WorldWideScience

Sample records for autoclaves

  1. Autoclave nuclear criticality safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam-heated autoclaves are used in gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants to heat large cylinders of UF6. Nuclear criticality safety for these autoclaves is evaluated. To enhance criticality safety, systems are incorporated into the design of autoclaves to limit the amount of water present. These safety systems also increase the likelihood that any UF6 inadvertently released from a cylinder into an autoclave is not released to the environment. Up to 140 pounds of water can be held up in large autoclaves. This mass of water is sufficient to support a nuclear criticality when optimally combined with 125 pounds of UF6 enriched to 5 percent U235. However, water in autoclaves is widely dispersed as condensed droplets and vapor, and is extremely unlikely to form a critical configuration with released UF6. 4 refs., 3 figs

  2. Autoclave nuclear criticality safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Aquila, D.M. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States); Tayloe, R.W. Jr. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Steam-heated autoclaves are used in gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants to heat large cylinders of UF{sub 6}. Nuclear criticality safety for these autoclaves is evaluated. To enhance criticality safety, systems are incorporated into the design of autoclaves to limit the amount of water present. These safety systems also increase the likelihood that any UF{sub 6} inadvertently released from a cylinder into an autoclave is not released to the environment. Up to 140 pounds of water can be held up in large autoclaves. This mass of water is sufficient to support a nuclear criticality when optimally combined with 125 pounds of UF{sub 6} enriched to 5 percent U{sup 235}. However, water in autoclaves is widely dispersed as condensed droplets and vapor, and is extremely unlikely to form a critical configuration with released UF{sub 6}.

  3. Autoclave foam concrete: Structure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestnikov, Alexei; Semenov, Semen; Strokova, Valeria; Nelubova, Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the technology and properties of autoclaved foam concrete taking into account practical experience and laboratory studies. The results of study of raw materials and analysis of structure and properties of foam-concrete before and after autoclave treatment are basic in this work. Experimental studies of structure and properties of foam concrete are carried out according to up-to-date methods and equipment on the base of the shared knowledge centers. Results of experimental studies give a deep understanding of properties of raw materials, possible changes and new formations in inner layers of porous material providing the improvement of constructional and operational properties of autoclaved foam concrete. Principal directions of technology enhancement as well as developing of production of autoclave foam concretes under cold-weather conditions in Russia climate are justified.

  4. NON-AUTOCLAVE SILICATE BRICK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yaglov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a technology for obtaining bricks on the basis of lime-silica mixtures where chemical interactions are practically completely realized in dispersive state at the stage of preparation of binding contact maturing and raw mixture as a whole. The role of forming operation (moulding is changed in principle because in this case conversion of dispersive system into a rock-like solid occurs and due to this the solid obtains complete water-resistance in contact with water immediately after forming operation. Theoretical basis for the developed technology is capability of silicate dispersive substances (hydrated calcium silicate to transit in non-stable state, to form a rock-like water-resistant solid in the moment of mechanical load application during forming process. Specific feature of the proposed method is an exclusion of additional operations for autoclaving of products from the process of obtaining a silicate brick.Synthetic hydrated calcium silicate in contrast to natural ones are more uniform in composition and structure, they contain less impurities and they are characterized by dispersive composition and due to the mentioned advantages they find wider practical application. Contact-condensation binders permit to manipulate product properties on their basis and ensure maximum correspondence to the requirements of the concrete application. Raw material sources for obtaining synthetic hydrated calcium silicates are practically un-limited because calcium-silicon containing substances are found as in various technogenic wastes so in natural compounds as well. So the problem for obtaining hydrated calcium silicates having contact-condensation ability for structure formation becomes more and more actual one. This transition is considered as dependent principally on arrangement rate of substance particles which determined the level of its instability.

  5. Shear reinforced beams in autoclaved aerated concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelius, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Shear behaviour in concrete materials is very well documented, for normal density concrete materials. In this paper results of various tests on low density concrete materials like aerated autoclaved concrete (in the following denoted aircrete) will be presented and analyzed for different combinat...

  6. Out-of-Autoclave Cure Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brian S.

    2015-01-01

    As the size of aerospace composite parts exceeds that of even the largest autoclaves, the development of new out-of-autoclave processes and materials is necessary to ensure quality and performance. Many out-of-autoclave prepreg systems can produce high-quality composites initially; however, due to long layup times, the resin advancement commonly causes high void content and variations in fiber volume. Applied Poleramic, Inc. (API), developed an aerospace-grade benzoxazine matrix composite prepreg material that offers more than a year out-time at ambient conditions and provides exceptionally low void content when out-of-autoclave cured. When compared with aerospace epoxy prepreg systems, API's innovation offers significant improvements in terms of out-time at ambient temperature and the corresponding tack retention. The carbon fiber composites developed with the optimized matrix technology have significantly better mechanical performance in terms of hot-wet retention and compression when compared with aerospace epoxy matrices. These composites also offer an excellent overall balance of properties. This matrix system imparts very low cure shrinkage, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and low density when compared with most aerospace epoxy prepreg materials.

  7. No-Oven, No-Autoclave, Composite Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to continue the efforts from the 2010 NASA SBIR Phase I topic X5.03, "No-Oven, No-Autoclave (NONA) Composite...

  8. Generating Autoclave-Level Mechanical Properties with Out-of-Autoclave Thermoplastic Placement of Large Composite Aerospace Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Out-of-autoclave thermoplastic tape/tow placement (TP-ATP) is nearing commercialization but suffers a moderate gap in mechanical properties compared with laminates...

  9. Relationship between Structural Characteristics of Fly Ash and Reactivity under Autoclave Curing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The reactivity of autoclaved materials is conventionally estimated by their chemical composition. In this paper, after determining the chemical composition of various types of fly ash, a series of new tests which included X-ray Diffraction (XRD), infrared spectral analysis (IR) and bound water testing, were applied to investigate the performance of autoclaved fly ash products. The relationship between the infrared spectral analysis of Si-O wavenumber (about 1 100 cm-1) and its autoclaved chemical reactivity, and compressive strength of its autoclaved samples, is analyzed. The results show that fly ash with a lower wavenumber will have stronger autoclaved chemical reactivity and higher compressive strength for its autoclaved sample. Thus, the Si-O stretching vibration wavelength can be used to estimate autoclaved chemical reactivity of fly ash, so as to control the quality of fly ash to be autoclaved, and to predict the compressive strength of autoclaved fly ash products.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved and untreated food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Autoclaving decreased the formation of NH4-N and H2S during food waste digestion. • Stable digestion was achieved with untreated and autoclaved FW at OLR 6 kg VS/m3day. • Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. • Highest CH4 yields were observed at OLR 3 kg VS/m3day with untreated FW. • Autoclaved FW produced highest CH4 yields during OLR 4 kgVS/m3day. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved (160 °C, 6.2 bar) and untreated source segregated food waste (FW) was compared over 473 days in semi-continuously fed mesophilic reactors with trace elements supplementation, at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 2, 3, 4 and 6 kg volatile solids (VS)/m3 d. Methane yields at all OLR were 5–10% higher for untreated FW (maximum 0.483 ± 0.013 m3 CH4/kg VS at 3 kg VS/m3 d) than autoclaved FW (maximum 0.439 ± 0.020 m3 CH4/kg VS at 4 kg VS/m3 d). The residual methane potential of both digestates at all OLRs was less than 0.110 m3 CH4/kg VS, indicating efficient methanation in all cases. Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. Reactors fed on autoclaved FW showed lower ammonium and hydrogen sulphide concentrations, probably due to reduced protein hydrolysis as a result of formation of Maillard compounds. In the current study this reduced biodegradability appears to outweigh any benefit due to thermal hydrolysis of ligno-cellulosic components

  11. Development of autoclave moldable addition-type polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Jones, R. J.; Orell, M. K.; Zakrzewski, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    Chemistry and processing modifications of the poly(Diels Alder) polyimide (PDA) resin were performed to obtain structural composites suitable for 589 K (600 F) service. This work demonstrated that the PDA resin formulation is suitable for service at 589 K (600 F) for up to 125 hours when used in combination with Hercules HTS graphite fiber. Sandwich panels were autoclave molded using PDA/HTS skins and polyimide/glass honeycomb core. Excellent adhesion between honeycomb core and the facing skins was demonstrated. Fabrication ease was demonstrated by autoclave molding three-quarter scale YF-12 wing panels.

  12. Alkaline autoclave leaching of refractory uranium-thorium minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the study of an innovative method for processing the Oman placer ores by alkaline leaching in ball mill autoclaves, where grinding and leaching of the refractory minerals take place simultaneously. This was followed by the selective separation of thorium and uranium from lanthanides by autoclave leaching of the hydroxide cake with ammonium carbonate-bicarbonate solutions. The introduced method is based on the fact that thorium and uranium form soluble carbonate complexes with ammonium carbonate, while lanthanides form sparingly soluble double carbonates. It was found that a complete alkaline leaching of Oman placer ores (98.0Percent) was attained at 150 and 175degreeC within 2.5 and 2h, respectively. Oman placer ores leaching was intensified and accelerated in a ball mill autoclaves as a result of the grinding action of steel balls, removal of the hydroxide layer covering ores grains and the continuous contact of fresh ore grains with alkaline solution. The study of selective carbonate processing of hydroxide cake with ammonium carbonate-bicarbonate solutions on autoclave under pressure revealed that the complete thorium recovery (97.5Percent) with uranium recovery (90.8Percent) and their separation from the lanthanides were attained at 70-80degreeC during l-2h. The extraction of lanthanides in carbonate solution was low and did not exceed 4.6Percent.

  13. Long Out-time, Out-of-Autoclave Cure Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the size of composite parts exceed that of even the largest autoclaves, new out-of-autoclave processes and materials are necessary to achieve the same level of...

  14. Porosity and Mechanical Strength of an Autoclaved Clayey Cellular Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Guglielmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the porosity and the mechanical strength of an Autoclaved Clayey Cellular Concrete (ACCC with the binder produced with 75 wt% kaolinite clay and 25 wt% Portland cement. Aluminum powder was used as foaming agent, from 0.2 wt% to 0.8 wt%, producing specimens with different porosities. The results show that the specimens with higher content of aluminum presented pore coalescence, which can explain the lower porosity of these samples. The porosities obtained with the aluminum contents used in the study were high (approximately 80%, what accounts for the low mechanical strength of the investigated cellular concretes (maximum of 0.62 MPa. Nevertheless, comparing the results obtained in this study to the ones for low temperature clayey aerated concrete with similar compositions, it can be observed that autoclaving is effective for increasing the material mechanical strength.

  15. Modeling of damage due to shrinkage in autoclaved aerated concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Koudelka, T.; Kruis, J.; Sysala, S.; M. Vokáč

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with numerical modeling of damage evolution in autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) due to shrinkage. It represents coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical problem where the temperature and moisture transports are fully coupled. The mechanical problem is partially coupled with transport part because the AAC shrinkage is influenced by moisture evolution. These models were implemented to the SIFEL software package and they were used for numerical simulation of drying wall made from AAC blo...

  16. Non-autoclaved aerated concrete with mineral additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'ina, L. V.; Rakov, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of joint grinding of Portland cement clinker, silica and carbonate components and mineral additives to specific surface of 280 - 300 m2/kg on the properties (strength, average density and thermal conductivity) of non-autoclaved aerated concrete, and the porosity of the hardened cement paste produced from Portland cement clinker with mineral additives. The joint grinding of the Portland cement clinker with silica and carbonate components and mineral additives reduces the energy consumption of non-autoclaved aerated concrete production. The efficiency of mineral additives (diopside, wollastonite) is due to the closeness the composition, the type of chemical bonds, physical and chemical characteristics (specific enthalpy of formation, specific entropy) to anhydrous clinker minerals and their hydration products. Considering the influence of these additions on hydration of clinker minerals and formation of hardened cement paste structure, dispersed wollastonite and diopside should be used as mineral additives. The hardness and, consequently, the elastic modulus of diopside are higher than that of hardened cement paste. As a result, there is a redistribution of stresses in the hardened cement paste interporous partitions and hardening, both the partitions and aerated concrete on the whole. The mineral additives introduction allowed to obtain the non-autoclaved aerated concrete with average density 580 kg/m3, compressive strength of 3.3 MPa and thermal conductivity of 0.131 W/(m.°C).

  17. Oxidizing autoclave-soda leaching of wolframite concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of technological investigations of oxidizing autoclave-soda leaching of artificial tungstates and wolframite concentrates having increased chemical resistance are presented. The oxidizing mechanism is proposed and phase composition of finishing hard products is determined. It is shown that processing of all kinds of wolframite concentrates with high degree of tungsten extraction in solution and with WO3 content in cakes less than 2% is possible at temperatures between 225 and 250 deg C, at excessive pressure not less that 1 MPa and at usual other conditions

  18. NASA Out-of-Autoclave Process Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Norman, J.; Clinton, R. G., Jr.; McMahon, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Polymer matrix composites (PMCS) will play a significant role in the construction of large reusable launch vehicles (RLVs), mankind's future major access to low earth orbit and the international space station. PMCs are lightweight and offer attractive economies of scale and automated fabrication methodology. Fabrication of large RLV structures will require non-autoclave methods which have yet to be matured including (1) thermoplastic forming: heated head robotic tape placement, sheet extrusion, pultrusion, molding and forming; (2) electron beam curing: bulk and ply-by-ply automated placement; (3) RTM and VARTM. Research sponsored by NASA in industrial and NASA laboratories on automated placement techniques involving the first 2 categories will be presented.

  19. Bacteria in Crude Oil Survived Autoclaving and Stimulated Differentially by Exogenous Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Xiao-Cui; Liu, Ze-Shen; Guo, Peng; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Chen, Jian; Wang, Xing-Biao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Chun-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Autoclaving of crude oil is often used to evaluate the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of bacteria. This may be potentially useful for bioaugmentation and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). However, it is not entirely clear if “endogenous” bacteria (e.g., spores) in/on crude oil survive the autoclaving process, or influence subsequent evaluation of the hydrocarbon-degradation abilities of the “exogenous” bacterial strains. To test this, we inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium with six ...

  20. Carbon Foam Self-Heated Tooling for Out-of-Autoclave Composites Manufacturing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Touchstone Research Laboratory, Ltd. (Touchstone) has developed a novel and innovative Out-of-Autoclave (OOA) composites manufacturing process with an electrically...

  1. PATI RESISTEN SAGU HASIL PROSES HIDROLISIS ASAM DAN AUTOCLAVING-COOLING [Resistant Starch of Sago from Acid Hydrolyzis and Autoclaving-Cooling Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feri Kusnandar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to produce resistant starch (RS from a combination of acid hydrolysis and autoclaving-cooling processes of sago starch. This study compared two methods of starch modification to produce RS, i.e. (1 acid hydrolysis treatment followed by autoclaving-cooling cycles (AH-AC, and (2 autoclaving-cooling cycles followed by acid hydrolysis treatment (AC-AH. The acid hydrolysis used 1 and 2% HCl while autoclaving-cooling process consisted of three-cycle of autoclaving at 121°C for 30 min followed by cooling at 4°C for 72 hrs. Both AH-AC and AC-AH modification methods decreased starch content, altered amylose and amylopectin ratio, and increased RS contents. Both modification methods also yielded nearly flat pasting profiles at both heating and cooling phases as compared to that of native sago starch. At the same HCl concentration, the AH-AC process yielded a higher RS content than that of AC-AH. Among all treatments, the acid hydrolysis treatment using 1% HCl followed by three cycles of autoclaving-cooling process yielded the highest RS content (74.28%. The crystallinity of RS was also lower than of native sago starch, but its A crystalline type remained the same.

  2. Cracking in autoclaved aerated concrete: Experimental investigation and XFEM modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper aims to investigate and model cracking development in beams and deep-beams made of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC). Fracture mechanics of AAC has been first studied by performing three-point bending tests on beams, similar to those commonly used for ordinary concrete elements. In some of these tests, crack growth has been also monitored by using ESPI laser technique. In this way, it has been possible to calibrate the main parameters of a proper cohesive law by means of extended finite element inverse analysis. Subsequently, cracking tests have been also performed on deep-beams, whose behavior is more representative of full scale walls. To validate the proposed cohesive law, deep-beam experimental behavior has been finally simulated through XFEM

  3. Leachate and radon production from fly ash autoclaved cellular concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental consequences and potential liabilities of autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC) use were assessed by aqueous leaching of crushed samples for metals and organic solvent extractions of solid ACC for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Also, whole ACC blocks were tested for radon exhalation potential. Results show leachate concentrations were typically 10 times below, and always 100 times below the regulatory threshold of applicable drinking water standards. A Microtox bioassay procedure showed no toxic effects due to leached metals. Organic analysis of solvent extracts indicated no release of hazardous PAHs attributable to the fly ash ingredient of ACC. Measured rates of radon exhalation were too low to cause potentially dangerous buildups in confined air spaces. Fly ash ACC may be characterized as an environmentally green construction material based on these findings

  4. Response of MICROTOX organisms to leachates of autoclaved cellular concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MICROTOX bioassay, a toxicity test involving bioluminescent microorganisms, was conducted on aqueous leachates derived from a construction material made using coal fly ash as the key siliceous ingredient. The material is known as autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC). The test indicated an absence of toxic effects attributable to soluble species, which included the priority heavy metals in the filtered leachates. Toxic or inhibitive effects on the test bacteria were observed for the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leachates, but this was probably due to acetic acid in the extractant rather than the solubilized metals. The ASTM (distilled-deionized water extractant) and simulated acid rain leachates, by comparison, produced a repeatable stimulative effect. Stimulation observed in the form of enhanced light output may be a manifestation of hormesis, a phenomenon reportedly caused by exposure to extremely low concentrations (part-per-billion range) of otherwise toxic agents such as heavy metals

  5. Cracking in autoclaved aerated concrete: Experimental investigation and XFEM modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, D., E-mail: daniele.ferretti@unipr.it [Department of Civil, Environmental, Land Management Engineering and Architecture, University of Parma, P.co Area delle Scienze 181/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Michelini, E. [Department of Civil, Environmental, Land Management Engineering and Architecture, University of Parma, P.co Area delle Scienze 181/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Rosati, G. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    The paper aims to investigate and model cracking development in beams and deep-beams made of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC). Fracture mechanics of AAC has been first studied by performing three-point bending tests on beams, similar to those commonly used for ordinary concrete elements. In some of these tests, crack growth has been also monitored by using ESPI laser technique. In this way, it has been possible to calibrate the main parameters of a proper cohesive law by means of extended finite element inverse analysis. Subsequently, cracking tests have been also performed on deep-beams, whose behavior is more representative of full scale walls. To validate the proposed cohesive law, deep-beam experimental behavior has been finally simulated through XFEM.

  6. Modeling of damage due to shrinkage in autoclaved aerated concrete

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koudelka, T.; Kruis, J.; Sysala, Stanislav; Vokáč, M.

    Vol. 1648. Melville, NY: AIP Publishing, 2015 - (Simos, T.; Tsitouras, C.), 090012-1-090012-4. (AIP Conference Proceedings. 1648). ISBN 978-0-7354-1287-3. ISSN 0094-243X. [International Conference on Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics 2014 (ICNAAM-2014). Rhodes (GR), 22.09.2014-28.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18652S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : autoclaved aerated concrete * isotropic damage * shrinkage * coupled problems Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering http://scitation.aip.org/docserver/fulltext/aip/proceeding/aipcp/1648/10.1063/1.4912400/1.4912400.pdf?expires=1427792299&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=6AE655B2B43B3EDCD5D3CA15B4C56CB7

  7. Autoclaveable miniaturized video endoscopes with simplified flip-chip assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckert, Erik; Wippermann, Frank; Walther, Sarah; Burkhardt, Thomas; Messerschmidt, Bernhard; Bartnitzek, Thomas; Vahrenkamp, Torsten; Eberhardt, Ramona; Gäbler, Daniel; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    Miniaturized video endoscopes with an imager located at the distal end and a simplified opto-mechanical layout are presented. They are based on a CMOS imager with 650 x 650 pixels of 2.8 μm pitch and provide straight view with 75° and 110° field of view at f/4.3. They have an outer diameter of 3 mm including the shell and a length of approx. 8 mm. The optics consist of polymer lenses in combination with a GRIN and a dispensed lens. Using a simple flip chip assembly, optical axis alignment better than 10 μm and a contrast of 30 % at 90 LP/mm was achieved. The 75° FOV system was sealed at the front window using a solderjetting technology, providing 10-9 mbar*l/s leakage rates even after several autoclave cycles.

  8. Response of MICROTOX organisms to leachates of autoclaved cellular concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latona, M.C.; Neufeld, R.D.; Hu, W.; Kelly, C.; Vallejo, L.E. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1997-08-01

    The MICROTOX bioassay, a toxicity test involving bioluminescent microorganisms, was conducted on aqueous leachates derived from a construction material made using coal fly ash as the key siliceous ingredient. The material is known as autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC). The test indicated an absence of toxic effects attributable to soluble species, which included the priority heavy metals in the filtered leachates. Toxic or inhibitive effects on the test bacteria were observed for the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leachates, but this was probably due to acetic acid in the extractant rather than the solubilized metals. The ASTM (distilled-deionized water extractant) and simulated acid rain leachates, by comparison, produced a repeatable stimulative effect. Stimulation observed in the form of enhanced light output may be a manifestation of hormesis, a phenomenon reportedly caused by exposure to extremely low concentrations (part-per-billion range) of otherwise toxic agents such as heavy metals.

  9. Leachate and radon production from fly ash autoclaved cellular concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latona, M.C.; Neufeld, R.D.; Vallejo, L.E.; Brandon, D.; Hu, W.; Kelly, C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1997-08-01

    Environmental consequences and potential liabilities of autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC) use were assessed by aqueous leaching of crushed samples for metals and organic solvent extractions of solid ACC for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Also, whole ACC blocks were tested for radon exhalation potential. Results show leachate concentrations were typically 10 times below, and always 100 times below the regulatory threshold of applicable drinking water standards. A Microtox bioassay procedure showed no toxic effects due to leached metals. Organic analysis of solvent extracts indicated no release of hazardous PAHs attributable to the fly ash ingredient of ACC. Measured rates of radon exhalation were too low to cause potentially dangerous buildups in confined air spaces. Fly ash ACC may be characterized as an environmentally green construction material based on these findings.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of autoclaved and non autoclaved copaiba oil on Listeria monocytogenes Atividade antimicrobiana de óleo de copaíba autoclavado e não autoclavado sobre Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Alessandro Pieri; Raphaela Mansur José; Newton Nascentes Galvão; Luis Augusto Nero; Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo Moreira

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of different copaiba oil concentrations against the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, and analyze differences in inhibition of microorganisms with autoclaved and non autoclaved oil. This study provided an agar diffusion test with six isolates of bacteria and six different concentrations of autoclaved or non autoclaved copaiba oil and a negative control. The results showed sensitivity of five L. monocytogenes isolates related to th...

  11. Numerical modelling of the strength of highly porous aerated autoclaved concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenider, T.; Greil, P. [Univ. of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Materials Science; Schober, G. [Hebel AG, Fuerstenfeldbruck (Germany). Materialtechnische Entwicklung

    1998-12-31

    Highly porous building materials like aerated autoclaved concrete are characterized by low thermal conductivity and high mechanical strength, which both strongly depend on porosity. The influence of porosity distribution on the compressive strength of aerated autoclaved concrete was investigated by using finite element analysis and multiaxial Weibull theory. Calculations of failure probability of microstructures with ordered as well as random pore configurations show a dependence of compressive strength on the Weibull modulus of the matrix material and the size and arrangement of pores. The results of the calculations are compared to experimental data of aerated autoclaved concrete.

  12. Low Temperature Pyrolysis of Graptolite Argillite (Dictyonema Shale in Autoclaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Sharayeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of the systematic experimental study obtained in this work on the effects of temperature (340–420 °C and exposure time (0–8h at nominal temperature on the yield of pyrolysis products from Estonian graptolite argillite (GA generated in autoclaves without any solvent are described. The yields of solid residue (SR, gas, pyrogenetic water (W and extractable with benzenemix ofthermobitumen and oil (TBO were estimated. The compound groups of TBO were assessed. The highest yield of TBO, 2.18% on dry GA basis and 13.2% of organic matter (OM was obtained at temperature of 420 °C and duration 0.5 h. The main compound groups in TBO obtained at 400 ᵒC are polar hetero-atomic compounds and polycyclic hydrocarbons surpassing 45% and 30% of TBO. The shares of aliphatic and monocyclic hydrocarbons are below 15% of TBO. The yield of W from GA is – about 10-15% of OM. The quantity of OM left in SR after pyrolysis is high, about 65% of OM. The yield of pyrolysis products from GA and the composition of its TBO are compared with those obtained under similar conditions from different oil shales: Estonian Kukersite, US Utah Green River, and Jordanian Attarat.

  13. Carbon Foam Self-Heated Tooling for Out-of-Autoclave Composites Manufacturing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses NASA's need for non-autoclave composites manufacture. The Constellation program, including the Ares V launch vehicle, will require very...

  14. Corrosion behaviour of Alloy 800 in high temperature aqueous solutions: long term autoclave studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M. G.; Olmedo, A. M.; Villegas, M.

    1996-04-01

    Generalized corrosion of Alloy 800 under primary coolant conditions was investigated by measuring the average thickness of oxide layers grown after long isothermal exposures in the autoclaves located out of core in the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant and shorter exposures in laboratory static autoclaves. The films exhibited the familiar double layer structure but after long exposures the inner layer was found to be hidden by the formation of overlayers and/or by the deposition of species inevitably present in high temperature coolant. The samples exposed to the primary coolant showed greater average oxide thickness than those in the static autoclave studies, indicating the deposition of corrosion products from the coolant. Analysis of the films grown in static autoclaves showed the presence of hydrated species at the oxide/solution interface and spinel structures inside the film. Oxidized nickel was found only within few nanometers in the outermost layer of the films whereas elementary nickel predominated in the rest of the oxide.

  15. Effect of autoclaving and sintering on the formation of β-wollastonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hamisah; Shamsudin, Roslinda; Abdul Hamid, Muhammad Azmi

    2016-01-01

    β-wollastonite (β-CaSiO3) was synthesized from rice husk ash and calcium carbonate, and a study of the effects of the autoclaving and sintering steps is presented here. Autoclaving and sintering at 8h and 2h yielded the β-wollastonite phase in full, with improved crystallinity. Nucleation between rice husk ash and calcium oxide occurred around 135 °C, pressure 0.24 MPa, and growth proved to be more crystalline after the ripening period. For shorter processing times, and for both unsintered and unautoclaved samples, cristobalite and unstable tricalcium silicate phases were present. Crystallite size was increased by longer sintering times but reduced by longer autoclaving times. The β-wollastonite obtained had a random branch-like structure. In conclusion, the introduction of the autoclaving step successfully obtained β-wollastonite from a reaction between rice husk ash and calcium oxide. PMID:26478406

  16. Effect of Sterilization by Dry Heat or Autoclaving on Bacterial Penetration through Berea Sandstone

    OpenAIRE

    Jenneman, Gary E.; McInerney, Michael J.; Crocker, Michael E.; Knapp, Roy M.

    1986-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine why bacteria could penetrate lengths of consolidated sandstone (Berea) faster when the sandstone was sterilized by autoclaving than when dry heat (150°C, 3 h) was used. Changes in permeability, porosity, and pore entrance size of the rock as a result of autoclaving were not sufficient to explain the differences in penetration times observed, but electron dispersion spectroscopy and electron microscopy of the rock revealed changes in mineral composition and ...

  17. Exploring metal hydrides using autoclave and multi-anvil hydrogenations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakainen, Kati

    Metal hydride materials have been intensively studied for hydrogen storage applications. In addition to potential hydrogen economy applications, metal hydrides offer a wide variety of other interesting properties. For example, hydrogen-dominant materials, which are hydrides with the highest hydrogen content for a particular metal/semimetal composition, are predicted to display high-temperature superconductivity. On the other side of the spectrum are hydrides with small amounts of hydrogen (0.1 - 1 at.%) that are investigated as viable magnetic, thermoelectric or semiconducting materials. Research of metal hydride materials is generally important to gain fundamental understanding of metal-hydrogen interactions in materials. Hydrogenation of Zintl phases, which are defined as compounds between an active metal (alkali, alkaline earth, rare earth) and a p-block metal/semimetal, were attempted by a hot sintering method utilizing an autoclave loaded with gaseous hydrogen (Hydride formation competes with oxidative decomposition of a Zintl phase. The oxidative decomposition, which leads to a mixture of binary active metal hydride and p-block element, was observed for investigated aluminum (Al) and gallium (Ga) containing Zintl phases. However, a new phase Li2Al was discovered when Zintl phase precursors were synthesized. Using the single crystal x-ray diffraction (SCXRD), the Li2Al was found to crystallize in an orthorhombic unit cell (Cmcm) with the lattice parameters a = 4.6404(8) Å, b = 9.719(2) Å, and c = 4.4764(8) Å. Increased demand for materials with improved properties necessitates the exploration of alternative synthesis methods. Conventional metal hydride synthesis methods, like ball-milling and autoclave technique, are not responding to the demands of finding new materials. A viable alternative synthesis method is the application of high pressure for the preparation of hydrogen-dominant materials. Extreme pressures in the gigapascal ranges can open access to

  18. Effect of Sterilization by Dry Heat or Autoclaving on Bacterial Penetration through Berea Sandstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenneman, G E; McInerney, M J; Crocker, M E; Knapp, R M

    1986-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine why bacteria could penetrate lengths of consolidated sandstone (Berea) faster when the sandstone was sterilized by autoclaving than when dry heat (150 degrees C, 3 h) was used. Changes in permeability, porosity, and pore entrance size of the rock as a result of autoclaving were not sufficient to explain the differences in penetration times observed, but electron dispersion spectroscopy and electron microscopy of the rock revealed changes in mineral composition and clay morphology. Autoclaved cores contained more chloride than dry-heated cores, and the clays of autoclaved cores were aggregated and irregularly shaped. Therefore, the decreases in bacterial penetration rates caused by autoclave sterilization were probably the result of a change in surface charge of the pores of the rock and of a reduction in surface area of clays available for adhesion. The results implied that dry-heat sterilization was preferable to autoclaving when examining biotic and abiotic interactions in a native-state rock model. PMID:16346974

  19. Effect of sterilization by dry heat or autoclaving on bacterial penetration through Berea sandstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenneman, G.E.; McInerney, M.J.; Crocker, M.E.; Knapp, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine why bacteria could penetrate lengths of consolidated sandstone (Berea) faster when the sandstone was sterilized by autoclaving than when dry heat (150/sup 0/C, 3 h) was used. Changes in permeability, porosity, and pore entrance size of the rock as a result of autoclaving were not sufficient to explain the differences in penetration times observed, but electron dispersion spectroscopy and electron microscopy of the rock revealed changes in mineral composition and clay morphology. Autoclaved cores contained more chloride than dry-heated cores, and the clays of autoclaved cores were aggregated and irregularly shaped. Therefore, the decreases in bacterial penetration rates caused by autoclave sterilization were probably the result of a change in surface charge of the pores of the rock and of a reduction in surface area of clays available for adhesion. The results implied that dry-heat sterilization was preferable to autoclaving when examining biotic and abiotic interactions in a native-state rock model.

  20. Morphological effects of autoclaved diet on the myenteric neurons of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrícia O Gon(c)alez; Naianne K Clebis; Renata B Mari; Karina M Gagliardo; Sandra R Stabille; Haroldo G Faria; Edson A Liberti; José Roberto Kfoury Jr

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of autoclaved diet on the jejunum neurons of the myenteric plexus of rats during their growth.METHODS: The experimental groups were made up of rats going through weaning whose mothers Received either an autoclaved or a non-autoclaved diet during gestation and lactation, and rats that were fed the same diet as their mothers during the post-weaning period. In order to measure the neurons' body pro-file and to quantify the number of neurons per area, preparations were stained by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-diaphorase method.RESULTS: No significant changes were observed in rats' body weight or in the number of neurons regard-less of the diet used (P > 0.05). There was a decrease in the jejunum-ileum length in rats treated with an autoclaved diet (P < 0.05). An increase in the neuronal cross-sectional area was seen in rats that had Received the autoclaved diet, an effect that was significant for animals undergoing weaning. In addition, all observed factors showed significant differences when related to the age of the animals.CONCLUSION: The autoclaved diet did not alter the quantity of neurons, but increased their cell body area, suggesting changes similar to those observed in pro-tein deficiency.

  1. Effects of surface treatments on the susceptibilities of low temperature degradation by autoclaving in zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Her, Soo-Bok; Chang, Won-Gun; Lim, Bum-Soon

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of surface treatments on the aging susceptibilities by autoclaving in zirconia ceramics. Four commercially available tetragonal zirconia polycrystals and one zirconia-alumina composite were tested. Disk-shaped specimens were prepared and the grain sizes were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope and image analyzer. The specimens were divided into three groups based on surface treatments including heat treatment subsequent to mirror polishing, grinding, and sandblasting. Specimens in each group were autoclaved at 134°C for 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 h. The phases of the specimens were analyzed using an X-ray diffractometer, and the relative amount of the monoclinic phase was calculated and analyzed using Student's t-test and Newman-Keuls multiple comparisons test. Single routine autoclave treatment for sterilization did not promote the phase transformation in zirconia. The phase transformations of all specimens by autoclaving were correlated with grain size, except for the zirconia-alumina composite. Grinding or sandblasting treatments gave rise to increased formation of the monoclinic phase, especially for the zirconia-alumina composite, which showed the highest fraction for the monoclinic phase. The effects of surface treatments on the aging susceptibilities by autoclaving were different in the experimental groups. It is notable that not all zirconia ceramics show similar phase transformation by autoclaving after surface treatments. PMID:22566390

  2. An algorithm of heat engineering computation of leaching tungsten concentrates by soda solutions in autoclaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algorithms for heat engineering computation of leaching tungsten concentrates by soda solutions in horizontal rotary autoclaves and in autoclave batteries have been developed, computer programs being prepared on their basis. Having obtained from mathematically processes reference tabular data the following models found their application in the algorithms: a model relating steam pressure over soda-wolframate solution to temperature and sodium wolframate and soda content of the solution; a model of pressure dependence of steam saturation temperature; and a model of temperature dependence of steam enthalpies and steam condensate. Practical application recommendations for the models developed are given in the paper. A schematic flow diagram of computation algorithm for leaching tungsten concentrate with soda solution in the autoclave battery is also illustrated

  3. Modeling and simulation of high-pressure industrial autoclave polyethylene reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure technology for polyethylene production has been widely used by industries around the world. A good model for the reactor fluid dynamics is essential to set the operating conditions of an autoclave reactor. The high-pressure autoclave reactor model developed in this work was based on a non-isothermal dynamic model, where PID control equations are used to maintain the operation at the unstable steady state. The kinetic mechanism to describe the polymerization rate and molecular weight averages are presented. The model is capable of computing temperature, concentration gradients and polymer characteristics. The model was validated for an existing industrial reactor and data for production of homopolymer polyethylene and has represented well the behavior of the autoclave reactor used in ethylene homopolymerization.

  4. The release of 14C—chlorsulfuron bound residue by autoclaving method and its identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOJiangfeng; PINGXiaofei; 等

    1999-01-01

    When individual microorganisms were used to release bound pesticide resdues,it was ussually not take into full account whether the autoclaving method could lead to the release of bound residues.The soil containing bound 14C-chlorsulfuron residues was treated with an autoclave in this study.The results reveal that the bound 14C-chlorsulfuron residue can be released from the soil when treated with the autoclave and the release rate can be remarkably enhanced by adding water into the soil when subjected to such treatment.A TLC analysis showed that the released 14C-residue was one of the degraded products of 14C-chlorsulfuron.After derivatization and analysis using the GC-MS,the released 14C-residue was tentatively identified as 2-amnino-4-hydroxyl-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine.

  5. Biofiltration of Methane from Ruminants Gas Effluent Using Autoclaved Aerated Concrete as the Carrier Material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganendra, Giovanni; Mercado-Garcia, Daniel; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Peiren, Nico; De Campeneere, Sam; Ho, Adrian; Boon, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The performance of Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria (MOB) immobilized on Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) in a biofilter setup to remove methane from ruminants gas effluent was investigated. Two dairy cows were housed in respiration chambers for two days where the exhaust gas from the chambers w

  6. Autoclave reduction of jarosites and other metal sulfates : a new approach to major waste problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, J.T.L.

    1999-01-01

    Industrial jarosite is a waste product of the zinc industry. It is considered a serious environmental problem, due to the quantity produced and the mobile hazardous metals it contains. Over 50 million tons are already stored worldwide. The jarosite sludge autoclave treatment process described in thi

  7. Simplified mathematical model of two-stage autoclave-soda wolframite leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the simplified approaches to the building of mathematics to investigate a wide range of controlling problems and to choose the technological parameters of an improved autoclave wolframite leaching scheme has been considered. This method ensures the reprocessing even of resistant wolframites which aren't usually processed hydrometallurgically

  8. Autoclave reduction of jarosites and other metal sulfates : a new approach to major waste problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hage, J.L.T.

    1999-01-01

    Industrial jarosite is a waste product of the zinc industry. It is considered a serious environmental problem, due to the quantity produced and the mobile hazardous metals it contains. Over 50 million tons are already stored worldwide. The jarosite sludge autoclave treatment process described in this thesis is a technically and economically feasible alternative to storage, which is only a temporary solution.

  9. Thermal properties of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) recovered from municipal solid waste by steam autoclaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of steam autoclaving on the properties of PET, data which could ultimately be applied to determine the most likely end use of this potentially huge waste stream. Through the course of the study it was determined that stretch blow molding in bottle ...

  10. Moisture conditions of modern structures made of autoclaved aerated concrete in operation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Zyryanov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In St.-Petersburg and area six organizations making cellular concrete of autoclave hardening operate. At all enterprises the cellular concrete is made by the gas way of pore development by molding technology. The molding technology in practice means that the mass humidity of concrete on an exit from autoclaves will be at level of 35-45 % (great values of humidity correspond to smaller density. The similar situation is observed in other regions: more than 80 % of all autoclave cellular concrete in Russia are made by molding technology. The high humidity caused by presence of technological and constructional moisture in an initial stage of operation quickly decreases, reaching gradually operational level. The established humidity of cellular autoclave concrete as a part of protecting walls makes 3–6 % on weight. However the raised humidity of cellular concrete in an operation initial stage causes smaller settlement values of durability of concrete in a laying. Durability of concrete, in turn, influences on bearing capacity of anchorings for ventilated facades, if they are fastened in a body of cellular concrete. Thus, the information on dynamics of change of laying humidity in an operation initial stage allows to estimate terms of reach by designs calculated strength and thermophysical parameters.

  11. Bacteria in crude oil survived autoclaving and stimulated differentially by exogenous bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-Cui; Liu, Ze-Shen; Guo, Peng; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Chen, Jian; Wang, Xing-Biao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Chun-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Autoclaving of crude oil is often used to evaluate the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of bacteria. This may be potentially useful for bioaugmentation and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). However, it is not entirely clear if "endogenous" bacteria (e.g., spores) in/on crude oil survive the autoclaving process, or influence subsequent evaluation of the hydrocarbon-degradation abilities of the "exogenous" bacterial strains. To test this, we inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium with six exogenous bacterial strains (three Dietzia strains, two Acinetobacter strains, and one Pseudomonas strain). The survival of the spore-forming Bacillus and Paenibacillus and the non-spore-forming mesophilic Pseudomonas, Dietzia, Alcaligenes, and Microbacterium was detected using a 16S rRNA gene clone library and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. However, neither bacteria nor bacterial activity was detected in three controls consisting of non-inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium. These results suggest that detection of endogenous bacteria was stimulated by the six inoculated strains. In addition, inoculation with Acinetobacter spp. stimulated detection of Bacillus, while inoculation with Dietzia spp. and Pseudomonas sp. stimulated the detection of more Pseudomonas. In contrast, similar exogenous bacteria stimulated similar endogenous bacteria at the genus level. Based on these results, special emphasis should be applied to evaluate the influence of bacteria capable of surviving autoclaving on the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of exogenous bacteria, in particular, with regard to bioaugmentation and MEOR. Bioaugmentation and MEOR technologies could then be developed to more accurately direct the growth of specific endogenous bacteria that may then improve the efficiency of treatment or recovery of crude oil. PMID:23028421

  12. Bacteria in crude oil survived autoclaving and stimulated differentially by exogenous bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Cui Gong

    Full Text Available Autoclaving of crude oil is often used to evaluate the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of bacteria. This may be potentially useful for bioaugmentation and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR. However, it is not entirely clear if "endogenous" bacteria (e.g., spores in/on crude oil survive the autoclaving process, or influence subsequent evaluation of the hydrocarbon-degradation abilities of the "exogenous" bacterial strains. To test this, we inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium with six exogenous bacterial strains (three Dietzia strains, two Acinetobacter strains, and one Pseudomonas strain. The survival of the spore-forming Bacillus and Paenibacillus and the non-spore-forming mesophilic Pseudomonas, Dietzia, Alcaligenes, and Microbacterium was detected using a 16S rRNA gene clone library and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis. However, neither bacteria nor bacterial activity was detected in three controls consisting of non-inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium. These results suggest that detection of endogenous bacteria was stimulated by the six inoculated strains. In addition, inoculation with Acinetobacter spp. stimulated detection of Bacillus, while inoculation with Dietzia spp. and Pseudomonas sp. stimulated the detection of more Pseudomonas. In contrast, similar exogenous bacteria stimulated similar endogenous bacteria at the genus level. Based on these results, special emphasis should be applied to evaluate the influence of bacteria capable of surviving autoclaving on the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of exogenous bacteria, in particular, with regard to bioaugmentation and MEOR. Bioaugmentation and MEOR technologies could then be developed to more accurately direct the growth of specific endogenous bacteria that may then improve the efficiency of treatment or recovery of crude oil.

  13. Pyrolysis Autoclave Technology Demonstration Program for Treatment of DOE Solidified Organic Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the summer of 2005, MSE Technologies Applications, Inc. (MSE) and THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT) conducted a demonstration test of the Thermal Organic Reduction (THORsm) in-drum pyrolysis autoclave system under contract to the Department of Energy. The purpose of the test was to demonstrate that the THORsm pyrolysis autoclave system could successfully treat solidified organic waste to remove organics from the waste drums. The target waste was created at Rocky Flats and currently resides at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Removing the organics from these drums would allow them to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for disposal. Two drums of simulated organic setup waste were successfully treated. The simulated waste was virtually identical to the expected waste except for the absence of radioactive components. The simulated waste included carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, Texaco Regal oil, and other organics mixed with calcium silicate and Portland cement stabilization agents. The two-stage process consisted of the THORsm electrically heated pyrolysis autoclave followed by the MSE off gas treatment system. The treatment resulted in a final waste composition that meets the requirements for WIPP transportation and disposal. There were no detectable volatile organic compounds in the treated solid residues. The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) for total organics in the two drums ranged from >99.999% to >99.9999%. The operation of the process proved to be easily controllable using the pyrolysis autoclave heaters. Complete treatment of a fully loaded surrogate waste drum including heat-up and cooldown took place over a two-day period. This paper discusses the results of the successful pyrolysis autoclave demonstration testing. (authors)

  14. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) fiber optic monitoring of composites during cure in an autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druy, Mark A.; Elandjian, Lucy; Stevenson, William A.; Driver, Richard D.; Leskowitz, Garett M.

    1990-01-01

    Real-time in situ monitoring of the chemical states of epoxy resins was investigated during cure in an autoclave using infrared evanescent spectroscopy. Fiber evanescent sensors were developed which may be sandwiched between the plies of the prepreg sample. A short length of sapphire fiber was used as the sensor cell portion of the fiber probe. Heavy metal fluoride glass optical fiber cables were designed for connecting the FTIR spectrometer to the sensor fiber within the autoclave. The sapphire fibers have outstanding mechanical thermal properties which should permit their use as an embedded link in all thermoset composites. The system is capable of operation at a temperature of 250 C for periods up to 8 hours without major changes to the fiber transmission. A discussion of the selection of suitable sensor fibers, the construction of a fiber-optic interface, and the interpretation of in situ infrared spectra of the curing process is presented.

  15. HYACE - a novel autoclave coring equipment for systematic offshore gashydrate sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, H.; Hohnberg, H.J.; Reinelt, R. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Schiffs- und Meerestechnik, Fachgebiet Maritime Technik

    1997-12-31

    HYACE, the acronym for hydrate autoclave coring equipment system, is a research and development project sponsored by the European Union`s Marine Science and Technology Programme MAST. The project was to have started in the fourth quarter of 1997 and is to last 30 months. The main activities of the project will be in the development and prototype testing of an innovative down-hole controlled autoclave coring system. This system will be designed to sample marine sediments at extended down-hole conditions maintaining as many parameters constant as possible. In general terms, the main aim of the project is to contribute to systematic ground truthing of a necessarily ephemeral phenomenon of growing global significance: sampling and analysis of gas hydrates in their natural environment. (MSK)

  16. Mathematical Model For Autoclave Curing Of Unsaturated Polyester Based Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan A. Abdul Razak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer process involved in the autoclave curing of fiber-reinforced thermosetting composites is investigated numerically. A model for the prediction of the temperature and the extent of the reaction across the laminate thickness during curing process in the autoclave of unsaturated polyester based composite has been developed. The governing equation for one dimensional heat transfer, and accounting for the heat generation due to the exothermic cure reaction in the composites had been used.  It was found that the temperature at the central of the laminate increases up to the external imposed temperature, because of the thermal conductivity of the resin and fiber. The heat generated by the exothermic reaction of the resin is not adequately removed; the increase in the temperature at the center increases the resins rate reaction, which in turn generates more heat.

  17. A compensation approach to the tool used in autoclave based on FEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ji; Li Yingguang; Li Nanya; and Liao Wenhe

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of the curing process can not control the deformation of composite part prepared in autoclave accurately. And traditional "trial-and-error" tool surface compensation approach is low efficiency, high cost and can not control part deformation quantificationally. In order to address these issues, tool compensation approach based on FEA is presented. Model of multi-field coupling relationship in autoclave is realized. And finite element analysis model of composite part's curing process is developed to analyze part deformation. According to displacement of the part surface nodes after deformation, tool surface which compensated by the displacement of composite part which analyzed by FEA is used to control part deformation. A cylindrical composite part is ana- lyzed to verify the approach, and the result proves the correctness and validity of the approach.

  18. Autoclave inactivation of infectious radioactive laboratory waste contained within a charcoal filtration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model system was developed previously for disposal of solid laboratory waste that is both radioactive and heat sensitive, e.g., HIV. A double polypropylene bag with charcoal vent filter and absorbent was designed to meet requirements for both steam sterilization and disposal as solid radioactive waste. Earlier work demonstrated the effective containment of radioactive gases by the filter and inactivation of organisms as heat sensitive as HIV. The authors sought to broaden the application of this model to ensure inactivation of microorganisms that are more heat resistant than HIV. The efficacy of steam sterilization using water or solutions of iodophor, hypochlorite, or hydrogen peroxide was studied under constant temperature and time conditions. The systems were monitored with internal probes, physical, chemical, and biological indicators. Biological indicators documented inactivation when bags containing hydrogen peroxide (3%) were autoclaved for 60 min at 121C. Synergistic activity between hydrogen peroxide and autoclave conditions significantly reduced processing time

  19. Interface morphologic characteristics of articles in load-bearing autoclaved cellular concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S.; Wang, L. [China University of Mining and Technology (China)

    1999-06-01

    Using SEM-EDAX, the morphological characteristics within the interfacial zone between the fly ash particles and the lime-cement paste of load-bearing autoclaved cellular concrete is studied. The results shows that with autoclaved curing, the crystals of the hydration product are well developed. The microstructure of the interlocking needle and fibre shaped hydration products is denser than that of natural curing. Under natural curing, the crystallization of the hydration product is low, the particles mainly present in piles. Irregular dispersed grain-shaped hydration products are seen on the breaking face in the early stage of curing. Rod and sheet shaped AFt, AFm phases are seen later. The lack of connecting and interlocking of the hydration products is the main reason for the low strength of natural curing product. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Autoclave leaching of molybdenite concentrates with catalytic additives of nitric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, K. M.; Raspopov, N. A.; Shneerson, Ya. M.; Lapin, A. Yu.; Bitkov, G. A.; Men'shikov, Yu. A.; Paskhin, P. N.; Kirichenko, V. P.

    2010-07-01

    The scientific theoretical prerequisites for the use of small additives of nitric acid for the intensification of the autoclave oxidative leaching (AOL) of sulfide concentrates are checked in order to increase the degree of extraction of the base metal with a simultaneous decrease in the cost of the process. The technological parameters of the AOL conditions applied to molybdenite are also refined, and recommendations for a practical application of the apparatus of the process and for a decrease in its cost are made.

  1. Autoclaving and clinical recycling: Effects on mechanical properties of orthodontic wires

    OpenAIRE

    Oshagh, M.; M R Hematiyan; Y Mohandes; M R Oshagh; L Pishbin

    2012-01-01

    Background: About half of the orthodontists recycle and reuse orthodontic wires because of their costs. So when talking about reuse and sterilization of wires, their effects on mechanical properties of wires should be clarified. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of sterilization and clinical use on mechanical properties of stainless steel wires. Materials and Methods: Thirty stainless steel orthodontic wires were divided into three equal groups of control, autoclave (ster...

  2. Determinazione di azoto e fosforo totale: ossidazione in autoclave e determinazione spettrofotometrica in assorbimento molecolare

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele A. TARTARI

    2012-01-01

    Metodo analitico interno al laboratorio di idrochimica del CNR-ISE di Verbania per la determinazione contemporanea di azoto e fosforo totale per ossidazione in autoclave a 120 ?C. I composti organici contenenti azoto e fosforo vengono contemporaneamente ossidati a nitrato ed ortofosfato con la miscela ossidante potassio persolfato, acido borico e sodio idrossido; l'ossidazione ? simultanea grazie alla variazione tra pH 9,7 e 5 ottenuta dall'ossidazione del sistema acido borico - sodio idrossi...

  3. Recycling of autoclaved aerated concrete in floor screeds: Sulfate leaching reduction by ettringite formation

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmans, Jef; Nielsen, Peter; Snellings, Ruben; Broos, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) is a lightweight cellular concrete. Recycling AAC in concrete or unbound applications may cause problems because of high amounts of leachable sulfate. This study evaluates the recycling of AAC demolition waste as a replacement of sand in floor screed. The cement binder reacted with sulfate released from the AAC waste to form ettringite. Sulfate release was in line with ettringite solubility control and below leaching limits defined by Dutch environmental legi...

  4. Diseño de un biorreactor a partir de un autoclave en deshuso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Salazar-Rojas

    2014-06-01

    Este artículo detalla el proceso de construcción de un prototipo de biorreactor piloto, con todas las características necesarias para su funcionalidad, partiendo de una autoclave obsoleta. Con el fin de dar ejemplo de cómo se puede extender la vida útil de un material de desecho y, además, minimizar costos al obtener un equipo 100% funcional.

  5. Treatment of Clinical Solid Waste Using a Steam Autoclave as a Possible Alternative Technology to Incineration

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Omar Ab Kadir; Nik Norulaini Nik Ab Rahman; Md. Sohrab Hossain; Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker; Venugopal Balakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min) and temperature (111 °C, 121 °C and 131 °C) at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree ...

  6. Cellular Composites with Ambient and Autoclaved Type of Hardening with Application of Nanostructured Binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelyubova, V.; Pavlenko, N.; Netsvet, D.

    2015-11-01

    The research presents the dimensional and structural characteristics of nonhydrational hardening binders - nanostructured binders. Rational areas of their use in composites for construction purposes are given. The paper presents the results of the development of natural hardening foam concrete and aerated autoclaved concrete for thermal insulating and construction and thermal insulating purposes. Thus nanostructured binder (NB) in the composites was used as a primary binder and a high reactive modifier.

