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  1. Novel CD7-specific nanobody-based immunotoxins potently enhanced apoptosis of CD7-positive malignant cells.

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    Tang, Jinle; Li, Jialu; Zhu, Xuejun; Yu, Yuan; Chen, Dan; Yuan, Lei; Gu, Zhenyang; Zhang, Xingding; Qi, Lin; Gong, Zhishu; Jiang, Pengjun; Yu, Juhua; Meng, Huimin; An, Gangli; Zheng, Huyong; Yang, Lin

    2016-06-07

    Various CD7-targeting immunotoxins have been tested for its potential in treating CD7+ malignant patients but none of those immunotoxins was approved clinically because of lacking enough efficacy and safety. Here we successfully constructed the monovalent and bivalent CD7 nanobody-based immunotoxins PG001 and PG002, both conjugated with a truncated derivative of Pseudomonas exotoxin A respectively. The prokaryotic system expressed immunotoxins not only maintained their binding specificity for CD7-positive cells with a Kd of 16.74 nM and 3.6 nM for PG001 and PG002 respectively, but also efficiently promoted antigen-restricted apoptosis of the CD7-positive leukemia cell lines Jurkat and CEM, and primary T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells with an in vitro cytotoxic activity (EC50) in the range of 23-30 pM for PG002. In NOD/SCID mice transplanted with CEM cells, PG001 and PG002 prevented engraftment of the cells and markedly prolonged mouse survival. Owing to the efficient antigen-restricted anti-leukemic activity of PG002, this CD7 nanobody-based immunotoxin exhibited a superior anti-CD7 positive malignancies activity than previously reported immunotoxins, and may represent a promising therapeutic strategy in treating CD7-positive leukemia and lymphoma, which still remain a significant clinical challenge.

  2. Complete suppression of in vivo growth of human leukemia cells by specific immunotoxins: nude mouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, H.; Seon, B.K.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, immunotoxins containing monoclonal anti-human T-cell leukemia antibodies are shown to be capable of completely suppressing the tumor growth of human T-cell leukemia cells in vivo without any overt undersirable toxicity. These immunotoxins were prepared by conjugating ricin A chain (RA) with our monoclonal antibodies, SN1 and SN2, directed specifically to the human T-cell leukemia cell surface antigens TALLA and GP37, respectively. The authors have shown that these monoclonal antibodies are highly specific for human T-cell leukemia cells and do not react with various normal cells including normal T and B cells, thymocytes, and bone marrow cells. Ascitic and solid human T-cell leukemia cell tumors were generated in nude mice. The ascitic tumor was generated by transplanting Ichikawa cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell) i.p. into nude mice, whereas the solid tumor was generated by transplanting s.c. MOLT-4 cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell line) and x-irradiated human fibrosarcoma cells into x-irradiated nude mice. To investigate the efficacy of specific immunotoxins in suppression the in vivo growth of the ascitic tumor, they divided 40 nude mice that were injected with Ichikawa cells into four groups. None of the mice in group 4 that were treated with SN1-RA and SN2-RA showed any signs of a tumor or undesirable toxic effects for the 20 weeks that they were followed after the transplantation. Treatment with SN1-RA plus SN2-RA completely suppressed solid tumor growth in 4 of 10 nude mice carrying solid tumors and partially suppressed the tumor growth in the remaining 6 nude mice. These results strongly suggest that SN1-RA and SN2-RA may be useful for clinical treatment

  3. Novel recombinant immunotoxin of EGFR specific nanobody fused with cucurmosin, construction and antitumor efficiency in vitro.

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    Deng, Cuimin; Xiong, Jiani; Gu, Xiaofan; Chen, Xiaoying; Wu, Shuifa; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Duanduan; Tu, Jinjin; Xie, Jieming

    2017-06-13

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression is related to the increased aggressiveness, metastases, and poor prognosis in various cancers. In this study, we successfully constructed a new EGFR nanobody-based immunotoxin rE/CUS containing cucurmosin (CUS), The immunotoxin was expressed by prokaryotic system and we obtained a yield of 5 mg protein per liter expression medium. The percentage of it's binding ability totumor cell lines A549, HepG2, SW116, which highly expressed EGFR was 55.6%, 79.6% and 97.1%, respectively, but SW620 was only 4.45%. rE/CUS has the ability to bind A549, HepG2, SW116 cells specifically, and the antigen binding capability was not affected because of extra part of CUS component. The rE/CUS significantly inhibited the cell viability against EGFR over expression tumor cell lines in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Moreover, rE/CUS also induced apoptosis of HepG2 and A549 mightily. Our results demonstrate that rE/CUS is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating EGFR-positive solid tumors.

  4. Immunotoxins: The Role of the Toxin

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    David FitzGerald

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Immunotoxins are antibody-toxin bifunctional molecules that rely on intracellular toxin action to kill target cells. Target specificity is determined via the binding attributes of the chosen antibody. Mostly, but not exclusively, immunotoxins are purpose-built to kill cancer cells as part of novel treatment approaches. Other applications for immunotoxins include immune regulation and the treatment of viral or parasitic diseases. Here we discuss the utility of protein toxins, of both bacterial and plant origin, joined to antibodies for targeting cancer cells. Finally, while clinical goals are focused on the development of novel cancer treatments, much has been learned about toxin action and intracellular pathways. Thus toxins are considered both medicines for treating human disease and probes of cellular function.

  5. The future of antiviral immunotoxins

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    Spiess, K.; Høy Jakobsen, Mette; Kledal, Thomas N

    2016-01-01

    There is a constant need for new therapeutic interventions in a wide range of infectious diseases. Over the past few years, the immunotoxins have entered the stage as promising antiviral treatments. Immunotoxins have been extensively explored in cancer treatment and have achieved FDA approval...

  6. TAILORING IMMUNOTOXIN AS ANTICANCER DRUG

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    Santoso Cornain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The conventional treatments for cancer have been considered unsatisfatory, with limited efficiency in terms of discriminative cancer cell adverse reaction against the normal compartments, a number of immunological approaches had been implemented. Since cancer cells could exhibit tumor specific antigen (s, a highly specific antibody could be used to direct any anticancer drug, biological agent or radioisotope selectively against the cancer cells and does not harm the normal cells. The specific antibody could be raised by immunization with purified tumor specific antigen (s. The biological agent could be obtained as toxin, either derived from bacteria e.g. diphtheria toxin or derived from plants e.g. castor ricin, which could destroy and kill cancer cells after contacts. A hybrid molecule constructed between antibody and toxin has been known as "immunotoxin". The selectivity of the antibody against a given tumor specific antigen could be increased by using a monoclonal antibody, made by hybridoma technique and immunological engineering. Accordingly, the efficiency of the destructive or killing effect of the toxin could be eventually increased by purification technique, biochemical and genetic engineering. In a preliminary study ricin from castor (Ricinus communis have been purified and separated into two protein fractions (RCAI = 12.000 dalton and RCA II = 60.000 - 65.000 dalton. The latter showed toxin property, and was tested in vitro both against normal cells and against cancer cells. In the microcy totoxicity assay the ricin showed both the short term and the long term killing effect as measured after 1, 4, 16 and 24 hours. The killing effect against cancer cells was stronger as compared to that against normal cells. The acute or short term effect was observed at lower concentration of ricin (10-6 and 10-12 g/ml after 1 and 4 hours contacts. The long term effect resulted in 90% and nearly 100% cytotoxicity in higher concentration of ricin

  7. Abrin immunotoxin: targeted cytotoxicity and intracellular trafficking pathway.

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    Sudarshan Gadadhar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy is fast emerging as one of the leading modes of treatment of cancer, in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. Use of immunotoxins, proteins bearing a cell-surface receptor-specific antibody conjugated to a toxin, enhances the efficacy of cancer treatment. The toxin Abrin, isolated from the Abrus precatorius plant, is a type II ribosome inactivating protein, has a catalytic efficiency higher than any other toxin belonging to this class of proteins but has not been exploited much for use in targeted therapy. METHODS: Protein synthesis assay using (3[H] L-leucine incorporation; construction and purification of immunotoxin; study of cell death using flow cytometry; confocal scanning microscopy and sub-cellular fractionation with immunoblot analysis of localization of proteins. RESULTS: We used the recombinant A chain of abrin to conjugate to antibodies raised against the human gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor. The conjugate inhibited protein synthesis and also induced cell death specifically in cells expressing the receptor. The conjugate exhibited differences in the kinetics of inhibition of protein synthesis, in comparison to abrin, and this was attributed to differences in internalization and trafficking of the conjugate within the cells. Moreover, observations of sequestration of the A chain into the nucleus of cells treated with abrin but not in cells treated with the conjugate reveal a novel pathway for the movement of the conjugate in the cells. CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the first reports on nuclear localization of abrin, a type II RIP. The immunotoxin mAb F1G4-rABRa-A, generated in our laboratory, inhibits protein synthesis specifically on cells expressing the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor and the pathway of internalization of the protein is distinct from that seen for abrin.

  8. Novel Chemokine-Based Immunotoxins for Potent and Selective Targeting of Cytomegalovirus Infected Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiess, Katja; Jeppesen, Mads G.; Malmgaard-Clausen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Immunotoxins as antiviral therapeutics are largely unexplored but have promising prospective due to their high selectivity potential and their unparalleled efficiency. One recent example targeted the virus-encoded G protein-coupled receptor US28 as a strategy for specific and efficient treatment ...

  9. Humanized CD7 nanobody-based immunotoxins exhibit promising anti-T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia potential.

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    Yu, Yuan; Li, Jialu; Zhu, Xuejun; Tang, Xiaowen; Bao, Yangyi; Sun, Xiang; Huang, Yuhui; Tian, Fang; Liu, Xiaomei; Yang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Nanobodies, named as VHHs (variable domain of heavy chain of HCAb [heavy-chain antibodies]), are derived from heavy-chain-only antibodies that circulate in sera of camelids. Their exceptional physicochemical properties, possibility of humanization, and unique antigen recognition properties make them excellent candidates for targeted delivery of biologically active components, including immunotoxins. In our previous efforts, we have successfully generated the monovalent and bivalent CD7 nanobody-based immunotoxins, which can effectively trigger the apoptosis of CD7-positive malignant cells. To pursue the possibility of translating those immunotoxins into clinics, we humanized the nanobody sequences (designated as dhuVHH6) as well as further truncated the Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE)-derived PE38 toxin to produce a more protease-resistant form, which is named as PE-LR, by deleting majority of PE domain II. Three new types of immunotoxins, dhuVHH6-PE38, dVHH6-PE-LR, and dhuVHH6-PE-LR, were successfully constructed. These recombinant immunotoxins were expressed in Escherichia coli and showed that nanobody immunotoxins have the benefits of easy soluble expression in a prokaryotic expression system. Flow cytometry results revealed that all immunotoxins still maintained the ability to bind specifically to CD7-positive T lymphocyte strains without binding to CD7-negative control cells. Laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed that these proteins can be endocytosed into the cytoplasm after binding with CD7-positive cells and that this phenomenon was not observed in CD7-negative cells. WST-8 experiments showed that all immunotoxins retained the highly effective and specific growth inhibition activity in CD7-positive cell lines and primary T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells. Further in vivo animal model experiments showed that humanized dhuVHH6-PE38 immunotoxin can tolerate higher doses and extend the survival of NOD-Prkdc em26 Il2rg em26 Nju (NCG) mice

  10. Anti-Human Endoglin (hCD105) Immunotoxin-Containing Recombinant Single Chain Ribosome-Inactivating Protein Musarmin 1.

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    Barriuso, Begoña; Antolín, Pilar; Arias, F Javier; Girotti, Alessandra; Jiménez, Pilar; Cordoba-Diaz, Manuel; Cordoba-Diaz, Damián; Girbés, Tomás

    2016-06-10

    Endoglin (CD105) is an accessory component of the TGF-β receptor complex, which is expressed in a number of tissues and over-expressed in the endothelial cells of tumor neovasculature. Targeting endoglin with immunotoxins containing type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins has proved an effective tool to reduce blood supply to B16 mice tumor xenografts. We prepared anti-endoglin immunotoxin (IT)-containing recombinant musarmin 1 (single chain ribosome-inactivating proteins) linked to the mouse anti-human CD105 44G4 mouse monoclonal antibody via N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP). The immunotoxin specifically killed L929 fibroblast mouse cells transfected with the short form of human endoglin with IC50 values in the range of 5 × 10(-10) to 10(-9) M.

  11. Clinical targeting recombinant immunotoxins for cancer therapy

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    Li M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Meng Li,1,* Zeng-Shan Liu,1,* Xi-Lin Liu,1,* Qi Hui,2,* Shi-Ying Lu,1 Lin-Lin Qu,1 Yan-Song Li,1 Yu Zhou,1 Hong-Lin Ren,1 Pan Hu1 1Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine, China-Japan Union Hospital, The First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, 2School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Recombinant immunotoxins (RITs are proteins that contain a toxin fused to an antibody or small molecules and are constructed by the genetic engineering technique. RITs can bind to and be internalized by cells and kill cancerous or non-cancerous cells by inhibiting protein synthesis. A wide variety of RITs have been tested against different cancers in cell culture, xenograft models, and human patients during the past several decades. RITs have shown activity in therapy of several kinds of cancers, but different levels of side effects, mainly related to vascular leak syndrome, were also observed in the treated patients. High immunogenicity of RITs limited their long-term or repeat applications in clinical cases. Recent advances in the design of immunotoxins, such as humanization of antibody fragment, PEGylation, and modification of human B- and T-cell epitopes, are overcoming the above mentioned problems, which predict the use of these immunotoxins as a potential therapeutic method to treat cancer patients. Keywords: targeted therapy, hematologic malignancies, solid tumors, vascular leak syndrome, immunogenicity 

  12. Humanized CD7 nanobody-based immunotoxins exhibit promising anti-T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia potential

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    Yu Y

    2017-03-01

    all immunotoxins still maintained the ability to bind specifically to CD7-positive T lymphocyte strains without binding to CD7-negative control cells. Laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed that these proteins can be endocytosed into the cytoplasm after binding with CD7-positive cells and that this phenomenon was not observed in CD7-negative cells. WST-8 experiments showed that all immunotoxins retained the highly effective and specific growth inhibition activity in CD7-positive cell lines and primary T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL cells. Further in vivo animal model experiments showed that humanized dhuVHH6-PE38 immunotoxin can tolerate higher doses and extend the survival of NOD-Prkdcem26Il2rgem26Nju (NCG mice transplanted with CEM cells without any obvious decrease in body weight. Further studies on NCG mice model with patient-derived T-ALL cells, dhuVHH6-PE38 treatment, significantly prolonged mice survival with ~40% survival improvement. However, it was also noticed that although dhuVHH6-PE-LR showed strong antitumor effect in vitro, its in vivo antitumor efficacy was disappointing. Conclusion: We have successfully constructed a targeted CD7 molecule-modified nanobody (CD7 molecule-improved nanobody immunotoxin dhuVHH6-PE38 and demonstrated its potential for treating CD7-positive malignant tumors, especially T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Keywords: CD7, humanized nanobody, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, patient-derived xenograft model, recombinant immunotoxins, Pseudomonas exotoxin A

  13. Cloning and Expression of Recombinant Immunotoxin using Diphtheria Toxin and Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF

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    Fatemeh Donyapoor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Immunotoxin (IT is a directed toxin containing two distinct sections (immune and toxin parts covalently bond using specific chemical or peptide linkers. The aim of this study is to produce a recombinant and hybrid protein containing diphtheria toxin (DT and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF. Materials and Methods: According to the structure of the first commercial recombinant immunotoxin (Ontak, hybrid protein containing DT fused interlukine2, gene encoding of DT and G-CSF was amplified using specific primers and plasmid template of pET-IDZ3 (pET21 harboring the gene encoding ontak immunotoxine and pET-GCSF (pET23 harboring G-CSF, respectively. The DT-GCSF fusion protein produced using soeing PCR and specific primers. Finally, pET-DT-GCSF construction prepared using subcloning of DT-GCSF into pET21a(+ and confirmed by sequencing, SDS-PAGE and western blot technique. Results: Gene encoding of DT-GCSF inserted into NdeI/EcoRI site of pET21 and the construction of strain producing DT-GCSF recombinant immunotoxin was confirmed using customary methods. Conclusion: The cytokine fusion protein, DT-GCSF, could be used for the inhibition of G-CSF receptor bearing cancer cells.

  14. The current status of immunotoxins: an overview of experimental and clinical studies as presented at the Third International Symposium on Immunotoxins.

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    Uckun, F M; Frankel, A

    1993-02-01

    The Third International Symposium on Immunotoxins was held on June 19-21, 1992 in Orlando, Florida. This symposium was sponsored by NATO, NIH, Pierce Chemical Company, Walt Disney Cancer Institute at Florida Hospital, Duke Comprehensive Cancer Center, Xoma, Immunogen, Seragen, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Chiron, Ortho Biotech, Upjohn, Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories, Abbot Laboratories, Lilly Research Laboratories, and Evans & Sutherland. The Pierce Immunotoxin Award which recognizes outstanding contributions to immunotoxin research and development, was presented to Drs David FitzGerald, Fatih Uckun, David Eisenberg, and Ira Wool, for their contributions to the immunotoxin field.

  15. The novel immunotoxin HM1.24-ETA′ induces apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudinger, M; Glorius, P; Burger, R; Kellner, C; Klausz, K; Günther, A; Repp, R; Klapper, W; Gramatzki, M; Peipp, M

    2014-01-01

    Despite new treatment modalities, the clinical outcome in a substantial number of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) has yet to be improved. Antibody-based targeted therapies for myeloma patients could make use of the HM1.24 antigen (CD317), a surface molecule overexpressed on malignant plasma cells and efficiently internalized. Here, a novel immunotoxin, HM1.24-ETA′, is described. HM1.24-ETA′ was generated by genetic fusion of a CD317-specific single-chain Fv (scFv) antibody and a truncated variant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (ETA′). HM1.24-ETA′ inhibited growth of interleukin 6 (IL-6)-dependent and -independent myeloma cell lines. Half-maximal growth inhibition was observed at concentrations as low as 0.3 nM. Target cell killing occurred via induction of apoptosis and was unaffected in co-culture experiments with bone marrow stromal cells. HM1.24-ETA′ efficiently triggered apoptosis of freshly isolated/cryopreserved cells of patients with plasma cell leukemia and MM and was active in a preclinical severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse xenograft model. Importantly, HM1.24-ETA′ was not cytotoxic against CD317-positive cells from healthy tissue (monocytes, human umbilical vein endothelial cells). These results indicate that CD317 may represent a promising target structure for specific and efficient immunotoxin therapy for patients with plasma cell tumors

  16. Essential role for Bim in mediating the apoptotic and antitumor activities of immunotoxins.

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    Antignani, A; Segal, D; Simon, N; Kreitman, R J; Huang, D; FitzGerald, D J

    2017-08-31

    Protein synthesis is crucial for regulating cell homeostasis and, when unrestricted, it can lead to tumorigenesis. Immunotoxins derived from Pseudomonas exotoxin are antibody-toxin fusion proteins that inhibit protein synthesis of mammalian cells via ADP-ribosylation of the eukaryotic elongation factor-2. Here we investigate the role of the Bcl-2 family proteins in the response of cancer cells to immunotoxin challenge. Besides the well-known reduction of the prosurvival Bcl-2 family member, Mcl-1, following inhibition of protein synthesis, we show for the first time that immunotoxins also reduce the levels of selected proapoptotic BH-3-only proteins. Among these, only Bim protein levels correlated with the ability of immunotoxins to induce an apoptotic response. To support our findings, we verified that a Bim knockout completely abolished immunotoxin-mediated apoptosis. Further, mice bearing either wild-type or Bid knockout tumors responded to immunotoxin treatment with a decrease in growth kinetics, whereas mice engrafted with Bim knockout tumors showed no reduction in tumor size or prolongation of survival following immunotoxin treatment. From these results, we conclude that Bim expression is a major susceptibility factor for tumor cell death and, as such, constitutes a potential biomarker that could be evaluated before immunotoxin treatment. In support of this hypothesis, clinically, we analyzed patient cells before immunotoxin treatment and report that samples of hairy cell leukemia with high levels of Bim protein responded with a greater decrease in leukemic cell count compared with those samples expressing a low level of Bim.

  17. Cerebellar Purkinje cells incorporate immunoglobulins and immunotoxins in vitro: implications for human neurological disease and immunotherapeutics

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    Rose John W

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies reactive with intracellular neuronal proteins have been described in paraneoplastic and other autoimmune disorders. Because neurons have been thought impermeable to immunoglobulins, however, such antibodies have been considered unable to enter neurons and bind to their specific antigens during life. Cerebellar Purkinje cells - an important target in paraneoplastic and other autoimmune diseases - have been shown in experimental animals to incorporate a number of molecules from cerebrospinal fluid. IgG has also been detected in Purkinje cells studied post mortem. Despite the possible significance of these findings for human disease, immunoglobulin uptake by Purkinje cells has not been demonstrated in living tissue or studied systematically. Methods To assess Purkinje cell uptake of immunoglobulins, organotypic cultures of rat cerebellum incubated with rat IgGs, human IgG, fluorescein-conjugated IgG, and rat IgM were studied by confocal microscopy in real time and following fixation. An IgG-daunorubicin immunotoxin was used to determine whether conjugation of pharmacological agents to IgG could be used to achieve Purkinje cell-specific drug delivery. Results IgG uptake was detected in Purkinje cell processes after 4 hours of incubation and in Purkinje cell cytoplasm and nuclei by 24-48 hours. Uptake could be followed in real time using IgG-fluorochrome conjugates. Purkinje cells also incorporated IgM. Intracellular immunoglobulin did not affect Purkinje cell viability, and Purkinje cells cleared intracellular IgG or IgM within 24-48 hours after transfer to media lacking immunoglobulins. The IgG-daunomycin immunotoxin was also rapidly incorporated into Purkinje cells and caused extensive, cell-specific death within 8 hours. Purkinje cell death was not produced by unconjugated daunorubicin or control IgG. Conclusion Purkinje cells in rat organotypic cultures incorporate and clear host (rat and non

  18. Diphtheria toxin-based anti-human CD19 immunotoxin for targeting human CD19+tumors.

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    Zheng, Qian; Wang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Huiping; Huang, Qi; Madsen, Joren C; Sachs, David H; Huang, Christene A; Wang, Zhirui

    2017-05-01

    CD19 is expressed on normal and neoplastic B cells and is a promising target for immunotherapy. However, there is still an unmet need to further develop novel therapeutic drugs for the treatment of the refractory/relapsing human CD19 + tumors. We have developed a diphtheria toxin-based anti-human CD19 immunotoxin for targeting human CD19 + tumors. We have constructed three isoforms of the CD19 immunotoxin: monovalent, bivalent, and foldback diabody. In vitro binding affinity and efficacy analysis demonstrated that the bivalent isoform had the highest binding affinity and in vitro efficacy. The in vivo efficacy of the CD19 immunotoxins was assessed using human CD19 + JeKo-1 tumor-bearing NOD/SCID IL-2 receptor γ -/- (NSG) mouse model. In these animals, CD19 immunotoxins significantly prolonged the median survival from 31 days in controls to 34, 36, and 40 days in animals receiving the monovalent isoform, foldback diabody isoform, and bivalent isoform, respectively. The bivalent CD19 immunotoxin is a promising therapeutic drug candidate for targeting relapsing/refractory human CD19 + tumors. © 2017 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Novel Chemokine-Based Immunotoxins for Potent and Selective Targeting of Cytomegalovirus Infected Cells

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    Katja Spiess

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunotoxins as antiviral therapeutics are largely unexplored but have promising prospective due to their high selectivity potential and their unparalleled efficiency. One recent example targeted the virus-encoded G protein-coupled receptor US28 as a strategy for specific and efficient treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infections. US28 is expressed on virus-infected cells and scavenge chemokines by rapid internalization. The chemokine-based fusion-toxin protein (FTP consisted of a variant (F49A of CX3CL1 specifically targeting US28 linked to the catalytic domain of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE. Here, we systematically seek to improve F49A-FTP by modifications in its three structural domains; we generated variants with (1 altered chemokine sequence (K14A, F49L, and F49E, (2 shortened and elongated linker region, and (3 modified toxin domain. Only F49L-FTP displayed higher selectivity in its binding to US28 versus CX3CR1, the endogenous receptor for CX3CL1, but this was not matched by a more selective killing of US28-expressing cells. A longer linker and different toxin variants decreased US28 affinity and selective killing. Thereby, F49A-FTP represents the best candidate for HCMV treatment. Many viruses encode internalizing receptors suggesting that not only HCMV but also, for instance, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus may be targeted by FTPs.

  20. Targeted Anticancer Immunotoxins and Cytotoxic Agents with Direct Killing Moieties

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    Koji Kawakami

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progress of the bioinformatics approach to characterize cell-surface antigens and receptors on tumor cells, it remains difficult to generate novel cancer vaccines or neutralizing monoclonal antibody therapeutics. Among targeted cancer therapeutics, biologicals with targetable antibodies or ligands conjugated or fused to toxins or chemicals for direct cell-killing ability have been developed over the last 2 decades. These conjugated or fused chimeric proteins are termed immunotoxins or cytotoxic agents. Two agents, DAB389IL-2 (ONTAKTM targeting the interleukin-2 receptor and CD33-calicheamicin (Mylotarg®, have been approved by the FDA for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL and relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML, respectively. Such targetable agents, including RFB4(dsFv-PE38 (BL22, IL13-PE38QQR, and Tf-CRM107, are being tested in clinical trials. Several agents using unique technology such as a cleavable adapter or immunoliposomes with antibodies are also in the preclinical stage. This review summarizes the generation, mechanism, and development of these agents. In addition, possible future directions of this therapeutic approach are discussed.

  1. The development and characterization of a human mesothelioma in vitro 3D model to investigate immunotoxin therapy.

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    Xinran Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor microenvironments present significant barriers to penetration by antibodies and immunoconjugates. Tumor microenvironments, however, are difficult to study in vitro. Cells cultured as monolayers exhibit less resistance to therapy than those grown in vivo and an alternative research model more representative of the in vivo tumor is more desirable. SS1P is an immunotoxin composed of the Fv portion of a mesothelin-specific antibody fused to a bacterial toxin that is presently undergoing clinical trials in mesothelioma.Here, we examined how the tumor microenvironment affects the penetration and killing activity of SS1P in a new three-dimensional (3D spheroid model cultured in vitro using the human mesothelioma cell line (NCI-H226 and two primary cell lines isolated from the ascites of malignant mesothelioma patients. Mesothelioma cells grown as monolayers or as spheroids expressed comparable levels of mesothelin; however, spheroids were at least 100 times less affected by SS1P. To understand this disparity in cytotoxicity, we made fluorescence-labeled SS1P molecules and used confocal microscopy to examine the time course of SS1P penetration within spheroids. The penetration was limited after 4 hours. Interestingly, we found a significant increase in the number of tight junctions in the core area of spheroids by electron microscopy. Expression of E-Cadherin, a protein involved in the assembly and sealing of tight junctions and highly expressed in malignant mesothelioma, was found significantly increased in spheroids as compared to monolayers. Moreover, we found that siRNA silencing and antibody inhibition targeting E-Cadherin could enhance SS1P immunotoxin therapy in vitro.This work is one of the first to investigate immunotoxins in 3D tumor spheroids in vitro. This initial description of an in vitro tumor model may offer a simple and more representative model of in vivo tumors and will allow for further investigations of the microenvironmental

  2. Effect of DAB(389)IL-2 immunotoxin on the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats.

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    Phillips, S Michael; Bhopale, Mahendra K; Constantinescu, Cris S; Ciric, Bogoljub; Hilliard, Brendan; Ventura, Elvira; Lavi, Ehud; Rostami, Abdolmohamad

    2007-12-15

    Activated T cells express the high affinity interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R also CD25) that binds interleukin 2 (IL-2) and transduces signals important for the proliferation and survival of these cells. We investigated the effect of the genetically engineered immunotoxin DAB(389)IL-2 on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) mediated by activated myelin-reactive T cells. EAE is the most commonly used animal model of the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS). DAB(389)IL-2 is a recombinant fusion product made of a portion of diphtheria toxin, which contains binding and translocation components of the toxin linked to IL-2. The diphtheria toxin targets and kills cells expressing the high affinity IL-2 receptor and has been successfully used in several autoimmune and neoplastic conditions. We observed a significant suppression of guinea-pig spinal cord homogenate (gpSCH)-MBP induced active EAE in Lewis rats at 2 x 1,600 kU of DAB(389)IL-2 given on days 7 and 9 post-immunization and complete suppression with the same dose on days 7, 8 and 9 or 7, 8, 9 and 10 after immunization during the active disease period. There were reduced mononuclear cell infiltrates of CD4(+), CD8(+), CD25(+) and alphabetaTCR(+) T cells in the spinal cord of treated rats. However, treatment at day 11 or 12 post-immunization led to severe, fatal disease. The toxin added to cultures in vitro or injected in vivo suppressed antigen- and mitogen-induced T cell proliferation. DAB(389)IL-2 treatment in vivo or exposure of encephalitogenic T cells in vitro prior to transfer did have a significant inhibitory effect on adoptive transfer EAE. Our data demonstrate that DAB(389)IL-2 immunotoxin can suppress active and passive EAE if applied at specific, early time points, but can have negative consequences at later time points.

  3. Destruction of midbrain dopaminergic neurons by using immunotoxin to dopamine transporter.

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    Wiley, R G; Harrison, M B; Levey, A I; Lappi, D A

    2003-10-01

    1. The ability to target specific neurons can be used to produce selective neural lesions and potentially to deliver therapeutically useful moieties for treatment of disease. In the present study, we sought to determine if a monoclonal antibody to the dopamine transporter (anti-DAT) could be used to target midbrain dopaminergic neurons. 2. The monoclonal antibody recognizes the second, large extracellular loop of DAT. The antibody was conjugated to the "ribosome-inactivating protein"; saporin, and stereotactically pressure microinjected into either the center of the striatum or the left lateral ventricle of adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats. 3. Local intrastriatal injections produced destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the ipsilateral substantia nigra consistent with suicide transport of the immunotoxin. Intraventricular injections (i.c.v.) produced significant loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area bilaterally without evident damage to any other aminergic structures such as the locus coeruleus and raphe nuclei. To confirm the anatomic findings, binding of [3-H]mazindol to DAT in the striatum and midbrain was assessed using densitometric analysis of autoradiograms. Anti-DAT-saporin injected i.c.v. at a dose of 21 microg, but not 8 microg, produced highly significant decreases in mazindol binding consistent with loss of the dopaminergic neurons. 4. These results show that anti-DAT can be used to target midbrain dopaminergic neurons and that anti-DAT-saporin may be useful for producing a lesion very similar to the naturally occurring neural degeneration seen in Parkinson's disease. Anti-DAT-saporin joins the growing list of neural lesioning agents based on targeted cytotoxins.

  4. A protein in neuroblastoma could be a target of immunotoxins or immunotherapy | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cell surface protein, glycoprotein glypican-2 (GPC2), has been found to be an effective therapeutic target in cell cultures and mouse models that mimic childhood neuroblastoma.  The CCR scientists who made this discovery, reported July 24, 2017, in PNAS, have also produced immunotoxins and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, a type of immunotherapy, that have shown promise against this solid tumor. Read more...

  5. Combination treatments with the PKC inhibitor, enzastaurin, enhance the cytotoxicity of the anti-mesothelin immunotoxin, SS1P.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid R Mattoo

    Full Text Available Activated protein kinase C (PKC contributes to tumor survival and proliferation, provoking the development of inhibitory agents as potential cancer therapeutics. Immunotoxins are antibody-based recombinant proteins that employ antibody fragments for cancer targeting and bacterial toxins as the cytotoxic agent. Pseudomonas exotoxin-based immunotoxins act via the ADP-ribosylation of EF2 leading to the enzymatic inhibition of protein synthesis. Combining PKC inhibitors with the immunotoxin SS1P, targeted to surface mesothelin, was undertaken to explore possible therapeutic strategies. Enzastaurin but not two other PKC inhibitors combined with SS1P to produce synergistic cell death via apoptosis. Mechanistic insights of the synergistic killing centered on the complete loss of the prosurvival Bcl2 protein, Mcl-1, the loss of AKT and the activation of caspase 3/7. Synergy was most evident when cells exhibited resistance to the immunotoxin alone. Further, because PKC inhibition by itself was not sufficient to enhance SS1P action, enzastaurin must target other kinases that are involved in the immunotoxin pathway.

  6. A novel immunotoxin reveals a new role for CD321 in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Takeshi; Kim, Jia; Hokaiwado, Shintaro; Nawa, Makiko; Okamoto, Hayato; Kogiso, Tomohiko; Watabe, Tetsuro; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2017-01-01

    There are currently several antibody therapies that directly target tumors, and antibody-drug conjugates represent a novel moiety as next generation therapeutics. Here, we used a unique screening probe, DT3C, to identify functional antibodies that recognized surface molecules and functional epitopes, and which provided toxin delivery capability. Accordingly, we generated the 90G4 antibody, which induced DT3C-dependent cytotoxicity in endothelial cells. Molecular analysis revealed that 90G4 recognized CD321, a protein localized at tight junctions. Although CD321 plays a pivotal role in inflammation and lymphocyte trans-endothelial migration, little is known about its mechanism of action in endothelial cells. Targeting of CD321 by the 90G4 immunotoxin induced cell death. Moreover, 90G4 immunotoxin caused cytotoxicity primarily in migratory endothelial cells, but not in those forming sheets, suggesting a critical role for CD321 in tumor angiogenesis. We also found that hypoxia triggered redistribution of CD321 to a punctate localization on the basal side of cells, resulting in functional impairment of tight junctions and increased motility. Thus, our findings raise the intriguing possibility that endothelial CD321 presented cellular localization in tight junction as well as multifunctional dynamics in several conditions, leading to illuminate the importance of widely-expressed CD321 as a potential target for antitumor therapy.

  7. A novel immunotoxin reveals a new role for CD321 in endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Fukuhara

    Full Text Available There are currently several antibody therapies that directly target tumors, and antibody-drug conjugates represent a novel moiety as next generation therapeutics. Here, we used a unique screening probe, DT3C, to identify functional antibodies that recognized surface molecules and functional epitopes, and which provided toxin delivery capability. Accordingly, we generated the 90G4 antibody, which induced DT3C-dependent cytotoxicity in endothelial cells. Molecular analysis revealed that 90G4 recognized CD321, a protein localized at tight junctions. Although CD321 plays a pivotal role in inflammation and lymphocyte trans-endothelial migration, little is known about its mechanism of action in endothelial cells. Targeting of CD321 by the 90G4 immunotoxin induced cell death. Moreover, 90G4 immunotoxin caused cytotoxicity primarily in migratory endothelial cells, but not in those forming sheets, suggesting a critical role for CD321 in tumor angiogenesis. We also found that hypoxia triggered redistribution of CD321 to a punctate localization on the basal side of cells, resulting in functional impairment of tight junctions and increased motility. Thus, our findings raise the intriguing possibility that endothelial CD321 presented cellular localization in tight junction as well as multifunctional dynamics in several conditions, leading to illuminate the importance of widely-expressed CD321 as a potential target for antitumor therapy.

  8. In vivo therapy of a murine B cell tumor (BCL1) using antibody-ricin A chain immunotoxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolick, K.A.; Uhr, J.W.; Slavin, S.; Vitetta, E.S.

    1982-01-01

    Prolonged remissions were induced in mice bearing advanced BCL1 tumors by the combined approach of nonspecific cytoreductive therapy and administration of a tumor-reactive immunotoxin. Thus, the vast majority of the tumor cells (approximately 95%) were first killed by nonspecific cytoreductive therapy using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and splenectomy. The residual tumor cells were then eliminated by intravenous administration of an anti-delta immunotoxin. In three of four experiments, all animals treated in the above fashion appeared tumor free 12-16 wk later. In one experiment, blood cells from the mice in remission were transferred to normal BALB/c recipients, and the latter animals have not developed detectable tumor for the 6 mo of observation. Because 1-10 adoptively transferred BCL1 cells will cause tumor in normal BALB/c mice by 12 wk, the inability to transfer tumor to recipients might indicate that the donor animals were tumor free. In the remainder of the animals treated with the tumor-reactive immunotoxin there was a substantial remission in all animals, but the disease eventually reappeared. In contrast, all mice treated with the control immunotoxin or antibody alone relapsed significantly earlier

  9. A novel bispecific immunotoxin delivered by human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to target blood vessels and vasculogenic mimicry of malignant gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yonghong Zhang,1,2 Xinlin Sun,1 Min Huang,1 Yiquan Ke,1 Jihui Wang,1 Xiao Liu1 1National Key Clinic Specialty, Neurosurgery Institute of Guangdong Province, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory on Brain Function Repair and Regeneration, Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 2Department of Neurosurgery, First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: In previous years, immunotoxins have been shown to be a greatly promising therapeutic tool for brain malignancies, such as gliomas. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs exhibit tropism to tumor tissue. However, the effect of bispecific immunotoxins in malignant gliomas is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of bispecific immunotoxins in human malignant gliomas.Materials and methods: In the present study, the bispecific immunotoxin VEGF165-ephrin A1-PE38KDEL was established using deoxyribonucleic acid shuffling and cloning techniques. The VEGF165-ephrin A1-PE38KDEL was delivered by hMSCs to mouse malignant gliomas. The effects of the bispecific immunotoxins on glioma-derived blood vessels and vasculogenic mimicry to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumorigenic effects of immunotoxins were examined in vivo.Results: In vitro, transfected hMSCs significantly inhibited the cell viability of gliomas cell lines U87 and U251 in a dose-dependent manner compared with untransfected hMSCs (P<0.01. In vivo, the intratumoral injection of engineered hMSCs was effective at inhibiting tumor growth in a malignant glioma tumor model.Conclusion: The bispecific immunotoxin secreted from hMSCs acts as a novel strategy for improving treatment options for malignant gliomas in the clinic. Keywords: bispecific immunotoxin, human mesenchymal stem cells, ephrin A1, VEGF165, malignant glioma

  10. Synergistic anticancer effects of the 9.2.27PE immunotoxin and ABT-737 in melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karianne Risberg

    Full Text Available In cancer, combinations of drugs targeting different cellular functions is well accepted to improve tumor control. We studied the effects of a Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE-based immunotoxin, the 9.2.27PE, and the BH-3 mimetic compound ABT-737 in a panel of melanoma cell lines. The drug combination resulted in synergistic cytotoxicity, and the cell death observed was associated with apoptosis, as activation of caspase-3, inactivation of Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP and increased DNA fragmentation could be prevented by pre-treatment with caspase and cathepsin inhibitors. We further show that ABT-737 caused endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress with increased GRP78 and phosphorylated eIF2α protein levels. Moreover, treatment with ABT-737 increased the intracellular calcium levels, an effect which was enhanced by 9.2.27PE, which as a single entity drug had minimal effect on calcium release from the ER. In addition, silencing of Mcl-1 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA enhanced the intracellular calcium levels and cytotoxicity caused by ABT-737. Notably, the combination of 9.2.27PE and ABT-737 caused growth delay in a human melanoma xenograft mice model, supporting further investigations of this particular drug combination.

  11. 5-FU resistant EMT-like pancreatic cancer cells are hypersensitive to photochemical internalization of the novel endoglin-targeting immunotoxin CD105-saporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Kaja; Olsen, Cathrine Elisabeth; Wong, Judith Jing Wen; Olsen, Petter Angell; Solberg, Nina Therese; Høgset, Anders; Krauss, Stefan; Selbo, Pål Kristian

    2017-12-19

    Development of resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is a major problem in treatment of various cancers including pancreatic cancer. In this study, we reveal important resistance mechanisms and photochemical strategies to overcome 5-FU resistance in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. 5-FU resistant (5-FUR), epithelial-to-mesenchymal-like sub-clones of the wild type pancreatic cancer cell line Panc03.27 were previously generated in our lab. We investigated the cytotoxic effect of the endosomal/lysosomal-localizing photosensitizer TPCS 2a (fimaporfin) combined with light (photochemical treatment, PCT) using MTS viability assay, and used fluorescence microscopy to show localization of TPCS 2a and to investigate the effect of photodamage of lysosomes. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to investigate uptake of photosensitizer and to assess intracellular ROS levels. Expression and localization of LAMP1 was assessed using RT-qPCR, western blotting, and structured illumination microscopy. MTS viability assay was used to assess the effect of combinations of 5-FU, chloroquine (CQ), and photochemical treatment. Expression of CD105 was investigated using RT-qPCR, western blotting, flow cytometry, and fluorescence microscopy, and co-localization of TPCS 2a and anti-CD105-saporin was assessed using microscopy. Lastly, the MTS assay was used to investigate cytotoxic effects of photochemical internalization (PCI) of the anti-CD105-immunotoxin. The 5-FUR cell lines display hypersensitivity to PCT, which was linked to increased uptake of TPCS 2a , altered lysosomal distribution, lysosomal photodamage and increased expression of the lysosomal marker LAMP-1 in the 5-FUR cells. We show that inhibition of autophagy induced by either chloroquine or lysosomal photodamage increases the sensitivity to 5-FU in the resistant cells. The three 5-FUR sub-clones overexpress Endoglin (CD105). Treatment with the immunotoxin anti-CD105-saporin alone significantly reduced the viability of the CD105

  12. Augmenting the Efficacy of Immunotoxins and Other Targeted Protein Toxins by Endosomal Escape Enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Fuchs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The toxic moiety of almost all protein-based targeted toxins must enter the cytosol of the target cell to mediate its fatal effect. Although more than 500 targeted toxins have been investigated in the past decades, no antibody-targeted protein toxin has been approved for tumor therapeutic applications by the authorities to date. Missing efficacy can be attributed in many cases to insufficient endosomal escape and therefore subsequent lysosomal degradation of the endocytosed toxins. To overcome this drawback, many strategies have been described to weaken the membrane integrity of endosomes. This comprises the use of lysosomotropic amines, carboxylic ionophores, calcium channel antagonists, various cell-penetrating peptides of viral, bacterial, plant, animal, human and synthetic origin, other organic molecules and light-induced techniques. Although the efficacy of the targeted toxins was typically augmented in cell culture hundred or thousand fold, in exceptional cases more than million fold, the combination of several substances harbors new problems including additional side effects, loss of target specificity, difficulties to determine the therapeutic window and cell type-dependent variations. This review critically scrutinizes the chances and challenges of endosomal escape enhancers and their potential role in future developments.

