wate, Satish

    2014-02-01

    Banana agricultural waste is one of the potential lignocellulosic substrates which are mostly un-utilized but sufficiently available in many parts of the world. In the present study, suitability of banana waste for biofuel production with respect to pretreatment and reducing sugar yield was assessed. The effectiveness of both acid and alkali pretreatments along with autoclaving, microwave heating and ultrasonication on different morphological parts of banana (BMPs) was studied. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and numerical point prediction tool of MINITAB RELEASE 14. Accordingly, the optimum cumulative conditions for maximum recovery of reducing sugar through acid pretreatment are: leaf (LF) as the substrate with 25 min of reaction time and 180°C of reaction temperature using microwave. Whereas, the optimum conditions for alkaline pretreatments are: pith (PH) as the substrate with 51 min of reaction time and 50°C of reaction temperature using ultrasonication (US).

  12. Cleavage of catalytic ally grown carbon nanofibers into hydrophilic segments by oxidation in a mixture of concentrated HNO3-H2SO4 in an autoclave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Li-hua; WANG Zhi-jiang; TANG Tian-di

    2012-01-01

    The catalytically grown carbon nanofibers were treated by a mixture of concentrated nitric aid and sulfuric aid in an autoclave at temperature 333,363 and 423 K.It was found that the samples treated at 363 K and 423 K were still well dispersed in water 15 hours later,indicating that carbon nanofibers can be made hydrophilicy.It was also found that the dispersion was destroyed when the pH value was lowered by adding acid.The results are significant when the carbon nanofibers are used as enhancing component in polymer composite material because several hundreds of nm are perfect size and the hydrophilicity controls the dispersion of CNFs in the polymer media.It is concluded that the amount of the oxygen-containing groups on the surface and the hydrophilicity of the carbon nanofibers can be controlled by the treatment temperature,and that the carbon nanofibers can be cleaved into uniform segments.

  13. 金矿尾矿粉生产蒸压砖的研究%Use of gold mine tailings in autoclaved brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁善磊; 付强

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces the raw material preparation of autoclaved gold mine tailings brick, which consists of gold mine tailings and fly ash as the main raw material, activated material and admixture as auxiliary materials, and the mixture is moistened and shaped according to the process requirements.%介绍了利用工业废弃物金矿尾矿粉和粉煤灰为主要原料,辅以激发材料、外加剂,混合均匀,加适量水湿拌,加压成型,按养护工艺要求,经蒸压养护后制成金矿尾矿粉蒸压砖。

  14. 环氧丙烷装置皂化电石渣处理方案%Feasibility scheme of epoxy propane saponification calcium carbide slag produce autoclaved fly ash brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林盛海; 吴学亮

    2012-01-01

    本文介绍了皂化废电石渣用于生产蒸压粉煤灰砖的可行性。%The feasibility scheme of epoxy propane saponification Calcium carbide slag produce autoclaved fly ash brick was introduced.

  15. Pilot scale test on autoclaved brick production by semi-dry desulfurization by-products%半干法脱硫灰生产蒸压砖中试试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松涛; 陈传敏; 赵毅; 卢林; 王涛; 杨艳芬

    2011-01-01

    The semi-dry desulfurization by-products are difficult to be utilized. Pilot scale study on the production technology of autoclaved brick which was mixed with semi-dry desulfurization by-products, slag and quicklime. The results show that autoclaved brick mixed with 50% semi-dry desulfurization ash and 10% quicklime dosage can meet the mechanical properties of MU20 strength grade. The mineral, such as hydrated calcium silicate, hydrated calcium aluminate and hydration sulphoaluminate, formed in autoclaved process can strengthen the strength of autoclaved brick.%为了解决半干法脱硫灰难以利用的问题,用脱硫灰、炉渣和CaO进行了蒸压砖生产的中试试验研究.研究表明:生产强度等级为MU20的脱硫灰蒸压砖,脱硫灰的掺量可控制在50%左右,CaO的掺量控制在10%左右.蒸压过程中形成的水化硅酸钙、水化铝酸钙和水化硫铝酸钙等矿物有利于增强蒸压砖强度.

  16. Application of a new type of electric appliance control mechanical safety interlock protection device in autoclaves%新型蒸压釜电器控制机械安全联锁保护装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏旭明; 李建华

    2016-01-01

    Autoclaves are widely used in industrial production. As a quick opening type pressure vessel, the safety interlock device is not perfect, which affects the safe operation of the autoclave. According to practical use, com⁃bines autoclaved reactor operating conditions, this paper introduces a electrical control mechanical safety interlock protection device which improves the autoclave safety coefficient, and prolongs service life of the interlock protec⁃tion device.%蒸压釜在工业生产中得到了广泛的使用,作为快开门式压力容器,安全联锁装置不完善,会对蒸压釜的安全运行造成影响。根据现场实际使用情况,结合蒸压釜的工作条件,介绍了一种电器控制机械安全联锁装置,提高了蒸压釜安全运行系数,也延长了联锁保护装置的使用寿命。

  17. Analysis on non-autoclave pipe pile concrete raw material and maintenance system%免压蒸管桩混凝土原材料及养护制度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丽燕

    2016-01-01

    Combining with non-autoclave pipe pile concrete research status,starting from two aspects of raw material selection and maintenance system,the paper explores quality control measures of non-autoclave pipe pile concrete,analyzes the economy of non-autoclave pipe pile,and finally points out that:it not only reduces pipe pile producing energy consumption,but also improves pipe pile concrete durability through applying non-autoclave maintenance technology.%结合免压蒸管桩混凝土的研究现状,从原材料选用与养护制度两方面,探讨了免压蒸管桩混凝土的质量控制措施,并分析了免压蒸管桩的经济性,指出采用免压蒸养护生产工艺,既降低了管桩的生产能耗,又提高了管桩混凝土的耐久性。

  18. RC-加气混凝土砌块组合墙的抗震性能%Seismic performance of composite walls of RC-autoclaved aerated concrete blocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佩; 袁泉; 郭猛; 李鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    Three composite wall specimens of RC-autoclaved aerated concrete blocks were tested under cyclic lateral loading to investigate their seismic performance. The damage processes and failure characters of the composite wall specimens were presented. And the load-bearing capacity, hysteresis behavior, stiffness and ductility capacity of the composite wall specimens were investigated, which were compared with those of the ordinary wall of autoclaved aerated concrete blocks. Test results show that the presence of constructional columns and beams constrained the propagation of cracks in the autoclaved aerate concrete blocks. And then the brittle behavior of the autoclaved aerated concrete blocks is changed, and the mechanical performance of the autoclaved aerated concrete blocks is improved. Composite walls of RC-autoclaved aerated concrete blocks with reasonable forms possess good seismic performance, and research on the composite walls provides a basis for the application of walls of autoclaved aerated concrete blocks in multi-storey buildings.%为了解RC-加气混凝土砌块组合墙的抗震性能,进行3片不同构造形式的RC-加气混凝土砌块墙的水平低周反复荷载试验.介绍组合墙试件的破坏过程和破坏特点,重点研究3片试件的承载力、滞回曲线、刚度和延性性能,并与已有普通加气混凝土砌块墙试验数据进行对比分析.研究结果表明:构造柱和系梁限制砌块裂缝的产生和发展,改善砌块的脆性性质,提高砌块的力学性能;通过合理构造措施将钢筋混凝土与加气混凝土砌块结合在一起形成的组合承重墙,具有较好的抗震性能,为加气混凝土砌块墙在多层房屋结构中的应用提供基础.

  19. 煅烧磷石膏对蒸压硅酸盐制品水化过程的影响%Effect of calcined phosphogypsum on hydration process of autoclaved silicate products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆金驰; 李东南; 陈凯; 黄金林

    2012-01-01

    磷石膏经高温煅烧改性后与粉煤灰、砂粉、石灰及水泥熟料等制备蒸压硅酸盐制品,研究了不同温度煅烧的磷石膏对蒸压硅酸盐制品水化过程的影响,用蒸压制品中未反应的Ca(OH)2量及结合水量分析它们的反应速率,用XRD测定蒸压硅酸盐制品的水化产物,并结合SEM分析,结果表明,经煅烧的磷石膏对蒸压硅酸盐制品的水化有明显的促进作用,托勃莫来石与C-S-H (1)等水化产物的迅速生长而形成密实的水化产物结构是其增强蒸压硅酸盐制品的根本原因.%The effects of calcined phosphogypsum on the hydration process of the autoclaved silicate products were investigated in this paper. The influence of adding phosphogypsum calcined at different temperatures on the hydration rate of autoclaved silicate products was analyzed for un-reacted Ca(OH)2 content and combined water. The hydrates were determined with XRD and SEM. It was found that the hydration of autoclaved silicate products with added phosphogypsum calcined over 500℃ was greatly improved. The hydrates of the autoclaved silicate products with added phosphogypsum calcined over 500℃ had more un-reacted Ca(OH)2 content and combined water in the same curing time, and the research indicated that adding phosphogypsum calcined over 500℃ could also reinforce the compressive strength of autoclaved silicate products. It was pointed out that the aluminate phase present in the raw materials cannot hydrate to form more ettringite during autoclaved curing, and rapid formation of such hydrates as calcium silicate hydrate (1) and tobermorite with a more compact structure is the main reason for strengthening autoclaved silicate products.

  20. Effect of Autoclaved Schedule for Compressive Strength of Hematite Tailing Bricks%蒸压制度对赤铁矿尾矿蒸压砖强度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云良; 张一敏; 陈铁军

    2012-01-01

    Effect of autoclaved schedule for compressive strength of hematite tailing-lime-yellow sand system was studied. The suitable autoclaved schedule was that rise time, autoclave pressure, autoclave time, and decompression time were 2.1 h, 1. 2 MPa, 6 h and 3. 5 h, respectively, when the quality ratio of hematite tailings: lime: yellow sands was equal to 70:15:15 and forming pressure was 20 MPa. The mechanism of Effect of autoclaved schedule for compressive strength was discussed by XRD and DSC. The results show that in the hydration reaction process, hydrogarnet is firstly generated, and then CSH( 1) and high-strength tobermorite under the condition of 1. 2 MPa autoclaved pressure. With autoclave continuing, tobermorite is gradated into relative low-strength xonotlite.%研究了蒸压制度对赤铁矿尾矿-石灰-黄沙体系蒸压砖抗压强度的影响,确定了原料中尾矿、石灰、黄沙的质量比为70∶15∶15,成型压力为20 MPa的砖坯的适宜蒸压制度为∶升压时间2.1h,蒸汽压力1.2 MPa,恒压时间6h,降压时间3.5h.利用XRD 、DSC对蒸压砖抗压强度形成机理进行了探讨,结果表明,赤铁矿尾矿-石灰-黄沙体系在1.2MPa蒸汽压力下首先生成了水石榴石,而后生成CSH(Ⅰ)凝胶和高强度的托勃莫来石,随着蒸压时间的延长,托勃莫来石逐渐转化成强度相对较低的硬硅钙石.

  1. 用于热压浸出工艺的高压釜装备研究及工程放大%Application of Autoclave in Pilot Plant Test in Pressure Leaching Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段东平; 周娥; 陈思明; 夏光祥

    2013-01-01

      热压浸出是湿法冶金领域发展至今非常有推广前景的高效工艺,高压釜是该工艺的核心装备与关键技术。系统回顾了中国科学院过程工程研究所多年来利用热压浸出工艺处理难冶金银精矿、高铁闪锌矿、氧化铜矿及红土矿等的研究历程,从实验室小试—扩试—示范工程直至工业生产的途径,分别采用了管式高压釜、空气搅拌高压釜、钛复合板高压釜以及100 m3生产型高压釜,实现了这些难处理矿产资源的高效清洁利用。%The pressure leaching is a very efficient hydrometallurgy process with autoclave being the key equipment and technology.This paper systematically reviewed gold and silver concentrate,high iron sphalerite, copper oxide ore and Laterite were treated by pressure leaching from laboratory test,expanded test to the industrial production of the demonstration project in IPE.Respectively,in a tubular autoclave,air stirred autoclave,titanium autoclave and industrial autoclave of 100 m3,these refractory mineral resources were extracted efficiently and cleanly.

  2. 响应面法优化压热法制备莲子抗性淀粉工艺的研究%Optimization of the Autoclaving Process for Preparation Lotus Seeds Resistant Starch by Response Surface Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪颖; 郑宝东; 张怡; 林雨菲; 李淑婷

    2012-01-01

    以莲子淀粉为原料,采用压热法制备莲子抗性淀粉,通过单因素试验,研究淀粉乳浓度、压热温度、压热时间和淀粉乳pH值4个因素对莲子抗性淀粉得率的影响.利用响应面法进行分析,得到莲子抗性淀粉制备的最佳工艺条件.结果表明,所得的方程达到显著水平,压热法制备莲子抗性淀粉的最佳工艺条件为:淀粉乳浓度30%,压热温度111℃,压热时间10 min,淀粉乳pH值为6~7.实际测得的莲子抗性淀粉得率为41.89%±1.23%,与理论预测值基本一致.%Lotus seed resistant starch was prepared by autoclaving. On the basis of single factor tests, the effect of starch concentration, autoclaving temperature, autoclaving time and pH value on the yield of lotus seeds resistant starch were studied. The conditions of preparing resistant starch were optimized with response surface methods. Results revealed that the model was significant, and the optimal conditions were as follows: starch concentration of 30%, autoclaving temperature of 111 °C, autoclaving time of 10 min, pH6~7. With these optimized conditions, the yield of lotus seeds resistant starch reached 41.89%±1.23%, the same as the prediction value in the model.

  3. Experimental study on shear property of autoclaved fly ash brick masonry in Xinjiang region%新疆地区蒸压粉煤灰实心砖砌体抗剪性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁康; 陈燕华; 常新军; 何志军

    2011-01-01

    Autoclaved fly ash brick is classified as one new wall material to replace fired brick, promoting the shear property of autoclaved fly ash brick masonry is very important for improving the earthquake resistance and crack resistance of masonry structure.Because of fluting the surface of brick,the shear property of ribbed autoclaved fly ash brick masonry would be improved. In the paper,the shear property of ribbed autoclaved fly ash brick masonry, common autoclaved fly ash brick masonry and fired brick have been comparative studied,and the earthquake resistance and crack resistance measures have been discussed under the premise of relative standard citations,in order to provide the theoretical basis for autoclaved fly ash brick's further promotion and application in Xinjiang which is located in seismic high-incidence area, while have climate characteristics of dry climate, high annual temperature difference,high diurnal temperature difference.%蒸压粉煤灰砖属于可以替代烧结普通砖的新型墙体材料,提高蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体的抗剪性能是改善此类砌体结构抗震、抗裂能力的关键.带肋蒸压粉煤灰砖通过改善砖的外形,在砖的表面开槽形成肋状,可提高砖砌体的抗剪能力.本文对带肋蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体、普通蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体和烧结普通砖砌体的抗剪性能进行了比较研究,并结合相关规范条文探讨了带肋蒸压粉煤灰砖的有关抗震、抗裂措施,为蒸压粉煤灰砖在地处地震高发区同时具备气候干燥,年温差、日温差大的新疆地区推广应用提供理论依据.

  4. Some factors affecting the compressive strength of nickel slag autoclaved product%影响镍渣蒸压制品抗压强度的因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余涛; 曹德光; 刘文威; 李浩璇; 陆石强

    2013-01-01

    试验利用镍渣、水泥熟料、熟石灰、电石渣等原料制备镍渣蒸压制品,探索了成型压力、增强剂加入量、加水量和蒸养制度等因素对镍渣蒸压制品抗压强度的影响规律.结果表明,本试验合适的成型压力为15~20 MPa,增强剂的最佳加入量为0.5%,合理的加水量为8.57%~10.00%,最佳的蒸压养护温度为180℃或190℃,对应的蒸压养护时间为8h或9h.此外,使用电石渣代替熟石灰利用相同工艺条件制备蒸压制品的抗压强度无明显差异.%Prepared from autoclaved product of nickel slag,cement clinker,slaked lime,carbide slag,the experiment studied some factors that affecting the compressive strength of nickel slag autoclaved product,such as molding pressure,content of enhancer,content of water added,steam curing system and so on.The results show that the suitable molding pressure is 15~20 MPa;the optimum enhancer content is 0.5%;the reasonable amount of water added is 8.57%~10.00%;the best autoclaving temperature is 180 ℃ or 190 ℃;autoclaving time is eight or nine hours.In addition,under the same process conditions,autoclaved product was successfully prepared if using carbide slag instead of slaked lime,and the compressive strength of autoclaved product had no significant difference.

  5. 民营医疗美容机构压力蒸汽灭菌器使用现状调查%Investigation on usage status of autoclave of private medical cosmetology organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙惠惠; 王佳奇; 张流波; 李涛; 李炎; 沈瑾

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the status of autoclave using in private medical cosmetology organization and provide basis of disinfection and sterilization for standardizing private medical cosmetology institutions. Methods Date investiga-tion and on-the spot examination methods were used to carry out the investigation on the use of the autoclave status of 98 private medical cosmetology institutions of a city. Results There are a total of 101 sets of autoclave in 98 private medical cosmetology institutions,of which 67. 33% were under the exhaust autoclave. The rest were the pre-vacuum autoclave. These sterilizers were small and the sterilization chamber volume less than 60 L accounted for 71. 29%. Temperature detec-tion pass rate was 34. 65% and biological indicator pass rate was 96. 04%. Conclusion The private medical institutions of this city failed in temperature problems of the autoclave,the actual effect of sterilization far from the sterility assurance level requirements.%目的:了解民营医疗美容机构压力蒸汽灭菌器的使用现状,为规范民营医疗美容机构的消毒灭菌工作提供依据。方法采用资料调查和现场检测的方法,对某市98家民营医疗美容机构压力蒸汽灭菌器使用状况进行监测。结果共调查101台压力蒸汽灭菌器,其中有67.33%为下排气式压力蒸汽灭菌器,其余为预真空式压力蒸汽灭菌器。这些灭菌器均属微小型,灭菌腔体容积小于60 L的占71.29%。该城市医疗美容机构使用中的压力蒸汽灭菌器灭菌温度检测合格率为34.65%,生物指示物检测合格率为96.04%。结论该城市民营医疗美容机构压力蒸汽灭菌器温度不合格的问题突出,实际灭菌效果距离灭菌保证水平要求相差甚远。

  6. Production technology of low silicon iron copper tailings autoclaved brick%低硅铜铁尾矿生产蒸压砖的技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓景明; 唐怀志

    2013-01-01

      以低硅铜铁尾矿为主要原料,掺入适量矿渣、铜渣、硅铝酸盐、硫酸盐、碳酸盐组成的固化剂经过加压成型后,在183℃温度的蒸压养护下制成标准砖,该砖平均抗压强度达到13.6 MPa,抗冻性能指标合格,固体废弃物利用率达到90%以上.%The paper introduces a kind of autoclaved brick, which is made of low silicon copper iron tailings as a main raw material, and appropriate mixture of amount of slag, copper slag, aluminosilicate, sulfates, carbonates as curing agent. The mixture is pressed into brick and cured at 183 ℃, which can reach 13.6 MPa of average compressive strength and qualified frost resistance index.

  7. Preparation and characterization of Fe-TiO 2 films with high visible photoactivity by autoclaved-sol method at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaona; Ma, Yunfei; Tian, Baozhu; Zhang, Jinlong

    2011-03-01

    A series of uniform and transparent Fe-doped TiO 2 films were prepared by autoclaved-sol method at low temperature. The as-prepared films were characterized by XRD, DRS, EPR and AFM. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated based on the degradation of Rhodamine B solution under visible light. It was found that all the films were composed of mixed-phase crystal of anatase and brookite. Fe 3+ ions have been successfully doped into the TiO 2 crystal lattice by substituting Ti 4+, thus inducing significant absorption shift toward visible region compared with the pure TiO 2 films. EPR result further illustrated the doped Fe ions entered into the TiO 2 lattice. AFM reveals that doping of Fe ions increases the mean roughness and secondary particle size. The 0.5% Fe-TiO 2 films demonstrated the highest photocatalytic activity under visible light due to the interaction of active sites, impurity energy level and contact surface area.

  8. Hydrothermal interaction of crushed Topopah Spring tuff and J-13 water at 90, 150, and 2500C using Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Package Environment subtask of the Waste Package task within the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project, experiments were conducted to study the hydrothermal interaction of rock and water representative of a potential high-level waste repository in tuff. These experiments used crushed Topopah Spring tuff from both drillcore and outcrop samples. The data, when considered in conjunction with results from analogous experiments using solid wafers of tuff, define near-field repository conditions and can be used to assess the ability to use ''accelerated'' tests based on the surface area/volume (SA/V) parameter and temperature; allow the measurement of chemical changes due to reaction in phases present in the tuff before reaction; and permit the identification and chemical analysis of secondary phases resulting from hydrothermal reactions. Some of the results presented in this report have been used to demonstrate the usefulness of geochemical modeling in a repository environment using the EQ3/6 thermodynamic/kinetic geochemical modeling code. The tuff was reacted with a natural ground water in Dickson-type gold-bag rocking autoclaves that were periodically sampled under in situ conditions. Five short-term (0C and 50 to 100 bars. This report will focus on the results of experiments with crushed tuff, while a companion report will cover results of analogous short-term experiments run with solid waters of tuff

  9. Comparison of the Effects of Diet Sterilization by Irradiation and Autoclaving on the Equilibrium between Eleven Microbe Strains Seeded in the Alimentary Tracts of Axenic Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven obligate or facultative anaerobe strains were seeded successively in the alimentary tracts of 'gnotoxenic' mice. The animals were divided into four groups which received a commercially available diet sterilized by autoclaving or by irradiation (4 Mrad) or treated with the two methods in succession and supplemented or not supplemented in vitamins. A series of quantitative differential analyses carried out over a period of seven months on the faeces of the animals did not reveal any significant differences in the equilibrium that became established among the eleven strains in the faecal flora of the four groups of animals. At the end of the experiment quantitative differential analyses were performed of the stomachal and caecal flora of two animals from each group; again no differences were found in the equilibrium of the flora in the animals from the different groups. Any radiolytic products that may have been in the radiation-sterilized diet therefore had no detectable effect on the equilibrium of the microflora that the authors had chosen to establish in the alimentary tract of the 'gnotoxenic' animals. (author)

  10. 变电站蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体围墙裂缝分析与防治%Analysis and Prevention of Substation of Autoclaved Fly Ash Brick Masonry Wall Cracks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵国华

    2014-01-01

    本文结合变电站工程实际,分析了变电站工程蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体清水围墙裂缝产生的原因,从蒸压粉煤灰砖的生产、构造设计及砌筑施工等几个方面提出了防治措施。%Combining with the actual substation engineering, Analyzed the causes of transformer substation project of autoclaved fly ash brick masonry wall cracks in water, Puts forward the prevention measures from the aspects of production, structure design and masonry construction of autoclaved fly ash brick.

  11. 环境温度对蒸压粉煤灰砖混合料消化的影响%Effect of environmental temperature on slaking of autoclaved fly ash brick mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建营

    2012-01-01

      The paper analyzes the effect of environmental temperature on slaking of autoclaved fly ash brick mixture, and the relationship between mixture and environmental temperature.%  分析了蒸压粉煤灰砖影响混合料消化的因素,分析了混合料与环境温度的关系,并对某企业存在的问题给出了解决办法。

  12. Research on autoclaved reaction activities of Si/Al -based industrial residues%硅铝质工业废弃物蒸压反应活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆金驰

    2011-01-01

    Mass fractions of active SiO2 and A12O3 ,and infrared spectrum (IR) were used to analyze the autoclaved reaction activities of Si/Al - based industrial residues, such as fly ash and coal dust slag etc. Results showed that autoclaved reaction activities of Si/Al - based industrial residues had an evident relationship with the mass fractions of active SiO2 and A12O3 ,and Si - O stretching vibration frequency about 1 100 cm-1 in strong absorption region of IR,that is the more mass fractions of active SiO2 and Al2 O3, and the lower Si-O stretching vibration frequency about 1 100 cm -1 in strong absorption region of IR, the stronger autoclaved reaction activities and the higher compressive strength of autoclaved products.%通过测定活性二氧化硅、氧化铝含量及红外光谱分析等方法研究粉煤灰、煤粉炉渣等硅铝质工业废弃物的蒸压反应活性.结果表明,硅铝质工业废弃物的蒸压反应活性与其活性二氧化硅、氧化铝含量及红外光谱1 100 cm-1附近强吸收区的Si-O伸缩振动频率存在明显的对应关系,即活性二氧化硅、氧化铝含量越高,红外光谱1 100 cm-1附近强吸收区的Si-O伸缩振动频率越低,蒸压反应活性越强,蒸压制晶强度越高.

  13. Study on preparation of autoclaved brick by Yellow River silt and fly ash added waste papermaking liquor%利用造纸黑液和粉煤灰-泥砂制备蒸压砖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新爱; 关润伶

    2014-01-01

    以粉煤灰、黄河泥砂为主要原料,炉渣为骨料,石灰、石膏为激发剂,用造纸黑液代替水做拌和液制备黄河泥砂-粉煤灰蒸压砖。结果表明,造纸黑液代水制备蒸压砖是可行的,制备的蒸压砖可以达到JC 239-2001《粉煤灰砖》规定的MU25级的质量要求。%Autoclaved brick is prepared by fly ash and Yellow River silt as main materials, waste papermaking liquor as mixing liquid. The results show that it is feasible to make autoclaved brick by waste papermaking liquor as mixing liquid. The autoclaved brick meets the demand of MU25 grade in JC 239-2001 (fly ash bricks) standard.

  14. Fast estimating concrete strength method applying microwave autoclave curing technology%应用微波蒸压技术的混凝土强度快速测定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋德稳; 田安国; 胡杰; 赵政

    2015-01-01

    为了快速测定混凝土强度,将微波技术应用到传统的蒸压养护工艺中,自行设计和制作了小型微波蒸压釜。通过试验得出了釜腔内温度压力大小、恒温恒压养护时间对混凝土早期强度的影响规律,进而总结出微波蒸压养护条件下混凝土快速养护制度。通过15批次(5种配合比)不同强度等级混凝土的微波蒸压养护和标准养护对比试验,建立了微波蒸压养护条件下的混凝土强度线性和非线性回归模型,模型中考虑了加速养护混凝土强度和混凝土水灰比,具有较好的相关关系。试验分析发现:运用微波技术,可以均匀、迅速地提高混凝土内部温度,减小温度应力,使混凝土1 h内获得较高(28 d强度40%~50%)、稳定的早期强度,可以作为预拌混凝土生产企业和施工现场进行强度控制和配合比调整时的依据。%In order to estimate concrete strength quickly,microwave was applied to the conditional autoclave curing. Small microwave autoclave suitable for the microwave autoclaved were self designed and made. By experiment research,the effect laws of temperature in autoclave and constant temperature curing time on the early strength of concrete were investigated,and rapid curing system was summa-rized on the condition of microwave and autoclave. By the contrast test of microwave autoclave curing and standard curing of 15 batches of different strength grade concrete,the linear and nonlinear regression model of concrete strength determination were established with better correlativity on the condition of microwave and autoclave. Concrete strength accelerated of curing and water-cement-ratio was considered in the model. It was found that the internal temperature of concrete would be uniformly,rapidly improved by microwave,and the temperature stress would be reduced.The high and stable early strength of concrete(40~50 percent of 28 d strength)was obtained

  15. INFLUENCE OF WATER-TO-CEMENT RATIO ON AIR ENTRAILMENT IN PRODUCTION OF NON-AUTOCLAVED FOAM CONCRETE USING TURBULENCE CAVITATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorshkov Pavel Vladimirovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-autoclaved foam concrete is an advanced thermal insulation material. Until recently, foam concrete production has been based on separate preparation of foam and solution, followed by their blending in a mixer. The situation changed when high-quality synthetic foaming agents and turbulence cavitation technology appeared on the market. Every model provides a dependence between the foam concrete strength and the water-to-cement ratio. According to the water-cement ratio we can distinguish strong concrete mixtures (with the water-to-cement ratio equal to 0.3…0.4 and ductile ones (with the water-to-cement ratio equal to 0.5…0.7. Strong concrete mixtures are more durable. The lower the water-to-cement ratio, the higher the foam concrete strength. However super-plastic substances cannot be mixed by ordinary turbulent mixers. Foam concrete produced using the turbulence cavitation technology needs air-entraining, its intensity being dependent on several factors. One of the main factors is the amount of free water, if it is insufficient, the mixture will not be porous enough. A researcher needs to identify the optimal water-to-cement ratio based on the water consumption rate. Practical production of prefabricated concrete products and structures has proven that the reduction of the water-to-cement ratio improves the strength of the product. The task is to find the water-to-cement ratio for the foam concrete mixture to be plastic enough for air entraining. An increase in the ratio causes loss in the strength. The ratio shall vary within one hundredth points. Super-plasticizers are an alternative solution.

  16. Autoclave treatment of pig manure does not reduce the risk of transmission and transfer of tetracycline resistance genes in soil: successive determinations with soil column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Gu, Xian; Hao, Yangyang; Hu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of antibiotics, especially tetracycline, in livestock feed adversely affects animal health and ecological integrity. Therefore, approaches to decrease this risk are urgently needed. High temperatures facilitate antibiotic degradation; whether this reduces transmission risk and transfer of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRBs) and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in soil remains unknown. Successive experiments with soil columns evaluated the effects of autoclaving pig manure (APM) on soil TRB populations and TRGs over time at different soil depths. The data showed sharp increases in TRB populations and TRGs in each subsoil layer of PM (non-APM) and APM treatments within 30 days, indicating that TRBs and TRGs transferred rapidly. The level of TRBs in the upper soil layers was approximately 15-fold higher than in subsoils. TRBs were not dependent on PM and APM levels, especially in the late phase. Nevertheless, higher levels of APM led to rapid expansion of TRBs as compared to PM. Moreover, temporal changes in TRB frequencies in total culturable bacteria (TCBs) were similar to TRBs, indicating that the impact of PM or APM on TRBs was more obvious than for TCBs. TRBs were hypothesized to depend on the numbers of TRGs and indigenous recipient bacteria. In the plough layer, five TRGs (tetB, tetG, tetM, tetW, and tetB/P) existed in each treatment within 150 days. Selective pressure of TC may not be a necessary condition for the transfer and persistence of TRGs in soil. High temperatures might reduce TRBs in PM, which had minimal impact on the transmission and transfer of TRGs in soil. Identifying alternatives to decrease TRG transmission remains a major challenge. PMID:26517996

  17. Autoclave treatment of pig manure does not reduce the risk of transmission and transfer of tetracycline resistance genes in soil: successive determinations with soil column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Gu, Xian; Hao, Yangyang; Hu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of antibiotics, especially tetracycline, in livestock feed adversely affects animal health and ecological integrity. Therefore, approaches to decrease this risk are urgently needed. High temperatures facilitate antibiotic degradation; whether this reduces transmission risk and transfer of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRBs) and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in soil remains unknown. Successive experiments with soil columns evaluated the effects of autoclaving pig manure (APM) on soil TRB populations and TRGs over time at different soil depths. The data showed sharp increases in TRB populations and TRGs in each subsoil layer of PM (non-APM) and APM treatments within 30 days, indicating that TRBs and TRGs transferred rapidly. The level of TRBs in the upper soil layers was approximately 15-fold higher than in subsoils. TRBs were not dependent on PM and APM levels, especially in the late phase. Nevertheless, higher levels of APM led to rapid expansion of TRBs as compared to PM. Moreover, temporal changes in TRB frequencies in total culturable bacteria (TCBs) were similar to TRBs, indicating that the impact of PM or APM on TRBs was more obvious than for TCBs. TRBs were hypothesized to depend on the numbers of TRGs and indigenous recipient bacteria. In the plough layer, five TRGs (tetB, tetG, tetM, tetW, and tetB/P) existed in each treatment within 150 days. Selective pressure of TC may not be a necessary condition for the transfer and persistence of TRGs in soil. High temperatures might reduce TRBs in PM, which had minimal impact on the transmission and transfer of TRGs in soil. Identifying alternatives to decrease TRG transmission remains a major challenge.

  18. Avaliação dos comportamentos mecânico e térmico de laminados de PPS/fibra de carbono processados em autoclave sob diferentes ciclos de consolidação Evaluation of thermal and mechanical behaviors of PPS/carbon fiber laminates processed in autoclave under different consolidation cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana S Marques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Usualmente, um dos processos mais utilizados para fabricação de componentes em termoplásticos estruturais é a moldagem por compressão a quente, porém restringindo-se na obtenção de peças de pequeno e médio porte. Tal restrição deve-se à limitação do tamanho das prensas utilizadas, principalmente pelo custo envolvido. Procurando ampliar a aplicação de compósitos termoplásticos, possibilitando a fabricação de peças maiores e com maior potencial de integração, pelo uso de infra-estrutura já disponível em processadores de compósitos, este trabalho aborda o processamento de laminados de poli(sulfeto de fenileno (PPS reforçado com fibra de carbono em autoclave, pelo uso de quatro diferentes ciclos de consolidação. Os laminados obtidos foram caracterizados por inspeção por ultrassom, análises de DSC para a determinação da cristalinidade e avaliação das propriedades mecânicas em flexão, compressão e cisalhamento interlaminar. Os resultados mostram que laminados obtidos com taxas de resfriamento mais lentas apresentam menor resistência e módulo em compressão, uma vez que o maior grau de cristalinidade (~30% promove maior fragilização da matriz polimérica.One of the most used processes to obtain structural thermoplastic parts is the hot compression molding, which is limited to small and medium size parts because of the size of the press used, mainly related to its cost. This has hampered a wide use of thermoplastic composites in structural applications. In order to extend the application of thermoplastic composites, but still using available infrastructure in composite manufacturers, in this work we investigate the processing of carbon fiber reinforced polyphenylene sulfide (PPS in an autoclave, using four consolidation cycles. The processed laminates were characterized by ultrasound inspection, DSC analyses for the crystallinity determination and mechanical tests to evaluate the compression, flexure and

  19. Non-autoclave silicate brick

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Yaglov; Ya. N. Kovalev; V. N. Romaniuk; G. A. Burak

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a technology for obtaining bricks on the basis of lime-silica mixtures where chemical interactions are practically completely realized in dispersive state at the stage of preparation of binding contact maturing and raw mixture as a whole. The role of forming operation (moulding) is changed in principle because in this case conversion of dispersive system into a rock-like solid occurs and due to this the solid obtains complete water-resistance in contact with water immediate...

  20. Study on Autoclave Preparation Technology and Properties of Potato Resistant Starch%马铃薯抗性淀粉压热制备工艺与性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振强; 申森; 樊欣

    2012-01-01

    The autoclave preparation technology and properties of potato resistant starch(RS) were studied. Orthogonal experiment was adopted to optimize the preparation technology base on single factor tests of starch milk concentration, thermal - press temperature, thermal-press time and starch milk pH. The optimum extraction conditions were starch milk concentration, 200g/L; thermal-press temperature, 120℃ thermal-press time, 60 min; starch milk pH, 7, under which the RS yield was 4.66%. The enzyme resistance, water absorption and DSC profiles of potato RS were studied. The results showed that potato RS had strong anti-enzymatic ability; the water absorption of potato RS was higher than potato original starch; and the DSC profiles showed potato RS formed a variety of amylose structures which had tighter structure, thus had stronger heat resistance and anti-enzymatic ability.%对马铃薯抗性淀粉(RS)压热制备工艺及性质进行了研究.选择淀粉乳浓度、压热温度、压热时间和淀粉乳pH进行单因素试验,确定条件范围,再采用正交试验优化提取条件,得到最佳提取工艺条件为淀粉乳浓度200 g/L,压热温度120℃,压热时间75 min,淀粉乳pH7,按最佳工艺条件进行试验,马铃薯RS产率为4.66%.并研究了马铃薯RS抗酶解性、吸水性和DSC图谱,结果表明,马铃薯RS具有较强的抗酶解性;吸水率高于马铃薯精淀粉;DSC图谱显示马铃薯RS形成了多种结构更紧密的直链淀粉晶体,有较强的热稳定性和抗酶解性.

  1. 蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体轴心受压性能试验研究%AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE AXIAL COMPRESSIVE PROPERTIES OF AUTOCLAVED FLY ASH BRICK MASONRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵斐; 何晓雁; 乔建新

    2011-01-01

    36 autoclaved fly ash brick masonries are built for axial compressive tests.An experiment is carried out with the strength of both masonry and mortar serving as the basic parameters and the dial indicator used for measuring the deformation of masonries.Based on the experiment, the development features of cracks and the deformation patterns of masonries under compressure are analyzed.In light of the results of axial compressive tests of all the 36 masonries, a calculative formula of the compressive strength of autoclaved fly ash brick is established, which will supply experimental data for compiling regional technical codes.And, thus, the application of autoclaved fly ash brick will be extended.%试验以块体和砂浆强度为基本参数,砌筑36个蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体试件进行轴心受压试验,并配合百分表量测砌体变形.通过蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体轴心受压试验,分析了砌体受压时裂缝的发展特点和变形规律,根据36个试件的抗压试验结果,建立了蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体抗压强度的计算公式,为相关规范的编制提供试验数据,以利于蒸压粉煤灰砖的推广应用.

  2. Research on use of high calcium desulfurization ash in autoclaved brick CHEN Bin LIU Heng-bo WAN Jun%利用高钙固硫灰生产蒸压砖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈滨; 刘恒波; 万军

    2012-01-01

      The paper researches on the process of high calcium desulfurization ash autoclaved brick, and puts forward the ways to use the high calcium, high sulfur and low silicon of fly ash from the circulating fluidized bed boiler.%  对高钙固硫灰生产蒸压砖的生产工艺进行了研究,提出了重点解决循环流化床锅炉粉煤灰的高钙、高硫、低硅难题的有效途径。

  3. Autoclaved Sand-lime Bricks from Silica Tailings Powder and Stone Chips%用硅石尾矿粉和石屑制备蒸压灰砂砖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉敏

    2013-01-01

    The influences of ingredients, molding pressures and autoclave temperatures on properties of autoclaved sand-lime bricks from silica tailings powder and stone chips were studied, and some samples were analyzed by XRD and SEM. The results show that high strength autoclaved sand-lime bricks can be prepared under appropriate conditions by silica tailings powder, stone chips and lime as the main components. When the mass ratio of lime powder to the silica tailings powder is less than 0.45, with the lime powder content increasing, the compressive strength of the samples gradually increases;but when the ratio further increases, the strength of the samples reduces. To improve the content of silica tailings powder and lime, molding pressure and the autoclave temperature can increase the strength of the sand-lime bricks. The stone chips are basically not involved in the hydrothermal reaction.%  研究了配合料组成、成型压力和蒸压温度对硅石尾矿粉(硅尾粉)-石屑蒸压灰砂砖抗压强度的影响,并用X射线衍射(XRD)和扫描电镜(SEM)对部分试样进行了分析。结果表明,以硅尾粉、石屑和石灰为主要组分,在适当条件下可制备强度较高的蒸压灰砂砖。当石灰粉与硅尾粉质量比小于0.45时,随着石灰粉掺量的增加,试样抗压强度逐渐提高;当质量比进一步增加时,试样强度降低。提高硅尾粉和石灰混合物含量、成型压力和蒸压温度,可提高灰砂砖强度。石屑基本上不参与水热反应。

  4. The Construction Technique of Autoclaved Lightweight Concrete (NALC)Masonry Free Plastering%轻质蒸压加气混凝土(NALC)砌块免抹灰式施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国芳

    2011-01-01

    介绍了轻质蒸压加气混凝土(NALC)砌块的适用范围,论述了NALC砌块免抹灰施工的工艺流程及操作特点,质量标准及保证措施.%It introduces the applicable scope, and the process principle ot Autoclaved Lightweight Concrete( N ALC)Masonry.It tells the process and the operating characteristics of NALC Masonry Free Plastering, and the assurance measures.

  5. Effect of Steam-Autoclaved Curing on Chloride Permeability of High Strength Concrete%二次高温养护对高强混凝土抗 Cl-渗透性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东升; 朱建舟; 谭克锋

    2014-01-01

    利用氯离子快速渗透法(RCM)研究了普通蒸汽养护后(80℃,0.1 MPa)再进行压蒸(180℃,1 MPa)养护,即二次高温养护,对不同胶凝材料体系的高强混凝土抗Cl-渗透性的影响。结果表明:对于纯水泥混凝土,与标养相比,“蒸养-压蒸”养护使混凝土抗Cl -渗透性能劣化。掺入粉煤灰、矿粉以及硅灰以等比例取代水泥时,“蒸养-压蒸”都较为充分地激发了上述混合材的火山灰活性,但不同掺合料对“蒸养-压蒸”后高强混凝土抗Cl-渗透性能影响差别较大。 XRD和SEM研究表明上述结果的产生与高温下水化产物的种类和分布有关。%Rapid choloride migration test (RCMT) was used to investigate the influence of curing methods and mineral admixtures on chloride ingress resistance of high strength concrete .The results indicate that steam cu-ring and autoclaving curing , especially autoclaving curing , considerably aggravated the chloride penetration through pure cement concrete when compared with normal curing .Incorporating silica fume can improve the chloride ingress resistance of steam curing concrete but degrades autoclaving curing concrete .Adding fly ash with low pozzolanic activity can increase chloride ingress resistance of autoclaving curing concrete , while chlo-ride penetration resistance of steam curing concrete becomes lower .The measure of multi-elements mineral admixtures mixing is propitious to improving the chloride ingress resistance of concrete compared with pure ce-ment concrete under same curing conditions .Results above was analyzed by XRD and SEM .