  7. Corrosion behaviour of zirconium alloys in the autoclaves of Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion behaviour of zirconium alloys coupons attached to the holders of the autoclaves located out of core in the primary circuit of Embalse nuclear power plant is described. The Zr-2.5 Nb coupons of the autoclaves at the higher temperature (305 C degrees) and the Zry-4 coupons of the autoclaves at 265 and 305 C degrees installed in 1988 had a normal corrosion behaviour, after 3500 of full power days. While, the Zr-2.5 Nb coupons, at 265 C degrees, showed the presence of white oxide nuclei and a weight gain indicating an abnormal corrosion behaviour which might be attributed to the material microstructure. Complementary tests, made in the period September 1991-April 1993, showed that the abnormal corrosion behaviour observed for the Canadian coupons installed in 1983 was due to a surface contamination of the Zry-4 coupons and due to the microstructure of the Zr-2.5 Nb coupons. The normal corrosion behaviour for both alloys installed in 1986, showed that the resin ingress to the primary circuit that occurred in 1988, do not affect the performance of these materials. (author)

  8. Mechanical Characterization of In and Out-of-Autoclave Cured Composite Panels for Large Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Lerch, Bradley A.; Wilmoth, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Two manufacturing demonstration panels (1/16th-arc-segments of 10 m diameter cylinder) were fabricated under the composites part of the Lightweight Space Structures and Materials program. Both panels were of sandwich construction with aluminum core and 8-ply quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy facesheets. One of the panels was constructed with in-autoclave curable unidirectional prepreg (IM7/977-3) and the second with out-of-autoclave unidirectional prepreg (T40-800B/5320-1). Following NDE inspection, each panel was divided into a number of small specimens for material property characterization and a large (0.914 m wide by 1.524 m long) panel for a buckling study. Results from the small specimen tests were used to (a) assess the fabrication quality of each 1/16th arc segment panel and (b) to develop and/or verify basic material property inputs to Finite Element analysis models. The mechanical performance of the two material systems is assessed at the coupon level by comparing average measured properties such as flatwise tension, edgewise compression, and facesheet tension. The buckling response of the 0.914 m wide by 1.524 m long panel provided a comparison between the in- and out-of autoclave systems at a larger scale.

  9. Autoclaved Tumor Bone for Skeletal Reconstruction in Paediatric Patients: A Low Cost Alternative in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Umer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed in this series forty patients of pediatric age who underwent resection for malignant tumors of musculoskeletal system followed by biological reconstruction. Our surgical procedure for reconstruction included (1 wide en bloc resection of the tumor; (2 curettage of tumor from the resected bone; (3 autoclaving for 8 minutes (4 bone grafting from the fibula (both vascularized and nonvascularized fibular grafts used; (5 reimplantation of the autoclaved bone into the host bone defect and fixation with plates. Functional evaluation was done using MSTS scoring system. At final followup of at least 18 months (mean 29.2 months, 31 patients had recovered without any complications. Thirty-eight patients successfully achieved a solid bony union between the graft and recipient bone. Three patients had surgical site infection. They were managed with wound debridement and flap coverage of the defect. Local recurrence and nonunion occurred in two patients each. One patient underwent disarticulation at hip due to extensive local disease and one died of metastasis. For patients with non-union, revision procedure with bone graft and compression plates was successfully used. The use of autoclaved tumor grafts provides a limb salvage option that is inexpensive and independent of external resources and is a viable option for musculoskeletal tumor management in developing countries.

  10. West Angeles Community Development Corporation final technical report on export market feasibility planning and research for the solar medical autoclave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, G.D.

    1998-04-20

    This report summarizes core findings from an investigation performed by the staff of West Angeles Community Development Corporation (CDC) regarding the feasibility of marketing the Solar Medical Autoclave (``autoclave``) in South Africa. The investigation was completed during 1997, the period prescribed by the Grant Award made by the U.S. Department of Energy on January 1, 1997, and was monitored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  11. Implementing the concept of «sustainable development» in ukraine by use autoclaved aerated concrete.

    OpenAIRE

    Brynzin, I. V.; Paruta, V. А.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Implementation of the concept of "sustainable development" in Ukraine by the use of autoclaved aerated concrete, in the construction of low- and high-rise buildings and structures. The article describes the main characteristics of autoclaved aerated concrete, from the stage of extraction of raw materials and ending with recycling stage. Justified a broad introduction to the construction industry. Methodology. The results are obtained in the form of an expert opinion by comparing the ...

  12. An autoclave study of zirconium alloys with and without a hydride rim

    OpenAIRE

    J. Wei, P. Frankel, M. Blat, A. Ambard, R. J. Comstock, Lars Hallstadius, S. Lyon, R.A. Cottis and M. Preuss

    2012-01-01

    Autoclave corrosion experiments were conducted on a number of zirconium alloys in different heat treatment conditions. The alloys tested in the present work were Zircaloy-4, ZIRLOH (ZIRLO is a registered trademark of Westinghouse Electric Company LLC in the USA and may be registered in other countries throughout the world. All rights reserved. Unauthorised use is strictly prohibited.) and two variants of ZIRLO with significantly lower Sn levels, referred to here as A-0·6Sn and A-0·0Sn. Typica...

  13. Evaluation of the effect of inactivation by microwave and autoclave in homeopathic medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moacir Bonato

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Brazilian Pharmacopoeia defines the sterilization process as a "method" intended to remove or destroy all forms of life, animal or plant, macroscopic or microscopic, saprophytic or not, present in the product concerned, without ensuring the complete inactivation of toxins or cellular enzymes. Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with frequencies ranging between 300MHz (300x106 Hz and 300 GHz (300x109 Hz and wavelengths from 1 m to 1 mm[1]. They are waves that lie within the region between TV waves and the infrared region within the spectrum of electromagnetic waves. According to the Technical Standards Textbook for Homeopathic Pharmacy, glass tubes may be reused after washed with running and purified water and inactivated by autoclaving at 120oC for 30 minutes or by a dry air buffer at 180oC for 30 minutes or at 140oC for 1 hour [2]. Aims: Current experiment evaluates the influence of ultra-diluted Sulphur with and without inactivation by autoclaving and microwaving for certain variables in the germination and growth of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench - cv TX623B. Methodology: Ten milliliters of Sulphur in homeopathic dinamizations (proposed by Hering - DH 9DH, 18DH and 30DH inactivated by microwave and by autoclave heat, and control with water, were added to petri dishes in which 20 sorghum seeds were distributed. The experiment was conducted in a growth chamber (BOD at 25oC and during a 16-h photoperiod. Double-blind methodology to avoid researcher’s possible interferences or trends, coupled to statistic treatment at the end of the experiment, was employed. Data underwent variance analysis and means were compared by Scott-Knott’s test at 5% probability. Results: Homeopathy Sulphur changed the evaluated parameters of 9DH, 18 DH and 30 DH dinamizations when compared to control (water. Differences existed with regard to effects of the different microwave-treated (M9DH, M18DH, M30DH and

  14. Effects of Autoclaving and Mercuric Chloride Sterilization on PAHs Dissipation in a Two-Liquid-Phase Soil Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cong-Ying; WANG Fang; WANG Tao; YANG Xing-Lun; BIAN Yong-Rong; F.O.KENGARA; LI Zeng-Bo; JIANG Xin

    2011-01-01

    A two-liquid-phase (TLP) soil slurry system was employed to quantify the efficiencies of autoclaving and mercuric chloride sterilization in the dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The fates of 11 PAHs (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, dibenzo(a, h)anthracene) were recorded over 113 days of incubation. No microorganisms were detected in the HgCl2-sterilized soil slurries during the whole incubation period, indicating very effective sterilization. However, about 2%-36% losses of PAHs were observed in the HgCl2-sterilized slurry. In contrast to the HgCl2-sterilized soil slurry, some microorganisms survived in the autoclaved soil slurries. Moreover,significant biodegradation of 6 PAHs (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene) was observed in the autoclaved soil slurries. This indicated that biodegradation results of PAHs in the soil slurries, calculated on basis of the autoclaved control, would be underestimated. It could be concluded that the sterilization efficiency and effectiveness of HgCl2 on soil slurry was much higher than those of autoclaving at 121 ℃ for 45 min.

  15. Release of bound residues of atrazine from soils through autoclaving and gamma radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterilization methods are particularly important to study the influence of microorganisms on the pesticide dissipation in soils. This study, conducted in the laboratories of the Instituto Biológico of São Paulo in august 1996, tested the influence of two methods of soil sterilization - moist heat (autoclaving) and γ radiation - on the release of nonextractable or bound residues. It was studied, as example, bound residues of the herbicide atrazine in two types of soil (gley humic and dark red latosol). In the soil samples submitted to the moist heat sterilization, the recovery of the previously bound residues as reextractable residues was 5.6 and 5.9 times higher than in the control soils, not submitted to any sterilization process. Therefore, the method itself released the residues, indicating that the autoclaving is not the most appropriate method for studies on the influence of microorganisms on the release of bound residues. Otherwise, the γ radiation did not modify the residues recovery when compared to the controls. (author)

  16. Stress Free Temperature Testing and Residual Stress Calculations on Out-of-Autoclave Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah; Tate, LaNetra C.; Danley, Susan; Sampson, Jeff; Taylor, Brian; Miller, Sandi

    2012-01-01

    Future launch vehicles will require the incorporation large composite parts that will make up primary and secondary components of the vehicle. NASA has explored the feasibility of manufacturing these large components using Out-of-Autoclave impregnated carbon fiber composite systems through many composites development projects. Most recently, the Composites for Exploration Project has been looking at the development of a 10 meter diameter fairing structure, similar in size to what will be required for a heavy launch vehicle. The development of new material systems requires the investigation of the material properties and the stress in the parts. Residual stress is an important factor to incorporate when modeling the stresses that a part is undergoing. Testing was performed to verify the stress free temperature with two-ply asymmetric panels. A comparison was done between three newly developed out of autoclave IM7 /Bismalieimide (BMI) systems. This paper presents the testing results and the analysis performed to determine the residual stress of the materials.

  17. A compact and autoclavable system for acute extracellular neural recording and brain pressure monitoring for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotzi, Gian Nicola; Baranauskas, Gytis; Vato, Alessandro; Bonfanti, Andrea; Zambra, Guido; Maggiolini, Emma; Semprini, Marianna; Ricci, Davide; Ansaldo, Alberto; Castagnola, Elisa; Ius, Tamara; Skrap, Miran; Fadiga, Luciano

    2015-02-01

    One of the most difficult tasks for the surgeon during the removal of low-grade gliomas is to identify as precisely as possible the borders between functional and non-functional brain tissue with the aim of obtaining the maximal possible resection which allows to the patient the longer survival. For this purpose, systems for acute extracellular recordings of single neuron and multi-unit activity are considered promising. Here we describe a system to be used with 16 microelectrodes arrays that consists of an autoclavable headstage, a built-in inserter for precise electrode positioning and a system that measures and controls the pressure exerted by the headstage on the brain with a twofold purpose: to increase recording stability and to avoid disturbance of local perfusion which would cause a degradation of the quality of the recording and, eventually, local ischemia. With respect to devices where only electrodes are autoclavable, our design permits the reduction of noise arising from long cable connections preserving at the same time the flexibility and avoiding long-lasting gas sterilization procedures. Finally, size is much smaller and set up time much shorter compared to commercial systems currently in use in surgery rooms, making it easy to consider our system very useful for intra-operatory mapping operations. PMID:25486648

  18. Preparation of Slowly Digestible Starch by Citric Acid-hydrolysis with Autoclaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansong Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study is to produce Slowly Digestible Starch (SDS by a combination of citric acid-hydrolysis and autoclaving from raw corn starch. The effects of citric acid concentration, acid hydrolysis time, temperature and refrigeration and retro gradation time on the formation of SDS were investigated. The optimal process conditions optimized by Box-Benhnken’s central composite design and response surface analysis was as follows: concentration of citric acid is 0.08 M, acid hydrolyzed at 116°C for 14.5 min, and then stored at 0°C for 72 h. Under these optimal conditions, the content of SDS peaked at 19.38%.

  19. Strength properties of autoclaved cellular concrete with high volume fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, W.; Neufeld, R.D.; Vallejo, L.E.; Kelly, C.; Latona, M. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1997-08-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the strength properties of autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC) blocks, a building material that can contain up to 70% w/w of electric utility fly ash. The scope of this investigation covers three phases: (1) a brief literature review; (2) a selection of optimum strength testing methods suitable for ACC materials; and (3) a determination of physical properties of ACC made with US electric utility fly ash, and comparison of such properties to European ACC materials made with sand as the silica source. Optimum laboratory testing methods were selected based on a comprehensive literature search that included American, European, and Chinese standards. The properties examined were compressive, tensile, and flexural strengths. Results showed that block recipe and density influence the compressive, tensile, and flexural strength values. The investigation indicated that the compressive strength of the blocks increases with dry weight density, and decreases as their moisture content increases.

  20. Properties of the wall structures made of autoclaved cellular concrete products on the polyurethane foam adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Gorshkov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents information on a test experiment for the construction of masonry fragments made of autoclaved cellular concrete products (ААС blocks on the polyurethane adhesive and the ensuing structural, thermal and technological tests of this type of masonry in specialized laboratories and testing facilities. It is shown that the use of polyurethane foam adhesive to bond the concrete blocks in the masonry walls is technically and economically feasible. On the basis of the tests it was concluded that the laying of concrete blocks on the polyurethane adhesive may be used in the construction of non-load bearing interior and exterior walls of buildings, including the filling of the external frame openings of monolithic buildings with floor bearing of the masonry on load bearing monolithic floors (with appropriate justification of the settlement.

  1. [Methods Used for Monitoring Cure Reactions in Real-time in an Autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John B.; Wise, Kent L.; Jensen, Brian J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the research was to investigate methods for monitoring cure reactions in real-time in an autoclave. This is of particular importance to NASA Langley Research Center because polyimides were proposed for use in the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) program. Understanding the cure chemistry behind the polyimides would allow for intelligent processing of the composites made from their use. This work has led to two publications in peer-reviewed journals and a patent. The journal articles are listed as Appendix A which is on the instrument design of the research and Appendix B which is on the cure chemistry. Also, a patent has been awarded for the instrumental design developed under this grant which is given as Appendix C. There has been a significant amount of research directed at developing methods for monitoring cure reactions in real-time within the autoclave. The various research efforts can be categorized as methods providing either direct chemical bonding information or methods that provide indirect chemical bonding information. Methods falling into the latter category are fluorescence, dielectric loss, ultrasonic and similar type methods. Correlation of such measurements with the underlying chemistry is often quite difficult since these techniques do not allow monitoring of the curing chemistry which is ultimately responsible for material properties. Direct methods such as vibrational spectroscopy, however, can often be easily correlated with the underlying chemistry of a reaction. Such methods include Raman spectroscopy, mid-IR absorbance, and near-IR absorbance. With the recent advances in fiber-optics, these spectroscopic techniques can be applied to remote on-line monitoring.

  2. Comparative study and histomorphometric analysis of bone allografts lyophilized and sterilized by autoclaving, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Otavio Machado de Almeida; Wanda Jorgetti; Denis Oksman; Camilo Jorgetti; Diógenes Laércio Rocha; Rolf Gemperli

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare three sterilization methods (autoclave, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide) over non demineralized lyophilized bone allografts. METHODS: Bone allografts were implanted on paravertebral muscles of 21 rats. After 30 days animals were sacrificed and grafts underwent comparative analysis regarding histomorphometric and macroscopic parameters. RESULTS: Allografts that underwent the three sterilization methods presents similar weight gain, cortical thickness similar to control...

  3. Preparation of TiO2 thin films from autoclaved sol containing needle-like anatase crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new inorganic sol-gel method was introduced in this paper to prepare TiO2 thin films. The autoclaved sol with needle-like anatase crystals was synthesized using titanyl sulfate (TiOSO4) and peroxide (H2O2) as starting materials. The transparent anatase TiO2 thin films were prepared on glass slides from the autoclaved sol by sol-gel dip-coating method. A wide range of techniques such as Fourier transform infrared transmission spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), scanning electron microscopes, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible spectrum were applied to characterize the autoclaved sol and TiO2 thin films. The results indicate that the autoclaved sol is flavescent, semitransparent and stable at room temperature. The anatase crystals of TiO2 films connect together to form net-like structure after calcined and the films become uniform with increasing heating temperature. The surface of the TiO2 films contain not only Ti and O elements, but also a small amount of N and Na elements diffused from substrates during heat treatment. The TiO2 films are transparent and their maximal light transmittances exceed 80% under visible light region

  4. Comparative analysis of the effect of autoclaving and 10% formalin storage on extracted teeth: A microleakage evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attam Kanika

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study compares the effect of formalin and autoclaving the tooth samples by evaluating microleakage in-vitro . Materials and Methods: Forty-five extracted human permanent incisor teeth were taken and randomly divided into three groups (with different methods of storage and disinfection with 15 teeth each: Group 1: Control-extracted teeth in this group were stored in normal saline, Group 2: the extracted teeth in this group were stored in 10 % formalin for two weeks and Group 3: the extracted teeth were Autoclaved at 121°C, at 15 psi pressure for 40 minutes. In all the groups after the specified storage period, class V cavities were prepared on the labial surface and restoration was performed with Z100 restorative. Finished and polished samples were subjected to 500 cycles of thermocycling. All specimens were immersed in methylene blue for 24 hours. After sectioning, the margins of restora-tion were evaluated for dye leakage at 10 X magnification, using an optical microscope. Data were subjected to nonparametric Kruskal Wallis one way analysis of variance. Inter-group comparisons were performed using the Mann Whitney test ( P < 0.05. Results: The authors found that the microleakage in the formalin group was considerably lower than that in the control group. The autoclave group showed slightly higher mean microleakage, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Both autoclaving and formalin storage affect, to a varying degree, the microleakage values in vitro . The results in the autoclaving group matched those of the control group more closely, with only a slight difference.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of autoclaved and non autoclaved copaiba oil on Listeria monocytogenes Atividade antimicrobiana de óleo de copaíba autoclavado e não autoclavado sobre Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Alessandro Pieri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of different copaiba oil concentrations against the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, and analyze differences in inhibition of microorganisms with autoclaved and non autoclaved oil. This study provided an agar diffusion test with six isolates of bacteria and six different concentrations of autoclaved or non autoclaved copaiba oil and a negative control. The results showed sensitivity of five L. monocytogenes isolates related to the 10% autoclaved solution of copaiba oil. Four strains also showed sensitivity to the 5% autoclaved solution and one to 2.5% autoclaved solution. The 10% non autoclaved oil solution showed growth inhibition only for two strains. These results had pointed the 10% autoclaved solution of copaiba oil with higher inhibition as all other solutions and concentrations tested (POs objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar o efeito antimicrobiano de diferentes concentrações de óleo de copaíba contra o crescimento de Listeria monocytogenes e analisar as diferenças na inibição do microorganismo com soluções do óleo autoclavadas e não autoclavadas. Para tanto, foi realizado um teste de difusão em ágar, com seis isolados do microrganismo originários de produtos cárneos, seis concentrações de ambas as soluções e um controle negativo. Os resultados mostraram sensibilidade de cinco cepas de L. monocytogenes em relação à solução 10% de óleo de copaíba autoclavada. Quatro isolados também apresentaram sensibilidade para a solução de 5% autoclavada e apenas um foi sensível à solução de 2,5% autoclavada. A solução 10% não autoclavada apresentou inibição do crescimento de apenas dois isolados. Esses resultados apontaram a solução autoclavada de 10% do óleo de copaíba com maior inibição em relação a todas as outras soluções e concentrações testadas (P<0,05. As soluções 5 e 2,5% autoclavadas e a solução 10% não autoclavada

  6. Effect of high-dose irradiation and autoclave treatment on microbial safety and quality of ready-to-eat Bulgogi sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Korea, commercialized sauce for ready-to-eat (RTE) Bulgogi is usually manufactured using heat treatment to ensure that it has a long shelf-life. However, heat treatment may adversely affect the taste and flavor of the sauce, thus, the development of suitable sterilizing methods for RTE sauces is necessary to preserve the quality of the sauce during long storage periods. In this study, total bacterial growth, the viscosity, and the sensory properties of Bulgogi sauce were compared between sterilization with gamma irradiation (0–40 kGy) and autoclave treatment during storage at 35 °C for 90 days. No bacterial growth was observed following irradiation at more than 10 kGy or after autoclave treatment. However, the viscosity and sensory properties of samples gamma-irradiated at above 10 kGy or autoclave-treated were significantly changed, even though autoclave treatment induced a burnt taste and flavor. Therefore, a gamma irradiation of 10 kGy was effective to prepare ready-to-eat Bulgogi sauce with microbial safety and original sensory qualities. - Highlights: ► No bacterial growth in gamma-irradiated Bulgogi sauce ≥10 kGy or autoclaved sample was observed. ► Viscosity of irradiated sample at 40 kGy was similar to that of autoclaved sample. ► Sensory properties of irradiated sample >10 kGy or autoclaved sample deteriorated.

  7. Effects of Autoclaving Soy-Free and Soy-Containing Diets for Laboratory Rats on Protein and Energy Values Determined In Vitro and In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Taciak, Marcin; Tuśnio, Anna; Święch, Ewa; Barszcz, Marcin; Staśkiewicz, Łukasz; Skomiał, Jacek; Paradziej-Łukowicz, Jolanta; Pastuszewska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Autoclaving diminishes the nutritional value of rat diets, depending on the duration and temperature of the process and the type of dietary protein. We evaluated in vivo and in vitro the effects of autoclaving on the protein and energy values of soy-free and soy-containing rat diets. The true digestibility and biological value of the dietary protein were determined in a 10-d experiment involving 28-d-old Wistar Crl:WI(Han) male rats fed casein- or soy-containing diet that was autoclaved for 2...

  8. Characteristics of autoclave and in-reactor nodular corrosion of Zircaloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y.H.; Rheem, K.S. (Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Republic of Korea)); Chung, H.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Nodular corrosion characteristics of recrystallized Zircaloy-4 were investigated in static autoclave tests at 500{degree}C and 10.3 MPa. The roles of annealing temperature, cooling rate after beta-treating at 1050{degree}C, cold work, and surface treatment in corrosion tests were correlated with the results of microstructural characterization by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. A good correlation was obtained between average size of intermetallic precipitates and weight gain, in contrast to nodule coverage and nodule number density. These results could be best explained by the hypothesis that nodules nucleate in local regions that are depleted of Fe and Cr alloying elements. Some observations were inconsistent with the premise that nodules nucleate on or near intermetallic precipitates. Nodular corrosion characteristics and microstructures of commercial Zircaloy-2 cladding of fuel and gadolinia rods, obtained from several BWRs after burnup of 11--30 MWd/kgU, were also examined. Partial amorphization of intermetallic precipitates in BWR Zircaloy-2, and virtual dissolution and in an extreme case spinodal- like fluctuations of dissolved alloying elements in PWR Zircaloy-4 cladding were observed. Occurrence of nodular oxidation of Zircaloy-2 in BWRs could best be correlated to average size of intermetallic precipitates before irradiation and to fuel cladding operating temperature. For an intermetallic size range of 250--700 nm, nodular oxides were observed at 288{degree}C, but only thick uniform oxide was observed at 307{degree}C. 53 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Preparation and characterization of PLGA nanospheres encapsulated with Autoclaved Leishmania Major (ALM) and Quillaja Saponin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several antigens, adjuvants and delivery systems have been evaluated for induction of protective immune responses against leishmaniasis, but have mostly been inefficient. In this study, poly (d,1-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanospheres as antigen delivery system and Quillaja saponins (QS) as an immunoadjuvant have been used to increase the immune responses against Autoclaved Lieshmania major (ALM). PLGA nanospheres were prepared using a double emulsion (W/O/W) technique. The internal aqueous phase contained ALM and saponin, while the oily phase contained the solution of PLGA in dichloromethane and the external aqueous phase was polyvinylacohol (PVA) 7.5% (W/V) solution. Particulate characteristics were studied by scanning electron microscope and particle size analyzer. The encapsulation efficiency was determined by Lowry method and the release profile of antigen and saponin from nanospheres was evaluated for one week. Nanospheres were spherical in shape having smooth surfaces. Mean diameters for nanospheres loaded with ALM and ALM+QS were 300+-123 nm and 294+-106 nm respectively. Encapsulation efficiencies for ALM and QS were found 71+-14.8% and 55.8+- 23.1% respectively. Evaluation of the release profiles of ALM and QS from nanospheres in one week showed that 44.8 +-0.8% of ALM and 29.5+- 0.21% of QS had been released from naospheres. In conclusion, the prepared nanospheres with desirable size, encapsulation efficiency, and slow rate of release, had acceptable features for future in vivo studies. (author)

  10. Preparation of New Cementitious System using Fly Ash and Dehydrated Autoclaved Aerated Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUI Zhonghe; LU Jianxin; TIAN Sufang; SHEN Peiliang; DING Sha

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally studied the interaction between pozzolanic material (fly ash) and dehydrated autoclaved aerated concrete (DAAC). The DAAC powder was obtained by grinding aerated concrete waste to particles finer than 75μm and was then heated to temperatures up to 900℃. New cementitious material was prepared by proportioning fly ash and DAAC, named as AF. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was employed to identify the crystalline phases of DAAC before and after rehydration. The hydration process of AF was analyzed by the heat of hydration and non-evaporable water content (Wn). The experimental results show that the highest reactivity of DAAC can be obtained by calcining the powder at 700℃and the dehydrated products are mainlyβ-C2S and CaO. The cumulative heat of hydration and Wn was found to be strongly dependent on the replacement level of fly ash, increasing the replacement level of fly ash lowered them in AF. The strength contribution rates on pozzolanic effect of fly ash in AF are always negative, showing a contrary tendency of that of cement-fly ash system.

  11. Irradiating or autoclaving chitosan/polyol solutions. Effect on thermogelling chitosan-β-glycerophosphate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of steam sterilization and γ-irradiation on chitosan and thermogelling chitosan-βglycerophosphate (GP) solutions containing polyol additives were investigated. The selected polyols were triethylene glycol, glycerol, sorbitol, glucose and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). They were incorporated to chitosan solutions prior to sterilization in a proportion ranging from 1 to 5% (w/v). The solutions were characterized with respect to their viscosity, thermogelling properties, compressive stress relaxation behavior and chitosan degradation. All polyols reduced the autoclaving-induced viscosity loss and had a positive impact on the solution thermogelling properties and compressive performance of the gels. Steam sterilization in the presence of glucose resulted in a substantial increase in the solution viscosity and gel strength. This was associated with a strong discoloration suggesting chemical alteration of the system. PEG was the most effective agent in preventing hydrolytic degradation of chitosan chains. Gamma-irradiation strongly decreased the chitosan solution viscosity regardless of the presence of additives, even when sterilization was carried out at -80 deg C. Moreover, the thermogelling properties were dramatically altered, and thus, γ-irradiation would not be an appropriate method to sterilize chitosan solutions. In conclusion, polyols are potentially useful additive to maximise the viscoelastic and mechanical properties of chitosan-GP after steam sterilization. (author)

  12. Autoclaves for fatigue crack growth tests with unirradiated and irradiated specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For about two years now, research programmes are being carried out in the USA with the purpose of investigating fatigue crack growth in steels for pressure vessels of LWRs under operating conditions, with main emphasis being placed on the determination of the effect of load increase time and constant load time, of the temperature, water chemistry, materials (basic materials and welds), of the stress intensity factor at the beginning of the test, as well as on the effect of irradiation. The results obtained during the first testing phase shall serve as a basis for a revision of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, and also for a specification of new piping steels, including austenitic steels. The autoclaves for stationary and dynamic load used for the testing of unirradiated and irradiated specimens are described and details are given of the methods used for the crack growth measurements and water chemistry studies, along with a brief account of the data acquisition systems applied. The results obtained so far in the testing series are illustrated by means of selected examples. (orig.)

  13. Strain rate sensitivity of autoclaved aerated concrete from quasi-static regime to shock loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mespoulet, Jérôme; Plassard, Fabien; Hereil, Pierre Louis

    2015-09-01

    The quasi-static mechanical behavior of autoclaved aerated concrete is well-known and can be expressed as a function of its density. There are however not much studies dealing with its dynamic behavior and its damping ability when subjected to a mechanical shock or a blast. This study presents experimental results obtained at the Shock Physics Laboratory of THIOT INGENIERIE company. The test specimens are made of YTONG(TM ) cellular concrete with porosity in the range of 75 to 80%. Experimental tests cover a large strain rate amplitude (higher than 104 s-1) for specimens up to 250 mm. They were carried out with a small compression press and with two facilities dedicated to dynamic material characterization: JUPITER dynamic large press (2 MN, 3 ms rising time) and TITAN multi-caliber single-stage gas gun. Results in un-confined conditions show an increase of the compressive strength when strain rate increases (45% increase at 5.102 s-1) but dynamic tests induce damage early in the experiment. This competition between dynamic strength raise and specimen fracture makes the complete compaction curve determination not to be done in unconfined dynamic condition. A 25% increase of the compressive strength has been observed between unconfined and confined condition in Q.S. regime.

  14. Impact of External Heat Insulation on Drying Process of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Masonry Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubene, S.; Vilnitis, M.; Noviks, J.

    2015-11-01

    In the time when sustainable construction as well as cost saving on heating and cooling of buildings is one of the most important construction trends, it is important to acknowledge the possibilities of application of construction materials with high heat insulation parameters and the ways in which these parameters can be obtained. Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) is a load bearing construction material, which has high heat insulation parameters, although it has one significant disadvantage. If the AAC masonry construction has high moisture content, it loses its heat insulation properties. This is the reason why it is important to detect the humidity distribution throughout the cross section of the masonry elements in order to conduct the drying process of the AAC construction. Therefore, the question about non-destructive detection of humidity distribution throughout the cross section of the material arises. Humidity distribution throughout the cross section of AAC masonry constructions has a significant impact on its heat resistivity properties. Application of electrical impedance spectrometry (EIS) method for determination of humidity distribution throughout the cross section of AAC constructions has been a subject of research recently. The EIS method is an easily applicable non-destructive testing method for detection of the humidity distribution throughout the cross section of a construction. Research on the impact of the external heat insulation layer on the speed of humidity distribution changes is described in this paper.

  15. Ergonomic evaluation of masons laying concrete masonry units and autoclaved aerated concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jennifer A; Kincl, Laurel; Amasay, Tal; Wolfe, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Masons working with concrete masonry unit block have high rates of work-related musculoskeletal disorders to the low back and shoulders associated with repetitively lifting and buttering heavy block. A new material, autoclaved aerated concrete, may reduce the risk of shoulder and back injury but, ergonomic evaluation is needed. This study evaluated shoulder exposure parameters, low back stress, and worker perceptions in two groups of journey level masons, one using CMU and the other using AAC block. Results indicate that for the left arm AAC masons spent significantly more time than CMU masons in static (38.2% versus 31.1%, respectively), and less time in slow motions (48.2% versus 52.2%, respectively) and faster motions (13.6% versus 16.7%, respectively) (p<0.05). CMU masons had significantly greater shoulder and low back pain (p=0.009) and they held block significantly longer than AAC masons (p<0.001). Low back compressive forces were high for both materials. Masons handling AAC demonstrated less left upper extremity stress but both materials were estimated to be hazardous to the low back. PMID:19926073

  16. Methods of studying oxide scales grown on zirconium alloys in autoclaves and in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of water-side corrosion of zirconium alloys has been a field of research for more than 25 years, but the details of the mechanisms involved still cannot be put into a coherent picture. Improved methods are required to establish the details of the microstructure of the oxide scales. A new approach has been made for a general analysis of oxide specimens from scales grown on the zirconium-based cladding alloys of PWR rods in order to analyse the morphology of these scales, the topography of the oxide/metal interface and the crystal structures close to this interface: a) Instead of using the conventional pickling solutions, the Zr-alloys are dissolved using a 'softer' solution (Br2 in an organic solvent) in order to avoid damage to the oxide at the oxide/metal interface to be analysed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy). A second advantage of this method is easy etching of the grain structure of Zr-alloys for SEM analysis; b) By using the particular properties of the oxide scales, the corrosion-rate-determining innermost part of the oxide layer at the oxide/metal interface can be separated from the rest of the oxide scale and then analysed by SEM, STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and electron diffraction after dissolution of the alloy. Examples are given from oxides grown on Zr-alloys in a pressurized water reactor and in autoclaves. (author) 8 figs., 3 tabs., 9 refs

  17. Nonlinear Modeling of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Masonry Wall Strengthened using Ferrocement Sandwich Structure

    KAUST Repository

    M., Abdel-Mooty

    2011-01-01

    Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) block are used mainly as non-load-bearing walls that provide heat insulation. This results in considerable saving in cooling energy particularly in hot desert environment with large variation of daily and seasonal temperatures. However, due to the relatively low strength there use load bearing walls is limited to single storey and low-rise construction. A system to enhance the strength of the AAC masonry wall in resisting both inplane vertical and combined vertical and lateral loads using ferrocement technology is proposed in this research. The proposed system significantly enhances the load carrying capacity and stiffness of the AAC wall without affecting its insulation characteristics. Ferrocement is made of cement mortar reinforced with closely spaced wire mesh. Full scale wall specimens with height of 2100mm and width of 1820mm were tested with different configuration of ferrocement. A finite elementmodel is developed and verified against the experimentalwork. The results of the finite element model correlates well with the experimental results.

  18. Strain rate sensitivity of autoclaved aerated concrete from quasi-static regime to shock loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mespoulet Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quasi-static mechanical behavior of autoclaved aerated concrete is well-known and can be expressed as a function of its density. There are however not much studies dealing with its dynamic behavior and its damping ability when subjected to a mechanical shock or a blast. This study presents experimental results obtained at the Shock Physics Laboratory of THIOT INGENIERIE company. The test specimens are made of YTONG(TM cellular concrete with porosity in the range of 75 to 80%. Experimental tests cover a large strain rate amplitude (higher than 104 s−1 for specimens up to 250 mm. They were carried out with a small compression press and with two facilities dedicated to dynamic material characterization: JUPITER dynamic large press (2 MN, 3 ms rising time and TITAN multi-caliber single-stage gas gun. Results in un-confined conditions show an increase of the compressive strength when strain rate increases (45% increase at 5.102 s−1 but dynamic tests induce damage early in the experiment. This competition between dynamic strength raise and specimen fracture makes the complete compaction curve determination not to be done in unconfined dynamic condition. A 25% increase of the compressive strength has been observed between unconfined and confined condition in Q.S. regime.

  19. Drying of Echinodorus macrophyllus and autoclaving and lyophilization of the fluid-extract: effects on the pharmacochemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronam V. Flor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Some pharmaceutical industries of phytomedicines are using conservation procedures (drying, autoclaving, in an attempt to avoid medicinal plants degradation, and of their fluid-extracts. Or, by adopting techniques adequate to foods, which not always are appropriate. On this sense, there is less research with Brazilian plants, causing some difficulties for their use as raw material by the domestic industry. Thus, the effects of drying at various temperatures or irradiation with microwaves, as well as autoclaving or lyophilization of the fluid-extract of samples collected in natura of Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth Micheli, Alismataceae, on the pharmacochemical composition were analyzed. At the research for chemical groups, the preponderating presence of flavones and coumarin derivatives was observed. The chromatographic profiles of the flavonic extracts were analyzed by TLC and HPLC and the levels of total flavonoids were determined. According to the results obtained, qualitative and quantitative changes were caused by the various processes employed.

  20. Confirming Sterility of an Autoclaved Infected Femoral Component for Use in an Articulated Antibiotic Knee Spacer: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Steven T; Wright, Coy A; Krute, Christina N; Rivera, Frances E; Carroll, Ronan K; Shaw, Lindsey N

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic spacer designs have proven effective at eradicating infection during a two-stage revision arthroplasty. Temporary reuse of the steam-sterilized femoral component and a new all poly tibia component has been described as an effective articulating antibiotic spacer, but sterility concerns persist. Six explanted cobalt chrome femurs from patients with grossly infected TKA's and six stock femurs inoculated with different bacterial species were confirmed to be bacteria-free after autoclaving under a standard gravity-displacement cycle. The effect of steam sterilization on cobalt chrome fragments contaminated with MRSA biofilm was analyzed microscopically to quantify remaining biofilm. The autoclave significantly reduced the biofilm burden on the cobalt chrome fragments. This study confirmed sterility of the femur after a standard gravity-displacement cycle (132°C, 27 PSIG, 10 minutes). PMID:26282497

  1. Comparative study and histomorphometric analysis of bone allografts lyophilized and sterilized by autoclaving, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio Machado de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare three sterilization methods (autoclave, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide over non demineralized lyophilized bone allografts. METHODS: Bone allografts were implanted on paravertebral muscles of 21 rats. After 30 days animals were sacrificed and grafts underwent comparative analysis regarding histomorphometric and macroscopic parameters. RESULTS: Allografts that underwent the three sterilization methods presents similar weight gain, cortical thickness similar to control group, and less fibrosis than the control group. Grafts that underwent sterilization in autoclave presented less presence of multinucleated giant cells, although not statistically significant. There was also no statistically significant difference regarding mineralization on the three groups. CONCLUSION: The three sterilization methods cause similar effects on bone allografts regarding macroscopic and histomorphometric parameters.

  2. Drying of Echinodorus macrophyllus and autoclaving and lyophilization of the fluid-extract: effects on the pharmacochemical composition

    OpenAIRE

    Ronam V. Flor; Maria Augusta A. Campos; Ana Gabriela R. Solano; Lieselotte Jokl; Ana Maria Dantas-Barros

    2011-01-01

    Some pharmaceutical industries of phytomedicines are using conservation procedures (drying, autoclaving), in an attempt to avoid medicinal plants degradation, and of their fluid-extracts. Or, by adopting techniques adequate to foods, which not always are appropriate. On this sense, there is less research with Brazilian plants, causing some difficulties for their use as raw material by the domestic industry. Thus, the effects of drying at various temperatures or irradiation with microwaves, as...

  3. The Hydrothermal Autoclave Synthesis of the Nanopowders of the Refractory ZrO2 and HfO2 Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Karpovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nanopowders of the transition metal ZrO2 and HfO2 oxides were obtained by the hydrothermal autoclave synthesis. The nanoparticles possess a rounded shape and a size range of 40 to 80 nm (ZrO2, of 10 to 40 nm (HfO2. X-ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopy show that the structure of the nanoparticles is monoclinic.

  4. Experimental Determination of Mechanical Properties of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Masonry with Vertical Hollows Confined with Disperse Rein-Forced Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Iernuţan, Răzvan-Andrei; Roman-Pintican, Maria-Nicoleta

    2014-01-01

    The present paper aims at finding solutions alternative to the conventionally reinforced masonry, namely by replacing the confination with reinforced concrete columns and girders with vertical and horizontal hollows in the autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) masonry. The voids are filled with disperse steel fibre reinforced concrete. The use of the disperse reinforced concrete in structural masonry walls, in low seismic areas, is seen to allow the replacement of confined or reinforced con...

  5. Effects of soaking, boiling and autoclaving on the phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) differing in seed coat colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, Siem; Wood, Jennifer A; Agboola, Samson; Konczak, Izabela; Blanchard, Christopher L

    2014-01-01

    The Australian grown faba beans of different seed coat colours were either soaked, boiled or autoclaved, and analysed for phenolic contents and antioxidant activity using an array of reagent-based assays. Soaking, boiling and autoclaving were shown to lower the level of active compounds in faba beans. A significant amount of active compounds was leached to the soaking and cooking medium. Boiling was a better method in retaining active compounds in beans than autoclaving. The boiled beans had more active compounds than those of resulting cooking broths, which was the opposite observation when autoclaving. The buff-genotypes had a similar level of active compounds to red- and green-genotypes. The high performance liquid chromatography-post column derivatisation (HPLC-PCD) system detected a dense collection of high antioxidant HPLC peaks ('humps') in extracts of raw, soaked and boiled beans. The present findings encouraged consumption of faba beans together with cooking broth for the maximum potential health benefits. PMID:24001866

  6. Is there a difference between the primary stability of anodized and non-anodized mini-screws subjected to repeated cycles of autoclave sterilization?

    OpenAIRE

    Ledingham, Austin D; Şar, Çağla; English, Jeryl D.; Akyalçın, Sercan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine if autoclave sterilization has any deleterious effects on the clinical stability of anodized versus non-anodized mini-screws. Materials and Methods: Thirty anodized and thirty non-anodized Aarhus System mini-screws (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, WI) were utilized. Each group was divided into three test groups. In each group, mini-screws that were sterilized once using a steam autoclave (Statim 5000, SciCan USA, Canonsburg, Pa) served as the control group (n=10). Th...

  7. Sorption and precipitation of Mn2+ by viable and autoclaved Shewanella putrefaciens: Effect of contact time

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of Mn(II) by viable and inactivated cells of Shewanella putrefaciens, a non-pathogenic, facultative anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium characterised as a Mn(IV) and Fe(III) reducer, was studied under aerobic conditions, as a function of pH, bacterial density and metal loading. During a short contact time (3-24h), the adsorptive behaviour of live and dead bacteria toward Mn(II) was sufficiently similar, an observation that was reflected in the studies on adsorption kinetics at various metal loadings, effects of pH, bacteria density, isotherms and drifting of pH during adsorption. Continuing the experiment for an additional 2-30days demonstrated that the Mn(II) sorption by suspensions of viable and autoclaved cells differed significantly from one another. The sorption to dead cells was characterised by a rapid equilibration and was described by an isotherm. In contrast, the sorption (uptake) to live bacteria exhibited a complex time-dependent uptake. This uptake began as adsorption and ion exchange processes followed by bioprecipitation, and it was accompanied by the formation of polymeric sugars (EPS) and the release of dissolved organic substances. FTIR, EXAFS/XANES and XPS demonstrated that manganese(II) phosphate was the main precipitate formed in 125ml batches, which is the first evidence of the ability of microbes to synthesise manganese phosphates. XPS and XANES spectra did not detect Mn(II) oxidation. Although the release of protein-like compounds by the viable bacteria increased in the presence of Mn2+ (and, by contrast, the release of carbohydrates did not change), electrochemical analyses did not indicate any aqueous complexation of Mn(II) by the organic ligands. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Investigación de las causas de la explosión accidental de un autoclave

    OpenAIRE

    Brizuela, Eduardo A.; Defranco, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Se presenta el caso de una explosión de un autoclave utilizado para el curado de caucho de la banda de rodamiento en la reparación de neumáticos de gran diámetro de aplicación en la industria minera. El siniestro implicó la voladura de una tapa de acero a varios metros del equipo con consecuencias fatales para personal de la planta. Se realizaron tres visitas, la primera de carácter informativo, la segunda de inspección mecánica y eléctrica sin afectar los componentes por razones legales, y l...

  9. Experimental Study of Monitoring and Controlling of Composite Cure Process in Autoclave Featured with Fiber Optic Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the aid of the latest fiber optic sensing technology, parameters in the cure process of thermosetting resin-matrix composite, such as temperature, viscosity, void and residual stress, can be monitored entirely and efficiently. In this paper, experiment results of viscosity measurement in composite cure process in autoclave using fiber optic sensors are presented. Based on the sensed information, a computer program is utilized to control the cure process. With this technology,the cure process becomes more apparent and controllable, which will greatly improve the cured products and reduce the cost.

  10. Autoclaved aerated concrete masonry with external insulation. Features of moisture conditions during the initial period of operation (rus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuptaraeva P.D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Building designs at the moment of commissioning include the initial (building and technological moisture. Thermal insulation systems influence on the yield of the initial moisture from the structures. However, there are no specific design requirements about determining initial moisture content in insulation systems.In this article the features of the initial period of operation on an example of aerated concrete are defined: the results of field surveys and calculations are shown and compared. On the basis of this comparison basic advice on the accounting features of the initial period of operation of autoclaved aerated concrete structures with external insulation are given.

  11. Direct Synthesis of Fe3C-Functionalized Graphene by High Temperature Autoclave Pyrolysis for Oxygen Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei;

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach to direct fabrication of few-layer graphene sheets with encapsulated Fe3C nanoparticles from pyrolysis of volatile non-graphitic precursors without any substrate. This one-step autoclave approach is facile and potentially scalable for production. Tested as an...... electrocatalyst, the graphene-based composite exhibited excellent catalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solution with an onset potential of ca. 1.05 V (vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode) and a half-wave potential of 0.83 V, which is comparable to the commercial Pt/C catalyst....

  12. [The effect of autoclave sterilization on the surface properties of orthodontic brackets after fitting in the mouth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerhrhaye, W; Ouaki, B; Zaoui, F; Aalloula, E

    2011-12-01

    Repeated sterilizations of the orthodontic bands, after fitting in mouth, are likely to involve modifications of their surface properties. Through this study we have tried to observe the effect of sterilization by autoclave on the surface of the orthodontic bands, as well as the contribution of the use of ultrasound in the chain of sterilization. The sample was composed of 30 orthodontic bands divided into 5 groups: a group of new bands (witnesses) and 4 groups having undergone respectively 1 cycle, 3 cycles, 5 cycles and 7 cycles of autoclave sterilization according to the World Health Organization recommendations. For half of each group bands, ultrasonic cleaning has not been provided. The scanning electron microscopy with the elementary microanalysis by X-rays was used for the investigation of surface. At the exam, new bands showed surface irregularities probably due to manufacturing procedures. And the bands, without ultrasonic cleaning, showed the presence of contamination and discolourations. Moreover, there were no modifications on the surface of the bands cleaned by ultrasounds before sterilization. The presence of surface irregularities associated with deposits observed on the bands surface, may be the site of bio corrosion by contributing bio film accumulation. The stay duration of the orthodontic bands in mouth, during orthodontic treatment, is important. So the effect of sterilization on the surface of the orthodontic bands must encourage other scientific research to determine the long term effects of sterilization which remains an essential process in our daily practice. PMID:22457990

  13. Evaluation of gamma irradiation and heat treatment by autoclaving in the preparation of microorganism-free carriers for biofertilizer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofertilizer has been identified as an alternative or complementary to chemical fertilizers to increase soil fertility and crop production in sustainable farming. Biofertilizers are products containing living cells of different types of known microorganisms that may increase crop productivity through N2 fixation, phosphate solubilization or stimulation of plant growth by synthesising phytohormones. A good biofertilizer product needs a good carrier or substrate. A good carrier should be free from microbial contamination and can optimise the growth of the biofertilizer microorganisms. Compost is commonly used as carrier or substrate for biofertilizer microorganisms. In the present study, compost produced by Nuclear Malaysia using the Natural Farming method was used as carrier for several biofertilizer products. Gamma irradiation and autoclave were used to produce sterile carrier for biofertilizer. The effectiveness for both methods was evaluated. Gamma irradiation at a dose of 50 kGy and autoclaving at 121 degree C for 60 minutes were found effective to produce sterile carriers for biofertilizer products.(Author)

  14. Thermophysical characteristics of low density autoclaved aerated concrete and their influence on durability of exterior walls of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Krutilin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental studies of thermophysical characteristics of autoclaved aerated concrete with density of 400 and 500 kg/m3. The dependence of thermal conductivity on temperature and humidity was determined. The boundary humidities were set for which ice is either not formed or its amount is negligible in the pores of the materials at the temperature below zero. The new method of non-isothermal liquid transport coefficient determination was suggested. It was found that one of the basic mechanisms of moving water for cellular concrete samples with a moisture content over 30 % by weight is non-isothermal liquid transport. The effect of humidity on durability of exterior walls is estimated according to cellular concrete frost-resistance tests.

  15. Rapid synthesis of binary α-NiS–β-NiS by microwave autoclave for rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► NiS has been synthesized by a rapid, one-pot, hydrothermal microwave autoclave method. ► The α-NiS–β-NiS sample synthesized at 160 °C yielded good electrochemical performance in terms of high reversible capacity (320 mAh g−1 at 0.1C up to 100 cycles). ► At high rates, the sample operated at a good fraction of its capacity. - Abstract: To reduce the reaction time, electrical energy consumption, and cost, binary α-NiS–β-NiS has been synthesized by a rapid, one-pot, hydrothermal autoclave microwave method within 15 min at temperatures of 160–180 °C. The microstructure and morphology of the α-NiS–β-NiS products were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At 140 °C, pure hexagonal NiAs-type α-NiS phase was identified from the XRD patterns. With increasing reaction temperature (160–180 °C), the XRD evidence indicates that an increasing fraction of rhombohedral millerite-like β-NiS is formed as a secondary phase. The α-NiS–β-NiS sample synthesized at 160 °C yielded good electrochemical performance in term of high reversible capacity (320 mAh g−1 at 0.1C up to 100 cycles). Even at high rates, the sample operated at a good fraction of its capacity. The likely contributing factor to the superior electrochemical performance of the α-NiS–β-NiS sample could be related to the improved morphology. TEM imaging confirmed that needle-like protrusions connect the clusters of α-NiS particles, and the individual protrusions indicated a very high surface area including folded sheet morphology, which helps to dissipate the surface accumulation of Li+ ions and facilitate rapid mobility. These factors help to enhance the amount of lithium intercalated within the material.

  16. Influence of Zeolite Additive on the Properties of Plaster Used for External Walls from Autoclaved Aerated Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgijus SEZEMANAS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Enclosures that had been built from elements of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC often are covered with plasters. Some adhesion problems between plasters and surface exist during the mechanized covering of surfaces of the mentioned enclosures with plaster. Some dispersible additives (vinyl acetate polymer or derivatives of acrylic acid esters are used to improve the adhesion. Another problem is the increased water absorption of AAC elements, therefore water retarding additives (cellulose esters are used in the mixture of plasters. Due to insufficient amount of water in the mixture of plasters, the hydration of cement minerals slows down. Influence of the natural zeolite – clinoptilolite on the properties of plaster is analyzed in this work. It was found that this additive effectively absorbs water and thus, ensures adequate hydration of cement minerals. When in the mixture of plaster the sand is changed by clinoptilolite in amount of 15 % the structure slightly compacts, the compressive and flexural strength of hardened plaster increase by 47 % and 12 % respectively and the adhesion to a surface of the AAC element increases by 44 %. Drying shrinkage, water vapor resistance factor and coefficient of capillary absorption remain unchanged.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.2.4441

  17. Development of an autoclave with zirconia crystal windows for in-situ observation of sample surface under primary water conditions of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elucidating the mechanism for primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is important for improving the reliability of structural materials in the primary system of pressurized water reactors (PWR). For this purpose, visualization of corrosion material surface in the primary coolant environment is effective, but it was impossible because of lack of suitable window material. Yttria stabilized zirconia was newly selected as a candidate for in-situ window material in the primary coolant environment of PWR. Its sufficient corrosion resistance was proved by measuring the transmissivity of light after being immersed in the primary coolant environment. A new autoclave with two windows of yttria-stabilized zirconia was developed. The corrosion material surfaces of Alloy600 and SUS304 in the primary coolant environment were clearly observed with this autoclave. Observations of cracks generated on the surface of SUS304 specimen, suggest that its generation time depends on temperature. (author)

  18. The problems of operational reliability exterior walls of a building based on the autoclaved aerated concrete blocks and possibility of their protection from moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Samofeev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic mechanisms and factors that have destructive effect on the state of autoclaved aerocrete in the exterior walls of operated buildings are shown. These mechanisms are wetting the wall, the effect of moisture during freezing, carbonation hydrosilicate structure-phase of material. The possibilities of protection exterior walls with using hydrophobic multilayered vapor permeable stucco are estimated, which were accepted for protecting facades apartment buildings on the basis autoclaved aerocrete blocks in Bashkiriya.In the Republic of Bashkortostan in October 2010 was put into operation factory for production blocks with capaciry 225,000 m3 per year at OAO "GlavBashStroy" on equipment Masa-Henke, whose products are currently being investigated

  19. INFLUENCE OF WATER-TO-CEMENT RATIO ON AIR ENTRAILMENT IN PRODUCTION OF NON-AUTOCLAVED FOAM CONCRETE USING TURBULENCE CAVITATION TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Gorshkov Pavel Vladimirovich

    2012-01-01

    Non-autoclaved foam concrete is an advanced thermal insulation material. Until recently, foam concrete production has been based on separate preparation of foam and solution, followed by their blending in a mixer. The situation changed when high-quality synthetic foaming agents and turbulence cavitation technology appeared on the market. Every model provides a dependence between the foam concrete strength and the water-to-cement ratio. According to the water-cement ratio we can distinguish st...

