WorldWideScience

Sample records for auto exposure control

  1. Clementine auto exposure control software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The primary mission of the Clementine program was to test technology developed under the auspices of BMDO (the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization). A secondary goal of the program was to provide astronomical data to the scientific and educational community. The mission plan developed to accomplish these goals included complete mapping of the lunar surface and a close fly-by of a near-Earth asteroid, 1620 Geographos. Exposure control for the Clementine mission was driven by mission phase requirements and sensor characteristics. Thus, there were a total of twelve algorithms developed for three primary mission phases and the four imaging sensors (two additional sensors operated as star trackers). The three mission phases in question were lunar mapping, distant observation of the asteroid for the purpose of tracking, and close-up viewing (as close as 100 Km) of Geographos. The four non-star tracker sensors consisted of an Ultra Violet/Visible (UV/Vis) camera, a High Resolution (HiRes) camera with a built-in LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) unit, a Near Infrared (NIR) camera, and a Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR) camera. Due to lack of test time and uncertainties about the imaging environment, numerous input parameters were provided in the algorithms to allow extensive tuning of the exposure control during the mission.

  2. Personnel exposure control system with auto thermoluminescence dosimeter in Shimane Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubayashi, Hideo; Ochi, Susumu (Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan))

    1982-03-01

    In the past, film badges and pocket dosimeters were put on the persons who entered a controlled area in a nuclear power station to measure the external radiation exposure. For these, read out error or mistake, delay in taking out the result, trouble for monitoring many persons, etc. were problems. To solve these problems, the auto thermoluminescence dosimeter (ATLD) system has been introduced in Shimane Nuclear Power Station in place of pocket dosimeters since the second half of fiscal 1978. The outline of the system and the composition and software of the TLD automatic readout system are described. For the control of access to controlled areas, workers are forced to pass the check point where watchmen check everyone's ID card, and subjected to the check-up with the TLD automatic readout device. The checking items in the case of entering the areas are: (1) confirmation of licensee, (2) confirmation of the term of validity for the medical examination on ionizing radiation, (3) checking for exposure dose compared to the controlled exposure level, (4) confirmation of time limit to stay in controlled areas, and (5) TLD element annealing condition. The checking items in the case of leaving the areas are: (1) checking for identifying the TLD element that the personnel has brought in, (2) exposure dose compared to the controlled exposure level, (3) time for which the personnel stayed in controlled areas.

  3. AUTO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders; Aagaard, Tine; Diaz, pauline

    2011-01-01

    AUTO is the first assignment that the students of Architecture are introduced to at the Aarhus school of Architecture. The aim is to give students an understanding of design through a generic working method. This by disassembling a car engine and staging its components through a series of castings...

  4. AutoCAD electrical 2013 for electrical control designers

    CERN Document Server

    Tickoo, Sham; CADCIM Technologies

    2013-01-01

    The AutoCAD Electrical 2013 for Electrical Control Designers textbook has been written to assist the engineering students and the practicing designers learn the application of various AutoCAD Electrical tools and options for creating electrical control designs. After reading this textbook, the users will be able to create professional electrical-control drawings easily and effectively. Moreover, the users will be able to automate various control engineering tasks such as building circuits, numbering wires, creating bills of materials, and many more. The textbook takes the users across a wide spectrum of electrical control drawings through progressive examples and numerous illustrations and exercises, thereby making it an ideal guide for both the novice and the advanced users. Salient Features of the Textbook Consists of 14 chapters that are organized in a pedagogical sequence covering various tools and features of AutoCAD Electrical such as schematic drawings, parametric and non-parametric PLC modules, Circu...

  5. Controlled auto ignition of gasoline engines; Steuerung der ottomotorischen Selbstzuendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Christina

    2011-07-01

    Controlled Auto Ignition allows for significant efficiency gains in combination with extremely low NO{sub x} emissions and particulate matters when compared to conventional spark ignited combustion concepts. The limiting factors for controlled auto ignition are the temperature at very low loads and the pressure gradient at higher loads. Based on experiments on a single cylinder engine with fully variable valve actuators and gasoline direct injection, the contribution under consideration reports on main parameters to control the controlled auto ignition. Detailed analyses demonstrate the impact of each parameter on self-ignition and combustion. Additionally, different methods to expand the operating range of controlled auto ignition are discussed with regard to the achievable efficiency and the required effort. One important result of this contribution is a feed-forward control which coordinates the main actuating parameters and ensures the desired combustion phasing even in dynamic mode. A regression model is developed which uses the input variables air/fuel ratio, start of injection, engine speed and fuel mass to predict the combustion phasing and the indicated mean effective pressure. Inverting this model leads to the final feed-forward control which allows to separate the effects of start of injection and exhaust valve closing. In that case exhaust valve closing controls the air/fuel ratio, while start of injection corrects the lasting deviation in combustion phasing. Using the actual air/fuel ratio as an additional input parameter ensures the required combustion phasing even in dynamic mode.

  6. Long-term exposure to auto exhaust and other pollutant mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, T.E.; Moorman, W.J.; Yang, Y.; Stara, J.F.

    1974-08-01

    Research report:beagles were exposed 16 hr daily for 61 months to raw and photochemically reacted auto exhaust, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur, alone and in combination. exposure to nitrogen oxides reduced diffusion capacity and peak expiratory flow. raw exhaust and raw exhaust plus sulfur oxides produced pulmonary hyperinflation. irradiated auto exhaust also impaired ventilatory distribution. lung volumes, compliances, and maximal breathing capacity were not impaired by the experimental atmospheres. such chronic pulmonary changes resulting from long-term, low-level exposure to ubiquitous urban air pollutants denote potential, serious health hazards. (l diagram, 16 references, 3 tables)

  7. Auto-Ignition and Heat Release Correlations for Controlled Auto-Ignition Combustion in Gasoline Engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Auto-ignition and heat release correlations for controlled auto-ignition (CAI) combustion were derived from extensive in-cylinder pressure data of a four-stroke gasoline engine operating in CAI combustion mode. Abundant experiments were carried out under a wide range of air/fuel ratio,speed and residual gas fraction to ensure that the combustion correlations can be used in the entire CAI engine operation range. Furthermore, a more accurate method to compute the residual gas fraction was proposed by calculating the working fluid temperature at the exhaust valve close timing in the experiments. The heat release correlation was described in two parts, one is for the first slower heat release process at low temperature, and the other is for the second faster heat release process at high temperature. Finally the heat release correlation was evaluated on the single cylinder gasoline engine running with CAI combustion by comparing the experimental data with the 1-D engine simulation results obtained with the aid of the GT-Power simulation program. The results show that the predicted loads and ignition timings match closely with the measurements.

  8. AutoCAD electrical 2016 for electrical control designers

    CERN Document Server

    Tickoo, Sham

    2016-01-01

    The AutoCAD Electrical 2016 for Electrical Control Designers textbook has been written to assist the engineering students and the practicing designers who are new to AutoCAD Electrical. Using this textbook, the readers can learn the application of basic tools required for creating professional electrical control drawings with the help of AutoCAD Electrical. Keeping in view the varied requirements of the users, this textbook covers a wide range of tools and features such as schematic drawings, Circuit Builder, panel drawings, parametric and nonparametric PLC modules, stand-alone PLC I/O points, ladder diagrams, point-to-point wiring diagrams, report generation, creation of symbols, and so on. This will help the readers to create electrical drawings easily and effectively. Special emphasis has been laid on the introduction of concepts, which have been explained using text and supported with graphical examples. The examples and tutorials used in this book ensure that the users can relate the information provided...

  9. An improved auto-tuning scheme for PI controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudi, Rajani K; Dey, Chanchal; Lee, Tsu-Tian

    2008-01-01

    Ziegler-Nichols tuned PI and PID controllers are usually found to provide poor performances for high-order and nonlinear systems. In this study, an improved auto-tuning scheme is presented for Ziegler-Nichols tuned PI controllers (ZNPICs). With a view to improving the transient response, the proportional and integral gains of the proposed controller are continuously modified based on the current process trend. The proposed controller is tested for a number of high-order linear and nonlinear dead-time processes under both set-point change and load disturbance. It exhibits significantly improved performance compared to ZNPIC, and Refined Ziegler-Nichols tuned PI controller (RZNPIC). Robustness of the proposed scheme is established by varying the controller parameters as well as the dead-time of the process under control.

  10. An improved auto-tuning scheme for PID controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Chanchal; Mudi, Rajani K

    2009-10-01

    An improved auto-tuning scheme is proposed for Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) tuned PID controllers (ZNPIDs), which usually provide excessively large overshoots, not tolerable in most of the situations, for high-order and nonlinear processes. To overcome this limitation ZNPIDs are upgraded by some easily interpretable heuristic rules through an online gain modifying factor defined on the instantaneous process states. This study is an extension of our earlier work [Mudi RK., Dey C. Lee TT. An improved auto-tuning scheme for PI controllers. ISA Trans 2008; 47: 45-52] to ZNPIDs, thereby making the scheme suitable for a wide range of processes and more generalized too. The proposed augmented ZNPID (AZNPID) is tested on various high-order linear and nonlinear dead-time processes with improved performance over ZNPID, refined ZNPID (RZNPID), and other schemes reported in the literature. Stability issues are addressed for linear processes. Robust performance of AZNPID is observed while changing its tunable parameters as well as the process dead-time. The proposed scheme is also implemented on a real time servo-based position control system.

  11. Fault tolerant control of multivariable processes using auto-tuning PID controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ding-Li; Chang, T K; Yu, Ding-Wen

    2005-02-01

    Fault tolerant control of dynamic processes is investigated in this paper using an auto-tuning PID controller. A fault tolerant control scheme is proposed composing an auto-tuning PID controller based on an adaptive neural network model. The model is trained online using the extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm to learn system post-fault dynamics. Based on this model, the PID controller adjusts its parameters to compensate the effects of the faults, so that the control performance is recovered from degradation. The auto-tuning algorithm for the PID controller is derived with the Lyapunov method and therefore, the model predicted tracking error is guaranteed to converge asymptotically. The method is applied to a simulated two-input two-output continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with various faults, which demonstrate the applicability of the developed scheme to industrial processes.

  12. AutoLock: a semiautomated system for radiotherapy treatment plan quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Joseph M; Lowe, Matthew; Hardy, Mark J; Boylan, Christopher J; Whitehurst, Philip; Rowbottom, Carl G

    2015-05-08

    A semiautomated system for radiotherapy treatment plan quality control (QC), named AutoLock, is presented. AutoLock is designed to augment treatment plan QC by automatically checking aspects of treatment plans that are well suited to computational evaluation, whilst summarizing more subjective aspects in the form of a checklist. The treatment plan must pass all automated checks and all checklist items must be acknowledged by the planner as correct before the plan is finalized. Thus AutoLock uniquely integrates automated treatment plan QC, an electronic checklist, and plan finalization. In addition to reducing the potential for the propagation of errors, the integration of AutoLock into the plan finalization workflow has improved efficiency at our center. Detailed audit data are presented, demonstrating that the treatment plan QC rejection rate fell by around a third following the clinical introduction of AutoLock.

  13. Controllable liquid crystal gratings for an adaptive 2D/3D auto-stereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. A.; Jin, T.; He, L. C.; Chu, Z. H.; Guo, T. L.; Zhou, X. T.; Lin, Z. X.

    2017-02-01

    2D/3D switchable, viewpoint controllable and 2D/3D localizable auto-stereoscopic displays based on controllable liquid crystal gratings are proposed in this work. Using the dual-layer staggered structure on the top substrate and bottom substrate as driven electrodes within a liquid crystal cell, the ratio between transmitting region and shielding region can be selectively controlled by the corresponding driving circuit, which indicates that 2D/3D switch and 3D video sources with different disparity images can reveal in the same auto-stereoscopic display system. Furthermore, the controlled region in the liquid crystal gratings presents 3D model while other regions maintain 2D model in the same auto-stereoscopic display by the corresponding driving circuit. This work demonstrates that the controllable liquid crystal gratings have potential applications in the field of auto-stereoscopic display.

  14. Specification of an Elevator Control System -- An AutoFocus Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Strobl; Alexander Wisspeintner

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a case study with AutoFocus, a tool prototype for the development of distributed embedded systems. We develop a controller of an elevator system using different description techniques to illustrate the development process. Furthermore we use the simulation component of AutoFocus, SimCenter, to validate the behavior of the specified system. Using a device independent interface SimCenter can control both external multimedia applications for visualization as well as real...

  15. An Auto Tuning Substation Peak Shaving Controller for Congestion Management Using Flexible Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Marinelli, Mattia

    2013-01-01

    A closed loop substation peak shaving/congestion management controller for radial distribution networks is presented. The controller it uses an individual control signal in order to shift the consumption of a population of demand side resources, DSRs. The controller auto tunes its parameters on...

  16. Study on the control course of ANFIS based aircraft auto-landing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The control model in the course of an aircraft auto-landing is first proposed. Then, the common basic hypotheses in the design of a fuzzy logic controller are described. The fuzzy inference system of an aircraft auto-landing fuzzy controller in the course of automatic control on landing is investigated. The auto-landing model for controlling, membership functions of state variables, inference rules in the system, algorithms for fuzzy inference and defuzzification, etc, are analyzed and devised in detail with the emphasis on optimal analysis and design of Takagi-Sugeno ALFC based on adaptive neural fuzzy inference systems. Finally, the simulation for verification and analysis of the designed schemes is made by utilizing Simulink and fuzzy logic toolbox with MATLAB. The simulated results show that the ANFIS based T-S type ALFC scheme has excellent behavior in performance.

  17. Design of an adaptive backstepping controller for auto-berthing a cruise ship under wind loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jong-Yong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The auto-berthing of a ship requires excellent control for safe accomplishment. Crabbing, which is the pure sway motion of a ship without surge velocity, can be used for this purpose. Crabbing is induced by a peculiar operation procedure known as the push-pull mode. When a ship is in the push-pull mode, an interacting force is induced by complex turbulent flow around the ship generated by the propellers and side thrusters. In this paper, three degrees of freedom equations of the motions of crabbing are derived. The equations are used to apply the adaptive backstepping control method to the auto-berthing controller of a cruise ship. The controller is capable of handling the system nonlinearity and uncertainty of the berthing process. A control allocation algorithm for a ship equipped with two propellers and two side thrusters is also developed, the performance of which is validated by simulation of auto-berthing.

  18. Design of an adaptive backstepping controller for auto-berthing a cruise ship under wind loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Yong; Kim, Nakwan

    2014-06-01

    The auto-berthing of a ship requires excellent control for safe accomplishment. Crabbing, which is the pure sway motion of a ship without surge velocity, can be used for this purpose. Crabbing is induced by a peculiar operation procedure known as the push-pull mode. When a ship is in the push-pull mode, an interacting force is induced by complex turbulent flow around the ship generated by the propellers and side thrusters. In this paper, three degrees of freedom equations of the motions of crabbing are derived. The equations are used to apply the adaptive backstepping control method to the auto-berthing controller of a cruise ship. The controller is capable of handling the system nonlinearity and uncertainty of the berthing process. A control allocation algorithm for a ship equipped with two propellers and two side thrusters is also developed, the performance of which is validated by simulation of auto-berthing.

  19. Equilibrating Pressure with Auto-Control Valve in Water Distribution Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏伟; 闫晓强; 张丽

    2003-01-01

    This paper probes into the feasibility of equilibrating pressure of water distribution network through using auto-control valves in theory and in the economy. An optimal valve control model is designed to minimize the sum of squares of residual pressure in the network. Such an analog simulation has been performed on the year 2003 programming network of a certain littoral district in North China, through which this paper confirms that it is feasible to equilibrate pressure with auto-control valves in theory. The research work has brought about a discovery of applicable conditions of valves in economic feasibility, which avoids a great economic loss due to the wild use of auto-control valve. In addition, simulated annealing algorithm is applied to optimize valve settings and shown to identify global optimum or near-optimum.

  20. Design of Automatic Programming System of Numerical Control Based on AutoCAD%基于AutoCAD数控自动编程系统的设计*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高杰; 袁吉; 邵振威

    2013-01-01

    AutoCAD作为目前主流的绘图软件广泛应用于很多领域,其强大的功能为数控自动编程提供了基础。该系统的建立主要基于VBA与AutoCAD系统中ActiveX自动化对象模型两者之间的结合,从而对AutoCAD进行内部二次开发,即以ActiveX自动化对象模型为基础建立了前置处理模块;利用Access建立加工参数数据库系统和数据库检索系统,并建立了数控自动编程系统,使AutoCAD具备一定的CAM功能,达到改善现有数控车床自动编程环境的目的。%AutoCAD, as current mainstream graphics software, is widely used in many fields. Its powerful features provide basis for automatic programming of numerical control. The establishment of this system is mainly based on integration of be-tween ActiveX automation object model and VBA which belong to AutoCAD system. AutoCAD is made internal secondary development: establishing pre-processing module based on ActiveX automation object model; building processing parameter database systems and database retrieval system by using Access, and establishing NC automatic programming system, which make AutoCAD have some CAM functions and achieve objects of improving automatic programming environment of existing numerically controlled lathe.

  1. Engine Performance (Section C: Emission Control Systems). Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Larry

    This engine performance (emission control systems) module is one of a series of competency-based modules in the Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Topics of this module's five units are: positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) and evaporative emission control systems; exhaust gas recirculation (EGR); air injection and catalytic converters;…

  2. Benzene exposure among auto-repair workers from workplace ambience: A pioneer study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Kamal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In Pakistan, the reports on benzene exposure among workers in chemical industries are almost non-existing due to limited research work in the field of exposure science. This study aimed to investigate such exposure in a widely adopted occupation in Rawalpindi city. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 blood samples (N = 20/group of mechanics (MCs, spray painters (PNs and control participants (CN were analyzed. The socio-economic and demographic information of workers and that of workplaces was documented using a short questionnaire. Results: We identified that the workers in spray-painting occupation are highly at risk of benzene exposure. The results showed that PNs were more at risk of exposure to benzene than MCs, and this exposure was significantly correlated with long working hours (r = 0.68, p < 0.001. Moreover, there are several limitations in workplace setups, which need to be addressed in order to mitigate workers health risk in this occupation. In addition to the reckless use of chemicals, other identified predictors of exposure included active and passive smoking, poor workplace hygiene and substandard ventilation. Conclusions: To mitigate workplace exposure, it is necessary to reduce working hours and encourage regular use of self-protective equipments and adoption of proper hygiene in chemical workplaces.

  3. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF AUTO DEPTH CONTROL OF REMOTELY OPERATED VEHICLE USING THRUSTER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Remotely Operated Vehicles are underwater robots designed specifically for surveillance, monitoring and collecting data for underwater activities. In the underwater vehicle industries, the thruster is an important part in controlling the direction, depth and speed of the ROV. However, there are some ROVs that cannot be maintained at the specified depth for a long time because of disturbance. This paper proposes an auto depth control using a thruster system. A prototype of a thruster with an auto depth control is developed and attached to the previously fabricated UTeM ROV. This paper presents the operation of auto depth control as well as thrusters for submerging and emerging purposes and maintaining the specified depth. The thruster system utilizes a microcontroller as its brain, a piezoresistive strain gauge pressure sensor and a DC brushless motor to run the propeller. Performance analysis of the auto depth control system is conducted to identify the sensitivity of the pressure sensor, and the accuracy and stability of the system. The results show that the thruster system performs well in maintaining a specified depth as well as stabilizing itself when a disturbanceoccurs even with a simple proportional controller used to control the thruster, where the thruster is an important component of the ROV.

  4. Design and Field Implementation of Auto Tuned Virtual Instrumentation Corrosion Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, J.; Agnihotri, Ganga; Deshpande, D. M.

    2016-06-01

    Corrosion in underground metallic pipeline leads to leakage which is hazardous when oil/natural gas is transported. Rate of corrosion in metal pipeline can be controlled by impressing dc current to the gas pipeline and thereby making metal pipeline to act as cathode of corrosion cell. Proportional integral controllers are used in impressed current cathodic protection application; tuning of proportional and integral constants of these controllers requires expertise. Step open, step close and relay tuning methods are compared; relay tuning provided better results for cathodic protection application. Ziegler-Nichols tuning formulas are used to select tuning parameters based on loop response. Virtual instrumentation is used for design, development, testing and field implementation of auto tuned PI controller. Proposed auto tuned proportional integral impressed current cathodic protection controller precisely controls corrosion in pipeline by selecting optimum proportional and integral constants. Controller effectiveness is cross verified using electrical resistance probe.

  5. Design and Field Implementation of Auto Tuned Virtual Instrumentation Corrosion Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, J.; Agnihotri, Ganga; Deshpande, D. M.

    2017-02-01

    Corrosion in underground metallic pipeline leads to leakage which is hazardous when oil/natural gas is transported. Rate of corrosion in metal pipeline can be controlled by impressing dc current to the gas pipeline and thereby making metal pipeline to act as cathode of corrosion cell. Proportional integral controllers are used in impressed current cathodic protection application; tuning of proportional and integral constants of these controllers requires expertise. Step open, step close and relay tuning methods are compared; relay tuning provided better results for cathodic protection application. Ziegler-Nichols tuning formulas are used to select tuning parameters based on loop response. Virtual instrumentation is used for design, development, testing and field implementation of auto tuned PI controller. Proposed auto tuned proportional integral impressed current cathodic protection controller precisely controls corrosion in pipeline by selecting optimum proportional and integral constants. Controller effectiveness is cross verified using electrical resistance probe.

  6. Integrated Auto-Tuning PID Control of Continuous Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    PID controllers were used for the hydraulic servo system of sliding gate and the tundish weight control system in continuous caster. These two loops were synthesized in mould level controller based on model reduction and internal model control strategy. Satisfactory control performance of this synthetic mould level controller was demonstrated by simulations and on-line experiments.

  7. Design of an iterative auto-tuning algorithm for a fuzzy PID controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Bakhtiar I.; Mehrdadi, B.

    2012-05-01

    Since the first application of fuzzy logic in the field of control engineering, it has been extensively employed in controlling a wide range of applications. The human knowledge on controlling complex and non-linear processes can be incorporated into a controller in the form of linguistic terms. However, with the lack of analytical design study it is becoming more difficult to auto-tune controller parameters. Fuzzy logic controller has several parameters that can be adjusted, such as: membership functions, rule-base and scaling gains. Furthermore, it is not always easy to find the relation between the type of membership functions or rule-base and the controller performance. This study proposes a new systematic auto-tuning algorithm to fine tune fuzzy logic controller gains. A fuzzy PID controller is proposed and applied to several second order systems. The relationship between the closed-loop response and the controller parameters is analysed to devise an auto-tuning method. The results show that the proposed method is highly effective and produces zero overshoot with enhanced transient response. In addition, the robustness of the controller is investigated in the case of parameter changes and the results show a satisfactory performance.

  8. Fuzzy Auto-adjust PID Controller Design of Brushless DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanxi, Wang; Yali, Yu; Guosheng, Zhang; Xiaoliang, Sheng

    Using conventional PID control method, to guarantee the rapidity and small overshoot dynamic and static performance of the BLDCM (brushless DC motor) system is out of the question. The control method to combine fuzzy control with PID control was fit the multivariable strong coupling nonlinear characteristic of BLDCM system. Matlab/Simulink simulation model had been built. The result of computer simulation shows that, compared with the conventional PID controller, the dynamic and static performance of fuzzy auto-adjust PID controller are put forward to optimize. The research work of this paper has profound significance for high precision controller design.

  9. A novel auto-tuning method for fractional order PI/PD controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyser, Robin; Muresan, Cristina I; Ionescu, Clara M

    2016-05-01

    Fractional order PID controllers benefit from an increasing amount of interest from the research community due to their proven advantages. The classical tuning approach for these controllers is based on specifying a certain gain crossover frequency, a phase margin and a robustness to gain variations. To tune the fractional order controllers, the modulus, phase and phase slope of the process at the imposed gain crossover frequency are required. Usually these values are obtained from a mathematical model of the process, e.g. a transfer function. In the absence of such model, an auto-tuning method that is able to estimate these values is a valuable alternative. Auto-tuning methods are among the least discussed design methods for fractional order PID controllers. This paper proposes a novel approach for the auto-tuning of fractional order controllers. The method is based on a simple experiment that is able to determine the modulus, phase and phase slope of the process required in the computation of the controller parameters. The proposed design technique is simple and efficient in ensuring the robustness of the closed loop system. Several simulation examples are presented, including the control of processes exhibiting integer and fractional order dynamics.

  10. Fuzzy Based Auto-coagulation Control Through Photometric Dispersion Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白桦; 李圭白

    2004-01-01

    The main role of water treatment plants is to supply high-quality safe drinking water. Coagulation is one of the most important stages of surface water treatment. The photometric dispersion analyzer(PDA) is a new optical method for flocculation monitoring, and is feasible to realize coagulation feedback control. The on line modification of the coagulation control system' s set point( or optimum dosing coagulant) has influenced the application of this technology in water treatment plant for a long time. A fuzzy control system incorporating the photometric dispersion analyzer was utilized in this coagulation control system. Proposed is a fuzzy logic inference control system by using Takagi and Sugeno' s fuzzy if-then rule for the self-correction of set point on line. Programmed is the dosing rate fuzzy control system in SIEMENS small-scale programmable logic controller. A 400 L/min middle-scale water treatment plant was utilized to simulate the reaction. With the changes of raw water quality, the set point was modified correctly in time, as well as coagulant dosing rate, and residual turbility before filtration was eligible and stable. Results show that this fuzzy inference and control system performs well on the coagulation control system through PDA.

  11. The Signal Detection and Control Circuit Design for Confocal Auto-Focus System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the demands of Confocal Auto-Focus system, the implementation method of signal measurement circuit and control circuit is given. Using the high performance instrumental amplifier AD620BN, low noise precision FET Op amplifier AD795JRZ and ultralow offset voltage Op amplifier OP07EP, a signal measurement circuit used to converse the two differential light intensity signal to electric signal is designed. And a control circuit which takes MCU MSP430F149 as core processes the former signal and generate a control signal driving the platform for auto-focusing. The experimental results proved the feasibility and correctness of circuits. And the system meets the design requirement.

  12. PID controller auto-tuning based on process step response and damping optimum criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavković, Danijel; Polak, Siniša; Zorc, Davor

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method of PID controller tuning suitable for higher-order aperiodic processes and aimed at step response-based auto-tuning applications. The PID controller tuning is based on the identification of so-called n-th order lag (PTn) process model and application of damping optimum criterion, thus facilitating straightforward algebraic rules for the adjustment of both the closed-loop response speed and damping. The PTn model identification is based on the process step response, wherein the PTn model parameters are evaluated in a novel manner from the process step response equivalent dead-time and lag time constant. The effectiveness of the proposed PTn model parameter estimation procedure and the related damping optimum-based PID controller auto-tuning have been verified by means of extensive computer simulations.

  13. Auto Code Generation for Simulink-Based Attitude Determination Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    MolinaFraticelli, Jose Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This paper details the work done to auto generate C code from a Simulink-Based Attitude Determination Control System (ADCS) to be used in target platforms. NASA Marshall Engineers have developed an ADCS Simulink simulation to be used as a component for the flight software of a satellite. This generated code can be used for carrying out Hardware in the loop testing of components for a satellite in a convenient manner with easily tunable parameters. Due to the nature of the embedded hardware components such as microcontrollers, this simulation code cannot be used directly, as it is, on the target platform and must first be converted into C code; this process is known as auto code generation. In order to generate C code from this simulation; it must be modified to follow specific standards set in place by the auto code generation process. Some of these modifications include changing certain simulation models into their atomic representations which can bring new complications into the simulation. The execution order of these models can change based on these modifications. Great care must be taken in order to maintain a working simulation that can also be used for auto code generation. After modifying the ADCS simulation for the auto code generation process, it is shown that the difference between the output data of the former and that of the latter is between acceptable bounds. Thus, it can be said that the process is a success since all the output requirements are met. Based on these results, it can be argued that this generated C code can be effectively used by any desired platform as long as it follows the specific memory requirements established in the Simulink Model.

  14. Model Development for Auto Spare Parts Inventory Control and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... The management of these parts can only be done with the aid of a computer; hence the spare ... type of costs or consequences as the case ... Supply. Chain Simulation applied to the case study provides useful insights on the decision choices .... (1999) “A combined forecast-inventory control procedure for.

  15. PI controller relay auto-tuning using delay and phase margin in PMSM drives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lina; Xiao Kun; Liliana de Lillo; Lee Empringham; Pat Wheeler

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an auto-tuning method for a proportion plus integral (PI) controller for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drives, which is supposed to be embedded in electro-mechanical actuator (EMA) control module in aircraft. The method, based on a relay feed-back with variable delay time, explores different critical points of the system frequency response. The Nyquist points of the plant can then be derived from the delay time and filter time constant. The coefficients of the PI controller can then be obtained by calculation while shifting the Nyquist point to a specific position to obtain the required phase margin. The major advantage of the auto-tuning method is that it can provide a series of tuning results for different system bandwidths and damping ratios, corresponding to the specification for delay time and phase margin. Simulation and experimental results for the PMSM controller verify the performance of both the current loop and the speed loop auto-tuning.

  16. PI controller relay auto-tuning using delay and phase margin in PMSM drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an auto-tuning method for a proportion plus integral (PI controller for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM drives, which is supposed to be embedded in electro-mechanical actuator (EMA control module in aircraft. The method, based on a relay feedback with variable delay time, explores different critical points of the system frequency response. The Nyquist points of the plant can then be derived from the delay time and filter time constant. The coefficients of the PI controller can then be obtained by calculation while shifting the Nyquist point to a specific position to obtain the required phase margin. The major advantage of the auto-tuning method is that it can provide a series of tuning results for different system bandwidths and damping ratios, corresponding to the specification for delay time and phase margin. Simulation and experimental results for the PMSM controller verify the performance of both the current loop and the speed loop auto-tuning.

  17. Distributed Fair Auto Rate Medium Access Control for IEEE 802.11 Based WLANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanfeng; Niu, Zhisheng

    Much research has shown that a carefully designed auto rate medium access control can utilize the underlying physical multi-rate capability to exploit the time-variation of the channel. In this paper, we develop a simple analytical model to elucidate the rule that maximizes the throughput of RTS/CTS based multi-rate wireless local area networks. Based on the discovered rule, we propose two distributed fair auto rate medium access control schemes called FARM and FARM+ from the view-point of throughput fairness and time-share fairness, respectively. With the proposed schemes, after receiving a RTS frame, the receiver selectively returns the CTS frame to inform the transmitter the maximum feasible rate probed by the signal-to-noise ratio of the received RTS frame. The key feature of the proposed schemes is that they are capable of maintaining throughput/time-share fairness in asymmetric situation where the distribution of SNR varies with stations. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed schemes outperform the existing throughput/time-share fair auto rate schemes in time-varying channel conditions.

  18. Anti Collision and Auto Retarding System along With a Wiper Speed Control during Rains Using MSP430 Micro-controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a system that can enhance the safety of vehicles. Our solution can assist the driver by warning the driver about impending obstacles and approaching vehicles that may lead to collision in addition to this we are also implementing an auto retarding system which helps in avoiding the accidents. In addition to this we implemented an automatic wiper speed control which controls speed of the wiper based on the intensity rain fall.

  19. Skin symptoms in bakery and auto body shop workers: Associations with exposure and respiratory symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrandale, V.; Meijster, T.; Pronk, A.; Doekes, G.; Redlich, C.A.; Holness, D.L.; Heederik, D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the importance of skin exposure, studies of skin symptoms in relation to exposure and respiratory symptoms are rare. The goals of this study were to describe exposure-response relationships for skin symptoms, and to investigate associations between skin and respiratory symptoms in b

  20. Fuzzy auto-tuning PID control of multiple joint robot driven by ultrasonic motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhijun; Xing, Rentao; Zhao, Chunsheng; Huang, Weiqing

    2007-11-01

    A three-joint robot is directly driven by ultrasonic motors with advantage of high torque at low speed. The speed of the ultrasonic motors is actually controlled by regulating their operating frequencies. The kinematic and kinetic analyses of the robot have been carried out using Adams. Due to the lack of accurate control model of ultrasonic motors and the time-varying motor parameters, a fuzzy auto-tuning proportional integral derivative (PID) controller for the robot is experimented, in which a simple method to tune parameters of the PID type fuzzy controller on-line is developed and a new position-speed feedback strategy is proposed and implemented. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy and fuzzy logic controller is verified by experimental investigation.

  1. Long-term exposure to auto exhaust and other pollutant mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, T.R.; Moorman, W.J.; Yang, Y.; Stara, J.F.

    1974-01-01

    This is an extension of a preliminary study with beagles exposed to combinations of irradiated and nonirradiated auto exhaust, SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/. There were no effects after 36 months. After 61 months, 1.21 mg/m/sup 3/ NO/sub 2/ plus 0.31 mg/m/sup 3/ NO reduced pulmonary diffusing capacity but not perfusion and ventilation suggesting alteration of the alveolar capillary membrane. There was no change in tidal flow expiratory resistance although this is less sensitive than peak flow. Raw exhaust plus SO/sub x/ increased the ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity indicating relative hyperinflation not associated with obstructive defects. Exhaust increased pulmonary capillary blood volume suggesting compensation for CO-induced hypoxia. Irradiated exhaust, alone or with SO/sub x/, increased expiratory resistance. Irradiated exhaust impaired ventilatory distribution. Lung volume, compliance, and maximum breathing capacity were not changed by any treatment.

  2. Design of programmable logic controller auto power reset circuit for FM transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Pattanajakr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The mono-stereo controller using audio mute clock is used at the International Broadcasting Bureau (IBB FM 106.6 MHz transmitter in Ulaan Baatar, Mongolia since 2010. The major problem of the FM broadcast station was from the frozen Programmable Logic Controller, PLC, which must be manually reset and the report by the VOA listeners. Then, the PLC auto power reset circuit is proposed and built in mono-stereo controller to monitor the operation of the PLC. The circuit is also used to restart the PLC whenever, it is frozen. The cloud router and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP to Recommended Standard number 232 (RS-232 converter are used to synchronize the PLC time. From the results, this circuit can improve the transmitter availability and quality of the 24 hours/day broadcast program without affection to the listeners. The reliability of the cloud router is acceptable with low delay of data transfer via the internet connection between Thailand to Mongolia. The cloud router which the IBB leases cloud service from the provider that offers high speed internet up to 1000 Mb/s, via the remote terminal is used for the schedule program and the time synchronization of the PLC correctly. The proposed system is very stable and there is no problem of the frozen PLC whether it connects to the internet or not. Hence, the designed PLC auto power reset circuit can be used to eliminate the frozen PLC problem.

  3. Auto-tuning of PID controller parameters with supervised receding horizon optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Li, Shaoyuan; Qi, Chenkun; Cai, Wenjian

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, a novel two-layer online auto-tuning algorithm is presented for a nonlinear time-varying system. The lower layer consists of a conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller and a plant process, while the upper layer is composed of identification and tuning modules. The purpose of the upper layer is to find a set of optimal PID parameters for the lower layer via an online receding horizon optimization approach, which result in a time-varying PID controller. Through mathematical analysis, the proposed system performance is equivalent to that of a standard generalized predictive control. Simulation and experiment demonstrate that the new method has a better control system performance compared with conventional PID controllers.

  4. A Cyber Expert System for Auto-Tuning Powered Prosthesis Impedance Control Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Crouch, Dustin L; Liu, Ming; Sawicki, Gregory S; Wang, Ding

    2016-05-01

    Typically impedance control parameters (e.g., stiffness and damping) in powered lower limb prostheses are fine-tuned by human experts (HMEs), which is time and resource intensive. Automated tuning procedures would make powered prostheses more practical for clinical use. In this study, we developed a novel cyber expert system (CES) that encoded HME tuning decisions as computer rules to auto-tune control parameters for a powered knee (passive ankle) prosthesis. The tuning performance of CES was preliminarily quantified on two able-bodied subjects and two transfemoral amputees. After CES and HME tuning, we observed normative prosthetic knee kinematics and improved or slightly improved gait symmetry and step width within each subject. Compared to HME, the CES tuning procedure required less time and no human intervention. Hence, using CES for auto-tuning prosthesis control was a sound concept, promising to enhance the practical value of powered prosthetic legs. However, the tuning goals of CES might not fully capture those of the HME. This was because we observed that HME tuning reduced trunk sway, while CES sometimes led to slightly increased trunk motion. Additional research is still needed to identify more appropriate tuning objectives for powered prosthetic legs to improve amputees' walking function.

  5. Evaluation of the hemostatic and coagulation effects of AUTO CUT and DRY CUT using a computer-controlled cutting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyrach, Mara N I; Tolba, Rene H; Voigtländer, Matthias; Neugebauer, Alexander; Enderle, Markus D

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate a newly developed computer-controlled cutting system for the generation of standardized resections and to systematically compare the hemostatic properties and tissue effect of 2 cutting modes, namely, AUTO CUT and DRY CUT used in urologic procedures. An isolated perfused kidney model was used to assess blood loss and coagulation depth after resection of tissue specimens of standardized geometry, size, and cutting velocity with a resection loop. Three different effect settings (E1, E3, and E6; 200 W) of the electrosurgical modes AUTO CUT and DRY CUT were compared. Blood loss was determined semiquantitatively by weighing a swab before and after placing it onto the resection area. The coagulation depth was estimated microscopically on cross sections. The computer-controlled cutting system creates resections of standardized geometry and size with a high reproducibility. An effect level-dependent increase in hemostasis and coagulation depth could be demonstrated with the cutting modes DRY CUT and AUTO CUT using this computer-controlled cutting system. The hemostatic effect with DRY CUT is significantly more pronounced than with AUTO CUT (E1, E3: P computer-controlled cutting system creating reproducible resections in combination with the isolated perfused kidney model offers the possibility to systematically investigate bleeding rate and coagulation depth. The stronger hemostatic properties of the DRY CUT mode are more favorable for urologic interventions requiring a higher hemostatic effect than the AUTO CUT mode. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Computer-Controlled System for Plasma Ion Energy Auto-Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴先球; 陈俊芳; 蒋珍美; 钟清华; 熊予莹; 吴开华

    2003-01-01

    A computer-controlled system for plasma ion energy auto-analyzer was technicallystudied for rapid and online measurement of plasma ion energy distribution. The system intel-ligently controls all the equipments via a RS-232 port, a printer port and a home-built circuit.The software designed by LabVIEW G language automatically fulfils all of the tasks such as sys-tem initializing, adjustment of scanning-voltage, measurement of weak-current, data processing,graphic export, etc. By using the system, a few minutes are taken to acquire the whole ion energydistribution, which rapidly provides important parameters of plasma process techniques based onsemiconductor devices and microelectronics.

  7. On-line Auto-Tuning of PI Control of the Superheat for a Supermarket Refrigeration System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Andersen, Casper; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2011-01-01

    An online PI auto-tuning method is proposed for superheat control for a type of supermarket refrigeration systems. The proposed procedure consists of three serial steps: Step-One uses one of the two proposed empirical methods, namely multi-step method and relay method, for modeling initialization...... controller is auto-tuned based on the obtained FOPDT model and the SIMC method in Step-Three. The proposed method is implemented on a real-sized physical system and the experimental results showed a promising potential to apply the proposed method into commercial development....

  8. On-line Auto-Tuning of PI Control of the Superheat for a Supermarket Refrigeration System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Andersen, Casper; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2011-01-01

    An online PI auto-tuning method is proposed for superheat control for a type of supermarket refrigeration systems. The proposed procedure consists of three serial steps: Step-One uses one of the two proposed empirical methods, namely multi-step method and relay method, for modeling initialization...... controller is auto-tuned based on the obtained FOPDT model and the SIMC method in Step-Three. The proposed method is implemented on a real-sized physical system and the experimental results showed a promising potential to apply the proposed method into commercial development....

  9. [Prevention of intrauterine adhesion with auto-crosslinked hyaluronic acid gel: a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Songshu; Wan, Yajun; Zou, Fangjun; Ye, Mingzhu; Deng, Henan; Ma, Jiezhi; Wei, Yingying; Tan, Chen; Xue, Min

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of auto-crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA) gel for preventing intrauterine adhesion (IUA) after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis. A prospective, randomized, double blinded and controlled clinical trial (level I) was performed. According to American Fertility Society (AFS) scoring system, 120 patients (treatment group: 60 cases, control group: 60 cases) with moderate to severe IUA were enrolled. Upon completion of adhesiolysis, a Foley balloon catheter was first introduced into the uterine cavity and then 3 ml of auto-crosslinked HA gel for patients in the treatment group; patients in the control group, however, only received Foley balloon catheter. Second-look hysteroscopic examination was performed to all patients at 3 months postoperatively for evaluation of IUA. Primary endpoint was the reduction rate of IUA at 3 months after surgery. The secondary endpoints include total AFS score, score of each individual AFS category. At 3 months after surgery, auto-crosslinked HA gel resulted in significantly higher effective rate for reduction of adhesion, the effective rate were 76% (42/55) and 48% (27/56) respectively (P = 0.000 9); the total AFS score of treatment group was 2.1 ± 1.1, and significantly lower than that of control group (3.7 ± 2.5, P = 0.000 8). Application of auto-crosslinked HA gel after surgery significantly enhanced the improvement for each individual patient with regard to their adhesive type and menstrual pattern (P = 0.037 8, P = 0.000 4). The treatment group had significantly lower proportion of patients with moderate to severe adhesive stages than that of control group [13% (7/55) versus 38% (21/56), P = 0.000 6]. No adverse events and complications were observed. Auto-crosslinked HA gel coule be able to reduce IUA, decrease adhesion severity, and improve menopause postoperatively. This absorbable auto-crosslinked HA gel is proposed as a barrier for preventing IUA after intrauterine procedures.

  10. Fractional order sliding-mode control based on parameters auto-tuning for velocity control of permanent magnet synchronous motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, BiTao; Pi, YouGuo; Luo, Ying

    2012-09-01

    A fractional order sliding mode control (FROSMC) scheme based on parameters auto-tuning for the velocity control of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is proposed in this paper. The control law of the proposed F(R)OSMC scheme is designed according to Lyapunov stability theorem. Based on the property of transferring energy with adjustable type in F(R)OSMC, this paper analyzes the chattering phenomenon in classic sliding mode control (SMC) is attenuated with F(R)OSMC system. A fuzzy logic inference scheme (FLIS) is utilized to obtain the gain of switching control. Simulations and experiments demonstrate that the proposed FROSMC not only achieve better control performance with smaller chatting than that with integer order sliding mode control, but also is robust to external load disturbance and parameter variations.

  11. A novel auto-tuning PID control mechanism for nonlinear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Meric; Iplikci, Serdar

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a novel Runge-Kutta (RK) discretization-based model-predictive auto-tuning proportional-integral-derivative controller (RK-PID) is introduced for the control of continuous-time nonlinear systems. The parameters of the PID controller are tuned using RK model of the system through prediction error-square minimization where the predicted information of tracking error provides an enhanced tuning of the parameters. Based on the model-predictive control (MPC) approach, the proposed mechanism provides necessary PID parameter adaptations while generating additive correction terms to assist the initially inadequate PID controller. Efficiency of the proposed mechanism has been tested on two experimental real-time systems: an unstable single-input single-output (SISO) nonlinear magnetic-levitation system and a nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) liquid-level system. RK-PID has been compared to standard PID, standard nonlinear MPC (NMPC), RK-MPC and conventional sliding-mode control (SMC) methods in terms of control performance, robustness, computational complexity and design issue. The proposed mechanism exhibits acceptable tuning and control performance with very small steady-state tracking errors, and provides very short settling time for parameter convergence.

  12. Active vibration control of Flexible Joint Manipulator using Input Shaping and Adaptive Parameter Auto Disturbance Rejection Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W. P.; Luo, B.; Huang, H.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a vibration control strategy for a two-link Flexible Joint Manipulator (FJM) with a Hexapod Active Manipulator (HAM). A dynamic model of the multi-body, rigid-flexible system composed of an FJM, a HAM and a spacecraft was built. A hybrid controller was proposed by combining the Input Shaping (IS) technique with an Adaptive-Parameter Auto Disturbance Rejection Controller (APADRC). The controller was used to suppress the vibration caused by external disturbances and input motions. Parameters of the APADRC were adaptively adjusted to ensure the characteristic of the closed loop system to be a given reference system, even if the configuration of the manipulator significantly changes during motion. Because precise parameters of the flexible manipulator are not required in the IS system, the operation of the controller was sufficiently robust to accommodate uncertainties in system parameters. Simulations results verified the effectiveness of the HAM scheme and controller in the vibration suppression of FJM during operation.

  13. Improved Water Network Macroscopic Model Utilising Auto-Control Adjusting Valve by PLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; ZHAO Xinhua; WANG Xiaodong

    2005-01-01

    In order to overcome the low precision and weak applicability problems of the current municipal water network state simulation model, the water network structure is studied. Since the telemetry system has been applied increasingly in the water network, and in order to reflect the network operational condition more accurately, a new water network macroscopic model is developed by taking the auto-control adjusting valve opening state into consideration. Then for highly correlated or collinear independent variables in the model, the partial least squares (PLS) regression method provides a model solution which can distinguish between the system information and the noisy data. Finally, a hypothetical water network is introduced for validating the model. The simulation results show that the relative error is less than 5.2%, indicating that the model is efficient and feasible, and has better generalization performance.

  14. Critical ischemia of the fingers in an auto mechanic as a result of occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabczyński, Maciej; Kuźnik, Edwin; Guziński, Maciej; Adamiec, Rajmund

    2015-01-01

    Hypothenar hammer syndrome is a rare cause of ischemic fingers observed mainly in young men smoking cigarettes and it is associated with repeated trauma of the ulnar artery in the area of the hypothenar eminence of the dominant-hand arm, resulting in a deficit of blood supply with the occurrence of hand symptoms typical for chronic and sometimes critical ischemia. Artery injury in this location is most often the result of multiple repetitions of the same activity being mostly the result of occupational exposure. We present a case of a 27-year-old car mechanic admitted to the hospital with symptoms of critical ischemia of the fingers III, IV, and V of the right hand, which resolved after conservative treatment.

  15. Critical ischemia of the fingers in an auto mechanic as a result of occupational exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Rabczyński

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypothenar hammer syndrome is a rare cause of ischemic fingers observed mainly in young men smoking cigarettes and it is associated with repeated trauma of the ulnar artery in the area of the hypothenar eminence of the dominant-hand arm, resulting in a deficit of blood supply with the occurrence of hand symptoms typical for chronic and sometimes critical ischemia. Artery injury in this location is most often the result of multiple repetitions of the same activity being mostly the result of occupational exposure. We present a case of a 27-year-old car mechanic admitted to the hospital with symptoms of critical ischemia of the fingers III, IV, and V of the right hand, which resolved after conservative treatment.

  16. Occupational exposure to heavy metals in a metal-mechanical auto part manufacturing plant in Puebla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F Romero-Zarazua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The concentration of Cd, Cr, Al and Pb present in inhalable air and deposited dust in a metal-mechanical parts manufacturing plant in Puebla, México were determined in order to assess the occupational exposure of workers in this plant. Materials and Methods: Fourteen air samples, six from the metal welding (MW and eight from the metal forming (MF areas, as well as metal dust accumulated on the floor of an auto part manufacturing plant, were collected. Sampling and analysis followed the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH recommended methods for metals in inhalable air. Results: The average concentration of Al and Cd determined in a volume of inhalable air were adequate under NIOSH maximal exposure concentration limits in both sampled sites. Average concentrations of 0.001 (MF sampling site and 0.105 μg/L (MW sampling site for Al; 0.003 (MF and 0.0005 (MW μg/L for Cd, with respect to the NIOHS limits, 10 and 0.005 μg/L, for Al and Cd, respectively. However, Cr and Pb concentrations exceeded or were close to the limits recommended by NIOHS in both places (0.5 and 0.05 μg/L for Cr and Pb, respectively. Average concentrations of 0.345 (MF and 0.77 (MW μg/L for Cr and 0.153 (MF and 0.649 (MW μg/L for Pb, were determined. Levels of metal content (Cd, Cr and Pb in powder samples collected in both sampling sites were also higher than the suggested limits. Conclusion: The average concentration of Cr and Pb exceeded the limits recommended by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and NIOSH for inhalable air in the workplace. Workers may be on risk of heavy metal occupational exposure. It is endorsed to implement safety measurements to avoid the breathing of contaminated air and also industrial level systems for dust and aerosol particle filtering or precipitation, altogether with stricter policies to regulate heavy metal exposure at these industries.

  17. Auto gain control of EMCCD in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhaoyi; Li, Dayu; Hu, Lifa; Mu, QuanQuan; Cao, Zhaoliang; Wang, Yukun; Wang, Shaoxin; Xuan, Li

    2016-12-01

    Electron multiplying charge-coupled-device (EMCCD) applied in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (S-H WFS) makes the wavefront sensing more efficient for adaptive optics (AO). However when the brightness of the observed target changes in large ranges in a few minutes, a fixed electron multiplying (EM) gain may not be optimum. Thus an auto-gain-control (AGC) method based on the spots image of the S-H WFS is proposed. The designed control value is the average value of the maximum signals of all the light spots in a frame. It has been demonstrated in the experiments that the control value is sensitive to the change of the target brightness, and is stable in the presence of detecting noises and turbulence influence. The goal value for control is predetermined based on the linear relation of the signal with the EM gain and the number of photons collected in sub-apertures. The conditions of the self-protection of the EMCCD are also considered for the goal value. Simulations and experiments indicate that the proposed control method is efficient, and keeps the sensing in a high SNR which reaches the upper SNR limit when sensing with EMCCD. The self-protection of the EMCCD is avoided during the whole sensing process.

  18. Auto bias control and bias hold circuit for IQ-modulator in flexible optical QAM transmitter with Nyquist filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hiroto; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Yoshida, Mitsuteru; Kataoka, Tomoyoshi; Miyamoto, Yutaka

    2014-11-17

    An Auto Bias Control (ABC) technique for the IQ-modulator of a flexible optical QAM transmitter is described. This technique can support various optical QAM signal formats with Nyquist filtering and electronic dispersion pre-compensation. 16, 32 and 64-QAM signals (21 Gbaud) are successfully generated, and all bias voltages are held to their optimum value even when signal format is changed.

  19. Grand Theft Auto IV comes to Singapore: effects of repeated exposure to violent video games on aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Scott Kie Zin; Chong, Gabriel Yew Mun; Siew, Amy Sok Cheng; Skoric, Marko M

    2011-10-01

    Given the increasingly dominant role of video games in the mainstream entertainment industry, it is no surprise that the scholarly debate about their impact has been lively and well attended. Although >100 studies have been conducted to examine the impact of violent video games on aggression, no clear consensus has been reached, particularly in terms of their long-term impact on violent behavior and aggressive cognitions. This study employs a first-ever longitudinal laboratory-based experiment to examine longer-term effects of playing a violent video game. One hundred thirty-five participants were assigned either to the treatment condition where they played a violent video game in a controlled laboratory setting for a total of 12 hours or to the control group where they did not play a game. Participants in the treatment group played Grand Theft Auto IV over a period of 3 weeks and were compared with a control group on the posttest measures of trait aggression, attitudes toward violence, and empathy. The findings do not support the assertion that playing a violent video game for a period of 3 weeks increases aggression or reduces empathy, but they suggest a small increase in proviolence attitudes. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  20. PID-controller with predictor and auto-tuning algorithm: study of efficiency for thermal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzishchin, V. F.; Merzlikina, E. I.; Hoang, Van Va

    2017-09-01

    The problem of efficiency estimation of an automatic control system (ACS) with a Smith predictor and PID-algorithm for thermal plants is considered. In order to use the predictor, it is proposed to include an auto-tuning module (ATC) into the controller; the module calculates parameters for a second-order plant module with a time delay. The study was conducted using programmable logical controllers (PLC), one of which performed control, ATC, and predictor functions. A simulation model was used as a control plant, and there were two variants of the model: one of them was built on the basis of a separate PLC, and the other was a physical model of a thermal plant in the form of an electrical heater. Analysis of the efficiency of the ACS with the predictor was carried out for several variants of the second order plant model with time delay, and the analysis was performed on the basis of the comparison of transient processes in the system when the set point was changed and when a disturbance influenced the control plant. The recommendations are given on correction of the PID-algorithm parameters when the predictor is used by means of using the correcting coefficient k for the PID parameters. It is shown that, when the set point is changed, the use of the predictor is effective taking into account the parameters correction with k = 2. When the disturbances influence the plant, the use of the predictor is doubtful, because the transient process is too long. The reason for this is that, in the neighborhood of the zero frequency, the amplitude-frequency characteristic (AFC) of the system with the predictor has an ascent in comparison with the AFC of the system without the predictor.