  13. Light-controlled endosomal escape of the novel CD133-targeting immunotoxin AC133-saporin by photochemical internalization - A minimally invasive cancer stem cell-targeting strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostad, Monica; Olsen, Cathrine Elisabeth; Peng, Qian; Berg, Kristian; Høgset, Anders; Selbo, Pål Kristian

    2015-05-28

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) marker CD133 is an attractive target to improve antitumor therapy. We have used photochemical internalization (PCI) for the endosomal escape of the novel CD133-targeting immunotoxin AC133-saporin (PCIAC133-saporin). PCI employs an endocytic vesicle-localizing photosensitizer, which generates reactive oxygen species upon light-activation causing a rupture of the vesicle membranes and endosomal escape of entrapped drugs. Here we show that AC133-saporin co-localizes with the PCI-photosensitizer TPCS2a, which upon light exposure induces cytosolic release of AC133-saporin. PCI of picomolar levels of AC133-saporin in colorectal adenocarcinoma WiDr cells blocked cell proliferation and induced 100% inhibition of cell viability and colony forming ability at the highest light doses, whereas no cytotoxicity was obtained in the absence of light. Efficient PCI-based CD133-targeting was in addition demonstrated in the stem-cell-like, triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and in the aggressive malignant melanoma cell line FEMX-1, whereas no enhanced targeting was obtained in the CD133-negative breast cancer cell line MCF-7. PCIAC133-saporin induced mainly necrosis and a minimal apoptotic response based on assessing cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP, and the TUNEL assay. PCIAC133-saporin resulted in S phase arrest and reduced LC3-II conversion compared to control treatments. Notably, co-treatment with Bafilomycin A1 and PCIAC133-saporin blocked LC3-II conversion, indicating a termination of the autophagic flux in WiDr cells. For the first time, we demonstrate laser-controlled targeting of CD133 in vivo. After only one systemic injection of AC133-saporin and TPCS2a, a strong anti-tumor response was observed after PCIAC133-saporin. The present PCI-based endosomal escape technology represents a minimally invasive strategy for spatio-temporal, light-controlled targeting of CD133+ cells in localized primary tumors or metastasis. Copyright © 2015

  14. Efficacy of Anti-mesothelin Immunotoxin RG7787 plus Nab-Paclitaxel against Mesothelioma Patient-Derived Xenografts and Mesothelin as a Biomarker of Tumor Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingli; Khanna, Swati; Jiang, Qun; Alewine, Christine; Miettinen, Markku; Pastan, Ira; Hassan, Raffit

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antitumor efficacy of the reduced immunogenicity anti-mesothelin immunotoxin RG7787 plus nab-paclitaxel against primary mesothelioma cell lines and tumor xenografts and the utility of mesothelin as a biomarker of tumor response. Experimental Design: Early-passage human malignant mesothelioma cell lines NCI-Meso16, NCI-Meso19, NCI-Meso21, and NCI-Meso29 were evaluated for sensitivity to RG7787 or nab-paclitaxel alone or in combination. In addition, the antitumor activity of RG7787 plus nab-paclitaxel was evaluated using NCI-Meso16, NCI-Meso21, and NCI-Meso29 tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice. Serum mesothelin was measured at different time points to determine whether its levels correlated with tumor response. Results: All four primary mesothelioma cell lines highly expressed mesothelin with 41 × 10 3 to 346 × 10 3 mesothelin sites per cell and were sensitive to RG7787, with IC 50 ranging from 0.3 to 10 ng/mL. Except for NCI-Meso19, these cells were also sensitive to nab-paclitaxel, with IC 50 of 10 to 25 ng/mL. In vitro , RG7787 plus nab-paclitaxel led to decreased cell viability compared with either agent alone. In NCI-Meso16 tumor xenografts, treatment with RG7787 plus nab-paclitaxel led to sustained complete tumor regressions. Similar antitumor efficacy was observed against NCI-Meso21 and NCI-Meso29 tumor xenografts. In all three tumor xenograft models, changes in human serum mesothelin correlated with response to therapy and were undetectable in mice with complete tumor regression with RG7787 and nab-paclitaxel. Conclusions: RG7787 plus nab-paclitaxel is very active against primary human mesothelioma cells in vitro as well as in vivo , with serum mesothelin levels correlating with tumor response. These results indicate that this combination could be useful for treating patients with mesothelioma. Clin Cancer Res; 23(6); 1564-74. ©2016 AACR . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Specific Depletion of Myelin-Reactive B Cells via BCR-Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, A V; Belogurov, A A; Kothapalli, P; Shamborant, O G; Knorre, V D; Telegin, G B; Ovsepyan, A A; Ponomarenko, N A; Deyev, S M; Kaveri, S V; Gabibov, A G

    2015-01-01

    B cells play a crucial role in the development and pathogenesis of systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Autoreactive B cells not only produce antibodies, but also secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and present specific autoantigens to T cells. The treatment of autoimmune diseases via the elimination of the majority of B cells using the monoclonal anti-CD19/20 antibody (Rituximab) causes systemic side effects and, thus, requires a major revision. Therapeutic intervention directed towards selective elimination of pathogenic autoreactive B cells has the potential to become a universal approach to the treatment of various autoimmune abnormalities. Here, we developed a recombinant immunotoxin based on the immunodominant peptide of the myelin basic protein (MBP), fused to the antibody Fc domain. We showed that the obtained immunotoxin provides selective in vivo elimination of autoreactive B cells in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The proposed conception may be further used for the development of new therapeutics for a targeted treatment of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune disorders.

  16. Recent advances in dermatomyositis-specific autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Manabu; Watanabe, Rei; Ishitsuka, Yosuke; Okiyama, Naoko

    2016-11-01

    In dermatomyositis, disease-specific autoantibodies now cover more than 70% of patients. These autoantibodies closely correlate with distinct clinical manifestations. In the past few years, extensive evidence has been accumulated on clinical significance of dermatomyositis-specific autoantibodies including autoantibodies against melanoma differentiation antigen 5 (MDA5), transcriptional intermediary factor 1 (TIF1), nuclear matrix protein 2 (NXP2), and small ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme (SAE). Anti-MDA5 antibodies are found with high specificity in clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis presenting rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (ILD) especially in Asian population. Similar tendency has been reported in the US/Europe, although the frequency of positivity and the type of ILD may differ. Anti-TIF1 antibodies are present in juvenile and adult dermatomyositis patients with close correlation with malignancy in adult population. Anti-NXP2 antibodies share similar phenotype with anti-TIF1 antibodies, except that anti-NXP2 antibodies are associated with calcinosis and severe muscle disease. Although numbers are still small, patients with anti-SAE antibodies tend to present skin disease first and then progress to muscle weakness with systematic symptoms including dysphagia. Moreover, distinct cutaneous manifestations and muscle histopathology findings for each autoantibody have been reported. 'Autoantibody-based classification' of dermatomyositis subsets is now a useful strategy for comprehending the heterogeneous spectrum of dermatomyositis.

  17. A Phase I study of an intravesically administered immunotoxin targeting EpCAM for the treatment of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer in BCG-refractory and BCG-intolerant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Kowalski

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mark Kowalski1, Joycelyn Entwistle2, Jeannick Cizeau2, Demi Niforos1, Shauna Loewen2, Wendy Chapman1, Glen C MacDonald21Viventia Biotechnologies Inc., Mississauga, ON, Canada; 2Viventia Biotechnologies Inc., Winnipeg, MB, CanadaPurpose: A Phase I dose-escalation study was performed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD of the immunotoxin VB4-845 in patients with nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC refractory to or intolerant of bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG. Secondary objectives included evaluation of the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and efficacy of VB4-845.Patients and methods: Sixty-four patients with Grade 2 or 3, stage Ta or T1 transitional cell carcinoma or in situ carcinoma, either refractory to or intolerant of BCG therapy, were enrolled. Treatment was administered in ascending dose cohorts ranging from 0.1 to 30.16 mg. After receiving weekly instillations of VB4-845 to the bladder via catheter for 6 consecutive weeks, patients were followed for 4–6 weeks post-therapy and assessed at week 12.Results: An MTD was not determined, as a dose-limiting toxicity was not identified over the dose range tested. VB4-845 therapy was safe and well tolerated with most adverse events reported as mild; as a result, no patients were removed from the study in response to toxicity. By the end of the study, the majority of patients had developed antibodies to the exotoxin portion of VB4-845. A complete response was achieved in 39% of patients at the 12-week time point.Conclusions: VB4-845 dosed on a weekly basis for 6 weeks was very well tolerated at all dose levels. Although an MTD was not determined at the doses administered, VB4-845 showed evidence of an antitumor effect that warrants further clinical investigation for the treatment of NMIBC in this patient population.Keywords: Pseudomonas exotoxin A, anti-EpCAM, fusion protein, targeted therapy

  18. Novel fusion proteins for the antigen-specific staining and elimination of B cell receptor-positive cell populations demonstrated by a tetanus toxoid fragment C (TTC) model antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Diana; Saunders, Ute; Barth, Stefan; Fischer, Rainer; Jacobi, Annett Marita; Nachreiner, Thomas

    2016-02-17

    In an earlier study we developed a unique strategy allowing us to specifically eliminate antigen-specific murine B cells via their distinct B cell receptors using a new class of fusion proteins. In the present work we elaborated our idea to demonstrate the feasibility of specifically addressing and eliminating human memory B cells. The present study reveals efficient adaptation of the general approach to selectively target and eradicate human memory B cells. In order to demonstrate the feasibility we engineered a fusion protein following the principle of recombinant immunotoxins by combining a model antigen (tetanus toxoid fragment C, TTC) for B cell receptor targeting and a truncated version of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (ETA') to induce apoptosis after cellular uptake. The TTC-ETA' fusion protein not only selectively bound to a TTC-reactive murine B cell hybridoma cell line in vitro but also to freshly isolated human memory B cells from immunized donors ex vivo. Specific toxicity was confirmed on an antigen-specific population of human CD27(+) memory B cells. This protein engineering strategy can be used as a generalized platform approach for the construction of therapeutic fusion proteins with disease-relevant antigens as B cell receptor-binding domains, offering a promising approach for the specific depletion of autoreactive B-lymphocytes in B cell-driven autoimmune diseases.

  19. Targeted Gene Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    or immunotoxin therapy, natural vector-host tropisms must be altered. Recent improvements in monoclonal antibody (mAb) engineering have expanded the...endocytosis. To achieve targeted gene therapy or immunotoxin therapy, natural vector-host tropisms must be altered. Recent improvements in monoclonal...trafficking of monoclonal antibody- antigen to an endolysosomal pathway is important. After altering targeting specificities, prokaryotic and plant

  20. Staining Pattern Classification of Antinuclear Autoantibodies Based on Block Segmentation in Indirect Immunofluorescence Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaqian; Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Hsieh, Zu Yi; Yang, Ching Wen; Huang, Huang-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence based on HEp-2 cell substrate is the most commonly used staining method for antinuclear autoantibodies associated with different types of autoimmune pathologies. The aim of this paper is to design an automatic system to identify the staining patterns based on block segmentation compared to the cell segmentation most used in previous research. Various feature descriptors and classifiers are tested and compared in the classification of the staining pattern of blocks and it is found that the technique of the combination of the local binary pattern and the k-nearest neighbor algorithm achieve the best performance. Relying on the results of block pattern classification, experiments on the whole images show that classifier fusion rules are able to identify the staining patterns of the whole well (specimen image) with a total accuracy of about 94.62%. PMID:25474260

  1. Specific phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Wendy K; Moreno, Jacqueline

    2005-10-01

    This article describes specific phobia of childhood and its clinical presentation, discusses issues related to the differential diagnosis of specific phobia, considers the issue of comorbidity among phobic and anxiety disorders and developmental trends in the manifestation of fears, summarizes the epidemiology, causes, and course of specific phobia, and presents assessment and treatment issues. Finally, a case study is offered that serves to illuminate the major topics outlined in the article.

  2. Probe specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1986-11-01

    Specificity and complementarity of hadron and electron probes must be systematically developed to answer three questions currently asked in intermediate energy nuclear physics: what is nucleus structure at short distances, what is nature of short range correlations, what is three body force nature [fr

  3. HRT Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Möller, M

    1996-01-01

    In the context of the AIS Project (Advanced Informatics Systems for administration and management) a study has been conducted that resulted in the definition of a high level information systems model. Thirteen proposed systems were defined for detailed analysis. The Finance, Foundation, Human Resources, Logistics and Purchasing areas have been studied in detail. These studies have lead to the purchase and implementation of the ORIAC and SIRIAC packages, the Foundation database, the Oracle HR package, the Triton package and EDH and BHT. This specification describes the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) intended to be used for accessing data in the HR and Foundation systems. This toolkit should help the divisions carry out their Human Resource management, planning and follow-up. It will have extensive report generation capabilities and offer a variety of standard graphs. It should have an easy-to-use graphical user interface and run on the CERN standard desktop platforms.

  4. Designing Trojan Horses | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waging battle against cancer cells without inflicting damage on normal tissue has long been a goal for cancer treatment. A new type of drug called immunotoxins may help make this goal a reality. Much like the Greeks used a wooden horse to get soldiers inside the gates of Troy, immunotoxins use clever genetic engineering to get a lethal toxin inside cancer cells. Each immunotoxin consists of two components an antibody and a toxin that are fused together. The custom-designed antibody acts as a homing signal, seeking out a specific target present on the surface of cancer cells. When the antibody binds its target, the whole immunotoxin is brought inside the cell. Unwittingly, the cancer cell has exposed itself to a powerful poison, a mistake that will likely condemn it to death.

  5. Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Specific Language Impairment On this page: What is specific language ... percent of children in kindergarten. What is specific language impairment? Specific language impairment (SLI) is a language ...

  6. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  7. How specific is specific self-efficacy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tine; Makransky, Guido; Vang, Maria Louison

    2017-01-01

    Self-efficacy is an important and much used construct in psychology and social science studies. The validity of the measurements used is not always sufficiently evaluated. The aim was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Danish translation of the self-efficacy subscale of The Motivated...... academic learning self-efficacy (SAL-SE) and specific academic exam self-efficacy (SAE-SE), each scale being measurement invariant relative to age, Gender, admission method and specific course targeted. Furthermore, significant and relevant differences between the SAL-SE and SAE-SE scores dependent...... on university and admission method were found, and these results were replicated with two further samples. The SAL-SE and SAE-SE scales hold promise for more detailed studies of student self-efficacy....

  8. FOXP3-specific immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2013-01-01

    Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells are present among human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), especially in cancer patients. Such T lymphocytes are able not only to specifically recognize dendritic cells (DCs) that have been exposed to recombinant FOXP3 and regulatory T cells, but also to kill FOXP3+ malignant T cells. The natural occurrence of FOXP3-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes among human PBMCs suggests a general role for these cells in the complex network ...

  9. Review of technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedrich, M.; Scholz, D.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with position and function of technical specifications before and during the manufacturing of reactor components, their structure and reasons for specific regulations due to safety philosophy and explains the cooperation of supplier, manufacturer, utilities and supervisory organizations. (RW)

  10. Place-Specific Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn

    2009-01-01

    An increased interest in the notion of place has evolved in interaction design based on the proliferation of wireless infrastructures, developments in digital media, and a ‘spatial turn’ in computing. In this article, place-specific computing is suggested as a genre of interaction design...... that addresses the shaping of interactions among people, place-specific resources and global socio-technical networks, mediated by digital technology, and influenced by the structuring conditions of place. The theoretical grounding for place-specific computing is located in the meeting between conceptions...... examples of place-specific computing are presented from a series of pilot studies, conducted in close collaboration with design students in Malmö, Berlin, Cape Town and Rome, that generated 36 design concepts in the genre. Reflecting on these examples, issues in the design of place-specific computing...

  11. FOXP3-specific immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2013-01-01

    Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells are present among human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), especially in cancer patients. Such T lymphocytes are able not only to specifically recognize dendritic cells (DCs) that have been exposed to recombinant FOXP3...... and regulatory T cells, but also to kill FOXP3(+) malignant T cells. The natural occurrence of FOXP3-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes among human PBMCs suggests a general role for these cells in the complex network of immune regulation....

  12. 77 FR 8263 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: The Development of Anti-mesothelin Targeted Immunotoxins...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Prospective Grant of... Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, is contemplating the grant of an exclusive... Ref. E-021- 1998/0-US-01], U.S. Patent Application 60/010,166 entitled ``Molecular Cloning of...

  13. TWRSview system requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.A.; Lee, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the system requirements specification for the TWRSview software system. The TWRSview software system is being developed to integrate electronic data supporting the development of the TWRS technical baseline

  14. Place-Specific Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Johansson, Michael

    An increased interest in the notion of place has evolved in interaction design. Proliferation of wireless infrastructure, developments in digital media, and a ‘spatial turn’ in computing provides the base for place-specific computing as a suggested new genre of interaction design. In the REcult...... project place- specific computing is explored through design oriented research. This article reports six pilot studies where design students have designed concepts for place-specific computing in Berlin (Germany), Cape Town (South Africa), Rome (Italy) and Malmö (Sweden). Background and arguments...... for place-specific computing as a genre of interaction design are described. A total number of 36 design concepts designed for 16 designated zones in the four cities are presented. An analysis of the design concepts is presented indicating potentials, possibilities and problems as directions for future...

  15. Construction and material specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These Construction and Material Specifications are written to the Bidder before award of the : Contract and to the Contractor after award of the Contract. The sentences that direct the Contractor to perform Work are written as commands. For example, ...

  16. Test Equipment Specifications Transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Didiek Andiana Ramadan; Drs. Linga Hermanto, MMSI Drs. Linga Hermanto, MMSI

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we design a test apparatus Transistor Specification. Specification is atype of transistor is a transistor and common emitter current reinforcement value ( βDC ). The system will provide information in the form of an LED display emits greenlight when the tested types of NPN transistor and the second LED emits blue lightwhen the tested types of PNP transistors.To test the value of β, whose value is proportional to the display used by the collectorcurrent Ic.

  17. Domain-Specific Multimodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessellund, Anders

    Enterprise systems are complex artifacts. They are hard to build, manage, understand, and evolve. Existing software development paradigms fail to properly address challenges such as system size, domain complexity, and software evolution when development is scaled to enterprise systems. We propose...... domain-specific multimodeling as a development paradigm to tackle these challenges in a language-oriented manner. The different concerns of a system are conceptually separated and made explicit as independent domain-specific languages. This approach increases productivity and quality by raising...... this coordination problem. By systematically identifying language interactions, we can specify a coordination model for the system. Specifically, we explicitly identify name bindings and references across language boundaries. We argue that such a coordination model facilitates consistency, navigation, and guidance...

  18. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

     This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....... This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....

  19. Specification of Nonmonotonic Reasoning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, J.; Treur, J.

    2000-01-01

    Two levels of description of nonmonotonic reasoning are distinguished. For these levels semantical formalizations are given. The first Level is defined semantically by the notion of belief state frame, the second Level by the notion of reasoning frame. We introduce two specification languages to

  20. Specification of Nonmonotonic Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, J.; Treur, J.

    1996-01-01

    Two levels of description of nonmonotonic reasoning are distinguished. For these levels semantical formalizations are given. The first level is defined semantically by the notion of belief state frame, the second level by the notion of reasoning frame. We introduce two specification languages to

  1. Site-Specific Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik; Hemmersam, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Currently, cities across the Northern European region are actively redeveloping their former industrial harbours. Indeed, harbours areas are essential in the long-term transition from industrial to information and experience societies; harbours are becoming sites for new businesses and residences...... question is how innovation may contribute to urban life and site-specific qualities....

  2. IDC System Specification Document.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, David J.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  3. Experiences with effects specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten; Barlach, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We describe the effects-specification process from a project that was conducted during the fall 2010 and spring of 2011 in this chapter. The project configured and implemented an electronic patient record system at a maternity ward at a hospital located in a European region. The process comprised...... for measuring effects were designed. The project is analyzed and lessons learned are discussed....

  4. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract...

  5. Acquiring specific interpreting competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zidar Forte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In postgraduate interpreter training, the main objective of the course is to help trainees develop various competences, from linguistic, textual and cultural competence, to professional and specific interpreting competence. For simultaneous interpreting (SI, the main focus is on mastering the SI technique and strategies as well as on developing and strengthening communicative skills, which is discussed and illustrated with examples in the present paper. First, a brief overview is given of all the necessary competences of a professional interpreter with greater emphasis on specific interpreting competence for SI. In the second part of the paper, various approaches are described in terms of acquiring specific skills and strategies, specifically through a range of exercises. Besides interpreting entire speeches, practical courses should also consist of targeted exercises, which help trainees develop suitable coping strategies and mechanisms (later on almost automatisms, while at the same time "force" them to reflect on their individual learning process and interpreting performance. This provides a solid base on which trained interpreters can progress and develop their skills also after joining the professional sphere.

  6. Testing abstract behavioral specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.Y.H. Wong; R. Bubel (Richard); F.S. de Boer (Frank); C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); M. Gómez-Zamalloa; R Haehnle; K. Meinke; M.A. Sindhu

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe present a range of testing techniques for the Abstract Behavioral Specification (ABS) language and apply them to an industrial case study. ABS is a formal modeling language for highly variable, concurrent, component-based systems. The nature of these systems makes them susceptible to

  7. Sport-specific balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemková, Erika

    2014-05-01

    This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.

  8. Real-time specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, A.; Larsen, K.G.; Legay, A.

    2015-01-01

    , with the semantics expressed in terms of Timed I/O Transition Systems. We provide constructs for refinement, consistency checking, logical and structural composition, and quotient of specifications-all indispensable ingredients of a compositional design methodology. The theory is implemented in the new tool Ecdar....... We present symbolic versions of the algorithms used in Ecdar, and demonstrate the use of the tool using a small case study in compositional verification....

  9. Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. I....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases....

  10. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. In the comp....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases. The comparative test cases include: ventilation, shading and geometry....

  11. Allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moote William

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy is a potentially disease-modifying therapy that is effective for the treatment of allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis, allergic asthma and stinging insect hypersensitivity. However, despite its proven efficacy in these conditions, it is frequently underutilized in Canada. The decision to proceed with allergen-specific immunotherapy should be made on a case-by-case basis, taking into account individual patient factors such as the degree to which symptoms can be reduced by avoidance measures and pharmacological therapy, the amount and type of medication required to control symptoms, the adverse effects of pharmacological treatment, and patient preferences. Since this form of therapy carries the risk of anaphylactic reactions, it should only be prescribed by physicians who are adequately trained in the treatment of allergy. Furthermore, injections must be given under medical supervision in clinics that are equipped to manage anaphylaxis. In this article, the authors review the indications and contraindications, patient selection criteria, and the administration, safety and efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  12. Safety detaching hook specification.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, JD

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Single-sided Impact Tests 14 Appendix C Record of Amendments 15 5. REFERENCES 17 4 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subiect The subject of this specification is safety detaching hooks for mine shaft conveyances. According to South African Law1 it is a legal... after a full detachment in the catch plate or bell. Engineer The Mine Engineer, or his authorised sub-ordinate, legally appointed in terms of an Act to be responsible for shaft equipment. NDE Non-Destructive Examination. OEM Original Equipment...

  13. Tendering specification and contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E. von

    1975-01-01

    The lecture tendering, specification and contracting is prepared in two parts: This first part deals with technical aspects while part two features the commercial and legal situation in the partnership of two: the supplier of the fuel bundles and the utility. In this lecture a look is given on the way how a supplier can offer its fuel and some certain points are mentioned which are important to compare the bid of one competitor to the other. The major points are summarized which are or at least should be in an offer so as to find out which offer is the best. (orig./FW) [de

  14. Task Specific Tremors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Joseph H

    2015-07-01

    A patient reported bilateral hand tremors when writing but not with other tasks. These "task specific" tremors are considered subcategories of essential tremor. Primary writing tremor, in which the tremor occurs only with writing, is probably the most common. The important teaching point is that the "standard" tremor assessment, watching the patient holding a sustained posture and touching his finger to the examiner's and then back to the nose is not adequate. Patients should be tested doing the activity that causes them the most difficulty.

  15. [Pregnancy-specific dermatoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutou, B; Aractingi, S

    2015-03-01

    Pregnancy-specific dermatoses include polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, atopic eczema of pregnancy, and pemphigoid gestationis. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and impetigo herpetiformis are not real pregnancy-specific dermatoses but they are important to know considering the fetal and maternal risks. Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy is a pruritic disease that usually occurs in primiparous women during the last trimester of pregnancy. Atopic eczema of pregnancy is still controversial as an entity covering conditions with eczematous lesions, prurigo, or folliculitis, and inconstantly associated with a personal history of atopy. Skin biopsy with direct immunofluorescence or search for serum anti-BPAg1 (180kD) NC16a antibodies is mandatory in pruritic dermatoses of pregnancy in order to rule out pemphigoid gestationis. Serum bile salts levels should be tested whenever a generalized pruritus develops during pregnancy in order to rule out intrahepatic cholestasis. Copyright © 2014 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Disease specific protein corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2015-03-01

    It is now well accepted that upon their entrance into the biological environments, the surface of nanomaterials would be covered by various biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids). The absorption of these biomolecules, so called `protein corona', onto the surface of (nano)biomaterials confers them a new `biological identity'. Although the formation of protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles has been widely investigated, there are few reports on the effect of various diseases on the biological identity of nanoparticles. As the type of diseases may tremendously changes the composition of the protein source (e.g., human plasma/serum), one can expect that amount and composition of associated proteins in the corona composition may be varied, in disease type manner. Here, we show that corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles (after interaction with in the plasma of the healthy individuals) could induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes release of the inflammatory cytokines. However, no considerable releases of inflammatory cytokines were observed for corona coated graphene sheets. In contrast, the obtained corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles from the hypofibrinogenemia patients could not induce inflammatory cytokine release where graphene sheets do. Therefore, one can expect that disease-specific protein coronas can provide a novel approach for applying nanomedicine to personalized medicine, improving diagnosis and treatment of different diseases tailored to the specific conditions and circumstances.

  17. Anti-Human Endoglin (hCD105 Immunotoxin—Containing Recombinant Single Chain Ribosome-Inactivating Protein Musarmin 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Barriuso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Endoglin (CD105 is an accessory component of the TGF-β receptor complex, which is expressed in a number of tissues and over-expressed in the endothelial cells of tumor neovasculature. Targeting endoglin with immunotoxins containing type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins has proved an effective tool to reduce blood supply to B16 mice tumor xenografts. We prepared anti-endoglin immunotoxin (IT—containing recombinant musarmin 1 (single chain ribosome-inactivating proteins linked to the mouse anti-human CD105 44G4 mouse monoclonal antibody via N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio propionate (SPDP. The immunotoxin specifically killed L929 fibroblast mouse cells transfected with the short form of human endoglin with IC50 values in the range of 5 × 10−10 to 10−9 M.

  18. Site specific plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, J.; Jernigan, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) covers the period for FY 1989 through FY 1995. The plan establishes a Department of Energy -- Headquarters (DOE-HQ) agenda for cleanup and compliance against which overall progress can be measured. The FYP covers three areas: Corrective Activities, Environmental Restoration, and Waste Management Operations. Corrective Activities are those activities necessary to bring active or standby facilities into compliance with local, state, and federal environmental regulations. Environmental restoration activities include the assessment and cleanup of surplus facilities and inactive waste sites. Waste management operations includes the treatment, storage, and disposal of wastes which are generated as a result of ongoing operations. This Site Specific Plan (SSP) has been prepared by the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to show how environmental restoration and waste management activities that were identified during the preparation of the FYP will be implemented, tracked, and reported. The SSP describes DOE Savannah River (DOE-SR) and operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), organizations that are responsible, for undertaking the activities identified in this plan. The SSP has been prepared in accordance with guidance received from DOE-HQ. DOE-SR is accountable to DOE-HQ for the implementation of this plan. 8 refs., 46 figs., 23 tabs

  19. ADANS database specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-16

    The purpose of the Air Mobility Command (AMC) Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) Database Specification (DS) is to describe the database organization and storage allocation and to provide the detailed data model of the physical design and information necessary for the construction of the parts of the database (e.g., tables, indexes, rules, defaults). The DS includes entity relationship diagrams, table and field definitions, reports on other database objects, and a description of the ADANS data dictionary. ADANS is the automated system used by Headquarters AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) for airlift planning and scheduling of peacetime and contingency operations as well as for deliberate planning. ADANS also supports planning and scheduling of Air Refueling Events by the TACC and the unit-level tanker schedulers. ADANS receives input in the form of movement requirements and air refueling requests. It provides a suite of tools for planners to manipulate these requirements/requests against mobility assets and to develop, analyze, and distribute schedules. Analysis tools are provided for assessing the products of the scheduling subsystems, and editing capabilities support the refinement of schedules. A reporting capability provides formatted screen, print, and/or file outputs of various standard reports. An interface subsystem handles message traffic to and from external systems. The database is an integral part of the functionality summarized above.

  20. [Dermatomyositis-specific antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodoki, L; Nagy-Vincze, M; Griger, Z; Dankó, K

    2015-05-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are chronic systemic autoimmune diseases characterized by symmetrical proximal muscle weakness. The clinicopathological subdivision nowadays appears to be obsolete which is why the immunoserological classification has been developed. Dermatomyositis represents one the most important subsets of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and dermatomyositis-specific autoantibodies play a significant role in this subset. The aim of this article was to present these autoantibodies with the help of the literature. This article presents the most important information about dermatomyositis including not only the classical anti-Mi-2 autoantibody but also the recently detected anti-TIF1γ, anti-NXP2, anti-SAE and anti-MDA5 autoantibodies. The focus is on the frequency of these autoantibodies, the associated symptoms in adult and juvenile dermatomyositis cases and some special aspects from the literature. All of the studies confirmed that these autoantibodies are particularly detectable in dermatomyositis. The results from the literature have recently shown that the frequency of the autoantibodies detected in juvenile cases is higher than the frequency of traditional autoantibodies (e.g. anti-Jo-1, anti-Mi-2 and anti-SRP). It is useful to detect these autoantibodies in order to be able to make a better assessment of the clinical symptoms and prognosis during the course of the disease.

  1. Intent Specifications: An Approach to Building Human-Centered Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines and proposes an approach to writing software specifications, based on research in systems theory, cognitive psychology, and human-machine interaction. The goal is to provide specifications that support human problem solving and the tasks that humans must perform in software development and evolution. A type of specification, called intent specifications, is constructed upon this underlying foundation.

  2. Castor Seed Poisoning in Humans: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-18

    groin. Interstitial hemorrhages were also present in the intestines, testicles , pancreas, inguinal lymph glands and the adrenals. Subsequent histology...molecule of ricin attached to a specific antibody destroys a specific tumor or cancerous cell. Such immunotoxins are used as cancer chemotherapeutic...Other interventions were provided as indicated by the symptoms (38). After observing these poisoned patients, the Russian investigators used guinea

  3. Specification-Based Testing Via Domain Specific Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Michal; Nagy, Roman; Fisch, Dominik

    2014-12-01

    The article presents tCF (testCaseFramework) - a domain specific language with corresponding toolchain for specification-based software testing of embedded software. tCF is designed for efficient preparation of maintainable and intelligible test cases and for testing process automation, as it allows to generate platform specific test cases for various testing levels. The article describes the essential parts of the tCF meta-model and the applied concept of platform specific test cases generators.

  4. Adequate procedures for specific exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staevie, G.L.G.; Gattringer, D.K.; Dal Mas, C.R.; Tessman, M.

    1996-01-01

    Some ideal procedures for specific radiographic exams are briefly presented. The aim is to improve the quality standard, establishing a specific method for each exam in order to decrease films waste and reduce the patient dose exposure

  5. VHDL Specification Methodology from High-level Specification

    OpenAIRE

    M. Benmohammed; S. Merniz

    2005-01-01

    Design complexity has been increasing exponentially this last decade. In order to cope with such an increase and to keep up designers' productivity, higher level specifications were required. Moreover new synthesis systems, starting with a high level specification, have been developed in order to automate and speed up processor design. This study presents a VHDL specification methodology aimed to extend structured design methodologies to the behavioral level. The goal is t...

  6. Specification-Based Testing Via Domain Specific Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sroka Michal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents tCF (testCaseFramework - a domain specific language with corresponding toolchain for specification-based software testing of embedded software. tCF is designed for efficient preparation of maintainable and intelligible test cases and for testing process automation, as it allows to generate platform specific test cases for various testing levels. The article describes the essential parts of the tCF meta-model and the applied concept of platform specific test cases generators.

  7. Age-specific serum prostate specific antigen ranges among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels increase with age and varies among different races and communities. The study was aimed at defining the age-specific reference ranges of serum PSA in our environment. Methods: We evaluated the relationship between age and serum PSA levels and the ...

  8. The Order Specification Decoupling Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the important issue in build-to-order production of separating innovative long term engineering processes from day-to-day variant specification processes, i.e. the processes creating specifications such as bill-of-materials, drawings, text descriptions, routings etc. The paper...... find some welding specifications or product descriptions which are standard for every order, while there may be other specifications, such as bill-of-materials and drawings, which are customized. Through a use of this concept it becomes possible to discuss different levels of OSDL and different variant...

  9. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  10. Hanford Site environmental management specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.

    1998-06-10

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) uses this Hanford Site Environmental Management Specification (Specification) to document top-level mission requirements and planning assumptions for the prime contractors involved in Hanford Site cleanup and infrastructure activities under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management. This Specification describes at a top level the activities, facilities, and infrastructure necessary to accomplish the cleanup of the Hanford Site and assigns this scope to Site contractors and their respective projects. This Specification also references the key National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), and safety documentation necessary to accurately describe the cleanup at a summary level. The information contained in this document reflects RL`s application of values, priorities, and critical success factors expressed by those involved with and affected by the Hanford Site project. The prime contractors and their projects develop complete baselines and work plans to implement this Specification. These lower-level documents and the data that support them, together with this Specification, represent the full set of requirements applicable to the contractors and their projects. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this Specification to the other basic Site documents. Similarly, the documents, orders, and laws referenced in this specification represent only the most salient sources of requirements. Current and contractual reference data contain a complete set of source documents.

  11. Measuring wood specific gravity, correctly

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Bruce Williamson; Michael C. Wiemann

    2010-01-01

    The specific gravity (SG) of wood is a measure of the amount of structural material a tree species allocates to support and strength. In recent years, wood specific gravity, traditionally a forester’s variable, has become the domain of ecologists exploring the universality of plant functional traits and conservationists estimating global carbon stocks. While these...

  12. Standard technical specifications, Westinghouse Plants: Specifications. Volume 1, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This NUREG contains the improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Westinghouse plants. Revision 1 incorporates the cumulative changes to Revision 0, which was published in September 1992. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, specifically the Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG), NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993 (58 FR 39132). Licensees are encouraged to upgrade their technical specifications consistent with those criteria and conforming, to the extent practical and consistent with the licensing basis for the facility, to Revision 1 to the improved STS. The Commission continues to place the highest priority on requests for complete conversions to the improved STS. Licensees adopting portions of the improved STS to existing technical specifications should adopt all related requirements, as applicable, to achieve a high degree of standardization and consistency.

  13. Patient-Specific Computational Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Peña, Estefanía

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses patient-specific modeling. It integrates computational modeling, experimental procedures, imagine clinical segmentation and mesh generation with the finite element method (FEM) to solve problems in computational biomedicine and bioengineering. Specific areas of interest include cardiovascular problems, ocular and muscular systems and soft tissue modeling. Patient-specific modeling has been the subject of serious research over the last seven years and interest in the area is continually growing and this area is expected to further develop in the near future.

  14. Specificity of immunoassays. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, J.J.; Woldring, M.G.; Boonman, R.; Kittikool, J.

    1979-01-01

    Practical aspects of the measurement of the specificity of immunoassay are reviewed. Antibody heterogeneity in an antiserum makes a pragmatic rather than a theoretical approach necessary. A new method for the measurement of immunoassay specificity is described. This method is based on the errors caused by the cross-reacting antigens and is directly relevant to the validity of results obtained by immunoassay methods. The effect of selectively blocking the least specific antibodies in antisera raised against steroid haptens is tested. The practical consequences of these considerations are tested using steroid radioimmunoassay and enzyme-immunoassay. (orig.) [de

  15. Bid specifications and bid evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijl, N.A. van

    1977-01-01

    Bid specifications are in view of the size of these projects important and comprehensive documents. The basic content and set up of the specifications are discussed such as: 1) Bid invitation letter, 2) instruction to bidders, 3) draft contract (terms and conditions), 4) technical specifications, 5) side data and information. - The evaluations of bids for nuclear power stations is due to the complexity of such bids a difficult undertaking. Evaluation methods and approaches which can be applied for such bid evaluations are discussed as well as the preparations which are required for carrying out such evaluations. (orig.) [de

  16. Youth job market specific features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Yu. Zhuravleva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers youth job market peculiarities, its specific features and regulation means, determines theoretical and application tasks of qualitative and quantitative comparison of vocations, which are highly in demand at the job market.

  17. GPS Civil Monitoring Performance Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-10

    This Civil Monitoring Performance Specification (CMPS) is published and maintained at : the direction of the Program Manager for Civil Applications, Global Positioning Systems : Wing (GPSW). The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive ...

  18. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  19. [Specific immunotherapy in allergic asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, K-Ch

    2003-02-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways considered as the result of a deregulated immune response, with a pivotal role played the TH2 cytokine phenotype. The treatment of allergic asthma is based on allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy, allergen-specific immunotherapy, and patient education. Specific immunotherapy is able to normalize the upraised TH2 cytokine phenotype and indicated for patients who have demonstrable evidence of IgE-mediated clinically relevant sensitisation to pollens, house-dust mites and cat or dog allergens. The exposure to the allergens must be related to the appearance of symptoms. Randomised controlled trials in asthma have found that immunotherapy was effective (evidence 1a, strength of recommendation A) in reducing specific and non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity, asthmatic symptoms, and medication requirements. Patient selection is important and efficacy must be balanced against the risk of side effects. Immunotherapy should be used by pneumologists with a training in allergology in patients with mild asthma.

  20. ATR Technical Specification Upgrade Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCracken, R.T.; Durney, J.L.; Freund, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a 250 MW, uranium-aluminum fueled test reactor which began full power operation in 1969. The initial operation was controlled by an Operating Limits document based on the original Safety Analysis Report. Additional safety bases were later developed to support Technical Specifications which were approved and implemented in 1977. The Technical Specifications which were initially developed with content and format specified in ANSI/ANS--15.1, ''The Development of Technical Specifications for Research Reactors.'' The safety basis documentation and the Technical Specifications have been updated as required to maintain them current with the ATR facility configuration. All revisions have been made with a content, format and style consistent with the original. A major, two-phase program to upgrade the content, format and style is in progress. This paper describes the first phase of this program

  1. ATR technical specification upgrade program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCraken, R.T.; Durney, J.L.; Freund, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a 250 MW, uranium-aluminum fueled test reactor which began full power operation in 1969. The initial operation was controlled by an Operating Limits document based on the original Safety Analysis Report. Additional safety bases were later developed to support Technical Specifications which were approved and implemented in 1977. The Technical Specifications were initially developed with the content and format specified in ANSI/ANS-15.1, The Development of Technical Specifications for Research Reactors. The safety basis documentation and the Technical Specifications have been updated as required to maintain them current with the ATR facility configuration. All revisions have been made with a content, format and style consistent with the original. A major, two-phase program to upgrade the content, format and style is in progress. This paper describes the first phase of this program

  2. GFF Specification for SAR Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, Nathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bielek, Timothy P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matthews, John D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coakley, Henry John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pan, Len [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This document provides the basic GFF format definition for a GFF file. This document covers the contents of the main header and the basic GFF file structure. The contents of specific extensions are covered in a separate document.

  3. Patient-specific surgical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Luc; Marescaux, Jacques

    2008-02-01

    Technological innovations of the twentieth century have provided medicine and surgery with new tools for education and therapy definition. Thus, by combining Medical Imaging and Virtual Reality, patient-specific applications providing preoperative surgical simulation have become possible.

  4. Base compaction specification feasibility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this research is to establish the technical engineering and cost : analysis concepts that will enable WisDOT management to objectively evaluate the : feasibility of switching construction specification philosophies for aggregate base...

  5. CCL22-specific T Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenaite, Evelina; Munir Ahmad, Shamaila; Hansen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating macrophages produce the chemokine CCL22, which attracts regulatory T cells (Tregs) into the tumor microenvironment, decreasing anticancer immunity. Here, we investigated the possibility of targeting CCL22-expressing cells by activating specific T cells. We...... analyzed the CCL22 protein signal sequence, identifying a human leukocyte antigen A2- (HLA-A2-) restricted peptide epitope, which we then used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) to expand populations of CCL22-specific T cells in vitro. T cells recognizing an epitope derived from...... the signal-peptide of CCL22 will recognize CCL22-expressing cells even though CCL22 is secreted out of the cell. CCL22-specific T cells recognized and killed CCL22-expressing cancer cells. Furthermore, CCL22-specific T cells lysed acute monocytic leukemia cells in a CCL22 expression-dependent manner. Using...

  6. XML specifications DanRIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    XML specifications for DanRIS (Danish Registration- og InformationsSystem), where the the aim is: Improved exchange of data Improved data processing Ensuring future access to all gathered data from the year 1999 until now......XML specifications for DanRIS (Danish Registration- og InformationsSystem), where the the aim is: Improved exchange of data Improved data processing Ensuring future access to all gathered data from the year 1999 until now...

  7. CASL, the Common Algebraic Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossakowski, Till; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Sannella, Donald

    2008-01-01

    CASL is an expressive specification language that has been designed to supersede many existing algebraic specification languages and provide a standard. CASL consists of several layers, including basic (unstructured) specifications, structured specifications and architectural specifications...

  8. 75 FR 55809 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: The Development of Immunotoxins/Targeted Toxins for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Mesothelin, a Differentiation Antigen Present on Mesothelium, Mesotheliomas and Ovarian Cancers'' [HHS Ref. E... that only the cancer cells are killed. This results in an effective therapeutic strategy with fewer...

  9. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaw, J.

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10 -5 to 10 -11 Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components

  10. Industry specific financial distress modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naz Sayari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates uncertainty levels of various industries and tries to determine financial ratios having the greatest information content in determining the set of industry characteristics. It then uses these ratios to develop industry specific financial distress models. First, we employ factor analysis to determine the set of ratios that are most informative in specified industries. Second, we use a method based on the concept of entropy to measure the level of uncertainty in industries and also to single out the ratios that best reflect the uncertainty levels in specific industries. Finally, we conduct a logistic regression analysis and derive industry specific financial distress models which can be used to judge the predictive ability of selected financial ratios for each industry. The results show that financial ratios do indeed echo industry characteristics and that information content of specific ratios varies among different industries. Our findings show diverging impact of industry characteristics on companies; and thus the necessity of constructing industry specific financial distress models.

  11. Standard Technical Specifications, Westinghouse plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This NUREG contains improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Westinghouse Plants and documents the positions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission based on the Westinghouse Owners Group's proposed STS. This document is the result of extensive technical meetings and discussions among the NRC staff, the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, the NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the interim Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specification Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated February 6, 1987. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. This document, Volume 1, contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.9 of the improved STS

  12. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaw, J. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -11/ Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components. (LEW)

  13. Age‑specific Serum Prostate Specific Antigen Ranges Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ethnic differences.[16] Although similar studies have been presented for a number of different groups of men and few studies have looked at the pattern of serum PSA among Nigerians[17‑20] but no such studies on normal serum PSA ranges and the age‑specific pattern have been carried out among healthy Nigerian men.

  14. Compiler writing system detail design specification. Volume 1: Language specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Construction within the Meta language for both language and target machine specification is reported. The elements of the function language as a meaning and syntax are presented, and the structure of the target language is described which represents the target dependent object text representation of applications programs.