  6. 依托住宅产业化开发蒸压砂加气混凝土成套体系技术%Exploitation of Complete Sets of Sand Autoclaved Aerated Concrete System Technology Relying on the Housing Industrialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超华

    2015-01-01

    Relying on the advantage of group industrialization to develop research and development and application of sand autoclaved aerated concrete materials for the maintenance system of the green, environmental protection,energy saving technology,formed sets of system technology of the sand autoclaved aerated insulation,exterior insulation,partition panel,steel structure within the envelope insulation panels etc.,then summarized the construction method of complete system.%依托集团产业化优势,大力开展以蒸压砂加气混凝土材料为建筑围护体系的绿色、环保、节能技术研发与应用,形成了蒸压砂加气自保温、外墙外保温、內隔墙板、钢结构外围护保温墙板等多项成套体系技术,进而总结提炼出成套体系施工工法。

  7. Evaluation of Alum-Naltrexone Adjuvant Activity, on Efficacy of Anti-Leishmania Immunization with Autoclaved Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER Antigens in BALB/C Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Mohammadzadeh Hajipirloo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist shifts the immune response toward a Th1 profile. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of the mixture of NTX and alum, as a new adjuvant, to enhance immune response and induce protection against Leishmania major in a mouse model.BALB/c mice were immunized three times either autoclaved L. major promastigotes' antigens alone or in combination with the adjuvant alum, naltrexone or the alum-naltrexone mixture. Both humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed two weeks after the last immunization and compared with control mice.The administration of alum- NTX in combination with the parasite antigen, significantly increased production of IFN-γ IFN-γ /IL-5 ratio, lymphocyte proliferation and improved DTH response against L. major. There was no significant difference in survival following challenge among groups.Immunization with the alum- naltrexone mixture as an adjuvant, in combination with the autoclaved L. major promastigotes antigens, can enhance cellular immunity and shift the immune responses to a Th1 pattern.

  8. The effect of two different multiple autoclave cycles on surface of topography of rotary nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti)files by atomic force microscopy.%两种压力蒸汽灭菌器多次高压灭菌对镍钛锉表面形貌影响的AFM研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡坤娥; 李昀生; 谭荣; 胡冬梅; 李静茹

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect on the surface of nickel-titanium files after two type of multiple autoclave cycles.Method: Six Ni-Ti files were observed by atomic force microscopy, the same files were used as control before any cycles.The six files were observed after 10 rapid autoclaving steriliazation cycles and 10 prevacume autoclaving sterilization cycles respectively, 20 different points were measured as root mean square.The data were tested by spss test.Result:All topographic parameters were higer compared with the control in the group of prevacuum autoclave sterilization (P<0.05),while the rapid sterilization group, there is no much difference between them.Conclusion: In order to reduce the autoclaving influence on the Ni-Ti files, it should be reasonable to use the rapid autoclaving sterilization cycles on the condition of reliable sterilization.%目的:评价两种高压灭菌法对镍钛根管锉表面形貌的影响.方法:选择6支同一批次手动Protaper镍钛根管锉,分为两组,分别用两种灭菌方法经10次灭菌程序后在原子力显微镜(AFM)下观察,从距尖端6 mm范围内的20个不同的点,评价样本的粗糙度均方根,将此6支锉未经消毒时设为对照组.结果:所有参数均显示经预真空压力蒸汽灭菌器消毒组镍钛锉粗糙度大于对照组,而快速压力蒸汽灭菌器消毒组与对照组相比粗糙度相差不明显.结论:在保证灭菌效果的前提下,从延长器械使用寿命考虑,快速高压蒸汽灭菌是镍钛锉理想的灭菌方式.

  9. Hydrothermal interaction of solid wafers of Topopah Spring Tuff with J-13 water and distilled water at 90, 150, and 2500C, using Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project has conducted experiments to study the hydrothermal interaction of rock and water representative of a potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results of these experiments help define the near-field repository environment during and shortly after the thermal period that results from the emplacement of nuclear waste. When considered in conjunction with results contained in companion reports, these results can be used to assess our ability to accelerate tests using the surface area/volume parameter and/or temperature. These rock-water interaction experiments were conducted with solid polished wafers cut from both drillcore and outcrop samples of Topopah tuff, using both a natural ground water and distilled water as the reacting fluid. Pre- and post-test characterization of the reacting materials was extensive. Post-test identification and chemical analysis of secondary phases resulting from the hydrothermal interactions were aided by using monoliths of tuff rather than crushed material. All experiments were run in Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves that were periodically sampled at in situ conditions. A total of nine short-term (up to 66-day) experiments were run in this series; these experiments covered the range from 90 to 2500C and from 50 to 100 bar. The results obtained from the experiments have been used to evaluate the modeled results produced by calculations using the geochemical reaction process code EQ3/6. 31 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Hydrothermal interaction of solid wafers of Topopah Spring Tuff with J-13 water at 90 and 150/degree/C using Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves: Long-term experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project conducted long-term experiments to study the hydrothermal interaction of rock and water representative of a potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results of these experiments complement those obtained previously in short-term experiments at similar and higher temperatures. These long-term experiments also help in assessing the effects of kinetic inhibition in the precipitation of secondary minerals at the lower temperatures and allow a more complete determination of the approach of the fluid toward a steady-state composition. Considered collectively, the results of both short- and long-term experiments provide information useful in defining the near-field repository environment during and shortly after the thermal period caused by the emplacement of nuclear waste. These long-term experiments were conducted using solid wafers cut from drillcore samples of Topopah Spring tuff. A natural ground water was used as the reacting fluid. Analytical techniques for determining the composition of fluids and solids were similar to those used in previous short-term experiments. All experiments were run in Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves that were periodically sampled under in situ conditions. Two long-term (304-day) experiments were run at temperatures of 90 and 150/degree/C and 50-bar pressure. 21 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Hydrothermal interaction of solid wafers of Topopah Spring Tuff with J-13 water and distilled water at 90, 150, and 250{sup 0}C, using Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauss, K.G.; Beiriger, W.J.; Peifer, D.W.; Piwinskii, A.J.

    1985-09-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project has conducted experiments to study the hydrothermal interaction of rock and water representative of a potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results of these experiments help define the near-field repository environment during and shortly after the thermal period that results from the emplacement of nuclear waste. When considered in conjunction with results contained in companion reports, these results can be used to assess our ability to accelerate tests using the surface area/volume parameter and/or temperature. These rock-water interaction experiments were conducted with solid polished wafers cut from both drillcore and outcrop samples of Topopah tuff, using both a natural ground water and distilled water as the reacting fluid. Pre- and post-test characterization of the reacting materials was extensive. Post-test identification and chemical analysis of secondary phases resulting from the hydrothermal interactions were aided by using monoliths of tuff rather than crushed material. All experiments were run in Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves that were periodically sampled at in situ conditions. A total of nine short-term (up to 66-day) experiments were run in this series; these experiments covered the range from 90 to 250{sup 0}C and from 50 to 100 bar. The results obtained from the experiments have been used to evaluate the modeled results produced by calculations using the geochemical reaction process code EQ3/6. 31 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. 蒸压膨胀珍珠岩保温板的研制及性能分析%Research on the preparation and properties of autoclaved insulation board made by expanded perlite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宪圆; 林克辉; 谢红波; 杨军

    2012-01-01

    Expanded perlite insulation board was successfully prepared by autoclave curing method,which two kinds of expanded perlite with different packing densities were used as light-weight aggregate respectively,and Portland cement or self-made binder was used as cementing material. Hydrophobic treatment was also applied. The results indicate that the compressive and flexural strengths of insulation board made in this way are much higher than the requirement in national standard GB/T 10303-2001 "Expanded Perlite Thermal Insulation"; volume water absorption of EP insulation board is reduced significantly when the emulsion of silicone hydrophobic agent is used.%采用2种堆积密度不同的膨胀珍珠岩作轻骨料,以水泥和自制胶结料作为胶凝材料,通过蒸压养护方式制备成保温板,并进行了憎水处理.结果表明,采用该工艺制备的保温板其抗压及抗折强度优于GB/T10303-2001《膨胀珍珠岩绝热制品》标准要求;有机硅憎水剂乳液可显著降低保温板的体积吸水率.

  13. Sécheresse à coeur du Douglas et aptitude au déroulage : recherche de procédés alternatifs d'étuvage. I. Répartition de l'eau dans le bois vert et réhumidification sous autoclave

    OpenAIRE

    Mothe, Frédéric; Marchal, Rémy; Tatischeff, Wladimir

    2000-01-01

    International audience Heart dryness of Douglas fir and ability to rotary cutting: Research of alternative boiling processes. I. Moisture content distribution inside green wood and water impregnation with an autoclave. The analysis of the moisture content variations along Douglas fir increment cores, fresh cut logs and peeled veneers allowed to confirm the low level of moisture content inside Douglas fir heartwood. Whatever the tree and the inside ring location may be, the heartwood moistu...

  14. Experimental study on mechanical properties of non-autoclaved and non-sintered fly-ash Perforated brick masonry%免蒸压免烧结粉煤灰多孔砖砌体力学性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠献; 周晓洁; 夏多田; 许小波; 刘泽锋

    2012-01-01

    Non-autoclaved and non-sintered fly-ash perforated brick is a kind of new material for load-bearing walls. In order to promote the application of this new material in village and town buildings of seismic area, compression and shear strength of non-autoclaved and non-sintered fly-ash perforated brick masonry was tested and crack and failure progress was analyzed. The test results show that the failure processes and characteristics of the non-autoclaved and non-sintered fly-ash perforated brick masonry in compression and in shear are similar to that of the common brick masonry, however the non-autoclaved and non-sintered fly-ash perforated brick masonry tends to fail in brittle manner. The compression and shear strength are all less than that of the common brick masonry. A mathematic model of 6-degree polynomial was used to express the compressive constitutive relationship and the whole process of non-autoclaved and non-sintered fly-ash perforated brick masonry in compression was described. The curve was close to the measured data.%免蒸压免烧结粉煤灰多孔砖是一种新型承重墙体材料,为使其在地震区村镇建筑中得到推广应用,进行了多孔砖砌体抗压强度和抗剪强度试验,分析了砌体裂缝开展及破坏过程.试验结果表明:免蒸压免烧结粉煤灰多孔砖砌体的受压、受剪破坏过程及特征与普通黏土砖砌体类似,但具有更大的脆性;抗压、抗剪强度均小于普通黏土砖砌体;采用6次多项式的受压本构关系数学模型,反映了免蒸压免烧结粉煤灰多孔砖砌体受压应力-应变全过程,计算值与实测数据比较接近.

  15. Autoclave Steam Corrosion Performance of Nb+ Implanted Zircaloy-4%铌离子注入锆-4合金的高压釜蒸汽腐蚀行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛祥义; 白新德; 周青山; 田振业

    2006-01-01

    The influences of niobium ion implantation on autoclave steam corrosion performance were studied at temperatures of 400℃ and 500℃2, pressure of 10.3 MPa respectively. Experimental results prove that Nb ion implantation can improve the corrosion resistance of Zircaloy-4 against 400℃ and 500℃ high pressure steam. The improving extent of corrosion resistance at 500℃ was much more remarkable compared with that of400℃. In order to understand the influencing mechanism, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to analyze the morphology,phase structure of the surface oxide film, composition and valence of implanted element, respectively.%本文研究了铌离子注入对锆-4合金在400℃和500℃、10.3 MPa高压釜中蒸汽腐蚀行为的影响.试验结果表明:铌离子注入能够改善锆-4合金抗400℃和500℃高压蒸汽腐蚀性能,并且,比较而言对500℃蒸汽腐蚀性能提高的程度更为显著.为了理解铌离子注入影响的机理,应用SEM、XRD、XPS等分析手段分析了氧化膜的形貌、相结构、注入元素的价态及组成.

  16. 某蒸压加气混凝土砌块项目职业病危害因素分析与评价%An autoclaved aerated concrete block project occupation disease harm factor analysis and evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓阳; 吕艳朋; 张高峰; 马好; 李铭

    2014-01-01

    目的:识别、评价和分析某蒸压加气混凝土砌块项目在生产过程中产生的职业病危害因素,评价职业病危害防护措施及其效果,为制定职业病的预防措施提供依据。方法采用职业卫生现场调查、职业卫生检测、职业健康检查和检查表分析法。结果蒸压加气混凝土砌块项目产生的主要职业病危害因素有毒物(包括CO、CO2、SO2、CaO等)、粉尘、噪声及高温与热辐射等。结论该项目属于职业病严重的建设项目,职业病危害控制措施基本可行、有效,但需加强对粉尘及噪声的职业病危害控制措施。%Objective To identify, evaluate and analyze the occupation disease inautoclaved aerated concrete block the project generated in the production processhazards, protective measures and effect evaluation of occupation disease harm,provide the basis for the establishment of occupation disease preventionmeasures. Methods using the occupation health field investigation,occupationhealth inspection,occupation health examination and checklist analysis.The mainoccupation disease results autoclaved aerated concrete block project hazard oftoxic substances (including CO,CO2,SO2,CaOetc.),dust,noise and high temperature and thermal radiation.Conclusion This project belongs to the seriousconstruction project occupation disease,control measure is feasible,effectiveoccupation disease harm,but need to strengthen the occupation disease on thedust and noise hazards and control measures.

  17. 陶粒赤泥粉煤灰免烧砖性能研究%Research on properties of red mud fly ash from the burn exemption autoclaved brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敦强; 徐捷; 周国栋

    2012-01-01

    Based on the requirement of national energy conservation and environmental protection, we use the waste red mud and fly ash of Shandong Xinfa Aluminum and Electricity Group as the main raw material and with lime and cement as sharpened agent to produce red mud ceramsite fly ash from burn from autoclaved brick that is pressured molding by the pressure brick machine and natural curing. In order to make the industrialization production and substitute for clay brick, we make a quantitative analysis of the ratio of raw material and production process. Then, we get the reasonable ratio of raw materials and production process parameters, and discusse the influence of the ratio of raw material and production process parameters on the performance of the products. The results show; 1. When the composition is made up of 25% red mud, 18% fly ash, 45% ceramsite and 12% cement, brick products have the highest intensity; 2. When the composition is made up of 18% red mud, 21% fly ash, 50% ceramsite and 11% cement, the strength of the brick products meets the requirements, heat insulation performance is improved greatly and other physical properties also meet the requirement.%基于国家节能环保的要求,以山东信发铝电集团的废弃物赤泥、粉煤灰为主要原料,用石灰、水泥作为激化剂,经压砖机压制成型,自然养护来生产赤泥陶粒粉煤灰免烧免蒸压砖.为了使其工业化生产并能代替粘土砖,对原材料配比和生产工艺进行了定量分析,得出了合理的试验配方和生产工艺参数,探讨了原材料配比和生产工艺参数对砖制品性能的影响.结果表明:(1)当25%赤泥、18%粉煤灰、45%陶粒、12%水泥时,砖制品的强度最高.(2)当18%赤泥,21%粉煤灰,50%陶粒和11%水泥时,强度满足要求,保温性能大大提高,吸水率、冻融性和放射性等各方面物理特性符合要求.

  18. Experimental study on thermal conductivity of fly ash autoclaved aerated concrete block drying in natural environment%自然干燥状态下粉煤灰蒸压加气混凝土砌块导热系数实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建恩; 闫加贺; 吕恒林; 冯伟; 张丙利; 周泰

    2012-01-01

    Moisture content of fly ash autoclaved concrete blocks (ACB) affects not only the thermal conductivity seriously but also the building operational energy consumption and indoor thermal or humid environment. The moisture content of ACB changes with time in natural drying environment. The thermal conductivity and moisture content of ACB are tested by stages in experiment natural environment. Then we get variation laws of thermal conductivity and moisture with time in the natural environment. The function of fly ash autoclaved concrete block's thermal conductivity to moisture content is fitted based on nonlinear least square method. The research results will provide basis and reference for studying on building energy consumption and indoor thermal or humid environment affected by fly ash autoclaved concrete blocks' thermal conductivity and moisture content in natural environment.%粉煤灰蒸压加气混凝土砌块的含水率对导热系数有较大的影响,从而影响到建筑运行能耗和室内热湿环境.自然干燥状态下砌块的含水率随时间不断变化,通过对实验室自然干燥状态下不同时间段的粉煤灰蒸压加气混凝土砌块含水率和导热系数的实验测试,得出了导热系数、含水率随静置时间的变化规律,并运用非线性最小二乘法拟合得出了导热系数-含水率函数,为进一步研究粉煤灰蒸压加气混凝土砌块自然干燥状态对建筑能耗和室内热湿环境的影响提供参考依据.

  19. Experimental and Numerical Analysis Study on the Structural Performance of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete(AAC) Wall Slab%蒸压加气混凝土墙板结构性能的试验与有限元理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲秀姝; 陈志华; 孙国军

    2012-01-01

    Four autoclaved aerated concrete(AAC) wall slabs with special truss model designed were prepared for studying their structural performance. The related loading and displacement of the three inspection stages, which are short-term deflection, outgoing and bearing capacity, were obtained. The load-displacement curves of wall slabs were plotted. The failure mode of the designed slab was shown to be bending shear failure mode especially bending failure. Then, the experimental result was analyzed by using the finite element software to obtain the steel bar stress. The simulated results are basically in agreement with those from experimental. Both the simulated and experimental results indicate that the mechanical properties of design autoclaved aerated concrete wall slab with special truss model are in accordance with relevant specifications. The average experimental value and numerical analysis value of bearing capacity reliable coefficient of AAC wall slab are 1. 968 and 1.911, respectively. The conclusions presented in this paper can be a reference for later analysis in scopes of research and design and engineering applications.%对设计配筋形式的4块蒸压加气混凝土(AAC)墙板进行结构性能试验研究,测定了其短期挠度检验、出厂检验、承载力检验这3个阶段的相关荷载和位移;绘制了试验过程中板材的荷载-挠度的变化曲线;得到了设计配筋形式AAC墙板以弯曲破坏为主的弯剪破坏模式.利用有限元软件对试验板材进行模拟,分析板材承载力的有限元结果,发现用有限元计算的钢筋应力大小与试验结果基本吻合.结果表明,该配筋形式AAC墙板的各项力学性能指标均符合相关规程的规定,且承载力可靠系数的试验平均值和数值计算值分别为1.968和1.911.研究成果有助于该板材的设计与推广应用.

  20. 压热法结合反复冻融制备小麦抗性淀粉及其理化性质研究%Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Resistant Starch by Autoclave Method Combined with Repeated Freezing and Melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪娟; 刘丽斌; 黄继红; 王娟

    2013-01-01

    The autoclave method combined with repeated freezing and melting for preparation of wheat resistant starch was studied. And the physicochemical and structure properties of wheat resistant starch were investigated. The results showed that after freezing and melting treatment for 6 times, the content of wheat resistant starch reached the highest (18.31%). The water-holding ability, solubility and swelling capacity were influenced by the times of freezing and melting treatment.%以小麦淀粉为原料,利用压热法制备抗性淀粉,再经过反复冻融,以期提高产品的抗性淀粉含量.对产品的颗粒形貌、碘吸收曲线、持水力、膨胀度、溶解度等理化性质进行了测定.结果表明,反复冻融次数为6次时得到的小麦抗性淀粉含量最高,为18.31%,经过反复冻融处理的小麦抗性淀粉,颗粒呈不规则形,且在碘吸收曲线中稍微偏向直链淀粉吸收峰,表明其可能含有较多的直链淀粉.与小麦原淀粉相比,经反复冻融处理的小麦抗性淀粉的持水力与膨胀度显著增加,而溶解度显著降低.

  1. Effect of Active Mineral on Load-Bearing Autoclaved Aerocrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭苏萍; 王立刚

    2001-01-01

    Influence of ultrafine active mineral (DK mineral) on mechanical property of fly ash based load-bearing aerocrete was analyzed. The result shows that the addition of DK mineral in a suitable amount can enhance obviously the compressive strength of aerocrete. According to the SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction analyses, the crystal shapes of hydration products are well developed and interlocked for samples containing DK mineral. Its microstructure is denser than that of the samples without DK mineral. Having a good activation, the DK mineral makes both the type and the quantity of hydrated products be obviously superior to that of the contrast sample.

  2. Medical waste autoclaves: not just a lot of hot air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowicz, G R

    1998-04-01

    Over the past ten years, the treatment of medical waste has received much attention. During this time, an entire new industry to develop "alternate medical waste treatment technologies" has emerged. Much of this has been in response to increasingly stringent air quality standards along with public sentiment opposed to incineration, with a resultant decline in the use of on-site medical waste incinerators. However, in between incinerators and alternative treatment systems is a technology that is as much a part of American healthcare as hospitals themselves. Medical waste regulation in all fifty states recognize steam sterilization as an acceptable method of treatment prior to disposal. Within this category of medical waste treatment technology, there is a wide array of systems available, many of which have altered the basic, simple principles of steam treatment to make it more conducive to this application. This Professional Development Series reviews some the basic and newer innovative techniques of steam treatment of medical waste.

  3. Investigation on autoclaved fly-ash brick production technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZouJi

    2005-01-01

    The article through analyzing the raw material properties and the production process of the autociaved fly-ash building products, and every kinds of influencing factor on products quantity ,investigated the optimum parameter, such as optimum steam curingtechnique level, has got good expansion meaning.system etc, and indicated that the production line has high technique level, has got good expansion meaning.

  4. No-Oven, No-Autoclave, Composite Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large, single-piece composite structures for NASA launch vehicles are currently very expensive or impossible to fabricate partly because of the capital (ovens,...

  5. Generating Autoclave-Level Mechanical Properties with Out-of-Autoclave Thermoplastic Placement of Large Composite Aerospace Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While in the 1970's and 1980's, composites were adopted for aerospace structure for increased performance and weight savings, the 1990's and 2000's witnessed the...

  6. Effect of Waterproofing Agent B and Curing Temperature on Properties of the Burning-free, Autoclave Curing-free and Non-cement Building Bricks Made from Iron Tailings%防水剂B和养护温度对铁尾矿三免砖性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐民主; 雷国元; 宋均平; 罗文斌; 谭青; 李瑞杰

    2015-01-01

    Burning-free,autoclave curing-free and non-cement building bricks( three-free for short) were prepared with the fine low-silica iron ore tailing and the self-made non-cement curing agent as the raw material. The effect of the content of waterproofing agent B and curing temperature on the properties of the products such as the compressive strength,water resist-ance,frost resistance and anti-carbonization,and also its mechanisms were studied. The results showed that with the dosage of waterproofing agent B increase,compressive strength and 24 h water absorption of products decreased while saturated compres-sive strength and softening coefficient are increased first and then decreased. With the increase of initial curing temperature, water resistance,frost resistance and compressive strength in every curing time are improved significantly. According to the mechanism analysis by XRD and FI-TR,the results show that hydrated calcium silicate gel and ettringite are strength binder phase of three-free bricks. Meanwhile,the addition of waterproofing agent B does not affect the composition of binding phase. The increase of initial curing temperature and the addition of waterproofing agent B can inhibit the carbonation reaction within products and improve water resistance. The results of theoretical analysis can explain the effect of curing temperature and water-proofing agent B on performance of the products. It provides theory basis for the high-effect waterproofing agent and the optimi-zation of the curing conditions.%以某细粒低硅铁尾矿和无水泥固化剂为原料,制备免烧免蒸免水泥建材砖(简称“三免砖”)。研究了防水剂B和养护温度对制品抗压强度、耐水性和抗冻性的影响及其机制。试验结果表明:随着防水剂B掺量的增加,制品的干抗压强度和24 h吸水率均下降,饱和抗压强度和软化系数均先升后降;随着初期养护温度的升高,制品的耐水性、抗冻性和各龄期

  7. SELECTION AND OPTIMIZATION OF COMPOSITION OF NON-AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE MIXTURE FOR CONDITIONS IN VIETNAM / ПОДБОР И ОПТИМИЗАЦИЯ СОСТАВА НЕАВТОКЛАВНОГО ГАЗОБЕТОНА ДЛЯ УСЛОВИЙ ВЬЕТНАМА

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguen Tkhan′ Tuan / Нгуен Тхань Туан

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the selection and optimization of composition of gas-concrete mixture with additives that is produced in Vietnam. The authors carry out the studies to identify and compare the properties of autoclaved aerated concrete and non-autoclaved curing when adding metakaolin, silica fume and rice husk in the amount of 7 % into the mixture. It was found that gas concrete, which contains highly active metakaolin, shows the best properties / Приводятся результаты подбора и оптимизации состава газобетонной смеси с добавками, которые производятся во Вьетнаме. Были проведены исследования по определению и сравнению свойств газобетона автоклавного и неавтоклавного твердения при введении в смесь метакаолинита, микрокремнезема и рисовой шелухи в количестве 7 %. Установлено, что газобетон, имеющий в своем составе высокоактивный метакаолинит, показывает лучшие свойства

  8. Strength development, hydration reaction and pore structure of autoclaved slag cement with added silica fume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Y. [China Building Materials Academy, Beijing (China); Siemer, D.D. [LITCO, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scheetz, B.E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Materials Research Lab.

    1997-01-01

    Under continuous hydrothermal treatment the strength of portland cement paste decreases with curing time and the pore structure coarsens. It was found in this study that the compressive strength of slag cement paste containing 67.5 wt.% ggbfs also decreases with time after 24 hour hydrothermal processing, but with a small addition of silica fume to the slag cement, the cement strength increases and the pore structure densifies when processed under comparable conditions. Based on observations XRD and SEM, these changes are attributed to: (1) changes in the hydration reactions and products by highly reactive silica fume, such that amorphous products dominate and the strength reducing phase {alpha}-C{sub 2}SH does not form; (2) slower hydration of slag, partially caused by the decreased pH of the pore solution, favors the formation of a dense pore structure; and (3) the space filling properties of the micro particles of silica fume.

  9. Microcrack Resistant Matrix Materials for Out-of-Autoclave Processing of Composite Cryogenic Tanks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is keen on advancing technologies for lightweight composite cryotanks for heavy lift vehicles for future NASA missions. Two primary challenges must be overcome...

  10. Gamma-ray irradiation, autoclave and ethylene oxide sterilization to thermosetting polyurethane: sterilization to polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermosetting polyurethane (PU) is widely used in a large variety of medical devices. 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) was produced from PU by sterilization and it was studied for the relationship between urethane components or polymer characteristics and formation of MDA upon sterilization, using the commercially available dialyzers fabricated with different combination of isocyanate and polyol. We confirmed that the molecular-weight of polyol influenced the production of MDA upon sterilization. (author)

  11. Qualification of autoclave%湿热灭菌设备的确认

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏雨

    2013-01-01

    根据湿热灭菌原理,针对制药行业目前所用湿热灭菌设备,参考2010版GMP,明确设备DQ/IQ/OQ/PQ确认要点,对确认工作的细节问题提出看法和建议.确认的目的 是使设备选型合理、运行稳定、性能可靠,灭菌物品得到充分无菌保证.

  12. Settlement determination of operating moisture of autoclaved aerated concrete in different climatic zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastushkov Pavel Pavlovich

    Full Text Available In the process of operation of buildings the moisture state of enveloping structures materials is changing depending on their construction features, properties of the material, temperature and moisture conditions in the premises, climatic conditions of the construction area. Moisture mode determines the operational properties of the enveloping structures of a building. It directly influences the thermal characteristics of enveloping structure and energy efficiency of the applied materials. The analysis of the methods for calculation of moisture behavior of enclosing structures is carried out. The research relevance of operational moisture of AAC is substantiated. Experimental studies and results of the sorption moisturizing and water vapor permeability of leading marks of aerated concrete are carried out. The authors offer the results of numerical calculations of the moisture behavior of aerated concrete in the walls with mark D400 with facade thermal insulation composite systems - with external plaster layers for different climatic zones of construction.

  13. Autoclaving and clinical recycling: Effects on mechanical properties of orthodontic wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Oshagh

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Although recycle wires were softer than those of control group, relatively small differences and also various properties of available wires have obscured the clinical predictability of their application. There is seemingly no problem in terms of mechanical properties to recycle orthodontic wires.

  14. Autoclaved reactive powder concrete: the effects of steel micro-fibers and silica fume dosage on the mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Beglarigale, Ahsanollah; Yalçınkaya, Çağlar; Halit Yazıcı

    2014-01-01

    Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) is a type of ultra-high performance cement based composite with high strength and ductility. RPC was developed in the 1990s by Bouygues' laboratory in France. It is a special type of concrete which has properly optimized micro grain, binder phase and steel micro-fibers. RPC can achieve compressive strength values between 150–800 MPa, while traditional concrete which is used in current structures usually has 20–50 MPa compressive strength. In addition, its h...

  15. An Investigation of Stimulating the Autoclave Curing Process of Resin Matrix/Fiber Reinforced Composite Material,Ⅰ: Process model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model is made which describes the curing process of composites constructed from continuous fiber-reinforced, thermosetting resin matrix prepreg materials, and the consolidation of the composite is developed. The model provides the variation of temperature distribution, the cure reaction process in the resin, the resin flow and fibers stress inside the composite, and the void variation and the residual stress distribution. It can be used to illustrate the mechanism of curing process and optimize the cure cycle of composite material in order to ensure the quality of a product.

  16. 铸造旧砂蒸压砖的研制%Development of Autoclaved Bricks from Waste Foundry Sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑莹; 杨家宽; 段光福; 肖波; 肖明丹

    2007-01-01

    以铸造旧砂和粉煤灰、石硝为主要原料,添加一定量的消石灰和复合外加剂,经轮碾、压制、蒸压等工序所制备的蒸压砖的质量符合GB11945-1999中MU15要求,放射性核素符合GB6566-2001中建筑主体材料要求,碳化系数和干燥收缩值符合JC 239-2001粉煤灰砖要求.对铸造旧砂、粉煤灰和铸造旧砂蒸压砖样品的浸出毒性监测结果表明,所有危险物质浓度均低于GB5085.3-1996中最高允许浓度.通过SEM和XRD分析对铸造旧砂蒸压砖强度形成机理进行了探讨.铸造旧砂蒸压砖价格会比普通灰砂砖低,将会具有较好的市场前景.

  17. Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites and Methods of Making Same Without the Use of Oven or Autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnell, Thomas J. (Inventor); Rauscher, Michael D. (Inventor); Stienecker, Rick D. (Inventor); Nickerson, David M. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Method embodiments for producing a fiber-reinforced epoxy composite comprise providing a mold defining a shape for a composite, applying a fiber reinforcement over the mold, covering the mold and fiber reinforcement thereon in a vacuum enclosure, performing a vacuum on the vacuum enclosure to produce a pressure gradient, insulating at least a portion of the vacuum enclosure with thermal insulation, infusing the fiber reinforcement with a reactive mixture of uncured epoxy resin and curing agent under vacuum conditions, wherein the reactive mixture of uncured epoxy resin and curing agent generates exothermic heat, and producing the fiber-reinforced epoxy composite having a glass transition temperature of at least about 100.degree. C. by curing the fiber reinforcement infused with the reactive mixture of uncured epoxy resin and curing agent by utilizing the exothermically generated heat, wherein the curing is conducted inside the thermally insulated vacuum enclosure without utilization of an external heat source or an external radiation source.

  18. Spring-back simulation of unidirectional carbon/epoxy L- shaped laminate composites manufactured through autoclave processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Mezeix, L.; Aminanda, Y.; Seman, M. A.; Rivai, A.; Ali, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an original method in predicting the spring-back for composite aircraft structures using non-linear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and is an extension of the previous accompanying study on flat geometry samples. Firstly, unidirectional prepreg lay-up samples are fabricated on moulds with different corner angles (30°, 45° and 90°) and the effect on spring-back deformation are observed. Then, the FEA model that was developed in the previous study on flat samples is utilized. The model maintains the physical mechanisms of spring-back such as ply stretching and tool-part interface properties with the additional mechanism in the corner effect and geometrical changes in the tool, part and the tool-part interface components. The comparative study between the experimental data and FEA results show that the FEA model predicts adequately the spring-back deformation within the range of corner angle tested.

  19. Reformulating Polycaprolactone Fumarate to Eliminate Toxic Diethylene Glycol: Effects of Polymeric Branching and Autoclave Sterilization on Material Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Runge, M. Brett; Wang, Huan; Spinner, Robert J.; Windebank, Anthony J.; Yaszemski, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Polycaprolactone fumarate (PCLF) is a cross-linkable derivate of polycaprolactone diol that has been shown to be an effective nerve conduit material that supports regeneration across segmental nerve defects and has warranted future clinical trials. Degradation of the previously studied PCLF (PCLFDEG) releases toxic small molecules of diethylene glycol used as the initiator for the synthesis of polycaprolactone diol. In an effort to eliminate this toxic degradation product we present a strateg...

  20. Direct Synthesis of Fe3C-Functionalized Graphene by High Temperature Autoclave Pyrolysis for Oxygen Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei;

    2014-01-01

    as an electrocatalyst, the graphene-based composite exhibited excellent catalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solution with an onset potential of ca. 1.05 V (vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode) and a half-wave potential of 0.83 V, which is comparable to the commercial Pt/C catalyst....

  1. 粉煤灰聚合物的制备与性能分析%Manufacture and property research on unburned and non- autoclaved fly ash geopolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏辉; 郑茂盛; 王攀

    2011-01-01

    以粉煤灰为主要原料,用正交试验法探讨砂子、水泥、白灰掺量对粉煤灰地质聚合物强度的影响.采用适当的配比,其28d后抗折强度达到5.28MPa,抗压强度达到27.49MPa,可以应用于建筑的承重墙及其它承重建筑.%The fly ash were used as principal materials, the effects of the amount of the standard sand, cement and lime on the strength of geopolymers are studied by orthogonal test in the paper. The strength resuits of orthogonal test show that the flexural strength is 5.84MPa and compressive strength is 39.58MPa.It can be used in building load - bearing walls and other load - bearing construction.

  2. 低硅尾矿制备蒸压砖的研究%Preparation of autoclaved brick with low-silicon content tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建波; 赵连生; 曹素改; 张志国; 邓景明; 王学武

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1 前言 随着人类对矿产资源的不断开采,尾矿排放量与日俱增.尾矿的堆积容易引发地质灾害,造成大气、土壤和地下水污染,甚至引起生态破坏.尾矿溃坝和环境污染事件频发.因此,以低成本安全处置尾矿或使其资源化是人们追求的目标.

  3. Shear Bond Strengths between Three Different Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Dental Materials and Veneering Ceramic and Their Susceptibility to Autoclave Induced Low-Temperature Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Manoti; Bhargava, Akshay; Gupta, Sharad; Gupta, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment as influencing the shear bond strength between three different commercially available zirconia core materials, namely, Upcera, Ziecon, and Cercon, layered with VITA VM9 veneering ceramic using Universal Testing Machine. The mode of failure between zirconia and ceramic was further analyzed as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed using stereomicroscope. X-ray diffraction and SEM (scanning electron microscope) analysis were done to estimate the phase transformation (m-phase fraction) and surface grain size of zirconia particles, respectively. The purpose of this study was to simulate the clinical environment by artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment so as the clinical function and nature of the bond between zirconia and veneering material as in a clinical trial of 15 years could be evaluated. PMID:27293439

  4. Shear Bond Strengths between Three Different Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Dental Materials and Veneering Ceramic and Their Susceptibility to Autoclave Induced Low-Temperature Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Manoti Sehgal; Akshay Bhargava; Sharad Gupta; Prateek Gupta

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment as influencing the shear bond strength between three different commercially available zirconia core materials, namely, Upcera, Ziecon, and Cercon, layered with VITA VM9 veneering ceramic using Universal Testing Machine. The mode of failure between zirconia and ceramic was further analyzed as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed using stereomicroscope. X-ray diffraction and SEM (scanning electron micr...

  5. 压煮器料浆不凝性气体排放探讨%Discussion on discharge of noncondensable gas from feed pulp in autoclave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵清法

    2002-01-01

    本文分析了氧化铝生产中间接加热压煮器料浆不凝性气体产生的原因、危害及排放方法,提出连续排放和间断排放相结合是保证压煮器料浆不凝性气体安全、彻底排出的最佳方案.

  6. Shear Bond Strengths between Three Different Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Dental Materials and Veneering Ceramic and Their Susceptibility to Autoclave Induced Low-Temperature Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Manoti; Bhargava, Akshay; Gupta, Sharad; Gupta, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment as influencing the shear bond strength between three different commercially available zirconia core materials, namely, Upcera, Ziecon, and Cercon, layered with VITA VM9 veneering ceramic using Universal Testing Machine. The mode of failure between zirconia and ceramic was further analyzed as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed using stereomicroscope. X-ray diffraction and SEM (scanning electron microscope) analysis were done to estimate the phase transformation (m-phase fraction) and surface grain size of zirconia particles, respectively. The purpose of this study was to simulate the clinical environment by artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment so as the clinical function and nature of the bond between zirconia and veneering material as in a clinical trial of 15 years could be evaluated. PMID:27293439

  7. PERUBAHAN STRUKTUR PATI GARUT (Maranta arundinaceae SEBAGAI AKIBAT MODIFIKASI HIDROLISIS ASAM, PEMOTONGAN TITIK PERCABANGAN DAN SIKLUS PEMANASAN-PENDINGINAN [Structure Changes of Arrowroot (Maranta arundinaceae Starch as Influenced by Acid Hydrolysis, Debranching and Autoclaving-Cooling Cycle Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didah Nur Faridah1*

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of lintnerization (2.2 N HCl, 2 hours, debranching with pullulanase (1.3 U/g and 10.4 U/g starch and/or three-auctoclaving-cooling cycles at 121oC for 15 minutes on the changes of arrowroot starch structures were studied. The structural modifications of amylose and amylopectin were measured by Gel Permiation Chromatography (GPC, and the distribution of degree of polimerization (DP was analyzed by Fluorophore-Assisted Capillary Electrophoresis (FACE. The GPC profile of native starch using Toyopearl HW-65S gel gave mainly two fractions. Fraction I (Fr. I was a high molecular weight component and Fraction II (Fr. II was a low molecular weight component. After acid modification, the carbohydrate content of Fr. II increased while that of Fr. I decreased. The amount of DP of 6 to 8 increased in all modified arrowroot starches. The GPC and FACE analyses showed that all starch modification techniques caused the structural changes of amylopectin molecules to form short chain amyloses.

  8. Application Research on Phosphogypsum in Cement and Autoclaved Silicate Products%磷石膏在水泥及蒸压硅酸盐制品中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆金驰; 李忠尧

    2011-01-01

    工业副产品磷石膏直接用作水泥缓凝剂会使水泥的凝结时间延长,强度降低.通过改性后的磷石膏具有调节水泥凝结时间、提高水泥强度的性能,能代替天然石膏用作水泥缓凝剂.改性后的磷石膏还可代替天然石膏用于蒸压硅酸盐制品,增强蒸压硅酸盐制品的强度.对蒸压制品进行了XRD、SEM分析,结果表明,掺改性磷石膏的蒸压制品形成了更多的水化产物,并拥有更致密的结构.

  9. 加压釜搅拌槽气液两相流动的数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Agitator Tank of Autoclave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦飞; 毛静; 张连凯

    2012-01-01

    The numerical simulation on gas-liquid two - phase flow and mix in the agitation tank of the existing agitator and the optimized agitator in a smelting plant were carried out by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software Fluent, in which the velocity distribution, local gas volume fraction and agitation power in the agitation tank of two kinds of agitators were contrasted. The calculation results show that the stirring and mixing effects and gas diffusion of the optimized agitator are superior to those of the existing agitator, and the agitation power basically remains unchanged.%利用计算流体力学(CFD)软件Hluent,对某冶炼厂现有搅拌器和优化后搅拌器搅拌槽内的气液两相流动和混合进行了数值模拟,对比了两种搅拌器搅拌槽内的速度分布、局部气含率和搅拌功率.计算结果表明,优化后的搅拌器搅拌混合效果和气体分散优于现有搅拌器,且搅拌功率基本不变.

  10. Recovery of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons from Oil Field Sludge using Bacillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ahmed Bhutto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of aliphatic HC (Hydrocarbons in the oily sludge of Kunnar oil and gas field, Pakistan was attempted by means of previously isolated and developed Bacillus sp. Both autoclaved and non-autoclaved sludge samples were analyzed for a reaction time of 30 days with pH 7 and temperature of 380C in 50 ml MSM growth media for the sludge concentration of 5, 10 and 50% with 2, 4 and 6ml of Bacillus sp. relatively, in air atmosphere. Stabilization of the samples by microbial activity resulted in the decrease in TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon concentration by 60, 69 and 87% in autoclaved samples in contrast to the decrease of 70, 84 and 94% observed in non-autoclaved samples, relatively. Hydrocarbon degradation in oily sludge was investigated via GC which transpired that 97 and 99% concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons in autoclaved and non-autoclaved samples was removed at 5% of TPH concentration, relatively. However, with 10% TPH concentration aliphatic hydrocarbons reduction was 68% in autoclaved samples to that of 87% in non-autoclaved samples. Further increase in the hydrocarbons concentration by 50% yielded in the removal of aliphatic hydrocarbons by 65% in autoclaved samples as compared to 98% decrease in non-autoclaved samples.