  1. Unintentional Epinephrine Auto-injector Injuries: A National Poison Center Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshien, Marco; Rose, S Rutherfoord; Wills, Brandon K

    2016-11-24

    Epinephrine is the only first-line therapeutic agent used to treat life-threatening anaphylaxis. Epinephrine auto-injectors are commonly carried by patients at risk for anaphylaxis, and reported cases of unintentional auto-injector injury have increased over the last decade. Modifications of existing designs and release of a new style of auto-injector are intended to reduce epinephrine auto-injector misuse. The aim of the study was to characterize reported cases of unintentional epinephrine auto-injector exposures from 2013 to 2014 and compare demographics, auto-injector model, and anatomical site of such exposures. The American Association of Poison Control Center's National Poison Data System was searched from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2014, for cases of unintentional epinephrine auto-injector exposures. Anatomical site data were obtained from all cases reported to the Virginia Poison Center and participating regional poison center for Auvi-Q cases. A total of 6806 cases of unintentional epinephrine auto-injector exposures were reported to US Poison Centers in 2013 and 2014. Of these cases, 3933 occurred with EpiPen, 2829 with EpiPen Jr, 44 with Auvi-Q, and no case reported of Adrenaclick. The most common site of unintentional injection for traditional epinephrine auto-injectors was the digit or thumb, with 58% of cases for EpiPen and 39% of cases with EpiPen Jr. With Auvi-Q, the most common site was the leg (78% of cases). The number of unintentional epinephrine auto-injector cases reported to American Poison Centers in 2013-2014 has increased compared with previous data. Most EpiPen exposures were in the digits, whereas Auvi-Q was most frequently in the leg. Because of the limitations of Poison Center data, more research is needed to identify incidence of unintentional exposures and the effectiveness of epinephrine auto-injector redesign.

  2. CONSTRUCTION OF POLYNOMIAL MATRIX USING BLOCK COEFFICIENT MATRIX REPRESENTATION AUTO-REGRESSIVE MOVING AVERAGE MODEL FOR ACTIVELY CONTROLLED STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunxiang; ZHOU Dai

    2004-01-01

    The polynomial matrix using the block coefficient matrix representation auto-regressive moving average (referred to as the PM-ARMA) model is constructed in this paper for actively controlled multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) structures with time-delay through equivalently transforming the preliminary state space realization into the new state space realization. The PM-ARMA model is a more general formulation with respect to the polynomial using the coefficient representation auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) model due to its capability to cope with actively controlled structures with any given structural degrees of freedom and any chosen number of sensors and actuators. (The sensors and actuators are required to maintain the identical number.) under any dimensional stationary stochastic excitation.

  3. Implication of auto-generated message reminders system (software and rate of absenteeism in orthodontic clinic: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Sonwane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Absenteeism is a routine pattern of nonattendance from duty of responsibilities, nonattending to given appointment may have deleterious effect on treatment outcome and revenue generation. Very few studies have been done to know the effect of absenteeism on revenue generation and treatment outcome with the help of postcard, telephone, and text messages as reminder; however, these studies have concluded that there was statistically significant difference found in treatment outcome and revenue generation. Furthermore, our study is the almost first to present with the use of current available reminder tool (software reminder system. Aims: The aim of this study to implicate and evaluate effects of auto-generated message reminder (easy dental software application and previous visit reminder system. Materials and Methods: The sum of 180 patients was selected and divided 90 patients in each group. (1 Study group (Auto-generated message reminder system, (2 control group (previous visit remainder. Auto-generated messages were sent to the study group. No formal information given to control group. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-tests were used to compare two groups, and logistic regression was obtained 0.044. Results: In control group, 20% of total sample found to be absent whereas only 10% found to be absent in study group. Student's t-test and logistic regression were seen (P = 0.044. Conclusion: The use of auto-generated message reminder system (easy dental software, reduces the rate of absenteeism and increases clinic economy, proper results with stipulated period, and protect both clinician and patients from unwanted complications.

  4. AutoSync : Automatic duty-cycle control for synchronous low-power listening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Tranberg; Kusy, Branislav; Jurdak, Raja;

    2012-01-01

    resources doing idle listening. This problem is particularly exacerbated in multi-radio networks where majority of data comes through the most reliable radio and the duty cycles of other radios could be reduced. We address this issue in AutoSync, a protocol that combines synchronous LPL with automatic...

  5. Auto Alternatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China counts on developing new-energy vehicles to maintain its auto-market leadership While it remains to be seen what kind of progress will be made following the UN Climate Conference in Cancun, Mexico,

  6. AutoCAD环境下数控编程数据的重构%Data Reconstruction of Numerical Control Programming with AutoCAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓龙; 嵇宁; 张金龙; 贺健琪; 刘晓婷

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the method to solve the problems of objects sorting and data reconstruction during the NC machi-ning process by AutoLlSP programming, describes the principle and programming flow by the information analysis of graphic el-ement and give out the application example as wel as the results. AutoLlSP language is used to do the secondary develop-ment. This makes getting the date for NC-programming convenient for the technologists. so that its efficiency is improved greatly.%介绍了使用AutoLISP语言编程,实现数控加工过程中对象排序和数据重构的方法。通过对图元对象信息的分析,论述了该方法的原理和实现流程,给出了应用实例以及数据重构后的结果。采用AutoLISP语言进行二次开发,方便了技术人员在数控编程中直接得到所需要的数据,提高了数控编程的效率。

  7. Getting full control of canonical correlation analysis with the AutoBiplot.CCA function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M. Rui

    2016-06-01

    Function AutoBiplot.CCA was built in R language. Given two multivariate data sets, this function carries out a conventional canonical correlation analysis, followed by the automatic production of predictive biplots based on the accuracy of readings as assessed by a mean standard predictive error and a user defined tolerance value. As the user's intervention is mainly restricted to the choice of the magnitude of the t.axis value, common misinterpretations, overestimations and adjustments between outputs and personal beliefs are avoided.

  8. Finite State Machine based Vending Machine Controller with Auto-Billing Features

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, Vending Machines are well known among Japan, Malaysia and Singapore. The quantity of machines in these countries is on the top worldwide. This is due to the modern lifestyles which require fast food processing with high quality. This paper describes the designing of multi select machine using Finite State Machine Model with Auto-Billing Features. Finite State Machine (FSM) modelling is the most crucial part in developing proposed model as this reduces the hardware. In this paper th...

  9. Automatización de Tarjetas Electrónicas de Radiofrecuencia Empleadas en Autos de Radio Control Nikko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Ulises Rodríguez Marmolejo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo da a conocer la automatización realizada en un lote de tarjetas electrónicas de radiofrecuencia usadas en autos de radio control de la marca nikko. El modelo k7-RC de autos de radio control profesional después de unas cuantas horas de funcionamiento falla la etapa de potencia del sistema de tracción, debido a la alta demanda de corriente eléctrica por parte del motor. Se tienen dos alternativas, la primera de ellas es adquirir la tarjeta electrónica del nuevo modelo desde Canadá que resulta costoso por trámites aduanales, etc. La otra alternativa es rediseñar y corregir la etapa de éste modelo. Se optó por acondicionar las señales provenientes del propio procesador de la tarjeta electrónica, mediante un microcontrolador PIC18F452[1] quien manipula la etapa de potencia del motor propulsor el cual demanda una corriente casi de 4 amperios. Aprovechando un par de relevadores de la tarjeta original, la ayuda de un transistor mosfet canal N y un acoplamiento opto electrónico adecuado entre el microcontrolador y la etapa de potencia, se genera el cambio de giro del motor evitando la pérdida de velocidad y torque en la tracción del auto de radio control siendo muy barata la implementación.

  10. Finite State Machine based Vending Machine Controller with Auto-Billing Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Monga

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Vending Machines are well known among Japan, Malaysia and Singapore. The quantity of machines in these countries is on the top worldwide. This is due to the modern lifestyles which require fast food processing with high quality. This paper describes the designing of multi select machine using Finite State Machine Model with Auto-Billing Features. Finite State Machine (FSM modelling is the most crucial part in developing proposed model as this reduces the hardware. In this paper the process of four state (user Selection, Waiting for money insertion, product delivery and servicing has been modelled using MEALY Machine Model. The proposed model is tested using Spartan 3 development board and its performance is compared with CMOS based machine.

  11. Finite State Machine based Vending Machine Controller with Auto-Billing Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwinder Singh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Vending Machines are well known among Japan, Malaysia and Singapore. The quantity of machines in these countries is on the top worldwide. This is due to the modern lifestyles which require fast food processing with high quality. This paper describes the designing of multi select machine using Finite State Machine Model with Auto-Billing Features. Finite State Machine (FSM modelling is the most crucial part in developing proposed model as this reduces the hardware. In this paper the process of four state (user Selection, Waiting for money insertion, product delivery and servicing has been modelled using MEALY Machine Model. The proposed model is tested using Spartan 3 development board and its performance is compared with CMOS based machine.

  12. Finite State Machine based Vending Machine Controller with Auto-Billing Features

    CERN Document Server

    Monga, Ana; 10.5121/vlsic.2012.3202

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, Vending Machines are well known among Japan, Malaysia and Singapore. The quantity of machines in these countries is on the top worldwide. This is due to the modern lifestyles which require fast food processing with high quality. This paper describes the designing of multi select machine using Finite State Machine Model with Auto-Billing Features. Finite State Machine (FSM) modelling is the most crucial part in developing proposed model as this reduces the hardware. In this paper the process of four state (user Selection, Waiting for money insertion, product delivery and servicing) has been modelled using MEALY Machine Model. The proposed model is tested using Spartan 3 development board and its performance is compared with CMOS based machine.

  13. Dual-harmonic auto voltage control for the rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Tamura

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The dual-harmonic operation, in which the accelerating cavities are driven by the superposition of the fundamental and the second harmonic rf voltage, is useful for acceleration of the ultrahigh intensity proton beam in the rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC. However, the precise and fast voltage control of the harmonics is necessary to realize the dual-harmonic acceleration. We developed the dual-harmonic auto voltage control system for the J-PARC RCS. We describe details of the design and the implementation. Various tests of the system are performed with the RCS rf system. Also, a preliminary beam test has been done. We report the test results.

  14. Auto Adjusting Astronomical Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit R. Ghalsasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Astronomical telescope is powerful and basic tool for star or celestial observation. Here we proposed integrated system using Raspberry Pi for auto adjusting astronomical telescope. This integrated circuit helps to control stellar monitoring, stellar targeting, and tracking functions of telescope. Astro compass gives the direction of the celestial objects.

  15. Comportamento assertivo e sua relação com ansiedade, locus de controle e auto-estima em estudantes universitários

    OpenAIRE

    Bandeira,Marina; Quaglia,Maria Amélia Cesari; Bachetti,Lívia da Silva; Ferreira,Tatiana Lourençoni; Souza, Grasiela Gomide de

    2005-01-01

    Foram estudados o comportamento assertivo e sua relação com ansiedade, locus de controle e auto-estima. Participou da pesquisa uma amostra aleatória de 135 universitários, de ambos os sexos, com idade média de 25 anos. Foram aplicadas as escalas de assertividade de Rathus, locus de controle de Levenson, auto-estima de Dela Coleta e a escala de ansiedade IDATE-traço. Os resultados indicaram que os estudantes da área de ciências exatas apresentaram escores mais elevados de assertividade e de au...

  16. AutoCAD platform customization user interface, AutoLISP, VBA, and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosius, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Take control of AutoCAD to boost the speed, quality, and precision of your work Senior drafters and savvy users are increasingly taking AutoCAD customization out of the hands of system administrators, and taking control of their own workflow. In AutoCAD Platform Customization, Autodesk customization guru Lee Ambrosius walks you through a multitude of customization options using detailed tutorials and real-world examples applicable to AutoCAD, AutoCAD LT, Civil 3D, Plant 3D, and other programs built on the AutoCAD platform. By unleashing the full power of the software, you'll simplify and str

  17. Effect of external PEEP in patients under controlled mechanical ventilation with an auto-PEEP of 5 cmH2O or higher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalini, Giuseppe; Tuzzo, Daniele; Rosano, Antonio; Testa, Marco; Grazioli, Michele; Pennestrì, Vincenzo; Amodeo, Guido; Berruto, Francesco; Fiorillo, Marialinda; Peratoner, Alberto; Tinnirello, Andrea; Filippini, Matteo; Marsilia, Paolo F; Minelli, Cosetta; Bernardini, Achille

    2016-12-01

    In some patients with auto-positive end-expiratory pressure (auto-PEEP), application of PEEP lower than auto-PEEP maintains a constant total PEEP, therefore reducing the inspiratory threshold load without detrimental cardiovascular or respiratory effects. We refer to these patients as "complete PEEP-absorbers." Conversely, adverse effects of PEEP application could occur in patients with auto-PEEP when the total PEEP rises as a consequence. From a pathophysiological perspective, all subjects with flow limitation are expected to be "complete PEEP-absorbers," whereas PEEP should increase total PEEP in all other patients. This study aimed to empirically assess the extent to which flow limitation alone explains a "complete PEEP-absorber" behavior (i.e., absence of further hyperinflation with PEEP), and to identify other factors associated with it. One hundred patients with auto-PEEP of at least 5 cmH2O at zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP) during controlled mechanical ventilation were enrolled. Total PEEP (i.e., end-expiratory plateau pressure) was measured both at ZEEP and after applied PEEP equal to 80 % of auto-PEEP measured at ZEEP. All measurements were repeated three times, and the average value was used for analysis. Forty-seven percent of the patients suffered from chronic pulmonary disease and 52 % from acute pulmonary disease; 61 % showed flow limitation at ZEEP, assessed by manual compression of the abdomen. The mean total PEEP was 7 ± 2 cmH2O at ZEEP and 9 ± 2 cmH2O after the application of PEEP (p auto-PEEP can be accurately predicted at the bedside by measuring the respiratory rate and observing the flow-volume loop during manual compression of the abdomen.

  18. First industrial application of MAG STT welding with auto adaptative joint control; Premiere application industrielle du soudage MAG STT avec suivi de joint auto adaptatif au laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Tien, Thong [IS Services - Institut de Soudure - ZI Paris-Nord II - 90 rue des Vanesses 93420 Villepinte (France)

    2006-07-01

    The Welding Institute has participated to an extraordinary plan: the manufacture of the new LHC (Large Hadron Collider) particles accelerator in a circular tunnel of 27 km of circumference, at the European laboratory for particles physics (CERN) located at the Franco-Swiss frontier. The LHC dipolar magnets wires constituted in semi-cylinders of 15 m length in 316 LN, thickness 10 mm, are assembled in horizontal-vertical position. The Welding Institute has developed a software allowing to implement the auto-adaptative welding with follow of laser joint, using the MAG STT (Surface Tension Transfer) process. The modeling of welding laws connected with the strategy of joints filling runs (in multi-passes), absorb the physical tolerances of the preparation (clearance, poor alignment, root of joint...) and this in welding dynamical condition. (O.M.)

  19. Adaptive threshold control for auto-rate fallback algorithm in IEEE 802.11 multi-rate WLANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qilin; Lu, Yang; Zhu, Xiaolin; Ge, Fangzhen

    2012-03-01

    The IEEE 802.11 standard supports multiple rates for data transmission in the physical layer. Nowadays, to improve network performance, a rate adaptation scheme called auto-rate fallback (ARF) is widely adopted in practice. However, ARF scheme suffers performance degradation in multiple contending nodes environments. In this article, we propose a novel rate adaptation scheme called ARF with adaptive threshold control. In multiple contending nodes environment, the proposed scheme can effectively mitigate the frame collision effect on rate adaptation decision by adaptively adjusting rate-up and rate-down threshold according to the current collision level. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve significantly higher throughput than the other existing rate adaptation schemes. Furthermore, the simulation results also demonstrate that the proposed scheme can effectively respond to the varying channel condition.

  20. Double blind placebo controlled exposure to molds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, H W; Jensen, K A; Nielsen, K F

    2005-01-01

    with a positive histamine release test to Penicillium chrysogenum were exposed double- blinded to either placebo, approximately 600,000 spores/m3 air of P. chrysogenum or approximately 350,000 spores/m3 of Trichoderma harzianum for 6 min on three separate days. A statistically significant rise in symptoms from...... mucous membranes appeared from the 9-graded symptom scale after exposure to T. harzianum or placebo. Dichotomizing the data, whether the participants experienced at least a two-step rise on the symptom scale or not, gave borderline increase in mucous membrane symptoms after exposure to P. chrysogenum...... to placebo in eight sensitive school employees. However, a statistical type II error cannot be excluded because of the small sample size. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: In this double blind, placebo controlled study of mold exposure changes in symptoms, objective measurements and blood samples were small and mostly...

  1. Influence of variable valve timings on the gas exchange process in a controlled auto-ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovanovic, N.; Chen, R. [Loughborough University (United Kingdom). Aeronautical and Autumotive Dept.; Turner, J. [Lotus Engineering (United Kingdom). Powertrain Research Dept.

    2004-05-01

    The controlled auto-ignition (CAI) engine concept has the potential to be highly efficient and to produce low NO{sub x} and particulate matter emissions. However, the problem of controlling the combustion over the entire load/speed range limits its practical application. The CAI combustion is controlled by the chemical kinetics of the charge mixture, with no influence of the flame diffusion or turbulent propagation. Therefore, to achieve successful control of the CAI process, the composition, temperature and pressure of the charge mixture at the inlet valve closure (IC) point has to be controlled. The use of the variable valve timing strategy, which enables quick changes in the amount of trapped hot exhaust gases, shows the potential for control of CAI combustion. The aim of this paper is to analyse the influence of the variable valve timing strategy on the gas exchange process, the process between the first valve open event (EO) and the last valve closing event (IC), in a CAI engine fuelled with standard gasoline fuel (95RON). The gas exchange process affects the engine parameters and charge properties and therefore plays a crucial role in determining the control of the CAI process. Analysis is performed by experimental and modelling approaches. A single-cylinder research engine equipped with a fully variable valvetrain (FVVT ) system was used for the experimental study. A combined code consisting of a detailed chemical kinetics code and one-dimensional fluid dynamics code was used for the modelling study. The results obtained indicate that the variable valve timing strategy has a strong influence on the gas exchange process, which in turn influences the engine parameters and the cylinder charge properties, and hence the control of the CAI process. The EC timing has the strongest effect, followed by the 10 timing, while the EO and IC timings have minor effects. (author)

  2. Post-operative auto-transfusion in total hip or knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Haien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Total hip or knee arthroplasty is an elective procedure that is usually accompanied by substantial blood loss, which may lead to acute anemia. As a result, almost half of total joint arthroplasty patients receive allogeneic blood transfusions (ABT. Many studies have shown that post-operative auto-transfusion (PAT significantly reduces the need for ABT, but other studies have questioned the efficacy of this method. METHODS: The protocol for this trial and supporting CONSORT checklist are available as supporting information; see Checklist S1. To evaluate the efficacy of PAT, we conducted a Cochrane systematic review that combined all available data from randomized controlled trials. Data from the six included trials were pooled for analysis. We then calculated relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences with 95% CIs for continuous outcomes. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis to compare the clinical results between PAT and a control in joint replacement patients. This meta-analysis has proven that the use of a PAT reinfusion system reduced significantly the demand for ABT, the number of patients who require ABT and the cost of hospitalization after total knee and hip arthroplasty. This study, together with other previously published data, suggests that PAT drains are beneficial. Larger, sufficiently powered studies are necessary to evaluate the presumed reduction in the incidence of infection as well as DVT after joint arthroplasty with the use of PAT.

  3. Control of integrating process with dead time using auto-tuning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Saravanakumar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A modification of Smith predictor for controlling higher order processes with integral action and long dead-time is proposed in this paper. The controller used in this Smith predictor is an Integral-Proportional Derivative controller, where the Integrator is in the forward path and the Proportional and Derivative control are in the feedback, acting on the feedback signal. The main objective of this paper is to design a dead time compensator, which has minimum tuning parameters, simple controller tuning, and robust performance of tuning formulae, and to obtain a critically damped system that is as fast as possible in its set point and load disturbance rejection performance. The controller in this paper is tuned by an adaptive method. This paper also presents a survey of various dead time compensators and their performance analysis.

  4. Biological Monitoring of Blood Naphthalene Levels as a Marker of Occupational Exposure to PAHs among Auto-Mechanics and Spray Painters in Rawalpindi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheema Iqbal U

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Routine exposure to chemical contaminants in workplace is a cause for concern over potential health risks to workers. In Pakistan, reports on occupational exposure and related health risks are almost non-existent, which reflects the scarce availability of survey data and criteria for determining whether an unsafe exposure has occurred. The current study was designed to evaluate blood naphthalene (NAPH levels as an indicator of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs among automobile workshop mechanics (MCs and car-spray painters (PNs. We further determined the relationship between blood NAPH levels and personal behavioural, job related parameters and various environmental factors that may further be associated with elevated risks of occupational exposures to PAHs. Methods Sixty blood samples (n = 20 for each group i.e. MC, PN and control group were collected to compare their blood NAPH levels among exposed (MCs and PNs and un-exposed (control groups. Samples were analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Data regarding demographic aspects of the subjects and their socioeconomic features were collected using a questionnaire. Subjects were also asked to report environmental hygiene conditions of their occupational environment. Results We identified automobile work areas as potential sites for PAHs exposure, which was reflected by higher blood NAPH levels among MCs. Blood NAPH levels ranged from 53.7 to 1980.6 μgL-1 and 54.1 to 892.9 μgL-1 among MCs and PNs respectively. Comparison within each group showed that smoking enhanced exposure risks several fold and both active and passive smoking were among personal parameters that were significantly correlated with log-transformed blood NAPH levels. For exposed groups, work hours and work experience were job related parameters that showed strong associations with the increase in blood NAPH levels. Poor workplace hygiene and ventilation were recognized as

  5. Optimal camera exposure for video surveillance systems by predictive control of shutter speed, aperture, and gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Juan; Menéndez, José Manuel

    2015-02-01

    This paper establishes a real-time auto-exposure method to guarantee that surveillance cameras in uncontrolled light conditions take advantage of their whole dynamic range while provide neither under nor overexposed images. State-of-the-art auto-exposure methods base their control on the brightness of the image measured in a limited region where the foreground objects are mostly located. Unlike these methods, the proposed algorithm establishes a set of indicators based on the image histogram that defines its shape and position. Furthermore, the location of the objects to be inspected is likely unknown in surveillance applications. Thus, the whole image is monitored in this approach. To control the camera settings, we defined a parameters function (Ef ) that linearly depends on the shutter speed and the electronic gain; and is inversely proportional to the square of the lens aperture diameter. When the current acquired image is not overexposed, our algorithm computes the value of Ef that would move the histogram to the maximum value that does not overexpose the capture. When the current acquired image is overexposed, it computes the value of Ef that would move the histogram to a value that does not underexpose the capture and remains close to the overexposed region. If the image is under and overexposed, the whole dynamic range of the camera is therefore used, and a default value of the Ef that does not overexpose the capture is selected. This decision follows the idea that to get underexposed images is better than to get overexposed ones, because the noise produced in the lower regions of the histogram can be removed in a post-processing step while the saturated pixels of the higher regions cannot be recovered. The proposed algorithm was tested in a video surveillance camera placed at an outdoor parking lot surrounded by buildings and trees which produce moving shadows in the ground. During the daytime of seven days, the algorithm was running alternatively together

  6. Controllable Frequency Entanglement via Auto-Phase-Matched Spontaneous Parametric Down-Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Walton, Z D; Sergienko, A V; Saleh, B E A; Teich, M C; Walton, Zachary D.; Booth, Mark C.; Sergienko, Alexander V.; Saleh, Bahaa E.A.; Teich, Malvin C.

    2003-01-01

    A new method for generating entangled photons with controllable frequency correlation via spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) is presented. The method entails initiating counter-propagating SPDC in a single-mode nonlinear waveguide by pumping with a pulsed beam perpendicular to the waveguide. The method offers several advantages over other schemes, including the ability to generate frequency-correlated photon pairs regardless of the dispersion characteristics of the system. Numerical evidence demonstrates the improvement provided by this source in the special case of frequency-correlated two-photon states.

  7. Remote control and telescope auto-alignment system for multiangle LIDAR under development at CEILAP, Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Pallotta, Juan; Otero, Lidia; Chouza, Fernando; Raul, Delia; Gonzalez, Francisco; Etchegoyen, Alberto; Quel, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    At CEILAP (CITEDEF-CONICET), a multiangle LIDAR is under development to monitor aerosol extinction coefficients in the frame of the CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) Project. This is an initiative to build the next generation of ground-based instruments to collect very high energy gamma-ray radiation (>10 GeV). The atmospheric conditions are very important for CTA observations, and LIDARs play an important role in the measurement of the aerosol optical depth at any direction. The LIDAR being developed at CEILAP was conceived to operate in harsh environmental conditions during the shifts, and these working conditions may produce misalignments. To minimize these effects, the telescopes comprising the reception unit are controlled by a self-alignment system. This paper describes the self-alignment method and hardware automation.

  8. Auto-control of pumping operations in sewerage systems by rule-based fuzzy neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Y.-M.; Chang, L.-C.; Tsai, M.-J.; Wang, Y.-F.; Chang, F.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Pumping stations play an important role in flood mitigation in metropolitan areas. The existing sewerage systems, however, are facing a great challenge of fast rising peak flow resulting from urbanization and climate change. It is imperative to construct an efficient and accurate operating prediction model for pumping stations to simulate the drainage mechanism for discharging the rainwater in advance. In this study, we propose two rule-based fuzzy neural networks, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and counterpropagation fuzzy neural network for on-line predicting of the number of open and closed pumps of a pivotal pumping station in Taipei city up to a lead time of 20 min. The performance of ANFIS outperforms that of CFNN in terms of model efficiency, accuracy, and correctness. Furthermore, the results not only show the predictive water levels do contribute to the successfully operating pumping stations but also demonstrate the applicability and reliability of ANFIS in automatically controlling the urban sewerage systems.

  9. Enzyme controlled glucose auto-delivery for high cell density cultivations in microplates and shake flasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casteleijn Marco G

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Here we describe a novel cultivation method, called EnBase™, or enzyme-based-substrate-delivery, for the growth of microorganisms in millilitre and sub-millilitre scale which yields 5 to 20 times higher cell densities compared to standard methods. The novel method can be directly applied in microwell plates and shake flasks without any requirements for additional sensors or liquid supply systems. EnBase is therefore readily applicable for many high throughput applications, such as DNA production for genome sequencing, optimisation of protein expression, production of proteins for structural genomics, bioprocess development, and screening of enzyme and metagenomic libraries. Results High cell densities with EnBase are obtained by applying the concept of glucose-limited fed-batch cultivation which is commonly used in industrial processes. The major difference of the novel method is that no external glucose feed is required, but glucose is released into the growth medium by enzymatic degradation of starch. To cope with the high levels of starch necessary for high cell density cultivation, starch is supplied to the growing culture suspension by continuous diffusion from a storage gel. Our results show that the controlled enzyme-based supply of glucose allows a glucose-limited growth to high cell densities of OD600 = 20 to 30 (corresponding to 6 to 9 g l-1 cell dry weight without the external feed of additional compounds in shake flasks and 96-well plates. The final cell density can be further increased by addition of extra nitrogen during the cultivation. Production of a heterologous triosphosphate isomerase in E. coli BL21(DE3 resulted in 10 times higher volumetric product yield and a higher ratio of soluble to insoluble product when compared to the conventional production method. Conclusion The novel EnBase method is robust and simple-to-apply for high cell density cultivation in shake flasks and microwell plates. The

  10. A Novel Mechanism for Activator-Controlled Initiation of DNA Replication that Resolves the Auto-regulation Sequestration Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, K.; Ehrenberg, M.

    For bacterial genes to be inherited to the next bacterial generation, the gene containing DNA sequences must be duplicated before cell division so that each daughter cell contains a complete set of genes. The duplication process is called DNA replication and it starts at one defined site on the DNA molecule called the origin of replication (oriC) [1]. In addition to chromosomal DNA, bacteria often also contain plasmid DNA. Plasmids are extra-chromosomal DNA molecules carrying genes that increase the fitness of their host in certain environments, with genes encoding antibiotic resistance as a notorious example [2]. The chromosome is found at a low per cell copy number and initiation of replication takes place synchronously once every cell generation [3,4], while many plasmids exist at a high copy number and replication initiates asynchronously, throughout the cell generation [5]. In this chapter we present a novel mechanism for the control of initiation of replication, where one type of molecule may activate a round of replication by binding to the origin of replication and also regulate its own synthesis accurately. This mechanism of regulating the initiation of replication also offers a novel solution to the so-called auto-regulation sequestration paradox, i.e. how a molecule sequestered by binding to DNA may at the same time accurately regulate its own synthesis [6]. The novel regulatory mechanism is inspired by the molecular set-up of the replication control of the chromosome in the bacterium Escherichia coli and is here transferred into a plasmid model. This allows us to illustrate principles of replication control in a simple way and to put the novel mechanism into the context of a previous analysis of plasmids regulated by inhibitor-dilution copy number control [7]. We analyze factors important for a sensitive response of the replication initiation rate to changes in plasmid concentration in an asynchronous model and discover a novel mechanism for creating a

  11. Auto-control of pumping operations in sewerage systems by rule-based fuzzy neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-M. Chiang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pumping stations play an important role in flood mitigation in metropolitan areas. The existing sewerage systems, however, are facing a great challenge of fast rising peak flow resulting from urbanization and climate change. It is imperative to construct an efficient and accurate operating prediction model for pumping stations to simulate the drainage mechanism for discharging the rainwater in advance. In this study, we propose two rule-based fuzzy neural networks, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS and counterpropagatiom fuzzy neural network (CFNN for on-line predicting of the number of open and closed pumps of a pivotal pumping station in Taipei city up to a lead time of 20 min. The performance of ANFIS outperforms that of CFNN in terms of model efficiency, accuracy, and correctness. Furthermore, the results not only show the predictive water levels do contribute to the successfully operating pumping stations but also demonstrate the applicability and reliability of ANFIS in automatically controlling the urban sewerage systems.

  12. Auto-control of pumping operations in sewerage systems by rule-based fuzzy neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-M. Chiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pumping stations play an important role in flood mitigation in metropolitan areas. The existing sewerage systems, however, are facing a great challenge of fast rising peak flow resulting from urbanization and climate change. It is imperative to construct an efficient and accurate operating prediction model for pumping stations to simulate the drainage mechanism for discharging the rainwater in advance. In this study, we propose two rule-based fuzzy neural networks, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS and counterpropagation fuzzy neural network for on-line predicting of the number of open and closed pumps of a pivotal pumping station in Taipei city up to a lead time of 20 min. The performance of ANFIS outperforms that of CFNN in terms of model efficiency, accuracy, and correctness. Furthermore, the results not only show the predictive water levels do contribute to the successfully operating pumping stations but also demonstrate the applicability and reliability of ANFIS in automatically controlling the urban sewerage systems.

  13. Control voltage of the generator of auto-excited induction for applications on micro/mini generation o electric power; Control de voltaje del generador de induccion auto-excitado para aplicaciones de micro/mini generacion de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Montalvo, Emmanuel

    2006-09-15

    Although only one part of the mini/micro hydraulic power has been exploited in our country, this type of electric energy generation can be considered as a visible way of electricity generation, mainly related to the ecological, economical and social aspects. The impact that these power plants can have in the regions in which they are installed is always positive: cost energy cost reduction, economical spills and mainly a social welfare. The electric energy is one of the pillars for the economical development of a country and provides a better life quality. Nowadays the research and the technology oriented to the operation and control of the micro/mini power plants has awaken the interest of many researchers in several countries of the world as China, India, Canada, and USA to mention some of them. The induction generator plays a crucial role in the uses of these technologies. The work of Basset and Potter in 1935 is the angular stone over the possibility of generating energy making use of the induction machine and a capacitors bank connected to the machine terminals. This configuration is known as induction auto-excited generator (GIAE). Several investigations have been realized that deal about the functioning principle and the dynamic behavior a GIAE, which can supply electric power in remote isolated regions. In the existing literature have been proposed control strategies to offer voltage regulations and/or frequency into the acceptable range. Some of these control strategies present problems such a demand of a reactive power, harmonics injections in the system, the control circuits are complicated, expensive and voluminous and prone to fail. This paper realizes an analysis of the necessary and sufficient conditions so that an induction machine can operate as GIAE. The corresponding curves are presented for each studied case. The dynamic behavior of the voltage and the frequency generated by the GIAE are studied in detail, which is a contribution to the existing

  14. Combinatorial Gene Regulation Using Auto-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, Rutger; Ursem, Bas; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2010-01-01

    As many as 59% of the transcription factors in Escherichia coli regulate the transcription rate of their own genes. This suggests that auto-regulation has one or more important functions. Here, one possible function is studied. Often the transcription rate of an auto-regulator is also controlled by additional transcription factors. In these cases, the way the expression of the auto-regulator responds to changes in the concentrations of the “input” regulators (the response function) is obviously affected by the auto-regulation. We suggest that, conversely, auto-regulation may be used to optimize this response function. To test this hypothesis, we use an evolutionary algorithm and a chemical–physical model of transcription regulation to design model cis-regulatory constructs with predefined response functions. In these simulations, auto-regulation can evolve if this provides a functional benefit. When selecting for a series of elementary response functions—Boolean logic gates and linear responses—the cis-regulatory regions resulting from the simulations indeed often exploit auto-regulation. Surprisingly, the resulting constructs use auto-activation rather than auto-repression. Several design principles show up repeatedly in the simulation results. They demonstrate how auto-activation can be used to generate sharp, switch-like activation and repression circuits and how linearly decreasing response functions can be obtained. Auto-repression, on the other hand, resulted only when a high response speed or a suppression of intrinsic noise was also selected for. The results suggest that, while auto-repression may primarily be valuable to improve the dynamical properties of regulatory circuits, auto-activation is likely to evolve even when selection acts on the shape of response function only. PMID:20548950

  15. Simultaneous Control of Phenanthrene and Drought by Dual Exposure System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine N.; Holmstrup, Martin; Damgaard, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    and independent control of chemical and drought exposure in bioassays with terrestrial organisms: Passive dosing from silicone controlled the chemical activity of phenanthrene (chemical stress), while saline solutions controlled the water activity (drought stress) in the closed exposure system. The dual exposure...... system was then applied in a full factorial experiment with seven exposure levels (72), which aimed at determining the combined effects of phenanthrene and drought on the survival of the terrestrial springtail Folsomia candida after 7 d exposure. Fitting an "independent action" model to the complete data...... set revealed statistically significant synergy between phenanthrene and drought (p

  16. Auto Industry Faces Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A number of indicators show that China's auto industry is facing a new round of large-scale restructuring. When the global auto industry was undergoing reorganization 10 years ago, China's auto industry was in its early stages, acting in a relatively closed market, and thus it missed out on that important event. However, the situation is different today. In the past decade, China's auto industry has grown at a rapid pace. While the world's major transnational companies are

  17. La auditoría de control de la calidad y los niveles de auto-evaluación y acreditación universitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas García, José Domingo

    2014-01-01

    Determina de qué manera la auditoria de calidad influye en los niveles de evaluación y acreditación universitaria. Se investigaron temas muy puntuales relacionados con la calidad de la educación superior, por ejemplo: el control de calidad como herramienta de la auditoría, las acciones y recomendaciones de auditoría de calidad relacionadas con los niveles de auto-evaluación y acreditación universitaria. Durante la investigación, se consultó bibliografía vinculada con la auditoría de control d...

  18. Effect of Subject Control and Graduated Exposure on Snake Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepner, Alain; Cauthen, Nelson R.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of two of the variables in Leitenberg's graduated exposure technique for treating phobias, graduated exposure and subject control of the exposure time, was investigated using 15 snake-phobic subjects. Subjective fear significantly decreased from pretesting to posttesting. (Author)

  19. Instant AutoIt scripting

    CERN Document Server

    Laso, Emilio Aristides de Fez

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This is a Packt Instant How-to guide, which provides concise and clear recipes for getting started with AutoIt.Instant AutoIt Scripting Essentials How-to is for beginners who wish to know more about automation and programming, system administration developers who intent to automate/manage clusters and servers, and for computer programmers who want to control any PC to create seamless automation apps.

  20. Investigating Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Nagihan Boztunc; Dogan, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of item exposure control methods on measurement precision and on test security under various item selection methods and item pool characteristics. In this study, the Randomesque (with item group sizes of 5 and 10), Sympson-Hetter, and Fade-Away methods were used as item exposure control methods. Moreover,…

  1. Development and evaluation of an Exposure Control Efficacy Library (ECEL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransman, W.; Schinkel, J.; Meijster, T.; Hemmen, J. van; Tielemans, E.; Goede, H.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This paper describes the development and evaluation of an evidence database on the effectiveness of risk management measures (RMMs) to control inhalation exposure. This database is referred to as Exposure Control Efficacy Library (ECEL). Methods: A comprehensive review of scientific jour

  2. Auto Industry:The Wolf at the Door

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANPENG

    2004-01-01

    Since China's accession into the WTO at the end of 2001, global auto giants have been re-shaping China's auto industry. When we analyze the changes in competitors' strategies, we find they have been intentionally controlling China's auto industry step by step,from whole vehicle manufacturing to distribution and parts supply.

  3. Are urinary PAHs biomarkers of controlled exposure to diesel exhaust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sixin S; Sobus, Jon R; Sallsten, Gerd; Albin, Maria; Pleil, Joachim D; Gudmundsson, Anders; Madden, Michael C; Strandberg, Bo; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Rappaport, Stephen M

    2014-06-01

    Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as possible biomarkers of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) in two controlled-chamber studies. We report levels of 14 PAHs from 28 subjects in urine that were collected before, immediately after and the morning after exposure. Using linear mixed-effects models, we tested for effects of DE exposure and several covariates (time, age, gender and urinary creatinine) on urinary PAH levels. DE exposures did not significantly alter urinary PAH levels. We conclude that urinary PAHs are not promising biomarkers of short-term exposures to DE in the range of 106-276 µg/m(3).

  4. Evaluating the Control Banding Nanotool: a qualitative risk assessment method for controlling nanoparticle exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalk, D.M.; Paik, S.Y.; Swuste, P.

    2009-01-01

    Control banding (CB) strategies offer simplified processes for controlling worker exposures in the absence of firm toxicological and exposure information. The nanotechnology industry is an excellent candidate for applying such strategies with overwhelming uncertainties of work-related health risks

  5. Design on Remote Auto Measurement and Control Device of Date Recorder%远程自动数据记录器测控装置设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李京蔓; 张彦军

    2013-01-01

    At present, there still are three deficiencies for the auto measurement and control device of data recorder , no monitoring function or low monitoring capacity; low reliability of instructions that are controlled by upper computer software in the monitoring process and monitoring distance is short. The three issues, describe the design of the remote auto measurement and control device of rocket data recorder in detail are focused on.%目前数据记录器自动测控装置存在无监测或监测能力低、监测过程中上位机软指令可靠性低、监测距离短等不足.围绕这三个问题详细介绍了远程自动数据记录器测控装置的设计.此系统已配合弹载数据记录器应用于某发射试验中,完成了对弹载数据记录器的记录及监测及数据回读.

  6. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Mølhave, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung...... function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m3 (low) and 400 µg/m3 (high) under controlled environmental conditions.......0007), “irritative body perceptions” (p = 0.0127), “psychological/neurological effects” (p = 0.0075) and “weak inflammatory responses” (p = 0.0003). Furthermore, significant effects (p = 0.0192) on self-reported general mucosa irritation were found. In conclusion, exposure to wood smoke affected symptom rating...

  7. 管式加热炉自动控制系统的研制%Development of Auto-control System for Tubular Heaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩红彪; 李少兵

    2011-01-01

    为了提高管式加热炉的燃烧效率和自动化控制水平,研制出一套加热炉自动控制系统.该系统采用的PCS7分布式控制系统和故障安全型PLC实现硬冗余,操作员站、工程师站形成冗余监控系统有效实现了节能减排,明显提高了加热炉热效率,保证了加热炉安全可靠及平稳长期运行,提高了自动化操作水平和信息化水平.%An auto-control system for tubular heaters was developed to improve combustion efficiency and auto-control level. This system, which employing PCS7 DCS and fail-safe PLC to realize hardware redundancy, and the engineer and operator stations to form a redundant monitoring system, can benefit energy conservation and reducing of emissions and improving of thermal efficiency, as well as the safe run of heaters.

  8. Comparison of a New Auto-controlled Injection System with Traditional Syringe for Mandibular Infiltrations in Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Vemula; Challa, Ramasubba Reddy; Kamatham, Rekhalakshmi; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2017-01-01

    Pain in the dental operatory can have a profound effect on the behavior of children. The aim of this study is to evaluate the pain perception while administering local infiltration, in children undergoing dental extractions, using a new auto-controlled injection system. Children in the age range of 6-10 years with teeth indicated for extraction were recruited and allocated to either Group I, computer-controlled injection system (auto system with special cartridge and compatible disposable 30-gauge, 10 mm needles), or Group II, traditional system (30-gauge, 10 mm needle and disposable traditional syringe). Local infiltration was administered and extraction performed after 3 min. The time of administration (TOA) of infiltrate was noted whereas anxiety and pain in both groups were assessed using the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Faces Scale simplified (MCDAS(f)), pulse rate, Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R), and Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC) Scale. The TOA was high in computer group, compared to the traditional system (P computer group as reported in MCDAS(f), pulse rate, FPS-R, and FLACC (P Computer system created a positive and comfortable experience for the child, as well as the practitioner. The possibility of using buccal infiltration instead of inferior alveolar nerve block in children below 10 years was also demonstrated.

  9. The possibility of controlled auto-ignition (CAI) in gasoline engine and gas to liquid (GTL) as a fuel of diesel engine in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, D. [Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Daejou (Korea)

    2005-07-01

    A significant challenge grows from the ever-increasing demands for the optimization of performance, emissions, fuel economy and drivability. The most powerful technologies in the near future to improve these factors are believed Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) in gasoline engine and Gas to Liquid (GTL) as a fuel of Diesel engine. In recent years there has been an increasing trend to use more complex valvetrain designs from traditional camshaft driven mechanical systems to camless electromagnetic or electrohydraulic solutions. Comparing to fixed valve actuation systems, variable valve actuation (VVA) should be powerful to optimize the engine cycle. The matching of valve events to the engine performance and to emission requirements at a given engine or vehicle operating condition can be further optimized to the Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) in gasoline engine, which has benefits in NOx emission, fuel consumption, combustion stability and intake throttle load. In case of Diesel engine, the increasing demands for NOx and soot emission reduction have introduced aftertreatment technologies recently, but been in need of basic solution for the future, such as a super clean fuel like Gas to Liquid (GTL), which has benefits in comparability to diesel fuel, independency from crude oil and reduction of CO, THC and soot emissions. Korea looks to the future with these kinds of technologies, and tries to find the possibility for reaching the future targets in the internal combustion engine. (orig.)

  10. Design and experiment on auto leveling control system of agricultural implements%农机具自动调平控制系统设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡炼; 林潮兴; 罗锡文; 杨伟伟; 许奕; 周浩; 张智刚

    2015-01-01

    To ensure agricultural implement level can improve the quality of work in agricultural machinery operation process. In order to maintain the level of agricultural implements in the field working, an agricultural implement auto leveling control system was developed. Real-time roll angle of tractor was obtained from tractor roll angle sensing system. The core algorithm of tractor roll angle sensing system was the Kalman filtering algorithm of tractor roll angle, which fused an accelerometer and gyroscope data to obtain the real-time roll angle of tractor. The leveling hydraulic cylinder elongation was measured using a straight-line displacement sensor. And the relative roll angle conversion function between agricultural implements and tractor was established. Then by controlling the electromagnetic directional valve, the agricultural implement was kept leveling. This article introduced the principle and structure of agricultural implement auto leveling control system, and the Kalman filtering algorithm of tractor roll angle and the relative roll angle conversion function were analyzed in detail. The tractor roll angle’s Kalman fusion algorithm was tested in SGT320E three-axis turntable platform, and the experiment of agricultural implement auto leveling control system was carried out in the paddy field based on a matching 1PJ-3.0 laser leveler for paddy field. The leveler featured a specially designed leveling plow connected to an ISEKI PG6 transplanter by means of a hydraulically driven three-point linkage. The auto leveling controller used the Proportional-Derivative (PD) control algorithm to calculate pulse width, modulating for driving two ordinary hydraulic solenoid valves as actuators to regulate the plow’s leveling. In order to evaluate the precision of tractor roll angle sensing system and auto leveling control system, 2 inertial reference systems (MTi-300) were installed in the transplanter and plow, respectively. Results showed that, the tractor roll

  11. A low-power high-performance configurable auto-gain control loop for a digital hearing aid SoC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengying, Chen; Hainan, Liu; Yong, Hei; Jun, Fan; Xiaoyu, Hu

    2013-10-01

    A low-power, configurable auto-gain control loop for a digital hearing aid system on a chip (SoC) is presented. By adopting a mixed-signal feedback control structure and peak detection and judgment, it can work in automatic gain or variable gain control modes through a digital signal processing unit. A noise-reduction and dynamic range (DR) improvement technique is also used to ensure the DR of the circuit in a low-voltage supply. The circuit is implemented in an SMIC 0.13 μm 1P8M CMOS process. The measurement results show that in a 1 V power supply, 1.6 kHz input frequency and 200 mVp—p, the SFDR is 74.3 dB, the THD is 66.1 dB, and the total power is 89 μW, meeting the application requirements of hearing aid SoCs.

  12. A Conditional Exposure Control Method for Multidimensional Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Matthew; Nering, Michael L.; Roussos, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    In computerized adaptive testing (CAT), ensuring the security of test items is a crucial practical consideration. A common approach to reducing item theft is to define maximum item exposure rates, i.e., to limit the proportion of examinees to whom a given item can be administered. Numerous methods for controlling exposure rates have been proposed…

  13. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddervold, I S; Bønløkke, J H; Mølhave, L; Massling, A; Jensen, B; Grønborg, T K; Bossi, R; Forchhammer, L; Kjærgaard, S K; Sigsgaard, T

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3 h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m³ (low) and 400 µg/m³ (high) under controlled environmental conditions. The range for PM₂.₅ load observed for single experiments was 165-303 µg/m³ for the low exposure and 205-662 µg/m³ for the high exposure, whereas particle loads during clean air exposure most often were below the detection limit (humans. The knowledge gained in this study on subjective-rated symptoms may be important for understanding human response to wood-smoke exposure.

  14. The Next Auto Kingdom?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s voracious desire for four wheels may well be the saving grace of beleaguered U.S. automakers, which are shutting down facto- ries in a hurry at home. That’s because China has emerged as the only major auto market still seeing growth amid the worldwide downturn. China’s auto sales have outstripped the United States and held on

  15. Auto Mechanics: Auto Mechanic Service Specialist (Lubrication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Virgil

    The unit of individualized learning activities is designed to provide training in the job skill, lubrication, for the prospective auto mechanic service specialist. The materials in the unit are divided into two sections. The developmental, or preliminary phase, for use by the instructor, includes brief descriptions of the job and of the student…

  16. Exposure of smoke solutions from CNG-powered four-stroke auto-rickshaws induces distressed embryonic movements, embryonic hemorrhaging and ectopia cordis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejaz, Sohail; Ejaz, Ahmed; Sohail, Amara; Ahmed, Mukthar; Nasir, Amar; Lim, Chae Woong

    2009-07-01

    In south Asian countries, a campaign has launched to promote CNG-powered four-stroke auto-rickshaws (CNFAR) to decrease emission load in the environment. Even though, CNFAR are considered environmentally safe, emissions of some other toxic chemicals would amplify, which may effect the development of growing fetus and may result in different growth defects. By utilizing the in vivo chicken embryo model, this report analyzes the toxic potential of CNFAR smoke solutions (CNFARSS) on embryonic movements (EM) and cardiovascular development. Application of CNFARSS to embryos caused profound decline (pectopia cordis were prominently observed among all CNFARSS treated embryos, namely; incomplete ectopia cordis, complete ectopia cordis, cervico-thoracic ectopia cordis and thoraco-abdominal ectopia cordis.

  17. Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghio Andrew J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in susceptible subjects, including the elderly and patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Controlled human exposure studies have been used to confirm the causal relationship between pollution particle exposure and adverse health effects. Earlier studies enrolled mostly young healthy subjects and have largely confirmed the capability of particles to cause adverse health effects shown in epidemiological studies. In the last few years, more studies involving susceptible populations have been published. These recent studies in susceptible populations, however, have shown that the adverse responses to particles appear diminished in these susceptible subjects compared to those in healthy subjects. The present paper reviewed and compared control human exposure studies to particles and sought to explain the "unexpected" response to particle exposure in these susceptible populations and make recommendations for future studies. We found that the causes for the discrepant results are likely multifactorial. Factors such as medications, the disease itself, genetic susceptibility, subject selection bias that is intrinsic to many controlled exposure studies and nonspecificity of study endpoints may explain part of the results. Future controlled exposure studies should select endpoints that are more closely related to the pathogenesis of the disease and reflect the severity of particle-induced health effects in the specific populations under investigation. Future studies should also attempt to control for medications and genetic susceptibility. Using a different study design, such as exposing subjects to filtered air and ambient levels of particles, and assessing the improvement in

  18. Control system for the 2nd generation Berkeley AutoMounters (BAM2) at GM/CA CAT macromolecular crystallography beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, O; Hilgart, M; Ogata, C; Pothineni, S; Cork, C

    2011-09-01

    GM/CA CAT at Sector 23 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is an NIH funded facility for crystallographic structure determination of biological macromolecules by X-ray diffraction.A second generation Berkeley automounter is being integrated into the beamline control system at the 23-BM experimental station. This new device replaces the previous all-pneumatic gripper motions with a combination of pneumatics and XYZ motorized linear stages. The latter adds a higher degree of flexibility to the robot including auto-alignment capability, accommodation of a larger capacity sample Dewar of arbitrary shape, and support for advanced operations such as crystal washing, while preserving the overall simplicity and efficiency of the Berkeley automounter design.

  19. Spike frequency adaptation is a possible mechanism for control of attractor preference in auto-associative neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, James; Sander, Leonard; Zochowski, Michal

    Auto-associative memory is the ability to retrieve a pattern from a small fraction of the pattern and is an important function of neural networks. Within this context, memories that are stored within the synaptic strengths of networks act as dynamical attractors for network firing patterns. In networks with many encoded memories, some attractors will be stronger than others. This presents the problem of how networks switch between attractors depending on the situation. We suggest that regulation of neuronal spike-frequency adaptation (SFA) provides a universal mechanism for network-wide attractor selectivity. Here we demonstrate in a Hopfield type attractor network that neurons minimal SFA will reliably activate in the pattern corresponding to a local attractor and that a moderate increase in SFA leads to the network to converge to the strongest attractor state. Furthermore, we show that on long time scales SFA allows for temporal sequences of activation to emerge. Finally, using a model of cholinergic modulation within the cortex we argue that dynamic regulation of attractor preference by SFA could be critical for the role of acetylcholine in attention or for arousal states in general. This work was supported by: NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. DGE 1256260 (JPR), NSF CMMI 1029388 (MRZ) and NSF PoLS 1058034 (MRZ & LMS).

  20. AutoCAD workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Metherell, Phil

    1989-01-01

    AutoCAD Workbook helps new users learn the basics of AutoCad, providing guidance on most of the commonly used functions in which the program operates.This book discusses loading AutoCad and starting a drawing; drawing and erasing lines, circles, and arcs; and setting up the drawing environment. The topics on drawing and editing polylines; entering text and text styles; and layers, linetype, and color are also considered. This publication likewise covers creating and using blocks, hatching and extracting information, dimensioning drawings, 3D visualization, and plotting a drawing. Other

  1. Development of Automatic Remote Exposure Controller for Gamma Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Gwang Tae; Shin, Jin Seong; Kim, Dong Eun; Song, Jung Ho; Choo, Seung Hwan; Chang, Hong Keun [Korea Industrial Testing Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-15

    Recently, gamma radiographic equipment have been used about 1,000 sets manually and operated by about 2,500 persons in Korea. In order for a radiography to work effectively with avoiding any hazard of the high level radiation from the source, many field workers have expected developing a wireless automatic remote exposure controller. The KlTCO research team has developed an automatic remote exposure controller that can regulate the speed of 0.4{approx}1.2m/s by BLDC motor of 24V 200W which has output of 54 kgf{center_dot}, suitable torque and safety factor for the work. And the developed automatic remote exposure controller can control rpm of motor, pigtail position by photo-sensor and exposure time by timer to RF sensor. Thus, the developed equipment is expected that the unit can be used in many practical applications with benefits in economical advantage to combine the use of both automatic and manual type because attachment is possible existent manual remote exposure controller, AC and DC combined use

  2. Tagaotsitav "Auto" / Kristiina Vaarik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarik, Kristiina

    2001-01-01

    Chris O'Connelli "Auto" Vanemuises, lavastaja Mark Babych. Etendusele tegid muusika ansamblist Bizarre tuntud muusikud Tristan Priimägi ja Lauri Liivak, kes artiklis sellest räägivad. Esietendus 2. detsembril 2000

  3. Auto-correlation of Binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, S K

    2001-01-01

    Speckle interferometric technique is used to record a series of short exposure images of several close binary stars with sub-arcsecond separation through a narrow band filter centred at H$\\alpha$ at the Cassegrain focus of the 2.34 meter Vainu Bappu telescope (VBT), situated at Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO), Kavalur. The auto-correlation method is developed under Image Reduction Analysis Facility (IRAF). Wiener filter is included in the programme to eliminate spurious high frequency contributions; a few sets of data provide the optimised results. The auto-correlated image of these stars gives the separation of the binary components.