  15. ROS signalling - specificity is required

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian M; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production increases in plants under stress. ROS can damage cellular components, but they can also act in signal transduction to help the cell counteract the oxidative damage in the stressed compartment. H2O2 might induce a general stress response, but it does not have...... the required specificity to selectively regulate nuclear genes required for dealing with localized stress, e.g. in chloroplasts or mitochondria. Here we argue that peptides deriving from proteolytic breakdown of oxidatively damaged proteins have the requisite specificity to act as secondary ROS messengers...... and regulate source-specific genes and in this way contribute to retrograde ROS signalling during oxidative stress. Likewise, unmodified peptides deriving from the breakdown of redundant proteins could help coordinate organellar and nuclear gene expression...

  16. Methylation-Specific PCR Unraveled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Derks

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylation‐specific PCR (MSP is a simple, quick and cost‐effective method to analyze the DNA methylation status of virtually any group of CpG sites within a CpG island. The technique comprises two parts: (1 sodium bisulfite conversion of unmethylated cytosine's to uracil under conditions whereby methylated cytosines remains unchanged and (2 detection of the bisulfite induced sequence differences by PCR using specific primer sets for both unmethylated and methylated DNA. This review discusses the critical parameters of MSP and presents an overview of the available MSP variants and the (clinical applications.

  17. 76 FR 7482 - Operations Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ...: The final rule provides administrative process for a an administrative appeals process foreign... administrative appeals process, the rule may result in some benefits to foreign air carriers and foreign persons... will apply for operations specifications. Furthermore, it creates an administrative appeals process...

  18. Human-Specific Endogenous Retroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Buzdin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on a small family of human-specific genomic repetitive elements, presented by 134 members that shaped ~330 kb of the human DNA. Although modest in terms of its copy number, this group appeared to modify the human genome activity by endogenizing ~50 functional copies of viral genes that may have important implications in the immune response, cancer progression, and antiretroviral host defense. A total of 134 potential promoters and enhancers have been added to the human DNA, about 50% of them in the close gene vicinity and 22% in gene introns. For 60 such human-specific promoters, their activity was confirmed by in vivo assays, with the transcriptional level varying ~1000-fold from hardly detectable to as high as ~3% of β-actin transcript level. New polyadenylation signals have been provided to four human RNAs, and a number of potential antisense regulators of known human genes appeared due to human-specific retroviral insertional activity. This information is given here in the context of other major genomic changes underlining differences between human and chimpanzee DNAs. Finally, a comprehensive database, is available for download, of human-specific and polymorphic endogenous retroviruses is presented, which encompasses the data on their genomic localization, primary structure, encoded viral genes, human gene neighborhood, transcriptional activity, and methylation status.

  19. THE SPECIFICITY OF INTRACOMMUNITY TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU-POPA LUCIA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Considered from the perspective of Romania's accession to the European Union, we can say that starting with 1 January 2007, foreign trade transactions were delimited in relation to the customs borders in intra-Community transactions and international transactions. In this context, the way of conducting these operations is influenced by both the economic and financial features specific to both categories of transactions, that relate to the economic character of the activity, the diversity and specificity of the foreign trade activity, transport of goods, the complexity and regulation of intra-Community and international commercial transactions, and by the specific features of each category of transaction. Starting from the consideration that the economic and financial characteristics of foreign trade activity, specific to intra-Community commercial transactions, have a significant influence in the organization and management of accounting of the entities involved in such transactions, determining in a greater or lesser extent, the way of capitalization of the financial and accounting information in the processes of analysis, decision and control, in this paper we proposed to address the features of intra-Community trade.

  20. [Specificities in children wound healing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J; Antonicelli, F; Tuton, D; Mazouz Dorval, S; François, C

    2016-10-01

    Children have specific characteristics of wound healing. The aim of this study was to describe the specific clinical characteristics of wounds healing in children and to present the current knowledge on the specific mechanisms with regard to infant age. The tissue insult or injury in fetus can heal without scar, mainly due to reduced granulation tissue associated to diminished or even no inflammatory phase, modified extracellular matrix such as the concentration of hyaluronic acid in amniotic liquid, expression and arrangement of collagen and tenascin. Thickness of children skin is a serious negative factor in case of trauma, whereas poor co-morbidities and efficient growth tissue mechanisms are beneficial to good evolution, even in cases of extensive damage and loss of tissue. The subsequent tissue mechanical forces, wound healing during childhood, spanning from the age of 2 until the end of puberty, is associated with more hypertrophic scars, both in duration and in intensity. Consequently, unnecessary surgery has to be avoided during this period when possible, and children with abnormal or pathologic wound healing should benefit from complementary treatments (hydration, massage, brace, silicone, hydrotherapy…), which represent efficient factors to minimize tissue scarring. After wound healing, the growth body rate can be responsible for specific complications, such as contractures, alopecia, and scar intussusceptions. Its evolutionary character implies the need of an attentive follow-up until adult age. Psychologic repercussions, as a consequence of pathologic scars, must be prevented and investigated by the surgeon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Lightweight Specifications for Parallel Correctness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    that typically no pro- grammer specification is needed. However, manually determining which reported races are benign and which are bugs can be time...marked by the pro- grammer , but no statement is enclosed with if(true∗) — i.e., the set S∗ is empty. We are given a set T of parallel execution traces, and

  2. Final Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one....

  3. Vibrio chromosome-specific families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David

    2014-01-01

    We have compared chromosome-specific genes in a set of 18 finished Vibrio genomes, and, in addition, also calculated the pan- and core-genomes from a data set of more than 250 draft Vibrio genome sequences. These genomes come from 9 known species and 2 unknown species. Within the finished...

  4. Specificity of Cardiovascular Endurance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Calberth B., Jr.; Johnson, James H.

    This study determined the specificity of cardiovascular endurance training on a bicycle ergometer. Eighteen male subjects were tested on a heart rate response test of 150 beats per minute on a bicycle ergometer at the pace of 50 revolutions per minute (rpm) and at 160 beats per minute at 60 and 80 rpm, with the resistance equal to the force of…

  5. LOTOS specification style for OSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, K.J.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Bolognesi, T.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Vissers, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The architecture of OSI is used to derive guidelines for writing LOTOS specifications of distributed systems. In particular, the architectural concepts that underlie service and protocol designs are examined in detail. For each of these concepts a representation in LOTOS is given. Examples are

  6. LOTOS specification style for OSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Hendrik; Turner, K.J.; Bolognesi, T.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Vissers, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The architecture of OSI is used to derive guidelines for writing LOTOS specifications of distributed systems. In particular, the architectural concepts that underlie service and protocol designs are examined in detail. For each of these concepts a representation in LOTOS is given. Examples are

  7. Niche-specific cognitive strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgard, K.; Ratcliffe, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Related species with different diets are predicted to rely on different cognitive strategies: those best suited for locating available and appropriate foods. Here we tested two predictions of the niche-specific cognitive strategies hypothesis in bats, which suggests that predatory species should ...... the niche-specific cognitive strategies hypothesis and suggest that for gleaning and clutter-resistant aerial hawking bats, learning to associate shape with food interferes with subsequent spatial memory learning.......Related species with different diets are predicted to rely on different cognitive strategies: those best suited for locating available and appropriate foods. Here we tested two predictions of the niche-specific cognitive strategies hypothesis in bats, which suggests that predatory species should...... rely more on object memory than on spatial memory for finding food and that the opposite is true of frugivorous and nectivorous species. Specifically, we predicted that: (1) predatory bats would readily learn to associate shapes with palatable prey and (2) once bats had made such associations...

  8. Isotope specific arbitrary material sorter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P.J.

    2015-12-08

    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide a rapid and unique, isotope specific method for sorting materials. The objects to be sorted are passed on a conveyor in front of a MEGa-ray beam which has been tuned to the nuclear resonance fluorescence transition of the desired material. As the material containing the desired isotope traverses the beam, a reduction in the transmitted MEGa-ray beam occurs. Alternately, the laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  9. Certifying Domain-Specific Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michael; Pressburger, Thomas; Rosu, Grigore; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Proof-checking code for compliance to safety policies potentially enables a product-oriented approach to certain aspects of software certification. To date, previous research has focused on generic, low-level programming-language properties such as memory type safety. In this paper we consider proof-checking higher-level domain -specific properties for compliance to safety policies. The paper first describes a framework related to abstract interpretation in which compliance to a class of certification policies can be efficiently calculated Membership equational logic is shown to provide a rich logic for carrying out such calculations, including partiality, for certification. The architecture for a domain-specific certifier is described, followed by an implemented case study. The case study considers consistency of abstract variable attributes in code that performs geometric calculations in Aerospace systems.

  10. Specific bibliography on Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, L.A.; Jaldo, H.

    1999-01-01

    Most publications on Anastrepha fraterculus are in the literature sources from South America, and papers were published in Spanish or Portuguese. Many literature sources mentioned in this list are not indexed in entomological abstracts and, consequently, are not easily available outside their home state or country. Due to this fact, the inclusion of a list of specific bibliography on A. fraterculus could be a help for researchers and students interested in fruit flies. In this list are included only references directly dealing with Anastrepha fraterculus. Obviously, many more references exist that consider this species, but general or non-specific work or data concerning A. fraterculus were not included in the present list. (author)

  11. UNBIASED ESTIMATORS OF SPECIFIC CONNECTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Jernot

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the estimation of the specific connectivity of a stationary random set in IRd. It turns out that the "natural" estimator is only asymptotically unbiased. The example of a boolean model of hypercubes illustrates the amplitude of the bias produced when the measurement field is relatively small with respect to the range of the random set. For that reason unbiased estimators are desired. Such an estimator can be found in the literature in the case where the measurement field is a right parallelotope. In this paper, this estimator is extended to apply to measurement fields of various shapes, and to possess a smaller variance. Finally an example from quantitative metallography (specific connectivity of a population of sintered bronze particles is given.

  12. UTM UAS Service Supplier Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Joseph Lucio

    2017-01-01

    Within the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) system, the UAS Service Supplier (USS) is a key component. The USS serves several functions. At a high level, those include the following: Bridging communication between UAS Operators and Flight Information Management System (FIMS) Supporting planning of UAS operations Assisting strategic deconfliction of the UTM airspace Providing information support to UAS Operators during operations Helping UAS Operators meet their formal requirements This document provides the minimum set of requirements for a USS. In order to be recognized as a USS within UTM, successful demonstration of satisfying the requirements described herein will be a prerequisite. To ensure various desired qualities (security, fairness, availability, efficiency, maintainability, etc.), this specification relies on references to existing public specifications whenever possible.

  13. Multilingualism and Specific Language Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Is a multilingual education beneficial for children? What are the optimal conditions under which a child can become perfectly multilingual? When should we be concerned about a multilingual child's language skills? What are the signs of Specific Language Impairment in a child who speaks more than one language? Developmental psychologist and Associate Professor in multilingual cognitive development at the University of Luxembourg Pascale Engel de Abreu will address these questions based on what...

  14. Technical specifications, Hanford production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, W.D. [comp.

    1962-06-25

    These technical specifications are applicable to the eight operating production reactor facilities, B, C, D, DR, F, H, KE, and KW. Covered are operating and performance restrictions and administrative procedures. Areas covered by the operating and performance restrictions are reactivity, reactor control and safety elements, power level, temperature and heat flux, reactor fuel loadings, reactor coolant systems, reactor confinement, test facilities, code compliance, and reactor scram set points. Administrative procedures include process control procedures, training programs, audits and inspections, and reports and records.

  15. Genre specificity of political discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Aleshina E. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of political discourse genre specificity has been in the center of attention of Russian and foreign scholars, which is determined by the relevance of political discourse as a multidimensional object of study with its linguistic properties in particular. The ambiguity of principles for genre gradation of political discourse is linked to the variability of understanding genre proper. The definition of genre as goal-oriented text characteristics allows accentuating some genres of pol...

  16. Nanobody Based Dual Specific CARs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn De Munter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials have shown that adoptive chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cell therapy is a very potent and possibly curative option in the treatment of B cell leukemias and lymphomas. However, targeting a single antigen may not be sufficient, and relapse due to the emergence of antigen negative leukemic cells may occur. A potential strategy to counter the outgrowth of antigen escape variants is to broaden the specificity of the CAR by incorporation of multiple antigen recognition domains in tandem. As a proof of concept, we here describe a bispecific CAR in which the single chain variable fragment (scFv is replaced by a tandem of two single-antibody domains or nanobodies (nanoCAR. High membrane nanoCAR expression levels are observed in retrovirally transduced T cells. NanoCARs specific for CD20 and HER2 induce T cell activation, cytokine production and tumor lysis upon incubation with transgenic Jurkat cells expressing either antigen or both antigens simultaneously. The use of nanobody technology allows for the production of compact CARs with dual specificity and predefined affinity.

  17. Nanobody Based Dual Specific CARs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Munter, Stijn; Ingels, Joline; Goetgeluk, Glenn; Bonte, Sarah; Pille, Melissa; Weening, Karin; Kerre, Tessa; Abken, Hinrich; Vandekerckhove, Bart

    2018-01-30

    Recent clinical trials have shown that adoptive chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is a very potent and possibly curative option in the treatment of B cell leukemias and lymphomas. However, targeting a single antigen may not be sufficient, and relapse due to the emergence of antigen negative leukemic cells may occur. A potential strategy to counter the outgrowth of antigen escape variants is to broaden the specificity of the CAR by incorporation of multiple antigen recognition domains in tandem. As a proof of concept, we here describe a bispecific CAR in which the single chain variable fragment (scFv) is replaced by a tandem of two single-antibody domains or nanobodies (nanoCAR). High membrane nanoCAR expression levels are observed in retrovirally transduced T cells. NanoCARs specific for CD20 and HER2 induce T cell activation, cytokine production and tumor lysis upon incubation with transgenic Jurkat cells expressing either antigen or both antigens simultaneously. The use of nanobody technology allows for the production of compact CARs with dual specificity and predefined affinity.

  18. JBK-75 microstructure specification recommendation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    Since the ASTM-E-45 standard for microcleanliness is not applicable to superalloys like JBK-75 stainless steel (Modified A-286), Rocky Flats should adopt the Ladish microcleanliness standard (APML Cleanliness Classification of High Temperature Alloys Chart, 1971), as a guide for setting material acceptance specifications for JBK-75. Inclusion ratings of S-2, N-2, C-2, and M-2 should be acceptable. The microstructure should have a grain size of 5 or finer, but not smaller than 9, and microsegregation (banding) should be kept to a minimum

  19. Specific circuit design: electrocardiogram amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laribiere, Laurent

    1991-01-01

    The electrocardiogram amplifier is a specific integrated circuit. It is based on a linear array of Raytheon. This circuit is fitted with the following functions and characteristics: - electrocardiogram signals amplification, - pacemaker detection, - electrode un-sticking detection, - defibrillator overload protection, - battery-powered, - internal regulation 5 V, - low supply current 2.5 mA, - according to French norms on electrocardiogram surveillance devices - 28 pin package, available in CMS version It can be used for any surveillance device, requiring an analog processing of cardiac signals. (author) [fr

  20. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  1. Gender specific determinants of goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamshid, F.; Kerstin, C.; Elena, G.; Wilhelm, O.; Karl, W.; Hwe, M.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the strong implications of differences between females and males in the risk of goitre, gender-specific issues have not been extensively addressed in investigations of goitre prevalence. The Objective of our analysis was to investigate the gender-specific determinants of goitre. Methods: A total of 853 healthy employees from 4 institutions in western part of Germany aged between 18 and 68 years were examined by ultrasound of the neck to determine the thyroid volume between April 2001 and April 2002. Information on sex, age, daily use of iodised salt, the history of goitre in the first degree relatives, type and amount of' smoking, oral contraceptives and number of pregnancies were assessed by standardised questionnaires. Gender-specific predictors of goitre prevalence were assessed by multivariate logistic regression. Results: The overall prevalence of goitre among study subjects was (204/853) 23.9%. Goitre was present in 80 out of 370 females (21.6%) vs. 124/483 (25.7%) in males.In general smoking (<0.0001), increasing age (p<0.0001) and lack of daily intake of iodised salt (p=0.004) associated with goitre prevalence, but not sex (0.4) and family history of goitre (p=0.2). In 370 females, parity (p=0.004) and lack of daily intake of iodised salt (p=0.01) were the major determinants for goitre, whereas, age (p=0.2), oral contraceptives (p=0.8), family history of goitre (p=0.3), and smoking (p=0.1) did not affect the goitre prevalence. In 483 males, smoking (p<0.0001) and age (p<0.001) affected the goitre prevalence, but not family history of goitre (p=0.4) and the iodine status failed just to reach the significant level (p=0.08) in this analysis. Conclusions: Gender specific determinants of goitre are parity and iodine status in females and smoking and increasing age in males. (authors)

  2. 100 Areas water treatment specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A.B.

    1952-07-11

    This memorandum discussed review of the data from tests using alum in the treatment of pile process water, and using activated silica as a coagulant aid during period of low water temperature, which shows that this method should be substituted for the present method of treating pile process water in all 100 Areas. It was recommended that the water treatment procedures and specifications attached to this memorandum be initiated as standard practice in all 100 Areas as soon as it is possible to make the necessary equipment modifications and installations.

  3. Food Odours Direct Specific Appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriët F. A. Zoon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory food cues were found to increase appetite for products similar in taste. We aimed to replicate this phenomenon for taste (sweet/savoury, determine whether it extends to energy density (high/low as well, and uncover whether this effect is modulated by hunger state. Twenty-nine healthy-weight females smelled four odours differing in the energy density and taste they signalled, one non-food odour, and one odourless solution (control, in random order, for three minutes each. Appetite for 15 food products was rated in the following two minutes. Mixed model analyses revealed that exposure to an odour signalling a specific taste (respectively sweet, savoury led to a greater appetite for congruent food products (sweet/savoury compared to incongruent food products (savoury p < 0.001; sweet p < 0.001 or neutral food products (p = 0.02; p = 0.003. A similar pattern was present for the energy-density category (respectively high-energy dense, low-energy dense signalled by the odours (low-energy products p < 0.001; high-energy products p = 0.008. Hunger state did not have a significant impact on sensory-specific appetite. These results suggest that exposure to food odours increases appetite for congruent products, in terms of both taste and energy density, irrespective of hunger state. We speculate that food odours steer towards intake of products with a congruent macronutrient composition.

  4. Hanford Site Environmental Management Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAILY, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) has established a document hierarchy as part of its integrated management system. The Strategic Plan defines the vision, values, missions, strategic goals, high-level outcomes, and the basic strategies in achieving those outcomes. As shown in Figure 1-1, the Site Specification derives requirements from the Strategic Plan and documents the top-level mission technical requirements for the work involved in the RL Hanford Site cleanup and infrastructure activities under the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (EM). It also provides the basis for all contract technical requirements. Since this is limited to the EM work, neither the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) nor the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) non-EM science activities are included. Figure 1-1 also shows the relationship between this Site Specification and the other Site management and planning documents. Similarly, the documents, orders, and laws referenced in this document represent only the most salient sources of requirements. Current and contractual reference data contain a complete set of source documents

  5. Is sexual victimization gender specific?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundaram, Vanita; Laursen, Bjarne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the prevalence of sexual victimization and correlations between sexual victimization and indicators of poor health in two representative samples of men and women in Denmark. Specifically, the authors explore the prevalence of self-reported victimization among...... adolescents (N = 5,829) and adults (N = 3,932) and analyze differences in self-reported health outcomes between male and female victims and corresponding controls. Gender differences are found in the reported prevalence of sexual victimization. Significantly more females than males reported forced sexual...... experiences in both samples. Associations between sexual victimization and poor health outcomes are found for both genders. Comparable patterns of association for men and women are found on a number of variables, particularly those pertaining to risk behavior....

  6. The Specificity of Human Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchet, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Today, humankind is being reintroduced within nature. Humankind is no longer presented as supernatural to nature. There is no longer a clear divide between animal and human. What makes us human is neither culture, nor language nor labor, nor art, but the degree of complexity those products and ca...... creativity. Art is fundamentally about shaping visions and very closely related to this specific human ability to make projects. Especially in times of crisis, when the old sources of meaning hardly can make sense in a new context, imagination must be used in order to survive........ Today, what is regarded as the essential characteristic of humankind is the ability to use a complex articulated language, to have thoughts entailing abstraction and conceptualization. It is the ability to operate with deferred representations, the necessity to relate to inner worlds of representation...

  7. Testing of badminton specific endurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Møller; Højlyng, Mads; Nybo, Lars

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a novel intermittent badminton endurance test (B-ENDURANCE) was developed and tested in elite (n=17) and skilled (n=9) badminton players as well as in age-matched physically active men (non-badminton players; n=8). In addition, B-ENDURANCE test-retest reproducibility...... was evaluated in nine badminton players.B-ENDURANCE is an incremental test where each level consists of repeated sequences of badminton specific actions towards the four corners on the court. The subject starts in the center of the court in front of a computer screen and within each sequence he must...... decreases until the subjects cannot follow the dictated tempo.B-ENDURANCE performance for elite players was better (PENDURANCE performance correlated (r=0.8; P

  8. Domain specific MT in use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus; Almsten, Lisbeth Kjeldgaard

    2008-01-01

    point scale evaluate the sentence from the point of view of the post-editor. The post-editor profile defined by the LSP is based on the experiences of introducing MT in the LSP workflow. The relation between the Translation Edit Rate (TER) scores and “Usability” scores is tested. We find TER a candidate...... for an automatic metric simulating the post-editors’ usability judgements. LSP tests show 67% saved time in post-editing for the tested domain. Finally, the use of weighted sub-domain phrase tables in a SMT system is shown to improve translation quality.......The paper focuses on domain specific use of MT with a special focus on SMT in the workflow of a Language Service Provider (LSP). We report on the feedback of post-editors using fluency/adequacy evaluation and the evaluation metric ’Usability’, understood in this context as where users on a three...

  9. Formal specification of human-computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auernheimer, Brent

    1990-01-01

    A high-level formal specification of a human computer interface is described. Previous work is reviewed and the ASLAN specification language is described. Top-level specifications written in ASLAN for a library and a multiwindow interface are discussed.

  10. FY97 ICCS prototype specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, J.

    1997-01-01

    The ICCS software team will implement and test two iterations of their software product during FY97. This document specifies the products to be delivered in that first prototype and projects the direction that the second prototype will take. Detailed specification of the later iteration will be written when the results of the first iteration are complete. The selection of frameworks to be implemented early is made on a basis of risk analysis from the point of view of future development in the ICCS project. The prototype will address risks in integration of object- oriented components, in refining our development process, and in emulation testing for FEP devices. This document is a specification that identifies products and processes to undertake for resolving these risks. The goals of this activity are to exercise our development process at a modest scale and to probe our architecture plan for fundamental limits and failure modes. The product of the iterations will be the framework software which will be useful in future ICCS code. Thus the FY97 products are intended for internal usage by the ICCS team and for demonstration to the FEP software developers of the strategy for integrating supervisory software with FEP computers. This will be the first of several expected iterations of the software development process and the performance measurements that ICCS will demonstrate, intended to support confidence in our ability to meet project RAM goals. The design of the application software is being carried out in a separate WBS 1.5.2 activity. The design activity has as its FY97 product a series of Software Design Documents that will specify the functionality of the controls software of ICCS. During the testing of this year''s prototypes, the application functionality needed for test will be provided by sample maintenance controls. These are early precursors of controls that can be used for low level device control. Since the devices under test will be represented by

  11. 31 CFR 596.309 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.309 Specific license. The term specific license means any license or...

  12. Advances in bacterial specific imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wareham

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear medicine is a powerful diagnostic technique able to detect inflammatory foci in human disease. A wide range of agents have been evaluated for their ability to distinguish lesions due to microbial infection from those due to sterile inflammation. Advances continue to be made on the use of radiolabelled antibiotics which as well as being highly specific in the diagnosis of infection may be useful in monitoring the treatment and course of disease. Here we provide an update on in-vitro and clinical studies with a number of established and novel radiopharmaceuticalsA medicina nuclear é uma técnica poderosa de diagnóstico capaz de detectar focos inflamatórios em doenças humanas. Uma ampla gama de agentes tem sido avaliada em sua capacidade de distinguir lesões, devidas a infecções microbianas daquelas causadas por inflamações estéreis. Avanços continuam sendo realizados no uso de antibióticos radiomarcados que, da mesma forma que têm sido usados no diagnóstico altamente específico de infecções, podem ser úteis na monitoração do tratamento e do curso da doença. Neste estudo, nós apresentamos uma atualização sobre estudos in vitro e clínicos, com alguns novos radiofármacos e outros já consagrados.

  13. Specificities of sustainable tourism planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegdić Vaso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, companies have been mentioning achievement of sustainability in their activities as a target of companies, governments and non-profit organizations, although measuring the degree to which an organization conducts its activities in a sustainable manner, can be very difficult. Sustainable tourism development requires a process of planning and management that will unite the interests of various stakeholders in a sustainable and strategic way. It requires an understanding of the meaning of sustainable development and guiding values for promoting sustainable tourism. The paper points to the importance of cross-sector partnerships and the roles of different stakeholders in the planning of sustainable tourism projects. Special importance is given to the community of which a willingness to understand the impacts of tourism industry is expected, as well as various procedures of engagement in participatory planning, consensus building and conflict resolution among all stakeholders. The aim of this research is to find an optimal model of planning of sustainable tourism projects that would take into consideration the interests of all stakeholders and reflect the specificities imposed by the acceptance of the concept of sustainable development by all participants in the project.

  14. Are specific emotions narrated differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; Meier, Michaela; Mukhtar, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Two studies test the assertion that anger, sadness, fear, pride, and happiness are typically narrated in different ways. Everyday events eliciting these 5 emotions were narrated by young women (Study 1) and 5- and 8-year-old girls (Study 2). Negative narratives were expected to engender more effort to process the event, be longer, more grammatically complex, more often have a complication section, and use more specific emotion labels than global evaluations. Narratives of Hogan's (2003) juncture emotions anger and fear were expected to focus more on action and to contain more core narrative sections of orientation, complication, and resolution than narratives of the outcome emotions sadness and happiness. Hypotheses were confirmed for adults except for syntactic complexity, whereas children showed only some of these differences. Hogan's theory that juncture emotions are restricted to the complication section was not confirmed. Finally, in adults, indirect speech was more frequent in anger narratives and internal monologue in fear narratives. It is concluded that different emotions should be studied in how they are narrated, and that narratives should be analyzed according to qualitatively different emotions.

  15. [Amusia and its topic specification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buklina, S B; Skvortsova, V B

    2007-01-01

    A historical development of views on amusia and its clinical phenomenology is reviewed. The authors present a case of atypical amusia in a patient aged 32 years with glioma of the right temporal lobe including the upper temporal gyrus. Amusia was combined with euphoria and disturbances of evaluation of speech intonation. It has been assumed that different mechanisms implicated with different regions of both brain hemispheres may underlie amusia. Sometimes these mechanisms appear to be universal, e.g. disorders of symbolic gnosis in posterior hemisphere lesions, being comorbid with amusia as disturbances in reading music and letter agnosia. In our case, the right temporal lobe lesion, especially with involvement of the upper temporal gyrus, caused specific music agnosia with disturbances of perception of some notes and duration of their phonation or a musical contour of the whole melody. Motor amusia is developed due to additional disturbances of motor and premotor brain functions, with significant contribution of the Broca's speech area. Music may be a model for investigation into processes of multimodal integration and hemisphere interaction.

  16. Peptide binding specificity of the chaperone calreticulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, N.; Duus, K.; Jorgensen, C.S.

    2007-01-01

    Calreticulin is a molecular chaperone with specificity for polypeptides and N-linked monoglucosylated glycans. In order to determine the specificity of polypeptide binding, the interaction of calreticulin with polypeptides was investigated using synthetic peptides of different length and composit...

  17. Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The objectives of Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications are to ensure that the design team applies commissioning concepts to the design and prepares commissioning specifications and a commission plan for inclusion in the bid construction documents.

  18. Genre-Specific Semantic Video Indexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.; Worring, M.

    2010-01-01

    In many applications, we find large video collections from different genres where the user is often only interested in one or two specific video genres. So, when users are querying the system with a specific semantic concept, they are likely aiming a genre specific instantiation of this concept.

  19. 42 CFR 37.203 - Autopsy specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Autopsy specifications. 37.203 Section 37.203... EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS Autopsies § 37.203 Autopsy specifications. (a) Every autopsy for which a claim for payment is submitted pursuant to this part: (1) Shall be...

  20. Low back pain (non-specific).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krismer, M.; van Tulder, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is defined as pain localised between the 12th rib and the inferior gluteal folds, with or without leg pain. Most cases are non-specific, but in about 10% of cases a specific cause is identified. Red flags are typical signs or symptoms that are frequently associated with specific

  1. Isothermal Gravitational Segregation: Algorithms and Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsson, Snorri; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2000-01-01

    New algorithms for calculating the isothermal equilibrium state of reservoir fluids under the influence of gravity are presented. Two types of specifications are considered: the specification of pressure and composition at a reference depth; and the specification of the total overall content of t...

  2. Task-specific dystonia : pathophysiology and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadnicka, Anna; Kassavetis, Panagiotis; Parees, Isabel; Meppelink, Anne; Butler, Katherine; Edwards, Mark

    Task-specific dystonia is a form of isolated focal dystonia with the peculiarity of being displayed only during performance of a specific skilled motor task. This distinctive feature makes task-specific dystonia a particularly mysterious and fascinating neurological condition. In this review, we

  3. Technical specification improvement through safety margin considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, R.C.; Jansen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Westinghouse has developed an approach for utilizing safety analysis margin considerations to improve plant operability through technical specification revision. This approach relies on the identification and use of parameter interrelations and sensitivities to identify acceptable operating envelopes. This paper summarizes technical specification activities to date and presents the use of safety margin considerations as another viable method to obtain technical specification improvement

  4. Standard technical specifications combustion engineering plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Combustion Engineering Plants. The improved STS wee developed based on the criteria in the interim Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specification Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated February 6, 1987. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. This document, Volume 1, contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.9 of the improved STS

  5. Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margraf, Jürgen; Vriends, Noortje; Meyer, Andrea H.; Becker, Eni S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. Objectives The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young women in the community. Method Data came from the Dresden Predictor Study in which 1,538 German women (18–25 years) completed a diagnostic interview at two time points. Results Women with specific phobia had a twofold increase in odds of developing any anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, and any somatoform disorder during 17 months, compared to women without specific phobia. Except for depression, these associations persisted after adjustment for all comorbid mental disorders. Conclusions Specific phobia thus appears to be a risk factor for a variety of problems. The result further underpins the necessity for early intervention for specific phobia to prevent later mental health problems. PMID:19888542

  6. Towards a theory of product design specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2004-01-01

    , which express the customers¿ need and perception of value. In this paper we will scrutinize this assumption. We outline the roles and tasks of the product design specification in order to identify the requirements on a theory of product design specifications and we identify existing theory elements......The product design specification is an important element in a product development project because it defines the target to be met. One requirement on the product design specification is to articulate and communicate the aspects, which makes the product attractive seen from the users' viewpoint....... In the design methodology literature we find guidelines and methods to compile a product design specification. The contributions are based on the common underlying assumption that it is meaningful and the only feasible approach to interpret the result of a need analysis into a set of technical specifications...

  7. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION SINAPRA BERBASIS SISTEM INFORMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hadi Waryanto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sistem Informasi Sarana dan Prasarana (SINAPRA merupakan bagian dari beberapa sistem informasi yang dipakai oleh Univeristas Negeri Yogyakarta. SINAPRA merupakan salah satu sistem yang akan dikembangkan dalam Sistem Informasi Terpadu (SIPADU. Software Requirements Specification SINAPRA merupakan acuan teknis developer dalam mengembangkan sistem untuk tahap selanjutnya. Software Requirements Specification SINAPRA dikembangkan menggunakan model WSU-TC CptS 322  dengan berbasis sistem informasi terpadu UNY Kata Kunci : Software Requirements Specification, WSU-TC CptS 322, SINAPRA

  8. An Algebraic Specification of the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Ksystra, Katerina; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Stefaneas, Petros; Frangos, Panayiotis

    2011-01-01

    We present a formal specification of the Semantic Web, as an extension of the World Wide Web using the well known algebraic specification language CafeOBJ. Our approach allows the description of the key elements of the Semantic Web technologies, in order to give a better understanding of the system, without getting involved with their implementation details that might not yet be standardized. This specification is part of our work in progress concerning the modeling the Social Semantic Web.

  9. Embedded systems specification and design languages

    CERN Document Server

    Villar, Eugenio

    2008-01-01

    This book is the latest contribution to the Chip Design Languages series and it consists of selected papers presented at the Forum on Specifications and Design Languages (FDL'07), in September 2007. The book represents the state-of-the-art in research and practice, and it identifies new research directions. It highlights the role of specification and modelling languages, and presents practical experiences with specification and modelling languages.

  10. Map Specifications and Exchange of Geographical Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1999-01-01

    Specifications for Technical Maps 1993 – 99 are described giving an overview of the specification structure including the object description of the latest version: TK99.The technical map specifications are related to the standards for topographical maps - especially the TOP10DK standard. Common...... object definitions are essential for the standards. Technical as well as topographical map information is exchangeable through the Danish developed “Standard for Exchange of Digital Map Information”, known as the DSFL-format....

  11. Improved technical specifications for Korean NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, J. D.; Lee, D. H.; Seong, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    PWRs use Technical Specifications(Tech. Spec.) to ensure safe operation of the plant. Recently, many efforts were made to improve Tech. Spec. and as a result, Improved Standard Technical Specifications(ISTS) have been developed. Korean NPP technical specifications were converted to ISTS format. KAERI also provided supporting documents for technical specification conversion including mark-up's and description of changes. This paper describes and summarizes the results of implementation of ISTS for Korean NPP. The new Tech. Spec. will improve safety of Korean NPP

  12. User Interface Technology for Formal Specification Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michael; Philpot, Andrew; Pressburger, Thomas; Underwood, Ian; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Formal specification development and modification are an essential component of the knowledge-based software life cycle. User interface technology is needed to empower end-users to create their own formal specifications. This paper describes the advanced user interface for AMPHION1 a knowledge-based software engineering system that targets scientific subroutine libraries. AMPHION is a generic, domain-independent architecture that is specialized to an application domain through a declarative domain theory. Formal specification development and reuse is made accessible to end-users through an intuitive graphical interface that provides semantic guidance in creating diagrams denoting formal specifications in an application domain. The diagrams also serve to document the specifications. Automatic deductive program synthesis ensures that end-user specifications are correctly implemented. The tables that drive AMPHION's user interface are automatically compiled from a domain theory; portions of the interface can be customized by the end-user. The user interface facilitates formal specification development by hiding syntactic details, such as logical notation. It also turns some of the barriers for end-user specification development associated with strongly typed formal languages into active sources of guidance, without restricting advanced users. The interface is especially suited for specification modification. AMPHION has been applied to the domain of solar system kinematics through the development of a declarative domain theory. Testing over six months with planetary scientists indicates that AMPHION's interactive specification acquisition paradigm enables users to develop, modify, and reuse specifications at least an order of magnitude more rapidly than manual program development.

  13. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  14. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...

  15. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...

  16. Domain-specific languages in perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Heering (Jan); M. Mernik (Marjan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractDomain-specific languages (DSLs) are languages tailored to a specific application domain. They offer substantial gains in expressiveness and ease of use compared with general-purpose languages in their domain of application. Although the use of DSLs is by no means new, it is receiving

  17. Site-specific photochemical RNA editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Kenzo; Konishi-Hiratsuka, Kaoru; Sakamoto, Takashi; Yoshimura, Yoshinaga

    2010-10-28

    Photo-induced artificial RNA editing was demonstrated using photo-reactive oligonucleotides containing 3-cyanovinylcarbazole nucleoside. This non-enzymatic and sequence-specific methodology will make a major contribution to the elucidation of RNA functions including non-coding RNAs and to the development of drugs based on sequence-specific RNA editing.

  18. SPECIFIC SKILLS AND SOCIAL COMPETENCE IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    APPELO, MT; WOONINGS, FMJ; VANNIEUWENHUIZEN, CJ; EMMELKAMP, PMG; SLOOFF, CJ; LOUWERENS, JW

    Generalization of skills is a major problem in social skills training for schizophrenic patients. Assessment of skills is mostly not based on objective indices of specific skill deficits. The results of this study show that global competence of schizophrenics can be differentiated from specific

  19. ITER ISS system alternative specification study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveton, O.K.

    1990-08-01

    Recent comments suggested that the fuel systems, in particular the ISS, could be simplified if the ITER specifications were relaxed from the data specified for ITER. This interim report addresses the first part of the analysis, which considers the impact of design specifications on fuel systems design

  20. Specific and social phobias in ICD-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the current status of research with respect to specific phobias and social phobia as defined in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV, and to provide op- tions for their classification in the ICD-11. Both ICD-10 and DSM-IV identify three main classes of phobias: specific

  1. Building finite automata from DI specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udding, J.T

    1998-01-01

    Numerous formalisms exist to specify delay-insensitive computations and their implementations. It is not always straightforward to compare specifications in the different formalisms. One way of comparing specifications is transforming them to automata in which nodes are annotated with progress

  2. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  3. PCR specific for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, L.; Jones, S.C.P.; Angen, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    , but the method has liminations, for example, cross-reactions between serotypes 3, 6, and 8. This study describes the development of a serotype 3-specific PCR, based on the capsule locus, which can be used in a multiplex format with the organism's specific gene apxIV. The PCR test was evaluated on 266 strains...

  4. Cell-Type-Specific Optogenetics in Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboodiri, Vijay Mohan K; Stuber, Garret D

    2016-09-08

    The recent advent of technologies enabling cell-type-specific recording and manipulation of neuronal activity spurred tremendous progress in neuroscience. However, they have been largely limited to mice, which lack the richness in behavior of primates. Stauffer et al. now present a generalizable method for achieving cell-type specificity in monkeys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficient genre-specific semantic video indexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.; Worring, M.

    2012-01-01

    Large video collections such as YouTube contain many different video genres, while in many applications the user might be interested in one or two specific video genres only. Thus, when users are querying the system with a specific semantic concept like AnchorPerson, and MovieStars, they are likely

  6. 324 and 327 Facilities Environmental Effluent Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    These effluent specifications address requirements for the 324/321 Facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs

  7. Specific elements of thoracic wound management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avaro, J-P; De Lesquen, H; Beranger, F; Cotte, J; Natale, C

    2017-12-01

    Damage control for thoracic trauma combines definitive and temporary surgical gestures specifically adapted to the lesions present. A systematic assessment of all injuries to prioritize the specific lesions and their treatments constitutes the first operative stage. Packing and temporary closure have a place in the care of chest injuries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Motorcycle Education Curriculum Specifications. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, A. James; And Others

    This report contains specifications for a motorcycle safety education curriculum designed to reduce the incidence and severity of motorcycle accidents. The specifications prescribe objectives, prerequisites, methods, materials, equipment, facilities, and proficiency measures for six units of instruction: (1) basic riding skills, (2) street riding…

  9. 10 CFR 55.11 - Specific exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 55.11 Section 55.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES Exemptions § 55.11 Specific exemptions. The Commission... the requirements of the regulations in this part as it determines are authorized by law and will not...

  10. 10 CFR 26.9 - Specific exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 26.9 Section 26.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative Provisions § 26.9 Specific exemptions. Upon... the requirements of the regulations in this part as it determines are authorized by law and will not...

  11. 10 CFR 35.19 - Specific exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 35.19 Section 35.19 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Information § 35.19 Specific exemptions. The... the regulations in this part that it determines are authorized by law and will not endanger life or...

  12. 10 CFR 60.43 - License specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false License specification. 60.43 Section 60.43 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses License Issuance and Amendment § 60.43 License specification. (a) A license issued under this part shall...

  13. Determining the specific electric resistance of rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad' ko, V.Ia.

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented on perfecting the method of laboratory determination of the specific electric resistance of a rock formation. The average error in determining the specific electric resistance of the core at various locations is no more than two percent with low resistance values (2-5 ohms).

  14. Specific skills and social competence in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelo, M.T.; van Nieuwenhuizen, C.J.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Slooff, C.J.; Louwerens, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Generalization of skills is a major problem in social skills training for schizophrenic patients. Assessment of skills is mostly not based on objective indices of specific skill deficits. The results of this study show that global competence of schizophrenics can be differentiated from specific

  15. Light Rail Transit Car Specification Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    This Light Rail Transit Car Specification Guide is not a procurement document in itself. It is intended to be used as a guide by light rail transit operators and purchasers of such equipment in the preparation of technical specifications. Because of ...

  16. Graphical And Textual Notations In Formal Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bove, Rocco; Dipoppa, Giovanni; Groven, Arne-Kristian; Sivertsen, Terje

    1996-07-01

    The present report describes the current status of the co-operative project between ENEA and the OECD Halden Reactor Project on graphical and formal methods for software specification. The aim of this project is to contribute to a clarification of the relationship between graphical descriptions and formal specifications, and to provide guidelines for how they can be combined in order to utilize the strengths of' each approach. The overall aim of such a combination is to improve the formal basis of graphical descriptions and make formal specifications more generally comprehensible. The research reported includes the application of the IPTES technology on the APRM case example, an approach to the translation of Petri nets into algebraic specification, and the specification of real-time distributed systems using time-extended LOTOS. (author)

  17. Fundamental Characteristics of Industrial Variant Specification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the operational task of creating customised variants of industrial specifications (e.g. drawings, routings and bill-of-materials). Rooted in a lack of existing literature on the subject the paper describes the nature of variant specification systems. It introduces some...... fundamental concepts related to this task, which are relevant to understand for academia and practitioners working with the subject. This is done through a description of variant specification tasks and typical aspects of system solutions. To support the description of variant specification tasks and systems...... examples. In general the paper discusses an important focus area within mass customization and build-to-order production: the nature of industrial variant specification systems....

  18. Development of industrial variant specification systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer

    With globalisation and increased competition industrial companies must be prepared to satisfy individual customer needs and still stay competitive with regards to lead times, quality, and prices. These factors require companies to be better prepared to handle specification activities during order...... to the four research tasks of the Ph.D. project: • Define and describe the variant specification system. • Create a procedure for the development of variant specification systems. • Create concepts, methods and tools to support the analysis and determination of the variant specification task. • Identify...... are presented for analysing and determining the variant specification task. These are grouped in external and internal task variables. Additionally functional characteristics, which can be used for defining performance measures, are defined. Based in the concept of “focus” different levels of tasks...