  11. Microstructure and Component of Abnormal Blue Oxide Film of Zr-4 Tube by Electron-beam Welding after Autoclave Testing%电子束焊接Zr-4合金管在腐蚀工况下产生异常蓝色氧化膜的微观成分和结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白新德; 刘晓阳; 安锦; 金兆熊; 陈宝山; 伍志明; 刘芳言; 童慎修

    2003-01-01

    针对电子束焊接后的Zr-4合金管在腐蚀工况下出现的异常蓝色环状氧化膜,使用XPS,EDX,TEM等分析手段研究了异常氧化膜和正常氧化膜的微观成分和结构.结果表明:正常氧化膜是透明的,异常蓝色氧化膜剥落后,也是透明的;异常蓝色氧化膜中Fe含量明显高于正常氧化膜中的Fe含量;Fe在氧化膜中主要是以氧化物Fe2O3的形式存在,Sn与Zr以SnO2,ZrO2的形式存在.

  12. 蒸压灰砂砖砌体砂浆与块体强度最优组合试验研究%Experimental research on the best combination of the brick strength with mortar for autoclaved sand-lime brick masonry building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中脊; 杨伟军

    2007-01-01

    在进行蒸压灰砂砖砌体基本力学性能试验研究时,通过蒸压灰砂砖砌体的材料性能试验(包括砂浆立方砌体抗压强度试验、蒸压灰砂砖抗压强度及抗折强度试验)、蒸压灰砂砖砌体抗压强度试验、蒸压灰砂砖砌体抗剪强度试验、蒸压灰砂砖砌体弯曲抗拉强度试验(分为蒸压灰砂砖砌体沿通逢弯曲抗拉强度试验、蒸压灰砂砖砌体沿齿逢弯曲抗拉强度试验)后,根据试验数据进行计算,发现蒸压灰砂砖砌体的抗剪强度、弯曲抗拉强度试验结果都存在一个反常现象。通过对试验结果进行分析研究发现蒸压灰砂砖砌体的砂浆与块体强度存在最优组合规律。

  13. 27周龄Wistar大鼠饮用酸化水生物学特性的观察Ⅰ.血液学指标的测定%Observation of Long-term Drinking Autoclaved Water Treated with Acid on Biological Characteristics in 27-week-old Wistar Rat I.Determination of Blood Indexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建康; 艾必燕; 樵星芳; 黄家政

    2010-01-01

    目的 建立27周龄Wistar大鼠生物学特性数据资料库,同时判断实验动物饮用酸化水后对实验结果 是否有影响.方法 随机选取0日龄的Wistar大鼠48只(♀♂各半),饲养在SPF级饲养设施内,饮用高压灭菌酸化水(pH值调节在2.0~3.0)27 w后处死,测定血液生理、生化指标.结果 从血液生理指标看出,雄性实验组与对照组比较,除MCHC差异显著外(P<0.05),其他指标不存在差异性;雌性实验组与对照组比较,除THC差异显著外(P<0.05),其他指标不存在差异性.从血液生化指标得出,雄性实验组与对照组比较,除TP差异显著(P<0.05),其他指标不存在差异性;雌性实验组与对照组比较,除ALT、TG差异显著外(P<0.05),其他指标不存在差异性.结论 从结果 中可以得出实验动物在饮用酸化水(PH=2.0~3.0)后对大多数血液学指标实验结果 没有明显影响,至于个别指标的差异性是否由酸化水引起,需要进一步论证.

  14. Effect of sterilization on the physical stability of brimonidine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salamouni, Noha S; Farid, Ragwa M; El-Kamel, Amal H; El-Gamal, Safaa S

    2015-12-30

    Nanoparticulate delivery systems have recently been under consideration for topical ophthalmic drug delivery. Brimonidine base-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carrier formulations were prepared using glyceryl monostearate as solid lipid and were evaluated for their physical stability following sterilization by autoclaving at 121°C for 15min. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of autoclaving on the physical appearance, particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and particle morphology of the prepared formulations, compared to non-autoclaved ones. Results showed that, autoclaving at 121°C for 15min allowed the production of physically stable formulations in nanometric range, below 500nm suitable for ophthalmic application. Moreover, the autoclaved samples appeared to be superior to non-autoclaved ones, due to their increased zeta potential values, indicating a better physical stability. As well as, increased amount of brimonidine base entrapped in the tested formulations.

  15. Insitu measurement and control of processing properties of composite resins in a production tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranbuehl, D.; Hoff, M.; Haverty, P.; Loos, A.; Freeman, T.

    1988-01-01

    An in situ measuring technique for use in automated composite processing and quality control is discussed. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensors are used to measure processing parameters at four ply positions inside a thick section 192-ply graphite-epoxy composite during cure in an 8 x 4 in. autoclave. Viscosity measurements obtained using the sensors are compared with the viscosities calculated using the Loos-Springer cure process model. Good overall agreement is obtained. In a subsequent autoclave run, the output from the four sensors was used to control the autoclave temperature. Using the 'closed loop' sensor controlled autoclave temperature resulted in a more uniform and more rapid cure cycle.

  16. Heated Thermoplastic Fiber Placement Head for NASA Langley Research Center Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reduced mass composite materials are crucial to the success of aerospace systems, but are inhibited by expensive autoclave consolidation, especially for large...

  17. Radioimmunological determination of native and heat denaturated protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, E.J.; Glatz, F.

    1981-01-01

    Precipitation radioimmunoassay, solid phase radioimmunoassay and passive hemagglutination were examined for their efficiency in the determination of native or denaturated soy proteins. Native as well as autoclaved soy protein could be determined quantitatively in the precipitation radioimmunoassay, using antisera directed against the native product. In the solid phase technique only the autoclaved soy protein could be detected with high sensitivity. In the passive hemagglutination reaction, no agglutination could be observed with erythrocytes coated with autoclaved soy protein. Only antisera against the denaturated (autoclaved) soy protein agglutinated these erythrocytes.

  18. Effect of different post-harvest treatments on antinutritional factors in seeds of the tribal pulse, Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumari, K; Siddhuraju, P; Janardhanan, K

    1996-05-01

    The effect of soaking, cooking and autoclaving on the levels of certain antinutritional factors present in the tribal pulse, Mucuna pruriens, were studied. The amount of reduction of total free phenolics was found to be greater in sodium bicarbonate solution (56%) compared to distilled water (47%); subjected to cooking and autoclaving these were further reduced to 49%. Autoclaving (45 min) significantly reduced the tannin content (71%). Insignificant reduction in content of L-DOPA was observed in all the processes. Distilled water soaking was found to be ineffective in eliminating lectin activity; whereas very significant reduction was noticed against all the human blood groups ABO without any specificity in samples subjected to cooking and autoclaving. Soaking in distilled water was more effective (27% reduction) than sodium bicarbonate solution (17% reduction) in lowering the contents of phytic acid. Cooking for 90 min and autoclaving for 45 min resulted in eliminating phytic acid to the extent of 18% and 44%, respectively. Loss of HCN was greater under autoclaving (75%) than the other processes studied. Of the three oligosaccharides analysed, soaking effected maximum reduction in the level of stachyose followed by verbascose and raffinose. Autoclaving effected greater reduction (59-81%) compared to ordinary cooking (40-60% reduction). Of all the different treatments studied, autoclaving seemed to be the best method in eliminating the investigated antinutrients more efficiently except L-DOPA. PMID:8735780

  19. Elimination of toxicity from diets containing alfalfa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; McLaughlin, P; Bardana, E J; Craig, S

    1984-07-01

    Cynomolgus macaques were fed autoclaved alfalfa seeds for up to 1 yr. There were no humoral signs of a syndrome resembling systemic lupus erythematosus. The data are in contrast to those previously reported in monkeys fed raw alfalfa seeds, in which a systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome was induced in a shorter interval. The autoclaved seeds retained antihypercholesterolaemic effects. PMID:6540232

  20. Perspective technologies of complex reprocessing of molybdenite concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with a new investigations of autoclave technology. Utilization of one of the most important properties of molybdenite - its high hydropholy-enabled an improvement of specific autoclave leaching output, ensuring a high level of extraction. A possibility to limit direct molybdenum extraction by 70-80% which reduce leaching time 2-4 times

  1. Mossbauer investigations of corrosion environment influence on Fe valence states in oxide films of zirconium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippov, V. P.; Petrov, V. I.; Shikanova, Yu. A.

    2006-01-01

    Mossbauer investigations about iron atom redistribution in oxide films of zirconium alloys subjected to corrosion at 500 degrees C in pure oxygen and water pair have been analysed. The alloys were also subjected to autoclave conditions at a pressure of 10.0 MPa and autoclave conditions at 350 degree

  2. [Broad beans (Vicia fava, L.) as an alternative source of protein in chick diets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezares, A; Cuca, M; Avila, E; Velásquez, C

    1980-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the possibility of improving the nutritive value of broad beans (Vicia faba, L.) in poultry diets. In the first experiment, raw and autoclaved (1.0 kg/cm2/15 min) beans, with and without antibiotic supplementation, were studied. The results after 21 days showed no significant differences among treatments in regard to body weight. In feed conversion, however, a significant difference was observed when diets prepared with raw beans were supplemented with 20 ppm of flavomycin. In the second experiment raw and autoclaved beans were supplemented with 0, 10, and 20 ppm of virginiamycin and 200 and 400 ppm of flavomycin to study the effect of these two antibiotics. After 28 days, the results indicated no significant differences with antibiotic supplementation in either raw or autoclaved beans. However, a significant difference (P < 0.05) in body weight was found when beans were autoclaved. In the third experiment, two levels, 31 and 76% of raw and autoclaved beans, were included in the chick diets. The results in body weight, after 28 days, did not show any significant differences between raw and autoclaved beans fed at a 31% level. With the 76% level the autoclaved treatment, however, induced a significantly higher body weight than the diets containing raw beans. PMID:7447590

  3. Method of continuous pressure leaching of ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ore leaching, especially suspensions of ground ore or fine ore fractions from physical treatment was divided into two operations. The former, i.e., ore mixing with technical grade concentrated sulfuric acid proceeded in a separate mixer. The mixture was then transported into an autoclave where the actual leaching proceeded for 2 to 4 hours. The extracted mixture was discharged through the autoclave bottom. The leaching autoclave used can be without any inner structures. The separation of mixing from the actual leaching allows processing ores with high levels of clay components, increasing operating reliability of the facility, reducing consumption of special structural materials and energy, and increasing process efficiency. (E.S.)

  4. NONA Cure of Prepreg Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CRG's no-oven, no-autoclave (NONA) composite processing technology enables the fabrication of high-performance composite parts without the limitations imposed by...

  5. Examining the Potential of Plasma-Assisted Pretreated Wheat Straw for Enzyme Production by Trichoderma reesei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja;

    2012-01-01

    Plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw was investigated for cellulase and xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei fermentation. Fermentations were conducted with media containing washed and unwashed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw as carbon source which was sterilized by autoclavation...

  6. 9 CFR 147.9 - Standard test procedures for avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Incubator or airtight container for room temperature (approximately 25 °C) incubations. (iv) Autoclave. (v... room temperature (approximately 25 °C) in a closed chamber to prevent evaporation. Humidity should...

  7. Optimal Composite Materials using NASA Resins or POSS Nanoparticle Modifications for Low Cost Fabrication of Large Composite Aerospace Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reduced mass composite materials are crucial to the success of aerospace systems, but their adoption is inhibited because they require autoclave consolidation, a...

  8. Improving the vacuum-infusion process to manufacture high quality structural composite for the aeronautic market

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Luís; Nunes, J. P.; F. Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    In last years, the vacuum-infusion processing method is being replacing successfully autoclave technologies to manufacture advanced composite structures, namely, the carbon-fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) ones, for aeronautical and aerospace applications. The high investment associated with autoclave “prepreg” manufacturing has prompted interest in the use of alternative vacuum-infusion technologies that proven to be much more cost-effective processing methods. The present work presents, desc...

  9. ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HYDROTHERMALLY CURED HIGH STRENGTH CEMENT MATRIX FOR TEXTILE REINFORCED CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    Ondřej Holčapek; Filip Vogel; Petr Konvalinka

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to describe the influence of hydrothermal curing conditions in an autoclave device (different pressure and temperature), which took place at various ages of a fresh mixture (cement matrix – CM, and fibre-reinforced cement matrix – FRCM), on textile reinforced concrete production. The positive influence of autoclaving has been evaluated through the results of physical and mechanical testing – compressive strength, flexural strength, bulk density and dynami...

  10. Decontamination of laryngoscopes: a survey of national practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, M D; Baines, L C; Wilkinson, D J; Langford, R M

    1999-06-01

    We conducted a postal questionnaire to survey methods of laryngoscope cleaning in units throughout Great Britain. We found that there was great variation in practice. Most units autoclave laryngoscope blades at some time, but less than one-quarter do so between each case. A wide range of methods is used to clean the blade in units where autoclaving was not undertaken. Most units had no guidelines relating to laryngoscope treatment between uses. PMID:10403875

  11. Humidity and Cage and Bedding Temperatures in Unoccupied Static Mouse Caging after Steam Sterilization

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Gina M; Cole, Kelly; Faerber, Jennifer; Hankenson, F Claire

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary rodent caging and equipment often are sterilized by steam autoclaves prior to use in facilities. This work assessed the microenvironment of unoccupied static mouse cages after steam sterilization to determine when internal temperatures had cooled to levels appropriate for rodent housing. Polycarbonate static cages containing food and corncob bedding were stacked (10 rows × 7 columns) in duplicate (front and back; n = 140 cages) on a storage truck and autoclaved to 249 °F (121 °C)...

  12. Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F N; Htoo, J K; Thomson, J; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate if adjustments in diet formulations either based on total analysed amino acids or standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids may be used to eliminate negative effects of including heat-damaged soybean meal (SBM) or heat-damaged corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, four corn-SBM diets were formulated. Diet 1 contained non-autoclaved SBM (315 g/kg), and this diet was formulated on the basis of analysed amino acid concentrations and using SID values from the AminoDat® 4.0 database. Diet 2 was similar to Diet 1 in terms of ingredient composition, except that the non-autoclaved SBM was replaced by autoclaved SBM at 1 : 1 (weight basis). Diet 3 was formulated using autoclaved SBM and amino acid inclusions in the diet were adjusted on the basis of analysed total amino acid concentrations in the autoclaved SBM and published SID values for non-autoclaved SBM (AminoDat® 4.0). Diet 4 also contained autoclaved SBM, but the formulation of this diet was adjusted on the basis of analysed amino acids in the autoclaved SBM and SID values that were adjusted according to the degree of heat damage in this source of SBM. Pigs (160; initial BW: 10.4 kg) were allotted to the four treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Diets were fed to pigs for 21 days. The gain to feed ratio (G : F) was greater (Pformulated using the concepts described for Experiment 1, except that heat-damaged DDGS, but not heat-damaged SBM, was used in the diets. Pigs fed Diet 1 had greater (Pformulation. Further research is needed to improve the prediction of the ileal digestibility of amino acids in heat-processed ingredients used in practical diet formulations.

  13. Nature, structure, and properties of asbestos cement dust

    OpenAIRE

    Baeten, J.; Helsen, J; Deruyttere, A

    1980-01-01

    ABSTRACT Total dust samples produced by machining three commercial asbestos-cement products (autoclaved sheet, non-autoclaved sheet, pipe) were examined for their dimensional, surface, and physicochemical characteristics. Microscopic inspection of dust fractions with different settling characteristics in air allowed determination of the simple dimensional features that apply to respirable fibres—that is, the true diameter, length, and aspect ratio and the coil diameter, coil length, and coil ...

  14. Destruction of Spores on Building Decontamination Residue in a Commercial Autoclave▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lemieux, P.; Sieber, R; Osborne, A; Woodard, A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted an experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercial autoclave for treating simulated building decontamination residue (BDR). The BDR was intended to simulate porous materials removed from a building deliberately contaminated with biological agents such as Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) in a terrorist attack. The purpose of the tests was to assess whether the standard operating procedure for a commercial autoclave provided sufficiently r...

  15. Comparison of Bacterial Community Structures in the Rhizoplane of Tomato Plants Grown in Soils Suppressive and Conducive towards Bacterial Wilt

    OpenAIRE

    Shiomi, Yoshitaka; Nishiyama, Masaya; Onizuka, Tomoko; Marumoto, Takuya

    1999-01-01

    It has been reported that the growth of Ralstonia solanacearum is suppressed at the rhizoplane of tomato plants and that tomato bacterial wilt is suppressed in plants grown in a soil (Mutsumi) in Japan. To evaluate the biological factors contributing to the suppressiveness of the soil in three treated Mutsumi soils (chloroform fumigated soil; autoclaved soil mixed with intact Mutsumi soil; and autoclaved soil mixed with intact, wilt-conducive Yamadai soil) infested with R. solanacearum, we bi...

  16. Model for inactivation and disposal of infectious human immunodeficiency virus and radioactive waste in a BL3 facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for autoclaving low levels of solid infectious, radioactive waste. The method permits steam penetration to inactivate biologic waste, while any volatile radioactive compounds generated during the autoclave process are absorbed. Inactivation of radiolabeled infectious waste has been problematic because the usual sterilization techniques result in unacceptable radiation handling practices. If autoclaved under the usual conditions, there exists a high probability of volatilization or release of radioisotopes from the waste. This results in the radioactive contamination of the autoclave and the laboratory area where steam is released from the autoclave. Our results provide a practical method to inactivate and dispose of infectious radioactive waste. For our research, Bacillus pumilus spore strips and vaccinia virus were used as more heat-resistant surrogates of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These surrogates were used because HIV is difficult to grow under most conditions and is less heat tolerant than the surrogates. In addition, B. pumilus has defined cell death values, whereas such values have not been established for HIV. Both B. pumilus and vaccinia virus are less hazardous to work with. The autoclave method is time efficient and can be performed by laboratory personnel with minimal handling of the waste. Furthermore, waste site handlers are able to visually inspect the solid waste containers and ascertain that inactivation procedures have been implemented

  17. Investigations of Localized Corrosion of Stainless Steel after Exposure to Supercritical CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ziomek-Moroz; W. O’Connor; S. Bullard

    2012-03-11

    Severe localized corrosion of a 316 stainless steel autoclave occurred during investigating Type H Portland cement stability in 0.16 M CaCl{sub 2} + 0.02 M MgCl{sub 2} + 0.82 M NaCl brine in contact with supercritical CO{sub 2} containing 4% O{sub 2}. The system operated at 85 C and pressure of 29 MPa. However, no corrosion was observed in the same type of autoclave being exposed to the same environment, containing Type H Portland cement cylindrical samples, also operating at pressure of 29 MPa but at 50 C. The operation time for the 85 C autoclave was 53 days (1272 hours) while that for the 50 C autoclave was 66 days (1584 hours). Debris were collected from the base of both autoclaves and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion products were only found in the debris from the 85 C autoclave. The cement samples were analyzed before and after the exposure by X-ray florescence (XRF) methods. Optical microscopy was used to estimate an extent of the 316 stainless steel corrosion degradation.

  18. Performance analysis of exam gloves used for aseptic rodent surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoine, Dana M; Bergdall, Valerie K; Freed, Carrie

    2015-05-01

    Aseptic technique includes the use of sterile surgical gloves for survival surgeries in rodents to minimize the incidence of infections. Exam gloves are much less expensive than are surgical gloves and may represent a cost-effective, readily available option for use in rodent surgery. This study examined the effectiveness of surface disinfection of exam gloves with 70% isopropyl alcohol or a solution of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid (HP-PA) in reducing bacterial contamination. Performance levels for asepsis were met when gloves were negative for bacterial contamination after surface disinfection and sham 'exertion' activity. According to these criteria, 94% of HP-PA-disinfected gloves passed, compared with 47% of alcohol-disinfected gloves. In addition, the effect of autoclaving on the integrity of exam gloves was examined, given that autoclaving is another readily available option for aseptic preparation. Performance criteria for glove integrity after autoclaving consisted of: the ability to don the gloves followed by successful simulation of wound closure and completion of stretch tests without tearing or observable defects. Using this criteria, 98% of autoclaved nitrile exam gloves and 76% of autoclaved latex exam gloves met performance expectations compared with the performance of standard surgical gloves (88% nitrile, 100% latex). The results of this study support the use of HP-PA-disinfected latex and nitrile exam gloves or autoclaved nitrile exam gloves as viable cost-effective alternatives to sterile surgical gloves for rodent surgeries.

  19. Effect of curing way on brittleness and durability of prestress high concrete pipe piles%养护制度对预应力高强度混凝土管桩脆性及耐久性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成启; 王春明; 周郁兵; 张宜兵

    2014-01-01

    The brittleness and durability of prestress high concrete pipe piles on non-steam autoclaved and steam autoclaved were exper-imentally studied.Experimental results showed that the brittleness of non-steam autoclaved concrete was less than steam autoclaved con-crete's.Moreover,the chlorine-resistant and frost-resistance properties of non-steam autoclaved concrete were better than steam autoclaved concrete's.prestress high concrete pipe piles on non-steam autoclaved excels in anti hammer ,it was applicable in freeze-thaw and chlorine circumstance.%试验研究了常压蒸养护和高压蒸汽养护工艺生产的预应力高强度混凝土管桩混凝土的脆性和耐久性。研究结果表明,常压蒸养预应力高强度混凝土管桩混凝土的脆性小于高压蒸养混凝土;常压蒸养预应力高强度混凝土管桩混凝土抗氯盐侵蚀性能和抗冻性等耐久性高于高压蒸养混凝土。采用常压蒸养生产预应力高强度混凝土管桩有利于预应力高强度混凝土管桩的抗锤击性能,适用于北方冻融和海洋环境。

  20. The influence of low-temperature degradation and cyclic loading on the fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia molar crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Harada, A; Kanno, T; Inagaki, R; Niwano, Y; Milleding, P; Örtengren, U

    2015-07-01

    The present study analyzed the kinetics of low-temperature degradation (LTD) in zirconia, and evaluated the influence of LTD and cyclic loading on the fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia molar crowns. Bar-shaped zirconia specimens were divided into nine groups and autoclaved at 134°C for 0-200h to induce LTD. The surface fraction and penetration depth of the monoclinic phase were examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Monolithic zirconia molar crowns were prepared for crown fracture testing. The crowns were autoclaved for 0-100h (n=6) and cemented to dies. Six crown-die samples that were not autoclaved and six samples that were autoclaved for 100h were subjected to cyclic loading with a load of 300N for 240,000 cycles. All samples were tested in a load-to-failure test. The monoclinic fraction on the surface increased with autoclaving time and reached a plateau after 50h. The depth of the monoclinic phase increased without reaching a plateau. The fracture load of the crowns significantly decreased from 5683N (SD: 342) to 3975N (SD: 194) after 100h of autoclaving. Cyclic loading did not significantly affect the fracture resistance of the crowns in all cases. Kinetic analysis showed no linear correlation between the surface fraction and depth of the monoclinic phase after 50h of autoclaving. Even though LTD increased the monoclinic phase, resulting in lower strength, the fracture resistance of the monolithic zirconia crowns was still sufficient to withstand the loading conditions in the molar regions.

  1. Effect of curing way on mechanical properties of PHC pipe piles%养护方式对PHC管桩力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成启; 王春明; 周郁兵; 张宜兵

    2014-01-01

    The compressive strength and brittleness and modulus of elasticity of PHC pipe piles on standard curing and non-steam autoclaved and steam autoclaved are experimentally studied. The results show that the increase value of the compressive strength decreases continually according to the sequence of standard curing and non-steam autoclaved and steam autoclaved and circumstance humidity affects brittleness of PHC pipe piles and the brittleness of non-steam autoclaved concrete is less than steam autoclaved concrete’s. Moreover, circumstance humidity affects also modulus of elasticity of PHC pipe piles, cur-ing can increases modulus of elasticity of non-steam autoclaved piles concrete and modulus of elasticity of non-steam auto-claved piles concrete greater than steam autoclaved piles concrete’s.%文章开展标准养护、免压蒸养护和高压蒸汽养护3种养护方式对PHC管桩混凝土抗压强度、脆性和弹性模量的影响研究。结果表明,3种养护方式PHC管桩混凝土的抗压强度增幅按标准养护、免压蒸养护和高压蒸养的次序递减;环境湿度对免压蒸PHC管桩混凝土的脆性有一定的影响,免压蒸混凝土的脆性小于高压蒸养混凝土;环境湿度也对免压蒸PHC管桩混凝土的弹性模量产生一定的影响,适当后期养护可提高免压蒸混凝土的弹性模量,免压蒸养护混凝土的弹性模量大于高压蒸养混凝土。

  2. Role of orientation of nucleus of crystal during the process of synthesis of fine crystalline oxides at high temperatures and pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panasyuk, G P; Belan, V N; Voroshilov, I L; Shabalin, D G [IGIC RAS, N. S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)], E-mail: Panasyuk@igic.ras.ru

    2008-07-15

    The structural transformations of hydrargillite Al(OH){sub 3} and boehmite AlOOH were studied on thermovaporous autoclaving and on heat treatment. A special attention was paid to the morphology of initial flocculated and loose hydrargillite crystals, of the again segregating flocculi boehmite intermediate phase, and to the morphology of the end product - corundum single - or polycrystals. It is shown that on thermovaporous autoclaving the intraflocculi orientation of the boehmite crystals is decisive in the corundum single crystals formation. The degree of identity of the boehmite crystals orientation qualifies the sizes of the growing corundum crystals. It is shown, that after heat treatment in air at <1200 deg. C alpha-alumina forms, the habitus of the initial crystals remains unchanged, but at 1400-1500 deg. C in vacuum it alters, and equally oriented alumina grains sinter. Influence of the mutual crystals orientation at different stages of structural transformations is explored. Keywords: autoclaving, hydrargillite, boehmite, corundum.

  3. Effectiveness of various sterilization methods of contaminated post-fitted molar band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggia Tridianti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molar band as anchoring device may be contaminated during the fitting process. Thus, decontamination process is essential to prevent cross-infection between patients. Purpose: The objective of this research was to determine the amount of bacteria in molar band post-fitted on the patient teeth, after previously undergone pre-sterilization using alcohol and ultrasonic cleaning bath followed by sterilization using dry heat oven and steam autoclave, in order to find the best method in decontamination of post-fitted molar band. Methods: Four molar bands which already fitted on one patient then divided evenly into two groups. The first group was pre-sterilized using alcohol. One of the bands then sterilized using dry heat oven, while the other one was sterilized using steam autoclave. The second group was pre-sterilized using ultrasonic cleaning bath. One band from this group then sterilized using dry heat oven and the other was sterilized using steam autoclave. The next step was to immerse all the bands in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. Using micropipette, the solution was retrieved and dropped upon a petri dish containing Brain Heart Infusion broth. The dish was then stored in an incubator for 24 hours, prior to counting the number of bacteria existed. The same methods were used to the rest of the patients, with total 128 molar bands from 32 patients. Results: There was a profound difference in numbers of bacteria found between those methods of sterilization. However, there was a non significant difference between the two groups which were at the alcohol-steam autoclave group and at the ultrasonic cleaning bath-steam autoclave group. Conclusion: This study showed that steam autoclave is better than for sterilizing molar band, as it left the minimal amount of bacteria in post-fitted molar band.Latar belakang: Molar band merupakan suatu alat penjangkaran yang dapat mengalami kontaminasi selama proses fitting band, sehingga perlu

  4. The impact of heating and soaking on the in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of protein varies in different species of tropical legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Julieta; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Muñoz, Luz S; Peters, Michael; Montoya, Carlos A

    2016-03-01

    The effects of different thermal (raw, autoclaving or boiling for 5 and 20min) and soaking (with or without) treatments on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) of protein were investigated for selected legumes (Canavalia brasiliensis; Lablab purpureus; pink, red and white colour hulls Vigna unguiculata). Each legume preparation underwent in vitro simulated gastrointestinal tract digestion comprising either pepsin (120min) or pepsin/pancreatin (120/240min) digestion. The DH was determined based on the amount of free amino groups released. Autoclaving for 5min increased the pepsin/pancreatin DH for all the unsoaked and soaked legumes (+20% to 46% units) except Canavalia, while boiling for 5min only increased DH for two soaked legumes (+12% to 28% units). Extending boiling from 5 to 20min increased the DH for three soaked legumes (+5% to 29% units). In conclusion, autoclaving, in general, extensively increased the sequential pepsin/pancreatin DH, while boiling only increased it for selected legumes. PMID:26471569

  5. Clay-based geothermal drilling fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Lee, L.J.; Bernhard, R.P.

    1982-11-01

    The rheological properties of fluids based on fibrous clays such as sepiolite and attapulgite have been systematically examined under conditions similar to those of geothermal wells, i.e. at elevated temperatures and pressures in environments with concentrated brines. Attapulgite- and sepiolite-based fluids have been autoclaved at temperatures in the range from 70 to 800/sup 0/F with the addition of chlorides and hydroxides of Na, K, Ca, and Mg. The rheological properties (apparent and plastic viscosity, fluid loss, gel strength, yield point, and cake thickness) of the autoclaved fluids have been studied and correlated with the chemical and physical changes that occur in the clay minerals during the autoclaving process.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility in SPF mini-pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun-Yeob [College of Animal Life Sciences , Kangwon National University, 192-1 Kangwon Avenue 1, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Back [Swine Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Cheonan, Chungcheongnam-do 330-801 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoo-Yong [College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ohh, Sang-Jip, E-mail: sjohh@kangwon.ac.k [College of Animal Life Sciences , Kangwon National University, 192-1 Kangwon Avenue 1, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility of either soy-based or milk-based diet for specific pathogen-free (SPF) mini-pigs. Gamma irradiation of the diets was done at dosage of 10 kGy with {sup 60}Co whereas autoclaving was executed at 121 {sup o}C for 20 min. Apparent crude protein digestibilities of gamma irradiated diets were higher (p<0.05) than those of autoclaved diets regardless of diet type. Digestibilities of dry matter, gross energy and total carbohydrate in the irradiated diet were higher than those of the autoclaved diet. From the results of nutrient digestibility of mini-pig diets in this study, 10 kGy gamma radiation was suggested as a convenient diet radicidation method that can minimize the decrease in nutrient digestibility on feeding to SPF mini-pigs.

  7. Utilização de planejamento fatorial no preparo de amostras de detergente em pó para a determinação de fósforo por análise em fluxo Evaluation of sample preparation of the detergent powder using factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Soraia Vital Campos Barbosa da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of detergent powder samples in a microwave oven and autoclave was evaluated. To establish the best experimental conditions a 2(5 factorial design was performed, varying the conditions in autoclave and microwave digestion and flow system parameters for the determination of phosphorus. The best composition was: 0.2 mL sulfuric acid; 500 W power and a 2 min time interval; 6 mmol L-1 of ascorbic acid and 16 mmol L-1 of molybdate to flow system. This factor levels use less reagents than the reference method. No statistically significant differences were found between the autoclave and microwave oven responses at the 95% confidence level.

  8. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved

  9. Applications of life cycle assessment and cost analysis in health care waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Sebastiao Roberto, E-mail: soares@ens.ufsc.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Finotti, Alexandra Rodrigues, E-mail: finotti@ens.ufsc.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Prudencio da Silva, Vamilson, E-mail: vamilson@epagri.sc.gov.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); EPAGRI, Rod. Admar Gonzaga 1347, Itacorubi, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina 88034-901 (Brazil); Alvarenga, Rodrigo A.F., E-mail: alvarenga.raf@gmail.com [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Ghent University, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Coupure Links 653/9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three Health Care Waste (HCW) scenarios were assessed through environmental and cost analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCW treatment using microwave oven had the lowest environmental impacts and costs in comparison with autoclave and lime. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lime had the worst environmental and economic results for HCW treatment, in comparison with autoclave and microwave. - Abstract: The establishment of rules to manage Health Care Waste (HCW) is a challenge for the public sector. Regulatory agencies must ensure the safety of waste management alternatives for two very different profiles of generators: (1) hospitals, which concentrate the production of HCW and (2) small establishments, such as clinics, pharmacies and other sources, that generate dispersed quantities of HCW and are scattered throughout the city. To assist in developing sector regulations for the small generators, we evaluated three management scenarios using decision-making tools. They consisted of a disinfection technique (microwave, autoclave and lime) followed by landfilling, where transportation was also included. The microwave, autoclave and lime techniques were tested at the laboratory to establish the operating parameters to ensure their efficiency in disinfection. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis, the decision-making tools aimed to determine the technique with the best environmental performance. This consisted of evaluating the eco-efficiency of each scenario. Based on the life cycle assessment, microwaving had the lowest environmental impact (12.64 Pt) followed by autoclaving (48.46 Pt). The cost analyses indicated values of US$ 0.12 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with microwaves, US$ 1.10 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated by the autoclave and US$ 1.53 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with lime. The microwave disinfection presented the best eco-efficiency performance among those studied and provided a feasible

  10. Applications of life cycle assessment and cost analysis in health care waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Three Health Care Waste (HCW) scenarios were assessed through environmental and cost analysis. ► HCW treatment using microwave oven had the lowest environmental impacts and costs in comparison with autoclave and lime. ► Lime had the worst environmental and economic results for HCW treatment, in comparison with autoclave and microwave. - Abstract: The establishment of rules to manage Health Care Waste (HCW) is a challenge for the public sector. Regulatory agencies must ensure the safety of waste management alternatives for two very different profiles of generators: (1) hospitals, which concentrate the production of HCW and (2) small establishments, such as clinics, pharmacies and other sources, that generate dispersed quantities of HCW and are scattered throughout the city. To assist in developing sector regulations for the small generators, we evaluated three management scenarios using decision-making tools. They consisted of a disinfection technique (microwave, autoclave and lime) followed by landfilling, where transportation was also included. The microwave, autoclave and lime techniques were tested at the laboratory to establish the operating parameters to ensure their efficiency in disinfection. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis, the decision-making tools aimed to determine the technique with the best environmental performance. This consisted of evaluating the eco-efficiency of each scenario. Based on the life cycle assessment, microwaving had the lowest environmental impact (12.64 Pt) followed by autoclaving (48.46 Pt). The cost analyses indicated values of US$ 0.12 kg−1 for the waste treated with microwaves, US$ 1.10 kg−1 for the waste treated by the autoclave and US$ 1.53 kg−1 for the waste treated with lime. The microwave disinfection presented the best eco-efficiency performance among those studied and provided a feasible alternative to subsidize the formulation of the policy for small generators of HCW.

  11. Application of powder metallurgy to an advanced-temperature nickel-base alloy, NASA-TRW 6-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, J. C.; Ashbrook, R. L.; Waters, W. J.

    1971-01-01

    Bar stock of the NASA-TRW 6-A alloy was made by prealloyed powder techniques and its properties evaluated over a range of temperatures. Room temperature ultimate tensile strength was 1894 MN/sq m (274 500 psi). The as-extruded powder product showed substantial improvements in strength over the cast alloy up to 649 C (1200 F) and superplasticity at 1093 C (2000 F). Both conventional and autoclave heat treatments were applied to the extruded powder product. The conventional heat treatment was effective in increasing rupture life at 649 and 704 C (1200 and 1300 F); the autoclave heat treatment, at 760 and 816 C (1400 and 1500 F).

  12. La chaux et la diatomite comme moyens de lutte alternatifs contre Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Buchholz, Sven; Merkel, Katharina; Spiewok, Sebastian; Pettis, Jeff S.; Duncan, Michael; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Ulrichs, Christian; Ritter, Wolfgang; Neumann, P.

    2009-01-01

    International audience Aiming at alternative small hive beetle control, slaked lime, powdered limestone and diatomaceous earth (Fossil Shield® FS 95, FS 90.0 and FS 90.0s) were evaluated for their effects on pupation and adult emergence in the laboratory. Limestone, FS 90.0 and FS 95 showed no significant effect. Slaked lime in autoclaved soil prevented pupation, but was lethal only in high dosages of 10 and 15 g per 100 g soil. In non-autoclaved soil, low slaked lime dosages of 0.5 and 5 ...

  13. Effect of temperature and active biogas process on passive separation of digested manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    separation was achieved when digested manure was allowed to settle at 55 degrees C with active biogas process (pre-incubated at 55 degrees C) compared to separation at 55 degrees C without active biogas process (autoclaved at 120 degrees C, for 20 min) or at 10 degrees C with active biogas process. Maximum...... solids separation was noticed 24 h after settling in column incubated at 55 degrees C, with active biogas process. Microbiological analyses revealed that proportion of Archaea and Bacteria, absent in the autoclaved material, varied with incubation temperature, time and sampling depth. Short rod shaped...

  14. Improved dechlorinating performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors by incorporation of Dehalospirillum multivorans into granular sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hörber, Christine; Christiansen, Nina; Arvin, Erik;

    1998-01-01

    was compared to the reference 1 (R1) reactor, where the granules were autoclaved to remove all dechlorinating abilities before inoculation, and to the reference 2 (R2) reactor, containing only living granular sludge. All three reactors were fed mineral medium containing 3 to 57 mu M PCE, 2 mM formate, and 0...... to DCE, even at HRTs much lower than the reciprocal maximum specific growth rate of D. multivorans, indicating that this bacterium was immobilized in the living and autoclaved granular sludge. In contrast, the R2 reactor, with no inoculation of D. multivorans, only converted PCE to TCE under the same...

  15. Practical methods of calculating the autoclaves’ thermal stresses at building industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kozhukhar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to elaboration of a simplified method for calculation of stresses arising in the autoclaves’ casing in the case of nonlinear distribution of temperature field on its cross section height. The piece-nonlinear function is applied to the temperature field of autoclaves as maximally corresponding to experimental results. On the basis of flat sections hypothesis an expression for temperature stresses is obtained. The analysis of their distribution by the autoclave casing height is made. The control test confirmed a sufficient efficiency of the offered method for engineering needs.

  16. Fluid phase equilibria during propylene carbonate synthesis from propylene oxide in carbon dioxide medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharnati, Loubna; Musko, Nikolai; Jensen, Anker Degn;

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the influence of the amount of carbon dioxide on the catalytic performance during the propylene carbonate synthesis from propylene oxide and CO2 was investigated. The reaction was performed in high-pressure batch autoclaves using immobilized 1-hydroxyethyl-9-propyl-cyclic gua......In the present study the influence of the amount of carbon dioxide on the catalytic performance during the propylene carbonate synthesis from propylene oxide and CO2 was investigated. The reaction was performed in high-pressure batch autoclaves using immobilized 1-hydroxyethyl-9-propyl...

  17. 试论PHC管桩的蒸养-蒸压两次养护工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严志隆

    2015-01-01

    论述了PHC管桩采用蒸养-蒸压两次养护工艺的利和弊,并对当前我国采用该工艺和取消蒸压养护工艺所存在的问题进行了商讨。%The advantage and disadvantage of two times curing process of steam curing and autoclaved curing for PHC pile, and some problems from using the curing process and canceling the autoclaved curing process in China are discussed.

  18. Preparation of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Hydrothermal Method and its Application for Photoelectrochemical Cell%水热法合成纳米TiO2及其在Gr?tzel电池中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高恩勤; 张莉; 杨迈之; 蔡生民

    2001-01-01

    By varying the hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing parameters in preparing TiO2 nanoparticles different sizes of TiO2 nanoparticles are obtained.(1) At higher autoclaving temperature,lower pH and longer autoclaving period,larger sizes of TiO2 nanoparticles are prepared.(2) The nanoporous electrodes made from sintering smaller TiO2 nanoparticles show relatively poor IPCE and low absorption in UV-Vis spectrum,(3) Higher IPCE can be achieved with TiO2 nanoporous electrodes made from sintering larger TiO2 nanoparticles.These electrodes are suitable for studying behavior of the photoelectrochemistry of dye sensitized nanoporous electrodes.

  19. Influence of black gram (Vigna mungo) trypsin inhibitory fraction on the hepatic protein catabolism in male albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakannan, V; Sathyamoorthy, A V; Motlag, D B

    1984-01-01

    The effect of black gram and black gram trypsin inhibitor on the protein catabolism of male albino mice has been investigated. Group 1 was given autoclaved black gram (control), Group II raw black gram and Group III the autoclaved black gram incorporated with 1% black gram trypsin inhibitor. Blood as well as urinary urea and creatine were found to be elevated in Groups II and III. Increased levels of arginase, ornithine transcarbamylase and transaminases were noted in Groups II and III. The results suggested an enhanced catabolism of proteins evoked by the native black gram trypsin inhibitor.

  20. High-temperature organic-fluid fouling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuru, W.C.; Panchal, C.B.

    1997-06-01

    A new type of fouling unit is developed for high-temperature (500 C) and high-pressure (70 atmosphere) fouling experiments by modifying a commercial autoclave. Key modifications are the installation of a helical impeller in a flow tube and a fouling probe in the autoclave to simulate the fluid dynamics and heat transfer of typical heat-exchange equipment. A calibration technique is described, and fouling results are presented for experimental runs with indene and kerosene. The results are compared with those obtained using other types of fouling test units. Other potential applications of the fouling unit, such as corrosion and micro-scale reaction experiments, are discussed.

  1. Oxidation of zircaloy-4 under static conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Static autoclave oxidation of zircaloy-4 at 543 K and 8.5 MPa is studied. Deviations from the straight line in kinetics curve are observed. White spots appear on the surface of the specimen even in the 'pre-transion' region. The existing theories cannot explain these observations. It is suggested that these deviations may be partly arising due to the variations in the processing parameters and impurities in zircaloy-4. Scanning electron micrography has been used to study the oxide coating after autoclave exposure of zircaloy-4 surface. (M.G.B.)

  2. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Manure-Amended Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Xiuping; Morgan, Jennie; Doyle, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells survived for up to 77, >226, and 231 days in manure-amended autoclaved soil held at 5, 15, and 21°C, respectively. Pathogen populations declined more rapidly in manure-amended unautoclaved soil under the same conditions, likely due to antagonistic interactions with indigenous soil microorganisms. E. coli O157:H7 cells were inactivated more rapidly in both autoclaved and unautoclaved soils amended with manure at a ratio of 1 part manure to 10 parts soil at 15 and...