  4. Equipment, exposure, emission review--specification of process equipment for worker exposure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Stephen M

    2008-12-01

    Worker exposure to chemical agents may occur from equipment leaks in closed processes and from open system activities and maintenance (e.g., sampling, tank gauging, line breaking, equipment flushing, and drainage). To prevent worker overexposure to chemical agents, an Equipment, Exposure, Emission Review (EEER) was developed to consistently match equipment properties to the leakage-related inhalation risk posed by each stream. For streams where gas or liquid leakage could cause worker exposure above occupational exposure limits (OEL), the EEER recommended a high performance, low leakage equipment category. Conversely, where standard engineering offered reliable containment for lower health risk streams, the EEER did not recommend over-control. The EEER matched equipment to stream health hazard as follows: (1) the composition of each stream was determined, with particular attention to chemical substances with stringent exposure limits; (2) a mixture exposure limit was calculated for each stream based on stream composition and the OEL for stream constituent chemicals; (3) each stream was classified as to its respiratory exposure hazard on the basis of the stream exposure limit; (4) equipment was recommended as a function of respiratory exposure hazard class using an Equipment Selection Matrix. Equipment options were based, in part, on the emission performance of the equipment and a near-field dispersion model that was used to relate equipment emissions to an OEL. Over a 5-yr implementation period, nearly 1700 streams of 78 refining process units were reviewed. Standard engineering practice was selected for about 70% of the streams reviewed. Benzene, hydrogen sulfide, ethanolamine, and high boiling aromatic oil streams were the primary chemical agents responsible for more stringent controls. Although the EEER criteria for stream classification and control options were arranged in order of magnitude--a form of control banding--the correct selection of control

  5. 基于图像处理的自动调光系统%Auto exposure system based on image processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚广生

    2015-01-01

    In order to realize the auto‐exposure of the camera ,auto‐exposure system based on image processing is estab‐lished .Method of image processing is used to extract the edge of image .By changing the exposure time and gain of CCD , the climbing algorithm is used to find the exposure time and gain of CCD w hen the edge information reaches the max val‐ue .Then ,this max value is set to be the final result of one auto‐exposure process .Experiment result show that the auto‐exposure process is finished within 1 s ,and achieve ideal effect .The system has short processing time ,wide applied range and accuracy operation .It can meet the requirement of the auto‐exposure in optoelectronic devices .%为了实现可见光摄像机的自动调光,建立了基于图像的自动调光系统。采用图像处理方法提取图像的边缘信息,改变CCD的积分时间、增益,通过爬坡算法,找到边缘信息达到最大时CCD的积分时间及增益值,并把此时的积分时间及增益作为最终的调光结果,完成一次自动调光。试验结果表明:系统在1s内完成了自动调光过程,达到了理想的调光效果,该方法具有实时性好、适应范围广、调光准确的特点,能够满足光电设备自动调光的需要。

  6. Lithography focus/exposure control and corrections to improve CDU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ki; Yelverton, Mark; Lee, Joungchel; Cheng, Jerry; Wei, Hong; Kim, Jeong Soo; Gutjahr, Karsten; Gao, Jie; Karur-Shanmugam, Ram; Herrera, Pedro; Huang, Kevin; Volkovich, Roie; Pierson, Bill

    2013-04-01

    As leading edge lithography moves to advanced nodes which requires better critical dimension (CD) control ability within wafer. Current methods generally make exposure corrections by field via factory automation or by sub-recipe to improve CD uniformity. KLA-Tencor has developed a method to provide CD uniformity (CDU) control using a generated Focus/Exposure (F/E) model from a representative process. Exposure corrections by each field can be applied back to the scanner so as to improve CD uniformity through the factory automation. CDU improvement can be observed either at after lithography or after etch metrology steps. In addition to corrections, the graphic K-T Analyzer interface also facilitates the focus/exposure monitoring at the extreme wafer edge. This paper will explain the KT CDFE method and the application in production environment. Run to run focus/exposure monitoring will be carried out both on monitoring and production wafers to control the wafer process and/or scanner fleet. CDU improvement opportunities will be considered as well.

  7. Controlled Exposures to Air Pollutants and Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Simon J.; Hunter, Amanda J.; Shah, Anoop S.V.; Bosson, Jenny A.; Unosson, Jon; Barath, Stefan; Lundbäck, Magnus; Cassee, Flemming R.; Donaldson, Ken; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Newby, David E.; Mills, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to air pollutants can influence cardiac autonomic tone and reduce heart rate variability, and may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias, particularly in susceptible patient groups. Objectives: We investigated the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias during and after controlled exposure to air pollutants in healthy volunteers and patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: We analyzed data from 13 double-blind randomized crossover studies including 282 participants (140 healthy volunteers and 142 patients with stable coronary heart disease) from whom continuous electrocardiograms were available. The incidence of cardiac arrhythmias was recorded for each exposure and study population. Results: There were no increases in any cardiac arrhythmia during or after exposure to dilute diesel exhaust, wood smoke, ozone, concentrated ambient particles, engineered carbon nanoparticles, or high ambient levels of air pollution in either healthy volunteers or patients with coronary heart disease. Conclusions: Acute controlled exposure to air pollutants did not increase the short-term risk of arrhythmia in participants. Research employing these techniques remains crucial in identifying the important pathophysiological pathways involved in the adverse effects of air pollution, and is vital to inform environmental and public health policy decisions. Citation: Langrish JP, Watts SJ, Hunter AJ, Shah AS, Bosson JA, Unosson J, Barath S, Lundbäck M, Cassee FR, Donaldson K, Sandström T, Blomberg A, Newby DE, Mills NL. 2014. Controlled exposures to air pollutants and risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Environ Health Perspect 122:747–753; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307337 PMID:24667535

  8. Evaluating the Control Banding Nanotool: a qualitative risk assessment method for controlling nanoparticle exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalk, D.M.; Paik, S.Y.; Swuste, P.

    2009-01-01

    Control banding (CB) strategies offer simplified processes for controlling worker exposures in the absence of firm toxicological and exposure information. The nanotechnology industry is an excellent candidate for applying such strategies with overwhelming uncertainties of work-related health risks p

  9. Evaluating the Control Banding Nanotool: a qualitative risk assessment method for controlling nanoparticle exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalk, D.M.; Paik, S.Y.; Swuste, P.

    2009-01-01

    Control banding (CB) strategies offer simplified processes for controlling worker exposures in the absence of firm toxicological and exposure information. The nanotechnology industry is an excellent candidate for applying such strategies with overwhelming uncertainties of work-related health risks p

  10. The Auto control System Based on InTouch Configuration software for High-gravity Oil Railway Tank Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu De-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides automatic design for high-gravity oil railway tank feeding system of some refinery uses distributive control system. The system adopts the automatic system of Modicon TSX Quantum or PLC as monitor and control level and uses a PC-based plat form as principal computer running on the Microsoft Windows2000. An automatic control system is developed in the environment of InTouch configuration software. This system implements automatic high-gravity oil tank feeding with pump controlling function. And it combines automatic oil feeding controlling, pump controlling and tank monitoring function to implement the automation of oil feeding with rations and automatic control.

  11. Mission-Area Guide to Lead-Exposure Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Dentistry needs an elastic impression material that takes accurate, one-piece impressions of undercut areas (for inlay and crown preparations). Types of...Management and Budget. 1987. Stannard, Jan G., Materials in Dentistry , Denali Publishing. Boston, MA, 1986. Sullivan, Jim, Headquarters, Army...Lead-Exposure Control March 1996 63 DOD Memorandum, SUBJECT: Modification of Pediatric Blood Lead Screening Program, June 26, 1995. Universal

  12. Leptospira Exposure and Gardeners: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospira can be found in soil. However, it is unclear whether occupational exposure to soil may represent a risk for Leptospira infection in humans. Therefore, we sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence with the occupation of gardener, and to determine the epidemiological characteristics of gardeners associated with Leptospira exposure. Methods We performed a case-control study in 168 gardeners and 168 age- and gender-matched control subjects without gardening occupation in Durango City, Mexico. The seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies in cases and controls was determined using an enzyme immunoassay. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of Leptospira exposure and the characteristics of the gardeners. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6%) of 168 gardeners and in 15 (8.9%) of 168 control subjects (odds ratio (OR): 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28 - 1.48; P = 0.40). Multivariate analysis showed that Leptospira seropositivity was positively associated with female gender (OR: 5.82; 95% CI: 1.11 - 30.46; P = 0.03), and negatively associated with eating while working (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05 - 0.87; P = 0.03). In addition, multivariate analysis showed that high anti-Leptospira levels were associated with consumption of boar meat (OR: 28.00; 95% CI: 1.20 - 648.80; P = 0.03). Conclusions This is the first case-control study of Leptospira exposure in gardeners. Results do not support an association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of gardener. However, further studies to confirm the lack of this association are needed. The potential role of consumption of boar meat in Leptospira infection deserves further investigation. PMID:26668679

  13. Occupational Exposure Assessment of Nanomaterials using Control Banding Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liguori, Biase

    , the assessment of conventional chemicals is well established with clear definition of which metric to use (generally mass concentration). For nanoparticles the assessment procedures are not defined yet and there is debate on which metric should be used (e.g., mass, surface, size-number distribution). Similarly......, chemical reactions, and potential mixing and interaction between the nanomaterial and the background aerosol). Moreover, there are no extensive historical data for comparison and model calibration. Nevertheless, as it is illustrated throughout this thesis, application of modelling for occupational exposure....... In addition, several Control Banding (CB) tools for estimating the exposure to nanomaterials have been developed. An evaluation of current CB tools showed that they are all meant for a qualitative or semi-quantitative exposure assessment of nanomaterials. Two of these tools, NanoSafer and Stoffenmanager Nano...

  14. AutoCAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    I 1998 var AutoCAD Arkitektskolens basale CAD-tilbud til de studerende. Kursets vægt ligger på konstruktion og strukturering af 3d-modeller og med udgangspunkt i dette, 2d-tegning. Kurset er opbygget over CAD Clasic skabelonen (se min forskning). Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudium.......I 1998 var AutoCAD Arkitektskolens basale CAD-tilbud til de studerende. Kursets vægt ligger på konstruktion og strukturering af 3d-modeller og med udgangspunkt i dette, 2d-tegning. Kurset er opbygget over CAD Clasic skabelonen (se min forskning). Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudium....

  15. Auto Industry Development Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Decree No. 8The National Development and Reform CommissionThe People’s Republic of ChinaAccording to the Document [2004] 30 of the State Council, the Auto Industry Development Policy has passed the examination of the Sitate Development and Reform Commission and been approved by the State Council. Now it is issued and shall be effective as of the date of promulgation. The Auto Industrial Policies implemented since 1994 should end as of the date of this promulgation.MAKaiDirector of the National Development and Reform CommissionMay 21, 2004

  16. Retrospective exposure assessment and quality control in an international multi-centre case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinnerberg, H; Heikkilä, P; Huici-Montagud, A;

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the exposure assessment method and quality control procedure used in an international, multi-centre case-control study within a joint Nordic and Italian cohort. This study was conducted to evaluate whether occupational exposure to carcinogens influenced the predictivity of high...... frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in peripheral lymphocytes for increased cancer risk. Occupational hygienists assessed exposures in each participating country: Denmark, Finland, Italy, Norway and Sweden. The exposure status to a carcinogen or a clastogen was coded in the cohort according...... country-specific differences, differences in information available to the home assessor and the others and misunderstandings or difficulties in translation of information. To ensure the consistency of exposure assessments in international retrospective case-control studies it is important to have a well...

  17. World Auto Parts Market Thriving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ In a global market with increased competition, the global auto industrial chain in some regions of Europe, the U.S. and Japan is transforming into a new relationship between the auto parts producers and complete vehicle producers.

  18. Early clinical indicators of transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy in pediatric neuroblastoma patients undergoing auto-SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, B L; Goebel, J; Davies, S M; Khoury, J C; Bleesing, J J; Mehta, P A; Filipovich, A H; Paff, Z N; Lawrence, J M; Yin, H J; Pinkard, S L; Jodele, S

    2011-05-01

    Patients undergoing auto-SCT for neuroblastoma present a unique population to study transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA), due to standardized chemotherapy and later exposure to radiation and cis-retinoic acid (cis-RA). We retrospectively analyzed 20 patients after auto-SCT to evaluate early clinical indicators of TA-TMA. A total of 6 patients developing TA-TMA (30% prevalence) were compared with 14 controls. Four of six patients were diagnosed with TA-TMA by 25 days after auto-SCT. Compared with controls, TA-TMA patients had higher average systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels during high-dose chemotherapy and developed hypertension by day 13 after auto-SCT. Proteinuria was a significant marker for TA-TMA, whereas blood and platelet transfusion requirements were not. Serum creatinine did not differ between groups post transplant. However, patients with TA-TMA had a 60% decrease in renal function from baseline by nuclear glomerular filtration rate, compared with a 25% decrease in those without TA-TMA (P=0.001). There was no TA-TMA-related mortality. Significant complications included end-stage renal disease (n=1) and polyserositis (n=3). Patients with TA-TMA were unable to complete cis-RA therapy after auto-SCT. We suggest that careful attention to blood pressure and urinalysis will assist in the early diagnosis of TA-TMA, whereas serum creatinine seems to be an insensitive marker for this condition.

  19. Hexavalent chromium exposure and control in welding tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D; Susi, Pam; Flynn, Michael R

    2010-11-01

    Studies of exposure to the lung carcinogen hexavalent chromium (CrVI) from welding tasks are limited, especially within the construction industry where overexposure may be common. In addition, despite the OSHA requirement that the use of engineering controls such as local exhaust ventilation (LEV) first be considered before relying on other strategies to reduce worker exposure to CrVI, data on the effectiveness of LEV to reduce CrVI exposures from welding are lacking. The goal of the present study was to characterize breathing zone air concentrations of CrVI during welding tasks and primary contributing factors in four datasets: (1) OSHA compliance data; (2) a publicly available database from The Welding Institute (TWI); (3) field survey data of construction welders collected by the Center for Construction Research and Training (CPWR); and (4) controlled welding trials conducted by CPWR to assess the effectiveness of a portable LEV unit to reduce CrVI exposure. In the OSHA (n = 181) and TWI (n = 124) datasets, which included very few samples from the construction industry, the OSHA permissible exposure level (PEL) for CrVI (5 μg/m(3)) was exceeded in 9% and 13% of samples, respectively. CrVI concentrations measured in the CPWR field surveys (n = 43) were considerably higher, and 25% of samples exceeded the PEL. In the TWI and CPWR datasets, base metal, welding process, and LEV use were important predictors of CrVI concentrations. Only weak-to-moderate correlations were found between total particulate matter and CrVI, suggesting that total particulate matter concentrations are not a good surrogate for CrVI exposure in retrospective studies. Finally, in the controlled welding trials, LEV reduced median CrVI concentrations by 68% (p = 0.02). In conclusion, overexposure to CrVI in stainless steel welding is likely widespread, especially in certain operations such as shielded metal arc welding, which is commonly used in construction. However, exposure could be

  20. The Durban Auto Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jochen; Robbins, Glen; Barnes, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the formation of the Durban Auto Cluster in the context of trade liberalization. It argues that the improvement of operational competitiveness of firms in the cluster is prominently due to joint action. It tests this proposition by comparing the gains from cluster activities i...

  1. The Durban Auto Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jochen; Robbins, Glen; Barnes, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the formation of the Durban Auto Cluster in the context of trade liberalization. It argues that the improvement of operational competitiveness of firms in the cluster is prominently due to joint action. It tests this proposition by comparing the gains from cluster activities i...

  2. AUTO PARTS MAN, WORKBOOK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DOVER, BUEL H.

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS STUDY GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR USE IN THE RELATED TECHNICAL CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION PHASE OF THE AUTO PARTS MAN APPRENTICE TRAINING PROGRAM. THE MATERIAL WAS PLANNED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE STATE EDUCATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR THE AUTOMOTIVE TRADE. THE UNITS ARE (1) SCOPE AND OPPORTUNITY, (2) AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY,…

  3. AUTO-EXPANSIVE FLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics suggests that the interplay of momentum, continuity, and geometry in outward radial flow must produce density and concomitant pressure reductions. In other words, this flow is intrinsically auto-expansive. It has been proposed that this process is the key to understanding...

  4. Beginning AutoCAD 2002

    CERN Document Server

    McFarlane, Bob

    2002-01-01

    New features in AutoCAD 2002 are covered in this book, making it a useful refresher course for anyone using AutoCAD at this level, and upgrading to the new software release. The material in the book is also relevant to anyone using other recent releases, including, AutoCAD 2000.

  5. AutoCAD 2014 and AutoCAD LT 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gladfelter, Donnie

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial introduction to AutoCAD As the only book to teach AutoCAD using a continuous tutorial which allows you to follow along sequentially or jump in at any exercise by downloading the drawing files, this Autodesk Official Press book is ideal for the AutoCAD novice. Industry expert and AutoCAD guru Donnie Gladfelter walks you through the powerful features of AutoCAD, provides you with a solid foundation of the basics, and shares the latest industry standards and techniques. The hands-on tutorial project inspired by real-world workflows that runs throughout the book

  6. Induced rhinovirus infection under controlled exposure to sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, I. (Aarhus, Univ., Denmark); Jensen, P.L.; Reed, S.E.; Craig, J.W.; Proctor, D.F.; Adams, G.K.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction between short-term sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) exposure and experimentally induced rhinovirus infection was studied in thirty-two volunteers divided into two groups balanced with respect to age, antibody levels, and nasal mucous flow rates. One group was exposed to SO/sub 2/ at the threshold limit value (TLV) of 5 ppM during 4 hours; the other group served as controls exposed to pollution-free air under the same conditions. The SO/sub 2/ exposure caused a 50% decrease in nasal mucous flow rate in the anterior parts of the nose, but there was no difference in the number of colds which developed in the two groups. The group exposed to SO/sub 2/ had fewer symptoms and a possibly shorter incubation period (P = .06), and virus shedding was at a lower level but more persistent than in the control group. No differences were found in antibody response. The rhinovirus infection in the control group caused a gradual decrease in nasal mucus flow rate starting 2 days after the virus instillation, and after 5 days the rate was less than half its initial value. For future experiments on the interaction between airborne pollutants and rhinovirus infections, a virus challenge by aerosol inhalation is recommended. Our study supports an earlier observation that growth of influenza virus in the nasal cavity of mice was inhibited by exposure to SO/sub 2/ concentrations of 6 or 20 ppM.

  7. An Instructional Method for the AutoCAD Modeling Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a command organizer for AutoCAD to aid new uses in operating within the 3-D modeling environment. Addresses analyzing the problem, visualization skills, nonlinear tools, a static view of a dynamic model, the AutoCAD organizer, environment attributes, and control of the environment. Contains 11 references. (JRH)

  8. An Instructional Method for the AutoCAD Modeling Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a command organizer for AutoCAD to aid new uses in operating within the 3-D modeling environment. Addresses analyzing the problem, visualization skills, nonlinear tools, a static view of a dynamic model, the AutoCAD organizer, environment attributes, and control of the environment. Contains 11 references. (JRH)

  9. Occupational exposure to DDT among mosquito control sprayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nhachi, C.F.B.; Kasilo, O.J. (Univ. of Zimbabwe, Harare (Zimbabwe))

    1990-08-01

    DDT, a broad action insecticide whose use is restricted or banned in most industrialized countries is still often used for vector control in many tropical and developing countries. Despite the fact that DDT is accumulative and persistant in the ecosystem use of such substitutes as malathion or propoxur is not popular because these increases costs by 3.4 to 8.5 fold. As such DDT is economically attractive to poorer countries. As far as can be ascertained no systemic poisoning has resulted from occupational exposure to DDT. Due to the large particle size, the amount of DDT inhaled by workers is far less than the amount reaching exposed portions of skin. As such occupational exposure is mainly dermal or tropical. Occupational exposure to DDT studies have been done before. The present study is an analysis of some characteristics, (i.e. age, body size, relationship between plasma vitamin A and DDE levels, and smoking habits), of occupational exposure to DDT among spraymen in a Zimbabwe population.

  10. Controlled doe exposure as biostimulation of buck rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-De Lara, R; Noguez-Estrada, J; Rangel-Santos, R; García-Muñiz, J G; Martínez-Hernández, P A; Fallas-López, M; Maldonado-Siman, E

    2010-12-01

    Female exposure of males could be a low-cost biostimulation option that benefits AI in commercial rabbit operations by improving buck rabbits reproductive performance. The objective of the study was to evaluate exposure of buck rabbits to females as a biostimulation option to improve reproductive potential. Treatments were: exposure (biostimulated) or not (control) of bucks to does. Bucks were New Zealand White, 15-month-old, sexually experienced and fertile. Experimental design was completely random with nine replications, experimental unit was one buck. Doe exposure was permanent using replacement pubertal does housed in an adjacent wire-mesh cage and changed for new ones every other week. Semen collection lasted 14 weeks (late winter and early spring) twice a week with two ejaculates at each collection. Analyses of variance were under a mixed model: treatments, ejaculate number and season were fixed and rabbit random effects and buck weight at each collection as covariable. Biostimulated bucks showed greater (Pbucks but not in doe exposed bucks (treatment × ejaculate number, Pbuck rabbits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of Three-phase Thyristor Adjuster in Auto-thermostatic Control of HTS Heater%三相晶闸管调整器在 HTS 加热器自动恒温控制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚涛; 薛文利; 王文渤

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of thyristor adjuster ’ s structure and function were expounded , including its ap-plication in auto-thermostatic control of the HTS heater .%阐述了晶闸管调整器的结构组成和功能特点,介绍了其在HTS加热器自动恒温控制中的应用。

  12. 基于 PLC 的全自动包装机控制系统开发与实现%Development and Achievement of Auto Packaging Machinery Control System Based on PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓昌奇

    2014-01-01

    A control system of auto -weighting auto-mixed packaging machine can be based on PLC according to the characteristics of fer-tilizer powdery .The system can realize automatic control of weighting ,mixing ,packing ,and auto-sealing off function .It has the charac-teristics of less waste ,convenient control and dynamics weighing function etc .It can be used in fertilizer weighing package of powdery and granular .Various performance indicators are proved to be stable and reliable by field test and run ,and measurement accuracy can meet the ideal requirements ,thus the result of auto-control in packaging machine is realized .%针对化肥粉末料的特点,提出了一种基于PLC控制器的自动计量混合包装机的控制系统,实现称量、混合、包装以及封口等工作过程的自动控制,具有浪费少、控制方便和动态称量等特点,可用于各种粉末状、颗粒状等肥料称重包装。系统在现场实验和运行中的各项性能指标稳定可靠,计量精度达到了设计的要求,实现了包装机自动控制的目的。

  13. 教室灯光自动控制系统%The Auto-control System of Classroom Lights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃海益

    2011-01-01

    This system to AT89C52 single chip computer as control device of intelligent parts,adopts heat release infrared sensor detects the release of human existence and adopts photoconductive resistance constitutes circuit testing environment light intensity.According to the classroom light conditions and the measured the signal of human body system and ambient light,the system can make reasonable and intelligent judgment and then controls the work of classroom lighting circuit.It is a effective way to avoid the classroom of waste electricity.%系统以AT89C52单片机作为控制装置的智能部件,采用热释红外传感器检测人体的存在,采用光敏三极管构成的电路检测环境光的强度;根据教室合理开灯的条件,系统通过对人体的存在信号和环境光信号的识别和智能判断,完成对教室照明回路的智能控制,避免了用电浪费。

  14. Perinatal taurine exposure affects adult arterial pressure control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Wyss, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is an abundant free amino acid found in mammalian cells that contributes to many physiologic functions from that of a simple cell osmolyte to a programmer of adult health and disease. Taurine’s contribution extends from conception throughout life, but its most critical exposure period is during perinatal life. In adults, taurine supplementation prevents or alleviates cardiovascular disease and related complications. In contrast, low taurine consumption coincides with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity and type II diabetes. This review focuses on the effects that altered perinatal taurine exposure has on long-term mechanisms that control adult arterial blood pressure and could thereby contribute to arterial hypertension through its ability to program these cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms very early in life. The modifications of these mechanisms can last a lifetime and transfer to the next generation, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms underlie the changes. The ability of perinatal taurine exposure to influence arterial pressure control mechanisms and hypertension in adult life appears to involve the regulation of growth and development, the central and autonomic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin system, glucose-insulin interaction and changes to heart, blood vessels and kidney function. PMID:23070226

  15. Comparison of auto-fluorescence and tetracycline fluorescence for guided bone surgery of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: a randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristow, O; Otto, S; Geiß, C; Kehl, V; Berger, M; Troeltzsch, M; Koerdt, S; Hohlweg-Majert, B; Freudlsperger, C; Pautke, C

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have indicated that bone shows auto-fluorescence under an appropriate fluorescence lamp. The aim of this preliminary study was to compare the success rates of the established tetracycline fluorescence-guided bone surgery with auto-fluorescence-guided bone surgery in the treatment of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). Forty patients suffering from MRONJ were referred for surgical treatment and were divided randomly into two groups: auto-fluorescence (n=20) or tetracycline fluorescence (n=20) guided bone surgery. The primary endpoint was treatment success, defined as the absence of exposed bone at 8 weeks after surgery. Secondary outcomes assessed were mucosal integrity, signs of infection, pain, and loss of sensitivity; these were evaluated descriptively at 10 days, 8 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. At 8 weeks postoperative, 18/20 patients (90%) in the auto-fluorescence group and 17/20 patients (85%) in the tetracycline fluorescence group showed mucosal integrity (P>0.05). At the last follow-up, 94% in the auto-fluorescence group and 89% in the tetracycline fluorescence group presented complete mucosal coverage with no exposed bone, infection, or pain (P>0.05). There was no significant difference between the two techniques for any of the secondary outcomes (P>0.05). The results of this preliminary study show that auto-fluorescence-guided bone surgery has comparable success rates to the established tetracycline fluorescence-guided bone surgery. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 浮选自动加药控制系统的设计%Design of Flotation Auto Chemical Adding Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵平胜; 王然风

    2011-01-01

    The author studied the existing problems in the flotation auto chemical adding system and proposed the solutions. A new flotation auto chemical adding system was worked out through rational design and model selection, which could meet the serious environment in coal preparation plants.%论述了现有浮选自动加药系统存在的问题,提出了解决这些问题的解决方案,通过合理的设计和选型,设计了能够应对恶劣选煤厂环境的新型浮选加药系统。

  17. Occupational noise-induced hearing loss in auto part factory workers in welding units in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriopas, Apiradee; Chapman, Robert S; Sutammasa, Saravudh; Siriwong, Wattasit

    2017-01-24

    Most workers in auto part factories in Thailand are usually exposed to excessive noise in their workplace. This study aimed to assess the level of occupational noise-induced hearing loss and investigate risk factors causing hearing loss in auto part factory workers in the welding units in Thailand. This was a cross-sectional study. One hundred eighty subjects were recruited from 356 workers in the welding unit of three factories. Sixty eligible subjects in each factory were selected by systemic random sampling. The subjects were interviewed using a face-to-face questionnaire. Noise exposure levels and audiograms were measured by a noise dosimeter and an audiometer, respectively. The findings confirmed that noise exposure levels of 86-90 dB (A) and exceeding 90 dB (A) significantly increased the risk of hearing loss in either ear. A noise exposure level exceeding 90 dB (A) significantly increased the prevalence of hearing loss in both ears. Regarding, a 10-pack-year smoking history increased the prevalence of hearing loss in either ear or both ears. In addition, subjects with employment duration exceeding 10 years significantly developed hearing loss in either ear. The engineering control or personal control by wearing hearing protection device should be used to decrease noise exposure levels lower than 85 dB (A) for 8 h. Moreover, if the exposure level reaches 85 dB (A) for 8 h, the employer needs to implement a hearing conservation program in the workplace.

  18. MS AutoCad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Rye; Heinicke, Hugo

    1996-01-01

    Formålet med dette notat er at give en introduktion til tegning af et generalarrangement ved anvendelse af CAD-programmet AutoCAD. Generalarrangementets formål er at skabe en overskuelig præsentation af et skibsprojekt. Det skal gøres indenfor de rammer, som ligger til grund for praktiskprojekter......Formålet med dette notat er at give en introduktion til tegning af et generalarrangement ved anvendelse af CAD-programmet AutoCAD. Generalarrangementets formål er at skabe en overskuelig præsentation af et skibsprojekt. Det skal gøres indenfor de rammer, som ligger til grund...

  19. MS AutoCad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Rye; Heinicke, Hugo

    1996-01-01

    Formålet med dette notat er at give en introduktion til tegning af et generalarrangement ved anvendelse af CAD-programmet AutoCAD. Generalarrangementets formål er at skabe en overskuelig præsentation af et skibsprojekt. Det skal gøres indenfor de rammer, som ligger til grund for praktiskprojekter......Formålet med dette notat er at give en introduktion til tegning af et generalarrangement ved anvendelse af CAD-programmet AutoCAD. Generalarrangementets formål er at skabe en overskuelig præsentation af et skibsprojekt. Det skal gøres indenfor de rammer, som ligger til grund...

  20. 自由立体显示系统背光控制%Backlight System Control of Auto-stereoscopic Display

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁康; 王元庆; 范科峰

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-user auto-stereoscopic display based on a pupil position tracker. It employs Fresnel lens to form separate viewing regions for left and right eyes, where the corresponding left or right image is seen. LCD is used as imaging panel and LED array is used as steerable illumination backlight, enabling the viewing regions to follow the viewers' eyes. A high-precision multi-user pupil tracker based on AdaBoost algorithm provides real-time detection of pupil locations. AVR MCU is applied for system control. As a result, within view angle of ±25° horizontally, 1-3 users may get vivid 3D images on the 3D display at the same time and move freely.%介绍一种基于瞳孔跟踪的多用户自由立体显示器,利用菲涅尔透镜形成左右眼分立照明区域.本系统采用LCD作为基本显示屏幕,通过指向式LED照明背光设计,高精度瞳孔实时定位装置对人眼位置的探测,AVR单片机的系统控制,形成实时定向跟踪人眼的立体视窗.本装置可提供±25°水平视角范围内1至3人的实时无辅助立体显示.

  1. Quality control for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornkessel, C; Blettner, M; Breckenkamp, J

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of an epidemiological study, dosemeters were used for the assessment of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. To check the correct dosemeter's performance in terms of consistency of recorded field values over the entire study period, a quality control strategy...... was developed. In this paper, the concept of quality control and its results is described. From the 20 dosemeters used, 19 were very stable and reproducible, with deviations of a maximum of +/-1 dB compared with their initial state. One device was found to be faulty and its measurement data had to be excluded...... from the analysis. As a result of continuous quality control procedures, the confidence in the measurements obtained during the field work was strengthened significantly....

  2. Myocarditis in auto-immune or auto-inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comarmond, Cloé; Cacoub, Patrice

    2017-08-01

    Myocarditis is a major cause of heart disease in young patients and a common precursor of heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy. Some auto-immune and/or auto-inflammatory diseases may be accompanied by myocarditis, such as sarcoidosis, Behçet's disease, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, myositis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. However, data concerning myocarditis in such auto-immune and/or auto-inflammatory diseases are sparse. New therapeutic strategies should better target the modulation of the immune system, depending on the phase of the disease and the type of underlying auto-immune and/or auto-inflammatory disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Obtenção de concretos auto-escoantes zero-cimento a partir do controle reológico da matriz Production of self-flow zero-cement castables based on matrix rheological control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Studart

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Os concretos refratários auto-escoantes com reduzido teor de cimento têm se destacado pelo fato de associarem a facilidade de aplicação dos concretos de elevada fluidez, com o bom desempenho termomecânico dos refratários contendo baixo teor de CaO. Através do controle simultâneo da distribuição granulométrica e do estado de dispersão da matriz, é possível eliminar o cimento aluminoso (fonte de CaO e quaisquer outros ligantes hidráulicos do concreto, mantendo sua auto-escoabilidade. Os concretos obtidos, denominados zero-cimento, apresentam resistência mecânica a verde compatível com aplicações industriais e excelentes propriedades a altas temperaturas. Neste trabalho, são apresentadas as condições de dispersão da matriz necessárias para a obtenção dos concretos zero-cimento, após um ajuste granulométrico prévio. As faixas de pH e de teor de dispersante ideais para a otimização da reologia da matriz são apresentadas graficamente em um mapa de estabilidade, o qual mostrou-se uma ferramenta bastante útil para a formulação dos concretos auto-escoantes zero-cimento.Self-flow low-cement refractory castables have attracted much attention in the latest years because they combine the installation benefits of high-flowability castables with the good thermomechanical behaviour of low CaO-content refractories. By simultaneously controlling the castable particle size distribution and the matrix dispersion state, it becomes possible to eliminate the aluminous cement (CaO source or any other hydraulic binder in the castable, keeping its self-flow ability. Such castables, named self-flow zero-cement castables, exhibit pre-firing mechanical strength compatible with industrial applications and outstanding high temperature properties. The matrix dispersion conditions necessary to obtain these castables are presented in this work. The optimum range of pH and dispersant amount for the matrix rheological optimisation are

  4. 78 FR 68447 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... OFFICE Exposure Draft--Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government AGENCY: U.S. Government... 2013 Exposure Draft update to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government reflect... Internal Control in the Federal Government, 2013 Exposure Draft, is available and can be downloaded...

  5. Internet与AutoCAD%Internet and AutoCAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 修立刚

    2009-01-01

    从Internet是国际上交流信息最重要的方法出发,介绍了AutoCAD的网络功能.即如何在Web上发布图形和在AutoCAD中进行网上的图形操作.%Is internationally exchanges the information most important method from Intemet to embark, introduced the AutoCAD network function, how namely on Web to issue that the graph and carries in-line graph operation in AutoCAD.

  6. AutoCAD / AutoCAD LT 2014 fundamentals metric

    CERN Document Server

    ASCENT center for technical knowledge

    2014-01-01

    The objective of AutoCAD/AutoCAD LT 2014 Fundamentals is to enable students to create a basic 2D drawing in the AutoCAD software. Even at this fundamental level, the AutoCAD software is one of the most sophisticated computer applications that you are likely to encounter. Therefore learning to use it can be challenging. To make the process easier and provide flexibility for instructors and students, the training guide is divided into two parts that can be taken independently.

  7. Study on genetic algorithm based auto-tuning of acceleration control PID parameters%基于遗传算法的加速度控制PID参数白整定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周云端; 何志勇; 赵瑞国

    2012-01-01

    The method of PID parameter auto-tuning for the acceleration test system is intro- duced. A mathematic model of the control system is approximated to second-order oscillation element type to get a transmit function expression by utilizing the process identification, and then the PID parameter auto-tuning is carried out by utilizing the genetic algorithm. This method improved the auto-tuning accuracy and efficiency greatly.%详细介绍了加速度试验系统加速度PID参数自整定方法。首先利用过程辨识将控制系统数学模型近似为二阶振荡环节形式,得到传递函数表达式,然后利用遗传算法进行PID参数整定,使整定精确度和效率得到很大提高。

  8. Manganese and welding fume exposure and control in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D; Susi, Pam; Flynn, Michael R

    2007-12-01

    Overexposure to welding fume constituents, particularly manganese, is of concern in the construction industry due to the prevalence of welding and the scarcity of engineering controls. The control effectiveness of a commercially available portable local exhaust ventilation (LEV) unit was assessed. It consisted of a portable vacuum and a small bell-shaped hood connected by a flexible 2 inch (50.8 mm) diameter hose, in both experimental and field settings. The experimental testing was done in a semienclosed booth at a pipefitter training facility. Five paired trials of LEV control vs. no control, each approximately 1 hr in duration and conducted during two successive welds of 6 inch (152.4 mm) diameter carbon steel pipe were run in random order. Breathing zone samples were collected outside the welding hood during each trial. In the field scenario, full-shift breathing zone samples were collected from two pipefitters welding carbon steel pipe for a chiller installation on a commercial construction project. Eight days of full-shift sampling were conducted on both workers (n = 16), and the LEV was used by one of the two workers on an alternating basis for 7 of the days. All samples were collected with personal sample pumps calibrated at 2 L/min. Filter cassettes were analyzed for total particulate and manganese concentration by a certified laboratory. In the experimental setting, use of the portable LEV resulted in a 75% reduction in manganese exposure (mean 13 microg/m(3) vs. 51 microg/m(3); p 0.05). These results demonstrate that LEV use can reduce manganese exposure associated with welding tasks in construction.

  9. A simple and stable auto focusing protocol for long multidimensional live cell microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, F; Geley, S

    2006-01-01

    Focus maintenance is a challenging problem in multidimensional wide-field microscopy. Most automated microscopes use software algorithms, which are applied to z-sections of the object, to select for the plane with the best signal to noise ratio. When applied automatically in multidimensional imaging applications, auto focus routines significantly increase light exposure and can become cytotoxic if applied too frequently. In addition, automated focusing procedures can readily focus on unwanted high contrast objects. By labelling a defined position with a fluorescent marker, we were able to separate the focusing procedure from the actual image acquisition positions and therefore overcome some of the major drawbacks of routine auto focus procedures. To implement this method in a multidimensional acquisition experiment, we created a visual basic-based program, which is run prior to each image acquisition. This technique allows tight control of focus whilst keeping light toxicity in live cell imaging experiments to a minimum.

  10. Beginning AutoCAD 2005

    CERN Document Server

    McFarlane, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Beginning AutoCAD 2005 is a course based on learning and practising the essentials of 2D drawing using AutoCAD. Bob McFarlane's hands-on approach is uniquely suited to independent learning and use on courses. The focus on 2D drawing in one book, ensures the reader gets a thorough grounding in the subject, with a greater depth of coverage than tends to be available from general introductions to AutoCAD. As a result, this book provides a true, step-by-step, detailed exploration of the AutoCAD functions required at each stage of producing a 2D drawing - an approach often

  11. Brilliance Auto: Chinese, Global, Successful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

      As the only automobile sponsor of BOAO FORUM FOR ASIA in April 2004, Brilliance Auto had a great opportunity to show her 'New Zhonghua" sedan which is an upper-medium car with completely independent intellectual property rights and repre sents the independent development philosophy of Brilliance Auto and is especially made for business personnel. The development pattern of Zhonghua sedan set a brand new model in Chinese auto industry to utilize the global resources and talents and international division of labor in the international arena, and she has become a typical sample of independent brand sedans in the contemporary Chinese auto industry.……

  12. PERFORMING [AUTO] ETHNOGRAPHY POLITICALLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman K. Denzin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Building on earlier arguments, I propose a civic, publicly responsable [auto] ethnography that addresses the central issues of self, race, gender, class, society, and democracy.  I begin with pedagogies of hope and the sociological and ethnographic imaginations.  I turn then to the ethnographer and cultural studies, reviewing several models of critical ethnography. I next examine critical performance pedagogy, politics, and critical race theory, and conclude with a brief discussion of the practices of a performative cultural politics.

  13. Controlling Risk Exposure in Periodic Environments: A Genetic Algorithm Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Navarro, Emeterio

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the performance of different agent's investment strategies in an investment scenario with periodic returns and different types and levels of noise. We consider an investment model, where an agent decides the percentage of budget to risk at each time step. Afterwards, agent's investment is evaluated in the market via a return on investment (RoI), which we assume is a stochastic process with unknown periodicities and different levels of noise. To control the risk exposure, we investigate approaches based on: technical analysis (Moving Least Squares, MLS), and evolutionary computation (Genetic Algorithms, GA). In our comparison, we also consider two reference strategies for zero-knowledge and complete-knowledge behaviors, respectively. In our approach, the performance of a strategy corresponds to the average budget that can be obtained with this strategy over a certain number of time steps. To this end, we perform some computer experiments, where for each strategy the budget obtained af...

  14. Controlled exposures to air pollutants and risk of cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langrish, Jeremy P; Watts, Simon J; Hunter, Amanda J; Shah, Anoop S V; Bosson, Jenny A; Unosson, Jon; Barath, Stefan; Lundbäck, Magnus; Cassee, Flemming R; Donaldson, Ken; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Newby, David E; Mills, Nicholas L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to air pollutants can influence cardiac autonomic tone and reduce heart rate variability, and may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias,

  15. Auto-fotografi som metode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen sætter fokus på auto-fotografi som metode i arbejdsmiljøforskningen. Den organisationsæstetiske tilgang, som metoden ofte forbindes med, udfordres med afsæt i en performativ og aktørnetværks-teoretisk position. Gennem en analyse af et enkelt auto-fotografi vises hvordan en artikulation af...

  16. The Progressing Auto Parts Sector in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The auto parts sector was not only the basis for the entire auto industry in China, but continues to be an important part of industry development. China's auto parts sector had lagged behind the world's auto industry for a long time; however, since the start of the new century, the country's auto parts sector has been put on a fast track to meet the rapid growth in the auto industry.

  17. 气体灭火系统的火灾自动报警和控制探讨%The Discussion about Gas fire extinguishing system of Fire auto-alarm and control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄彩萍

    2011-01-01

    This article elaborate the design for fire auto-alarm and control of Gas fire extinguishing system,introduce some security measures for protected area,with the related technical codes and the examples of project.%本文结合相关规范及工程实例,详细阐述了气体灭火系统的火灾自动报警和控制系统设计以及防护区内的安全措施。

  18. Diabetes auto-referido em idosos: prevalência, fatores associados e práticas de controle Self-reported diabetes in the elderly: prevalence, associated factors, and control practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de diabetes auto-referido em idosos, identificando fatores associados, conhecimento e práticas quanto às opções de tratamento. Trata-se de estudo transversal de base populacional, com amostra estratificada por conglomerados e em dois estágios, em municípios do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Dos 1.949 idosos, 15,4% referiram diabetes. O índice de massa corporal e a prática de exercício físico estiveram associados à doença. Houve diferença entre diabéticos e não diabéticos quanto à auto-avaliação da saúde, internação, morbidade auto-referida nos últimos 15 dias, e relato das seguintes doenças: hipertensão, anemia, doença renal e cardiovascular. Não houve desigualdade em relação à renda familiar per capita quanto à visita ao médico/serviço de saúde, à participação em grupos de discussão e às práticas de controle da doença. O estudo sugere a importância de mudanças comportamentais, como estratégias de prevenção e controle da doença e suas complicações, bem como a necessidade de oferta de intervenções educativas com ampliação da cobertura de cuidados aos diabéticos.The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of self-reported diabetes in the elderly, identifying associated factors, knowledge, and practices related to treatment options. This was a cross-sectional population-based study with stratified clustered two-stage sampling in six municipalities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Among the 1,949 elderly, 15.4% presented self-reported diabetes. Body mass index and exercising were statistically associated with diabetes. There was a significant difference between diabetics and non-diabetics in terms of self-rated health, hospitalization, self-reported illness in the previous two weeks, and report of the following diseases: hypertension, anemia, chronic kidney disease, and heart disease. In terms of per capita family income, there was no

  19. Dose reduction in pediatric computed tomography with automated exposure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibek, Sedat; Brand, Martin; Suess, Christoph; Wuest, Wolfgang; Uder, Michael; Greess, Holger

    2011-06-01

    Since the introduction of computed tomographic (CT) imaging in the 1970s, the number of examinations has increased steadily. CT imaging is an essential part of routine workup in diagnostic radiology. The great advantage of multidetector computed tomography is the acquisition of a large amount of data in a short time period, thus speeding up diagnostic procedures. To protect patients from unnecessary radiation exposure, different approaches have been developed. In this study, the efficacy of automated exposure control (AEC) software in multidetector CT imaging with a focus on dose reduction in pediatric examinations was assessed. Between August 2004 and September 2005, a total of 71 children (40 male, 31 female; age range, 2-13 years; mean age, 7.2 years) were examined using a multisource CT scanner. Three different regions (chest, upper abdomen, and pelvis) were examined. Overall image quality was assessed with a subjective scale (1 = excellent, 2 = diagnostic, 3 = nondiagnostic). For all examinations, AEC was used. From the scanner's patient protocol, dose-length product, volume CT dose index, and tube current-time product were calculated for each examination. With AEC, a mean dose reduction of 30.6% was calculated. Images were rated as excellent (n = 39) or diagnostic (n = 32). Nondiagnostic image quality was not seen. Dose-length product and volume CT dose index were reduced by 30.4% and 29.5%, respectively. Overall, a mean dose reduction of 30.1% of the effective dose (5.8 ± 3.1 vs 8.4 ± 4.6 mSv) was achieved (P image quality is possible. Copyright © 2011 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Meditation Compared to Exposure Therapy and Education Control on PTSD in Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Health Questionnaire (PHQ)- 9 Depression by Groups Transcendental Meditation Prolonged Exposure Health Education 11 Mean Change -6.0 (-7.6, -4.5...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0576 TITLE: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Meditation Compared to Exposure Therapy and Education Control on PTSD in...Exposure Therapy and Education Control on PTSD in Veterans 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0576 5b. GRANT NUMBER PT110413 & PT110413A 5c

  1. Auto-phosphorylation Represses Protein Kinase R Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Die; de Weerd, Nicole A.; Willard, Belinda; Polekhina, Galina; Williams, Bryan R. G.; Sadler, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    The central role of protein kinases in controlling disease processes has spurred efforts to develop pharmaceutical regulators of their activity. A rational strategy to achieve this end is to determine intrinsic auto-regulatory processes, then selectively target these different states of kinases to repress their activation. Here we investigate auto-regulation of the innate immune effector protein kinase R, which phosphorylates the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α to inhibit global protein translation. We demonstrate that protein kinase R activity is controlled by auto-inhibition via an intra-molecular interaction. Part of this mechanism of control had previously been reported, but was then controverted. We account for the discrepancy and extend our understanding of the auto-inhibitory mechanism by identifying that auto-inhibition is paradoxically instigated by incipient auto-phosphorylation. Phosphor-residues at the amino-terminus instigate an intra-molecular interaction that enlists both of the N-terminal RNA-binding motifs of the protein with separate surfaces of the C-terminal kinase domain, to co-operatively inhibit kinase activation. These findings identify an innovative mechanism to control kinase activity, providing insight for strategies to better regulate kinase activity. PMID:28281686

  2. Auto-phosphorylation Represses Protein Kinase R Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Die; de Weerd, Nicole A; Willard, Belinda; Polekhina, Galina; Williams, Bryan R G; Sadler, Anthony J

    2017-03-10

    The central role of protein kinases in controlling disease processes has spurred efforts to develop pharmaceutical regulators of their activity. A rational strategy to achieve this end is to determine intrinsic auto-regulatory processes, then selectively target these different states of kinases to repress their activation. Here we investigate auto-regulation of the innate immune effector protein kinase R, which phosphorylates the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α to inhibit global protein translation. We demonstrate that protein kinase R activity is controlled by auto-inhibition via an intra-molecular interaction. Part of this mechanism of control had previously been reported, but was then controverted. We account for the discrepancy and extend our understanding of the auto-inhibitory mechanism by identifying that auto-inhibition is paradoxically instigated by incipient auto-phosphorylation. Phosphor-residues at the amino-terminus instigate an intra-molecular interaction that enlists both of the N-terminal RNA-binding motifs of the protein with separate surfaces of the C-terminal kinase domain, to co-operatively inhibit kinase activation. These findings identify an innovative mechanism to control kinase activity, providing insight for strategies to better regulate kinase activity.

  3. Application of a pilot control banding tool for risk level assessment and control of nanoparticle exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, S Y; Zalk, D M; Swuste, P

    2008-03-03

    Control Banding (CB) strategies offer simplified solutions for controlling worker exposures to constituents that are found in the workplace in the absence of firm toxicological and exposure data. These strategies may be particularly useful in nanotechnology applications, considering the overwhelming level of uncertainty over what nanomaterials and nanotechnologies present as potential work-related health risks, what about these materials might lead to adverse toxicological activity, how risk related to these might be assessed, and how to manage these issues in the absence of this information. This study introduces a pilot CB tool or 'CB Nanotool' that was developed specifically for characterizing the health aspects of working with engineered nanoparticles and determining the level of risk and associated controls for five ongoing nanotechnology-related operations being conducted at two Department of Energy (DOE) research laboratories. Based on the application of the CB Nanotool, four of the five operations evaluated in this study were found to have implemented controls consistent with what was recommended by the CB Nanotool, with one operation even exceeding the required controls for that activity. The one remaining operation was determined to require an upgrade in controls. By developing this dynamic CB Nanotool within the realm of the scientific information available, this application of CB appears to be a useful approach for assessing the risk of nanomaterial operations, providing recommendations for appropriate engineering controls, and facilitating the allocation of resources to the activities that most need them.

  4. AutoCAD 2014 essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Onstott, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Learn crucial AutoCAD tools and techniques with this Autodesk Official Press Book Quickly become productive using AutoCAD 2014 and AutoCAD LT 2014 with this full color Autodesk Official Press guide. This unique learning resource features concise, straightforward explanations and real-world, hands-on exercises and tutorials. Following a quick discussion of concepts and goals, each chapter moves on to an approachable hands-on exercise designed to reinforce real-world tactics and techniques. Compelling, full-color screenshots illustrate tutorial steps, and chapters conclude with relat

  5. 水泥回转窑自动控制系统中的控制算法研究%Study on Control Algorithm of Auto-control System for Cement Rotary Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国华; 王群京; 张倩; 李国丽

    2012-01-01

    为了稳定水泥回转窑系统的温度,降低能耗,分析了整个烧成工况,提出分解炉与回转窑“合并建模—分开控制”的方法,利用前馈神经网络对旋风系统和回转窑系统中的一些重要参量进行建模,设计出双模糊自动控制器,以所建模型为依据,分别对分解炉温度和回转窑3个重要点温度进行控制.实验仿真和现场运行表明,控制器具有响应速度快及控制精度高等优点,受控温度点在短时间内趋于稳定,喂煤量较手操少.%In order to stabilize cement rotary kiln temperature and to reduce its energy consumption, the firing conditions were analyzed and " merger modeling and separate control" method for calciner and kiln was proposed , in which, having feed-forward neural network used to model important parameters of cyclone and rotary kiln system so as to design a dual fuzzy auto-controller for the calciner temperature and the temperature of three important parts in rotary kiln. The simulation result and field operation jointly prove controller' s advantages such as fast response and high precision, and the controlled temperature can tend to become stable in a short time and the coal consumption becomes less than that in manual operation.

  6. Esma Auto ja Mazda on loodud kestma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Ülevaade olulisematest sündmustest Esma Auto kümne tegevusaasta jooksul. Kommenteerivad Tarmo Järvoja, Mart Laar ja Enn Sau. Diagrammid ja skeemid: AS Esma Auto müügi statistika läbi aastate; AS Esma Auto kasum ja klientide arv aastate lõikes; Esma Auto esindused Eestis ja pakutavad teenused

  7. Esma Auto ja Mazda on loodud kestma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Ülevaade olulisematest sündmustest Esma Auto kümne tegevusaasta jooksul. Kommenteerivad Tarmo Järvoja, Mart Laar ja Enn Sau. Diagrammid ja skeemid: AS Esma Auto müügi statistika läbi aastate; AS Esma Auto kasum ja klientide arv aastate lõikes; Esma Auto esindused Eestis ja pakutavad teenused

  8. Sajandi Auto / Willem J. Staat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Staat, Willem J.

    1998-01-01

    Näitus 'Car of the Century' toimus 27. juunist 5. juulini Amsterdamis, 21. augustist 7. septembrini Torontos. Edasi liigub näitus Pariisi, Melbourne'i ja Lissaboni. Võistluse korraldusest. Lõplikult selgitatakse Sajandi Auto 4. detsembril 1999.

  9. CONGRATULATIONS ON AUTO CHINA 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ In April, China Machinery Industry Federation and Media & Press Center of CCPIT have successfully organized the China Auto International(Syria)Exhibition Tour and promoted the "walk out" strategy of Chinese independent brands.

  10. CONGRATULATIONS ON AUTO CHINA 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      In April, China Machinery Industry Federation and Media & Press Center of CCPIT have successfully organized the China Auto International(Syria)Exhibition Tour and promoted the "walk out" strategy of Chinese independent brands.……

  11. [Sexuality and auto-immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Georges; Vlatkovic, Dejan

    2010-03-24

    The idea that it might be a link between auto-immune affections and sexual disturbances could appear a vain purpose at a first glance. Nevertheless, as we start from a new point of view, it is understandable that we focus on a possible common tendency to develop self-aggression and self-destruction. Similarities which could play a role in the development of an auto-immune disease and of a sexual dixturbance as well.

  12. Green Project in Auto Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei

    2007-01-01

    @@ Automobile industry in China is developing very fast,which brings great business opportunities.In 2006,China was ranked the third in the world only after the United States and Japan in terms of auto sales.As the vehicle population in China is rocketing,a series of related social problems are emerging.How to fast develop auto industfy,and at the same time,protect our lwing environment? A green project is in urgent need.