  20. An evaluation of corrosion characteristics of materials for cladding (Zr) and heat-exchanger tubes (Ti) of SMART in static autoclaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion characteristics of materials (Low-Sn Zircaloy-4, Zr-1.0Nb, PT-7M, ASTM Gr. 2 Ti, Inconel-600 alloys) for cladding and heat-exchanger tubes of SMART in pure water, ammonia aqueous solutions of pH 9.98 and pH 11.13 at 360 .deg. and in steam at 400 .deg. were evaluated by using static autoclaves

  1. The effect of multiple autoclave cycles on the surface of rotary nickel-titanium endodontic files: An in vitro atomic force microscopy investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Shashikant Nair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To observe and study the effect of multiple autoclave sterilization cycles, on the surface of nickel-titanium (NiTi files. Materials and Methods: The file used for this study was the M two file (VDW and ProTaper (Dentsply. The apical 5 mm of the files were attached to a silicon wafer and subjected to autoclave cycles under standardized conditions. They were scanned with an AFM after 1, 5, and 10 cycles. The unsterilized files were used as control, before start of the study. Three vertical topographic parameters namely maximum height (MH, root mean square (RMS of surface roughness, and arithmetic mean roughness (AMRwere measured with the atomic force microscope (AFM. Analysis of variance along with Tukey′s test was used to test the differences. Results: The vertical topographic parameters were higher for both the files, right after the first cycle, when compared with the control (P < 0.01. The surface roughness increased sharply for M two when compared to ProTaper, though ProTaper had a rougher surface initially. Conclusions: The study confirmed that the irregularities present on the surface of the file became more prominent with multiple autoclave cycles, a fact that should be kept in mind during their reuse.

  2. Investigation of the use of fly-ash based autoclaved cellular concrete blocks in coal mines for air duct work. Final report, January 25, 1993--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, M.L. [Ohio Edison Co., Akron, OH (United States)

    1995-06-19

    Coal mines are required to provide ventilation to occupied portions of underground mines. Concrete block is used in this process to construct air duct walls. However, normal concrete block is heavy and not easy to work with and eventually fails dramatically after being loaded due to mine ceiling convergence and/or floor heave. Autoclaved cellular concrete block made from (70{plus_minus}%) coal fly ash is lightweight and less rigid when loaded. It is lighter and easier to use than regular concrete block for underground mine applications. It has also been used in surface construction around the world for over 40 years. Ohio Edison along with eight other electric utility companies, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and North American Cellular Concrete constructed a mobile demonstration plant to produce autoclaved cellular concrete block from utility fly ash. To apply this research in Ohio, Ohio Edison also worked with the Ohio Coal Development Office and CONSOL Inc. to produce autoclaved cellular concrete block not only from coal ash but also from LIMB ash, SNRB ash, and PFBC ash from various clean coal technology projects sponsored by the Ohio Coal Development Office. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the potential for beneficial use of fly ash and clean coal technology by-products in the production of lightweight block.

  3. The effect of Sn on autoclave corrosion performance and corrosion mechanisms in Zr–Sn–Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The desire to improve the corrosion resistance of Zr cladding material for high burn-up has resulted in a general trend among fuel manufacturers to develop alloys with reduced levels of Sn. While commonly accepted, the reason for the improved corrosion performance observed for low-tin zirconium alloys in high-temperature aqueous environments remains unclear. High-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to characterize the oxides formed by autoclave exposure on Zr–Sn–Nb alloys with tin concentration ranging from 0.01 to 0.92 wt.%. The alloys studied included the commercial alloy ZIRLO® (ZIRLO® is a registered trademark of Westinghouse Electric Company LLC in the USA and may be registered in other countries throughout the world. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use is strictly prohibited.) and two variants of ZIRLO with significantly lower tin levels, referred to here as A-0.6Sn and A-0.0Sn. The nature of the oxide grown on tube samples from each alloy was investigated via cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy. Atom probe analysis of ZIRLO demonstrated that the tin present in the alloy passes into the oxide as it forms, with no significant difference in the Sn/Zr ratio between the two. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements on the oxides formed on each alloy revealed that the monoclinic and tetragonal oxide phases display highly compressive in-plane residual stresses with the magnitudes dependent on the phase and alloy. The amount of tetragonal phase present and, more importantly, the level of tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation both decrease with decreasing tin levels, suggesting that tin is a tetragonal oxide phase stabilizing element. It is proposed that in Zr–Nb–Sn alloys with low Sn, the tetragonal phase is mainly stabilized by very small grain size and therefore remains stable throughout the corrosion process. In contrast, alloys with higher tin levels can in addition grow larger, stress stabilized, tetragonal grains that

  4. Escherichia coli K-12 survives anaerobic exposure at pH 2 without RpoS, Gad, or hydrogenases, but shows sensitivity to autoclaved broth products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Riggins

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria survive exposure to extreme acid (pH 2 or lower in gastric fluid. Aerated cultures survive via regulons expressing glutamate decarboxylase (Gad, activated by RpoS, cyclopropane fatty acid synthase (Cfa and others. But extreme-acid survival is rarely tested under low oxygen, a condition found in the stomach and the intestinal tract. We observed survival of E. coli K-12 W3110 at pH 1.2-pH 2.0, conducting all manipulations (overnight culture at pH 5.5, extreme-acid exposure, dilution and plating in a glove box excluding oxygen (10% H2, 5% CO2, balance N2. With dissolved O2 concentrations maintained below 6 µM, survival at pH 2 required Cfa but did not require GadC, RpoS, or hydrogenases. Extreme-acid survival in broth (containing tryptone and yeast extract was diminished in media that had been autoclaved compared to media that had been filtered. The effect of autoclaved media on extreme-acid survival was most pronounced when oxygen was excluded. Exposure to H2O2 during extreme-acid treatment increased the death rate slightly for W3110 and to a greater extent for the rpoS deletion strain. Survival at pH 2 was increased in strains lacking the anaerobic regulator fnr. During anaerobic growth at pH 5.5, strains deleted for fnr showed enhanced transcription of acid-survival genes gadB, cfa, and hdeA, as well as catalase (katE. We show that E. coli cultured under oxygen exclusion (<6 µM O2 requires mechanisms different from those of aerated cultures. Extreme acid survival is more sensitive to autoclave products under oxygen exclusion.

  5. Comparison of autoclave, microwave, IR and UV-C stabilization of whole wheat flour branny fractions upon the nutritional properties of whole wheat bread

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Mustafa Kürşat; Elgün, Adem

    2011-01-01

    In this study, whole wheat bread (WWB) prepared by whole wheat flour (WWF) which its branny fraction (35 ± 1% w/w whole flour) previously was stabilized with different processes. Branny fractions obtained by milling of two different Bezostaja-1 wheat samples (medium and high strong) at 65 ± 1% wheat flour extraction ratio. These fractions were stabilized using autoclave (AU), microwave (MW), infrared (IR) and ultraviolet-C (UV-C) methods. Then, WWF obtained by remixing of stabilized branny fr...

  6. Chemical modification of L-glutamine to alpha-amino glutarimide on autoclaving facilitates Agrobacterium infection of host and non-host plants: A new use of a known compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Pralay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental autoclaving of L-glutamine was found to facilitate the Agrobacterium infection of a non host plant like tea in an earlier study. In the present communication, we elucidate the structural changes in L-glutamine due to autoclaving and also confirm the role of heat transformed L-glutamine in Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation of host/non host plants. Results When autoclaved at 121°C and 15 psi for 20 or 40 min, L-glutamine was structurally modified into 5-oxo proline and 3-amino glutarimide (α-amino glutarimide, respectively. Of the two autoclaved products, only α-amino glutarimide facilitated Agrobacterium infection of a number of resistant to susceptible plants. However, the compound did not have any vir gene inducing property. Conclusions We report a one pot autoclave process for the synthesis of 5-oxo proline and α-amino glutarimide from L-glutamine. Xenobiotic detoxifying property of α-amino glutarimide is also proposed.

  7. STRUCTURAL SOLUTIONS AND SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE THERMAL PROTECTION ANALYSIS OF EXTERIOR WALLS OF BUILDINGS MADE OF AUTOCLAVED GAS-CONCRETE BLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedov Anatolij Ivanovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Relevant structural solutions, physical and mechanical characteristics, coefficients of thermal conductivity for exterior masonry walls made of autoclaved gas-concrete blocks are provided in the article. If a single-layer wall is under consideration, an autoclaved gas-concrete block is capable of performing the two principal functions of a shell structure, including the function of thermal protection and the bearing function. The functions are performed simultaneously. Therefore, the application of the above masonry material means the design development and erection of exterior walls of residential buildings noteworthy for their thermal efficiency. In the event of frameless structures, the height of the residential building in question may be up to 5 stories, while the use of a monolithic or a ready-made frame makes it possible to build high-rise buildings, and the number of stories is not limited in this case. If the average block density is equal to 400…500 kilograms per cubic meter, the designed wall thickness is to be equal to 400 mm. Its thermal resistance may be lower than the one set in the event of the per-element design of the thermal protection (Rreq = 3.41 м2 C/Watt, in Ufa, although it will meet the requirements of the applicable regulations if per-unit power consumption rate is considered.

  8. A pilot-scale steam autoclave system for treating municipal solid waste for recovery of renewable organic content: Operational results and energy usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtman, Kevin M; Bozzi, David V; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Offeman, Richard D; Orts, William J

    2016-05-01

    A pilot-scale (1800 kg per batch capacity) autoclave used in this study reduces municipal solid waste to a debris contaminated pulp product that is efficiently separated into its renewable organic content and non-renewable organic content fractions using a rotary trommel screen. The renewable organic content can be recovered at nearly 90% efficiency and the trommel rejects are also much easier to sort for recovery. This study provides the evaluation of autoclave operation, including mass and energy balances for the purpose of integration into organic diversion systems. Several methods of cooking municipal solid waste were explored from indirect oil heating only, a combination of oil and direct steam during the same cooking cycle, and steam only. Gross energy requirements averaged 1290 kJ kg(-1) material in vessel, including the weight of free water and steam added during heating. On average, steam recovery can recoup 43% of the water added and 30% of the energy, supplying on average 40% of steam requirements for the next cook. Steam recycle from one vessel to the next can reduce gross energy requirements to an average of 790 kJ kg(-1). PMID:26987737

  9. Análisis mecánico y fisocoquímico de un material compuesto de matriz termoestable y refuerzo de fibra de carbono: comparativa de propiedades del material curado fuera y dentro de autoclave

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Vicente, Laura

    2011-01-01

    En este proyecto se ha investigado a través de un estudio comparativo, las variaciones fisicoquímicas y mecánicas de un material compuesto de matriz epoxídica termoestable con refuerzo de fibra de carbono polimerizado en estufa y en autoclave. El principal objetivo de este proyecto es intentar buscar nuevas vías de reducción de costes de fabricación de los materiales compuestos, automatización de los procesos y control de la eficiencia energética, en definitiva, reducir el uso del autoclave. ...

  10. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a

  11. 金矿尾矿粉生产蒸压砖的研究%Use of gold mine tailings in autoclaved brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁善磊; 付强

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces the raw material preparation of autoclaved gold mine tailings brick, which consists of gold mine tailings and fly ash as the main raw material, activated material and admixture as auxiliary materials, and the mixture is moistened and shaped according to the process requirements.%介绍了利用工业废弃物金矿尾矿粉和粉煤灰为主要原料,辅以激发材料、外加剂,混合均匀,加适量水湿拌,加压成型,按养护工艺要求,经蒸压养护后制成金矿尾矿粉蒸压砖。

  12. 环氧丙烷装置皂化电石渣处理方案%Feasibility scheme of epoxy propane saponification calcium carbide slag produce autoclaved fly ash brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林盛海; 吴学亮

    2012-01-01

    本文介绍了皂化废电石渣用于生产蒸压粉煤灰砖的可行性。%The feasibility scheme of epoxy propane saponification Calcium carbide slag produce autoclaved fly ash brick was introduced.

  13. 民营医疗美容机构压力蒸汽灭菌器使用现状调查%Investigation on usage status of autoclave of private medical cosmetology organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙惠惠; 王佳奇; 张流波; 李涛; 李炎; 沈瑾

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the status of autoclave using in private medical cosmetology organization and provide basis of disinfection and sterilization for standardizing private medical cosmetology institutions. Methods Date investiga-tion and on-the spot examination methods were used to carry out the investigation on the use of the autoclave status of 98 private medical cosmetology institutions of a city. Results There are a total of 101 sets of autoclave in 98 private medical cosmetology institutions,of which 67. 33% were under the exhaust autoclave. The rest were the pre-vacuum autoclave. These sterilizers were small and the sterilization chamber volume less than 60 L accounted for 71. 29%. Temperature detec-tion pass rate was 34. 65% and biological indicator pass rate was 96. 04%. Conclusion The private medical institutions of this city failed in temperature problems of the autoclave,the actual effect of sterilization far from the sterility assurance level requirements.%目的:了解民营医疗美容机构压力蒸汽灭菌器的使用现状,为规范民营医疗美容机构的消毒灭菌工作提供依据。方法采用资料调查和现场检测的方法,对某市98家民营医疗美容机构压力蒸汽灭菌器使用状况进行监测。结果共调查101台压力蒸汽灭菌器,其中有67.33%为下排气式压力蒸汽灭菌器,其余为预真空式压力蒸汽灭菌器。这些灭菌器均属微小型,灭菌腔体容积小于60 L的占71.29%。该城市医疗美容机构使用中的压力蒸汽灭菌器灭菌温度检测合格率为34.65%,生物指示物检测合格率为96.04%。结论该城市民营医疗美容机构压力蒸汽灭菌器温度不合格的问题突出,实际灭菌效果距离灭菌保证水平要求相差甚远。

  14. Studies of Redox Equilibria at Elevated Temperatures 2. An Automatic Divided-Function Autoclave and Cell with Flowing Liquid Junction for Electrochemical Measurements on Aqueous Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus is described that has been developed for electrochemical studies of aqueous systems at temperatures above 100 deg C. It consists essentially of an electrically heated experimental cell enclosed by a separate pressure-vessel the walls of which are kept cool. This construction eliminates or reduces the problems of sealing electrical connections and of the corrosion of the pressure vessel, that commonly arise with conventional, externally-heated autoclaves. Pressure is applied to the cell by means of compressed air, diaphragm valves at the electrolyte outlet automatically maintaining the pressure in the cell about 1 atm lower than that in the pressure vessel. Two independent streams of electrolyte can be pumped into the experimental cell a special form of which has been developed in which may be formed a galvanic cell with a continuously regenerated flowing-liquid junction. In this form the apparatus enables experiments with, for example, one molal chloride solutions with pH 1-10, at temperatures up to about 250 deg C and under pressures up to about 40 atm. The apparatus has been tested in experiments in which classical measurements of the conductance of some aqueous electrolytes have been repeated. Good agreement with the earlier results has been obtained

  15. Hydrothermal interaction of crushed Topopah Spring tuff and J-13 water at 90, 150, and 2500C using Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Package Environment subtask of the Waste Package task within the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project, experiments were conducted to study the hydrothermal interaction of rock and water representative of a potential high-level waste repository in tuff. These experiments used crushed Topopah Spring tuff from both drillcore and outcrop samples. The data, when considered in conjunction with results from analogous experiments using solid wafers of tuff, define near-field repository conditions and can be used to assess the ability to use ''accelerated'' tests based on the surface area/volume (SA/V) parameter and temperature; allow the measurement of chemical changes due to reaction in phases present in the tuff before reaction; and permit the identification and chemical analysis of secondary phases resulting from hydrothermal reactions. Some of the results presented in this report have been used to demonstrate the usefulness of geochemical modeling in a repository environment using the EQ3/6 thermodynamic/kinetic geochemical modeling code. The tuff was reacted with a natural ground water in Dickson-type gold-bag rocking autoclaves that were periodically sampled under in situ conditions. Five short-term (0C and 50 to 100 bars. This report will focus on the results of experiments with crushed tuff, while a companion report will cover results of analogous short-term experiments run with solid waters of tuff

  16. Comparison of the Effects of Diet Sterilization by Irradiation and Autoclaving on the Equilibrium between Eleven Microbe Strains Seeded in the Alimentary Tracts of Axenic Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven obligate or facultative anaerobe strains were seeded successively in the alimentary tracts of 'gnotoxenic' mice. The animals were divided into four groups which received a commercially available diet sterilized by autoclaving or by irradiation (4 Mrad) or treated with the two methods in succession and supplemented or not supplemented in vitamins. A series of quantitative differential analyses carried out over a period of seven months on the faeces of the animals did not reveal any significant differences in the equilibrium that became established among the eleven strains in the faecal flora of the four groups of animals. At the end of the experiment quantitative differential analyses were performed of the stomachal and caecal flora of two animals from each group; again no differences were found in the equilibrium of the flora in the animals from the different groups. Any radiolytic products that may have been in the radiation-sterilized diet therefore had no detectable effect on the equilibrium of the microflora that the authors had chosen to establish in the alimentary tract of the 'gnotoxenic' animals. (author)

  17. Autoclave treatment of pig manure does not reduce the risk of transmission and transfer of tetracycline resistance genes in soil: successive determinations with soil column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Gu, Xian; Hao, Yangyang; Hu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of antibiotics, especially tetracycline, in livestock feed adversely affects animal health and ecological integrity. Therefore, approaches to decrease this risk are urgently needed. High temperatures facilitate antibiotic degradation; whether this reduces transmission risk and transfer of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRBs) and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in soil remains unknown. Successive experiments with soil columns evaluated the effects of autoclaving pig manure (APM) on soil TRB populations and TRGs over time at different soil depths. The data showed sharp increases in TRB populations and TRGs in each subsoil layer of PM (non-APM) and APM treatments within 30 days, indicating that TRBs and TRGs transferred rapidly. The level of TRBs in the upper soil layers was approximately 15-fold higher than in subsoils. TRBs were not dependent on PM and APM levels, especially in the late phase. Nevertheless, higher levels of APM led to rapid expansion of TRBs as compared to PM. Moreover, temporal changes in TRB frequencies in total culturable bacteria (TCBs) were similar to TRBs, indicating that the impact of PM or APM on TRBs was more obvious than for TCBs. TRBs were hypothesized to depend on the numbers of TRGs and indigenous recipient bacteria. In the plough layer, five TRGs (tetB, tetG, tetM, tetW, and tetB/P) existed in each treatment within 150 days. Selective pressure of TC may not be a necessary condition for the transfer and persistence of TRGs in soil. High temperatures might reduce TRBs in PM, which had minimal impact on the transmission and transfer of TRGs in soil. Identifying alternatives to decrease TRG transmission remains a major challenge. PMID:26517996

  18. Nodulação e micorrização em Anadenanthera peregrina var. falcata em solo de cerrado autoclavado e não autoclavado Nodulation and mycorrhizal infection in Anadenanthera peregrina Var. falcata on autoclaved and non-autoclaved cerrado soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gross

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Anadenanthera peregrina var. falcata (angico-do-cerrado, uma leguminosa arbórea, forma associações simbióticas com bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio (rizóbios e com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da inoculação de fungos micorrízicos e rizóbios no crescimento inicial de plantas de angico-do-cerrado, crescidas em solo autoclavado e em solo não autoclavado com e sem inoculação, foi desenvolvido um experimento em casa de vegetação, utilizando raízes micorrizadas de milho e uma mistura de isolados de rizóbios como inoculantes. O crescimento das plantas foi influenciado positivamente pela concomitante inoculação do fungo micorrízico e do rizóbio, tendo as plantas desse tratamento apresentado biomassa cerca de 60 % maior do que o controle no décimo mês. A inoculação de apenas um dos microssimbiontes, entretanto, não provocou diferença na produção de biomassa das plantas. A percentagem de colonização micorrízica foi significativamente mais alta e o número de nódulos maior nas raízes das plantas crescidas no solo não autoclavado, ocasionados pela população de fungos e rizóbios nativos. Nesse tratamento, houve pequeno acúmulo de matéria no xilopódio, provavelmente em virtude do dreno fotossintético por parte dos microssimbiontes, e a concentração de P na parte aérea e xilopódio dessas plantas foi cerca de 1,2 e 8 vezes maior, respectivamente, por causa da colonização micorrízica.The leguminous tree Anadenanthera peregrina var. falcata (angico-do-cerrado forms symbiotic associations with nitrogen fixing bacteria (rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the influence of rhizobial and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on the initial growth of angico-do-cerrado plants, in autoclaved and non-autoclaved soil with and without inoculations. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using mycorrhized roots of maize and

  19. Non-autoclave silicate brick

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Yaglov; Ya. N. Kovalev; V. N. Romaniuk; G. A. Burak

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a technology for obtaining bricks on the basis of lime-silica mixtures where chemical interactions are practically completely realized in dispersive state at the stage of preparation of binding contact maturing and raw mixture as a whole. The role of forming operation (moulding) is changed in principle because in this case conversion of dispersive system into a rock-like solid occurs and due to this the solid obtains complete water-resistance in contact with water immediate...

  20. Study on Autoclave Preparation Technology and Properties of Potato Resistant Starch%马铃薯抗性淀粉压热制备工艺与性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振强; 申森; 樊欣

    2012-01-01

    The autoclave preparation technology and properties of potato resistant starch(RS) were studied. Orthogonal experiment was adopted to optimize the preparation technology base on single factor tests of starch milk concentration, thermal - press temperature, thermal-press time and starch milk pH. The optimum extraction conditions were starch milk concentration, 200g/L; thermal-press temperature, 120℃ thermal-press time, 60 min; starch milk pH, 7, under which the RS yield was 4.66%. The enzyme resistance, water absorption and DSC profiles of potato RS were studied. The results showed that potato RS had strong anti-enzymatic ability; the water absorption of potato RS was higher than potato original starch; and the DSC profiles showed potato RS formed a variety of amylose structures which had tighter structure, thus had stronger heat resistance and anti-enzymatic ability.%对马铃薯抗性淀粉(RS)压热制备工艺及性质进行了研究.选择淀粉乳浓度、压热温度、压热时间和淀粉乳pH进行单因素试验,确定条件范围,再采用正交试验优化提取条件,得到最佳提取工艺条件为淀粉乳浓度200 g/L,压热温度120℃,压热时间75 min,淀粉乳pH7,按最佳工艺条件进行试验,马铃薯RS产率为4.66%.并研究了马铃薯RS抗酶解性、吸水性和DSC图谱,结果表明,马铃薯RS具有较强的抗酶解性;吸水率高于马铃薯精淀粉;DSC图谱显示马铃薯RS形成了多种结构更紧密的直链淀粉晶体,有较强的热稳定性和抗酶解性.

  1. Water-Shale interactions in bench-top and high pressure/high temperature autoclave experiments: Identifying geochemical reaction controlling flow back water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickler, P. J.; Lu, J.; Nicot, J.

    2013-12-01

    An important side effect of hydraulic fracturing (HF) in shale gas wells is the production of saline flow-back water. This water often contains total dissolved soil (TDS) concentrations greater than 100,000 ppm which requires expensive treatment and disposal of the produced water. Possible origins of the high TDS content include: 1. Mixing of fresh HF-fluids with highly saline pore fluids in the targeted shale. 2. Migration and mixing of saline brines by newly-formed fractures into the HF-water from neighboring formations. 3. Water rock interactions between the targeted shale and HF-water that include mineral dissolution, pyrite oxidation buffered by carbonate dissolution and cation exchange in newly hydrated clay minerals.. These possibilities are not mutually exclusive and all may be operating to alter flow-back water chemistry. This study will examine geochemical reactions between a productive Gulf Coast shale and manufactured HF-waters using sealed bench top experiments and high temperature/high pressure autoclave experiments. The samples of the shale were collected from core material housed at The Bureau of Economic Geology collected from two wells. The manufactured HF-waters were produced by mixing NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 salts with De-ionized water at approximately 0, 2000 and 20,000 ppm. During experiments, elements that show large increases in aqueous concentrations are Na, Cl, Ca and SO4. Simultaneous increases in Na and Cl, coupled with high Cl/Br ratios, suggest halite dissolution rather than pore space brine is responsible for Na and Cl concentrations. Simultaneous increase in Ca and SO4 suggest anhydrite dissolution. (SEM imaging shows that anhydrite crystals are usually embedded with the framework mineral grains, rather than precipitated in pores during sample drying, which suggests mineral source of Ca and SO4, possibly for Na and Cl as well). Pyrite oxidation and calcium carbonate dissolution were not significant due to no decrease in pH and no

  2. 依托住宅产业化开发蒸压砂加气混凝土成套体系技术%Exploitation of Complete Sets of Sand Autoclaved Aerated Concrete System Technology Relying on the Housing Industrialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超华

    2015-01-01

    Relying on the advantage of group industrialization to develop research and development and application of sand autoclaved aerated concrete materials for the maintenance system of the green, environmental protection,energy saving technology,formed sets of system technology of the sand autoclaved aerated insulation,exterior insulation,partition panel,steel structure within the envelope insulation panels etc.,then summarized the construction method of complete system.%依托集团产业化优势,大力开展以蒸压砂加气混凝土材料为建筑围护体系的绿色、环保、节能技术研发与应用,形成了蒸压砂加气自保温、外墙外保温、內隔墙板、钢结构外围护保温墙板等多项成套体系技术,进而总结提炼出成套体系施工工法。

  3. Well-defined crystallites autoclaved from the nitrate/NH{sub 4}OH reaction system as the precursor for (Y,Eu){sub 2}O{sub 3} red phosphor: Crystallization mechanism, phase and morphology control, and luminescent property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Qi [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Advanced Materials Processing Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Li Jiguang, E-mail: LI.Jiguang@nims.go.jp [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Advanced Materials Processing Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Ma, Renzhi; Sasaki, Takayoshi [World Premier International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Yang, Xiaojing [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Xiaodong; Sun Xudong [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Sakka, Yoshio [Advanced Materials Processing Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Autoclaving the rare-earth nitrate/NH{sub 4}OH reaction system under the mild conditions of 120-200 Degree-Sign C and pH 6-13 have yielded four types of well-crystallized compounds with their distinctive crystal shapes, including Ln{sub 2}(OH){sub 5}NO{sub 3}{center_dot}nH{sub 2}O (Ln=Y and Eu) layered rare-earth hydroxide (hexagonal platelets), Ln{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9}NO{sub 3} oxy-hydroxyl nitrate (hexagonal prisms and microwires), Ln(OH){sub 2.94}(NO{sub 3}){sub 0.06}{center_dot}nH{sub 2}O hydroxyl nitrate (square nanoplates), and Ln(OH){sub 3} hydroxide (spindle-shaped microrods). The occurrence domains of the compounds are defined. Ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) as a mineralizer effectively widens the formation domains of the NO{sub 3}{sup -} containing compounds while leads to larger crystals at the same time (up to 0.3 mm). Crystallization mechanisms of the compounds and the effects of NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} were discussed. Optical properties (PLE/PL) of the four phases were characterized in detail and were interpreted from the different site symmetries of Eu{sup 3+}. The compounds convert to cubic-structured (Y{sub 0.95}Eu{sub 0.05}){sub 2}O{sub 3} by annealing at 600 Degree-Sign C while retaining their original crystal morphologies. The resultant phosphor oxides of diverse particle shapes exhibit differing optical properties, in terms of luminescent intensity, asymmetry factor of luminescence and fluorescence lifetime, and the underlying mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Well-defined crystallites of the various phases have been autoclaved from the nitrate/NH{sub 4}OH reaction system. Crystallization mechanisms of the compounds and the effects of NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} were discussed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Well-defined crystallites of four phases have been hydrothermally synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The occurrence domains of the compounds are defined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallization mechanisms and the

  4. Hydrothermal interaction of solid wafers of Topopah Spring Tuff with J-13 water and distilled water at 90, 150, and 2500C, using Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project has conducted experiments to study the hydrothermal interaction of rock and water representative of a potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results of these experiments help define the near-field repository environment during and shortly after the thermal period that results from the emplacement of nuclear waste. When considered in conjunction with results contained in companion reports, these results can be used to assess our ability to accelerate tests using the surface area/volume parameter and/or temperature. These rock-water interaction experiments were conducted with solid polished wafers cut from both drillcore and outcrop samples of Topopah tuff, using both a natural ground water and distilled water as the reacting fluid. Pre- and post-test characterization of the reacting materials was extensive. Post-test identification and chemical analysis of secondary phases resulting from the hydrothermal interactions were aided by using monoliths of tuff rather than crushed material. All experiments were run in Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves that were periodically sampled at in situ conditions. A total of nine short-term (up to 66-day) experiments were run in this series; these experiments covered the range from 90 to 2500C and from 50 to 100 bar. The results obtained from the experiments have been used to evaluate the modeled results produced by calculations using the geochemical reaction process code EQ3/6. 31 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Hydrothermal interaction of solid wafers of Topopah Spring Tuff with J-13 water at 90 and 150/degree/C using Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves: Long-term experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project conducted long-term experiments to study the hydrothermal interaction of rock and water representative of a potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results of these experiments complement those obtained previously in short-term experiments at similar and higher temperatures. These long-term experiments also help in assessing the effects of kinetic inhibition in the precipitation of secondary minerals at the lower temperatures and allow a more complete determination of the approach of the fluid toward a steady-state composition. Considered collectively, the results of both short- and long-term experiments provide information useful in defining the near-field repository environment during and shortly after the thermal period caused by the emplacement of nuclear waste. These long-term experiments were conducted using solid wafers cut from drillcore samples of Topopah Spring tuff. A natural ground water was used as the reacting fluid. Analytical techniques for determining the composition of fluids and solids were similar to those used in previous short-term experiments. All experiments were run in Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves that were periodically sampled under in situ conditions. Two long-term (304-day) experiments were run at temperatures of 90 and 150/degree/C and 50-bar pressure. 21 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Hydrothermal interaction of solid wafers of Topopah Spring Tuff with J-13 water and distilled water at 90, 150, and 250{sup 0}C, using Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauss, K.G.; Beiriger, W.J.; Peifer, D.W.; Piwinskii, A.J.

    1985-09-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project has conducted experiments to study the hydrothermal interaction of rock and water representative of a potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results of these experiments help define the near-field repository environment during and shortly after the thermal period that results from the emplacement of nuclear waste. When considered in conjunction with results contained in companion reports, these results can be used to assess our ability to accelerate tests using the surface area/volume parameter and/or temperature. These rock-water interaction experiments were conducted with solid polished wafers cut from both drillcore and outcrop samples of Topopah tuff, using both a natural ground water and distilled water as the reacting fluid. Pre- and post-test characterization of the reacting materials was extensive. Post-test identification and chemical analysis of secondary phases resulting from the hydrothermal interactions were aided by using monoliths of tuff rather than crushed material. All experiments were run in Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves that were periodically sampled at in situ conditions. A total of nine short-term (up to 66-day) experiments were run in this series; these experiments covered the range from 90 to 250{sup 0}C and from 50 to 100 bar. The results obtained from the experiments have been used to evaluate the modeled results produced by calculations using the geochemical reaction process code EQ3/6. 31 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Sécheresse à coeur du Douglas et aptitude au déroulage : recherche de procédés alternatifs d'étuvage. I. Répartition de l'eau dans le bois vert et réhumidification sous autoclave

    OpenAIRE

    Mothe, Frédéric; Marchal, Rémy; Tatischeff, Wladimir

    2000-01-01

    International audience Heart dryness of Douglas fir and ability to rotary cutting: Research of alternative boiling processes. I. Moisture content distribution inside green wood and water impregnation with an autoclave. The analysis of the moisture content variations along Douglas fir increment cores, fresh cut logs and peeled veneers allowed to confirm the low level of moisture content inside Douglas fir heartwood. Whatever the tree and the inside ring location may be, the heartwood moistu...

  8. 某蒸压加气混凝土砌块项目职业病危害因素分析与评价%An autoclaved aerated concrete block project occupation disease harm factor analysis and evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓阳; 吕艳朋; 张高峰; 马好; 李铭

    2014-01-01

    目的:识别、评价和分析某蒸压加气混凝土砌块项目在生产过程中产生的职业病危害因素,评价职业病危害防护措施及其效果,为制定职业病的预防措施提供依据。方法采用职业卫生现场调查、职业卫生检测、职业健康检查和检查表分析法。结果蒸压加气混凝土砌块项目产生的主要职业病危害因素有毒物(包括CO、CO2、SO2、CaO等)、粉尘、噪声及高温与热辐射等。结论该项目属于职业病严重的建设项目,职业病危害控制措施基本可行、有效,但需加强对粉尘及噪声的职业病危害控制措施。%Objective To identify, evaluate and analyze the occupation disease inautoclaved aerated concrete block the project generated in the production processhazards, protective measures and effect evaluation of occupation disease harm,provide the basis for the establishment of occupation disease preventionmeasures. Methods using the occupation health field investigation,occupationhealth inspection,occupation health examination and checklist analysis.The mainoccupation disease results autoclaved aerated concrete block project hazard oftoxic substances (including CO,CO2,SO2,CaOetc.),dust,noise and high temperature and thermal radiation.Conclusion This project belongs to the seriousconstruction project occupation disease,control measure is feasible,effectiveoccupation disease harm,but need to strengthen the occupation disease on thedust and noise hazards and control measures.

  9. No-Oven, No-Autoclave, Composite Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large, single-piece composite structures for NASA launch vehicles are currently very expensive or impossible to fabricate partly because of the capital (ovens,...

  10. Effect of Active Mineral on Load-Bearing Autoclaved Aerocrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭苏萍; 王立刚

    2001-01-01

    Influence of ultrafine active mineral (DK mineral) on mechanical property of fly ash based load-bearing aerocrete was analyzed. The result shows that the addition of DK mineral in a suitable amount can enhance obviously the compressive strength of aerocrete. According to the SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction analyses, the crystal shapes of hydration products are well developed and interlocked for samples containing DK mineral. Its microstructure is denser than that of the samples without DK mineral. Having a good activation, the DK mineral makes both the type and the quantity of hydrated products be obviously superior to that of the contrast sample.

  11. Radiosterilization and steam autoclaving sterilization effects on phosphite antioxidant stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagoubi, N.; Boucherie, P.; Ferrier, D.

    1997-08-01

    While the radiosterilization by γ rays, is mainly employed for medical devices, this procedure is not commonly used to sterilize and decontaminate raw material and finished product used in the pharmaceutical industry. Depending on the countries, the requirements for obtaining approval to treat this class of product with γ rays may be different. Usually it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to demonstrate not only the integrity of the irradiated product, but olso its efficiency, safety and quality. Our work consists of a comparative study of the effects of γ radiotreatment at 25 kGy and steam sterilisation on phosphite antioxidant incorporated in polypropylene. The γ radiosensitivity compared with thermolability of this antioxidant was studied by reversed phase HPLC, Fourier Transform Infrared (IRFT) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The results obtained proved that the phosphite incorporated into the polymer and treated with the two types of sterilisation is rapidly oxidized in phosphate. Nevertheless, this oxidation is more important when using radiotreatment at 25 kGy.

  12. Investigation on autoclaved fly-ash brick production technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZouJi

    2005-01-01

    The article through analyzing the raw material properties and the production process of the autociaved fly-ash building products, and every kinds of influencing factor on products quantity ,investigated the optimum parameter, such as optimum steam curingtechnique level, has got good expansion meaning.system etc, and indicated that the production line has high technique level, has got good expansion meaning.

  13. Generating Autoclave-Level Mechanical Properties with Out-of-Autoclave Thermoplastic Placement of Large Composite Aerospace Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While in the 1970's and 1980's, composites were adopted for aerospace structure for increased performance and weight savings, the 1990's and 2000's witnessed the...

  14. Effect of Waterproofing Agent B and Curing Temperature on Properties of the Burning-free, Autoclave Curing-free and Non-cement Building Bricks Made from Iron Tailings%防水剂B和养护温度对铁尾矿三免砖性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐民主; 雷国元; 宋均平; 罗文斌; 谭青; 李瑞杰

    2015-01-01

    Burning-free,autoclave curing-free and non-cement building bricks( three-free for short) were prepared with the fine low-silica iron ore tailing and the self-made non-cement curing agent as the raw material. The effect of the content of waterproofing agent B and curing temperature on the properties of the products such as the compressive strength,water resist-ance,frost resistance and anti-carbonization,and also its mechanisms were studied. The results showed that with the dosage of waterproofing agent B increase,compressive strength and 24 h water absorption of products decreased while saturated compres-sive strength and softening coefficient are increased first and then decreased. With the increase of initial curing temperature, water resistance,frost resistance and compressive strength in every curing time are improved significantly. According to the mechanism analysis by XRD and FI-TR,the results show that hydrated calcium silicate gel and ettringite are strength binder phase of three-free bricks. Meanwhile,the addition of waterproofing agent B does not affect the composition of binding phase. The increase of initial curing temperature and the addition of waterproofing agent B can inhibit the carbonation reaction within products and improve water resistance. The results of theoretical analysis can explain the effect of curing temperature and water-proofing agent B on performance of the products. It provides theory basis for the high-effect waterproofing agent and the optimi-zation of the curing conditions.%以某细粒低硅铁尾矿和无水泥固化剂为原料,制备免烧免蒸免水泥建材砖(简称“三免砖”)。研究了防水剂B和养护温度对制品抗压强度、耐水性和抗冻性的影响及其机制。试验结果表明:随着防水剂B掺量的增加,制品的干抗压强度和24 h吸水率均下降,饱和抗压强度和软化系数均先升后降;随着初期养护温度的升高,制品的耐水性、抗冻性和各龄期

  15. SELECTION AND OPTIMIZATION OF COMPOSITION OF NON-AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE MIXTURE FOR CONDITIONS IN VIETNAM / ПОДБОР И ОПТИМИЗАЦИЯ СОСТАВА НЕАВТОКЛАВНОГО ГАЗОБЕТОНА ДЛЯ УСЛОВИЙ ВЬЕТНАМА

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguen Tkhan′ Tuan / Нгуен Тхань Туан

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the selection and optimization of composition of gas-concrete mixture with additives that is produced in Vietnam. The authors carry out the studies to identify and compare the properties of autoclaved aerated concrete and non-autoclaved curing when adding metakaolin, silica fume and rice husk in the amount of 7 % into the mixture. It was found that gas concrete, which contains highly active metakaolin, shows the best properties / Приводятся результаты подбора и оптимизации состава газобетонной смеси с добавками, которые производятся во Вьетнаме. Были проведены исследования по определению и сравнению свойств газобетона автоклавного и неавтоклавного твердения при введении в смесь метакаолинита, микрокремнезема и рисовой шелухи в количестве 7 %. Установлено, что газобетон, имеющий в своем составе высокоактивный метакаолинит, показывает лучшие свойства

  16. Microcrack Resistant Matrix Materials for Out-of-Autoclave Processing of Composite Cryogenic Tanks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is keen on advancing technologies for lightweight composite cryotanks for heavy lift vehicles for future NASA missions. Two primary challenges must be overcome...

  17. Microcrack Resistant Matrix Materials for Out-of-Autoclave Processing of Composite Cryogenic Tanks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The next generation of launch vehicles under development by NASA requires significant mass reduction to fully meet mission and performance needs. For example, NASA...

  18. Computational thermal-hydraulic modeling of a steam generator and a boiler simulator autoclave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion of heat transfer tubing in nuclear steam generators has been a persistent problem in the power generation industry, assuming many different forms over the years depending on chemistry and operating conditions. Whatever the corrosion mechanism, a funding understanding of the process is essential to establish effective management strategies. To gain this fundamental understanding requires an integrated investigative approach that merges technology from many diverse scientific disciplines. An important aspect of an integrated approach is characterization of the corrosive environment at high temperature. This begins with a thorough understanding of local thermal-hydraulic conditions, since they affect deposit formation, chemical concentration, and ultimately corrosion. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can and should play an important role in characterizing the thermal-hydraulic environment and in predicting the consequences of that environment. The evolution of CFD technology now allows accurate calculation of steam generator thermal-hydraulic conditions and the resulting sludge deposit profiles. Similar calculations are also possible for model boilers, so that tests can be designed to be prototypic of the heat exchanger environment they are supposed to simulate. This paper illustrates the utility of CFD technology by way of examples in each of these two areas. This technology can be further extended to produce more detailed local calculations of the chemical environment in support plate crevices, beneath thick deposits on tubes, and deep in tubesheet sludge. Knowledge of this local chemical environment will provide the foundation for development of mechanistic corrosion models, which can be used to optimize inspection and cleaning schedules and focus the search for a viable fix

  19. Settlement determination of operating moisture of autoclaved aerated concrete in different climatic zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastushkov Pavel Pavlovich

    Full Text Available In the process of operation of buildings the moisture state of enveloping structures materials is changing depending on their construction features, properties of the material, temperature and moisture conditions in the premises, climatic conditions of the construction area. Moisture mode determines the operational properties of the enveloping structures of a building. It directly influences the thermal characteristics of enveloping structure and energy efficiency of the applied materials. The analysis of the methods for calculation of moisture behavior of enclosing structures is carried out. The research relevance of operational moisture of AAC is substantiated. Experimental studies and results of the sorption moisturizing and water vapor permeability of leading marks of aerated concrete are carried out. The authors offer the results of numerical calculations of the moisture behavior of aerated concrete in the walls with mark D400 with facade thermal insulation composite systems - with external plaster layers for different climatic zones of construction.

  20. Autoclaving and clinical recycling: Effects on mechanical properties of orthodontic wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Oshagh

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Although recycle wires were softer than those of control group, relatively small differences and also various properties of available wires have obscured the clinical predictability of their application. There is seemingly no problem in terms of mechanical properties to recycle orthodontic wires.

  1. Measurement of thermal conductivity of the oxide coating on autoclaved monel-400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal conductivity of the oxide coating on monel-400 has been measured by a direct method. The oxide coating is applied on an electrically conducting wire having stable characteristics. The wire is placed in a constant temperature bath and a constant direct current is passed through it. The wire gets heated and loses heat to the surrounding. Temperature is measured by considering it as a resistance thermometer. A convection heat transfer coefficient, which is difficult to measure experimentally but is involved in the analytical expression for thermal conductivity, is eliminated by connecting a second uncoated wire of a noble metal having similar surface finish as that of the coated wire in series with it. The accuracy of the method is nearly six percent. However, the method is not easily applicable for very thin (thickness <= 1μ), highly porous coatings and materials having relatively large thermal conductivity. (M.G.B.)

  2. Gamma-ray irradiation, autoclave and ethylene oxide sterilization to thermosetting polyurethane: sterilization to polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermosetting polyurethane (PU) is widely used in a large variety of medical devices. 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) was produced from PU by sterilization and it was studied for the relationship between urethane components or polymer characteristics and formation of MDA upon sterilization, using the commercially available dialyzers fabricated with different combination of isocyanate and polyol. We confirmed that the molecular-weight of polyol influenced the production of MDA upon sterilization. (author)

  3. Equilibrium and kinetics of autoclave-soda leaching of wolframite concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium constants in FeWO4-Na2CO3 solution, MnWO4-Na2CO3 solution systems at 200-275 deg C, as well as composition of solid products of exchange reactions were determined. Kinetics of wolframite interaction with soda solutions at 225-300 deg C and mechanism of this interaction were studied

  4. Gamma-ray irradiation, autoclave and ethylene oxide sterilization to thermosetting polyurethane: Sterilization to polyurethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Noriko; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichi; Inishita, Takashi; Takenaka, Yoshinori; Suma, Yasunori; Shintani, Hideharu

    1995-09-01

    Thermosetting polyurethane (PU) is widely used in a large variety of medical devices. 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) was produced from PU by sterilization and it was studied for the relationship between urethane components or polymer characteristics and formation of MDA upon sterilization, using the commercially available dialyzers fabricated with different combination of isocyanate and polyol. We confirmed that the molecular-weight of polyol influenced the production of MDA upon sterilization.

  5. Oxide properties of autoclaved zircaloy cladding tubes investigated by the photoelectric polarization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion of zirconium alloys is an important lifetime limiting factor for the nuclear reactor fuel. The corrosion resistance of a metal is highly dependent on the ability of the surface metal oxide to transport electrons and ions, which is related to the stoichiometry of the oxide and the oxide defect concentration. The Photoelectric Polarization Method (PEP) is a structure sensitive method which earlier has been investigated as a possible method to study the defect structure in zirconium oxides. The purpose of the following work is, by using more optimized experimental equipment, to verify if the PEP method is a suitable method to study the defect structure in zirconium oxides and to predict the corrosion resistance for different zirconium alloys. The conclusions from the experiments are as follows: - The modifications of the experimental setup by means of a new source of light (deuterium lamp) and a new oscilloscope with an amplifier gave distinct Vpep signals. - The photoresponse is negative for all types of cladding and under all kind of oxidation regimes and hence the oxide is a n-type semiconductor with deficiency of oxygen. - The method needs to be verified by testing semiconductors with a known defect concentration

  6. Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites and Methods of Making Same Without the Use of Oven or Autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnell, Thomas J. (Inventor); Rauscher, Michael D. (Inventor); Stienecker, Rick D. (Inventor); Nickerson, David M. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Method embodiments for producing a fiber-reinforced epoxy composite comprise providing a mold defining a shape for a composite, applying a fiber reinforcement over the mold, covering the mold and fiber reinforcement thereon in a vacuum enclosure, performing a vacuum on the vacuum enclosure to produce a pressure gradient, insulating at least a portion of the vacuum enclosure with thermal insulation, infusing the fiber reinforcement with a reactive mixture of uncured epoxy resin and curing agent under vacuum conditions, wherein the reactive mixture of uncured epoxy resin and curing agent generates exothermic heat, and producing the fiber-reinforced epoxy composite having a glass transition temperature of at least about 100.degree. C. by curing the fiber reinforcement infused with the reactive mixture of uncured epoxy resin and curing agent by utilizing the exothermically generated heat, wherein the curing is conducted inside the thermally insulated vacuum enclosure without utilization of an external heat source or an external radiation source.

  7. Reformulating Polycaprolactone Fumarate to Eliminate Toxic Diethylene Glycol: Effects of Polymeric Branching and Autoclave Sterilization on Material Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Runge, M. Brett; Wang, Huan; Spinner, Robert J.; Windebank, Anthony J.; Yaszemski, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Polycaprolactone fumarate (PCLF) is a cross-linkable derivate of polycaprolactone diol that has been shown to be an effective nerve conduit material that supports regeneration across segmental nerve defects and has warranted future clinical trials. Degradation of the previously studied PCLF (PCLFDEG) releases toxic small molecules of diethylene glycol used as the initiator for the synthesis of polycaprolactone diol. In an effort to eliminate this toxic degradation product we present a strateg...

  8. Compressive and splitting tensile strength of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC containing perlite aggregate and polypropylene fiber subjected to high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borvorn Israngkura Na Ayudhya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the residual compressive and splitting tensile strength ofautoclaved aerated concrete (AAC containing perlite and polypropylene (PP fiber subjected to high temperatures. Cylinderspecimens were subjected to various temperature ranges of 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1,000°C. The mixtures were prepared withAAC cementitious materials containing perlite at 15%, 20%, and 30% sand replacement. The polypropylene fiber content of0, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% by volume was also added to the mixture. The results showed that the unheated compressive andsplitting tensile strength of AACs containing PP fiber were not significantly higher than those containing no PP fiber.Furthermore, the presence of PP fiber was not more effective for residual compressive strength than splitting tensile strength.The 30% perlite replacement of sand gave the highest strength. Based on the results, it can be concluded that addition ofPP fiber did not significantly promote the residual strength of AAC specimens subjected to high temperatures.

  9. An Investigation of Stimulating the Autoclave Curing Process of Resin Matrix/Fiber Reinforced Composite Material,Ⅰ: Process model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model is made which describes the curing process of composites constructed from continuous fiber-reinforced, thermosetting resin matrix prepreg materials, and the consolidation of the composite is developed. The model provides the variation of temperature distribution, the cure reaction process in the resin, the resin flow and fibers stress inside the composite, and the void variation and the residual stress distribution. It can be used to illustrate the mechanism of curing process and optimize the cure cycle of composite material in order to ensure the quality of a product.

  10. Spring-back simulation of unidirectional carbon/epoxy L- shaped laminate composites manufactured through autoclave processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Mezeix, L.; Aminanda, Y.; Seman, M. A.; Rivai, A.; Ali, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an original method in predicting the spring-back for composite aircraft structures using non-linear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and is an extension of the previous accompanying study on flat geometry samples. Firstly, unidirectional prepreg lay-up samples are fabricated on moulds with different corner angles (30°, 45° and 90°) and the effect on spring-back deformation are observed. Then, the FEA model that was developed in the previous study on flat samples is utilized. The model maintains the physical mechanisms of spring-back such as ply stretching and tool-part interface properties with the additional mechanism in the corner effect and geometrical changes in the tool, part and the tool-part interface components. The comparative study between the experimental data and FEA results show that the FEA model predicts adequately the spring-back deformation within the range of corner angle tested.

  11. Autoclaved reactive powder concrete: the effects of steel micro-fibers and silica fume dosage on the mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Beglarigale, Ahsanollah; Yalçınkaya, Çağlar; Halit Yazıcı

    2014-01-01

    Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) is a type of ultra-high performance cement based composite with high strength and ductility. RPC was developed in the 1990s by Bouygues' laboratory in France. It is a special type of concrete which has properly optimized micro grain, binder phase and steel micro-fibers. RPC can achieve compressive strength values between 150–800 MPa, while traditional concrete which is used in current structures usually has 20–50 MPa compressive strength. In addition, its h...

  12. Shear Bond Strengths between Three Different Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Dental Materials and Veneering Ceramic and Their Susceptibility to Autoclave Induced Low-Temperature Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Manoti; Bhargava, Akshay; Gupta, Sharad; Gupta, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment as influencing the shear bond strength between three different commercially available zirconia core materials, namely, Upcera, Ziecon, and Cercon, layered with VITA VM9 veneering ceramic using Universal Testing Machine. The mode of failure between zirconia and ceramic was further analyzed as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed using stereomicroscope. X-ray diffraction and SEM (scanning electron microscope) analysis were done to estimate the phase transformation (m-phase fraction) and surface grain size of zirconia particles, respectively. The purpose of this study was to simulate the clinical environment by artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment so as the clinical function and nature of the bond between zirconia and veneering material as in a clinical trial of 15 years could be evaluated. PMID:27293439

  13. Shear Bond Strengths between Three Different Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Dental Materials and Veneering Ceramic and Their Susceptibility to Autoclave Induced Low-Temperature Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Manoti Sehgal; Akshay Bhargava; Sharad Gupta; Prateek Gupta

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment as influencing the shear bond strength between three different commercially available zirconia core materials, namely, Upcera, Ziecon, and Cercon, layered with VITA VM9 veneering ceramic using Universal Testing Machine. The mode of failure between zirconia and ceramic was further analyzed as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed using stereomicroscope. X-ray diffraction and SEM (scanning electron micr...

  14. Análisis y propuestas de mejora de la logística del utillaje de curado en autoclave de una planta industrial

    OpenAIRE

    Montenegro Panal, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Los inicios de la fabricación se caracterizaron por una producción unitaria baja, en la que ninguna manufactura era igual a otra, y una organización en talleres en los que el artesano desempeñaba las tareas de trabajo directivo y de trabajo manual sin considerar la seguridad laboral. Los artículos elaborados eran destinados a pequeños mercados en los que el concepto de calidad era inexistente y el trabajo era tedioso y con la ayuda de máquinas muy poco sofisticadas considerándose el mantenimi...

  15. Shear Bond Strengths between Three Different Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Dental Materials and Veneering Ceramic and Their Susceptibility to Autoclave Induced Low-Temperature Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Manoti; Bhargava, Akshay; Gupta, Sharad; Gupta, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment as influencing the shear bond strength between three different commercially available zirconia core materials, namely, Upcera, Ziecon, and Cercon, layered with VITA VM9 veneering ceramic using Universal Testing Machine. The mode of failure between zirconia and ceramic was further analyzed as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed using stereomicroscope. X-ray diffraction and SEM (scanning electron microscope) analysis were done to estimate the phase transformation (m-phase fraction) and surface grain size of zirconia particles, respectively. The purpose of this study was to simulate the clinical environment by artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment so as the clinical function and nature of the bond between zirconia and veneering material as in a clinical trial of 15 years could be evaluated. PMID:27293439

  16. Shear Bond Strengths between Three Different Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Dental Materials and Veneering Ceramic and Their Susceptibility to Autoclave Induced Low-Temperature Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoti Sehgal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment as influencing the shear bond strength between three different commercially available zirconia core materials, namely, Upcera, Ziecon, and Cercon, layered with VITA VM9 veneering ceramic using Universal Testing Machine. The mode of failure between zirconia and ceramic was further analyzed as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed using stereomicroscope. X-ray diffraction and SEM (scanning electron microscope analysis were done to estimate the phase transformation (m-phase fraction and surface grain size of zirconia particles, respectively. The purpose of this study was to simulate the clinical environment by artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment so as the clinical function and nature of the bond between zirconia and veneering material as in a clinical trial of 15 years could be evaluated.