  19. Standard Technical Specifications, Babcock and Wilcox plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This NUREG contains improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand W) Plants and documents the positions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission based on the B ampersand W Owners Group's proposed STS. This document is the result of extensive technical meetings and discussions among the NRC staff, the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, the NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC). The unproved STS were developed based on the, criteria in the interim Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specification Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated February 6, 1987. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop proved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. This document, Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS

  20. Screening specifications for Gulf Coast salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunton, G.D.; Laughon, R.B.; McClain, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    A reconnaissance survey of the salt domes of Mississippi, Louisiana, and east Texas is being planned to identify study areas for potential sites for radioactive waste disposal. Preliminary screening specifications were derived for each of the geological evaluation criteria by application of the significant factors that will have an impact on the reconnaissance survey. The procedure for the derivation of each screening specification is discussed. The screening specifications are the official OWI values to be used for the first-cut acceptance for salt dome study areas along the Gulf Coast. The derivation of the screening specifications is illustrated by (1) a statement of the geological evaluation criterion, (2) a discussion of the pertinent factors affecting the criterion, and (3) the evaluation of the value of the specification

  1. CMV-specific T cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsele, Hermann; Kapp, Markus; Grigoleit, Götz Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection continues to be one of the most important and life threatening complications after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). The reconstitution of CMV-specific T cell responses after SCT has been demonstrated to be protective against the development of CMV disease. To improve T cell immunity against CMV in bone marrow transplant patients, different strategies were explored. On one hand, CMV-specific T cells can be selected from the donor, and can be transferred to the patient without any further in vitro expansion. On the other hand, CMV-specific T cells can be activated and expanded in vitro by stimulation with antigen presenting cells (APCs) loaded with specific proteins or peptides. Here, we review the therapeutic application of CMV-specific T cells to fight CMV infection.

  2. Specificity of transmembrane protein palmitoylation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelén González Montoro

    Full Text Available Many proteins are modified after their synthesis, by the addition of a lipid molecule to one or more cysteine residues, through a thioester bond. This modification is called S-acylation, and more commonly palmitoylation. This reaction is carried out by a family of enzymes, called palmitoyltransferases (PATs, characterized by the presence of a conserved 50- aminoacids domain called "Asp-His-His-Cys- Cysteine Rich Domain" (DHHC-CRD. There are 7 members of this family in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and each of these proteins is thought to be responsible for the palmitoylation of a subset of substrates. Substrate specificity of PATs, however, is not yet fully understood. Several yeast PATs seem to have overlapping specificity, and it has been proposed that the machinery responsible for palmitoylating peripheral membrane proteins in mammalian cells, lacks specificity altogether.Here we investigate the specificity of transmembrane protein palmitoylation in S. cerevisiae, which is carried out predominantly by two PATs, Swf1 and Pfa4. We show that palmitoylation of transmembrane substrates requires dedicated PATs, since other yeast PATs are mostly unable to perform Swf1 or Pfa4 functions, even when overexpressed. Furthermore, we find that Swf1 is highly specific for its substrates, as it is unable to substitute for other PATs. To identify where Swf1 specificity lies, we carried out a bioinformatics survey to identify amino acids responsible for the determination of specificity or Specificity Determination Positions (SDPs and showed experimentally, that mutation of the two best SDP candidates, A145 and K148, results in complete and partial loss of function, respectively. These residues are located within the conserved catalytic DHHC domain suggesting that it could also be involved in the determination of specificity. Finally, we show that modifying the position of the cysteines in Tlg1, a Swf1 substrate, results in lack of palmitoylation, as

  3. Validating Avionics Conceptual Architectures with Executable Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Fischer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Current avionics systems specifications, developed after conceptual design, have a high degree of uncertainty. Since specifications are not sufficiently validated in the early development process and no executable specification exists at aircraft level, system designers cannot evaluate the impact of their design decisions at aircraft or aircraft application level. At the end of the development process of complex systems, e. g. aircraft, an average of about 65 per cent of all specifications have to be changed because they are incorrect, incomplete or too vaguely described. In this paper, a model-based design methodology together with a virtual test environment is described that makes complex high level system specifications executable and testable during the very early levels of system design. An aircraft communication system and its system context is developed to demonstrate the proposed early validation methodology. Executable specifications for early conceptual system architectures enable system designers to couple functions, architecture elements, resources and performance parameters, often called non-functional parameters. An integrated executable specification at Early Conceptual Architecture Level is developed and used to determine the impact of different system architecture decisions on system behavior and overall performance.

  4. Position paper: the science of deep specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Andrew W; Beringer, Lennart; Chlipala, Adam; Pierce, Benjamin C; Shao, Zhong; Weirich, Stephanie; Zdancewic, Steve

    2017-10-13

    We introduce our efforts within the project 'The science of deep specification' to work out the key formal underpinnings of industrial-scale formal specifications of software and hardware components, anticipating a world where large verified systems are routinely built out of smaller verified components that are also used by many other projects. We identify an important class of specification that has already been used in a few experiments that connect strong component-correctness theorems across the work of different teams. To help popularize the unique advantages of that style, we dub it deep specification , and we say that it encompasses specifications that are rich , two-sided , formal and live (terms that we define in the article). Our core team is developing a proof-of-concept system (based on the Coq proof assistant) whose specification and verification work is divided across largely decoupled subteams at our four institutions, encompassing hardware microarchitecture, compilers, operating systems and applications, along with cross-cutting principles and tools for effective specification. We also aim to catalyse interest in the approach, not just by basic researchers but also by users in industry.This article is part of the themed issue 'Verified trustworthy software systems'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Non-specific immunization against babesiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, F.E.G.

    1980-01-01

    The rodent babesias, Babesia rodhaini and the less virulent B. microti, are useful models with which to study immunity to and immunization against babesiosis. In contrast with the difficulty in inducing specific immunity to these parasites it is comparatively easy to induce non-specific immunity by prior exposure to related and unrelated intra-erythrocytic protozoa, micro-organisms such as Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) and Corynebacterium parvum, microbial extracts and muramyl dipeptide. This non-specific immunity is long lasting and extremely effective. It is characterized by the facts that (a) it occurs early in the infection at the height of the first peak of parasitaemia, and (b) it involves the intra-erythrocytic death of the parasites. After the primary parasitaemia has resolved, some parasites continue to persist at a low level and when introduced into clean mice produce only low-level 'attenuated' infections in these. Non-specific immunity is not equally effective in all strains of mice. It is suggested that immunity to babesiosis, and infections caused by other intra-erythrocytic protozoa, involves two mechanisms, the first non-specific and the second specific. The actual balance between these two mechanisms varies from parasite to parasite and from host to host. An effective vaccine would have to be based on an understanding of the roles of non-specific immunity in the actual disease under consideration, and would ideally combine an adjuvant that would also stimulate non-specific immunity and an attenuated strain of parasite that would induce a specific response. (author)

  6. Autoethnographic Mother-Writing: Advocating Radical Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patty Sotirin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In considering the similarities between "momoirs"--popular memoirs written by mothers about motherhood experiences--and evocative autoethnographic mother-writing, I argue that differentiating these two forms of intimate observation and personal narrative requires a rethinking of autoethnographic practice. Specifically, I draw on the work of Gilles Deleuze to advocate for a radical specificity in autoethnographic writing. Thinking the autoethnographic narrative in terms of specificities and differences encourages us to think creatively about personal experiences and cultural relations beyond what is shared and communicable.

  7. Table of specific activities of selected isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, G.

    The bulk of this publication consists of a table of the half-lives, decay modes, and specific activities of isotopes selected for their particular interest to the Environmental Health and Safety Department, LBL. The specific activities were calculated with a PDP 9/15 computer. Also included in the report is a table of stable isotopes, the Th and U decay chains, a chart of the nuclides for elements 101 through 106, the heavy element region of the periodic table, and a specific activity monograph. 5 figures, 2 tables

  8. Technical specification optimization program - engineered safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, G.R.; Jansen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Westinghouse Technical Specification Program (TOP) was designed to evaluate on a quantitative basis revisions to Nuclear Power Plant Technical Specifications. The revisions are directed at simplifying plant operation, and reducing unnecessary transients, shutdowns, and manpower requirements. In conjunction with the Westinghouse Owners Group, Westinghouse initiated a program to develop a methodology to justify Technical Specification revisions; particularly revisions related to testing and maintenance requirements on plant operation for instrumentation systems. The methodology was originally developed and applied to the reactor trip features of the reactor protection system (RPS). The current study further refined the methodology and applied it to the engineered safety features of the RPS

  9. Mining software specifications methodologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lo, David

    2011-01-01

    An emerging topic in software engineering and data mining, specification mining tackles software maintenance and reliability issues that cost economies billions of dollars each year. The first unified reference on the subject, Mining Software Specifications: Methodologies and Applications describes recent approaches for mining specifications of software systems. Experts in the field illustrate how to apply state-of-the-art data mining and machine learning techniques to address software engineering concerns. In the first set of chapters, the book introduces a number of studies on mining finite

  10. Specific Developmental Disorders of Scholastic Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several factors contribute to scholastic backwardness in children. Causes include specific developmental disorders of scholastic skills, low intelligence, chronic illnesses, family dysfunction, social problems, attention deficits, and emotional disorders. Children with specific developmental disorders of scholastic skills experience significant impairment in the acquisition of reading, writing and mathematical skills. If not remedied at the earliest, these children are at risk of developing severe stress related disorders. There is high comorbidity of behaviour disorders and emotional disorders in these children. Hence early intensive remedial education is essential in the management of children with specific developmental disorders of scholastic skills.

  11. Specifications in early conceptual design work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2007-01-01

    In early conceptual design the design team is working in an uncertain situation, where the understanding of a need is limited and not much is known about the solution space. In this situation the design team has to both analyse need and explore solution space. Thus, the team has to formulate design...... the structure and content of design specifications during early ideation activities, where initial design specifications are formulated and a product idea is synthesised. We have analysed specification documents of 19 teams of novice designers. Our analysis indicates that a productive product design...

  12. PD-L1-specific T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Shamaila Munir; Borch, Troels Holz; Hansen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    -specific T cells that recognize both PD-L1-expressing immune cells and malignant cells. Thus, PD-L1-specific T cells have the ability to modulate adaptive immune reactions by reacting to regulatory cells. Thus, utilization of PD-L1-derived T cell epitopes may represent an attractive vaccination strategy...... for targeting the tumor microenvironment and for boosting the clinical effects of additional anticancer immunotherapy. This review summarizes present information about PD-L1 as a T cell antigen, depicts the initial findings about the function of PD-L1-specific T cells in the adjustment of immune responses...

  13. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report III, Volume 2. Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Report III, Volume 2 contains those specifications numbered K through Y, as follows: Specifications for Compressors (K); Specifications for Piping (L); Specifications for Structures (M); Specifications for Insulation (N); Specifications for Electrical (P); Specifications for Concrete (Q); Specifications for Civil (S); Specifications for Welding (W); Specifications for Painting (X); and Specifications for Special (Y). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available for the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors.

  14. Cancer Chemotherapy Specific to Acidic Nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2017-04-20

    The realization of cancer therapeutics specific to cancer cells with less of an effect on normal tissues is our goal. Many trials have been carried out for this purpose, but this goal is still far from being realized. It was found more than 80 years ago that solid cancer nests are acidified, but in vitro studies under acidic conditions have not been extensively studied. Recently, in vitro experiments under acidic conditions were started and anti-cancer drugs specific to acidic areas have been identified. Many genes have been reported to be expressed at a high level under acidic conditions, and such genes may be potent targets for anti-cancer drugs specific to acidic nests. In this review article, recent in vitro, in vivo, and clinical achievements in anti-cancer drugs with marked efficacy under acidic conditions are summarized, and the clinical use of anti-cancer drugs specific to acidic nests is discussed.

  15. Disease specific therapies in leukodystrophies and leukoencephalopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helman, Guy; van Haren, Keith; Bonkowsky, Joshua L.; Bernard, Genevieve; Pizzino, Amy; Braverman, Nancy; Suhr, Dean; Patterson, Marc C.; Ali Fatemi, S.; Leonard, Jeff; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Back, Stephen A.; Damiani, Stephen; Goldman, Steven A.; Takanohashi, Asako; Petryniak, Magdalena; Rowitch, David; Messing, Albee; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Schiffmann, Raphael; Eichler, Florian; Escolar, Maria L.; Vanderver, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    Leukodystrophies are a heterogeneous, often progressive group of disorders manifesting a wide range of symptoms and complications. Most of these disorders have historically had no etiologic or disease specific therapeutic approaches. Recently, a greater understanding of the pathologic mechanisms

  16. Thermodynamic stability contributes to immunoglobulin specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Jordan D; Kaveri, Srinivas V; Lacroix-Desmazes, Sébastien

    2014-05-01

    Antigen-binding specificity of immunoglobulins is important for their function in immune defense. However, immune repertoires contain a considerable fraction of immunoglobulins with promiscuous binding behavior, the physicochemical basis of which is not well understood. Evolution of immunoglobulin specificity occurs through iterative processes of mutation and selection, referred to as affinity maturation. Recent studies reveal that some somatic mutations could compromise the thermodynamic stability of the variable regions of immunoglobulins. By integrating this observation with the wealth of data on the evolution of novel enzyme activities, we propose that antibody specificity is linked to the thermodynamic stability of the antigen-binding regions, which provides a quantitative distinction between highly specific and promiscuous antibodies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. UPC Language Specifications V1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    UPC Consortium

    2005-05-31

    UPC is an explicitly parallel extension to the ISO C 99Standard. UPC follows the partitioned global address space programming model. This document is the formal specification for the UPC language syntax and semantics.

  18. Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... East and North Africa South and Central Asia Sub-Saharan Africa The Americas and the Caribbean Questions & Answers Resources Women's Health Research Overview Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women ...

  19. Development of industrial variant specification systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer

    acquisition and order fulfilment, i.e. the creation of drawings, bill-of-materials, routings, product descriptions, quote letters etc. The present thesis is rooted in the assumption that variant specification systems supporting the cross-functional processes of order acquisition and order fulfilment must...... be developed from a holistic and strategically anchored point of view. Another assumption is that this is a challenge for many industrial companies. Even though the literature presents many considerations on general issues covering new information technology, little work is found on the business perspectives...... to the four research tasks of the Ph.D. project: • Define and describe the variant specification system. • Create a procedure for the development of variant specification systems. • Create concepts, methods and tools to support the analysis and determination of the variant specification task. • Identify...

  20. Customized atomicity specification for transactional workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, W.L.A.; Dehnert, Juliane; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Jonker, Willem

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces a new approach for specifying transaction management requirements for workflow applications. We propose independent models for the specification of workflow and transaction properties. Although we distinguish multiple transaction properties in our approach, we focus on

  1. Customized Atomicity Specification for Transactional Workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, W.L.A.; Dehnert, Juliane; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Jonker, Willem

    This paper introduces a new approach for specifying transaction management requirements for workflow applications. We propose independent models for the specification of workflow and transaction properties. Although we distinguish multiple transaction properties in our approach, we focus on

  2. Analyzing Security-Enhanced Linux Policy Specifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archer, Myla

    2003-01-01

    NSA's Security-Enhanced (SE) Linux enhances Linux by providing a specification language for security policies and a Flask-like architecture with a security server for enforcing policies defined in the language...

  3. Specification Editing and Discovery Assistant Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project will prototype a specification editing and discovery tool (SPEEDY) for C/C++ that will assist software developers with modular formal verification tasks...

  4. Modal Specifications for Probabilistic Timed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Han

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modal automata are a classic formal model for component-based systems that comes equipped with a rich specification theory supporting abstraction, refinement and compositional reasoning. In recent years, quantitative variants of modal automata were introduced for specifying and reasoning about component-based designs for embedded and mobile systems. These respectively generalize modal specification theories for timed and probabilistic systems. In this paper, we define a modal specification language for combined probabilistic timed systems, called abstract probabilistic timed automata, which generalizes existing formalisms. We introduce appropriate syntactic and semantic refinement notions and discuss consistency of our specification language, also with respect to time-divergence. We identify a subclass of our models for which we define the fundamental operations for abstraction, conjunction and parallel composition, and show several compositionality results.

  5. Cdc42-mediated tubulogenesis controls cell specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesavan, Gokul; Sand, Fredrik Wolfhagen; Greiner, Thomas Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how cells polarize and coordinate tubulogenesis during organ formation is a central question in biology. Tubulogenesis often coincides with cell-lineage specification during organ development. Hence, an elementary question is whether these two processes are independently controlled......, or whether proper cell specification depends on formation of tubes. To address these fundamental questions, we have studied the functional role of Cdc42 in pancreatic tubulogenesis. We present evidence that Cdc42 is essential for tube formation, specifically for initiating microlumen formation and later...... for maintaining apical cell polarity. Finally, we show that Cdc42 controls cell specification non-cell-autonomously by providing the correct microenvironment for proper control of cell-fate choices of multipotent progenitors. For a video summary of this article, see the PaperFlick file with the Supplemental Data...

  6. Specification For ST-5 Li Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Karen D.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Specification defines the general requirements for rechargeable Space Flight batteries intended for use in the ST-5 program. The battery chemistry chosen for this mission is lithium ion (Li-Ion).

  7. Technical requirements specification for tank waste retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamberd, D.L.

    1996-09-26

    This document provides the technical requirements specification for the retrieval of waste from the underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. All activities covered by this scope are conducted in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission.

  8. Interior Design's Role in Educational Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Mary Ann

    1986-01-01

    An experienced interior designer, equipped with a well-written educational specification, will specify the best materials and coordinate colors, materials, and furnishings in line with the district's budget. (MLF)

  9. DRUG DELIVERY BY ORGAN-SPECIFIC IMMUNOLIPOSOMES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARUYAMA, K; MORI, A; KENNEL, SJ; WAALKES, MVB; SCHERPHOF, GL; HUANG, L

    1991-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies highly specific to the mouse pulmonary endothelial cells were conjugated to liposomes. The resulting immunoliposomes showed high levels of lung accumulation when injected intravenously into mice. Optimal target binding and retention were achieved if the lipid composition

  10. Cockpit management and Specific Behavioral Objectives (SBOs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    One of the primary tools used to accomplish the task of effective training is the specific behavioral objective (SBO). An SBO is simply a statement which specifically identifies a small segment of the final behavior sought, and a little more. The key word is specific. The company pinpoints exactly what it is it wants the pilot to do after completing training, and what it should evaluate from the point of view of both the program and the pilot. It tells the junior crewmember exactly, specifically, what he should monitor and support insofar as the management function is concerned. It gives greater meaning to the term second in command. And finally, it tells the supervisory pilot exactly what he should observe, evaluate, and instruct, insofar as the management function is concerned.

  11. Specific detection of proteins using Nanomechanical resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Wright, V.A.; Guthy, C.

    2008-01-01

    of probes onto their surfaces in order to enable the specificity of the detection. Such nanoresonator-based specific detection of proteins is here reported using streptavidin as target system, and immobilized biotin as probe. Nanomechanical resonators resistant to stiction were first realized from silicon...... carbonitride using a novel fabrication method. Vapor-phase deposition of mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane was performed, and an added mass of 2.22 +/- 0.07 fg/mu m(2) was measured. This linker molecule was used to attach biotin onto the devices, enabling the specific detection of streptavidin. A mass of 3.6 fg....../mu m(2) was attributed to the added streptavidin, corresponding to one molecule per 27 nm(2). The specificity of this recognition was confirmed by exposing the devices to a solution of streptavidin that was already saturated with biotin. An additional negative control was also performed by also...

  12. Chemical cleaning specification: few tube test model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, L.V.; Simpson, J.L.

    1979-09-01

    The specification is for the waterside chemical cleaning of the 2 1/4 Cr - 1 Mo steel steam generator tubes. It describes the reagents and conditions for post-chemical cleaning passivation of the evaporator tubes

  13. Standard specification for silvered flat glass mirror

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the requirements for silvered flat glass mirrors of rectangular shape supplied as cut sizes, stock sheets or as lehr ends and to which no further processing (such as edgework or other fabrication) has been done. 1.2 This specification covers the quality requirements of silvered annealed monolithic clear and tinted flat glass mirrors up to 6 mm (¼ in.) thick. The mirrors are intended to be used indoors for mirror glazing, for components of decorative accessories or for similar uses. 1.3 This specification does not address safety glazing materials nor requirements for mirror applications. Consult model building codes and other applicable standards for safety glazing applications. 1.4 Mirrors covered in this specification are not intended for use in environments where high humidity or airborne corrosion promoters, or both, are consistently present (such as swimming pool areas, ocean-going vessels, chemical laboratories and other corrosive environments). 1.5 The dimensional val...

  14. Standard Technical Specifications, Babcock and Wilcox Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This NUREG contains improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand W) plants and documents the positions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) based on the B ampersand W Owners Group's proposed STS. This document is the result of extensive technical meetings and discussions among the NRC staff, the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, the NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Management and Resources Council. The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the interim Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specification Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated February 6, 1987. The improved STS will be used as the basis for developing improved plant-specific technical specifications by individual nuclear power plant licensees. This volume contains sections 3.4--3.9 which cover: Reactor coolant systems, emergency core cooling systems, containment systems, plant systems, electrical power systems, refueling operations

  15. Technical specifications: Health Physics Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    These technical specifications define the key limitations that must be observed for safe operation of the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) and an envelope of operation within which there is assurance that these limits will not be exceeded

  16. Generic performance specification for printed boards

    CERN Document Server

    IPC - Association Connecting Electronics Industries. Northbrook, IL

    1996-01-01

    This specification establishes the general requirements and responsibilities for suppliers and users of printed boards. Describes quality and reliability assurance requirements that must be met. For use with IPC-6012 through IPC-6018.

  17. Specification for symbol for ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This Malaysia Standard specification specifies a symbol recommended for use only to signify the actual or potential presence of ionizing radiation (#betta#, α, #betta# only) and to identify objects, devices, materials or combinations of materials which emit such radiation. (author)

  18. Technical specifications for the bulk shielding reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    This report provides information concerning the technical specifications for the Bulk Shielding Reactor. Areas covered include: safety limits and limiting safety settings; limiting conditions for operation; surveillance requirements; design features; administrative controls; and monitoring of airborne effluents. 10 refs

  19. NORMAL LOAD BEARING BY SITE SPECIFIC CANISTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2005-03-23

    The overall purpose of this calculation is to perform a preliminary analysis of the Site Specific Canister/Basket, subject to static gravity loads that include the self weight of the Canister Shell, the Basket, the Spent Nuclear Fuel, the Shield Plug and the related hardware, so that the loads are approximately known for sizing purposes. Based on these loads the stress levels in various components of the Site Specific Canister/Basket are evaluated.

  20. Task-Specific Training and Job Design

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Balmaceda

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a simple theoretical framework based on a new type of human capital introduced by Gibbons and Waldman (2004), called task-specific training, to understand job design. Mainly, in the presence of task-specific training, promotions might result ex-post in the underutilization of human capital and thus firms at the time of designing jobs should attempt to diversify this risk.

  1. Germ cell specification and regeneration in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, P A; Wang, Y; Chong, T

    2008-01-01

    In metazoans, two apparently distinct mechanisms specify germ cell fate: Determinate specification (observed in animals including Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans, zebra fish, and Xenopus) uses cytoplasmic factors localized to specific regions of the egg, whereas epigenetic specification (observed in many basal metazoans, urodeles, and mammals) involves inductive interactions between cells. Much of our understanding of germ cell specification has emerged from studies of model organisms displaying determinate specification. In contrast, our understanding of epigenetic/inductive specification is less advanced and would benefit from studies of additional organisms. Freshwater planarians--widely known for their remarkable powers of regeneration--are well suited for studying the mechanisms by which germ cells can be induced. Classic experiments showed that planarians can regenerate germ cells from body fragments entirely lacking reproductive structures, suggesting that planarian germ cells could be specified by inductive signals. Furthermore, the availability of the genome sequence of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, coupled with the animal's susceptibility to systemic RNA interference (RNAi), facilitates functional genomic analyses of germ cell development and regeneration. Here, we describe recent progress in studies of planarian germ cells and frame some of the critical unresolved questions for future work.

  2. Autobiographical memory specificity in dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Wessel, Ineke; Hermans, Dirk; van Minnen, Agnes

    2014-05-01

    A lack of adequate access to autobiographical knowledge has been related to psychopathology. More specifically, patients suffering from depression or a history of trauma have been found to be characterized by overgeneral memory, in other words, they show a relative difficulty in retrieving a specific event from memory located in time and place. Previous studies of overgeneral memory have not included patients with dissociative disorders. These patients are interesting to consider, as they are hypothesized to have the ability to selectively compartmentalize information linked to negative emotions. This study examined avoidance and overgeneral memory in patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID; n = 12). The patients completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT). Their performance was compared with control groups of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients (n = 26), healthy controls (n = 29), and DID simulators (n = 26). Specifically, we compared the performance of separate identity states in DID hypothesized to diverge in the use of avoidance as a coping strategy to deal with negative affect. No significant differences in memory specificity were found between the separate identities in DID. Irrespective of identity state, DID patients were characterized by a lack of memory specificity, which was similar to the lack of memory specificity found in PTSD patients. The converging results for DID and PTSD patients add empirical evidence for the role of overgeneral memory involved in the maintenance of posttraumatic psychopathology.

  3. New High Affinity Monoclonal Antibodies Recognize Non-Overlapping Epitopes On Mesothelin For Monitoring And Treating Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Fan; Phung, Yen; Gao, Wei; Kawa, Seiji; Hassan, Raffit; Pastan, Ira; Ho, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    Mesothelin is an emerging cell surface target in mesothelioma and other solid tumors. Most antibody drug candidates recognize highly immunogenic Region I (296–390) on mesothelin. Here, we report a group of high-affinity non-Region I rabbit monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies do not compete for mesothelin binding with the immunotoxin SS1P that binds Region I of mesothelin. One pair of antibodies (YP218 and YP223) is suitable to detect soluble mesothelin in a sandwich ELISA with high sensitivity. The new assay can also be used to measure serum mesothelin concentration in mesothelioma patients, indicating its potential use for monitoring patients treated with current antibody therapies targeting Region I. The antibodies are highly specific and sensitive in immunostaining of mesothelioma. To explore their use in tumor therapy, we have generated the immunotoxins based on the Fv of these antibodies. One immunotoxin (YP218 Fv-PE38) exhibits potent anti-tumor cytotoxicity towards primary mesothelioma cell lines in vitro and an NCI-H226 xenograft tumor in mice. Furthermore, we have engineered a humanized YP218 Fv that retains full binding affinity for mesothelin-expressing cancer cells. In conclusion, with their unique binding properties, these antibodies may be promising candidates for monitoring and treating mesothelioma and other mesothelin-expressing cancers. PMID:25996440

  4. Specific discharge variability in a boreal landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Steve W.; Nathanson, Marcus; Spans, André; Grabs, Thomas; Laudon, Hjalmar; Temnerud, Johan; Bishop, Kevin H.; Seibert, Jan

    2012-08-01

    Specific discharge variations within a mesoscale catchment were studied on the basis of three synoptic sampling campaigns. These were conducted during stable flow conditions within the Krycklan catchment study area in northern Sweden. During each campaign, about 80 individual locations were measured for discharge draining from catchment areas ranging between 0.12 and 67 km2. These discharge samplings allowed for the comparison between years within a given season (September 2005 versus September 2008) and between seasons within a given year (May 2008 versus September 2008) of specific discharge across this boreal landscape. There was considerable variability in specific discharge across this landscape. The ratio of the interquartile range (IQR) defined as the difference between the 75th and 25th percentiles of the specific discharges to the median of the specific discharges ranged from 37% to 43%. Factor analysis was used to explore potential relations between landscape characteristics and the specific discharge observed for 55 of the individual locations that were measured in all three synoptic sampling campaigns. Percentage wet area (i.e., wetlands, mires, and lakes) and elevation were found to be directly related to the specific discharge during the drier September 2008 sampling while potential annual evaporation was found to be inversely related. There was less of a relationship determined during the wetter post spring flood May 2008 sampling and the late summer rewetted September 2005 sampling. These results indicate the ability of forests to "dry out" parts of the catchment over the summer months while wetlands "keep wet" other parts. To demonstrate the biogeochemical implications of such spatiotemporal variations in specific discharge, we estimate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exports with available data for the May 2008 and September 2008 samplings using both the spatially variable observed specific discharges and the spatially constant catchment average

  5. New primers for methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction enhance specificity of detecting STAT1 methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Cheng Chang

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Specific primers for methylation-specific PCR are mandatory for the accurate detection of STAT1 gene methylation. Besides, specific primers can generate correct interpretation of STAT1 gene methylation, and its correlation with the clinicopathological characteristics and outcome of cancer patients.

  6. Producing specific milks for speciality cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, G; Calamari, L; Maianti, M G

    2001-05-01

    Protected denomination of origin (PDO) cheeses have distinctive sensorial characteristics. They can be made only from raw milk possessing specific features, which is processed through the 'art' of the cheesemaker. In general, the distinctive sensorial traits of PDO cheese cannot be achieved under different environmental-production conditions for two main reasons: (1) some milk features are linked to specific animal production systems; (2) cheese ripening is affected by the interaction between milk (specific) and the traditional technology applied to the transformation process (non-specific). Also, the environment for a good ripening stage can be quite specific and not reproducible. With reference to milk, factors of typicality are species and/or breed, pedoclimatic conditions, animal management system and feeding. Other factors that influence cheese quality are milk treatments, milk processing and the ripening procedures. The technology applied to most cheeses currently known as PDO utilizes only raw milk, rennet and natural lactic acid bacteria, so that milk must be, at its origin, suitable for processing. The specific milk characteristics that ensure a high success rate for PDO cheeses are high protein content and good renneting properties, appropriate fat content with appropriate fatty acid composition and the presence of chemical flavours originating from local feeds. Moreover, an appropriate microflora is also of major importance. The factors that contribute to achieving milk suitable for transformation into PDO cheese are genetics, age, lactation stage, season and climate, general management and health conditions, milking and particularly feeding, which affect nutrient availability, endocrine response and health status, and also the presence of microbes and chemical substances which enrich or reduce the milk-cheese quality. Many of these factors are regulated by the Producer Associations. However, the secret of the success of PDO cheeses is the combination of

  7. Eliminating Direction Specificity in Visuomotor Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Cong; Bi, Yuqing; Yu, Cong; Wei, Kunlin

    2016-03-30

    The generalization of learning offers a unique window for investigating the nature of motor learning. Error-based motor learning reportedly cannot generalize to distant directions because the aftereffects are direction specific. This direction specificity is often regarded as evidence that motor adaptation is model-based learning, and is constrained by neuronal tuning characteristics in the primary motor cortices and the cerebellum. However, recent evidence indicates that motor adaptation also involves model-free learning and explicit strategy learning. Using rotation paradigms, here we demonstrate that savings (faster relearning), which is closely related to model-free learning and explicit strategy learning, is also direction specific. However, this new direction specificity can be abolished when the participants receive exposure to the generalization directions via an irrelevant visuomotor gain-learning task. Control evidence indicates that this exposure effect is weakened when direction error signals are absent during gain learning. Therefore, the direction specificity in visuomotor learning is not solely related to model-based learning; it may also result from the impeded expression of model-free learning and explicit strategy learning with untrained directions. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying motor learning, and may have important implications for practical applications such as motor rehabilitation. Motor learning is more useful if it generalizes to untrained scenarios when needed, especially for sports training and motor rehabilitation. However, as a form of motor learning, motor adaptation is typically direction specific. Here we first show that savings with motor adaptation, an index for model-free learning and explicit strategy learning in motor learning, is also direction specific. However, the participants' additional exposure to untrained directions via an irrelevant gain-learning task can enable the complete

  8. Domain Specific Language Support for Exascale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor-Crummey, John [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-10-20

    A multi-institutional project known as D-TEC (short for “Domain- specific Technology for Exascale Computing”) set out to explore technologies to support the construction of Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) to map application programs to exascale architectures. DSLs employ automated code transformation to shift the burden of delivering portable performance from application programmers to compilers. Two chief properties contribute: DSLs permit expression at a high level of abstraction so that a programmer’s intent is clear to a compiler and DSL implementations encapsulate human domain-specific optimization knowledge so that a compiler can be smart enough to achieve good results on specific hardware. Domain specificity is what makes these properties possible in a programming language. If leveraging domain specificity is the key to keep exascale software tractable, a corollary is that many different DSLs will be needed to encompass the full range of exascale computing applications; moreover, a single application may well need to use several different DSLs in conjunction. As a result, developing a general toolkit for building domain-specific languages was a key goal for the D-TEC project. Different aspects of the D-TEC research portfolio were the focus of work at each of the partner institutions in the multi-institutional project. D-TEC research and development work at Rice University focused on on three principal topics: understanding how to automate the tuning of code for complex architectures, research and development of the Rosebud DSL engine, and compiler technology to support complex execution platforms. This report provides a summary of the research and development work on the D-TEC project at Rice University.

  9. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  10. Face recognition: a model specific ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy B Wilmer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities, often labeled g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition’s variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds.

  11. Face recognition: a model specific ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura T; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition's variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds.

  12. Formal specification level concepts, methods, and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Soeken, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces a new level of abstraction that closes the gap between the textual specification of embedded systems and the executable model at the Electronic System Level (ESL). Readers will be enabled to operate at this new, Formal Specification Level (FSL), using models which not only allow significant verification tasks in this early stage of the design flow, but also can be extracted semi-automatically from the textual specification in an interactive manner.  The authors explain how to use these verification tasks to check conceptual properties, e.g. whether requirements are in conflict, as well as dynamic behavior, in terms of execution traces. • Serves as a single-source reference to a new level of abstraction for embedded systems, known as the Formal Specification Level (FSL); • Provides a variety of use cases which can be adapted to readers’ specific design flows; • Includes a comprehensive illustration of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, along with examples of how to i...

  13. Human ovarian carcinomas detected by specific odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, György; Järverud, Gunvor Af Klinteberg; Järverud, Sven; Horváth, István

    2008-06-01

    The high mortality rate associated with ovarian carcinoma is mainly owing to late diagnosis. It is thus essential to develop inexpensive and simple methods for early diagnosis. Papers on canine scent detection of malignancies such as melanoma and bladder, lung, and breast cancer have recently been published in peer-reviewed journals, indicating a new diagnostic tool for malignancies. However, in these studies the dogs may have responded to odors associated with cancer, such as inflammation or metabolic products, rather than specifically to cancer itself. Therefore, it is important to ascertain whether or not human cancers are characterized by specific odors. We hypothesized that if ovarian carcinoma emits a specific odor, dogs may be trained to detect it. Using our training method, we taught a dog to distinguish different histopathological types and grades of ovarian carcinomas, including borderline tumors, from healthy control samples. Double-blind tests showed 100% sensitivity and 97.5% specificity. Moreover, the odor of ovarian carcinomas seems to differ from those of other gynecological malignances such cervical, endometrial, and vulvar carcinomas. Our study strongly suggests that the most common ovarian carcinomas are characterized by a single specific odor.

  14. The Role of Non-specific and Specific Immune Systems in Poultry against Newcastle Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is caused by avian paramyxovirus-1 which belong to Avulavirus genus and Paramyxoviridae family. The birds have abnormalities in humoral (bursa fabricius and cellular (thymus and spleen lymphoid organs. Lesions decrease the immune system. Immune system consists of non-specific and specific immune systems. The main components of non-specific immunity are physical and chemical barrier (feather and skin or mucosa, phagocytic cells (macrophages and natural killer, protein complement and the mediator of inflammation and cytokines. Interferons (IFNs belong to a group of cytokines that play a major role in the nonspecific or innate (natural immunity. The virulent ND virus encodes protein of V gene can be suppressed IFN type I. This leads to non-specific immune system fail to respond to the virulent strains resulting in severe pathogenicity. The defense mechanism of the host is replaced by specific immunity (adaptive immunity when natural immunity fails to overcome the infection. The specific immune system consists of humoral mediated immunity (HMI and cell-mediated immunity (CMI. The cells of immune system that react specifically with the antigen are B lymphocytes producing the antibodies, T lymphocytes that regulate the synthesis of antibodies and T cells as effector or the direct cytotoxic cells. Both non-specific and specific immunities are complementary against the invasion of ND virus in the birds. The objective of this article is to discuss the role of non specific and specific immune system in ND.

  15. Emergency Medicine Gender-specific Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashurst, John V; McGregor, Alyson J; Safdar, Basmah; Weaver, Kevin R; Quinn, Shawn M; Rosenau, Alex M; Goyke, Terrence E; Roth, Kevin R; Greenberg, Marna R

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference has taken the first step in identifying gender-specific care as an area of importance to both emergency medicine (EM) and research. To improve patient care, we need to address educational gaps in this area concurrent with research gaps. In this article, the authors highlight the need for sex- and gender-specific education in EM and propose guidelines for medical student, resident, and faculty education. Specific examples of incorporating this content into grand rounds, simulation, bedside teaching, and journal club sessions are reviewed. Future challenges and strategies to fill the gaps in the current education model are also described. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  16. Specifications for human factors guiding documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, W.; Szlapetis, I.; MacGregor, C.

    1995-04-01

    This report specifies the content, function and appearance of three proposed human factors guiding documents to be used by the Atomic Energy Control board and its licensees. These three guiding documents, to be developed at a later date, are: (a) Human Factors Process Guide; (b) Human Factors Activities Guide; and (c) Human Factors Design Integration Guide. The specifications were developed by examining the best documents as identified in a previous contract with the AECB (Review of Human Factors Guidelines and Methods by W. Rhodes, I. Szlapetis et al. 1992), and a brief literature review. The best features and content were selected from existing documents and used to develop specifications for the guiding documents. The developer of the actual guides would use these specifications to produce comprehensive and consolidated documents at a later date. (author). 128 ref., 7 figs

  17. Procedures for evaluating technical specifications (PETS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Boccio, J.L.; Vesely, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, aspects of technical specifications relating to Generic Issues B-56 and B-61 are discussed from a risk-standpoint. These primarily deal with the risk issues associated with (1) adaptive diesel test requirements/surveillance test intervals, and (2) the effectiveness of cumulative outage time requirements for controlling downtime risk. Risk and reliability approaches are presented which (1) allow risk-acceptable test intervals to be determined for any diesel and (2) show the potential risk-control capability of prescribed allowed cumulative outage times. This work was conducted through NRC's Procedures for Evaluating Technical Specifications (PETS) Program. The overall objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate methodologies that utilize risk insights and reliability techniques for evaluating the scope, detailed requirements, and safety impact of plant technical specifications

  18. Testing Library Specifications by Verifying Conformance Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiniry, Joseph Roland; Zimmerman, Daniel; Hyland, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Formal specifications of standard libraries are necessary when statically verifying software that uses those libraries. Library specifications must be both correct, accurately reflecting library behavior, and useful, describing library behavior in sufficient detail to allow static verification...... of client programs. Specication and verification researchers regularly face the question of whether the library specications we use are correct and useful, and we have collectively provided no good answers. Over the past few years we have created and refined a software engineering process, which we call...... the Formal CTD Process (FCTD), to address this problem. Although FCTD is primarily targeted toward those who write Java libraries (or specifications for existing Java libraries) using the Java Modeling Language (JML), its techniques are broadly applicable. The key to FCTD is its novel usage of library...

  19. Mode specificity in unimolecular reaction dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, B.A.

    1982-07-01

    Theoretical studies on mode specificity in unimolecular reaction dynamics are presented, based on essentially exact quantum mechanical methods, a semi-classical multichannel branching model, and classical trajectory methods. The principal aim is to discover the relevant factors governing whether a unimolecular system exhibits mode specificity in its individual state rate constants, i.e., whether quasi-degenerate metastable states decay with significantly different rates. Model studies of two nonlinearly coupled oscillators (one of which can dissociate) demonstrate the effects of various features of potential energy surfaces on the character of the rates (e.g., degeneracy of modes, reaction path curvature, frequency modulation, etc.). These results and those obtained for the Henon-Heiles potential energy surface indicate and apparent absence of correlation between the quasi-periodic/ergodic motion of classical mechanics and the mode specific/statistical behavior of the unimolecular rate constants

  20. Computational network design from functional specifications

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi Han

    2016-07-11

    Connectivity and layout of underlying networks largely determine agent behavior and usage in many environments. For example, transportation networks determine the flow of traffic in a neighborhood, whereas building floorplans determine the flow of people in a workspace. Designing such networks from scratch is challenging as even local network changes can have large global effects. We investigate how to computationally create networks starting from only high-level functional specifications. Such specifications can be in the form of network density, travel time versus network length, traffic type, destination location, etc. We propose an integer programming-based approach that guarantees that the resultant networks are valid by fulfilling all the specified hard constraints and that they score favorably in terms of the objective function. We evaluate our algorithm in two different design settings, street layout and floorplans to demonstrate that diverse networks can emerge purely from high-level functional specifications.

  1. Transactions in domain-specific information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacek, Jaroslav

    2017-07-01

    Substantial number of the current information system (IS) implementations is based on transaction approach. In addition, most of the implementations are domain-specific (e.g. accounting IS, resource planning IS). Therefore, we have to have a generic transaction model to build and verify domain-specific IS. The paper proposes a new transaction model for domain-specific ontologies. This model is based on value oriented business process modelling technique. The transaction model is formalized by the Petri Net theory. First part of the paper presents common business processes and analyses related to business process modeling. Second part defines the transactional model delimited by REA enterprise ontology paradigm and introduces states of the generic transaction model. The generic model proposal is defined and visualized by the Petri Net modelling tool. Third part shows application of the generic transaction model. Last part of the paper concludes results and discusses a practical usability of the generic transaction model.

  2. Action-specific disruption of perceptual confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Stephen M; Maniscalco, Brian; Ko, Yoshiaki; Amendi, Namema; Ro, Tony; Lau, Hakwan

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical models of perception assume that confidence is related to the quality or strength of sensory processing. Counter to this intuitive view, we showed in the present research that the motor system also contributes to judgments of perceptual confidence. In two experiments, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to manipulate response-specific representations in the premotor cortex, selectively disrupting postresponse confidence in visual discrimination judgments. Specifically, stimulation of the motor representation associated with the unchosen response reduced confidence in correct responses, thereby reducing metacognitive capacity without changing visual discrimination performance. Effects of TMS on confidence were observed when stimulation was applied both before and after the response occurred, which suggests that confidence depends on late-stage metacognitive processes. These results place constraints on models of perceptual confidence and metacognition by revealing that action-specific information in the premotor cortex contributes to perceptual confidence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Forum on specification and Design Languages

    CERN Document Server

    Maehne, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    This book brings together a selection of the best papers from the sixteenth edition of the Forum on specification and Design Languages Conference (FDL), which was held in September 2013 in Paris, France. FDL is a well-established international forum devoted to dissemination of research results, practical experiences and new ideas in the application of specification, design and verification languages to the design, modeling and verification of integrated circuits, complex hardware/software embedded systems, and mixed-technology systems. • Covers applications of formal methods for specification, verification and debug; • Includes embedded analog and mixed-signal system design; • Enables model-driven engineering for embedded systems design and development.

  4. Analysis on judo specific and unspecific test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Santos Rodríguez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In specialized literature it is not easy to find test which give us information about judokas developing their specific kinetic habits. Although judo is included in sociomotor sports (Parlebas, 2001, judokas physical fitness is normally evaluated through test which come from other type of sports, mainly from phychomotor sports. At the same time, batteries as the battery Eurofit (Conseil de L´Europe, 1989, are use to evaluate perceptive-motors aspects. In this article, we describe some of the tests found in specific western bibliography. Once finished this analysis, we mention the need of creating test which value the reality of competition confrontation more specifically, and which can be reliable, objective and reproductive (López and cols. 2004 being easy and useful to the trainer as well.