  13. Evaluation of automatic exposure control systems in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reina, Thamiris Rosado

    2014-07-01

    The development of the computed tomography (CT) technology has brought wider possibilities on diagnostic medicine. It is a non-invasive method to see the human body in details. As the CT application increases, it raises the concern about patient dose, because the higher dose levels imparted compared to other diagnostic imaging modalities. The radiology community (radiologists, medical physicists and manufacturer) are working together to find the lowest dose level possible, without compromising the diagnostic image quality. The greatest and relatively new advance to lower the patient dose is the automatic exposure control (AEC) systems in CT. These systems are designed to ponder the dose distribution along the patient scanning and between patients taking into account their sizes and irradiated tissue densities. Based on the CT scanning geometry, the AEC-systems are very complex and their functioning is yet not fully understood. This work aims to evaluate the clinical performance of AEC-systems and their susceptibilities to assist on possible patient dose optimizations. The approach to evaluate the AEC-systems of three of the leading CT manufacturers in Brazil, General Electric, Philips and Toshiba, was the extraction of tube current modulation data from the DICOM standard image sequences, measurement and analysis of the image noise of those image sequences and measurement of the dose distribution along the scan length on the surface and inside of two different phantoms configurations. The tube current modulation of each CT scanner associated to the resulted image quality provides the performance of the AECsystem. The dose distribution measurements provide the dose profile due to the tube current modulation. Dose measurements with the AEC-system ON and OFF were made to quantify the impact of these systems regarding patient dose. The results attained give rise to optimizations on the AEC-systems applications and, by consequence, decreases the patient dose without

  14. Auto-adaptative Robot-aided Therapy based in 3D Virtual Tasks controlled by a Supervised and Dynamic Neuro-Fuzzy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel Lledó

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application formed by a classification method based on the architecture of ART neural network (Adaptive Resonance Theory and the Fuzzy Set Theory to classify physiological reactions in order to automatically and dynamically adapt a robot-assisted rehabilitation therapy to the patient needs, using a three-dimensional task in a virtual reality system. Firstly, the mathematical and structural model of the neuro-fuzzy classification method is described together with the signal and training data acquisition. Then, the virtual designed task with physics behavior and its development procedure are explained. Finally, the general architecture of the experimentation for the auto-adaptive therapy is presented using the classification method with the virtual reality exercise.

  15. Multiple sclerosis and exposure to house pets during childhood and adolescence : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Zwanikken, C

    1997-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) might be triggered by an infectious agent early in life. In a case-control study, we compared exposure to household pets for the age periods 0-5, 6-10, 11-15 and 16-20 years in 100 patients with MS and 100 controls. Exposure to household dogs between the ages of 0-10 years wa

  16. A Comparison of Exposure Control Procedures in CATs Using the 3PL Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Audrey J.; Lopez, Myriam; Hembry, Ian; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the progressive-restricted standard error (PR-SE) exposure control procedure to three commonly used procedures in computerized adaptive testing, the randomesque, Sympson-Hetter (SH), and no exposure control methods. The performance of these four procedures is evaluated using the three-parameter logistic model under the…

  17. Obesidade e aspectos psicológicos: maturidade emocional, auto-conceito, locus de controle e ansiedade Obesity and psyhological aspects: emotional and cognitive development, self concept, locus of control and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cataneo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se, neste trabalho, variáveis psicológicas como locus de controle, auto-conceito, ansiedade, maturação cognitiva e emocional e problemas comportamentais em crianças obesas e não obesas. Participaram do trabalho 54 crianças, com idades entre 10 e 12 anos, sendo 27 crianças obesas, 14 meninas e 13 meninos com índices de massa corporal situados acima do percentil 85, e 27 não obesas, 15 meninas e 12 meninos, com índices de massa corporal entre os percentis 5 e 85. Os grupos não se diferenciaram em relação às variáveis estudadas. Foram verificados resultados indicativos de sofrimento psicológico tanto num grupo quanto no outro, não permitindo associar obesidade e problemas psicológicos ou comportamentais.The present research aimed to evaluate if obese children showed different results in regard to some psychological variables such as emotional and cognitive development, locus of control, self concept , anxiety and behavioral problems compared to non obese children of same age, sex and school achievement. Subjects were 57 children with ages between 10 and 12 years old. The obese group had 27 children, 14 girls and 13 boys. The criterion for assignment to this group was the value of body mass above 85 percentile. The group of non obese had also 27 children, 15 girls and 12 boys and their body mass index was between 5 and 85 percentiles. There were no differences between the groups in regard to the variables approached. There were signs of psychological suffering in children of both groups. These results do not allow us to associate obesity with psychological or behavioral problems.

  18. Occupational Exposure Assessment of Nanomaterials using Control Banding Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liguori, Biase

    Nanotechnology can be termed as the “new industrial revolution”. A broad range of potential benefits in various applications for the environment and everyday life of humans can be related to the use of nanotechnology. Nanomaterials are used in a large variety of products already in the market...... assessment to nanomaterials is still a promising route. A few years ago a new conceptual model for the assessment of inhalation exposure to nanomaterials was developed. As illustrated in this thesis, this new model includes considerations on nanoparticles behaviour and physical and chemical properties...... to pursue the development of an advanced CB tool for occupational exposure assessment to nanomaterials. Such as model could be a suitable strategic component for a first exposure assessment and may also improve the risk communication between stakeholders involved in risk assessment of nanomaterials...

  19. Lithography beamline design and exposure uniformity controlling and measuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shinan; Jiang, Dikui; Liu, Zewen; Chen, Qianhong; Kan, Ya; Liu, Wanpo

    1989-07-01

    The lithography beamline design of Hefei National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is presented. A scanning mirror is used to cut off short wavelength radiation and to expand the vertical exposure dimension to 50 mm. A thin beryllium window is installed before the scanning mirror to prevent the longer wavelength radiation from going through. An exposure chamber with a vacuum of 5×10E-7 Torr is located at 7 m downstream from the source point. Because there is no window at the entrance of the chamber, a differential pumping system is used. The scanning mirror is driven by a stepping motor which oscillates through a 1° angle. The required driving speed curve is determined by a computer in order to obtain a uniform exposure area. An in situ moiré fringe grating system is used to measure the uniformity of the motor speed.

  20. 基于参数自整定的模糊PID控制器及其应用%Fuzzy-PID Controller of Parameter Based Auto-tuning and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟; 巫茜

    2013-01-01

    Aimed at being difficult to make system control effect be in the state of optimizing from beginning to end by means of PID control parameter obtained through disposable tuning,the paper explored a sort of fuzzy-PID controller of parameter based auto-tuning.Combined fuzzy logic control with classical PID control technique,by dint of fuzzy auto-tuning of PID control parameter on line,when the system performance produces the change and goes beyond specified range,the system would automatically start the tuning process of PID control parameter,and modified the PID control parameter in real time,made the retuned PID control parameter be able in the state of optimizing all the time,and therefore it could obtain better control effect.In the paper,it took central air-conditioning control of environment temperature in production technology of cigarette factory as an example,and the test data of actual system simulation demonstrated that it enhanced the control precision and stability to fuzzy-PID controller of parameter based auto-tuning.The research result shows that the explored controller can satisfy the working condition demand in strong robustness and high precision of actual system.%针对一次性整定得到的PID控制参数难以保证系统控制效果始终处于优化状态的问题,探讨了一种基于参数自整定的模糊PID控制器.该控制器将模糊控制与经典PID控制技术相结合,借助对控制器参数的在线模糊自整定,在系统性能发生改变并超出了一定范围后,自动启动PID控制参数的整定过程,实时地修改PID的控制参数.重新整定的PID控制参数可以使系统始终保持在优化状态,取得良好的控制效果.以烟厂生产工艺对环境温度的中央空调控制为例进行研究.实际系统仿真测试数据说明,基于参数自整定的模糊PID控制器提高了系统的控制精度与稳定性.研究表明该控制器可满足实际系统的强鲁棒性与高精度控制的工况需求.

  1. Respiratory function and exposure-effect relationships in wood dust-exposed and control workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holness, D L; Sass-Kortsak, A M; Pilger, C W; Nethercott, J R

    1985-07-01

    The effect of wood dust exposure on 50 cabinet makers was examined. Woodworkers reported more nasal and eye symptoms and more cough, sputum and wheezing than did 49 control workers. More irritated cells were present in the woodworkers' nasal cytological smears. In contrast to the control workers, the woodworkers had a significant decline in lung function over the workshift. An inverse correlation between baseline lung function and an exposure index (mean area dust level multiplied by length of exposure) was demonstrated in the woodworkers. Greater dust exposure was not associated with larger falls in lung function over the work shift.

  2. Quality control for handling of accidental blood exposures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T. van; Pelk-Jongen, M.; Wijkmans, C.; Voss, A.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    A regional counselling service was established to handle all accidental blood exposures using a standardized protocol. Levels of risk were assessed using an algorithm. Accidents that posed a risk for the transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were

  3. Quality control for handling of accidental blood exposures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T. van; Pelk-Jongen, M.; Wijkmans, C.; Voss, A.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    A regional counselling service was established to handle all accidental blood exposures using a standardized protocol. Levels of risk were assessed using an algorithm. Accidents that posed a risk for the transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were

  4. Exposure Control Using Adaptive Multi-Stage Item Bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecht, Richard M.

    This paper presents a multistage adaptive testing test development paradigm that promises to handle content balancing and other test development needs, psychometric reliability concerns, and item exposure. The bundled multistage adaptive testing (BMAT) framework is a modification of the computer-adaptive sequential testing framework introduced by…

  5. AutoCAD 2015 and AutoCAD LT 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Gladfelter, Donnie

    2014-01-01

    Learn AutoCAD by example with this tutorial-based guide from Autodesk Official Press Whether you are just starting out or an experienced user wanting to brush up on your skills, this Autodesk Official Press book provides you with concise explanations, focused examples, and step-by-step instructions through a hands-on tutorial project that runs throughout the book. As you progress through the project, the book introduces you to the Microsoft Windows-based AutoCAD interface and then guides you through basic commands and creating drawings. A downloadable file is available from the website so that

  6. Engineering controls for selected silica and dust exposures in the construction industry--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael R; Susi, Pam

    2003-04-01

    This literature review summarizes engineering control technology research for dust and silica exposures associated with selected tasks in the construction industry. Exposure to crystalline silica can cause silicosis and lung fibrosis, and evidence now links it with lung cancer. Of over 30 references identified and reviewed, 16 were particularly significant in providing data and analyses capable of documenting the efficacy of various engineering controls. These reports include information on generation rates and worker exposures to silica and dust during four different tasks: cutting brick and concrete block, grinding mortar from between bricks, drilling, and grinding concrete surfaces. The major controls are wet methods and local exhaust ventilation. The studies suggest that while the methods provide substantial exposure reductions, they may not reduce levels below the current ACGIH threshold limit value (TLV) of 0.05 mg/m(3) for respirable quartz. Although further research on controls for these operations is indicated, it is clear that effective methods exist for significant exposure reduction.

  7. AutoCAD 2010 For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Byrnes, David

    2009-01-01

    AutoCAD is the hot computer-aided design software known for both its powerful tools and its complexity. AutoCAD 2010 for Dummies is the bestselling guide that walks you through this complicated program so you can build complex 3D technical drawings, edit like a pro, enter new dimensions, and plot with style. AutoCAD 2010 for Dummies helps you navigate the program, use the AutoCAD Design Center, create a basic layout and work with dimension, and put your drawings on the Internet. You'll soon be setting up the AutoCAD environment, using the AutoCAD Ribbon, creating annotation and dimension drawi

  8. Tailoring automatic exposure control toward constant detectability in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvagnini, Elena, E-mail: elena.salvagnini@uzleuven.be [Department of Imaging and Pathology, Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, KUL, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000, Belgium and SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, Mol 2400 (Belgium); Bosmans, Hilde [Department of Imaging and Pathology, Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, KUL, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000, Belgium and Department of Radiology, UZ Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000 (Belgium); Struelens, Lara [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, Mol 2400 (Belgium); Marshall, Nicholas W. [Department of Radiology, UZ Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000 (Belgium)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The automatic exposure control (AEC) modes of most full field digital mammography (FFDM) systems are set up to hold pixel value (PV) constant as breast thickness changes. This paper proposes an alternative AEC mode, set up to maintain some minimum detectability level, with the ultimate goal of improving object detectability at larger breast thicknesses. Methods: The default “OPDOSE” AEC mode of a Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration FFDM system was assessed using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) of thickness 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 mm to find the tube voltage and anode/filter combination programmed for each thickness; these beam quality settings were used for the modified AEC mode. Detectability index (d′), in terms of a non-prewhitened model observer with eye filter, was then calculated as a function of tube current-time product (mAs) for each thickness. A modified AEC could then be designed in which detectability never fell below some minimum setting for any thickness in the operating range. In this study, the value was chosen such that the system met the achievable threshold gold thickness (T{sub t}) in the European guidelines for the 0.1 mm diameter disc (i.e., T{sub t} ≤ 1.10 μm gold). The default and modified AEC modes were compared in terms of contrast-detail performance (T{sub t}), calculated detectability (d′), signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), and mean glandular dose (MGD). The influence of a structured background on object detectability for both AEC modes was examined using a CIRS BR3D phantom. Computer-based CDMAM reading was used for the homogeneous case, while the images with the BR3D background were scored by human observers. Results: The default OPDOSE AEC mode maintained PV constant as PMMA thickness increased, leading to a reduction in SDNR for the homogeneous background 39% and d′ 37% in going from 20 to 70 mm; introduction of the structured BR3D plate changed these figures to 22% (SDNR) and 6% (d′), respectively

  9. Exposure of eyes to perfume: a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, J; Duus Johansen, J; Dirksen, A; Mosbech, H

    2006-08-01

    Environmental perfume exposure can elicit bothersome respiratory symptoms. Symptoms are induced at exposure levels which most people find tolerable, and the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate patients with eye and respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume, by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Twenty-one eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case-control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire, and underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled exposure to perfume. Of the 42 individuals tested, 10 had more eye symptoms (irritation, itching, and tears) during perfume exposure than during placebo exposures, and eight of these individuals (P = 0.07, Fisher's exact test) belonged to the patient group. A true positive eye reaction to perfume was significantly associated with identification of perfume as an active exposure (P perfume elicited irritation in the eyes independently of olfaction, but the relative importance of ocular chemoperception in relation to elicitation of respiratory symptoms from common environmental exposures to perfume remains unclear. We investigated the hypothesis of an association between respiratory symptoms related to perfume and ocular perfume sensitivity by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double blind, placebo-controlled experiment. Vapors of perfume provoked symptoms in the relevant eye in some patients and healthy control persons, but under our exposure conditions, ocular chemesthesis failed to elicit respiratory symptoms.

  10. A case-control study of occupational sunlight exposure and renal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Sara; Colt, Joanne S; Stewart, Patricia A; Schwartz, Kendra; Davis, Faith G; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Chow, Wong-Ho; Wacholder, Sholom; Graubard, Barry I; Purdue, Mark P; Moore, Lee E

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological evidence of a relationship between vitamin D and kidney cancer risk has been inconsistent despite experimental data indicating that vitamin D and its metabolites may inhibit carcinogenesis. Previously we reported an inverse association between renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk and occupational ultraviolet (UV) exposure among European men. In this study, we examined the association between occupational UV exposure and RCC risk among US residents and investigated whether this association varied by race and sex. Lifetime occupational data for 1,217 RCC cases and 1,235 controls in a population-based case-control study, conducted from 2002 to 2007, were assessed for occupational UV exposure. We evaluated exposure metrics in quartiles based on control exposure levels and calculated associations between RCC risk and occupational UV exposure using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for sex, race, body mass index, smoking, hypertension, center, education, family history of cancer and dietary vitamin D intake. A general pattern of decreasing RCC risk with increasing UV exposure was observed. Cases had significantly lower cumulative occupational UV exposure than controls (fourth quartile vs. first: odds ratio = 0.74 [95% confidence interval = 0.56-0.99], p-trend = 0.03). Similar results were observed for other UV exposure metrics. The association with occupational UV exposure was stronger for women than for men, but did not differ by race. Our findings suggest an inverse association between occupational UV exposure and RCC, particularly among women. Given the sex finding discrepancies in this study versus our previous study, additional research is need to clarify whether the protective effects of occupational UV exposure and RCC risk are real. © 2015 UICC.

  11. Renal effects of acute exposure to toluene. A controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H K; Krusell, Lars Romer; Bælum, Jesper

    1985-01-01

    Urinary excretion rates of beta 2-microglobulin and albumin were measured in 43 male printing trade workers and 43 age-matched male controls before and during exposure to toluene, 382 mg/m3, for 6 1/2 hours in a climate chamber. There were no significant changes in renal excretion rates of albumin...... and beta 2-microglobulin during toluene exposure indicating that no causal relationship exists between moderate exposure to organic solvents and renal injury....

  12. 基于模型的民机自动飞行功能分析与设计%The Model-Based Functional Analysis and Design for Auto Flight Control System on Commercial Airplane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方俊伟; 汤超; 张翔; 张磊; 谢陵

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the model-based functional analysis and architecture design for the auto flight con-trol system on commercial aircraft. The system engineering process develops functional models that can define and validate the system functions. The functional flow is logically dynamic upon changes in operational states, human-machine interaction and external environment. Its static and dynamic characteristics are systematically studied in-cluding external actors, application cases, functional logics, interactive sequence and state shifting. The logical ar-chitecture and interfaces are also generated, and relevant requirements are allocated accordingly as development references of physical architecture and implementation design. The study examines availability and integrity of flight guidance, auto thrust, auto landing, crew warning and alerts functions and improves the design requirements.%描述了民用飞机自动飞行系统基于模型的功能分析与架构设计过程。该研究采用符合现代系统工程理念的模型化设计形式,表明和确认系统功能在各种运行决策、人机交互和外部环境中的变化。它针对系统级功能静态、动态特性进行结构化分析和设计,系统性地研究外部对象、应用用例、功能逻辑、交联时序和状态跳转,在确认模型的合理性后生成逻辑架构与接口,将设计需求进行分配,用于设计实现和软硬件架构。该研究通过对飞行导引、自动推力、自动着陆、机组通告等功能的可用性和完整性进行分析检验,改进了功能需求设计。

  13. Silica exposure and lung cancer in ceramic workers: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijers, J M; Swaen, G M; Volovics, A; Slangen, J J; Van Vliet, K

    1990-03-01

    The results are presented from a case-control study, concerning the possible relation between silica exposure in the Dutch fine ceramic industry and lung cancer. For this purpose 381 male, age-matched pairs of primary lung cancer cases and controls were selected from the pathology department of the University Hospital in the region, where two large ceramic companies are located. Information about employment in the ceramic industry was obtained from the personnel and financial administration departments of the two companies. On the basis of job titles a panel of occupational hygiene experts reached consensus about the qualitative exposures of each individual worker. Twenty one per cent of the cases were employed in the ceramic industry, compared with 19% of the controls (odds ratio 1.11; 95% Cl: 0.77-1.61). Although the average employment period of cases and their relative silica exposure surpassed those of controls, odds ratios for long duration of employment and considerable exposure to respirable silica dust did not reach statistical significance. After constructing a qualitative exposure index, based on the amount and duration of exposure, a tendency towards a positive correlation with lung cancer emerged. No relation between specific histological tumour cell types and working in the ceramic industry emerged. Although the study does not suggest a consistent cause-effect relation between silica exposure in the regional, Dutch fine ceramic industry and lung cancer, an increased risk for the high exposure group in the past can not be totally excluded.

  14. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cochet, C.; Fernandes, E.O.; Jantunen, M.;

    ECA-IAQ (European Collaborative Action, Urban Air, Indoor Environment and Human Exposure), 2006. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX), Report No 25. EUR 22503 EN. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the Eu...

  15. Exposure assessment for a nested case-control study of lung cancer among European asphalt workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agostini, M.; Ferro, G.; Olsson, A.; Burstyn, I.; de Vocht, F.; Hansen, J.; Funch Lassen, C.; Johansen, C.; Kjaerheim, K.; Langard, S.; Stucker, I.; Ahrens, W.; Behrens, T.; Lindbohm, M-J.; Heikkila, P.; Heederik, D.; Portengen, L.; Shaham, J.; Boffetta, P.; Kromhout, H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Development of a method for retrospective assessment of exposure to bitumen fume, bitumen condensate, organic vapour, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and co-exposures to known or suspected lung carcinogens for a nested case-control study of lung cancer mortality among European asphalt

  16. Shape Analysis Using the Auto Diffusion Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebal, Katarzyna; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Scalar functions defined on manifold triangle meshes is a starting point for many geometry processing algorithms such as mesh parametrization, skeletonization, and segmentation. In this paper, we propose the Auto Diffusion Function (ADF) which is a linear combination of the eigenfunctions......, it is controlled by a single parameter which can be interpreted as feature scale, and, finally, the ADF is invariant to rigid and isometric deformations. We describe the ADF and its properties in detail and compare it to other choices of scalar functions on manifolds. As an example of an application, we present...

  17. Footprints of China Auto Internatienal Exhibition Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ November 2008,the Sixth China Auto International(Algeria & Egypt)Exhibition Tour is ready.Since the first session was held in 1995,the Chinese auto enterprises have been to Vietnam,Cambodia,Syria,and Russian.

  18. Pulse wave analysis in a pilot randomised controlled trial of auto-adjusting and continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Jessie P; Campbell, Angela J; Neill, Alister M

    2011-09-01

    Non-invasive measurements of arterial stiffness including the augmentation index (AIx) and central blood pressure (BP) have been used to assess the cardiovascular health of patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), a well-established independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can significantly reduce the AIx, but no studies have analysed the effect of auto-adjusting PAP (APAP) or studied morbidly obese patients with severe OSA at higher risk of cardiovascular disease. In this randomised, single-blinded crossover pilot trial, we aimed to compare the efficacy of CPAP with APAP (ResMed S8 Autoset II) in improving peripheral BP, central BP and the AIx, using SphygmoCor technology. Twelve severe OSA patients (mean±SD; apnoea-hypopnoea index, 75.8 ± 32.7; BMI, 49.9 ± 5.2 kg/m(2)) were consecutively recruited and received CPAP (mean pressure, 16.4 cm H(2)O) or APAP in random order for four nights at home, separated by a four-night washout. Cardiovascular measurements were taken at baseline, post-washout and following each treatment arm. The polysomnographically recorded residual apnoea-hypopnoea index and compliance to treatment were not significantly different between arms (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in peripheral or central BP between arms (p > 0.05). The AIx was lower with CPAP than APAP (by 5.8%), with a large effect size not reaching statistical significance (r = 0.61, p = 0.14). The large effect size evident when comparing the AIx following CPAP and APAP indicates the need to perform an adequately powered trial in order to determine if APAP improves arterial stiffness to the same extent as CPAP.

  19. Development of Auto Sheets in Baosteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuJiangxin; WangLi

    2005-01-01

    The development trends of auto sheets in recent years are summarized with regard to the envirorunental regulations, market demands and strategy of the steel industry. The growth of domestic auto industry and demands for auto sheets are also briefed. The current status of development of Bake hardenable steel, Isotropic steel for outer panels and Transformation induced plasticity steel, dual phase steel for structural parts in Baosteel is introduced and the future of auto sheets in Baosteel is forecasted.

  20. Tumbling Auto Import and Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yantai Chen

    2009-01-01

    @@ The seemingly rebound global financial crisis has seriously eroded world economy from 2008,of which China's tumbling auto imports and exports business is a good example.At the beginning of 2008 it kicked off as an excellent year for the Chinese automotive market,but ended with the onset of a recession in last quarter both from the perspective of import and export.

  1. Chinese Autos at Fancy Prices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2003-01-01

    MR. Wang waited two years to buy a car in the expectation that prices would fall on China's entering the WTO. This was not, however, the case. Cars are as costly as ever. Auto trade dealers know all too well the consumer wait-and-see approach to car purchases. One dealer at the

  2. Environment-friendly Auto Marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Domestic auto sales have developed quickly with private vehicles making up the highest proportion, but lately customers have begun to care more about environmental protection. Therefore, the last few years has seen more and more consumption disputes and civil lawsuits resulting from the pollution inside vehicles.

  3. 2006 Chinese Government Auto Purchase Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sponsored by Economic Daily and the China Machinery Enterprises Management Association, the 2006 Chinese Government Auto Purchase Forum will be held in Tianjin on July 11-13. This represents another high-level dialogue and exchange between the government and the auto industry hot on the heels of the 2005 Chinese Government Auto Purchase Forum. This event is launched to promote

  4. Auto executives:Worried While Being Happy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Xu Liuping,director of the board of Chang'an Auto Group,had just come back from Japan and north America before the opening of this year's Shanghai auto show.He knew something about the financial crisis towards the overseas auto industry from reports and during this trip

  5. The New Breakthroughs of Chinese Auto Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian

    2006-01-01

    @@ Auto Engine Systems: A Key Part for Reform Prof. Ouyang Minggao, Tsinghua University: The road of development from a large production country to a strong technology country eyed. By 2020, China is predicted to be the largest auto manufactuer in the world.In the view of the development of the global auto market, the fastest development is taking place in developing countries.

  6. Controlled exposure of volunteers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, W.S.; Fischer, D.A.; Shamoo, D.A.; Spier, C.E.; Valencia, L.M.; Anzar, U.T.; Hackney, J.D.

    1985-08-01

    Twenty-four volunteers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) at 0, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm in an environmental control chamber. Exposures lasted 1 hr and included two 15-min exercise periods (mean exercise ventilation rate 18 liter/min). Pulmonary mechanical function was evaluated before exposures, after initial exercise, and at the end of exposure. Blood oxygenation was measured by ear oximetry before exposure and during the second exercise period. Symptoms were recorded throughout exposure periods and for 1 week afterward. No statistically significant changes in physiology or symptoms could be attributed to SO/sub 2/ exposure. Older adults with COPD seem less reactive to a given concentration of SO/sub 2/ than heavily exercising young adult asthmatics. This may be due to lower ventilation rates (i.e., lower SO/sub 2/ dose rates) and/or to lower airway reactivity in the COPD group.

  7. The Application of Auto-Disturbance Rejection Control Optimized by Least Squares Support Vector Machines Method and Time-Frequency Representation in Voltage Source Converter-High Voltage Direct Current System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Pei Liu

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of voltage source converter-high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC system, we propose an improved auto-disturbance rejection control (ADRC method based on least squares support vector machines (LSSVM in the rectifier side. Firstly, we deduce the high frequency transient mathematical model of VSC-HVDC system. Then we investigate the ADRC and LSSVM principles. We ignore the tracking differentiator in the ADRC controller aiming to improve the system dynamic response speed. On this basis, we derive the mathematical model of ADRC controller optimized by LSSVM for direct current voltage loop. Finally we carry out simulations to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed control method. In addition, we employ the time-frequency representation methods, i.e., Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD and adaptive optimal kernel (AOK time-frequency representation, to demonstrate our proposed method performs better than the traditional method from the perspective of energy distribution in time and frequency plane.

  8. The Application of Auto-Disturbance Rejection Control Optimized by Least Squares Support Vector Machines Method and Time-Frequency Representation in Voltage Source Converter-High Voltage Direct Current System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying-Pei; Liang, Hai-Ping; Gao, Zhong-Ke

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of voltage source converter-high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) system, we propose an improved auto-disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method based on least squares support vector machines (LSSVM) in the rectifier side. Firstly, we deduce the high frequency transient mathematical model of VSC-HVDC system. Then we investigate the ADRC and LSSVM principles. We ignore the tracking differentiator in the ADRC controller aiming to improve the system dynamic response speed. On this basis, we derive the mathematical model of ADRC controller optimized by LSSVM for direct current voltage loop. Finally we carry out simulations to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed control method. In addition, we employ the time-frequency representation methods, i.e., Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) and adaptive optimal kernel (AOK) time-frequency representation, to demonstrate our proposed method performs better than the traditional method from the perspective of energy distribution in time and frequency plane.

  9. A review of engineering control technology for exposures generated during abrasive blasting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael R; Susi, Pam

    2004-10-01

    This literature review presents information on measures for controlling worker exposure to toxic airborne contaminants generated during abrasive blasting operations occurring primarily in the construction industry. The exposures of concern include respirable crystalline silica, lead, chromates, and other toxic metals. Unfortunately, silica sand continues to be widely used in the United States as an abrasive blasting medium, resulting in high exposures to operators and surrounding personnel. Recently, several alternative abrasives have emerged as potential substitutes for sand, but they seem to be underused Some of these abrasives may pose additional metal exposure hazards. In addition, several new and improved technologies offer promise for reducing or eliminating exposures; these include wet abrasive blasting, high-pressure water jetting, vacuum blasting, and automated/robotic systems. More research, particularly field studies, is needed to evaluate control interventions in this important and hazardous operation.

  10. Evaluation of the approach to respirable quartz exposure control in U.S. coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Gerald J

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposure to high levels of respirable quartz can result in respiratory and other diseases in humans. The Mine Safety and Health Adminstration (MSHA) regulates exposure to respirable quartz in coal mines indirectly through reductions in the respirable coal mine dust exposure limit based on the content of quartz in the airborne respirable dust. This reduction is implemented when the quartz content of airborne respirable dust exceeds 5% by weight. The intent of this dust standard reduction is to restrict miners' exposure to respirable quartz to a time-weighted average concentration of 100 μg/m(3). The effectiveness of this indirect approach to control quartz exposure was evaluated by analyzing respirable dust samples collected by MSHA inspectors from 1995 through 2008. The performance of the current regulatory approach was found to be lacking due to the use of a variable property-quartz content in airborne dust-to establish a standard for subsequent exposures. In one situation, 11.7% (4370/37,346) of samples that were below the applicable respirable coal mine dust exposure limit exceeded 100 μg/m(3) quartz. In a second situation, 4.4% (895/20,560) of samples with 5% or less quartz content in the airborne respirable dust exceeded 100 μg/m(3) quartz. In these two situations, the samples exceeding 100 μg/m(3) quartz were not subject to any potential compliance action. Therefore, the current respirable quartz exposure control approach does not reliably maintain miner exposure below 100 μg/m(3) quartz. A separate and specific respirable quartz exposure standard may improve control of coal miners' occupational exposure to respirable quartz.

  11. 78 FR 52532 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... OFFICE Exposure Draft--Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government AGENCY: U.S. Government... Office (GAO) is seeking public comments on the proposed revisions to the Standards for Internal Control... Internal Control in the Federal Government reflect major developments in the accountability and...

  12. Enhancing Price Response Programs through Auto-DR: California's 2007 Implementation Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Wikler, Greg; Chiu, Albert; Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Hennage, Dan; Thomas, Chuck

    2007-12-18

    This paper describes automated demand response (Auto-DR) activities, an innovative effort in California to ensure that DR programs produce effective and sustainable impacts. Through the application of automation and communication technologies coupled with well-designed incentives and DR programs such as Critical Peak Pricing (CPP) and Demand Bidding (DBP), Auto-DR is opening up the opportunity for many different types of buildings to effectively participate in DR programs. We present the results of Auto-DR implementation efforts by the three California investor-owned utilities for the Summer of 2007. The presentation emphasizes Pacific Gas and Electric Company's (PG&E) Auto-DR efforts, which represents the largest in the state. PG&E's goal was to recruit, install, test and operate 15 megawatts of Auto-DR system capability. We describe the unique delivery approaches, including optimizing the utility incentive structures designed to foster an Auto-DR service provider community. We also show how PG&E's Critical Peak Pricing (CPP) and Demand Bidding (DBP) options were called and executed under the automation platform. Finally, we show the results of the Auto-DR systems installed and operational during 2007, which surpassed PG&E's Auto-DR goals. Auto-DR is being implemented by a multi-disciplinary team including the California Investor Owned Utilities (IOUs), energy consultants, energy management control system vendors, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and the California Energy Commission (CEC).

  13. Controlling and monitoring exposure to radiation from medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Above a certain threshold dose, ionising radiation invariably provokes harmful effects such as burns, nausea and aplasia. Their severity increases with the dose received. There is no known threshold dose below which long-term harmful effects, such as cancer and genetic defects, do not occur. Ionising radiation comes from both natural and man-made sources. Worldwide, medical exposure accounts for 98% of the dose received from man-made sources. In France, the average dose per person received from diagnostic radiological examinations increased by more than 50% between 2002 and 2007. This increase was due to more frequent use of computed tomography (CT) and diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. The internationally defined individual dose limits for the general population do not apply to the medical uses of ionising radiation, but medical exposure must comply with the principles of radiation protection: the examination must be justified and the dose optimised. In France, shortcomings are observed in the application of these principles. In 2012, the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) received 345 reports of "significant radiation protection incidents" affecting patients: 75% involving external beam radiotherapy, 15% involving nuclear medicine, 6% involving CT scans, and 4% involving radiology. In 2011, reference levels were established for the doses received by children during CT imaging and nuclear medicine procedures. When deciding whether to order a diagnostic procedure using ionising radiation, the harm-benefit balance of both the procedure and the chosen technique must be taken into account. When two procedures have the same performance, the technique that exposes the patient to the lowest dose of radiation should be chosen.

  14. Control banding tools for occupational exposure assessment of nanomaterials - Ready for use in a regulatory context?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liguori, Biase; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2016-01-01

    area of concern. Therefore, a number of Control Banding (CB)-based tools have been developed in order to assess and manage the potential risks associated with occupational exposure to nanomaterials. In this paper we provide a comparative analysis of different nanomaterial-specific types of control-banding/risk...... developed for different purposes, with different application domains and inclusion criteria. The exposure assessments and derived risk levels are based on different concepts and assumptions and outputs in different formats. The use of requested input parameters for exposure assessment differ greatly among...

  15. Ethylene oxide sterilization in the medical-supply manufacturing industry: assessment and control of worker exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yeh-Chung; Liu, Hung-Hsin; Lin, Yi-Chang; Su, Po-Chi; Li, Lien-Hsiung; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Tang, Da-Toung; Chen, Chang-Yuh

    2007-11-01

    In 2005, the Taiwan Institute of Occupational Safety and Health started an on-site consulting program for the medical supplies manufacturing industry, which use ethylene oxide (EO) as a sterilant, with the goal of enhancing occupational hygiene practices and controlling EO-related risks. This study presents EO exposure assessment results and examines the effectiveness of control measures. Detailed surveys, including exposure monitoring, were conducted at 10 factories. Airborne EO was collected using an HBr-coated charcoal tube and analyzed using GC/MS. Sterilizer operators had an average short-term EO exposure level of 27.61 ppm during unloading; mean time-weighted average workshift exposure was 7.35 ppm. High EO concentrations were also present throughout the facilities. Specifically, mean EO concentrations in the aeration area, near the sterilizer and in the warehouse were 10.19, 5.75, and 8.78 ppm, respectively. These findings indicate that immediate controls are needed, and that EO emissions from sterilized products during storage cannot be overlooked. Worker short-term exposures during unloading was inversely correlated (p < 0.05) with the numbers of poststerilization purge cycle applied. The specific controls implemented and their usefulness is discussed. Increasing the number of poststerilization purge cycles is a simple approach to eliminating extremely high exposure during unloading. Improvements to ventilation, particularly in the aeration area and warehouse, were also effective in minimizing worker exposures. Use of effective respirator is recommended until the EO exposure levels, averaging 3.41 ppm after the controls, fall below the permissible exposure limit.

  16. PID控制器参数调整的滚动优化算法%Receding Horizon Optimization Approach to PID Controller Parameters Auto-tuning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许敏; 李少远; 蔡文剑

    2005-01-01

    A novel supervised receding horizon optimal scheme is presented for discrete time systemsin the process control. In the employing level, PID controller is used, while the receding horizonapproach is applied to the optimized level. The considered problem is to optimize the employing levelPID controller parameters through minimizing a generalized predictive control criterion. Comparedwith a fixed parameters PID controller, the proposed algorithm provides well performance over arange of operating condition.

  17. AutoCAD platform customization autolisp

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosius, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Customize and personalize programs built on the AutoCAD platform AutoLISP is the key to unlocking the secrets of a more streamlined experience using industry leading software programs like AutoCAD, Civil 3D, Plant 3D, and more. AutoCAD Platform Customization: AutoLISP provides real-world examples that show you how to do everything from modifying graphical objects and reading and setting system variables to communicating with external programs. It also features a resources appendix and downloadable datasets and customization examples-tools that ensure swift and easy adoption. Find out how to r

  18. AutoCAD platform customization VBA

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosius, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Boost productivity and streamline your workflow with expert AutoCAD: VBA programming instruction AutoCAD Platform Customization: VBA is the definitive guide to personalizing AutoCAD and the various programs that run on the AutoCAD platform, including AutoCAD Architecture, Civil 3D, Plant 3D, and more. Written by an Autodesk insider with years of customization and programming experience, this book features detailed discussions backed by real-world examples and easy-to-follow tutorials that illustrate each step in the personalization process. Readers gain expert guidance toward managing layout

  19. AutoCAD 2014 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Fane, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Find your way around AutoCAD 2014 with this full-color, For Dummies guide!Put away that pencil and paper and start putting the power of AutoCAD 2014 to work in your CAD projects and designs. From setting up your drawing environment to using text, dimensions, hatching, and more, this guide walks you through AutoCAD basics and provides you with a solid understanding of the latest CAD tools and techniques. You'll also benefit from the full-color illustrations that mirror exactly what you'll see on your AutoCAD 2014 screen and highlight the importance of AutoCAD's Mode

  20. AutoCAD应用技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小平

    2010-01-01

    在长期使用AutoCAD绘图和AutoCAD教学中,发现AutoCAD中出现的问题很多,因此给我们带来困扰和使用的不便,大降低了工作的效率.为了方便AutoCAD绘图的使用和教学,笔者提出了自己的一些高效管理AutoCAD图形,提高绘图效率的方法.

  1. AutoCAD 2008 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Byrnes, David

    2007-01-01

    A gentle, humorous introduction to this fearsomely complex software that helps new users start creating 2D and 3D technical drawings right awayCovers the new features and enhancements in the latest AutoCAD version and provides coverage of AutoCAD LT, AutoCAD''s lower-cost siblingTopics covered include creating a basic layout, using AutoCAD DesignCenter, drawing and editing, working with dimensions, plotting, using blocks, adding text to drawings, and drawing on the InternetAutoCAD is the leading CAD software for architects, engineers, and draftspeople who need to create detailed 2D and 3D tech

  2. Field evaluation of an engineering control for respirable crystalline silica exposures during mortar removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collingwood, Scott; Heitbrink, William A

    2007-11-01

    During mortar removal with a right angle grinder, a building renovation process known as "tuck pointing," worker exposures to respirable crystalline silica can be as high as 5 mg/m(3), 100 times the recommended exposure limit developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. To reduce the risk of silicosis among these workers, a vacuum cleaner can be used to exhaust 80 ft(3)/min (2.26 m(3)/min) from a hood mounted on the grinder. Field trials examined the ability of vacuum cleaners to maintain adequate exhaust ventilation rates and measure exposure outcomes when using this engineering control. These field trials involved task-based exposure measurement of respirable dust and crystalline silica exposures during mortar removal. These measurements were compared with published exposure data. Vacuum cleaner airflows were obtained by measuring and digitally logging vacuum cleaner static pressure at the inlet to the vacuum cleaner motor. Static pressures were converted to airflows based on experimentally determined fan curves. In two cases, video exposure monitoring was conducted to study the relationship between worker activities and dust exposure. Worker activities were video taped concurrent with aerosol photometer measurement of dust exposure and vacuum cleaner static pressure as a measure of airflow. During these field trials, respirable crystalline silica exposures for 22 samples had a geometric mean of 0.06 mg/m(3) and a range of less than 0.01 to 0.86 mg/m(3). For three other studies, respirable crystalline silica exposures during mortar removal have a geometric means of 1.1 to 0.35. Although this field study documented noticeably less exposure to crystalline silica, video exposure monitoring found that the local exhaust ventilation provided incomplete dust control due to low exhaust flow rates, certain work practices, and missing mortar. Vacuum cleaner airflow decrease had a range of 3 to 0.4 ft(3)/min (0.08 to 0.01 m(3)/sec(2)) over a range

  3. Effectiveness of a Multidimensional Randomized Control Intervention to Reduce Quartz Exposure Among Construction Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deurssen, Erik; Meijster, Tim; Oude Hengel, Karen M; Boessen, Ruud; Spaan, Suzanne; Tielemans, Erik; Heederik, Dick; Pronk, Anjoeka

    2015-10-01

    There is little evidence with respect to the effectiveness of intervention programs that focus on the reduction of occupational quartz exposure in the construction industry. This article evaluates the effectiveness of a multidimensional intervention which was aimed at reducing occupational quartz exposure among construction workers by increasing the use of technical control measures. Eight companies participating in the cluster randomized controlled trial were randomly allocated to the intervention (four companies) or control condition (four companies). The multidimensional intervention included engineering, organizational, and behavioural elements at both organizational and individual level. Full-shift personal quartz exposure measurements and detailed observations were conducted before and after the intervention among bricklayers, carpenters, concrete drillers, demolishers, and tuck pointers (n = 282). About 59% of these workers measured at baseline were reassessed during follow-up. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to evaluate the intervention effect on exposure levels. Concrete drillers in the intervention group used technical control measures, particularly water suppression, for a significantly greater proportion of the time spent on abrasive tasks during follow-up compared to baseline (93 versus 62%; P quartz exposure (73 versus 40% in the intervention and control group respectively; P quartz exposure among high exposed construction workers.

  4. Virtual reality exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Page L; Price, Matthew; Edwards, Shannan M; Obasaju, Mayowa A; Schmertz, Stefan K; Zimand, Elana; Calamaras, Martha R

    2013-10-01

    This is the first randomized trial comparing virtual reality exposure therapy to in vivo exposure for social anxiety disorder. Participants with a principal diagnosis of social anxiety disorder who identified public speaking as their primary fear (N = 97) were recruited from the community, resulting in an ethnically diverse sample (M age = 39 years) of mostly women (62%). Participants were randomly assigned to and completed 8 sessions of manualized virtual reality exposure therapy, exposure group therapy, or wait list. Standardized self-report measures were collected at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 12-month follow-up, and process measures were collected during treatment. A standardized speech task was delivered at pre- and posttreatment, and diagnostic status was reassessed at 3-month follow-up. Analysis of covariance showed that, relative to wait list, people completing either active treatment significantly improved on all but one measure (length of speech for exposure group therapy and self-reported fear of negative evaluation for virtual reality exposure therapy). At 12-month follow-up, people showed significant improvement from pretreatment on all measures. There were no differences between the active treatments on any process or outcome measure at any time, nor differences on achieving partial or full remission. Virtual reality exposure therapy is effective for treating social fears, and improvement is maintained for 1 year. Virtual reality exposure therapy is equally effective as exposure group therapy; further research with a larger sample is needed, however, to better control and statistically test differences between the treatments.

  5. Auto Technology Exhibition in Tianjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 4th International Automotive Technology Exhibition Tianjing2009,jointly hosted by the Society of Automotive Engineers of China(SAE-China),China Automotive Technology and Research Center(CATRC)and Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area(TETD),is to be held in Tianjin Binhai International Convention and Exhibition Center from August 27 to August 30 this year.In line with China's national 11th Five-year Plan,The Automobile Industry Revitalization and Adjustments Planning and The Equipment Manufacturing Revitalization and Adjustments Planning,this Exhibition,centered on the theme of automobile and equipment manufacturing,arranges the exhibition halls respectively for private autos,commercial autos and equipment manufacturing etc.

  6. Electrical auto-control energy saving design of sewage treatment plant based on A^2/O technology%基于A^2/O工艺的污水处理厂电气自控节能设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨坤; 李文华

    2012-01-01

    以山东某污水处理厂为例,探讨了基于A2/O工艺的污水处理厂电气自控节能设计思路,从电气系统和控制系统两方面入手,分别阐述了变电站、电压器、运行方式、照明损耗等环节的节能措施,为同类型的水厂节能设计提供了参考。%Taking a sewage treatment plant in Shandong as an example, this paper discussed electrical auto-control energy saving design ideas of sewage treatment plant based on A^2/O technology, from electrical system and control system two respects, separately elaborated the energy saving measures of substation, voltage regulator, operation modes, lighting loss and other links, provided reference for similar type water plant saving design.

  7. Years of sunlight exposure and cataract: a case-control study in a Mediterranean population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Valero, María; Fletcher, Astrid E; de Stavola, Bianca L; Chaqués-Alepúz, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate the relation between sunlight exposure and risk of cataract. Methods We carried out a frequency-matched case-control study of 343 cases and 334 controls attending an ophthalmology outpatient clinic at a primary health-care center in a small town near Valencia, Spain. All cases were diagnosed as having a cataract in at least one eye based on the Lens Opacification Classification system (LOCS II). Controls had no opacities in either eye. All cases and controls were interviewed for information on outdoor exposure, "usual" diet, history of severe episodes of diarrhea illness, life-style factors and medical and socio-demographic variables. Blood antioxidant vitamin levels were also analyzed. We used logistic regression models to estimate sex and age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) by quintiles of years of occupational outdoor exposure, adjusting for potential confounders such as smoking, alcohol consumption, serum antioxidants and education. Results No association was found between years of outdoor exposure and risk of cataract. However, exploratory analyses suggested a positive association between years of outdoor exposure at younger ages and risk of nuclear cataract later in life. Conclusion Our study does not support an association with cataract and sunlight exposure over adult life. PMID:18039367

  8. Years of sunlight exposure and cataract: a case-control study in a Mediterranean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Stavola Bianca L

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to investigate the relation between sunlight exposure and risk of cataract. Methods We carried out a frequency-matched case-control study of 343 cases and 334 controls attending an ophthalmology outpatient clinic at a primary health-care center in a small town near Valencia, Spain. All cases were diagnosed as having a cataract in at least one eye based on the Lens Opacification Classification system (LOCS II. Controls had no opacities in either eye. All cases and controls were interviewed for information on outdoor exposure, "usual" diet, history of severe episodes of diarrhea illness, life-style factors and medical and socio-demographic variables. Blood antioxidant vitamin levels were also analyzed. We used logistic regression models to estimate sex and age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs by quintiles of years of occupational outdoor exposure, adjusting for potential confounders such as smoking, alcohol consumption, serum antioxidants and education. Results No association was found between years of outdoor exposure and risk of cataract. However, exploratory analyses suggested a positive association between years of outdoor exposure at younger ages and risk of nuclear cataract later in life. Conclusion Our study does not support an association with cataract and sunlight exposure over adult life.

  9. Organizational (auto)-ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Ann

    ) refines as a society of control that incorporates its subjects into new and ever-changing lines of subjectification. This transformation of dispositifs (Deleuze, 1992; Foucault, 1980) and authoritative discourses (Bakhtin, 1982) that compose (and is composed of) a contemporary way to live out society...... induces in other words new types of embodied organizational knowledge and ways of organizing, which have consequences for how subject positions are (re)configured in everyday corporate lives. Such identity work is rarely studied in local discursive practices of today’s modern and emergent corporations...

  10. Purchasing The American Auto Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Afalling giant is still huge There are reports that American Big Three are going to shut down 59 plants in this January to hold more cash for a supporting hand from the government. From the viewpoint of accountant practice and investment bank,it is the best time for local car producers to go abroad."Trapped American auto industry is much devalued and it is the best time for local producers

  11. Controlled exposures of human volunteers to sulfate aerosols. Health effects and aerosol characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avol, E L; Jones, M P; Bailey, R M; Chang, N M; Kleinman, M T; Linn, W S; Bell, K A; Hackney, J D

    1979-08-01

    Our laboratory has undertaken the study of possible acute adverse health effects of sulfate aerosols through controlled exposures of volunteer human subjects. Both healthy and asthmatic adult men were exposed for 2-hour periods (with intermittent exercise) to ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, and sulfuric acid of particle size distributions and concentrations intended to simulate "worst case" exposures during Los Angeles smog episodes. Lung function tests were performed by the subjects on entering and before exiting from a carefully controlled environmental chamber. Subject symptoms were evluated in a standardized manner. Aerosol concentrations and size distributions were determined by an on-line computer/aerometric monitoring system; gravimetric and chemical analyses were performed on impactor and total filter samples after test exposures. We found little or no evidence of adverse health effects from 2-hour multiple-day exposures to any of the compounds at "worst case" ambient concentrations.

  12. Organizational (auto)-ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Ann

    Contemporary organizations feature what can be said to be the absence of boundaries and is increasingly defined by loose couplings, pluri-vocality and network configurations. What Foucault (1995) addressed as a former society of discipline is transformed and replaced into what Deleuze (1995......) refines as a society of control that incorporates its subjects into new and ever-changing lines of subjectification. This transformation of dispositifs (Deleuze, 1992; Foucault, 1980) and authoritative discourses (Bakhtin, 1982) that compose (and is composed of) a contemporary way to live out society....... The aspiration in present article is precisely to scrutinize local practices in a dialogue based leadership development forum in university settings. This provides insights into the lived lives and identity work in Aalborg University representing a temporary, polyphonic and cross-disciplinary research project...

  13. AutoCAD到AutoCAD Mechanical的平滑过渡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄皓

    2014-01-01

    AutoCAD Mechanical是AutoCAD面向机械行业的专业版,在行业内对AutoCAD具有全面优势。在2010版的环境下,阐述了AutoCAD Mechanical的新增功能、使用优势和操作技术,可以在较短时间内实现从AutoCAD到AutoCAD Mechanical使用的平滑过渡,实现工作效率与创新能力的倍增。

  14. The Expanded Use of Auto-augmentation Techniques in Oncoplastic Breast Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losken, Albert; Hart, Alexandra M; Dutton, James Walter; Broecker, Justine S; Styblo, Toncred M; Carlson, Grant W

    2017-09-13

    Auto-augmentation techniques have been applied to oncoplastic reductions to assist with filling larger, more remote defects and women with smaller breasts. The purpose of this report is to describe the use of auto-augmentation techniques in OR and compare the results with traditional OR. We queried a prospectively maintained database of all women who underwent partial mastectomy and OR between 1994 and October 2015. The auto-augmentation techniques were defined as 1) extended primary nipple auto-augmentation pedicle, and 2) primary nipple pedicle and secondary auto-augmentation pedicle. Comparisons were made to a control oncoplastic group. There were a total of 333 patients, 222 patients (67.7%) without auto-augmentation and 111 patients (33%) with auto-augmentation. Fifty-one patients had extended auto-augmentation pedicle, and 60 patients with a secondary auto-augmentation pedicle. Biopsy weight was smallest in the extended pedicle group (136 grams) and largest in the regular oncoplastic group (235 grams, p=0.017). Superomedial was the most common extended pedicle and lateral being the most common location. Inferorolateral was the most common secondary pedicle for lateral and upper outer defects. There were no significant differences in the overall complication rate: 15.5% in the regular oncoplastic group, 19.6% in the extended pedicle group, and 20% in the secondary pedicle group. Auto-augmentation techniques have evolved to manage complex defects not amenable to standard oncoplastic reduction methods. They are often required for lateral defects especially in smaller breasts. Auto-augmentation can be done safely without increase risk of complications, broadening the indications for breast conservation therapy.

  15. Exposure control practices for administering nitrous oxide: a survey of dentists, dental hygienists and dental assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L; Sweeney, Marie H

    2016-12-12

    Engineering, administrative, and work practice controls have been recommended for many years to minimize exposure to nitrous oxide during dental procedures. To better understand the extent to which these exposure controls are used, the NIOSH Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers was conducted among members of professional practice organizations representing dentists, dental hygienists and dental assistants. The anonymous, modular, web-based survey was completed by 284 dental professionals in private practice who administered nitrous oxide to adult and/or pediatric patients in the seven days prior to the survey. Use of primary engineering controls [i.e., nasal scavenging mask and/or local exhaust ventilation (LEV) near the patient's mouth] was nearly universal, reported by 93% and 96% of respondents who administered to adult (A) and pediatric (P) patients, respectively. However, adherence to other recommended precautionary practices were lacking to varying degrees, and were essentially no different among those administering nitrous oxide to adult or pediatric patients. Examples of work practices which increase exposure risk, expressed as percent of respondents, included: not checking nitrous oxide equipment for leaks (41% A; 48% P); starting nitrous oxide gas flow before delivery mask or airway mask was applied to patient (13% A; 12% P); and not turning off nitrous oxide gas flow before turning off oxygen flow to the patient (8% A; 7% P). Absence of standard procedures to minimize worker exposure to nitrous oxide (13% of all respondents) and not being trained on safe handling and administration of nitrous oxide (3%) were examples of breaches of administrative controls which may also increase exposure risk. Successful management of nitrous oxide emissions should include properly fitted nasal scavenging masks, supplemental LEV (when nitrous oxide levels cannot be adequately controlled using nasal masks alone), adequate general ventilation, regular

  16. Air cushion furnace technology for heat treatment of high quality aluminum alloy auto body sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yong; Wang Zhaodong; Ma Mingtu; Wang Guodong; Fu Tianliang; Li Jiadong; Liang Xiong

    2014-01-01

    The process characteristics of heat treatment of aluminum alloy auto body sheet and the working prin-ciple of air cushion furnace were introduced. The process position and irreplaceable role of air cushion furnace in the aluminum alloy auto body sheet production was pointed out after the difficulty and key points in the whole production process of auto body sheet were studied. Then the development process of air cushion furnace line of aluminum alloy sheet was reviewed,summarized and divided to two stages. Based on the research of air cushion furnace,the key technology of it was analyzed,then the key points on process,equipment and control models of air cushion furnace for aluminum alloy auto body sheet in future were put forward. With the rapid de-velopment of automotive industry,there will be certainly a new upsurge of research and application of air cush-ion furnace for heat treatment of aluminum alloy auto body sheet.

  17. Chemical exposures and Parkinson's disease: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Roberta; Sanft, Kevin R; Grossardt, Brandon R; Peterson, Brett J; Elbaz, Alexis; Bower, James H; Ahlskog, J Eric; de Andrade, Mariza; Maraganore, Demetrius M; Rocca, Walter A

    2006-10-01

    The putative association between pesticide exposures and Parkinson's disease (PD) remains controversial. We identified all subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1976 through 1995, and matched them by age (+/- 1 year) and sex to general population controls. We assessed exposures to chemical products by means of telephone interview with cases, controls, or their proxies (149 cases; 129 controls). Exposure to pesticides related or unrelated to farming was associated with PD in men (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.4; P = 0.04). The association remained significant after adjustment for education or smoking. Analyses for the other six categories of industrial and household chemicals were all nonsignificant. This population-based study suggests a link between pesticides use and PD that is restricted to men. Pesticides may interact with other genetic or nongenetic factors that are different in men and women.