  3. Manganese cycling and its implication on methane related processes in the Andaman continental slope sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sujith, P.P.; Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Rajkumar, V.; Sheba, M.

    by autoclaving and on cooling 30ml of 1M NaHCO3, 1.2ml of 1M Na2S, 0.5ml of 1M FeCl2 and 2ml of vitamin solution as sterile stock solutions were added. This was followed by addition of sodium acetate as substrate for methanogens and allylthiourea an inhibitor...

  4. Phosphite Ligand Modified Supported Rhodium Catalyst for Hydroformylation of Internal Olefins to Linear Aldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xian-ming; DING Yun-jie; JIAO Gui-ping; LI Jing-wei; YAN Li; ZHU He-jun

    2009-01-01

    A phosphite ligand modified heterogeneous catalyst was developed for the hydroformylation of internal olefins to linear aldehydes, which showed a high activity and high regioselectivity and could be separated easily by filtration after reaction in an autoclave. Three nanoporous silica sieves were used to investigate the influence of pore structure and shape selective performance of support on the regioselectivity to the linear products.

  5. Pb2+ Biosorption by Pretreated Fungal Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    ÇABUK, Ahmet; İLHAN, Semra; FİLİK, Cansu; ÇALIŞKAN, Figen

    2005-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment on the Pb2+ biosorption capacity of fungal biomasses, Aspergillus versicolor, Metarrhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, and Penicillium verrucosum, was investigated. For this purpose, the biomasses were subjected to physical treatments such as heat and autoclaving, and chemical treatments such as sodium hydroxide, formaldehyde, gluteraldehyde, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, commercial laundry detergent, orthophosphoric acid and dimethyl sulfoxide. Dimethyl sulfoxid...

  6. IN VITRO CULTURE OF Sequoia sempervirens L. ON NUTRITIVE MEDIA STERILIZED WITH SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Martins Ribeiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The autoclaving used for sterilization of glassware, culture media and surgical materials in laboratory is a costly operation, due to the high cost of the equipment and the equally high consumption of energy. For these reasons, the substitution of this sterilization technique for another less costly one, such as chemical sterilization, would be highly desirable. The present study aimed to compare the techniques of sterilization of plant tissue culture media with sodium hypochlorite and that of autoclaving, in Sequoia sempervirens culture, in order to develop a less costly technique in the sterilization of glassware and nutrient media for plant tissue culture. In the trial with Sequoia sempervirens, the concentrations of sodium hypochlorite added to the culture media were (w/v: 0% (autoclaved; B 0.002%; C 0.003%; D 0.004% and E 0% (without autoclaving. It was observed that the concentrations equal to or higher than 0.003% of total chlorine added to the nutrient media resulted in complete sterilization, as well as in plants with larger numbers and shoots lengths.

  7. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials on sterilization methods of extracted human teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sylvia Western

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Autoclaving and 10% formalin can be considered as 100% efficient and reliable methods. While the use of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 3% hydrogen peroxide, 2% glutaraldehyde, 0.1% thymol, and boiling to 100°C was inefficient and unreliable methods of sterilization of EHT.

  8. Molecular Cloning and Nucleotide Sequence of the Gene Encoding the Major Peptidoglycan Hydrolase of Lactococcus lactis, a Muramidase Needed for Cell Separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, Girbe; Kok, Jan; Leenhouts, Kees J.; Dabrowska, Magdalena; Venema, Gerhardus; Haandrikman, Alfred J.

    1995-01-01

    A gene of Lactococcus lactis subsp, cremoris MG1363 encoding a peptidoglycan hydrolase was identified in a genomic library of the strain in pUC19 by screening Escherichia coli transformants for cell wall lysis activity on a medium containing autoclaved, lyophilized Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells, I

  9. 21 CFR 184.1065 - Linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... catalyst, continuous high pressure counter current splitting, and medium pressure autoclave splitting with... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Linoleic acid. 184.1065 Section 184.1065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  10. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT STEAM-STERILIZATION PROGRAMS ON MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF POLY(L-LACTIDE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROZEMA, FR; BOS, RRM; BOERING, G; VANASTEN, JAAM; NIJENHUIS, AJ; PENNINGS, AJ

    1991-01-01

    As-polymerized poly(L-lactide) test rods were sterilized by seven different specially designed computer-operated autoclaving programs. As a control, common hospital sterilization was performed. In all cases, the molecular weight decreased after sterilization. A short time high-temperature sterilizat

  11. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  12. Porous Materials - Structure and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents some viewpoints on the description of the pore structure and the modelling of the properties of the porous building materials. Two examples are given , where it has been possible to connect the pore structure to the properties: Shrinkage of autoclaved aerated concrete and the p...... and the properties of lime mortar....

  13. Fe3C-based oxygen reduction catalysts: synthesis, hollow spherical structures and applications in fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei;

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed study of a novel Fe3C-based spherical catalyst with respect to synthetic parameters, nanostructure formation, ORR active sites and fuel cell demonstration. The catalyst is synthesized by high temperature autoclave pyrolysis using decomposing precursors. Below 500 °C, melamine...

  14. High pressure engineering and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 10 papers. Some of the titles are: Control of vibration in high pressure piping systems; Hazards and safeguards of high pressure hydraulic fatigue testing; Load, stress and fatigue analysis of threaded end closures; Application of fatigue crack growth to an isostatic press; and Time dependent failure in high strength steels for autoclave service

  15. Cooking under Pressure: Applying the Ideal Gas Law in the Kitchen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Anderson, Jennifer Y.; Wang, Diane R.

    2010-01-01

    This case study uses a daily cooking scenario to demonstrate how the boiling point of water is directly related to the external pressures in order to reinforce the concepts of boiling and boiling point, apply ideal gas law, and relate chemical reaction rates with temperatures. It also extends its teaching to autoclaves used to destroy…

  16. Impact modification of poly(caprolactam) by copolymerization with a low molecular weight polybutadiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borggreve, R.J.M.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Caprolactam and a reactive, low molecular weight polybutadiene were polymerized in an autoclave, followed by post-condensation in the solid state. The rubber concentration was varied (0–30 wt%). The morphology of the reaction products was studied by transmission electron microscopy. In the materials

  17. PMI Foam Cored Sandwich Components Produced by Means of Different Manufacturing Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leonhard Maier; HU Pei; Herman Seibert

    2006-01-01

    The paper introduced the structural applications with PMI (Polymethacrylimide) foams in sandwich components for rotor craft, launching vehicle and civil aircraft and discuss some typically used manufacturing methods, such as e. g.in-mould pressing, autoclave curing and resin infusion. The advantages of foam-cored sandwich design versus honeycombcored design will be discussed, focussing on manufacturing costs.

  18. 粉煤灰砖生产实践%Production practices of fly ash bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴卫国

    2015-01-01

    普通砖的大规模化生产当属利用蒸压釜通过饱和蒸汽的工艺来得快一些,其生产产品一般有蒸压灰砂砖及蒸压粉煤灰砖,而这两种工艺的投资也是非常大的。小型投入中不需要蒸压工艺的只有水泥砖,而这种砖密度很大,不适合建筑节能的要求。这里介绍的是一种不需采用蒸压工艺又生产较轻产品的粉煤灰压制工艺。%Large-scale production of ordinary bricks is undoubtedly take advantage of saturated steam autoclave process, its\\products generally have autoclaved sand-lime bricks and autoclaved fly ash bricks, and the investment of these two processes is very large. Small investment which does not require autoclaving process only have the cement bricks, and this kind of brick’s density is large, and not suitable for building energy requirements.

  19. Research on General Corrosion Property of 304L and 304NG Stainless Steels in Simulated PWR Primary Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG; De-quan; HU; Shi-lin; ZHANG; Ping-zhu; WANG; Hui

    2012-01-01

    <正>The general corrosion behaviors of 304L and 304NG grade stainless steels in simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary loop were studied using still autoclave, respectively, the corrosion test lasted for 1 680 hours. The corrosion oxide films were analyzed macroscopically and microscopically. The results are shown in Figs. 1, 2.

  20. Experimental evaluation of cyclic fatigue resistance of four different nickel-titanium instruments after immersion in sodium hypochlorite and/or sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ureyen Kaya BULEM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available NiTi instruments have a high risk of separation due to torsional or flexural fatigue (cyclic fatigue. Chemomechanical preparation, cleaning procedures, chemical disinfection and sterilization cause the corrosion of endodontic instruments that may weaken the fracture resistance of the instruments. Objective To assess the effects of NaOCl immersion and autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of ProFile, FlexMaster, Mtwo and TwistedFiles NiTi instruments (tip size 25, 0.06 taper, n=160. Material and Methods The instruments (n=10 for each subgroup were dynamically immersed in NaOCl; immersed in NaOCl and sterilized in one autoclave cycle; 5 cycles immersed in NaOCl and sterilized in autoclave and not immersed in NaOCl and not sterilized (control group. Dynamic cyclic fatigue resistance was tested. The number of cycles to failure (NCF were statistically analyzed (P.05. Conclusions Cyclic fatigue resistance of the tested NiTi instruments cannot be adversely affected by NaOCl immersion and autoclave sterilization. Production process (TwistedFiles or design (Twisted Files, FlexMaster, Mtwo and ProFile of the instruments can influence their cyclic fatigue resistance.

  1. Innovative transparent armour concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Broos, J.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since WWII transparent armour consists of a multi-layer of glass panels bonded by thin polymer bond-films using an autoclave process. TNO has worked on the development of innovative transparent armour concepts that are lighter and a have better multi-hit capacity. Two new transparent armour con

  2. Fluid phase equilibria of the reaction mixture during the selective hydrogenation of 2-butenal in dense carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musko, Nikolai; Jensen, Anker Degn; Baiker, Alfons;

    2012-01-01

    performed using a 5wt% Pd on activated carbon in custom-designed high pressure autoclaves at 323K. The Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state was employed to model the phase behaviour of the experimentally studied systems. CPA binary interaction parameters were estimated based on the experimental...

  3. Changes In Growth Culture FDA Activity Under Changing Growth Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Jensen, Bjørn K.

    1992-01-01

    of the bacteria. The FDA activity/ATP ratio was calculated for different concentrations of autoclaved sludge. A faster decay rate of ATP relative to FDA hydrolysis activity was observed, thus causing changes in the ratio. Furthermore, comparison between values obtained from pure cultures and different soils...

  4. Copolyamides of nylon-4,6 and nylon-4,T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaymans, R.J.; Aalto, S.; Maurer, F.H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Copolyamides of nylon-4,6 and nylon-4,T were prepared by a two-step method: (1) a prepolymerization in an autoclave (40 min at 210°C) and (2) a postcondensation in the solid state (4 h, 260°C). On these materials was studied the melting behavior with DSC, the crystalline structure with WAXS, the wat

  5. Hydrothermal precipitation of artificial violarite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, W. H.; Toftlund, H.; Warner, T. E.

    2012-01-01

    The nonstoichiometric nickel-ore mineral, violarite, (Ni,Fe)3S4 was prepared as a phase-pure fine powder by a comparatively quick hydrothermal method from an aqueous solution of iron(II) acetate, nickel(II) acetate and DL-penicillamine in an autoclave at 130 °C for 45 h. Powder-XRD showed that th...

  6. Radon-222 exhalation from Danish building materials: H + H Industri A/S results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Erik

    1999-01-01

    rate measurements for 10 samples of Danish building materials are reported. Samples include ordinary concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete,autoclaved aerated concrete, bricks, and gypsum board. The maximum mass-specific exhalation rate is about 20 m Bq h"-"1 kg "-"1. Under consideration...

  7. Technetium in micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results of experimental work on the interaction of technetium with the following aquatic micro-organisms and untreated and sterilised sediments: Flavobacterium halmephilum, Uronema marinum, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella bioculata, Mytilus edulis, and marine sediments, collected near Coxyde, containing a mixed population of micro-organisms, and sterilised by autoclaving. (UK)

  8. Hydrolysis of polycarbonate in sub-critical water in fused silica capillary reactor with in situ Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Z.; Chou, I.-Ming; Burruss, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of using fused silica capillary reactor (FSCR) instead of conventional autoclave for studying chemical reactions at elevated pressure and temperature conditions were demonstrated in this study, including the allowance for visual observation under a microscope and in situ Raman spectroscopic characterization of polycarbonate and coexisting phases during hydrolysis in subcritical water. ?? 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  10. Enzymatic modification of pectic polysaccharides obtained from sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Beldman, G.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonans and arabinans, purified from an autoclave extract of sugar beet pulp, as well as an acid extracted beet pectin (ABP) were treated with enzymes in order to modify their physico-chemical properties. The enzymes used were arabinofuranosidase B (AF), endo-arabinanase plus arabinofura

  11. Degradation of quinoline by wet oxidation - kinetic aspects and reaction mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    of succinic acid is suggested to be a result of a coupling reaction of the acetic acid radical A reaction mechanism is suggested for the degradation of quinoline: it involves hydroxyl radicals and the possible interaction with autoclave walls is discussed. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Hydroformylation of methyl-3-pentenoate over a phosphite ligand modified Rh/SiO2 catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianming Li; Yunjie Ding; Guiping Jiao; Jingwei Li; Li Yan; Hejun Zhu

    2008-01-01

    A phosphite ligand modified Rh/SiO2 catalyst has been developed for hydroformylation of internal olefins to linear aldehydes, which showed high activity and regioselectivity and could be separated easily by filtration after reaction in an autoclave. Effects of reaction temperature and syngas pressure on the performances of the catalyst in the reaction were also investigated.

  13. Polymerization of liquid propylene with a 4th generation Ziegler-Natta catalyst-influence of temperature, hydrogen and monomer concentration and prepolymerization method on polymerization kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pater, Jochem T.M.; Weickert, Günter; Swaaij, van Wim P.M.

    2002-01-01

    In a batch-wise operated autoclave reactor, liquid propylene was polymerized using a 4th generation, TiCl4/MgCl2/phthalate ester-AlEt3-R2Si(OMe)2, Ziegler-Natta catalyst system. By using a calorimetric principle it was possible to measure full reaction rate versus time curves for obtaining data on p

  14. Polymerization of liquid propylene with a fourth-generation Ziegler-Natta catalyst: Influence of temperature, hydrogen, monomer concentration, and prepolymerization method on powder morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pater, Jochem T.M.; Weickert, Günter; Swaaij, van Wim P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Liquid propylene was polymerized in a 5-L autoclave batch reactor using a commercially available TiCl4/MgCl2/Al(ethyl)3/DCPDMS Ziegler-Natta catalyst, with a phthalate ester as internal electron donor. The powders from these polymerizations were characterized using laser diffraction particle size di

  15. Hydrodeoxygenation of waste fat for diesel production: Study on model feed with Pt/alumina catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus H.;

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation of waste fats and oils is a viable method for producing renewable diesel oil. In this study a model feed consisting of oleic acid and tripalmitin in molar ratio 1:3 was hydrotreated at 325°C with 20bars H2 in a stirred batch autoclave with a 5wt% Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst, and samples...

  16. Process for dissolving thorium and/or plutonium oxide of low solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to dissolve thorium and/or plutonium oxide of low solubility, particularly dioxides such as ThO2, PuO2 or the mixed oxide (U/Pu)O2, these oxides are heated inside a gas-tight closed vessel (autoclave) in concentrated nitric oxide (HNO3) free of fluoride. (orig./HP)

  17. Alkylpyrazines produced by bacterial spoilage of heat-treated and gamma-irradiated coconut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the sterilisation of coconut by autoclaving or gamma irradiation, followed by storage in water at 250 C for 8 weeks. Bacillus subtilis developed after storage in water. The volatile compounds formed as a result of bacterial activity were extracted and identified. (U.K.)

  18. An innovative national health care waste management system in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toktobaev, Nurjan; Emmanuel, Jorge; Djumalieva, Gulmira; Kravtsov, Alexei; Schüth, Tobias

    2015-02-01

    A novel low-cost health care waste management system was implemented in all rural hospitals in Kyrgyzstan. The components of the Kyrgyz model include mechanical needle removers, segregation using autoclavable containers, safe transport and storage, autoclave treatment, documentation, recycling of sterilized plastic and metal parts, cement pits for anatomical waste, composting of garden wastes, training, equipment maintenance, and management by safety and quality committees. The gravity-displacement autoclaves were fitted with filters to remove pathogens from the air exhaust. Operating parameters for the autoclaves were determined by thermal and biological tests. A hospital survey showed an average 33% annual cost savings compared to previous costs for waste management. All general hospitals with >25 beds except in the capital Bishkek use the new system, corresponding to 67.3% of all hospital beds. The investment amounted to US$0.61 per capita covered. Acceptance of the new system by the staff, cost savings, revenues from recycled materials, documented improvements in occupational safety, capacity building, and institutionalization enhance the sustainability of the Kyrgyz health care waste management system. PMID:25649402

  19. Study on Performance of Infectious Waste Sterilizing Set in Kashan Shahid Beheshti Hospital and Determination of its Optimum Operating Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Heidari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives; Autoclaving is one of  the methods which sterilizes infectious solid wastes. Since variety of parameters such as temperature, time, and pressure influence autoclave performance, this study was carried out to evaluate the parameters and set optimum condition for the autoclave apparatus  applied in Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, the performance of subjected autoclave was surveyed based on biological index and through setting 144 tests. Variables were packaging type in two groups (open and wrapped, loading type in three groups (light, medium and heavy, and four temperature-time features in fixed pressure equal to 101 kpa. Biological index was ATCC 7953 which contained Stearotermophilus Geobacillus spores. Finally obtained results were analyzed by Chi-Square test.Results: The results of statistical test showed that there isnt any meaningful relation between packaging type of waste, system loading, and efficiency of sterilization(P>0.05,while meaningful relation was found between system performance and variety states of temperature-time feature(P<0.05, illustrating temperature and time effects in fixed pressure on sterilization of solid waste.Conclusion: Based on the results, the best autoclave operational condition for sterilizing infectious solid wastes are: temperature-time equal to 10 min-140°C and 15 min-134°C in fixed pressure of 101 kpa, respectively. It was also revealed that temperature-time condition suggested by manufactory, i.e. 20min-121°C, is not sufficient for complete sterilization of solid waste.

  20. Effect of heat treatment on the proximate composition, energy values, and levels of some toxicants in African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) seed varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeike, Eugene N; Omubo-Dede, Tina T

    2002-01-01

    The effects of heat treatments on the proximate composition, energy content, and levels of some antinutritional factors in brown and marble-colored African yam bean (AYB) seed flours were investigated. In raw brown and marble-colored AYB seed flours; moisture content, dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, ash, total carbohydrate and caloric value did not differ significantly at the 5% level. Autoclaving and cooking slightly increased the moisture level. Crude protein, crude fat, and ash contents were decreased by autoclaving and were further decreased by cooking. The decrease was not, however, considerable for the AYB that is not eaten raw and whose full nutritional potential as a legume can be derived only when heat treated, as previous reports have indicated for legume seeds. The levels of the toxicants were generally higher in the raw brown AYB compared to the marble-colored, and were generally reduced by both autoclaving and cooking. In the most commonly available and consumed marble-colored AYB, autoclaving at 121 degrees C, 15 psi for 20 min decreased cyanogenic glycosides by 46%, oxalate by 48.9%, tannin by 15.0%, saponin by 14.8% and trypsin inhibitors by 61.3% while cooking for 3.5 hours in tap water decreased these toxic factors by 66.5%, 70.3%, 72.2%, 48.7%, and 86.0%, respectively. The results indicate that for raw samples, varietal difference did not significantly affect nutrient composition though the toxicants were generally higher in the brown AYB than the marble-colored. Autoclaving decreased both nutrient value and the level of toxicants in the two seed types; values were further reduced by cooking. Of the toxicants, trypsin inhibitor was found to be the most heat-labile and of the heat treatment methods, cooking to tenderness is recommendable.

  1. EFFECT OF QUARTZ/MULLITE BLEND CERAMIC ADDITIVE ON IMPROVING RESISTANCE TO ACID OF SODIUM SILICATE-ACTIVATED SLAG CEMENT. CELCIUS BRINE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA, T.; BROTHERS, L.E.; VAN DE PUTTE, T.R.

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of manufactured quartz/mullite blend (MQMB) ceramic powder in increasing the resistance to acid of sodium silicate-activated slag (SSAS) cementitious material for geothermal wells. A 15-day exposure to 90{sup o} CO{sub 2}-laden H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} revealed that the MQMB had high potential as an acid-resistant additive for SSAS cement. Two factors, the appropriate ratio of slag/MQMB and the autoclave temperature, contributed to better performance of MQMB-modified SSAS cement in abating its acid erosion. The most effective slag/MQMB ratio in minimizing the loss in weight by acid erosion was 70/30 by weight. For autoclave temperature, the loss in weight of 100 C autoclaved cement was a less than 2%, but at 300 C it was even lower. Before exposure to acid, the cement autoclaved at 100 C was essentially amorphous; increasing the temperature to 200 C led to the formation of crystalline analcime in the zeolitic mineral family during reactions between the mullite in MQMB and the Na from sodium silicate. In addition, at 300 C, crystal of calcium silicate hydrate (1) (CSH) was generated in reactions between the quartz in MQMB and the activated slag. These two crystalline phases (CSH and analcime) were responsible for densifying the autoclaved cement, conveying improved compressive strength and minimizing water permeability. The CSH was susceptible to reactions with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, forming two corrosion products, bassanite and ionized monosilicic acid. However, the uptake of ionized monosilicic acid by Mg dissociated from the activated slag resulted in the formation of lizardite as magnesium silicate hydrate. On the other hand, the analcime was barely susceptible to acid if at all. Thus, the excellent acid resistance of MQMB-modified SSAS cement was due to the combined phases of lizardite and analcime.

  2. Using High Pressure Thermal Vessel For Mineral Solubility Experiments in Geothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. L.; Huang, Y. H.; Chen, H. F.; Song, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the serious scaling problems of the production in pipeline, Qingshui geothermal power plants closed after 12 years in the past. Because the pressure reduced in the process of upwelling, the hot spring from the reservoir will scaling CaCO3 immediately by large CO2 escape. This result will cause the space of pipeline reduced. On the other hand, as the temperature decreases, the SiO2 scaled in the part of heat exchanger. This study chose the Hongchailin and Qingshui IC-21 well as objects to simulate, and the Szeleng sandstone and the Lushan slate are the target layer of drilling well, respectively. We use pure water and saturated water pressure in our experiments. Besides, the previous studies showed that temperature of reservoir in Qingshui site was not over 300℃, so we set 300℃ as the upper limit temperature. The pressure was less than 800 bar by calculated the rock density of target layer. The original rock sample were placed in first autoclave, and added pure water in the second autoclave. Then we heat the first autoclave to reach the target temperature, and make the pressure saturated over water vapor pressure. After 72 hours the saturated water were leaked into the second autoclave. As the temperature cooling down, we removed the water from second autoclave and diluted the water. Finally, the Na+, K+, Mg+2, Ca+2 ions were analyzed by ICP. We want to get the maximum solubility of calcite and amorphous silica in equilibrium with sandstone and slate, and then check whether the method of geothermometer calculated is reasonable or not by calculated the concentration of Na+, K+, Si+4 in hot spring.

  3. Bioremediation of direct dyes in simulated textile effluents by a paramorphogenic form of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, C R; Almeida, E J R; Santos, G C; Morão, L G; Fabris, G S L; Mitter, E K

    2012-01-01

    Azo dyes are extensively used for coloring textiles, paper, food, leather, drinks, pharmaceutical products, cosmetics and inks. The textile industry consumes the largest amount of azo dyes, and it is estimated that approximately 10-15% of dyes used for coloring textiles may be lost in waste streams. Almost all azo dyes are synthetic and resist biodegradation, however, they can readily be reduced by a number of chemical and biological reducing systems. Biological treatment has advantages over physical and chemical methods due to lower costs and minimal environmental effect. This research focuses on the utilization of Aspergillus oryzae to remove some types of azo dyes from aqueous solutions. The fungus, physically induced in its paramorphogenic form (called 'pellets'), was used in the dye biosorption studies with both non-autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae, at different pH values. The goals were the removal of dyes by biosorption and the decrease of their toxicity. The dyes used were Direct Red 23 and Direct Violet 51. Their spectral stability (325-700 nm) was analyzed at different pH values (2.50, 4.50 and 6.50). The best biosorptive pH value and the toxicity limit, (which is given by the lethal concentration (LC(100)), were then determined. Each dye showed the same spectrum at different pH values. The best biosorptive pH was 2.50, for both non- autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae of A. oryzae. The toxicity level of the dyes was determined using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, with Daphnia similis in all bioassays. The Direct Violet 51 (LC(100) 400 mg · mL(-1)) was found to be the most toxic dye, followed by the Direct Red 23 (LC(100) 900 mg · mL(-1)). The toxicity bioassays for each dye have shown that it is possible to decrease the toxicity level to zero by adding a small quantity of biomass from A. oryzae in its paramorphogenic form. The autoclaved biomass had a higher biosorptive capacity for the dye than the non-autoclaved biomass. The results show that

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extracts against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus in a microbiological medium and milk of various fat concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Kristen L; Burris, Kellie P; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Davidson, P Michael; Stewart, C Neal

    2014-02-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces are widely used in the preparation of beverages. The calyces contain compounds that exhibit antimicrobial activity, yet little research has been conducted on their possible use in food systems as antimicrobials. Aqueous extracts prepared from the brand "Mi Costenita" were sterilized by membrane filtration (0.22-μm pore size) or autoclaving (121 °C, 30 min) and tested for antimicrobial activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains ATCC 43894 and Cider and Staphylococcus aureus strains SA113 and ATCC 27708 in a microbiological medium and ultrahigh-temperature-processed milk with various fat percentages. Extracts heated by autoclaving exhibited greater activity than did filtered extracts in a microbiological medium. Against E. coli, results of 20 mg/ml filtered extract were not different from those of the control, whereas autoclaved extracts reduced viable cells ca. 3 to 4 log CFU/ml. At 60 mg/ml, both extracts inactivated cells after 24 h. There were reduced populations of both strains of S. aureus (ca. 2.7 and 3 log CFU/ml, respectively) after 24 h of incubation in 40 mg/ml filtered extracts. When grown in autoclaved extracts at 40 mg/ml, both strains of S. aureus were inactivated after 9 h. Autoclaved extracts had decreased anthocyanin content (2.63 mg/liter) compared with filtered extracts (14.27 mg/liter), whereas the phenolic content (48.7 and 53.8 mg/g) remained similar for both treatments. Autoclaved extracts were then tested for activity in milk at various fat concentrations (skim [3.25%]) against a 1:1 mixture of the two strains of E. coli O157:H7 and a 1:1 mixture of the two strains of S. aureus. Extracts at 40 mg/ml inactivated S. aureus after 168 h in skim and whole milk, and E. coli was inactivated after 96 h in 60 mg/ml extract in all fat levels. These findings show the potential use of Hibiscus extracts to prevent the growth of pathogens in foods and beverages. PMID:24490920

  5. The effects of sterilization method on the protein adsorption capacity of TiO2 nanotubes on the surface of titanium implants%消毒方法对钛种植体表面TiO2纳米管的蛋白质吸附能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙彦维; 吕武龙; 张振庭; 王娜; 李彦秋

    2013-01-01

    研究了紫外线照射、高压蒸汽灭菌处理对钛表面TiO2纳米管亲水性及蛋白质吸附的影响.纯钛试件经过打磨形成光滑钛,光滑钛在20 V电压下进行阳极氧化形成80~100 nm的TiO2纳米管.对TiO2纳米管及光滑钛进行紫外线照射、高压蒸汽灭菌处理后测量表面接触角,然后在37℃下进行牛血清白蛋白(BSA)的吸附及释放.结果表明:紫外线照射组的TiO2纳米管接触角较小,亲水性较好;紫外组蛋白质吸附多于高压组,而高压组的蛋白质释放快于紫外组.两种消毒方法综合比较,TiO2纳米管紫外线照射优于高压蒸汽灭菌.%The aim of this study was to compare the effects of ultraviolent irradiation and autoclaving on the wetta-bility and protein adsorption of TiO2 nanotubes on the surface of titanium. Pure titanium sheets were polished with SiC abrasive paper. The polished titanium sheets were anodized under a voltage of 20 V, which resulted in a nano-tubular topography with a tube diameter of 80 - 100 nm on the surface of titanium (NT-Ti). The samples were then sterilized with UV irradiation or autoclaving. The results of contact angle measurements indicated that the contact angles of NT-Ti sterilized with UV irradiation were smaller than those of NT-Ti sterilized with autoclaving, showing that NT-Ti sterilized by UV irradiation was more hydrophilic than that sterilized by autoclaving. The adsorption behavior of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the nanotube arrays was investigated at 37 ℃.. The release experiment results suggested that protein adsorption on the UV irradiated materials was greater than that for the auto-claved materials, while protein release from the autoclaved materials was faster than that from the UV irradiated materials. Therefore it is recommended that such implants are sterilized by UV irradiation in the future.

  6. A NOVEL HYDROTHERMAL SYNTHESIS METHOD FOR BARIUM FERRITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Li; Hongchen Gu; Qun Wei

    2004-01-01

    In the present work, fine barium ferrite powder has been synthesized through a one-step hydrothermal process in an autoclave at [OH-]/[Cl-] ratio of 2:1 in the temperature range from 180 to 260 ℃ using barium chloride (BaCl2), ferrous chloride (FeCl2) and potassium nitrate (KNO3) as the starting materials. Both particle size and saturation magnetization (Ms) increase with increasing hydrothermal reaction temperature, while the intrinsic coercivity (iHc) peaks at 685 Oe at 230 ℃. Morphology progress from the barium ferrite precursor particles to the barium hexaferrite particles has been monitored with increasing hydrothermal reaction time at 230 ℃ in the autoclave.

  7. Condensation reactions of glucose and aromatic ring; Glucose to hokokan tono shukugo hanno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komano, T.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T.; Tanaka, C.; Yoshioka, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology; Sugimoto, Y.; Miki, Y. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For artificial coalification, condensation reactions of aromatic ring and activated compounds produced by dehydrating reaction of glucose were studied experimentally. In heat treatment experiment in water, three reaction specimens such as glucose, glucose and phenol, and glucose and benzaldehyde were fed into an autoclave together with distilled water, and subjected to reaction at 180{degree}C under spontaneous pressure for 50 hours. In hydrogenation experiment, the specimens were fed into an autoclave together with tetradecane and sulfurization catalyst, and subjected to reaction at 350{degree}C under initial pressure of 9.8MPa for 2 hours for gas chromatography (GC) analysis of products. As the experimental result, the reaction between glucose and aromatic ring in heat treatment in water occurred between aromatic ring and active fragment with a mean carbon number of 4-5 produced by decomposition of glucose. The reactivity was higher in benzaldehyde addition than phenol addition. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Effect of P-Reactive Drainage Aggregates on Green Roof Runoff Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Karczmarczyk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main hypothesis of the presented study is that the negative effect of phosphorus leaching from a green roof substrate can be reduced by including P-reactive material in a drainage layer. In this work, different aggregates (Pollytag®, lightweight expanded clay aggregates, chalcedony, serpentynite and crushed autoclaved aerated concrete to be used as the green roof drainage layer are described. Physical parameters, e.g., granulometric composition, water absorption, bulk density and porosity are assessed. A phosphorus sorption isotherm and a kinetic test were performed. Physical and chemical characteristics of the materials were used as a base for choosing the best media for the drainage layer. The P-removal efficiency of crushed autoclaved aerated concrete was confirmed in a column experiment. Adding the implementation of the P-reactive material in a drainage layer during construction can reduce the negative effect of substrate on green roof runoff quality.

  9. Effect of mustard seed and sodium isoascorbate on lipid oxidation and colour of ground beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Karwowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the mustard seed in reducing lipid oxidation in ground beef compared to sodium isoascorbate. The research material were meat samples, prepared in four variants. The differentiating addition was ground white mustard (Sinapis alba, used in the native and autoclaved form. Reference were a control sample and a sample with the addition of sodium isoascorbate. The following were assayed during the study: TBARS value, redox potential, pH and colour parameters CIE L*a*b*. The addition of mustard had no effect on the pH value in comparison to the control sample and sodium isoascorbate. It has been shown that the use of mustard either native and autoclaved, decreased the value of TBARS ratio, and showed a similar effectiveness in preventing the oxidation of lipids as sodium isoascorbate.

  10. Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

  11. Dissolubility of Hydroxyapatite Powder under Hydrothermal Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The dissolubility of hydroxyapatite(HA) in the hydrothermal solution was investigated in Morey-type autoclave over a temperature range of 150 to 350 ℃ and the pH value range of 5 to 9. It is shown that the dissolubility of HA is determined as a function of temperature and time under a constant filling ratio of autoclave, and the temperature coefficient for the solubility of HA is positive. The equilibrium time attained in the hydrothermal solution is shortened with the increase of hydrothermal temperature, and the effect of temperature on the solubility is obviously stronger than that of pH value. The solubility data suggest that HA has higher dissolubility in the HA-H2O system under the hydrothermal condition than that under the normal temperature-pressure.

  12. Bio sorption of Reactive Dye from Textile Wastewater by Non-viable Biomass of Aspergillus niger and Spirogyra sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Potential of Aspergillus niger fungus and Spirogyra sp., a fresh water green algae, was investigated as a bio sorbents for removal of reactive dye (Synazol) from its multi-component textile wastewater. Pre-treatment of fungal and algal biomass with autoclaving increased the removal of dye more than that pre-treated with gamma-irradiation. The heat dried autoclaved biomass for the 2 organisms exhibited maximum dye removal at ph 3, temperature 30 degree C and 8 g/l (w/v) biomass conc. after 18 h contact time. The results showed that the non-viable biomass possessed high stability and efficiency of dye removal over 3 repeated batches

  13. The release of 14C-chlorsulfuron bound residue by autoclavingmethod and its identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    When individual microorganisms were used torelease bound pesticide residues, it was ussually not take into fullaccountwhether the autoclaving method could lead to the releaseof bound residues. The soil containing bound14C-chlorsulfuron residues was treated with an autoclavein this study. The results reveal that the bound14C-chlorsulfuron residue can be released from the soilwhen treated with the autoclave and the release rate canbe remarkably enhanced by adding water into the soil whensubjected to such treatment. A TLC analysis showed that thereleased 14C-residue was one of the degraded products of14C-chlorsulfuron. After derivatization and analysis using theGC-MS, the released 14C-residue was tentatively identifiedas 2-amino-4-hydroxyl-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine.

  14. Optimum Nanoporous TiO2 Film and Its Application to Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴松元; 王孔嘉

    2003-01-01

    Properties of TiO2 nanoporous films, which are one of the crucial technologies in dye-sensitized solar cell, are investigated. The nanocrystalline TiO2 films were prepared with the sol-gel method at different pH in precursor and treatment temperature in autoclave for their application to dye-sensitized solar cells. The thickness of the TiO2 film is very important to the transfer of photoelectron as well as adsorption of dye, it is also known as one of the source to the dark current. The results show that the TiO2 films, such as different particle sizes of TiO2, different pH in precursor and treatment temperature in autoclave, have a strong influence on the photoelectrochemical properties of the dye-sensitized solar cells. We give the optimum TiO2 film thickness and morphology for the application to dye-sensitized solar cells.

  15. Mathematical analysis of physicochemical phenomena in the catalyst during hydrogenating depolymerization of coal extract benzene insoluble fraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jerzy Szczygieł; Marek Stolarski

    2015-01-01

    Efficiency and selectivity of hydrogenating depolymerization of the coal extract benzene-insoluble part over the heterogeneous Co–Mo/Al2O3 catalyst were assessed using a mathematical model. The analytical equations of the mathematical model were generated based on material balance incorporating the physico-chemical phenomena (reaction and diffusion) both in the autoclave and the catalyst grain. The equations offer the possibility for predicting changes of the reactants in the autoclave during the process and for determining the distribution of reactant concentrations in the grain as a function of its radius. The analytical equations of the model serve as the basis of the algorithm for assessing the influence of restrictive diffusion on the effectiveness and selectivity of the catalyst, and also for defining the optimal radi of the catalyst's pores to enable free transport of reactants in the grain interior.

  16. Influence of thermal processing on IgE reactivity to lentil and chickpea proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Carmen; Cabanillas, Beatriz; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Varela, Alejandro; Guillamón, Eva; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Crespo, Jesús F; Rodriguez, Julia; Burbano, Carmen

    2009-11-01

    In the last years, legume proteins are gaining importance as food ingredients because of their nutraceutical properties. However, legumes are also considered relevant in the development of food allergies through ingestion. Peanuts and soybeans are important food allergens in Western countries, while lentil and chickpea allergy are more relevant in the Mediterranean area. Information about the effects of thermal-processing procedures at various temperatures and conditions is scarce; therefore, the effect of these procedures on legume allergenic properties is not defined so far. The SDS-PAGE and IgE-immunoblotting patterns of chickpeas and lentils were analyzed before and after boiling (up to 60 min) and autoclaving (1.2 and 2.6 atm, up to 30 min). The results indicated that some of these treatments reduce IgE binding to lentil and chickpea, the most important being harsh autoclaving. However, several extremely resistant immunoreactive proteins still remained in these legumes even after this extreme treatment.

  17. In-vitro digestibility, rheology, structure, and functionality of RS3 from oat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Asima; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Gani, Adil; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Starches isolated from three different varieties of oat were modified with dual autoclaving-retrogradation treatment to make modified food starches with high contents of type 3 resistant starch (RS3). FT-IR spectroscopy showed increase in the ratio of intensity of 1047cm(-1)/1022cm(-1) on treatment. Morphology of the oat starches changed into a continuous network with increased values for onset temperature (To), peak temperature (Tp), and conclusion temperature (Tc). XRD showed an additional peak at 13° and increase in peak intensity at 20° inclusive of the major X-ray diffraction peaks which reflects formation of amylose-lipid complex from dual autoclaving-retrogradation cycle. Peaks at 13° and 20° are the typical peaks of the V-type pattern. Rheological analysis suggested that retrogradated oat starches showed shear thickening behavior as revealed from Herschel-Bulkely model and frequency sweep. PMID:27374592

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility in SPF mini-pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Yeob; Cho, Sung-Back; Kim, Yoo-Yong; Ohh, Sang-Jip

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility of either soy-based or milk-based diet for specific pathogen-free (SPF) mini-pigs. Gamma irradiation of the diets was done at dosage of 10 kGy with 60Co whereas autoclaving was executed at 121 °C for 20 min. Apparent crude protein digestibilities of gamma irradiated diets were higher ( pdiets regardless of diet type. Digestibilities of dry matter, gross energy and total carbohydrate in the irradiated diet were higher than those of the autoclaved diet. From the results of nutrient digestibility of mini-pig diets in this study, 10 kGy gamma radiation was suggested as a convenient diet radicidation method that can minimize the decrease in nutrient digestibility on feeding to SPF mini-pigs.

  19. THE EFFECT OF REDUCTIVE MEDIUM FOR DECREASED OF UNDESIRED PARTS OF CAN LIGNITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jale Guelen [Yildiz Technical University Chemical Engineering Department, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-09-30

    Turkey has huge lignite reserves although most of them have low quality. In this study, Can lignite was demineralized by using basic agents. In order to decrease sulfur and mineral matter of coal, basic agents were applied. Can lignite was stirred with 5% NaOH of 50 ml for 20 minutes. After washing with demineralized water, the lignite was dried in the autoclave at 105 C. Then, it was stirred for 20 minutes with 50 ml 5 % aquatic asidic solutions of HNO{sub 3}, HCl, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, HCOOH and HF, seperately. The solution was filtered with blue ribbon band, washed with distilled water and dried in the autoclave at 105 C. The ash and sulfur analyses were done in order to see the chemical agents effects applied for and also FTIR and X ray spectra were taken.

  20. Basic studies on carbon steel decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissolution of magnetite films grown in autoclave at high temperature on carbon steel has been performed in a dynamic loop in ammoniated citric and oxalic acid solutions at two different temperatures and constant pH. The dissolution process seems to be affected by the dual-layer oxide morphology depending on the growth conditions in the autoclave. The open-circuit potential of the specimens and the corrosion rate measured by the linear polarization method have been monitored. To this aim a particular corrosion cell and a suitable reference electrode have been set up at CISE. Polarization curves have been performed to check the electrochemical processes involved in the anodic and cathodic area. At last the effect of a corrosion inhibitor, of a complexing and a reducing agent and of temperature has also been studied. The work was carried out in the frame of a CNEN research programme for the development of the CIRENE prototype

  1. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto and Different Components in Culture on Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Functional Bacteria In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Li, Jinan; Bu, Dengpan; Nan, Xuemei; Du, Hong

    2016-05-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of live or autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto, their fermented products and media on rumen fermentation and rumen functional bacteria in vitro. Rumen fluid from three multiparous lactating Holstein cows was combined and transferred into serum bottles after diluted. Fifteen serum bottles were divided into five treatments, which were designed as following: CTR (the fermentation of 0.5 g TMR and ruminal fluids from dairy cows), LBS (CTR plus a minimum of 10(11) cfu live Bacillus subtilis natto), ABS (CTR plus a minimum of 10(11) cfu autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto), BSC (CTR plus 1 ml Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation products without bacteria), and BSM (CTR plus 1 ml liquid fermentation medium). When separated from the culture, live Bacillus subtilis natto individually increased the concentrations of ammonia-N (P production (P probiotic in dairy ration. PMID:26821238

  2. Influence of various sterilization procedures on TiO2 nanotubes used for biomedical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkar, Ita; Kulkarni, Mukta; Drašler, Barbara; Rugelj, Neža; Mazare, Anca; Flašker, Ajda; Drobne, Damjana; Humpolíček, Petr; Resnik, Matic; Schmuki, Patrik; Mozetič, Miran; Iglič, Aleš

    2016-06-01

    Sterilization is the final surface treatment procedure of all implantable devices and is one of the key factors which have to be considered before implementation. Since different sterilization procedures for all implantable devices influence mechanical properties as well as biological response, the influence of different sterilization techniques on titanium nanotubes was studied. Commonly used sterilization techniques such as autoclaving, ultra-violet light sterilization, hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilization as well as the not so frequently used gaseous oxygen plasma sterilization were used. Three different nanotube diameters; 15 nm, 50 nm and 100 nm were employed to study the effects of various sterilization techniques. It was observed that autoclave sterilization resulted in destruction of nanotubular features on all three studied nanotube diameters, while UV-light and both kinds of plasma sterilization did not cause any significant morphological changes on the surfaces. Differences between the sterilization techniques employed influenced cytocompatibility, especially in the case of nanotubes with 100 nm diameter.