  5. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajunen, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Product specifications are limits and controls established for each significant parameter that potentially affects safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for transport to dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the spent fuel packaged in MultiCanister Overpacks (MCOs) to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The SNF includes N Reactor fuel and single-pass reactor fuel. The FRS removes the SNF from the storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The MCO loading system places the baskets into MCO/Cask assembly packages. These packages are then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the MCO cask packages are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCOs are removed from the casks, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The key criteria necessary to achieve these goals are documented in this specification

  6. Property Specification Patterns for intelligence building software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Seungsu

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, through the property specification pattern research for Modal MU(μ) logical aspects present a single framework based on the pattern of intelligence building software. In this study, broken down by state property specification pattern classification of Dwyer (S) and action (A) and was subdivided into it again strong (A) and weaknesses (E). Through these means based on a hierarchical pattern classification of the property specification pattern analysis of logical aspects Mu(μ) was applied to the pattern classification of the examples used in the actual model checker. As a result, not only can a more accurate classification than the existing classification systems were easy to create and understand the attributes specified.

  7. Specific and non-specific immunity of piglets from sows fed diets containing specific fatty acids in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzoni, G; Foresti, F; Archetti, I L; Coceva, G; Guyonvarch, A; Alborali, L

    2013-10-01

    The transfer of passive immunity from sows to piglets is important and it is the first immune protection of the new born piglet. Improving sows immunity by adding immuno-stimulating product in sows diet can positively affect colostrum composition and transfer of immune molecules to piglets. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the benefit of a different solution, made of specific fatty acids from marine origin that have been used in human medicine for decades, for sows and piglets. Two trials were conducted in commercial farm, involving 240 sows at different periods of the year. Sows were divided in a control group, without supplementation, and a test group, supplemented with the feed additive from the 90th day of gestation to weaning. Sows body condition, piglets viability and growth were recorded. Milk immunoglobulin content was measured, as well as Aujeszky antibodies in sows and piglets blood as marker of specific immunity, and blood bactericidal activity, complement activity and lysozyme as markers of non specific immunity. No effect of the product was observed on piglets zootechnical criteria and specific immunity parameters but significant improvement of piglet non specific immunity, was observed. No difference was observed neither in the piglets blood PRRSV and PCV2 antibodies and viruses nor in Aujeszky antibodies. Blood complement activity seems to be an accurate indicator of immuno-stimulating additive efficiency. Giving alkyl-glycerol fatty acids to sows in late gestation and lactation can improve the passive immunity transfer to piglets. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. An Approach to Greater Specificity for Glucocorticoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carson C. Chow

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid steroids are among the most prescribed drugs each year. Nonetheless, the many undesirable side effects, and lack of selectivity, restrict their greater usage. Research to increase glucocorticoid specificity has spanned many years. These efforts have been hampered by the ability of glucocorticoids to both induce and repress gene transcription and also by the lack of success in defining any predictable properties that control glucocorticoid specificity. Correlations of transcriptional specificity have been observed with changes in steroid structure, receptor and chromatin conformation, DNA sequence for receptor binding, and associated cofactors. However, none of these studies have progressed to the point of being able to offer guidance for increased specificity. We summarize here a mathematical theory that allows a novel and quantifiable approach to increase selectivity. The theory applies to all three major actions of glucocorticoid receptors: induction by agonists, induction by antagonists, and repression by agonists. Simple graphical analysis of competition assays involving any two factors (steroid, chemical, peptide, protein, DNA, etc. yields information (1 about the kinetically described mechanism of action for each factor at that step where the factor acts in the overall reaction sequence and (2 about the relative position of that step where each factor acts. These two pieces of information uniquely provide direction for increasing the specificity of glucocorticoid action. Consideration of all three modes of action indicate that the most promising approach for increased specificity is to vary the concentrations of those cofactors/pharmaceuticals that act closest to the observed end point. The potential for selectivity is even greater when varying cofactors/pharmaceuticals in conjunction with a select class of antagonists.

  9. From UML Specification into FPGA Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bazydlo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a method of using the Unified Modeling Language for specification of digital systems, especially logic controllers, is presented. The proposed method is based mainly on the UML state machine diagrams and uses Hierarchical Concurrent Finite State Machines (HCFSMs as a temporary model. The paper shows a way to transform the UML diagrams, expressed in XML language, to the form that is acceptable by reconfigurable FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays. The UML specification is used to generate an effective program in Hardware Description Languages (HDLs, especially Verilog.

  10. Automated effect-specific mammographic pattern measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundahl, Jakob; Loog, Marco; Pettersen, Paola

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the possibility to develop methodologies for assessing effect specific structural changes of the breast tissue using a general statistical machine learning framework. We present an approach of obtaining objective mammographic pattern measures quantifying a specific biological effect......, such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We compare results using this approach to using standard density measures. We show that the proposed method can quantify both age related effects and effects caused by HRT. Age effects are significantly detected by our method where standard methodologies fail...

  11. DOE site-specific threat assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, D.J.; Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    A facility manager faced with the challenges of protecting a nuclear facility against potential threats must consider the likelihood and consequences of such threats, know the capabilities of the facility safeguards and security systems, and make informed decisions about the cost-effectivness of safeguards and security upgrades. To help meet these challenges, the San Francisco Operations Office of the Department of Energy, in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, has developed a site-specific threat assessment approach and a quantitative model to improve the quality and consistency of site-specific threat assessment and resultant security upgrade decisions at sensitive Department of Energy facilities. 5 figs

  12. A Class-Specific Optimizing Compiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Sharp

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Class-specific optimizations are compiler optimizations specified by the class implementor to the compiler. They allow the compiler to take advantage of the semantics of the particular class so as to produce better code. Optimizations of interest include the strength reduction of class:: array address calculations, elimination of large temporaries, and the placement of asynchronous send/recv calls so as to achieve computation/communication overlap. We will outline our progress towards the implementation of a C++ compiler capable of incorporating class-specific optimizations.

  13. Engineered waste-package-system design specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity.

  14. Technical specifications for PWR secondary water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, J.R.; van Rooyen, D.

    1977-08-01

    The bases for establishing Technical Specifications for PWR secondary water chemistry are reviewed. Whereas extremely stringent control of secondary water needs to be maintained to prevent denting in some units, sound bases for establishing limits that will prevent stress corrosion, wastage, and denting do not exist at the present time. This area is being examined very thoroughly by industry-sponsored research programs. Based on the evidence available to date, short term control limits are suggested; establishment of these or other limits as Technical Specifications is not recommended until the results of the research programs have been obtained and evaluated

  15. Engineered waste-package-system design specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity

  16. Domain Specific Language Support for Exascale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-02-24

    Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) offer an attractive path to Exascale software since they provide expressive power through appropriate abstractions and enable domain-specific optimizations. But the advantages of a DSL compete with the difficulties of implementing a DSL, even for a narrowly defined domain. The DTEC project addresses how a variety of DSLs can be easily implemented to leverage existing compiler analysis and transformation capabilities within the ROSE open source compiler as part of a research program focusing on Exascale challenges. The OSU contributions to the DTEC project are in the area of code generation from high-level DSL descriptions, as well as verification of the automatically-generated code.

  17. System specifications for the NDS Dictionary System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attree, P.M.; Smith, P.M.

    1979-09-01

    The NDS Dictionary System is a computerized system for maintaining and distributing the EXFOR dictionaries and for preparing internal versions of these dictionaries for use in the NDS EXFOR System and other NDS systems. This document is an internal manual for the system specifications of the NDS Dictionary System. It includes flow charts, system and program summaries, input and output specifications and file and record descriptions. This manual is updated from time to time when system modifications are made; this is the version of January 1979

  18. Site-Specific Infrared Probes of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianqiang; Pazos, Ileana M.; Zhang, Wenkai; Culik, Robert M.; Gai, Feng

    2015-04-01

    Infrared spectroscopy has played an instrumental role in the study of a wide variety of biological questions. However, in many cases, it is impossible or difficult to rely on the intrinsic vibrational modes of biological molecules of interest, such as proteins, to reveal structural and environmental information in a site-specific manner. To overcome this limitation, investigators have dedicated many recent efforts to the development and application of various extrinsic vibrational probes that can be incorporated into biological molecules and used to site-specifically interrogate their structural or environmental properties. In this review, we highlight recent advancements in this rapidly growing research area.

  19. Site-Specific Infrared Probes of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianqiang; Pazos, Ileana M.; Zhang, Wenkai; Culik, Robert M.; Gai, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy has played an instrumental role in studying a wide variety of biological questions. However, in many cases it is impossible or difficult to rely on the intrinsic vibrational modes of biological molecules of interest, such as proteins, to reveal structural and/or environmental information in a site-specific manner. To overcome this limitation, many recent efforts have been dedicated to the development and application of various extrinsic vibrational probes that can be incorporated into biological molecules and used to site-specifically interrogate their structural and/or environmental properties. In this Review, we highlight some recent advancements of this rapidly growing research area. PMID:25580624

  20. Immunotherapy with GD2 specific monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, N.K.V.; Medof, E.M.; Munn, D.

    1988-01-01

    Targeted immunotherapy focuses anti-tumor activity of antibodies and effector cells, which are actively developed by the host or adoptively transferred, onto tumor cells and into tumor sites. Such tumor selective therapy can be more specific and efficient. The value of such an approach is evident in the classical interaction of antibodies. This paper reports that the ganglioside G D2 is an ideal antigen for specific tumor targeting because of its relative lack of heterogeneity among human neuroblastoma, its high density on tumor cells, its lack of antigen modulation upon binding to antibody, and its restricted distribution in normal tissues

  1. Clojure for domain-specific languages

    CERN Document Server

    Kelker, Ryan D

    2013-01-01

    An example-oriented approach to develop custom domain-specific languages.If you've already developed a few Clojure applications and wish to expand your knowledge on Clojure or domain-specific languages in general, then this book is for you. If you're an absolute Clojure beginner, then you may only find the detailed examples of the core Clojure components of value. If you've developed DSLs in other languages, this Lisp and Java-based book might surprise you with the power of Clojure.

  2. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The process for removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the K Basins has been divided into major sub-systems. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) removes fuel from the existing storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading system places the baskets into an MCO that has been pre-loaded in a cask. The cask, containing a loaded MCO, is then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the cask, and MCO, are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCO is removed from the cask, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the process related characteristics of an MCO at the interface between major process systems. The characteristics are derived from the primary technical documents that form the basis for safety analysis and design calculations. This document translates the calculation assumptions into implementation requirements and describes the method of verifying that the requirement is achieved. These requirements are used to define validation test requirements and describe requirements that influence multiple sub-project safety analysis reports. This product specification establishes limits and controls for each significant process parameter at interfaces between major sub-systems that potentially affect the overall safety and/or quality of the SNF packaged for processing, transport, and interim dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in MCOs to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The description of the product specifications are organized in the document as follows: Section 2.0--Summary listing of product specifications at each major sub-system interface. Section 3.0--Summary description providing guidance as to how specifications are complied with by equipment design or processing within a major

  3. Specifications in early conceptual design work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2007-01-01

    In early conceptual design the design team is working in an uncertain situation, where the understanding of a need is limited and not much is known about the solution space. In this situation the design team has to both analyse need and explore solution space. Thus, the team has to formulate design...... specifications, which express attractive product goals, and has to synthesise the product idea. The authors of this paper see a challenge to enhance and improve our understanding of the nature of design specifications as a means to support the synthesis of a product idea. In this empirical study we analyse...

  4. Formal Specification of Real-Time Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groven, Arne-Kristian

    1996-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study on formal specification of real-time distributed control systems. Emphasis has been but on the ability to describe both system architecture, system functionality and timed system behaviour inside the same formal framework. A timed extension of the ISO standardized formal description language LOTOS (ISO 8807), called TE-LOTOS, has been used for describing the timed behaviour. The functionality can be described in LOTOS, which is a subset of the timed extension. A graphical notation has been used for describing system architecture, transformable to a subset of LOTOS. This methodology has been used to specify a test example, a steam-boiler control system. Modularization of the specification is an important issue. This is achieved by isolating the time-dependent aspect in one part of the specification, and the system functionality in another. This modularization facilitates the separation of general aspect from the more specific aspects. This is demonstrated by comparison with another type of control systems, the APRM system (HWR-397). (author)

  5. Canine specific ELISA for coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tom; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Tranholm, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    available to date. In this study, a canine specific ELISA for measurement of FVII:Ag in plasma was developed and validated. The FVII:Ag ELISA correctly diagnosed homozygous and heterozygous hereditary FVII deficiency. Together with activity based assays, such as FVII:C, the FVII:Ag ELISA should be valuable...

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SPECIFIC AND EARLY DETECTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of smear and culture methods with rapid serological EIA myco kits manufactured by Omega diagnostics, for the early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex. Sera from various categories of smear and culture results were compared ...

  7. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF A LACTOSE SPECIFIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lectin agglutinated human and rabbit erythrocytes, with a slight preference for the human O blood group. The hemagglutinating activity ..... Table 1: Blood Group Specificity of Erythrina senegalensis Seed Lectin. Each experiment consisted of ... fractionation of the seed extract when subjected to gel filtration on Sephadex ...

  8. Iron addition to soil specifically stabilized lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven J. Hall; Whendee L. Silver; Vitaliy I. Timokhin; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2016-01-01

    The importance of lignin as a recalcitrant constituent of soil organic matter (SOM) remains contested. Associations with iron (Fe) oxides have been proposed to specifically protect lignin from decomposition, but impacts of Fe-lignin interactions on mineralization rates remain unclear. Oxygen (O2) fluctuations characteristic of humid tropical...

  9. DETERMINATION OF THE SPECIFIC GROWTH RATE ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sewage generation is one of the dense problems Nigerians encounter on daily bases, mostly at the urbanized area where factories and industries are located. This paper is aimed at determining the specific growth rate “K” of biological activities on cassava wastewater during degradation using Michaelis-Menten Equation.

  10. Specific Ion Effects in Cholesterol Monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Del Castillo-Santaella

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of ions with interfaces and, in particular, the high specificity of these interactions to the particular ions considered, are central questions in the field of surface forces. Here we study the effect of different salts (NaI, NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 on monolayers made of cholesterol molecules, both experimentally (surface area vs. lateral pressure isotherms measured by a Langmuir Film Balance and theoretically (molecular dynamics (MD all-atomic simulations. We found that surface isotherms depend, both quantitatively and qualitatively, on the nature of the ions by altering the shape and features of the isotherm. In line with the experiments, MD simulations show clear evidences of specific ionic effects and also provide molecular level details on ion specific interactions with cholesterol. More importantly, MD simulations show that the interaction of a particular ion with the surface depends strongly on its counterion, a feature ignored so far in most theories of specific ionic effects in surface forces.

  11. Designing specificity of protein-substrate interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coluzza, I.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    One of the key properties of biological molecules is that they can bind strongly to certain substrates yet interact only weakly with the very large number of other molecules that they encounter. Using a simple lattice model, we test several methods to design molecule-substrate binding specificity.

  12. Materials and Process Specifications and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    factors involved in setting standards of this type are social (which usually predominates), legal, political, and then, to a lesser extent, economic, and...regulatory agencies. Material and process specifications are obviously affected by these relatively new social forces and, in turn, may...Welding Society Basic Standardization Agreement Conference Internationale des Grands Reseaux Internationale (International Conference on Large High

  13. Isotope specific arbitrary material flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P. J.; Post, John C.; Jones, Edwin

    2016-10-25

    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  14. 21 CFR 107.100 - Nutrient specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrient specifications. 107.100 Section 107.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Vitamin K Micrograms 4 Thiamine (vitamin B1) do 40 Riboflavin (vitamin B2) do 60 Vitamin B6 do 35 Vitamin...

  15. Community-Specific Strategies of Intergenerational Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study concerns minority language maintenance, specifically it explores local practices that make it possible for a community to sustain its traditional language. Two variables were the focus of the research; speakers' attitudes and language use patterns. These were examined to determine their influence in facilitating ...

  16. Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) facility specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    General requirements for the Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS)/Ground Demonstration System (GDS) assembly and test facility are defined. The facility will include provisions for a complete test laboratory for GDS checkout, performance, and endurance testing, and a contamination-controlled area for assembly, fabrication, storage, and storage preparation of GDS components. Specifications, schedules, and drawings are included

  17. Specificity of Structural Assessment of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpower, David L.; Sharara, Harold; Goldsmith, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the specificity of information provided by structural assessment of knowledge (SAK). SAK is a technique which uses the Pathfinder scaling algorithm to transform ratings of concept relatedness into network representations (PFnets) of individuals' knowledge. Inferences about individuals' overall domain knowledge based on the…

  18. Organ-specific responses during brain death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Erp, A C; Rebolledo, R A; Hoeksma, D

    2018-01-01

    Hepatic and renal energy status prior to transplantation correlates with graft survival. However, effects of brain death (BD) on organ-specific energy status are largely unknown. We studied metabolism, perfusion, oxygen consumption, and mitochondrial function in the liver and kidneys following BD...

  19. Patient-specific models of cardiac biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Adarsh; Villongco, Christopher T.; Chuang, Joyce; Frank, Lawrence R.; Nigam, Vishal; Belezzuoli, Ernest; Stark, Paul; Krummen, David E.; Narayan, Sanjiv; Omens, Jeffrey H.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Kerckhoffs, Roy C. P.

    2013-07-01

    Patient-specific models of cardiac function have the potential to improve diagnosis and management of heart disease by integrating medical images with heterogeneous clinical measurements subject to constraints imposed by physical first principles and prior experimental knowledge. We describe new methods for creating three-dimensional patient-specific models of ventricular biomechanics in the failing heart. Three-dimensional bi-ventricular geometry is segmented from cardiac CT images at end-diastole from patients with heart failure. Human myofiber and sheet architecture is modeled using eigenvectors computed from diffusion tensor MR images from an isolated, fixed human organ-donor heart and transformed to the patient-specific geometric model using large deformation diffeomorphic mapping. Semi-automated methods were developed for optimizing the passive material properties while simultaneously computing the unloaded reference geometry of the ventricles for stress analysis. Material properties of active cardiac muscle contraction were optimized to match ventricular pressures measured by cardiac catheterization, and parameters of a lumped-parameter closed-loop model of the circulation were estimated with a circulatory adaptation algorithm making use of information derived from echocardiography. These components were then integrated to create a multi-scale model of the patient-specific heart. These methods were tested in five heart failure patients from the San Diego Veteran's Affairs Medical Center who gave informed consent. The simulation results showed good agreement with measured echocardiographic and global functional parameters such as ejection fraction and peak cavity pressures.

  20. Measuring Language-Specific Phonetic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennen, Ineke; Scobbie, James M.; de Leeuw, Esther; Schaeffler, Sonja; Schaeffler, Felix

    2010-01-01

    While it is well known that languages have different phonemes and phonologies, there is growing interest in the idea that languages may also differ in their "phonetic setting". The term "phonetic setting" refers to a tendency to make the vocal apparatus employ a language-specific habitual configuration. For example, languages may differ in their…

  1. Methodes for identification of specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toktam Maleki Shahmahmood

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Specific language impiarment (SLI is one of the most prevalent developmental language disorders its diagnosis is a problematic issue among researchers and clinicians because of the heterogeneity of language profiles in the affected population and overlapping with other developmental language disorders. The aim of this study was to review the suggested diagnostic criteria for this disorder, controversies about these criteria and identify the most accurate diagnostic methods.Methods: Published article from 1980 to 2012 in bibliographic and publisher databases including Pubmed, Google scholar, Cochran library, Web of Science, ProQuest, Springer, Oxford, Science direct, Ovid, Iran Medex and Magiran about the diagnostic methods for discriminating preschoool children with specific language impiarment from normal developing children were reviewd in this article. These keywords were used for research: “specific language impairment”, “SLI”, “diagnosis or identification”, “standardized tests”, and “tests for language development”.Conclusion: The results of this study show inspite of agreement of researchers and clinicians about exclusionary criteria as one basic part of the diagnosis of specific language impiarment , there is no consensus about the other part, inclusionary criteria. Different studies used different inclusionary criteria which can be divided to categories of clincal judgment, discrepancy-based criteria, standardized testing, clinical markers and markers from spontaneous speech samples. Advantages, disadvantages, and clinical applicability of each diagnostic method are discussed in this article.

  2. ESP: Teaching English for Specific Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleppegrell, Mary; Bowman, Brenda

    This manual is a guide to the development of an instructional program in English for Specific Purposes (ESP). Step-by-step procedures for assessing student needs, setting achievable goals, designing a program, and selecting appropriate materials and activities for the classroom are outlined. The four language skills (listening, reading, speaking,…

  3. IPv6-specific misconfigurations in the DNS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Luuk; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Pras, Aiko

    2017-01-01

    With the Internet transitioning from IPv4 to IPv6, the number of IPv6-specific DNS records (AAAA) increases. Misconfigurations in these records often go unnoticed, as most systems are provided with connectivity over both IPv4 and IPv6, and automatically fall back to IPv4 in case of connection

  4. TAL effectors specificity stems from negative discrimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile I M Wicky

    Full Text Available Transcription Activator-Like (TAL effectors are DNA-binding proteins secreted by phytopathogenic bacteria that interfere with native cellular functions by binding to plant DNA promoters. The key element of their architecture is a domain of tandem-repeats with almost identical sequences. Most of the polymorphism is located at two consecutive amino acids termed Repeat Variable Diresidue (RVD. The discovery of a direct link between the RVD composition and the targeted nucleotide allowed the design of TAL-derived DNA-binding tools with programmable specificities that revolutionized the field of genome engineering. Despite structural data, the molecular origins of this specificity as well as the recognition mechanism have remained unclear. Molecular simulations of the recent crystal structures suggest that most of the protein-DNA binding energy originates from non-specific interactions between the DNA backbone and non-variable residues, while RVDs contributions are negligible. Based on dynamical and energetic considerations we postulate that, while the first RVD residue promotes helix breaks--allowing folding of TAL as a DNA-wrapping super-helix--the second provides specificity through a negative discrimination of matches. Furthermore, we propose a simple pharmacophore-like model for the rationalization of RVD-DNA interactions and the interpretation of experimental findings concerning shared affinities and binding efficiencies. The explanatory paradigm presented herein provides a better comprehension of this elegant architecture and we hope will allow for improved designs of TAL-derived biotechnological tools.

  5. 31 CFR 595.312 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific license. 595.312 Section 595.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions...

  6. MODEL OF TEACHING PROFESSION SPECIFIC BILATERAL TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Fabrychna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the author’s interpretation of the process of teaching profession specific bilateral translation to student teacher of English in the Master’s program. The goal of the model of teaching profession specific bilateral translation development is to determine the logical sequence of educational activities of the teacher as the organizer of the educational process and students as its members. English and Ukrainian texts on methods of foreign languages and cultures teaching are defined as the object of study. Learning activities aimed at the development of student teachers of English profession specific competence in bilateral translation and Translation Proficiency Language Portfolio for Student Teachers of English are suggested as teaching tools. The realization of the model of teaching profession specific bilateral translation to student teachers of English in the Master’s program is suggested within the module topics of the academic discipline «Practice of English as the first foreign language»: Globalization; Localization; Education; Work; The role of new communication technologies in personal and professional development. We believe that the amount of time needed for efficient functioning of the model is 48 academic hours, which was determined by calculating the total number of academic hours allotted for the academic discipline «Practice of English as the first foreign language» in Ukrainian universities. Peculiarities of the model realization as well as learning goals and content of class activities and home self-study work of students are outlined.

  7. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  8. 32 CFR 292.4 - Specific policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (DIA) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 292.4 Specific policy... of source and object codes, regardless of medium are not agency records. (This does not include the... existing computer program or printout for retrieval of the requested information. (c) The prior application...

  9. VSAT networks in India - Specifications and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, A. K.

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes briefly the evolution of VSATs in India, including the existing and proposed networks and their applications. The salient specifications of the various types of VSATs are described. Some of the VSATs under advanced stages of development as well as those to be used in proposed networks due for implementation soon are also covered.

  10. XML Based Markup Languages for Specific Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varde, Aparna; Rundensteiner, Elke; Fahrenholz, Sally

    A challenging area in web based support systems is the study of human activities in connection with the web, especially with reference to certain domains. This includes capturing human reasoning in information retrieval, facilitating the exchange of domain-specific knowledge through a common platform and developing tools for the analysis of data on the web from a domain expert's angle. Among the techniques and standards related to such work, we have XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This serves as a medium of communication for storing and publishing textual, numeric and other forms of data seamlessly. XML tag sets are such that they preserve semantics and simplify the understanding of stored information by users. Often domain-specific markup languages are designed using XML, with a user-centric perspective. Standardization bodies and research communities may extend these to include additional semantics of areas within and related to the domain. This chapter outlines the issues to be considered in developing domain-specific markup languages: the motivation for development, the semantic considerations, the syntactic constraints and other relevant aspects, especially taking into account human factors. Illustrating examples are provided from domains such as Medicine, Finance and Materials Science. Particular emphasis in these examples is on the Materials Markup Language MatML and the semantics of one of its areas, namely, the Heat Treating of Materials. The focus of this chapter, however, is not the design of one particular language but rather the generic issues concerning the development of domain-specific markup languages.

  11. Interventions in individuals with specific needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Piyali; Dhawan, Anju

    2018-02-01

    With the growing understanding of substance use problems among special populations like women, gender minority groups, as well as in the geriatric population, there is a drive to develop sensitive interventions catering to their unique needs. This chapter is a short review of psycho-social interventions targeted towards these individuals with specific needs.

  12. Language specific bootstraps for UG categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the universal categories N/V are not applied to content words before the grammatical markings for reference D(eterminers) and predication I(nflection) have been acquired (van Kampen, 1997, contra Pinker, 1984). Child grammar starts as proto-grammar with language-specific

  13. Side-Specific Reward Memories in Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Mariana; Menzel, Randolf; De Marco, Rodrigo J.

    2009-01-01

    We report a hitherto unknown form of side-specific learning in honeybees. We trained bees individually by coupling gustatory and mechanical stimulation of each antenna with either increasing or decreasing volumes of sucrose solution offered to the animal's proboscis along successive learning trials. Next, we examined their proboscis extension…

  14. Specificity in liquid metal induced embrittlement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fernandes, PJL

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most intriguing features of liquid metal induced embrittlement (LMIE) is the observation that some liquid metal-solid metal couples are susceptible to embrittlement, while others appear to be immune. This is referred to as the specificity...

  15. 10 CFR 71.12 - Specific exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 71.12 Section 71.12 Energy NUCLEAR... grant any exemption from the requirements of the regulations in this part that it determines is authorized by law and will not endanger life or property nor the common defense and security. ...

  16. 10 CFR 62.5 - Specific exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 62.5 Section 62.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR EMERGENCY ACCESS TO NON-FEDERAL AND REGIONAL... requirements of the regulations in this part that it determines is authorized by law and will not endanger life...

  17. 10 CFR 25.11 - Specific exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 25.11 Section 25.11 Energy NUCLEAR... regulations of this part, that are— (a) Authorized by law, will not present an undue risk to the public health... more of the following: (1) An application of the regulation in the particular circumstances conflicts...

  18. 10 CFR 73.5 - Specific exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 73.5 Section 73.5 Energy NUCLEAR... initiative, grant such exemptions from the requirements of the regulations in this part as it determines are authorized by law and will not endanger life or property or the common defense and security, and are...

  19. 10 CFR 95.11 - Specific exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 95.11 Section 95.11 Energy NUCLEAR... regulations of this part, that are— (a) Authorized by law, will not present an undue risk to the public health... more of the following: (1) An application of the regulation in the particular circumstances conflicts...

  20. 10 CFR 140.8 - Specific exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 140.8 Section 140.8 Energy NUCLEAR... its own initiative, grant such exemptions from the requirements of the regulations in this part as it determines are authorized by law and are otherwise in the public interest. [34 FR 19546, Dec. 11, 1969] ...

  1. 10 CFR 40.14 - Specific exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 40.14 Section 40.14 Energy NUCLEAR... from the requirements of the regulation in this part as it determines are authorized by law and will... interest. (b) [Reserved] (c) The Department of Energy is exempt from the requirements of this part to the...

  2. 10 CFR 76.23 - Specific exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 76.23 Section 76.23 Energy NUCLEAR..., grant such exemptions from the requirements of the certification regulations as it determines are authorized by law and will not endanger life, or property, or the common defense and security, and are...

  3. Removing the Barriers: Accessibility Guidelines and Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, Stephen R.

    This guide provides guidelines for meeting the accessibility requirements of the Americans with Disabilities (ADA) Act in college and university buildings. The publication is divided into 10 chapters, the first 7 of which present construction drawings, evaluation criteria, and specifications for: (1) site accessibility (external path of travel,…

  4. Body-Specific Representations of Spatial Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Gardony, Aaron; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    The body specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) posits that the way in which people interact with the world affects their mental representation of information. For instance, right- versus left-handedness affects the mental representation of affective valence, with right-handers categorically associating good with rightward areas and bad with…

  5. FRENCH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES: THE GATEWAY TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    2016-07-01

    Jul 1, 2016 ... FRENCH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES: THE GATEWAY TO EMPLOYMENT. OPPORTUNITIES FOR NIGERIAN GRADUATES. Nwabueze Joe Obinaju. &. Chukwunonso Hyacinth Muotoo. Abstract. For some years now, accessing jobs after graduation has become a serious issue for Nigerian graduates, their ...

  6. 49 CFR 172.407 - Label specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... each side having a solid line inner border 5.0 to 6.3 mm (0.2 to 0.25 inches) from the edge. (2) The...) Displayed on color charts conforming to the technical specifications for charts set forth in table 1 or 2 in...

  7. [The "specific" liability regime for blood products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2017-10-13

    Based on the system of liability for defective products as organized by the European Directive of 25 July 1985, responsibility for blood products does not therefore constitute a genuine specific regime. However, European law leaves States a margin of discretion in the implementation of the Directive with regard to health products. This is the case in particular with the exemption for development risk.

  8. Towards a typology of specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Balkom, Hans

    2006-02-01

    The population of children with specific language impairments (SLI) is heterogeneous. The present study was conducted to examine this heterogeneity more closely, by identifying and describing subgroups within the population of children with SLI in the Netherlands. A broad battery of language tests and language-related cognitive tests were administered to 147 six-year-old and 136 eight-year-old children with SLI. Factor analyses revealed 4 factors indicating 4 distinctive linguistic domains for both age samples: 1) lexical-semantic abilities, 2) auditory conceptualization, 3) verbal sequential memory and 4) speech production. These empirical findings were further validated by the positive correlations found between the language factors and the judgments of teachers and speech therapists. Finally, a cluster analysis revealed 4 distinct clusters of SLI children for each sample with specific language profiles based on the 4 factors. Results were nearly the same for both age samples. The language problems that emerged from the two samples of children with SLI could be described as falling into four types. Based on these language types, four subgroups of children with SLI could be distinguished, each with a specific profile. Some subgroups had severe problems on one specific type of language problem; others had severe problems in more than one type of language problem when compared to the other subgroups of the same age sample. The different profiles may indicate that a more dynamic approach is needed in intervention, considering the presence of both compensating and restricting factors within each child with SLI.

  9. Towards a typology of specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Balkom, L.J.M. van

    2006-01-01

    Background - The population of children with specific language impairments (SLI) is heterogeneous. The present study was conducted to examine this heterogeneity more closely, by identifying and describing subgroups within the population of children with SLI in the Netherlands. Method - A broad

  10. Primary Auditory Cortex Regulates Threat Memory Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigestrand, Mattis B.; Schiff, Hillary C.; Fyhn, Marianne; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Sears, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Distinguishing threatening from nonthreatening stimuli is essential for survival and stimulus generalization is a hallmark of anxiety disorders. While auditory threat learning produces long-lasting plasticity in primary auditory cortex (Au1), it is not clear whether such Au1 plasticity regulates memory specificity or generalization. We used…

  11. Volatiles in inter-specific bacterial interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyc, Olaf; Zweers, H.; Boer, de W.; Garbeva, P.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of volatile organic compounds for functioning of microbes is receiving increased research attention. However, to date very little is known on how inter-specific bacterial interactions effect volatiles production as most studies have been focused on volatiles produced by monocultures

  12. Specification of the somatic musculature in Drosophila†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobi, Krista C.; Schulman, Victoria K.; Baylies, Mary K.

    2015-01-01

    The somatic muscle system formed during Drosophila embryogenesis is required for larvae to hatch, feed, and crawl. This system is replaced in the pupa by a new adult muscle set, responsible for activities such as feeding, walking, and flight. Both the larval and adult muscle systems are comprised of distinct muscle fibers to serve these specific motor functions. In this way, the Drosophila musculature is a valuable model for patterning within a single tissue: while all muscle cells share properties such as the contractile apparatus, properties such as size, position, and number of nuclei are unique for a particular muscle. In the embryo, diversification of muscle fibers relies first on signaling cascades that pattern the mesoderm. Subsequently, the combinatorial expression of specific transcription factors leads muscle fibers to adopt particular sizes, shapes, and orientations. Adult muscle precursors (AMPs), set aside during embryonic development, proliferate during the larval phases and seed the formation of the abdominal, leg, and flight muscles in the adult fly. Adult muscle fibers may either be formed de novo from the fusion of the AMPs, or are created by the binding of AMPs to an existing larval muscle. While less is known about adult muscle specification compared to the larva, expression of specific transcription factors is also important for its diversification. Increasingly, the mechanisms required for the diversification of fly muscle have found parallels in vertebrate systems and mark Drosophila as a robust model system to examine questions about how diverse cell types are generated within an organism. PMID:25728002

  13. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter

  14. Specification and Construction of Control Flow Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelik, R.; Rensink, Arend; Kastenberg, H.; Grundy, J; Howse, J.

    In this paper we propose a visual language CFSL for specifying control flow semantics of programming languages. We also present a translation from CFSL to graph production systems (GPS) for flow graph construction; that is, any CFSL specification, say for a language L, gives rise to a GPS that

  15. Specificity of cognitive distortions to antisocial behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Alvaro Q; Hawkins, Mark A; Camelia, Carl R T

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive distortions have long been posited to facilitate antisocial behaviours, but the specificity of such distortions has rarely been studied. To replicate findings of specificity between particular cognitions and externalizing or internalizing behaviours; to test for specificity of relationship between particular cognitions and different types of externalizing behaviours. The participants were 239 male youths aged 10 to 19 years (mean (M) = 14.22, standard deviation (SD) = 1.64) from schools on the island of Curaçao. Their cognitive distortions and problem behaviours were investigated through self-report. Results In controlled analyses, self-serving cognitive distortions were associated with externalizing behaviours whereas self-debasing cognitive distortions were associated with internalizing behaviours. Within the externalizing domain, self-serving distortions with overt behavioural referents were linked to aggressive behaviour while self-serving distortions with covert behavioural referents were linked to delinquent behaviour. Within the aggression domain, distortions with opposition-defiance referents related to verbal aggression whereas distortions with physical aggression referents related to physically aggressive behaviour. The degree of cognitive-behavioural specificity documented by this study was remarkable. The observed pattern suggests that cognitive interventions designed for externalizing versus internalizing behaviours should differ in therapeutic approach.

  16. Analyzing Languages for Specific Purposes Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    In the last 20 years, technological advancement and increased multidisciplinarity has expanded the range of data regarded as within the scope of languages for specific purposes (LSP) research and the means by which they can be analyzed. As a result, the analytical work of LSP researchers has developed from a narrow focus on specialist terminology…

  17. Ultrahigh Specific Impulse Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anne Charmeau; Brandon Cunningham; Samim Anghaie

    2009-02-09

    Research on nuclear thermal propulsion systems (NTP) have been in forefront of the space nuclear power and propulsion due to their design simplicity and their promise for providing very high thrust at reasonably high specific impulse. During NERVA-ROVER program in late 1950's till early 1970's, the United States developed and ground tested about 18 NTP systems without ever deploying them into space. The NERVA-ROVER program included development and testing of NTP systems with very high thrust (~250,000 lbf) and relatively high specific impulse (~850 s). High thrust to weight ratio in NTP systems is an indicator of high acceleration that could be achieved with these systems. The specific impulse in the lowest mass propellant, hydrogen, is a function of square root of absolute temperature in the NTP thrust chamber. Therefor optimizing design performance of NTP systems would require achieving the highest possible hydrogen temperature at reasonably high thrust to weight ratio. High hydrogen exit temperature produces high specific impulse that is a diret measure of propellant usage efficiency.

  18. A Specification Language for Organisational Performance Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popova, V.N.; Treur, J.

    2007-01-01

    A specification language for performance indicators and their relations and requirements is presented and illustrated for a case study in logistics. The language can be used in different forms, varying from informal, semiformal, graphical to formal. A software environment has been developed that

  19. A specification language for organisational performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popova, Viara; Treur, Jan

    2007-01-01

    A specification language for performance indicators and their relations and requirements is presented and illustrated for a case study in logistics. The language can be used in different forms, varying from informal, semiformal, graphical to formal. A software environment has been developed that

  20. Investment specific technological progress and structural change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Silva Azevedo Araujo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce investment specific technical progress into Pasinetti's model of structural change. Our aim is to assess the effects of embodied technical progress on economic growth and macroeconomic variables. Our findings suggest that despite the fact that this type of technical progress increases the productivity of capital, it has negative effects on conditions that promote full employment.

  1. A camera specification for tendering purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunt, M.J.; Davies, M.D.; Kenyon, N.G.

    1985-01-01

    A standardized document is described which is suitable for sending to companies which are being invited to tender for the supply of a gamma camera. The document refers to various features of the camera, the performance specification of the camera, maintenance details, price quotations for various options and delivery, installation and warranty details. (U.K.)

  2. Beneficiary Perceptions of Gender Specific Extension Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women play major roles in agricultural production although only an estimated 5 percent actually benefit from mainstream extension activities. The Gender Specific Extension Delivery Service was instituted to remedy this trend. This study was an attempt to document women beneficiaries' perceptions on the effectiveness of ...

  3. Towards a typology of specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Balkom, L.J.M. van

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The population of children with specific language impairments (SLI) is heterogeneous. The present study was conducted to examine this heterogeneity more closely, by identifying and describing subgroups within the population of children with SLI in the Netherlands. METHOD: A broad battery

  4. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project

  5. NIF small optics laser damage test specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, L

    1999-01-01

    The Laser Damage Group is currently conducting tests on small optics samples supplied for initial evaluation of potential NIF suppliers. This document is meant to define the specification of laser-induced damage for small optics and the test methods used to collect the data. A rating system which will be applied for vendor selection is presented

  6. Prospects for site specific weed management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend; Rasmussen, Jesper; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Research on Site Specific Weed Management (SSWM) started in the late 80's. Since that moment, considerable research has been conducted on different aspects of SSWM, from fundamental studies on the spatial ecology of weeds to the applied development and testing of new technologies for weed detection...

  7. Accounting valuation development of specific assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Zhigley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current issues of accounting estimate development are considered. The necessity of the development of accounting estimate in the context of the non-institutional theory principles based on the selection of a number of reasons is grounded. The reasons for deterioration of accounting reputation as a separate socio-economic institute in the context of developing the methodology for specific assets accounting are discovered. The system of normative regulation of accounting estimate of enterprise non-current assets in the case of diminishing their usefulness is analyzed. The procedure for determining and accounting for the depreciation of assets in accordance with IFRS 36 «Depreciation of Assets» is developed. The features of the joint use of the concept of «value in use» and «fair value» in the accounting system are disclosed. The procedure for determining the value of compensation depending on the degree of specificity of assets is developed. The necessity to clarify the features that indicate the possibility of diminishing the usefulness of specific assets (termination or pre-term termination of the contract for the use of a specific asset is grounded.

  8. Essential Specification Elements for Heat Exchanger Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, L.

    2015-07-01

    Performance upgrade and equipment degradation are the primary impetuses for a nuclear power plant to engage in the large capital cost project of heat exchanger replacement. Along with attention to these issues, consideration of heat exchanger Codes and Standards, material improvements, thermal redesign, and configuration are essential for developing User’s Design Specifications for successful replacement projects. The User’s Design Specification is the central document in procuring ASME heat exchangers. Properly stated objectives for the heat exchanger replacement are essential for obtaining the materials, configurations and thermal designs best suited for the nuclear power plant. Additionally, the code of construction required and the applied manufacturing standard (TEMA or HEI) affects how the heat exchanger may be designed or configured to meet the replacement goals. Knowledge of how Codes and Standards affect design and configuration details will aid in writing the User’s Design Specification. Joseph Oat Corporation has designed and fabricated many replacement heat exchangers for the nuclear power industry. These heat exchangers have been constructed per ASME Section III to various Code-Years or ASME Section VIII-1 to the current Code-Year also in accordance with TEMA and HEI. These heat exchangers have been a range of like-for-like replacement to complete thermal, material and configuration redesigns. Several examples of these heat exchangers with their Code, Standard and specification implications are presented. (Author.

  9. Specific IgE to colophony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elms, Joanne; Fishwick, David; Robinson, Edward; Burge, Sherwood; Huggins, Vicky; Barber, Chris; Williams, Nerys; Curran, Andrew

    2005-05-01

    Colophony (rosin) is a natural product obtained from coniferous trees. It is used in a diverse range of products such as adhesives, ink, paints and soldering fluxes. Some workers exposed to colophony during soldering can develop occupational asthma; at present, no specific IgE test is available to assess sensitization to colophony. Serum samples were obtained from exposed symptomatic individuals (n = 7), some with a likely diagnosis of occupational asthma, exposed asymptomatic individuals (n = 10) and unexposed individuals (n = 11). Serum was tested for specific IgE antibodies against a protein extract produced following in vitro challenge of mono-mac-6 cells with colophony extract. Serum from exposed symptomatic individuals showed increased binding of specific IgE antibodies to a range of colophony-cell protein conjugates [29% (2/7) of samples tested when cut-off > 0.1 or 86% (6/7) of samples tested when cut-off > 0%] compared with both the exposed asymptomatic [0% when cut-off > 0.1, or 20% when cut-off > 0% (2/10)] and the non-exposed control populations [0% when cut-off > 0.1, or 27% when cut-off > 0% (3/11)]. This novel approach for the production of conjugates to assess sensitization to colophony was able to detect specific IgE in colophony-exposed workers with a likely diagnosis of occupational asthma.

  10. EFFECTS OF MACRONUTRIENT COMPOSITION ON SPECIFIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Open-flow respirometry was used to measure the magnitude of specific dynamic action (SDA), the maximum rate of oxygen consumption ..... Table 2: Body mass of female mice and respiratory quotient of macronutrient diets. Diets. Body mass before SDA (g). Body mass after SDA (g). VO2. (ml/min. VCO2. (ml/min). RQ. HP.