  17. PERUBAHAN STRUKTUR PATI GARUT (Maranta arundinaceae SEBAGAI AKIBAT MODIFIKASI HIDROLISIS ASAM, PEMOTONGAN TITIK PERCABANGAN DAN SIKLUS PEMANASAN-PENDINGINAN [Structure Changes of Arrowroot (Maranta arundinaceae Starch as Influenced by Acid Hydrolysis, Debranching and Autoclaving-Cooling Cycle Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didah Nur Faridah1*

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of lintnerization (2.2 N HCl, 2 hours, debranching with pullulanase (1.3 U/g and 10.4 U/g starch and/or three-auctoclaving-cooling cycles at 121oC for 15 minutes on the changes of arrowroot starch structures were studied. The structural modifications of amylose and amylopectin were measured by Gel Permiation Chromatography (GPC, and the distribution of degree of polimerization (DP was analyzed by Fluorophore-Assisted Capillary Electrophoresis (FACE. The GPC profile of native starch using Toyopearl HW-65S gel gave mainly two fractions. Fraction I (Fr. I was a high molecular weight component and Fraction II (Fr. II was a low molecular weight component. After acid modification, the carbohydrate content of Fr. II increased while that of Fr. I decreased. The amount of DP of 6 to 8 increased in all modified arrowroot starches. The GPC and FACE analyses showed that all starch modification techniques caused the structural changes of amylopectin molecules to form short chain amyloses.

  18. Recovery of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons from Oil Field Sludge using Bacillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ahmed Bhutto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of aliphatic HC (Hydrocarbons in the oily sludge of Kunnar oil and gas field, Pakistan was attempted by means of previously isolated and developed Bacillus sp. Both autoclaved and non-autoclaved sludge samples were analyzed for a reaction time of 30 days with pH 7 and temperature of 380C in 50 ml MSM growth media for the sludge concentration of 5, 10 and 50% with 2, 4 and 6ml of Bacillus sp. relatively, in air atmosphere. Stabilization of the samples by microbial activity resulted in the decrease in TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon concentration by 60, 69 and 87% in autoclaved samples in contrast to the decrease of 70, 84 and 94% observed in non-autoclaved samples, relatively. Hydrocarbon degradation in oily sludge was investigated via GC which transpired that 97 and 99% concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons in autoclaved and non-autoclaved samples was removed at 5% of TPH concentration, relatively. However, with 10% TPH concentration aliphatic hydrocarbons reduction was 68% in autoclaved samples to that of 87% in non-autoclaved samples. Further increase in the hydrocarbons concentration by 50% yielded in the removal of aliphatic hydrocarbons by 65% in autoclaved samples as compared to 98% decrease in non-autoclaved samples.

  19. Microstructure and Component of Abnormal Blue Oxide Film of Zr-4 Tube by Electron-beam Welding after Autoclave Testing%电子束焊接Zr-4合金管在腐蚀工况下产生异常蓝色氧化膜的微观成分和结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白新德; 刘晓阳; 安锦; 金兆熊; 陈宝山; 伍志明; 刘芳言; 童慎修

    2003-01-01

    针对电子束焊接后的Zr-4合金管在腐蚀工况下出现的异常蓝色环状氧化膜,使用XPS,EDX,TEM等分析手段研究了异常氧化膜和正常氧化膜的微观成分和结构.结果表明:正常氧化膜是透明的,异常蓝色氧化膜剥落后,也是透明的;异常蓝色氧化膜中Fe含量明显高于正常氧化膜中的Fe含量;Fe在氧化膜中主要是以氧化物Fe2O3的形式存在,Sn与Zr以SnO2,ZrO2的形式存在.

  20. 27周龄Wistar大鼠饮用酸化水生物学特性的观察Ⅰ.血液学指标的测定%Observation of Long-term Drinking Autoclaved Water Treated with Acid on Biological Characteristics in 27-week-old Wistar Rat I.Determination of Blood Indexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建康; 艾必燕; 樵星芳; 黄家政

    2010-01-01

    目的 建立27周龄Wistar大鼠生物学特性数据资料库,同时判断实验动物饮用酸化水后对实验结果 是否有影响.方法 随机选取0日龄的Wistar大鼠48只(♀♂各半),饲养在SPF级饲养设施内,饮用高压灭菌酸化水(pH值调节在2.0~3.0)27 w后处死,测定血液生理、生化指标.结果 从血液生理指标看出,雄性实验组与对照组比较,除MCHC差异显著外(P<0.05),其他指标不存在差异性;雌性实验组与对照组比较,除THC差异显著外(P<0.05),其他指标不存在差异性.从血液生化指标得出,雄性实验组与对照组比较,除TP差异显著(P<0.05),其他指标不存在差异性;雌性实验组与对照组比较,除ALT、TG差异显著外(P<0.05),其他指标不存在差异性.结论 从结果 中可以得出实验动物在饮用酸化水(PH=2.0~3.0)后对大多数血液学指标实验结果 没有明显影响,至于个别指标的差异性是否由酸化水引起,需要进一步论证.

  1. 75 FR 22165 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... produce autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) ``green'' building materials. The NAICS industry code for this enterprise is: 327331 Concrete Block and Brick Manufacturing. DATES: All interested parties may...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1065 - Linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... various methods including hydrolysis and saponification, the Twitchell method, low pressure splitting with catalyst, continuous high pressure counter current splitting, and medium pressure autoclave splitting...

  3. Heated Thermoplastic Fiber Placement Head for NASA Langley Research Center Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reduced mass composite materials are crucial to the success of aerospace systems, but are inhibited by expensive autoclave consolidation, especially for large...

  4. High temperature viscosity measurement system and viscosity of a common dielectric liquid

    CERN Document Server

    Tuncer, Enis

    2013-01-01

    A device to measure viscosity of dielectric oils was developed. The device is an inset to an autoclave system where the temperature and the pressure could be controlled. The device is capable of measuring viscosities up to 400C and 5000psi, which are the limits of our autoclave at the moment.

  5. Perspective technologies of complex reprocessing of molybdenite concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with a new investigations of autoclave technology. Utilization of one of the most important properties of molybdenite - its high hydropholy-enabled an improvement of specific autoclave leaching output, ensuring a high level of extraction. A possibility to limit direct molybdenum extraction by 70-80% which reduce leaching time 2-4 times

  6. Effect of different post-harvest treatments on antinutritional factors in seeds of the tribal pulse, Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumari, K; Siddhuraju, P; Janardhanan, K

    1996-05-01

    The effect of soaking, cooking and autoclaving on the levels of certain antinutritional factors present in the tribal pulse, Mucuna pruriens, were studied. The amount of reduction of total free phenolics was found to be greater in sodium bicarbonate solution (56%) compared to distilled water (47%); subjected to cooking and autoclaving these were further reduced to 49%. Autoclaving (45 min) significantly reduced the tannin content (71%). Insignificant reduction in content of L-DOPA was observed in all the processes. Distilled water soaking was found to be ineffective in eliminating lectin activity; whereas very significant reduction was noticed against all the human blood groups ABO without any specificity in samples subjected to cooking and autoclaving. Soaking in distilled water was more effective (27% reduction) than sodium bicarbonate solution (17% reduction) in lowering the contents of phytic acid. Cooking for 90 min and autoclaving for 45 min resulted in eliminating phytic acid to the extent of 18% and 44%, respectively. Loss of HCN was greater under autoclaving (75%) than the other processes studied. Of the three oligosaccharides analysed, soaking effected maximum reduction in the level of stachyose followed by verbascose and raffinose. Autoclaving effected greater reduction (59-81%) compared to ordinary cooking (40-60% reduction). Of all the different treatments studied, autoclaving seemed to be the best method in eliminating the investigated antinutrients more efficiently except L-DOPA. PMID:8735780

  7. Mossbauer investigations of corrosion environment influence on Fe valence states in oxide films of zirconium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippov, V. P.; Petrov, V. I.; Shikanova, Yu. A.

    2006-01-01

    Mossbauer investigations about iron atom redistribution in oxide films of zirconium alloys subjected to corrosion at 500 degrees C in pure oxygen and water pair have been analysed. The alloys were also subjected to autoclave conditions at a pressure of 10.0 MPa and autoclave conditions at 350 degree

  8. Elimination of toxicity from diets containing alfalfa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; McLaughlin, P; Bardana, E J; Craig, S

    1984-07-01

    Cynomolgus macaques were fed autoclaved alfalfa seeds for up to 1 yr. There were no humoral signs of a syndrome resembling systemic lupus erythematosus. The data are in contrast to those previously reported in monkeys fed raw alfalfa seeds, in which a systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome was induced in a shorter interval. The autoclaved seeds retained antihypercholesterolaemic effects. PMID:6540232

  9. Method of continuous pressure leaching of ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ore leaching, especially suspensions of ground ore or fine ore fractions from physical treatment was divided into two operations. The former, i.e., ore mixing with technical grade concentrated sulfuric acid proceeded in a separate mixer. The mixture was then transported into an autoclave where the actual leaching proceeded for 2 to 4 hours. The extracted mixture was discharged through the autoclave bottom. The leaching autoclave used can be without any inner structures. The separation of mixing from the actual leaching allows processing ores with high levels of clay components, increasing operating reliability of the facility, reducing consumption of special structural materials and energy, and increasing process efficiency. (E.S.)

  10. Characterization of ferric arsenate-sulfate compounds: Implications for arsenic control in refractory gold processing residues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paktunc, D.; Majzlan, J.; Palatinus, Lukáš; Dutrizac, J.; Klementová, Mariana; Poirier, G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 4 (2013), s. 554-565. ISSN 0003-004X Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : arsenic * ferric arsenate sulfate * autoclave residue * hydrometallurgy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.059, year: 2013

  11. Optimal Composite Materials using NASA Resins or POSS Nanoparticle Modifications for Low Cost Fabrication of Large Composite Aerospace Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reduced mass composite materials are crucial to the success of aerospace systems, but their adoption is inhibited because they require autoclave consolidation, a...

  12. FERROMAGNETIC NANO-PARTICULATE AND CONDUCTIVE MESH SUSCEPTORS FOR INDUCTION-BASED REPAIR OF COMPOSITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Army Research Laboratory is leading research in developing non-autoclave resin curing technologies including a variety of electromagnetic and radiation methods. Recent advances in induction-based electromagnetic bonding have led to several inventions providing enabling techno...

  13. Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heat for sterilization). You should be allowed to watch as equipment is sterilized in the autoclave. Ask ... hot baths. Keep your tattoo out of the sun until it's fully healed. Even after it's fully ...

  14. New DVD supports trachoma surgery training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul N Rajak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this article introduces a new comprehensive TT surgery training DVD. The second part presents an extract from the DVD covering using a steam autoclave to sterilise the instruments used in trachoma surgery.

  15. NONA Cure of Prepreg Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CRG's no-oven, no-autoclave (NONA) composite processing technology enables the fabrication of high-performance composite parts without the limitations imposed by...

  16. Accelerated Degradation of Fenamiphos and Its Metabolites in Soil Previously Treated with Fenamiphos

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, R. F.; Johnson, A. W.; Wauchope, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    The degradation of fenamiphos, fenamiphos sulfoxide, and fenamiphos sulfone was determined in a greenhouse experiment using autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil from field plots treated or not treated with fenamiphos. Fenamiphos degradation and formation of fenamiphos sulfoxide was faster in uonautoclaved soil than in autoclaved soil. In nonautoclaved soil, previous exposure to fenamiphos was associated with increased rate of degradation of fenamiphos snlfoxide. Fenamiphos total toxic residue de...

  17. An overview of the results of dissertation research in the field of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Part 4

    OpenAIRE

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2015-01-01

    To popularize scientific achievements the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The research «Materials of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier based on magnetic rock of acid content» set the theory and experimentally proves the opportunity to use magma rock of acid composition for production of nanostructured modifier of the materials of autoclave hardening. Activity of nanostructured modifier is provided by its...

  18. Improving the vacuum-infusion process to manufacture high quality structural composite for the aeronautic market

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Luís; Nunes, J. P.; F. Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    In last years, the vacuum-infusion processing method is being replacing successfully autoclave technologies to manufacture advanced composite structures, namely, the carbon-fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) ones, for aeronautical and aerospace applications. The high investment associated with autoclave “prepreg” manufacturing has prompted interest in the use of alternative vacuum-infusion technologies that proven to be much more cost-effective processing methods. The present work presents, desc...

  19. Humidity and Cage and Bedding Temperatures in Unoccupied Static Mouse Caging after Steam Sterilization

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Gina M; Cole, Kelly; Faerber, Jennifer; Hankenson, F Claire

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary rodent caging and equipment often are sterilized by steam autoclaves prior to use in facilities. This work assessed the microenvironment of unoccupied static mouse cages after steam sterilization to determine when internal temperatures had cooled to levels appropriate for rodent housing. Polycarbonate static cages containing food and corncob bedding were stacked (10 rows × 7 columns) in duplicate (front and back; n = 140 cages) on a storage truck and autoclaved to 249 °F (121 °C)...

  20. Destruction of Spores on Building Decontamination Residue in a Commercial Autoclave▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lemieux, P.; Sieber, R; Osborne, A; Woodard, A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted an experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercial autoclave for treating simulated building decontamination residue (BDR). The BDR was intended to simulate porous materials removed from a building deliberately contaminated with biological agents such as Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) in a terrorist attack. The purpose of the tests was to assess whether the standard operating procedure for a commercial autoclave provided sufficiently r...

  1. Nature, structure, and properties of asbestos cement dust

    OpenAIRE

    Baeten, J.; Helsen, J; Deruyttere, A

    1980-01-01

    ABSTRACT Total dust samples produced by machining three commercial asbestos-cement products (autoclaved sheet, non-autoclaved sheet, pipe) were examined for their dimensional, surface, and physicochemical characteristics. Microscopic inspection of dust fractions with different settling characteristics in air allowed determination of the simple dimensional features that apply to respirable fibres—that is, the true diameter, length, and aspect ratio and the coil diameter, coil length, and coil ...

  2. Pectic substances from sugar beet pulp: structural features, enzymatic modification, and gel formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterveld, A.

    1997-01-01

    Pectic substances are present in high proportions in sugar beet pulp. This by-product is therefore a potential raw material for the pectin industry. However, sugar beet pectin has poor physico-chemical properties compared with pectins from other sources. In order to improve these properties, pectins obtained from beet pulp by autoclaving and acid extraction were chemically characterized and subjected to enzymatic modification and oxidative cross-linking.The autoclave extracts contained two po...

  3. The Effect of Three Gums on the Retrogradation of Indica Rice Starch

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Li; Bin Zhou; Rukun Song; Min Huang

    2012-01-01

    Retrograded starch (RS3) was produced from indica rice starch with three kinds of gums (konjac glucomannan, KGM; carrageenan, CA, USA; and gellan, GA, USA) by autoclaving, respectively, and the effect of the gums on the retrogradation behavior of starch was estimated. The influences of polysaccharide concentration, sodium chloride concentration, autoclaving time, refrigerated time, and pH value on RS3 formation were discussed. Except for sodium ch...

  4. Decontamination of laryngoscopes: a survey of national practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, M D; Baines, L C; Wilkinson, D J; Langford, R M

    1999-06-01

    We conducted a postal questionnaire to survey methods of laryngoscope cleaning in units throughout Great Britain. We found that there was great variation in practice. Most units autoclave laryngoscope blades at some time, but less than one-quarter do so between each case. A wide range of methods is used to clean the blade in units where autoclaving was not undertaken. Most units had no guidelines relating to laryngoscope treatment between uses. PMID:10403875

  5. Comparison of Bacterial Community Structures in the Rhizoplane of Tomato Plants Grown in Soils Suppressive and Conducive towards Bacterial Wilt

    OpenAIRE

    Shiomi, Yoshitaka; Nishiyama, Masaya; Onizuka, Tomoko; Marumoto, Takuya

    1999-01-01

    It has been reported that the growth of Ralstonia solanacearum is suppressed at the rhizoplane of tomato plants and that tomato bacterial wilt is suppressed in plants grown in a soil (Mutsumi) in Japan. To evaluate the biological factors contributing to the suppressiveness of the soil in three treated Mutsumi soils (chloroform fumigated soil; autoclaved soil mixed with intact Mutsumi soil; and autoclaved soil mixed with intact, wilt-conducive Yamadai soil) infested with R. solanacearum, we bi...

  6. Influence of irradiation on protein and amino acids in laboratory rodent diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation treatment on the protein quality and constituent amino acids of laboratory rodent diets is reviewed and compared with other methods of sterilization - autoclaving and ethylene oxide fumigation. Gamma irradiation has been shown to have minimal influence on total protein, protein quality and total and available amino acid levels. Autoclaving reduces amino acid availability and consequently protein quality. Limited evidence shows reduction of certain available amino acids following ethylene oxide fumigation. (author)

  7. Effect of decontamination on oxidation of austenitic stainless steel in reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austenitic stainless steels were oxidized in static autoclaves in light water reactor conditions. After the autoclave treatments the specimens were decontaminated with the aid of alkaline potassium permanganate (AP) and oxalic and citric acid (CITROX) as well as electrochemically in H3PO4. Alternating oxidation and decontamination tests were performed. An elemental analysis of the surfaces of the specimens was carried out by electron spectroscopy. Changes in structures and thicknesses of the oxide layers were observed. (author)

  8. ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HYDROTHERMALLY CURED HIGH STRENGTH CEMENT MATRIX FOR TEXTILE REINFORCED CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    Ondřej Holčapek; Filip Vogel; Petr Konvalinka

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to describe the influence of hydrothermal curing conditions in an autoclave device (different pressure and temperature), which took place at various ages of a fresh mixture (cement matrix – CM, and fibre-reinforced cement matrix – FRCM), on textile reinforced concrete production. The positive influence of autoclaving has been evaluated through the results of physical and mechanical testing – compressive strength, flexural strength, bulk density and dynami...

  9. Applying Case-Based Reasoning to Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Hinkle, David; Toomey, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    CLAVIER is a case-based reasoning (CBR) system that assists in determining efficient loads of composite material parts to be cured in an autoclave. CLAVIER's central purpose is to find the most appropriate groupings and configurations of parts (or loads) to maximize autoclave throughput yet ensure that parts are properly cured. CLAVIER uses CBR to match a list of parts that need to be cured against a library of previously successful loads and suggest the most appropriate next load. clavier al...

  10. Effect of preparation parameters on the properties of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles for dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashyout, A.B.; Fathy, M. [Advanced Technology and New Materials Research Institute, Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications (MuCSAT), New Borg El-Arab City, P.O. Box 21934, Alexandria (Egypt); Soliman, M. [Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University, 163 Horrya Avenue, P.O. Box 832, Shatby, 21526 Alexandria (Egypt)

    2010-12-15

    Nano-sized TiO{sub 2} powders have been prepared by sol-gel method. Influences of the different preparation parameters on the TiO{sub 2} nano-powder properties were investigated. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to examine the thermal properties of the produced TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Yield efficiency of the resulted nanoparticles was calculated and the reaction efficiency was estimated. Maximum efficiency of 98.9% was achieved at autoclaving temperature of 245 C for time duration of 12 h. X-ray diffraction analyses show the presence of anatase structure at low and high autoclaving temperatures. Fraction of rutile phase is detected with increasing the calcination temperature and reach 40% at 850 C. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) showed spherical nanoparticles of 8-9 nm at autoclaving temperature of 130 C, while elongated nanoparticles of 14-18 nm in length and 9 nm in width were measured at autoclaving temperature of 245 C. The solar cell performance was measured for various TiO{sub 2} dye sensitized solar cells. Samples of high autoclaving temperature gave an improvement in the efficiency to be 8.5% while those of lower autoclaving temperature had an efficiency of 7.29%. An enhancement in both open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) and fill factor (FF) is obviously detected, where elongated nanoparticles are measured by HRTEM, which improved the electronic conductivity and consequently FF and V{sub oc}. (author)

  11. Investigations of Localized Corrosion of Stainless Steel after Exposure to Supercritical CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ziomek-Moroz; W. O’Connor; S. Bullard

    2012-03-11

    Severe localized corrosion of a 316 stainless steel autoclave occurred during investigating Type H Portland cement stability in 0.16 M CaCl{sub 2} + 0.02 M MgCl{sub 2} + 0.82 M NaCl brine in contact with supercritical CO{sub 2} containing 4% O{sub 2}. The system operated at 85 C and pressure of 29 MPa. However, no corrosion was observed in the same type of autoclave being exposed to the same environment, containing Type H Portland cement cylindrical samples, also operating at pressure of 29 MPa but at 50 C. The operation time for the 85 C autoclave was 53 days (1272 hours) while that for the 50 C autoclave was 66 days (1584 hours). Debris were collected from the base of both autoclaves and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion products were only found in the debris from the 85 C autoclave. The cement samples were analyzed before and after the exposure by X-ray florescence (XRF) methods. Optical microscopy was used to estimate an extent of the 316 stainless steel corrosion degradation.

  12. Model for inactivation and disposal of infectious human immunodeficiency virus and radioactive waste in a BL3 facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for autoclaving low levels of solid infectious, radioactive waste. The method permits steam penetration to inactivate biologic waste, while any volatile radioactive compounds generated during the autoclave process are absorbed. Inactivation of radiolabeled infectious waste has been problematic because the usual sterilization techniques result in unacceptable radiation handling practices. If autoclaved under the usual conditions, there exists a high probability of volatilization or release of radioisotopes from the waste. This results in the radioactive contamination of the autoclave and the laboratory area where steam is released from the autoclave. Our results provide a practical method to inactivate and dispose of infectious radioactive waste. For our research, Bacillus pumilus spore strips and vaccinia virus were used as more heat-resistant surrogates of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These surrogates were used because HIV is difficult to grow under most conditions and is less heat tolerant than the surrogates. In addition, B. pumilus has defined cell death values, whereas such values have not been established for HIV. Both B. pumilus and vaccinia virus are less hazardous to work with. The autoclave method is time efficient and can be performed by laboratory personnel with minimal handling of the waste. Furthermore, waste site handlers are able to visually inspect the solid waste containers and ascertain that inactivation procedures have been implemented

  13. Effect of sterilization on the properties of CDHA-OCP-beta-TCP biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreley Morejón-Alonso

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the method of sterilization on the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of a new bone repairing material was studied. The material was obtained by thermal hydrolysis of beta-tricalcium phosphate/orthophosphoric acid cement and was composed of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, octacalcium phosphate (OCP, and beta-tricalcium phosphate. Partial decomposition of the OCP was observed after sterilization for the three methods. Decomposition increased to the following sequence of sterilization methods: ethylene oxide; autoclaving; dry oven. On the other hand, mechanical strength decreased with regard to non sterilized material in the sterilization sequence: ethylene oxide; dry oven; autoclaving. The compressive strength was 8.5 ± 1.0; 9.0 ± 1.2; 8.2 ± 0.8 and 6.5 ± 1.0 MPa, whereas diametral tensile strength was 2.1 ± 0.3; 2.5 ± 0.1; 1.9 ± 0.9 and 1.6 ± 0.3 for the material sterilized by ethylene oxide, dry oven, and autoclaving, respectively. Several compositional and microstuctural changes were detected after dry heat and autoclave sterilization. Ethylene oxide sterilization had lesser effect on the chemical composition and strength than dry heat and autoclaving.

  14. The effect of sterilization on silk fibroin biomaterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; DesRochers, Teresa M; Burke, Kelly A; Kaplan, David L

    2015-06-01

    The effects of common sterilization techniques on the physical and biological properties of lyophilized silk fibroin sponges are described. Sterile silk fibroin sponges were cast using a pre-sterilized silk fibroin solution under aseptic conditions or post-sterilized via autoclaving, γ radiation, dry heat, exposure to ethylene oxide, or hydrogen peroxide gas plasma. Low average molecular weight and low concentration silk fibroin solutions could be sterilized via autoclaving or filtration without significant loses of protein. However, autoclaving reduced the molecular weight distribution of the silk fibroin protein solution, and silk fibroin sponges cast from autoclaved silk fibroin were significantly stiffer compared to sponges cast from unsterilized or filtered silk fibroin. When silk fibroin sponges were sterilized post-casting, autoclaving increased scaffold stiffness, while decreasing scaffold degradation rate in vitro. In contrast, γ irradiation accelerated scaffold degradation rate. Exposure to ethylene oxide significantly decreased cell proliferation rate on silk fibroin sponges, which was rescued by leaching ethylene oxide into PBS prior to cell seeding. PMID:25761231

  15. Thermomechanical Properties, Antibiotic Release, and Bioactivity of a Sterilized Cyclodextrin Drug Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Jeffrey M; Gormley, Catherine A; Keech, Melissa; von Recum, Horst A

    2014-05-14

    Various local drug delivery devices and coatings are being developed as slow, sustained release mechanism for drugs, yet the polymers are typically not evaluated after commercial sterilization techniques. We examine the effect that commercial sterilization techniques have on the physical, mechanical, and drug delivery properties of polyurethane polymers. Specifically we tested cyclodextrin-hexamethyl diisocyanate crosslinked polymers before and after autoclave, ethylene oxide, and gamma radiation sterilization processes. We found that there is no significant change in the properties of polymers sterilized by ethylene oxide and gamma radiation compared to non-sterilized polymers. Polymers sterilized by autoclave showed increased tensile strength (psterilized polymers . In the release of drugs, which were loaded after the autoclave sterilization process, we observed a prolonged release (psterilized polymers. The change in the release profile and tensile strength in polymers sterilized by autoclave was interpreted as being caused by additional crosslinking from residual, unreacted, or partially-reacted crosslinker contained within the polymer. Autoclaving therefore represents additional thermo-processing to modify rate and dose from polyurethanes and other materials. PMID:24949201

  16. Reduction of activation and contamination of reactor circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After investigation of the metal loss rate of INCOLOY 800 samples by several test series performes at 3420C and 150 bar with different oxygen contents in demineralized water (deionate), the protective gold plating applied on the inner side of the first autoclave system had to be renewed. Within the period of reporting the second autoclave system (same dimensions as the first autoclave system) also provided with an inner gold plating was nearly completed. Also a small sized third autoclave system has been completed which allows to study the metal loss rate to pressurized water of standard stainless steel, the material making up 15% of the inner surface of a primary reactor circuit. Reduction of the oxygen content in deionate by noble gas sweeping, which is much more effective than chemical reduction by hydrazine, was improved in combination with the first autoclave system. Apparently the minimum oxygen content of 0,05 mg/kg required for primary loop water of pressurized reactors can still be lowered by the factor of 20. (orig./RW)

  17. Effectiveness of various sterilization methods of contaminated post-fitted molar band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggia Tridianti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molar band as anchoring device may be contaminated during the fitting process. Thus, decontamination process is essential to prevent cross-infection between patients. Purpose: The objective of this research was to determine the amount of bacteria in molar band post-fitted on the patient teeth, after previously undergone pre-sterilization using alcohol and ultrasonic cleaning bath followed by sterilization using dry heat oven and steam autoclave, in order to find the best method in decontamination of post-fitted molar band. Methods: Four molar bands which already fitted on one patient then divided evenly into two groups. The first group was pre-sterilized using alcohol. One of the bands then sterilized using dry heat oven, while the other one was sterilized using steam autoclave. The second group was pre-sterilized using ultrasonic cleaning bath. One band from this group then sterilized using dry heat oven and the other was sterilized using steam autoclave. The next step was to immerse all the bands in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. Using micropipette, the solution was retrieved and dropped upon a petri dish containing Brain Heart Infusion broth. The dish was then stored in an incubator for 24 hours, prior to counting the number of bacteria existed. The same methods were used to the rest of the patients, with total 128 molar bands from 32 patients. Results: There was a profound difference in numbers of bacteria found between those methods of sterilization. However, there was a non significant difference between the two groups which were at the alcohol-steam autoclave group and at the ultrasonic cleaning bath-steam autoclave group. Conclusion: This study showed that steam autoclave is better than for sterilizing molar band, as it left the minimal amount of bacteria in post-fitted molar band.Latar belakang: Molar band merupakan suatu alat penjangkaran yang dapat mengalami kontaminasi selama proses fitting band, sehingga perlu

  18. Preparation of a sup(99m) Tc generator for use in nuclear medicine, using calcinated (10000C) alumina as an adsorber for 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of 99 sup(m) Tc generator using calcinated (10000C) alumina as adsorber for 99Mo is described. The adsorption of 99Mo and the elution of 99 sup(m) Tc were studied. When the generator is autoclaved (30 minutes, 1210C), after the loading of 99Mo, elution yields of 99 sup(m) Tc fall to the half if compared whith generators not autoclaved. However, by autoclaving 99Mo loading solution and alumina column separately and than preparing the generator, 80% elution yields of 99 sup(m) Tc were obtained. The contamination of the generator by microorganism is avoided when the loading of the 99Mo is carried out in a hot-cell under UV ligth. The radioactive, radiochemical, chemical and microbiological purity criteria were examined for 99 sup(m) Tc solutions. The generator is considered safe for medical purposes. (Author)

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility in SPF mini-pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility of either soy-based or milk-based diet for specific pathogen-free (SPF) mini-pigs. Gamma irradiation of the diets was done at dosage of 10 kGy with 60Co whereas autoclaving was executed at 121 oC for 20 min. Apparent crude protein digestibilities of gamma irradiated diets were higher (p<0.05) than those of autoclaved diets regardless of diet type. Digestibilities of dry matter, gross energy and total carbohydrate in the irradiated diet were higher than those of the autoclaved diet. From the results of nutrient digestibility of mini-pig diets in this study, 10 kGy gamma radiation was suggested as a convenient diet radicidation method that can minimize the decrease in nutrient digestibility on feeding to SPF mini-pigs.

  20. Utilização de planejamento fatorial no preparo de amostras de detergente em pó para a determinação de fósforo por análise em fluxo Evaluation of sample preparation of the detergent powder using factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Soraia Vital Campos Barbosa da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of detergent powder samples in a microwave oven and autoclave was evaluated. To establish the best experimental conditions a 2(5 factorial design was performed, varying the conditions in autoclave and microwave digestion and flow system parameters for the determination of phosphorus. The best composition was: 0.2 mL sulfuric acid; 500 W power and a 2 min time interval; 6 mmol L-1 of ascorbic acid and 16 mmol L-1 of molybdate to flow system. This factor levels use less reagents than the reference method. No statistically significant differences were found between the autoclave and microwave oven responses at the 95% confidence level.

  1. The impact of heating and soaking on the in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of protein varies in different species of tropical legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Julieta; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Muñoz, Luz S; Peters, Michael; Montoya, Carlos A

    2016-03-01

    The effects of different thermal (raw, autoclaving or boiling for 5 and 20min) and soaking (with or without) treatments on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) of protein were investigated for selected legumes (Canavalia brasiliensis; Lablab purpureus; pink, red and white colour hulls Vigna unguiculata). Each legume preparation underwent in vitro simulated gastrointestinal tract digestion comprising either pepsin (120min) or pepsin/pancreatin (120/240min) digestion. The DH was determined based on the amount of free amino groups released. Autoclaving for 5min increased the pepsin/pancreatin DH for all the unsoaked and soaked legumes (+20% to 46% units) except Canavalia, while boiling for 5min only increased DH for two soaked legumes (+12% to 28% units). Extending boiling from 5 to 20min increased the DH for three soaked legumes (+5% to 29% units). In conclusion, autoclaving, in general, extensively increased the sequential pepsin/pancreatin DH, while boiling only increased it for selected legumes. PMID:26471569

  2. Clay-based geothermal drilling fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Lee, L.J.; Bernhard, R.P.

    1982-11-01

    The rheological properties of fluids based on fibrous clays such as sepiolite and attapulgite have been systematically examined under conditions similar to those of geothermal wells, i.e. at elevated temperatures and pressures in environments with concentrated brines. Attapulgite- and sepiolite-based fluids have been autoclaved at temperatures in the range from 70 to 800/sup 0/F with the addition of chlorides and hydroxides of Na, K, Ca, and Mg. The rheological properties (apparent and plastic viscosity, fluid loss, gel strength, yield point, and cake thickness) of the autoclaved fluids have been studied and correlated with the chemical and physical changes that occur in the clay minerals during the autoclaving process.

  3. Evaluación de la esterilización húmeda y la esterilización por microondas de dos tipos de suelos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Giselle Carvajal Restrepo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the sterilization was evaluated in two types of soil, low microbial population and moisture (BB and another with high micro- bial population and intermediate moisture (AM. The methods evaluated were autoclaving (121°C and microwave irradiation (4 min. Three auto- claving treatments were made by three consecutive days and each evalua- tion varied in the time of sterilization and the temperature of incubation between the cycles of sterilization. For the soil AM was not obtained counts in autoclaving treatments (10-2 and the counts diminished in soil BB, but did not obtained sterilization by any of the methods evaluated. In all treatments in autoclave observed decrease in water content caused by the differential temperature of incubation used. The results showed that there is a relation between the moisture of the soil and the efficiency of the humid sterilization and in the sterilization with microwaves, relation that is different for the two methods.

  4. Poly /Diels-Alder/ matrix resins. [high temperature resistant graphite reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. J.; Orell, M. K.; Sheppard, C. H.; Vaughan, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A poly (Diels-Alder) (PDA) resin approach was investigated as a means to achieve autoclavability of high-temperature resistant resin/fiber composites under mild fabrication conditions. The results of the study were highly promising and program objectives were achieved. Low-void content Type A-S graphite reinforced composites were autoclave fabricated from a PDA resin/fiber prepreg prepared from an acetone:methanol:dioxane varnish. Autoclave conditions were 400 F and 100 psi for up to two hours duration. After postcure at temperatures up to 600 F, the composites demonstrated high initial mechanical properties at temperatures up to 550 F. The results from isothermal aging studies in air for 1000 hours indicated potential for long-term (over 1000 hours) use at 500 F and shorter-term use at 550 F.

  5. Upgrading The Nutritive Value of Mango Seed Kernel for Poultry by Thermal Treatment and Radiation Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The raw seed kernels of local mango (MSK) varieties (Magnifera indica L.) were analyzed for composition, levels of trypsin inhibitors, tannins, cyanogenetic glucosides, in vitro protein digestibility and apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) as being effected by boiling, autoclaving as well as irradiation processing at doses 5, 10, 15, and 20 kGy. The air-dry mango kernels contained 70, 128, and 67 g kg-1 of crude protein, crude fat, and tannins, respectively. Compared with raw samples, the contents of trypsin inhibitory activity (30 TIU g-1) and cyanogenetic glucosides, as hydrocyanic acid, (71 mg kg-1) were lowered by boiling, autoclaving and radiation treatments. Only boiling and autoclaving lowered tannin content (67.2 g kg-1 in raw kernel), but irradiation does not introduce any effect. The in vitro protein digestibility and AMEn values of raw MSK were low and the processing methods enhanced the in vitro protein digestibility and AMEn of MSK. The improvements paralleled reductions in trypsin inhibitory activity, cyanogenetic glucosides and tannin contents. Greater improvements were noticed with boiling and autoclaving than with irradiation alone. While autoclaving for 30min plus irradiation treatment up to 20 kGy maximized the in vitro protein digestibility and AMEn value by 139% and 72%, respectively. These results indicate that tannins, trypsin inhibitors and cyanogenetic glucosides, are responsible for poor nutritive value of MSK. The results suggested that the combination of autoclaving for 30 min plus irradiation treatment up to 20 kGy upgraded the nutritive value and that this method is more effective in processing MSK to be used as animal feed.

  6. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved

  7. Applications of life cycle assessment and cost analysis in health care waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Sebastiao Roberto, E-mail: soares@ens.ufsc.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Finotti, Alexandra Rodrigues, E-mail: finotti@ens.ufsc.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Prudencio da Silva, Vamilson, E-mail: vamilson@epagri.sc.gov.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); EPAGRI, Rod. Admar Gonzaga 1347, Itacorubi, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina 88034-901 (Brazil); Alvarenga, Rodrigo A.F., E-mail: alvarenga.raf@gmail.com [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Ghent University, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Coupure Links 653/9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three Health Care Waste (HCW) scenarios were assessed through environmental and cost analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCW treatment using microwave oven had the lowest environmental impacts and costs in comparison with autoclave and lime. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lime had the worst environmental and economic results for HCW treatment, in comparison with autoclave and microwave. - Abstract: The establishment of rules to manage Health Care Waste (HCW) is a challenge for the public sector. Regulatory agencies must ensure the safety of waste management alternatives for two very different profiles of generators: (1) hospitals, which concentrate the production of HCW and (2) small establishments, such as clinics, pharmacies and other sources, that generate dispersed quantities of HCW and are scattered throughout the city. To assist in developing sector regulations for the small generators, we evaluated three management scenarios using decision-making tools. They consisted of a disinfection technique (microwave, autoclave and lime) followed by landfilling, where transportation was also included. The microwave, autoclave and lime techniques were tested at the laboratory to establish the operating parameters to ensure their efficiency in disinfection. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis, the decision-making tools aimed to determine the technique with the best environmental performance. This consisted of evaluating the eco-efficiency of each scenario. Based on the life cycle assessment, microwaving had the lowest environmental impact (12.64 Pt) followed by autoclaving (48.46 Pt). The cost analyses indicated values of US$ 0.12 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with microwaves, US$ 1.10 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated by the autoclave and US$ 1.53 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with lime. The microwave disinfection presented the best eco-efficiency performance among those studied and provided a feasible

  8. Applications of life cycle assessment and cost analysis in health care waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Three Health Care Waste (HCW) scenarios were assessed through environmental and cost analysis. ► HCW treatment using microwave oven had the lowest environmental impacts and costs in comparison with autoclave and lime. ► Lime had the worst environmental and economic results for HCW treatment, in comparison with autoclave and microwave. - Abstract: The establishment of rules to manage Health Care Waste (HCW) is a challenge for the public sector. Regulatory agencies must ensure the safety of waste management alternatives for two very different profiles of generators: (1) hospitals, which concentrate the production of HCW and (2) small establishments, such as clinics, pharmacies and other sources, that generate dispersed quantities of HCW and are scattered throughout the city. To assist in developing sector regulations for the small generators, we evaluated three management scenarios using decision-making tools. They consisted of a disinfection technique (microwave, autoclave and lime) followed by landfilling, where transportation was also included. The microwave, autoclave and lime techniques were tested at the laboratory to establish the operating parameters to ensure their efficiency in disinfection. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis, the decision-making tools aimed to determine the technique with the best environmental performance. This consisted of evaluating the eco-efficiency of each scenario. Based on the life cycle assessment, microwaving had the lowest environmental impact (12.64 Pt) followed by autoclaving (48.46 Pt). The cost analyses indicated values of US$ 0.12 kg−1 for the waste treated with microwaves, US$ 1.10 kg−1 for the waste treated by the autoclave and US$ 1.53 kg−1 for the waste treated with lime. The microwave disinfection presented the best eco-efficiency performance among those studied and provided a feasible alternative to subsidize the formulation of the policy for small generators of HCW.

  9. The effects of preparing methods and enzyme supplementation on the utilization of brown marine algae (Sargassum dentifebium) meal in the diet of laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Harthi, Mohammed A.; Ahmed A. El-Deek

    2011-01-01

    Brown marine algae (BMA; Sargassum dentifebium) were collected from Jeddah on the shores of the Red Sea and sun dried at an average daily temperature of 40°C until constant weight was obtained. Part of the sun dried brown marine algae was subsequently processed by boiling (BBMA;boiled brown marine algae) in water and by autoclaving (ABMA; autoclaved brown marine algae). The SBMA, BBMA and ABMA were included in laying hen diet during weeks 23-42 of age at concentrations of 0.0%, 3.0% and 6.0%....

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanosize phases based on non-ferrous and noble metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupikova, E. N.; Platonov, I. A.; Lykova, T. N.

    2016-04-01

    Research is devoted to reactions of binary complexes containing noble (platinum, palladium) and non-ferrous (cobalt, chrome) metals. Reactions proceed under hydrothermal conditions by the autoclave technique. Initials complexes and products of autoclave thermolysis were characterized by the FT-IR spectroscopy, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Comparative catalytic experiments in the test reaction were conducted. The obtained results can form the basis of new methods of nanosize multicomponent phases synthesis under hydrothermal conditions.

  11. Relationships between boiling regimes and chemical concentration processes in tube support plate crevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a test inter-relating crevice boiling regimes and chemical concentration in tube support plate crevices are presented. Testing of highly soluble, non-volatile autoclave chemistries produced characteristic crevice pH and impedance distributions during nucleate boiling, initiation of dryout, steady-state operation, and following shutdown. However, the patterns changed as a function of the solubility and volatility of the autoclave chemistry, the solute concentration, and the presence of residual solutes from previous testing. The changes were related to variations in the rates of concentrated solution formation, transport, volatilization, and precipitation. (authors)

  12. Application of powder metallurgy to an advanced-temperature nickel-base alloy, NASA-TRW 6-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, J. C.; Ashbrook, R. L.; Waters, W. J.

    1971-01-01

    Bar stock of the NASA-TRW 6-A alloy was made by prealloyed powder techniques and its properties evaluated over a range of temperatures. Room temperature ultimate tensile strength was 1894 MN/sq m (274 500 psi). The as-extruded powder product showed substantial improvements in strength over the cast alloy up to 649 C (1200 F) and superplasticity at 1093 C (2000 F). Both conventional and autoclave heat treatments were applied to the extruded powder product. The conventional heat treatment was effective in increasing rupture life at 649 and 704 C (1200 and 1300 F); the autoclave heat treatment, at 760 and 816 C (1400 and 1500 F).

  13. Oxidation of zircaloy-4 under static conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Static autoclave oxidation of zircaloy-4 at 543 K and 8.5 MPa is studied. Deviations from the straight line in kinetics curve are observed. White spots appear on the surface of the specimen even in the 'pre-transion' region. The existing theories cannot explain these observations. It is suggested that these deviations may be partly arising due to the variations in the processing parameters and impurities in zircaloy-4. Scanning electron micrography has been used to study the oxide coating after autoclave exposure of zircaloy-4 surface. (M.G.B.)

  14. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Manure-Amended Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Xiuping; Morgan, Jennie; Doyle, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells survived for up to 77, >226, and 231 days in manure-amended autoclaved soil held at 5, 15, and 21°C, respectively. Pathogen populations declined more rapidly in manure-amended unautoclaved soil under the same conditions, likely due to antagonistic interactions with indigenous soil microorganisms. E. coli O157:H7 cells were inactivated more rapidly in both autoclaved and unautoclaved soils amended with manure at a ratio of 1 part manure to 10 parts soil at 15 and...

  15. Análisis del mezclado en un reactor de polimerización de etileno

    OpenAIRE

    Soto Gómez, David Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Se estudió el efecto de cambios en el volumen del reactor y en la intensidad de mezcla entre iniciador y monómero en algunas propiedades asociadas con el polietileno de baja densidad. Para esto se llevaron a cabo simulaciones numéricas del reactor autoclave que opera a 1257 atm y una temperatura inicial de 323.15 K. Se desarrolló un modelo de flujo pistón (PFR) para el reactor autoclave con un mecanismo de polimerización simple que permitió predecir algunas propiedades del polímero, entre ell...

  16. La chaux et la diatomite comme moyens de lutte alternatifs contre Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Buchholz, Sven; Merkel, Katharina; Spiewok, Sebastian; Pettis, Jeff S.; Duncan, Michael; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Ulrichs, Christian; Ritter, Wolfgang; Neumann, P.

    2009-01-01

    International audience Aiming at alternative small hive beetle control, slaked lime, powdered limestone and diatomaceous earth (Fossil Shield® FS 95, FS 90.0 and FS 90.0s) were evaluated for their effects on pupation and adult emergence in the laboratory. Limestone, FS 90.0 and FS 95 showed no significant effect. Slaked lime in autoclaved soil prevented pupation, but was lethal only in high dosages of 10 and 15 g per 100 g soil. In non-autoclaved soil, low slaked lime dosages of 0.5 and 5 ...

  17. Large Scale Composite Manufacturing for Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavana, Jacob; Cohen, Leslie J.; Houseal, Keth; Pelham, Larry; Lort, Richard; Zimmerman, Thomas; Sutter, James; Western, Mike; Harper, Robert; Stuart, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Risk reduction for the large scale composite manufacturing is an important goal to produce light weight components for heavy lift launch vehicles. NASA and an industry team successfully employed a building block approach using low-cost Automated Tape Layup (ATL) of autoclave and Out-of-Autoclave (OoA) prepregs. Several large, curved sandwich panels were fabricated at HITCO Carbon Composites. The aluminum honeycomb core sandwich panels are segments of a 1/16th arc from a 10 meter cylindrical barrel. Lessons learned highlight the manufacturing challenges required to produce light weight composite structures such as fairings for heavy lift launch vehicles.

  18. Pb2+ Biosorption by Pretreated Fungal Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    ÇABUK, Ahmet; İLHAN, Semra; FİLİK, Cansu; ÇALIŞKAN, Figen

    2005-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment on the Pb2+ biosorption capacity of fungal biomasses, Aspergillus versicolor, Metarrhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, and Penicillium verrucosum, was investigated. For this purpose, the biomasses were subjected to physical treatments such as heat and autoclaving, and chemical treatments such as sodium hydroxide, formaldehyde, gluteraldehyde, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, commercial laundry detergent, orthophosphoric acid and dimethyl sulfoxide. Dimethyl sulfoxid...

  19. Atrazine removal in Danish anaerobic aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Philip Grinder; Arildskov, N.P.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    process was abiotic since atrazine was also removed from microbially inhibited autoclaved and chloroform amended controls, although in controls amended with mercury, atrazine removal was slowed down. (ring-U-C-14)- atrazine amended samples showed no mineralization to (CO2)-C-14 or transformation to...

  20. Influence of pressure and temperature on the yields and properties of pectin substances from different plant sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study used two different methods: traditionally hydrolysis-extraction and flash extraction in autoclave to extract pectin polysaccharides from fruit wastes and sunflower head residue. It is shown that application of last method allows increase the pectin yields and optimize the main physicochemical characteristics of end products. (author)

  1. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  2. IN VITRO CULTURE OF Sequoia sempervirens L. ON NUTRITIVE MEDIA STERILIZED WITH SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Martins Ribeiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The autoclaving used for sterilization of glassware, culture media and surgical materials in laboratory is a costly operation, due to the high cost of the equipment and the equally high consumption of energy. For these reasons, the substitution of this sterilization technique for another less costly one, such as chemical sterilization, would be highly desirable. The present study aimed to compare the techniques of sterilization of plant tissue culture media with sodium hypochlorite and that of autoclaving, in Sequoia sempervirens culture, in order to develop a less costly technique in the sterilization of glassware and nutrient media for plant tissue culture. In the trial with Sequoia sempervirens, the concentrations of sodium hypochlorite added to the culture media were (w/v: 0% (autoclaved; B 0.002%; C 0.003%; D 0.004% and E 0% (without autoclaving. It was observed that the concentrations equal to or higher than 0.003% of total chlorine added to the nutrient media resulted in complete sterilization, as well as in plants with larger numbers and shoots lengths.

  3. Evaluation of carbonyl compounds formed during gamma irradiation of maize starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the levels of radionduced carbonyl compounds were analysed as a function of irradiation conditions (dose, dose rate, temperature, atmosphere), starch properties (water content) and post irradiation treatments (storage, autoclaving). The percentages of identified and unknown carbonyl fractions were respectively 40 and 60%. The half unknown fraction was linked on the radiodextrins (polysaccharides formed during irradiation of starch). (orig.)

  4. Technetium in micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results of experimental work on the interaction of technetium with the following aquatic micro-organisms and untreated and sterilised sediments: Flavobacterium halmephilum, Uronema marinum, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella bioculata, Mytilus edulis, and marine sediments, collected near Coxyde, containing a mixed population of micro-organisms, and sterilised by autoclaving. (UK)

  5. Examining the Potential of Plasma-Assisted Pretreated Wheat Straw for Enzyme Production by Trichoderma reesei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja;

    2012-01-01

    Plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw was investigated for cellulase and xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei fermentation. Fermentations were conducted with media containing washed and unwashed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw as carbon source which was sterilized by autoclavation. To...

  6. Pseudo-Outbreak of Rhizobium radiobacter Infection Resulting from Laboratory Contamination of Saline Solution▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Lynette A.; Chan, Douglas Su Gin; Ng, Toon Mae; Lin, Raymond; Jureen, Roland; Fisher, Dale A; Tambyah, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    We report a pseudo-outbreak of Rhizobium radiobacter infections resulting from contamination by a saline dispenser in the microbiology laboratory. Isolates from clinical specimens had identical antimicrobial susceptibilities and electrophoretic fingerprints. The episode resolved with autoclaving of the dispenser. This demonstrates the importance of timely, thorough investigation of unusual organisms, particularly when they appear as a cluster.

  7. PMI Foam Cored Sandwich Components Produced by Means of Different Manufacturing Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leonhard Maier; HU Pei; Herman Seibert

    2006-01-01

    The paper introduced the structural applications with PMI (Polymethacrylimide) foams in sandwich components for rotor craft, launching vehicle and civil aircraft and discuss some typically used manufacturing methods, such as e. g.in-mould pressing, autoclave curing and resin infusion. The advantages of foam-cored sandwich design versus honeycombcored design will be discussed, focussing on manufacturing costs.

  8. A note on the laboratory culture of benthic foraminifera collected from nearshore region off Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Khare, N.; Koli, N.Y.

    . The medium was prepared according to the formula given by Scheriber (1927) as following: Earth Extract 50.00 cc NaNO3 0.1 gm Na2HPO4 l2 H2O 0.02 gm "Aged" seawater 1000.00 cc The earth extract was prepared by autoclaving one kilogram of humus rich garden...

  9. Measuring techniques developed to control reactor water regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensors featuring continuous remote indication were developed for the investigation of transient characteristics of nuclear technology water regimes using reactor water loops. Gradually, the design was finished of a high-pressure conductometer, of a pH-meter, a corrosion meter, and of an amperometric concentration pickup. All these sensors are based on the common concept of a pressure through-flow autoclave in which the sensors are inserted in the form of suitable electrode systems. The autoclave is made of 18Cr8Ni stainless steel, has a volume of 200 to 300 ml and is equipped with a self-sealing manually operated closure. The electrode system wires pass through bushings provided in the autoclave head. The autoclave and bushing packings are made of teflon and silicone rubber. For radiation monitoring in loop experiments, a vanadium SPN detector of 1.4 mm in outer diameter is used for thermal neutron fluxes while a miniature isothermal calorimeter with an outer diameter of 6 mm is used for gamma radiation. (Z.M.)

  10. Polymerization of liquid propylene with a 4th generation Ziegler-Natta catalyst-influence of temperature, hydrogen and monomer concentration and prepolymerization method on polymerization kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pater, Jochem T.M.; Weickert, Günter; Swaaij, van Wim P.M.

    2002-01-01

    In a batch-wise operated autoclave reactor, liquid propylene was polymerized using a 4th generation, TiCl4/MgCl2/phthalate ester-AlEt3-R2Si(OMe)2, Ziegler-Natta catalyst system. By using a calorimetric principle it was possible to measure full reaction rate versus time curves for obtaining data on p

  11. Polymerization of liquid propylene with a fourth-generation Ziegler-Natta catalyst: Influence of temperature, hydrogen, monomer concentration, and prepolymerization method on powder morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pater, Jochem T.M.; Weickert, Günter; Swaaij, van Wim P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Liquid propylene was polymerized in a 5-L autoclave batch reactor using a commercially available TiCl4/MgCl2/Al(ethyl)3/DCPDMS Ziegler-Natta catalyst, with a phthalate ester as internal electron donor. The powders from these polymerizations were characterized using laser diffraction particle size di

  12. Phosphite Ligand Modified Supported Rhodium Catalyst for Hydroformylation of Internal Olefins to Linear Aldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xian-ming; DING Yun-jie; JIAO Gui-ping; LI Jing-wei; YAN Li; ZHU He-jun

    2009-01-01

    A phosphite ligand modified heterogeneous catalyst was developed for the hydroformylation of internal olefins to linear aldehydes, which showed a high activity and high regioselectivity and could be separated easily by filtration after reaction in an autoclave. Three nanoporous silica sieves were used to investigate the influence of pore structure and shape selective performance of support on the regioselectivity to the linear products.