  3. Properties of high fly ash content cellular concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, R.D.; Vallejo, L.E.; Hu, W.; Latona, M.; Carson, C.; Kelly, C. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    High fly ash content autoclaved cellular concrete is produced by adding calibrated quantities of aluminum powder to a mixture of fly ash (60% wt/wt), cement, and water. The foamed product is hardened in an autoclave with pressurized steam at about 180 C. Block material for samples tested originated from a mobile pilot plant that toured sites of United States-based electric utilities. Compressive strengths of the foamed product were controlled to the range of 300--600 psi, with dry weight densities on the order of 32--37 lb/cu ft. Heavy metal concentrations in TCLP, ASTM, and synthetic acid rain leachates were on the order one to 10 times that found in Pittsburgh tap water, and never approached 100 times drinking water standards. Organic contents of leachates were not detectable. Controlling pore distributions appears to influence density, moisture accumulation rates, and mechanical/physical properties that are significant for construction.

  4. Polysialates binders preparation and their influence to shear strength of foundry sand mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fridrich

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with polysialates water-glasses preparation. There were used various procedures with the goal to create inorganic polymer on silicon and aluminum base. The one composed of SiO2 and AlO4 tetrahedron chains. For the preparation was concentrated NaOH solution used together with metakaolinite in a way low-temperature synthesis in the presence of alkaline silicate: higher pressure and temperature (autoclave to direct making of alkaline silicate made of sand, NaOH with metakaolinite addition and by melting fritted glass together with metakaolinite and dissolution in autoclave. The dissolving effectivity was evaluated by the concentration of aluminum in alkaline silicate and by the influence to reduce strengths after heat exposition with this inorganic binder.

  5. Vegetable Protein Sources Used as Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Colibar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The comparative effect of using some vegetal raw flours (Glycine hispida, Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia faba, treated by autoclaving, introduced in the feeding white rats, was followed by the presented experiments. Feeding growing rats with diets containing raw grain legumes, as the main source of protein, reduce the rate of growth. This effect attenuates with the aging of rats. Inhibition of growth is the most evident in the consumption of raw beans (by 33% over the control group. Autoclaving reduces the level of anti-nutritive factors (with 0.2% - 36.73% and decreases the growth inhibition (with 10.7% - 27.51%.

  6. Elucidating the iodine stress corrosion cracking (SCC) process for zircaloy tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several experimental investigations were made to enhance understanding of the iodine stress corrosion cracking (SCC) process for Zircaloy: (1) oxide penetration process, (2) crack initiation process, and (3) crack propagation process. Concerning the effect of the oxide layer produced by conventional steam-autoclaving, no significant difference was found between results for autoclaved and as-pickled samples. Tests with 15 species of metal iodides revealed that only those metal iodides which react thermodynamically with zirconium to produce zirconium tetraiodide (ZrI4) caused SCC of Zircaloy. Detailed SEM examinations were made on the SCC fracture surface of irradiated specimens. The crack propagation rate was expressed with a da/dt=C Ksup(n) type equation by combining results of tests and calculations with a finite element method. (author)

  7. 金鸡纳-铂催化2-氧代-4-苯基丁酸乙酯的不对称加氢%Enantioselective Hydrogenation of Ethyl 2-Oxo-4-phenylbutyrate on Cinchona-Platinum Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏涛; 任其龙; 吴平东

    2005-01-01

    Enantioselective hydrogenation of ethyl 2-oxo-4-phenylbutyrate to ethyl (R)-2-hydroxy-4-phenyl- bu-tyrate on Pt/γ-Al2O3 modified by 10,11-dihydrocinchonidine was studied by investigating the influences of the amount of modifier, initial concentration of reactant, pressure and temperature on conversion and enantiometric excess in a stirred autoclave and the effects of the liquid velocity, gas velocity, modifier concentration and various catalytic beds in a trickle-bed reactor. The maximum optical yields were about 50% and 60% in the two types of reactors, respectively. It was assumed that the total hydrogenation rate included the reaction rates over the unmodified and modified active sites on platinum surface and a kinetic model, which fitted the experimental data well in autoclave, was obtained. A simplified plug-flow model was proposed to describe the bed average efficiency of trickle-bed reactor.

  8. Evaluation of different sterilization and disinfection methods on commercially made preformed crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Y; Guler, C

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes caused by different sterilization or disinfection methods on the vestibular surface of four commercially made preformed crowns using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Preformed crowns (NuSmile Primary Anterior Crown (NSC), Kinder Krowns (KK), Pedo Pearls (PP) and polycarbonate crowns (PC)) were sterilized and/or disinfected by one of the following techniques: no sterilization or disinfection (G1 control group); steam autoclaving at 134 degrees C (30 psi) for 4 min (G2); steam autoclaving at 134 degrees C (30 psi) for 12 min (G3); steam autoclaving at 121 degrees C (15 psi) for 30 min (G4); and ultrasonication in a bath containing 4% Lysetol AF for 5 min at room temperature (chemical disinfection) (G5). Scanning electron micrographs of the crowns were taken before and after their sterilization or disinfection. The changes on the vestibular surface were then scored for the presence or absence of crazing, contour alteration, fracturing, and vestibular surface changes. The data were analyzed statistically using the chi-square test. No changes were observed before and after sterilization or disinfection in the stereomicroscopic evaluation of the vestibular surface of the crowns. However, all methods in which steam autoclaving was used to sterilize the crowns caused significant (P < 0.05) crazing and contour alterations of the vestibular surface of the crowns when they were examined by SEM. Chemical disinfection using an aldehyde-free disinfectant is the preferred method of disinfection for crowns that have been used previously in other dental patients. PMID:19008625

  9. Impact of Irgarol 1051 on the larval development and metamorphosis of Balanus amphitirite Darwin, diatom, Amphora coffeaformis and natural biofilm

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, D.V.

    (Daley and Hobbie 1975). Development of diatom biofilm A. coffeaformis was cultured in f/2 medium (Guillard 1975). When visible diatom films had formed in the culture flask, the biofilm was removed by brushing the culture flask with a sterile..., 2 ml aliquots of the diatom suspension was inoculated into the 24 well multiwells which were gently shaken for a period of 24 hours. The multiwell plates were then rinsed three times using autoclaved filtered seawater. The films developed without...

  10. Upgrading the quality of mixed recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste by using near-infrared sorting technology

    OpenAIRE

    Vegas, Iñigo; Broos, Kris; Nielsen, Peter; Lambertz, Oliver; Lisbona, Amaia

    2015-01-01

    Recycled aggregates of high-purity, guaranteeing optimal technical and environmental performance, are required for high-grade construction applications such as concrete. The main problem constituents causing a decrease in the quality of recycled aggregates to be used in high grade applications are: organic material, gypsum and autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC). This paper studies the potential of Near Infrared (NIR) sorting technology to improve the quality of mixed recycled aggregates. Tests...

  11. A convenient thermal decomposition-co-reduction synthesis of nanocrystalline tungsten disilicide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jianhua Ma; Yihong Du; Yitai Qian

    2005-08-01

    Nanocrystalline WSi2 was synthesized by a thermal decomposition-co-reduction route via the reaction of anhydrous tungsten hexachloride and sodium fluorosilicate with metallic potassium in an autoclave at 650°C. X-ray powder diffraction pattern indicated that it was tetragonal WSi2. Transmission electron microscope image showed that it consisted of particles with an average diameter of about 50 nm. TGA and DTA indicated that it had good thermal stability below 600°C in air.

  12. Hydrolysis of Polysaccharides with 77% Sulfuric Acid for Quantitative Saccharification

    OpenAIRE

    UÇAR, Güneş; Balaban, Mualla

    2003-01-01

    Classical standard hydrolysis of polysaccharides with 72% sulfuric acid was modified in 2 manners. In order to avoid treatment in an autoclave at 120 °C under pressure, wood or pulp material was first swollen in cold 77% acid followed by hydrolysis steps in diluted acid solutions. Further, the neutralization of the hydrolyzate with dilute barium hydroxide was carried out in heated mother liquor ensuring a crystalline precipitate of barium sulfate. Digestion enables the separation of clear ali...

  13. Xenoestrogens released from lacquer coatings in food cans.

    OpenAIRE

    Brotons, Jos?? Antonio; Olea Serrano, F??tima; Villalobos Torres, Mercedes; Pedraza Muriel, Vicente; Olea, Nicol??s

    1995-01-01

    We present data showing that some foods preserved in lacquer-coated cans and the liquid in them may acquire estrogenic activity. Hormonal activity was measured using the E-screen bioassay. The biological activity of vegetables packed in cans was a result of plastic monomers used in manufacturing the containers. The plastic monomer bisphenol-A, identified by mass spectrometry, was found as a contaminant not only in the liquid of the preserved vegetables but also in water autoclaved in the cans...

  14. ISOLATION OF TANNINS FROM CAESALPINIA CORIARIA AND EFFECT OF PHYSICAL PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    Nallabilli Lokeswari; Peela Sujatha

    2011-01-01

    The subject of the present work is the study of the influence of particle size temperature, methanol content and time on the extraction of tannins from caesalpinia coriaria by pressure autoclaving method. The determination of these tannins by spectrophotometry, after extraction, enabled us to establish the qualitative and quantitative evolution of this component and the effect of each extraction conditions on the total tannins from caesalpinia coriaria. Under the extraction conditions examine...

  15. Aqueous corrosion study on U-Zr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In low power or research reactor, U-Zr alloy is a potential candidate for dispersion fuel. Moreover, Zirconium has a low thermal-neutron cross section and uranium alloyed with Zr has excellent corrosion resistance and dimensional stability during thermal cycling. In the present study aqueous corrosion behavior of U-Zr alloy samples was studied in autoclave at 200 deg C temperature. Corrosion rate was determined from weight loss with time. (author)

  16. A novel hybrid technology for remediation of molasses-based raw effluents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verma, A.K.; Raghukumar, C.; Naik, C.G.

    reaction between the amino acids and carbonyl groups in molasses. With their high biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, these effluents are environmental hazards. When released in water bodies they cause oxygen depletion and associated problems, and... increases hydrophilicity of the surface (Bayramoğlu and Arica, 2007). Autoclaved fungal biomass (2 g wet weight) of Aspergillus oryzae strain Y-2-32, removed 65 % of melanoidin pigments within 4 days by adsorption (Ohmomo et al., 1988). 11 Biosorption...

  17. A processing method for orthodontic mini-screws reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Noorollahian

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Cleaning of used mini-screws with phosphoric acid 37% (10 minutes and sodium hypochlorite 5.25% (30 minutes reduces tissue remnants to the level of as-received mini-screws. So it can be suggested as a processing method of used mini-screws. Previous insertion of mini-screws into the bone and above-mentioned processing method and resterilization with autoclave had no adverse effects on insertion, removal, and fracture torque values as mechanical properties indices.

  18. Co-pyrolysis of wood biomass and synthetic polymers mixtures. Part 3. Characterisation of heavy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Kuznetsov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, K. Marx str., 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russian Federation); Membrado, L.; Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain); Marin, N.; Weber, J.V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, IUT, rue V. Demange, 57500 Saint-Avold (France)

    2003-05-01

    The chemical composition of heavy liquids (b.p.>180C) obtained by co-pyrolysis of polyolefins/wood biomass mixtures in autoclave conditions under inert atmosphere was investigated by FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, GC-MS, high performance TLC combined with densitometry techniques. The preliminary separation of heavy liquids into different fractions by open LC and TLC methods had been used. Some perspectives of polymer and biomass thermal conversion during co-pyrolysis process were discussed.

  19. Kinetics of the Double Carbonylation of Benzylchloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It is a multi-phase-catalyzed reaction to produce calcium phenylpyruvate by double carbonylation of benzylchloride. Based on the analysis of the reaction mechanism, a kinetic model of the carbonylation reaction was obtained. The model was verified through experiments in which the diffusion effect was neglected with the appropriate operation manner. But it is inevitable that the carbonylation process is controlled by diffusion as the autoclave scaling up.

  20. High resolution tomographic imaging and modelling of notch tip damage in a laminated composite

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) has been used to observe in situ damage growth and enable micromechanical damage characterization in [90/0]S carbon fibre-epoxy composite samples loaded in uniaxial tension to stresses ranging from 30% to 90% of the nominal failure stress. A 3-D finite element model has been constructed to predict crack opening displacements and shear displacements in the 0?plies resulting from thermal residual stress imposed during autoclav...

  1. Cleaning Animals' Cages With Little Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Benjamin J.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed freeze/thaw method for cleaning animals' cages requires little extra weight and consumes little power and water. Cleaning concept developed for maintaining experimental rat cages on extended space missions. Adaptable as well to similar use on Earth. Reduces cleaning time. Makes use of already available facilities such as refrigerator, glove box, and autoclave. Rat waste adheres to steel-wire-mesh floor of cage. Feces removed by loosening action of freezing-and-thawing process, followed by blast of air.

  2. Relation between Modulus of Elasticity and Compressive Strength of Ultrahigh-Strength Mortar with Mixed Silicon Carbide as Fine Aggregate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ultrahigh-strength mortar mixed surface-oxidized silicon carbide as a fine aggregate was prepared by means of press-casting followed by curing in an autoclave. The relation between modulus of elasticity up to 111 GPa and compressive strength up to 360 MPa of mortar mixed silicon carbide was discussed and it was revealed that the contributions of the aggregate hardness and of the interfacial strength between the aggregate and the cement paste on the elasticity of mortar were imporant.

  3. Experimental research of non-burned fly-ash ceramsite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-shun; ZHANG Chao; GUO Jin-min; ZHOU Shao-tong

    2005-01-01

    Selected non-burned method and took fly-ash as main material, together with lime and gypsum, to inspire the activity of volcanic ash, took a kind of poly-organics to replace the clay as binder, and then made small balls with machine, wrapped slurry twice and autoclaved 8 hours at normal atmosphere, made ceramsite in this way can endure higher compression strength. Comparing with common concrete, the ceramsite concrete is about 25% lighter on weight.

  4. Microwave assisted synthesis of MCM-41 type mesoporous materials and diffusion of organic vapors in porous media: MCM-41 and carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Ergün, Aslı; Ergun, Asli

    2011-01-01

    In this study a novel synthesis technique of MCM-41 has been successfully applied for the production of pure and metal incorporated MCM-41 type mesoporous molecular sieves under microwave radiation by using a household microwave oven operated at several different combinations of power and time. High quality MCM-41 hexagonal mesoporous materials of good thermal stability were obtained in 30 minutes at 120 Watt by microwave assisted hydrothermal autoclave heating with specific surface area valu...

  5. Effect of P-Reactive Drainage Aggregates on Green Roof Runoff Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Karczmarczyk; Anna Baryła; Agnieszka Bus

    2014-01-01

    The main hypothesis of the presented study is that the negative effect of phosphorus leaching from a green roof substrate can be reduced by including P-reactive material in a drainage layer. In this work, different aggregates (Pollytag®, lightweight expanded clay aggregates, chalcedony, serpentynite and crushed autoclaved aerated concrete) to be used as the green roof drainage layer are described. Physical parameters, e.g., granulometric composition, water absorption, bulk density and porosi...

  6. Evaluation of different sterilization and disinfection methods on commercially made preformed crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Y

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes caused by different sterilization or disinfection methods on the vestibular surface of four commercially made preformed crowns using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Preformed crowns (NuSmile Primary Anterior Crown (NSC, Kinder Krowns (KK, Pedo Pearls (PP and polycarbonate crowns (PC were sterilized and/or disinfected by one of the following techniques: no sterilization or disinfection (G1 control group; steam autoclaving at 134 °C (30 psi for 4 min (G2; steam autoclaving at 134 °C (30 psi for 12 min (G3; steam autoclaving at 121 °C (15 psi for 30 min (G4; and ultrasonication in a bath containing 4% Lysetol ® AF for 5 min at room temperature (chemical disinfection (G5. Scanning electron micrographs of the crowns were taken before and after their sterilization or disinfection. The changes on the vestibular surface were then scored for the presence or absence of crazing, contour alteration, fracturing, and vestibular surface changes. The data were analyzed statistically using the chi-square test. No changes were observed before and after sterilization or disinfection in the stereomicroscopic evaluation of the vestibular surface of the crowns. However, all methods in which steam autoclaving was used to sterilize the crowns caused significant (P < 0.05 crazing and contour alterations of the vestibular surface of the crowns when they were examined by SEM. Chemical disinfection using an aldehyde-free disinfectant is the preferred method of disinfection for crowns that have been used previously in other dental patients.

  7. Evaluation of different sterilization and disinfection methods on commercially made preformed crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Y; Guler, C

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes caused by different sterilization or disinfection methods on the vestibular surface of four commercially made preformed crowns using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Preformed crowns (NuSmile Primary Anterior Crown (NSC), Kinder Krowns (KK), Pedo Pearls (PP) and polycarbonate crowns (PC)) were sterilized and/or disinfected by one of the following techniques: no sterilization or disinfection (G1 control group); steam autoclaving at 134 degrees C (30 psi) for 4 min (G2); steam autoclaving at 134 degrees C (30 psi) for 12 min (G3); steam autoclaving at 121 degrees C (15 psi) for 30 min (G4); and ultrasonication in a bath containing 4% Lysetol AF for 5 min at room temperature (chemical disinfection) (G5). Scanning electron micrographs of the crowns were taken before and after their sterilization or disinfection. The changes on the vestibular surface were then scored for the presence or absence of crazing, contour alteration, fracturing, and vestibular surface changes. The data were analyzed statistically using the chi-square test. No changes were observed before and after sterilization or disinfection in the stereomicroscopic evaluation of the vestibular surface of the crowns. However, all methods in which steam autoclaving was used to sterilize the crowns caused significant (P < 0.05) crazing and contour alterations of the vestibular surface of the crowns when they were examined by SEM. Chemical disinfection using an aldehyde-free disinfectant is the preferred method of disinfection for crowns that have been used previously in other dental patients.

  8. Development of composite aircraft components in INCDT COMOTI, Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca VOICU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the recent research activities within INCDT COMOTI, in the composite materials field. The author makes a short introduction of this field and presents an example of application developed within the composite materials laboratory from INCDT COMOTI, targeting the aeronautic field. The aircraft component is a stator blade made of CFRP composites, integrating new active noise reduction technologies and manufactured by means of the autoclave technology.

  9. The Cracking Induced by Oxidation-Hydriding in Welding Joints of Zircaloy-4 Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周邦新; 姚美意; 苗志; 李强; 刘文庆

    2003-01-01

    The welding joints of Zircaloy-4 plates obtained by diffusion welding at 800℃ under pressure in vacuum were cracked during autoclave tests at 400℃ superheated steam after exposure longer than 150 days. The section of specimens was examined by optical microscopy and the composition at the tips of cracking was analyzed by electron microprobe. The result shows that the combination of oxidation and hydriding induced cracking is responsible for this failure of the welding joints.

  10. Monitoring moisture movements in building materials using x-ray attenuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pease, Bradley Justin; Scheffler, Gregor A.; Janssen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    X-ray attenuation measurements are commonly used as a non-destructive method to monitor internal concentration changes of moisture (i.e., moisture content) and other chemical compounds in porous building materials. The technique provides direct measurements of moisture content changes through ana...... autoclaved concrete, clay brick, cementitious materials, and wood. Results from the parametric investigation indicate the attenuation coefficient of water is dependent on the type and thickness of the porous material....

  11. 英国AIC公司在新加坡设办事处

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    英国AIC公司(Autoclave & Industrial ControlsLtd.)在新加坡新设了一家办事处。这将帮助该公司满足中国、新加坡、马来西亚和泰国对压热器和其他复合材料设备支持服务日益增长的需求。

  12. Influence of time and pressure of forming a pattern on mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pacyniak

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the technology of forming patterns on a research station equipped with an autoclave A-600 of Polish company GROM is presented. This study was conducted to determine the influence of pressure and time of forming a pattern on the bending strength. Analysis of the results confirmed that bending strength increases with increasing the pressure. The time of forming a pattern has a similar effect.

  13. Thixotropic properties of waxy potato starch depending on the degree of the granules pasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystyjan, Magdalena; Sikora, Marek; Adamczyk, Greta; Dobosz, Anna; Tomasik, Piotr; Berski, Wiktor; Łukasiewicz, Marcin; Izak, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the rheological instability (thixotropy/antithixotropy) of waxy potato starch (WPS) pastes depending on their concentration (1-5% w/w) and pasting temperature (80, 95 and autoclaved: 121°C, at 0.1MPa). The hysteresis loop, apparent viscosity at constant shear rate as well as the in-shear structural recovery tests with and without pre-shearing were applied. The pastes were also characterized by the granularity profile, molecular weight, polydispersity and optical transmittance. Differences in rheological properties of the pastes prepared at 80 and 95°C as well as autoclaved resulted from degree of granules pasting. At 121 °C dissolution of the granules occurred, while at the lower temperatures only the partial pasting of the granules took place. Pasting temperature of WPS significantly influenced rheological parameters of the resulted pastes which had thixotropic, antithixotropic or mixed thixotropic/antithixotropic behavior. Autoclaved pastes, regardless their concentration were antithixotropic as demonstrated by the areas of hysteresis loops derived from the flow curves signalized by the degree of structure recovery (DSR) which exceeded unity. The apparent viscosity of WPS pasted at 121°C strongly decreased as compared to the samples pasted at lower temperatures. Samples pasted at 80 and 95°C showed both thixotropic and antithixotropic behavior, with a predominance of the latter. The starch concentration played an important role in the formation of the rheological properties of the resulted pastes. Its influence was strongly connected with the degree of the granules pasting, therefore with the temperature of pastes preparation. For the pastes prepared at 80 and 95°C the values of thixotropy and apparent viscosity increased, while the values of DSR decreased with an increase of concentration. In the autoclaved pastes the antithixotropy, DSR and apparent viscosity increased with increasing starch concentration. It was also found that apart

  14. Inbuilt Potential of YEM Medium and Its Constituents to Generate Ag/Ag2O Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    G Yamal; Sharmila, P.; K. S. Rao; P Pardha-Saradhi

    2013-01-01

    We discovered that Yeast Extract Mannitol (YEM) medium possessed immense potential to generate silver nanoparticles from AgNO3 upon autoclaving, which was evident from (i) alteration in color of the medium; (ii) peak at ∼410 nm in UV-Vis spectrum due to surface plasmon resonance specific to silver nanoparticles; and (iii) TEM investigations. TEM coupled with EDX confirmed that distinct nanoparticles were composed of silver. Yeast extract and mannitol were key components of YEM medium responsi...

  15. Radiation Sterilization of Two Commonly Culture Media Used for Bacterial Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sterilization of culture media used for the cultivation of bacteria by Co-60 gamma ray was investigated. Nutrient agar and tryptone glucose yeast extract (TGY) media widely used for the propagation of bacteria were sterilized with 15 kGy dose gamma radiation. Seven different bacterial species were grown as well on the radiation sterilized media as on media sterilized by autoclaving in a conventional way

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Diode Laser and Sodium Hypochlorite in Enterococcus Faecalis-Contaminated Root Canals

    OpenAIRE

    Sohrabi, Khosrow; Sooratgar, Aidin; Zolfagharnasab, Kaveh; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Afkhami, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the disinfection ability of 980-nm diode laser in comparison with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as a common root canal irrigant in canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Methods and Materials: The root canals of 18 extracted single-rooted premolars were prepared by rotary system. After decoronation, the roots were autoclaved. One specimen was chosen for the negative control, and the remaining teeth were incub...

  17. Measurement of Moisture Storage Parameters of Building Materials

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jiřičková; Černý, R.; P. Rovnaníková

    2003-01-01

    The moisture storage parameters of three different building materials: calcium silicate, ceramic brick and autoclaved aerated concrete, are determined in the hygroscopic range and overhygroscopic range. Measured sorption isotherms and moisture retention curves are then combined into moisture storage functions using the Kelvin equation. A comparison of measured results with global characteristics of the pore space obtained by mercury intrusion porosimetry shows a reasonable agreement; the medi...

  18. Microbial and chemical origins of the bactericidal activity of thermally treated yellow mustard powder toward Escherichia coli O157:H7 during dry sausage ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Fernando B; Belland, Julie; Holley, Richard A

    2011-01-31

    Work examines the origin of bactericidal activity in mustard flour and explores the relative contribution from starter cultures, E. coli O157:H7 itself and other sources. Bacteria can degrade naturally occurring glucosinolates in mustard and form isothiocyanates with antimicrobial activity. In the present work, 24 starter cultures (mostly from commercial mixtures) were screened for their capacity to decompose the glucosinolate, sinalbin. The most active pair, Pediococcus pentosaceus UM 121P and Staphylococcus carnosus UM 123 M, were used together for the production of dry fermented sausage contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 (~6.5 log CFU/g). They were compared to industrial starters used previously (P. pentosaceus UM 116P and S. carnosus UM 109 M) for their reduction of E. coli O157:H7 viability. Sausage batches containing hot mustard powder (active myrosinase), cold mustard powder (inactivated myrosinase), autoclaved mustard powder (inactivated myrosinase) and no mustard flour (control) were prepared. Interestingly, both pairs of starter cultures yielded similar results. Elimination of E. coli O157:H7 (>5 log CFU/g) occurred after 31 days in the presence of hot flour and in 38 days when the cold flour was added. Reductions >5 log CFU/g of the pathogen did not occur (up to 38 days) in the control group. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 itself had a greater effect on sinalbin conversion than either pair of starter cultures, and glucosinolate degradation by the starter cultures was less important in determining E. coli survival. The autoclaved powder caused more rapid bactericidal action against E. coli O157:H7, yielding a >5 log CFU/g reduction in 18 days. This may have been a result of the formation and/or release of antimicrobial substances by the autoclave treatment. Autoclaved mustard powder could potentially solve an important challenge facing the meat industry as it strives to manufacture safe dry fermented sausages. PMID:21146240

  19. A Field Investigation of Bacillus anthracis Contamination of U.S. Department of Agriculture and Other Washington, D.C., Buildings during the Anthrax Attack of October 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, James A.; Cooper, Mary; Schroeder-Tucker, Linda; Black, Scott; Miller, David; Karns, Jeffrey S.; Manthey, Erlynn; Breeze, Roger; Perdue, Michael L

    2003-01-01

    In response to a bioterrorism attack in the Washington, D.C., area in October 2001, a mobile laboratory (ML) was set up in the city to conduct rapid molecular tests on environmental samples for the presence of Bacillus anthracis spores and to route samples for further culture analysis. The ML contained class I laminar-flow hoods, a portable autoclave, two portable real-time PCR devices (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device [RAPID]), and miscellaneous supplies and equipment to pr...

  20. Strength enhancement process for prealloyed powder superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, W. J.; Freche, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    A technique involving superplastic processing and high-pressure autoclaving was applied to a nickel-base prealloyed powder alloy. Tensile strengths as high as 2865 MN/sq m (415 ksi) at 480 C (900 F) were obtained with as-superplastically deformed material. Appropriate treatments yielding materials with high-temperature tensile and stress-rupture strengths (980 C (1800 F)) were also devised.

  1. Characterization of Hydroxyapatite Film on Titanium Substrate by Sputtering Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Radiofrequent magnetron sputtering technique was used to produce calcium phosphate coated on the titanium substrates, and the sputtered coating films were crystallized in an autoclave at 110 ℃ using a low temperature hydrothermal technique. The crystallization of as- sputtered coating film on the titanium substrates were amorphous calcium phosphate film. However, after the hydrothermal technique, calcium phosphate crystals grew and these were columnar crystal. The Ca/ P ratio of sputtered coating films in 1.6 to 2.0.

  2. Changes in differently processed soya bean (Glycine max.) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) with particular reference to their chemical composition and their mineral and some inherent anti-nutritional constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletor, V A; Ojo, O I

    1989-01-01

    The effects of 3 processing techniques: cooking, roasting and autoclaving on the proximate chemical composition, the mineral content and some inherent toxic factors of soya and lima beans were investigated. The processing techniques generally reduced the crude fibre levels and enhanced the extractable fat in the soya and lima beans. The coefficients of variability for crude fibre and ether extract due to the processing techniques of soya and lima beans were 20.9%, 16.0% and 22.3%, 38.1%, respectively. In parallel with decreased ash content in the cooked bean samples, there was a decrease in the K, Mg, Na and P levels relative to the raw bean and also relative to the other processing techniques. Mineral contents of the autoclaved bean samples were generally similar to those of the raw (unprocessed) samples. Under the processing conditions, roasting caused the highest reduction in thioglucoside content (59%) in soya bean while cooking caused the highest reduction in lima bean (78%). Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) ranged between 0.59 mg/g sample in the cooked soya bean and 11.6 mg/g sample in the raw bean while the corresponding values for lima bean ranged between 0.59 and 6.3 mg/g sample. Cooking and roasting caused over 90% reduction of TIA, while autoclaving caused 64-69% reduction in both bean samples. Under the assay conditions, haemagglutinating activity was not detected in the cooked and autoclaved soya and lima beans. The need to prevent both functional and nutritional damage to food proteins and other nutrients, resulting from excessive heating, was discussed.

  3. Use of acid whey and mustard seed to replace nitrites during cooked sausage production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójciak, Karolina M; Karwowska, Małgorzata; Dolatowski, Zbigniew J

    2014-02-01

    The aim was to determine the effects of sea salt, acid whey, native and autoclaved mustard seed on the physico-chemical properties, especially colour formation, microbial stability and sensory evaluation of non-nitrite cooked sausage during chilling storage. The cooked pork sausages were divided into 4 groups (group I--control sausages with curing salt (2.8%) and water (5%) added; group II--sausages with sea salt (2.8%) and acid whey (5%) added; group III--sausages with sea salt (2.8%), acid whey (5%) and mustard seed (1%) added; group IV--sausages with sea salt (2.8%), acid whey (5%) and autoclaved mustard seed (1%) added). Instrumental colour (L*, a*, b*), oxygenation index (ΔR), 650/570 nm ratio, heme iron, pH value and water activity (aw) were determined 1 day after production and after 10, 20 and 30 days of refrigerated storage (4 °C). Sensory analysis was conducted immediately after production (day 1). Microbial analysis (lactic acid bacteria, total viable count, Clostridium spp.) was determinated at the end of storage (30 days). The autoclaved mustard with acid whey can be used at 1.0% (w/w) of model cooked sausages with beneficial effect on physico-chemical and sensory qualities of no-nitrite sausage. This product can be stored at refrigeration temperature for up to 30 days, in vacuum, with good acceptability. The colour, visual appearance and overall quality of samples with autoclaved mustard seed and acid whey were similar to the control with curing agent.

  4. Applications of life cycle assessment and cost analysis in health care waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sebastião Roberto; Finotti, Alexandra Rodrigues; da Silva, Vamilson Prudêncio; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A F

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of rules to manage Health Care Waste (HCW) is a challenge for the public sector. Regulatory agencies must ensure the safety of waste management alternatives for two very different profiles of generators: (1) hospitals, which concentrate the production of HCW and (2) small establishments, such as clinics, pharmacies and other sources, that generate dispersed quantities of HCW and are scattered throughout the city. To assist in developing sector regulations for the small generators, we evaluated three management scenarios using decision-making tools. They consisted of a disinfection technique (microwave, autoclave and lime) followed by landfilling, where transportation was also included. The microwave, autoclave and lime techniques were tested at the laboratory to establish the operating parameters to ensure their efficiency in disinfection. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis, the decision-making tools aimed to determine the technique with the best environmental performance. This consisted of evaluating the eco-efficiency of each scenario. Based on the life cycle assessment, microwaving had the lowest environmental impact (12.64 Pt) followed by autoclaving (48.46 Pt). The cost analyses indicated values of US$0.12 kg(-1) for the waste treated with microwaves, US$1.10 kg(-1) for the waste treated by the autoclave and US$1.53 kg(-1) for the waste treated with lime. The microwave disinfection presented the best eco-efficiency performance among those studied and provided a feasible alternative to subsidize the formulation of the policy for small generators of HCW.

  5. Decomposition of molybdenite products with nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitina, L.S.

    1983-04-01

    The problems of development abroad of hydrometallurgic methods of opening molybdenum concentrates using nitric acid are considered. Several variants of the process are developed, they are the two-stage decomposition by stoichiometrically necessary amount of nitric acid, single-stage decomposition in the autoclave using nitric acid and oxigen as oxidizers; decomposition using circulatina nitro-sulfuric solution containing molybdenum. The advantages and disadvantages of new methods are presented.

  6. Flexible diaphragm-extreme temperature usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Guillermo (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A diaphragm suitable for extreme temperature usage, such as encountered in critical aerospace applications, is fabricated by a unique method, and of a unique combination of materials. The materials include multilayered lay-ups of diaphragm materials sandwiched between layers of bleeder fabrics. After being formed in the desired shape on a mold, they are vacuum sealed and then cured under pressure, in a heated autoclave. A bond capable of withstanding extreme temperatures are produced.

  7. Barnacle larval destination: piloting possibilities by bacteria and lectin interaction

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Anil, A.C.; Raghukumar, S.

    converted to alditol acetates and were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography (GC) as described previously (Bhosle et al., 1995; Khandeparker and Bhosle, 2001) (Chrompack, Middleburg, The Netherlands, Model CP 9002) equipped with a fused silica capillary... inoculated with the bacteria and free EPS (50 Agml C01 ). The multiwells inoculated with the bacterial films were rinsed off after 3 h by repeated rinsing with autoclaved filtered seawater under a laminar chamber. Subsequentlyf25–30 cyprids were introduced...

  8. In Vitro Analysis of Fibronectin-Modified Titanium Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yu-Chi; Lee, Wei-Fang; Feng, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Haw-Ming; Lin, Che-Tong; Teng, Nai-Chia; Chang, Wei Jen

    2016-01-01

    Background Glow discharge plasma (GDP) procedure is an effective method for grafting various proteins, including albumin, type I collagen, and fibronectin, onto a titanium surface. However, the behavior and impact of titanium (Ti) surface modification is yet to be unraveled. Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate and analyze the biological properties of fibronectin-grafted Ti surfaces treated by GDP. Materials and Methods Grade II Ti discs were initially cleaned and autoclaved to ob...

  9. Exploring the influence of sterilisation and storage on some physicochemical properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water

    OpenAIRE

    Agyare Rebecca; Doe Edna D; Awua Adolf K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Fresh coconut (Cocos nucifera L) water is a clear, sterile, colourless, slightly acidic and naturally flavoured drink, mostly consumed in tropical areas. It is a rich source of nutrients and has been used for medical purposes. This study was designed to investigate changes in selected characteristics of coconut water after autoclaving, gamma irradiation and storage. Also, the study was designed for assessing the possibility of measuring the growth of bacterial in fresh, st...

  10. Effects of sterilization methods on key properties of specialty optical fibers used in medical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolov, Andrei A.; Slyman, Brian E.; Burgess, David T.; Hokansson, Adam S.; Li, Jie; Allen, R. Steve

    2013-03-01

    Optical fibers with different types of polymer coatings were exposed to three sterilization conditions: multiple autoclaving, treatment with ethylene oxide and treatment with gamma rays. Effects of different sterilization techniques on key optical and mechanical properties of the fibers are reported. The primary attention is given to behavior of the coatings in harsh sterilization environments. The following four coating/buffer types were investigated: (i) dual acrylate, (ii) polyimide, (iii) silicone/PEEK and (iv) fluoroacrylate hard cladding/ETFE.

  11. Thermomechanical Properties, Antibiotic Release, and Bioactivity of a Sterilized Cyclodextrin Drug Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Halpern, Jeffrey M.; Gormley, Catherine A.; Keech, Melissa; von Recum, Horst A.

    2014-01-01

    Various local drug delivery devices and coatings are being developed as slow, sustained release mechanism for drugs, yet the polymers are typically not evaluated after commercial sterilization techniques. We examine the effect that commercial sterilization techniques have on the physical, mechanical, and drug delivery properties of polyurethane polymers. Specifically we tested cyclodextrin-hexamethyl diisocyanate crosslinked polymers before and after autoclave, ethylene oxide, and gamma radia...

  12. Metal dissolution kinetics in organic solvents using rotating ring-disc voltammetry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The effect of a two-phased liquid system - composed of geothermal brine and an organic heat transfer fluid - on the stability of materials used in the energy conversion system was investigated. The principle organic liquids used were isobutane and isopentane. The effects of relative fluid velocity on the corrosion behavior of representative construction materials, austenitic stainless steels, nickel, and copper alloy were determined using an autoclave incorporating a rotating ring-disc electrode. 2 refs., 20 figs. (ACR)

  13. CORROSION PROTECTION OF ALUMINUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, R.S.; Nelson, W.B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred. (D.C.W.)

  14. Influence of preparation conditions and heat treatment on the properties of supercooled smectic cholesteryl myristate nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Bunjes, H

    2007-01-01

    Colloidal dispersions of cholesterol esters in the supercooled smectic state are under investigation as a novel drug carrier system in particular with respect to parenteral application. In the present study, suitable conditions for the homogenization of cholesteryl myristate dispersions stabilized...... is less effective even when applying the highest homogenization pressure possible but still leads to dispersions with particles in the colloidal size range. Since sterility is required for parenteral medications and is usually achieved by autoclaving for aqueous systems, the physical and chemical...

  15. Preparation and in vivo toxicity study of solid lipid microparticles as carrier for pulmonary administration

    OpenAIRE

    Sanna, Vanna; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Gustin, Pascal; Gavini, Elisabeta; Roland, Isabelle; DELATTRE, Luc; Evrard, Brigitte

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of processing conditions on the characteristics of solid lipid microparticles (SLM) with a potential application as carriers for pulmonary administration. Compritol (5.0% wt/wt) SLM dispersions were prepared by rotor-stator homogenization, at different surfactant concentrations and emulsification times. The SLM were characterized, in terms of morphology and size, after lyophilization and sterilization by autoclaving process. In vivo ...

  16. 古紙混合汚泥コンポスト中の植物生長促成作用に関わる糸状菌とそれらの代謝産物

    OpenAIRE

    森本, 正則; 若山, 晃子; 駒井, 功一郎

    2005-01-01

    [Synopsis] Sometime, the compost products made from bio-sludge and containing paper strips, showed plant growth promoting effect by field application. We have evaluated to separating various fungi from biosludge compost that have PGPR (Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria) effect against some crops by inoculating test into the incubation soil. Test fungi separated from the compost using multiple dilution method and colonization on the PDA agar plate. And, the surface of autoclaved oat serial...

  17. 汚泥コンポストの植物生長促成活性に関わる微生物と、それらの代謝産物

    OpenAIRE

    森本, 正則; 松本, 朋子; 駒井, 功一郎

    2004-01-01

    [Synopsis] Sometime, the compost products made from bio-sludge and containing paper strips, showed plant growth promoting effect in the field. We have evaluated to separating various fungi from biosludge compost that have PGPR (Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria) effect against some cropsinoculating test into the incubation soil. Test fungi separated from the compost using by multiple dilution method and colonization on the PDA agar plate. And, the surface of autoclaved oat serials kept eac...

  18. Cement mixtures containing copper tailings as an additive: durability properties

    OpenAIRE

    Obinna Onuaguluchi; Özgur Eren

    2012-01-01

    The effects of copper tailings as an additive, on some durability properties of cement mixtures were investigated. In each mixture, copper tailings addition levels by mass were 0%, 5% and 10%. Compared to the control samples, copper tailings blended pastes showed superior performance against autoclave expansion while insignificant decreases in sulfate resistance of mortars were observed. Copper tailings increased the water absorption and total permeable voids of concretes slightly. However, t...