  11. Molecular and cellular limits to somatosensory specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viana Félix

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animals detect environmental changes through sensory neural mechanisms that enable them to differentiate the quality, intensity and temporal characteristics of stimuli. The 'doctrine of specific nervous energies' postulates that the different sensory modalities experienced by humans result of the activation of specific nervous pathways. Identification of functional classes of sensory receptors provided scientific support to the concept that somatosensory modalities (touch, pain, temperature, kinesthesis are subserved by separate populations of sensory receptor neurons specialized in detecting innocuous and injurious stimuli of different quality (mechanical forces, temperature, chemical compounds. The identification of receptor proteins activated by different physicochemical stimuli, in particular ion channels of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP superfamily, has put forward the concept that specificity of peripheral sensory receptor neurons is determined by their expression of a particular "molecular sensor" that confers to each functional type its selectivity to respond with a discharge of nerve impulses to stimuli of a given quality. Nonetheless, recent experimental data suggest that the various molecular sensors proposed as specific transducer molecules for stimuli of different quality are not as neatly associated with the distinct functional types of sensory receptors as originally proposed. First, many ion channel molecules initially associated to the transduction of only one particular form of energy are also activated by stimuli of different quality, implying a limited degree of specificity in their transducing capacities. Second, molecular sensors associated with a stimulus quality and hence to a sensory receptor type and ultimately to a sensory modality may be concomitantly expressed in sensory receptor neurons functionally defined as specific for another stimulus quality. Finally, activation of voltage gated channels

  12. URPD: a specific product primer design tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Li-Yeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymerase chain reaction (PCR plays an important role in molecular biology. Primer design fundamentally determines its results. Here, we present a currently available software that is not located in analyzing large sequence but used for a rather straight-forward way of visualizing the primer design process for infrequent users. Findings URPD (yoUR Primer Design, a web-based specific product primer design tool, combines the NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq, UCSC In-Silico PCR, memetic algorithm (MA and genetic algorithm (GA primer design methods to obtain specific primer sets. A friendly user interface is accomplished by built-in parameter settings. The incorporated smooth pipeline operations effectively guide both occasional and advanced users. URPD contains an automated process, which produces feasible primer pairs that satisfy the specific needs of the experimental design with practical PCR amplifications. Visual virtual gel electrophoresis and in silico PCR provide a simulated PCR environment. The comparison of Practical gel electrophoresis comparison to virtual gel electrophoresis facilitates and verifies the PCR experiment. Wet-laboratory validation proved that the system provides feasible primers. Conclusions URPD is a user-friendly tool that provides specific primer design results. The pipeline design path makes it easy to operate for beginners. URPD also provides a high throughput primer design function. Moreover, the advanced parameter settings assist sophisticated researchers in performing experiential PCR. Several novel functions, such as a nucleotide accession number template sequence input, local and global specificity estimation, primer pair redesign, user-interactive sequence scale selection, and virtual and practical PCR gel electrophoresis discrepancies have been developed and integrated into URPD. The URPD program is implemented in JAVA and freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/urpd/.

  13. Are videogame training gains specific or general?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Adam C; Patterson, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Many recent studies using healthy adults document enhancements in perception and cognition from playing commercial action videogames (AVGs). Playing action games (e.g., Call of Duty, Medal of Honor) is associated with improved bottom-up lower-level information processing skills like visual-perceptual and attentional processes. One proposal states a general improvement in the ability to interpret and gather statistical information to predict future actions which then leads to better performance across different perceptual/attentional tasks. Another proposal claims all the tasks are separately trained in the AVGs because the AVGs and laboratory tasks contain similar demands. We review studies of action and non-AVGs to show support for the latter proposal. To explain transfer in AVGs, we argue that the perceptual and attention tasks share common demands with the trained videogames (e.g., multiple object tracking (MOT), rapid attentional switches, and peripheral vision). In non-AVGs, several studies also demonstrate specific, limited transfer. One instance of specific transfer is the specific enhancement to mental rotation after training in games with a spatial emphasis (e.g., Tetris). In contrast, the evidence for transfer is equivocal where the game and task do not share common demands (e.g., executive functioning). Thus, the "common demands" hypothesis of transfer not only characterizes transfer effects in AVGs, but also non-action games. Furthermore, such a theory provides specific predictions, which can help in the selection of games to train human cognition as well as in the design of videogames purposed for human cognitive and perceptual enhancement. Finally this hypothesis is consistent with the cognitive training literature where most post-training gains are for tasks similar to the training rather than general, non-specific improvements.

  14. Hand Specific Representations in Language Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMoody-Triantis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Theories of embodied cognition argue that language comprehension involves sensory-motor re-enactments of the actions described. However, the degree of specificity of these re-enactments as well as the relationship between action and language remains a matter of debate. Here we investigate these issues by examining how hand-specific information (left or right hand is recruited in language comprehension and action execution. An fMRI study tested right-handed participants in two separate tasks that were designed to be as similar as possible to increase sensitivity of the comparison across task: an action execution go/no-go task where participants performed right or left hand actions, and a language task where participants read sentences describing the same left or right handed actions as in the execution task. We found that language-induced activity did not match the hand-specific patterns of activity found for action execution in primary somatosensory and motor cortex, but it overlapped with pre-motor and parietal regions associated with action planning. Within these pre-motor regions, both right hand actions and sentences elicited stronger activity than left hand actions and sentences - a dominant hand effect -. Importantly, both dorsal and ventral sections of the left pre-central gyrus were recruited by both tasks, suggesting different action features being recruited. These results suggest that (a language comprehension elicits motor representations that are hand-specific and akin to multimodal action plans, rather than full action re-enactments; and (b language comprehension and action execution share schematic hand-specific representations that are richer for the dominant hand, and thus linked to previous motor experience.

  15. Are videogame training gains specific or general?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C. Oei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many recent studies using healthy adults document enhancements in perception and cognition from playing commercial action videogames. Playing action games (e.g., Call of Duty, Medal of Honor is associated with improved bottom-up lower-level information processing skills like visual-perceptual and attentional processes. One proposal states a general improvement in the ability to interpret and gather statistical information to predict future actions which then leads to better performance across different perceptual/attentional tasks. Another proposal claims all the tasks are separately trained in the action videogames because the action videogames and laboratory tasks contain similar demands. We review studies of action and non-action videogames to show support for the latter proposal. To explain transfer in action videogames, we argue that the perceptual and attention tasks share common demands with the trained videogames (e.g., multiple object tracking, rapid attentional switches, and peripheral vision. In non-action videogames, several studies also demonstrate specific, limited transfer. One instance of specific transfer is the specific enhancement to mental rotation after training in games with a spatial emphasis (e.g, Tetris. In contrast, the evidence for transfer is equivocal where the game and task do not share common demands (e.g., executive functioning. Thus, the common demands hypothesis of transfer not only characterizes transfer effects in action videogames, but also non-action games. Furthermore, such a theory provides specific predictions, which can help in the selection of games to train human cognition as well as in the design of videogames purposed for human cognitive and perceptual enhancement. Finally this hypothesis is consistent with the cognitive training literature where most post-training gains are for tasks similar to the training rather than general, non-specific improvements.

  16. The field theory of specific heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Yu. V.

    2016-01-01

    Finite temperature quantum field theory in the heat kernel method is used to study the heat capacity of condensed matter. The lattice heat is treated à la P. Debye as energy of the elastic (sound) waves. The dimensionless functional of free energy is re-derived with a cut-off parameter and used to obtain the specific heat of crystal lattices. The new dimensionless thermodynamical variable is formed as Planck's inverse temperature divided by the lattice constant. The dimensionless constant, universal for the class of crystal lattices, which determines the low temperature region of molar specific heat, is introduced and tested with the data for diamond lattice crystals. The low temperature asymptotics of specific heat is found to be the fourth power in temperature instead of the cubic power law of the Debye theory. Experimental data for the carbon group elements (silicon, germanium) and other materials decisively confirm the quartic law. The true low temperature regime of specific heat is defined by the surface heat, therefore, it depends on the geometrical characteristics of the body, while the absolute zero temperature limit is geometrically forbidden. The limit on the growth of specific heat at temperatures close to critical points, known as the Dulong-Petit law, appears from the lattice constant cut-off. Its value depends on the lattice type and it is the same for materials with the same crystal lattice. The Dulong-Petit values of compounds are equal to those of elements with the same crystal lattice type, if one mole of solid state matter were taken as the Avogadro number of the composing atoms. Thus, the Neumann-Kopp law is valid only in some special cases.

  17. Adolescents with specific learning disabilities - perceptions of specific learning disabilities in the environment of secondary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    The thesis focuses on adolescents with specific learning disabilities in the milieu of secondary schools. It is divided into a theoretical part and an empirical part. The first part introduces a topic of specific learning disabilities in the developmental stage of adolescence. It first describes the most relevant aspects of adolescent development. The attention is then paid to typical manifestations of specific learning disabilities in adolescence, and also to secondary symptoms usually conne...

  18. The Role of Non-specific and Specific Immune Systems in Poultry against Newcastle Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli; NLPI Dharmayanti

    2015-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is caused by avian paramyxovirus-1 which belong to Avulavirus genus and Paramyxoviridae family. The birds have abnormalities in humoral (bursa fabricius) and cellular (thymus and spleen) lymphoid organs. Lesions decrease the immune system. Immune system consists of non-specific and specific immune systems. The main components of non-specific immunity are physical and chemical barrier (feather and skin or mucosa), phagocytic cells (macrophages and natural killer), protei...

  19. Specific developmental pathways underlie host specificity in the parasitic plant Orobanche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic angiosperms are an ecologically and economically important group of plants. However our understanding of the basis for host specificity in these plants is embryonic. Recently we investigated host specificity in the parasitic angiosperm Orobanche minor, and demonstrated that this host generalist parasite comprises genetically defined races that are physiologically adapted to specific hosts. Populations occurring naturally on red clover (Trifolium pratense) and sea carrot (Daucus carota subsp. gummifer) respectively, showed distinct patterns of host specificity at various developmental stages, and a higher fitness on their natural hosts, suggesting these races are locally adapted. Here we discuss the implications of our findings from a broader perspective. We suggest that differences in signal responsiveness and perception by the parasite, as well as qualitative differences in signal production by the host, may elicit host specificity in this parasitic plant. Together with our earlier demonstration that these O. minor races are genetically distinct based on molecular markers, our recent data provide a snapshot of speciation in action, driven by host specificity. Indeed, host specificity may be an underestimated catalyst for speciation in parasitic plants generally. We propose that identifying host specific races using physiological techniques will complement conventional molecular marker-based approaches to provide a framework for delineating evolutionary relationships among cryptic host-specific parasitic plants. PMID:20081361

  20. Simplicity and Specificity in Language: Domain general biases have domain specific effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eCulbertson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which the linguistic system—its architecture, the representations it operates on, the constraints it is subject to—is specific to language has broad implications for cognitive science and its relation to evolutionary biology. Importantly, a given property of the linguistic system can be specific to the domain of language in several ways. For example, if the property evolved by natural selection under the pressure of the linguistic function it serves then the property is domain­-specific in the sense that its design is tailored for language. Equally though, if that property evolved to serve a different function or if that property is domain-general, it may nevertheless interact with the linguistic system in a way that is unique. This gives a second sense in which a property can be thought of as specific to language. An evolutionary approach to the language faculty might at first blush appear to favor domain­-specificity in the first sense, with individual properties of the language faculty being specifically linguistic adaptations. However, we argue that interactions between learning, culture and biological evolution mean any domain-specific adaptations that evolve will take the form of weak biases rather than hard constraints. Turning to the latter sense of domain-specificity, we highlight a very general bias, simplicity, which operates widely in cognition and yet interacts with linguistic representations in a domain-­specific way.

  1. Specific and non-specific upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder syndromes in automobile manufacturing workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, Angelo; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Gore, Rebecca; Punnett, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Objective A longitudinal cohort of automobile manufacturing workers (n = 1214) was examined for: 1) prevalence and persistence of specific upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSDs) such as lateral epicondylitis and de Quervain's disease, and non-specific disorders (NSDs) defined in symptomatic individuals without any specific disorder, and 2) disorder prognoses based on symptom characteristics and other factors. Methods Eight specific disorders were identified through case definitions based on upper extremity physical examinations and symptom surveys administered on three occasions over six years. Results At baseline, 41% of the cohort reported upper extremity symptoms; 18% (n = 214) of these had NSDs. In each survey, tendon-related conditions accounted for over half of the specific morbidity. Twenty-five percent had UEMSDs in multiple anatomical sites, and most with hand/wrist disorders had two or more hand/wrist UEMSDs. Persistence for all specific disorders decreased with length of follow-up. Specific UEMSDs were characterized by greater pain severity and functional impairment, and more lost work days than NSDs. Conclusions Upper extremity symptoms and diagnoses vary over time. NSDs may be the early stages of conditions that will eventually become more specific. NSDs and overlapping specific UEMSDs should be taken into account in UEMSD classification. PMID:19016265

  2. Nanoparticles for Site Specific Genome Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeer, Nicole Ali

    Triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) can be used to coordinate the recombination of short 50-60 by "donor DNA" fragments into genomic DNA, resulting in site-specific correction of genetic mutations or the introduction of advantageous genetic modifications. Site-specific gene editing in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) could result in treatment or cure of inherited disorders of the blood such as beta-thalassemia. Gene editing in HSPCs and differentiated T cells could help combat HIV/AIDs by modifying receptors, such as CCR5, necessary for R5-tropic HIV entry. However, translation of genome modification technologies to clinical practice is limited by challenges in intracellular delivery, especially in difficult-to-transfect hematolymphoid cells. In vivo gene editing could also provide novel treatment for systemic monogenic disorders such as cystic fibrosis, an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor. Here, we have engineered biodegradable nanoparticles to deliver oligonucleotides for site-specific genome editing of disease-relevant genes in human cells, with high efficiency, low toxicity, and editing of clinically relevant cell types. We designed nanoparticles to edit the human beta-globin and CCR5 genes in hematopoietic cells. We show that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles can delivery PNA and donor DNA for site-specific gene modification in human hematopoietic cells in vitro and in vivo in NOD-scid IL2rgammanull mice. Nanoparticles delivered by tail vein localized to hematopoietic compartments in the spleen and bone marrow of humanized mice, resulting in modification of the beta-globin and CCR5 genes. Modification frequencies ranged from 0.005 to 20% of cells depending on the organ and cell type, without detectable toxicity. This project developed highly versatile methods for delivery of therapeutics to hematolymphoid cells and hematopoietic stem cells, and will help to

  3. Risk management through dynamic technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopp, George T.; Petersen, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    The wide deployment of plant specific probabilistic risk assessments for nuclear power plants has provided the means to effect a fresh risk management perspective and a fresh, risk based, regulatory outlook on nuclear power. There has been a great deal of conversation on risk based regulation within the U. S. nuclear power industry but, curiously, very little on effective risk management. This paper proposes a means to link the two subjects through the plant Technical Specifications. A revised concept for Technical Specifications is suggested which is based on deterministic analyses and probabilistic risk assessments for each plant. The revised Technical Specifications would consider, on a real-time basis, the exact state of the plant in terms of the status of key components and systems. It would depict current plant risk levels and compare those levels to the desired and limiting (alert/action) levels. It would advise the plant operator on the risk impact of proposed actions through a simple query system and illustrate the impact of such actions on plant status relative to designated risk values. The basis for the proposed approach lies in realistic deterministic plant analyses and probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) deployment tools being developed, in parallel, by a number of parties in the U.S. today. These PRAs are based primarily on the existing plant responses to Generic Letter 88-20, 'Individual Plant Examinations' (IPEs). Each of these tools allows the plant operator to input, on a real-time basis, the status of key equipment and systems. The tools then provide explicit illustrations of dependency effects; updated, 'real-time' risk status indications such as core damage frequency; and, in some cases, allow the operator to assess the risk impact of removing from service selected components for maintenance or testing. These systems generally operate on personal computers and provide nearly instantaneous responses to plant queries. Moving from these tools to

  4. Beta-endorphin radioimmunoassay: specificity studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colas-Linhart, N.; Perdrisot, R.; Petiet, A.; Bok, B.

    1986-01-01

    This note describes the technical details of a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) B-Endorphin (B-End) radioimmunoassay (RIA). We used an antiserum raised in rabbits against human B-End which cross-reacs 100% with B-Lipotrophin (B-Lph). Thus, filtration chromatography is used to separate both peptides. The assay is sensitive (limit detection=14 pmoles/l), reproducible (the intra and inter assay coefficients of variation are 5 and 6% respectively). Specificity studies are performed to verify the cross-reactions with other opioid peptides and the non specific reactions with the biological fluid (CSF). In order to evaluate the effects of iodine-containing contrast media on the RIA, additional standard curves were analyzed in the presence of varying concentrations of two contrast materials.

  5. XRLSim model specifications and user interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K.D.; Breitfeller, E.; Woodruff, J.P.

    1989-12-01

    The two chapters in this manual document the engineering development leading to modification of XRLSim -- an Ada-based computer program developed to provide a realistic simulation of an x-ray laser weapon platform. Complete documentation of the FY88 effort to develop XRLSim was published in April 1989, as UCID-21736:XRLSIM Model Specifications and User Interfaces, by L. C. Ng, D. T. Gavel, R. M. Shectman. P. L. Sholl, and J. P. Woodruff. The FY89 effort has been primarily to enhance the x-ray laser weapon-platform model fidelity. Chapter 1 of this manual details enhancements made to XRLSim model specifications during FY89. Chapter 2 provides the user with changes in user interfaces brought about by these enhancements. This chapter is offered as a series of deletions, replacements, and insertions to the original document to enable XRLSim users to implement enhancements developed during FY89.

  6. Duration and specificity of olfactory nonassociative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Kaitlin G; Radhakrishna, Sreya; Escanilla, Olga; Linster, Christiane

    2013-05-01

    Olfactory habituation is a simple form of nonassociative memory in which responsiveness to stable but behaviorally nonsignificant stimuli is decreased. Olfactory habituation has recently become a paradigm widely used to probe the neural substrate underlying olfactory perception and memory. This simple behavioral paradigm has been used successfully used to probe many aspects of olfactory processing, and it has recently become clear that the neural processes underlying olfactory habituation can depend on the task parameters used. We here further investigate memory specificity and duration using 2 variations in task parameters: the number of habituation trials and the time delay between habituation and cross-habituation testing. We find that memory specificity increases with the number of habituation trials but decreases with time after the last habituation trial.

  7. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories......We examined the neural correlates of visual shape configuration, the binding of local shape characteristics into wholistic object descriptions, by comparing the regional cerebral blood flow associated with recognition of outline drawings and fragmented drawings. We found no areas that responded...... more to fragmented drawings than to outline drawings even though fragmentation had a clear impact on recognition performance. Instead, a region extending from the inferior occipital gyri to the middle parts of the fusiform gyri was activated during shape configuration of both outline drawings...

  8. Morphing patient-specific musculoskeletal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, John; Galibarov, Pavel E.; Al-Munajjed, Amir

    or surface scans. Furthermore, we assume that a set of corresponding anatomical landmarks can be identified in the medical imaging data and on the generic musculoskeletal model. A nonlinear transformation, i.e. a morphing, is created by means of radial basis functions that maps points set (i) to point set...... (ii). The morphing is subsequently used to transform parts of the generic musculoskeletal model to a patient-specific version, thus changing bone shapes, muscle insertion points, joint locations and other geometrical properties. Research questions include how to select point sets and whether...... other conditions may require CT or MRI data. The method and its theoretical assumptions, advantages and limitations are presented, and several examples will illustrate morphing to patient-specific models. [1] Carbes S; Tørholm S; Rasmussen, J. A Detailed Twenty-six Segments Kinematic Foot model...

  9. The Econometric Procedures of Specific Transaction Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doszyń Mariusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the econometric procedures of identifying specific transactions, in which atypical conditions or attributes may occur. These procedures are based on studentized and predictive residuals of the accordingly specified econometric models. The dependent variable is a unit transactional price, and explanatory variables are both the real properties’ attributes and accordingly defined artificial binary variables. The utility of the proposed method has been verified by means of a real market data base. The proposed procedures can be helpful during the property valuation process, making it possible to reject real properties that are specific (both from the point of view of the transaction conditions and the properties’ attributes and, consequently, to select an appropriate set of similar attributes that are essential for the valuation process.

  10. Photoreceptor cell fate specification in vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Joseph A.; Reh, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Photoreceptors – the light-sensitive cells in the vertebrate retina – have been extremely well-characterized with regards to their biochemistry, cell biology and physiology. They therefore provide an excellent model for exploring the factors and mechanisms that drive neural progenitors into a differentiated cell fate in the nervous system. As a result, great progress in understanding the transcriptional network that controls photoreceptor specification and differentiation has been made over the last 20 years. This progress has also enabled the production of photoreceptors from pluripotent stem cells, thereby aiding the development of regenerative medical approaches to eye disease. In this Review, we outline the signaling and transcription factors that drive vertebrate photoreceptor development and discuss how these function together in gene regulatory networks to control photoreceptor cell fate specification. PMID:26443631

  11. Specific xerostomia during Urbach-Wiethe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disdier, P; Harlé, J R; Andrac, L; Swiader, L; Weiller, P J

    1994-01-01

    We describe the case of a 59-year-old woman who had suffered from a typical Urbach-Wiethe disease since childhood and who complains of progressive mouth and ocular dryness since the age of 54 years. Xerostomia was severe with very poor salivation and was associated with a slight keratoconjunctivitis sicca. A specific lipoid proteinosis was evidenced in salivary glands (lower lip biopsy) with a PAS-positive hyalin-like deposit around vessels, capillaries and salivary gland canaliculi. An ultrastructural study showed the typical aspect of multilamination of the basal lamina of capillary vessels. Dysphonia and hoarseness are commonly found in Urbach-Wiethe disease, but, to our knowledge, a specific xerostomia has never been reported.

  12. Reversal of target-specific oral anticoagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, D.M.; Cuker, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) provide safe and effective anticoagulation for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis in a variety of clinical settings by interfering with the activity of thrombin (dabigatran) or factor Xa (rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, betrixaban). Although TSOACs have practical advantages over vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), there are currently no antidotes to reverse their anticoagulant effect. Herein we summarize the available evidence for TSOAC reversal using nonspecific and specific reversal agents. We discuss important limitations of existing evidence, which is derived from studies in human volunteers, animal models and in vitro experiments. Studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of reversal agents on clinical outcomes such as bleeding and mortality in patients with TSOAC-associated bleeding are needed. PMID:24880102

  13. Drug delivery by organ-specific immunoliposomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Kazuo; Mori, Atsuhide; Hunag, Leaf (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Biochemistry); Kennel, S.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies highly specific to the mouse pulmonary endothelial cells were conjugated to liposomes. The resulting immunoliposomes showed high levels of lung accumulation when injected intravenously into mice. Optimal target binding and retention were achieved if the lipid composition included ganglioside GM{sub 1} to reduce the uptake of immunoliposomes by the reticuloendothelial system. Details of the construction and optimization of these organ-specific immunoliposomes are reviewed. The drug delivery potential of this novel liposome system was demonstrated in an experimental pulmonary metastasis model. Immunoliposomes containing a lipophilic prodrug of deoxyfluorouridine effectively prolonged the survival time of the tumor-bearing mice. This and other therapeutic applications of the immunoliposomes are discussed. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Specification and thermodynamical properties of semigroup actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fagner B.; Varandas, Paulo

    2016-05-01

    In the present paper, we study the thermodynamical properties of finitely generated continuous subgroup actions. We propose a notion of topological entropy and pressure functions that do not depend on the growth rate of the semigroup and introduce strong and orbital specification properties, under which the semigroup actions have positive topological entropy and all points are entropy points. Moreover, we study the convergence and Lipschitz regularity of the pressure function and obtain relations between topological entropy and exponential growth rate of periodic points in the context of semigroups of expanding maps, obtaining a partial extension of the results obtained by Ruelle for ℤd-actions [D. Ruelle, Trans. Am. Math. Soc., 187, 237-251 (1973)]. The specification properties for semigroup actions and the corresponding one for its generators and the action of push-forward maps are also discussed.

  15. A beta-endorphin radioimmunoassay: specificity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas-Linhart, N.; Perdrisot, R.; Petiet, A.; Bok, B.

    1986-01-01

    This note describes the technical details of a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) B-Endorphin (B-End) radioimmunoassay (RIA). We used an antiserum raised in rabbits against human B-End which cross-reacs 100% with B-Lipotrophin (B-Lph). Thus, filtration chromatography is used to separate both peptides. The assay is sensitive (limit detection=14 pmoles/l), reproducible (the intra and inter assay coefficients of variation are 5 and 6% respectively). Specificity studies are performed to verify the cross-reactions with other opioid peptides and the non specific reactions with the biological fluid (CSF). In order to evaluate the effects of iodine-containing contrast media on the RIA, additional standard curves were analyzed in the presence of varying concentrations of two contrast materials [fr

  16. Specificity of economic and social nature tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabanjuk Oleg Vasil'evich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a number of factors specific to the tourism industry: a multiplier effect, a kind of method of generating working capital, specific "invisible exports", the factor most risky activities, the principle of direct and inverse transformation, and others. The data of experts of the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO on tourism as an indicator of welfare. It is emphasized along with the economic function of tourism on the social dimension of tourism in its mass phenomenon. The paper highlights the main problems and shortcomings of tourism as a complex socio-economic system; analysis of theoretical approaches to periodization of tourism that reflects the genesis of approaches regarding the nature of tourism; The factors of external and internal tourism development, made their ranking to measure the relationship between the measurement periods allocated for tourism development using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient.

  17. Specificity and robustness in transcription control networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anirvan M; Djordjevic, Marko; Shraiman, Boris I

    2002-02-19

    Recognition by transcription factors of the regulatory DNA elements upstream of genes is the fundamental step in controlling gene expression. How does the necessity to provide stability with respect to mutation constrain the organization of transcription control networks? We examine the mutation load of a transcription factor interacting with a set of n regulatory response elements as a function of the factor/DNA binding specificity and conclude on theoretical grounds that the optimal specificity decreases with n. The predicted correlation between variability of binding sites (for a given transcription factor) and their number is supported by the genomic data for Escherichia coli. The analysis of E. coli genomic data was carried out using an algorithm suggested by the biophysical model of transcription factor/DNA binding. Complete results of the search for candidate transcription factor binding sites are available at http://www.physics.rockefeller.edu/~boris/public/search_ecoli.

  18. The specific targeting of immune regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2012-01-01

    -inflammatory signals, and IDO-based immunotherapy may consequently be synergistic with additional immunotherapy. In this regard, we have shown that the presence of IDO-specific T cells boosted immunity against CMV and tumor antigens by eliminating IDO(+) suppressive cells and changing the regulatory microenvironment......Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunoregulatory enzyme that is implicated in suppressing T-cell immunity in many settings including cancer. In recent years, we have described spontaneous CD8(+) as well as CD4(+) T-cell reactivity against IDO in the tumor microenvironment of different...... cancer patients as well as in the peripheral blood of both cancer patients and to a lesser extent in healthy donors. We have demonstrated that IDO-reactive CD8(+) T cells were peptide-specific, cytotoxic effector cells, which are able to recognize and kill IDO-expressing cells including tumor cells...

  19. Site-specific weed control technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend; Søgaard, Henning Tangen; Kudsk, Per

    2009-01-01

    Site-specific weed control technologies are defined as machinery or equipment embedded with technologies that detect weeds growing in a crop and, taking into account predefined factors such as economics, takes action to maximise the chances of successfully controlling them. In the article, we...... describe the basic parts of site specific weed control technologies, comprising of weed sensing systems, weed management models and precision weed control implements. A review of state-of-the-art technologies shows that several weed sensing systems and precision implements have been developed over the last...... two decades, though barriers prevent their breakthrough. Most important among these is the lack of a truly robust weed recognition method, owing to mutual shading among plants and limitations in the capacity of highly accurate spraying and weeding apparatuses.   Another barrier is the lack...

  20. Fatigue behavior of ADI: Some specific features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svejcar, J.; Vechet, S.; Pokluda, J. [Technical Univ. of Brno (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The paper summarizes the results of fatigue tests on austempered ductile iron. Attention is mainly focused on the effect of graphite on crack propagation and on some irregularities exhibited by ADI and other ductile irons, e.g., some specific features of fatigue fracture (especially the occurrence of fatigue striations on intergranular facets), decrease of fatigue limit with increasing UTS, and anomalous dependence of loading cycle amplitude on mean cycle stress.

  1. Specific heat of praseodymium and neodymium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana Murthy, J.V.S.S.; Ramji Rao, R.

    1983-01-01

    The elements of the dynamical matrix of an ideal deep lattice, with nearest neighbour central interactions, have been obtained in a homogeneously strained state. The dispersion relations along the [0001] direction, on this model, have been presented for Pr and Nd. The frequency distribution function g(ω) is obtained and the lattice specific heat is calculated for Pr and Nd and the temperature variation of the equivalent Debye temperature is presented. (author)

  2. Performance specifications for proton medical facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, W.T.; Staples, J.W.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Renner, T.R.; Singh, R.P.; Nyman, M.A.; Collier, J.M.; Daftari, I.K.; Petti, P.L.; Alonso, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kubo, H.; Verhey, L.J. [University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States). Cancer Center]|[California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). School of Medicine; Castro, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States). Cancer Center]|[California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). School of Medicine

    1993-03-01

    Performance specifications of technical components of a modern proton radiotherapy facility are presented. The technical items specified include: the accelerator; the beam transport system including rotating gantry; the treatment beamline systems including beam scattering, beam scanning, and dosimetric instrumentation; and an integrated treatment and accelerator control system. Also included are treatment ancillary facilities such as diagnostic tools, patient positioning and alignment devices, and treatment planning systems. The facility specified will accommodate beam scanning enabling the three-dimensional conformal therapy deliver .

  3. Extinction Generates Outcome-Specific Conditioned Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Vincent; Chieng, Billy; Balleine, Bernard W

    2016-12-05

    Extinction involves altering a previously established predictive relationship between a cue and its outcome by repeatedly presenting that cue alone. Although it is widely accepted that extinction generates some form of inhibitory learning [1-4], direct evidence for this claim has been lacking, and the nature of the associative changes induced by extinction have, therefore, remained a matter of debate [5-8]. In the current experiments, we used a novel behavioral approach that we recently developed and that provides a direct measure of conditioned inhibition [9] to compare the influence of extinguished and non-extinguished cues on choice between goal-directed actions. Using this approach, we provide direct evidence that extinction generates outcome-specific conditioned inhibition. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this inhibitory learning is controlled by the infralimbic cortex (IL); inactivation of the IL using M4 DREADDs abolished outcome-specific inhibition and rendered the cue excitatory. Importantly, we found that context modulated this inhibition. Outside its extinction context, the cue was excitatory and functioned as a specific predictor of its previously associated outcome, biasing choice toward actions earning the same outcome. In its extinction context, however, the cue acted as a specific inhibitor and biased choice toward actions earning different outcomes. Context modulation of these excitatory and inhibitory memories was mediated by the dorsal hippocampus (HPC), suggesting that the HPC and IL act in concert to control the influence of conditioned inhibitors on choice. These findings demonstrate for the first time that extinction turns a cue into a net inhibitor that can influence choice via counterfactual action-outcome associations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Domain Specific Languages for Interactive Web Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus

    This dissertation shows how domain specific languages may be applied to the domain of interactive Web services to obtain flexible, safe, and efficient solutions. We show how each of four key aspects of interactive Web services involving sessions, dynamic creation of HTML/XML documents, form field......, , that supports virtually all aspects of the development of interactive Web services and provides flexible, safe, and efficient solutions....

  5. Specific methods on in-pile gammametry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointud, M.-L.; Michel, Francois.

    1979-01-01

    The gammametry technique in nuclear research reactors has evolved by the adequation of its means and the quality of its results since its beginnings in 1972. We do not propose here to make a detailed presentation, nor describe the kinds of well known results that can henceforth be attained with it in a conventional manner; our intention, on the other hand, is to describe a few specific methods developed for using it in the SILOE reactor of the CEN/G [fr

  6. Sedentary behavior and residual-specific mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Paul D. Loprinzi; Meghan K. Edwards; Eveleen Sng; Ovuokerie Addoh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of accelerometer-assessed sedentary behavior and residual-specific mortality. Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5536), with follow-up through 2011. Sedentary behavior was objectively measured over 7 days via accelerometry. Results: When expressing sedentary behavior as a 60 min/day increase, the hazard ratio across the models ranged from 1.07-1.40 (P < 0...

  7. Cultural Specifics of Management in Multinational Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Křečková Kroupová, Zuzana

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays the world is becoming increasingly economically connected, and cultural diversity of employees is gaining importance as a crucial competitive advantage. Cross-cultural communication ability is becoming a key management skill in multinational firms and is equally important for other employees who are exposed to other cultures in the workplace. This work mainly focuses on cultural specifics of management in multinational firms. The goal of this thesis is to discover how different natio...

  8. Specificity in ROS Signaling and Transcript Signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Vaahtera, Lauri; Brosché, Mikael; Wrzaczek, Michael; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS), important signaling molecules in plants, are involved in developmental control and stress adaptation. ROS production can trigger broad transcriptional changes; however, it is not clear how specificity in transcriptional regulation is achieved. Recent Advances: A large collection of public transcriptome data from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is available for analysis. These data can be used for the analysis of biological processes that are a...

  9. Characterization and carbohydrate specificity of pradimicin S

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Dogo-Isonagie, Cajetan I.; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Balzarini, Jan; Bewley, Carole A.

    2012-01-01

    The pradimicin family of antibiotics is attracting attention due to its anti-infective properties and as a model for understanding the requirements for carbohydrate recognition by small molecules. Members of the pradimicin family are unique among natural products in their ability to bind sugars in a Ca2+-dependent manner, but the oligomerization to insoluble aggregates that occurs upon Ca2+ binding has prevented detailed characterization of their carbohydrate specificity and biologically rele...

  10. [Constipation in the elderly, which specificities? ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, M-C

    2014-11-05

    Although constipation is very common in the geriatric population of both sexes, its importance is often underestimated as older people complain less frequently of rare stools compared to younger adults. The diagnostic approach includes an assessment of risk factors and associated pathologies specific to old age. The initial treatment is conservative, behavioral and pharmacological, in the absence of signs of severity. In case of initial treatment failure, investigations or specialized treatment will depend on individual situations.

  11. HAL/S-FC compiler system specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    This document specifies the informational interfaces within the HAL/S-FC compiler, and between the compiler and the external environment. This Compiler System Specification is for the HAL/S-FC compiler and its associated run time facilities which implement the full HAL/S language. The HAL/S-FC compiler is designed to operate stand-alone on any compatible IBM 360/370 computer and within the Software Development Laboratory (SDL) at NASA/JSC, Houston, Texas.

  12. Volatiles in Inter-Specific Bacterial Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyc, Olaf; Zweers, Hans; de Boer, Wietse; Garbeva, Paolina

    2015-01-01

    The importance of volatile organic compounds for functioning of microbes is receiving increased research attention. However, to date very little is known on how inter-specific bacterial interactions effect volatiles production as most studies have been focused on volatiles produced by monocultures of well-described bacterial genera. In this study we aimed to understand how inter-specific bacterial interactions affect the composition, production and activity of volatiles. Four phylogenetically different bacterial species namely: Chryseobacterium, Dyella, Janthinobacterium, and Tsukamurella were selected. Earlier results had shown that pairwise combinations of these bacteria induced antimicrobial activity in agar media whereas this was not the case for monocultures. In the current study, we examined if these observations were also reflected by the production of antimicrobial volatiles. Thus, the identity and antimicrobial activity of volatiles produced by the bacteria were determined in monoculture as well in pairwise combinations. Antimicrobial activity of the volatiles was assessed against fungal, oomycetal, and bacterial model organisms. Our results revealed that inter-specific bacterial interactions affected volatiles blend composition. Fungi and oomycetes showed high sensitivity to bacterial volatiles whereas the effect of volatiles on bacteria varied between no effects, growth inhibition to growth promotion depending on the volatile blend composition. In total 35 volatile compounds were detected most of which were sulfur-containing compounds. Two commonly produced sulfur-containing volatile compounds (dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide) were tested for their effect on three target bacteria. Here, we display the importance of inter-specific interactions on bacterial volatiles production and their antimicrobial activities.

  13. Volatiles in inter-specific bacterial interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf eTyc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of volatile organic compounds for functioning of microbes is receiving increased research attention. However, to date very little is known on how inter-specific bacterial interactions effect volatiles production as most studies have been focused on volatiles produced by monocultures of well described bacterial genera. In this study we aimed to understand how inter-specific bacterial interactions affect the composition, production and activity of volatiles. Four phylogenetically different bacterial species namely: Chryseobacterium, Dyella, Janthinobacterium and Tsukamurella were selected. Earlier results had shown that pairwise combinations of these bacteria induced antimicrobial activity in agar media whereas this was not the case for monocultures. In the current study, we examined if these observations were also reflected by the production of antimicrobial volatiles. Thus, the identity and antimicrobial activity of volatiles produced by the bacteria were determined in monoculture as well in pairwise combinations. Antimicrobial activity of the volatiles was assessed against fungal, oomycetal and bacterial model organisms. Our results revealed that inter-specific bacterial interactions affected volatiles blend composition. Fungi and oomycetes showed high sensitivity to bacterial volatiles whereas the effect of volatiles on bacteria varied between no effects, growth inhibition to growth promotion depending on the volatile blend composition. In total 35 volatile compounds were detected most of which were sulfur-containing compounds. Two commonly produced sulfur-containing volatile compounds (dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide were tested for their effect on three target bacteria. Here we display the importance of inter-specific interactions on bacterial volatiles production and their antimicrobial activities.

  14. Salt Bridges: Geometrically Specific, Designable Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, Jason E.; Kulp, Daniel W.; DeGrado, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Salt bridges occur frequently in proteins, providing conformational specificity and contributing to molecular recognition and catalysis. We present a comprehensive analysis of these interactions in protein structures by surveying a large database of protein structures. Salt bridges between Asp or Glu and His, Arg, or Lys display extremely well-defined geometric preferences. Several previously observed preferences are confirmed and others that were previously unrecognized are discovered. Salt ...

  15. Group specific component in serum and otosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Vase, P; Thymann, M

    1994-01-01

    An earlier Swedish study suggested a positive association between otosclerosis and the group-specific component GC*1F marker. We investigated the distribution of GC subtypes in 101 Danish patients with otosclerosis who all had surgery performed in the county of Funen. Compared to 1674 Danish...... controls we found no evidence of any association between markers from the GC serum protein system and otosclerosis....

  16. A Requirement Specification Language for AADL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Group. OMG Systems Modeling Language . OMG. 2015. http://www.omgsysml.org [OSATE 2016] Open Source AADL Tool Environment (OSATE), Version 2. Computer ...A Requirement Specification Language for AADL Peter H. Feiler Julien Delange Lutz Wrage June 2016 TECHNICAL REPORT CMU/SEI-2016-TR-008...reproduced in its entirety, without modification, and freely distrib- uted in written or electronic form without requesting formal permission. Permission

  17. Behavioural effects of caffeine: the specificity hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Snowden, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    This thesis argues that caffeine use offered a survival advantage to our ancestors and that moderate use continues to offer modern humans benefits. Caffeine ingestion, through the blocking of adenosine receptors, elicits broad elements of the mammalian threat response, specifically from the ‘flight or fight’ and ‘tend and befriend’ repertoires of behaviour: in effect, caffeine hijacks elements of the stress response. If the effects of caffeine had been discovered recently, rather than being a...

  18. Element specific X-ray fluorescene microtomography

    OpenAIRE

    Günzler, Til Florian

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence is widely known as an element-specific scanning analytic tool. It is used in many fields of science and technology and has given major new insights into different problems. The relatively large penetration depth of x rays into matter makes them ideally suited for tomography. The combination of x-ray fluorescence analysis and scanning microtomography, hereafter called x-ray fluorescence microtomography, has been further developed and improved in this work. Employing the newl...

  19. Specifications development for "Karbatril" codenamed tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kucherenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to current legislation of Ukraine the specifications of tablets include the following indicators: description, identification, average weight, disintegration and assay. The aim of the study. The development of specifications and project of quality control methods for "Karbatril" codenamed tablets. Materials and methods. During the study we analyzed 6 series of tablets "Karbatril." For the description, identification, determination of the average mass, disintegration, active ingredients quantify of "Karbatril" codenamed tablets we used appropriate methods and instruments. Results and discussion. Tablets "Karbatril" were analyzed for the following parameters: - Overview - Tablets white or nearly white; - Average weight - during the study the average weight of 6 series of obtained tablets ranged from 339,0 mg to 369,9 mg according to SPU from 337,0 mg to 373,0 mg; - Disintegration – according to SPU the disintegration for tablet without shell shall not exceed 15 min. Analyzed tablets disintegrated in the period from 5 to 10 minutes; - Identification and quantification of the active ingredients of tablets were conducted using modified HPLC methods. During the identification obtained chromatograms show compliance with SPU. In quantitative determination of the active ingredients content in "Karbatril" codenamed tablets we found carbamazepine from 148.18 mg to 150.19 mg, thiotriazoline - from 98.93 mg to 99.71 mg. This data is consistent to SPU which regulates content of carbamazepine - 150 mg ± 7,5%, thiotriazoline - 100 mg ± 10%. Conclusions. This study has developed specification for "Karbatril" codenamed tablets and also methods of HPLC qualitative and quantitative determination of active ingredients. In the specification the following parameters are included: description, identification, average weight, disintegration and assay. The study drafted quality control methods which are planned to be later offered to the

  20. Learning LM Specificity for Ganglion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Unsupervised learning models have been proposed based on experience (Ahumada and Mulligan, 1990;Wachtler, Doi, Lee and Sejnowski, 2007) that allow the cortex to develop units with LM specific color opponent receptive fields like the blob cells reported by Hubel and Wiesel on the basis of visual experience. These models used ganglion cells with LM indiscriminate wiring as inputs to the learning mechanism, which was presumed to occur at the cortical level.