  18. SPHERE eXtreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, C.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Fusco, T.; Sevin, A.; Suarez, M.; Costille, A.; Vigan, A.; Soenke, C.; Perret, D.; Rochat, S.; Barrufolo, A.; Salasnich, B.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Dohlen, K.; Mouillet, D.; Puget, P.; Wildi, F.; Kasper, M.; Conan, J.-M.; Kulcsár, C.; Raynaud, H.-F.

    2014-08-01

    The SPHERE (Spectro-Polarimetry High-contrast Exoplanet Research) instrument is an ESO project aiming at the direct detection of extra-solar planets. SPHERE has been successfully integrated and tested in Europe end 2013 and has been re-integrated at Paranal in Chile early 2014 for a first light at the beginning of May. The heart of the SPHERE instrument is its eXtreme Adaptive Optics (XAO) SAXO (SPHERE AO for eXoplanet Observation) subsystem that provides extremely high correction of turbulence and very accurate stabilization of images for coronagraphic purpose. However, SAXO, as well as the overall instrument, must also provide constant operability overnights, ensuring robustness and autonomy. An original control scheme has been developed to satisfy this challenging dichotomy. It includes in particular both an Optimized Modal Gain Integrator (OMGI) to control the Deformable Mirror (DM) and a Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control law to manage the tip-tilt (TT) mirror. LQG allows optimal estimation and prediction of turbulent angle of arrival but also of possible vibrations. A specific and unprecedented control scheme has been developed to continuously adapt and optimize LQG control ensuring a constant match to turbulence and vibrations characteristics. SPHERE is thus the first operational system implementing LQG, with automatic adjustment of its models. SAXO has demonstrated performance beyond expectations during tests in Europe, in spite of internal limitations. Very first results have been obtained on sky last May. We thus come back to SAXO control scheme, focusing in particular on the LQG based TT control and the various upgrades that have been made to enhance further the performance ensuring constant operability and robustness. We finally propose performance assessment based on in lab performance and first on sky results and discuss further possible improvements.

  19. An Auto-Tuning PI Control System for an Open-Circuit Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Designed for Greenhouse Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlos Espinoza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind tunnels are a key experimental tool for the analysis of airflow parameters in many fields of application. Despite their great potential impact on agricultural research, few contributions have dealt with the development of automatic control systems for wind tunnels in the field of greenhouse technology. The objective of this paper is to present an automatic control system that provides precision and speed of measurement, as well as efficient data processing in low-speed wind tunnel experiments for greenhouse engineering applications. The system is based on an algorithm that identifies the system model and calculates the optimum PI controller. The validation of the system was performed on a cellulose evaporative cooling pad and on insect-proof screens to assess its response to perturbations. The control system provided an accuracy of <0.06 m·s‾1 for airflow speed and <0.50 Pa for pressure drop, thus permitting the reproducibility and standardization of the tests. The proposed control system also incorporates a fully-integrated software unit that manages the tests in terms of airflow speed and pressure drop set points.

  20. Case-control study of bladder cancer in New Jersey. I. Occupational exposures in white males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, J B; Stemhagen, A; Mogielnicki, A P; Altman, R; Abe, T; Mason, T J

    1984-05-01

    The occupational bladder cancer risk for New Jersey white males was estimated with the use of both industry-job title-based and exposure-based analyses of data from 658 incident cases and 1,258 general population controls. The overall bladder cancer risk attributable to occupational exposures was estimated as 20-22%. A wide variety of employment categories and exposures contributed to this risk. Odds ratios were significantly high for employment as garage and gas station workers and food counter workers and/or cooks and for exposure to leather, rubber, paint, printing ink, and other organic compounds. Odds ratios for textile mill workers, chemical workers, and metal workers for the a priori high-risk employment category and odds ratios for those exposed to dyes, chlorinated compounds, and rubber showed significant differences between younger and older subjects. Bladder cancer risk associated with occupational exposures was not limited to persons with initial exposures before 25 years of age. However, there was significantly decreasing risk for bladder cancer with increasing age at first exposure for chemical workers and metal workers and for the a priori high-risk materials and metals. Drivers and/or deliverymen and miscellaneous laborers had significantly increasing bladder cancer risk with increasing duration of employment.

  1. Perinatal sulfur dioxide exposure alters brainstem parasympathetic control of heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerman, Amanda L; Mendelowitz, David

    2013-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) is an air pollutant that impedes neonatal development and induces adverse cardiorespiratory health effects, including tachycardia. Here, an animal model was developed that enabled characterization of (i) in vivo alterations in heart rate and (ii) altered activity in brainstem neurons that control heart rate after perinatal SO₂ exposure. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams and their pups were exposed to 5 parts per million SO₂ for 1 h daily throughout gestation and 6 days postnatal. Electrocardiograms were recorded from pups at 5 days postnatal to examine changes in basal and diving reflex-evoked changes in heart rate following perinatal SO₂ exposure. In vitro studies employed whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology to examine changes in neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons within the nucleus ambiguus upon SO₂ exposure using a preparation that maintains fictive inspiratory activity recorded from the hypoglossal rootlet. Perinatal SO₂ exposure increased heart rate and blunted the parasympathetic-mediated diving reflex-evoked changes in heart rate. Neither spontaneous nor inspiratory-related inhibitory GABAergic or glycinergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons was altered by SO₂ exposure. However, excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission was decreased by 51.2% upon SO₂ exposure. This diminished excitatory neurotransmission was tetrodotoxin-sensitive, indicating SO₂ exposure impaired the activity of preceding glutamatergic neurons that synapse upon cardiac vagal neurons. Diminished glutamatergic, but unaltered inhibitory neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons provides a mechanism for the observed SO₂-induced elevated heart rate via an impairment of brainstem cardioinhibitory parasympathetic activity to the heart.

  2. Effect of Acute Noise Exposure on Salivary Cortisol: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouryaghoub, Gholamreza; Mehrdad, Ramin; Valipouri, Alireza

    2016-10-01

    Cardiovascular adverse effects are interesting aspects of occupational noise exposure. One possible mechanism of these effects is an alternation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Our aim was to measure salivary cortisol response to relatively high-intensity noise exposure in a controlled randomized trial study. We exposed 50 male volunteers to 90 dBA noise for 20 minutes and compared their level of salivary cortisol with 50 non-exposed controls. Salivary samples obtained before and after exposure. Before intervention means (SD) salivary cortisol level were 3.24 (0.47)ng/ml and 3.25 (0.41)ng/ml for exposed and non-exposed groups respectively. Mean salivary cortisol level increased to 4.17 ng/mlafter intervention in exposure group. This increment was statistically significant (P=0.00). Mean salivary cortisol level of the non-exposed group had statistically non-significant decrement after this period (0.2 ng/ml). The difference between salivary cortisol level of non-exposed and exposed groups after the intervention was statistically significant. Noise exposure may affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, and this may be one of the mechanisms of noise exposure cardiovascular effects.

  3. Evaluation and control of worker exposure to fungi in a beet sugar refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, P A; Todd, W F; Hart, M E; Mickelsen, R L; O'Brien, D M

    1993-12-01

    A study of worker exposure to airborne fungi was undertaken in a sugar beet refinery to evaluate the level of exposure and to determine if controls could be implemented that would lower these exposures. A previous study at this refinery identified one worker who reacted on challenge testing to the moldy but not the fresh sugar beet pulp, had specific Immunoglobulin G to Aspergillus niger, and specific Immunoglobulin E to Aspergillus. Also, two employees were diagnosed with occupational asthma. In the study reported here, two field surveys were conducted, the first during the sugar production campaign (January) and the second during postproduction cleanup and maintenance (June). Approximately 65 personal and area air samples were collected on polycarbonate filters and the culturable fungal spores were identified and enumerated. This study showed high exposure of pellet loaders and pellet silo workers to various species of Aspergillus. Other fungal species that might pose a health hazard were detected. Exposures to fungi during the postproduction cleanup and maintenance phase were much higher than those measured during the production campaign. Engineering controls that would reduce employee exposure are discussed.

  4. Inducverters: PLL-Less Converters with Auto-Synchronization and Emulated Inertia Capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashabani, Mahdi; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel; Golestan, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    -locked-loop (PLL). Therefore, it offers a simpler and more reliable control strategy with improved performance, as it provides real auto-start and auto-synchronization with a grid without the need for grid voltage information. A current damping/synchronization unit enables grid auto-synchronization by using local...... impedance. The controller also offers stable and high-performance synchronization and operation under unbalanced and/or distorted grid conditions. The work beside synchronous current converters give a bird’s eye view to research in the new area of PLL-less and virtual inertia-based operation of VSCs...

  5. A simple control for sediment-toxicity exposures using the amphipod, Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasier, Peter J; Urich, Matthew L

    2014-09-01

    Sediment-toxicity exposures comparing survival and growth of the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca, are often components of aquatic-habitat assessments. Standardized exposure methods have been established and require evaluations for quality assurance. Test acceptability using performance-based criteria can be determined from exposures to control sediments, which are collected from the environment or formulated from commercially available components. Amending sand with leached alfalfa solids provided a simple formulated sediment that elicited consistently acceptable survival and growth in 28-day exposures with and without a daily feeding regime. A procedure is described for preparing the sediment along with results from comparisons among sand, amended sand, and field-collected sediments that incorporated three feeding regimes.

  6. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cochet, C.; Fernandes, E.O.; Jantunen, M.

    ECA-IAQ (European Collaborative Action, Urban Air, Indoor Environment and Human Exposure), 2006. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX), Report No 25. EUR 22503 EN. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications...... of the European Communities It is now well established that indoor air pollution contributes significantly to the global burden of disease of the population. Therefore, the knowledge of this contribution is essential in view of risk assessment and management. The ECA STRATEX report collates the respective...... information and describes the strategies to determine population exposure to indoor air pollutants. Its major goal is to emphasise the importance of the contribution of indoor air to total air exposure. Taking this contribution into account is a prerequisite for sound risk assessment of air pollution...

  7. Brilliance Auto:Chinese, Global, Successful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ As the only automobile sponsor of BOAO FORUM FOR ASIA in April 2004, Brilliance Auto had a great opportunity to show her 'New Zhonghua" sedan which is an upper-medium car with completely independent intellectual property rights and repre sents the independent development philosophy of Brilliance Auto and is especially made for business personnel. The development pattern of Zhonghua sedan set a brand new model in Chinese auto industry to utilize the global resources and talents and international division of labor in the international arena, and she has become a typical sample of independent brand sedans in the contemporary Chinese auto industry.

  8. Impact of the "Tobacco control law" on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorrilla Belén

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The initial evaluations of the introduction of legislation that regulates smoking in enclosed public places in European countries, describe an important effect in the control of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. However, the evidence is still limited. The objective of this study is to estimate the short-term effects of the comprehensive "Tobacco control law" introduced in Spain on January 2006, which includes a total ban of smoking in workplaces and a partial limitation of smoking in bars and restaurants. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based study. The self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home, at work, in bars and restaurants of the population aged 18 to 64 years in the Madrid Region during a period prior to the law (October and November 2005; n = 1750 was compared to that of the period immediately after the law came into force (January-July 2006; n = 1252. Adjusted odds ratios (OR were calculated using logistic regression models. Results Passive exposure to tobacco smoke at home has hardly changed. However, at indoor workplaces there has been a considerable reduction: after the law came into force the OR for daily exposure > 0–3 hours versus non-exposure was 0.11 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.17 and for more than 3 hours, 0.12 (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.18. For fairly high exposure in bars and restaurants versus non-exposure, the OR in the former was 0.30 (95% CI: 0.20 to 0.44 and in the latter was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.32; for very high exposure versus non-exposure they were 0.16 (95% CI: 0.10 to 0.24 and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.19, respectively. These results were similar for the smoking and non-smoking populations. Conclusion A considerable reduction in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the workplace and, to a lesser extent, in bars and restaurants, is related to the implementation of the "Tobacco control law". Although only initial figures, these results already demonstrate the effectiveness of

  9. Research on the Teaching Method of AutoCAD%AutoCAD教学方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅

    2012-01-01

    培养学生熟练地使用AutoCAD软件是一项重要的教学内容.结合在AutoCAD课程的教学实践,运用多种教学手段,创设合适的教学环境,激发学生对AutoCAD图形设计的兴趣,多方面结合进行AutoCAD教学.

  10. AutoCAD自动化控制器中执行AutoCAD命令

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬昌明

    2001-01-01

    由于AutoCAD自动化(Automation)没有提供执行AutoCAD命令的方法,因此在利用自动化接口对AutoCAD进行二次开发时,不能直接执行AutoCAD软件自身提供的各种命令,本文提出了一种解决此问题的办法。

  11. 基于环境因素与模糊识别的太阳自动跟踪控制策略%Solar auto-tracking control strategy based on environmental factors and fuzzy identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林军; 门静; 许立晓; 张东; 邓煜; 吕耀平; 陈艳娟

    2015-01-01

    . Considering that the disadvantages of solar energy are ever-changing solar radiation direction and unstable solar energy, dish solar thermal power generation uses an auto-tracking system to improve the utilization ratio of solar energy for an solar automatic tracking system can keep the incident sunlight parallel to the collector. A dish solar thermal power generation system works out of doors, environmental factors have a great influence on the system’s running stability and tracking accuracy, and affects the choice of tracking mode. The auto-tracking modes can be classified into:program tracking mode, photoelectric tracking mode, and hybrid tracking mode. Program tracking mode uses a computer to calculate the sun’s azimuth and latitude, can work under all-weather condition, and has high adaptability, but it has a cumulative error in the tracking process. The photoelectric mode has higher tracking accuracy for it has feedback information. It works well in the sunny day, but bad weather (especially the rainy and cloudy day) has a serious effect on it. A solar auto-tracking system usually adopts a hybrid tracking mode which is a combination of the program tracking mode and the photoelectric mode. A photoelectric sensor, as the information feedback component of a control system, can modify the cumulative error of the procedure, the tracking system would track reliably in the complicated and changeable weather. These two tracking modes make up for each other, as a result, the tracking system’s precision and stability would be further improved and guaranteed. As an auto-tracking system works, the tracking mode changes as the intensity value reaches the intensity threshold, then the controller will choose a tracking mode automatically. Considering that the environmental factors affect the tracking system, this paper mainly analyses intensity, intensity change, and wind speed which have a serious effect on the system’s operational stability and tracking accuracy. It uses

  12. High Seroprevalence of Leptospira Exposure in Meat Workers in Northern Mexico: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in workers occupationally exposed to raw meat has been poorly studied. This work aimed to determine the association between Leptospira exposure and the occupation of meat worker, and to determine the seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the meat workers studied. Methods We performed a case-control study in 124 meat workers and 124 age- and gender-matched control subjects in Durango City, Mexico. Sera of cases and controls were analyzed for anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Data of meat workers were obtained with the aid of a questionnaire. The association of Leptospira exposure with the characteristics of meat workers was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 22 (17.7%) of 124 meat workers and in eight (6.5%) of 124 controls (OR = 3.12; 95% CI: 1.33 - 7.33; P = 0.006). Seroprevalence of Leptospira infection was similar between male butchers (17.6%) and female butchers (18.2%) (P = 1.00). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, work and behavioral variables showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with duration in the activity, rural residence, and consumption of snake meat and unwashed raw fruits. Conclusions This is the first case-control study of the association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of meat worker. Results indicate that meat workers represent a risk group for Leptospira exposure. Risk factors for Leptospira exposure found in this study may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Leptospira infection. PMID:26858797

  13. Neospora caninum versus Brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in Ethiopia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun

    2014-08-01

    This case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of Neospora caninum and Brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. The study was carried out between October 2011 and June 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of Ethiopia. Two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. The presence of antibody to N. caninum was screened using indirect ELISA, while Brucella spp. exposure was assayed serially using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test. Exposure to N. caninum was more frequently observed among cases (23.8%) than controls (12.7%), while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted for Brucella exposure between the two groups. Moreover, the proportion of cows with disorders like retention of fetal membrane, endometritis and increased inter-calving period were significantly higher (p Brucella spp. exposure. However, neither N. caninum nor Brucella spp. could explain the majority (73.2%) of the reported abortions and stillbirths in cattle. Hence, this observation underscores the need for more intensive investigation on the identification of causes of the aforementioned disorders in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.

  14. AutoPyFactory and the Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Love, P

    2013-01-01

    AutoPyFactory (APF) is a next-generation pilot submission framework that has been used as part of the ATLAS workload management system (PANDA) for two years. APF is reliable, scalable, and offers easy and flexible configuration. Using a plugin-based architecture, APF polls for information from configured information and batch systems (including grid sites), decides how many additional pilot jobs are needed, and submits them. With the advent of cloud computing, providing resources goes beyond submitting pilots to grid sites. Now, the resources on which the pilot will run also need to be managed. Handling both pilot submission and controlling the virtual machine life cycle (creation, retirement, and termination) from the same framework allows robust and efficient management of the process. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of these virtual machine management capabilities of APF. Expanding on our plugin-based approach, we allow cascades of virtual resources associated with a job queue. A si...

  15. Design of Fire Auto-alarm and Control System of the Container Tower for the Second-phase Project of Shanghai Waigaoqiao Port Area%上海外高桥港区二期工程集装箱调度中心火灾报警系统设计介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭力清

    2000-01-01

    简要介绍上海外高桥港区二期工程集装箱调度中心火灾报警系统的设计及体会。%It briefly introduces design and understandings of the fire auto-alarm and control system of the Container Tower for the 2nd-phase Project of Shanghai Waigaoqiao Port Area.

  16. Controlling the 3D architecture of Self-Lifting Auto-generated Tissue Equivalents (SLATEs) for optimized corneal graft composition and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Ricardo M; González-Andrades, Elena; Cardona, Juan C; González-Gallardo, Carmen; Ionescu, Ana M; Garzon, Ingrid; Alaminos, Miguel; González-Andrades, Miguel; Connon, Che J

    2017-03-01

    Ideally, biomaterials designed to play specific physical and physiological roles in vivo should comprise components and microarchitectures analogous to those of the native tissues they intend to replace. For that, implantable biomaterials need to be carefully designed to have the correct structural and compositional properties, which consequently impart their bio-function. In this study, we showed that the control of such properties can be defined from the bottom-up, using smart surface templates to modulate the structure, composition, and bio-mechanics of human transplantable tissues. Using multi-functional peptide amphiphile-coated surfaces with different anisotropies, we were able to control the phenotype of corneal stromal cells and instruct them to fabricate self-lifting tissues that closely emulated the native stromal lamellae of the human cornea. The type and arrangement of the extracellular matrix comprising these corneal stromal Self-Lifting Analogous Tissue Equivalents (SLATEs) were then evaluated in detail, and was shown to correlate with tissue function. Specifically, SLATEs comprising aligned collagen fibrils were shown to be significantly thicker, denser, and more resistant to proteolytic degradation compared to SLATEs formed with randomly-oriented constituents. In addition, SLATEs were highly transparent while providing increased absorption to near-UV radiation. Importantly, corneal stromal SLATEs were capable of constituting tissues with a higher-order complexity, either by creating thicker tissues through stacking or by serving as substrate to support a fully-differentiated, stratified corneal epithelium. SLATEs were also deemed safe as implants in a rabbit corneal model, being capable of integrating with the surrounding host tissue without provoking inflammation, neo-vascularization, or any other signs of rejection after a 9-months follow-up. This work thus paves the way for the de novo bio-fabrication of easy-retrievable, scaffold-free human

  17. Design of an AutoLand Controller for a Carrier-Based F-14 Aircraft Using H infinity Output-Feedback Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    controlled 2501 Authorized licensed use limited to: Naval Postgraduate School. Downloaded on March 11,2010 at 16:12:55 EST from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions...11,2010 at 16:12:55 EST from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. Ii rfor cific ti s ta- tional convention uppercase letters to denote total values of...01 0.1 10 10 1 5 5 SI. Authorized licensed use limited to: Naval Postgraduate School. Downloaded on March 11,2010 at 16:12:55 EST from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions

  18. Geometric design of the best performing auto-rotating wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yucen; Vincent, Lionel; Kanso, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Many plants use gravity and aerodynamics to disperse their seeds away from the parent plant. Various seed designs result in different dispersal modes from gliding to auto-rotating. Here, we are interested in understanding the effect of geometric design of auto-rotating seedpods on their aerodynamic performance. As an experimentally tractable surrogate to real seedpods, we investigate auto-rotating paper wings of various shape designs. We compare these designs to a control case consisting of the canonical rectangular wing. Inspired by aerodynamics, we begin by considering the benefit of an elliptical planform, and test the effect of aspect ratio on flight range and descent angle. We find the elliptical planform improves the tumbling rate and the aspect ratio has a positive effect on the flight performance of the wings. We then test two families of more complex shapes: one of tapered planform and one of a planform with sharp tips. We look for an optimal flight performance while constraining either the mass or the maximum length and width of the wing. We find that wings with sharper tips and larger length have higher auto-rotation rates and improved performance. The results imply that both the planform and length of the wing contribute to the wing's flight performance.

  19. Emotional attentional control predicts changes in diurnal cortisol secretion following exposure to a prolonged psychosocial stressor

    OpenAIRE

    Lenaert, Bert; Barry, Tom; Schruers, Koen; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis irregularities have been associated with several psychological disorders. Hence, the identification of individual difference variables that predict variations in HPA-axis activity represents an important challenge for psychiatric research. We investigated whether self-reported attentional control in emotionally demanding situations prospectively predicted changes in diurnal salivary cortisol secretion following exposure to a prolonged psychosocial str...

  20. Exposure to virtual social interactions in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampmann, I.L.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Hartanto, D.; Brinkman, W.P.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; Morina, N.

    2016-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a stand-alone virtual reality exposure intervention comprising verbal interaction with virtual humans to target heterogeneous social fears in participants with social anxiety disorder. Sixty participants (Mage = 36.9 years; 63.3% women) d

  1. On the validity of the case-time-control design for autocorrelated exposure histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Aksel Karl Georg; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Weeke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    review the mathematical assumptions underlying the case-time-control design and examine sensitivity to deviations from the assumed independence of within-individual exposure history. Results from simulating various scenarios suggest that the design is quite robust to deviations from this model assumption...

  2. Exposure-focus critical dimension feedback control in 300-mm manufacturing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, Anju; Carson, Steven L.; Morrison, Cynthia

    2003-06-01

    Control of DCCDs (Develop Check Critical Dimension) is a key aspect of successfully manufacturing semiconductors at Intel. DCCD control was formerly achieved through manual adjustments of the exposure dose on the tool to account for the known effects of non-stationary tool/process drift. An automated application EFCC (Exposure-Focus CD Control) was developed at Intel, to create a robust algorithm and automated implementation, replacing the manual adjustment process. The EFCC algorithm uses DCCD summary measurements as the feedback to the stepper. At the stepper, the exposure setting is adjusted to correct for non-stationary tool/process drift. A weighted average of data from previous lots is used to determine the recommended exposure dose settings. The feedback scheme weights prior lots using a combination of traditional EWMA based weighting and within lot (across sites on wafer) variance based weighting. The EFCC implementation has benefits in increased Cpk, reduced rework, continuous adjustment. Futhermore, as this is an automated control solution, it can easily be extended to support more sophisticated adjustment algorithms.

  3. Association Between Toxoplasma gondii Exposure and Heart Disease: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Salcedo-Jaquez, Misael; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Rabago-Sanchez, Elizabeth; Beristain-Garcia, Isabel; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Alvarado-Soto, Ediyair

    2016-01-01

    Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes infections all around the world. Infections with T. gondii are systemic and the parasite can persist in the heart muscle. Very little is known about the impact of T. gondii on patients with heart disease. We determined the association between T. gondii exposure and patients suffering from heart diseases attending in a public hospital in Durango, Mexico; the association of T. gondii exposure with socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics of these patients was also investigated. Methods Through a case-control study, we examined the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies in 400 patients with heart diseases and 400 age- and gender-matched controls using enzyme-linked immunoassays. In addition, we analyzed the association of patient characteristics as determined by a standardized questionnaire with T. gondii exposure by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Fifty-five (13.8%) of 400 patients and 32 (8.0%) of 400 controls had anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies (odds ratio (OR) = 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15 - 2.90; P = 0.01). High anti-T. gondii IgG levels (> 150 IU/mL) were found in 28 (50.9%) of the 55 positive cases and in 14 (43.8%) of the 32 positive controls (P = 0.51). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 13 (23.6%) of the 55 anti-T. gondii IgG positive patients and in 19 (59.4%) of 32 anti-T. gondii IgG positive controls (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.08 - 0.54; P = 0.0008). Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii exposure was positively associated with being born out of Durango State (OR = 2.93; 95% CI: 1.40 - 6.13; P = 0.004), and with consumption of alcohol (OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.01 - 4.12; P = 0.04). Conclusions Results obtained in this study indicate that T. gondii infection is associated with heart disease, and suggest that heart disease might be related with a chronic infection. This is the first report of an association of T. gondii exposure with alcohol

  4. Occupational exposures and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Canadian case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli John J

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to study the association between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposures related to long held occupations among males in six provinces of Canada. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Males with newly diagnosed NHL (ICD-10 were stratified by province of residence and age group. A total of 513 incident cases and 1506 population based controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to fit statistical models. Results Based on conditional logistic regression modeling, the following factors independently increased the risk of NHL: farmer and machinist as long held occupations; constant exposure to diesel exhaust fumes; constant exposure to ionizing radiation (radium; and personal history of another cancer. Men who had worked for 20 years or more as farmer and machinist were the most likely to develop NHL. Conclusion An increased risk of developing NHL is associated with the following: long held occupations of faer and machinist; exposure to diesel fumes; and exposure to ionizing radiation (radium. The risk of NHL increased with the duration of employment as a farmer or machinist.

  5. AutoCAD 2015 and AutoCAD LT 2015 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The perfect reference for all AutoCAD users AutoCAD 2015 and AutoCAD LT 2015 Bible is the book you want to have close at hand to answer those day-to-day questions about this industry-leading software. Author and Autodesk University instructor Ellen Finkelstein guides readers through AutoCAD 2015 and AutoCAD LT 2015 with clear, easy-to-understand instruction and hands-on tutorials that allow even total beginners to create a design on their very first day. Although simple and fundamental enough to be used by those new to CAD, the book is so comprehensive that even Autodesk power u

  6. Pesticide Exposure and Head and Neck Cancers: A Case-Control Study in an Agricultural Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amizadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Causes of head and neck cancers (HNCs are multifactorial, and few studies have investigated the association between chemical exposure and HNCs. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between HNCs, agricultural occupations, and pesticide exposure. The potential for the accumulation of pesticides in the adipose tissue of patients was also investigated.   Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, occupation, and exposure to pesticides in a hospital-based case-control study. Pesticide residue in the adipose tissue of the neck in both cases and controls was also monitored via gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy.   Results: Thirty-one HNC cases were included in this study as well as 32 gender-, age-, and smoking-matched controls. An agricultural occupation was associated with HNC (odds ratio [OR], 3.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–9.43 after controlling for age, sex, and smoking. Pesticide exposure was associated with total HNC cases (OR, 7.45; 95% CI, 1.78–3.07 and larynx cancer (OR, 9.33; 95% CI, 1.65–52.68. A dose-response pattern was observed for HNC cases (P=0.06 and larynx cancer (P=0.01. In tracing the pesticide residue, five chlorinated pesticides, namely dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, dichlorodipheny-ldichloroethane (DDD, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, dieldrin, and lindane, were identified in the adipose tissue. Chlorinated pesticide detection was significantly associated with HNC (OR, 3.91; 95% CI 0.9–0.16.9.   Conclusion: HNCs were found to be associated with pesticide exposure after controlling for confounders. A high education level was identified as a modifying factor decreasing the risk of HNCs. Further studies with larger number of subjects are recommended to assess these relationships in greater detail.

  7. Query auto completion in information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Query auto completion is an important feature embedded into today's search engines. It can help users formulate queries which other people have searched for when he/she finishes typing the query prefix. Today's most sophisticated query auto completion approaches are based on the collected query logs

  8. Retrospect of China International Auto Exhibition Tours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ "Fengfan Cup" the Frist China International Auto Exhibition Tour In 1995, the first session gathered 28 national motorcycles and autos from four big groups---China North Industries Group Corporation, China Aviation Industry Corporation, China Aerospace Science and Industry Cooperation and PLA General Logistics Department.

  9. AutoCAD 2008 and AutoCAD LT 2008 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    "Whether you're new to AutoCAD or a veteran, you will undoubtedly find this book to be an excellent resource."-- Abhi Singh, AutoCAD Product Manager, Autodesk, Inc.Here's the book that makes AutoCAD approachableEven the people at Autodesk look to Ellen Finkelstein for AutoCAD training, so who better to teach you about AutoCAD 2008? This comprehensive guide brings veterans up to speed on AutoCAD updates and takes novices from the basics to programming in AutoLISP(r) and VBA. Every feature is covered in a logical order, and with the Quick Start chapter, you'll be creating drawings on your very f

  10. Ayahuasca Exposure: Descriptive Analysis of Calls to US Poison Control Centers from 2005 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, C William; Brooks, Daniel E

    2016-11-28

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic plant preparation which usually contains the vine Banisteriopsis caapi and the shrub Psychotria viridis. This tea originates from the Amazon Basin where it is used in religious ceremonies. Because interest in these religious groups spreading as well as awareness of use of ayahuasca for therapeutic and recreational purposes, its use is increasing. Banisteriopsis caapi is rich in β-carbolines, especially harmine, tetrahydroharmine and harmaline, which have monoamine oxidase inhibiting (MAOI) activity. Psychotria viridis contains the 5HT2A/2C/1A receptor agonist hallucinogen N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Usual desired effects include hallucination, dissociation, mood alteration and perception change. Undesired findings previously reported are nausea, vomiting, hypertension, and tachycardia. All human exposure calls reported to the American Association of Poison Controls Centers' (AAPCC) National Poison Data System (NPDS) between September 1, 2005 and September 1, 2015 were reviewed. Cases were filtered for specific plant derived ayahuasca-related product codes. Abstracted data included the following: case age and gender, exposure reason, exposure route, clinical manifestations, treatments given, medical outcomes and fatality. Five hundred and thirty-eight exposures to ayahuasca botanical products were reported. The majority of the calls to poison control centers came from healthcare facilities (83%). The most common route of exposure was ingestion. Most cases were men (437, 81%, 95% CI 77.7% - 84.3%). The median age was 21 (IQR 18-29). Most exposures were acute. Three hundred thirty-seven (63%) were reported to have a major or moderate clinical effect. The most common clinical manifestations reported were hallucinations (35%), tachycardia (34%), agitation (34%), hypertension (16%), mydriasis (13%) and vomiting (6%). Benzodiazepines were commonly given (30%). There were 28 cases in the series who required endotracheal intubation (5

  11. Efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy for treatment of dental phobia: a randomized control trial

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) is found to be a promising and a viable alternative for in vivo exposure in the treatment of specific phobias. However, its usefulness for treating dental phobia is unexplored. The aims of the present study are to determine: (a) the efficacy of VRET versus informational pamphlet (IP) control group in terms of dental trait and state anxiety reductions at 1 week, 3 months and 6 months follow-up (b) the real-time physiological arousal [heart rat...

  12. Processos de auto-regulação no curso de vida: controle primário e controle secundário Self-regulation processes in the life-course: primary and secondary control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilma Tereza Tôrres Khoury

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute conceitos relevantes à perspectiva do curso de vida, porém pouco difundidos no Brasil: controle primário e controle secundário. O primeiro se refere aos esforços que o indivíduo empreende para adaptar o ambiente às suas necessidades; o segundo, para se adaptar ao ambiente. Apresenta-se a formulação original dos conceitos como modelo de dois processos de controle, em oposição a modelos de processo único, como o do desamparo aprendido. Em seguida, discute-se revisão conceitual que trouxe modificação e ampliação para estes construtos, concebendo-os em um modelo bidimensional que articula controle primário e secundário com os conceitos de seleção e compensação. Nesse processo, apresentam-se contribuições no intuito de estimular a reflexão e expandir a discussão teórico-conceitual que envolve estes construtos.This article discusses relevant concepts of life course perspective which are not very much diffused in Brazil: primary and secondary control. The former refers to efforts to change the environment so that it fits individual's needs. The latter involves efforts to fit in with the environment. The original definitions are presented as a two-process model of control in contrast to one-process models such as learned helplessness. Furthermore, it discusses a conceptual revision, which modified and expanded these constructs as a bi-dimensional model that relates primary and secondary control to the concepts of selection and compensation. In process of arguing about those, suggestions are presented for thinking and expanding the theoretical and conceptual discussion of these constructs.

  13. Compact high-performance MWIR camera with exposure control and 12-bit video processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Thomas S.; Loesser, Kenneth A.; Perna, Steve N.; McCarthy, D. R.; Pantuso, Francis P.

    1998-07-01

    The design and performance of a compact infrared camera system is presented. The 3 - 5 micron MWIR imaging system consists of a Stirling-cooled 640 X 480 staring PtSi infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) with a compact, high-performance 12-bit digital image processor. The low-noise CMOS IRFPA is X-Y addressable, utilizes on-chip-scanning registers and has electronic exposure control. The digital image processor uses 16-frame averaged, 2-point non-uniformity compensation and defective pixel substitution circuitry. There are separate 12- bit digital and analog I/O ports for display control and video output. The versatile camera system can be configured in NTSC, CCIR, and progressive scan readout formats and the exposure control settings are digitally programmable.

  14. Lung cancer and arsenic exposure in drinking water: a case-control study in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catterina Ferreccio

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In some Chilean cities, levels of arsenic (As in drinking water reached 800 µg/L between 1950 and 1970, while current levels are 40 µg/L. To evaluate the causal role of this exposure in lung and bladder cancers, we conducted a case-control study in Regions I, II, and III of the country. From 1994 to 1996, cases diagnosed as lung cancer and two hospital controls were entered in the study; one control was a patient with a cancer, while the other was a patient without cancer, both conditions unrelated to As. Controls were matched with cases by age and sex. A standard survey containing questions about residence, employment, health history, was administered to study subjects. Data on As concentrations in water were obtained from records of the municipal water companies. A total of 151 lung cancer cases and 419 controls (167 with cancer and 242 without cancer were enrolled. Median level of lifetime As exposure was significantly higher among cases, with a clear dose-response relationship between mean As exposure levels, with an OR (95% CI of: 1, 1.7 (0.5-5.1, 3.9 (1.2-13.4, 5.5 (2.2-13.5, and 9.0 (3.6-22 for strata one to five respectively. This study provides new evidence that As in drinking water can cause internal cancers and gives an estimate of the form of this relationship.

  15. Self-regulation processes in the life-course: primary and secondary control / Processos de auto-regulação no curso de vida: controle primário e controle secundário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilma Tereza Tôrres Khoury

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses relevant concepts of life course perspective which are not very much diffused in Brazil: primary and secondary control. The former refers to efforts to change the environment so that it fits individual's needs. The latter involves efforts to fit in with the environment. The original definitions are presented as a two-process model of control in contrast to one-process models such as learned helplessness. Furthermore, it discusses a conceptual revision, which modified and expanded these constructs as a bi-dimensional model that relates primary and secondary control to the concepts of selection and compensation. In process of arguing about those, suggestions are presented for thinking and expanding the theoretical and conceptual discussion of these constructs.

  16. Polarization Imaging Apparatus with Auto-Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yingyin Kevin (Inventor); Zhao, Hongzhi (Inventor); Chen, Qiushui (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A polarization imaging apparatus measures the Stokes image of a sample. The apparatus consists of an optical lens set, a first variable phase retarder (VPR) with its optical axis aligned 22.5 deg, a second variable phase retarder with its optical axis aligned 45 deg, a linear polarizer, a imaging sensor for sensing the intensity images of the sample, a controller and a computer. Two variable phase retarders were controlled independently by a computer through a controller unit which generates a sequential of voltages to control the phase retardations of the first and second variable phase retarders. A auto-calibration procedure was incorporated into the polarization imaging apparatus to correct the misalignment of first and second VPRs, as well as the half-wave voltage of the VPRs. A set of four intensity images, I(sub 0), I(sub 1), I(sub 2) and I(sub 3) of the sample were captured by imaging sensor when the phase retardations of VPRs were set at (0,0), (pi,0), (pi,pi) and (pi/2,pi), respectively. Then four Stokes components of a Stokes image, S(sub 0), S(sub 1), S(sub 2) and S(sub 3) were calculated using the four intensity images.

  17. Exposure times rather than residence times control redox transformation efficiencies in riparian wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, S.; Peiffer, S.

    2016-12-01

    The concept of Damköhler numbers have been extensively used in the discipline of chemical engineering and lately increasingly found its application into environmental science in order to describe the integrated behavior of hydrological systems with respect to their physical transport and biogeochemical transformation capabilities. Defining characteristic time scales of transport and reaction, as part of the Damköhler concept, however is not trivial especially for non-well mixed systems like catchments where physically controlled transport and biogeochemical moderated reactions can be highly variable among individual flow paths. Often, system specific residence times alone are not useful to describe the timescales of transport in the Damköhler concept, because it neglects that degradation of redox-sensitive compounds depend on dynamically changing and non-uniformly distributed hydro-biogeochemical boundary conditions that either facilitate or suppress biogeochemical reactions. In this study an approach is presented that highlights the importance to specifically distinguish between residence and exposure times if system specific transformation efficiencies are evaluated. We investigate the inter-relationship between residence and exposure time distributions for different biogeochemical processes in a virtual wetland environment that is exposed to different hydrological conditions. The relationship between exposure and residence times is mathematically described by a composition matrix that linearly relates the two identities to each other. Composition matrices for different hydrological conditions are analyzed by using the singular value decomposition technique. Results show that especially the type of couplings between the surface and subsurface flow domain control how exposure and residence times are related to each other in the wetland system and that timescales of residence and exposure typically differ by orders of magnitude. Finally, results also indicate

  18. Controladores auto-ajustables para una clase de sistemas bilineales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Patete

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, se propone un algoritmo auto-ajustable implícito basado en el criterio de varianza mínima generalizada para la estabilización de una clase de sistemas bilineales. La estabilidad del algoritmo propuesto es demostrada usando una función de Lyapunov y la estrategia de control por superficie deslizante. El algoritmo auto-ajustable propuesto es aplicado a una planta piloto térmica para evaluar su desempeño. / In this paper, a self-tuning algorithm based on the generalized minimum variance criterion is proposed for the stabilization of a class of bilinear systems. Using a Lyapunov function and the sliding mode control approach, the stability of the proposed algorithm is proven. The proposed self-tuning algorithm is applied to a simulated example to evaluate its performance.

  19. Auto-ignition and stabilization mechanism of diluted H2 jet flame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei FENG; Zhi-jun WU; Jun DENG; Li-guang LI

    2011-01-01

    The controllable active thermo-atmosphere combustor (CATAC) has become a utilizable and effective facility because it benefits the optical diagnostics and modeling.This paper presents the modeling research of the auto-ignition and flames of the H2/N2 (H2/CH4/N2,or H2/H2O2/N2) mixture on a CATAC,and shows curves varying with temperatures of auto-ignition delay,the height of the site of auto-ignition of lifted flames,and flame lift-off height.The results of auto-ignition delay and the lifi-off height are compared the experimental results to validate the model.A turning point can be seen on each curve,identified with criterion temperature.It can be concluded that when the co-flow temperature is higher than the criterion temperature,the auto-ignition and lifted flame of the mixture are not stable.Conversely,below the criterion temperature,the mixture will auto-ignite in a stable fashion.Stabilization mechanisms of auto-ignition and lifted flames are analyzed in terms of the criterion temperature.

  20. State-of-the-art exposure chamber for highly controlled and reproducible THz biological effects studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerna, Cesario Z.; Elam, David P.; Echchgadda, Ibtissam; Sloan, Mark A.; Wilmink, Gerald J.

    2014-03-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging and sensing technologies are increasingly being used at international airports for security screening purposes and at major medical centers for cancer and burn diagnosis. The emergence of new THz applications has directly resulted in an increased interest regarding the biological effects associated with this frequency range. Knowledge of THz biological effects is also desired for the safe use of THz systems, identification of health hazards, and development of empirically-based safety standards. In this study, we developed a state-of-the-art exposure chamber that allowed for highly controlled and reproducible studies of THz biological effects. This innovative system incorporated an industry grade cell incubator system that permitted a highly controlled exposure environment, where temperatures could be maintained at 37 °C +/- 0.1 °C, carbon dioxide (CO2) levels at 5% +/- 0.1%, and relative humidity (RH) levels at 95% +/- 1%. To maximize the THz power transmitted to the cell culture region inside the humid incubator, a secondary custom micro-chamber was fabricated and incorporated into the system. This micro-chamber shields the THz beam from the incubator environment and could be nitrogen-purged to eliminate water absorption effects. Additionally, a microscope that allowed for real-time visualization of the live cells before, during, and after THz exposure was integrated into the exposure system.

  1. Lithography focus/exposure control and corrections to improve CDU at post etch step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ki; Yelverton, Mark; Tristan, John; Lee, Joungchel; Gutjahr, Karsten; Hsu, Ching-Hsiang; Wei, Hong; Wang, Lester; Li, Chen; Subramany, Lokesh; Chung, Woong Jae; Kim, Jeong Soo; Ramanathan, Vidya; Yap, LipKong; Gao, Jie; Karur-Shanmugam, Ram; Golotsvan, Anna; Herrera, Pedro; Huang, Kevin; Pierson, Bill

    2014-04-01

    As leading edge lithography moves to advanced nodes in high-mix, high-volume manufacturing environment, automated control of critical dimension (CD) within wafer has become a requirement. Current control methods to improve CD uniformity (CDU) generally rely upon the use of field by field exposure corrections via factory automation or through scanner sub-recipe. Such CDU control methods are limited to lithography step and cannot be extended to etch step. In this paper, a new method to improve CDU at post etch step by optimizing exposure at lithography step is introduced. This new solution utilizes GLOBALFOUNDRIES' factory automation system and KLA-Tencor's K-T Analyzer as the infrastructure to calculate and feed the necessary field by field level exposure corrections back to scanner, so as to achieve the optimal CDU at post etch step. CD at post lithography and post etch steps are measured by scatterometry metrology tools respectively and are used by K-T Analyzer as the input for correction calculations. This paper will explain in detail the philosophy as well as the methodology behind this novel CDU control solution. In addition, applications and use cases will be reviewed to demonstrate the capability and potential of this solution. The feasibility of adopting this solution in high-mix, high-volume manufacturing environment will be discussed as well.

  2. Second auto-SCT for treatment of relapsed multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, W I; Gertz, M A; Lacy, M Q; Dispenzieri, A; Hayman, S R; Buadi, F K; Dingli, D; Hogan, W J; Kumar, S K

    2013-04-01

    High-dose therapy and auto-SCT remain integral in the initial treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), and are increasingly being applied for management of relapsed disease. We examined the outcomes in 98 patients undergoing salvage auto-SCT (auto-SCT2) for relapsed MM after receiving an initial transplant (auto-SCT1) between 1994 and 2009. The median age at auto-SCT2 was 60 years (range: 35-74). The median time between auto-SCT1 and auto-SCT2 was 46 months (range: 10-130). Treatment-related mortality was seen in 4%. The median PFS from auto-SCT2 was 10.3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 7-14) months and the median OS from auto-SCT2 was 33 months (95% CI: 28-51). In a multivariable analysis, shorter time to progression (TTP) after auto-SCT1, not achieving a CR after auto-SCT2, higher number of treatment regimens before auto-SCT2 and a higher plasma cell labeling index at auto-SCT2 predicted for shorter PFS. However, only a shorter TTP after auto-SCT1 predicted for a shorter OS post auto-SCT2. Hence, auto-SCT2 is an effective and feasible therapeutic option for MM patients relapsing after other treatments, especially in patients who had a TTP of at least 12 months after their auto-SCT1.

  3. AutoMoDe - Model-Based Development of Automotive Software

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegenbein, Dirk; Freund, Ulrich; Bauer, Andreas; Romberg, Jan; Schatz, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes first results from the AutoMoDe (Automotive Model-Based Development) project. The overall goal of the project is to develop an integrated methodology for model-based development of automotive control software, based on problem-specific design notations with an explicit formal foundation. Based on the existing AutoFOCUS framework, a tool prototype is being developed in order to illustrate and validate the key elements of our approach.

  4. Auto Disturbances Refection Visual Servoing Control for Excavator Robot Based on Niching Particle Swarm Optimization%基于小生境粒子群优化的挖掘机器人自抗扰视觉伺服控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福斌; 刘杰; 陈至坤; 焦春旺

    2012-01-01

    为提高挖掘机器人的自主挖掘能力,设计一种基于图像的自抗扰视觉伺服控制器,对挖掘机器人的动臂、斗杆、铲斗组成的3节机械臂末端位置和姿态在x-z平面进行控制,实现自主挖掘目标任务.针对自抗扰控制器需要整定的参数较多,参数间相互影响,整定困难的特点,引入粒子群算法对控制器参数进行优化.由于原始粒子群算法存在后期易陷入局部最优的缺欠,采用小生境粒子群算法对自抗扰控制器参数进行整定优化.对粒子群及小生境粒子群算法的优化性能进行比较研究的基础上,设计了适合挖掘机器人的自抗扰视觉伺服控制器,采用小生境粒子群算法得到自抗扰控制器整定参数.搭建xPCTarget主机—目标机环境进行试验及仿真,表明小生境粒子群优化的自抗扰视觉伺服控制器控制精度高、鲁棒性强.%To improve the ability of autonomous mining of excavator robot, design a kind of active disturbance rejection visual servoing controller based on image, to control the position and direction of the end, composed of boom, bucket rod and bucket, of excavator robot, in x-z plane, realize the goal and task for autonomous mining. For the features that many parameters are needed to be tuned for auto disturbance rejection controller, mutual influence between the parameters and the difficulty for parameters tuning, introduce particle swarm optimization algorithm to optimize the parameters of the controller. Because of the shortcoming that original particle swarm algorithm get into the local optimum later, use niche particle swarm optimization algorithm to tune parameters of active disturbance rejection controlledADRC). On the basis of comparative studies of optimal performance for particle swarm and niche particle swarm optimization algorithm, design the active disturbance rejection visual servoing controller suitable for excavator robot, use niche particle swarm algorithm to

  5. Dose optimization for different medical imaging tasks from exposure index, exposure control factor, and MAS in digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Menglong; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Yaying; Chen, Weixia; Hou, Lixia

    2012-09-01

    In radiographic examination, not all medical imaging tasks require the same level of image quality or diagnostic information. Criteria should be established for different imaging tasks to avoid excessive doses where there is no clear net benefit in the diagnosis or the image quality. An exposure index provided by manufacturers would be a useful tool for this purpose. This study aims to establish an optimum exposure index to be used as a guideline for clinical imaging tasks to minimize radiation exposure for chest digital radiography. A three-level classification of image quality (high, medium, and low) for chest imaging tasks was carried out. An anthropomorphic phantom was employed to establish minimum exposure index and exposure (mAs) for clinical imaging task type I (corresponding to high image quality). The exposures of medium and low quality images derived from it. Thirty patients were exposed consecutively with these optimized exposure factors, and clinical tasks were considered, while another 30 patients were exposed with the exposure factors routinely used in practice. Image quality was assessed objectively by a consensus panel. The optimized exposure provided a significant reduction of the mean exposure index from 1,556 to 1,207 (p < 0.0001) and mean patient's entrance surface dose from 0.168 mGy to 0.092 mGy (p < 0.0001). The results show that a clinical-task-determined radiographic procedure is more conducive to radiation protection of patients. In this study, the posteroanterior chest imaging examination was chosen as an example. This procedure can also apply to other body parts and views.

  6. High-order aberration control during exposure for leading-edge lithography projection optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Yasuhiro; Tsuge, Yosuke; Hirayama, Toru; Ikezawa, Hironori; Inoue, Daisuke; Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Koizumi, Yukio; Hasegawa, Keisuke; Ishiyama, Satoshi; Nakashima, Toshiharu; Kikuchi, Takahisa; Onda, Minoru; Takase, Yohei; Nagahiro, Akimasa; Isago, Susumu; Kawahara, Hidetaka

    2016-03-01

    High throughput with high resolution imaging has been key to the development of leading-edge microlithography. However, management of thermal aberrations due to lens heating during exposure has become critical for simultaneous achievement of high throughput and high resolution. Thermal aberrations cause CD drift and overlay error, and these errors lead directly to edge placement errors (EPE). Management and control of high order thermal aberrations is a critical requirement. In this paper, we will show practical performance of the lens heating with dipole and other typical illumination conditions for finer patterning. We confirm that our new control system can reduce the high-order aberrations and enable critical-dimension uniformity CDU during the exposure.

  7. Ace Auto's After-sale Adds Advantages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2009-01-01

    @@ In the auto market,consumers often asked a question why the same car in the European and American market is cheaper than that in China.The key to this question lies in the difference of profit chains between European & American market and Chinese market.In the mature European or American market,the portion of profit from auto sales accounting for the total profit is comparatively small,and quite a large share of profit derives from the auto's after-sale service market.

  8. Generalizacija linija i AutoCAD Map

    OpenAIRE

    Vučetić, Nada; Lapaine, Miljenko

    2001-01-01

    The paper offers the results of original research made on the application of AutoCAD Map in line generalisation. The differences and similarities have been found out between the Douglas-Peucker method and the method of line simplification that is incorporated in AutoCAD Map. There have been also the inaccuracies found out in AutoCAD Map manual relating to the issues of buffer width and tolerance, and the line width before and after simplification. The paper gives recommendations about pseudo ...

  9. Line Generalization and AutoCAD Map

    OpenAIRE

    Nada Vučetić; Miljenko Lapaine

    2001-01-01

    The paper offers the results of original research made on the application of AutoCAD Map in line generalisation. The differences and similarities have been found out between the Douglas-Peucker method and the method of line simplification that is incorporated in AutoCAD Map. There have been also the inaccuracies found out in AutoCAD Map manual relating to the issues of buffer width and tolerance, and the line width before and after simplification. The paper gives recommendations about pseudo ...

  10. Analysis of Silverized Teflon Thermal Control Material Flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, H. Gary

    1995-01-01

    Silver backed teflon (Ag/FEP) material used for thermal control on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) has been examined in detail. Optical, mechanical, and chemical properties were characterized for specimens exposed to a variety of space environmental conditions. Recession rates were determined for this material. Samples were obtained from virtually every LDEF location except the Earth-end. Atomic oxygen exposed regions changed from specular to diffusely reflective.

  11. Common sole larvae survive high levels of pile-driving sound in controlled exposure experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes J Bolle

    Full Text Available In view of the rapid extension of offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge on possible adverse effects of underwater sound generated by pile-driving. Mortality and injuries have been observed in fish exposed to loud impulse sounds, but knowledge on the sound levels at which (sub-lethal effects occur is limited for juvenile and adult fish, and virtually non-existent for fish eggs and larvae. A device was developed in which fish larvae can be exposed to underwater sound. It consists of a rigid-walled cylindrical chamber driven by an electro-dynamical sound projector. Samples of up to 100 larvae can be exposed simultaneously to a homogeneously distributed sound pressure and particle velocity field. Recorded pile-driving sounds could be reproduced accurately in the frequency range between 50 and 1000 Hz, at zero to peak pressure levels up to 210 dB re 1µPa(2 (zero to peak pressures up to 32 kPa and single pulse sound exposure levels up to 186 dB re 1µPa(2s. The device was used to examine lethal effects of sound exposure in common sole (Solea solea larvae. Different developmental stages were exposed to various levels and durations of pile-driving sound. The highest cumulative sound exposure level applied was 206 dB re 1µPa(2s, which corresponds to 100 strikes at a distance of 100 m from a typical North Sea pile-driving site. The results showed no statistically significant differences in mortality between exposure and control groups at sound exposure levels which were well above the US interim criteria for non-auditory tissue damage in fish. Although our findings cannot be extrapolated to fish larvae in general, as interspecific differences in vulnerability to sound exposure may occur, they do indicate that previous assumptions and criteria may need to be revised.