  19. Use of gamma irradiation for wheat sterilization as a media for cultivation of mushrooms' spawn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, respect to mushrooms, nutritious value cultivation and culture of this valuable crop has increased in our country. Since, today the nuclear techniques for preserving and improving the quality of agricultural products and foods are being the core of consideration and these techniques are being vastly utilized, therefore we can use these techniques to eliminate some of the existing problems which appear during processing of mushrooms. In this research the possibility of using 60 Co gamma irradiation to sterilize the wheat as a medium culture of mushroom mycelia was examined and during several experiments we obtained the suitable gamma irradiation dose rate (10000 Gy) and then, we made a comparison between two methods of wheat sterilization i.e. by the means of; l: autoclave and 2: gamma irradiation with respect to the quality and race of 'Pleuroturs Sajor Caju' mushrooms, mycelium growth. According to the results, at the early stage of experiments no noticeable difference between autoclave and irradiated samples was observed but gradually it was noted that on irradiated culture bed the mycelium growth was infinitely better than those on autoclave wheat. Thus in irradiated seeds grain, since the grain wheat was remained sound, the my celia were grown regularly

  20. Improved osseointegration of long-term stored SLA implant by hydrothermal sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingling; Xu, Lingli; Violin, Kalan Bastos; Lu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The sandblasted, large-grit and acid-etched (SLA) surface is easy to be contaminated during storage and its surface chemical state is usually changed by different sterilization methods. This causes an undesirable increase in surface hydrophobicity and results in osseointegration degradation. To overcome this problem, a low temperature hydrothermal (HT) sterilization method was proposed in this study. Briefly, 4 weeks-stored pure titanium SLA specimens were sterilized using a sealed glass bottle with pure water in an autoclave set at 121 °C for 20 min. Results showed that, stored SLA specimens were superhydrophobic before and after conventional autoclaving, whereas, HT sterilization decontaminated and endowed stored SLA surface with superhydrophilicity. Osteoblast spreading was greatly enhanced, ALP expression was upgraded and bone nodule formation was obviously promoted on HT sterilized specimens compared with autoclaved ones. More bone formation around HT sterilized specimens was observed and HT sterilization increased bonding strength of implant to bone by 95% and 127% after 2 and 4 weeks of healing, respectively. The simple, feasible HT sterilization restored osseointegration of SLA implant while diminishing recontamination as much as possible. Therefore, it is proposed as a standard sterilization method for implant practitioners and researches. PMID:26382972

  1. Decontamination Methods Used for Dental Burs – A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugar, Deepa; Hugar, Santosh; Ranjan, Shashi; Kadani, Megha

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Infection control and modes of sterilizations are the key factors to avoid cross transmission of infection in the field of dentistry. Transmission of disease or infection is noted with improper sterilization of reused instruments. Dental burs are the most important tool in any endodontic or conservative procedures of teeth involving tooth contouring, restorative filling procedures and endodontic procedures. Hence, the present study is undertaken to assess the efficacy of different methods of sterilization or decontamination which are routinely used in dental clinics. Materials and Methods: For the present study 96 round diamond burs were selected and divided into 6 groups. These burs were used for the access cavity preparation to get contamination and subjected for bacteriological culture. After getting base line date burs were subjected to manual scrubbing, hot air oven, glass bead sterilizer, ultrasonic cleaner and autoclave to get post decontamination data. Results: The study revealed that mean colony forming units/ml of Streptococcus mutans decreased maximum for autoclave with 80% reduction, for Lactobacilli 76% reduction and for Candida albicans maximum reduction seen for glass bead sterilizer with 74%. Conclusion: Findings of our study revealed that none of the methods used were found to be absolutely efficacious in the decontamination of dental burs. However, among the experimental groups used in the present study, autoclave was found to be the relatively best method. PMID:25121062

  2. Degradation and detection of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis DNA and proteins in flour of three genetically modified rice events submitted to a set of thermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofu; Chen, Xiaoyun; Xu, Junfeng; Dai, Chen; Shen, Wenbiao

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the degradation of three transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes (Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1Ab/Ac) and the corresponding encoded Bt proteins in KMD1, KF6, and TT51-1 rice powder, respectively, following autoclaving, cooking, baking, or microwaving. Exogenous Bt genes were more stable than the endogenous sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene, and short DNA fragments were detected more frequently than long DNA fragments in both the Bt and SPS genes. Autoclaving, cooking (boiling in water, 30 min), and baking (200 °C, 30 min) induced the most severe Bt protein degradation effects, and Cry1Ab protein was more stable than Cry1Ac and Cry1Ab/Ac protein, which was further confirmed by baking samples at 180 °C for different periods of time. Microwaving induced mild degradation of the Bt and SPS genes, and Bt proteins, whereas baking (180 °C, 15 min), cooking and autoclaving led to further degradation, and baking (200 °C, 30 min) induced the most severe degradation. The findings of the study indicated that degradation of the Bt genes and proteins somewhat correlated with the treatment intensity. Polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and lateral flow tests were used to detect the corresponding transgenic components. Strategies for detecting transgenic ingredients in highly processed foods are discussed.

  3. Evaluation of steam sterilization conditions for [{sup 18}F]fludeoxyglucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Priscilla F.; Nascimento, Leonardo T.; Valente, Eduardo S.; Silva, Juliana B.; Silveira, Marina B.; Ferreira, Soraya Z., E-mail: somafe@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Pesquisa e Producao de Radiofarmacos

    2011-07-01

    [{sup 18}F]Flu deoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG) is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography. Sterile filtration of the final product into sterile vials using 0.22 {mu}m filter membrane is usually adopted for {sup 18}FDG. However, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines recommend heat sterilization as the method of choice to ensure sterility of pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this study was to essay different steam sterilization conditions in order to choose the best one for {sup 18}FDG. Three different sterilization conditions were essayed. The first one at 121 deg C for 15 minutes, the second one at 135 deg C for 3.5 minutes and the third one at 133 deg C for 2 minutes. {sup 18}FDG pH-formulation was kept around 6.0. At the end of autoclave cycles, {sup 18}FDG sterility was evaluated by direct inoculation of {sup 18}FDG in culture media and radiochemical purity was determined by TLC and HPLC. Results demonstrated that all essayed conditions were able to ensure {sup 18}FDG sterility, but caused a decrease in radiochemical purity of {sup 18}FDG. Autoclave cycle at 133 deg C for 2 minutes was the best essayed condition for {sup 18}FDG terminal sterilization, once it provided the greater radiochemical purity value and took less time. {sup 18}FDG was able to meet specifications after autoclave cycles, what supports the application of steam sterilization in routine {sup 18}FDG production, in compliance with GMP. (author)

  4. Determination of Significant Composite Processing Factors by Designed Experiment (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finckenor, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    To determie composite material properties' effects from porcessing variables, a 3 factorial designed experiment with two replicates was conducted. The factors were cure method (oven versus autoclave), layup (hand versus tape-laying machine), and thickness (8 versus 52 ply). Four material systems were tested: AS4/3501-6, IM7/8551-7, IM7/F655 bismaleimide (BMI), and shear tests on IM7/F584. Material properties were G(sub 12), v(sub 12), E(sub 1c) and E(sub 2c). Since the samples were necessarily nonstandard, strengths, though recorded, cannot be considered valid. Void content was also compared. Autoclave curing helped material properties for the low modulus fiber material but showed little benefit for higher stiffness fibers. The number of plies was very important for epoxy composites but not for the BMI. E(sub 1) was generally unaffected by any factor. Particularly high void content did correlate to reduced properties. Autoclave curing reduced void content over oven curiing but a moderate amount of voids, less than 1 percent void content, didnot correlate with material properties. Oven cures and hand layups can produce high-quality parts. Part thickness of epoxy composites is important, though cure optimization may improve performance. Significant variations can be caused by processing and it is important that test coupons always reflect the layup and processes of the final part.

  5. Identification of nonspecific reactions in laboratory rodent specimens tested by Rotazyme rotavirus ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jure, M N; Morse, S S; Stark, D M

    1988-06-01

    Fecal specimens from several laboratory animal species were tested for rotavirus antigen by Rotazyme II, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that is widely used in human diagnostic studies. Fecal samples from rabbits, hamsters, guinea pigs, dogs, and cats tested negative; whereas those from rats and mice yielded a high proportion of positive results. Rats had the highest rate with 82% of the samples being positive. However, the presence of rotavirus in positive rodent samples could not be confirmed by virus isolation, electron microscopy or blocking ELISA using anti-EDIM mouse rotavirus serum. Several lines of evidence indicated that these positive reactions were false positives, apparently due to a non-specifically reacting substance in the diet of rats and mice. All the positive fecal samples were from rats and mice that had been fed nonautoclaved diet. Samples from rodents fed autoclaved diet were consistently negative in the Rotazyme test. When rats fed autoclaved diet were subsequently fed nonautoclaved diet, their stool converted from negative to positive within 6 hours. Conversely, rats with positive stool samples converted to negative within 15 hours when fed autoclaved diet. Similar results were found with mice. Positive fecal specimens and nonautoclaved rodent diet both contained a substance that apparently attached nonspecifically to the antibody coated beads used in the ELISA and reacted directly with the substrate in the absence of the conjugate. This substance was heat labile and trypsin sensitive, suggesting that it was a protein. PMID:2842540

  6. Comparison of the effectiveness of sterilizing endodontic files by 4 different methods: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatasubramanian R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sterilization is the best method to counter the threats of microorganisms. The purpose of sterilization in the field of health care is to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. In dentistry, it primarily relates to processing reusable instruments to prevent cross-infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of 4 methods of sterilizing endodontic instruments: Autoclaving, carbon dioxide laser sterilization, chemical sterilization (with glutaraldehyde and glass-bead sterilization. The endodontic file was sterilized by 4 different methods after contaminating it with bacillus stearothermophillus and then checked for sterility by incubating after putting it in test tubes containing thioglycollate medium. The study showed that the files sterilized by autoclave and lasers were completely sterile. Those sterilized by glass bead were 90% sterile and those with glutaraldehyde were 80% sterile. The study concluded that autoclave or laser could be used as a method of sterilization in clinical practice and in advanced clinics; laser can be used also as a chair side method of sterilization.

  7. Moist-heat sterilization and the chemical stability of heat-labile parenteral solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L C; Parasrampuria, J; Bommireddi, A; Pec, E; Dudleston, A; Mayoral, J

    1998-01-01

    The impact of moist-heat sterilization (autoclaving) on the chemical stability of parenteral solutions was examined using two heat-labile products, clindamycin phosphate and succinylcholine chloride injections, as examples. A nonisothermal kinetic model was used to predict the extent of product degradation during autoclaving. The predicted results were found to be in close agreement with the experimental data. For the same peak temperature, a greater loss of product was shown by using a cycle with a higher F0. On the other hand, a higher peak-temperature cycle resulted in less product degradation for the same F0 value. The benefit of a high-temperature cycle was further illustrated by the fact that less chemical degradation for both products was produced by a 122 degrees C cycle with an F0 of 11 as compared to that which occurred during a 116.5 degrees C cycle with an F0 of 8. Although clindamycin phosphate was found to be highly unstable during a conventional autoclaving process, predicted data indicate that a UHT (Ultra-High Temperature) process may be used to sterilize this product with acceptable degradation. PMID:15605602

  8. Phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility, dietary fiber, and minerals of pulses as influenced by processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, U; Singh, U; Rao, P V

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the effect of various types of processing on selected nutrition related parameters of commonly consumed Indian pulses and soybean. Germination reduced the phytic acid content of chickpea and pigeonpea seeds by over 60%, and that of mung bean, urd bean, and soybean by about 40%. Fermentation reduced phytic acid contents by 26-39% in all these legumes with the exception of pigeonpea in which it was reduced by more than 50%. Autoclaving and roasting were more effective in reducing phytic acid in chickpea and pigeonpea than in urd bean, mung bean, and soybean. Germination and fermentation greatly increased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD). IVPD was only slightly increased by roasting and autoclaving of all legumes. Germination and fermentation also remarkably decreased the total dietary fiber (TDF) in all legumes. Autoclaving and roasting resulted in slight increases in TDF values. All the processing treatments had little effect on calcium, magnesium and iron contents. PMID:8983057

  9. Nitrogen balance and ruminal assessment in male and female sheeps fed rations containing castor cake under different treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Furtado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Was evaluated the influence of alternative methods of detoxification of castor cake on nitrogen balance and ruminal evaluation in sheep fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous experimental diets. Twenty sheep (ten males and ten females were used in five treatments (castor cake untreated, treated with limestone, treated with urea, treated with phosphate monodicalcium and autoclaved and four repetitions. For nitrogen balance we used a randomized block design, with the blocks according to the sex and the variables pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N in the experimental design was split plot, with plots in the diets subplots and the collection times (0, 2, 5 and 8 hours postprandial.The treatments did not influence N intake, N urinary, urea and N-urea concentration in plasma. The Urinary N was higher in diet containing castor cake treated with phosphate monodicalcium (FOS when compared with those containing castor cake treated by autoclave (ACL. Already the nitrogen balance (BN was higher in diet ACL when compared to FOS diet. The pH and N-NH3 were within the normal range of sheep, being little affected by diet. Diets with methods of detoxification of castor cake promoted moderate changes in nitrogen balance with emphasis on the castor cake autoclaved and treated with limestone. The males sheep showed higher nitrogen balance than females.

  10. Reduction of aflatoxins (B₁, B₂, G₁, and G₂) in soybean-based model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongin; Her, Jae-Young; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2015-12-15

    The effects of chemical, physical, and cooking treatments on the reduction of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2, G1, and G2 in soybean matrix were investigated. A HPLC-FLD with a Kobra cell system was used for the quantitative analysis of aflatoxins (AFs). To decrease the level of AFs during the soaking process, the contaminated soybeans were submerged in organic acid solutions. The reduction rates of AFB1 in 1.0N citric acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, and tartaric acid for 18h were 94.1%, 92.7%, 62.0%, and 95.1%, respectively. In the case of pH and autoclave treatment, the level of AFB1 was significantly decreased during autoclaving process at pH 7.4, 9.0, and 11.1, compared with the non-autoclaved samples (p<0.05). In the case of physical treatment, the heating process at 100 and 150°C for 90min significantly decreased the level of AFB1 by 41.9% and 81.2%, respectively (p<0.05). The reduction rate of AFB1 after cooking was 97.9% for soybean milk and 33.6% for steamed soybeans.

  11. Metals uptake by live yeast and heat-modified yeast residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geórgia Labuto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the biosorption of Cd2+, Cr3+, Pb2+ and Cu2+ at pHs 3, 4, 5 and 6 for Saccharomyces cerevisiae both alive and biologically inactivated by different heating procedures (oven, autoclave or spray dry technique originated from alcohol industry. The material inactivated by autoclave (IA, at 120°C, 30 min had the best performance for metals uptake: 1.88 ± 0.07 (Cu2+, 2.22 ± 0.02 (Cr3+ and 1.57 ± 0.08 g kg-1 (Pb2+. For Cd2+; while the material inactivated by spray dry (RY presented the higher sorption capacity, 2.30 ± 0.08 g kg-1. The sorption studies showed that the biosorbent materials presented different sorption capacities and an ideal sorption pH. The sorption sites were investigated by potentiometric titration and FT-IR and showed that different heating processes used to inactivate biological samples produce materials with different characteristics and with a diverse sorption capacity due to modification of the available sorption sites. This suggests that inactivation by heating can be an alternative to improve the performance of biosorbents. The main sorption sites for each material were phenolic for live yeast (LY and carboxylic for yeast inactivated by heating in an autoclave (IA.

  12. Achieving asepsis of banana leaves for the management of toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Banana leaf is used in many centers in India during the care of patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN and other extensive blistering disorders. Sepsis is an important cause of death in TEN patients and use of banana leaf may be a source of such infection. Aims: We conducted this study to detect the bacterial flora of the banana leaf and to examine various methods of rendering the leaf aseptic. Methods: Five pieces of banana leaf, 2 x 2 cm in size, were cultured separately in blood agar as follows: One piece was heated over a flame and one was soaked in boiling water and one was autoclaved. Methylated spirit was applied over one piece and ignited. One piece was placed on the media, ′as is.′ The Petri dishes were incubated examined after 48 h. Results: All the pieces except the autoclaved specimen of the leaf grew coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS when aseptic precautions were not maintained and aerobic spore bearers when all aseptic measures were subsequently instituted during the procedure. Conclusion: We recommend measures to prevent possible transmission of bacterial infection by the leaf. Autoclaved and aseptically handled banana leaves may be used to reduce chance of infection in the treatment of TEN.

  13. Development and evaluation of a tracer-injection hydrothermal technique for studies of waste package interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tracer-injection system has been developed for use in characterizing reactions of waste package materials under hydrothermal conditions. High-pressure liquid chromatographic instrumentation has been coupled with Dickson-type rocking autoclaves to allow injection of selected components into the hydrothermal fluid while maintaining run temperature and pressure. Hydrothermal experiments conducted using this system included the interactions of depleted uranium oxide and Zircaloy-4 metal alloy discs with trace levels of 99Tc and non-radioactive Cs and I in a simulated groundwater matrix. After waste-package components and simulated waste forms were pre-conditioned in the autoclave systems (usually 4 to 6 weeks), known quantities of tracer-doped fluids were injected into the autoclaves' gold reaction bag at run conditions. Time-sequenced sampling of the hydrothermal fluid providing kinetic data on the reactions of tracers with waste package materials. The injection system facilitates the design of experiments that will better define ''steady-state'' fluid compositions in hydrothermal reactions. The injection system will also allow for the formation of tracer-bearing solid phases in detectable quantities

  14. Heat or gamma irradiation sterilization affects the hypocholesterolemic effect of guar gum in axenic and heteroxenic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-two axenic (germ free) or thirty heteroxenic (axenic colonized with human flora) 2.5-3.5 months old female Fisher rats were fed for four weeks either a hypercholesterolemic (hyper) diet or a hyper diet containing 5% guar gum (GG) sterilized by heat or gamma radiation. Axenic s rat fed the irradiated GG diet had had high cholesterolemia than their counterparts fed in autoclave diet (4.50 vs 2.29 mmol/l), whereas the method of sterilization had no effect on plasma cholesterol on axenic hyper or heteroxenic animals fed (7.35 vs 6.51 mg/dl). The levels of hepatic esterified cholesterol were higher in heteroxenic animals fed the irradiated GG diet than in their counterparts fed the autoclave GG diet (5.65 vs 3.57 mmol/g tissue). The composition of volatile fatty acids in the cecal contents of heteroxenic rats was dependent on the method of sterilization regardless of the presence of fiber: the levels of butyrate were 2.88 and 0,85 μmol/g for rats fed the autoclave and irradiated diets, respectively. Gamma radiation abolished the cholesterol-lowering effect of guar gum, whereas sterilization by heat preserved this effect. The hypocholesterolemic effect of guar was reduced by gamma irradiation sterilization and was probably mediated by qualitative changes in the intestinal microflora which interfered with bile acid absorption. (author)

  15. Decontamination of tried-in orthodontic molar bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, M R; Ireland, A J; Main, B G

    2003-12-01

    Molar bands are commonly used to retain orthodontic attachments on posterior teeth and due to the variation in the size of such teeth, it is usually necessary to 'try in' several bands before the correct one is selected. A possible concern with re-using such bands is the lack of cross-infection control, even following autoclaving, due to the presence of one or more small bore lumen (the archwire and headgear tubes). The aim of this experiment was, therefore, to determine whether such bands could be successfully decontaminated so that they could be re-used without a cross-infection risk. Two hundred orthodontic molar bands that had previously been tried in patients' mouths, but not cemented into place, were tested. Each band was decontaminated using an enzymatic cleaner/disinfectant and then sterilized using either a downward displacement (n = 100) or a vacuum cycle autoclave (n = 100). Following autoclaving each band was inoculated into brain heart infusion culture broth and incubated at 37 degrees C for 5 days. None of the decontaminated bands exhibited growth after 5 days. It would appear that, using this methodology, there is little risk of a cross-infection hazard occurring with the re-use of previously tried-in and decontaminated molar bands.

  16. Effect of the anodization variables in the corrosion resistence of the zircaloy-4 tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anodization effect in the oxidation of the zircaloy-4 in steam atmosphere at 10,06MPa was investigated. It was also studied how the voltage and the types of electrolytes at several values of pH affect the growing of the anodic oxide film and the performance of the zircaloy-4 in relation to corrosion. Anodizations of zircaloy-4 tubes have been made with voltages ranging from zero to 280V and using electrolytic solutions of Na2B4O7, CH3COOH and NaOH in the concentrations of 1,0N, 0,1N and 0,01N. After anodization, the tubes were oxidized in autoclave under steam at 4000C and 10,06 MPa during 3 and 14 days. The results show that the anodization inhibit the oxidation process of zircaloy-4, and that this protection increases with the voltage applied for film formation. The relationship between the weight gain after oxidation in autoclave and the anodization voltage is of the exponential type: (σM/A) sub(AC) = Ce sup(-DV). The observed relationship between the applied voltage and the weight gain due to anodization is of the linear type: (σM/A) sub(AN) = aV. Concerning the influence of different electrolytes, it was observed a similar behaviour between them with respect to the thickness of the anodic oxide and the weight gain of zircaloy-4 after the autoclave test. (Author)

  17. Methods for Improving Volume Stability of Steel Slag as Fine Aggregate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUN Yunxia; ZilOU Mingkai; CAI Xiao; XU Fang

    2008-01-01

    Suitable methods for enhancing the volume stability of steel slag utilized as fine aggregate were determined. The effects of steam treatment at 100 ℃ and autoclave treatment under 2.0 Mpa on the soundness of steel slag sand were investigated by means of powder ratio, linear expansion, compressive and flexural strength. DTA, EDX, XRD and ethylene glycol methods were employed to analyze both the treated slags and susceptible expansion grains. Experimental results indicate that powder ratio, content of free lime and rate of linear expansion can express the improvement in volume stability of different treated methods. Steam treatment process cannot ultimately prevent specimens from cracking and decrease of strength, but mortar made from autoclave treated slag keeps integration subjected to hot water of 80 ℃ until 28 d and its strength do not show significant decrement. The hydration of over-burn free lime and periclase phase are the main cause for the disintegration or crack of untreated and steam treated steel slag's specimens. Autoclave treatment process is more effective than steam treatment process on enhancement of volume stability of steel slag.

  18. Geosmin (2β,6α-dimethylbicyclo[4.4.0]decan-1β-ol) production associated with Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris is cultivar specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidig, Amy K; Goldman, Irwin L

    2014-03-01

    The characteristic earthy flavor and aroma of table beet [Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris (garden beet group)] is due to the presence of geosmin, C₁₂H₂₂O, a volatile terpenoid compound commonly produced by many soil microorganisms. This study screened beet and related subspecies cultivars grown in three different environments (field, greenhouse in nonautoclaved soil, greenhouse in autoclaved soil) to evaluate the effect of cultivar and environment on geosmin level in table beet. There was no significant difference between years or between cultivars grown in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil, indicating geosmin content may not be primarily attributable to microbial associations. A significant interaction between cultivar and environment was found, but generalizations could be made for high- or low-producing cultivars, demonstrating that geosmin levels were cultivar specific. 'Bull's Blood', 'Chioggia', and sugar beet exhibited the highest geosmin levels. Cultivars grown in the field had the smallest range of geosmin production, from 4.84 to 20.82 μg geosmin (kg root tissue)⁻¹. The high degree of consistency in cultivar performance across years and in ranking for geosmin levels across environments as well as the lack of a significant difference between plants grown in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil suggests characteristic levels of geosmin may be present in and produced endogenously by cultivars of table beet. It may be possible to establish breeding populations with defined geosmin levels and to identify variety-specific aroma and flavor intensities that would be durable across environments.

  19. Improved osseointegration of long-term stored SLA implant by hydrothermal sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingling; Xu, Lingli; Violin, Kalan Bastos; Lu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The sandblasted, large-grit and acid-etched (SLA) surface is easy to be contaminated during storage and its surface chemical state is usually changed by different sterilization methods. This causes an undesirable increase in surface hydrophobicity and results in osseointegration degradation. To overcome this problem, a low temperature hydrothermal (HT) sterilization method was proposed in this study. Briefly, 4 weeks-stored pure titanium SLA specimens were sterilized using a sealed glass bottle with pure water in an autoclave set at 121 °C for 20 min. Results showed that, stored SLA specimens were superhydrophobic before and after conventional autoclaving, whereas, HT sterilization decontaminated and endowed stored SLA surface with superhydrophilicity. Osteoblast spreading was greatly enhanced, ALP expression was upgraded and bone nodule formation was obviously promoted on HT sterilized specimens compared with autoclaved ones. More bone formation around HT sterilized specimens was observed and HT sterilization increased bonding strength of implant to bone by 95% and 127% after 2 and 4 weeks of healing, respectively. The simple, feasible HT sterilization restored osseointegration of SLA implant while diminishing recontamination as much as possible. Therefore, it is proposed as a standard sterilization method for implant practitioners and researches.

  20. Electrochemical investigation of the two-stage decomposition of oxide deposits on a high-alloy chromium nickel steel by the MOPAC decontamination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissertation explains the application of the MOPAC technique for decomposition of oxide layers deposited under PWR conditions on an austenitic, high-alloy chromium nickel steel (DIN material number 1.4550). The examinations were mainly done by impedance spectrometry. With this technique, Cr(III)-oxide is oxidized to chromate in a first step, in 'oxidation solution', and the remaining oxide deposit is then dissolved in 'decontamination solution'. The various specimens used for the examinations were pre-treated ('oxidized') in water in an autoclave at 300deg C and 160 bar, remaining there for either one, two, three, six, or eight months. Extensive pre-experiments were carried out with polished sections of the same material. Comparison of the impedance spectra of these specimens with those of specimens from the autoclave were expected to yield data allowing assignment of impedance spectra to specific transformations in the oxide layers produced in the autoclave. It was found out that the treatment in oxidation solution is the decisive step for oxide decomposition, and hence for the entire result of the decontamination process. (orig.)

  1. Kvanefjeld uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Kvanefjeld uranium project is to evaluate the possibility of a uranium production from the deposit at Narssaq, South Greenland. The project comprises investigations in the fields of geology, mining, process chemistry and technology, economy and environment protection. The predominant uraniferous rock is a nepheline syenite called lujavrite in which the main uranium mineral is steenstrupine. The deposit can be mined in an open pit. Calculations have shown a resource of 56 million tonnes of ore with an average grade of 365 ppm corresponding to 20,400 tonnes of uranium. The uranium is extracted by a sodium carbonate solution at 260degC in an autoclave. A pilot plant has been established including ball mill, continuous pipe autoclave and a belt filter for separation of leach liquor and residue. The uranium is finally precipitated as UO2 by reduction in an autoclave at 260degC. With the existing ore sample, recoveries of more than 80% have been obtained. The carbonate leaching causes a low solubility of most contaminants in the tailings. A draft project has been prepared for an industrial plant in Greenland. The total investments have been calculated at 3 x 109 Dkr. Electrical energy is assumed to be supplied by a hydropower plant at Johan Dahl Land. The mine and mill are expected to employ 500-600 persons. (author)

  2. Corrosion of aluminum alloys as a function of alloy composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was initiated which included nineteen aluminum alloys. Tests were conducted in high purity water at 3600C and flow tests (approx. 20 ft/sec) in reactor process water at 1300C (TF-18 loop tests). High-silicon alloys and AlSi failed completely in the 3600C tests. However, coupling of AlSi to 8001 aluminum suppressed the failure. The alloy compositions containing iron and nickel survived tht 3600C autoclave exposures. Corrosion rates varied widely as a function of alloy composition, but in directions which were predictable from previous high-temperature autoclave experience. In the TF-18 loop flow tests, corrosion penetrations were similar on all of the alloys and on high-purity aluminum after 105 days. However, certain alloys established relatively low linear corrosion rates: Al-0.9 Ni-0.5 Fe-0.1 Zr, Al-1.0 Ni-0.15 Fe-11.5 Si-0.8 Mg, Al-1.2 Ni-1.8 Fe, and Al-7.0 Ni-4.8 Fe. Electrical polarity measurements between AlSi and 8001 alloys in reactor process water at temperatures up to 1500C indicated that AlSi was anodic to 8001 in the static autoclave system above approx. 500C

  3. Development and evaluation of methods for starch dissolution using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation. Part II: Dissolution of amylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rea, Daysi; Bergenståhl, Björn; Nilsson, Lars

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether dissolution in water under autoclaving conditions (140 °C, 20 min) or in dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO (100 °C, 1 h), is preferable for characterization of amylose. Two types of amylose, potato and maize, were dissolved either in water using an autoclave or in DMSO. On the aqueous solutions obtained, the extent of molecular dissolution of the sample (referred to as the dissolution yield) was determined by enzymatic analysis as well as the molecular properties, such as molar mass and root-mean-square radius, obtained with asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled to multi-angle light scattering and differential refractive index detection (AF4-MALS-dRI). The results showed that both dissolution methods are efficient at dissolving amylose. However, AF4-MALS-dRI analysis revealed substantial differences. Amylose aqueous solutions obtained by dissolution in DMSO were relatively stable over time, but the dissolution method in autoclave caused some degradation of the molecules, and their solutions display a high tendency to retrograde. PMID:26232931

  4. Nodular corrosion of the Zircaloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxide nodules form on Zircaloy nuclear components under irradiation. Similar nodules were observed on Zircaloy coupons in cold rolled or extended conditions after autoclave treatments at 475 and 5000C in steam at 1500 to 1700 psi. Stages of nodular corrosion in the autoclave were nodule nucleation, growth, coalescence, propagation to accelerated uniform corrosion, and complete specimen oxidation. Observations on BWR fuel rods suggest that a similar progressive attack has occurred; however, in no case has the in-reactor attack progressed to the stage of complete fuel rod failure. Recent autoclave tests confirmed the nodular character of the attack on cold-worked materials. Alpha anneals (up to 7900C) did not consistently suppress the nodular attack. However, alpha + beta (8400C) and beta (1010 and 10400C) anneals did suppress the attack if followed by a fast cool. The efficacy of the anneals applied similarly to Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4. Stresses associated with U-bend specimens and heavy (86 percent) cold work did not enhance the nodular attack before stress relief occurred. The nodular attack on reactor components appears to depend on nuclear flux, and develops in oxygenated reactor coolants, principally in the vicinity of fuel rod spacers. Experience with irradiated specimens in reactor loops suggests that uniform concentrations of dissolved oxygen alone do not initiate nodular attack. Localized water chemistry associated with flow disturbances or, in some cases, dissimilar metals in fuel spacers, may be factors in the nodular attack in-reactor

  5. Hygroscopicity of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus taeda subjected to thermal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Soares Modes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of the thermal treatment technique under two conditions—autoclave combined with electric oven and electric oven only—on the hygroscopic properties of wood from Pinus taeda L. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, comparing them with results obtained for untreated wood. Three trees at age 25 years were sampled, with boards being removed at DBH level in order to make specimens 2.5 x 2.5 x 5.0 cm in size in the radial, tangential and axial direction respectively. In the combined treatment, specimens were subjected to thermal treatment in an autoclave set at 130°C/± 3°C and kgf/cm² pressure for 3 hours, then to a conditioning period, followed by heat in an electric oven set at 160°C/±1°C for the same time. Properties being evaluated included water absorption rate, volumetric swelling, water repellency effectiveness and anti-swelling efficiency. Results revealed that the thermal treatments being adopted were effective in reducing hygroscopicity and in increasing the dimensional stability of both species, revealing also that the combined autoclave and electric oven treatment provides best results.

  6. Avian pneumovirus and its survival in poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, Binu T; Lopes, Vanessa C; Noll, Sally L; Halvorson, David A; Nagaraja, Kakambi V

    2003-01-01

    The survival of avian pneumovirus (APV) in turkey litter was studied at different temperature (room temperature, [approximately 22-25 C], 8 C, and -12 C) conditions. Built-up turkey litter from a turkey breeder farm known to be free of APV was obtained and was divided into two portions. One portion was sterilized by autoclaving and the other portion was kept nonautoclaved. Both samples were inoculated with a Vero cell-propagated Minnesota isolate of APV subtype C (APV/MN2A) with a titer of 10(5) 50% tissue culture infective dose at 1% level. These samples were then stored at three different temperatures: -12 C, 8 C, and room temperature (20-25 C). The samples were tested for the presence of viral RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and for the presence of live virus by virus isolation in Vero cells at the intervals of 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90 days. Our studies revealed the presence of APV RNA even after 90 days in the autoclaved litter samples kept at -12 C and at 8 C. The virus was isolated from the autoclaved litter kept at -12 C up to 60 days. From the nonautoclaved litter, viral RNA was detected up to 60 days and virus was isolated up to 14days. The present study indicated that APV could survive in built-up turkey litter up to 60 days postinoculation at a temperature of-12 C.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of monoclinic TiO2 nanosheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yu; XU Boqing

    2005-01-01

    A novel two-step method for the synthesis of monoclinic titanium oxide (i.e. TiO2(B)) nanosheets is presented in this report. The method is featured by two steps: 1) synthesis of hydrogen titanate nanosheets, followed by 2) calcination of the titanate nanosheets at elevated temperatures. The hydrogen titanate nanosheets were prepared first by autoclaving anatase TiO2 powders, obtained by air calcining an ethanol-gel of Ti(OH)4 at 500℃, in aqueous NaOH (10 mol/L) at 150―200℃, and then by washing with hydrochloric acid under supersonic irradiation. While sizes of the nanosheets were found to increase with increasing the temperature of the hydrothermal treatment, the calcination at 400―500℃ of the hydrogen titanate nanosheets that were synthesized at higher autoclaving temperatures (180―200℃) produced monoclinic TiO2 nanosheets with a uniform morphology. By contrast, the same calcination of the titanate nanosheets synthesized at the autoclaving temperature 180℃ led to anatase TiO2 nanoparticles.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on bacteriophages used as viral indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebri, Sihem; Hmaied, Fatma; Jofre, Juan; MariemYahya; Mendez, Javier; Barkallah, Insaf; Hamdi, Moktar

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the susceptibility of indicator bacteriophages towards γ-radiation to evaluate their appropriateness as viral indicators for water quality control. The effects of γ-radiation on naturally occurring somatic coliphages, F-specific coliphages and Escherichia coli were examined in raw sewage and sewage sludge. As well, the effects of radiation on bacteriophages ΦX174 and MS2, and E. coli all grown in the laboratory and seeded in distilled water, autoclaved raw sewage and a 1% peptone solution were evaluated. The inactivation of E. coli was fairly similar in all matrices. In contrast, inactivation of bacteriophages was significantly greater in distilled water than in the other matrices. These results showed the great influence of the matrix characteristics on virus inactivation. Somatic coliphages in raw sewage and sewage sludge and ΦX174 in autoclaved sewage were inactivated similarly and were far more resistant than F-specific coliphages, MS2 and E. coli. As well, F-specific RNA bacteriophages in raw sewage and sewage sludge and MS2 in autoclaved sewage were inactivated similarly and were more resistant than E. coli. In contrast, MS2 was more susceptible to γ-radiation than E. coli in distilled water. Our results showed that ΦX174 is a suitable indicator for estimating virus inactivation by γ-irradiation and corroborate the use of somatic coliphages to survey the viral quality of treated water and sludges.

  9. INTERACTIONS AMONG PHOSPHATE AMENDMENTS, MICROBES AND URANIUM MOBILITY IN CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A

    2007-08-30

    The use of sequestering agents for the transformation of radionuclides in low concentrations in contaminated soils/sediments offers considerable potential for long-term environmental cleanup. This study evaluated the influence of four phosphate amendments and two microbial amendments on U availability. The synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of the untreated U-contaminated sediment showed that U was closely associated with Mn. All tested phosphate amendments reduced aqueous U concentration more than 90%, likely due to formation of insoluble phosphate precipitates. The addition of A. piechaudii and P. putida alone were found to reduce U concentrations 63% and 31% respectively. Uranium sorption in phosphate treatments was significantly reduced in the presence of microbes. However, increased microbial activity in the treated sediment led to reduction of phosphate effectiveness. The average U concentration in 1 M MgCl{sub 2} extract from U amended sediment was 437 {micro}g/kg, but in the same sediment without microbes (autoclaved sediment), the extractable U concentration was only 103 {micro}g/kg. When the autoclaved amended sediment was treated with autoclaved biological apatite, U concentration in the 1 M MgCl{sub 2} extract was {approx}0 {micro}g/kg. Together these tests suggest that microbes may enhance U leaching and reduce phosphate amendment remedial effectiveness.

  10. Degradation and detection of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis DNA and proteins in flour of three genetically modified rice events submitted to a set of thermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofu; Chen, Xiaoyun; Xu, Junfeng; Dai, Chen; Shen, Wenbiao

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the degradation of three transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes (Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1Ab/Ac) and the corresponding encoded Bt proteins in KMD1, KF6, and TT51-1 rice powder, respectively, following autoclaving, cooking, baking, or microwaving. Exogenous Bt genes were more stable than the endogenous sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene, and short DNA fragments were detected more frequently than long DNA fragments in both the Bt and SPS genes. Autoclaving, cooking (boiling in water, 30 min), and baking (200 °C, 30 min) induced the most severe Bt protein degradation effects, and Cry1Ab protein was more stable than Cry1Ac and Cry1Ab/Ac protein, which was further confirmed by baking samples at 180 °C for different periods of time. Microwaving induced mild degradation of the Bt and SPS genes, and Bt proteins, whereas baking (180 °C, 15 min), cooking and autoclaving led to further degradation, and baking (200 °C, 30 min) induced the most severe degradation. The findings of the study indicated that degradation of the Bt genes and proteins somewhat correlated with the treatment intensity. Polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and lateral flow tests were used to detect the corresponding transgenic components. Strategies for detecting transgenic ingredients in highly processed foods are discussed. PMID:26277627

  11. Preliminary evidence for a phage in sewage utilizing Clostridium thermoaceticum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, A.K.; Bose, N.K.; Uyamadu, N.; Agrawal, P.K. (Atlanta University Center, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Briefly describes a method for isolating bacteriophages (viruses which infect bacteria) from {ital Clostridium thermoaceticum}. Water samples were anaerobically collected from the local sewage plant and sterile filtered inside a Coy-anaerobic chamber. Filtrate from the sewage liquid was added to the cultures of {ital C thermoaceticum} for observing lysis. Sterile filtrate was autoclaved (and/or treated with detergent) and added to bacterial cultures. Filtrates from lysed cultures were serially transferred from one culture to another. Virus (phage) was purified by ultracentrifugation in the form of pellets and stored at 4{degree}C in VSM (virus suspending medium). Phages were also observed under electron microscope after negative staining with glutaraldehyde. The sterile filtrate from sewage plant lysed the bacterial cultures, while the autoclaved and detergent treated was ineffective. Cultures where sterile water was added as controls grew normally. Reduced growth due to the addition of autoclaved filtrate could have resulted from the presence of bactericins. Virus by purified ultracentrifugation was also very effective in lysing the cultures. Though not very clear, icosahedral particles of the viruses were seen under the electron microscope. Further studies with this phage are in progress with the aim of obtaining a lysogenic strain (or developing one by mutagenesis) for its use as vector to transfer the genes for co-dehydrogenase and formate-dehydrogenase, the key enzymes involved in the conversion of CO or syngas into acetic acid by this organism. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Influence of liquid medium on the activity of a low-alpha Fischer-Tropsch catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gormley, R.J.; Zarochak, M.F.; Deffenbaugh, P.W.; Rao, K.R.P.M.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this research was to measure activity, selectivity, and the maintenance of these properties in slurry autoclave experiments with a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalyst that was used in the {open_quotes}FT II{close_quotes} bubble-column test, conducted at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) at LaPorte, Texas during May 1994. The catalyst contained iron, copper, and potassium and was formulated to produce mainly hydrocarbons in the gasoline range with lesser production of diesel-range products and wax. The probability of chain growth was thus deliberately kept low. Principal goals of the autoclave work have been to find the true activity of this catalyst in a stirred tank reactor, unhindered by heat or mass transfer effects, and to obtain a steady conversion and selectivity over the approximately 15 days of each test. Slurry autoclave testing of the catalyst in heavier waxes also allows insight into operation of larger slurry bubble column reactors. The stability of reactor operation in these experiments, particularly at loadings exceeding 20 weight %, suggests the likely stability of operations on a larger scale.

  13. Biomedical waste in laboratory medicine: Audit and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitnis V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathology, microbiology, blood bank and other diagnostic laboratories generate sizable amount of biomedical waste (BMW. The audit of the BMW is required for planning proper strategies. The audit in our laboratory revealed 8 kgs anatomical waste, 600 kgs microbiology waste, 220 kgs waste sharps, 15 kgs soiled waste, 111 kgs solid waste, 480 litres liquid waste along with 33000 litres per month liquid waste generated from labware washing and laboratory cleaning and 162 litres of chemical waste per month. Section wise details are described in the text. Needle sharps are collected in puncture proof containers and the needles autoclaved before sending to needle pit. The glass forms the major sharp category and is disinfected with hypochlorite before washing/recycling. All microbiology waste along with containers/plates/tubes are autoclaved before recycling/disposal. The problem of formalin fixed anatomical waste as histology specimens is pointed out. The formalin containing tissues cannot be sent for incineration for the fear of toxic gas release and the guidelines by the Biomedical waste rule makers need to be amended for the issue. The discarded/infected blood units in blood bank need to be autoclaved before disposal since chemical treatments are difficult or inefficient. The liquid waste management needs more attention and effluent treatment facility needs to be viewed seriously for hospital in general. The segregation of waste at source is the key step and reduction, reuse and recycling should be considered in proper perspectives.