  1. Salt bridges: geometrically specific, designable interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Jason E; Kulp, Daniel W; DeGrado, William F

    2011-03-01

    Salt bridges occur frequently in proteins, providing conformational specificity and contributing to molecular recognition and catalysis. We present a comprehensive analysis of these interactions in protein structures by surveying a large database of protein structures. Salt bridges between Asp or Glu and His, Arg, or Lys display extremely well-defined geometric preferences. Several previously observed preferences are confirmed, and others that were previously unrecognized are discovered. Salt bridges are explored for their preferences for different separations in sequence and in space, geometric preferences within proteins and at protein-protein interfaces, co-operativity in networked salt bridges, inclusion within metal-binding sites, preference for acidic electrons, apparent conformational side chain entropy reduction on formation, and degree of burial. Salt bridges occur far more frequently between residues at close than distant sequence separations, but, at close distances, there remain strong preferences for salt bridges at specific separations. Specific types of complex salt bridges, involving three or more members, are also discovered. As we observe a strong relationship between the propensity to form a salt bridge and the placement of salt-bridging residues in protein sequences, we discuss the role that salt bridges might play in kinetically influencing protein folding and thermodynamically stabilizing the native conformation. We also develop a quantitative method to select appropriate crystal structure resolution and B-factor cutoffs. Detailed knowledge of these geometric and sequence dependences should aid de novo design and prediction algorithms. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Reflections about therapeutic internments and his specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Estalayo Hernández

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There are cases treated in detention centers that present some specificities with respect to other affordable educational strategies from social component. This we refer to the need to address situations in which the same symptom of transgression resulting in an offense that carries a legal measure has other bases that generate and / or maintain, or etiology marking its expression and so much attention. The approach to interventions with children and young people is a seriously disruptive content submitted to numerous debates, discussions and disagreements. In this regard, therapeutic placements would be for those cases in which the intervention on symptom requires a specific and specialized perspective. Beyond clinical approaches, therapeutic placements should from the intervention on self-regulation problems (emotional, behavioral, and cognitive and behavioral expression and as a key defining element. To this we add that we have observed in our practice in recent years an increase in problems related to the field of mental health and / or drug and alcohol consumption on children and young people entering the judicial context. This requires expertise and implement a therapeutic approach in centers for juvenile justice. It is particularly important in these cases performed from the beginning of internment clinical and social diagnostics to guide and design the specific educational and therapeutic intervention required for each particular case, in the interest of optimizing the operation and achieve higher levels of efficiency

  3. Site-Specific PEGylation of Therapeutic Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K. Dozier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of proteins as therapeutics has a long history and is becoming ever more common in modern medicine. While the number of protein-based drugs is growing every year, significant problems still remain with their use. Among these problems are rapid degradation and excretion from patients, thus requiring frequent dosing, which in turn increases the chances for an immunological response as well as increasing the cost of therapy. One of the main strategies to alleviate these problems is to link a polyethylene glycol (PEG group to the protein of interest. This process, called PEGylation, has grown dramatically in recent years resulting in several approved drugs. Installing a single PEG chain at a defined site in a protein is challenging. Recently, there is has been considerable research into various methods for the site-specific PEGylation of proteins. This review seeks to summarize that work and provide background and context for how site-specific PEGylation is performed. After introducing the topic of site-specific PEGylation, recent developments using chemical methods are described. That is followed by a more extensive discussion of bioorthogonal reactions and enzymatic labeling.

  4. One step processing for future diesel specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    The trend in diesel fuel specifications is to limit the sulfur level to less than 0.05 wt- per cent. Many regions have also specified that diesel fuels must have lower aromatic levels, higher cetane numbers, and lower distillation end points. These changes will require significant refinery investment to meet the new diesel fuel specifications. The changes may also significantly affect the value of synthetic crude stocks. UOP has developed a new hydroprocessing catalyst which makes it possible to meet the new diesel specifications in one single processing step and at minimal cost. The catalyst saturates aromatics while opening ring structures at the same time. By selectively cracking heavy components into the diesel range with minimal cracking to gas or naphtha, heavier feedstocks can be upgraded to diesel, and refinery diesel yield can be augmented. Synthetic crude distillate is often high in aromatics and low in cetane number. This new UOP hydroprocessing system will allow synthetic crude producers and refiners to produce diesel fuels with higher cetane numbers, high-quality distillate blendstocks and distillate fuels. 26 figs

  5. New visions in specific immunotherapy in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Lau, Susanne; Valovirta, Erkka

    2008-01-01

    Specific immunotherapy is indicated for confirmed immunoglobulin E-mediated airway diseases using standardized allergen products with documented clinical efficacy and safety. For decades the subcutaneous route of administration (SCIT) has been the gold standard. Recently, the sublingual immunothe......Specific immunotherapy is indicated for confirmed immunoglobulin E-mediated airway diseases using standardized allergen products with documented clinical efficacy and safety. For decades the subcutaneous route of administration (SCIT) has been the gold standard. Recently, the sublingual...... immunotherapy (SLIT) has also been investigated in children. SCIT, especially with grass and birch pollens but also house dust mites, is an effective treatment in children with allergic rhinitis and asthma when a significant part of their symptoms are caused by these allergens. A long-term effect up to 12 yr...... both with SCIT and SLIT. This review was initiated by iPAC (international Pediatric Allergy and Asthma Consortium) and aims to review current knowledge related to specific immunotherapy in childhood, and to identify needs for future research in this field....

  6. Trait-specific dependence in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J; Simpson, Jeffry A; Campbell, Lorne

    2002-10-01

    Informed by three theoretical frameworks--trait psychology, evolutionary psychology, and interdependence theory--we report four investigations designed to develop and test the reliability and validity of a new construct and accompanying multiscale inventory, the Trait-Specific Dependence Inventory (TSDI). The TSDI assesses comparisons between present and alternative romantic partners on major dimensions of mate value. In Study 1, principal components analyses revealed that the provisional pool of theory-generated TSDI items were represented by six factors: Agreeable/Committed, Resource Accruing Potential, Physical Prowess, Emotional Stability, Surgency, and Physical Attractiveness. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis replicated these results on a different sample and tested how well different structural models fit the data. Study 3 provided evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity of the six TSDI scales by correlating each one with a matched personality trait scale that did not explicitly incorporate comparisons between partners. Study 4 provided further validation evidence, revealing that the six TSDI scales successfully predicted three relationship outcome measures--love, time investment, and anger/upset--above and beyond matched sets of traditional personality trait measures. These results suggest that the TSDI is a reliable, valid, and unique construct that represents a new trait-specific method of assessing dependence in romantic relationships. The construct of trait-specific dependence is introduced and linked with other theories of mate value.

  7. Species-specific beaked whale echolocation signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Pickering, Simone; McDonald, Mark A; Simonis, Anne E; Solsona Berga, Alba; Merkens, Karlina P B; Oleson, Erin M; Roch, Marie A; Wiggins, Sean M; Rankin, Shannon; Yack, Tina M; Hildebrand, John A

    2013-09-01

    Beaked whale echolocation signals are mostly frequency-modulated (FM) upsweep pulses and appear to be species specific. Evolutionary processes of niche separation may have driven differentiation of beaked whale signals used for spatial orientation and foraging. FM pulses of eight species of beaked whales were identified, as well as five distinct pulse types of unknown species, but presumed to be from beaked whales. Current evidence suggests these five distinct but unidentified FM pulse types are also species-specific and are each produced by a separate species. There may be a relationship between adult body length and center frequency with smaller whales producing higher frequency signals. This could be due to anatomical and physiological restraints or it could be an evolutionary adaption for detection of smaller prey for smaller whales with higher resolution using higher frequencies. The disadvantage of higher frequencies is a shorter detection range. Whales echolocating with the highest frequencies, or broadband, likely lower source level signals also use a higher repetition rate, which might compensate for the shorter detection range. Habitat modeling with acoustic detections should give further insights into how niches and prey may have shaped species-specific FM pulse types.

  8. Specificity of dyspraxia in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Lindsey K; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2012-03-01

    To explore the specificity of impaired praxis and postural knowledge to autism by examining three samples of children, including those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing (TD) children. Twenty-four children with ASD, 24 children with ADHD, and 24 TD children, ages 8-13, completed measures assessing basic motor control (the Physical and Neurological Exam for Subtle Signs; PANESS), praxis (performance of skilled gestures to command, with imitation, and tool use) and the ability to recognize correct hand postures necessary to perform skilled gestures (the Postural Knowledge Test; PKT). Children with ASD performed significantly worse than TD children on all three assessments. In contrast, children with ADHD performed significantly worse than TD controls on PANESS but not on the praxis examination or PKT. Furthermore, children with ASD performed significantly worse than children with ADHD on both the praxis examination and PKT, but not on the PANESS. Whereas both children with ADHD and children with ASD show impairments in basic motor control, impairments in performance and recognition of skilled motor gestures, consistent with dyspraxia, appear to be specific to autism. The findings suggest that impaired formation of perceptual-motor action models necessary to development of skilled gestures and other goal directed behavior is specific to autism; whereas, impaired basic motor control may be a more generalized finding.

  9. Development of Specifications for Radioactive Waste Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide guidelines for the development of waste package specifications that comply with waste acceptance requirements for storage and disposal of radioactive waste. It will assist waste generators and waste package producers in selecting the most significant parameters and in developing and implementing specifications for each individual type of waste and waste package. This publication also identifies and reviews the activities and technical provisions that are necessary to meet safety requirements; in particular, selection of the significant safety parameters and preparation of specifications for waste forms, waste containers and waste packages using proven approaches, methods and technologies. This report provides guidance using a systematic, stepwise approach, integrating the technical, organizational and administrative factors that need to be considered at each step of planning and implementing waste package design, fabrication, approval, quality assurance and control. The report reflects the considerable experience and knowledge that has been accumulated in the IAEA Member States and is consistent with the current international requirements, principles, standards and guidance for the safe management of radioactive waste

  10. Treatment of specific phobia in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A Pachana

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Nancy A Pachana1, Rana M Woodward1, Gerard JA Byrne21School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia 2School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, AustraliaAbstract: Phobias are common in later life, yet treatment research in this population remains scant. The efficacy of exposure therapy, in combination with other Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT components, in the treatment of specific phobia with a middle and older aged sample was examined. Sixteen adults aged 45–68 with DSM-IV diagnosis of a specific phobia received a manualized intervention over ten weeks, and were compared with a control group. Results indicated significant time effects in the treatment group for the primary outcome variables of phobic severity and avoidance as well as secondary outcome variables including depression and anxiety. Symptom presence and severity also significantly declined in the treatment group. No significant changes in state anxiety were noted across the treatment period. Such results provide support for the efficacy of exposure combined with CBT treatment for specific phobia in middle to older aged adults.Keywords: anxiety, phobia, older adults, cognitive behavioral therapy

  11. 77 FR 76942 - 2013-2014 Summer Flounder and Scup Specifications; 2013 Black Sea Bass Specifications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... and Scup Specifications; 2013 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Preliminary 2013 Quota Adjustments; 2013... the 2013 summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass fisheries, as well as the 2014 summer flounder and... necessary to comply with regulations implementing the Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery...

  12. Testing Moral Foundation Theory: Are Specific Moral Emotions Elicited by Specific Moral Transgressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Helen; Hess, Ursula

    2018-01-01

    Moral foundation theory posits that specific moral transgressions elicit specific moral emotions. To test this claim, participants (N = 195) were asked to rate their emotions in response to moral violation vignettes. We found that compassion and disgust were associated with care and purity respectively as predicted by moral foundation theory.…

  13. Do Specific Types of Networking Predict Specific Mobility Outcomes? A Two-Year Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Hans-Georg; Moser, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has established a general relation between networking and career outcomes, as postulated by theories on protean careers and career self management. We suggest that specific facets of networking behavior differentially affect specific career mobility outcomes over time. In a 2-year prospective study, we examined the impact of six…

  14. Is Case-Specificity Content-Specificity? An Analysis of Data from Extended-Matching Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dory, Valerie; Gagnon, Robert; Charlin, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Case-specificity, i.e., variability of a subject's performance across cases, has been a consistent finding in medical education. It has important implications for assessment validity and reliability. Its root causes remain a matter of discussion. One hypothesis, content-specificity, links variability of performance to variable levels of relevant…

  15. Tissue-specific and substrate-specific mitochondrial bioenergetics in feline cardiac and skeletal muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Dela, Flemming; Koch, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    No studies have investigated the mitochondrial function in permeabilized muscle fiber from cats. The aim of this study was to investigate tissue-specific and substrate-specific characteristics of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in feline permeabilized oxidative muscle fi...

  16. Gender difference in the non-specific and specific immune response in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, M; Heineman, MJ; Faas, MM; Bouman, Annechien

    PROBLEM: The purpose of this present ex vivo study is to get insight in the sex differences of the basic non-specific and specific immune response. METHOD OF STUDY: Intracellular types 1 and 2 cytokine production by stimulated male and female lymphocytes and monocytes in a whole blood preparation

  17. Gender difference in the non-specific and specific immune response in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Annechien; Schipper, Martin; Heineman, Maas Jan; Faas, Marijke M.

    2004-01-01

    PROBLEM: The purpose of this present ex vivo study is to get insight in the sex differences of the basic non-specific and specific immune response. METHOD OF STUDY: Intracellular types 1 and 2 cytokine production by stimulated male and female lymphocytes and monocytes in a whole blood preparation

  18. Host Range Specificity in Verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, R G; Subbarao, K V

    1999-12-01

    ABSTRACT Verticillium dahliae isolates from artichoke, bell pepper, cabbage, cauliflower, chili pepper, cotton, eggplant, lettuce, mint, potato, strawberry, tomato, and watermelon and V. albo-atrum from alfalfa were evaluated for their pathogenicity on all 14 hosts. One-month-old seedlings were inoculated with a spore suspension of about 10(7) conidia per ml using a root-dip technique and incubated in the greenhouse. Disease incidence and severity, plant height, and root and shoot dry weights were recorded 6 weeks after inoculation. Bell pepper, cabbage, cauliflower, cotton, eggplant, and mint isolates exhibited host specificity and differential pathogenicity on other hosts, whereas isolates from artichoke, lettuce, potato, strawberry, tomato, and watermelon did not. Bell pepper was resistant to all Verticillium isolates except isolates from bell pepper and eggplant. Thus, host specificity exists in some isolates of V. dahliae. The same isolates were characterized for vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) through complementation of nitrate nonutilizing (nit) mutants. Cabbage and cauliflower isolates did not produce nit mutants. The isolate from cotton belonged to VCG 1; isolates from bell pepper, eggplant, potato, and tomato, to VCG 4; and the remaining isolates, to VCG 2. These isolates were also analyzed using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method. Forty random primers were screened, and eighteen of them amplified DNA from Verticillium. Based on RAPD banding patterns, cabbage and cauliflower isolates formed a unique group, distinct from other V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum groups. Minor genetic variations were observed among V. dahliae isolates from other hosts, regardless of whether they were host specific or not. There was no correlation among pathogenicity, VCGs, and RAPD banding patterns. Even though the isolates belonged to different VCGs, they shared similar RAPD profiles. These results suggest that management of Verticillium wilt in some crops

  19. Gender specific issues in hereditary ocular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iragavarapu, Saradha; Gorin, Michael B

    2015-02-01

    This review is intended to summarize the current knowledge from basic science and clinical medical literature cited within PubMed that pertain to gender-related factors and affect those individuals with hereditary ocular disorders. We consider gender-related biological factors that (a) affect disease onset and progression, (b) gender differences for major X-linked ocular disorders, (c) gender-specific conditions, (d) medications that may influence genetic eye disorders, and finally, (e) gender-related issues that influence the management and quality of life of these patients. Several studies have demonstrated the manner in which sex-related hormones in animal models are capable of influencing cell pathway and survival that are likely to affect hereditary eye disorders. There are very few clinical studies that provide compelling evidence for gender differences in human ocular conditions, other than for a number of X-linked disorders. Disease expression for X-linked disorders may be impacted by genetic mechanisms such as lyonization or uniparental disomy. Clinical evidence regarding the impact of gender-related medical conditions and therapies on eye conditions is extremely limited and primarily based on anecdotal evidence. Gender-specific factors may play a major role in the underlying biological pathways that influence the onset, rate of progression, and clinical findings associated with ocular genetic conditions. Clinicians need to be aware of the variable phenotypes observed in female carriers of X-linked disorders of gender specific issues, many of which are inadequately addressed in the current literature. Clinicians need to be sensitive to gender differences in social, cultural, and religious systems and they should also be aware of how their own gender biases may influence how they counsel patients. Finally, it is clear that the lack of effective clinical studies in this area creates an opportunity for future research that will have real benefits for these

  20. Formal specification is an experimental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorner, D. [Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark)

    1992-09-01

    Traditionally, abstract models of large, complex systems have been given in free-form mathematics, combining - often in ad-hoc, not formally supported ways - notions from the disciplines of partial differential equations, functional analysis, mathematical statistics, etc. Such models have been very useful for assimilation of information, analysis (investigation), and prediction (simulation). These models have, however, usually not been helpful in deriving computer representations of the modelled systems - for the purposes of computerized monitoring and control, Computing science, concerned with how to construct objects that can exist within the computer, offers ways of complementing, and in some cases, replacing or combining traditional mathematical models. Formal, model-, as well as property-oriented, specifications in the styles of denotational (respectively, algebraic semantics) represent major approaches to such modelling. In this expository, discursive paper we illustrate what we mean by model-oriented specifications of large, complex technological computing systems. The three modelling examples covers the introvert programming methodological subject of SDEs: software development environments, the distributed computing system subject of wfs`s: (transaction) work flow systems, and the extrovert subject of robots: robotics! the thesis is, just as for mathematical modelling, that we can derive much understanding, etc., from experimentally creating such formally specified models - on paper - and that we gain little in additionally building ad-hoc prototypes. Our models are expressed in a model-oriented style using the VDM specification language Meta-IV In this paper the models only reflect the {open_quotes}data modelling{close_quotes} aspects. We observe that such data models are more easily captured in the model-oriented siyle than in the algebraic semantics property-oriented style which originally was built of the abstraction of operations. 101 refs., 4 figs.

  1. EDF specifications on nuclear grade resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Darren; Gressier, Frederic; Taunier, Stephane; Le-Calvar, Marc; Ranchoux, Gilles; Marteau, Herve; Labed, Veronique

    2012-09-01

    Ion exchange resins are widely used across EDF, especially within the nuclear division for the purification of water. Important applications include primary circuit, secondary circuit and effluent treatment, which require high quality nuclear grade resins to retain the dissolved species, some of which may be radioactive. There is a need for more and more efficient purification in order to decrease worker dose during maintenance but also to decrease volumes of radioactive resin waste. Resin performance is subject to several forms of degradation, including physical, chemical, thermal and radioactive, therefore appropriate resin properties have to be selected to reduce such effects. Work has been done with research institutes, manufacturers and on EDF sites to select these properties, create specifications and to continuously improve on these specifications. An interesting example of research regarding resin performance is the resin degradation under irradiation. Resins used in the CVCS circuit of EDF nuclear power plants are subject to irradiation over their lifetime. A study was carried out on the effects of total integrated doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 MGy on typically used EDF mixed bed resins in a 'mini-CVCS' apparatus to simultaneously test actual primary circuit fluid. The tests confirmed that the resins still perform efficiently after a typical CVCS radiation dose. Certain resins also need additional specifications in order to maintain the integrity of the particular circuits they are used in. Recently, EDF has updated its requirements on these high purity nuclear grade resins, produced generic doctrines for all products and materials used on site which include resins of all grades, and as a result have also updated a guide on recommended resin usage for the French fleet of reactors. An overview of the evolutions will be presented. (authors)

  2. Modality-specificity of selective attention networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Jamieson Stewart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the modality specificity and generality of selective attention networks. Method: Forty-eight young adults completed a battery of four auditory and visual selective attention tests based upon the Attention Network framework: the visual and auditory Attention Network Tests (vANT, aANT, the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA, and the Test of Attention in Listening (TAiL. These provided independent measures for auditory and visual alerting, orienting, and conflict resolution networks. The measures were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis to assess underlying attention constructs. Results: The analysis yielded a four-component solution. The first component comprised of a range of measures from the TEA and was labeled ‘general attention’. The third component was labeled ‘auditory attention’, as it only contained measures from the TAiL using pitch as the attended stimulus feature. The second and fourth components were labeled as ‘spatial orienting’ and ‘spatial conflict’, respectively – they were comprised of orienting and conflict resolution measures from the vANT, aANT and TAiL attend-location task – all tasks based upon spatial judgments (e.g., the direction of a target arrow or sound location. Conclusions: These results do not support our a-priori hypothesis that attention networks are either modality specific or supramodal. Auditory attention separated into selectively attending to spatial and non-spatial features, with the auditory spatial attention loading onto the same factor as visual spatial attention, suggesting spatial attention is supramodal. However, since our study did not include a non-spatial measure of visual attention, further research will be required to ascertain whether non-spatial attention is modality-specific.

  3. Modality-specificity of Selective Attention Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Hannah J; Amitay, Sygal

    2015-01-01

    To establish the modality specificity and generality of selective attention networks. Forty-eight young adults completed a battery of four auditory and visual selective attention tests based upon the Attention Network framework: the visual and auditory Attention Network Tests (vANT, aANT), the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA), and the Test of Attention in Listening (TAiL). These provided independent measures for auditory and visual alerting, orienting, and conflict resolution networks. The measures were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis to assess underlying attention constructs. The analysis yielded a four-component solution. The first component comprised of a range of measures from the TEA and was labeled "general attention." The third component was labeled "auditory attention," as it only contained measures from the TAiL using pitch as the attended stimulus feature. The second and fourth components were labeled as "spatial orienting" and "spatial conflict," respectively-they were comprised of orienting and conflict resolution measures from the vANT, aANT, and TAiL attend-location task-all tasks based upon spatial judgments (e.g., the direction of a target arrow or sound location). These results do not support our a-priori hypothesis that attention networks are either modality specific or supramodal. Auditory attention separated into selectively attending to spatial and non-spatial features, with the auditory spatial attention loading onto the same factor as visual spatial attention, suggesting spatial attention is supramodal. However, since our study did not include a non-spatial measure of visual attention, further research will be required to ascertain whether non-spatial attention is modality-specific.

  4. Tissue-specific MR contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinmann, Hanns-Joachim E-mail: hannsjoachim.weinmann@schering.de; Ebert, Wolfgang; Misselwitz, Bernd; Schmitt-Willich, Heribert

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to outline recent trends in contrast agent development for magnetic resonance imaging. Up to now, small molecular weight gadolinium chelates are the workhorse in contrast enhanced MRI. These first generation MR contrast agents distribute into the intravascular and interstitial space, thus allowing the evaluation of physiological parameters, such as the status or existence of the blood-brain-barrier or the renal function. Shortly after the first clinical use of paramagnetic metallochelates in 1983, compounds were suggested for liver imaging and enhancing a cardiac infarct. Meanwhile, liver specific contrast agents based on gadolinium, manganese or iron become reality. Dedicated blood pool agents will be available within the next years. These gadolinium or iron agents will be beneficial for longer lasting MRA procedures, such as cardiac imaging. Contrast enhanced lymphography after interstitial or intravenous injection will be another major step forward in diagnostic imaging. Metastatic involvement will be seen either after the injection of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxides or dedicated gadolinium chelates. The accumulation of both compound classes is triggered by an uptake into macrophages. It is likely that similar agents will augment MRI of atheriosclerotic plaques, a systemic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. Thrombus-specific agents based on small gadolinium labeled peptides are on the horizon. It is very obvious that the future of cardiovascular MRI will benefit from the development of new paramagnetic and superparamagnetic substances. The expectations for new tumor-, pathology- or receptor-specific agents are high. However, is not likely that such a compound will be available for daily routine MRI within the next decade.

  5. Specification and Verification of Hybrid System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjaja, Belawati H.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid systems are reactive systems which intermix between two components, discrete components and continuous components. The continuous components are usually called plants, subject to disturbances which cause the state variables of the systems changing continuously by physical laws and/or by the control laws. The discrete components can be digital computers, sensor and actuators controlled by programs. These programs are designed to select, control and supervise the behavior of the continuous components. Specification and verification of hybrid systems has recently become an active area of research in both computer science and control engineering, many papers concerning hybrid system have been published. This paper gives a design methodology for hybrid systems as an example to the specification and verification of hybrid systems. The design methodology is based on the cooperation between two disciplines, control engineering and computer science. The methodology brings into the design of control loops and decision loops. The external behavior of control loops are specified in a notation which is understandable by the two disciplines. The design of control loops which employed theory of differential equation is done by control engineers, and its correctness is also guaranteed analytically or experimentally by control engineers. The decision loops are designed in computing science based on the specifications of control loops. The verification of systems requirements can be done by computing scientists using a formal reasoning mechanism. For illustrating the proposed design, a problem of balancing an inverted pendulum which is a popular experiment device in control theory is considered, and the Mean Value Calculus is chosen as a formal notation for specifying the control loops and designing the decision loops

  6. Optimisation of technical specifications using probabilistic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, G.; Knochenhauer, M.; Hultqvist, G.

    1986-01-01

    During the last few years the development of methods for modifying and optimising nuclear power plant Technical Specifications (TS) for plant operations has received increased attention. Probalistic methods in general, and the plant and system models of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in particular, seem to provide the most forceful tools for optimisation. This paper first gives some general comments on optimisation, identifying important parameters and then gives a description of recent Swedish experiences from the use of nuclear power plant PSA models and results for TS optimisation

  7. Typed Multiset Rewriting Specifications of Security Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    judgment Γ ` ρ. htp dot Σ ` · Σ ` P (Σ, A : principal) ` ρ htp grole Σ ` P, ρ∀A 15 4 MULTISET REWRITING THEORIES (Σ,A : principal,Σ′) ` P (Σ,A...principal,Σ′) ` ρ htp arole (Σ,A : principal,Σ′) ` P, ρA Observe the difference in the way the signature is used in rule htp grole and htp arole. In the...therefore we know by rule htp arole from Section 4.3 that Σ includes a declaration of the form “A : principal”. Since data access specification is about

  8. Leishmania metacaspase: an arginine-specific peptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Iveth; Fasel, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to give insights into metacaspase of Leishmania protozoan parasites as arginine-specific cysteine peptidase. The physiological role of metacaspase in Leishmania is still a matter of debate, whereas its peptidase enzymatic activity has been well characterized. Among the different possible expression systems, metacaspase-deficient yeast cells (Δyca1) have been instrumental in studying the activity of Leishmania major metacaspase (LmjMCA). Here, we describe techniques for purification of LmjMCA and its activity measurement, providing a platform for further identification of LmjMCA substrates.

  9. CASL- The Common Algebraic Specification Language- Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne

    1997-01-01

    This Summary is the basis for the Design Proposal [LD97b] for CASL, the Common Algebraic Specification Language, prepared by the Language Design Task Group of CoFI, the Common Framework Initiative. It gives the abstract syntax, and informally describes its intended semantics. It is accompanied...... of this Summary shows just which bits of CASL are currently subject to reconsideration or revision, in view of the referees' comments and the recommendations made by the CoFI Semantics Task Group [Sem97c]. Changes that were made since the previous version are highlighted in the same way as this sentence. Points...

  10. GMSEC Interface Specification Document 2016 March

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The GMSEC Interface Specification Document contains the standard set of defined messages. Each GMSEC standard message contains a GMSEC Information Bus Header section and a Message Contents section. Each message section identifies required fields, optional fields, data type and recommended use of the fields. Additionally, this document includes the message subjects associated with the standard messages. The system design of the operations center should ensure the components that are selected use both the API and the defined standard messages in order to achieve full interoperability from component to component.

  11. Specific Electrostatic Molecular Recognition in Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming; Hoeck, Casper; Schoffelen, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    The identification of pairs of small peptides that recognize each other in water exclusively through electrostatic interactions is reported. The target peptide and a structure-biased combinatorial ligand library consisting of ≈78 125 compounds were synthesized on different sized beads. Peptide......-bead binding assay and by 2D NMR spectroscopy. Molecular dynamics (MD) studies revealed a putative mode of interaction for this unusual electrostatic binding event. High binding specificity occurred through a combination of topological matching and electrostatic and hydrogen-bond complementarities. From MD...

  12. Species-specific challenges in dog cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G A; Oh, H J; Park, J E; Kim, M J; Park, E J; Jo, Y K; Jang, G; Kim, M K; Kim, H J; Lee, B C

    2012-12-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is now an established procedure used in cloning of several species. SCNT in dogs involves multiple steps including the removal of the nuclear material, injection of a donor cell, fusion, activation of the reconstructed oocytes and finally transfer to a synchronized female recipient. There are therefore many factors that contribute to cloning efficiency. By performing a retrospective analysis of 2005-2012 published papers regarding dog cloning, we define the optimum procedure and summarize the specific feature for dog cloning. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Specificational Copular Sentences in Russian and English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara H Partee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Russian sentence (1, from Padučeva and Uspensky (1979, and English (2 are examples of specificational copular sentences: NP2 provides the ‘specification’, or ‘value’ of the description given by NP1. (1Vladelec ètogo osobnjaka – juvelir Fužere. owner-NOM this-GENmansion-GENjeweler-NOM Fuzhere ‘The owner of this mansion is the jeweler Fuzhere.’ (2The biggest problem is the recent budget cuts. Williams (1983 and Partee (1986 argued that specificational sentences like (2 result from “inversion around the copula”: that NP1 is a predicate (type and NP2 is the subject, a referential expression of type e. Partee (1999 argued that such an analysis is right for Russian, citing arguments from Padučeva and Uspensky (1979 that NP2 is the subject of sentence (1. But in that paper I argued that differences between Russian and English suggest that in English there is no such inversion, contra Williams (1983 and Partee (1986: the subject of (2 is NP1, and both NPs are of type e, but with NP1 less referential than NP2, perhaps “attributive”. Now, based on classic work by Roger Higgins on English and by Paducheva and Uspensky on Russian, and on a wealth of recent work by Mikkelsen, Geist, Romero, Schlenker, and others, a reexamination the semantics and structure of specificational copular sentences in Russian and English in a typological perspective supports a partly different set of conclusions: (i NP1 is of type and NP2 is of type e in both English and Russian; (ii but NP1 is subject in English, while NP2 is subject in Russian; and (iii NP1 in specificational sentences is universally topical (discourse-old, but only in some languages (like English is that accomplished by putting NP1 into canonical subject position. In other words, both English (2 and Russian (1 move the -type NP1 into some sentence-initial position for information-structure reasons, but in English NP1 ends up as syntactic subject

  14. Orientation specific deposition of mesoporous particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kjellman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a protocol for a facile orientation specific deposition of plate-like mesoporous SBA-15 silica particles onto a surface (mesopores oriented normal to surface. A drop of an aqueous dispersion of particles is placed on the surface and water vaporizes under controlled relative humidity. Three requirements are essential for uniform coverage: particle dispersion should not contain aggregates, a weak attraction between particles and surface is needed, and evaporation rate should be low. Aggregates are removed by stirring/sonication. Weak attraction is realized by introducing cationic groups to the surface. Insight into the mechanisms of the so-called coffee stain effect is also provided.

  15. Dimensionality reduction for dimension-specific search

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Zi; Hengtao, Shen; Zhou, Xiaofang; Song, Dawei; Rüger, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Dimensionality reduction plays an important role in efficient similarity search, which is often based on k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) queries over a high-dimensional feature space. In this paper, we introduce a novel type of k-NN query, namely conditional k-NN (ck-NN), which considers dimension-specific constraint in addition to the inter-point distances. However, existing dimensionality reduction methods are not applicable to this new type of queries. We propose a novel Mean-Std (standard devia...

  16. Panel data specifications in nonparametric kernel regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Henningsen, Arne

    We discuss nonparametric regression models for panel data. A fully nonparametric panel data specification that uses the time variable and the individual identifier as additional (categorical) explanatory variables is considered to be the most suitable. We use this estimator and conventional...... parametric panel data estimators to analyse the production technology of Polish crop farms. The results of our nonparametric kernel regressions generally differ from the estimates of the parametric models but they only slightly depend on the choice of the kernel functions. Based on economic reasoning, we...... found the estimates of the fully nonparametric panel data model to be more reliable....

  17. Runtime Analysis of Linear Temporal Logic Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Havelund, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    This report presents an approach to checking a running program against its Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) specifications. LTL is a widely used logic for expressing properties of programs viewed as sets of executions. Our approach consists of translating LTL formulae to finite-state automata, which are used as observers of the program behavior. The translation algorithm we propose modifies standard LTL to B chi automata conversion techniques to generate automata that check finite program traces. The algorithm has been implemented in a tool, which has been integrated with the generic JPaX framework for runtime analysis of Java programs.

  18. Review of specific radiological accident considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, J.

    1984-01-01

    Specific points of guidance provided in the forthcoming document A Guide to Radiological Accident Considerations for Siting and Design of Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities are discussed. Of these, the following are considered of particular interest to analysts of hypothetical accidents: onsite dose limits; population dose, public health effects, and environmental contamination as accident consequences which should be addressed; risk analysis; natural phenomena as accident initiators; recommended dose models; multiple organ equivalent dose; and recommended methods and parameters for source terms and release amount calculations. Comments are being invited on this document, which is undergoing rewrite after the first stage of peer review

  19. Optimization Specifications for CUDA Code Restructuring Tool

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Ayaz

    2017-03-13

    In this work we have developed a restructuring software tool (RT-CUDA) following the proposed optimization specifications to bridge the gap between high-level languages and the machine dependent CUDA environment. RT-CUDA takes a C program and convert it into an optimized CUDA kernel with user directives in a configuration file for guiding the compiler. RTCUDA also allows transparent invocation of the most optimized external math libraries like cuSparse and cuBLAS enabling efficient design of linear algebra solvers. We expect RT-CUDA to be needed by many KSA industries dealing with science and engineering simulation on massively parallel computers like NVIDIA GPUs.

  20. CONCEPTUAL STUDY OFRELEVANT SPECIFICS OF INTERNETMARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B. Ponyavina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents methodological and methodical bases of research relevant specifics of Internet marketing conducted by Russian companies in the Interenet. The paper is focused on the research of the leading Russian online publications, their practices and characteristics. This work dwells on the comparison of competitiveness with adjacent categories. It is established that the development of information technologies, among which one of the key places has taken the Internet, the emergence and rapid growth of e-Commerce became the basis for the emergence of a new trend in the modern concept of relationship marketing - Internet marketing.

  1. The programming language HAL: A specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    HAL accomplishes three significant objectives: (1) increased readability, through the use of a natural two-dimensional mathematical format; (2) increased reliability, by providing for selective recognition of common data and subroutines, and by incorporating specific data-protect features; (3) real-time control facility, by including a comprehensive set of real-time control commands and signal conditions. Although HAL is designed primarily for programming on-board computers, it is general enough to meet nearly all the needs in the production, verification and support of aerospace, and other real-time applications.

  2. Epic Specificity of Ukrainian Folk Dumas

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav K. Rosovetsky

    2018-01-01

    The article examines the epic specificity of Ukrainian dumas. It does it by demonstrating the originality of the verbal form of dumas, the musical elements of its texts and their performers, blind musicians, and by discussing the place of the genre among similar epic phenomena in the world literature. While S.N. Azbelev considers dumas to be a pre-epic form correspondent to the hypothetical “lyrico-epic cantilena” (A.N. Veselovskiy), B.N. Putilov relates them to the later, “post-classic” stag...

  3. Specification of EDITH motion control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitwieser, H.; Frank, A.; Holler, E.; Suess, U.; Leinemann, K.

    1990-09-01

    EDITH is an experimental device for in vessel handling at NET/ITER. The purpose of EDITH is: Testing of ABS (articulated boom system) components; testing and validation of remote handling procedures; testing and validation of ABS end-effectors; testing of ABS control system features and verification of control system concepts. This document, after describing the environment in which the control system is to operate, specifies architecture and functionality to be implemented by the EDITH motion control system software, thereby taking full reference to the control system specification for TARM, which was decided to be the base for the implementation. (orig.) [de

  4. An introduction to programming with specifications

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    A feature of modern advanced computing is the functional approach to programming. In this book, the authors present an introduction to the mathematics which underline functional programming, emphasizing the understanding of definition and specification--a prerequisite of good programming and problem solving with a computer. The book is self-contained, requiring a low level of mathematical sophistication and may be used as an introduction to the mathematics of programming.Provides an introduction to the functional approach to programming**Emphasizes the problem to be solved, not the pro

  5. Electronic specific heat of transition metal carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, R.

    1964-07-01

    The experimental results that make it possible to define the band structure of transition metal carbides having an NaCI structure are still very few. We have measured the electronic specific heat of some of these carbides of varying electronic concentration (TiC, either stoichiometric or non-stoichiometric, TaC and mixed (Ti, Ta) - C). We give the main characteristics (metallography, resistivity, X-rays) of our samples and we describe the low temperature specific heat apparatus which has been built. In one of these we use helium as the exchange gas. The other is set up with a mechanical contact. The two use a germanium probe for thermometer. The measurement of the temperature using this probe is described, as well as the various measurement devices. The results are presented in the form of a rigid band model and show that the density of the states at the Fermi level has a minimum in the neighbourhood of the group IV carbides. (author) [fr

  6. Evolution and Development of Effective Feedstock Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garold Gresham; Rachel Emerson; Amber Hoover; Amber Miller; William Bauer; Kevin Kenney

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blend stocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. The 2012 feedstock logistics milestone demonstrated that for high-yield areas that minimize the transportation distances of a low-density, unstable biomass, we could achieve a delivered cost of $35/ton. Based on current conventional equipment and processes, the 2012 logistics design is able to deliver the volume of biomass needed to fulfill the 2012 Renewable Fuel Standard’s targets for ethanol. However, the Renewable Fuel Standard’s volume targets are continuing to increase and are expected to peak in 2022 at 36 billion gallons. Meeting these volume targets and achieving a national-scale biofuels industry will require expansion of production capacity beyond the 2012 Conventional Feedstock Supply Design Case to access diverse available feedstocks, regardless of their inherent ability to meet preliminary biorefinery quality feedstock specifications. Implementation of quality specifications (specs), as outlined in the 2017 Design Case – “Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels” (in progress), requires insertion of deliberate, active quality controls into the feedstock supply chain, whereas the 2012 Conventional Design only utilizes passive quality controls.

  7. Tuning biphenyl dioxygenase for extended substrate specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruehlmann, F.; Chen, W. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    1999-06-05

    Highly substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to be very resistant to aerobic biodegradation, particularly the initial attack by biphenyl dioxygenase. Functional evolution of the substrate specificity of biphenyl dioxygenase was demonstrated by DNA shuffling and staggered extension process (StEP) of the bphA gene coding for the large subunit of biphenyl dioxygenase. Several variants with an extended substrate range for PCBs were selected. In contrast to the parental biphenyl dioxygenases from Burkholderia cepacia LB400 and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707, which preferentially recognize either ortho-(LB400) or para-(KF707) substituted PCBs, several variants degraded both congeners to about the same extent. These variants also exhibited superior degradation capabilities toward several tetra- and pentachlorinated PCBs as well as commercial PCB mixtures, such as Aroclor 1242 or Aroclor 1254. Sequence analysis confirmed that most variants contained at least four to six template switches. All desired variants contained the Thr335Ala and Phe336lle substitutions confirming the importance of this critical region in substrate specificity. These results suggest that the block-exchange nature of gene shuffling between a diverse class of dioxygenases may be the most useful approach for breeding novel dioxygenases for PCB degradation in the desired direction.

  8. Autoantibodies in SLE: Specificities, Isotypes and Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE is characterized by a wide spectrum of auto-antibodies which recognize several cellular components. The production of these self-reactive antibodies fluctuates during the course of the disease and the involvement of different antibody-secreting cell populations are considered highly relevant for the disease pathogenesis. These cells are developed and stimulated through different ways leading to the secretion of a variety of isotypes, affinities and idiotypes. Each of them has a particular mechanism of action binding to a specific antigen and recognized by distinct receptors. The effector responses triggered lead to a chronic tissue inflammation. DsDNA autoantibodies are the most studied as well as the first in being characterized for its pathogenic role in Lupus nephritis. However, others are of growing interest since they have been associated with other organ-specific damage, such as anti-NMDAR antibodies in neuropsychiatric clinical manifestations or anti-β2GP1 antibodies in vascular symptomatology. In this review, we describe the different auto-antibodies reported to be involved in SLE. How autoantibody isotypes and affinity-binding to their antigen might result in different pathogenic responses is also discussed.

  9. Taxon- and Site-Specific Melatonin Catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Hardeland

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is catabolized both enzymatically and nonenzymatically. Nonenzymatic processes mediated by free radicals, singlet oxygen, other reactive intermediates such as HOCl and peroxynitrite, or pseudoenzymatic mechanisms are not species- or tissue-specific, but vary considerably in their extent. Higher rates of nonenzymatic melatonin metabolism can be expected upon UV exposure, e.g., in plants and in the human skin. Additionally, melatonin is more strongly nonenzymatically degraded at sites of inflammation. Typical products are several hydroxylated derivatives of melatonin and N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK. Most of these products are also formed by enzymatic catalysis. Considerable taxon- and site-specific differences are observed in the main enzymatic routes of catabolism. Formation of 6-hydroxymelatonin by cytochrome P450 subforms are prevailing in vertebrates, predominantly in the liver, but also in the brain. In pineal gland and non-mammalian retina, deacetylation to 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT plays a certain role. This pathway is quantitatively prevalent in dinoflagellates, in which 5-MT induces cyst formation and is further converted to 5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid, an end product released to the water. In plants, the major route is catalyzed by melatonin 2-hydroxylase, whose product is tautomerized to 3-acetamidoethyl-3-hydroxy-5-methoxyindolin-2-one (AMIO, which exceeds the levels of melatonin. Formation and properties of various secondary products are discussed.

  10. Instrumentation database specific to Trillo I NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Pagan, M.B.; Saenz de Tejada, P.; Fernandez Alvarez, A.; Haya, J.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of data on electronic instrumentation components in the Trillo I PSA has involved and extra effort, basically due to the particular characteristics of these equipment items. This analysis has different aspects depending on the type of information used: Components whose data have been obtained from generic information sources (with or without Bayesian processing). Components whose data have been obtained from specific German studies (TUV) Components whose data have been based directly on the historical experience of Trillo I NPP Components whose data have been based on miscellaneous generic and specific sources This information can also be classified into: Micro components formed by a single module ar card Micro components: formed by set of instrumentation elements It can be further subdivided according to the operating conditions of the components: Equipment whose operation depends on the functions they perform in a particular system (eg. reactor protection system instrumentation channels) Equipment whose operation is not associated with particular conditions (eg. modules for motor-operated equipment). (Author)

  11. Optimizing the specificity of nucleic acid hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, David Yu; Chen, Sherry Xi; Yin, Peng

    2012-01-22

    The specific hybridization of complementary sequences is an essential property of nucleic acids, enabling diverse biological and biotechnological reactions and functions. However, the specificity of nucleic acid hybridization is compromised for long strands, except near the melting temperature. Here, we analytically derived the thermodynamic properties of a hybridization probe that would enable near-optimal single-base discrimination and perform robustly across diverse temperature, salt and concentration conditions. We rationally designed 'toehold exchange' probes that approximate these properties, and comprehensively tested them against five different DNA targets and 55 spurious analogues with energetically representative single-base changes (replacements, deletions and insertions). These probes produced discrimination factors between 3 and 100+ (median, 26). Without retuning, our probes function robustly from 10 °C to 37 °C, from 1 mM Mg(2+) to 47 mM Mg(2+), and with nucleic acid concentrations from 1 nM to 5 µM. Experiments with RNA also showed effective single-base change discrimination.

  12. Forum on Specifications and Design Languages 2012

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together a selection of the best papers from the fifteenth edition of the Forum on specification and Design Languages Conference (FDL), which was held in September 2012 at Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria.  FDL is a well-established international forum devoted to dissemination of research results, practical experiences and new ideas in the application of specification, design and verification languages to the design, modeling and verification of integrated circuits, complex hardware/software embedded systems, and mixed-technology systems.  ·         Covers Assertion Based Design, Verification & Debug; ·         Includes language-based modeling and design techniques for embedded systems; ·         Covers design, modeling and verification of mixed physical domain and mixed signal systems that include significant analog parts in electrical and non-electrical domains; ·         Includes formal and semi-formal system level design methods fo...