  13. High pressure engineering and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 10 papers. Some of the titles are: Control of vibration in high pressure piping systems; Hazards and safeguards of high pressure hydraulic fatigue testing; Load, stress and fatigue analysis of threaded end closures; Application of fatigue crack growth to an isostatic press; and Time dependent failure in high strength steels for autoclave service

  14. Cooking under Pressure: Applying the Ideal Gas Law in the Kitchen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Anderson, Jennifer Y.; Wang, Diane R.

    2010-01-01

    This case study uses a daily cooking scenario to demonstrate how the boiling point of water is directly related to the external pressures in order to reinforce the concepts of boiling and boiling point, apply ideal gas law, and relate chemical reaction rates with temperatures. It also extends its teaching to autoclaves used to destroy…

  15. Zirconium alloys with small amounts of iron and copper or nickel show improved corrosion resistance in superheated steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, S.; Youngdahl, C. A.

    1967-01-01

    Heat treating various compositions of zirconium alloys improve their corrosion resistance to superheated steam at temperatures higher than 500 degrees C. This increases their potential as fuel cladding for superheated-steam nuclear-fueled reactors as well as in autoclaves operating at modest pressures.

  16. Experimental evaluation of cyclic fatigue resistance of four different nickel-titanium instruments after immersion in sodium hypochlorite and/or sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ureyen Kaya BULEM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available NiTi instruments have a high risk of separation due to torsional or flexural fatigue (cyclic fatigue. Chemomechanical preparation, cleaning procedures, chemical disinfection and sterilization cause the corrosion of endodontic instruments that may weaken the fracture resistance of the instruments. Objective To assess the effects of NaOCl immersion and autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of ProFile, FlexMaster, Mtwo and TwistedFiles NiTi instruments (tip size 25, 0.06 taper, n=160. Material and Methods The instruments (n=10 for each subgroup were dynamically immersed in NaOCl; immersed in NaOCl and sterilized in one autoclave cycle; 5 cycles immersed in NaOCl and sterilized in autoclave and not immersed in NaOCl and not sterilized (control group. Dynamic cyclic fatigue resistance was tested. The number of cycles to failure (NCF were statistically analyzed (P.05. Conclusions Cyclic fatigue resistance of the tested NiTi instruments cannot be adversely affected by NaOCl immersion and autoclave sterilization. Production process (TwistedFiles or design (Twisted Files, FlexMaster, Mtwo and ProFile of the instruments can influence their cyclic fatigue resistance.

  17. Moessbauer spectroscopy phase analysis of the products of oxidative leaching of pyrrhotite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Moessbauer spectroscopy, Fe3O4, γ-Fe2O3 and α-Fe2O3 were found to be the main products of autoclave oxidative leaching of pyrrhotite concentrates, and not hydroxides as suggested earlier. The samples of pulp (solid:liquid ratio 1:1) were investigated without any preliminary treatment. (T.I.)

  18. Porous Materials - Structure and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    The paper presents some viewpoints on the description of the pore structure and the modelling of the properties of the porous building materials. Two examples are given , where it has been possible to connect the pore structure to the properties: Shrinkage of autoclaved aerated concrete and the...... properties of lime mortar....

  19. Hydrolysis of polycarbonate in sub-critical water in fused silica capillary reactor with in situ Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Z.; Chou, I.-Ming; Burruss, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of using fused silica capillary reactor (FSCR) instead of conventional autoclave for studying chemical reactions at elevated pressure and temperature conditions were demonstrated in this study, including the allowance for visual observation under a microscope and in situ Raman spectroscopic characterization of polycarbonate and coexisting phases during hydrolysis in subcritical water. ?? 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Porous Materials - Structure and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents some viewpoints on the description of the pore structure and the modelling of the properties of the porous building materials. Two examples are given , where it has been possible to connect the pore structure to the properties: Shrinkage of autoclaved aerated concrete and the...

  1. Process for dissolving thorium and/or plutonium oxide of low solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to dissolve thorium and/or plutonium oxide of low solubility, particularly dioxides such as ThO2, PuO2 or the mixed oxide (U/Pu)O2, these oxides are heated inside a gas-tight closed vessel (autoclave) in concentrated nitric oxide (HNO3) free of fluoride. (orig./HP)

  2. Alkylpyrazines produced by bacterial spoilage of heat-treated and gamma-irradiated coconut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the sterilisation of coconut by autoclaving or gamma irradiation, followed by storage in water at 250 C for 8 weeks. Bacillus subtilis developed after storage in water. The volatile compounds formed as a result of bacterial activity were extracted and identified. (U.K.)

  3. Homogeneous catalytic hydrogenations of complex carbonaceous substrates. [16 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, J L; Wilcox, W A; Roberts, G L

    1976-11-05

    Results of homogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of complex unsaturated substrates including coal and coal-derived materials are reported, with organic soluble molecular complexes as catalysts. Among the substrates used were Hvab coal, solvent-refined coal, and COED pyrolysate. The hydrogenations were carried out in an autoclave. The results are summarized in tables.

  4. Extraction of tungsten from bicarbonate solutions by MTAA salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented on investigations of tungsten extraction from bicarbonate reextracts prepared during reprocessing of carbonate solutions of autoclave-carbonate leaching of mineral raw material and so through ammonium reextraction of polymeric tungsten compounds with preparation of concentrated by tungsten reextracts for separation of conditioned ammonium paratungstate. Variants of proposed technological scheme are discussed

  5. An innovative national health care waste management system in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toktobaev, Nurjan; Emmanuel, Jorge; Djumalieva, Gulmira; Kravtsov, Alexei; Schüth, Tobias

    2015-02-01

    A novel low-cost health care waste management system was implemented in all rural hospitals in Kyrgyzstan. The components of the Kyrgyz model include mechanical needle removers, segregation using autoclavable containers, safe transport and storage, autoclave treatment, documentation, recycling of sterilized plastic and metal parts, cement pits for anatomical waste, composting of garden wastes, training, equipment maintenance, and management by safety and quality committees. The gravity-displacement autoclaves were fitted with filters to remove pathogens from the air exhaust. Operating parameters for the autoclaves were determined by thermal and biological tests. A hospital survey showed an average 33% annual cost savings compared to previous costs for waste management. All general hospitals with >25 beds except in the capital Bishkek use the new system, corresponding to 67.3% of all hospital beds. The investment amounted to US$0.61 per capita covered. Acceptance of the new system by the staff, cost savings, revenues from recycled materials, documented improvements in occupational safety, capacity building, and institutionalization enhance the sustainability of the Kyrgyz health care waste management system. PMID:25649402

  6. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  7. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT STEAM-STERILIZATION PROGRAMS ON MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF POLY(L-LACTIDE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROZEMA, FR; BOS, RRM; BOERING, G; VANASTEN, JAAM; NIJENHUIS, AJ; PENNINGS, AJ

    1991-01-01

    As-polymerized poly(L-lactide) test rods were sterilized by seven different specially designed computer-operated autoclaving programs. As a control, common hospital sterilization was performed. In all cases, the molecular weight decreased after sterilization. A short time high-temperature sterilizat

  8. Disinfection of Human Teeth for Educational Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, William H.; White, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    A study investigated the efficacy of glutaraldehyde and several other disinfectants for disinfecting teeth to be used for teaching and research, as an alternative to autoclaving for teeth with amalgam restorations. Results indicate that formalin was the only disinfectant that penetrated tooth pulp chambers in effective antimicrobial…

  9. Antigenic Studies of Oral and Nonoral Black-Pigmented Bacteroides Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Michael J; Slots, Jørgen; Mouton, Christian; Genco, Robert J.

    1980-01-01

    Antigens of several oral and nonoral strains of Bacteroides asaccharolyticus (proposed classification of oral B. asaccharolyticus, Bacteroides gingivalis), Bacteroides melaninogenicus subsp. intermedius, B. melaninogenicus subsp. melaninogenicus, and B. melaninogenicus subsp. levii were identified in soluble preparations obtained by sonication, autoclaving, and NaOH treatment of whole bacterial cells. The sonicate preparations contained the most complete representation of soluble antigens usi...

  10. Hydrodeoxygenation of waste fat for diesel production: Study on model feed with Pt/alumina catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus H.; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Riisager, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation of waste fats and oils is a viable method for producing renewable diesel oil. In this study a model feed consisting of oleic acid and tripalmitin in molar ratio 1:3 was hydrotreated at 325°C with 20bars H2 in a stirred batch autoclave with a 5wt% Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst, and sample...

  11. Bioremediation of dyes in textile effluents by Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Carlos Renato; Maganha de Almeida, Ana Carolina

    2009-02-01

    In this study Aspergillus oryzae was utilized to remove azo dyes from aqueous solution. Physically induced in its paramorphogenic form to produce standardized mycelial pellets, the non-autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae biomass was applied to biosorb the reactive dyes Procion Red HE7B (PR-HE7B) and Procion Violet H3R (PV-H3R) at different pH values (2.50, 4.50, and 6.50). The best pH for biosorption was 2.50, though the autoclaved demonstrated a higher biosorption capacity than the non-autoclaved pellets. The toxicity level was determined using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method with Daphnia similis in all bioassays. The calculated toxicity of PV-H3R (LC100 62.50 microg mL(-1)) was higher than to PR-HE7B (LC100 300.00 microg mL(-1)), and its results brought out that the decrease of toxicity levels to zero might be accomplished by adding small quantities of pelletized A. oryzae to the solutions. PMID:18989608

  12. Sustainable Synthesis of Gamma-Valerolactone

    OpenAIRE

    Hengst, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was the sustainable synthesis of gamma-valerolactone over non-noble metal catalysts in batch autoclave (screening) and a continuous flow set-up. In order to further develop an environmentally benign process, formic acid which is generated as a by-product, was considered directly as hydrogen source.

  13. Hydrothermal precipitation of artificial violarite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, W. H.; Toftlund, H.; Warner, T. E.

    The nonstoichiometric nickel-ore mineral, violarite, (Ni,Fe)3S4 was prepared as a phase-pure fine powder by a comparatively quick hydrothermal method from an aqueous solution of iron(II) acetate, nickel(II) acetate and DL-penicillamine in an autoclave at 130 °C for 45 h. Powder-XRD showed that th...

  14. RTNS-II targets: cooling channel collapse under simulated bonding conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We experimentally determined the pressure limits that can be used to autoclave-bond RTNS-II targets without crushing the internal cooling channels. The maximum pressures are 40 to 55 MPa (6 to 8 ksi) in the 300-to-4500C temperature regime

  15. Implementation guidelines for electrochemical potential monitoring systems in BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrochemical potential (ECP) below -230 mV is expected to suppress intergranular stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels in the boiling water reactor (BWR) recirculating piping. The amount of hydrogen to obtain this potential varies from plant to plant and can vary during the fuel cycle at any given plant. Surprisingly, oxygen monitoring is not an effective indicator of potential suppression. As a result, BWR guidelines for hydrogen water chemistry recommend continuous monitoring of the ECP. NWT is under contract to draft guidelines, for industry review, to measure the recirculation piping ECP via out-of-core measurements in autoclaves. The first step was to survey current intent, practices, and experience in laboratories and plants in the US and Sweden. Fifteen US plants were included in the survey. Results indicate a widespread movement to HWC in the US. Some plants have implemented HWC before ECP monitors have been installed. Others have installed permanent ECP and crack growth monitoring systems. Autoclave ECP is not routinely monitored. Seal leakage with ECP electrodes remains a problem for some electrode designs. Some autoclave seal failures also have occurred. At some plants, the reactor water sample at ECP autoclave may be lower in oxidant concentration than the water in the recirculation piping. In this regard, the current goal is to select the diameter and length of the line, as well as the flow rate so that the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is kept below 30%. The electrodes of choice are two silver/silver chloride reference electrodes, a platinum electrode and the grounded stainless steel autoclave as the principal measured electrode

  16. Study on Performance of Infectious Waste Sterilizing Set in Kashan Shahid Beheshti Hospital and Determination of its Optimum Operating Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Heidari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives; Autoclaving is one of  the methods which sterilizes infectious solid wastes. Since variety of parameters such as temperature, time, and pressure influence autoclave performance, this study was carried out to evaluate the parameters and set optimum condition for the autoclave apparatus  applied in Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, the performance of subjected autoclave was surveyed based on biological index and through setting 144 tests. Variables were packaging type in two groups (open and wrapped, loading type in three groups (light, medium and heavy, and four temperature-time features in fixed pressure equal to 101 kpa. Biological index was ATCC 7953 which contained Stearotermophilus Geobacillus spores. Finally obtained results were analyzed by Chi-Square test.Results: The results of statistical test showed that there isnt any meaningful relation between packaging type of waste, system loading, and efficiency of sterilization(P>0.05,while meaningful relation was found between system performance and variety states of temperature-time feature(P<0.05, illustrating temperature and time effects in fixed pressure on sterilization of solid waste.Conclusion: Based on the results, the best autoclave operational condition for sterilizing infectious solid wastes are: temperature-time equal to 10 min-140°C and 15 min-134°C in fixed pressure of 101 kpa, respectively. It was also revealed that temperature-time condition suggested by manufactory, i.e. 20min-121°C, is not sufficient for complete sterilization of solid waste.

  17. Evaluation of antiviral effects of various disinfectants on dental handpieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasani Tabatabai M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Handpieces are in current use in dental practice. Cross contamination from these instruments is very high because of their direct contact with blood and saliva. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of antiviral effects of different disinfectants on dental handpieces. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the effects of 5 groups of different materials and methods of sterilization and disinfection on virus elimination from dental handpieces were evaluated. Groups were as follows: 1- autoclave 2- Solarsept 3- Unisepta 4- Sodium hypochlorite (2% solution of household bleach 5- Sanosil. 14 handpieces in each group were washed, dried and autoclaved, then contaminated with polio and Herpes Simplex virus type I. Samples were washed with sterile distilled water. Antiviral agents were applied according to the manufacturer or previous investigations. After washing with water, the instruments were washed with MEM (Minimum Essential Medium and two samples of cell culture from each handpiece were prepared. In each group one handpiece was treated as control. The results were recorded after one week. Results: The percent of negative cell cultures in each group were as follow: A- For Poliovirus: 1- Autoclave: 100%. 2- Solarsept: 28.6%. 3- Unisepta: 0%. 4- Sodium hypochlorite: 28.6%. 5- Sanosil 92.9%. B- For Herpesvirus: 1- Autoclave: 100%. 2- Solarsept: 100%. 3- Unisepta: 100%. 4- Sodium hypochlorite: 57.1%. 5- Sanosil: 100%. Conclusion: According to our findings autoclave is the best method for virus elimination from dental handpieces. Sanosil with 92.9% efficiency was the best solution. Solarsept, hypochlorite with special method and Unisepta had the lowest effectiveness.

  18. Soil-solution distribution coefficients, Kds, of I- and IO3- for 68 Japanese soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil-solution distribution coefficients, Kds, of I- and IO3- were measured by a batch method using 125I for 68 wet (fresh) and autoclaved soils collected from upland fields, paddies, forests and open areas throughout Japan. Nine soil properties, such as soil-pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), anion exchange capacity (AEC), active-Al (extractable Al by oxalic acid + ammonium oxalate) and total organic carbon (TOC), were also measured. The Kds for wet soils ranged widely from 1.1 to 10,200 1 kg-1 for I- and from 2.1 to 8210 1 kg-1 for IO3-. The medians for I- and IO3- were 525 and 437 1 kg-1, respectively. These values were almost two orders of magnitude higher than previously reported Kds for air-dried Japanese soils. The medians of Kds for I- and IO3- were the highest for Andosols, followed by Gley soils and Brown Forest soils. The Kds for sandy samples were low. Relatively good correlations (r > 0.65) were found between Kds for wet soils and TOC and total-N, indicating the contribution of organic materials on the sorption of I. The Kds were markedly reduced by autoclaving. The medians of Kds for autoclaved soils for I- and IO3- were 2.4 and 12.4 1 kg-1, respectively. The effects of autoclaving on the sorption of I- were more remarkable than those for IO3-. It was estimated that 86% of I- sorption and 50% of IO3- sorption were attributable to the microbial activities and/or soil fractions which are sensitive to autoclaving. (orig.)

  19. Properties of starch and dietary fibre in raw and processed quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruales, J; Nair, B M

    1994-04-01

    We investigated certain properties of starch in raw and in heat-treated samples of quinoa, properties that are of importance to the nutritional quality of an infant food currently being developed. Scanning electron microscopy of the starch in raw seeds showed polygonal granules (0.6 to 2.0 microns diameter) to be present both singly and as spherical aggregates. Thermograms (DSC) of the flours showed one transition phase for gelatinisation of the starch and another for the amylose-lipid complex. The gelatinisation temperature of the starch was 67 degrees C. Cooked samples manifested the highest degree of gelatinisation (97%), followed by the drum-dried (96%) and autoclaved (27%) samples. Separation of the starch on a SEPHAROSE CL-2B column showed the quinoa starch to be affected by the heat treatment, manifesting changes in the degree and extent of degradation. The amylograph viscosity of the quinoa flour showed no distinct peak for pasting, but the viscosity remained constant after gelatinisation. Cooking and autoclaving modified the viscosity of the paste. The drum-dried sample manifested a higher initial viscosity at 25 degrees C. The in vitro digestibility of raw quinoa starch determined by incubation for 60 min with alpha-amylase was 22%, while that of autoclaved, cooked and drum-dried samples was 32%, 45% and 73%, respectively. Saponins did not affect the digestibility of the starch, though they tended to increase the amylograph viscosity. The total dietary fibre content in the cooked sample (11.0%) was significantly lower than that in the autoclaved (13.2%), drum-dried (13.3%) or raw samples (13.3%), while the insoluble dietary fibre fraction in the samples did not change with heat treatment. However, as compared with that of raw quinoa, the soluble dietary fibre fraction was reduced significantly both by cooking (0.9%) and by autoclaving (1.0%). PMID:8052579

  20. EFFECT OF QUARTZ/MULLITE BLEND CERAMIC ADDITIVE ON IMPROVING RESISTANCE TO ACID OF SODIUM SILICATE-ACTIVATED SLAG CEMENT. CELCIUS BRINE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA, T.; BROTHERS, L.E.; VAN DE PUTTE, T.R.

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of manufactured quartz/mullite blend (MQMB) ceramic powder in increasing the resistance to acid of sodium silicate-activated slag (SSAS) cementitious material for geothermal wells. A 15-day exposure to 90{sup o} CO{sub 2}-laden H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} revealed that the MQMB had high potential as an acid-resistant additive for SSAS cement. Two factors, the appropriate ratio of slag/MQMB and the autoclave temperature, contributed to better performance of MQMB-modified SSAS cement in abating its acid erosion. The most effective slag/MQMB ratio in minimizing the loss in weight by acid erosion was 70/30 by weight. For autoclave temperature, the loss in weight of 100 C autoclaved cement was a less than 2%, but at 300 C it was even lower. Before exposure to acid, the cement autoclaved at 100 C was essentially amorphous; increasing the temperature to 200 C led to the formation of crystalline analcime in the zeolitic mineral family during reactions between the mullite in MQMB and the Na from sodium silicate. In addition, at 300 C, crystal of calcium silicate hydrate (1) (CSH) was generated in reactions between the quartz in MQMB and the activated slag. These two crystalline phases (CSH and analcime) were responsible for densifying the autoclaved cement, conveying improved compressive strength and minimizing water permeability. The CSH was susceptible to reactions with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, forming two corrosion products, bassanite and ionized monosilicic acid. However, the uptake of ionized monosilicic acid by Mg dissociated from the activated slag resulted in the formation of lizardite as magnesium silicate hydrate. On the other hand, the analcime was barely susceptible to acid if at all. Thus, the excellent acid resistance of MQMB-modified SSAS cement was due to the combined phases of lizardite and analcime.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extracts against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus in a microbiological medium and milk of various fat concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Kristen L; Burris, Kellie P; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Davidson, P Michael; Stewart, C Neal

    2014-02-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces are widely used in the preparation of beverages. The calyces contain compounds that exhibit antimicrobial activity, yet little research has been conducted on their possible use in food systems as antimicrobials. Aqueous extracts prepared from the brand "Mi Costenita" were sterilized by membrane filtration (0.22-μm pore size) or autoclaving (121 °C, 30 min) and tested for antimicrobial activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains ATCC 43894 and Cider and Staphylococcus aureus strains SA113 and ATCC 27708 in a microbiological medium and ultrahigh-temperature-processed milk with various fat percentages. Extracts heated by autoclaving exhibited greater activity than did filtered extracts in a microbiological medium. Against E. coli, results of 20 mg/ml filtered extract were not different from those of the control, whereas autoclaved extracts reduced viable cells ca. 3 to 4 log CFU/ml. At 60 mg/ml, both extracts inactivated cells after 24 h. There were reduced populations of both strains of S. aureus (ca. 2.7 and 3 log CFU/ml, respectively) after 24 h of incubation in 40 mg/ml filtered extracts. When grown in autoclaved extracts at 40 mg/ml, both strains of S. aureus were inactivated after 9 h. Autoclaved extracts had decreased anthocyanin content (2.63 mg/liter) compared with filtered extracts (14.27 mg/liter), whereas the phenolic content (48.7 and 53.8 mg/g) remained similar for both treatments. Autoclaved extracts were then tested for activity in milk at various fat concentrations (skim [3.25%]) against a 1:1 mixture of the two strains of E. coli O157:H7 and a 1:1 mixture of the two strains of S. aureus. Extracts at 40 mg/ml inactivated S. aureus after 168 h in skim and whole milk, and E. coli was inactivated after 96 h in 60 mg/ml extract in all fat levels. These findings show the potential use of Hibiscus extracts to prevent the growth of pathogens in foods and beverages. PMID:24490920

  2. Bioremediation of direct dyes in simulated textile effluents by a paramorphogenic form of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, C R; Almeida, E J R; Santos, G C; Morão, L G; Fabris, G S L; Mitter, E K

    2012-01-01

    Azo dyes are extensively used for coloring textiles, paper, food, leather, drinks, pharmaceutical products, cosmetics and inks. The textile industry consumes the largest amount of azo dyes, and it is estimated that approximately 10-15% of dyes used for coloring textiles may be lost in waste streams. Almost all azo dyes are synthetic and resist biodegradation, however, they can readily be reduced by a number of chemical and biological reducing systems. Biological treatment has advantages over physical and chemical methods due to lower costs and minimal environmental effect. This research focuses on the utilization of Aspergillus oryzae to remove some types of azo dyes from aqueous solutions. The fungus, physically induced in its paramorphogenic form (called 'pellets'), was used in the dye biosorption studies with both non-autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae, at different pH values. The goals were the removal of dyes by biosorption and the decrease of their toxicity. The dyes used were Direct Red 23 and Direct Violet 51. Their spectral stability (325-700 nm) was analyzed at different pH values (2.50, 4.50 and 6.50). The best biosorptive pH value and the toxicity limit, (which is given by the lethal concentration (LC(100)), were then determined. Each dye showed the same spectrum at different pH values. The best biosorptive pH was 2.50, for both non- autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae of A. oryzae. The toxicity level of the dyes was determined using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, with Daphnia similis in all bioassays. The Direct Violet 51 (LC(100) 400 mg · mL(-1)) was found to be the most toxic dye, followed by the Direct Red 23 (LC(100) 900 mg · mL(-1)). The toxicity bioassays for each dye have shown that it is possible to decrease the toxicity level to zero by adding a small quantity of biomass from A. oryzae in its paramorphogenic form. The autoclaved biomass had a higher biosorptive capacity for the dye than the non-autoclaved biomass. The results show that

  3. Application of the VAW tube digester for metallurgical pressure-leaching processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems associated with the treatment of complex and refractory ores or concentrates, as well as those related to environmental factors, have led to increased interest in hydrometallurgy under elevated temperatures and pressures. Pressure leaching can be carried out in vertical, horizontal or spherical autoclaves equipped with mechanical agitators. If high throughput capacities are catered for, the division of a conventional plant into several units is inevitable. By contrast, the VAW (Vereinigte Aluminium-Werke Aktiengesellschaft) tube digester enables hydrometallurgical processes to be carried out under pressure and at a high temperature with the use of a basically simple technology, extremely high specific throughput and improved thermal economics being achieved. The advantages of the tube digester over vessel autoclaves are described, and details of laboratory investigations into the applicability of tube digesters to various metallurgical applications are given. Test results are given for the leaching of refractory uranium ores. (author)

  4. Optimum Nanoporous TiO2 Film and Its Application to Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴松元; 王孔嘉

    2003-01-01

    Properties of TiO2 nanoporous films, which are one of the crucial technologies in dye-sensitized solar cell, are investigated. The nanocrystalline TiO2 films were prepared with the sol-gel method at different pH in precursor and treatment temperature in autoclave for their application to dye-sensitized solar cells. The thickness of the TiO2 film is very important to the transfer of photoelectron as well as adsorption of dye, it is also known as one of the source to the dark current. The results show that the TiO2 films, such as different particle sizes of TiO2, different pH in precursor and treatment temperature in autoclave, have a strong influence on the photoelectrochemical properties of the dye-sensitized solar cells. We give the optimum TiO2 film thickness and morphology for the application to dye-sensitized solar cells.

  5. Condensation reactions of glucose and aromatic ring; Glucose to hokokan tono shukugo hanno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komano, T.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T.; Tanaka, C.; Yoshioka, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology; Sugimoto, Y.; Miki, Y. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For artificial coalification, condensation reactions of aromatic ring and activated compounds produced by dehydrating reaction of glucose were studied experimentally. In heat treatment experiment in water, three reaction specimens such as glucose, glucose and phenol, and glucose and benzaldehyde were fed into an autoclave together with distilled water, and subjected to reaction at 180{degree}C under spontaneous pressure for 50 hours. In hydrogenation experiment, the specimens were fed into an autoclave together with tetradecane and sulfurization catalyst, and subjected to reaction at 350{degree}C under initial pressure of 9.8MPa for 2 hours for gas chromatography (GC) analysis of products. As the experimental result, the reaction between glucose and aromatic ring in heat treatment in water occurred between aromatic ring and active fragment with a mean carbon number of 4-5 produced by decomposition of glucose. The reactivity was higher in benzaldehyde addition than phenol addition. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Effects of heat and high-pressure treatments on the solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Jieqiong; Sheng, Wei; Wang, Shuo; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2016-05-15

    The effects of dry and moist heat, autoclave sterilization and high-pressure treatment on the biochemical characteristics and immunological properties of almond proteins were investigated. Changes in the solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins extracted from treated almond flour were evaluated using a total protein assay, indirect competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-ELISA), and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Almond proteins were stable during dry-heat treatment at temperatures below 250°C. Dry heat at 400°C, boiling, autoclave sterilization and high-pressure treatment in the presence of water at ⩾ 500 MPa greatly reduced the solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins. SDS-PAGE revealed that the protein profiles of almond flour samples treated under these conditions also changed significantly. The synergistic effects of heat, pressure and the presence of water contributed to significant changes in solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins. PMID:26776044

  7. Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

  8. Parasitic and Saprophytic Abilities of the Nematode-Attacking Fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, B A; Zehr, E I

    1985-07-01

    The ability of Hirsutella rhossiliensis to colonize various substrates in sterile and nonsterile soil was measured. Hirsutella rhossiliensis was recovered from 67% and 77% of living, inoculated Criconemella xenoplax incubated in sterile and nonsterile soil, respectively. In contrast, the fungus was recovered from 100% and 18% of heat-killed, inoculated nematodes incubated on sterile and nonsterile soil, respectively. Hirsutella rhossiliensis was readily recovered from inoculated, autoclaved wheat seeds incubated in sterile soil but not from seeds incubated in nonsterile soil. Autoclaved peach roots were a poor substrate for the fungus. Germination of H. rhossiliensis spores incubated on agar disks above soil was about 90% regardless of soil treatment. However, germ tube length was greatly suppressed by nonsterile soil. Our results suggest that H. rhossiliensis is a better parasite than saprophyte and that the fungus may be specialized for attacking nematodes. PMID:19294104

  9. THE EFFECT OF REDUCTIVE MEDIUM FOR DECREASED OF UNDESIRED PARTS OF CAN LIGNITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jale Guelen [Yildiz Technical University Chemical Engineering Department, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-09-30

    Turkey has huge lignite reserves although most of them have low quality. In this study, Can lignite was demineralized by using basic agents. In order to decrease sulfur and mineral matter of coal, basic agents were applied. Can lignite was stirred with 5% NaOH of 50 ml for 20 minutes. After washing with demineralized water, the lignite was dried in the autoclave at 105 C. Then, it was stirred for 20 minutes with 50 ml 5 % aquatic asidic solutions of HNO{sub 3}, HCl, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, HCOOH and HF, seperately. The solution was filtered with blue ribbon band, washed with distilled water and dried in the autoclave at 105 C. The ash and sulfur analyses were done in order to see the chemical agents effects applied for and also FTIR and X ray spectra were taken.

  10. Basic studies on carbon steel decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissolution of magnetite films grown in autoclave at high temperature on carbon steel has been performed in a dynamic loop in ammoniated citric and oxalic acid solutions at two different temperatures and constant pH. The dissolution process seems to be affected by the dual-layer oxide morphology depending on the growth conditions in the autoclave. The open-circuit potential of the specimens and the corrosion rate measured by the linear polarization method have been monitored. To this aim a particular corrosion cell and a suitable reference electrode have been set up at CISE. Polarization curves have been performed to check the electrochemical processes involved in the anodic and cathodic area. At last the effect of a corrosion inhibitor, of a complexing and a reducing agent and of temperature has also been studied. The work was carried out in the frame of a CNEN research programme for the development of the CIRENE prototype

  11. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto and Different Components in Culture on Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Functional Bacteria In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Li, Jinan; Bu, Dengpan; Nan, Xuemei; Du, Hong

    2016-05-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of live or autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto, their fermented products and media on rumen fermentation and rumen functional bacteria in vitro. Rumen fluid from three multiparous lactating Holstein cows was combined and transferred into serum bottles after diluted. Fifteen serum bottles were divided into five treatments, which were designed as following: CTR (the fermentation of 0.5 g TMR and ruminal fluids from dairy cows), LBS (CTR plus a minimum of 10(11) cfu live Bacillus subtilis natto), ABS (CTR plus a minimum of 10(11) cfu autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto), BSC (CTR plus 1 ml Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation products without bacteria), and BSM (CTR plus 1 ml liquid fermentation medium). When separated from the culture, live Bacillus subtilis natto individually increased the concentrations of ammonia-N (P production (P probiotic in dairy ration. PMID:26821238

  12. In-vitro digestibility, rheology, structure, and functionality of RS3 from oat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Asima; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Gani, Adil; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Starches isolated from three different varieties of oat were modified with dual autoclaving-retrogradation treatment to make modified food starches with high contents of type 3 resistant starch (RS3). FT-IR spectroscopy showed increase in the ratio of intensity of 1047cm(-1)/1022cm(-1) on treatment. Morphology of the oat starches changed into a continuous network with increased values for onset temperature (To), peak temperature (Tp), and conclusion temperature (Tc). XRD showed an additional peak at 13° and increase in peak intensity at 20° inclusive of the major X-ray diffraction peaks which reflects formation of amylose-lipid complex from dual autoclaving-retrogradation cycle. Peaks at 13° and 20° are the typical peaks of the V-type pattern. Rheological analysis suggested that retrogradated oat starches showed shear thickening behavior as revealed from Herschel-Bulkely model and frequency sweep. PMID:27374592

  13. Impact of different ratios of feedstock to liquid anaerobic digestion effluent on the performance and microbiome of solid-state anaerobic digesters digesting corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueh-Fen; Shi, Jian; Nelson, Michael C; Chen, Po-Hsu; Graf, Joerg; Li, Yebo; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand how the non-microbial factors of L-AD effluent affected the microbiome composition and successions in the SS-AD digesters using both Illumina sequencing and qPCR quantification of major genera of methanogens. The SS-AD digesters started with a feedstock/total effluent (F/Et) ratio 2.2 (half of the effluent was autoclaved) performed stably, while the SS-AD digesters started with a 4.4 F/Et ratio (no autoclaved effluent) suffered from digester acidification, accumulation of volatile fatty acids, and ceased biogas production two weeks after startup. Some bacteria and methanogens were affected by non-microbial factors of the L-AD fluent. Alkalinity, the main difference between the two F/Et ratios, may be the crucial factor when SS-AD digesters were started using L-AD effluent. PMID:26575616

  14. Effect of P-Reactive Drainage Aggregates on Green Roof Runoff Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Karczmarczyk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main hypothesis of the presented study is that the negative effect of phosphorus leaching from a green roof substrate can be reduced by including P-reactive material in a drainage layer. In this work, different aggregates (Pollytag®, lightweight expanded clay aggregates, chalcedony, serpentynite and crushed autoclaved aerated concrete to be used as the green roof drainage layer are described. Physical parameters, e.g., granulometric composition, water absorption, bulk density and porosity are assessed. A phosphorus sorption isotherm and a kinetic test were performed. Physical and chemical characteristics of the materials were used as a base for choosing the best media for the drainage layer. The P-removal efficiency of crushed autoclaved aerated concrete was confirmed in a column experiment. Adding the implementation of the P-reactive material in a drainage layer during construction can reduce the negative effect of substrate on green roof runoff quality.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility in SPF mini-pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Yeob; Cho, Sung-Back; Kim, Yoo-Yong; Ohh, Sang-Jip

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility of either soy-based or milk-based diet for specific pathogen-free (SPF) mini-pigs. Gamma irradiation of the diets was done at dosage of 10 kGy with 60Co whereas autoclaving was executed at 121 °C for 20 min. Apparent crude protein digestibilities of gamma irradiated diets were higher ( pdiets regardless of diet type. Digestibilities of dry matter, gross energy and total carbohydrate in the irradiated diet were higher than those of the autoclaved diet. From the results of nutrient digestibility of mini-pig diets in this study, 10 kGy gamma radiation was suggested as a convenient diet radicidation method that can minimize the decrease in nutrient digestibility on feeding to SPF mini-pigs.

  16. High Temperature and Pressure Alkaline Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank

    radiation raises the necessity to store the produced energy. Hydrogen production by water electrolysis is one of the most promising ways to do so. Alkaline electrolyzers have proven to operate reliable for decades on a large scale (up to 160 MW), but in order to become commercially attractive and compete...... and oxygen with a new type of alkaline electrolysis cell at high temperatures and pressures. To perform measurements under high pressure and at elevated temperatures it was necessary to build a measurement system around an autoclave which could stand high temperatures up to 250 °C and pressures up to...... 200 bar as well as extremely caustic environments. Based on a literature study to identify resistant materials for these conditions, Inconel 600 was selected among the metals which are available for autoclave construction. An initial single atmosphere high temperature and pressure measurement setup...

  17. Elucidating the iodine stress corrosion cracking (SCC) process for zircaloy tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several experimental investigations were made to enhance understanding of the iodine stress corrosion cracking (SCC) process for Zircaloy: (1) oxide penetration process, (2) crack initiation process, and (3) crack propagation process. Concerning the effect of the oxide layer produced by conventional steam-autoclaving, no significant difference was found between results for autoclaved and as-pickled samples. Tests with 15 species of metal iodides revealed that only those metal iodides which react thermodynamically with zirconium to produce zirconium tetraiodide (ZrI4) caused SCC of Zircaloy. Detailed SEM examinations were made on the SCC fracture surface of irradiated specimens. The crack propagation rate was expressed with a da/dt=C Ksup(n) type equation by combining results of tests and calculations with a finite element method. (author)

  18. Gamma Ray Sterilization of Starr-Edwards Heart Valve Prostheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr-Edwards valves have normally been sterilized by exposure to ethylene oxide or by autoclaving. Patients having a prosthetic valve replacement are known to have a higher incidence of endocarditis in comparison with patients in which no prosthesis has been used. Ethylene oxide will only sterilize the surface of the valve and autoclaving has caused distortion of the polytetrafluorethylene ring. Work has been done on the effect of gamma radiation on the components of these valve prostheses and is given in detail. The bacteriological efficiency, at a total absorbed dose of 2. 5 Mrad, has been established. Thirty valves treated by this method have now been inserted and twelve patients have been examined post-operatively for a period of one to two years. All valves are working normally and there has been no evidence of blood-borne infection or malfunction of the valve. (author)

  19. Vegetable Protein Sources Used as Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Colibar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The comparative effect of using some vegetal raw flours (Glycine hispida, Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia faba, treated by autoclaving, introduced in the feeding white rats, was followed by the presented experiments. Feeding growing rats with diets containing raw grain legumes, as the main source of protein, reduce the rate of growth. This effect attenuates with the aging of rats. Inhibition of growth is the most evident in the consumption of raw beans (by 33% over the control group. Autoclaving reduces the level of anti-nutritive factors (with 0.2% - 36.73% and decreases the growth inhibition (with 10.7% - 27.51%.

  20. Numerical time-dependent 3D simulation of flow pattern and heat distribution in an ammonothermal system with various baffle shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlekampf, J.; Seebeck, J.; Savva, P.; Meissner, E.; Friedrich, J.; Alt, N. S. A.; Schlücker, E.; Frey, L.

    2014-10-01

    A numerical analysis of an ammonothermal synthesis process for the bulk growth of nitride crystals was performed. The analysis includes the development of a thermal model for a lab-scale ammonothermal autoclave, which was validated by in situ temperature measurements and applied to tailor the temperature field inside the autoclave. Based on the results of the global thermal 2D simulations, a local 3D model was used to include convective phenomena in the analysis. Moreover, the influence of the baffle and different baffle shapes on the flow velocity was investigated. Fluctuations of the temperature as well as the flow velocities occur, indicating that 3D considerations are essential to accurately investigate the heat and mass transport in ammonothermal systems.

  1. Cristallisation du polyéthylène basse densité : mesures rhéologiques et calorimétriques

    OpenAIRE

    Peiti, Christian; Vergnes, Bruno; Haudin, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    Deux polyéthylènes basse densité, obtenus par procédé tubulaire et procédé autoclave, ont été caractérisés par chromatographie d'exclusion stérique. Leur masse molaire moyenne en masse est sensiblement identique, mais le matériau autoclave présente une queue de plus fortes masses. Ceci induit des différences notables sur les conditions de cristallisation. Les mesures de spectrométrie mécanique effectuées en fréquence et température mettent en évidence que le facteur de glissement suit une loi...

  2. Sterilization of MacConkey agar and CLED medium by γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacConkey agar and Cystine-Lactose-Electrolyte-Deficient (CLED) agar, media widely used in the bacteriological laboratory and recommended for the detection of urinary tract infections, were sterilized by γ-radiation at a dose of 1.5 Mrad. Both were modified and adapted to radiation sterilization by adding sodium thioglycollate as a radioprotectant, and by increasing their indicator content. The media performed well when tested with different Enterobacteria and other micro-organisms. Growth and change of indicator reaction were equal in irradiated and autoclaved culture media. Culture media were also evaluated after storage for one month at room temperature and at 40C and compared well with freshly autoclaved media. (author)

  3. Bio sorption of Reactive Dye from Textile Wastewater by Non-viable Biomass of Aspergillus niger and Spirogyra sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Potential of Aspergillus niger fungus and Spirogyra sp., a fresh water green algae, was investigated as a bio sorbents for removal of reactive dye (Synazol) from its multi-component textile wastewater. Pre-treatment of fungal and algal biomass with autoclaving increased the removal of dye more than that pre-treated with gamma-irradiation. The heat dried autoclaved biomass for the 2 organisms exhibited maximum dye removal at ph 3, temperature 30 degree C and 8 g/l (w/v) biomass conc. after 18 h contact time. The results showed that the non-viable biomass possessed high stability and efficiency of dye removal over 3 repeated batches

  4. The release of 14C-chlorsulfuron bound residue by autoclavingmethod and its identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    When individual microorganisms were used torelease bound pesticide residues, it was ussually not take into fullaccountwhether the autoclaving method could lead to the releaseof bound residues. The soil containing bound14C-chlorsulfuron residues was treated with an autoclavein this study. The results reveal that the bound14C-chlorsulfuron residue can be released from the soilwhen treated with the autoclave and the release rate canbe remarkably enhanced by adding water into the soil whensubjected to such treatment. A TLC analysis showed that thereleased 14C-residue was one of the degraded products of14C-chlorsulfuron. After derivatization and analysis using theGC-MS, the released 14C-residue was tentatively identifiedas 2-amino-4-hydroxyl-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine.

  5. Properties of high fly ash content cellular concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, R.D.; Vallejo, L.E.; Hu, W.; Latona, M.; Carson, C.; Kelly, C. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    High fly ash content autoclaved cellular concrete is produced by adding calibrated quantities of aluminum powder to a mixture of fly ash (60% wt/wt), cement, and water. The foamed product is hardened in an autoclave with pressurized steam at about 180 C. Block material for samples tested originated from a mobile pilot plant that toured sites of United States-based electric utilities. Compressive strengths of the foamed product were controlled to the range of 300--600 psi, with dry weight densities on the order of 32--37 lb/cu ft. Heavy metal concentrations in TCLP, ASTM, and synthetic acid rain leachates were on the order one to 10 times that found in Pittsburgh tap water, and never approached 100 times drinking water standards. Organic contents of leachates were not detectable. Controlling pore distributions appears to influence density, moisture accumulation rates, and mechanical/physical properties that are significant for construction.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of turmeric extract and its potential use in food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gul, Parveen; Bakht, Jehan

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the antimicrobial and preservative potentials of turmeric extracts for food industry. Turmeric extracts prepared in n-hexane, water, chloroform and ethanol were applied to meals as preservatives and antibacterial agent. The samples were assessed microbiologically (total bacterial, total fungal and total coliform counts) and organoleptically (color, odor, taste) at day zero and after 15 days intervals. Meals autoclaved for shorter time (5 min) and treated with co...

  7. Upgrading the quality of mixed recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste by using near-infrared sorting technology

    OpenAIRE

    Vegas, Iñigo; Broos, Kris; Nielsen, Peter; Lambertz, Oliver; Lisbona, Amaia

    2015-01-01

    Recycled aggregates of high-purity, guaranteeing optimal technical and environmental performance, are required for high-grade construction applications such as concrete. The main problem constituents causing a decrease in the quality of recycled aggregates to be used in high grade applications are: organic material, gypsum and autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC). This paper studies the potential of Near Infrared (NIR) sorting technology to improve the quality of mixed recycled aggregates. Tests...

  8. Xenoestrogens released from lacquer coatings in food cans.

    OpenAIRE

    Brotons, Jos?? Antonio; Olea Serrano, F??tima; Villalobos Torres, Mercedes; Pedraza Muriel, Vicente; Olea, Nicol??s

    1995-01-01

    We present data showing that some foods preserved in lacquer-coated cans and the liquid in them may acquire estrogenic activity. Hormonal activity was measured using the E-screen bioassay. The biological activity of vegetables packed in cans was a result of plastic monomers used in manufacturing the containers. The plastic monomer bisphenol-A, identified by mass spectrometry, was found as a contaminant not only in the liquid of the preserved vegetables but also in water autoclaved in the cans...

  9. ISOLATION OF TANNINS FROM CAESALPINIA CORIARIA AND EFFECT OF PHYSICAL PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    Nallabilli Lokeswari; Peela Sujatha

    2011-01-01

    The subject of the present work is the study of the influence of particle size temperature, methanol content and time on the extraction of tannins from caesalpinia coriaria by pressure autoclaving method. The determination of these tannins by spectrophotometry, after extraction, enabled us to establish the qualitative and quantitative evolution of this component and the effect of each extraction conditions on the total tannins from caesalpinia coriaria. Under the extraction conditions examine...

  10. Aqueous corrosion study on U-Zr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In low power or research reactor, U-Zr alloy is a potential candidate for dispersion fuel. Moreover, Zirconium has a low thermal-neutron cross section and uranium alloyed with Zr has excellent corrosion resistance and dimensional stability during thermal cycling. In the present study aqueous corrosion behavior of U-Zr alloy samples was studied in autoclave at 200 deg C temperature. Corrosion rate was determined from weight loss with time. (author)

  11. A processing method for orthodontic mini-screws reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Noorollahian

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Cleaning of used mini-screws with phosphoric acid 37% (10 minutes and sodium hypochlorite 5.25% (30 minutes reduces tissue remnants to the level of as-received mini-screws. So it can be suggested as a processing method of used mini-screws. Previous insertion of mini-screws into the bone and above-mentioned processing method and resterilization with autoclave had no adverse effects on insertion, removal, and fracture torque values as mechanical properties indices.

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of Flat Roof Technologies for Office Buildings in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Pushkar

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to evaluate the environmental damage from three flat roof technologies typically used in Israel: (i) concrete, (ii) ribbed slab with concrete blocks, and (iii) ribbed slab with autoclaved aerated blocks. The roofs were evaluated using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. The Production and Construction (P and C), Operational Energy (OE), and Maintenance to Demolition (MtoD) stages were considered. The roofs were modeled based on an office building mod...

  13. Co-pyrolysis of wood biomass and synthetic polymers mixtures. Part 3. Characterisation of heavy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Kuznetsov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, K. Marx str., 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russian Federation); Membrado, L.; Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain); Marin, N.; Weber, J.V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, IUT, rue V. Demange, 57500 Saint-Avold (France)

    2003-05-01

    The chemical composition of heavy liquids (b.p.>180C) obtained by co-pyrolysis of polyolefins/wood biomass mixtures in autoclave conditions under inert atmosphere was investigated by FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, GC-MS, high performance TLC combined with densitometry techniques. The preliminary separation of heavy liquids into different fractions by open LC and TLC methods had been used. Some perspectives of polymer and biomass thermal conversion during co-pyrolysis process were discussed.

  14. Treatment of discarded blood units: Disinfection with hypochlorite / formalin versus steam sterilization

    OpenAIRE

    Chitnis V; Chitnis S; Patil S; Chitnis D

    2003-01-01

    Blood bank regulations and bio medical waste rules of India advocate disinfection of contaminated blood units. Incineration is not recommended due to poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) content of blood bags. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of chemical disinfection of blood units deliberately contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli with 1 and 6 % hypochlorite, 10% formalin and 33% formaldehyde and autoclaving of blood units contaminated with the above m...

  15. Hydrogenation of Tasmanian alginite in the presence of tin (II) chloride and zinc chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.J.

    1981-10-01

    A Mersey River (Tasmanian) algnite concentrate was heated (3 Cmin$SUP$-$SUP$1 to temperatures of 200-480 C in a small capacity, high-pressure, single-cell differential thermal analysis, batch autoclave under nitrogen or hydrogen (initial pressure 9.8 MPa) with or without 10 wt% zinc chloride or tin (II) chloride. An organic solvent (vehicle) was not used in these experiments. Although there is an almost complete conversion of alginite to gaseous and liquid products between 425 and 450 C, the compositions of the autoclave gas samples, the yields and compositions of the hexane-soluble material derived from the autoclave products, and the optical properties of the hexane-soluble residues, reflect the experimental conditions, in particular the influence of the metal chlorides. Principal phases of hydrogen uptake by alginite occur at different temperatures in a hydrogen atmosphere depending on the presence and nature of the metal chloride. The autoclave gas compositions reveal a clear distinction between the uncatalysed and catalysed experiments. The hydrocarbon gas ratios permit a distinction to be made between catalytic (carbonium ion mechanism) reactions and thermal (free radical mechanism) reactions; at higher temperatures the latter are dominant, even in the catalysed experiments. The metal chlorides lower the organic sulphur and nitrogen contents of the hexane-soluble material; zinc chloride being more effective than tin (II) chloride. Incident light fluorescence microscopy suggests that zinc chloride and tin (II) chloride give rise to different hydrogenation reactions between 300 and 425 C. Incident light fluorescence microscopy is a most useful method of studying the petrography of alignite in the hexane-insoluble residues. (28 refs.)

  16. Decomposition of molybdenite products with nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitina, L.S.

    1983-04-01

    The problems of development abroad of hydrometallurgic methods of opening molybdenum concentrates using nitric acid are considered. Several variants of the process are developed, they are the two-stage decomposition by stoichiometrically necessary amount of nitric acid, single-stage decomposition in the autoclave using nitric acid and oxigen as oxidizers; decomposition using circulatina nitro-sulfuric solution containing molybdenum. The advantages and disadvantages of new methods are presented.

  17. Comparison between two culture media for in vitro evaluation of antifungal susceptibility of the Sporothrix schenckii complex Comparação entre dois meios de cultura para avaliação in vitro da suscetibilidade a antifúngicos do complexo Sporothrix schenckii

    OpenAIRE

    Cheila Denise Ottonelli Stopiglia; Daiane Péres Marchese; Daiane Heidrich; Julia Medeiros Sorrentino; Fabiane Jamono Vieira; Maria Lúcia Scroferneker

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The standard methodology for determining the antifungal sensitivity against the Sporothrix schenckii complex recommends the use of the 1640 Roswell Park Memorial Institute culture medium (RPMI) buffered with morpholinepropanolsulfonic acid (MOPS). However, while this is a high-cost medium which requires a laborious implementation and sterilization by filtration, the Sabouraud dextrose broth is a low-cost medium, widely used in mycology, sterilized by autoclave. OBJECTIVE: To evalu...

  18. Delamination behaviour of very high modulus carbon/epoxy marine composites

    OpenAIRE

    Baral, N.; Davies, P; Baley, C.; Bigourdan, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the delamination resistance Of unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composites manufactured from prepreg for racing yacht mast applications. Fibre modulus has been varied from 290 to 640 GPa. Two manufacturing methods, oven cure under vacuum and autoclave, were used to produce samples. Results show that delamination resistance tinder mode I and mixed mode loading decreases as fibre modulus increases. The manufacturing route affects G, values by modifying...

  19. Selection of internal standard for determination of boron and phosphorus by ICP-MS in silicon photovoltaic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyeva, I.E.; Shabanova, E.V.; Sokolnikova, Y.V.; Proydakova, O.A.; Lozhkin, V.I. [Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    1999-07-01

    A single-chamber autoclave with a heating plate was used for the acid dissolution of quartz and metallic silicon. Analysis was performed by ICP-MS. Comparison of {sup 6}Li, {sup 7}Li, {sup 115}In, {sup 35}Cl and {sup 37}Cl + {sup 36}Ar{sup 1}H was carried out for selecting the best internal standard taking into account instrumental drift. The selection criteria are discussed. {sup 35}Cl was selected as the internal standard. (Author)

  20. Inbuilt Potential of YEM Medium and Its Constituents to Generate Ag/Ag2O Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    G Yamal; Sharmila, P.; K. S. Rao; P Pardha-Saradhi

    2013-01-01

    We discovered that Yeast Extract Mannitol (YEM) medium possessed immense potential to generate silver nanoparticles from AgNO3 upon autoclaving, which was evident from (i) alteration in color of the medium; (ii) peak at ∼410 nm in UV-Vis spectrum due to surface plasmon resonance specific to silver nanoparticles; and (iii) TEM investigations. TEM coupled with EDX confirmed that distinct nanoparticles were composed of silver. Yeast extract and mannitol were key components of YEM medium responsi...

  1. Radiation Sterilization of Two Commonly Culture Media Used for Bacterial Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sterilization of culture media used for the cultivation of bacteria by Co-60 gamma ray was investigated. Nutrient agar and tryptone glucose yeast extract (TGY) media widely used for the propagation of bacteria were sterilized with 15 kGy dose gamma radiation. Seven different bacterial species were grown as well on the radiation sterilized media as on media sterilized by autoclaving in a conventional way

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Diode Laser and Sodium Hypochlorite in Enterococcus Faecalis-Contaminated Root Canals

    OpenAIRE

    Sohrabi, Khosrow; Sooratgar, Aidin; Zolfagharnasab, Kaveh; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Afkhami, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the disinfection ability of 980-nm diode laser in comparison with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as a common root canal irrigant in canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Methods and Materials: The root canals of 18 extracted single-rooted premolars were prepared by rotary system. After decoronation, the roots were autoclaved. One specimen was chosen for the negative control, and the remaining teeth were incub...