  12. Exposure assessment for workers applying DDT to control malaria in Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Rodriguez, L; Borja-Aburto, V H; Santos-Burgoa, C; Waliszewskiy, S; Rios, C; Cruz, V

    1997-01-01

    DDT has systematically been used in sanitation campaigns against malaria in Mexico. To assess chronic occupational exposure, we studied a group of workers dedicated to spraying houses to control malaria vectors in the state of Veracruz. Exposure was directly estimated for a subgroup of 40 workers by measuring DDT metabolites in adipose tissue samples and indirectly estimated for 331 workers by using a questionnaire to determine their occupational history. Participants ranged in age from 20 to 70 years, and 80% of the workers had been employed in the sanitation campaign for at least 20 years. The mean concentrations of extractable lipids found in adipose tissue samples were as follows: total DDT, 104.48 micrograms/g; p,p'-DDE, 60.98 micrograms/g; p,p'-DDT, 31.0 micrograms/g; o,p'-DDT, 2.10 micrograms/g; and p,p'-DDD, 0.95 microgram/g. The DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE was selected as the indicator of chronic exposure. An index of chronic occupational exposure was constructed according to worker position and based on the historical duration and intensity of DDT application. A linear model including this index, the use of protective gear, and recent weight loss explained 55% of the variation of p,p'-DDE concentrations in adipose tissue. By this model, the predicted values of p,p'-DDE concentration in adipose tissue for the 331 workers are between 9.56 micrograms/g and 298.4 micrograms/g of fat, with a geometric mean of 67.41 micrograms/g. These high levels of DDT in adipose tissue call for exposure prevention programs and the promotion of more secure application measures and hygiene. We also discuss the use of indirect measures of DDT exposure in epidemiological studies of health effects. PMID:9074888

  13. Emotional attentional control predicts changes in diurnal cortisol secretion following exposure to a prolonged psychosocial stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaert, Bert; Barry, Tom J; Schruers, Koen; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis irregularities have been associated with several psychological disorders. Hence, the identification of individual difference variables that predict variations in HPA-axis activity represents an important challenge for psychiatric research. We investigated whether self-reported attentional control in emotionally demanding situations prospectively predicted changes in diurnal salivary cortisol secretion following exposure to a prolonged psychosocial stressor. Low ability to voluntarily control attention has previously been associated with anxiety and depressive symptomatology. Attentional control was assessed using the Emotional Attentional Control Scale. In students who were preparing for academic examination, salivary cortisol was assessed before (time 1) and after (time 2) examination. Results showed that lower levels of self-reported emotional attentional control at time 1 (N=90) predicted higher absolute diurnal cortisol secretion and a slower decline in cortisol throughout the day at time 2 (N=71). Difficulty controlling attention during emotional experiences may lead to chronic HPA-axis hyperactivity after prolonged exposure to stress. These results indicate that screening for individual differences may foster prediction of HPA-axis disturbances, paving the way for targeted disorder prevention.

  14. A case-control study of wood dust exposure, mutagen sensitivity, and lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X; Delclos, G L; Annegers, J F; Bondy, M L; Honn, S E; Henry, B; Hsu, T C; Spitz, M R

    1995-09-01

    The associations between lung cancer risk, mutagen sensitivity (a marker of cancer susceptibility), and a putative lung carcinogen, wood dust, were assessed in a hospital-based case-control study. There were 113 African -American and 67 Mexican-American cases with newly diagnosed, previously untreated lung cancer and 270 controls, frequency-matched on age, ethnicity, and sex. Mutagen sensitivity ( 1 chromatid break/cell after short-term bleomycin treatment) was associated with statistically significant elevated risk for lung cancer [odds ration (OR) = 4.3; 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 2.3-7.9]. Wood dust exposure was also a significant predictor of risk (overall OR = 3.5; CI = 1.4-8.6) after controlling for smoking and mutagen sensitivity. When stratified by ethnicity, wood dust exposure was s significant risk factor for African-Americans (OR = 5.5; CI = 1.6-18.9) but not for Mexican-Americans (OR = 2.0; CI = 0.5-8.1). The ORs were 3.8 and 4.8 for non-small cell lung cancer in Mexican-Americans (CI = 1.2-18.5). Stratified analysis suggested evidence of strong interactions between wood dust exposure and both mutagen sensitivity and smoking in lung cancer risk.

  15. Controlled human wood smoke exposure: oxidative stress, inflammation and microvascular function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forchhammer Lykke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to wood smoke is associated with respiratory symptoms, whereas knowledge on systemic effects is limited. We investigated effects on systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and microvascular function (MVF after controlled wood smoke exposure. Methods In a randomised, double-blinded, cross-over study 20 non-smoking atopic subjects were exposed at rest to 14, 220, or 354 μg/m3 of particles from a well-burning modern wood stove for 3 h in a climate controlled chamber with 2 week intervals. We investigated the level of oxidatively damaged DNA, inflammatory markers and adhesion molecules before and 0, 6 and 20 h after exposure. Six h after exposure we measured MVF non-invasively by digital peripheral artery tonometry following arm ischemia. Results The MVF score was unaltered after inhalation of clean air (1.58 ± 0.07; mean ± SEM, low (1.51 ± 0.07 or high (1.61 ± 0.09 concentrations of wood smoke particles in atopic subjects, whereas unexposed non-atopic subjects had higher score (1.91 ± 0.09. The level of oxidatively damaged DNA, mRNA of ITGAL, CCL2, TNF, IL6, IL8, HMOX1, and OGG1 and surface marker molecules ICAM1, ITGAL and L-selectin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were not affected by inhalation of wood smoke particles. Conclusions Exposure to wood smoke had no effect on markers of oxidative stress, DNA damage, cell adhesion, cytokines or MVF in atopic subjects.

  16. Chronic mercury exposure impairs the sympathovagal control of the rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, M R; Azevedo, B F; Fiorim, J; Jr Freire, D D; Covre, E P; Vassallo, D V; Dos Santos, L

    2016-11-01

    Mercury is known to cause harmful neural effects affecting the cardiovascular system. Here, we evaluated the chronic effects of low-dose mercury exposure on the autonomic control of the cardiovascular system. Wistar rats were treated for 30 days with HgCl2 (1st dose 4.6 μg/kg followed by 0.07 μg/kg per day, intramuscular) or saline. The femoral artery and vein were then cannulated for evaluation of autonomic control of the hemodynamic function, which was evaluated in awake rats. The following tests were performed: baroreflex sensitivity, Von Bezold-Jarisch reflex, heart rate variability (HRV) and pharmacological blockade with methylatropine and atenolol to test the autonomic tone of the heart. Exposure to HgCl2 for 30 days slightly increased the mean arterial pressure and heart rate (HR). There was a significant reduction in the baroreflex gain of animals exposed to HgCl2 . Moreover, haemodynamic responses to the activation of the Von Bezold-Jarisch reflex were also reduced. The changes in the spectral analysis of HRV suggested a shift in the sympathovagal balance toward a sympathetic predominance after mercury exposure, which was confirmed by autonomic pharmacological blockade in the HgCl2 group. This group also exhibited reduced intrinsic HR after the double block suggesting that the pacemaker activity of the sinus node was also affected. These findings suggested that the autonomic modulation of the heart was significantly altered by chronic mercury exposure, thus reinforcing that even at low concentrations such exposure might be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Overheden bereid extra te betalen voor auto's op alternatieve brandstof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsoever, F.J. van; Hagen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    De elektrische auto en een auto op groen gas worden door overheden hoger gewaardeerd dan de auto met reguliere verbrandingsmotor. Bovendien zijn overheden bereid extra te betalen voor een auto op alternatieve brandstof. Dit blijkt uit een masteronderzoek van de Universiteit Utrecht in opdracht

  18. Exposure and non-fear emotions: A randomized controlled study of exposure-based and rescripting-based imagery in PTSD treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkaas, Tomas Formo; Hoffart, Asle; Øktedalen, Tuva; Ulvenes, Pål G; Hembree, Elizabeth A; Smucker, Mervin

    2017-10-01

    Interventions involving rescripting-based imagery have been proposed as a better approach than exposure-based imagery when posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with emotions other than fear. Prior research led to the study's hypotheses that (a) higher pretreatment non-fear emotions would predict relatively better response to rescripting as compared to exposure, (b) rescripting would be associated with greater reduction in non-fear emotions, and (c) pretreatment non-fear emotions would predict poor response to exposure. A clinically representative sample of 65 patients presenting a wide range of traumas was recruited from patients seeking and being offered PTSD treatment in an inpatient setting. Subjects were randomly assigned to 10 weeks of treatment involving either rescripting-based imagery (Imagery Rescripting; IR) or exposure-based imagery (Prolonged Exposure; PE). Patients were assessed on outcome and emotion measures at pretreatment, posttreatment and 12 months follow-up. Comparison to control benchmarks indicated that both treatments were effective, but no outcome differences between them appeared. None of the initial hypotheses were supported. The results from this study challenge previous observations and hypotheses about exposure mainly being effective for fear-based PTSD and strengthen the notion that exposure-based treatment is a generally effective treatment for all types of PTSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Range-Based Auto-Focus Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maracel Systems and Software Technologies, LLC proposes a revolutionary Range-Based Auto Focus (RBAF) system that will combine externally input range, such as might...

  20. Auto Industry: Long Way to Go

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu shujun

    2012-01-01

    When China joined the World Trade Organization in 2001,worries proliferated that the country's auto industry would receive a heavy blow.The concerns turned out to be unnecessary as the sector has been growing remarkably.

  1. AutoCAD 2013 and AutoCAD LT 2013 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The bestselling guide to AutoCAD, fully updated for the 2013 version AutoCAD, the number one architectural drawing software, can be challenging to learn. This comprehensive guide has sold more than 160,000 copies in previous editions and is the go-to resource for architects, engineers, drafters, interior designers, and space planners who need to learn and use AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT. From the basics of creating drawings and using commands to 2D and 3D drawing techniques, using layers, rendering, and customizing the program, this book covers it all. A Quick Start guide allows eve

  2. AutoMap & AutoLink: Tools for Communicating Complex & DynamicData-Structures using MPI

    OpenAIRE

    Goujon, Delphine; Michel, Martial; Peeters, Jasper; Devaney, Judith Ellen

    1998-01-01

    Colloque avec actes et comité de lecture.; This article describes two software tools, AutoMap and AutoLink, that facilitate the use of data-structures in MPI. AutoMap is a program that parses a file of user-defined data-structures and generates new MPI types out of basic and previously defined MPI data-types. Our software tool automatically handles specialized error checking related to memory mapping. AutoLink is an MPI library that allows the transfert of complex, dynimacally linked, and pos...

  3. AutoCAD 2014 review for certification official certification preparation

    CERN Document Server

    ASCENT center for technical knowledge

    2014-01-01

    The AutoCAD® 2014 Review for Certification book is intended for users of AutoCAD® preparing to complete the AutoCAD 2014 Certified Professional exam. This book contains a collection of relevant instructional topics, practice exercises, and review questions from the Autodesk Official Training Guides (AOTG) from ASCENT - Center for Technical Knowledge pertaining specifically to the Certified Professional exam topics and objectives. This book is intended for experienced users of AutoCAD in preparation for certification. New users of AutoCAD should refer to the AOTG training guides from ASCENT, such as AutoCAD/AutoCAD LT 2014 Fundamentals, for more comprehensive instruction.

  4. AutoCAD的应用小技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯红松

    2011-01-01

    通过对AutoCAD多年的使用及总结,摸索出AutoCAD使用中的几点应用小技巧.本文主要介绍了AutoCAD中倒角及圆角的处理、AutoCAD表格制作、在Word文档中插入AutoCAD图形、AutoCAD图形的打印技巧及AutoCAD选择技巧六种应用技巧.

  5. Possible activation of auto-immune thyroiditis from continuous subcutaneous infusion of genapol-containing insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, E

    2000-09-01

    A case of a type 1 diabetic woman with auto-immune thyroiditis is reported, in whom repeated exposure to insulin containing Genapol(R) (polyethylen-polypropylenglycol) over 3 years reproducibly parallels with an increase of serum TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) above the normal limit. Previously, adverse effects of Genapol(R) insulin have been related to its intraperitoneal application, and thought to be restricted to anti-insulin-immunity; activating effects on thyroid auto-immunity have been repeatedly disputed. We suggest that Genapol(R) insulin should be replaced by other insulin preparations with a better safety record.

  6. Glioma and occupational exposure in Sweden, a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodvall, Y; Ahlbom, A; Spännare, B; Nise, G

    1996-08-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse whether any job titles, industrial codes, and certain occupational exposures were associated with an increased risk of glioma. A population based case-control study of incident primary brain tumours in adults was carried out in Uppsala, Sweden in the period 1987-90. The study included 192 cases of glioma and 192 matched controls. It also included cases with other tumours of the central nervous system with matched controls. Information from all 343 controls was used in this study. Information was collected by means of a questionnaire that was sent to all subjects. An occupational hygienist reviewed the questionnaires for self reported exposures to substances and assessed whether these reported exposures were plausible or not in the corresponding occupation. The kappa coefficient for those classified by the two methods ranged between 0.46 and 0.88, and they were almost the same for cases and controls. For men exposed to solvents a relative risk (RR) of 2.6 (95% CI 1.3 to 5.2) was found. For men exposed to pesticides the RR was 1.8 (95% CI 0.6 to 5.1), and for plastic materials the RR was 3.6 (95% CI 1.0 to 12.4). For men employed in forestry and logging the RR was 2.2 (95% CI 0.9 to 5.3) and in basic metal industries 2.0 (95% CI 1.0 to 4.0). An increased risk of glioma was associated with use of solvents, pesticides, and plastic materials but this should be interpreted with some caution.

  7. Evaluation of exposure to pioglitazone and risk of prostate cancer: a nested case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, Naomi; Bennett, Dimitri; Hunger, Matthias; Dolin, Paul; Thompson, Paula L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Investigate potential association between pioglitazone exposure and risk of prostate cancer. Research design and methods Nested, matched case–control study. UK primary care data (Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) GOLD) linked to inpatient (Hospital Episode Statistics (HES)) and cancer registry (National Cancer Information Network (NCIN)) data. English men aged ≥40 years diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, January 1, 2001 to January 5, 2015. Cases, with prostate cancer diagnosis, matched with up to 4 controls by age, cohort entry date and region. ORs for association of exposure to pioglitazone to incident prostate cancer, adjusted for potential confounders. Results From a cohort of 47 772 men with 243 923 person-years follow-up, 756 definite cases of prostate cancer were identified. Incidence was 309.9/100 000 person-years (95% CI 288.6 to 332.8). Pioglitazone use was not associated with prostate cancer risk; adjusted OR 0.759, 95% CI 0.502 to 1.148. Analyses showed no difference when possible cases, prostate cancer in CPRD GOLD only, included (adjusted OR 0.726, 95% CI 0.510 to 1.034). No association when adjusted for channeling bias (OR 0.778, 95% CI 0.511 to 1.184) or limited to an index date prior to July 1, 2011 (adjusted OR 0.508, 95% CI 0.294 to 0.879), despite prostate-specific antigen screening occurring more frequently among cases than controls (81.6% of 756 definite cases cf. 24.2% of 2942 controls (ppioglitazone use, increasing pioglitazone dose or increasing time since initiation. Conclusions In this real-world, nested matched case–control study, exposure to pioglitazone was not associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. PMID:28074141

  8. Poor asthma control and exposure to traffic pollutants and obesity in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Tolly G; Ryan, Patrick H; LeMasters, Grace K; Bernstein, Cheryl K; Levin, Linda S; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Villareal, Manuel S; Bernstein, David I

    2012-06-01

    Environmental and host predictors of asthma control in older asthmatic patients (>65 years old) are poorly understood. To examine the effects of residential exposure to traffic exhaust and other environmental and host predictors on asthma control in older adults. One hundred four asthmatic patients 65 years of age or older from allergy and pulmonary clinics in greater Cincinnati, Ohio, completed the validated Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ), pulmonary function testing, and skin prick testing to 10 common aeroallergens. Patients had a physician's diagnosis of asthma, had significant reversibility in forced expiratory volume in 1 second or a positive methacholine challenge test result, and did not have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The mean daily residential exposure to elemental carbon attributable to traffic (ECAT) was estimated using a land-use regression model. Regression models were used to evaluate associations among independent variables, ACQ scores, and the number of asthma exacerbations, defined as acute worsening of asthma symptoms requiring prednisone use, in the past year. In the adjusted model, mean daily residential exposure to ECAT greater than 0.39 μg/m(3) was significantly associated with poorer asthma control based on ACQ scores (adjusted β = 2.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58-5.12; P = .02). High ECAT levels were also significantly associated with increased risk of asthma exacerbations (adjusted odds ratio, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.01-10.37; P = .05). A significant association was found between higher body mass index and worse ACQ scores (adjusted β = 1.15; 95% CI, 0.53-1.76; P obesity, and nonatopic status are associated with poorer asthma control among older asthmatic patients. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multiple waste types in a 7-day period at the Kilauea Military Camp in Hawai’i. The emissions characterized were chosen based on regulatory emissions limits as well as their ability to cause adverse health effects on humans: particulate matter (PM), mercury, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Three military waste feedstock compositions reflecting the variety of wastes to be encountered in theatre were investigated: standard waste (SW), standard waste with increased plastic content (HP), standard waste without SW food components but added first strike ration (FSR) food and packaging material (termed FSR). A fourth waste was collected from the Kilauea dumpster that served the dining facility and room lodging (KMC). Limited scrubber water and solid ash residue samples were collected to obtain a preliminary characterization of these effluents/residues.Gasifying SW, HP, and KMC resulted in similar PCDD/PCDF stack concentrations, 0.26-0.27 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2, while FSR waste generated a notably higher stack concentration of 0.68 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2. The PM emission

  10. Computing Mass Properties From AutoCAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.

    1990-01-01

    Mass properties of structures computed from data in drawings. AutoCAD to Mass Properties (ACTOMP) computer program developed to facilitate quick calculations of mass properties of structures containing many simple elements in such complex configurations as trusses or sheet-metal containers. Mathematically modeled in AutoCAD or compatible computer-aided design (CAD) system in minutes by use of three-dimensional elements. Written in Microsoft Quick-Basic (Version 2.0).

  11. AutoCAD-To-NASTRAN Translator Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.

    1989-01-01

    Program facilitates creation of finite-element mathematical models from geometric entities. AutoCAD to NASTRAN translator (ACTON) computer program developed to facilitate quick generation of small finite-element mathematical models for use with NASTRAN finite-element modeling program. Reads geometric data of drawing from Data Exchange File (DXF) used in AutoCAD and other PC-based drafting programs. Written in Microsoft Quick-Basic (Version 2.0).

  12. Computing Mass Properties From AutoCAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.

    1990-01-01

    Mass properties of structures computed from data in drawings. AutoCAD to Mass Properties (ACTOMP) computer program developed to facilitate quick calculations of mass properties of structures containing many simple elements in such complex configurations as trusses or sheet-metal containers. Mathematically modeled in AutoCAD or compatible computer-aided design (CAD) system in minutes by use of three-dimensional elements. Written in Microsoft Quick-Basic (Version 2.0).

  13. AutoCAD-To-NASTRAN Translator Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.

    1989-01-01

    Program facilitates creation of finite-element mathematical models from geometric entities. AutoCAD to NASTRAN translator (ACTON) computer program developed to facilitate quick generation of small finite-element mathematical models for use with NASTRAN finite-element modeling program. Reads geometric data of drawing from Data Exchange File (DXF) used in AutoCAD and other PC-based drafting programs. Written in Microsoft Quick-Basic (Version 2.0).

  14. Tango—AutoCAD数据转换

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周华明; 焦维佳; 等

    2001-01-01

    讨论了电路CAD软件--Tango的*.PCB文件格式、AutoCAD的*.LSP文件格式,并运用编程语言(VB、VC、Turbo C等)相应的*.PCB文件转换为*.LSP,在AutoCAD环境中生成*.DWG文件,文字樯注、编辑、交流和存档。

  15. AutoCAD样板的制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪银华

    2013-01-01

    对于长期从事机械图样绘图、出图的工程技术人员来讲,能制作一些合适、实用的AutoCAD样板,非常重要.制作AutoCAD样板,首先要根据实际情况设计好标题栏,再就是做好的样板要保存在正确的位置.

  16. Auto-associative nanoelectronic neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, C. P. S. M.; Guimarães, J. G. [Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica - Laboratório de Dispositivos e Circuito Integrado, Universidade de Brasília, CP 4386, CEP 70904-970 Brasília DF (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, an auto-associative neural network using single-electron tunneling (SET) devices is proposed and simulated at low temperature. The nanoelectronic auto-associative network is able to converge to a stable state, previously stored during training. The recognition of the pattern involves decreasing the energy of the input state until it achieves a point of local minimum energy, which corresponds to one of the stored patterns.

  17. NDRC Issued Opinions to Regulate Auto Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ In view of the surplus of China's auto in dustry production capacity, and the situation may get intensified, the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC) recently issued the implementation opinions for auto industry to deal with the surplus of production capacity, and expedite the structural adjustment based on the relevant dispose of the State Council's notice about expediting the structural adjustment of the industries with surplus production capacity.

  18. Case-control study of tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Delaware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathcock H Leroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the evidence supporting the association is inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study in Delaware, incorporating detailed exposure assessment for active and secondhand smoke at home and in the workplace. Methods Primary invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed among female Delaware residents, ages 40–79, in 2000–2002 were identified through the Delaware cancer registry (n = 287. Delaware drivers license and Health Care Finance Administration records were used to select age frequency-matched controls for women Results A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was observed for ever having smoked cigarettes (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–1.99. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between breast cancer risk and total years smoked, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Neither residential nor workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with breast cancer. Recalculations of active smoking risks using a purely unexposed reference group of women who were not exposed to active or secondhand smoking did not indicate increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusion These findings do not support an association between smoking and breast cancer.

  19. Exposure to bacterial products lipopolysaccharide and flagellin and hepatocellular carcinoma: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedirko, Veronika; Tran, Hao Quang; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Stepien, Magdalena; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Carbonnel, Franck; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Castaño, José María Huerta; Barricarte, Aurelio; Sánchez, María-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sjöberg, Klas; Ohlsson, Bodil; Hemmingsson, Oskar; Werner, Mårten; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Aune, Dagfinn; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Jenab, Mazda

    2017-04-04

    Leakage of bacterial products across the gut barrier may play a role in liver diseases which often precede the development of liver cancer. However, human studies, particularly from prospective settings, are lacking. We used a case-control study design nested within a large prospective cohort to assess the association between circulating levels of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and anti-flagellin immunoglobulin A (IgA) and G (IgG) (reflecting long-term exposures to LPS and flagellin, respectively) and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. A total of 139 men and women diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma between 1992 and 2010 were matched to 139 control subjects. Multivariable rate ratios (RRs), including adjustment for potential confounders, hepatitis B/C positivity, and degree of liver dysfunction, were calculated with conditional logistic regression. Antibody response to LPS and flagellin was associated with a statistically significant increase in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (highest vs. lowest quartile: RR = 11.76, 95% confidence interval = 1.70-81.40; P trend = 0.021). This finding did not vary substantially by time from enrollment to diagnosis, and did not change after adjustment for chronic infection with hepatitis B and C viruses. These novel findings, based on exposures up to several years prior to diagnosis, support a role for gut-derived bacterial products in hepatocellular carcinoma development. Further study into the role of gut barrier failure and exposure to bacterial products in liver diseases is warranted.

  20. Biological monitoring of pyrethroid exposure of pest control workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Kamijima, Michihiro; Imai, Ryota; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Kameda, Yohei; Asai, Kazumi; Okamura, Ai; Naito, Hisao; Ueyama, Jun; Saito, Isao; Nakajima, Tamie; Goto, Masahiro; Shibata, Eiji; Kondo, Takaaki; Takagi, Kenji; Takagi, Kenzo; Wakusawa, Shinya

    2007-11-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids such as cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin, which are usually used in pest control operations, are metabolized to 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and excreted in urine. Though 3-PBA can be used to assess exposure to pyrethroids, there are few reports describing urinary 3-PBA levels in Japan. This study aimed to investigate the seasonal variation of the exposure levels of pyrethroids and the concentration of urinary 3-PBA among pest control operators (PCOs) in Japan. The study subjects were 78 and 66 PCOs who underwent a health examination in December 2004 and in August 2005, respectively. 3-PBA was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The geometric mean concentration of urinary 3-PBA in winter (3.9 microg/g creatinine) was significantly lower than in summer (12.2 microg/g creatinine) (p0.05), respectively. A significant association of 3-PBA levels and pyrethroid spraying was thus observed only in winter. In conclusion, the results of the present study show that the exposure level of pyrethroids among PCOs in Japan assessed by monitoring urinary 3-PBA was higher than that reported in the UK but comparable to that in Germany. Further research should be accumulated to establish an occupational reference value in Japan.

  1. Risk Factors for Tube Shunt Exposure: A Matched Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Koval

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate potential risk factors for developing tube shunt exposure in glaucoma patients. Patients and Methods. Forty-one cases from 41 patients that had tube shunt exposure from 1996 to 2005 were identified from the Robert Cizik Eye Clinic and Bascom Palmer Eye Institute. Each case was matched with 2 controls of the same gender and with tube shunts implanted within 6 months of the index case. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine risk factors. Results. The study cohort includes a total of 121 eyes from 121 patients. The mean age was 63.6 ± 19.7 years, ranging from 1 to 96 years. The average time to exposure was 19.29 ± 23.75 months (range 0.36–85.74 months. Risk factors associated with tube exposure were Hispanic ethnicity (P=0.0115; OR = 3.6; 95% CI, 1.3–9.7, neovascular glaucoma (P=0.0064; OR = 28.5; 95% CI, 2.6–316.9, previous trabeculectomy (P=0.0070; OR = 5.3; 95% CI, 1.6–17.7, and combined surgery (P=0.0381; OR = 3.7; 95% CI, 1.1–12.7. Conclusions. Hispanic ethnicity, neovascular glaucoma, previous trabeculectomy, and combined surgery were identified as potential risk factors for tube shunt exposure. These potential risk factors should be considered when determining the indication for performing tube shunt implantation and the frequency of long-term followup.

  2. Risk from exposure to trihalomethanes during shower: probabilistic assessment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Champagne, Pascale

    2009-02-15

    Exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) through inhalation and dermal contact during showering and bathing may pose risks to human health. During showering and bathing, warm water (35 degrees C-45 degrees C) is generally used. Warming of chlorinated supply water may increase THMs formation through enhanced reactions between organics and residual chlorine. Exposure assessment using THMs concentrations in cold water may under-predict the possible risks to human health. In this study, THMs concentrations in warm water were estimated by developing a THMs formation rate model. Using THMs in warm water, cancer and non-cancer risks to human health were predicted for three major cities in Ontario (Canada). The parameters for risk assessments were characterized by statistical distributions. The total cancer risks from exposure to THMs during showering were predicted to be 7.6x10(-6), 6.3x10(-6) and 4.3x10(-6) for Ottawa, Hamilton and Toronto respectively. The cancer risks exceedance probabilities were estimated to be highest in Ottawa at different risk levels. The risks through inhalation exposure were found to be comparable (2.1x10(-6)-3.7x10(-6)) to those of the dermal contact (2.2x10(-6)-3.9x10(-6)) for the cities. This study predicted 36 cancer incidents from exposure to THMs during showering for these three cities, while Toronto contributed the highest number of possible cancer incidents (22), followed by Ottawa (10) and Hamilton (4). The sensitivity analyses showed that health risks could be controlled by varying shower stall volume and/or shower duration following the power law relationship.

  3. Pave the Way for Chinese Autos "Going Out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    On behalf of the Organizing Committee of China International Auto Exhibition Tour, I would like to report and present our work of the exhibition.First, I would like to review and summarize the past China Famous Brand Auto Vietnam Show. Participants in Vietnam Show included 15 main enterprises in auto industry: China FAW Group Corporation, Yuejin Light-duty Vehicle Co., Ltd., Dongfeng Liuzhou Auto Co., Ltd., Mudan Automobiles Co., Ltd, Jiangling Auto Corporation, Hunan Changfeng Automobile Manufacturing ...

  4. Positive Association between Blood 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Pterygium after Control for Sunlight Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Donghyun; Kim, Eun Chul; Cho, Eunyoung; Arroyo, Jorge G

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and pterygium. Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011 were used for the present epidemiologic study. A total of 19,178 participants aged ≥ 30 years were evaluated for blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and performed ophthalmic slit lamp examinations. Pterygium was considered as a growth of fibrovascular tissue over the cornea. The average blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were 18.6 ng/mL, and prevalence of pterygium was 6.5%. The odds of pterygium significantly increased across blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D quintiles after controlling sun exposure time as well as other confounders such as sex, age, smoking, diabetes, hypertension (P exposure time, we found a positive association between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and pterygium in a representative Korean population. The mechanism underlying this association is unknown.

  5. SIMULATING LOCAL DENSE AREAS USING PMMA TO ASSESS AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE CONTROL IN DIGITAL MAMMOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, R W; Binst, J; Dance, D R; Young, K C; Broeders, M J M; den Heeten, G J; Veldkamp, W J H; Bosmans, H; van Engen, R E

    2016-06-01

    Current digital mammography (DM) X-ray systems are equipped with advanced automatic exposure control (AEC) systems, which determine the exposure factors depending on breast composition. In the supplement of the European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis, a phantom-based test is included to evaluate the AEC response to local dense areas in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This study evaluates the proposed test in terms of SNR and dose for four DM systems. The glandular fraction represented by the local dense area was assessed by analytic calculations. It was found that the proposed test simulates adipose to fully glandular breast compositions in attenuation. The doses associated with the phantoms were found to match well with the patient dose distribution. In conclusion, after some small adaptations, the test is valuable for the assessment of the AEC performance in terms of both SNR and dose.

  6. Postural Control Disturbances Produced By Exposure to HMD and Dome Vr Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, D. L.; Taylor, L. C.

    2005-01-01

    Two critical and unresolved human factors issues in VR systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", a form of motion sickness which is experienced in virtual worlds, and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Most astronauts and cosmonauts experience perceptual and sensorimotor disturbances during and following space flight. All astronauts exhibit decrements in postural control following space flight. It has been suggested that training in virtual reality (VR) may be an effective countermeasure for minimizing perceptual and/or sensorimotor disturbances. People adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity, and experimentally-produced stimulus rearrangements (e.g., reversing prisms, magnifying lenses, flight simulators, and VR systems). Adaptation is revealed by aftereffects including perceptual disturbances and sensorimotor control disturbances. The purpose of the current study was to compare disturbances in postural control produced by dome and head-mounted virtual environment displays. Individuals recovered from motion sickness and the detrimental effects of exposure to virtual reality on postural control within one hour. Sickness severity and initial decrements in postural equilibrium decreases over days, which suggests that subjects become dual-adapted over time. These findings provide some direction for developing training schedules for VR users that facilitate adaptation, and address safety concerns about aftereffects.

  7. Leptospira Exposure and Patients with Liver Diseases: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Margarita Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra; Alberto Guido-Arreola, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in patients suffering from liver disease has been poorly studied. Information about risk factors associated with infection in liver disease patients may help in the optimal planning of preventive measures. We sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence and patients with liver diseases, and to determine the characteristics of the patients with Leptospira exposure. We performed a case-control study of 75 patients suffering from liver diseases and 150 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Diagnoses of liver disease included liver cirrhosis, steatosis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, and amoebic liver abscess. Sera of participants were analyzed for the presence of anti- Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 17 (22.7%) of 75 patients and in 15 (10.0%) of 150 control subjects (OR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.09-4.94; P=0.03). This is the first age- and gender-matched case control study about Leptospira seroprevalence in patients with liver diseases. Results indicate that Leptospira infection is associated with chronic and acute liver diseases. Results warrants for additional studies on the role of Leptospira exposure in chronic liver disease. PMID:27493589

  8. Chronic myelogenous leukemia and benzene exposure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the case-control literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Steven H; Engel, Arnold; Joshi, Kiran P; Byrd, Daniel M; Chen, Rusan

    2009-12-10

    Benzene exposure is well demonstrated as a cause of acute myelogenous leukemia, but not of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Previous literature reviews based on case series and cohort studies have not shown an association. We have now conducted a literature search for case-control studies that examine the association between benzene exposure and chronic myelogenous leukemia. Six case-control studies have been found. These derive from occupational groups, cancer registries, and a clinical laboratory. Their exposure ascertainments are all based on job histories, job-exposure matricies, or industrial hygiene data. The odds ratios (ORs) for individual studies range from 0.73 to 1.2. The pooled OR is 1.003 with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.94-1.07 (p=0.98) for both a fixed effects model and a random effects model. The case-control literature indicates that chronic myelogenous leukemia does not appear to be related to benzene exposure.

  9. Differential Effects of Controllable Stress Exposure on Subsequent Extinction Learning in Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad-Ophir, Osnat; Brande-Eilat, Noa; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in fear extinction are thought to be related to various anxiety disorders. While failure to extinguish conditioned fear may result in pathological anxiety levels, the ability to quickly and efficiently attenuate learned fear through extinction processes can be extremely beneficial for the individual. One of the factors that may affect the efficiency of the extinction process is prior experience of stressful situations. In the current study, we examined whether exposure to controllable stress, which is suggested to induce stress resilience, can affect subsequent fear extinction. Here, following prolonged two-way shuttle (TWS) avoidance training and a validation of acquired stress controllability, adult rats underwent either cued or contextual fear-conditioning (FC), followed by an extinction session. We further evaluated long lasting alterations of GABAergic targets in the medial pre-frontal cortex (mPFC), as these were implicated in FC and extinction and stress controllability. In cued, but not in contextual fear extinction, within-session extinction was enhanced following controllable stress compared to a control group. Interestingly, impaired extinction recall was detected in both extinction types following the stress procedure. Additionally, stress controllability-dependent alterations in GABAergic markers expression in infralimbic (IL), but not prelimbic (PL) cortex, were detected. These alterations are proposed to be related to the within-session effect, but not the recall impairment. The results emphasize the contribution of prior experience on coping with subsequent stressful experiences. Moreover, the results emphasize that exposure to controllable stress does not generally facilitate future stress coping as previously claimed, but its effects are dependent on specific features of the events taking place.

  10. Understanding Hong Kong Adolescents' Environmental Intention: The Roles of Media Exposure, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kaman

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how exposure to environment-related media content, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control play a role in Hong Kong adolescents' environmental intention. The author conducted a survey with a sample of 1,012 (465 male, 547 female) adolescents in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling confirms that exposure to…

  11. Trends in auto emissions and gasoline composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, R F

    1993-01-01

    The invention of the spark-ignited internal combustion engine provided a market for a petroleum middle distillate, gasoline, about 100 years ago. The internal combustion engine and gasoline have co-evolved until motor vehicles now annually consume about 110 billion gallons of gasoline in the United States. Continuing air pollution problems and resulting regulatory pressures are driving the need for further automotive emissions reductions. Engine and emissions control technology provided most earlier reductions. Changing the composition of gasoline will play a major role in the next round of reductions. The engineering and regulatory definition of a reformulated gasoline is proceeding rapidly, largely as the result of an auto and oil industry cooperative data generation program. It is likely that this new, reformulated gasoline will be introduced in high-ozone regions of the United States in the mid-1990s. Alternative clean fuels, primarily methane, methanol, and liquid petroleum gas, will become more widely used during this same period, probably first in fleet operations. PMID:7517353

  12. Self-Programmed Counseling and Self-Programmed Control Manual. A Guide to Self-Image Development with Emphasis on the Chicano Student. Student's Guide = Manual de Sistema de Consejo Auto Programado y Control Auto Programado. Una Guia Para el Desarrollo de La Imagen Propia Con un Enfasis en el Estudiante Chicano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, S. Raymond

    Self-Programmed Counseling, the instructor's guidance, and Self-Programmed Control (SPC), the student's response, was initially developed by Title III Project USTED (United Students and Teachers for Educational Development) for Mexican American college students on academic probation to use on a non-credit, special group counseling basis. As part…

  13. Self-Programmed Counseling and Self-Programmed Control Manual. A Guide to Self-Image Development with Emphasis on the Chicano Student. Student's Guide = Manual de Sistema de Consejo Auto Programado y Control Auto Programado. Una Guia Para el Desarrollo de La Imagen Propia Con un Enfasis en el Estudiante Chicano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, S. Raymond

    Self-Programmed Counseling, the instructor's guidance, and Self-Programmed Control (SPC), the student's response, was initially developed by Title III Project USTED (United Students and Teachers for Educational Development) for Mexican American college students on academic probation to use on a non-credit, special group counseling basis. As part…

  14. Arterial blood pressure responses to short-term exposure to fine and ultrafine particles from indoor sources - A randomized sham-controlled exposure study of healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppa, Vanessa J; Schins, Roel P F; Hennig, Frauke; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Hellack, Bryan; Quass, Ulrich; Kaminski, Heinz; Sasse, Birgitta; Shinnawi, Samir; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    Particulate air pollution is linked to adverse cardiovascular effects. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of short-term exposure to indoor particles on blood pressure (BP). We analyzed the association of particle emissions from indoor sources (candle burning, toasting bread, frying sausages) with BP changes in 54 healthy volunteers in a randomized cross-over controlled exposure study. Particle mass concentration (PMC), size-specific particle number concentration (PNC) and lung-deposited particle surface area concentration (PSC) were measured during the 2h exposure. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured before, during, directly, 2, 4 and 24h after exposure. We performed multiple mixed linear regression analyses of different particle metrics and BP. BP significantly increased with increasing PMC, PSC and PNC resulting from toasting bread. For example, an increase per 10µg/m(3) PM10 and PM2.5, systolic BP increased at all time points with largest changes 1h after exposure initiation of 1.5mmHg (95%-CI: 1.1; 1.9) and of 2.2mmHg (95%-CI: 1.3; 3.1), respectively. Our study suggests an association of short-term exposure to fine and ultrafine particles emitted from toasting bread with increases in BP. Particles emitted from frying sausages and candle burning did not consistently affect BP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Testing First-Order Logic Axioms in AutoCert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ki Yung; Denney, Ewen

    2009-01-01

    AutoCert [2] is a formal verification tool for machine generated code in safety critical domains, such as aerospace control code generated from MathWorks Real-Time Workshop. AutoCert uses Automated Theorem Provers (ATPs) [5] based on First-Order Logic (FOL) to formally verify safety and functional correctness properties of the code. These ATPs try to build proofs based on user provided domain-specific axioms, which can be arbitrary First-Order Formulas (FOFs). These axioms are the most crucial part of the trusted base, since proofs can be submitted to a proof checker removing the need to trust the prover and AutoCert itself plays the part of checking the code generator. However, formulating axioms correctly (i.e. precisely as the user had really intended) is non-trivial in practice. The challenge of axiomatization arise from several dimensions. First, the domain knowledge has its own complexity. AutoCert has been used to verify mathematical requirements on navigation software that carries out various geometric coordinate transformations involving matrices and quaternions. Axiomatic theories for such constructs are complex enough that mistakes are not uncommon. Second, adjusting axioms for ATPs can add even more complexity. The axioms frequently need to be modified in order to have them in a form suitable for use with ATPs. Such modifications tend to obscure the axioms further. Thirdly, speculating validity of the axioms from the output of existing ATPs is very hard since theorem provers typically do not give any examples or counterexamples.

  16. Linking Basic Skills to Entry-Level Auto Mechanic & Auto Body Worker Tasks. Instructional Resources. Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavidez, Charlotte; Miyatake, George

    This project first identified the duties and tasks required of an entry-level auto mechanic (AM) and an auto body worker (ABW), using a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) occupational analysis process. In this process, a panel of local, expert workers determined the essential duties and tasks of their occupations. Next, the panel identified…

  17. Association between occupational exposure and control measures for antineoplastic drugs in a pharmacy of a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Jin; Koda, Shigeki; Nishida, Shozo; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Tei, Genshin; Kumagai, Shinji

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the association between occupational contamination and exposure levels to antineoplastic drugs and the application of control measures in a hospital work environment. Wipe samples of equipments were collected at a hospital in Osaka Prefecture, Japan, from 2007 to 2011. These samples were subjected to measurements of cyclophosphamide (CP), gemcitabine (GEM), platinum-containing drugs (Pt), and fluorouracil (5FU). Additionally, 24-h urine samples were collected from pharmacists who handled antineoplastic drugs, which were analyzed for CP and alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine (AFBA). The application of control measures was scored according to a checklist, which consisted of the following five items: safety equipment and maintenance, training and documentation, devices for safe handling, personal protective equipment, and emergency care. The aim was to obtain a score of 80%. The median CP, GEM, and 5FU concentrations of all wipe samples were significantly lower during the period when the mean score was >80% (attainment period) versus when the mean score was ≤80% (nonattainment period; all P antineoplastic drugs decreased with a score higher than 80%. The scores of the items on the checklist appeared to adequately reflect the condition of the control measures, as increases in all five items were associated with reductions in the contamination by and levels of exposure to all drugs.

  18. ALGORITHM AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AUTO-SEARCHING WELD LINE FOR WELDING MOBILE ROBOT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ke; L(U) Xueqin; WU Yixiong; LOU Songnian

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm of auto-searching weld line for welding mobile robot is presented.Auto-searching weld line is that the robot can automatically recognize a weld groove according to the characteristics of the weld groove before welding, and then adjust itself posture to the desired status preparing for welding, namely, it is a process that the robot autonomously aligns itself to the center of welding seam. Firstly, the configuration of welding mobile robot with the function of auto-searching weld line is introduced, then the algorithm and implementation of auto-searching weld line are presented on the basis of kinematics model of the robot, at last trajectory planning among auto-searching weld line is investigated in detail. The experiment result shows that the developed welding mobile robot can successfully implement the task of auto-searching weld line before welding, tracking error precision can be controlled to approximate ± 1.5 mm, and satisfy the requirement of practical welding project.

  19. Exposure to virtual social interactions in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, Isabel L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Hartanto, Dwi; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Zijlstra, Bonne J H; Morina, Nexhmedin

    2016-02-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a stand-alone virtual reality exposure intervention comprising verbal interaction with virtual humans to target heterogeneous social fears in participants with social anxiety disorder. Sixty participants (Mage = 36.9 years; 63.3% women) diagnosed with social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to individual virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), individual in vivo exposure therapy (iVET), or waiting-list. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that both treatment groups improved from pre-to postassessment on social anxiety symptoms, speech duration, perceived stress, and avoidant personality disorder related beliefs when compared to the waiting-list. Participants receiving iVET, but not VRET, improved on fear of negative evaluation, speech performance, general anxiety, depression, and quality of life relative to those on waiting-list. The iVET condition was further superior to the VRET condition regarding decreases in social anxiety symptoms at post- and follow-up assessments, and avoidant personality disorder related beliefs at follow-up. At follow-up, all improvements were significant for iVET. For VRET, only the effect for perceived stress was significant. VRET containing extensive verbal interaction without any cognitive components can effectively reduce complaints of generalized social anxiety disorder. Future technological and psychological improvements of virtual social interactions might further enhance the efficacy of VRET for social anxiety disorder.

  20. Hypothalamic sensing of ketone bodies after prolonged cerebral exposure leads to metabolic control dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Lionel; Geller, Sarah; Hébert, Audrey; Repond, Cendrine; Fioramonti, Xavier; Leloup, Corinne; Pellerin, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Ketone bodies have been shown to transiently stimulate food intake and modify energy homeostasis regulatory systems following cerebral infusion for a moderate period of time (neuropeptides. Moreover, insulinemia was increased and caused a decrease in glucose production despite an increased resistance to insulin. The present study confirms that ketone bodies reaching the brain stimulates food intake. Moreover, we provide evidence that a prolonged hyperketonemia leads to a dysregulation of energy homeostasis control mechanisms. Finally, this study shows that brain exposure to ketone bodies alters insulin signaling and consequently glucose homeostasis. PMID:27708432

  1. X-ray detector for automatic exposure control using ionization chamber filled with xenon gas

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, A; Yoshida, T

    2003-01-01

    This report refers to our newly developed X-ray detector for reliable automatic X-ray exposure control, which is to be widely used for X-ray diagnoses in various clinical fields. This new detector utilizes an ionization chamber filled with xenon gas, in contrast to conventional X-ray detectors which use ionization chambers filled with air. Use of xenon gas ensures higher sensitivity and thinner design of the detector. The xenon gas is completely sealed in the chamber, so that the influence of the changes in ambient environments is minimized. (author)

  2. THE AUTOMATED SYSTEM OF RADIATION EXPOSURE CONTROL (ASCRE) FOR ROSPOTREBNADZOR: CREATION HISTORY, APPLICABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Repin; A. M. Biblin; P. G. Kovalev; M. S. Nikolaevich; V. S. Repin

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the automated system of radiation exposure control (ASCRE) for Rospotrebnadzor developed  in  the  framework  of  the  Federal  target  program  "Nuclear  and  Radiation  Safety  in  2008  and  for  the period till 2015". The history of the development of this system is given. It is shown the diagram of the functioning of ASCRE, description of the individual blocks of diagram is given. It is shown that the grpouping of the data from various Federal banks in the single au...

  3. AutoCAD 2012 and AutoCAD LT 2012 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    The latest version of this perennial favorite, in-depth, reference-tutorial This top-selling book has been updated by AutoCAD guru and author Ellen Finkelstein to provide you with the very latest coverage of both AutoCAD 2012 and AutoCAD LT 2012. It begins with a Quick Start tutorial, so you start creating right away. From there, the book covers so much in-depth material on AutoCAD that it is said that even Autodesk employees keep this comprehensive book at their desks. A DVD is included that features before-and-after drawings of all the tutorials and plenty of great examples from AutoCAD prof

  4. Automatic exposure control in computed tomography--an evaluation of systems from different manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Marcus; Gunnarsson, Mikael

    2010-07-01

    Today, practically all computed tomography (CT) systems are delivered with automatic exposure control (AEC) systems operating with tube current modulation in three dimensions. Each of these systems has different specifications and operates somewhat differently. To evaluate AEC systems from four different CT scanner manufacturers: General Electric (GE), Philips, Siemens, and Toshiba, considering their potential for reducing radiation exposure to the patient while maintaining adequate image quality. The dynamics (adaptation along the longitudinal axis) of tube current modulation of each AEC system were investigated by scanning an anthropomorphic chest phantom using both 16- and 64-slice CT scanners from each manufacturer with the AEC systems activated and inactivated. The radiation dose was estimated using the parameters in the DICOM image information and image quality was evaluated based on image noise (standard deviation of CT numbers) calculated in 0.5 cm(2) circular regions of interest situated throughout the spine region of the chest phantom. We found that tube current modulation dynamics were similar among the different AEC systems, especially between GE and Toshiba systems and between Philips and Siemens systems. Furthermore, the magnitude of the reduction in the exposure dose was considerable, in the range of 35-60%. However, in general the image noise increased when the AEC systems were used, especially in regions where the tube current was greatly decreased, such as the lung region. However, the variation in image noise among images obtained along the scanning direction was lower when using the AEC systems compared with fixed mAs. The AEC systems available in modern CT scanners can contribute to a significant reduction in radiation exposure to the patient and the image noise becomes more uniform within any given scan.

  5. Total Exposure and Exposure Rate Effects for Alcohol and Smoking and Risk of Head and Neck Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of Case-Control Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lubin, Jay H.; Purdue, Mark; Kelsey, Karl; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Winn, Debbie; Wei, Qingyi; Talamini, Renato; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Sturgis, Erich M.; Smith, Elaine; Shangina, Oxana; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Rudnai, Peter; Neto, Jose Eluf; Muscat, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption increase risk for head and neck cancers, there have been few attempts to model risks quantitatively and to formally evaluate cancer site-specific risks. The authors pooled data from 15 case-control studies and modeled the excess odds ratio (EOR) to assess risk by total exposure (pack-years and drink-years) and its modification by exposure rate (cigarettes/day and drinks/day). The smoking analysis included 1,761 laryngeal, 2,453 pharyngeal, an...

  6. Mortality studies of machining fluid exposure in the automobile industry. IV: A case-control study of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, J C; Tolbert, P E; Eisen, E A; Monson, R R; Hallock, M F; Smith, T J; Woskie, S R; Hammond, S K; Milton, D K

    1997-05-01

    Machining fluids are diverse products that contain numerous additives and contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Studies treating machining fluids as an aggregate exposure have found both positive and negative associations with lung cancer. In this nested case-control study of automotive workers (667 cases and 3,041 matched controls), individual estimates of exposure quantity and duration for specific classes of machining fluids were derived. An inverse dose-response relationship was found between synthetic machining fluids and lung cancer mortality, with an odds ratio of 0.6 (95% CI = 0.4, 0.8) for the highest level of lifetime exposure. The relationship was strongest for recent exposures. There was little evidence of an association with soluble or straight oil machining fluids. Risks were inconsistently elevated in workers exposed to aluminum. Results from this study provide strong evidence that exposure to machining fluids is not associated with an increased risk of lung cancer mortality in automotive workers.

  7. Father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and childhood acute leukemia: a new method to assess exposure (a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Rivera Maria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical research has not been able to establish whether a father's occupational exposures are associated with the development of acute leukemia (AL in their offspring. The studies conducted have weaknesses that have generated a misclassification of such exposure. Occupations and exposures to substances associated with childhood cancer are not very frequently encountered in the general population; thus, the reported risks are both inconsistent and inaccurate. In this study, to assess exposure we used a new method, an exposure index, which took into consideration the industrial branch, specific position, use of protective equipment, substances at work, degree of contact with such substances, and time of exposure. This index allowed us to obtain a grade, which permitted the identification of individuals according to their level of exposure to known or potentially carcinogenic agents that are not necessarily specifically identified as risk factors for leukemia. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and the presence of AL in their offspring. Methods From 1999 to 2000, a case-control study was performed with 193 children who reside in Mexico City and had been diagnosed with AL. The initial sample-size calculation was 150 children per group, assessed with an expected odds ratio (OR of three and a minimum exposure frequency of 15.8%. These children were matched by age, sex, and institution with 193 pediatric surgical patients at secondary-care hospitals. A questionnaire was used to determine each child's background and the characteristics of the father's occupation(s. In order to determine the level of exposure to carcinogenic agents, a previously validated exposure index (occupational exposure index, OEI was used. The consistency and validity of the index were assessed by a questionnaire comparison, the sensory recognition of the work area, and an

  8. Pesticide exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease: A family-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Burton L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticides and correlated lifestyle factors (e.g., exposure to well-water and farming are repeatedly reported risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD, but few family-based studies have examined these relationships. Methods Using 319 cases and 296 relative and other controls, associations of direct pesticide application, well-water consumption, and farming residences/occupations with PD were examined using generalized estimating equations while controlling for age-at-examination, sex, cigarette smoking, and caffeine consumption. Results Overall, individuals with PD were significantly more likely to report direct pesticide application than their unaffected relatives (odds ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.29. Frequency, duration, and cumulative exposure were also significantly associated with PD in a dose-response pattern (p ≤ 0.013. Associations of direct pesticide application did not vary by sex but were modified by family history of PD, as significant associations were restricted to individuals with no family history. When classifying pesticides by functional type, both insecticides and herbicides were found to significantly increase risk of PD. Two specific insecticide classes, organochlorines and organophosphorus compounds, were significantly associated with PD. Consuming well-water and living/working on a farm were not associated with PD. Conclusion These data corroborate positive associations of broadly defined pesticide exposure with PD in families, particularly for sporadic PD. These data also implicate a few specific classes of pesticides in PD and thus emphasize the need to consider a more narrow definition of pesticides in future studies.

  9. Set up and operation for medical radiation exposure quality control system of health promotion center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Su; Kim, Jung Min [Korea University,Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Kyoung [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    In this study, standard model of medical radiation dosage quality control system will be suggested and the useful of this system in clinical field will be reviewed. Radiation dosage information of modalities are gathered from digital imaging and communications in medicine(DICOM) standard data(such as DICOM dose SR and DICOM header) and stored in database. One CT scan, two digital radiography modalities and two mammography modalities in one health promotion center in Seoul are used to derive clinical data for one month. After 1 months research with 703 CT scans, the study shows CT 357.9 mGy·cm in abdomen and pelvic CT, 572.4 mGy·cm in brain without CT, 55.9 mGy·cm in calcium score/heart CT, screening CT at 54 mGy·cm in chest screening CT(low dose screening CT scan), 284.99 mGy·cm in C-spine CT and 341.85 mGy·cm in L-spine CT as health promotion center reference level of each exam. And with 1955 digital radiography cases, it shows 274.0 mGy·cm{sup 2} and for mammography 6.09 mGy is shown based on 536 cases. The use of medical radiation shall comply with the principles of justification and optimization. This quality management of medical radiation exposure must be performed in order to follow the principle. And the procedure to reduce the radiation exposure of patients and staff can be achieved through this. The results of this study can be applied as a useful tool to perform the quality control of medical radiation exposure.

  10. Risk-based approach for controlling beryllium exposure in a manufacturing environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, W. E. (Walter E.); Clawson, C. D. (Chris D.); Ellis, K. K. (Kimberly K.)

    2003-01-01

    There are many diverse uses for beryllium in both military and industrial applications. Unfortunately, there are certain worker health risks associated with the manufacture and production of beryllium products. Respiratory illnesses due to prolonged contact with beryllium particulate are of paramount concern. However, these health risks can be controlled provided that the appropriate protective measures to prevent worker exposure from beryllium are in place. But it is no1 always a straightforward process to identify exactly what the beryllium protective measures should be in order to realize a true risk savings. Without prudent attention to a systematic inquiry and suitable evaluative criteria, a program for controlling beryllium health risks can be lacking in completeness and overall effectiveness. One approach that took into account the necessary ingredients for risk-based determination of beryllium protective measures was developed for a beryllium operation at a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. The methodological framework that was applied at this facility, as well as a discussion of the final beryllium protective measures that were determined by this approach will be presented. Regulatory aspects for working with beryllium, as well as a risk-assessment strategy for ranking beryllium-handling activities with respect to exposure potential will also be discussed. The presentation will conclude with a synopsis of lessons-learned as gleaned from this case study, as well as providing the participants with a constructive blueprint that can be adapted to other processes involving beryllium.