  13. Acquired agranulocytosis with granulocyte specific cytotoxic autoantibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, J; Goeken, N E; Thompson, J S; Dick, F R; Gingrich, R D

    1979-05-01

    Multiple infections and severe neutropenia were found in a previously healthy 29 year old man with no history of similar syndromes in the family, drug ingestion or exposure to environmental toxins. There was no evidence at the time of presentation of diseases previously associated with agranulocytosis (e.g., neoplasia, thyrotoxicosis, chronic infection, collagen-vascular disease or leukoagglutinating antibody). His serum contained a nonagglutinating, complement-dependent, cytotoxic antibody, however, reactive with peripheral blood granulocytes from 35 per cent of normal donors. The neutropenia was not affected by steroids but resolved promptly after splenectomy. Microscopic examination of the spleen revealed ingestion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes by splenic macrophages. Family studies indicated that the target antigen was non-HLA and that the antibody was not absorbed by lymphocytes or platelets. We conclude that the agranulocytosis was autoimmune in origin and suggest that similar myeloid-specific immune responses could influence granulocyte tranfusion and bone marrow transplantation by alloimmune "rejection" that would not be avoided by matching only for HLA specificities.

  14. Global and site specific multimedia (field) studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutshall, N.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    Experience with radioactive fallout, with organic contaminants and with heavy metals has amply demonstrated that cross-media transfers are common and that understanding the transport, cycling, and fate of these contaminants requires a multimedia approach. Nonetheless, pollutants with similar physical and chemical attributes may follow markedly different pathways. The frequency of exceptions to predictions based on simplistic models is also sufficient to show that direct investigation of environmental contamination is essential to confirm validity of models used for conceptualizing a problem or for control. Modeling based on multimedia premises and regulatory controls that encompass multimedia considerations are challenged by a dilemma, however. First, the development of multimedia models or regulatory frameworks represents simplification and generalization. This is true for several reasons: (1) inadequate understanding of physical and environmental factors which control specific cross-media transfer; (2) the absence of specific data on certain multimedia pollutant concentrations; (3) even the most powerful computers do not have sufficient speed and capacity to deal with the known complexities of natural systems. On the other hand, for contaminants such as mercury, it may be necessary to include great detail; the overall distribution in the environment may be less important than the rate of some minor process. With sufficient experience and good judgment of what can be ignored, the simplifications and generalizations can be made. For the present, and for the foreseeable future, however, they absolutely must be accompanied by thorough field validation and monitoring.

  15. Specification of the fineness of coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, B.P. [University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-12-31

    Specifications for the size distribution of coal ash usually consider one size, for example the mass retained on a 45{mu}m sieve, and ignore the general particle distribution. This over-simplified approach had tended to persist because alternative parameters, such as specific surface obtained from air permeability tests as used for cements, have been found to be even more unsatisfactory. However, if the size distribution is determined satisfactorily using modern techniques then it can be shown that a suitable parameter for the size distribution can be a valuable aid in characterising the material. The paper reviews the reasons for the deficiencies in the earlier tests for determining the fineness of PFA and then describes a technique for specifying PFA fineness which overcomes the problems associated with the above. The application of a suitable grading parameter for PFA is illustrated by reference to mix design for PFA concrete. Only by reference to the relevant characteristics of all the constituents of the concrete is it possible to design for a required property in the resulting concrete with any reasonable accuracy. A comprehensive method of mix design capable of accommodating different cements and PFAs as well as different fine and coarse aggregates and entrained air contents is outlined and it is seen that similar grading parameters can also be utilised for the aggregates to facilitate proportioning of constituents to achieve a required concrete workability in terms of Vebe time. 12 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis in non-specific urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terho, P

    1978-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 58.5% of 159 patients with non-specific urethritis (NSU) using irradiated McCoy cell cultures. Patients with persistent Chlamydia-positive NSU remained Chlamydia-positive each time they were examined before treatment and patients with Chlamydia-negative NSU remained Chlamydia-negative during the course of the illness. Neither the duration of symptoms of urethritis nor a history of previous urethritis affected the chlamydial isolation rate significantly. Of 40 patients with severe discharge 30 (75%) harboured C. trachomatis. One-third of the Chlamydia-positive patients had a severe urethral discharge, while this was present in only 15% of Chlamydia-negative patients. Complications--such as conjunctivitis, arthritis, and epididymitis--were more severe in men with Chlamdia-positive NSU than in those with Chlamydia-negative NSU. Of 64 men matched for sexual promiscuity but without urethritis, none harboured C. trachomatis in his urethra. This differs significantly (P less than 0.001) when compared with patients with NSU. C. trachomatis was isolated from the urogenital tract in 24 (42%) out of 57 female sexual contacts of patients with NSU. The presence of C. trachomatis in the women correlated significantly (P less than 0.001) with the isolation of the agent from their male contacts. These findings give further evidence for the aetiological role of C. trachomatis in non-specific urethritis and its sexual transmission. PMID:678958

  17. CLP application to nanomaterials: a specific aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandrelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at describing some relevant aspects related to the classification, labelling and packaging of nanomaterials. Concerns have been raised about potential adverse effects to humans or the environment as result of impacts of nanomaterials. The new Regulation (EC no. 1272/2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP does not contain any specific definition or provision related to nanomaterials nevertheless they are covered by the definition of substance set in the Regulation. It is recognized that different particle sizes or forms of the same substance can have different classification. Thus, if substances are placed on the market both at nanoscale and as bulk, a separate classification and labelling may be required if the available data on the intrinsic properties indicate a difference in hazard class between the two forms. CLP Regulation requires the manufacturer or importer to ensure that the information used to classify relates to the forms or physical states in which the substance is placed on the market and in which it can reasonably be expected to be used. Moreover, CLP demands testing relating to physical hazards to be performed if such information is missing or not adequate to conclude on classification. Further developments of the CLP guidance documents and implementation tools are needed in order to cover nanomaterials more specifically.

  18. A computational imaging target specific detectivity metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Bradley L.; Nehmetallah, George

    2017-05-01

    Due to the large quantity of low-cost, high-speed computational processing available today, computational imaging (CI) systems are expected to have a major role for next generation multifunctional cameras. The purpose of this work is to quantify the performance of theses CI systems in a standardized manner. Due to the diversity of CI system designs that are available today or proposed in the near future, significant challenges in modeling and calculating a standardized detection signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to measure the performance of these systems. In this paper, we developed a path forward for a standardized detectivity metric for CI systems. The detectivity metric is designed to evaluate the performance of a CI system searching for a specific known target or signal of interest, and is defined as the optimal linear matched filter SNR, similar to the Hotelling SNR, calculated in computational space with special considerations for standardization. Therefore, the detectivity metric is designed to be flexible, in order to handle various types of CI systems and specific targets, while keeping the complexity and assumptions of the systems to a minimum.

  19. Utilization of NPP Krsko plant specific simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifnja, I.; Pribozic, F.; Krajnc, J.

    2002-01-01

    NPP Krsko started with licensed operator training using its own plant-specific full scope simulator in April 2000. Today, two years after simulator was completed, the benefits of simulator use are visible in various fields. The simulator was effectively used to conduct licensed operator continuing training and practical examinations. Two-year continuous training program was designed to help maintain and improve operator performance. The simulator was also used to provide just-in-time training prior to plant evolutions. Together with licensed operators the non-licensed operators are also included into simulator training to provide affective team training opportunity and to foster good communication and increase scenario realism. Now, the first group of initial licensed operator training using plant-specific simulator is also almost completed. It is the first time that NPP Krsko training department conducted complete initial training and this will represent the great experience for future training. Besides training, the simulator was also utilized for procedure development and validation, operating standards development, testing of plant modifications and other activities, like emergency preparedness procedures validation and training exercises.(author)

  20. Technical Specification action statements requiring shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.; Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.

    1993-11-01

    When safety systems fail during power operation, the limiting conditions for operation (LCOs) and associated action statements of technical specifications typically require that the plant be shut down within the limits of allowed outage time (AOT). However, when a system needed to remove decay heat, such as the residual heat removal (RHR) system, is inoperable or degraded, shutting down the plant may not necessarily be preferable, from a risk perspective, to continuing power operation over a usual repair time, giving priority to the repairs. The risk impact of the basic operational alternatives, i.e., continued operation or shutdown, was evaluated for failures in the RHR and standby service water (SSW) systems of a boiling-water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant. A complete or partial failure of the SSW system fails or degrades not only the RHR system but other front-line safety systems supported by the SSW system. This report presents the methodology to evaluate the risk impact of LCOs and associated AOT; the results of risk evaluation from its application to the RHR and SSW systems of a BWR; the findings from the risk-sensitivity analyses to identify alternative operational policies; and the major insights and recommendations to improve the technical specifications action statements

  1. Thermal resolution specification in infrared scene projectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVeigne, Joe; Franks, Greg; Danielson, Tom

    2015-05-01

    Infrared scene projectors (IRSPs) are a key part of performing dynamic testing of infrared (IR) imaging systems. Two important properties of an IRSP system are apparent temperature and thermal resolution. Infrared scene projector technology continues to progress, with several systems capable of producing high apparent temperatures currently available or under development. These systems use different emitter pixel technologies, including resistive arrays, digital micro-mirror devices (DMDs), liquid crystals and LEDs to produce dynamic infrared scenes. A common theme amongst these systems is the specification of the bit depth of the read-in integrated circuit (RIIC) or projector engine , as opposed to specifying the desired thermal resolution as a function of radiance (or apparent temperature). For IRSPs, producing an accurate simulation of a realistic scene or scenario may require simulating radiance values that range over multiple orders of magnitude. Under these conditions, the necessary resolution or "step size" at low temperature values may be much smaller than what is acceptable at very high temperature values. A single bit depth value specified at the RIIC, especially when combined with variable transfer functions between commanded input and radiance output, may not offer the best representation of a customer's desired radiance resolution. In this paper, we discuss some of the various factors that affect thermal resolution of a scene projector system, and propose some specification guidelines regarding thermal resolution to help better define the real needs of an IR scene projector system.

  2. Subsurface Shielding Source Term Specification Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.Su

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to establish appropriate and defensible waste-package radiation source terms for use in repository subsurface shielding design. This calculation supports the shielding design for the waste emplacement and retrieval system, and subsurface facility system. The objective is to identify the limiting waste package and specify its associated source terms including source strengths and energy spectra. Consistent with the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M and O 2001, p. 15), the scope of work includes the following: (1) Review source terms generated by the Waste Package Department (WPD) for various waste forms and waste package types, and compile them for shielding-specific applications. (2) Determine acceptable waste package specific source terms for use in subsurface shielding design, using a reasonable and defensible methodology that is not unduly conservative. This calculation is associated with the engineering and design activity for the waste emplacement and retrieval system, and subsurface facility system. The technical work plan for this calculation is provided in CRWMS M and O 2001. Development and performance of this calculation conforms to the procedure, AP-3.12Q, Calculations

  3. Arginine specific aminopeptidase from Lactobacillus brevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Nandan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria contribute to the development of flavor during the ripening of cheese through the generation of short peptides and free amino acids, which directly or indirectly act as flavor precursors. Newly isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB as well as those procured from culture collection centers were screened for the production of various substrate specific aminopeptidases. Among all the strains screened, L. brevis (NRRL B-1836 was found to produce quantifiable amount of intracellular arginine specific aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11.6. The productivity of arginine aminopeptidase in 5 L fermentor was 36 IU/L/h. The Luedeking and Piret model was tested for intracellular production of aminopeptidase and the data seemed to fit well, as the correlation coefficient was 0.9964 for MRS. The αAP and βAP was 0.4865 and 0.0046, respectively in MRS medium indicating that the yield was predominantly depended on growth. The culture produced lactic acid and also tolerated pH 2.0-3.0 and 0.3-0.5% bile salts, the most important probiotic features.

  4. Domain specific software design for decision aiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kirby; Stanley, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    McDonnell Aircraft Company (MCAIR) is involved in many large multi-discipline design and development efforts of tactical aircraft. These involve a number of design disciplines that must be coordinated to produce an integrated design and a successful product. Our interpretation of a domain specific software design (DSSD) is that of a representation or framework that is specialized to support a limited problem domain. A DSSD is an abstract software design that is shaped by the problem characteristics. This parallels the theme of object-oriented analysis and design of letting the problem model directly drive the design. The DSSD concept extends the notion of software reusability to include representations or frameworks. It supports the entire software life cycle and specifically leads to improved prototyping capability, supports system integration, and promotes reuse of software designs and supporting frameworks. The example presented in this paper is the task network architecture or design which was developed for the MCAIR Pilot's Associate program. The task network concept supported both module development and system integration within the domain of operator decision aiding. It is presented as an instance where a software design exhibited many of the attributes associated with DSSD concept.

  5. Subset specification of central serotonergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten P Smidt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The last decade the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT system has received enormous attention due to its role in regulation of behavior, exemplified by the discovery that increased 5-HT tone in the central nervous system is able to alleviate affective disorders. Here, we review the developmental processes, with a special emphasis on subset specification, leading to the formation of the 5-HT system in the brain. Molecular classification of 5-HT neuronal groups leads to the definition of two independent rostral groups positioned in rhombomere 1 and 2/3 and a caudal group in rhombomere 5-8. In addition, more disperse refinement of these subsets is present as shown by the selective expression of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor, indicating functional diversity between 5-HT subsets. The functional significance of the molecular coding differences is not well known and the molecular basis of described specific connectivity patterns remain to be elucidated. Recent developments in genetic lineage tracing models will provide these data and form a major step-up towards the full understanding of the importance of developmental programming and function of 5-HT neuronal subsets.

  6. Non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Chris; Underwood, Martin; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2017-02-18

    Non-specific low back pain affects people of all ages and is a leading contributor to disease burden worldwide. Management guidelines endorse triage to identify the rare cases of low back pain that are caused by medically serious pathology, and so require diagnostic work-up or specialist referral, or both. Because non-specific low back pain does not have a known pathoanatomical cause, treatment focuses on reducing pain and its consequences. Management consists of education and reassurance, analgesic medicines, non-pharmacological therapies, and timely review. The clinical course of low back pain is often favourable, thus many patients require little if any formal medical care. Two treatment strategies are currently used, a stepped approach beginning with more simple care that is progressed if the patient does not respond, and the use of simple risk prediction methods to individualise the amount and type of care provided. The overuse of imaging, opioids, and surgery remains a widespread problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Global and site specific multimedia (field) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutshall, N.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    Experience with radioactive fallout, with organic contaminants and with heavy metals has amply demonstrated that cross-media transfers are common and that understanding the transport, cycling, and fate of these contaminants requires a multimedia approach. Nonetheless, pollutants with similar physical and chemical attributes may follow markedly different pathways. The frequency of exceptions to predictions based on simplistic models is also sufficient to show that direct investigation of environmental contamination is essential to confirm validity of models used for conceptualizing a problem or for control. Modeling based on multimedia premises and regulatory controls that encompass multimedia considerations are challenged by a dilemma, however. First, the development of multimedia models or regulatory frameworks represents simplification and generalization. This is true for several reasons: (1) inadequate understanding of physical and environmental factors which control specific cross-media transfer; (2) the absence of specific data on certain multimedia pollutant concentrations; (3) even the most powerful computers do not have sufficient speed and capacity to deal with the known complexities of natural systems. On the other hand, for contaminants such as mercury, it may be necessary to include great detail; the overall distribution in the environment may be less important than the rate of some minor process. With sufficient experience and good judgment of what can be ignored, the simplifications and generalizations can be made. For the present, and for the foreseeable future, however, they absolutely must be accompanied by thorough field validation and monitoring

  8. Specific and non-specific symptoms of colorectal cancer and contact to general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sanne; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Søndergaard, Jens

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To improve survival rates for colorectal cancer, referral guidelines have been implemented. First step in the diagnostic process is for the individual to recognize the symptoms and contact his/her general practitioner (GP) for evaluation. OBJECTIVES: To determine (i) the prevalence...... of specific and non-specific symptom experiences indicative of colorectal cancer, (ii) the proportion of subsequent contacts to GPs, (iii) to explore the possible differences in symptom experience and contact to GPs between age and sex. METHODS: A nationwide study of 100000 adults, aged 20 years and older......, were randomly selected in the general population and invited to participate in an internet-based survey. Items regarding experience of specific and non-specific alarm symptoms of colorectal cancer within the preceding 4 weeks and contact to GP were included. RESULTS: A total of 49706 subjects completed...

  9. [Localized aggressive periodontitis: a possible site-specific rather than tooth-specific disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venezia, E; Abed, Y; Raz, P; Goldstein, M; Schwartz, Z

    2005-04-01

    The diagnosis of localized aggressive periodontitis includes first molar attachment loss as an obligatory criterion. This tooth-specific based diagnosis has never been questioned or tested previously. We present a rare case of aggressive periodontitis that developed during orthodontic treatment, which included extraction of right lower first molar and bodily movement of the second molar to the original first molar site. At the end of the orthodontic therapy, localized periodontal disease was diagnosed at the site of the lower left first molar and the second lower right molar that was now occupying the site of the former first lower molar. The patient's periodontal condition was stabilized, and the bony defects were filled following periodontal treatment. This report shows that bacterial induced aggressive periodontitis developed during orthodontic treatment in a site-specific manner and suggest the hypothesis that localized aggressive periodontitis was targeted to a specific alveolar site rather than a tooth-specific site.

  10. Tissue-type-specific transcriptome analysis identifies developing xylem-specific promoters in poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae-Heung; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Hwang, Ildoo; Han, Kyung-Hwan

    2012-06-01

    Plant biotechnology offers a means to create novel phenotypes. However, commercial application of biotechnology in crop improvement programmes is severely hindered by the lack of utility promoters (or freedom to operate the existing ones) that can drive gene expression in a tissue-specific or temporally controlled manner. Woody biomass is gaining popularity as a source of fermentable sugars for liquid fuel production. To improve the quantity and quality of woody biomass, developing xylem (DX)-specific modification of the feedstock is highly desirable. To develop utility promoters that can drive transgene expression in a DX-specific manner, we used the Affymetrix Poplar Genome Arrays to obtain tissue-type-specific transcriptomes from poplar stems. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified 37 transcripts that are specifically or strongly expressed in DX cells of poplar. After further confirmation of their DX-specific expression using semi-quantitative PCR, we selected four genes (DX5, DX8, DX11 and DX15) for in vivo confirmation of their tissue-specific expression in transgenic poplars. The promoter regions of the selected DX genes were isolated and fused to a β-glucuronidase (GUS)-reported gene in a binary vector. This construct was used to produce transgenic poplars via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The GUS expression patterns of the resulting transgenic plants showed that these promoters were active in the xylem cells at early seedling growth and had strongest expression in the developing xylem cells at later growth stages of poplar. We conclude that these DX promoters can be used as a utility promoter for DX-specific biomass engineering. © 2012 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Chemical and radiochemical specifications - PWR power plants; Specifications chimiques et radiochimiques - Centrales REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutzmann, A. [Electricite de France (EDF), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    1997-07-01

    Published by EDF this document gives the chemical specifications of the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) nuclear power plants. Among the chemical parameters, some have to be respected for the safety. These parameters are listed in the STE (Technical Specifications of Exploitation). The values to respect, the analysis frequencies and the time states of possible drops are noticed in this document with the motion STE under the concerned parameter. (A.L.B.)

  12. Bank-Specific, Industry-Specific and Macroeconomic Determinants of Bank Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Panayiotis P. Athanasoglou; Sophocles N. Brissimis; Matthaios D. Delis

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effect of bank-specific, industry-specific and macroeconomic determinants of bank profitability, using an empirical framework that incorporates the traditional Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP) hypothesis. To account for profit persistence, we apply a GMM technique to a panel of Greek banks that covers the period 1985-2001. The estimation results show that profitability persists to a moderate extent, indicating that departures from perfectly competiti...

  13. Standard technical specifications: Combustion engineering plants. Volume 1, Revision 1: Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for Combustion Engineering Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.9 of the improved STS.

  14. Standard technical specifications: General Electric plants, BWR/4. Volume 1, Revision 1: Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/4 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.10 of the improved STS.

  15. Specific recognition of fungal pathogens by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knogge, W.; Gierlich, A.; Max-Planck-Institute for Plant Breeding,; Van't Slot, K.A.E.; Papavoine, T.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Induction of plant defence reactions and, hence, genotype-specific disease resistance results from the interaction of highly specific plant resistance (R) genes with matching pathogen avirulence (Avr) genes (gene-for-gene interactions). More than thirty R genes acting against different types of pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, nematodes) have been isolated from various plants species. However, with few exceptions it remains to be shown how their products recognise the complementary Avr gene products. To date, Avr genes and their products have been characterised from only three fungal species. These include the NIP1 gene from Rhynchosporium secalis, the causal agent of barley leaf scald. It encodes a small, secreted protein, NIP1, that triggers defence reactions exclusively in barley cultivars expressing the R gene Rrs1. NIP1 also non-specifically stimulates the H + -ATPase activity in barley plasma membranes, suggesting that the host recognition system targets a putative fungal virulence factor. Virulent fungal strains lack the gene or carry an allele encoding a non-functional product. Four NIP1 iso-forms have been characterised; NIP1-I and NIP1-II although both elicitor-active display different levels of activity, whereas the isoforms NIP1-III and NIP1-IV are inactive. After establishing a heterologous expression system, the single amino acids specifying NIP1-III and NIP1-IV were integrated into the NIP1-I sequence and yielded the inactive mutant proteins NIP1-III* and NIP1-IV*. The elicitor-inactive isoforms were also unable to stimulate the H + -ATPase, suggesting that both functions of NIP1 are mediated by a single plant receptor. The 3D structure of NIP1-I has been elucidated by 1 H- and 15 N-NMR spectroscopy. Binding studies using 125 I-NIP1-I revealed a single class of high-affinity binding sites on membranes from both Rrs1- and rrs1-cultivars, suggesting that NIP1-binding is not sufficient for defence triggering and that an

  16. Lighting technology specifications for relighting federal buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, L.; Purcell, C.W.; Gordon, H.; McKay, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Federal Relighting Initiative, under the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), now offers a comprehensive process to assist agencies in meeting the DOE energy mandate that states that Federal facilities shall use 20% less energy by the year 2000, based on 1985 consumption, and shall improve lighting to increase productivity with relighting projects. The process provides a systematic approach in the screening, selection, design, implementation and evaluation of relighting projects. The Master Specifications help assure the acquisition of high-quality, life-cycle cost-effective lighting systems. The process begins with the screening of the agency's building stock to identify the most promising relighting candidates and concludes with implementation support and system performance assessment. The tools developed by FRI are designed to assist agencies during each phase of the relighting process. The tools are based upon the Federal life-cycle cost approach, thereby complying with 10 CFR, part 436, and the Federal life-cycle cost requirement

  17. Education and Cause-specific Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Helene; Lange, Theis; Osler, Merete

    2014-01-01

    vulnerability. METHODS: In a cohort study of 76,294 participants 30 to 70 years of age, we estimated educational differences in cause-specific mortality from 1980 through 2009 and the mediating role of behavioral risk factors (smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, and body mass index). With the use......BACKGROUND: Differential exposures to behavioral risk factors have been shown to play an important mediating role on the education-mortality relation. However, little is known about the extent to which educational attainment interacts with health behavior, possibly through differential...... of marginal structural models and three-way effect decomposition, we simultaneously regarded the behavioral risk factors as intermediates and clarified the role of their interaction with educational exposure. RESULTS: Rate differences in mortality comparing participants with low to high education were 1...

  18. Gene regulatory networks governing lung specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Scott A; Zorn, Aaron M

    2014-08-01

    The epithelial lining of the respiratory system originates from a small group of progenitor cells in the ventral foregut endoderm of the early embryo. Research in the last decade has revealed a number of paracrine signaling pathways that are critical for the development of these respiratory progenitors. In the post-genomic era the challenge now is to figure out at the genome wide level how these different signaling pathways and their downstream transcription factors interact in a complex "gene regulatory network" (GRN) to orchestrate early lung development. In this prospective, we review our growing understanding of the GRN governing lung specification. We discuss key gaps in our knowledge and describe emerging opportunities that will soon provide an unprecedented understanding of lung development and accelerate our ability to apply this knowledge to regenerative medicine. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Refining System Requirements to Program Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Ruediger; Ravn, Anders P.; Skakkebæk, Jens Ulrik

    1996-01-01

    A coherent and mathematically well-founded approach to the design ofreal-time and hybrid systems is presented.It covers requirementsanalysis and specification, design of controlling automatasatisfying the requirements, and derivation ofoccam-like communicating programs from these automata.......The generalized railroad crossing due to Heitmeyer and Lynchillustrates the approach.Requirements are analyzed within aconventional dynamic systems model of a plant, where states arefunctions of the reals, representing time. The requirements arespecified in an assumption-commitment style using Duration Calculus...... to component descriptions in asystems design language that uses timed trace assertions over statetransition events to constrain control flow.Components can under certain conditions be transformed tooccam-like communicating programs....

  20. [Therapy control of specific hymenoptera venom allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, W; Wichmann, G; Dietz, A

    2010-12-01

    In Germany anaphylactic reactions after insect stings are mostly caused by honey bee (Apis mellifera) and wasp (Vespula vulgaris, Vespula germanica). In the majority of cases venom immunotherapy is a successful therapy and protects patients from recurrent systemic anaphylactic reaction. In some patients persistent severe reactions after insect sting can even occur in spite of venom therapy, as a sign of therapy failure. It is important to identify these patients, who do not benefit from venom immunotherapy, in an early stage of therapy. In this case dose rate of venom immunotherapy must be adjusted for a successful therapy outcome. Up to now skin prick tests, specific IgE-antibodies and in vitro diagnostics are not suitable for detecting therapy failure. Patients with treatment failure can be diagnosed by insect sting test and almost all of them will become fully protected by increasing the maintenance dose. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. General versus program-specific welfare chauvinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2018-01-01

    The article investigates how welfare chauvinism differs across various social benefits and services. The case is Danes’ attitudes towards granting social rights to Eastern European workers. For some programs a clear majority favours giving social rights immediately on arrival, e.g. rights to health...... care, whereas permanent exclusion is favoured for other programs, e.g. child allowances given to children in country of origin. These findings support the thesis of program-specific welfare chauvinism and point to a political space for pragmatic adjustments of current EU rules. The article also finds...... similarity across programs. The Danish welfare chauvinist attitudes are in general fuelled by lack of shared identity with migrants and sociotropic concerns about the economic burden of migration. The article finds little evidence of narrow self-interest effects; with a notable exception of disability...

  2. Review panel comments on geomedia specific research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    This includes remarks made by three panel members concerning geomedia-specific repository relevant research. The scientific work in the materials area has progressed significantly. Investigators are showing a better understanding of the importance of groundwater compositions. Significant attention is being paid to the importance of colloids and complexing agents. Good planning seems to be in evidence in the Nevada program. Much cooperation and planning in the materials program is needed. Requirements concerning the performance of waste management systems were included. Other topics discussed at the symposium were interactive testing of waste forms, canister materials, and repository rock. Characterization of the chemical and physical environment in the near-field was considered by several speakers. These papers and discussions were part of the Seventh International Symposium on the Scientific Ban's for Nuclear Waste Management

  3. The Warsaw soundscape - structure and specifics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska Małgorzata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Warsaw soundscape has been examined according to the principles of acoustic ecology. The soundscape is the acoustic environment tested primarily by qualitative research. Warsaw residents were asked in a survey about their sound impressions and requirements for the Warsaw soundscape. The aim of this research was to learn both the conditions of acoustic environment and the needs of space users in accordance with the space category. The present and expected sound structures of five different categories of space were examined (residential areas, streets, city centre, tourist areas and green areas. Information on both the specific Warsaw sounds and the ideas for new sounds (which could be introduced into the city was collected.

  4. Savannah River Site's Site Specific Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Site Specific Plan (SSP) has been prepared by the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to show the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities that were identified during the preparation of the Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) for FY 1992--1996. The SSP has been prepared in accordance with guidance received from DOE-HQ. DOE-SR is accountable to DOE-HQ for the implementation of this plan. The purpose of the SSP is to develop a baseline for policy, budget, and schedules for the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities. The plan explains accomplishments since the Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 plan, demonstrates how present and future activities are prioritized, identifies currently funded activities and activities that are planned to be funded in the upcoming fiscal year, and describes future activities that SRS is considering

  5. Cost Concept Model and Gateway Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2014-01-01

    user communities and builds upon our understanding of the requirements, drivers, obstacles and objectives that various stakeholder groups have relating to digital curation. Ultimately, this concept model should provide a critical input to the development and refinement of cost models as well as helping...... and solution providers, and by researchers in follow-up research and development projects. The Framework includes: • A Cost Concept Model—which defines the core concepts that should be included in curation costs models; • An Implementation Guide—for the cost concept model that provides guidance and proposes...... questions that should be considered when developing new cost models and refining existing cost models; • A Gateway Specification Template—which provides standard metadata for each of the core cost concepts and is intended for use by future model developers, model users, and service and solution providers...

  6. Specific approach for continuous air quality monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Predrag M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industry development as well as increase of traffic volume across the world resulted in air quality becoming one of the most important factors of everyday life. Air quality monitoring is the necessary factor for proper decision making regarding air pollution. An integral part of such investigations is the measurement of wind characteristics, as the wind is the most influential factor in turbulent pollution diffusion into the atmosphere. The most of the air pollution originates from combustion processes, so it is important to make quantitative, as well as qualitative analysis, as the sources of pollution can be very distant. In this paper, specific methodology for continuous wind, temperature and air quality data acquisition is presented. Comparison of the measured results is given, as well as the detailed presentation of the characteristics of the acquisition software used.

  7. Specification of a commercial SFAT device prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiitta, A.; Pitkaenen, V.; Tarvainen, M.

    1992-02-01

    The project for the development of the Spent Fuel Attribute Tester (SFAT) under the Task-A-563 of the Finnish Support Programme has proceeded to the prototype design phase. Radiation data of the AFR Storage (TVO KPA-Store) of the TVO Power Company, Finland, relevant to the optimal design of the measurement geometry has been measured and will be shortly reported. The requirements and constraints imposed to this kind of device by the user (IAEA), nuclear safety authorities (represented by STUK) and the nuclear power companies (represented by TVO) have been worked out. The feasibility of a design that can be approved by all parties has been established. The specifications relevant for the design for the design of a commercial SFAT prototype, will be given. Considerations as for the operation procedure, maintenance and safety will be made. Finally, some recommendations for the further advancement of the SFAT prototype project will be given. (orig.). (1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.)

  8. Sandia Data Archive (SDA) file specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Daniel H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ao, Tommy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Sandia Data Archive (SDA) format is a specific implementation of the HDF5 (Hierarchal Data Format version 5) standard. The format was developed for storing data in a universally accessible manner. SDA files may contain one or more data records, each associated with a distinct text label. Primitive records provide basic data storage, while compound records support more elaborate grouping. External records allow text/binary files to be carried inside an archive and later recovered. This report documents version 1.0 of the SDA standard. The information provided here is sufficient for reading from and writing to an archive. Although the format was original designed for use in MATLAB, broader use is encouraged.

  9. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationship...... between blood flow and structural similarity in areas involved in visual object recognition. Contrary to this expectation we report a negative relationship in that identification of articles of clothing cause more extensive activation than identification of vegetables/fruit and animals even though items...... from the categories of animals and vegetables/fruit are rated as more structurally similar than items from the category of articles of clothing. Given that this pattern cannot be explained in terms of a tradeoff between activation and accuracy, we interpret these findings within a model where...

  10. Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Markus

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania represent a complex of important human pathogens that belong to the systematic order of the kinetoplastida. They are transmitted between their human and mammalian hosts by different bloodsucking sandfly vectors. In their hosts, the Leishmania undergo several differentiation steps, and their coordination and optimization crucially depend on numerous interactions between the parasites and the physiological environment presented by the fly and human hosts. Little is still known about the signalling networks involved in these functions. In an attempt to better understand the role of cyclic nucleotide signalling in Leishmania differentiation and host-parasite interaction, we here present an initial study on the cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major. Results This paper presents the identification of three class I cyclic-nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs from L. major, PDEs whose catalytic domains exhibit considerable sequence conservation with, among other, all eleven human PDE families. In contrast to other protozoa such as Dictyostelium, or fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida ssp or Neurospora, no genes for class II PDEs were found in the Leishmania genomes. LmjPDEA contains a class I catalytic domain at the C-terminus of the polypeptide, with no other discernible functional domains elsewhere. LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 are coded for by closely related, tandemly linked genes on chromosome 15. Both PDEs contain two GAF domains in their N-terminal region, and their almost identical catalytic domains are located at the C-terminus of the polypeptide. LmjPDEA, LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were further characterized by functional complementation in a PDE-deficient S. cerevisiae strain. All three enzymes conferred complementation, demonstrating that all three can hydrolyze cAMP. Recombinant LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were shown to be cAMP-specific, with Km values in the low micromolar range

  11. Security Protocols: Specification, Verification, Implementation, and Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almousa, Omar

    An important aspect of Internet security is the security of cryptographic protocols that it deploys. We need to make sure that such protocols achieve their goals, whether in isolation or in composition, i.e., security protocols must not suffer from any aw that enables hostile intruders to break...... their security. Among others, tools like OFMC [MV09b] and Proverif [Bla01] are quite efficient for the automatic formal verification of a large class of protocols. These tools use different approaches such as symbolic model checking or static analysis. Either approach has its own pros and cons, and therefore, we...... called SPS (Security Protocol Specification) language, that enables users, without requiring deep expertise in formal models from them, to specify a wide range of real-world protocols in a simple and intuitive way. Thus, SPS allows users to verify their protocols using different tools, and generate...

  12. Climate-Specific Passive Building Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Graham S. [Passive House Inst., Westford, MA (United States); Klingenberg, Katrin [Passive House Inst., Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Passive design principles (super insulation, airtight envelopes, elimination of thermal bridges, etc.) - pioneered in North America in the 70s and 80s and refined in Europe in the 90s have proven to be universally effective to significantly reduce heating and cooling loads. However, a single, rigid performance metric developed in Germany has led to limited uptake of passive building principles in many regions of the United States. It has also, in many cases, promoted some design decisions that had negative effects on economic feasibility and thermal comfort. This study's main objective is to validate (in a theoretical sense) verifiable, climate-specific passive standards and space conditioning criteria that retain ambitious, environmentally-necessary energy reduction targets and are economically feasible, such standards provide designers an ambitious but achievable performance target on the path to zero.

  13. Procedural specificity in laparoscopic simulator training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Flemming; Sørensen, Jette Led; Konge, Lars

    2014-01-01

    proficiency level on a virtual reality laparoscopy simulator. Upon reaching proficiency, the participants are randomised to either the intervention group, which practices two procedures (an appendectomy followed by a salpingectomy) or to the control group, practicing only one procedure (a salpingectomy......BACKGROUND: The use of structured curricula for minimally invasive surgery training is becoming increasingly popular. However, many laparoscopic training programs still use basic skills and isolated task training, despite increasing evidence to support the use of training models with higher...... functional resemblance, such as whole procedural modules. In contrast to basic skills training, procedural training involves several cognitive skills such as elements of planning, movement integration, and how to avoid adverse events. The objective of this trial is to investigate the specificity...

  14. Specific gene mutations induced by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeling, M.; Karoly, C.W.; Cheng, D.S.K.

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes our heavy-ion research rationale, progress, and plans for the near future. The major project involves selecting a group of maize Adh1 mutants induced by heavy ions and correlating their altered behavior with altered DNA nucleotide sequences and sequence arrangements. This research requires merging the techniques of classical genetics and recombinant DNA technology. Our secondary projects involve (1) the use of the Adh gene in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, as a second system with which to quantify the sort of specific gene mutants induced by heavy ions as compared to x rays, and (2) the development of a maize Adh1 pollen in situ monitor for environmental mutagens

  15. Object specific reconstruction using compressively sensed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahalanobis, Abhijit

    2008-01-01

    Compressed sensing holds the promise for radically novel sensors that can perfectly reconstruct images using considerably less samples of data than required by the otherwise general Shannon sampling theorem. In surveillance systems however, it is also desirable to cue regions of the image where objects of interest may exist. Thus in this paper, we are interested in imaging interesting objects in a scene, without necessarily seeking perfect reconstruction of the whole image. We show that our goals are achieved by minimizing a modified L2-norm criterion with good results when the reconstruction of only specific objects is of interest. The method yields a simple closed form analytical solution that does not require iterative processing. Objects can be meaningfully sensed in considerable detail while heavily compressing the scene elsewhere. Essentially, this embeds the object detection and clutter discrimination function in the sensing and imaging process.

  16. Business System Planning Project System Requirements Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSON, R.E.

    2000-09-08

    The purpose of the Business Systems Planning Project System Requirements Specification (SRS) is to provide the outline and contents of the requirements for the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) integrated business and technical information systems. The SRS will translate proposed objectives into the statement of the functions that are to be performed and data and information flows that they require. The requirements gathering methodology will use (1) facilitated group requirement sessions; (2) individual interviews; (3) surveys; and (4) document reviews. The requirements will be verified and validated through coordination of the technical requirement team and CHG Managers. The SRS document used the content and format specified in Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. Organization Standard Software Practices in conjunction with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 8340-1984 for Systems Requirements Documents.

  17. Is alexithymia associated with specific mental disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leweke, Frank; Leichsenring, Falk; Kruse, Johannes; Hermes, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by restrictions in the perception, differentiation and regulation of affects. It is considered to be an important vulnerability factor for the development of mental disorders. Little is known, however, of whether alexithymia is associated with specific mental disorders. Data from 1,461 patients of an outpatient clinic for psychosomatic medicine with various mental disorders (depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, adjustment disorders, somatoform disorders, eating disorders, and psychological and behavioral factors of physical illness) were collected between January 2007 and October 2009. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was administered to study alexithymia. The diagnoses were made following ICD-10 guidelines. In our sample, the total prevalence of alexithymia (TAS-20 ≥ 61) was 21.36%. The percentage of alexithymic patients was significantly increased in the group of patients with depressive disorders (26.9%) as compared to other diagnostic groups. Using TAS-20 as a continuous measure, multiple hierarchical regression analyses revealed that higher TAS-20 total scores were significantly associated with depressive and anxiety disorders. However, after controlling for the level of depression, the association of anxiety disorders with alexithymia was no longer significant. With regard to TAS-20 subscales, 'difficulty describing feelings' (subscale 2) was also significantly related to depressive disorders. According to the results, the prevalence of alexithymia is relatively high in patients with mental disorders. The increased prevalence of highly alexithymic subjects suggests that alexithymia is associated with a higher vulnerability to mental illness. The prevalence of alexithymia was especially increased for depressive disorders. Thus, further evidence supporting the concept of 'alexithymic depression' was provided. From a therapeutic perspective, treatments should be developed that take the specific needs of highly

  18. Macrophage specific drug delivery in experimental leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Mukul Kumar; Lala, Sanchaita

    2004-09-01

    Macrophage-specific delivery systems are the subject of much interest nowadays, because of the fact that macrophages act as host cells for many parasites and bacteria, which give rise to outbreak of so many deadly diseases(eg. leishmaniasis, tuberculosis etc.) in humans. To combat these deadly diseases initially macrophage specific liposomal delivery system were thought of and tested in vivo against experimental leishmaniasis in hamsters using a series of indigenous or synthetic antileishmanial compounds and the results were critically discussed. In vitro testing was also done against macrophages infected with Leishmania donovani, the causative agent for visceral leishmaniasis. The common problem of liposome therapy being their larger size, stability and storage, non-ionic surfactant vesicles, niosomes were prepared, for their different drug distribution and release characteristics compared to liposomes. When tested in vivo, the retention capacity of niosomes was found to be higher than that of liposomes due to the absence of lipid molecules and their smaller size. Thus the therapeutic efficacy of certain antileishmanial compounds was found to be better than that in the liposomal form. The niosomes, being cheaper, less toxic, biodegradable and non-immunogenic, were considered for sometime as suitable alternatives to liposomes as drug carriers. Besides the advent of other classical drugs carriers(e.g. neoglycoproteins), the biggest challenge came from polymeric delivery vehicles, specially the polymeric nanoparticles which were made of cost effective biodegradable polymers and different natural polymers. Because of very small size and highly stable nature, use of nanoparticles as effective drug carriers has been explored in experimental leishmaniasis using a series of antileishmanial compounds, both of indigenous and synthetic origin. The feasibility of application in vivo, when tested for biological as well as for other physicochemical parameters, the polymeric

  19. Defensive mobilization in specific phobia: fear specificity, negative affectivity, and diagnostic prominence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTeague, Lisa M; Lang, Peter J; Wangelin, Bethany C; Laplante, Marie-Claude; Bradley, Margaret M

    2012-07-01

    Understanding of exaggerated responsivity in specific phobia-its physiology and neural mediators-has advanced considerably. However, despite strong phenotypic evidence that prominence of specific phobia relative to co-occurring conditions (i.e., principal versus nonprincipal disorder) is associated with dramatic differences in subjective distress, there is yet no consideration of such comorbidity issues on objective defensive reactivity. A community sample of specific phobia (n = 74 principal; n = 86 nonprincipal) and control (n = 76) participants imagined threatening and neutral events while acoustic startle probes were presented and eyeblinks (orbicularis occuli) recorded. Changes in heart rate, skin conductance level, and facial expressivity were also measured. Principal specific phobia patients far exceeded control participants in startle reflex and autonomic reactivity during idiographic fear imagery. Distinguishing between single and multiple phobias within principal phobia and comparing these with nonprincipal phobia revealed a continuum of decreasing defensive mobilization: single patients were strongly reactive, multiple patients were intermediate, and nonprincipal patients were attenuated-the inverse of measures of pervasive anxiety and dysphoria (i.e., negative affectivity). Further, as more disorders supplanted specific phobia from principal disorder, overall defensive mobilization was systematically more impaired. The exaggerated responsivity characteristic of specific phobia is limited to those patients for whom circumscribed fear is the most impairing condition and coincident with little additional affective psychopathology. As specific phobia is superseded in severity by broad and chronic negative affectivity, defensive reactivity progressively diminishes. Focal fears may still be clinically significant but not reflected in objective defensive mobilization. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. Electrical detection of specific versus non-specific binding events in breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Benjamin C.; Clark, Michael; Burkhead, Thomas; Sethu, Palaniappan; Rai, Shesh; Kloecker, Goetz; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2012-10-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from patient blood samples offers a desirable alternative to invasive tissue biopsies for screening of malignant carcinomas. A rigorous CTC detection method must identify CTCs from millions of other formed elements in blood and distinguish them from healthy tissue cells also present in the blood. CTCs are known to overexpress surface receptors, many of which aid them in invading other tissue, and these provide an avenue for their detection. We have developed carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film devices to specifically detect these receptors in intact cells. The CNT sidewalls are functionalized with antibodies specific to Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM), a marker overexpressed by breast and other carcinomas. Specific binding of EpCAM to anti-EpCAM antibodies causes a change in the local charge environment of the CNT surface which produces a characteristic electrical signal. Two cell lines were tested in the device: MCF7, a mammary adenocarcinoma line which overexpresses EpCAM, and MCF10A, a non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial line which does not. Introduction of MCF7s caused significant changes in the electrical conductance of the devices due to specific binding and associated charge environment change near the CNT sidewalls. Introduction of MCF10A displays a different profile due to purely nonspecific interactions. The profile of specific vs. nonspecific interaction signatures using carbon based devices will guide development of this diagnostic tool towards clinical sample volumes with wide variety of markers.