  3. Strength enhancement process for prealloyed powder superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, W. J.; Freche, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    A technique involving superplastic processing and high-pressure autoclaving was applied to a nickel-base prealloyed powder alloy. Tensile strengths as high as 2865 MN/sq m (415 ksi) at 480 C (900 F) were obtained with as-superplastically deformed material. Appropriate treatments yielding materials with high-temperature tensile and stress-rupture strengths (980 C (1800 F)) were also devised.

  4. Pengaruh Lama Reaksi Terhadap Perubahan Karakteristik Biodiesel Turunan Minyak Kemiri Dengan Menggunakan Katalis CaO Dan Kosolvent Eter

    OpenAIRE

    Jannu, Henri

    2010-01-01

    It has been done the manufacturing of biodiesel candlenut oil through transesterification process. This process was conducted in the autoclave with candlenut oil mixture : methanol 1:12 mol. CaO catalyst was 8% of oil weight and it used cosolvent ether 200 ml. This reaction lasted at the temperature 650°C with variation of time for 1 hour, 2 hours, and 3 hours. The transesterifiction produced two levels, namely top level containing metal ester (FAME) and down level ...

  5. Sexual maturity and performance of pullets fed different preparations and concentrations of brown marine algae (Sargassum dentifebium) in pre-laying and early laying periods

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Harthi, Mohammed A.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of brown marine algae (BMA; Sargassum dentifebium) as alternative feed source for pullets was studied in three processed and at three concentrations in the pullets from 14-42 weeks. The processing forms were sundried brown marine algae (SBMA), sundried and boiled brown marine algae (BBMA) and sundried and autoclaved brown marine algae (ABMA). The concentrations of BMA were 2%, 4% and 6% that composed 10 treatments along with control. Each treatment was replicated 6 times using 30 p...

  6. Construcción en madera: influencia de los protectores de madera basados en sales hidrosolubles en la corrosión de herrajes metálicos

    OpenAIRE

    Borrallo Jiménez, Milagrosa

    2007-01-01

    The hydrosoluble salts are one of the products used for the treatment in depth of the wood that come using for decades with excellent results. Nevertheless, realized investigations, principally with CCA, for Cross, J. and Bailey, G. (1989), among others, demonstrates that it can be corrosive for the metallic fasteners used in the construction in wood, because of some of the chemical products that they contain and the protection system with which Autoclave is applied. In Spain, the Real Decre...

  7. Two anaerobic polychlorinated biphenyl-dehalogenating enrichments that exhibit different para-dechlorination specificities.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Q; Wiegel, J

    1997-01-01

    Two anaerobic polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-dechlorinating enrichments with distinct substrate specificities were obtained: a 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl (2346-CB) para-dechlorinating enrichment derived from Aroclor 1260-contaminated Woods Pond (Lenox, Mass.) sediment and a 2,4,6-trichlorobiphenyl (246-CB) unflanked para-dechlorinating enrichment derived from PCB-free Sandy Creek Nature Center (Athens, Ga.) sediment. The enrichments have been successfully transferred to autoclaved soil slurr...

  8. Influence of time and pressure of forming a pattern on mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pacyniak

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the technology of forming patterns on a research station equipped with an autoclave A-600 of Polish company GROM is presented. This study was conducted to determine the influence of pressure and time of forming a pattern on the bending strength. Analysis of the results confirmed that bending strength increases with increasing the pressure. The time of forming a pattern has a similar effect.

  9. Hydrolysis of Polysaccharides with 77% Sulfuric Acid for Quantitative Saccharification

    OpenAIRE

    UÇAR, Güneş; Balaban, Mualla

    2003-01-01

    Classical standard hydrolysis of polysaccharides with 72% sulfuric acid was modified in 2 manners. In order to avoid treatment in an autoclave at 120 °C under pressure, wood or pulp material was first swollen in cold 77% acid followed by hydrolysis steps in diluted acid solutions. Further, the neutralization of the hydrolyzate with dilute barium hydroxide was carried out in heated mother liquor ensuring a crystalline precipitate of barium sulfate. Digestion enables the separation of clear ali...

  10. Microwave assisted synthesis of MCM-41 type mesoporous materials and diffusion of organic vapors in porous media: MCM-41 and carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Ergün, Aslı; Ergun, Asli

    2011-01-01

    In this study a novel synthesis technique of MCM-41 has been successfully applied for the production of pure and metal incorporated MCM-41 type mesoporous molecular sieves under microwave radiation by using a household microwave oven operated at several different combinations of power and time. High quality MCM-41 hexagonal mesoporous materials of good thermal stability were obtained in 30 minutes at 120 Watt by microwave assisted hydrothermal autoclave heating with specific surface area valu...

  11. Effect of P-Reactive Drainage Aggregates on Green Roof Runoff Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Karczmarczyk; Anna Baryła; Agnieszka Bus

    2014-01-01

    The main hypothesis of the presented study is that the negative effect of phosphorus leaching from a green roof substrate can be reduced by including P-reactive material in a drainage layer. In this work, different aggregates (Pollytag®, lightweight expanded clay aggregates, chalcedony, serpentynite and crushed autoclaved aerated concrete) to be used as the green roof drainage layer are described. Physical parameters, e.g., granulometric composition, water absorption, bulk density and porosi...

  12. Effects of raw and heat-treated bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) on the performance and body composition of growing broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fru Nji, F; Niess, E; Pfeffer, E

    2003-12-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterannea)--a leguminous root nut, which grows in the tropics and subtropics--was used in an experiment to test its effect on the performance of growing broiler chicks. Performance was measured by monitoring growth, measuring nutrients and energy balances and also by determining nutrient accretion. Twelve-day old broiler chicks, kept in individual metabolic cages, were used in an experiment in which birds were equally allotted (n = 10) into a control (fed high performance diet made up principally of wheat and soybean meal) and 6 test groups fed diets containing 19, 76 and 95% raw or autoclaved bambara groundnuts. All diets were similar in energy, nitrogen and total lipid contents. Diets were also balanced for amino acids, vitamins and minerals in accordance to the specific requirements of the birds. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Growth performance was monitored over 15 days. Nutrient and energy balances were measured by use of TiO2 as marker. The comparative slaughter technique was implored for the determination of energy and nutrient accretion. The results showed that the level of raw or autoclaved bambara had no significant influence on feed intake. Increasing the bambara level in the diets caused a general linear drop in the performance of the broilers. However, with up to 95% bambara in the diet, the general performance was still above 75% compared to the control. Increasing levels of bambara groundnut caused a decrease in the metabolizability of energy and efficiency of utilisation of ME for BWG. The animals retained more water with increasing levels of raw bambara in the diets while autoclaving increased their DM content to levels comparable to the control. The protein composition of gain was comparable at all levels of inclusion. In general autoclaving improved the performance of bambara. PMID:14982323

  13. Integrated pneumatic transporter-incinerator-afterburner subsystem development. [for spacecraft waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a prototype automatic transport system to move wastes to an incinerator onboard a spacecraft are described. The commode and debris collector, subsystems to treat noncondensible gases, oxygen supply to incinerator and afterburner, and removal and ash collection from the incinerator are considered, as well as a zero gravity condenser. In-depth performance testing of a totally integrated incineration system and autoclaving as a waste treatment method are included.

  14. A Novel submicron emulsion system loaded with doxorubicin overcome multi-drug resistance in MCF-7/ADR cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, W. P.; H Y Hua; Sun, P. C.; Y.X. Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop the Solutol HS15-based doxorubicin submicron emulsion with good stability and overcoming multi-drug resistance. In this study, we prepared doxorubicin submicron emulsion, and examined the stability after autoclaving, the in vitro cytotoxic activity, the intracellular accumulation and apoptpsis of doxorubicin submicron emulsion in MCF-7/ADR cells. The physicochemical properties of doxorubicin submicron emulsion were not significantly affected aft...

  15. Dressing wounds with potato peel

    OpenAIRE

    Patange Vidya; Fernandez Rui; Motla Meena; Mahajan Sunanda

    1996-01-01

    The use of boiled potato peel (PP) in dressing of various skin conditions was studied. A total of 11 patients were selected, which included resistant wounds of pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid and leg ulcers. An autoclaved PP dressing with a thin layer of antiseptic cream was applied at 25 sites. It was covered with multilayered gauze and the dressing was secured firmly with either a roller bandage or with an adhesive tape. Complete epithelization was seen at 20 sites (80%), near complete...

  16. Schinus molle: a new source of natural fungitoxicant.

    OpenAIRE

    Dikshit, A; Naqvi, A A; Husain, A

    1986-01-01

    The oil of Schinus molle exhibited the maximum fungitoxic activity during the screening of some essential oils against some common storage and animal pathogenic fungi. It showed absolute toxicity against animal pathogens and mild activity against storage fungi. The effective concentrations of the oil varied from 200 to 900 ppm. The toxicity of the oil persisted up to 80 degrees C and 90 days of storage but declined when autoclaved. It withstood heavy inoculum density. The oil exhibited a narr...

  17. Production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in medium used to culture Legionella pneumophila: catalytic decomposition by charcoal.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, P S; Pine, L; Bell, S.

    1983-01-01

    The difficulties associated with the growth of Legionella species in common laboratory media may be due to the sensitivity of these organisms to low levels of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals. Exposure of yeast extract (YE) broth to fluorescent light generated superoxide radicals (3 microM/h) and hydrogen peroxide (16 microM/h). Autoclaved YE medium was more prone to photochemical oxidation than YE medium sterilized by filtration. Activated charcoals and, to a lesser extent, graphite...

  18. Seasonal variations in the fouling diatom community structure from a monsoon influenced tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mitbavkar, S.; Anil, A.C.

    submerged in seawater since it causes increase in water resistance, fuel consumption and microbial corrosion of metal surfaces (Schultz 2007). The economic consequence of biofouling is thus significant. In the process of fouling, a layer of microorganisms... in Mitbavkar & Anil (2007). The f/2 culture medium was prepared in filtered autoclaved seawater with salinities of 5, 15, 30, and 40. The culture medium with each of these salinities (5 ml) was transferred to polystyrene multiwells (Corning 430343...

  19. Redox Transformations of Arsenic Oxyanions in Periphyton Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Kulp, Thomas R.; Hoeft, Shelley E.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2004-01-01

    Periphyton (Cladophora sp.) samples from a suburban stream lacking detectable dissolved As were able to reduce added As(V) to As(III) when incubated under anoxic conditions and, conversely, oxidized added As(III) to As(V) with aerobic incubation. Both types of activity were abolished in autoclaved controls, thereby demonstrating its biological nature. The reduction of As(V) was inhibited by chloramphenicol, indicating that it required the synthesis of new protein. Nitrate also inhibited As(V)...

  20. Exploring the influence of sterilisation and storage on some physicochemical properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water

    OpenAIRE

    Agyare Rebecca; Doe Edna D; Awua Adolf K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Fresh coconut (Cocos nucifera L) water is a clear, sterile, colourless, slightly acidic and naturally flavoured drink, mostly consumed in tropical areas. It is a rich source of nutrients and has been used for medical purposes. This study was designed to investigate changes in selected characteristics of coconut water after autoclaving, gamma irradiation and storage. Also, the study was designed for assessing the possibility of measuring the growth of bacterial in fresh, st...

  1. The hydrometallurgical extraction of lithium from egyptian montmorillonite-type clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, A. M.

    2008-10-01

    The processing of El-Fayoum montmorillonite-type clay deposits is attained through leaching with commercial sulfuric acid using a ball-mill-type autoclave. This process yields lithium sulfate, which can be used either for the production of lithium carbonate or to produce lithium metal. The effects of temperature, grain size, and sulfuric acid concentration and leaching on lithium recovery as well as the kinetics of the leaching process have been studied.

  2. Effects of sterilization methods on key properties of specialty optical fibers used in medical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolov, Andrei A.; Slyman, Brian E.; Burgess, David T.; Hokansson, Adam S.; Li, Jie; Allen, R. Steve

    2013-03-01

    Optical fibers with different types of polymer coatings were exposed to three sterilization conditions: multiple autoclaving, treatment with ethylene oxide and treatment with gamma rays. Effects of different sterilization techniques on key optical and mechanical properties of the fibers are reported. The primary attention is given to behavior of the coatings in harsh sterilization environments. The following four coating/buffer types were investigated: (i) dual acrylate, (ii) polyimide, (iii) silicone/PEEK and (iv) fluoroacrylate hard cladding/ETFE.

  3. Thermomechanical Properties, Antibiotic Release, and Bioactivity of a Sterilized Cyclodextrin Drug Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Halpern, Jeffrey M.; Gormley, Catherine A.; Keech, Melissa; von Recum, Horst A.

    2014-01-01

    Various local drug delivery devices and coatings are being developed as slow, sustained release mechanism for drugs, yet the polymers are typically not evaluated after commercial sterilization techniques. We examine the effect that commercial sterilization techniques have on the physical, mechanical, and drug delivery properties of polyurethane polymers. Specifically we tested cyclodextrin-hexamethyl diisocyanate crosslinked polymers before and after autoclave, ethylene oxide, and gamma radia...

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF BAMBOO LEAF ASH AS FLY ASH ON PHYSICAL PROPERTY OF CONCRETE CEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Nurlaela Rauf; Dahlang Tahir; Iin Roswansari

    2012-01-01

    Abu daun bambu digunakan sebagai abu terbang pada semen, karena alasan ramah lingkungan. Abu daun bamboo (blash) ditambahkan pada bahan dasar semen (klinker, gipsum, tras dan batu kapur). Persentasi berat dari abu daun bambu yang digunakan adalah 0%, 3%, 4% and 6%. Penentuan komposisi kimia ditentukan dengan menggunakan fluresensi sinar-x (XRF). Sifat fisis dari sampel semen diukur menggunakan alat otomatik Blaine, Vikat, dan Autoclave. Didapatkan sifat fisisnya sesuai yang disyaratkan Standa...

  5. 古紙混合汚泥コンポスト中の植物生長促成作用に関わる糸状菌とそれらの代謝産物

    OpenAIRE

    森本, 正則; 若山, 晃子; 駒井, 功一郎

    2005-01-01

    [Synopsis] Sometime, the compost products made from bio-sludge and containing paper strips, showed plant growth promoting effect by field application. We have evaluated to separating various fungi from biosludge compost that have PGPR (Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria) effect against some crops by inoculating test into the incubation soil. Test fungi separated from the compost using multiple dilution method and colonization on the PDA agar plate. And, the surface of autoclaved oat serial...

  6. 汚泥コンポストの植物生長促成活性に関わる微生物と、それらの代謝産物

    OpenAIRE

    森本, 正則; 松本, 朋子; 駒井, 功一郎

    2004-01-01

    [Synopsis] Sometime, the compost products made from bio-sludge and containing paper strips, showed plant growth promoting effect in the field. We have evaluated to separating various fungi from biosludge compost that have PGPR (Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria) effect against some cropsinoculating test into the incubation soil. Test fungi separated from the compost using by multiple dilution method and colonization on the PDA agar plate. And, the surface of autoclaved oat serials kept eac...

  7. A convenient thermal decomposition-co-reduction synthesis of nanocrystalline tungsten disilicide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jianhua Ma; Yihong Du; Yitai Qian

    2005-08-01

    Nanocrystalline WSi2 was synthesized by a thermal decomposition-co-reduction route via the reaction of anhydrous tungsten hexachloride and sodium fluorosilicate with metallic potassium in an autoclave at 650°C. X-ray powder diffraction pattern indicated that it was tetragonal WSi2. Transmission electron microscope image showed that it consisted of particles with an average diameter of about 50 nm. TGA and DTA indicated that it had good thermal stability below 600°C in air.

  8. The Effect of Sterilization Processes on the Bioadhesive Properties and Surface Chemistry of a Plasma-Polymerized Polyethylene Glycol Film: XPS Characterization and L929 Cell Proliferation Tests

    OpenAIRE

    BRETAGNOL Frederic; Rauscher, Hubert; Hasiwa, Marina; Kylian, Ondrej; Ceccone, Giacomo; HAZELL Len; PAUL Alan J.; LEFRANC O.; ROSSI Francois

    2008-01-01

    The influence of several sterilization processes (autoclaving, c-ray irradiation, ethylene oxide exposure and Ar/H2 low pressure plasma treatment) on the surface chemistry and the bioadhesive properties of thin films (thickness ~20 nm) of plasma-polymerized diethylene glycol dimethyl ether has been studied. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis and cell proliferation tests were used to characterize the surfaces. The XPS results revealed in all cases a change in the surface che...

  9. Influence of Sterilization Techniques on the In Vitro Bioactivity of Pseudowollastonite

    OpenAIRE

    Piedad N. De Aza; Aza Moya, Antonio H. de; Herrera, A.; López-Prats, F. A.; Peña, P

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of four sterilization methods (Steam autoclave, Hydrogen peroxide plasma, Ethylene oxide, and Gamma sterilization) on the surface chemistry and in vitro bioactivity of polycrystalline pseudowollastonite (psW). psW samples obtained by solid-state reaction sintering were sterilized and soaked in Kokubo et al.’s proposed simulated body fluid (SBF) up to 30 days. The sterilization procedure was found to result in no sign...

  10. Relation between Modulus of Elasticity and Compressive Strength of Ultrahigh-Strength Mortar with Mixed Silicon Carbide as Fine Aggregate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ultrahigh-strength mortar mixed surface-oxidized silicon carbide as a fine aggregate was prepared by means of press-casting followed by curing in an autoclave. The relation between modulus of elasticity up to 111 GPa and compressive strength up to 360 MPa of mortar mixed silicon carbide was discussed and it was revealed that the contributions of the aggregate hardness and of the interfacial strength between the aggregate and the cement paste on the elasticity of mortar were imporant.

  11. Isolation of a coaggregation-inhibiting cell wall polysaccharide from Streptococcus sanguis H1.

    OpenAIRE

    Cassels, F J; London, J

    1989-01-01

    Coaggregation between Streptococcus sanguis H1 and Capnocytophaga ochracea ATCC 33596 cells is mediated by a carbohydrate receptor on the former and an adhesin on the latter. Two methods were used to release the carbohydrate receptor from the gram-positive streptococcus, autoclaving and mutanolysin treatment. The polysaccharide released from the streptococcal cell wall by either treatment was purified by ion-exchange chromatography; this polysaccharide inhibited coaggregation when preincubate...

  12. Characterization of Brucella polysaccharide B.

    OpenAIRE

    Bundle, D R; Cherwonogrodzky, J W; Perry, M B

    1988-01-01

    Polysaccharide B was extracted from Brucella melitensis 16M and from a rough strain of Brucella abortus 45/20 by autoclaving or trichloroacetic acid extraction of whole cells and by a new method involving mild leaching of cells. The material obtained by either of the established procedures was contaminated by O polysaccharide. The new leaching protocol eliminated this impurity and provided a pure glucan, which was regarded as polysaccharide B. This polysaccharide was found by high-performance...

  13. Understanding aerospace composite components' supply chain carbon emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, Mang Hann; Smyth, Beatrice M.; Murphy, Adrian; Butterfield, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines a large structural component and its supply chain. The component is representative of that used in the production of civil transport aircraft and is manufactured from carbon fibre epoxy resin prepreg, using traditional hand layup and autoclave cure. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to predict the component’s production carbon emissions. The results determine the distribution of carbon emissions within the supply chain, identifying the dominant production processes as ca...

  14. Antifungal Metabolites (Monorden, Monocillin IV, and Cerebrosides) from Humicola fuscoatra Traaen NRRL 22980, a Mycoparasite of Aspergillus flavus Sclerotia

    OpenAIRE

    Wicklow, Donald T.; Joshi, Biren K.; Gamble, William R.; Gloer, James B.; Dowd, Patrick F.

    1998-01-01

    The mycoparasite Humicola fuscoatra NRRL 22980 was isolated from a sclerotium of Aspergillus flavus that had been buried in a cornfield near Tifton, Ga. When grown on autoclaved rice, this fungus produced the antifungal metabolites monorden, monocillin IV, and a new monorden analog. Each metabolite produced a clear zone of inhibition surrounding paper assay disks on agar plates seeded with conidia of A. flavus. Monorden was twice as inhibitory to A. flavus mycelium extension (MIC > 28 μg/ml) ...

  15. High resolution tomographic imaging and modelling of notch tip damage in a laminated composite

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) has been used to observe in situ damage growth and enable micromechanical damage characterization in [90/0]S carbon fibre-epoxy composite samples loaded in uniaxial tension to stresses ranging from 30% to 90% of the nominal failure stress. A 3-D finite element model has been constructed to predict crack opening displacements and shear displacements in the 0?plies resulting from thermal residual stress imposed during autoclav...

  16. Ultrastructural localization of dipicolinic acid in dormant spores of Bacillus subtilis by immunoelectron microscopy with colloidal gold particles.

    OpenAIRE

    Kozuka, S; Yasuda, Y.; Tochikubo, K

    1985-01-01

    The localization of dipicolinic acid in dormant spores of Bacillus subtilis was examined by an immunoelectron microscopy method with colloidal gold-immunoglobulin G complex. The colloidal gold particles were distributed mainly in the core regions of dormant spores and were not observed in those of germinated or autoclaved spores. This result clearly demonstrates that dipicolinic acid is localized in the cores of dormant spores.

  17. Corrosion Behaviour of Zirconium Alloys in High Temperature Aqueous Environment By Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Peng

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of zirconium based alloys has been primarily investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In-situ autoclave EIS experiments were performed in simulated primary coolant conditions in order to study the high temperature water corrosion of zirconium alloys in PWRs. In-situ impedance response of the corroding material was recorded throughout first kinetic transition.A physical model of the zirconium oxide was proposed in accordance with the microstructural...

  18. Kinetics of the Double Carbonylation of Benzylchloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It is a multi-phase-catalyzed reaction to produce calcium phenylpyruvate by double carbonylation of benzylchloride. Based on the analysis of the reaction mechanism, a kinetic model of the carbonylation reaction was obtained. The model was verified through experiments in which the diffusion effect was neglected with the appropriate operation manner. But it is inevitable that the carbonylation process is controlled by diffusion as the autoclave scaling up.

  19. Control of out-of-furnace ecologically safe metallothermic smelting in a hermetic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsov, N. S.; Eliseev, Yu. E.; Bogdanov, C. V.

    2014-12-01

    To create a low-vacuum atmosphere and excess pressure in a hermetic melting chamber is shown to be useful for block smelting. The results of combined control of the smelting process by changing the pressure of the gases released from a crucible in melting a metal in the reactor-autoclave regime are presented. These results are used to provide ecologically safe conditions for the production of ingots 1.5-2 t in weight.

  20. Microbial and chemical origins of the bactericidal activity of thermally treated yellow mustard powder toward Escherichia coli O157:H7 during dry sausage ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Fernando B; Belland, Julie; Holley, Richard A

    2011-01-31

    Work examines the origin of bactericidal activity in mustard flour and explores the relative contribution from starter cultures, E. coli O157:H7 itself and other sources. Bacteria can degrade naturally occurring glucosinolates in mustard and form isothiocyanates with antimicrobial activity. In the present work, 24 starter cultures (mostly from commercial mixtures) were screened for their capacity to decompose the glucosinolate, sinalbin. The most active pair, Pediococcus pentosaceus UM 121P and Staphylococcus carnosus UM 123 M, were used together for the production of dry fermented sausage contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 (~6.5 log CFU/g). They were compared to industrial starters used previously (P. pentosaceus UM 116P and S. carnosus UM 109 M) for their reduction of E. coli O157:H7 viability. Sausage batches containing hot mustard powder (active myrosinase), cold mustard powder (inactivated myrosinase), autoclaved mustard powder (inactivated myrosinase) and no mustard flour (control) were prepared. Interestingly, both pairs of starter cultures yielded similar results. Elimination of E. coli O157:H7 (>5 log CFU/g) occurred after 31 days in the presence of hot flour and in 38 days when the cold flour was added. Reductions >5 log CFU/g of the pathogen did not occur (up to 38 days) in the control group. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 itself had a greater effect on sinalbin conversion than either pair of starter cultures, and glucosinolate degradation by the starter cultures was less important in determining E. coli survival. The autoclaved powder caused more rapid bactericidal action against E. coli O157:H7, yielding a >5 log CFU/g reduction in 18 days. This may have been a result of the formation and/or release of antimicrobial substances by the autoclave treatment. Autoclaved mustard powder could potentially solve an important challenge facing the meat industry as it strives to manufacture safe dry fermented sausages. PMID:21146240

  1. Measurement of Moisture Storage Parameters of Building Materials

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jiřičková; Černý, R.; P. Rovnaníková

    2003-01-01

    The moisture storage parameters of three different building materials: calcium silicate, ceramic brick and autoclaved aerated concrete, are determined in the hygroscopic range and overhygroscopic range. Measured sorption isotherms and moisture retention curves are then combined into moisture storage functions using the Kelvin equation. A comparison of measured results with global characteristics of the pore space obtained by mercury intrusion porosimetry shows a reasonable agreement; the medi...

  2. Infection control practices in dental school: A patient perspective from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdul Baseer

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Patients revealed adequate knowledge towards the use of gloves, face mask and spectacles by dentist. However, their knowledge regarding the spread of Hepatitis-B, HIV infection and use of autoclave was poor. Previous visitor of dental clinics showed higher knowledge of infection control as compared to the first time visitors. Many patients expressed their negative attitudes towards dental care due to AIDS and Hepatitis-B concerns.

  3. Evaluación de la esterilización húmeda y la esterilización por microondas de dos tipos de suelos

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Giselle Carvajal Restrepo; Diana Jasbleidy Palacios Rincón; Gloria Stella Acosta Peñaloza

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the sterilization was evaluated in two types of soil, low microbial population and moisture (BB) and another with high micro- bial population and intermediate moisture (AM). The methods evaluated were autoclaving (121°C) and microwave irradiation (4 min). Three auto- claving treatments were made by three consecutive days and each evalua- tion varied in the time of sterilization and the temperature of incubation between the cycles of sterilization. For the soil AM was not ...

  4. A Field Investigation of Bacillus anthracis Contamination of U.S. Department of Agriculture and Other Washington, D.C., Buildings during the Anthrax Attack of October 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, James A.; Cooper, Mary; Schroeder-Tucker, Linda; Black, Scott; Miller, David; Karns, Jeffrey S.; Manthey, Erlynn; Breeze, Roger; Perdue, Michael L

    2003-01-01

    In response to a bioterrorism attack in the Washington, D.C., area in October 2001, a mobile laboratory (ML) was set up in the city to conduct rapid molecular tests on environmental samples for the presence of Bacillus anthracis spores and to route samples for further culture analysis. The ML contained class I laminar-flow hoods, a portable autoclave, two portable real-time PCR devices (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device [RAPID]), and miscellaneous supplies and equipment to pr...

  5. Improved streptococcal grouping antisera containing polyethylene glycol.

    OpenAIRE

    George, J R; Ashworth, H; Facklam, R R; Harrell, W K; Palmer, D F

    1981-01-01

    Antisera to streptococcal groups A through G containing 4% polyethylene glycol 6000 were prepared and evaluated. Seventy strains of homologous and heterologous beta- and non-beta-hemolytic streptococci were included in the evaluation. Homologous reactions were determined against extracts prepared by four extraction methods: hot hydrochloric acid (Lancefield) extraction, autoclave extraction, hot formamide extraction, and nitrous acid extraction. Enhancement of the precipitin reaction in the p...

  6. Cleaning Animals' Cages With Little Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Benjamin J.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed freeze/thaw method for cleaning animals' cages requires little extra weight and consumes little power and water. Cleaning concept developed for maintaining experimental rat cages on extended space missions. Adaptable as well to similar use on Earth. Reduces cleaning time. Makes use of already available facilities such as refrigerator, glove box, and autoclave. Rat waste adheres to steel-wire-mesh floor of cage. Feces removed by loosening action of freezing-and-thawing process, followed by blast of air.

  7. SHRINKAGE STRAIN AT THE FORMATION OF THE STRUCTURE OF CELLULAR CONCRETE / УСАДОЧНЫЕ ДЕФОРМАЦИИ ПРИ ФОРМИРОВАНИИ СТРУКТУРЫ ЯЧЕИСТОГО БЕТОНА

    OpenAIRE

    Zhukov A. D. / Жуков Алексей Дмитриевич; Naumova N. V. / Наумова Наталья Владимировна; Chkunin A. S. / Чкунин Анатолий Сергеевич

    2014-01-01

    Structure formation of cellular concrete in a limited volume leads to the creation of the pressure gradient and the concentration and redistribution of moisture in the mineral matrix and also to increase its density. With well-chosen mixture compositions and modes of formation it can lead to low-shrinkage of autoclaved aerated concrete. The authors study shrinkage of traditional cellular concrete and optimal compositions and its changes over time. It is shown that the greatest shrinkage occur...

  8. Preparation and in vivo toxicity study of solid lipid microparticles as carrier for pulmonary administration

    OpenAIRE

    Sanna, Vanna; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Gustin, Pascal; Gavini, Elisabeta; Roland, Isabelle; DELATTRE, Luc; Evrard, Brigitte

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of processing conditions on the characteristics of solid lipid microparticles (SLM) with a potential application as carriers for pulmonary administration. Compritol (5.0% wt/wt) SLM dispersions were prepared by rotor-stator homogenization, at different surfactant concentrations and emulsification times. The SLM were characterized, in terms of morphology and size, after lyophilization and sterilization by autoclaving process. In vivo ...

  9. Effects of sterilising doses of gamma radiation on drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of gamma radiation on drugs in solid state and aqueous solution were studied after application of doses of 2.5 and 5.0 Mrad (dose rate 0.1 Mrad/hour). Whereas solid substances only showed colour changes dissolved substances were decomposed to a somewhat higher degree than by heating in an autoclave at a temperature of 120 0C. (author)

  10. Effect of Coating Method on the Survival Rate of L. plantarum for Chicken Feed

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang-Yoon; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Choi, Mi-Jung; Lee, Boo-Yong; Han, Jong-Kwon; Lim, Jae Kag; Oh, Jae-Wook

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to find the most suitable method and wall material for microencapsulation of the Lactobacillus plantarum to maintain cell viability in different environmental conditions. To improve the stability of L. plantarum, we developed an encapsulation system of L. plantarum, using water-in-oil emulsion system. For the encapsulation of L. plantarum, corn starch and glyceryl monostearate were selected to form gel beads. Then 10% (w/v) of starch was gelatinized by autoclaving to t...

  11. Scratch type repassivation technique at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) developed a repassivation rate test system which can be operated at 300 .deg. C. It consists of an autoclave, three electrodes for an electrochemical test and a scratch tip. Good repassivation curves of alloy 600 at 300 .deg. C were obtained. The system would be a good tool to evaluate a SCC susceptibility of alloy 600 at high temperature

  12. Portable Device Slices Thermoplastic Prepregs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Beverly A.; Boston, Morton W.; Wilson, Maywood L.

    1993-01-01

    Prepreg slitter designed to slit various widths rapidly by use of slicing bar holding several blades, each capable of slicing strip of preset width in single pass. Produces material evenly sliced and does not contain jagged edges. Used for various applications in such batch processes involving composite materials as press molding and autoclaving, and in such continuous processes as pultrusion. Useful to all manufacturers of thermoplastic composites, and in slicing B-staged thermoset composites.

  13. Evaluation of different sterilization and disinfection methods on commercially made preformed crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Y; Guler, C

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes caused by different sterilization or disinfection methods on the vestibular surface of four commercially made preformed crowns using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Preformed crowns (NuSmile Primary Anterior Crown (NSC), Kinder Krowns (KK), Pedo Pearls (PP) and polycarbonate crowns (PC)) were sterilized and/or disinfected by one of the following techniques: no sterilization or disinfection (G1 control group); steam autoclaving at 134 degrees C (30 psi) for 4 min (G2); steam autoclaving at 134 degrees C (30 psi) for 12 min (G3); steam autoclaving at 121 degrees C (15 psi) for 30 min (G4); and ultrasonication in a bath containing 4% Lysetol AF for 5 min at room temperature (chemical disinfection) (G5). Scanning electron micrographs of the crowns were taken before and after their sterilization or disinfection. The changes on the vestibular surface were then scored for the presence or absence of crazing, contour alteration, fracturing, and vestibular surface changes. The data were analyzed statistically using the chi-square test. No changes were observed before and after sterilization or disinfection in the stereomicroscopic evaluation of the vestibular surface of the crowns. However, all methods in which steam autoclaving was used to sterilize the crowns caused significant (P < 0.05) crazing and contour alterations of the vestibular surface of the crowns when they were examined by SEM. Chemical disinfection using an aldehyde-free disinfectant is the preferred method of disinfection for crowns that have been used previously in other dental patients. PMID:19008625

  14. Evaluation of different sterilization and disinfection methods on commercially made preformed crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Y

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes caused by different sterilization or disinfection methods on the vestibular surface of four commercially made preformed crowns using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Preformed crowns (NuSmile Primary Anterior Crown (NSC, Kinder Krowns (KK, Pedo Pearls (PP and polycarbonate crowns (PC were sterilized and/or disinfected by one of the following techniques: no sterilization or disinfection (G1 control group; steam autoclaving at 134 °C (30 psi for 4 min (G2; steam autoclaving at 134 °C (30 psi for 12 min (G3; steam autoclaving at 121 °C (15 psi for 30 min (G4; and ultrasonication in a bath containing 4% Lysetol ® AF for 5 min at room temperature (chemical disinfection (G5. Scanning electron micrographs of the crowns were taken before and after their sterilization or disinfection. The changes on the vestibular surface were then scored for the presence or absence of crazing, contour alteration, fracturing, and vestibular surface changes. The data were analyzed statistically using the chi-square test. No changes were observed before and after sterilization or disinfection in the stereomicroscopic evaluation of the vestibular surface of the crowns. However, all methods in which steam autoclaving was used to sterilize the crowns caused significant (P < 0.05 crazing and contour alterations of the vestibular surface of the crowns when they were examined by SEM. Chemical disinfection using an aldehyde-free disinfectant is the preferred method of disinfection for crowns that have been used previously in other dental patients.

  15. Preliminary corrosion studies of candidate materials for supercritical water oxidation reactor systems

    OpenAIRE

    Orzalli, John Clarke

    1994-01-01

    An experimental test facility has been designed and constructed for investigation of the corrosion behavior of candidate materials in a supercritical water oxidation environment. The high temperatures (500 deg C) and high pressures (300 atm) required in this process, made the experimental apparatus construction and control a complex engineering problem. The facility consists of two systems. The first is an exposure autoclave internal volume 850 ml, with associated monitoring and control syste...

  16. Efficient ethanol production from dried oil palm trunk treated by hydrothermolysis and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Eom, In-Yong; Yu, Ju-Hyun; Jung, Chan-Duck; Hong, Kyung-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Background Oil palm trunk (OPT) is a valuable bioresource for the biorefinery industry producing biofuels and biochemicals. It has the distinct feature of containing a large amount of starch, which, unlike cellulose, can be easily solubilized by water when heated and hydrolyzed to glucose by amylolytic enzymes without pretreatment for breaking down the biomass recalcitrance. Therefore, it is suggested as beneficial to extract most of the starch from OPT through autoclaving and subsequent amyl...

  17. Cement mixtures containing copper tailings as an additive: durability properties

    OpenAIRE

    Obinna Onuaguluchi; Özgur Eren

    2012-01-01

    The effects of copper tailings as an additive, on some durability properties of cement mixtures were investigated. In each mixture, copper tailings addition levels by mass were 0%, 5% and 10%. Compared to the control samples, copper tailings blended pastes showed superior performance against autoclave expansion while insignificant decreases in sulfate resistance of mortars were observed. Copper tailings increased the water absorption and total permeable voids of concretes slightly. However, t...

  18. High-Temperature Polyimide Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanucci, Raymond D.; Malarik, Diane C.

    1990-01-01

    Improved polyimide resin used at continuous temperatures up to 700 degrees F (371 degrees C). PMR-II-50, serves as matrix for fiber-reinforced composites. Material combines thermo-oxidative stability with autoclave processability. Used in such turbine engine components as air-bypass ducts, vanes, bearings, and nozzle flaps. Other potential applications include wing and fuselage skins on high-mach-number aircraft and automotive engine blocks and pistons.

  19. In Vitro Analysis of Fibronectin-Modified Titanium Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yu-Chi; Lee, Wei-Fang; Feng, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Haw-Ming; Lin, Che-Tong; Teng, Nai-Chia; Chang, Wei Jen

    2016-01-01

    Background Glow discharge plasma (GDP) procedure is an effective method for grafting various proteins, including albumin, type I collagen, and fibronectin, onto a titanium surface. However, the behavior and impact of titanium (Ti) surface modification is yet to be unraveled. Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate and analyze the biological properties of fibronectin-grafted Ti surfaces treated by GDP. Materials and Methods Grade II Ti discs were initially cleaned and autoclaved to ob...

  20. Improved osseointegration of long-term stored SLA implant by hydrothermal sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingling; Xu, Lingli; Violin, Kalan Bastos; Lu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The sandblasted, large-grit and acid-etched (SLA) surface is easy to be contaminated during storage and its surface chemical state is usually changed by different sterilization methods. This causes an undesirable increase in surface hydrophobicity and results in osseointegration degradation. To overcome this problem, a low temperature hydrothermal (HT) sterilization method was proposed in this study. Briefly, 4 weeks-stored pure titanium SLA specimens were sterilized using a sealed glass bottle with pure water in an autoclave set at 121 °C for 20 min. Results showed that, stored SLA specimens were superhydrophobic before and after conventional autoclaving, whereas, HT sterilization decontaminated and endowed stored SLA surface with superhydrophilicity. Osteoblast spreading was greatly enhanced, ALP expression was upgraded and bone nodule formation was obviously promoted on HT sterilized specimens compared with autoclaved ones. More bone formation around HT sterilized specimens was observed and HT sterilization increased bonding strength of implant to bone by 95% and 127% after 2 and 4 weeks of healing, respectively. The simple, feasible HT sterilization restored osseointegration of SLA implant while diminishing recontamination as much as possible. Therefore, it is proposed as a standard sterilization method for implant practitioners and researches. PMID:26382972

  1. Metals uptake by live yeast and heat-modified yeast residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geórgia Labuto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the biosorption of Cd2+, Cr3+, Pb2+ and Cu2+ at pHs 3, 4, 5 and 6 for Saccharomyces cerevisiae both alive and biologically inactivated by different heating procedures (oven, autoclave or spray dry technique originated from alcohol industry. The material inactivated by autoclave (IA, at 120°C, 30 min had the best performance for metals uptake: 1.88 ± 0.07 (Cu2+, 2.22 ± 0.02 (Cr3+ and 1.57 ± 0.08 g kg-1 (Pb2+. For Cd2+; while the material inactivated by spray dry (RY presented the higher sorption capacity, 2.30 ± 0.08 g kg-1. The sorption studies showed that the biosorbent materials presented different sorption capacities and an ideal sorption pH. The sorption sites were investigated by potentiometric titration and FT-IR and showed that different heating processes used to inactivate biological samples produce materials with different characteristics and with a diverse sorption capacity due to modification of the available sorption sites. This suggests that inactivation by heating can be an alternative to improve the performance of biosorbents. The main sorption sites for each material were phenolic for live yeast (LY and carboxylic for yeast inactivated by heating in an autoclave (IA.

  2. Degradation and detection of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis DNA and proteins in flour of three genetically modified rice events submitted to a set of thermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofu; Chen, Xiaoyun; Xu, Junfeng; Dai, Chen; Shen, Wenbiao

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the degradation of three transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes (Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1Ab/Ac) and the corresponding encoded Bt proteins in KMD1, KF6, and TT51-1 rice powder, respectively, following autoclaving, cooking, baking, or microwaving. Exogenous Bt genes were more stable than the endogenous sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene, and short DNA fragments were detected more frequently than long DNA fragments in both the Bt and SPS genes. Autoclaving, cooking (boiling in water, 30 min), and baking (200 °C, 30 min) induced the most severe Bt protein degradation effects, and Cry1Ab protein was more stable than Cry1Ac and Cry1Ab/Ac protein, which was further confirmed by baking samples at 180 °C for different periods of time. Microwaving induced mild degradation of the Bt and SPS genes, and Bt proteins, whereas baking (180 °C, 15 min), cooking and autoclaving led to further degradation, and baking (200 °C, 30 min) induced the most severe degradation. The findings of the study indicated that degradation of the Bt genes and proteins somewhat correlated with the treatment intensity. Polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and lateral flow tests were used to detect the corresponding transgenic components. Strategies for detecting transgenic ingredients in highly processed foods are discussed. PMID:26277627

  3. Kvanefjeld uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Kvanefjeld uranium project is to evaluate the possibility of a uranium production from the deposit at Narssaq, South Greenland. The project comprises investigations in the fields of geology, mining, process chemistry and technology, economy and environment protection. The predominant uraniferous rock is a nepheline syenite called lujavrite in which the main uranium mineral is steenstrupine. The deposit can be mined in an open pit. Calculations have shown a resource of 56 million tonnes of ore with an average grade of 365 ppm corresponding to 20,400 tonnes of uranium. The uranium is extracted by a sodium carbonate solution at 260degC in an autoclave. A pilot plant has been established including ball mill, continuous pipe autoclave and a belt filter for separation of leach liquor and residue. The uranium is finally precipitated as UO2 by reduction in an autoclave at 260degC. With the existing ore sample, recoveries of more than 80% have been obtained. The carbonate leaching causes a low solubility of most contaminants in the tailings. A draft project has been prepared for an industrial plant in Greenland. The total investments have been calculated at 3 x 109 Dkr. Electrical energy is assumed to be supplied by a hydropower plant at Johan Dahl Land. The mine and mill are expected to employ 500-600 persons. (author)

  4. Development and evaluation of methods for starch dissolution using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation. Part II: Dissolution of amylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rea, Daysi; Bergenståhl, Björn; Nilsson, Lars

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether dissolution in water under autoclaving conditions (140 °C, 20 min) or in dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO (100 °C, 1 h), is preferable for characterization of amylose. Two types of amylose, potato and maize, were dissolved either in water using an autoclave or in DMSO. On the aqueous solutions obtained, the extent of molecular dissolution of the sample (referred to as the dissolution yield) was determined by enzymatic analysis as well as the molecular properties, such as molar mass and root-mean-square radius, obtained with asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled to multi-angle light scattering and differential refractive index detection (AF4-MALS-dRI). The results showed that both dissolution methods are efficient at dissolving amylose. However, AF4-MALS-dRI analysis revealed substantial differences. Amylose aqueous solutions obtained by dissolution in DMSO were relatively stable over time, but the dissolution method in autoclave caused some degradation of the molecules, and their solutions display a high tendency to retrograde. PMID:26232931

  5. Development of SSRT facility with ability of in-situ observation during SCC test in high temperature water for irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is one of the key issues for the life management of light water reactor (LWR) core components as well as one of the possible degradation phenomena of structural materials of international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). For understanding IASCC phenomenon, development of slow stain rate test (SSRT) facility with ability of in-situ observation during SSRT in high temperature water for irradiated materials was initiated. The SSRT facility, which has already been installed in a hot cell, consists of a water make-up system, a pressurized high temperature water circulation system, a tensile testing system with an autoclave, a monitoring/purification system, a hydrogen peroxide injection system, and an observation/recording system. The autoclave has a sapphire window for in-situ observation of the specimen. Images through the window can be recorded using the CCD camera system. Since the SSRT facility is designed for irradiated materials under boiling water reactor (BWR) condition, the maximum operational parameters are as follows; temperature: 573 K, pressure: 10 MPa and flow rate: 30 l/h. To simulate the normal water chemistry (NWC) and hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) under BWR environment, dissolved oxygen and hydrogen concentrations (DO and DH) can be controlled within the range of 10 ppb - 32 ppm and 10 ppb - 2.8 ppm, respectively. Hydrogen peroxide can be injected into the autoclave to simulate influence of hydrogen peroxide produced from radiolysis of water in the reactor core. (author)

  6. Raman spectroscopy study of the tetragonal-to-monoclinic transition in zirconium oxide scales and determination of overall oxygen diffusion by nuclear microanalysis of O18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on two allotropic forms of zirconium oxide, monoclinic and tetragonal that have been identified in the scales formed on zirconium alloys. The transition from tetragonal to monoclinic has been followed by Z-ray measurements and Raman laser spectroscopy. Information on the average content of the tetragonal phase was obtained by X-ray diffraction, whereas Raman laser analyses on tapered sections revealed its distribution through the scale thickness. Oxidation exposures were made in an autoclave, using H2O18 and D2O18 to determine the overall diffusion coefficients. In particular, oxide scales have been studied on Zircaloy-4 with three different precipitate sizes, and on a Zr-1Nb alloy, after exposure in an autoclave for between 3 and 100 days. The specimens were analyzed in detail in the vicinity of the kinetics transition point, where the acceleration of corrosion occurs. Raman spectroscopy analyses enabled the crystallographic nature of the ZrO2 to be determined. Close to the interface, the tetragonal phase content is about 40%, when after the transition the tetragonal phase is transformed into monoclinic. The O18 diffusion treatment was carried out in an autoclave at 400 degrees C under pressure on specimens previously oxidized for between 3 and 100 days in natural water vapor pressure. The diffusion profiles were determined by nuclear microanalysis using the O18(p, α) N15 reaction. Based on these profiles, the volume and grain boundary diffusion coefficients were calculated for each material and for each oxidation time

  7. Development and evaluation of a tracer-injection hydrothermal technique for studies of waste package interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tracer-injection system has been developed for use in characterizing reactions of waste package materials under hydrothermal conditions. High-pressure liquid chromatographic instrumentation has been coupled with Dickson-type rocking autoclaves to allow injection of selected components into the hydrothermal fluid while maintaining run temperature and pressure. Hydrothermal experiments conducted using this system included the interactions of depleted uranium oxide and Zircaloy-4 metal alloy discs with trace levels of 99Tc and non-radioactive Cs and I in a simulated groundwater matrix. After waste-package components and simulated waste forms were pre-conditioned in the autoclave systems (usually 4 to 6 weeks), known quantities of tracer-doped fluids were injected into the autoclaves' gold reaction bag at run conditions. Time-sequenced sampling of the hydrothermal fluid providing kinetic data on the reactions of tracers with waste package materials. The injection system facilitates the design of experiments that will better define ''steady-state'' fluid compositions in hydrothermal reactions. The injection system will also allow for the formation of tracer-bearing solid phases in detectable quantities

  8. Heat or gamma irradiation sterilization affects the hypocholesterolemic effect of guar gum in axenic and heteroxenic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-two axenic (germ free) or thirty heteroxenic (axenic colonized with human flora) 2.5-3.5 months old female Fisher rats were fed for four weeks either a hypercholesterolemic (hyper) diet or a hyper diet containing 5% guar gum (GG) sterilized by heat or gamma radiation. Axenic s rat fed the irradiated GG diet had had high cholesterolemia than their counterparts fed in autoclave diet (4.50 vs 2.29 mmol/l), whereas the method of sterilization had no effect on plasma cholesterol on axenic hyper or heteroxenic animals fed (7.35 vs 6.51 mg/dl). The levels of hepatic esterified cholesterol were higher in heteroxenic animals fed the irradiated GG diet than in their counterparts fed the autoclave GG diet (5.65 vs 3.57 mmol/g tissue). The composition of volatile fatty acids in the cecal contents of heteroxenic rats was dependent on the method of sterilization regardless of the presence of fiber: the levels of butyrate were 2.88 and 0,85 μmol/g for rats fed the autoclave and irradiated diets, respectively. Gamma radiation abolished the cholesterol-lowering effect of guar gum, whereas sterilization by heat preserved this effect. The hypocholesterolemic effect of guar was reduced by gamma irradiation sterilization and was probably mediated by qualitative changes in the intestinal microflora which interfered with bile acid absorption. (author)

  9. Determination of Significant Composite Processing Factors by Designed Experiment (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finckenor, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    To determie composite material properties' effects from porcessing variables, a 3 factorial designed experiment with two replicates was conducted. The factors were cure method (oven versus autoclave), layup (hand versus tape-laying machine), and thickness (8 versus 52 ply). Four material systems were tested: AS4/3501-6, IM7/8551-7, IM7/F655 bismaleimide (BMI), and shear tests on IM7/F584. Material properties were G(sub 12), v(sub 12), E(sub 1c) and E(sub 2c). Since the samples were necessarily nonstandard, strengths, though recorded, cannot be considered valid. Void content was also compared. Autoclave curing helped material properties for the low modulus fiber material but showed little benefit for higher stiffness fibers. The number of plies was very important for epoxy composites but not for the BMI. E(sub 1) was generally unaffected by any factor. Particularly high void content did correlate to reduced properties. Autoclave curing reduced void content over oven curiing but a moderate amount of voids, less than 1 percent void content, didnot correlate with material properties. Oven cures and hand layups can produce high-quality parts. Part thickness of epoxy composites is important, though cure optimization may improve performance. Significant variations can be caused by processing and it is important that test coupons always reflect the layup and processes of the final part.

  10. Methods for Improving Volume Stability of Steel Slag as Fine Aggregate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUN Yunxia; ZilOU Mingkai; CAI Xiao; XU Fang

    2008-01-01

    Suitable methods for enhancing the volume stability of steel slag utilized as fine aggregate were determined. The effects of steam treatment at 100 ℃ and autoclave treatment under 2.0 Mpa on the soundness of steel slag sand were investigated by means of powder ratio, linear expansion, compressive and flexural strength. DTA, EDX, XRD and ethylene glycol methods were employed to analyze both the treated slags and susceptible expansion grains. Experimental results indicate that powder ratio, content of free lime and rate of linear expansion can express the improvement in volume stability of different treated methods. Steam treatment process cannot ultimately prevent specimens from cracking and decrease of strength, but mortar made from autoclave treated slag keeps integration subjected to hot water of 80 ℃ until 28 d and its strength do not show significant decrement. The hydration of over-burn free lime and periclase phase are the main cause for the disintegration or crack of untreated and steam treated steel slag's specimens. Autoclave treatment process is more effective than steam treatment process on enhancement of volume stability of steel slag.

  11. Influence of liquid medium on the activity of a low-alpha Fischer-Tropsch catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gormley, R.J.; Zarochak, M.F.; Deffenbaugh, P.W.; Rao, K.R.P.M.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this research was to measure activity, selectivity, and the maintenance of these properties in slurry autoclave experiments with a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalyst that was used in the {open_quotes}FT II{close_quotes} bubble-column test, conducted at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) at LaPorte, Texas during May 1994. The catalyst contained iron, copper, and potassium and was formulated to produce mainly hydrocarbons in the gasoline range with lesser production of diesel-range products and wax. The probability of chain growth was thus deliberately kept low. Principal goals of the autoclave work have been to find the true activity of this catalyst in a stirred tank reactor, unhindered by heat or mass transfer effects, and to obtain a steady conversion and selectivity over the approximately 15 days of each test. Slurry autoclave testing of the catalyst in heavier waxes also allows insight into operation of larger slurry bubble column reactors. The stability of reactor operation in these experiments, particularly at loadings exceeding 20 weight %, suggests the likely stability of operations on a larger scale.