  14. Kinetics of passivation of a nickel-base alloy in high temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machet, A. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS-ENSCP (UMR 7045), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France)]|[Framatome ANP, Tour AREVA, F-92084 Paris-la-Defense (France); Galtayries, A.; Zanna, S.; Marcus, P. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS-ENSCP (UMR 7045), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Jolivet, P.; Scott, P. [Framatome ANP, Tour AREVA, F-92084 Paris-la-Defense (France); Foucault, M.; Combrade, P. [Framatome ANP, Centre Technique, F-71205 Le Creusot (France)

    2004-07-01

    The kinetics of passivation and the composition of the surface oxide layer, in high temperature and high pressure water, of a nickel-chromium-iron alloy (Alloy 600) have been investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The samples have been exposed for short (0.4 - 8.2 min) and longer (0 - 400 hours) time periods to high temperature (325 deg. C) and high pressure water (containing boron and lithium) under controlled hydrogen pressure. The experiments were performed in two types of autoclaves: a novel autoclave dedicated to short time periods and a classic static autoclave for the longer exposures. In the initial stage of passivation, a continuous ultra-thin layer of chromium oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is rapidly formed on the surface with an external layer of chromium hydroxide. For longer times of passivation, the oxide layer is in a duplex form with an internal chromium oxide layer and an external layer of nickel hydroxide. The growth of the internal Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide layer has been fitted by three classical models (parabolic, logarithmic and inverse logarithmic laws) for the short passivation times, and the growth curves have been extrapolated to longer passivation periods. The comparison with the experimental results reveals that the kinetics of passivation of Alloy 600 in high temperature and high pressure water, for passivation times up to 400 hours, is well fitted by a logarithmic growth law. (authors)

  15. Tolerance testing of passive radio frequency identification tags for solvent, temperature, and pressure conditions encountered in an anatomic pathology or biorepository setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina A Leung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radio frequency identification (RFID tags have potential for use in identifying and tracking biospecimens in anatomic pathology and biorepository laboratories. However, there is little to no data on the tolerance of tags to solutions, solvents, temperatures, and pressures likely to be encountered in the laboratory. The functioning of the Hitachi Mu-chip RFID tag, a candidate for pathology use, was evaluated under such conditions. Methods: The RFID tags were affixed to cryovials containing tissue or media, glass slides, and tissue cassettes. The tags were interrogated for readability before and after each testing condition or cycle. Individual tags were subjected to only one testing condition but for multiple cycles. Testing conditions were: 1 Ten wet autoclave cycles (121˚C, 15 psi; 2 Ten dry autoclave cycles (121˚C, 26 psi; 3 Ten tissue processor cycles; 4 Ten hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining cycles; 5 Ten antigen retrieval pressure cooker cycles (125˚C, 15 psi; 6 75 o C for seven days; 7 75-59 o C day/night cycles for 7 days; 8 -80 o C, -150 o C, or -196 o C for 12 months; 9 Fifty freeze-thaw cycles (-196 o C to 22 o C. Results: One hundred percent of tags exposed to cold temperatures from -80 to -196 o C (80 tags, 1120 successful reads, high temperatures from 52 to 75 o C (40 tags, 420 reads, H & E staining (20 tags, 200 reads, pressure cooker antigen retrieval (20 tags, 200 reads, and wet autoclaving (20 tags, 200 reads functioned well throughout and after testing. Of note, all 20 tested tags tolerated 50 freeze-thaw cycles and all 60 tags subjected to sustained freezing temperatures were readable after 1 year. One dry autoclaved tag survived nine cycles but failed after the tenth. The remaining 19 tags were readable after all 10 dry autoclave cycles. One tag failed after the first tissue processing cycle while the remaining 19 tags survived all 10 tissue processing cycles. Conclusions: In this preliminary study, these RFID

  16. Extratos de alho e alecrim na indução de faseolina em feijoeiro e fungitoxicidade sobre Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Garlic and rosemary extracts in the induction of phaseollin in beans and fungitoxicity on Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cristiane Brand

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Extratos vegetais podem auxiliar no controle de doenças de plantas, por sua atividade antimicrobiana ou pela ativação de mecanismos de defesa. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito dos extratos aquosos de alho e alecrim autoclavados e não autoclavados sobre o crescimento micelial de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, a produção de faseolina em feijoeiro e a severidade de antracnose em campo. O fungo foi incubado em meio de cultura contendo os extratos, e o crescimento foi mensurado por 18 dias. Para avaliação de faseolina, os extratos foram aplicados sobre hipocótilos de feijão, a extração foi feita em etanol e a leitura foi realizada em espectrofotômetro. A severidade da antracnose foi avaliada em plantas de feijão pulverizadas com os extratos e inoculadas com o fungo. Para o extrato de alho, a maior redução (57,6% no crescimento micelial foi com a dose de 3,0% do extrato não autoclavado. Já para o extrato de alecrim, a maior redução (18,6% foi com o extrato autoclavado. A autoclavagem não teve efeito sobre a indução de faseolina. À campo, os extratos não reduziram significativamente a severidade de antracnose. O extrato de alho não autoclavado mostrou-se mais eficiente na redução do crescimento de C. lindemuthianum, enquanto que o de alecrim, autoclavado ou não, foi mais efetivo na indução de faseolina.Plant extracts may assist in controlling plants diseases due to its antimicrobial activity and activation of defense mechanisms. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of garlic and rosemary, autoclaved or non autoclaved, on the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, production of phaseollin by beans and severity of anthracnose in the field. The fungus was incubated in medium containing the extracts and its growth measured for 18 days. For phaseollin evaluation the extracts were applied on bean hypocotyls, the phytoalexin extracted in ethanol and read in spectrophotometer. The

  17. 2010年版《中国药典》中10种培养基灭菌参数的研究%Study on the Sterilization Parameters for 10 kinds of Culture Media Stated in Chinese Pharmacopoeia ( 2010 Edition)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳嫦; 蔡芷荷; 卢勉飞; 田亮; 吴清平; 李兴

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究2010年版《中国药典》中10种微生物限度检查用培养基的高压蒸汽灭菌参数统一调整为121℃、15 min的可行性.方法:依据GB4789.28-2013标准中培养基性能测试方法和2010年版《中国药典》中培养基适用性检查方法,对采用121℃高压蒸汽灭菌15 min和按产品说明书提供的灭菌参数进行灭菌处理的包括改良马丁培养基等10种培养基进行性能测试(色泽、pH、无菌性、促生长能力、抑菌能力和指示能力),比较2种参数灭菌处理后培养基的质量差异.结果:各培养基经2种参数灭菌后培养基的质量水平相当,且均可满足2010年版《中国药典》对微生物限度检查用培养基质量控制的要求.结论:2010年版《中国药典》中10种培养基均可采用121℃、15 min参数进行高压蒸汽灭菌,且灭菌后培养基的性能保持稳定.%OBJECTIVE:To study the feasibility of 10 kinds of culture media used in pharmaceutical microbial limit test stated in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2010 edition)autoclaving at 121 ℃ for 15 min. METHODS:The performance(color,pH,sterility,the growth-promoting activity,antibacterial ability,indication)of 10 kinds of culture media including Modified Martin Broth medium were tested after autoclaving at 121 ℃ for 15 min or in the parameters from the product instructions according to GB4789.28-2013 and the requirements for quality control of culture media in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2010 edition). The quality of the media were compared after autoclaved by different parameters. RESULTS:The quality of the media which were autoclaved at 121 ℃ for 15 min were equivalent with the media which were autoclaved by the parameters from the product instructions,and their quality met the requirements for quality control of media in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2010 edition). CONCLUSIONS:The sterilization parame-ters of 10 kinds of media in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition) can be adjusted to be autoclaved at

  18. Validação do processamento térmico de um produto protéico vegetal enlatado Thermal processing validation of a canned vegetal protein product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladistone Carvalho Santos Filho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A validação de processos nas indústrias alimentícia e farmacêutica é uma das principais ferramentas da garantia de qualidade, tornando os produtos seguros, eficazes e confiáveis.Realizou-se a validação física e biológica da esterilização terminal de um produto protéico constituído de proteína texturizada de soja, proteína de trigo (glúten, gordura vegetal hidrogenada e condimentos, envasado em latas metálicas de 850 gramas.A validação física do autoclave foi executada em três ciclos na câmara com 12 sensores de temperatura. Confirmou-se para os pontos geometricamente distribuídos no interior do autoclave que a diferença máxima de temperatura entre um ponto e outro foi de 1,0 ºC em relação à temperatura média da câmara (121 ºC. Nos ciclos realizados com carga máxima, o menor valor F121ºC10ºC (64,86 minutos garantiu S.A.L.(Sterility Assurance Level ou nível de garantia de esterilidade de pelo menos 10-12 em relação ao indicador biológico de Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 (valor D121ºC de 3,68 minutos e população média de 1,00 x 10(6 esporos por fita.Para todas as operações de esterilização a presença de esporos sobreviventes no indicador biológico não foi detectada.Apesar de não existir margem de segurança definida para esterilização de alimentos enlatados, a validação periódica de um autoclave proporcionou maior confiabilidade na avaliação da esterilidade, que o simples teste de incubação por amostragem de produtos acabados, recomendado pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil.Process validation in the Food and Pharmaceutics Industries is one of the most important tools meant to guarantee quality, making safe and trustworthy products. Physical and biological validations were performed in the terminal sterilization of a canned vegetal protein product. Physical validation of the autoclave has been proceeded in three empty chamber cycles and 12 temperature sensors. It has been

  19. Effects of sterilization treatments on bulk and surface properties of nanocomposite biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Maqsood; Punshon, Geoffrey; Darbyshire, Arnold; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2013-10-01

    With the continuous and expanding use of implantable biomaterials in a clinical setting, this study aims to elucidate the influence of sterilization techniques on the material surface and bulk properties of two polyurethane nanocomposite biomaterials. Both solid samples and porous membranes of nondegradable polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea) urethane (POSS-PCU) and a biodegradable poly(caprolactone-urea) urethane (POSS-PCL) were examined. Sterilization techniques included conventional steam sterilization (autoclaving), gamma irradiation, and disinfection via incubating with ethanol (EtOH) for 10 min or 24 h. After treatment, the samples were examined using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and tensiometry. Cytotoxicity was evaluated through the culture of endothelial progenitor cells and the efficacy of sterilization method was determined by incubating each sample in tryptone soya broth and fluid thioglycollate medium for cultivation of microorganisms. Although EtOH did not affect the material properties in any form, the samples were found to be nonsterile with microbial growth detected on each of the samples. Gamma irradiation was not only effective in sterilizing both POSS-PCU and POSS-PCL but also led to minor material degradation and displayed a cytotoxic effect on the cultured cells. Autoclaving was found to be the optimal sterilization technique for both solid and porous membranes of the nondegradable POSS-PCU samples as it was successful in sterilizing the samples, displayed no cytotoxic side effects and did not degrade the material. However, the biodegradable POSS-PCL was not able to withstand the harsh environment during autoclaving, resulting in it losing all structural integrity. PMID:24039066

  20. Nanosuspension formulations of poorly water-soluble compounds for intravenous administration in exploratory toxicity studies: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Hisako; Komasaka, Takao; Tomari, Taizo; Kitano, Yasunori; Takekawa, Kouji

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the use of a nanosuspension for intravenous injection into dogs to increase exposure without toxic additives for preclinical studies in the discovery stage. Nanosuspensions were prepared with a mixer mill and zirconia beads with a vehicle of 2% (w/v) poloxamer 338, which was confirmed to lead to no histamine release in dogs. Sterilized nanosuspensions of poorly water-soluble compounds, cilostazol (Cil), spironolactone (Spi) and probucol (Pro), at 10 mg ml(-1) were obtained by milling for 30 min, followed by autoclaving for 20 min at 121 °C and milling for 30 min (mill-autoclave-mill method). The particle sizes (d50) of Cil, Spi and Pro were 0.554, 0.484 and 0.377 µm, respectively, and the percentages of the nominal concentration were 79.1%, 99.6% and 75.4%, respectively. In chromatographic data, no extra peaks were observed. The particle size of Cil was 0.564 µm after storage for 16 days at 2-8 °C. Cil in nanosuspension, but not in microsuspension, rapidly dissolved in dog plasma. Cil nanosuspension at 0.4 mg kg(-1) and Cil saline solution at 0.03 mg kg(-1) , around the saturation solubility, were intravenously administered to dogs. Nanosuspension increased exposure. The versatility of the mill-autoclave-mill method was checked for 15 compounds, and the particle size of 12 compounds was in the nano range. The nanosuspension optimized in this study may be useful for intravenous toxicological and pharmacological studies in the early stage of drug development. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26849104

  1. Short communication. Effect of soybean meal heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tousi-Mojarradi, M.; Seidavi, A.; Dadashbeiki, M.; Roca-Fernandez, A. I.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of soybean meal (SBM) heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens. A trial was carried out using 200 male Ross 308 strain chickens during 3 feeding periods (starter, grower and finisher, 42 days). The experiment was based on a completely randomized design with 5 treatments giving 4 replications of 10 broilers per treatment. Treatments consisted on: T1 (control, un-processed SBM), T2 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 20 min), T3 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 30 min), T4 (roasted SBM: 120 degree centigrade, 20 min) and T5 (microwaved SBM: 46 degree centigrade, 540 watt, 7 min). Growth performance of animals was examined by determining body weight (BW), body weight grain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion rate (FCR). Higher BW (p<0.05) and BWG (p<0.05) and lower FCR (p<0.05) were found in broiler chickens fed heat processed SBM diets compared to those fed a raw SBM diet, probably due to higher nutrient availability. However, no differences were found among heat SBM procedures (autoclaving, roasting and microwaving) on growth performance of animals for the starter, grower and finisher periods. From the results of this experiment, it is concluded that further research needs to be developed to establish the effect of temperature-time heat procedures on nutritive value of SBM in terms of levels of anti-nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor activity and phytic acid) and amino acids profile and its influence on growth performance of broilers. (Author)

  2. Effects of heat processing on soya bean fatty acids content and the lipoxygenase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žilić Slađana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of increased temperatures on the lipoxygenase activity and changes of soya bean fatty acids were observed in the present study. The kernels of soya bean cultivars Bosa and ZPS 015 were subjected to the treatments of extrusion, autoclaving, micronisation and microwave roasting. Depending on the technological processing procedure, the kernels were exposed to temperatures ranging from 60 to 150°C for 25 to 30 seconds during extrusion and for 30 minutes during autoclaving. The temperature that developed in the course of the microwave radiation and autoclaving did not cause statistically significant differences between oil content in heat treated and fresh kernels of soya bean. However, the oil content was higher in soya bean flakes (micronized kernels and lower in grits than in fresh kernels. The heat treatments resulted in the significant decrease of the linolenic fatty acid content. Depending on the temperature and applied heat treatments, the content of linoleic and oleic fatty acid oscillated. High temperatures caused changes in unsaturated fatty acids with 18 carbon atoms resulting in relative increase of the stearic acid content. The lipoxygenase activity decreased in correlation with increased temperatures and the time of heating. The maximum drop of the activity was observed after kernel exposure to the extrusion and micronisation processes at the temperature of 100oC. However, a significant lipoxygenase activity increase was recorded in both studied cultivars after one-minute microwave heating, i.e. at the temperature about 60°C. A further temperature increase led to a gradual denaturation of the enzyme and therefore to its decreased activity.

  3. Degradation of Herbicides Atrazine and Bentazone Applied Alone and in Combination in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-Bin; CHENG Jing-Tao; WANG Xiao-Fang; ZHOU Ying; LIU Wei-Ping

    2008-01-01

    The application of a mixture of bentazone (3-isopropyl-lH-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one-2,2-dioxide) and atrazine (6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-isopropy1-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) is a practical approach to enhance the herbicidal effect.Labo-ratory incubation experiments were performed to study the degradation of bentazone and atrazine applied in combination and individually in maize rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils.After a lag phase,the degradation of each individual herbicide in the non-autoclaved soil could be adequately described using a first-order kinetic equation.During a 30-d in-cubation,in the autoclaved rhizosphere soil,bentazone and atrazine did not noticeably degrade,but in the non-autoclaved soil,they rapidly degraded in both non-rhizosphere and rhizosphere soils with half-lives of 19.9 and 20.2 d for bentazone and 29.1 and 25.7 d for atrazine,respectively.The rhizosphere effect significantly enhanced the degradation of atrazine,but had no significant effect on bentazone.These results indicated that biological degradation accounted for the degrada-tion of both herbicides in the soil.When compared with the degradation of the herbicide applied alone,the degradation rates of the herbicides applied in combination in the soils were lower and the lag phase increased.With the addition of a surfactant,Tween-20,a reduced lag phase of degradation was observed for both herbicides applied in combination.The degradation rate of bentazone accelerated,whereas that of atrazine remained nearly unchanged.Thus,when these two herbicides were used simultaneously,their persistence in the soil was generally prolonged,and the environmental contamination potential increased.

  4. 热处理方式对菠萝果浆理化品质的影响研究%Effect of different thermal treatments on the physicochemical properties of pineapple puree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 梁宝仪; 黄惠华

    2013-01-01

    Autoclave, boiling water and microwave process were applied to treat pineapple puree. The physicochemical properties of processed puree were tested to analyze the effect of three methods. Moreover, physicochemical indexes were investigated after 2 weeks storage.Results showed that the thermal processing was able to prolong the quality guarantee period of pineapple puree.There were few influences on pH, total soluble solid and total acid by three processing,but the total sugar content increaseed.Autoclave infected more on the turbidity.The loss of Vc in microwave treatment was less than that in other two ways. On the side of color differences,the autoclave produced more effects than the boiling water and microwave make.The microwave treatment was benefit for the color of pineapple pulp.%用高压蒸煮、沸水浴与微波加热的方式处理菠萝果浆,研究处理后果浆的理化品质,分析三种方式的影响,并考察贮藏2周后果浆的理化指标的变化.结果表明:热处理能延长菠萝果浆的保质期三种方式对果浆pH、可溶性固形物和总酸含量这三项指标影响不大,均使得总糖成分有所上升;高压蒸煮对浊度影响较大;微波处理的Vc损耗小于其他两种方式;高压处理使果浆产生的色差最大,其次是沸水处理的,而微波处理有利于菠萝果浆颜色的保持.

  5. Effects of Different Modification on Physicochemical Properties and Granule Structure of Rice Starch%不同改性方法对大米淀粉理化性质及颗粒结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张民; 吴娜; 董家美; 王芳

    2013-01-01

    采用压热处理、微波处理、超声波处理等方法对大米淀粉改性,用DSC、布拉班德粘度仪和扫描电镜等仪器测定了大米淀粉理化指标和颗粒结构.研究结果表明,与原淀粉相比,压热处理淀粉的To、Tp、Tm最高(143.61℃、159.82℃、170.30℃);峰值粘度最低(142 BU);抗酶解性最高(13.49%);除超声波处理,其它方法改性的淀粉的溶解度、膨胀能力、凝沉性都有一定程度的升高,淀粉颗粒均已熔融为一体,无完整的颗粒存在.%Rice starch was modified by autoclaving, microwave and ultrasonic methods, respectively. Then its physicochemical properties and granule structure were explored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Brabender amylograph analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and other test methods. The results showed that, in comparison with native starch, the autoclaving treated starch showed higher values of To (143.61 ℃), TP (159.82 ℃) and Tm (170.30 ℃) Jiigher anti-enzymatic property (13.49%) and lower peak viscosity (142BU). The solubility, swelling power, retrogradation of autoclaving and microwave modified starches increased. These starch melted blend and showed no complete particles.

  6. Effect of low-temperature degradation on the mechanical and microstructural properties of tooth-colored 3Y-TZP ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Harada, A; Ono, M; Shibasaki, H; Kanno, T; Niwano, Y; Adolfsson, E; Milleding, P; Örtengren, U

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of low-temperature degradation (LTD) induced by autoclaving on the mechanical and microstructural properties of tooth-colored 3 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZP). In total, 162 disc-shaped 3Y-TZP specimens were prepared. Two-thirds of the specimens were shaded by either the infiltration or powder mixing methods while the remaining specimens were used without coloring. The specimens were autoclaved at 134 °C for 0, 10, and 100 h to induce LTD (n=18 for each group). Chemical compositions were analyzed with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Biaxial flexural strength was measured using a piston-on-three-ball test. The surface fraction and penetration depth of the monoclinic phase were examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The tooth-colored 3Y-TZP specimens contained Fe2O3 and Er2O3 (infiltration technique), and Fe2O3 (powder mixing method) at concentrations of<0.5 wt%. The tooth-colored 3Y-TZP had higher strength than the non-colored material after 100 h of autoclaving. In terms of surface fraction and penetration depth, the generation of monoclinic phase was significantly lower in the tooth-colored 3Y-TZP than in the non-colored material. The tooth-colored 3Y-TZP possessed equivalent biaxial flexural strength to that of the non-colored material and higher resistance to LTD regardless of the coloring technique (infiltration technique or powder mixing method) when the coloring pigments were contained at concentrations used in the present study.

  7. The Portable Chemical Sterilizer (PCS), D-FENS, and D-FEND ALL: novel chlorine dioxide decontamination technologies for the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doona, Christopher J; Feeherry, Florence E; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J; Leighton, Terrence J

    2014-01-01

    There is a stated Army need for a field-portable, non-steam sterilizer technology that can be used by Forward Surgical Teams, Dental Companies, Veterinary Service Support Detachments, Combat Support Hospitals, and Area Medical Laboratories to sterilize surgical instruments and to sterilize pathological specimens prior to disposal in operating rooms, emergency treatment areas, and intensive care units. The following ensemble of novel, 'clean and green' chlorine dioxide technologies are versatile and flexible to adapt to meet a number of critical military needs for decontamination(6,15). Specifically, the Portable Chemical Sterilizer (PCS) was invented to meet urgent battlefield needs and close critical capability gaps for energy-independence, lightweight portability, rapid mobility, and rugged durability in high intensity forward deployments(3). As a revolutionary technological breakthrough in surgical sterilization technology, the PCS is a Modern Field Autoclave that relies on on-site, point-of-use, at-will generation of chlorine dioxide instead of steam. Two (2) PCS units sterilize 4 surgical trays in 1 hr, which is the equivalent throughput of one large steam autoclave (nicknamed "Bertha" in deployments because of its cumbersome size, bulky dimensions, and weight). However, the PCS operates using 100% less electricity (0 vs. 9 kW) and 98% less water (10 vs. 640 oz.), significantly reduces weight by 95% (20 vs. 450 lbs, a 4-man lift) and cube by 96% (2.1 vs. 60.2 ft(3)), and virtually eliminates the difficult challenges in forward deployments of repairs and maintaining reliable operation, lifting and transporting, and electrical power required for steam autoclaves. PMID:24998679

  8. Uranium recovery by leaching with sodium carbonate at high temperature and pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal uranium bearing mineral in Greenland steenstrupine is a complex sodium REE phosphosilicate in which Fe, Mn, Th, U are minor constituents. The Na2CO3 extractant is used for specially acidconsuming ores. However, steenstrupine is decomposed by Na2CO3 only at temperatures above 220degC, so the leaching must be carried out under pressure. Laboratory tests have shown the optimal temperature to be 260degC and the leach liquor composition120 g/l of NaHCO3 and 20 g/l of Na2CO3. Addition of oxygen is necessary as uranium will not dissolve in carbonate unless it is brought in its highest state of oxidation. According to the laboratory tests it may be estimated that 1 kg of ore suspended in 1 l of leach liquor and ground to 80% minus 200 mesh can be extracted in 20-40 minutes. On the basis of data obtained a process was suggested in which the ore is ground with carbonate leach liquor to a suitable suspension which is fed to an autoclave with a retentiontime of 20 minutes at 260degC. The residue is filtered off and the liquor reused for grinding and ex- traction. The demand for a reaction temperature near 300degC, a pressure up to 120 atm. and a continuos operation favours a tubular flow autoclave with so narrow a bore that the turbulence provides the mechanical agitation of the suspension. From the mined material it appears that more than 80% of the uranium can be extracted in the pipe autoclave. Some samples give off the obtainable uranium in 20 minutes. The precipitated yellow cake is contaminated with more Na and Si than admitted by international standards. (EG)

  9. Ice nucleation activity in various tissues of Rhododendron flower buds: their relevance to extraorgan freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya eIshikawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wintering flower buds of cold hardy Rhododendron japonicum cooled slowly to subfreezing temperatures are known to undergo extraorgan freezing, whose mechanisms remain obscure. We revisited this material to demonstrate why bud scales freeze first in spite of their lower water content, why florets remain deeply supercooled and how seasonal adaptive responses occur in regard to extraorgan freezing in flower buds. We determined ice nucleation activity (INA of various flower bud tissues of using a test tube-based assay. Irrespective of collection sites, outer and inner bud scales that function as ice sinks in extraorgan freezing had high INA levels whilst florets that remain supercooled and act as a water source lacked INA. The INA level of bud scales was not high in late August when flower bud formation was ending, but increased to reach the highest level in late October just before the first autumnal freeze. The results support the following hypothesis: the high INA in bud scales functions as the subfreezing sensor, ensuring the primary freezing in bud scales at warmer subzero temperatures, which likely allows the migration of floret water to the bud scales and accumulation of icicles within the bud scales. The low INA in the florets helps them remain unfrozen by deep supercooling. The INA in the bud scales was resistant to grinding and autoclaving at 121°C for 15 min, implying the intrinsic nature of the INA rather than of microbial origin, whilst the INA in stem bark was autoclaving labile. Anti-nucleation activity (ANA was implicated in the leachate of autoclaved bud scales, which suppresses the INA at millimolar levels of concentration and likely differs from the colligative effects of the solutes. The tissue INA levels likely contribute to the establishment of freezing behaviors by ensuring the order of freezing in the tissues: from the primary freeze to the last tissue remaining unfrozen.

  10. Ice nucleation activity in various tissues of Rhododendron flower buds: their relevance to extraorgan freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masaya; Ishikawa, Mikiko; Toyomasu, Takayuki; Aoki, Takayuki; Price, William S

    2015-01-01

    Wintering flower buds of cold hardy Rhododendron japonicum cooled slowly to subfreezing temperatures are known to undergo extraorgan freezing, whose mechanisms remain obscure. We revisited this material to demonstrate why bud scales freeze first in spite of their lower water content, why florets remain deeply supercooled and how seasonal adaptive responses occur in regard to extraorgan freezing in flower buds. We determined ice nucleation activity (INA) of various flower bud tissues using a test tube-based assay. Irrespective of collection sites, outer and inner bud scales that function as ice sinks in extraorgan freezing had high INA levels whilst florets that remain supercooled and act as a water source lacked INA. The INA level of bud scales was not high in late August when flower bud formation was ending, but increased to reach the highest level in late October just before the first autumnal freeze. The results support the following hypothesis: the high INA in bud scales functions as the subfreezing sensor, ensuring the primary freezing in bud scales at warmer subzero temperatures, which likely allows the migration of floret water to the bud scales and accumulation of icicles within the bud scales. The low INA in the florets helps them remain unfrozen by deep supercooling. The INA in the bud scales was resistant to grinding and autoclaving at 121(∘)C for 15 min, implying the intrinsic nature of the INA rather than of microbial origin, whilst the INA in stem bark was autoclaving-labile. Anti-nucleation activity (ANA) was implicated in the leachate of autoclaved bud scales, which suppresses the INA at millimolar levels of concentration and likely differs from the colligative effects of the solutes. The tissue INA levels likely contribute to the establishment of freezing behaviors by ensuring the order of freezing in the tissues: from the primary freeze to the last tissue remaining unfrozen. PMID:25859249

  11. Influence of post-cure treatments on hardness and marginal adaptation of composite resin inlay restorations: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiza Tatiana Poskus

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Vickers hardness number (VHN and the in vitro marginal adaptation of inlay restorations of three hybrid composite resins (Filtek Z250, Opallis and Esthet-X subjected to two post-cure treatments. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the microhardness test, three different groups were prepared in accordance with the post-cure treatments: control group (only light cure for 40 s, autoclave group (light cure for 40 s + autoclave for 15 min at 130ºC; and microwave group (light cure for 40 s + microwave for 3 min at 450 W. To assess the marginal adaptation, the composite resin was inserted incrementally into a mesial-occlusal-distal cavity brass mold and each increment light-cured for 40 s. A previous reading in micrometers was taken at the cervical wall, using a stereomicroscope magnifying glass equipped with a digital video camera and image-analysis software. Subsequently, the specimens were subjected to the post-cure treatments (autoclave and microwave and a reading was taken again at the cervical wall. Data were compared using ANOVA for the hardness test, split-plot ANOVA for the adaptation assessment and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons. A significance level of 5% was adopted for all analyses. RESULTS: The post-cure treatments increased the hardness of conventional composites (p<0.001 and the gap values of inlay restorations (p<0.01. Filtek Z250 showed higher hardness (p<0.001 and lower gap values than Opallis and Esthet-X (p<0.05. Gap values did not exceed 90 µm for any of the experimental conditions. CONCLUSION: The post-cure treatments increased the VHN and the gap values on the cervical floor of composite resin inlays. Moreover, Filtek Z250 showed the best results, with higher hardness and lower gap values.

  12. Biodegradation of imazapyr in typical soils in Zhejiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-dong; ZHOU Su-mei; WANG Hui-li; FAN De-fang

    2005-01-01

    The degradation of imazapyr in non-sterile and sterile soils from four sampling sites in Zhejiang, China was studied. The results showed that the half-lives of imazapyr in non-sterile soils were in the range of 30 to 45 d, while 81 to 133 d in sterile(by autoclaving) soils.It means the rate constants of imazapyr under non-sterile conditions were 2.3-4.4 times faster than that under sterile(by autoclaving) conditions, evidently indicating that the indigenous microorganisms in soil play an important role in the degradation of imazapyr. The different sterilization methods could result in different degradation rates of imazapyr. The heat of sterilization of soil largely decreased the degradation. However, the sterile treatment of soil by sodium azide had a different effect from that by autoclaving. Further more, the mechanism was also discussed. Biodegradation in four non-sterile soils accounted for 62% to 78% of imazapyr degradation. In contrast,less than 39% of imazapyr degradation was associated with chemical mechanisms. Therefore, the degradation mechanism was predominantly involved in biology including organisms and microorganisms in soil. Two imazapyr-degrading bacterial strains were isolated in enrichment culture technique and they were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescenes biotype Ⅱ (ZJX-5) and Bacillus cereus(ZJX-9),respectively. When added at a concentration of 50 μg/g in mineral salts medium(MSM), ZJX-5 and ZJX-9 could degrade 81 % and 87%imazapyr after 48 h of incubation. For the treatment of incorporation of ZJX-5 or ZJX-9 into soil, the degradation rate enhanced 3-4 fold faster than that for control samples, which showed an important value in quick decontamination of imazapyr in soil.

  13. Postmortem endogenous ethanol production and diffusion from the lung due to aspiration of wood chip dust in the work place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumiya, Junichi; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Akinori; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki

    2011-07-01

    We report an autopsy case of postmortem ethanol diffusion into the cardiac blood after aspiration of wood chips, although antemortem ethanol consumption was not evident. A man in his twenties, who was loading a truck with small wood chips in a hot, humid storehouse, was accidentally buried in a heap of chips. At the time the body was discovered, 20 h after the accident, rectal temperature was 36°C. Autopsy showed the cause of death to be asphyxia due to obstruction of the airway by aspiration of wood chips. The ethanol and n-propanol levels were significantly higher in the lungs (left, 0.603 and 0.009 mg/g; right, 0.571 and 0.006 mg/g) than in other tissues. A significant difference in ethanol concentration was observed between the left cardiac blood (0.243 mg/g) and the right femoral blood (0.042 mg/g). Low levels of ethanol and n-propanol were detected in the stomach contents (0.105 and 0.001 mg/g, respectively). In order to determine whether aspiration of wood chips affects postmortem ethanol production in the lung, we measured the ethanol and n-propanol levels of homogenized rabbit lung tissue incubated with autoclaved or non-autoclaved wood chips. Levels of ethanol and n-propanol were significantly higher in the homogenates incubated with non-autoclaved chips for 24h. The results of this animal experiment suggested that the ethanol detected in the lung was produced by putrefactive bacteria within the wood chips. After death, the ethanol produced endogenously in the lung appears to have diffused and affected the ethanol concentration of the left cardiac blood.

  14. Anaerobic abiotic transformations of cis-1,2-dichloroethene in fractured sandstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Ramona; Lehmicke, Leo G; Andrachek, Richard G; Freedman, David L

    2013-02-01

    A fractured sandstone aquifer at an industrial site is contaminated with trichloroethene to depths greater than 244 m. Field data indicate that trichloroethene is undergoing reduction to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE); vinyl chloride and ethene are present at much lower concentrations. Transformation of cDCE by pathways other than reductive dechlorination (abiotic and/or biotic) is of interest. Pyrite, which has been linked to abiotic transformation of chlorinated ethenes, is present at varying levels in the sandstone. To evaluate the possible role of pyrite in transforming cDCE, microcosms were prepared with groundwater, ~40 mg L(-1) cDCE+[(14)C]cDCE, and crushed solids (pure pyrite, pyrite-rich sandstone, or typical sandstone). During 120 d of incubation, the highest level of cDCE transformation occurred with typical sandstone (11-14% (14)CO(2), 1-3% (14)C-soluble products), followed by pyrite-rich sandstone (2-4% (14)CO(2), 1% (14)C-soluble products) and even lesser amounts with pure pyrite. These results indicate pyrite is not likely the mineral involved in transforming cDCE. A separate experiment using only typical sandstone compared the rate of cDCE transformation in non-sterilized, autoclaved, and propylene-oxide sterilized treatments, with pseudo-first order rate constants of 8.7, 5.4, and 1.0 yr(-1), respectively; however, transformation stopped after several months of incubation. Autoclaving increased the volume of pores, adsorption pore diameter, and surface area in comparison to non-sterilized typical sandstone. Nevertheless, autoclaving was less disruptive than chemical sterilization. The results provide definitive experimental evidence that cDCE undergoes anaerobic abiotic and biotic transformation in typical sandstone, with formation of CO(2) and soluble products.

  15. Molecular Characterization of 2-Chlorobiphenyl Degrading Stenotrophomonas maltophilia GS-103

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Somaraja, P.K.; Gayathri, D.; Ramaiah, N.

    and supplemented with 0.005 % yeast extract. PAS was prepared by adding 77.5 ml of PA concentrate and 50 mg of yeast extract to 910 ml of glass-distilled water. After autoclaving and upon cooling, 10 ml of sterile PAS 1009 salts was added. Biphenyl was supplied... of 100 mg/L of biphenyl. Every 7–10 days, 10 % of enriched culture was transferred into 300-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 100 mL of fresh medium supplemented with 1 g/L of biphenyl and incubated (200 rpm, 28�C). During the growth, development of yellow...

  16. Unusual isotopic composition of C-CO2 from sterilized soil microcosms: a new way to separate intracellular from extracellular respiratory metabolisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kéraval, Benoit; Alvarez, Gaël; Lehours, Anne Catherine; Amblard, Christian; Fontaine, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    The mineralization of organic C requires two main steps. First, microorganisms secrete exoenzymes in soil in order to depolymerize plant and microbial cell walls and release soluble substrates for microbial assimilation. The second step of mineralization, during which C is released as CO2, implies the absorption and utilization of solubilized substrates by microbial cells with the aim to produce energy (ATP). In cells, soluble substrates are carried out by a cascade of respiratory enzymes, along which protons and electrons are transferred from a substrate to oxygen. Given the complexity of this oxidative metabolism and the typical fragility of respiratory enzymes, it is traditionally considered that respiration (second step of C mineralization process) is strictly an intracellular metabolism process. The recurrent observations of substantial CO2 emissions in soil microcosms where microbial cells have been reduced to extremely low levels challenges this paradigm. In a recent study where some respiratory enzymes have shown to function in an extracellular context in soils, Maire et al. (2013) suggested that an extracellular oxidative metabolism (EXOMET) substantially contributes to CO2 emission from soils. This idea is supported by the recent publication of Blankinship et al., 2014 who showed the presence of active enzymes involved in the Krebs cycle on soil particles. Many controversies subsist in the scientific community due to the presence of non-proliferating but morphologically intact cells after irradiation that could substantially contribute to those soil CO2 emissions. To test whether a purely extracellular oxidative metabolism contribute to soil CO2 emissions, we combined high doses of gamma irradiations to different time of soil autoclaving. The presence of active and non-active cells in soil was checked by DNA and RNA extraction and by electronic microscopy. None active cells (RNA-containing cells) were detectable after irradiation, but some morphological

  17. Diversity and activity of methanotrophic related bacteria in subsurface sediments of the Krishna-Godavari Basin, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sujith, P.P.; Sheba, M.; Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.

    containing 10 ml of NMS broth and 0.1 ml of the respective culture as the inoculum. The vials were sealed with autoclaved butyl-rubber stoppers and alumin- ium crimp-caps. This was followed by flushing of 2 ml of methane in the headspace as the only carbon.... The vials were sealed with butyl-rubber stoppers and aluminium crimp-caps. This was followed by flushing of 2 ml of methane in the headspace. The vials were incubated at 28  2C for 5 days. At the end of incubation, 1 ml of the headspace gas...

  18. Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Frames In-Filled with Lightweight Materials Under Seismic Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Iswandi Imran; Aris Aryanto

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and analytical research conducted to study the in-plane behavior of reinforced concrete (R/C) frames in-filled with lightweight materials. The tests were performed on two single bay, single story in-filled frame specimens with ½ scale models. One of the test specimens was in-filled with lightweight materials, i.e. autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) blocks, and the other, used as the comparison, was in-filled with clay brick materials. The loading used in the...

  19. Overview of activities for the reduction of dose rates in Swiss boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since March 1990, zinc has been added to the reactor water of the boiling water reactor (BWR) Leibstadt (KKL) and, since January 1991, iron has been added to the BWR Muehleberg (KKM). These changes in reactor water chemistry were accompanied by a comprehensive R+D programme. This paper covers three selected topics: a) the statistical analysis of KKL reactor water data before and after zinc addition; b) the analysis of the KKL reactor water during the 1991 annual shutdown; c) laboratory autoclave tests to clarify the role of water additives on the cobalt deposition on austenitic steel surfaces. (author) 2 figs., 4 tabs

  20. A one-step single source route to carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tao Cheng; Zhiyong Fang; Guifu Zou; Qixiu Hu; Biao Hu; Xiaozhi Yang; Youjin Zhang

    2006-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been synthesized via directly pyrolyzing ferrocene in the autoclave. The nanotubes with several micrometers in length have outer and inner diameters in the range of 40–100 nm and 20–40 nm, respectively. An yield of ∼70% of CNTs can be obtained without any accessorial solvents and catalysts. Experimental results showed that a temperature higher than 600°C in conjunction with proper pressure was favourable for achievement of the nanotubes. The growth mechanism of CNTs was also discussed.

  1. Influência do diâmetro e umidade no tratamento preservativo de moirões de Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Soares Amaral; José Reinaldo Moreira da Silva; Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein; Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2014-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da classe diamétrica e das umidades geral e do alburno sobre a retenção de CCA-C (arseniato de cobre cromatado tipo C) na madeira de clone de Eucalyptus urophylla preservada em autoclave. Foram utilizados 36 moirões pertencentes às classes diamétricas de 7, 9, 11 e 13 cm, que foram separados e expostos a três tempos de secagem ao ar livre: 20, 40 e 70 dias. Determinaram-se os valores de umidade pré-tratamento, geral e apenas do alburno, por classe diamétrica e ...

  2. Opisthorchis viverrini: Detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in human stool samples

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Umesha, K.R.; SanathKumar; Parvathi, A.; Duenngai, K.; Sithithaworn, P.; Karunasagar, Indrani; Karunasagar, Iddya

    ammonium bromide (CTAB) method with slight modifications (Ausubel et al., 1995). One gram of the feces was washed with 1 ml of sterile saline by vortexing and centrifuging at 8000g for 5 min. The supernatant was removed, pellet mixed with 800 ll of sterile... saline and 200ll of ether and centrifuged at 8000g for 5 min. The pellet was resuspended in 500 ll of 0.5 M NaOH and incubated for 1 h at room temperature and autoclaved to lyse eggs and release the DNA. Following this, the tubes were vortexed briefly...

  3. Optimización del tiempo de esterilización de soportes basados en suelo y compost en la producción de inoculentes para leguminosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Ormeño-Orrillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se elaboraron tres soportes consistentes en una mezcla de suelo y compost, y se sometieron a tres tratamientos de esterilización fraccionada en autoclave en dos días consecutivos. La eficiencia de los tratamientos de esterilización se evaluó monitoreando la disminución en las poblaciones de hongos y bacterias mediante recuentos estándar en placa. La esterilización de todos los soportes se logró mediante un tratamiento por 45 minutos el primer día y 30 minutos el segundo día.

  4. Evaluation of the toxicity of radiosterilized implantable materials; Ocena wplywu sterylizacji radiacyjnej na toksycznosc wybranych materialow implantacyjnych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowska-Szumiel, M.; Kudelska, D.; Mazur, M. [Akademia Medyczna, Wroclaw (Poland); Zimek, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-12-01

    Autoclave and radiation sterilization modes of selected biomaterials and polymers were studied to evaluate the toxicity, if any, induced in the cells grown in vitro. The materials examined induced: crystalline and amorphous biocarbon, alumina, hydroxyapatite, powdered primary PP (radiation-sensitive), and PP modified with a polypropylene/ethylene or an ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer to enhance its radiation resistance. Results showed no material to be toxic toward the cell examined. The viability of the cells cultivated in the presence of materials examined was found to remain unaffected regardless of the sterilization mode. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs.