  11. AutoCAD platform customization user interface and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosius, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Make AutoCAD your own with powerful personalization options Options for AutoCAD customization are typically the domain of administrators, but savvy users can perform their own customizations to personalize AutoCAD. Until recently, most users never thought to customize the AutoCAD platform to meet their specific needs, instead leaving it to administrators. If you are an AutoCAD user who wants to ramp up personalization options in your favorite software, AutoCAD Platform Customization: User Interface and Beyond is the perfect resource for you. Author Lee Ambrosius is recognized as a leader in Au

  12. Over-exposure correction in knee cone-beam CT imaging with automatic exposure control using a partial low dose scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Muller, Kerstin; Hsieh, Scott; Maier, Andreas; Gold, Garry; Levenston, Marc; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    C-arm-based cone-beam CT (CBCT) systems with flat-panel detectors are suitable for diagnostic knee imaging due to their potentially flexible selection of CT trajectories and wide volumetric beam coverage. In knee CT imaging, over-exposure artifacts can occur because of limitations in the dynamic range of the flat panel detectors present on most CBCT systems. We developed a straightforward but effective method for correction and detection of over-exposure for an Automatic Exposure Control (AEC)-enabled standard knee scan incorporating a prior low dose scan. The radiation dose associated with the low dose scan was negligible (0.0042mSv, 2.8% increase) which was enabled by partially sampling the projection images considering the geometry of the knees and lowering the dose further to be able to just see the skin-air interface. We combined the line integrals from the AEC and low dose scans after detecting over-exposed regions by comparing the line profiles of the two scans detector row-wise. The combined line integrals were reconstructed into a volumetric image using filtered back projection. We evaluated our method using in vivo human subject knee data. The proposed method effectively corrected and detected over-exposure, and thus recovered the visibility of exterior tissues (e.g., the shape and density of the patella, and the patellar tendon), incorporating a prior low dose scan with a negligible increase in radiation exposure.

  13. Impacts of Mercury Pollution Controls on Atmospheric Mercury Concentration and Occupational Mercury Exposure in a Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Yang, Yan; Xiong, Wuyan

    2015-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) and Hg-containing products are used in a wide range of settings in hospitals. Hg pollution control measures were carried out in the pediatric ward of a hospital to decrease the possibility of Hg pollution occurring and to decrease occupational Hg exposure. Total gaseous Hg (TGM) concentrations in the pediatric ward and hair and urine Hg concentrations for the pediatric staff were determined before and after the Hg pollution control measures had been implemented. A questionnaire survey performed indicated that the pediatric staff had little understanding of Hg pollution and that appropriate disposal techniques were not always used after Hg leakage. TGM concentrations in the pediatric ward and urine Hg (UHg) concentrations for the pediatric staff were 25.7 and 22.2% lower, respectively, after the Hg pollution control measures had been implemented than before, which indicated that the control measures were effective. However, TGM concentrations in the pediatric ward remained significantly higher than background concentrations and UHg concentrations for the pediatric staff were remained significantly higher than the concentrations in control group, indicating continued existence of certain Hg pollution.

  14. Gene expression profiling in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity before and after a controlled n-butanol exposure session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantoft, Thomas M; Skovbjerg, Sine; Andersson, Linus; Claeson, Anna-Sara; Engkilde, Kaare; Lind, Nina; Nordin, Steven; Hellgren, Lars I

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the pathophysiological pathways leading to symptoms elicitation in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) by comparing gene expression in MCS participants and healthy controls before and after a chemical exposure optimised to cause symptoms among MCS participants. The first hypothesis was that unexposed and symptom-free MCS participants have similar gene expression patterns to controls and a second hypothesis that MCS participants can be separated from controls based on differential gene expression upon a controlled n-butanol exposure. Design Participants were exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol while seated in a windowed exposure chamber for 60 min. A total of 26 genes involved in biochemical pathways found in the literature have been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of MCS and other functional somatic syndromes were selected. Expression levels were compared between MCS and controls before, within 15 min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure. Settings Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper. Participants 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons fulfilling the criteria for MCS were enrolled together with 18 healthy controls. Outcome measures 17 genes showed sufficient transcriptional level for analysis. Group comparisons were conducted for each gene at the 3 times points and for the computed area under the curve (AUC) expression levels. Results MCS participants and controls displayed similar gene expression levels both at baseline and after the exposure and the computed AUC values were likewise comparable between the 2 groups. The intragroup variation in expression levels among MCS participants was noticeably greater than the controls. Conclusions MCS participants and controls have similar gene expression levels at baseline and it was not possible to separate

  15. In Vivo versus Augmented Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Small Animal Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Botella

    Full Text Available Although in vivo exposure is the treatment of choice for specific phobias, some acceptability problems have been associated with it. Virtual Reality exposure has been shown to be as effective as in vivo exposure, and it is widely accepted for the treatment of specific phobias, but only preliminary data are available in the literature about the efficacy of Augmented Reality. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy and acceptance of two treatment conditions for specific phobias in which the exposure component was applied in different ways: In vivo exposure (N = 31 versus an Augmented Reality system (N = 32 in a randomized controlled trial. "One-session treatment" guidelines were followed. Participants in the Augmented Reality condition significantly improved on all the outcome measures at post-treatment and follow-ups. When the two treatment conditions were compared, some differences were found at post-treatment, favoring the participants who received in vivo exposure. However, these differences disappeared at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Regarding participants' expectations and satisfaction with the treatment, very positive ratings were reported in both conditions. In addition, participants from in vivo exposure condition considered the treatment more useful for their problem whereas participants from Augmented Reality exposure considered the treatment less aversive. Results obtained in this study indicate that Augmented Reality exposure is an effective treatment for specific phobias and well accepted by the participants.

  16. In Vivo versus Augmented Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Small Animal Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Cristina; Pérez-Ara, M Ángeles; Bretón-López, Juana; Quero, Soledad; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Although in vivo exposure is the treatment of choice for specific phobias, some acceptability problems have been associated with it. Virtual Reality exposure has been shown to be as effective as in vivo exposure, and it is widely accepted for the treatment of specific phobias, but only preliminary data are available in the literature about the efficacy of Augmented Reality. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy and acceptance of two treatment conditions for specific phobias in which the exposure component was applied in different ways: In vivo exposure (N = 31) versus an Augmented Reality system (N = 32) in a randomized controlled trial. "One-session treatment" guidelines were followed. Participants in the Augmented Reality condition significantly improved on all the outcome measures at post-treatment and follow-ups. When the two treatment conditions were compared, some differences were found at post-treatment, favoring the participants who received in vivo exposure. However, these differences disappeared at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Regarding participants' expectations and satisfaction with the treatment, very positive ratings were reported in both conditions. In addition, participants from in vivo exposure condition considered the treatment more useful for their problem whereas participants from Augmented Reality exposure considered the treatment less aversive. Results obtained in this study indicate that Augmented Reality exposure is an effective treatment for specific phobias and well accepted by the participants.

  17. In Vivo versus Augmented Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Small Animal Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Cristina; Pérez-Ara, M. Ángeles; Bretón-López, Juana; Quero, Soledad; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Although in vivo exposure is the treatment of choice for specific phobias, some acceptability problems have been associated with it. Virtual Reality exposure has been shown to be as effective as in vivo exposure, and it is widely accepted for the treatment of specific phobias, but only preliminary data are available in the literature about the efficacy of Augmented Reality. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy and acceptance of two treatment conditions for specific phobias in which the exposure component was applied in different ways: In vivo exposure (N = 31) versus an Augmented Reality system (N = 32) in a randomized controlled trial. “One-session treatment” guidelines were followed. Participants in the Augmented Reality condition significantly improved on all the outcome measures at post-treatment and follow-ups. When the two treatment conditions were compared, some differences were found at post-treatment, favoring the participants who received in vivo exposure. However, these differences disappeared at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Regarding participants’ expectations and satisfaction with the treatment, very positive ratings were reported in both conditions. In addition, participants from in vivo exposure condition considered the treatment more useful for their problem whereas participants from Augmented Reality exposure considered the treatment less aversive. Results obtained in this study indicate that Augmented Reality exposure is an effective treatment for specific phobias and well accepted by the participants. PMID:26886423

  18. Beryllium Exposure Control Program at the Cardiff Atomic Weapons Establishment in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J S; Foote, K; McClean, M; Cogbill, G

    2001-05-01

    experienced only one unique a case of clinical chronic beryllium disease (CBD) ascertained by traditional medical monitoring procedures. The treating physician determined that this lung disease was likely caused by a systems reaction resulting from a mound contaminated with beryllium. However, he could not rule out the potential for inhalation exposure. Over the 17 years of measurement data analyzed, on occasion, airborne beryllium concentrations have exceeded 2.0 microg/m3; however, the Cardiff experience demonstrates that strict and consistent adherence to exposure control measures that emphasized airborne and surface levels and appropriate engineering controls, work practices, and use of personal protective equipment appears to have successfully prevented the incidence of clinical CBD with the exception of one unique case.

  19. Occupational and other exposures associated with male end-stage renal disease: A case/control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenland, N.K.; Thun, M.J.; Ferguson, C.W.; Port, F.K. (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (USA))

    1990-02-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 325 men ages 30-69 who were diagnosed with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1976 and 1984, and resided in four urban areas of Michigan in 1984. Cases were selected from the Michigan Kidney Registry and excluded men with diabetic, congenital, and obstructive nephropathies. Controls were selected by random-digit dialing and were pair-matched to cases for age, race, and area of residence. Telephone interviews were conducted with 69 percent of eligible cases and 79 percent of eligible controls. Risk of ESRD was significantly related to phenacetin or acetaminophen consumption (odds ratio(OR) = 2.66), moonshine consumption (OR = 2.43), a family history of renal disease (OR = 9.30); and regular occupational exposures to solvents (OR = 1.51) or silica (OR = 1.67). Particular occupational exposures with elevated risk were solvents used as cleaning agents and degreasers (OR = 2.50) silica exposure in foundries or brick factories (OR = 1.92), and silica exposure during sandblasting (OR = 3.83). Little or no trend of increased risk with duration of exposure was found for these occupational exposures, with the exception of silica in sandblasting. Limitations of these data include representativeness of cases, possible overreporting by cases, and misclassification of exposures inherent in self-reports.

  20. Auto-communicating micro-orientalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Ooi, Can-Seng

    2013-01-01

    Using the concepts of auto-communication and micro-Orientalism, this article argues that nation branding at World Expos produces and propagates notions of difference and Otherness. We examine how Denmark presents itself in China, and how the message inevitably tells how the Danish authorities view...... exhibition is performed and regulated as sustainable and authentic and how in spite of its seemingly dialogical and interactive layout, a number of auto-communicative and micro-Orientalist practices are enacted. This study is based on field participation, observations and interviews. Public sources...

  1. Parallel auto-correlative statistics with VTK.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pebay, Philippe Pierre; Bennett, Janine Camille

    2013-08-01

    This report summarizes existing statistical engines in VTK and presents both the serial and parallel auto-correlative statistics engines. It is a sequel to [PT08, BPRT09b, PT09, BPT09, PT10] which studied the parallel descriptive, correlative, multi-correlative, principal component analysis, contingency, k-means, and order statistics engines. The ease of use of the new parallel auto-correlative statistics engine is illustrated by the means of C++ code snippets and algorithm verification is provided. This report justifies the design of the statistics engines with parallel scalability in mind, and provides scalability and speed-up analysis results for the autocorrelative statistics engine.

  2. AutoCAD 2012 and AutoCAD LT 2012 No Experience Required

    CERN Document Server

    Gladfelter, Donnie

    2011-01-01

    The perfect step-by-step introduction to Autodesk's powerful architectural design software With this essential guide, you'll learn how to plan, develop, document, and present a complete AutoCAD project by building a summer cabin from start to finish. You can follow each step sequentially or jump in at any point by downloading the drawing files from the book's companion web site. You'll also master all essential AutoCAD features, get a thorough grounding in the basics, learn the very latest industry standards and techniques, and quickly become productive with AutoCAD 2012.Features concise expla

  3. AutoCAD 2015 and AutoCAD LT 2015 essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Onstott, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for the AutoCAD fundamentals AutoCAD 2015 Essentials contains 400 pages of full-color, comprehensive instruction on the world's top drafting and architecture software. This 2015 edition features architectural, manufacturing, and landscape architecture examples. And like previous editions, the detailed guide introduces core concepts using interactive tutorials and open-ended projects, which can be completed in any order, thanks to downloadable data sets (an especially useful feature for students and professionals studying for Autodesk AutoCAD certification). Unlike man

  4. Prey-mediated behavioral responses of feeding blue whales in controlled sound exposure experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlaender, A S; Hazen, E L; Goldbogen, J A; Stimpert, A K; Calambokidis, J; Southall, B L

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral response studies provide significant insights into the nature, magnitude, and consequences of changes in animal behavior in response to some external stimulus. Controlled exposure experiments (CEEs) to study behavioral response have faced challenges in quantifying the importance of and interaction among individual variability, exposure conditions, and environmental covariates. To investigate these complex parameters relative to blue whale behavior and how it may change as a function of certain sounds, we deployed multi-sensor acoustic tags and conducted CEEs using simulated mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS) and pseudo-random noise (PRN) stimuli, while collecting synoptic, quantitative prey measures. In contrast to previous approaches that lacked such prey data, our integrated approach explained substantially more variance in blue whale dive behavioral responses to mid-frequency sounds (r2 = 0.725 vs. 0.14 previously). Results demonstrate that deep-feeding whales respond more clearly and strongly to CEEs than those in other behavioral states, but this was only evident with the increased explanatory power provided by incorporating prey density and distribution as contextual covariates. Including contextual variables increases the ability to characterize behavioral variability and empirically strengthens previous findings that deep-feeding blue whales respond significantly to mid-frequency sound exposure. However, our results are only based on a single behavioral state with a limited sample size, and this analytical framework should be applied broadly across behavioral states. The increased capability to describe and account for individual response variability by including environmental variables, such as prey, that drive foraging behavior underscores the importance of integrating these and other relevant contextual parameters in experimental designs. Our results suggest the need to measure and account for the ecological dynamics of predator

  5. A single intervention for cockroach control reduces cockroach exposure and asthma morbidity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabito, Felicia A; Carlson, John C; He, Hua; Werthmann, Derek; Schal, Coby

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to cockroaches is an important asthma trigger, particularly for children with asthma living in inner cities. Integrated pest management is the recommended approach to cockroach abatement; however, it is costly and difficult to implement. The impact of reducing cockroach exposure on asthma outcomes is not known. We sought to test the use of a single intervention, insecticidal bait, to reduce cockroach exposure in the home of children with asthma in New Orleans and to examine the impact of cockroach reduction on asthma outcomes. One hundred two children aged 5 to 17 years with moderate to severe asthma were enrolled in a 12-month randomized controlled trial testing the use of insecticidal bait on cockroach counts and asthma morbidity. Homes were visited 6 times and asthma symptoms were assessed every 2 months. After adjustment, intervention homes had significantly fewer cockroaches than did control homes (mean change in cockroaches trapped, 13.14; 95% CI, 6.88-19.39; P Children in control homes had more asthma symptoms and unscheduled health care utilization in the previous 2 weeks (1.82, 95% CI, 0.14-3.50, P = .03; 1.17, 95% CI, 0.11-2.24, P = .03, respectively) and a higher proportion of children with FEV1 of less than 80% predicted (odds ratio, 5.74; 95% CI, 1.60-20.57; P = .01) compared with children living in intervention homes. Previous research has demonstrated improvement in asthma health outcomes using multifaceted interventions. The strategic placement of insecticidal bait, which is inexpensive, has low toxicity, and is widely available, resulted in sustained cockroach elimination over 12 months and was associated with improved asthma outcomes. This single intervention may be an alternative to multifaceted interventions currently recommended to improve asthma morbidity. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Solvent exposure and malignant lymphoma: a population-based case-control study in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeg Evelin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To analyze the relationship between exposure to chlorinated and aromatic organic solvents and malignant lymphoma in a multi-centre, population-based case-control study. Methods Male and female patients with malignant lymphoma (n = 710 between 18 and 80 years of age were prospectively recruited in six study regions in Germany (Ludwigshafen/Upper Palatinate, Heidelberg/Rhine-Neckar-County, Würzburg/Lower Frankonia, Hamburg, Bielefeld/Gütersloh, and Munich. For each newly recruited lymphoma case, a gender, region and age-matched (± 1 year of birth population control was drawn from the population registers. In a structured personal interview, we elicited a complete occupational history, including every occupational period that lasted at least one year. On the basis of job task-specific supplementary questionnaires, a trained occupational physician assessed the exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride and aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene, styrene. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking (in pack years and alcohol consumption. To increase the statistical power, patients with specific lymphoma subentities were additionally compared with the entire control group using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results We observed a statistically significant association between high exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons and malignant lymphoma (Odds ratio = 2.1; 95% confidence interval 1.1–4.3. In the analysis of lymphoma subentities, a pronounced risk elevation was found for follicular lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma. When specific substances were considered, the association between trichloroethylene and malignant lymphoma was of borderline statistical significance. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not significantly associated with the lymphoma diagnosis

  7. A Novel Auto-Sorting System for Chinese Cabbage Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Yi; Cheng, Jian-Feng

    2017-04-18

    This paper presents a novel machine vision-based auto-sorting system for Chinese cabbage seeds. The system comprises an inlet-outlet mechanism, machine vision hardware and software, and control system for sorting seed quality. The proposed method can estimate the shape, color, and textural features of seeds that are provided as input neurons of neural networks in order to classify seeds as "good" and "not good" (NG). The results show the accuracies of classification to be 91.53% and 88.95% for good and NG seeds, respectively. The experimental results indicate that Chinese cabbage seeds can be sorted efficiently using the developed system.

  8. A Novel Auto-Sorting System for Chinese Cabbage Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo-Yi Huang; Jian-Feng Cheng

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel machine vision-based auto-sorting system for Chinese cabbage seeds. The system comprises an inlet-outlet mechanism, machine vision hardware and software, and control system for sorting seed quality. The proposed method can estimate the shape, color, and textural features of seeds that are provided as input neurons of neural networks in order to classify seeds as “good” and “not good” (NG). The results show the accuracies of classification to be 91.53% and 88.95% fo...

  9. Single-session gamified virtual reality exposure therapy for spider phobia vs. traditional exposure therapy: study protocol for a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloff, Alexander; Lindner, Philip; Hamilton, William; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-02-02

    Traditional one-session exposure therapy (OST) in which a patient is gradually exposed to feared stimuli for up to 3 h in a one-session format has been found effective for the treatment of specific phobias. However, many individuals with specific phobia are reluctant to seek help, and access to care is lacking due to logistic challenges of accessing, collecting, storing, and/or maintaining stimuli. Virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy may improve upon existing techniques by facilitating access, decreasing cost, and increasing acceptability and effectiveness. The aim of this study is to compare traditional OST with in vivo spiders and a human therapist with a newly developed single-session gamified VR exposure therapy application with modern VR hardware, virtual spiders, and a virtual therapist. Participants with specific phobia to spiders (N = 100) will be recruited from the general public, screened, and randomized to either VR exposure therapy (n = 50) or traditional OST (n = 50). A behavioral approach test using in vivo spiders will serve as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures will include spider phobia questionnaires and self-reported anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Outcomes will be assessed using a non-inferiority design at baseline and at 1, 12, and 52 weeks after treatment. VR exposure therapy has previously been evaluated as a treatment for specific phobias, but there has been a lack of high-quality randomized controlled trials. A new generation of modern, consumer-ready VR devices is being released that are advancing existing technology and have the potential to improve clinical availability and treatment effectiveness. The VR medium is also particularly suitable for taking advantage of recent phobia treatment research emphasizing engagement and new learning, as opposed to physiological habituation. This study compares a market-ready, gamified VR spider phobia exposure application, delivered using consumer VR hardware, with

  10. Bisphenol a exposure in Mexico City and risk of prematurity: a pilot nested case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercado-García Adriana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presence of Bisphenol A (BPA has been documented worldwide in a variety of human biological samples. There is growing evidence that low level BPA exposure may impact placental tissue development and thyroid function in humans. The aim of this present pilot study was to determine urinary concentrations of BPA during the last trimester of pregnancy among a small subset of women in Mexico City, Mexico and relate these concentrations to risk of delivering prematurely. Methods A nested case-control subset of 60 participants in the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to ENvironmental Toxicants (ELEMENT study in Mexico City, Mexico were selected based on delivering less than or equal to 37 weeks of gestation and greater than 37 weeks of gestation. Third trimester archived spot urine samples were analyzed by online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Results BPA was detected in 80.0% (N = 48 of the urine samples; total concentrations ranged from th week (n = 12, the odds ratio for specific-gravity adjusted BPA was larger and statistically significant (p Conclusions This is the first study to document measurable levels of BPA in the urine of a population of Mexican women. This study also provides preliminary evidence, based on a single spot urine sample collected during the third trimester, that pregnant women who delivered less than or equal to 37 weeks of gestation and prematurely (

  11. In-car nocturnal blue light exposure improves motorway driving: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Taillard

    Full Text Available Prolonged wakefulness greatly decreases nocturnal driving performance. The development of in-car countermeasures is a future challenge to prevent sleep-related accidents. The aim of this study is to determine whether continuous exposure to monochromatic light in the short wavelengths (blue light, placed on the dashboard, improves night-time driving performance. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 48 healthy male participants (aged 20-50 years drove 400 km (250 miles on motorway during night-time. They randomly and consecutively received either continuous blue light exposure (GOLite, Philips, 468 nm during driving or 2*200 mg of caffeine or placebo of caffeine before and during the break. Treatments were separated by at least 1 week. The outcomes were number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC and mean standard deviation of the lateral position (SDLP. Eight participants (17% complained about dazzle during blue light exposure and were removed from the analysis. Results from the 40 remaining participants (mean age ± SD: 32.9±11.1 showed that countermeasures reduced the number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC (F(2,91.11 = 6.64; p<0.05. Indeed, ILC were lower with coffee (12.51 [95% CI, 5.86 to 19.66], p = 0.001 and blue light (14.58 [CI, 8.75 to 22.58], p = 0.003 than with placebo (26.42 [CI, 19.90 to 33.71]. Similar results were found for SDLP. Treatments did not modify the quality, quantity and timing of 3 subsequent nocturnal sleep episodes. Despite a lesser tolerance, a non-inferior efficacy of continuous nocturnal blue light exposure compared with caffeine suggests that this in-car countermeasure, used occasionally, could be used to fight nocturnal sleepiness at the wheel in blue light-tolerant drivers, whatever their age. More studies are needed to determine the reproducibility of data and to verify if it can be generalized to women.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01070004.

  12. A novel application of capnography during controlled human exposure to air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fila Michael

    2006-10-01

    waves in controlled human air pollution exposure studies is a feasible tool for characterization of cardio-pulmonary effects of such exposures.

  13. 浅谈工程软件AutoCAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄文强

    2015-01-01

    熟悉 AutoCAD 制图软件的基本操作,了解工程制图绘制的格式和基本要求,加强应用 AutoCAD 绘制二维工程图纸的能力,运用AutoCAD到实际工程项目中,让AutoCAD惠及更多的人。

  14. AutoCAD教学方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅

    2012-01-01

    培养学生熟练地使用AutoCAD软件是一项重要的教学内容。结合在AutoCAD课程的教学实践,运用多种教学手段,创设合适的教学环境,激发学生对AutoCAD图形设计的兴趣,多方面结合进行AutoCAD教学。

  15. China FAW Participates in The China Auto International (Syria) Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Yan; Che; Qiang

    2006-01-01

      At the beginning of the new year,a new message was released from the Organization Committee of China Auto International Tour - China FAW Group Corporation and China League of Machinery Industry will jointly sponsor the 4nd China Auto International(Syria) Tour. This is the first time that the giant state-owned auto enterprise participates in the sponsor of international auto exhibition.……

  16. China FAW Participates in The China Auto International (Syria) Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yan; Che Qiang

    2006-01-01

    @@ At the beginning of the new year,a new message was released from the Organization Committee of China Auto International Tour - China FAW Group Corporation and China League of Machinery Industry will jointly sponsor the 4nd China Auto International(Syria) Tour. This is the first time that the giant state-owned auto enterprise participates in the sponsor of international auto exhibition.

  17. Wine bottle colour and oxidative spoilage: whole bottle light exposure experiments under controlled and uncontrolled temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniel A; Clark, Andrew C; Smith, Trevor A; Ghiggino, Kenneth P; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2013-06-15

    Exposure of a Chardonnay wine to light from a mercury vapour lamp under controlled temperature conditions showed that colour enhancement was dependent on bottle colour. The increase in colouration was Antique Greenlight exposure. Without temperature control, wine colour development was highest in Antique Green and lowest in Flint. This alternate order reflects the ability of the darker bottles to retain heat longer than lighter coloured ones as confirmed by surface temperature decay rates. Specific pigments contributing to the wine colour enhancement in uncontrolled temperature/light exposure experiments could not be identified, although tentative evidence was obtained for the presence of flavan-3-ol based compounds. The different bottle glass surfaces did not influence the rate of loss of dissolved oxygen or oxidation of ascorbic acid. The potential to develop the results obtained in this study to identify markers for light and/or temperature exposure of white wines is discussed.

  18. Structural characterization of the mechanism through which human glutamic acid decarboxylase auto-activates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendorf, Christopher G.; Tuck, Kellie L.; Key, Trevor L. G.; Fenalti, Gustavo; Pike, Robert N.; Rosado, Carlos J.; Wong, Anders S. M.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Law, Ruby H. P.; Whisstock, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Imbalances in GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) homoeostasis underlie psychiatric and movement disorders. The ability of the 65 kDa isoform of GAD (glutamic acid decarboxylase), GAD65, to control synaptic GABA levels is influenced through its capacity to auto-inactivate. In contrast, the GAD67 isoform is constitutively active. Previous structural insights suggest that flexibility in the GAD65 catalytic loop drives enzyme inactivation. To test this idea, we constructed a panel of GAD65/67 chimaeras and compared the ability of these molecules to auto-inactivate. Together, our data reveal the important finding that the C-terminal domain of GAD plays a key role in controlling GAD65 auto-inactivation. In support of these findings, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of a GAD65/67 chimaera that reveals that the conformation of the catalytic loop is intimately linked to the C-terminal domain. PMID:23126365

  19. Control of occupational exposure to nitrous oxide in the dental operatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitcher, C.E.; Zimmerman, D.C.; Tonn, E.M.; Piziali, R.L.

    1977-10-01

    Methods were developed for controlling the dental team's occupational exposure to nitrous oxide. The most applicable and effective use of these methods included the use of properly maintained gas delivery equipment, a double-walled scavenging nosepiece and vented suction machine, and minimizing speech by the patient. These methods were evaluated by measuring concentrations of nitrous oxide present in the air inspired by dental personnel. Before their use, the dentist inhaled 900 ppM nitrous oxide; their application reduced his inhaled concentration to 31 ppM, representing a 97% reduction. These methods were well accepted during 157 procedures completed by a group of eight dentists engaged in private practice (four general practitioners, two pedodontists, and two oral surgeons).

  20. A case-control study of borderline ovarian tumors: the influence of perineal exposure to talc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, B L; Weiss, N S

    1989-08-01

    The authors interviewed 116 female residents of western Washington State with serous and mucinous borderline ovarian tumors diagnosed between 1980 and 1985 and questioned them on their use of hygienic powders. A sample of 158 control women from the same counties were identified through random digit dialing and were interviewed as well. Neither the perineal application of baby powder nor the perineal application of cornstarch was associated with an appreciably altered risk of borderline ovarian tumors. However, women who used deodorizing powders alone or in combination with other talc-containing powders had 2.8 times the risk (95% confidence interval 1.1-11.7) of women who had not had perineal exposure to powder. These results suggest that future studies of ovarian tumors in relation to the application of talc-containing powders should consider ascertaining the specific type(s) of powder used.

  1. [Assessment of exposure to cancerogenic aromatic hydrocarbon during controlled-access highways management activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, I; Cirla, A M; Cottica, D; Cirla, P E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was an integrated assessment of exposure to benzene and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in 29 workers employed to manage a controlled-access highways. A campaign was performed in summertime by environmental monitoring (active and passive airborne personal sampler), as well as by biological monitoring (urine samples of the beginning and of the end of daily shift, baseline after two days of vacation). The measured environmental levels did not differ from background environmental concentrations found in a metropolitan area (i.e. benzo[a]pyrene < 1 ng/m3; benzene < 5 mcg/m3), and the results of biological monitoring were in agreement and were compatible with extra-professional habits of the investigated subjects (1-hydroxipyrene 50-990 ng/g creatinine; unmetabolized benzene 15-2010 ng/I; t-t muconic acid < 4-222 mcg/g creatinine).

  2. Alterations in nigral NMDA and GABAA receptor control of the striatal dopamine level after repetitive exposures to nitrogen narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoute, Cécile; Weiss, Michel; Rostain, Jean-Claude

    2008-07-01

    Nitrogen pressure exposure in rats results in decreased dopamine (DA) release at the striatal terminals of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopaminergic neurons, demonstrating the narcotic potency of nitrogen. This effect is attributed to decreased excitatory and increased inhibitory inputs to dopaminergic neurons, involving a change in NMDA and GABA(A) receptor function. We investigated whether repetitive exposures to nitrogen modify the excitatory and inhibitory control of the dopaminergic nigro-striatal pathway. We used voltammetry to measure dopamine levels in freely-moving rats, implanted with dopamine-sensitive electrodes in the striatum. NMDA/GABA(A) receptor agonists (NMDA/muscimol) and antagonists (AP7/gabazine) were administered through a guide-cannula into the SNc, and their effects on striatal dopamine levels were measured under normobaric conditions, before and after five repetitive exposures to 1 MPa nitrogen. NMDA-mediated dopamine release was greater following repetitive exposures, AP7-mediated inhibition of glutamatergic input was blocked, suggesting that NMDA receptor sensitivity was increased and glutamate release reduced. Muscimol did not modify dopamine levels following repetitive exposures, whereas the effect of gabazine was greater after exposures than before. This suggested that interneuronal GABA(A) receptors were desensitized, leading to an increased GABAergic input at dopaminergic cells. Thus, repetitive nitrogen exposure induced persistent changes in glutamatergic and GABAergic control of dopaminergic neurons, resulting in decreased activity of the nigrostriatal pathway.

  3. Self-Image Development: A Chicano Enfasis. Self-Programmed Counseling and Self-Programmed Control. Instructor's Guide = Desarrollo de la Imagen Propia: Enfasis en el Chicano. Sistema de Consejo y Control Auto-Programado. Manuel del Profesor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, S. Raymond

    Self-Programmed Counseling, the instructor's guidance, and Self-Programmed Control (SPC), the student's response, was initially developed by Title III Project USTED (United Students and Teachers for Educational Development) for Mexican American students on academic probation to use on a non-credit, special group counseling basis. As part of a…

  4. Self-Image Development: A Chicano Enfasis. Self-Programmed Counseling and Self-Programmed Control. Instructor's Guide = Desarrollo de la Imagen Propia: Enfasis en el Chicano. Sistema de Consejo y Control Auto-Programado. Manuel del Profesor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, S. Raymond

    Self-Programmed Counseling, the instructor's guidance, and Self-Programmed Control (SPC), the student's response, was initially developed by Title III Project USTED (United Students and Teachers for Educational Development) for Mexican American students on academic probation to use on a non-credit, special group counseling basis. As part of a…

  5. Metabolic syndrome and occupation: Any association? Prevalence among auto technicians and school teachers in South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintunde, Adeseye A; Oloyede, Taiwo W

    2016-12-14

    To determine occupational association with metabolic syndrome among auto technicians and school teachers. One hundred and sixty six subjects were selected for this study. Clinical data was obtained while laboratory investigations including plasma glucose and lipid profile were performed. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS 20.0. Pauto technicians. Mean serum triglycerides was significantly higher among auto-technicians compared to school teachers in this study. The prevalence of some conventional cardiovascular risk factors was significantly higher among auto-technicians compared to school teachers: Impaired blood glucose (9.6% vs. 1.2%, pauto-technicians. Based on the WHO and the Harmonized criteria, metabolic syndrome was more frequent among auto-technicians compared to school teachers. (8.4% vs. 1.2% and 19.3% vs. 7.2% respectively, pauto technicians despite their high level of physical activity, exertion and education compared to teachers. This may be related to the increased occupational exposure to organic and inorganic materials from dust particles, oil and oil related matter and particulate matter among auto technicians. Prompt definitive evaluation of this concept and appropriate health education to encourage safety mechanism can reduce this burden of metabolic syndrome among auto technicians in Nigeria. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of food-cue exposure on dieting-related goals: a limitation to counteractive-control theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Jennifer S; Polivy, Janet; Herman, C Peter; Pliner, Patricia

    2008-09-01

    The present study investigated the effects of exposure to a food cue on the self-reported importance of dieting in those with low, medium, and high levels of dietary restraint. The results indicated that exposure to a food cue bolstered dieting-related goals in those who were low in dietary restraint but had no effect on the importance of dieting-related goals for those with medium or high levels of dietary restraint. The results demonstrate that exposure to temptations may differentially affect self-control processes depending on an individuals' level of dietary restraint.

  7. Auto Mechanics. Heavy Equipment. Small Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Kathy

    Developed for use in auto mechanics, Heavy Equipment Repair and Operation (HERO), and small engines programs, these study guides and supplemental worksheets cover operating principles, lubrication, cooling system, ignition circuit and electrical system, and fuel system. The worksheets and guide questions are phrased to emphasize key points…

  8. Auto Euroopa Liidus kallim / Sulev Oll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oll, Sulev, 1964-

    2001-01-01

    Euroopa Liiduga liitumisel tuleb uue auto eest välja käia vähemalt 10 000 krooni rohkem, kuna plaanide kohaselt ei tohi liikmesriikides autode hinnaerinevused ületada 12%. Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti, 28. märts 2001, lk. 7

  9. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multipl...

  10. Auto China 2008:Dream, Harmony & New View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 2008 (Tenth) Beijing International Automotive Exhibition (Auto Beijing 2008), with dream. harmony.and new view as its theme, will be held on April 20-28,2008 in the new hall of China International Exhibition Center (CIEC) in Beijing.

  11. Auto-communicating micro-orientalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Ooi, Can-Seng

    2013-01-01

    Using the concepts of auto-communication and micro-Orientalism, this article argues that nation branding at World Expos produces and propagates notions of difference and Otherness. We examine how Denmark presents itself in China, and how the message inevitably tells how the Danish authorities view...

  12. GLOBAL Auto Shows Boom in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's independent brands have been booming in recent years when the country's auto industry has seen a rapid growth. They have attracted the global attention, but still need to upgrade constantly whether in technology or business performance in order to strengthen their presence in the global market and become internationalized.

  13. Auto Parts Market Potential Coming into Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Looking at the increasingly fierce competition in the world auto market,global automobile manufacturing industry,taking Europe,the U.S.and Japan as representatives,is gradually forming a new type of relationship,mutual cooperation between whole vehicle and parts manufacturers.

  14. Efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy for treatment of dental phobia: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Kumar; Van Wijk, A J; Abdullah, Fawzia; Islam, Md Nurul; Bernatchez, Marc; De Jongh, Ad

    2016-02-27

    Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) is found to be a promising and a viable alternative for in vivo exposure in the treatment of specific phobias. However, its usefulness for treating dental phobia is unexplored. The aims of the present study are to determine: (a) the efficacy of VRET versus informational pamphlet (IP) control group in terms of dental trait and state anxiety reductions at 1 week, 3 months and 6 months follow-up (b) the real-time physiological arousal [heart rate (HR)] of VRET group participants during and following therapy (c) the relation between subjective (presence) and objective (HR) measures during VRET. This study is a single blind, randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms in which participants will be allocated to VRET or IP with a ratio of 1:1. Thirty participants (18-50 years) meeting the Phobia Checklist criteria of dental phobia will undergo block randomization with allocation concealment. The primary outcome measures include participants' dental trait anxiety (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale and Dental Fear Survey) and state anxiety (Visual Analogue Scale) measured at baseline (T0), at intervention (T1), 1-week (T2), 3 months (T3) and 6 months (T4) follow-up. A behavior test will be conducted before and after the intervention. The secondary outcome measures are real-time evaluation of HR and VR (Virtual Reality) experience (presence, realism, nausea) during and following the VRET intervention respectively. The data will be analyzed using intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis. This study uses novel non-invasive VRET, which may provide a possible alternative treatment for dental anxiety and phobia. ISRCTN25824611 , Date of registration: 26 October 2015.

  15. [Risk assessment and risk control for occupational exposure to chemical toxicants from an isophorone nitrile device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dejun; Fu, Xiaokuan; Kong, Fanling; Sui, Shaofeng; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Du, Yinglin; Zhou, Jingyang

    2014-06-01

    Risk assessment and risk control for occupational exposure to chemical toxicants were performed on an isophorone nitrile device with an annual production of 5,000 tons, based on improved Singaporean semi-quantitative risk assessment method, with consideration of actual situation in China and in the present project. With the use of engineering analysis and identification of occupational hazards in the improved Singaporean semi-quantitative risk assessment method, hazard rating (HR) and risk assessment were performed on chemical toxicants from an isophorone nitrile device with an annual production of 5,000 tons. The chemical toxicants in the isophorone nitrile device were mainly isophorone, hydrocyanic acid, methanol, phosphoric acid, sodium hydroxide, and sodium cyanide; the HR values were mild hazard (2), extreme hazard (5), mild hazard (2), mild hazard (2), moderate hazard (3), and extreme hazard (5), respectively, and the corresponding exposure rating (ER) values were 2.09, 2.72, 2.76, 1.68, 2.0, and 1.59, respectively. The risk of chemical toxicants in this project was assessed according to the formula Risk = [HR×ER](1/2). Hydrocyanic acid was determined as high risk, sodium hydroxide and sodium cyanide as medium risk, and isophorone, methanol, and phosphoric acid as low risk. Priority in handling of risks was determined by risk rating. The table of risk control measure was established for pre-assessment of occupational hazards. With risk assessment in this study, we concluded that the isophorone nitrile device with 5,000 ton annual production was a high-occupational hazard device. This device is a project of extreme occupational hazard. The improved Singaporean semi-quantitative risk assessment method is a scientific and applicable method, and is especially suitable for pre-evaluation of on-site project with no analogy.

  16. Factors affecting exposure level for medical staff during orthopedic procedures under fluoroscopic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Staniszewska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extended control of staff exposure in interventional radiology has been legally required over the last few years. This is determined by a number of factors, including the type of procedure, technical conditions and methodology. In orthopedic procedures fluoroscopy is used to control surgical reconstructions. An influence of particular factors on the registered values of doses received by the members of medical team performing osteosynthesis for limb fractures is presented in this paper. Material and Methods: Doses received by individual interventional team members performing specific functions, operator, assisting physicians and scrub nurse, during a series of the procedures were measured. Each person was equipped with 4 dosimetric tools, containing thermoluminescent dosimeters, to measure the equivalent doses for the eyes, hand skin and the neck (outside the shield and to evaluate effective doses. The investigations were performed in operational theatres of 3 hospitals in Łódź. Results: The equivalent doses per one procedure for the eyes and hand skin of the operator were 0.029–0.073 mSv and 0.366–1.604 mSv, respectively. Significantly higher doses were noted during the procedures of intramedullary osteosynthesis, especially for the operator. An average age and body mass index (BMI of patients treated in the monitored hospitals did not differ statistically. Conclusions: Based on the dosimetric measurements the following conclusions can be drawn: in orthopedic procedures of interventional radiology (IR the exposure of the staff is mostly determined by the type of procedure and more precisely by its complexity and by the optimized use of X-ray unit, including pulsed fluoroscopy. It is also revealed that the operator is the most exposed person in the interventional team. Med Pr 2017;68(1:75–83

  17. Auto-Guiding System for CQUEAN (Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse)

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Eunbin; Jeong, Hyenju; Kim, Jinyoung; Kuehne, John; Kim, Dong Han; Kim, Han Geun; Odons, Peter S; Chang, Seunghyuk; Im, Myungshin; Pak, Soojong

    2011-01-01

    To perform imaging observation of optically red objects such as high redshift quasars and brown dwarfs, the Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU) recently developed an optical CCD camera, Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse(CQUEAN), which is sensitive at 0.7-1.1 um. To enable observations with long exposures, we developed an auto-guiding system for CQUEAN. This system consist of an off-axis mirror, a baffle, a CCD camera, a motor and a differential decelerator. To increase the number of available guiding stars, we designed a rotating mechanism for the off-axis guiding camera. The guiding field can be scammed along the 10 acrmin ring offset from the optical axis of the telescope. Combined with the auto-guiding software of the McDonald Observatory, we confirmed that a stable image can be obtained with an exposure time as long as 1200 seconds.

  18. Letselgevolgen van auto-inzittenden na een auto-ongeval : een volksgezondheidkundige studie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clay, Willem

    1986-01-01

    vraagstelling gaat over het verlies aan volksgezondheid door auto-ongevallen, deze verliespost is goed toegankelijk voor onderzoek, omdat de oorzaak van het verlies-botsingsenergie duidelijk is. ... Zie: Samenvatting

  19. Auto-correlograms and auto-regressive models of trace metal distributions in Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Auto-correlation technique has been applied to study fluctuations in concentration profiles of chemical species in Cochin Backwaters (Kerala, India). No stability in time can be detected for particulate Mn at all stations, for Fe at stations 1...

  20. Effects of Processing and Ambient Noise Distribution on Seismic Interferometry using Auto-Correlation Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, R. L.; Oren, C.

    2016-12-01

    The influence of processing and ambient noise distribution on seismic interferometry using auto-correlation stacks is investigated. We first study the effects of automatic gain control (AGC) and spectral whitening on the daily and monthly auto-correlation stacks. It was found that although the AGC equalizes the amplitudes over longer time lag windows, it does not dramatically affect the results over time lag windows shorter than the AGC window applied. The effects of spectral whitening are more pronounced where the daily and monthly auto-correlation stacks for the PmP window become less coherent when spectral whitening is not applied. The influence of band-pass filtering is next investigated, where the results are robust to the effects of the high cut filter applied from 0.55 to 0.85 Hz. However, the results are less robust if the low-cut filter is set lower than about 0.3 Hz. Similar to not applying spectral whitening, this could result from lower frequency microseisms contaminating the body waves on the auto-correlation stacks. Synthetic modeling was then performed to investigate the effects of the ambient noise distribution on the auto-correlation stacks. For sources along the top boundary, it was found that the zone of stationary phase of the auto-correlation stacks was very localized to energy coming from nearby the receiver with energy from sources at greater distances destructively interfering. For noise energy arriving from below the model, such as far from regional and teleseismic sources, it was found that the angular zone of stationary phase was much broader. Assuming that the time duration for the temporal stacking is sufficient to allow for a smoothly varying range of incident arriving noise energy, then a broad region of stationary phase could explain the observation of both PmP and SmS phases on the auto-correlation stacks.

  1. Longitudinal study of Thai people media exposure, knowledge, and behavior on dengue fever prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonchutima, Smith; Kachentawa, Kirati; Limpavithayakul, Manasanun; Prachansri, Anan

    2017-03-09

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever is transmitted through a bite by a dengue -infected Aedes aegypti mosquito. It was first reported in the mid -20th century in Thailand, and since then its epidemiology has been of great concern and has spread all across the country. The alarming incidence of dengue posed a serious threat to human health in all major cities of Thailand. This study was aimed at identifying the level of awareness of dengue fever in Thai population knowledge for prevention and control, and most importantly contribution of media in educating masses for dengue control measures. It is longitudinal in nature and was conducted in 25 provinces of Thailand during 2013-2015. Approximately 7772 respondents participated in this study, with the selection of provinces based on considerations like population, prevalence and demography. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect information relevant to study participants' demographic profile, pre-existing knowledge about dengue fever and its reinforcement through media, and population attitudes toward prevention and control. Over the period of three years, a positive trend was revealed relevant to the contribution of media in educating and reminding the Thai population of dengue, without any uniformity or powerful campaigns. Based on the results drawn from this study, we conclude that despite the measures undertaken to prevent dengue fever, there is insufficient media exposure. An interdisciplinary approach involving the community participation, media, and government is needed to overcome dengue threat in Thailand.

  2. FOTON Motor Crowns 4th China Auto International Circuit Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Yan

    2005-01-01

      In order to provide more opportuni ties for the high-developing Chinese auto industry including autos and motos to do export, and to enlarge the international influence of Chinese cars,the 4th China Auto International Circuit Exhibition will be held in Syria. The exhibition has been held for three times.……

  3. FOTON Motor Crowns 4th China Auto International Circuit Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yan

    2005-01-01

    @@ In order to provide more opportuni ties for the high-developing Chinese auto industry including autos and motos to do export, and to enlarge the international influence of Chinese cars,the 4th China Auto International Circuit Exhibition will be held in Syria. The exhibition has been held for three times.

  4. Taking Year-end Inventory on China's Auto Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ From November 10 to 11, the 6th Annual China Auto Industry Development Summit, and Analysis and Survey on the China Auto Industry and Auto Parts Market for 2008, was held at the Beijing Central Garden Hotel. The event was co-sponsored by the China Machinery Industry Federation and the Liaoning Provincial Economic and Reform Commission.

  5. 46 CFR 97.16-1 - Use of auto pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of auto pilot. 97.16-1 Section 97.16-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Auto Pilot § 97.16-1 Use of auto pilot. Except as provided in 33 CFR 164.15, when the automatic pilot is used...

  6. 46 CFR 78.19-1 - Use of auto pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of auto pilot. 78.19-1 Section 78.19-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Auto Pilot § 78.19-1 Use of auto pilot. Except as provided in 33 CFR 164.15, when the automatic pilot is used in— (a...

  7. Challenges and Opportunities for China's Auto Industry Amid Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ Adversely affected by the international financial crisis,China's auto exports suffered a huge loss.It is reported that China's auto exports have declined for 12 consecutive months since August 2008 because of a big contraction in the international auto market due to the financial crisis.

  8. Rational Thoughts on the Development of Chinese Auto Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Qihui

    2004-01-01

    @@ In order to keep the steady, fast and sustainable development of auto industry, we should have an overall knowledge of the history and current situation of the world auto industry, and have a correct strategic planning and scientific measures towards the Chinese auto industry.

  9. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde exposure mitigation in US residences: In-home measurements of ventilation control and source control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Erin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Russell, Marion L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Measurements were taken in new US residences to assess the extent to which ventilation and source control can mitigate formaldehyde exposure. Increasing ventilation consistently lowered indoor formaldehyde concentrations. However, at a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h-1, increasing ventilation was up to 60% less effective than would be predicted if the emission rate were constant. This is consistent with formaldehyde emission rates decreasing as air concentrations increase, as observed in chamber studies. In contrast, measurements suggest acetaldehyde emission was independent of ventilation rate. To evaluate the effectiveness of source control, formaldehyde concentrations were measured in Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified/Indoor airPLUS homes constructed with materials certified to have low emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOC). At a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h-1, and adjusting for home age, temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde concentrations in homes built with low-VOC materials were 42% lower on average than in reference new homes with conventional building materials. Without adjustment, concentrations were 27% lower in the low-VOC homes. The mean and standard deviation of formaldehyde concentration were 33 μg m-3 and 22 μg m-3 for low-VOC homes and 45 μg m-3 and 30 μg m-3 for conventional.

  10. Toluene in alveolar air during controlled exposure to constant and to varying concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1990-01-01

    The concentration of toluene in the alveolar air was measured in 20 males and 17 females exposed for 7 h either to a constant exposure to 100 ppm toluene or to a varying exposure with the same time-weighted average, but with peaks of 300 ppm every 30 min. Both exposure schedules included 50 to 10...

  11. Comparison of nested case-control and survival analysis methodologies for analysis of time-dependent exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platt Robert W

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies of exposures that vary with time require an additional level of methodological complexity to account for the time-dependence of exposure. This study compares a nested case-control approach for the study of time-dependent exposure with cohort analysis using Cox regression including time-dependent covariates. Methods A cohort of 1340 subjects with four fixed and seven time-dependent covariates was used for this study. Nested case-control analyses were repeated 100 times for each of 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 controls per case, and point estimates were compared to those obtained using Cox regression on the full cohort. Computational efficiencies were evaluated by comparing central processing unit times required for analysis of the cohort at sizes 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 times its initial size. Results Nested case-control analyses yielded results that were similar to results of Cox regression on the full cohort. Cox regression was found to be 125 times slower than the nested case-control approach (using four controls per case. Conclusions The nested case-control approach is a useful alternative for cohort analysis when studying time-dependent exposures. Its superior computational efficiency may be particularly useful when studying rare outcomes in databases, where the ability to analyze larger sample sizes can improve the power of the study.

  12. Review of Experience of a Statewide Poison Control Center With Pediatric Exposures to Oral Antineoplastic Drugs in the Nonmedical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Stephen L; Liu, Jehnan; Soleymani, Kamyar; Romasco, Rebecca L; Farid, Hanieh; Clark, Richard F; Cantrell, F Lee

    2016-01-01

    The use of oral antineoplastic agents in nonmedical settings continues to increase. There are limited data available on pediatric exposures to these agents. We sought to identify characteristics of such exposures. We performed a retrospective review of database of a statewide poison system from 2000 to 2009 for all cases of pediatric exposures to oral antineoplastic agents, which took place in a nonmedical setting. Data collected include gender, age, agent of exposure, dose, drug concentration, reason for exposure, symptoms, outcomes, interventions, and length of hospital stay. There were a total of 328 patients. The mean average age was 4.1 years. Eighty-nine percentage (n = 293) was unintentional. Exposures to 21 different antineoplastic agents were identified. Methotrexate (n = 91) and 6-mercaptopurine (n = 47) were the most common agents encountered. Two hundred ninety-nine (91%) cases had no symptoms reported. When reported, gastrointestinal symptoms (n = 17) and central nervous system sedation (n = 6) were most common. One case of pancytopenia was reported. No deaths were reported in this series. Sixty-seven percent (n = 220) were managed at home, whereas 19 (6%) were admitted to a health care facility. Cases were followed by the poison control center for 0.34 days (SD = 1.40). In this study, exposures to oral antineoplastics were primarily unintentional, asymptomatic, and managed at home. Study limitations include possible reporting bias, inability to objectively confirm exposures, and limited duration of monitoring by the poison control center. In this retrospective review, no significant morbidity or mortality was reported from pediatric exposures to oral antineoplastic drugs in the nonmedical setting.

  13. Adrenaline auto-injectors for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without cardiovascular collapse in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Aziz; Simons, F Estelle R; Barbour, Victoria; Worth, Allison

    2012-08-15

    Anaphylaxis is a serious hypersensitivity reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death. Adrenaline (epinephrine) auto-injectors are recommended as the initial, potentially life-saving treatment of choice for anaphylaxis in the community, but they are not universally available and have limitations in their use. To assess the effectiveness of adrenaline (epinephrine) auto-injectors in relieving respiratory, cardiovascular, and other symptoms during episodes of anaphylaxis that occur in the community. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE (Ovid SP) (1950 to January 2012), EMBASE (Ovid SP) (1980 to January 2012 ), CINAHL (EBSCO host) (1982 to January 2012 ), AMED (EBSCO host) (1985 to January 2012 ), LILACS, (BIREME) (1980 to January 2012 ), ISI Web of Science (1950 to January 2012 ). We adapted our search terms for other databases. We also searched websites listing on-going trials: the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, the UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio, and the meta Register of Controlled Trials; and contacted pharmaceutical companies who manufacture adrenaline auto-injectors in an attempt to locate unpublished material. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing auto-injector administration of adrenaline with any control including no intervention, placebo, or other adrenergic agonists were eligible for inclusion. Two authors independently assessed articles for inclusion. None of the 1328 studies that were identified satisfied the inclusion criteria. Based on this review, we cannot make any new recommendations on the effectiveness of adrenaline auto-injectors for the treatment of anaphylaxis. Although randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of high methodological quality are necessary to define the true extent of benefits from the administration of adrenaline in anaphylaxis via an auto

  14. Toxoplasma gondii exposure and Parkinson's disease: a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Méndez-Hernández, Edna Madai; Salas-Pacheco, José Manuel; Ruano-Calderón, Luis Ángel; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Castellanos-Juárez, Francisco Xavier; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada Agustina; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and Parkinson's disease and to investigate whether T. gondii seropositivity is associated with the general characteristics of patients with Parkinson's disease. Design Case–control study. Setting Cases and controls were enrolled in Durango City, Mexico. Participants 65 patients with Parkinson's disease and 195 age- and gender-matched control subjects without Parkinson's disease. Primary and secondary outcome measures Serum samples of participants were analysed for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassays. Prevalence of T. gondii DNA was determined in seropositive subjects using PCR. The association between clinical data and infection was examined by bivariate analysis. Results Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 6/65 cases (9.2%) and in 21/195 controls (10.8%) (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.32 to 2.18; p=0.81). The frequency of high (>150 IU/mL) antibody levels was similar among cases and controls (p=0.34). None of the anti-T. gondii IgG positive cases and four of the anti-T. gondii IgG positive controls had anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies (p=0.54). The prevalence of T. gondii DNA was comparable in seropositive cases and controls (16.7% and 25%, respectively; p=1.0). Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was associated with a young age onset of disease (p=0.03), high Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale scores (p=0.04) and depression (p=0.02). Seropositivity to T. gondii infection was lower in patients treated with pramipexole than in patients without this treatment (p=0.01). However, none of the associations remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Conclusions The results do not support an association between T. gondii infection and Parkinson's disease. However, T. gondii infection might have an influence on certain symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Further research to elucidate the role of T. gondii exposure on Parkinson's disease

  15. Anti-pentraxin 3 auto-antibodies might be protective in lupus nephritis: a large cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mo; Tan, Ying; Pang, Yun; Li, Yong-Zhe; Song, Yan; Yu, Feng; Zhao, Ming-Hui

    2017-11-01

    Anti-pentraxin 3 (PTX3) auto-antibodies were found to be associated with the absence of renal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study is to investigate the prevalence of anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies and their clinical significance based on a large Chinese lupus nephritis cohort. One hundred and ninety-six active lupus nephritis patients, 150 SLE patients without clinical renal involvement, and 100 healthy controls were enrolled. Serum anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies and PTX3 levels were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The associations between anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies and clinicopathological parameters in lupus nephritis were further analyzed. Anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies were less prevalent in active lupus nephritis patients compared with SLE without renal involvement (19.4% (38/196) versus 40.7% (61/150), p auto-antibodies were negatively correlated with proteinuria in lupus nephritis (r = -.143, p = .047). The levels of proteinuria, serum creatinine, and the prevalence of thrombotic microangiopathy were significantly higher in patients with higher PTX3 levels (≥3.207 ng/ml) and without anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies compared with patients with lower PTX3 levels (auto-antibodies (4.79 (3.39-8.28) versus 3.95 (1.78-7.0), p = .03; 168.84 ± 153.63 versus 101.44 ± 47.36, p = .01; 34.1% (14/41) versus 0% (0/9), p = .04; respectively). Anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies were less prevalent in active lupus nephritis patients compared with SLE without renal involvement and associated with less severe renal damage, especially with the combined evaluation of serum PTX3 levels.