  12. Evaluation of steam sterilization conditions for [18F]fludeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [18F]Flu deoxyglucose (18FDG) is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography. Sterile filtration of the final product into sterile vials using 0.22 μm filter membrane is usually adopted for 18FDG. However, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines recommend heat sterilization as the method of choice to ensure sterility of pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this study was to essay different steam sterilization conditions in order to choose the best one for 18FDG. Three different sterilization conditions were essayed. The first one at 121 deg C for 15 minutes, the second one at 135 deg C for 3.5 minutes and the third one at 133 deg C for 2 minutes. 18FDG pH-formulation was kept around 6.0. At the end of autoclave cycles, 18FDG sterility was evaluated by direct inoculation of 18FDG in culture media and radiochemical purity was determined by TLC and HPLC. Results demonstrated that all essayed conditions were able to ensure 18FDG sterility, but caused a decrease in radiochemical purity of 18FDG. Autoclave cycle at 133 deg C for 2 minutes was the best essayed condition for 18FDG terminal sterilization, once it provided the greater radiochemical purity value and took less time. 18FDG was able to meet specifications after autoclave cycles, what supports the application of steam sterilization in routine 18FDG production, in compliance with GMP. (author)

  13. The Effect of Three Gums on the Retrogradation of Indica Rice Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Retrograded starch (RS3 was produced from indica rice starch with three kinds of gums (konjac glucomannan, KGM; carrageenan, CA, USA; and gellan, GA, USA by autoclaving, respectively, and the effect of the gums on the retrogradation behavior of starch was estimated. The influences of polysaccharide concentration, sodium chloride concentration, autoclaving time, refrigerated time, and pH value on RS3 formation were discussed. Except for sodium chloride’s persistent restraint on RS3, the others all forced RS3 yields higher at first, but lowered it after the peak value. The influencing sequence of these impact factors was: sodium chloride concentration > polysaccharide concentration > autoclaving time > refrigerated time > pH value. The results also proved that in the three gums, KGM plays the most significant role in RS3 changing. It was concluded that the incorporation of each of these three gums into starch, especially KGM, results in an increase or decrease of RS3 under different conditions. This phenomenon could be taken into consideration when developing starchy food with appropriate amount of RS3.

  14. Electrochemical investigation of the two-stage decomposition of oxide deposits on a high-alloy chromium nickel steel by the MOPAC decontamination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissertation explains the application of the MOPAC technique for decomposition of oxide layers deposited under PWR conditions on an austenitic, high-alloy chromium nickel steel (DIN material number 1.4550). The examinations were mainly done by impedance spectrometry. With this technique, Cr(III)-oxide is oxidized to chromate in a first step, in 'oxidation solution', and the remaining oxide deposit is then dissolved in 'decontamination solution'. The various specimens used for the examinations were pre-treated ('oxidized') in water in an autoclave at 300deg C and 160 bar, remaining there for either one, two, three, six, or eight months. Extensive pre-experiments were carried out with polished sections of the same material. Comparison of the impedance spectra of these specimens with those of specimens from the autoclave were expected to yield data allowing assignment of impedance spectra to specific transformations in the oxide layers produced in the autoclave. It was found out that the treatment in oxidation solution is the decisive step for oxide decomposition, and hence for the entire result of the decontamination process. (orig.)

  15. Steam sterilization of air turbine dental handpieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwardsson, S; Svensäter, G; Birkhed, D

    1983-12-01

    The efficacy of autoclaving high-speed dental handpieces was tested in two types of downward displacement steam sterilizers (instrument autoclaves), commonly used in the dentist's office. Eight series of experiments were performed with various sterilization schedules. Lubrication oils with or without antimicrobial agent were used in four of the series. Each handpiece was inoculated with 1 ml of a suspension containing equal amounts of saliva and spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus (approx. 10(6) spores/ml). Neither sterilization at 120-124 degrees C for 20 min nor at 134-136 degrees C for 10 min resulted in complete inactivation of the spores in series in which the instruments were tested without oil or with oil containing no antimicrobial agent. However, when the handpieces were lubricated with oil containing isopropanol and formaldehyde and the schedule 134-136 degrees C/10 min was used, no growth was observed. The results indicate that instrument autoclaves with built-in programs of 120-124 degrees C/20 min and 134-136 degrees C/10 min could have insufficient capacity to sterilize lubricated or unlubricated dental handpieces. The use of oils containing an antimicrobial agent can overcome this problem. PMID:6362319

  16. Comparison of the effectiveness of sterilizing endodontic files by 4 different methods: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatasubramanian R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sterilization is the best method to counter the threats of microorganisms. The purpose of sterilization in the field of health care is to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. In dentistry, it primarily relates to processing reusable instruments to prevent cross-infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of 4 methods of sterilizing endodontic instruments: Autoclaving, carbon dioxide laser sterilization, chemical sterilization (with glutaraldehyde and glass-bead sterilization. The endodontic file was sterilized by 4 different methods after contaminating it with bacillus stearothermophillus and then checked for sterility by incubating after putting it in test tubes containing thioglycollate medium. The study showed that the files sterilized by autoclave and lasers were completely sterile. Those sterilized by glass bead were 90% sterile and those with glutaraldehyde were 80% sterile. The study concluded that autoclave or laser could be used as a method of sterilization in clinical practice and in advanced clinics; laser can be used also as a chair side method of sterilization.

  17. Preliminary evidence for a phage in sewage utilizing Clostridium thermoaceticum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, A.K.; Bose, N.K.; Uyamadu, N.; Agrawal, P.K. (Atlanta University Center, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Briefly describes a method for isolating bacteriophages (viruses which infect bacteria) from {ital Clostridium thermoaceticum}. Water samples were anaerobically collected from the local sewage plant and sterile filtered inside a Coy-anaerobic chamber. Filtrate from the sewage liquid was added to the cultures of {ital C thermoaceticum} for observing lysis. Sterile filtrate was autoclaved (and/or treated with detergent) and added to bacterial cultures. Filtrates from lysed cultures were serially transferred from one culture to another. Virus (phage) was purified by ultracentrifugation in the form of pellets and stored at 4{degree}C in VSM (virus suspending medium). Phages were also observed under electron microscope after negative staining with glutaraldehyde. The sterile filtrate from sewage plant lysed the bacterial cultures, while the autoclaved and detergent treated was ineffective. Cultures where sterile water was added as controls grew normally. Reduced growth due to the addition of autoclaved filtrate could have resulted from the presence of bactericins. Virus by purified ultracentrifugation was also very effective in lysing the cultures. Though not very clear, icosahedral particles of the viruses were seen under the electron microscope. Further studies with this phage are in progress with the aim of obtaining a lysogenic strain (or developing one by mutagenesis) for its use as vector to transfer the genes for co-dehydrogenase and formate-dehydrogenase, the key enzymes involved in the conversion of CO or syngas into acetic acid by this organism. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in some industries residue used in new type wall materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the radon exhalation rate in some industries residue used in new type wall materials. Methods: To determine the radon exhalation rate by the activated charcoal absorption and γ-ray spectrometer with HPGe detector. Results: The radon exhalation rate level is successively autoclaved aerated concrete block (9.70 ± 2.54 Bq·m-2·s-1, fly ash block (5.83 ± 1.85) Bq·m-2·s-1, gangue block (4.70±2.45) Bq·m-2·-1, clay block (2.63 ± 0.56) Bq·m-2·s-1. Conclusion: The average radon exhalation rate level of autoclaved aerated concrete block and fly ash block is significantly higher than that 1 of clay block, the differences is significant (P0.05). The gangue block is a ideal New Type Wall Material, whose radon exhalation is lower than that of autoclaved aerated concrete block and fly ash block. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of steam sterilization conditions for [{sup 18}F]fludeoxyglucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Priscilla F.; Nascimento, Leonardo T.; Valente, Eduardo S.; Silva, Juliana B.; Silveira, Marina B.; Ferreira, Soraya Z., E-mail: somafe@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Pesquisa e Producao de Radiofarmacos

    2011-07-01

    [{sup 18}F]Flu deoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG) is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography. Sterile filtration of the final product into sterile vials using 0.22 {mu}m filter membrane is usually adopted for {sup 18}FDG. However, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines recommend heat sterilization as the method of choice to ensure sterility of pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this study was to essay different steam sterilization conditions in order to choose the best one for {sup 18}FDG. Three different sterilization conditions were essayed. The first one at 121 deg C for 15 minutes, the second one at 135 deg C for 3.5 minutes and the third one at 133 deg C for 2 minutes. {sup 18}FDG pH-formulation was kept around 6.0. At the end of autoclave cycles, {sup 18}FDG sterility was evaluated by direct inoculation of {sup 18}FDG in culture media and radiochemical purity was determined by TLC and HPLC. Results demonstrated that all essayed conditions were able to ensure {sup 18}FDG sterility, but caused a decrease in radiochemical purity of {sup 18}FDG. Autoclave cycle at 133 deg C for 2 minutes was the best essayed condition for {sup 18}FDG terminal sterilization, once it provided the greater radiochemical purity value and took less time. {sup 18}FDG was able to meet specifications after autoclave cycles, what supports the application of steam sterilization in routine {sup 18}FDG production, in compliance with GMP. (author)

  20. Corrosion of aluminum alloys as a function of alloy composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was initiated which included nineteen aluminum alloys. Tests were conducted in high purity water at 3600C and flow tests (approx. 20 ft/sec) in reactor process water at 1300C (TF-18 loop tests). High-silicon alloys and AlSi failed completely in the 3600C tests. However, coupling of AlSi to 8001 aluminum suppressed the failure. The alloy compositions containing iron and nickel survived tht 3600C autoclave exposures. Corrosion rates varied widely as a function of alloy composition, but in directions which were predictable from previous high-temperature autoclave experience. In the TF-18 loop flow tests, corrosion penetrations were similar on all of the alloys and on high-purity aluminum after 105 days. However, certain alloys established relatively low linear corrosion rates: Al-0.9 Ni-0.5 Fe-0.1 Zr, Al-1.0 Ni-0.15 Fe-11.5 Si-0.8 Mg, Al-1.2 Ni-1.8 Fe, and Al-7.0 Ni-4.8 Fe. Electrical polarity measurements between AlSi and 8001 alloys in reactor process water at temperatures up to 1500C indicated that AlSi was anodic to 8001 in the static autoclave system above approx. 500C

  1. Conductivity testing and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygita Makaravičiūtė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface wastewater is consideredas effluents, which are formed on the surface of urbanized areas. Stormwater treatment is performed out using a variety of filters: sand, grass. Wastewater penetration into the deeper layers is called hydraulic conductivity. After evaluation of the hydraulic conductivity, it is possible to determine the ability of the investigated fillers to entrap the stormwater flow. The hydraulic conductivity tests can indicate which fillers of stormwater filters may influence the more effective stormwater cleaning. Four stormwater filters were tested: crushed autoclaved aerated concrete filter; crushed autoclaved aerated concrete with Meadow grass (Poa pratensis layer; silica sand filter with Meadow grass (Poa pratensis layer; silica sand filter. Under in-situ conditions hydraulic conductivity in filters is investigated using Constant-head method. Mathematical modeling program Hydrus-1D presentsthe changes of hydraulic conductivity in each filler layer of the filter. Assessed hydraulic conductivity in filters under in-situ conditions hasn‘t changed only in crushed autoclaved aerated concrete filter (30 000 mm/d. The smallest hydraulic conductivity in filters under in-situ conditions was estimated in silica sand filter with Meadow grass (Poa pratensis layer, here it was equal to 209.3 mm/d.With mathematical modeling program Hydrus-1D it was found that the hydraulic conductivity in each filter decreases, depending on the depth of filler in the filter.

  2. Moist-heat sterilization and the chemical stability of heat-labile parenteral solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L C; Parasrampuria, J; Bommireddi, A; Pec, E; Dudleston, A; Mayoral, J

    1998-01-01

    The impact of moist-heat sterilization (autoclaving) on the chemical stability of parenteral solutions was examined using two heat-labile products, clindamycin phosphate and succinylcholine chloride injections, as examples. A nonisothermal kinetic model was used to predict the extent of product degradation during autoclaving. The predicted results were found to be in close agreement with the experimental data. For the same peak temperature, a greater loss of product was shown by using a cycle with a higher F0. On the other hand, a higher peak-temperature cycle resulted in less product degradation for the same F0 value. The benefit of a high-temperature cycle was further illustrated by the fact that less chemical degradation for both products was produced by a 122 degrees C cycle with an F0 of 11 as compared to that which occurred during a 116.5 degrees C cycle with an F0 of 8. Although clindamycin phosphate was found to be highly unstable during a conventional autoclaving process, predicted data indicate that a UHT (Ultra-High Temperature) process may be used to sterilize this product with acceptable degradation. PMID:15605602

  3. Effect of the anodization variables in the corrosion resistence of the zircaloy-4 tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anodization effect in the oxidation of the zircaloy-4 in steam atmosphere at 10,06MPa was investigated. It was also studied how the voltage and the types of electrolytes at several values of pH affect the growing of the anodic oxide film and the performance of the zircaloy-4 in relation to corrosion. Anodizations of zircaloy-4 tubes have been made with voltages ranging from zero to 280V and using electrolytic solutions of Na2B4O7, CH3COOH and NaOH in the concentrations of 1,0N, 0,1N and 0,01N. After anodization, the tubes were oxidized in autoclave under steam at 4000C and 10,06 MPa during 3 and 14 days. The results show that the anodization inhibit the oxidation process of zircaloy-4, and that this protection increases with the voltage applied for film formation. The relationship between the weight gain after oxidation in autoclave and the anodization voltage is of the exponential type: (σM/A) sub(AC) = Ce sup(-DV). The observed relationship between the applied voltage and the weight gain due to anodization is of the linear type: (σM/A) sub(AN) = aV. Concerning the influence of different electrolytes, it was observed a similar behaviour between them with respect to the thickness of the anodic oxide and the weight gain of zircaloy-4 after the autoclave test. (Author)

  4. Phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility, dietary fiber, and minerals of pulses as influenced by processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, U; Singh, U; Rao, P V

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the effect of various types of processing on selected nutrition related parameters of commonly consumed Indian pulses and soybean. Germination reduced the phytic acid content of chickpea and pigeonpea seeds by over 60%, and that of mung bean, urd bean, and soybean by about 40%. Fermentation reduced phytic acid contents by 26-39% in all these legumes with the exception of pigeonpea in which it was reduced by more than 50%. Autoclaving and roasting were more effective in reducing phytic acid in chickpea and pigeonpea than in urd bean, mung bean, and soybean. Germination and fermentation greatly increased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD). IVPD was only slightly increased by roasting and autoclaving of all legumes. Germination and fermentation also remarkably decreased the total dietary fiber (TDF) in all legumes. Autoclaving and roasting resulted in slight increases in TDF values. All the processing treatments had little effect on calcium, magnesium and iron contents. PMID:8983057

  5. Sterilisation of extracted human teeth for educational use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty intact, non-carious and unrestored teeth extracted due to periodontal disease were used to determine the most effective method of sterilisation. The teeth were divided into six groups, each containing 10 teeth. Group 1 teeth were immersed in 10% formalin for seven days, group 2 teeth were immersed in 3% hydrogen peroxide for seven days, group 3 teeth were immersed in 2.6% sodium hypochlorite for seven days, group 4 teeth were boiled in water at 100°C for 20 minutes, group 5 teeth were autoclaved at 121°C at 15 lbs psi for 30 minutes, and group 6 teeth were immersed in normal saline for seven days. After the treatment, the teeth were individually inoculated into trypticase soy broth and incubated for 48 hours. A questionnaire survey was also conducted to determine the awareness of dental students regarding infection due to extracted human teeth and the common disinfection/sterilisation methods used. Autoclaving at 121°C, 15 lbs psi for 30 minutes and immersion in 10% formalin for seven days were effective in disinfecting/sterilising extracted human teeth. Chemicals such as 2.6% sodium hypochlorite, 3% hydrogen peroxide and boiling in water were not effective. The results indicate that autoclaving for 30 minutes or immersion in 10% formalin for seven days could be effectively used for disinfection/sterilisation of extracted human teeth.

  6. Nodular corrosion of the Zircaloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxide nodules form on Zircaloy nuclear components under irradiation. Similar nodules were observed on Zircaloy coupons in cold rolled or extended conditions after autoclave treatments at 475 and 5000C in steam at 1500 to 1700 psi. Stages of nodular corrosion in the autoclave were nodule nucleation, growth, coalescence, propagation to accelerated uniform corrosion, and complete specimen oxidation. Observations on BWR fuel rods suggest that a similar progressive attack has occurred; however, in no case has the in-reactor attack progressed to the stage of complete fuel rod failure. Recent autoclave tests confirmed the nodular character of the attack on cold-worked materials. Alpha anneals (up to 7900C) did not consistently suppress the nodular attack. However, alpha + beta (8400C) and beta (1010 and 10400C) anneals did suppress the attack if followed by a fast cool. The efficacy of the anneals applied similarly to Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4. Stresses associated with U-bend specimens and heavy (86 percent) cold work did not enhance the nodular attack before stress relief occurred. The nodular attack on reactor components appears to depend on nuclear flux, and develops in oxygenated reactor coolants, principally in the vicinity of fuel rod spacers. Experience with irradiated specimens in reactor loops suggests that uniform concentrations of dissolved oxygen alone do not initiate nodular attack. Localized water chemistry associated with flow disturbances or, in some cases, dissimilar metals in fuel spacers, may be factors in the nodular attack in-reactor

  7. INTERACTIONS AMONG PHOSPHATE AMENDMENTS, MICROBES AND URANIUM MOBILITY IN CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A

    2007-08-30

    The use of sequestering agents for the transformation of radionuclides in low concentrations in contaminated soils/sediments offers considerable potential for long-term environmental cleanup. This study evaluated the influence of four phosphate amendments and two microbial amendments on U availability. The synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of the untreated U-contaminated sediment showed that U was closely associated with Mn. All tested phosphate amendments reduced aqueous U concentration more than 90%, likely due to formation of insoluble phosphate precipitates. The addition of A. piechaudii and P. putida alone were found to reduce U concentrations 63% and 31% respectively. Uranium sorption in phosphate treatments was significantly reduced in the presence of microbes. However, increased microbial activity in the treated sediment led to reduction of phosphate effectiveness. The average U concentration in 1 M MgCl{sub 2} extract from U amended sediment was 437 {micro}g/kg, but in the same sediment without microbes (autoclaved sediment), the extractable U concentration was only 103 {micro}g/kg. When the autoclaved amended sediment was treated with autoclaved biological apatite, U concentration in the 1 M MgCl{sub 2} extract was {approx}0 {micro}g/kg. Together these tests suggest that microbes may enhance U leaching and reduce phosphate amendment remedial effectiveness.

  8. Biomedical waste in laboratory medicine: Audit and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitnis V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathology, microbiology, blood bank and other diagnostic laboratories generate sizable amount of biomedical waste (BMW. The audit of the BMW is required for planning proper strategies. The audit in our laboratory revealed 8 kgs anatomical waste, 600 kgs microbiology waste, 220 kgs waste sharps, 15 kgs soiled waste, 111 kgs solid waste, 480 litres liquid waste along with 33000 litres per month liquid waste generated from labware washing and laboratory cleaning and 162 litres of chemical waste per month. Section wise details are described in the text. Needle sharps are collected in puncture proof containers and the needles autoclaved before sending to needle pit. The glass forms the major sharp category and is disinfected with hypochlorite before washing/recycling. All microbiology waste along with containers/plates/tubes are autoclaved before recycling/disposal. The problem of formalin fixed anatomical waste as histology specimens is pointed out. The formalin containing tissues cannot be sent for incineration for the fear of toxic gas release and the guidelines by the Biomedical waste rule makers need to be amended for the issue. The discarded/infected blood units in blood bank need to be autoclaved before disposal since chemical treatments are difficult or inefficient. The liquid waste management needs more attention and effluent treatment facility needs to be viewed seriously for hospital in general. The segregation of waste at source is the key step and reduction, reuse and recycling should be considered in proper perspectives.

  9. Kinetics of passivation of a nickel-base alloy in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of passivation and the composition of the surface oxide layer, in high temperature and high pressure water, of a nickel-chromium-iron alloy (Alloy 600) have been investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The samples have been exposed for short (0.4 - 8.2 min) and longer (0 - 400 hours) time periods to high temperature (325 deg. C) and high pressure water (containing boron and lithium) under controlled hydrogen pressure. The experiments were performed in two types of autoclaves: a novel autoclave dedicated to short time periods and a classic static autoclave for the longer exposures. In the initial stage of passivation, a continuous ultra-thin layer of chromium oxide (Cr2O3) is rapidly formed on the surface with an external layer of chromium hydroxide. For longer times of passivation, the oxide layer is in a duplex form with an internal chromium oxide layer and an external layer of nickel hydroxide. The growth of the internal Cr2O3 oxide layer has been fitted by three classical models (parabolic, logarithmic and inverse logarithmic laws) for the short passivation times, and the growth curves have been extrapolated to longer passivation periods. The comparison with the experimental results reveals that the kinetics of passivation of Alloy 600 in high temperature and high pressure water, for passivation times up to 400 hours, is well fitted by a logarithmic growth law. (authors)

  10. Binding of navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) lectin to the intestinal cells of the rat and its effect on the absorption of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of this investigation were to study the binding of a lectin from navy beans with the epithelial cells of the rat intestine and to assess the effect of such binding on the ability of the intestine to absorb glucose. A Scatchard plot, based on the binding of 125I-labeled lectin to isolated intestinal epithelial cells, was used to calculate an association constant (Ka) of 15 x 10(6)M-1 and the number of binding sites per cell, 12 x 10(6). Metabolic studies were conducted over a period of 5 d on groups of rats fed raw or autoclaved navy bean flour and casein with or without the purified lectin. Growth, protein digestibility, biological value and net protein utilization were significantly lower in animals that had been fed raw navy bean flour or casein plus lectin than in control groups fed diets containing autoclaved navy bean flour or casein alone. Vascular perfusion was used to measure the rate of uptake of glucose by the intestines of rats that had received the various dietary treatments. The rate of absorption of [14C]glucose by intestines from rats fed raw navy bean flour or casein plus lectin was approximately one-half that of their counterparts fed the autoclaved flour or casein alone. These results provide evidence that the lectin, by virtue of its interference with intestinal absorption, is responsible, at least in part, for the nutritional inferiority of raw navy beans

  11. Use of gamma irradiation for wheat sterilization as a media for cultivation of mushrooms' spawn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, respect to mushrooms, nutritious value cultivation and culture of this valuable crop has increased in our country. Since, today the nuclear techniques for preserving and improving the quality of agricultural products and foods are being the core of consideration and these techniques are being vastly utilized, therefore we can use these techniques to eliminate some of the existing problems which appear during processing of mushrooms. In this research the possibility of using 60 Co gamma irradiation to sterilize the wheat as a medium culture of mushroom mycelia was examined and during several experiments we obtained the suitable gamma irradiation dose rate (10000 Gy) and then, we made a comparison between two methods of wheat sterilization i.e. by the means of; l: autoclave and 2: gamma irradiation with respect to the quality and race of 'Pleuroturs Sajor Caju' mushrooms, mycelium growth. According to the results, at the early stage of experiments no noticeable difference between autoclave and irradiated samples was observed but gradually it was noted that on irradiated culture bed the mycelium growth was infinitely better than those on autoclave wheat. Thus in irradiated seeds grain, since the grain wheat was remained sound, the my celia were grown regularly

  12. Kinetics of passivation of a nickel-base alloy in high temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machet, A. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS-ENSCP (UMR 7045), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France)]|[Framatome ANP, Tour AREVA, F-92084 Paris-la-Defense (France); Galtayries, A.; Zanna, S.; Marcus, P. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS-ENSCP (UMR 7045), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Jolivet, P.; Scott, P. [Framatome ANP, Tour AREVA, F-92084 Paris-la-Defense (France); Foucault, M.; Combrade, P. [Framatome ANP, Centre Technique, F-71205 Le Creusot (France)

    2004-07-01

    The kinetics of passivation and the composition of the surface oxide layer, in high temperature and high pressure water, of a nickel-chromium-iron alloy (Alloy 600) have been investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The samples have been exposed for short (0.4 - 8.2 min) and longer (0 - 400 hours) time periods to high temperature (325 deg. C) and high pressure water (containing boron and lithium) under controlled hydrogen pressure. The experiments were performed in two types of autoclaves: a novel autoclave dedicated to short time periods and a classic static autoclave for the longer exposures. In the initial stage of passivation, a continuous ultra-thin layer of chromium oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is rapidly formed on the surface with an external layer of chromium hydroxide. For longer times of passivation, the oxide layer is in a duplex form with an internal chromium oxide layer and an external layer of nickel hydroxide. The growth of the internal Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide layer has been fitted by three classical models (parabolic, logarithmic and inverse logarithmic laws) for the short passivation times, and the growth curves have been extrapolated to longer passivation periods. The comparison with the experimental results reveals that the kinetics of passivation of Alloy 600 in high temperature and high pressure water, for passivation times up to 400 hours, is well fitted by a logarithmic growth law. (authors)

  13. Tolerance testing of passive radio frequency identification tags for solvent, temperature, and pressure conditions encountered in an anatomic pathology or biorepository setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina A Leung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radio frequency identification (RFID tags have potential for use in identifying and tracking biospecimens in anatomic pathology and biorepository laboratories. However, there is little to no data on the tolerance of tags to solutions, solvents, temperatures, and pressures likely to be encountered in the laboratory. The functioning of the Hitachi Mu-chip RFID tag, a candidate for pathology use, was evaluated under such conditions. Methods: The RFID tags were affixed to cryovials containing tissue or media, glass slides, and tissue cassettes. The tags were interrogated for readability before and after each testing condition or cycle. Individual tags were subjected to only one testing condition but for multiple cycles. Testing conditions were: 1 Ten wet autoclave cycles (121˚C, 15 psi; 2 Ten dry autoclave cycles (121˚C, 26 psi; 3 Ten tissue processor cycles; 4 Ten hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining cycles; 5 Ten antigen retrieval pressure cooker cycles (125˚C, 15 psi; 6 75 o C for seven days; 7 75-59 o C day/night cycles for 7 days; 8 -80 o C, -150 o C, or -196 o C for 12 months; 9 Fifty freeze-thaw cycles (-196 o C to 22 o C. Results: One hundred percent of tags exposed to cold temperatures from -80 to -196 o C (80 tags, 1120 successful reads, high temperatures from 52 to 75 o C (40 tags, 420 reads, H & E staining (20 tags, 200 reads, pressure cooker antigen retrieval (20 tags, 200 reads, and wet autoclaving (20 tags, 200 reads functioned well throughout and after testing. Of note, all 20 tested tags tolerated 50 freeze-thaw cycles and all 60 tags subjected to sustained freezing temperatures were readable after 1 year. One dry autoclaved tag survived nine cycles but failed after the tenth. The remaining 19 tags were readable after all 10 dry autoclave cycles. One tag failed after the first tissue processing cycle while the remaining 19 tags survived all 10 tissue processing cycles. Conclusions: In this preliminary study, these RFID

  14. Soil-solution distribution coefficients, K{sub d}s, of I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -} for 68 Japanese soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, S.; Muramatsu, Y.; Uchida, S. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Soil-solution distribution coefficients, K{sub d}s, of I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -} were measured by a batch method using {sup 125}I for 68 wet (fresh) and autoclaved soils collected from upland fields, paddies, forests and open areas throughout Japan. Nine soil properties, such as soil-pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), anion exchange capacity (AEC), active-Al (extractable Al by oxalic acid + ammonium oxalate) and total organic carbon (TOC), were also measured. The K{sub d}s for wet soils ranged widely from 1.1 to 10,200 1 kg{sup -1} for I{sup -} and from 2.1 to 8210 1 kg{sup -1} for IO{sub 3}{sup -}. The medians for I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -} were 525 and 437 1 kg{sup -1}, respectively. These values were almost two orders of magnitude higher than previously reported K{sub d}s for air-dried Japanese soils. The medians of K{sub d}s for I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -} were the highest for Andosols, followed by Gley soils and Brown Forest soils. The K{sub d}s for sandy samples were low. Relatively good correlations (r > 0.65) were found between K{sub d}s for wet soils and TOC and total-N, indicating the contribution of organic materials on the sorption of I. The K{sub d}s were markedly reduced by autoclaving. The medians of K{sub d}s for autoclaved soils for I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -} were 2.4 and 12.4 1 kg{sup -1}, respectively. The effects of autoclaving on the sorption of I{sup -} were more remarkable than those for IO{sub 3}{sup -}. It was estimated that 86% of I{sup -} sorption and 50% of IO{sub 3}{sup -} sorption were attributable to the microbial activities and/or soil fractions which are sensitive to autoclaving. (orig.)

  15. Exploring the influence of sterilisation and storage on some physicochemical properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L. water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agyare Rebecca

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fresh coconut (Cocos nucifera L water is a clear, sterile, colourless, slightly acidic and naturally flavoured drink, mostly consumed in tropical areas. It is a rich source of nutrients and has been used for medical purposes. This study was designed to investigate changes in selected characteristics of coconut water after autoclaving, gamma irradiation and storage. Also, the study was designed for assessing the possibility of measuring the growth of bacterial in fresh, stored or sterilised coconut water using turbidity measurements (at wavelengths between 600 nm and 800 nm or by dry biomass determinations. Results Portions of coconut water aseptically extracted from the matured fruit, (average pH of 6.33 ± 0.17 were either stored at 4°C, autoclaved at 121°C for 20 min., or irradiated with gamma rays at 5 kGy. Subsequent changes in selected characteristics were determined. Autoclaving, gamma irradiation and long term storage of coconut water at 4°C resulted both in the development of a pale to intense yellow colour and changes in turbidity. After storage, the dry matter content of fresh, autoclaved and irradiated coconut water by 52.0%, 23.5% and 5.0% respectively. There were also significant differences in the UV spectra before and after sterilisation and during the storage of the coconut water. Although changes in total carbohydrates were observed, they were not significant (p > 0.05. Conclusions The enormous differences in the characteristics before and after storage suggests that the use of turbidity and dry biomass measurements for measuring the growth of bacteria in fresh, autoclaved and gamma irradiated coconut water before storage is practicable without any possibility of interference by the innate turbidity, colour and dry matter of the coconut water. However, this is not practicable after storing the coconut waters at 4°C, since there were increases in the turbidity and dry matter of the coconut water to levels

  16. Controle de Alternaria solani em tomateiro por extratos de Curcuma longa e curcumina: I. avaliação in vitro Control of Alternaria solani in tomato by Curcuma longa extracts and curcumin: I. In vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Balbi-Peña

    2006-06-01

    solani. Four different concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10 and 20% of aqueous extracts of turmeric rhizomes (sterilized by autoclave and four curcumin solutions (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/L were incorporated into potato dextrose agar medium in order to evaluate fungal mycelial growth and sporulation. To evaluate the effect of using an autoclave, 10% and 15% turmeric extracts were sterilized by filtration. The effects of autoclaved and non-autoclaved turmeric extracts and curcumin on in vitro spore germination were tested. The concentrations of 10 and 15% of non-autoclaved turmeric extracts inhibited the mycelial growth by 38.2% and 23.2% respectively and the fungal sporulation by 71.7% and 87% respectively. When turmeric extracts were autoclaved, neither mycelial growth nor spore germination was inhibited and the effect on sporulation was reduced, suggesting the presence of thermolabile antimicrobial compounds. The non-autoclaved 5% extract inhibited spore germination by up to 15%. At the highest concentration, the curcumin solution inhibited mycelial growth by 29.5%. Neither in vitro sporulation nor spore germination was affected by curcumin. These results show the fungitoxic potential of turmeric and curcumin against A. solani.

  17. Extratos de alho e alecrim na indução de faseolina em feijoeiro e fungitoxicidade sobre Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Garlic and rosemary extracts in the induction of phaseollin in beans and fungitoxicity on Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cristiane Brand

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Extratos vegetais podem auxiliar no controle de doenças de plantas, por sua atividade antimicrobiana ou pela ativação de mecanismos de defesa. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito dos extratos aquosos de alho e alecrim autoclavados e não autoclavados sobre o crescimento micelial de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, a produção de faseolina em feijoeiro e a severidade de antracnose em campo. O fungo foi incubado em meio de cultura contendo os extratos, e o crescimento foi mensurado por 18 dias. Para avaliação de faseolina, os extratos foram aplicados sobre hipocótilos de feijão, a extração foi feita em etanol e a leitura foi realizada em espectrofotômetro. A severidade da antracnose foi avaliada em plantas de feijão pulverizadas com os extratos e inoculadas com o fungo. Para o extrato de alho, a maior redução (57,6% no crescimento micelial foi com a dose de 3,0% do extrato não autoclavado. Já para o extrato de alecrim, a maior redução (18,6% foi com o extrato autoclavado. A autoclavagem não teve efeito sobre a indução de faseolina. À campo, os extratos não reduziram significativamente a severidade de antracnose. O extrato de alho não autoclavado mostrou-se mais eficiente na redução do crescimento de C. lindemuthianum, enquanto que o de alecrim, autoclavado ou não, foi mais efetivo na indução de faseolina.Plant extracts may assist in controlling plants diseases due to its antimicrobial activity and activation of defense mechanisms. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of garlic and rosemary, autoclaved or non autoclaved, on the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, production of phaseollin by beans and severity of anthracnose in the field. The fungus was incubated in medium containing the extracts and its growth measured for 18 days. For phaseollin evaluation the extracts were applied on bean hypocotyls, the phytoalexin extracted in ethanol and read in spectrophotometer. The

  18. Screening culture filtrates of fungi for activity against Tylenchulus semipenetrans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdejo-Lucas, S.; Viera, A.; Stchigel, A. M.; Sorribas, F. J.

    2009-07-01

    Culture filtrates of 20 fungi isolated from citrus soils were screened for their activity against Tylenchulus semipenetrans in both in vitro and greenhouse tests. The filtrates of Talaromyces cyanescens (isolates 2-4 and 2-5), Paecilomyces lilacinus, Chaetomium robustum, Acremonium strictum, Engyodontium album, Myrothecium verrucaria, Emericella rugulosa, and Tarracomyces gigaspora consistently inhibited the motility of second-stage juveniles at various concentrations of the filtrate. Dose-response models were used to determine the filtrate concentration required to inhibit the motility of 50% of the juveniles (CI50). The culture filtrate of P. lilacinus showed the highest activity with a CI50 value of 58% that differed from that of C. robustum (CI50 = 68%), and A. strictum CI50 = 82%. The culture filtrates of P. lilacinus, E. album, and T. cyanescens 2-5 maintained their activity when autoclaved at 120 degree centigrade for 20 min. The autoclaved filtrate of T. cyanescens 2-4 was more effective at inhibiting juvenile motility (CI50 = 28%) than that of T. cyanescens 2-5 (CI50 = 80%), C. robustum (CI50 = 72 %) and P. lilacinus (CI50 = 72%). The culture filtrate of T. cyanescens 2-4 also inhibited egg hatching. Nematode reproduction on Cleopatra mandarin and Carrizo citrange were respectively reduced by the culture filtrate of P. lilacinus and the autoclaved filtrate of T. cyanescens 2-4. These results support the hypothesis that soil fungi may contribute to regulate nematode densities by the production of secondary metabolites with nematicidal activity. (Author) 30 refs.

  19. The effect of mixed-bed resin ingress into the Embalse PHTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embalse NGS is provided four in-line autoclaves for a routine materials surveillance program. Through a cooperative program between the utility management and the Research and Development Branch of CNEA, the routine program was expanded to include Materials Tests according to the on-going R and D programs. The availability of the autoclave facilities and the joint Embalse/R and D program proved very valuable in occasion of the resin ingress into the PHTS due to the collapse of a Johnson strainer on April 9, 1988. The details of the incident have been communicated previously, and it is not the purpose of this presentation to describe the sequence of events on April 9, 1988, and following days. Rather, we present here the results of the materials surveillance program that was adopted to follow the materials behaviour and to check the possible negative impact of the resin ingress. The mixed bed resins were subjected to hydrothermal degradation under high radiation fields (the reactor went into hot shut-down state in two hours and was further cooled in a six hours' interval). Formation of ammonia, carbon dioxide, sulfate, nitrate and chloride are all possible. The long term surveillance program was carried out during the following 400 EFPD, on corrosion coupons provided by AECL and on additional samples prepared in CNEA on original materials from Embalse's PHTS. Comparisons were made of the behaviour of AECL materials ingressed in the Autoclave System in 1983, CNEA materials inserted in 1986, and additional CNEA coupons installed in 1988, after the incident

  20. Degradation of Herbicides Atrazine and Bentazone Applied Alone and in Combination in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-Bin; CHENG Jing-Tao; WANG Xiao-Fang; ZHOU Ying; LIU Wei-Ping

    2008-01-01

    The application of a mixture of bentazone (3-isopropyl-lH-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one-2,2-dioxide) and atrazine (6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-isopropy1-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) is a practical approach to enhance the herbicidal effect.Labo-ratory incubation experiments were performed to study the degradation of bentazone and atrazine applied in combination and individually in maize rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils.After a lag phase,the degradation of each individual herbicide in the non-autoclaved soil could be adequately described using a first-order kinetic equation.During a 30-d in-cubation,in the autoclaved rhizosphere soil,bentazone and atrazine did not noticeably degrade,but in the non-autoclaved soil,they rapidly degraded in both non-rhizosphere and rhizosphere soils with half-lives of 19.9 and 20.2 d for bentazone and 29.1 and 25.7 d for atrazine,respectively.The rhizosphere effect significantly enhanced the degradation of atrazine,but had no significant effect on bentazone.These results indicated that biological degradation accounted for the degrada-tion of both herbicides in the soil.When compared with the degradation of the herbicide applied alone,the degradation rates of the herbicides applied in combination in the soils were lower and the lag phase increased.With the addition of a surfactant,Tween-20,a reduced lag phase of degradation was observed for both herbicides applied in combination.The degradation rate of bentazone accelerated,whereas that of atrazine remained nearly unchanged.Thus,when these two herbicides were used simultaneously,their persistence in the soil was generally prolonged,and the environmental contamination potential increased.

  1. Microbial penetration through Berea sandstone and the effect of nitrate on biogenic sulfide production: their relevance to microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenneman, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Penetration times, and penetration rates, for a motile Bacillus strain growing in nutrient-saturated Berea sandstone cores were determined. The rate of penetration was essentially independent of permeability above 100 mD and rapidly declined for permeabilities below 100 mD. The maximum observed penetration rate was 0.47 cm/h and the slowest was 0.06 xm/h. The motile Enterobacter aerrogenes penetrated Berea sandstone cores 3-8 times faster than the non-motile Klebsiella pneumoniae strain when cores of comparable length of permeability were used. Results from energy dispersion spectroscopy, and electron microscopy of autoclaved and dry-heat sterilized rock revealed that changes in mineral content and clay morphology of autoclaved rock could account for faster penetration of bacteria through autoclaved versus dry-heat sterilized rock. However, changes in permeability, porosity, and pore throat size of rock sterilized by the two methods were not sufficient to account for differences in penetration times. The addition of 58.8 mM nitrate was found to inhibit biogenic sulfide production in sewage sludge (10% v/v) amended with 20 mM sulfate and either acetate, glucose, or hydrogen as energy sources. Lesser amounts of nitrate (5.9 mM and 19.5 mM), as well as, increasing amounts of sewage sludge resulted in only transient inhibition of sulfide production. The addition of 156 mM sulfate and 58.8 mM nitrate to 10% sewage sludge or pond sediment slurries resulted in no sulfide inhibition. The prolonged inhibition of sulfide production was attributed to an increase in oxidation-reduction potential due to production of biogenic nitrous oxide. These oxidized conditions appeared to have a cytotoxic affect on sulfate-reducing populations.

  2. The Portable Chemical Sterilizer (PCS), D-FENS, and D-FEND ALL: novel chlorine dioxide decontamination technologies for the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doona, Christopher J; Feeherry, Florence E; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J; Leighton, Terrence J

    2014-01-01

    There is a stated Army need for a field-portable, non-steam sterilizer technology that can be used by Forward Surgical Teams, Dental Companies, Veterinary Service Support Detachments, Combat Support Hospitals, and Area Medical Laboratories to sterilize surgical instruments and to sterilize pathological specimens prior to disposal in operating rooms, emergency treatment areas, and intensive care units. The following ensemble of novel, 'clean and green' chlorine dioxide technologies are versatile and flexible to adapt to meet a number of critical military needs for decontamination(6,15). Specifically, the Portable Chemical Sterilizer (PCS) was invented to meet urgent battlefield needs and close critical capability gaps for energy-independence, lightweight portability, rapid mobility, and rugged durability in high intensity forward deployments(3). As a revolutionary technological breakthrough in surgical sterilization technology, the PCS is a Modern Field Autoclave that relies on on-site, point-of-use, at-will generation of chlorine dioxide instead of steam. Two (2) PCS units sterilize 4 surgical trays in 1 hr, which is the equivalent throughput of one large steam autoclave (nicknamed "Bertha" in deployments because of its cumbersome size, bulky dimensions, and weight). However, the PCS operates using 100% less electricity (0 vs. 9 kW) and 98% less water (10 vs. 640 oz.), significantly reduces weight by 95% (20 vs. 450 lbs, a 4-man lift) and cube by 96% (2.1 vs. 60.2 ft(3)), and virtually eliminates the difficult challenges in forward deployments of repairs and maintaining reliable operation, lifting and transporting, and electrical power required for steam autoclaves. PMID:24998679

  3. Short communication. Effect of soybean meal heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tousi-Mojarradi, M.; Seidavi, A.; Dadashbeiki, M.; Roca-Fernandez, A. I.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of soybean meal (SBM) heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens. A trial was carried out using 200 male Ross 308 strain chickens during 3 feeding periods (starter, grower and finisher, 42 days). The experiment was based on a completely randomized design with 5 treatments giving 4 replications of 10 broilers per treatment. Treatments consisted on: T1 (control, un-processed SBM), T2 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 20 min), T3 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 30 min), T4 (roasted SBM: 120 degree centigrade, 20 min) and T5 (microwaved SBM: 46 degree centigrade, 540 watt, 7 min). Growth performance of animals was examined by determining body weight (BW), body weight grain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion rate (FCR). Higher BW (p<0.05) and BWG (p<0.05) and lower FCR (p<0.05) were found in broiler chickens fed heat processed SBM diets compared to those fed a raw SBM diet, probably due to higher nutrient availability. However, no differences were found among heat SBM procedures (autoclaving, roasting and microwaving) on growth performance of animals for the starter, grower and finisher periods. From the results of this experiment, it is concluded that further research needs to be developed to establish the effect of temperature-time heat procedures on nutritive value of SBM in terms of levels of anti-nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor activity and phytic acid) and amino acids profile and its influence on growth performance of broilers. (Author)

  4. Sterilization of Preserved Fish by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments in which various vacuum-packed fish products (boiled, fried and stuffed fish, fried fish fillets, hot-smoked fish) were subjected to irradiation showed that doses of 1.5 to 2.0 Mrad sterilize the products but have an adverse effect on their organoleptic properties. During storage the fat of the irradiated product is damaged by oxidation, and colloidal senescence of albuminous tissues accompanied by synaeresis occurs. To prevent these undesirable changes the author tried lowering the pH of the product and introducing carotinoids, ascorbic acid, etc., using commercial tomato sauces and vegetable dressings for the purpose. Pieces of fish (catfish, carp, cod, pike-perch) were cooked until ready for eating, placed in glass preserve jars and vacuum-sealed. For purposes of comparison, samples of the same products were autoclaved. The fish were then subjected to doses of 0.2 to 2.0 Mrad of gamma radiation from a 60Co source at a dose-rate of 800 rad/s. Both the irradiated and autoclaved products were analysed immediately after processing, and again after certain temperature tests and periods of storage. Microbiological, chemical, electrophoretic, spectrophotometric, physico-chemical and organoleptic tests were performed on them. It was shown that a dose of 1.5 Mrad is sufficient to sterilize such products. The bactericidal action of the radiation was more effective in these tests than in the irradiation of fresh fish. The quality of the irradiated product, both immediately after irradiation and after a year of storage, did not differ from the quality of unirradiated fish and was better than that of the autoclaved samples. Moreover, there was less change in the quality of the fat and a smaller reduction in the content of vitamins and amino acids in the irradiated product. Preserved fish products sterilized by gamma radiation can be kept for more than 2½ years without any substantial changes. (author)

  5. General corrosion, irradiation-corrosion, and environmental-mechanical evaluation of nuclear-waste-package structural-barrier materials. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is studying the general corrosion, irradiation-corrosion, and environmentally enhanced crack propagation of five candidate materials in high-temperature aqueous environments simulating those expected in basalt and tuff repositories. The materials include three cast ferrous materials (ductile cast iron and two low-alloy Cr-Mo cast steels) and two titanium alloys, titanium Grade 2 (commercial purity) and Grade 12 (a Ti-Ni-Mo alloy). The general corrosion results are being obtained by autoclave exposure of specimens to slowly replenished simulated ground water flowing upward through a bed of the appropriate crushed rock (basalt or tuff), which is maintained at the desired test temperature (usually 2500C). In addition, tests are being performed in deionized water. Metal penetration rates of iron-base alloys are being derived by stripping off the corrosion product film and weighing the specimen after the appropriate exposure time. The corrosion of titanium alloy specimens is being determined by weight gain methods. The irradiation-corrosion studies are similar to the general corrosion tests, except that the specimen-bearing autoclaves are held in a 60Co gamma radiation field at dose rates up to 2 x 106 rad/h. For evaluating the resistance of the candidate materials to environmentally enhanced crack propagation, three methods are being used: U-bend and fracture toughness specimens exposed in autoclaves; slow strain rate studies in repository-relevant environments to 3000C; and fatigue crack growth rate studies at ambient pressure and 900C. The preliminary data suggest a 1-in. corrosion allowance for iron-base barrier elements intended for 1000-yr service in basalt or tuff repositories. No evidence has yet been found that titanium Grade 2 or Grade 12 is susceptible to environmentally induced crack propagation or, by extension, to stress corrosion cracking

  6. Evaluation of ceramic and polymeric materials for use in engineered barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramic materials evaluated in the screening studies were Al2O3 (99.8%), mullite, vitreous silica, BaTiO3, CaTiO3, CaZrO3, CaTiSiO5, TiO2, ZrSiO4, basalt, Pyroceram 9617, and Marcor code 9658 machinable glass ceramic. One grade of graphite (Toyotanso IB-11) was also evaluated. Demineralized water, a synthetic Hanford groundwater, and a synthetic NaCl brine solution were used in the screening tests. Demineralized water was used in all five of the leach tests, but the other solutions were only used in the static leach tests at 150 and 2500C. Based on the results obtained, graphite appears to be the most leach resistant of the materials tested with the two grades of alumina being the best of the ceramic materials. Titanium dioxide and ZrO2 are the most leach resistant of the remaining materials. Candidate materials from all three general classes of polymers (thermoplastics, thermosets, and elastomers) were considered in the selection of materials. Selected groups of polymers were tested in the flowing autoclave at 150, 200, and 2500C with some polymers being further tested at the next higher temperature. Next, selected samples were exposed to gamma radiation. These samples were then submitted for tensile and elongation measurements. Selected samples which appeared promising from both autoclave and radiation testing were further evaluated by impact tests. The materials that appeared most promising after autoclave testing were the EPDM rubbers, polyphenylene sulfide, poly(ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene) copolymer, and polyfurfuryl alcohol. The radiation dose had little effect on polyfurfuryl alcohol and polyphenylene sulfide samples; very significant decreases in elongation were observed for the fluorocarbon copolymer and the EPDM rubbers. While the polyphenylene sulfide and polyfurfuryl alcohol showed little change in impact strength, poly(ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene) decreased in impact strength

  7. The influence of sterilization on nitrogen-included ultrananocrystalline diamond for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wei; Tran, Phong A; Turnley, Ann M; Aramesh, Morteza; Prawer, Steven; Brandt, Milan; Fox, Kate

    2016-04-01

    Diamond has shown great potential in different biomedical applications, but the effects of sterilization on its properties have not been investigated. Here, we studied the influence of five sterilization techniques (solvent cleaning, oxygen plasma, UV irradiation, autoclave and hydrogen peroxide) on nitrogen-included ultrananocrystalline diamond. The chemical modification of the diamond surface was evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. Different degrees of surface oxidation and selective sp(2) bonded carbon etching were found following all sterilization techniques, resulting in an increase of hydrophilicity. Higher viabilities of in vitro mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and rat cortical neuron cells were observed on oxygen plasma, autoclave and hydrogen peroxide sterilized diamond, which correlated with their higher hydrophilicity. By examination of apatite formation in simulated body fluid, in vivo bioactivity was predicted to be best on those surfaces which have been oxygen plasma treated and lowest on those which have been exposed to UV irradiation. The charge injection properties were also altered by the sterilization process and there appears to be a correlation between these changes and the degree of oxygen termination of the surface. We find that the modification brought by autoclave, oxygen plasma and hydrogen peroxide were most consistent with the use of N-UNCD in biological applications as compared to samples sterilized by solvent cleaning or UV exposure or indeed non-sterilized. A two-step process of sterilization by hydrogen peroxide following oxygen plasma treatment was then suggested. However, the final choice of sterilization technique will depend on the intended end application. PMID:26838856

  8. Effects of Different Modification on Physicochemical Properties and Granule Structure of Rice Starch%不同改性方法对大米淀粉理化性质及颗粒结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张民; 吴娜; 董家美; 王芳

    2013-01-01

    采用压热处理、微波处理、超声波处理等方法对大米淀粉改性,用DSC、布拉班德粘度仪和扫描电镜等仪器测定了大米淀粉理化指标和颗粒结构.研究结果表明,与原淀粉相比,压热处理淀粉的To、Tp、Tm最高(143.61℃、159.82℃、170.30℃);峰值粘度最低(142 BU);抗酶解性最高(13.49%);除超声波处理,其它方法改性的淀粉的溶解度、膨胀能力、凝沉性都有一定程度的升高,淀粉颗粒均已熔融为一体,无完整的颗粒存在.%Rice starch was modified by autoclaving, microwave and ultrasonic methods, respectively. Then its physicochemical properties and granule structure were explored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Brabender amylograph analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and other test methods. The results showed that, in comparison with native starch, the autoclaving treated starch showed higher values of To (143.61 ℃), TP (159.82 ℃) and Tm (170.30 ℃) Jiigher anti-enzymatic property (13.49%) and lower peak viscosity (142BU). The solubility, swelling power, retrogradation of autoclaving and microwave modified starches increased. These starch melted blend and showed no complete particles.

  9. Biodegradation of imazapyr in typical soils in Zhejiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-dong; ZHOU Su-mei; WANG Hui-li; FAN De-fang

    2005-01-01

    The degradation of imazapyr in non-sterile and sterile soils from four sampling sites in Zhejiang, China was studied. The results showed that the half-lives of imazapyr in non-sterile soils were in the range of 30 to 45 d, while 81 to 133 d in sterile(by autoclaving) soils.It means the rate constants of imazapyr under non-sterile conditions were 2.3-4.4 times faster than that under sterile(by autoclaving) conditions, evidently indicating that the indigenous microorganisms in soil play an important role in the degradation of imazapyr. The different sterilization methods could result in different degradation rates of imazapyr. The heat of sterilization of soil largely decreased the degradation. However, the sterile treatment of soil by sodium azide had a different effect from that by autoclaving. Further more, the mechanism was also discussed. Biodegradation in four non-sterile soils accounted for 62% to 78% of imazapyr degradation. In contrast,less than 39% of imazapyr degradation was associated with chemical mechanisms. Therefore, the degradation mechanism was predominantly involved in biology including organisms and microorganisms in soil. Two imazapyr-degrading bacterial strains were isolated in enrichment culture technique and they were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescenes biotype Ⅱ (ZJX-5) and Bacillus cereus(ZJX-9),respectively. When added at a concentration of 50 μg/g in mineral salts medium(MSM), ZJX-5 and ZJX-9 could degrade 81 % and 87%imazapyr after 48 h of incubation. For the treatment of incorporation of ZJX-5 or ZJX-9 into soil, the degradation rate enhanced 3-4 fold faster than that for control samples, which showed an important value in quick decontamination of imazapyr in soil.