  5. Effect of salinity on the growth, and agar yield and composition of Gracilaria tenuistipitata var liui Zhang et Xia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Lihong; Madeline Wu; Shen Songdong; Wang Deli

    2002-01-01

    Gracilaria tenuistipitata varliui Zhang et Xia is cultivated at two different salinities (21, 33) in the laboratory for 4 weeks. The daily growth rate is determined. The total agar yield and fractional agar composition are analyzed. Results show that algae grow faster in low salinity. The total agar yield is higher under high salinity conditions than under low salinity conditions. Among the eight fractions extracted, the yields of cold water extract and 40% ethanol extract are about the highest. In low salinities the yields of autoclaved extract and 60% ethanol extract are higher, while the yield of cold water extract is lower relative to high salinities.

  6. Characterization and In Vitro Bioactivity of Calcium and Phosphorous Containing Titania Layer on Ti6Al4V Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Teker, Dilek; MUHAFFEL, Faiz; ÇİMENOĞLU, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    Calcium and phosphorous containing titania layers on Ti6Al4V biomedical alloy were formed by micro arc oxidation (MAO) in an electrolyte containing calcium acetate and sodium phosphate, and then subjected to hydrothermal treatment (HT) in order to achieve improved biocompability with modified titania layer. Samples were hydrothermally treated in water solution whose pH was adjusted to 11.0-11.5 by adding NaOH, at 230 °C for 10 h and cooled in the autoclave. Surface morphology, ...

  7. Alkali-Silica Reaction Inhibited by LiOH and Its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A high alkali reactive aggregate-zeolitization perlite was used to test the long-term effectiveness of LiOH in inhibiting alkali-silica reaction.In this paper,the rigorous conditions were designed that the mortar bars had been cured at 80℃ for 3 years after autoclaved 24 hours at 150℃.Under this condition,LiOH was able to inhibit the alkali-silica reaction long-term effectiveness.Not only the relationship between the molar ratio of n(Li)/(Na) and the alkali contents in systems was established, but also the governing mechanism of such effects was also studied by SEM.

  8. Reactivity of North Bohemian coals in coprocessing of coal/oil mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebor, G.; Cerny, J.; Maxa, D.; Blazek, J. [Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Sykorova, I. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Autoclave experiments with North Bohemian coal were done in order to evaluate their reactivity in coprocessing with petroleum vacuum residue, Selected coals were comprehensively characterized by using a number of analytical methods. While the coals were of similar geological origin, some of their characteristics differed largely from one coal to another. Despite the differences in physical and chemical structure, the coals provided very similar yields of desired reaction products. The yields of a heavy non- distillable fraction and/or an insoluble solid residue were, under experimental conditions, largely affected by retrogressive reactions (coking). The insoluble solid fractions were examined microscopically under polarized light.

  9. An efficient synthesis of nanocrystalline MFI zeolite using different silica sources: A green approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocrystalline MFI zeolite was synthesized with a very broad range of silica to alumina ratios using an autoclave for periods of 7 h at 473 K under autogeneous pressure without seeding gel, promoter, organic solvent or sulfuric acid. The procedure has been successfully employed for the synthesis of MFI samples using fumed silica, colloidal silica, aerosil and tetraethylorthosilicate as silica sources. The synthesized samples were characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy. Their average crystallite size ranges from about 26 to 55 nm and they exhibit high crystallinity

  10. Buğday Rüşeymi Katkılı Unların Ekmeklik Kalitesini Düzeltme İmkanları

    OpenAIRE

    Sivri, Dilek; Köksal, Hamit; ÖZKAYA, Hazım

    1992-01-01

    Raw wheat germ is defatted with petroleum ether than both raw and defatted germ samples were heat treated by two methods: (1) Toasting for 50 minutes at 150 oC in air circulation oven, (2) Autoclaving for 10 minutes at 100 oC. Raw full fat and defatted wheat germs were blended with two different flours at the levels of 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%. Finally KBrO3 was added to all of the samples containing wheat germ at the levels of KBrO3 on the rheological properties were investigated. Addition of wheat...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of zeolite NaP using kaolin waste as a source of silicon and aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrando, Edemarino Araujo, E-mail: edemarino@ufpa.br [Universidae Federal do Para (UFPA), Maraba, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia de Materias. Lab. de Materiais Ceramicos; Andrade, Christiano Gianesi Bastos; Valenzuela-Diaz, Francisco Rolando [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia e Engenharia de Materiais; Rocha Junior, Carlos Augusto Ferreira da; Neves, Roberto de Freitas [Universidae Federal do Para (UFPA), Maraba, PA (Brazil). Int. de Tecnologia. Fac. de Engenharia Quimica; Angelica, Romulo Simoes [Universidae Federal do Para (UFPA), Maraba, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Fac. de Geologia

    2014-08-15

    The synthesis of zeolite NaP using kaolin waste, from the Amazon region, as a predominant source of silicon and aluminum has been studied. The zeolitisation process occurred in hydrothermal conditions using static autoclaving and the effects of time, temperature, and the Si/Al ratio were investigated. The starting material and the phases formed as reaction products were characterized by XRD, SEM and FTIR. The results showed that pure zeolite NaP is hydrothermally synthesized, at 100 °C for 20 hours, using meta kaolin waste material in alkaline medium in presence of additional silica. The XRD and SEM analyses indicate that the synthesized zeolite presents good crystallinity. (author)

  12. Recent trends in extractive metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habashi F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available While pyrometallurgical processes are old technology and were the dominant and logical route used to treat sulfide concentrates they are now challenged by new hydrometallurgical processes. In these new processes there have been attempts in the past few years to avoid using autoclaves in the treatment of concentrates of zinc, copper, and nickel. The situation has been recently reversed and pressure hydrometallurgy is being applied in many operations. An outline of these processes is given and the future trend is discussed.

  13. Structure formation of aerated concrete containing waste coal combustion products generated in the thermal vortex power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. I.; Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Temlyanstev, M. V.; Syromyasov, V. A.; Fomina, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    The results of fly ash research, generated in the process of waste coal combustion in the thermal vortex power units and used as an aggregate in aerated concrete, are provided. It is established that fly ash can be used in the production of cement or concrete with low loss on ignition (LOI). The permitted value of LOI in fly ash, affecting the structure formation and operational properties of aerated concrete, are defined. During non-autoclaved hardening of aerated concrete with fly ash aggregate and LOI not higher than 2%, the formation of acicular crystals of ettringite, reinforcing interporous partitions, takes place.

  14. Determination of the elemental composition of cyanobacteria cells and cell fractions by atomic emission and atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach to studying the elemental composition of cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis and Nostoc commune using a set of complementary analytical methods (ICP-AES, PAAS, and ETAAS) was proposed . The procedures were adapted for the determination of macro- and microelements (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Mo, Zn, B, and Se) in the biomass of cyanobacteria and separated cell fractions (chloroform and water-methanol extracts and precipitates). The conditions for the mineralization of biological materials were optimized for autoclave and microwave sample preparation procedures. The evaporation and atomization of Se and Mo in a graphite furnace in the presence of chloroform and methanol were studied

  15. Nanoliter-sized overheated reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neužil, P.; Sun, W.; Karásek, T.; Manz, A.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a microfluidic system formed by 200 nl water droplets, encapsulated by a 600 nl mineral oil placed on a hydrophobically coated glass microscope cover slip. The micromachined heater underneath the glass was able to heat up the sample at a heating rate of 650 °C/s, heating the water sample up to 200 °C in less than 2 s. The sample/glass and the sample/oil interface did not have nucleation centers, showing that the sample reached a superheated stage without the necessity of being pressurized to suppress boiling. This method can be utilized for various applications currently being conducted in autoclaves.

  16. Study of Multilayer Sandwich Flat Radome%多夹层平板天线罩的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦媛; 韩华龙; 李昂

    2014-01-01

    The flat radome was manufactured by autoclave processing method in this paper. The flat radome was tested by electric properties, thickness, and climbing drum peel strength. The results show that the flat radome fit some terra-air recovery arming.%采用热压罐固化工艺方法研制了多夹层平板天线罩,测试了多夹层平板天线罩电气性能、厚度及随炉件滚筒剥离强度,多夹层平板天线罩满足用户使用要求。

  17. Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibers to Produce Sugar Hydrolyzate as Raw Material for Bioethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Fitriani Kasim; Anwar Kasim

    2013-01-01

    A study conducted to see the effect of the regulation and control of temperature on the length of the hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber and the resulting hydrolyzate sugar levels, which will be planned to be used as raw material for bioethanol. Therefore do oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber hydrolysis with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) at low concentrations (1%) using an autoclave with a temperature of 120 ° C and 130 ° C, and the time for 30, 60, 90, 120 minutes. After that the obser...

  18. [Production of soy bean inoculants. Behavior of supports based on peat from Tierra del Fuego sterilized by vapor and ethylene oxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balatti, A P; Mazza, L A

    1979-01-01

    The survival of Rhizobium japonicum was studied in neutralized and sterilized peats from Ushuaia and Rio Grande. The carriers were sterilized by ethylene oxide and by autoclaving. Similar counts for Rhizobium (5 x 10(8) cel/g) were obtained in peat-cultures sterilized by both methods, after eight months. A good nodulation and nitrogen fixation capacity was observed with inoculated soybean plants. Using the strain Rhizobium japonicum E-45, no appreciable difference in symbiotic effectiveness was found between the inoculants prepared with the two peats. PMID:263653

  19. Rapid method for DNA extraction from the honey bee Apis mellifera and the parasitic bee mite Varroa destructor using lysis buffer and proteinase K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, M R C; Figueiredo, V L C; De Jong, D; Sakamoto, C H; Simões, Z L P

    2013-01-01

    We developed a rapid method for extraction of DNA from honey bees, Apis mellifera, and from the parasitic bee mite, Varroa destructor. The advantages include fast processing and low toxicity of the substances that are utilized. We used lysis buffer with nonionic detergents to lyse cell walls and proteinase K to digest proteins. We tested whole thorax, thoracic muscle mass, legs, and antennae from individual bees; the mites were processed whole (1 mite/sample). Each thorax was incubated whole, without cutting, because exocuticle color pigment darkened the extraction solution, interfering with PCR results. The procedure was performed with autoclaved equipment and laboratory gloves. For each sample, we used 100 µL lysis buffer (2 mL stock solution of 0.5 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.5, 10 mL stock solution of 2 M KCl, 500 µL solution of 1 M MgCl2, 2 mL NP40, and 27.6 g sucrose, completed to 200 mL with bidistilled water and autoclaved) and 2 µL proteinase K (10 mg/mL in bidistilled water previously autoclaved, as proteinase K cannot be autoclaved). Tissues were incubated in the solutions for 1-2 h in a water bath (62°-68 °C) or overnight at 37 °C. After incubation, the tissues were removed from the extraction solution (lysis buffer + proteinase K) and the solution heated to 92 °C for 10 min, for proteinase K inactivation. Then, the solution with the extracted DNA was stored in a refrigerator (4°-8 °C) or a freezer (-20 °C). This method does not require centrifugation or phenol/chloroform extraction. The reduced number of steps allowed us to sample many individuals/day. Whole mites and bee antennae were the most rapidly processed. All bee tissues gave the same quality DNA. This method, even using a single bee antenna or a single mite, was adequate for extraction and analysis of bee genomic and mitochondrial DNA and mite genomic DNA. PMID:24301746

  20. Effect of natural fibers and bio-resins on mechanical properties in hybrid and non-hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragassa, Cristiano

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present experimental investigation was to perform a comparative analysis concerning the influence on mechanical properties of natural fibers and/or bio-resins in reinforced thermoset composites. Flax and basalt fibers were selected as natural reinforcements, as single constituents or in hybrid combination. Glass synthetic fibers were used for comparison. Eco-friendly matrixes, both epoxy or vinylester, were considered and compared with composites based on traditional resins. Samples were fabricated by hand lay-up and resin infusion techniques. Cures were accelerated and controlled by applying heat and pressure in autoclave. Tensile, flexural and impact tests were carried out according to ASTM standards.

  1. Fast, microwave-assisted synthesis of monodisperse HfO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roo, Jonathan De; Keukeleere, Katrien De; Feys, Jonas; Lommens, Petra [Ghent University, Sol-Gel Centre for Research on Inorganic Powders and Thin Films Synthesis (SCRiPTS) (Belgium); Hens, Zeger [Ghent University, Physics and Chemistry of Nanostructures (PCN) (Belgium); Driessche, Isabel Van, E-mail: Isabel.VanDriessche@ugent.be [Ghent University, Sol-Gel Centre for Research on Inorganic Powders and Thin Films Synthesis (SCRiPTS) (Belgium)

    2013-07-15

    A conventional solvothermal synthesis was compared to a microwave-assisted method for the synthesis of HfO{sub 2} nanoparticles. In a microwave, the reaction could be completed in 3 h, compared to 3 days in an autoclave. In the microwave synthesis, the ensemble of particles was found to have a better size dispersion and a smaller average size (4 nm). The reaction mechanism was investigated and proof for an ether elimination process was provided. Post-synthetic modification with dopamine or dodecanoic acid permitted the suspension of the synthesized particles in both polar and apolar solvents, which is an advantage for further processing.

  2. An overview of the results of dissertation research in the field of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The research «Aerated concrete of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier» has the following results: 1. The practicability of the use of the additives based on melamine-formaldehyde for plasticization of nanostructured silica modifier was proved. The optimal content of plasticizer is 0,1%. 2. The compositions of aerated concrete of autoclave hardening for construction and thermal insulation with quality classes D350–D500 and durability classes ВО,75; В2,5–В5 were proposed. 3. The technology for production of aerated concrete of autoclave hardening which comprises the use of nanostructured modifier. The specialists may be also interested in the research held by Vindizheva A.S. «Nanocomposite cabel elastrons based on polyvinylchloride and aluminum silicates », Ashrapov A.Kh. «Polymer construction nanocomposites based on polyvinylchloride », Dyatlov A.K. «Fine-grained self-compacting concrete with complex nanocontaining additive», Khuzin A.F. «Cement composites with additives of multilayer carbon nanotubes», Ermolin M.S. «Rectification of nano- and microparticles in rotating spiral columns for the analysis of polydispersed samples», Yukhaeva G.R. «Nanocomposite materials based on polyethylene and graphite nanoplates: synthesis, structure, properties», Shepelev D.S. «Energy exchange and localization of energy in carbon nanotubes», Nelyubova V.V. «Compressed silicate autoclave materials with the use of nanostructured modifier», Mironova A.S. «Nanofilled plaster compositions to increase durability of building facades», Goncharova M.A. «Structure formation and technology of construction and special composites based on little used metallurgy wastes», Maiorova L.A. «Controlled self-organization of azaporphyrins into 2D and 3D-nanostructures in Langmuir layers and

  3. Study and characterization of noble metal deposits on similar rusty surfaces to those of the reactor U-1 type BWR of nuclear power station of Laguna Verde; Estudio y caracterizacion de depositos de metales nobles sobre superficies oxidadas similares a las del reactor de la Central de Laguna Verde (CNLV) U1 del tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores S, V. H.

    2011-07-01

    In the present investigation work, were determined the parameters to simulate the conditions of internal oxidation reactor circulation pipes of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in Veracruz. We used 304l stainless steel cylinders with two faces prepared with abrasive paper of No. 600, with the finality to obtain similar surface to the internal circulation piping nuclear reactor. Oxides was formed within an autoclave (Autoclave MEX-02 unit B), which is a device that simulates the working conditions of the nuclear reactor, but without radiation generated by the fission reaction within the reactor. The oxidation conditions were a temperature of 280 C and pressure of 8 MPa, similar conditions to the reactor operating in nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in Veracruz, Mexico (BWR conditions), with an average conductivity of 4.58 ms / cm and 2352 ppb oxygen to simulate normal water chemistry NWC. Were obtained deposits of noble metal oxides formed on 304l stainless steel samples, in a 250 ml autoclave at a temperature range of 180 to 200 C. The elements that were used to deposit platinum-rhodium (Pt-Rh) with aqueous Na{sub 2}Pt (OH){sub 6} and Na{sub 3}Rh (NO{sub 2}){sub 6}, Silver (Ag) with an aqueous solution of AgNO{sub 3}, zirconium (Zr) with aqueous Zr O (NO{sub 3}) and ZrO{sub 2}, and zinc (Zn) in aqueous solution of Zn (NO{sub 3}){sub 2} under conditions of normal water chemistry. Also there was the oxidation of 304l stainless steel specimens in normal water chemistry with a solution of Zinc (Zn) (NWC + Zn). Oxidation of the specimens in water chemistry with a solution of zinc (Zn + NWC) was prepared in two ways: within the MEX-02 autoclave unit A in a solution of zinc and a flask at constant temperature in zinc solution. The oxides formed and deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, elemental field analysis and X-ray diffraction. By other hand was evaluated the electrochemical behavior of the oxides

  4. Self-organized synthesis of silver dendritic nanostructures via an electroless metal deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, T. [Nanjing University, Department of Physics, Nanjing (China); City University of Hong Kong, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wu, X.L. [Nanjing University, Department of Physics, Nanjing (China); Mei, Y.F.; Chu, P.K.; Siu, G.G. [City University of Hong Kong, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-09-01

    Unique silver dendritic nanostructures, with stems, branches, and leaves, were synthesized with self-organization via a simple electroless metal deposition method in a conventional autoclave containing aqueous HF and AgNO{sub 3} solution. Their growth mechanisms are discussed in detail on the basis of a self-assembled localized microscopic electrochemical cell model. A process of diffusion-limited aggregation is suggested for the formation of the silver dendritic nanostructures. This nanostructured material is of great potential to be building blocks for assembling mini-functional devices of the next generation. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of corrosion characteristics of SMART materials (III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. H.; Park, S. Y.; Baek, J. H.; Choi, B. K.; Park, J. Y.; Lee, M. H.; Kim, J. H.; Bang, J. G

    2006-02-15

    The corrosion characteristics of materials (Low-Sn Zircaloy-4, Zr-1.0Nb, PT-7M, ASTM Gr. 2 Ti, Inconel-690 alloys) for cladding and heat-exchanger tubes of SMART were evaluated in ammonia aqueous solution contained recirculating loop of pH 9.98 at 360 .deg. C 300 .deg. C. And CEDM materials (ball bearing, ball screw, magnetic material) were evaluated in ammonia aqueous solution contained static autoclave of pH 9.98 at 120 .deg. C.

  6. The oxidation of limonene at raised pressure and over the various titanium-silicate catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Wróblewska Agnieszka; Makuch Edyta; Miądlicki Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the studies on the oxidation of limonene with hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) in the presence of : TS-2, Ti-Beta, Ti-MCM-41 and Ti-MWW catalysts, at the autogenic pressure and atmospheric pressure. The examination were performed at the following conditions: the temperature of 140°C (studies in the autoclave) and 80°C (studies in glass reactor), the molar ratio of limonene/oxidant (H2O2 or WNTB) = 1:1, the methanol concentration 80 wt%, the catalyst con...

  7. Morphological changes of poly(ethylene terephthalate) on multiple steam sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P D

    1990-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was steam sterilized by autoclaving for 15, 30 and 60 min. The thermal properties, T m, delta-H and percent crystallinity were determined using differential scanning calorimetry. Molecular weight distribution was determined using gel permeation liquid chromatography. Crystallinity of PET was also monitored by infrared spectrophotometry. The analyses indicate that that chain scission and cyclization reactions take place in PET, forming cyclic oligomers, that can migrate to the polymer surface and which may affect long term performance of PET. PMID:10150080

  8. Synthesis of Cu3N from CuO and NaNH2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Miura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the low-temperature synthesis of submicron-sized Cu3N powder produced from CuO and NaNH2 powder mixture by heating at 150–190 °C in a Teflon-sealed autoclave. The structure was the anti-RuO3 type with a lattice parameter of 0.3814(1 nm, and strong optical absorption was observed below ∼1.9 eV. This synthesis method has the potential of facile control of the reaction with less use of ammonia sources.

  9. [Asepsis and antisepsis in dental offices in Dakar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, C M M; Cisse, D; Faye, D; Kane, A W

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate hygiene in dental offices in Dakar, the authors questioned 64 public, private and semi-private dentists. From 62 practitioners who completed their questionnaire, it appeared that the dry-heated sterilizer (poupinel) was 5 times more used than the autoclave; The almost practitioners sayed respecting the sterilisation process and 66% of them said wearing gloves, masks and glasses during interventions. In spite of the hope these results give, this study is limited because it doesn't take into account many aspects of asepsis and antisepsis in dental office which require a rigorous application next to a personal who needs to be better trained.

  10. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Design/manufacturing concept assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Robert L.; Bayha, Tom D.; Davis, HU; Ingram, J. ED; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Composite Wing and Fuselage Structural Design/Manufacturing Concepts have been developed and evaluated. Trade studies were performed to determine how well the concepts satisfy the program goals of 25 percent cost savings, 40 percent weight savings with aircraft resizing, and 50 percent part count reduction as compared to the aluminum Lockheed L-1011 baseline. The concepts developed using emerging technologies such as large scale resin transfer molding (RTM), automatic tow placed (ATP), braiding, out-of-autoclave and automated manufacturing processes for both thermoset and thermoplastic materials were evaluated for possible application in the design concepts. Trade studies were used to determine which concepts carry into the detailed design development subtask.

  11. UMA ANÁLISE DA ESTRUTURA DE COORDENAÇÃO E REGULAÇÃO DO ARRANJO PRODUTIVO LOCAL DE INSUMOS MÉDICO-ODONTOLÓGICOS DE CAMPO MOURÃO - PR (An analysis of the coordenation and regulation structure of the medical – dentistry cluster in Campo Mourão-PR)

    OpenAIRE

    TEIXEIRA, Tiago Roberto Alves; ANDRADE, Áurea Andrade Viana de

    2012-01-01

    Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar a estrutura de regulação e coordenação do Arranjo Produtivo Local Médico-Odontológico do município de Campo Mourão - PR, o qual se destaca pela produção de produtos médico-odontológicos como autoclaves, filtros para hemodiálise, indicadores biológicos entre outros. Este aglomerado industrial é marcado por uma gestão público-privado onde o município juntamente com empresários criou diversos incentivos legislativos, para que o arranjo produtivo pudesse ...

  12. Commercial Phaseolus vulgaris extract (starch stopper) increases ileal endogenous amino acid and crude protein losses in the growing rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deglaire, A; Moughan, P J; Bos, C; Tome, D

    2006-07-12

    The effect of a commercial Phaseolus vulgaris extract (PVE, starch stopper) on ileal and fecal endogenous protein losses was studied. Growing rats were fed for 14 days a protein-free diet containing PVE at a nutritional concentration of 0% (PF1), 0.4% (PF2), or 1.1% PVE (PF3) or 1.1% autoclaved PVE (PF4). An indigestible marker (TiO(2)) was included in each diet. Ileal endogenous amino acid (AA) losses were significantly higher (P antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor, lectin) present in the PVE. PMID:16819935

  13. Effects of Catalyst Preparation on Hydrocarbon Product Distribution in Hydrocracking of the Fischer-Tropsch Product with Low Pt-Loaded Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiaki Hanaoka; Tomohisa Miyazawa; Katsuya Shimura; Satoshi Hirata

    2015-01-01

    For the effective production of hydrocarbon liquid fuel in the hydrocracking of the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) product, the catalytic performance of Pt-loaded catalysts with low Pt content was investigated using an autoclave at 250 °C, an initial H2 pressure of 0.5 MPa, and a reaction time of 1 h. A screening study using Pt-loaded catalysts with a Pt content of 0.1 wt. % indicated that zeolite supports were more favorable for jet fuel (carbon numbers 9–15) production than amorphous oxide supports....

  14. Correlation of coal liquefaction reactivity with coal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Durfee, S.L.; Voorhees, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    A narrow suite of bituminous coals chosen from the DOE/Penn State sample bank has been hydrogenated in a batch stirred autoclave. Rates of conversion to THF-solubles have been measured, and the data modeled using a pseudo-second order rate expression. Extent of conversion and rate of conversion of the coals in the suite have been correlated to coal compositional parameters and structural features. Recent data on reactivity correlations with information from pyrolysis/mass spectrometry and C-NMR are presented. (2 tables, 5 figs., 17 refs.)

  15. Correlation of coal liquefaction reactivity with coal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Durfee, S.L.; Voorhees, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    A narrow suite of bituminous coals chosen from the DOE/Penn State sample bank has been hydrogenated in a batch stirred autoclave. Rates of conversion to THF solubles have been measured, and the data modeled using a pseudo-second order rate expression. Extent of conversion and rate of conversion of the coals in the suite have been correlated to coal compositional parameters and structural features. Recent data on reactivity correlations with information from pyrolysis/mass spectrometry and C-NMR are presented.

  16. Extremely robust and conformable capacitive pressure sensors based on flexible polyurethane foams and stretchable metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeparre, H.; Watson, D.; Lacour, S. P.

    2013-11-01

    Microfabricated capacitive sensors prepared with elastomeric foam dielectric films and stretchable metallic electrodes display robustness to extreme conditions including stretching and tissue-like folding and autoclaving. The open cellular structure of the elastomeric foam leads to significant increase of the capacitance upon compression of the dielectric membrane. The sensor sensitivity can be adjusted locally with the foam density to detect normal pressure in the 1 kPa to 100 kPa range. Such pressure transducers will find applications in interfaces between the body and support surfaces such as mattresses, joysticks or prosthetic sockets, in artificial skins and wearable robotics.

  17. Synthesis of microporous material faujasite-type from kaolin waste; Sintese de material microporoso do tipo faujasita a partir de rejeito de caulim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrando, E.A.; Valenzuela-Diaz, F.R., E-mail: edemarino@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais. Lab. de Materias-Primas Particuladas e Solidos nao Metalicos; Angelica, R.S. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Fac. de Geologia; Neves, R.F. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia. Fac. de Engenharia Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Zeolite with structure faujasite was synthesized using kaolin waste from kaolin processing industries for paper coating as predominant source of silicon and aluminum; the starting material was characterized by XRF, XRD, DTA/TG, SEM, and products obtained by XRD and SEM. Synthesis in hydrothermal conditions occurred on autoclave and time-temperature effects, as well as the relationship Si/Al were considered. The results show that the methodology developed with the waste of calcined kaolin reacting at 90 deg C for 20 hours in an alkaline medium, in the presence of an additional source of silica was obtained zeolite Y as single phase present in the product. (author)

  18. Preparation and Self-assembly of Zirconia Nanoparticles via Hydrothermal Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-Hui; HONG Zhang-Lian; YANG Hui

    2008-01-01

    Zirconia nanoparticles were synthesized via hydrothermal method without any additives. This work focuses on the effect of preparation conditions such as the precursor preparation condition and crystallization time of nanocrystallite in autoclave on the properties of as-prepared products. The results indicated that the amount of tetragonal zirconia varied with the preparation conditions. It increased with the increase of the concentration of KOH solution in precursor producing process and reduced with the prolongation of crystallization time. At the same time, the particle size and morphology were also affected by the preparation conditions. In addition,the self-assembled spindle- like aggregates were observed in present works.

  19. Measurement of Moisture Storage Parameters of Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jiřičková

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The moisture storage parameters of three different building materials: calcium silicate, ceramic brick and autoclaved aerated concrete, are determined in the hygroscopic range and overhygroscopic range. Measured sorption isotherms and moisture retention curves are then combined into moisture storage functions using the Kelvin equation. A comparison of measured results with global characteristics of the pore space obtained by mercury intrusion porosimetry shows a reasonable agreement; the median pore radii by volume are well within the interval given by the beginning and the end of the characteristic steep parts of the moisture retention curves.

  20. An initial assessment of the effect on orthodontic pliers of various sterilization/disinfection regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M L

    1989-11-01

    Duplicates of six commonly used orthodontic instruments were allocated to four groups. One of the groups of instruments was stored as a control. The three other groups were exposed to different regimes of sterilization or cold disinfection over an extended period. Twenty characteristics of function, corrosion, and appearance were then judged by four observers twice using a visual analogue scale of 100 units. No statistical evidence was found of routine autoclaving causing more damage to pliers than cold disinfection; in fact, the data suggested the contrary. Chrome plated pliers appeared more resistant to damage and maintained their appearance better than stainless steel pliers.

  1. The effect of clinical use and sterilization on selected orthodontic arch wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G A; von Fraunhofer, J A; Casey, G R

    1992-08-01

    The effect of clinical use and various sterilization/disinfection protocols on three types of nickel-titanium, and one type each of beta-titanium and stainless steel arch wire was evaluated. The sterilization/disinfection procedures included disinfection alone or in concert with steam autoclave, dry heat, or cold solution sterilization. No clinically significant differences were found between new and used arch wires. The direction of load application to the arch wire and the particular segment of arch wire tested was found to cause substantial differences in generated loads for certain arch wire types.

  2. [A standardized AgNOR stain method for formalin fixed and paraffin embedded material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofner, D; Bankfalvi, A; Riehemann, K; Böcker, W; Schmid, K W

    1994-08-01

    Visualization of proteins associated with nucleolar organizer regions proteins (AgNORs) on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded archival tissues is substantially improved after application of wet autoclave pretreatment. Silver staining results are comparable to those obtained on tissues processed in alcohol based fixatives, illustrating AgNORs as substructures of the nucleoli without any staining artefacts. A highly reproducible staining quality was achieved irrespective of tissue origin or duration of formalin fixation. As a result of this novel and simple method, the grounds have been prepared for standardized AgNOR quantification on archival material.

  3. Conversion of celluloses to proteins. [Use of Cellulomonas and Alcaligenes faecalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, C.A.; Joson, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    Cellulosic wastes in the form of sugar cane bagasse was converted to single-cell protein by the action of Cellulomonas species subsequent to hydrolysis by NaOH and(or) autoclaving. As an aid to the process, in order to decompose the inhibitory cellobiose, Alcaligenes faecalis was introduced along with the Cellulomonas. Fungal enzyme production was greatest at the onset of fermentation, while the bacterial cellulases were produced over a more prolonged period, after an initial lag period. Biomass yield showed no correlation with enzyme production. The single-cell protein obtained comprised mainly lysine, methionine, cysteine, glycine, and valine.

  4. Effect of soybean derivatives (glycine max) on thyroid of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of a Brazilian variety soybean and their comercial products on thyroid gland is studied. Soybean derivatives are tested in rats through acute experiments of 3 to 24 hours and semichronic experiments of 16 to 29 days. The autoclaved extract administered after 6 to 24 hours decreases the percentage of iodine (131I) uptake. Semichronic experiments show that the factor found in soybean provokes both an increase or a reduction in percentage of iodine (131I) uptake, depending ou the oeriod of action

  5. Effect of Recycling Protocol on Mechanical Strength of Used Mini-Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Estelita; Guilherme Janson; Kelly Chiqueto; Eduardo Silveira Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. This study evaluated the influence of recycling process on the torsional strength of mini-implants. Materials and Methods. Two hundred mini-implants were divided into 4 groups with 50 screws equally distributed in five diameters (1.3 to 1.7 mm): control group (CG): unused mini-implants, G1: mini-implants inserted in pig iliac bone and removed, G2: same protocol of group 1 followed by sonication for cleaning and autoclave sterilization, and G3: same insertion protocol of group 1 follo...

  6. Behavior of pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) wood to different thermal treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Todaro L; Rita A; Negro F; Moretti N; Saracino A; Zanuttini R

    2015-01-01

    Quercus pubescens Willd. is a common oak species in the Mediterranean area, where it is currently exploited mainly for purposes such as firewood. To improve the technological properties of its wood, various steaming and/or heat treatments were applied to 160 wood samples from a southern Italian stand, cut from either sapwood or heartwood, while 20 samples served as controls. Steaming was carried out in an autoclave at 120 °C, whereas heat treatments were performed in an oven at 150 or 200 °C ...

  7. Rapid method for DNA extraction from the honey bee Apis mellifera and the parasitic bee mite Varroa destructor using lysis buffer and proteinase K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, M R C; Figueiredo, V L C; De Jong, D; Sakamoto, C H; Simões, Z L P

    2013-10-22

    We developed a rapid method for extraction of DNA from honey bees, Apis mellifera, and from the parasitic bee mite, Varroa destructor. The advantages include fast processing and low toxicity of the substances that are utilized. We used lysis buffer with nonionic detergents to lyse cell walls and proteinase K to digest proteins. We tested whole thorax, thoracic muscle mass, legs, and antennae from individual bees; the mites were processed whole (1 mite/sample). Each thorax was incubated whole, without cutting, because exocuticle color pigment darkened the extraction solution, interfering with PCR results. The procedure was performed with autoclaved equipment and laboratory gloves. For each sample, we used 100 µL lysis buffer (2 mL stock solution of 0.5 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.5, 10 mL stock solution of 2 M KCl, 500 µL solution of 1 M MgCl2, 2 mL NP40, and 27.6 g sucrose, completed to 200 mL with bidistilled water and autoclaved) and 2 µL proteinase K (10 mg/mL in bidistilled water previously autoclaved, as proteinase K cannot be autoclaved). Tissues were incubated in the solutions for 1-2 h in a water bath (62°-68 °C) or overnight at 37 °C. After incubation, the tissues were removed from the extraction solution (lysis buffer + proteinase K) and the solution heated to 92 °C for 10 min, for proteinase K inactivation. Then, the solution with the extracted DNA was stored in a refrigerator (4°-8 °C) or a freezer (-20 °C). This method does not require centrifugation or phenol/chloroform extraction. The reduced number of steps allowed us to sample many individuals/day. Whole mites and bee antennae were the most rapidly processed. All bee tissues gave the same quality DNA. This method, even using a single bee antenna or a single mite, was adequate for extraction and analysis of bee genomic and mitochondrial DNA and mite genomic DNA.

  8. Biodiesel production by transesterification of sludge in supercritical conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, M. A.; Aracil, Ignacio; Fullana Font, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    In this study wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sludge was subjected to a reactive pyrolysis treatment to produce a high quality pyro-oil. Sludge was treated in supercritical conditions in the presence of methanol using hexane as cosolvent in a high pressure lab-autoclave. The variables affecting the pyro-oil yield and the product quality, such as mass ratio of alcohol to sludge, presence of cosolvent and temperature, were investigated. It was found that the use of a non-polar cosolvent (hexa...

  9. Ergonomic T-Handle for Minimally Invasive Surgical Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, J; Shepherd, Det; Hukins, Dwl; Maffulli, N

    2016-05-01

    A T-handle has been designed to be used for minimally invasive implantation of a dynamic hip screw to repair fractures of the proximal femur. It is capable of being used in two actions: (i) push and hold (while using an angle guide) and (ii) application of torque when using the insertion wrench and lag screw tap. The T-handle can be held in a power or precision grip. It is suitable for either single (sterilised by γ-irradiation) or multiple (sterilised by autoclaving) use. The principles developed here are applicable to handles for a wide range of surgical instruments. PMID:27326394

  10. Inhibition of natural gas hydrates by means of kinetic inhibitors; Inhibierung von Erdgashydraten mit kinetischen Inhibitoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, E.; Froemmel, J.; Hase, A. [Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The use of kinetic inhibitors saves considerable costs as compared with thermodynamic inhibition. The effectivity of kinetic inhibitors can be examined by means of screening tests using an agitated autoclave. This contribution describes the experimental set-up and measuring methods used for this purpose and discusses the results obtained. (MSK) [Deutsch] Der Einsatz von kinetischen Inhibitoren fuehrt im Vergleich zur thermodynamischen Inhibition zu einer erheblichen Kostenreduzierung. Die Effektivitaet wird anhand von Screening-Versuchen in einem Ruehrautoklaven geprueft.Im Folgenden werden die Versuchsapparatur und die Messmethodik beschrieben. Ebenso werden die Ergebnisse diskutiert.

  11. Densities, excess molar volume, isothermal compressibility, and isobaric expansivity of (dimethyl carbonate + n-hexane) systems at temperatures (293.15 to 313.15) K and pressures from 0.1 MPa up to 40 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The densities of dimethyl carbonate, n-hexane and their mixtures were measured for 12 compositions at five different temperatures varying from (293.15 to 313.15) K and over the pressure range of (0.1 to 40) MPa. The densities of pure substances and their mixtures at atmospheric pressure were measured by a vibrating-tube densimeter. The densities at high pressures were measured by a variable-volume autoclave and precise analytical balance. The excess molar volume, isothermal compressibility, and isobaric expansivity were derived from the experimental densities.

  12. Hydrogen fracture toughness tester completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Michael J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    The Hydrogen Fracture Toughness Tester (HFTT) is a mechanical testing machine designed for conducting fracture mechanics tests on materials in high-pressure hydrogen gas. The tester is needed for evaluating the effects of hydrogen on the cracking properties of tritium reservoir materials. It consists of an Instron Model 8862 Electromechanical Test Frame; an Autoclave Engineering Pressure Vessel, an Electric Potential Drop Crack Length Measurement System, associated computer control and data acquisition systems, and a high-pressure hydrogen gas manifold and handling system.

  13. Three-dimensional mammalian cell growth on nonwoven polyester fabric disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, S A; Lages, A C; Sussman, M V

    1994-01-01

    Small disks of nonwoven polyester fabric (NWPF), similar to Fibra-Cel carriers, were surface treated with strong acid and used as a high surface area support matrix for in vitro culture of anchorage dependent MRC-5 cells. The disks can be autoclaved, and require inocula concentrations of only 2-5% of the final cell densities, which have reached 10(8) cells/mL of disk bed volume. Scanning electron microscopy photographs shown herein reveal that cells grow in a multilayered fashion between the randomly arrayed fibers of the nonwoven fabric, emulating in vivo growth. PMID:7522468

  14. Hydrothermal treatment of electrochemically synthesized nanocrystalline magnetic iron oxide powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulićević Lj.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic iron oxide nano-powders were synthesised electrochemically, using a low-carbon steel electrode immersed in a NaCl aqueous solution, at constant temperature of the electrolyte, pH and current density. In the second step, portions of the starting admixture were boiled at ~360 K during two hours and autoclaved at various temperatures. Both the starting powder and the treated ones were examined by a standard XRD method, then uniaxially pressed into pellets under 400 MPa, and their electric and magnetic behavior during non isothermal heating was analyzed.

  15. Hydrothermal treatment of electrochemically synthesized nanocrystalline magnetic iron oxide powder

    OpenAIRE

    Vulićević Lj.; Ivanović N.; Maričić A.; Srećković M.; Vardić S.; Plazinić M.; Tomić Ž.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nano-powders were synthesised electrochemically, using a low-carbon steel electrode immersed in a NaCl aqueous solution, at constant temperature of the electrolyte, pH and current density. In the second step, portions of the starting admixture were boiled at ~360 K during two hours and autoclaved at various temperatures. Both the starting powder and the treated ones were examined by a standard XRD method, then uniaxially pressed into pellets under 400 MPa, and their electr...

  16. Optimization of the Temperature-Time Curve for the Curing Process of Thermoset Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksendrić, Dragan; Carlone, Pierpaolo; Ćirović, Velimir

    2016-10-01

    An intelligent optimization model aiming at off-line or pre-series optimization of the thermal curing cycle of polymer matrix composites is proposed and discussed. The computational procedure is based on the coupling of a finite element thermochemical process model, dynamic artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms. Objective of the optimization routine is the maximization of the composite degree of cure by the definition of the autoclave temperature. Obtained outcomes evidenced the capability of the method as well as its efficiency with respect to hard computing or experimental procedures.

  17. Simulation of acid hydrolysis of lignocellulosic residues to fermentable sugars for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidiras, Dimitris

    2012-12-01

    The dilute acid hydrolysis of fir sawdust with sulfuric acid was undertaken in a batch reactor system (autoclave). The experimental data and reaction kinetic analysis indicate that this is a potential process for cellulose and hemicelluloses hydrolysis, due to a rapid hydrolysis reaction for acid concentration 0.045 N at 160-180°C. It was found that significant sugar degradation occurred at these conditions. The optimum conditions gave a yield of 38% total fermentable sugars. The kinetics of dilute acid hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses (polysaccharides) were simulated using four pseudo-kinetic models. The reaction rate constants were calculated in each case.

  18. Low Cost Manufacturing of Composite Cryotanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Brent; Palm, Tod; Deo, Ravi; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews research and development of cryotank manufacturing conducted by Northrup Grumman. The objectives of the research and development included the development and validation of manufacturing processes and technology for fabrication of large scale cryogenic tanks, the establishment of a scale-up and facilitization plan for full scale cryotanks, the development of non-autoclave composite manufacturing processes, the fabrication of subscale tank joints for element tests, the performance of manufacturing risk reduction trials for the subscale tank, and the development of full-scale tank manufacturing concepts.

  19. Formation Mechanism and Exhumation Processes for HP-UHP Metamorphic Rocks in Dabie Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Mingjin; Tang Jiafu

    2004-01-01

    The high, ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks, widely distributed in Dabie Mountains, were described in terms of the geological setting, the marks of the petrology and the mineralogy of the ultrahigh pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks. According to the estimated uplifting and denudation of the Dabie Mountains, and to the thermodynamics theory, were assessed the depth and pressure (high pressure autoclave) of the formation setting of the UHP metamorphic rocks. Based on all the information mentioned above, a new explanation is derived from the mechanism of formation and the processes of exhumation of the UHP metamorphic rocks.

  20. Pulse-Echo Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pat H.

    2010-01-01

    A PRSEUS test article was subjected to controlled impact on the skin face followed by static and cyclic axial compressions. Phased array ultrasonic inspection was conducted before impact, and after each of the test conditions. A linear phased array probe with a manual X-Y scanner was used for interrogation. Ultrasound showed a delamination between the skin and stringer flange adjacent to the impact. As designed, the stitching in the flange arrested the lateral flaw formation. Subsequent ultrasonic data showed no delamination growth due to continued loading. Keywords: Phased Array, Ultrasonics, Composites, Out-of-Autoclave