  10. Effects of heat processing on soya bean fatty acids content and the lipoxygenase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žilić Slađana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of increased temperatures on the lipoxygenase activity and changes of soya bean fatty acids were observed in the present study. The kernels of soya bean cultivars Bosa and ZPS 015 were subjected to the treatments of extrusion, autoclaving, micronisation and microwave roasting. Depending on the technological processing procedure, the kernels were exposed to temperatures ranging from 60 to 150°C for 25 to 30 seconds during extrusion and for 30 minutes during autoclaving. The temperature that developed in the course of the microwave radiation and autoclaving did not cause statistically significant differences between oil content in heat treated and fresh kernels of soya bean. However, the oil content was higher in soya bean flakes (micronized kernels and lower in grits than in fresh kernels. The heat treatments resulted in the significant decrease of the linolenic fatty acid content. Depending on the temperature and applied heat treatments, the content of linoleic and oleic fatty acid oscillated. High temperatures caused changes in unsaturated fatty acids with 18 carbon atoms resulting in relative increase of the stearic acid content. The lipoxygenase activity decreased in correlation with increased temperatures and the time of heating. The maximum drop of the activity was observed after kernel exposure to the extrusion and micronisation processes at the temperature of 100oC. However, a significant lipoxygenase activity increase was recorded in both studied cultivars after one-minute microwave heating, i.e. at the temperature about 60°C. A further temperature increase led to a gradual denaturation of the enzyme and therefore to its decreased activity.

  11. Uranium recovery by leaching with sodium carbonate at high temperature and pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal uranium bearing mineral in Greenland steenstrupine is a complex sodium REE phosphosilicate in which Fe, Mn, Th, U are minor constituents. The Na2CO3 extractant is used for specially acidconsuming ores. However, steenstrupine is decomposed by Na2CO3 only at temperatures above 220degC, so the leaching must be carried out under pressure. Laboratory tests have shown the optimal temperature to be 260degC and the leach liquor composition120 g/l of NaHCO3 and 20 g/l of Na2CO3. Addition of oxygen is necessary as uranium will not dissolve in carbonate unless it is brought in its highest state of oxidation. According to the laboratory tests it may be estimated that 1 kg of ore suspended in 1 l of leach liquor and ground to 80% minus 200 mesh can be extracted in 20-40 minutes. On the basis of data obtained a process was suggested in which the ore is ground with carbonate leach liquor to a suitable suspension which is fed to an autoclave with a retentiontime of 20 minutes at 260degC. The residue is filtered off and the liquor reused for grinding and ex- traction. The demand for a reaction temperature near 300degC, a pressure up to 120 atm. and a continuos operation favours a tubular flow autoclave with so narrow a bore that the turbulence provides the mechanical agitation of the suspension. From the mined material it appears that more than 80% of the uranium can be extracted in the pipe autoclave. Some samples give off the obtainable uranium in 20 minutes. The precipitated yellow cake is contaminated with more Na and Si than admitted by international standards. (EG)

  12. Influence of post-cure treatments on hardness and marginal adaptation of composite resin inlay restorations: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiza Tatiana Poskus

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Vickers hardness number (VHN and the in vitro marginal adaptation of inlay restorations of three hybrid composite resins (Filtek Z250, Opallis and Esthet-X subjected to two post-cure treatments. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the microhardness test, three different groups were prepared in accordance with the post-cure treatments: control group (only light cure for 40 s, autoclave group (light cure for 40 s + autoclave for 15 min at 130ºC; and microwave group (light cure for 40 s + microwave for 3 min at 450 W. To assess the marginal adaptation, the composite resin was inserted incrementally into a mesial-occlusal-distal cavity brass mold and each increment light-cured for 40 s. A previous reading in micrometers was taken at the cervical wall, using a stereomicroscope magnifying glass equipped with a digital video camera and image-analysis software. Subsequently, the specimens were subjected to the post-cure treatments (autoclave and microwave and a reading was taken again at the cervical wall. Data were compared using ANOVA for the hardness test, split-plot ANOVA for the adaptation assessment and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons. A significance level of 5% was adopted for all analyses. RESULTS: The post-cure treatments increased the hardness of conventional composites (p<0.001 and the gap values of inlay restorations (p<0.01. Filtek Z250 showed higher hardness (p<0.001 and lower gap values than Opallis and Esthet-X (p<0.05. Gap values did not exceed 90 µm for any of the experimental conditions. CONCLUSION: The post-cure treatments increased the VHN and the gap values on the cervical floor of composite resin inlays. Moreover, Filtek Z250 showed the best results, with higher hardness and lower gap values.

  13. Effects of sterilization treatments on bulk and surface properties of nanocomposite biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Maqsood; Punshon, Geoffrey; Darbyshire, Arnold; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2013-10-01

    With the continuous and expanding use of implantable biomaterials in a clinical setting, this study aims to elucidate the influence of sterilization techniques on the material surface and bulk properties of two polyurethane nanocomposite biomaterials. Both solid samples and porous membranes of nondegradable polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea) urethane (POSS-PCU) and a biodegradable poly(caprolactone-urea) urethane (POSS-PCL) were examined. Sterilization techniques included conventional steam sterilization (autoclaving), gamma irradiation, and disinfection via incubating with ethanol (EtOH) for 10 min or 24 h. After treatment, the samples were examined using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and tensiometry. Cytotoxicity was evaluated through the culture of endothelial progenitor cells and the efficacy of sterilization method was determined by incubating each sample in tryptone soya broth and fluid thioglycollate medium for cultivation of microorganisms. Although EtOH did not affect the material properties in any form, the samples were found to be nonsterile with microbial growth detected on each of the samples. Gamma irradiation was not only effective in sterilizing both POSS-PCU and POSS-PCL but also led to minor material degradation and displayed a cytotoxic effect on the cultured cells. Autoclaving was found to be the optimal sterilization technique for both solid and porous membranes of the nondegradable POSS-PCU samples as it was successful in sterilizing the samples, displayed no cytotoxic side effects and did not degrade the material. However, the biodegradable POSS-PCL was not able to withstand the harsh environment during autoclaving, resulting in it losing all structural integrity. PMID:24039066

  14. Influência do diâmetro e umidade no tratamento preservativo de moirões de Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Soares Amaral; José Reinaldo Moreira da Silva; Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein; Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2014-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da classe diamétrica e das umidades geral e do alburno sobre a retenção de CCA-C (arseniato de cobre cromatado tipo C) na madeira de clone de Eucalyptus urophylla preservada em autoclave. Foram utilizados 36 moirões pertencentes às classes diamétricas de 7, 9, 11 e 13 cm, que foram separados e expostos a três tempos de secagem ao ar livre: 20, 40 e 70 dias. Determinaram-se os valores de umidade pré-tratamento, geral e apenas do alburno, por classe diamétrica e ...

  15. Mining Pribram in science and technology. Proceedings of Session N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 50 papers of which 15 have been inputted in INIS. They concern uranium ore leaching, leaching field designing, leaching process optimization, pressure leaching in autoclaves, obtaining zirconium compounds, scandium, rhenium and other elements as by-products in uranium mining, methods of waste solution and gas processing, reclamation of mined areas, experimental studies of interaction of other ores with leaching solutions, methods of processing uranium ores with increased arsenic content, and increasing corrosion resistance of reinforced concrete structures by the action of electric current. (M.D.). 36 figs., 16 tabs., 47 refs

  16. Production of N2O in soil during decomposition of dead yeast cells with different spatial distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.

    1996-01-01

    production during 4-hour incubations under atmospheres of ambient air, 10 Pa of C2H2, and N-2, respectively. Denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) was assessed in subsamples of cores that had been incubated continuously under air. Autoclaved yeast provided a C-source readily available for denitrifying...... bacteria in the soil. Nitrous oxide production was negligible in unamended columns whereas accumulated N2O losses in the presence of yeast material were substantial, varying between 15 to 49 ng N2O-Ng(-1)h(-1). Mixing yeast into the soil caused the highest production of N2O followed by the yeast lump and...

  17. Three-dimensional mammalian cell growth on nonwoven polyester fabric disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, S A; Lages, A C; Sussman, M V

    1994-01-01

    Small disks of nonwoven polyester fabric (NWPF), similar to Fibra-Cel carriers, were surface treated with strong acid and used as a high surface area support matrix for in vitro culture of anchorage dependent MRC-5 cells. The disks can be autoclaved, and require inocula concentrations of only 2-5% of the final cell densities, which have reached 10(8) cells/mL of disk bed volume. Scanning electron microscopy photographs shown herein reveal that cells grow in a multilayered fashion between the randomly arrayed fibers of the nonwoven fabric, emulating in vivo growth. PMID:7522468

  18. Biodiesel production by transesterification of sludge in supercritical conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, M. A.; Aracil, Ignacio; Fullana Font, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    In this study wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sludge was subjected to a reactive pyrolysis treatment to produce a high quality pyro-oil. Sludge was treated in supercritical conditions in the presence of methanol using hexane as cosolvent in a high pressure lab-autoclave. The variables affecting the pyro-oil yield and the product quality, such as mass ratio of alcohol to sludge, presence of cosolvent and temperature, were investigated. It was found that the use of a non-polar cosolvent (hexa...

  19. Effect of dsRNA-containing and dsRNA-free hypovirulent isolates of Fusarium oxysporum on severity of Fusarium seedling disease of Essex soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Kilic, Ozlem III

    1997-01-01

    Sixty-six isolates of F. oxysporum and F. solani were recovered from healthy and necrotic Essex soybean seedlings grown in naturally infested soil. These were tested for pathogenicity at 20 C and -0.01 MPa water potential in artificially infested, autoclaved field soil. Highly pathogenic, moderately pathogenic, and hypovirulent isolates of both species were identified. Fifty-seven F. oxysporum and nine F. solani isolates were tested for the presence of dsRNA. The presence of dsRNA was not as...

  20. Heat-induced colour changes of pine (Pinus pinaster) and eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus) wood

    OpenAIRE

    Esteves, Bruno; Marques, António Velez; Domingos, Idalina; Pereira, Helena

    2008-01-01

    Heat treatment of Pinus pinaster and Eucalyptus globulus wood was carried out by hot air in an oven for 2–24 h at 170–200 C and by steam in an autoclave for 2–12 h at 190–210 C. The colour parameters L*, a* and b* were determined by the CIELAB method on radial, tangential and transverse sections of untreated and treated wood, and their variation with regard to the treatment (DL*, Da* and Db*) were calculated in percent. For untreated eucalypt wood, lightness (L*) varied betw...

  1. Heat induced colour changes of pine (Pinus pinaster) and eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus) wood

    OpenAIRE

    Esteves, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Heat treatment of Pinus pinaster and Eucalyptus globulus wood was made by hot air in an oven during 2 to 24 h at 170-200 ºC and by steam in an autoclave during 2 to 12 h at 190- 210 ºC. The colour parameters L*, a* and b* were determined by the CIELAB method on radial, tangential and transverse sections for untreated and treated wood, and their variation with the treatment (ΔL*, Δa* and Δb*) were calculated in percent. In the untreated woods, for eucalypt wood lightness (L*) varied between...

  2. Characterization and In Vitro Bioactivity of Calcium and Phosphorous Containing Titania Layer on Ti6Al4V Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Teker, Dilek; MUHAFFEL, Faiz; ÇİMENOĞLU, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    Calcium and phosphorous containing titania layers on Ti6Al4V biomedical alloy were formed by micro arc oxidation (MAO) in an electrolyte containing calcium acetate and sodium phosphate, and then subjected to hydrothermal treatment (HT) in order to achieve improved biocompability with modified titania layer. Samples were hydrothermally treated in water solution whose pH was adjusted to 11.0-11.5 by adding NaOH, at 230 °C for 10 h and cooled in the autoclave. Surface morphology, ...

  3. An overview of the results of dissertation research in the field of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The research «Aerated concrete of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier» has the following results: 1. The practicability of the use of the additives based on melamine-formaldehyde for plasticization of nanostructured silica modifier was proved. The optimal content of plasticizer is 0,1%. 2. The compositions of aerated concrete of autoclave hardening for construction and thermal insulation with quality classes D350–D500 and durability classes ВО,75; В2,5–В5 were proposed. 3. The technology for production of aerated concrete of autoclave hardening which comprises the use of nanostructured modifier. The specialists may be also interested in the research held by Vindizheva A.S. «Nanocomposite cabel elastrons based on polyvinylchloride and aluminum silicates », Ashrapov A.Kh. «Polymer construction nanocomposites based on polyvinylchloride », Dyatlov A.K. «Fine-grained self-compacting concrete with complex nanocontaining additive», Khuzin A.F. «Cement composites with additives of multilayer carbon nanotubes», Ermolin M.S. «Rectification of nano- and microparticles in rotating spiral columns for the analysis of polydispersed samples», Yukhaeva G.R. «Nanocomposite materials based on polyethylene and graphite nanoplates: synthesis, structure, properties», Shepelev D.S. «Energy exchange and localization of energy in carbon nanotubes», Nelyubova V.V. «Compressed silicate autoclave materials with the use of nanostructured modifier», Mironova A.S. «Nanofilled plaster compositions to increase durability of building facades», Goncharova M.A. «Structure formation and technology of construction and special composites based on little used metallurgy wastes», Maiorova L.A. «Controlled self-organization of azaporphyrins into 2D and 3D-nanostructures in Langmuir layers and

  4. Environmental reference materials methods and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm-Nielsen, Karina Edith

    1998-01-01

    . The methods have been evaluated with regard to their robustness towards variations in the chemical analytical method and with regard to the number of times a significant out of control situation is indicated. The second study regards the stability of NH4-N and total phosphorous in autoclaved seawater samples....... This study lasted 22 months as well. The samples were produced and stored according to a 2³ factorial design. The influences of storage temperature, UV radiation and ultra-filtration on the stability of NH4-N and total phosphorous have been investigated. A Youden plot method is suggested for the graphical...

  5. Hydrothermal treatment of electrochemically synthesized nanocrystalline magnetic iron oxide powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulićević Lj.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic iron oxide nano-powders were synthesised electrochemically, using a low-carbon steel electrode immersed in a NaCl aqueous solution, at constant temperature of the electrolyte, pH and current density. In the second step, portions of the starting admixture were boiled at ~360 K during two hours and autoclaved at various temperatures. Both the starting powder and the treated ones were examined by a standard XRD method, then uniaxially pressed into pellets under 400 MPa, and their electric and magnetic behavior during non isothermal heating was analyzed.

  6. Hydrothermal treatment of electrochemically synthesized nanocrystalline magnetic iron oxide powder

    OpenAIRE

    Vulićević Lj.; Ivanović N.; Maričić A.; Srećković M.; Vardić S.; Plazinić M.; Tomić Ž.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nano-powders were synthesised electrochemically, using a low-carbon steel electrode immersed in a NaCl aqueous solution, at constant temperature of the electrolyte, pH and current density. In the second step, portions of the starting admixture were boiled at ~360 K during two hours and autoclaved at various temperatures. Both the starting powder and the treated ones were examined by a standard XRD method, then uniaxially pressed into pellets under 400 MPa, and their electr...

  7. Production of a New Emulsifier Material for the Formation Heavy Hydrocarbon/Water Emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Afshin Farahbakhsh; Majid Taghizadeh; Bagher Yakhchali; Kamyar Movagharnejad; Hassan Ali Zamani

    2011-01-01

    Emulsifiers are a unique class of compounds that have proved to have a variety of potential applications in formation of hydrocarbon in water emulsion, in enhancement of oil recovery and in the reduction of heavy oil viscosity. In this paper, a bio emulsifier was synthesized by a strain of Bacillus licheniformis and was separated by an autoclave and centrifugal process; the purification of bio emulsifier and the increase quality of product was done by adding sulfuric acid (H2SO4) (98%) to the...

  8. Kit preparation of 153Sm-EDTMP and factors affecting radiochemical purity and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast kit method was developed for the production of 153Sm-EDTMP in two steps avoiding the use of nitric acid, evaporation and sterilization of the final solution by autoclave. Methods of analysis for the determination of chemical and radiochemical purity in the radiopharmaceutical solution were established. Factors affecting radiochemical purity and stability of the complex as the molar ratio of EDTMP/Sm, concentration of phosphate buffer and neutralization of EDTMP prior kit preparation were also analyzed. The use of this radiopharmaceutical in rabbits and patients showed selective skeletal uptake. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Commercial Phaseolus vulgaris extract (starch stopper) increases ileal endogenous amino acid and crude protein losses in the growing rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deglaire, A; Moughan, P J; Bos, C; Tome, D

    2006-07-12

    The effect of a commercial Phaseolus vulgaris extract (PVE, starch stopper) on ileal and fecal endogenous protein losses was studied. Growing rats were fed for 14 days a protein-free diet containing PVE at a nutritional concentration of 0% (PF1), 0.4% (PF2), or 1.1% PVE (PF3) or 1.1% autoclaved PVE (PF4). An indigestible marker (TiO(2)) was included in each diet. Ileal endogenous amino acid (AA) losses were significantly higher (P antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor, lectin) present in the PVE. PMID:16819935

  10. Dimethyl Sulfide Production from Dimethylsulfoniopropionate in Coastal Seawater Samples and Bacterial Cultures †

    OpenAIRE

    Kiene, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was produced immediately after the addition of 0.1 to 2 μM β-dimethylsulfonio-propionate (DMSP) to coastal seawater samples. Azide had little effect on the initial rate of DMS production from 0.5 μM added DMSP, but decreased the rate of production after 6 h. Filtration of water samples through membrane filters (pore size, 0.2 μm) greatly reduced DMS production for approximately 10 h, after which time DMS production resumed at a high rate. Autoclaving completely eliminat...

  11. Optimización del tiempo de esterilización de soportes basados en suelo y compost en la producción de inoculentes para leguminosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Ormeño-Orrillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se elaboraron tres soportes consistentes en una mezcla de suelo y compost, y se sometieron a tres tratamientos de esterilización fraccionada en autoclave en dos días consecutivos. La eficiencia de los tratamientos de esterilización se evaluó monitoreando la disminución en las poblaciones de hongos y bacterias mediante recuentos estándar en placa. La esterilización de todos los soportes se logró mediante un tratamiento por 45 minutos el primer día y 30 minutos el segundo día.

  12. Reactivity of North Bohemian coals in coprocessing of coal/oil mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebor, G.; Cerny, J.; Maxa, D.; Blazek, J. [Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Sykorova, I. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Autoclave experiments with North Bohemian coal were done in order to evaluate their reactivity in coprocessing with petroleum vacuum residue, Selected coals were comprehensively characterized by using a number of analytical methods. While the coals were of similar geological origin, some of their characteristics differed largely from one coal to another. Despite the differences in physical and chemical structure, the coals provided very similar yields of desired reaction products. The yields of a heavy non- distillable fraction and/or an insoluble solid residue were, under experimental conditions, largely affected by retrogressive reactions (coking). The insoluble solid fractions were examined microscopically under polarized light.

  13. Unusual isotopic composition of C-CO2 from sterilized soil microcosms: a new way to separate intracellular from extracellular respiratory metabolisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kéraval, Benoit; Alvarez, Gaël; Lehours, Anne Catherine; Amblard, Christian; Fontaine, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    The mineralization of organic C requires two main steps. First, microorganisms secrete exoenzymes in soil in order to depolymerize plant and microbial cell walls and release soluble substrates for microbial assimilation. The second step of mineralization, during which C is released as CO2, implies the absorption and utilization of solubilized substrates by microbial cells with the aim to produce energy (ATP). In cells, soluble substrates are carried out by a cascade of respiratory enzymes, along which protons and electrons are transferred from a substrate to oxygen. Given the complexity of this oxidative metabolism and the typical fragility of respiratory enzymes, it is traditionally considered that respiration (second step of C mineralization process) is strictly an intracellular metabolism process. The recurrent observations of substantial CO2 emissions in soil microcosms where microbial cells have been reduced to extremely low levels challenges this paradigm. In a recent study where some respiratory enzymes have shown to function in an extracellular context in soils, Maire et al. (2013) suggested that an extracellular oxidative metabolism (EXOMET) substantially contributes to CO2 emission from soils. This idea is supported by the recent publication of Blankinship et al., 2014 who showed the presence of active enzymes involved in the Krebs cycle on soil particles. Many controversies subsist in the scientific community due to the presence of non-proliferating but morphologically intact cells after irradiation that could substantially contribute to those soil CO2 emissions. To test whether a purely extracellular oxidative metabolism contribute to soil CO2 emissions, we combined high doses of gamma irradiations to different time of soil autoclaving. The presence of active and non-active cells in soil was checked by DNA and RNA extraction and by electronic microscopy. None active cells (RNA-containing cells) were detectable after irradiation, but some morphological

  14. Environmentally assisted cracking behaviour of copper in simulated ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) behaviour of pure oxygen free copper in simulated ground water with additions of sodium nitrite was studied. Low frequency corrosion fatigue tests with high positive load ratio values under crosshead speed control were performed using precracked diskshaped compact specimens C(T). The load ratio values were about 0.9 and the frequencies were between 0.0008 and 0.0017 Hz. Tests were performed under electrochemical potential control in an autoclave at room temperature and at 80 deg C. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of repository environment on environmentally assisted cracking susceptibility of pure copper. (5 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.)

  15. Substitution of the radiation requirement for sporulation by host tissue in Dendrophoma obscurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultures of Dendrophoma obscurans growing on a 10--2 glucose-casein hydrolysate medium required radiation for sporulation. When leaf discs from host tissue or certain plants, particularly members of the Rosaceae, were added to the basal medium, sporulation occurred abundantly in darkness on the leaf surface. The ability to replace the radiation requirement for sporulation did not occur with all plant tissue tested. The active substance in powdered host tissue could be extracted with certain organic solvents but not with water. This crude extract could be concentrated, autoclaved, and when added to the basal medium supported sporulation in darkness

  16. Recent trends in extractive metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habashi F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available While pyrometallurgical processes are old technology and were the dominant and logical route used to treat sulfide concentrates they are now challenged by new hydrometallurgical processes. In these new processes there have been attempts in the past few years to avoid using autoclaves in the treatment of concentrates of zinc, copper, and nickel. The situation has been recently reversed and pressure hydrometallurgy is being applied in many operations. An outline of these processes is given and the future trend is discussed.

  17. Ergonomic T-Handle for Minimally Invasive Surgical Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, J; Shepherd, Det; Hukins, Dwl; Maffulli, N

    2016-05-01

    A T-handle has been designed to be used for minimally invasive implantation of a dynamic hip screw to repair fractures of the proximal femur. It is capable of being used in two actions: (i) push and hold (while using an angle guide) and (ii) application of torque when using the insertion wrench and lag screw tap. The T-handle can be held in a power or precision grip. It is suitable for either single (sterilised by γ-irradiation) or multiple (sterilised by autoclaving) use. The principles developed here are applicable to handles for a wide range of surgical instruments. PMID:27326394

  18. Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Frames In-Filled with Lightweight Materials Under Seismic Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Iswandi Imran; Aris Aryanto

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and analytical research conducted to study the in-plane behavior of reinforced concrete (R/C) frames in-filled with lightweight materials. The tests were performed on two single bay, single story in-filled frame specimens with ½ scale models. One of the test specimens was in-filled with lightweight materials, i.e. autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) blocks, and the other, used as the comparison, was in-filled with clay brick materials. The loading used in the...

  19. Effect of ageing on survival of benthic diatom propagules

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.; Mitbavkar, S.; DeSilva, M.S.; Hegde, S.; DeCosta, P.M.; Meher, S.S.; Banerjee, D.

    method -MPN) (Imai et al., 1984; Yamochi, 1989; Imai et al., 1990; Ishikawa and Tamaguchi, 1994; Itakura et al., 1997) was employed for quantification of diatom flora. An appropriate amount (1 g wet weight) of sediment was suspended in f/2 medium... prepared in autoclaved, filtered, aged seawater (Guillard and Ryther, 1962) at a concentration of 0.1 g wet weight ml-1. This stock was subjected to serial ten-fold dilution (10-1 to 10-5) with the culture medium. 1 ml aliquots of diluted suspensions...

  20. Porous ceramic - metal composites obtained by infiltration methods

    OpenAIRE

    A. Boczkowska; Chabera, P.; Dolata, A. J.; M. Dyzia; Oziębło, A.

    2013-01-01

    A pressure-vacuum infiltration (T = 720 ºC, p = 15 MPa, t = 15 min) and gas-pressure infiltration (GPI) in an autoclave (T = 700ºC, p=4 MPa, t=5 min) were applied for infiltration of porous Al2O3 ceramics by cast aluminum alloy. Effect of the method of the infiltration on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ceramic-metal composites, was studied. Ceramic preforms were formed by method of copying the cellular structure of the polymer matrix. The results of the X-ray tomography prove...

  1. A new model of hydrogen redistribution in Zr alloy claddings during waterside corrosion in a temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veshchunov, M. S.; Shestak, V. E.; Ozrin, V. D.

    2016-04-01

    A new model for hydrogen spatial redistribution and hydride precipitation in Zr alloys during waterside corrosion extends the traditional approach, valid for consideration of a relatively low volume fraction of the precipitated hydride phase, to a more general case of heavily precipitated hydrides typical for high-burnup fuel cladding tubes of pressurized water reactors and also observed in various autoclave corrosion tests with high hydrogen supercharging. Being implemented in the SVECHA/QUENCH (S/Q) code, the new model reasonably explains various observations in corrosion tests at constant temperature and under temperature gradient as well as under in-reactor corrosion conditions.

  2. Simulation of acid hydrolysis of lignocellulosic residues to fermentable sugars for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidiras, Dimitris

    2012-12-01

    The dilute acid hydrolysis of fir sawdust with sulfuric acid was undertaken in a batch reactor system (autoclave). The experimental data and reaction kinetic analysis indicate that this is a potential process for cellulose and hemicelluloses hydrolysis, due to a rapid hydrolysis reaction for acid concentration 0.045 N at 160-180°C. It was found that significant sugar degradation occurred at these conditions. The optimum conditions gave a yield of 38% total fermentable sugars. The kinetics of dilute acid hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses (polysaccharides) were simulated using four pseudo-kinetic models. The reaction rate constants were calculated in each case.

  3. Overview of activities for the reduction of dose rates in Swiss boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since March 1990, zinc has been added to the reactor water of the boiling water reactor (BWR) Leibstadt (KKL) and, since January 1991, iron has been added to the BWR Muehleberg (KKM). These changes in reactor water chemistry were accompanied by a comprehensive R+D programme. This paper covers three selected topics: a) the statistical analysis of KKL reactor water data before and after zinc addition; b) the analysis of the KKL reactor water during the 1991 annual shutdown; c) laboratory autoclave tests to clarify the role of water additives on the cobalt deposition on austenitic steel surfaces. (author) 2 figs., 4 tabs

  4. In vitro Antiviral Activity of the Red Marine Alga from Persian Gulf, Gracilaria salicornia, Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    OpenAIRE

    Keivan Zandi; Maryam Salimi; Kohzad Sartavi

    2007-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate the anti-HSV-2 activity of the crude water of Gracilaria salicornia alga against HSV-2 in cell culture. The extract showed antiviral activity against HSV-2 not only before attachment and entry of virus to the Vero cells, but also on post attachment stages of virus replication. Regarding the calculated SI values of the extracts which were 44.4 and 38.5 for filtered and autoclaved extracts, respectively. It is concluded that the antiviral compound(s) in the water...

  5. Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibers to Produce Sugar Hydrolyzate as Raw Material for Bioethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Fitriani Kasim; Anwar Kasim

    2013-01-01

    A study conducted to see the effect of the regulation and control of temperature on the length of the hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber and the resulting hydrolyzate sugar levels, which will be planned to be used as raw material for bioethanol. Therefore do oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber hydrolysis with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) at low concentrations (1%) using an autoclave with a temperature of 120 ° C and 130 ° C, and the time for 30, 60, 90, 120 minutes. After that the obser...

  6. [Production of soy bean inoculants. Behavior of supports based on peat from Tierra del Fuego sterilized by vapor and ethylene oxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balatti, A P; Mazza, L A

    1979-01-01

    The survival of Rhizobium japonicum was studied in neutralized and sterilized peats from Ushuaia and Rio Grande. The carriers were sterilized by ethylene oxide and by autoclaving. Similar counts for Rhizobium (5 x 10(8) cel/g) were obtained in peat-cultures sterilized by both methods, after eight months. A good nodulation and nitrogen fixation capacity was observed with inoculated soybean plants. Using the strain Rhizobium japonicum E-45, no appreciable difference in symbiotic effectiveness was found between the inoculants prepared with the two peats. PMID:263653

  7. Study of some nitrogen transformation reactions as influenced by the agrochemicals in some soils of north Iraq by using labelled compounds. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopic-tracer-aided studies of agrochemical residue - soil biota interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect is described of different pesticides when applied to autoclaved soils to which the mixture of nitrifier, ammonifier, and azotobacter were added and incubated for 90 days. The results are given of the respiration parameter of 14CO2 evolved at 30 and 60 days of incubation from soil samples obtained at depths of 15, 30, 45, and 60 cm. Graphs show the survival of mixture of nitrifier, ammonifier, and azotobacter treated with pesticides Benlate, Sevin, and Diptrex at three dose levels. Total bacterial counts as estimated by 14C-glucose oxidation are also shown

  8. Influence of post harvest processing conditions on yield and quality of ground turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lúcia A. Bambirra; Roberto G. Junqueira; Maria Beatriz A. Glória

    2002-01-01

    Studies were carried out to evaluate the influence of post harvest processing conditions on yield and quality of ground turmeric. Rhizomes were peeled, cooked (autoclave or immersion) in water or alkaline media, sliced, dehydrated, ground, sieved, packaged in polyethylene bags and stored for 60 days at room temperature. Yields ranged from 9.84 to 14.51 g of powder/100 g of rhizome with moisture varying from 8.84 to 9.86 g/100 g. Peel removal caused 30% mass loss but the powder obtained had hi...

  9. Studies on the aqueous corrosion of zircaloy-2 prefilmed by various methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aqueous corrosion of zircaloy-2 prefilmed by different methods has been carried out in aqueous media at 350deg C and saturation pressure using autoclaves. The prefilming treatments include, oxidation in steam at 400deg C, oxidation in air at 400deg C, anodization in 1% H2SO4 and 1% KOH at room temperature to weight-gains corresponding to thin film region (2 to 5 mg/dm2). It is seen that prefilming by anodization in 1% KOH resulted in lower corrosion and hydrogen pick-up rates as compared to other prefilming methods as well as to plain zircaloy-2. (auth.)

  10. Lifetime Reproductive Efficiency of BALB/c Mouse Pairs after an Environmental Modification at 3 Mating Ages

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Virgínia B; Mattaraia, Vânia G M; Moura, Ana Silvia A M T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an environment change and the age at which mating pairs were formed on the lifetime reproductive performance of BALB/c mice. We assigned 60 monogamous pairs to a randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (with or without an environmental modification and with 3 mating ages: 28, 45, or 60 d). Autoclaved cardboard tubes (length, 10 cm; diameter, 4 cm) were used as the environmental modification. Data were collected from a total of 45...

  11. Rapid method for DNA extraction from the honey bee Apis mellifera and the parasitic bee mite Varroa destructor using lysis buffer and proteinase K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, M R C; Figueiredo, V L C; De Jong, D; Sakamoto, C H; Simões, Z L P

    2013-01-01

    We developed a rapid method for extraction of DNA from honey bees, Apis mellifera, and from the parasitic bee mite, Varroa destructor. The advantages include fast processing and low toxicity of the substances that are utilized. We used lysis buffer with nonionic detergents to lyse cell walls and proteinase K to digest proteins. We tested whole thorax, thoracic muscle mass, legs, and antennae from individual bees; the mites were processed whole (1 mite/sample). Each thorax was incubated whole, without cutting, because exocuticle color pigment darkened the extraction solution, interfering with PCR results. The procedure was performed with autoclaved equipment and laboratory gloves. For each sample, we used 100 µL lysis buffer (2 mL stock solution of 0.5 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.5, 10 mL stock solution of 2 M KCl, 500 µL solution of 1 M MgCl2, 2 mL NP40, and 27.6 g sucrose, completed to 200 mL with bidistilled water and autoclaved) and 2 µL proteinase K (10 mg/mL in bidistilled water previously autoclaved, as proteinase K cannot be autoclaved). Tissues were incubated in the solutions for 1-2 h in a water bath (62°-68 °C) or overnight at 37 °C. After incubation, the tissues were removed from the extraction solution (lysis buffer + proteinase K) and the solution heated to 92 °C for 10 min, for proteinase K inactivation. Then, the solution with the extracted DNA was stored in a refrigerator (4°-8 °C) or a freezer (-20 °C). This method does not require centrifugation or phenol/chloroform extraction. The reduced number of steps allowed us to sample many individuals/day. Whole mites and bee antennae were the most rapidly processed. All bee tissues gave the same quality DNA. This method, even using a single bee antenna or a single mite, was adequate for extraction and analysis of bee genomic and mitochondrial DNA and mite genomic DNA. PMID:24301746

  12. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Design/manufacturing concept assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Robert L.; Bayha, Tom D.; Davis, HU; Ingram, J. ED; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Composite Wing and Fuselage Structural Design/Manufacturing Concepts have been developed and evaluated. Trade studies were performed to determine how well the concepts satisfy the program goals of 25 percent cost savings, 40 percent weight savings with aircraft resizing, and 50 percent part count reduction as compared to the aluminum Lockheed L-1011 baseline. The concepts developed using emerging technologies such as large scale resin transfer molding (RTM), automatic tow placed (ATP), braiding, out-of-autoclave and automated manufacturing processes for both thermoset and thermoplastic materials were evaluated for possible application in the design concepts. Trade studies were used to determine which concepts carry into the detailed design development subtask.

  13. Effect of natural fibers and bio-resins on mechanical properties in hybrid and non-hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragassa, Cristiano

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present experimental investigation was to perform a comparative analysis concerning the influence on mechanical properties of natural fibers and/or bio-resins in reinforced thermoset composites. Flax and basalt fibers were selected as natural reinforcements, as single constituents or in hybrid combination. Glass synthetic fibers were used for comparison. Eco-friendly matrixes, both epoxy or vinylester, were considered and compared with composites based on traditional resins. Samples were fabricated by hand lay-up and resin infusion techniques. Cures were accelerated and controlled by applying heat and pressure in autoclave. Tensile, flexural and impact tests were carried out according to ASTM standards.

  14. Morphological changes of poly(ethylene terephthalate) on multiple steam sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P D

    1990-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was steam sterilized by autoclaving for 15, 30 and 60 min. The thermal properties, T m, delta-H and percent crystallinity were determined using differential scanning calorimetry. Molecular weight distribution was determined using gel permeation liquid chromatography. Crystallinity of PET was also monitored by infrared spectrophotometry. The analyses indicate that that chain scission and cyclization reactions take place in PET, forming cyclic oligomers, that can migrate to the polymer surface and which may affect long term performance of PET. PMID:10150080

  15. Behavior of pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) wood to different thermal treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Todaro L; Rita A; Negro F; Moretti N; Saracino A; Zanuttini R

    2015-01-01

    Quercus pubescens Willd. is a common oak species in the Mediterranean area, where it is currently exploited mainly for purposes such as firewood. To improve the technological properties of its wood, various steaming and/or heat treatments were applied to 160 wood samples from a southern Italian stand, cut from either sapwood or heartwood, while 20 samples served as controls. Steaming was carried out in an autoclave at 120 °C, whereas heat treatments were performed in an oven at 150 or 200 °C ...

  16. Dynamic dielectric analysis for nondestructive cure monitoring and process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranbuehl, D. E.; Delos, S. E.; Hoff, M. S.; Whitham, M. E.; Weller, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    Dynamic dielectric analysis (DDA) is an effective in situ NDE method that can monitor the reaction status in thermosets and the phase changes in thermoplastics, including slow reactions occuring late in the cure cycle and recrystallization during annealing. The effects of moisture and resin history on reaction rate can also be determined, as can ionic and dipolar contributions. The ionic mobility parameter is noted to be an excellent monitor of viscosity above the glass transition temperature. The ability of DDA to monitor cure rate variations in a thick section during autoclaving has been demonstrated.

  17. Densities, excess molar volume, isothermal compressibility, and isobaric expansivity of (dimethyl carbonate + n-hexane) systems at temperatures (293.15 to 313.15) K and pressures from 0.1 MPa up to 40 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The densities of dimethyl carbonate, n-hexane and their mixtures were measured for 12 compositions at five different temperatures varying from (293.15 to 313.15) K and over the pressure range of (0.1 to 40) MPa. The densities of pure substances and their mixtures at atmospheric pressure were measured by a vibrating-tube densimeter. The densities at high pressures were measured by a variable-volume autoclave and precise analytical balance. The excess molar volume, isothermal compressibility, and isobaric expansivity were derived from the experimental densities.

  18. Stress corrosion cracking of carbon and low alloy steels in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new set of fracture mechanics stress corrosion crack growth rate data is presented for transgranular cracking of carbon and low alloy steels exposed to high temperature water. The essential observations are as follows. Fast stress corrosion crack growth rates between 10-9 and 10-8 m/s may be observed down to 400 ppb dissolved oxygen at water conductivities of 0.5 microS/cm in refreshed autoclaves. There is no effect of specimen thickness on the stress corrosion crack growth rates. Temperature, however, clearly is a major influential parameter on stress corrosion cracking

  19. The effect of pretreatments on surfactin production from potato process effluent by Bacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. N. Thompson; S. L. Fox; G. A. Bala

    2000-05-07

    Pretreatment of low-solids (LS) potato process effluent was tested for potential to increase surfactin yield. Pretreatments included heat, removal of starch particulates, and acid hydrolysis. Elimination of contaminating vegetative cells was necessary for surfactin production. After autoclaving, 0.40 g/L of surfactin was produced from the effluent in 72 h, versus 0.24 g/L in the purified potato starch control. However, surfactin yields per carbon consumed were 76% lower from process effluent. Removal of starch particulates had little effect on the culture. Acid hydrolysis decreased growth and surfactant production, except 0.5 wt% acid, which increased the yield by 25% over untreated effluent.

  20. The Effect of Pretreatments on Surfactin Production From Potato Process Effluent by Bacillus Subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David Neal; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Bala, Greg Alan

    2000-05-01

    Pretreatment of low-solids (LS) potato process effluent was tested for potential to increase surfactin yield. Pretreatments included heat, removal of starch particulates, and acid hydrolysis. Elimination of contaminating vegetative cells was necessary for surfactin production. After autoclaving, 0.40 g/L of surfactin was produced from the effluent in 72 h, versus 0.24 g/L in the purified potato starch control. However, surfactin yields per carbon consumed were 76% lower from process effluent. Removal of starch particulates had little effect on the culture. Acid hydrolysis decreased growth and surfactant production, except 0.5 wt% acid, which increased the yield by 25% over untreated effluent.

  1. Inhibition of natural gas hydrates by means of kinetic inhibitors; Inhibierung von Erdgashydraten mit kinetischen Inhibitoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, E.; Froemmel, J.; Hase, A. [Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The use of kinetic inhibitors saves considerable costs as compared with thermodynamic inhibition. The effectivity of kinetic inhibitors can be examined by means of screening tests using an agitated autoclave. This contribution describes the experimental set-up and measuring methods used for this purpose and discusses the results obtained. (MSK) [Deutsch] Der Einsatz von kinetischen Inhibitoren fuehrt im Vergleich zur thermodynamischen Inhibition zu einer erheblichen Kostenreduzierung. Die Effektivitaet wird anhand von Screening-Versuchen in einem Ruehrautoklaven geprueft.Im Folgenden werden die Versuchsapparatur und die Messmethodik beschrieben. Ebenso werden die Ergebnisse diskutiert.

  2. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate records on the DELPHI experiment at LEP, the Fermi-surface dynamics of rotating nuclei, production of large samples of the silica dioxide aerogel in the 37-litre autoclave and test of its optical properties, preliminary radiation resource results on scintillating fibers, a new algorithm for the direct transformation method of time to digital with the high time resolution and development and design of analogue read-out electronics for HADES drift chamber system

  3. Alkali-Silica Reaction Inhibited by LiOH and Its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A high alkali reactive aggregate-zeolitization perlite was used to test the long-term effectiveness of LiOH in inhibiting alkali-silica reaction.In this paper,the rigorous conditions were designed that the mortar bars had been cured at 80℃ for 3 years after autoclaved 24 hours at 150℃.Under this condition,LiOH was able to inhibit the alkali-silica reaction long-term effectiveness.Not only the relationship between the molar ratio of n(Li)/(Na) and the alkali contents in systems was established, but also the governing mechanism of such effects was also studied by SEM.

  4. UMA ANÁLISE DA ESTRUTURA DE COORDENAÇÃO E REGULAÇÃO DO ARRANJO PRODUTIVO LOCAL DE INSUMOS MÉDICO-ODONTOLÓGICOS DE CAMPO MOURÃO - PR (An analysis of the coordenation and regulation structure of the medical – dentistry cluster in Campo Mourão-PR)

    OpenAIRE

    TEIXEIRA, Tiago Roberto Alves; ANDRADE, Áurea Andrade Viana de

    2012-01-01

    Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar a estrutura de regulação e coordenação do Arranjo Produtivo Local Médico-Odontológico do município de Campo Mourão - PR, o qual se destaca pela produção de produtos médico-odontológicos como autoclaves, filtros para hemodiálise, indicadores biológicos entre outros. Este aglomerado industrial é marcado por uma gestão público-privado onde o município juntamente com empresários criou diversos incentivos legislativos, para que o arranjo produtivo pudesse ...

  5. Studies on some cues regulating metamorphosis of the larvae of Balanus amphitrite (Cirripedia: Thoracica)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.

    -filtered (0.22 ?m), UV- irradiated seawater. 2.2.4 Visualization of footprints The sugar-treated, as well as non-treated cyprids, were siphoned out and introduced individually into six-well plates (Corning- 430343) coated with 50 ?g ml-1 AE and to non... introduced into wells of 24-well plates coated with AE and to non-coated multiwells (Corning-430262) along with 2 ml of autoclaved, filtered seawater at 35? (Maki et al. 1990). The above treatments were repeated employing a single cyprid (single cyprid...

  6. Fluid phase equilibria during propylene carbonate synthesis from propylene oxide in carbon dioxide medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharnati, Loubna; Musko, Nikolai; Jensen, Anker Degn;

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the influence of the amount of carbon dioxide on the catalytic performance during the propylene carbonate synthesis from propylene oxide and CO2 was investigated. The reaction was performed in high-pressure batch autoclaves using immobilized 1-hydroxyethyl-9-propyl......-phase region where a CO2-expanded reactant/product phase (larger volume due to the dissolution of carbon dioxide in the liquid phase) is present. Optimal conditions for performing the reaction have been derived which requires consideration not only of the phase behavior of the starting phase but also of the...

  7. Enzymatic technology to improve oil extraction from Caryocar brasiliense camb. (Pequi) Pulp. Tecnologia enzimática para melhorar a extração do óleo da polpa de Caryocar brasiliense (pequi)

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Gomes de Brito Mariano; Sonia Couri; Suely Pereira Freitas

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to compare yield and quality of pequi pulp oil when applying two distinct processes: in the first, pulp drying in a tray dryer at 60ºC was combined with enzymatic treatment and pressing to oil extraction; in the second, a simple process was carried out by combining sun-drying pulp and pressing. In this study, raw pequi fruits were collected in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The fruits were autoclaved at 121ºC and stored under refrigeration. An enzymatic extract with pectina...

  8. Low Cost Manufacturing of Composite Cryotanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Brent; Palm, Tod; Deo, Ravi; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews research and development of cryotank manufacturing conducted by Northrup Grumman. The objectives of the research and development included the development and validation of manufacturing processes and technology for fabrication of large scale cryogenic tanks, the establishment of a scale-up and facilitization plan for full scale cryotanks, the development of non-autoclave composite manufacturing processes, the fabrication of subscale tank joints for element tests, the performance of manufacturing risk reduction trials for the subscale tank, and the development of full-scale tank manufacturing concepts.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of zeolite NaP using kaolin waste as a source of silicon and aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of zeolite NaP using kaolin waste, from the Amazon region, as a predominant source of silicon and aluminum has been studied. The zeolitisation process occurred in hydrothermal conditions using static autoclaving and the effects of time, temperature, and the Si/Al ratio were investigated. The starting material and the phases formed as reaction products were characterized by XRD, SEM and FTIR. The results showed that pure zeolite NaP is hydrothermally synthesized, at 100 °C for 20 hours, using meta kaolin waste material in alkaline medium in presence of additional silica. The XRD and SEM analyses indicate that the synthesized zeolite presents good crystallinity. (author)

  10. Synthesis of microporous material faujasite-type from kaolin waste; Sintese de material microporoso do tipo faujasita a partir de rejeito de caulim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrando, E.A.; Valenzuela-Diaz, F.R., E-mail: edemarino@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais. Lab. de Materias-Primas Particuladas e Solidos nao Metalicos; Angelica, R.S. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Fac. de Geologia; Neves, R.F. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia. Fac. de Engenharia Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Zeolite with structure faujasite was synthesized using kaolin waste from kaolin processing industries for paper coating as predominant source of silicon and aluminum; the starting material was characterized by XRF, XRD, DTA/TG, SEM, and products obtained by XRD and SEM. Synthesis in hydrothermal conditions occurred on autoclave and time-temperature effects, as well as the relationship Si/Al were considered. The results show that the methodology developed with the waste of calcined kaolin reacting at 90 deg C for 20 hours in an alkaline medium, in the presence of an additional source of silica was obtained zeolite Y as single phase present in the product. (author)

  11. Uranium dissolution rate from ores in carbonate leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments are performed on the determination of specific dissolution rates for isolated samples of such uranium mineral as pitchblende and its inclusions in ore slurries during autoclave carbonate leaching. The following conclusions are drawn: all types of pitchblende regardless of an oxygen coefficient exhibit close specific dissolution rates; the time of leaching is independent of an uranium content at the initial sample; on ore reducing down to particle size of 0.1 mm practically complete mechanical opening of uranium minerals takes place

  12. Study and characterization of noble metal deposits on similar rusty surfaces to those of the reactor U-1 type BWR of nuclear power station of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation work, were determined the parameters to simulate the conditions of internal oxidation reactor circulation pipes of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in Veracruz. We used 304l stainless steel cylinders with two faces prepared with abrasive paper of No. 600, with the finality to obtain similar surface to the internal circulation piping nuclear reactor. Oxides was formed within an autoclave (Autoclave MEX-02 unit B), which is a device that simulates the working conditions of the nuclear reactor, but without radiation generated by the fission reaction within the reactor. The oxidation conditions were a temperature of 280 C and pressure of 8 MPa, similar conditions to the reactor operating in nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in Veracruz, Mexico (BWR conditions), with an average conductivity of 4.58 ms / cm and 2352 ppb oxygen to simulate normal water chemistry NWC. Were obtained deposits of noble metal oxides formed on 304l stainless steel samples, in a 250 ml autoclave at a temperature range of 180 to 200 C. The elements that were used to deposit platinum-rhodium (Pt-Rh) with aqueous Na2Pt (OH)6 and Na3Rh (NO2)6, Silver (Ag) with an aqueous solution of AgNO3, zirconium (Zr) with aqueous Zr O (NO3) and ZrO2, and zinc (Zn) in aqueous solution of Zn (NO3)2 under conditions of normal water chemistry. Also there was the oxidation of 304l stainless steel specimens in normal water chemistry with a solution of Zinc (Zn) (NWC + Zn). Oxidation of the specimens in water chemistry with a solution of zinc (Zn + NWC) was prepared in two ways: within the MEX-02 autoclave unit A in a solution of zinc and a flask at constant temperature in zinc solution. The oxides formed and deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, elemental field analysis and X-ray diffraction. By other hand was evaluated the electrochemical behavior of the oxides formed on the surface of 304l stainless steel in normal water

  13. Mining and processing of uranium ores in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience gained in uranium ore mining by modern methods in combination with underground and heap leaching is summarized. More intensive processing of low-grade ores has been achieved through the use of autoclave leaching, sorptive treatment of thick pulps, extractive separation of pure uranium compounds, automated continuous sorption devices of high efficiency for processing the underground- and heap-leaching liquors, natural and mine water, and recovery of molybdenum, vanadium, scandium, rare earths and phosphate fertilizers from low-grade ores. Production of ion-exchangers and extractants has been developed and processes for concomitant recovery of copper, gold, ionium, tungsten, caesium, zirconium, tantalum, nickel and cobalt have been designed. (author)

  14. Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 Survival in Soil and Translocation into Leeks (Allium porrum) as Influenced by an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (Glomus intraradices)

    OpenAIRE

    Gurtler, Joshua B.; Douds, David D.; Dirks, Brian P.; Jennifer J. Quinlan; Nicholson, April M.; Phillips, John G.; Niemira, Brendan A.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on Salmonella and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) in autoclaved soil and translocation into leek plants. Six-week-old leek plants (with [Myc+] or without [Myc−] AM fungi) were inoculated with composite suspensions of Salmonella or EHEC at ca. 8.2 log CFU/plant into soil. Soil, root, and shoot samples were analyzed for pathogens on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 postinoculation. Initial populations (...

  15. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of X52 and X60 steels in carbon dioxide containing saltwater solution

    OpenAIRE

    Rihan Omar Rihan

    2013-01-01

    X52 and X60 high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels are widely used in the construction of petroleum pipelines. This paper discusses the corrosion resistance of X52 and X60 steels in CO2 containing saltwater at pH 4.4 and 50 ºC. A circulating flow loop system inside an autoclave was used for conducting the experimental work. The rotating impeller speed was 2000 rpm. The corrosion rate was monitored using in situ electrochemical methods such as potentiodynamic sweep, linear polarization resistan...

  16. Effect of gamma radiation on the inactivation of aflatoxin B1 in food and feed crops Efeito da radiação gama na inativação de aflatoxina B1 em alimentos e ração

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanem, I.; Orfi, M.; Shamma, M.

    2008-01-01

    Samples of food crops (peanut, peeled pistachio, unpeeled pistachio, rice, and corn) and feed (barley, bran, corn) were autoclave-sterilized, and inoculated with 10(6) of spore suspension of an isolate of Aspergillus flavus fungus known to produce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) . Following a 10-day period of incubation at 27 C to allow for fungal growth, food and feed samples were irradiated with gamma radiation at the doses 4, 6, and 10 kGy. Results indicated that degradation of AFB1 was positively cor...

  17. Effects of Catalyst Preparation on Hydrocarbon Product Distribution in Hydrocracking of the Fischer-Tropsch Product with Low Pt-Loaded Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiaki Hanaoka; Tomohisa Miyazawa; Katsuya Shimura; Satoshi Hirata

    2015-01-01

    For the effective production of hydrocarbon liquid fuel in the hydrocracking of the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) product, the catalytic performance of Pt-loaded catalysts with low Pt content was investigated using an autoclave at 250 °C, an initial H2 pressure of 0.5 MPa, and a reaction time of 1 h. A screening study using Pt-loaded catalysts with a Pt content of 0.1 wt. % indicated that zeolite supports were more favorable for jet fuel (carbon numbers 9–15) production than amorphous oxide supports....

  18. Preparation and Self-assembly of Zirconia Nanoparticles via Hydrothermal Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-Hui; HONG Zhang-Lian; YANG Hui

    2008-01-01

    Zirconia nanoparticles were synthesized via hydrothermal method without any additives. This work focuses on the effect of preparation conditions such as the precursor preparation condition and crystallization time of nanocrystallite in autoclave on the properties of as-prepared products. The results indicated that the amount of tetragonal zirconia varied with the preparation conditions. It increased with the increase of the concentration of KOH solution in precursor producing process and reduced with the prolongation of crystallization time. At the same time, the particle size and morphology were also affected by the preparation conditions. In addition,the self-assembled spindle- like aggregates were observed in present works.

  19. Correlation of coal liquefaction reactivity with coal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Durfee, S.L.; Voorhees, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    A narrow suite of bituminous coals chosen from the DOE/Penn State sample bank has been hydrogenated in a batch stirred autoclave. Rates of conversion to THF-solubles have been measured, and the data modeled using a pseudo-second order rate expression. Extent of conversion and rate of conversion of the coals in the suite have been correlated to coal compositional parameters and structural features. Recent data on reactivity correlations with information from pyrolysis/mass spectrometry and C-NMR are presented. (2 tables, 5 figs., 17 refs.)

  20. Correlation of coal liquefaction reactivity with coal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Durfee, S.L.; Voorhees, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    A narrow suite of bituminous coals chosen from the DOE/Penn State sample bank has been hydrogenated in a batch stirred autoclave. Rates of conversion to THF solubles have been measured, and the data modeled using a pseudo-second order rate expression. Extent of conversion and rate of conversion of the coals in the suite have been correlated to coal compositional parameters and structural features. Recent data on reactivity correlations with information from pyrolysis/mass spectrometry and C-NMR are presented.