  16. Allergy arising from exposure to airborne contaminants in an insect rearing facility: Health effects and exposure control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, D.

    1994-06-01

    In agricultural crop improvement, yield under various stress conditions and limiting factors is assessed experimentally. Of the stresses on plants which affect yield are those due to insects. Ostrinia nubilalis, the European corn borer (corn borer) is a major pest in sweet and field corn in the U.S. There are many ways to fight crop pests such as the corn borer, including (1) application of chemical insecticides, (2) application of natural predators and, (3) improving crop resistance through plant genetics programs. Randomized field trials are used to determine the effectiveness of pest management programs. These trials frequently consist of randomly selected crop plots to which well-defined input regimes are instituted. For example, corn borers might be released onto crop plots in several densities at various stages of crop development, then sprayed with different levels of pesticide. These experiments are duplicated across regions and, in some cases across the country, to determine, in this instance for example, the best pesticide application rate for a given pest density and crop development stage. In order to release these pests onto crop plots, one must have an adequate supply of the insect pest. In winter months studies are carried out in the laboratory to examine chemical and natural pesticide effectiveness, as well as such things as the role of pheromones in moth behavior. The advantage in field trials is that yield data can be garnered directly. In this country, insects are raised for crop research primarily through the US Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with public Land Grant Universities and, by the private sector agricultural concerns - seed companies and others. This study quantifies the airborne allergen exposure of persons working in a Land Grant University entomology lab were allergy to European corn borer was suspected.

  17. Mortality studies of machining fluid exposure in the automobile industry. V: A case-control study of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardin, J A; Eisen, E A; Tolbert, P E; Hallock, M F; Hammond, S K; Woskie, S R; Smith, T J; Monson, R R

    1997-09-01

    Results are presented from a case-control study of 97 cases of pancreatic cancer nested in a cohort of workers from three automobile manufacturing plants. Risk was examined for lifetime exposure to straight, soluble, and synthetic metalworking fluids, as used in specific machining or grinding operations, as well as for constituents of the fluids. Pancreatic cancer was associated with exposure to synthetic fluids in grinding operations, with an odds ratio of 3.0 (95% CI: 1.2-7.5) among those with more than 1.4 mg/m3-years of exposure. We were unable to examine synthetic exposure in the absence of grinding because there was virtually no exposure to synthetics in machining operations in this study population. Although a disproportionately high percent of the cases were black, no black workers had any exposure to synthetic fluids, and no other measured exposure was found to be related to risk. Thus, the previously documented excess risk of pancreatic cancer among blacks in this cohort remains unexplained.

  18. Childhood physical abnormalities following paternal exposure to sulfur mustard gas in Iran: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khademolhosseini Seyyed M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mustard gas, a known chemical weapon, was used during the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-1988. We aimed to determine if exposure to mustard gas among men was significantly associated with abnormalities and disorders among progenies. Methods Using a case-control design, we identified all progenies of Sardasht men (exposed group, n = 498, who were born at least nine months after the exposure, compared to age-matched controls in Rabat, a nearby city (non-exposed group, n = 689. We conducted a thorough medical history, physical examination, and appropriate paraclinical studies to detect any physical abnormality and/or disorder. Given the presence of correlated data, we applied Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE multivariable models to determine associations. Results The overall frequency of detected physical abnormalities and disorders was significantly higher in the exposed group (19% vs. 11%, Odds Ratio [OR] 1.93, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.37-2.72, P = 0.0002. This was consistent across sexes. Congenital anomalies (OR 3.54, 95% CI, 1.58-7.93, P = 0.002 and asthma (OR, 3.12, 95% CI, 1.43-6.80, P = 0.004 were most commonly associated with exposure. No single abnormality was associated with paternal exposure to mustard gas. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a generational effect of exposure to mustard gas. The lasting effects of mustard gas exposure in parents effects fertility and may impact child health and development in the long-term.

  19. Gene expression profiling in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity before and after a controlled n-butanol exposure session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Skovbjerg, Sine; Andersson, Linus

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the pathophysiological pathways leading to symptoms elicitation in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) by comparing gene expression in MCS participants and healthy controls before and after a chemical exposure optimised to cause symptoms among MCS participants.The first hypothesis...... min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure. Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper. 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons...

  20. The psychology of HPA axis activation: Examining subjective emotional distress and control in a phobic fear exposure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Stefanie E; Snodgrass, Michael; Liberzon, Israel; Briggs, Hedieh; Curtis, George C; Abelson, James L

    2017-02-09

    The HPA axis plays a key role in mediating the effects of "stress" on health, but clarifying mechanisms requires an understanding of psycho-biological linkages. There has long been an implicit assumption that subjective emotional distress (e.g., fear) should activate the HPA axis. Although this assumption was challenged 25 years ago (Curtis, 1976), laboratory studies in humans are limited. In this study we sought to replicate Curtis' findings and extend it by investigating if presence or absence of stressor control shapes HPA axis reactivity in a phobic fear exposure model. We recruited 19-45-year-old specific phobia participants (n=32 spider/snake phobia; n=14 claustrophobia) and gradually exposed them to their feared object or situation while measuring hormonal (ACTH and cortisol) and subjective (emotional distress, perceived control) responses. Utilizing a dyadic yoked design, we compared HPA reactivity when the pace of exposure was controlled by participants to identical exposure given to matched participants in the absence of control. Results showed that phobic fear exposure generated intense emotional distress without a corresponding increase in HPA axis activity. Although our actual manipulation of control failed to impact HPA responses, perceived control during exposure was associated with lower cortisol, an effect that was moderated by actual availability of stressor control. Our findings replicate Curtis' findings and challenge the still common but unsupported assumption that HPA axis activity reflects subjective distress. These results also highlight the importance of both perceived and actual aspects of stressor control in understanding what is truly "stressful" to the HPA axis system.

  1. Optimal Control for DC Side Voltage of Active Power Filter Based on Auto-Disturbance Rejection Control%基于自抗扰控制技术的有源电力滤波器直流侧电压优化控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁祖军; 刘保连; 张宇林

    2013-01-01

      直流侧电压的稳定控制是保证有源电力滤波器(active power filter,APF)正常工作的关键环节之一。对APF直流侧电压进行建模,在dq坐标系中分析了直流侧电压与d轴电流的数学关系,进而提出了 APF 直流侧电压自抗扰控制器的整体设计方法,给出了自抗扰控制器中的跟踪微分单元、扩张状态观测器和误差反馈单元的设计方法,并采用线性方法对该控制器进行优化,提高了响应速度与控制精度。仿真与试验结果验证了该设计方法的可行性。%  The stable control of DC side voltage is one of key links to ensure normal operation of active power filter (APF). The model of DC side voltage of APF is established and the mathematical relation between DC side voltage and d-axis current is analyzed in dq coordinate system, and then a total design method for auto disturbances rejection controller (ADRC) of DC side voltage of APF is proposed. The design method of tracking differentiator (TD), extended state observer (ECO) and error feedback unit of ADRC are given, and linear optimization is applied to the ADRC to improve its response speed and control accuracy. The feasibility of the proposed design method is validated by simulation and experimental results.

  2. Vulnerability and self-perceived health status among light and heavy smokers: the relationship to short-term fear appeal tobacco control messages Vulnerabilidade e percepção de saúde auto-referida entre fumantes leves e pesados: a relação com mensagens anti-fumo voltadas para o apelo ao medo imediato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Salem Szklo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important to stimulate smokers to acquire some level of risk perception associated with their current behavior in order to motivate smoking cessation. The present article attempts to understand how the content of short-term fear appeal government tobacco messages may interact with different levels of daily cigarette consumption in order to affect smokers' vulnerabilities, expressed by self-perceived health status. A Poisson model was used to estimate the prevalence ratio of fair or poor self-perceived health status (FPHS according to daily cigarette consumption. We also calculated the proportions of smokers who stated that selected health warning pictures on cigarette packets encourage people to quit smoking, stratified by self-perceived health status and daily cigarette consumption. The proportion of smokers with FPHS was 25% higher among those who smoked > 20 cigarettes/day (p = 0.01. Among smokers with FPHS, heavy smokers showed the highest proportions of responses in favor of selected warning pictures most closely related to losses in ordinary daily living, such as shortness of breath and being bothered by cigarette addiction. Short-term loss-framed tobacco control messages seem to have raised awareness of vulnerability among heavier smokers.É importante incentivar os fumantes a adquirir algum nível de percepção do risco associado ao seu comportamento atual, para motivá-los a parar de fumar. O artigo procura elucidar em que medida o conteúdo do apelo ao medo imediato contido em mensagens anti-fumo nas campanhas governamentais pode interagir com o consumo diário de cigarros, no sentido de afetar as vulnerabilidades dos fumantes, expressas pela percepção de saúde auto-referida. Um modelo de Poisson foi utilizado para estimar a razão de prevalências de percepção de saúde auto-referida regular ou ruim, segundo consumo diário de cigarros. Calculou-se também a proporção de fumantes que afirmou que mensagens anti

  3. Auto-tuning for NMR probe using LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quen, Carmen; Pham, Stephanie; Bernal, Oscar

    2014-03-01

    Typical manual NMR-tuning method is not suitable for broadband spectra spanning several megahertz linewidths. Among the main problems encountered during manual tuning are pulse-power reproducibility, baselines, and transmission line reflections, to name a few. We present a design of an auto-tuning system using graphic programming language, LabVIEW, to minimize these problems. The program uses a simplified model of the NMR probe conditions near perfect tuning to mimic the tuning process and predict the position of the capacitor shafts needed to achieve the desirable impedance. The tuning capacitors of the probe are controlled by stepper motors through a LabVIEW/computer interface. Our program calculates the effective capacitance needed to tune the probe and provides controlling parameters to advance the motors in the right direction. The impedance reading of a network analyzer can be used to correct the model parameters in real time for feedback control.

  4. Control of exposure to mite allergen and allergen-impermeable bed covers for adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Ashley; Forster, Louise; Matthews, Edward; Martin, Jeannett; Letley, Louise; Vickers, Madge; Britton, John; Strachan, David; Howarth, Peter; Altmann, Daniel; Frost, Christopher; Custovic, Adnan

    2003-07-17

    The effectiveness of avoidance of house-dust-mite allergen (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 1 [Der p1]) in the management of asthma is uncertain. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of allergen-impermeable bed covers involving 1122 adults with asthma. The primary outcomes were the mean morning peak expiratory flow rate over a four-week period during the run-in phase and at six months and the proportion of patients who discontinued inhaled corticosteroid therapy as part of a phased-reduction program during months 7 through 12. Der p1 was measured in mattress dust in a 10 percent random subsample of homes at entry and at 6 and 12 months. The prevalence of sensitivity to dust-mite allergen was 65.4 percent in the group supplied with allergen-impermeable bed covers (active-intervention group) and 65.1 percent in the control group supplied with non-impermeable bed covers. The concentration of Der p1 in mattress dust was significantly lower in the active-intervention group at 6 months (geometric mean, 0.58 microg per gram vs. 1.71 microg per gram in the control group; P=0.01) but not at 12 months (1.05 microg per gram vs. 1.64 microg per gram; P=0.74). The mean morning peak expiratory flow rate improved significantly in both groups (from 410.7 to 419.1 liters per minute in the active-intervention group, Pimpermeable covers, as a single intervention for the avoidance of exposure to dust-mite allergen, seem clinically ineffective in adults with asthma. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society

  5. A dose-controlled system for air-liquid interface cell exposure and application to zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferron George A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engineered nanoparticles are becoming increasingly ubiquitous and their toxicological effects on human health, as well as on the ecosystem, have become a concern. Since initial contact with nanoparticles occurs at the epithelium in the lungs (or skin, or eyes, in vitro cell studies with nanoparticles require dose-controlled systems for delivery of nanoparticles to epithelial cells cultured at the air-liquid interface. Results A novel air-liquid interface cell exposure system (ALICE for nanoparticles in liquids is presented and validated. The ALICE generates a dense cloud of droplets with a vibrating membrane nebulizer and utilizes combined cloud settling and single particle sedimentation for fast (~10 min; entire exposure, repeatable (2. The cell-specific deposition efficiency is currently limited to 0.072 (7.2% for two commercially available 6-er transwell plates, but a deposition efficiency of up to 0.57 (57% is possible for better cell coverage of the exposure chamber. Dose-response measurements with ZnO nanoparticles (0.3-8.5 μg/cm2 showed significant differences in mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory (IL-8 and oxidative stress (HO-1 markers when comparing submerged and air-liquid interface exposures. Both exposure methods showed no cellular response below 1 μg/cm2 ZnO, which indicates that ZnO nanoparticles are not toxic at occupationally allowed exposure levels. Conclusion The ALICE is a useful tool for dose-controlled nanoparticle (or solute exposure of cells at the air-liquid interface. Significant differences between cellular response after ZnO nanoparticle exposure under submerged and air-liquid interface conditions suggest that pharmaceutical and toxicological studies with inhaled (nano-particles should be performed under the more realistic air-liquid interface, rather than submerged cell conditions.

  6. Mortality studies of metalworking fluid exposure in the automobile industry: VI. A case-control study of esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, P A; Eisen, E A; Woskie, S R; Kriebel, D; Wegman, D H; Hallock, M F; Hammond, S K; Tolbert, P E; Smith, T J; Monson, R R

    1998-07-01

    Results are reported from a nested case-control study of 60 esophageal cancer deaths among 46,384 automobile manufacturing workers potentially exposed to metalworking fluids (MWF) in machining and grinding operations. By using incidence-density sampling, controls were selected with a sampling ratio of 20:1 from among co-workers who remained at risk by the age of death of the case, matched on race, gender, plant, and year of birth. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk associated with cumulative exposure (mg/m3-years) to each of three types of metalworking fluid (straight, soluble, and synthetic MWF), as well as with years of exposure to selected components of MWF, including nitrosamines, sulfur, biocides, and several metals. Esophageal cancer was found to be significantly associated with exposure to both soluble and synthetic MWF in grinding operations. The odds ratios (ORs) for grinding with soluble MWF were elevated at 2.5 or greater in all categories of cumulative exposure, although the exposure-response trend was statistically significant only when exposure was measured as duration. Those with 12 or more years exposure to soluble MWF in grinding operations experienced a 9.3-fold relative risk of esophageal cancer mortality (95% CI = 2.1-42.1). The OR for ever grinding with synthetic MWF was 4.1 (95% CI = 1.1-15.0). Elevated risk was also associated with two agents found in both synthetic and soluble fluids, nitrosamines, and biocides. For exposure to nitrosamines, the OR was 5.4 (95% CI = 1.5-19.9); for biocides the OR was 3.8 (95% CI = 0.8-18.9). However, because the same workers were exposed to grinding with synthetics, nitrosamines and biocides, it was not possible to separate the specific risks associated with these components.

  7. Newly added joint ventures in China’s auto parts industry in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A total of 17 joint ventures on auto parts production were added in 2007, a slight increase year on year. The Chinese side partners were from FAW, SAIC, Beiqi and Sinotruk and foreigner partners were from Lear, Johnson Controls, ArvinMeritor, DEUTZ, FAURECIA and RICARDO. The planed products include car seat, interior, diesel engine, body electronics parts, transmission and bumper.

  8. Assessing the risk to green sturgeon from application of imidacloprid to control burrowing shrimp in Willapa Bay, Washington--Part II: controlled exposure studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, John A; Grue, Christian E

    2015-11-01

    The activities of 2 species of burrowing shrimp have a negative impact on the growth and survival of oysters reared on intertidal mudflats in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington (USA). To maintain viable harvests, oyster growers proposed the application of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid onto harvested beds for the control of burrowing shrimp. In test applications, water column concentrations of imidacloprid were relatively low and dissipated rapidly. The foraging activities of the green sturgeon (listed in the US Endangered Species Act) could result in exposure to higher, more sustained imidacloprid concentrations within sediment porewater and from the consumption of contaminated shrimp. Controlled experiments were conducted using surrogate white sturgeon to determine acute and chronic effect concentrations, to examine overt effects at more environmentally realistic concentrations and durations of exposure, and to assess chemical depuration. The 96-h median lethal concentration was 124 mg L(-1) , and the predicted 35-d no-observed-adverse-effect concentration was 0.7 mg L(-1) . No overt effects were observed following environmentally relevant exposures. Imidacloprid half-life in plasma was greater than 32 h. Measured concentrations of imidacloprid in porewater were significantly lower than the derived acute and chronic effect concentrations for white sturgeon. Exposure risk quotients were calculated using the effect concentrations and estimated environmental exposure. The resulting values were considerably below the level of concern for direct effects from either acute or chronic exposure to an endangered species.

  9. AutoCAD-To-GIFTS Translator Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew

    1989-01-01

    AutoCAD-to-GIFTS translator program, ACTOG, developed to facilitate quick generation of small finite-element models using CASA/GIFTS finite-element modeling program. Reads geometric data of drawing from Data Exchange File (DXF) used in AutoCAD and other PC-based drafting programs. Geometric entities recognized by ACTOG include points, lines, arcs, solids, three-dimensional lines, and three-dimensional faces. From this information, ACTOG creates GIFTS SRC file, which then reads into GIFTS preprocessor BULKM or modified and reads into EDITM to create finite-element model. SRC file used as is or edited for any number of uses. Written in Microsoft Quick-Basic (Version 2.0).

  10. AutoCAD-To-GIFTS Translator Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew

    1989-01-01

    AutoCAD-to-GIFTS translator program, ACTOG, developed to facilitate quick generation of small finite-element models using CASA/GIFTS finite-element modeling program. Reads geometric data of drawing from Data Exchange File (DXF) used in AutoCAD and other PC-based drafting programs. Geometric entities recognized by ACTOG include points, lines, arcs, solids, three-dimensional lines, and three-dimensional faces. From this information, ACTOG creates GIFTS SRC file, which then reads into GIFTS preprocessor BULKM or modified and reads into EDITM to create finite-element model. SRC file used as is or edited for any number of uses. Written in Microsoft Quick-Basic (Version 2.0).

  11. El auto de fe de 1606

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Pérez de Colosía Rodríguez

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available La relación del auto de fe de 1606, está dividida en los siguientes siete apartados: Relajados en persona, Relajados en estatua, Reconciliados por la secta de Mahoma, Reconciliados por la ley de Moisés, Reconciliados por la secta Luterana, Penintenciados con abjuración de behementi y Penitenciados con abjuración de levi.

  12. Scoring functions for AutoDock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Anthony D; Reilly, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Automated docking allows rapid screening of protein-ligand interactions. A scoring function composed of a force field and linear weights can be used to compute a binding energy from a docked atom configuration. For different force fields or types of molecules, it may be necessary to train a custom scoring function. This chapter describes the data and methods one must consider in developing a custom scoring function for use with AutoDock.

  13. Airbag Mapped Mesh Auto-Flattening Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jinhuan; MA Chunsheng; BAI Yuanli; HUANG Shilin

    2005-01-01

    Current software cannot easily model an airbag to be flattened without wrinkles. This paper improves the modeling efficiency using the initial metric method to design a mapped mesh auto-flattening algorithm. The element geometric transformation matrix was obtained using the theory of computer graphics. The algorithm proved to be practical for modeling a passenger-side airbag model. The efficiency and precision of modeling airbags are greatly improved by this method.

  14. Self-reported exposure to pesticides in residential settings and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graber Nora J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticides are widely used in households to control insects and weeds. Several studies, over the past decades, have examined the possible relationship of serum concentration of organochlorine pesticides and the development of breast cancer. However, little data exists regarding an association between self-reported, residential exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. We, therefore, present a case-control study examining self-reported exposure to household pesticides with regard to associated risk of breast cancer. Methods This study was conducted in the area in and around New York City, NY and included 1205 patients (447 cases and 758 controls. Cases were defined as women with newly diagnosed breast cancer or carcinoma in-situ, while controls included women with benign breast diseases or those undergoing non-breast related surgery. All patients were asked a series of questions to determine their pesticide exposure, including the type of pesticide, location of exposure (inside vs. outside the home, who applied the pesticide (self vs. a professional and duration of pesticide use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results The most common pests encountered in participants' homes were ants, carpenter ants, and cockroaches. The calculated adjusted odds ratios for both self and professionally applied pesticides, specifically against the above mentioned insects, with regard to breast cancer risk were 1.25 (95% CI: 0.79-1.98 and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.65-1.73, respectively. Similarly, odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated for other types of pesticides. Conclusions Overall, the results of our study did not show an association between self-reported exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. Future studies, utilizing a larger sample size and more specific detail on time frame of pesticide exposure, are needed to

  15. Passive dosing: an approach to control mutagen exposure in the Ames fluctuation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougeard, Cynthia; Gallampois, Christine; Brack, Werner

    2011-04-01

    One of the major challenges for mutagenicity assessment of environmental samples and individual compounds for example in the Ames fluctuation test (AFT) is the establishment and control of a well defined exposure concentration. Thus, a combination of passive dosing with silicone O-rings (SRs) together with an analytical confirmation of the freely dissolved concentration (FDC) is presented. FDCs are often determined with a combination of solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) with gas chromatography (GC). For compounds with poor performance in GC, a high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis of bi-distilled water dosed with identically loaded SRs is suggested to avoid interference of the bacterial culture. The approach was tested for six amino-, nitro-, and keto-substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds with a logK(OW) range of 2.5-5.1 without metabolic activation. The method provided reliable concentration-effect relationships and freely dissolved 50% effect concentrations (DEC(50)) 3-33 times lower than nominal effect concentrations (NEC(50)) derived in parallel solvent-dosed AFT. Partition coefficients and NEC(50)/DEC(50) ratios were well correlated with lipophilicity.

  16. Prenatal DDT exposure and testicular cancer: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Barbara A; Cirillo, Piera M; Christianson, Roberta E

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined maternal serum levels of DDT-related compounds in relation to son's risk of testicular cancer 30 years later. Fifteen of 9,744 live-born sons were diagnosed with germ cell testicular cancer and had maternal serum samples. Cases were matched to three controls on race and birth year. Maternal serum DDT-related compounds, measured in the early postpartum, were associated with her son's risk of testicular cancer. Despite low statistical power, we observed that mothers of cases had a significantly higher ratio of p,p'-DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) to p,p'-DDE (1,1'-dichloro-2,2'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene) and lower o,p'-DDT (1,1,1-tricholoro-2-(p-chlororphenyl)-2-(o-chlorophenyl)ethane). These findings are consistent with earlier exposure to DDT and with slower p,p'-DDT elimination among mothers of cases. Whether these associations could be direct, or operate via other pathways is unknown. Further research on interindividual differences in DDT metabolism could provide clues to testicular cancer etiology.

  17. Doses under automatic exposure control (AEC) for direct digital radiographic (DDR) X-ray systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Louise; Faulkner, Ronan; Clancy, Conor; Gallagher, Aoife; Devine, Mark; Gorman, Dermot; O'Reilly, Geraldine; Dowling, Anita

    2011-09-01

    Current guidelines quote tolerances for automatic exposure control (AEC) device performance for X-ray systems as 'Baseline ± X %'. However, in the situation where a baseline figure has not yet been achieved, as in the case of commissioning assessments, this tolerance is not relevant. The purpose of this work is to provide mean doses for direct digital radiography (DDR) X-ray system, operating in AEC, against which comparisons can be made. Dose measurements have been recorded under AEC operation on 29 DDR detectors from three different manufacturers. Two different testing protocols were examined: (1) water equivalent phantoms in front of the DDR detector and (2) aluminium block at the tube head. The average patient exit dose, using the aluminium block was 4.6 μGy with the antiscatter grid in place and 4.0 μGy with the grid removed. Using the water phantoms, the average dose was measured at 17.1 μGy with the antiscatter grid in place and 5.4 μGy with grid removed. Based on these results, it is clear that different testing configurations significantly impact on the measured dose.

  18. THE AUTOMATED SYSTEM OF RADIATION EXPOSURE CONTROL (ASCRE FOR ROSPOTREBNADZOR: CREATION HISTORY, APPLICABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Repin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the automated system of radiation exposure control (ASCRE for Rospotrebnadzor developed  in  the  framework  of  the  Federal  target  program  "Nuclear  and  Radiation  Safety  in  2008  and  for  the period till 2015". The history of the development of this system is given. It is shown the diagram of the functioning of ASCRE, description of the individual blocks of diagram is given. It is shown that the grpouping of the data from various Federal banks in the single automated information-analytical system on the general address basis with the wide possibilities of analytical tools application will greatly expand the range of the issues for the assessment of radiation impact on the population than in the existing systems. The use of automation resources will reduce the time for obtaining the necessary information and, ultimately, will increase the effectiveness of the decision making in the field of radiation protection.

  19. Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Waked

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Lebanon is a highly polluted country, so far no study has specifically been designed to assess the association between outdoor air pollution and chronic bronchitis in this country.Objective: To assess the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and chronic bronchitis in Lebanon. Methods: A pilot case-control study was conducted in two tertiary care hospitals. Cases consisted of patients diagnosed with chronic bronchitis by a pulmonologist and those epidemiologically confirmed. Controls included individuals free of any respiratory signs or symptoms. After obtaining informed consent, a standardized questionnaire was administered.Results: Bivariate, stratified (over smoking status and gender and multivariate analyses revealed that passive smoking at home (ORa: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.73–3.80 and at work (ORa: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.13–3.17; older age (ORa: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.55–2.39; lower education (ORa: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.21–1.72; living close to a busy road (ORa: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.31– 2.89 and to a local power plant (ORa: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.07–2.45; and heating home by hot air conditioning (ORa: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.00–3.43 were moderately associated with chronic bronchitis; an inverse association was found with heating home electrically (ORa: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.39–0.85. A positive dose-effect relationship was observed in those living close to a busy road and to a local diesel exhaust source.Conclusion: Chronic bronchitis is associated with outdoor air pollution.

  20. Computer controlled chamber measurements for clay adherence relevant for potential dioxin exposure through skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alesia; Bursac, Zoran; Johnson, Wayne; Davis, Jasmine

    2012-01-01

    A computer-controlled mechanical chamber was used to control the contact between aluminum sheet samples laden with clay, and cotton sheet samples for the measurement of mass transfer. The contact parameters of pressure (20 to 60 kPa) and time (10 to 70 sec) were varied for 160 multiple experiments of mass soil transfer. Before log transformation the average transfer for 'First Transfer' of clay particles was 34.4 ± 6.3 mg/8.97 cm(2) while that for 'Total Transfer' was 36.1 ± 6.8 mg/8.97 cm(2). Second contact, therefore, resulted in an average transfer of 1.70 ± 0.76 mg/8.97 cm(2). These values are well above adherence values measured for potting soil and sand as reported for previous experiments using the same methodologies. Based on the univariate analysis and the multiple regression analysis we were able to see some effect of parameters on the clay adherence values. The effect of pressure increases was significant for the higher levels of 50 and 60 kPa. In addition, we observed that increases in temperature were significant for 'First Transfer,' and less so for 'Total Transfer'. Past experiments using potting soil and play sand show high adherence values to human cadaver skin over cotton sample; the same scenario would be expected for clay. This data set can be used to improve estimates of dermal exposure to dioxins found in ball clays often used by artisans in the making of pottery.

  1. Host outdoor exposure variability affects the transmission and spread of Zika virus: Insights for epidemic control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ajelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus transmission dynamics in urban environments follow a complex spatiotemporal pattern that appears unpredictable and barely related to high mosquito density areas. In this context, human activity patterns likely have a major role in Zika transmission dynamics. This paper examines the effect of host variability in the amount of time spent outdoors on Zika epidemiology in an urban environment.First, we performed a survey on time spent outdoors by residents of Miami-Dade County, Florida. Second, we analyzed both the survey and previously published national data on outdoors time in the U.S. to provide estimates of the distribution of the time spent outdoors. Third, we performed a computational modeling evaluation of Zika transmission dynamics, based on the time spent outdoors by each person. Our analysis reveals a strong heterogeneity of the host population in terms of time spent outdoors-data are well captured by skewed gamma distributions. Our model-based evaluation shows that in a heterogeneous population, Zika would cause a lower number of infections than in a more homogenous host population (up to 4-fold differences, but, at the same time, the epidemic would spread much faster. We estimated that in highly heterogeneous host populations the timing of the implementation of vector control measures is the major factor for limiting the number of Zika infections.Our findings highlight the need of considering host variability in exposure time for managing mosquito-borne infections and call for the revision of the triggers for vector control strategies, which should integrate mosquito density data and human outdoor activity patterns in specific areas.

  2. THE EFFECTS OF CONTROLLED SKIDDING TECHNIQUE ON RESIDUAL STAND DAMAGE AND GROUND EXPOSURE IN SWAMP FOREST LOGGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Suhartana

    2004-11-01

    • The  average of ground  exposure  caused by controlled  skidding  technique  and conventionalskidding technique was respectively   16.06% and 18.4%.  The difference of 2.34%  was significant at 95%.

  3. A computer-controlled whole-body inhalation exposure system for the oil dispersant COREXIT EC9500A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, William Travis; McKinney, Walter; Jackson, Mark; Law, Brandon; Bledsoe, Toni; Siegel, Paul; Cumpston, Jared; Frazer, David

    2011-01-01

    An automated whole-body inhalation exposure system capable of exposing 12 individually housed rats was designed to examine the potential adverse health effects of the oil dispersant COREXIT EC9500A, used extensively during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. A computer-controlled syringe pump injected the COREXIT EC9500A into an atomizer where droplets and vapor were formed and mixed with diluent air. The aerosolized COREXIT EC9500A was passed into a customized exposure chamber where a calibrated light-scattering instrument estimated the real-time particle mass concentration of the aerosol in the chamber. Software feedback loops controlled the chamber aerosol concentration and pressure throughout each exposure. The particle size distribution of the dispersant aerosol was measured and shown to have a count median aerodynamic diameter of 285 nm with a geometric standard deviation of 1.7. The total chamber concentration (particulate + vapor) was determined using a modification of the acidified methylene blue spectrophotometric assay for anionic surfactants. Tests were conducted to show the effectiveness of closed loop control of chamber concentration and to verify chamber concentration homogeneity. Five automated 5-h animal exposures were performed that produced controlled and consistent COREXIT EC9500A concentrations (27.1 ± 2.9 mg/m(3), mean ± SD).

  4. Multidimensional CAT Item Selection Methods for Domain Scores and Composite Scores with Item Exposure Control and Content Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    The intent of this research was to find an item selection procedure in the multidimensional computer adaptive testing (CAT) framework that yielded higher precision for both the domain and composite abilities, had a higher usage of the item pool, and controlled the exposure rate. Five multidimensional CAT item selection procedures (minimum angle;…

  5. Hurricane exposure and county fetal death rates, utilization of a county environmental quality index for confounding control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of natural disasters on public health are a rising concern, with increasing severity of disaster events. Many disaster studies utilize county-level analysis, however most do not control for county level environmental factors. Hurricane exposure during pregnancy could ...

  6. Hurricane exposure and county fetal death rates, utilization of a county environmental quality index for confounding control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of natural disasters on public health are a rising concern, with increasing severity of disaster events. Many disaster studies utilize county-level analysis, however most do not control for county level environmental factors. Hurricane exposure during pregnancy could ...

  7. Effectiveness of personal protective equipment: Relevance of dermal and inhalation exposure to chlorpyrifos among pest control operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, K. van der; Tielemans, E.; Links, I.; Brouwer, D.; Hemmen, J. van

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a custom fit personal protective equipment (PPE) program aimed at reducing occupational exposure to pesticides. The intervention study was carried out on 15 pest control operators (PCOs) during mixing/loading and application of chlorpyrifos. Each worker was m

  8. Multidimensional CAT Item Selection Methods for Domain Scores and Composite Scores with Item Exposure Control and Content Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    The intent of this research was to find an item selection procedure in the multidimensional computer adaptive testing (CAT) framework that yielded higher precision for both the domain and composite abilities, had a higher usage of the item pool, and controlled the exposure rate. Five multidimensional CAT item selection procedures (minimum angle;…

  9. Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy does not provide any additional value in agoraphobic patients: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyerbroker, K.; Morina, N.; Kerkhof, G.A.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A number of studies have demonstrated the efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) in specific phobias, but research in seriously impaired patients with agoraphobia is lacking. In this randomized controlled trial with patients with agoraphobia and panic disorder, VRET and expo

  10. Inside the black box: Starting to uncover the underlying decision rules used in a one-by-one expert assessment of occupational exposure in case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wheeler, D.C.; Burstyn, I.; Vermeulen, R.; Yu, K.; Shortreed, S.M.; Pronk, A.; Stewart, P.A.; Colt, J.S.; Baris, D.; Karagas, M.R.; Schwenn, M.; Johnson, A.; Silverman, D.T.; Friesen, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Evaluating occupational exposures in population-based case-control studies often requires exposure assessors to review each study participant's reported occupational information job-by-job to derive exposure estimates. Although such assessments likely have underlying decision rules, they

  11. Commentary: variability in workplace exposures and the design of efficient measurement and control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Burdorf (Alex); M. van Tongeren

    2003-01-01

    textabstractKromhout et al.'s (1993) well-cited publication presented detailed information on statistical procedures to estimate the magnitude of exposure variability within and between workers, drawing from a large database on chemical exposures throughout industry. It convincingl

  12. Prenatal Cigarette Exposure and Infant Learning Stimulation as Predictors of Cognitive Control in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacappa, Enrico; Buckner, John C.; Earls, Felton

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal exposures to neurotoxins and postnatal parenting practices have been shown to independently predict variations in the cognitive development and emotional-behavioral well-being of infants and children. We examined the independent contributions of prenatal cigarette exposure and infant learning stimulation, as well as their…

  13. Efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy for treatment of dental phobia: a randomized control trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghav, K.; Van Wijk, A.J.; Abdullah, F.; Islam, M.N.; Bernatchez, M.; De Jongh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) is found to be a promising and a viable alternative for in vivo exposure in the treatment of specific phobias. However, its usefulness for treating dental phobia is unexplored. The aims of the present study are to determine: (a) the efficacy of VRE

  14. Prenatal Cigarette Exposure and Infant Learning Stimulation as Predictors of Cognitive Control in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacappa, Enrico; Buckner, John C.; Earls, Felton

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal exposures to neurotoxins and postnatal parenting practices have been shown to independently predict variations in the cognitive development and emotional-behavioral well-being of infants and children. We examined the independent contributions of prenatal cigarette exposure and infant learning stimulation, as well as their…

  15. Using AutoDock for ligand-receptor docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Garrett M; Huey, Ruth; Olson, Arthur J

    2008-12-01

    This unit describes how to set up and analyze ligand-protein docking calculations using AutoDock and the graphical user interface, AutoDockTools (ADT). The AutoDock scoring function is a subset of the AMBER force field that treats molecules using the United Atom model. The unit uses an X-ray crystal structure of Indinavir bound to HIV-1 protease taken from the Protein Data Bank (UNIT 1.9) and shows how to prepare the ligand and receptor for AutoGrid, which computes grid maps needed by AutoDock. Indinavir is prepared for AutoDock, adding the polar hydrogens, and partial charges, and defining the rotatable bonds that will be explored during the docking. The input files for AutoGrid and AutoDock are created, and then the grid map calculation run, followed by the docking calculation in AutoDock. Finally, this unit describes some of the ways the results can be analyzed using AutoDockTools. Copyright 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. TU-CD-207-11: Patient-Driven Automatic Exposure Control for Dedicated Breast CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, A; Gazi, P [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Department of Radiology, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Seibert, J; Boone, J [Department of Radiology, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To implement automatic exposure control (AEC) in dedicated breast CT (bCT) on a patient-specific basis using only the pre-scan scout views. Methods: Using a large cohort (N=153) of bCT data sets, the breast effective diameter (D) and width in orthogonal planes (Wa,Wb) were calculated from the reconstructed bCT image and pre-scan scout views, respectively. D, Wa, and Wb were measured at the breast center-of-mass (COM), making use of the known geometry of our bCT system. These data were then fit to a second-order polynomial “D=F(Wa,Wb)” in a least squares sense in order to provide a functional form for determining the breast diameter. The coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) and mean percent error between the measured breast diameter and fit breast diameter were used to evaluate the overall robustness of the polynomial fit. Lastly, previously-reported bCT technique factors derived from Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the tube current required for each breast diameter in order to match two-view mammographic dose levels. Results: F(Wa,Wb) provided fitted breast diameters in agreement with the measured breast diameters resulting in R{sup 2} values ranging from 0.908 to 0.929 and mean percent errors ranging from 3.2% to 3.7%. For all 153 bCT data sets used in this study, the fitted breast diameters ranged from 7.9 cm to 15.7 cm corresponding to tube current values ranging from 0.6 mA to 4.9 mA in order to deliver the same dose as two-view mammography in a 50% glandular breast with a 80 kV x-ray beam and 16.6 second scan time. Conclusion: The present work provides a robust framework for AEC in dedicated bCT using only the width measurements derived from the two orthogonal pre-scan scout views. Future work will investigate how these automatically chosen exposure levels affect the quality of the reconstructed image.

  17. Empiric Auto-Titrating CPAP in People with Suspected Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Fitzgerald; Doelken, Peter; Ahmed, Qanta A.; Gilbert, Gregory E.; Strange, Charlie; Herpel, Laura; Frye, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Efficient diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can be difficult because of time delays imposed by clinic visits and serial overnight polysomnography. In some cases, it may be desirable to initiate treatment for suspected OSA prior to polysomnography. Our objective was to compare the improvement of daytime sleepiness and sleep-related quality of life of patients with high clinical likelihood of having OSA who were randomly assigned to receive empiric auto-titrating continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) while awaiting polysomnogram versus current usual care. Methods: Serial patients referred for overnight polysomnography who had high clinical likelihood of having OSA were randomly assigned to usual care or immediate initiation of auto-titrating CPAP. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) scores and the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ) scores were obtained at baseline, 1 month after randomization, and again after initiation of fixed CPAP in control subjects and after the sleep study in auto-CPAP patients. Results: One hundred nine patients were randomized. Baseline demographics, daytime sleepiness, and sleep-related quality of life scores were similar between groups. One-month ESS and FOSQ scores were improved in the group empirically treated with auto-titrating CPAP. ESS scores improved in the first month by a mean of −3.2 (confidence interval −1.6 to −4.8, p auto-CPAP resulted in symptomatic improvement of daytime sleepiness and sleep-related quality of life in a cohort of patients awaiting polysomnography who had a high pretest probability of having OSA. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the applicability of empiric treatment to other populations. Citation: Drummond F; Doelken P; Ahmed QA; Gilbert GE; Strange C; Herpel L; Frye MD. Empiric auto-titrating CPAP in people with suspected obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(2):140-145. PMID:20411690

  18. Relevance of Flow Cytometric Auto-Crossmatch to the Post-transplant Course of Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, E; Yeğit, O; Erol, A; Akgül, S U; Çalışkan, B; Bayraktar, A; Çalışkan, Y; Türkmen, A; Savran, F O; Sever, M S

    2017-04-01

    The crossmatch test is essential prior to kidney transplantation (tx) to confirm compatibility between the donor and the recipient. However, its results can be misleading due to "undetectable antibodies" in the recipient's serum. To establish if undetectable autoantibodies are responsible for a positive result, an auto-crossmatch test can be performed. In this study, we aim to determine the long-term prognostic value of auto-flow cytometric auto-crossmatch (FCXM) test on kidney survival in kidney tx recipients. The primary outcome variable was reduced renal function. Secondary endpoints were incidence of biopsy-confirmed chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR) and recurrent glomerulonephritis (GN). There were no differences regarding initial serum creatinine levels between the study and control groups (P = .441). Patients who had positive auto-B FCXM had a significantly reduced renal function compared with the control group (P = .016). Four patients developed biopsy-confirmed CAMR in the study group and 1 patient in the control group (P = .047). Five patients had biopsy-confirmed recurrent GN in the GN study group, and only 1 patient had recurrent GN in the GN control group (P = .026). Kidney transplant recipients with positive auto-FCXM test had significantly reduced renal function and a higher incidence of recurrent GN and CAMR compared with the control group. The findings of this study suggest a potential role of auto-antibody causing positive auto-FCXM test result, meanwhile increasing the risk of CAMR, recurrent GN, and new-onset diabetes after tx. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Exposure assessment and modeling of quartz in Swedish iron foundries for a nested case-control study on lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Lena; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Ngo, Yen; Ohlson, Carl-Göran; Westberg, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    Exposure assessment of quartz in Swedish iron foundries was performed based on historical and current measurement data. To evaluate the exposure-response relationship between quartz exposure and lung cancer, we modeled quartz exposure from our database of measurements using determinants job title, time period, and company. Based on these modeled exposure data, we conducted a nested case-control evaluation. In our database, the overall individual, daily time-weighted average (TWA) quartz concentrations of current and historical data varied between 0.0018 and 4.9 mg/m(3), averaging 0.083 mg/m(3). Job titles with mean TWAs for the whole study period exceeding the European Union recommended occupational exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m(3) were fettlers (0.087 mg/m(3)), furnace and ladle repair (0.42 mg/m(3)), and maintenance (0.054 mg/m(3)) workers. The mixed model analysis demonstrated significant determinants on the job level for furnace and ladle repair (β = 4.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.78-5.93). For all jobs, significantly higher exposure levels occurred only during the first time period, 1968-1979 (β = 2.08; 95% CI 1.75-2.47), and a decreasing but not significant trend was noted for the three following 10-year time periods up to 2006 (β = 1.0, 0.96 and 1, respectively). Two iron foundries had significantly higher quartz concentration levels than the others (β = 1.31; 95% CI 1.00-1.71 and β = 1.63; 95% CI 1.00-2.65, respectively). The individual cumulative quartz exposure measures were categorized in low, medium, and high exposure (0.5-0.05 mg/m(3) of quartz. To conclude, certain foundry workers are still exposed to high levels of quartz, but an increased risk of lung cancer caused by quartz exposure in these Swedish iron foundries could not be confirmed at our exposure levels.

  20. Computer-assisted auto-frame navigation system for distal locking of tibial intramedullary nails: a preliminary report on clinical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-qiang; GAO Yi-fei; WANG Tian-miao; ZHAO Chun-peng; WANG Man-yi; SU Yong-gong; HU Lei; SUN Lei; ZHANG Li-dan; LIU Wen-yong; ZHANG Hui

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical feasibility and effect of the computer-assisted auto-frame navigation system for distal locking of tibial intrameduilary nails.Methods: The hardware components of the system included a PC computer with a monitor, auto mechanical stereotactical locating cubic frame, foot holder and localization operative apparatus. Special navigation software can be used for registration of X-ray fluoroscopic images and real-time controlling navigation of tools.Twenty-one cases of close tibial and fibular fractures were treated with closed intramedullary nailing, 6 of which involved in middle third, 12 in middle and lower third, 3 in lower third. C-arm alignment and registration time,fluoroscopic time and drilling time involved in the locking procedure were recorded. The size of unreamed or reamed tibial nails ranged from 8/300-11/330.Results: All distal holes except 1 were locked successfully. In 9 of 41 locked holes (21.95%), the drill bit touched the canal of locking hole without damage of the nail and clinical consequences. The fluoroscopy time per pair of screws was 2.23 s ± 0.31 s.Conclusions: The computer-assisted auto-frame navigation system for distal locking is well designed, easy to operate and do not need additional instruments during the procedure. The developed system enables the physician to precisely navigate surgical instruments throughout the anatomy using just a few computer-calibrated radiographic images. The total time of x-ray exposure per procedure can be significantly reduced.

  1. Contamination monitoring and control on ASML MS-VII 157-nm exposure tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma; Gronheid, Roel; Coenen, Jan; Hermans, Jan; Ronse, Kurt G.

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents results of monitoring and control of contaminants in an ASML MS-VII 157nm full-field exposure tool at IMEC, as verified lithographically in terms of field uniformity, lens transmission, CD uniformity, and scattered light. The daily contamination monitoring system utilizes in-line photo-ionization detector, oxygen and moisture analyzers, as well as chemiluminescent detector, and gas chromatograph that is coupled to a mass spectrometer. On a monthly basis, contamination monitoring was performed with thermal desorption-gas chromatographi/mass spectrometric techniques. The following four locations within the optical path of the MS-VII are monitored: source optic assembly, condenser lens optic, 1X relay station, and projection optics box. Contamination control is realized in the system with an on-board purge control unit, which is equipped with gas purifiers that remove contaminants such as H2O, O2, CO, CO2, hydrocarbons, H2, and sulfur compounds. All the observed contaminants have been trending within expected values and no contamination-related tool performance degradation has been observed. The excursions observed in the contaminant concentrations are coincident with tool downtime/maintenance events. Siloxane levels appear to be consistently below 50 ppt in all the monitored locations within the optical path of the tool, except on one occasion when it reached 90 ppt in the projection optics. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentration within the MS-VII enclosure show a stable background level of around 10-25 ppb during weekends and levels of 45-60 ppb (during working days). VOCs concentration variations inside the MS-VII enclosure during the working days correlate well with activities inside the clean room. Air recirculation and low intake of fresh air inside the MS-VII tend to slow down the speed with which the VOCs levels decreases to stable background level, whenever there was a major upward excursion in their concentration. Average light

  2. Reducing radiation exposure during kyphoplasty with the use of a remote control injection system: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianru; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Kuibo; Li, Bingxue; Yang, Hao; Wang, Hua; Zheng, Zhaomin

    2015-01-15

    A prospective study. To compare surgeons' radiation exposure during kyphoplasty with and without the use of a remote control injection system. Distance from radiation sources is a critical factor for reducing radiation exposure during spine surgery. A newly designed device was used to minimize operators' radiation exposure during kyphoplasty. Forty-four patients admitted for single-level osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture were randomly divided into 2 groups (groups A and B) and treated with kyphoplasty. The remote control injection system was used only in group B. The radiation doses to the surgeon's eyes, thyroid, chest, and right wrist were recorded with 4 unprotected radiometers simultaneously. Operation time, fluoroscopic time, cement amount, patient-reported pre- and postoperative visual analogue scale scores for pain, and complications were recorded. For group A, the radiation doses at the eyes, thyroid, and right wrist were 1.132 ± 0.104 mSv, 0.647 ± 0.049 mSv, 0.578 ± 0.056 mSv, and 1.877 ± 0.214 mSv, respectively; for Group B, these doses were 0.257 ± 0.067 mSv, 0.201 ± 0.049 mSv, 0.145 ± 0.033 mSv, and 0.353 ± 0.046 mSv, respectively (P remote control injection system can significantly reduce surgeons' radiation exposure without affecting the efficiency of procedures.

  3. Controlling the composition, microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties of LiFe{sub 5}O{sub 8} powders synthesized by sol gel auto-combustion method using urea as a fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, M.M., E-mail: rashad133@yahoo.com [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, Cairo (Egypt); El-Shaarawy, M.G.; Shash, N.M.; Maklad, M.H. [Physics Department, Benha University, Benha (Egypt); Afifi, F.A. [Basic Engineering Science Department, Faculty of Engineering, Benha university, Benha (Egypt)

    2015-01-15

    Nanocrystalline lithium ferrite LiFe{sub 5}O{sub 8} powders were synthesized by the sol gel auto-combustion method from the corresponding metal nitrates using urea as a fuel. DTA results showed that the LiFe{sub 5}O{sub 8} phase started to form at temperature around 385 °C. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that all compositions were formed in a single-phase cubic spinel structure at different annealing temperatures from 400 to 800 °C for 2 h. The lattice parameter was found to decrease whereas the particle size was increased with annealing temperature. The frequency exponent “s” of lithium ferrite lies in the range 0.5≤s≤1, which confirmed the electron hopping between Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions. The electron mobility in LiFe{sub 5}O{sub 8} samples ranged from 0.05 to 0.29 eV, which clearly indicated that the present lithium ferrites have semiconductor-like behavior. The saturation magnetization was increased on increasing the annealing temperature up to 800 °C. High saturation magnetization (Ms=51.9 emu/g) was achieved for the ferrite powders produced at annealing temperature 800 °C for 2 h. - Highlights: • LiFe{sub 5}O{sub 8} phase was prepared at low temperature 400 °C. • Microstructure was temperature dependent. • Electron mobility ranged from 0.05 to 0.29 eV. • Frequency exponent “s” lies in the range 0.5≤s≤1 • Good magnetization was achieved.

  4. Toluene in alveolar air during controlled exposure to constant and to varying concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1990-01-01

    The concentration of toluene in the alveolar air was measured in 20 males and 17 females exposed for 7 h either to a constant exposure to 100 ppm toluene or to a varying exposure with the same time-weighted average, but with peaks of 300 ppm every 30 min. Both exposure schedules included 50 to 100...... W exercise in three 15-min periods. Repetitive measurements of the toluene concentrations in the alveolar air were made in two 30-min periods, one at rest and one including work. At rest the alveolar concentration increased rapidly in response to an increase in the inspiratory air concentration...

  5. Investigating the Simulink Auto-Coding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdoni, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Model based program design is the most clear and direct way to develop algorithms and programs for interfacing with hardware. While coding "by hand" results in a more tailored product, the ever-growing size and complexity of modern-day applications can cause the project work load to quickly become unreasonable for one programmer. This has generally been addressed by splitting the product into separate modules to allow multiple developers to work in parallel on the same project, however this introduces new potentials for errors in the process. The fluidity, reliability and robustness of the code relies on the abilities of the programmers to communicate their methods to one another; furthermore, multiple programmers invites multiple potentially differing coding styles into the same product, which can cause a loss of readability or even module incompatibility. Fortunately, Mathworks has implemented an auto-coding feature that allows programmers to design their algorithms through the use of models and diagrams in the graphical programming environment Simulink, allowing the designer to visually determine what the hardware is to do. From here, the auto-coding feature handles converting the project into another programming language. This type of approach allows the designer to clearly see how the software will be directing the hardware without the need to try and interpret large amounts of code. In addition, it speeds up the programming process, minimizing the amount of man-hours spent on a single project, thus reducing the chance of human error as well as project turnover time. One such project that has benefited from the auto-coding procedure is Ramses, a portion of the GNC flight software on-board Orion that has been implemented primarily in Simulink. Currently, however, auto-coding Ramses into C++ requires 5 hours of code generation time. This causes issues if the tool ever needs to be debugged, as this code generation will need to occur with each edit to any part of

  6. Confronting Fear Using Exposure and Response Prevention for Anorexia Nervosa: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinglass, Joanna E; Albano, Anne Marie; Simpson, H Blair; Wang, Yuanjia; Zou, Jingjing; Attia, Evelyn; Walsh, B. Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Objective Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe illness with high rates of relapse. Exposure and Response Prevention for AN (AN-EXRP) is a new approach that specifically addresses maladaptive eating behavior by targeting eating-related fear and anxiety. The aim of this study was to evaluate AN-EXRP as an adjunctive strategy to improve eating behavior during weight restoration, at a pivotal moment when treatment goals shift toward relapse prevention. Method A randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare AN-EXRP with a comparison condition, Cognitive Remediation Therapy (CRT). Hospitalized patients with AN (n=32) who had achieved weight restoration to a BMI > 18.5 kg/m2 received 12 sessions of either AN-EXRP or CRT. Outcome was assessed by change in caloric intake in an objective assessment of eating behavior. Results The average test meal caloric intake of participants who received AN-EXRP increased from 352±263 kcal at baseline to 401±215 kcal post-treatment, while that of participants who received CRT decreased from 501±232 kcal at baseline to 424±221 kcal post-treatment (t(28)=2.5, p=0.02). Improvement in intake was significantly associated with improvement in eating-related anxiety (Spearman’s ρ=0.40, p=0.03). Conclusions These data demonstrate that AN-EXRP, compared to a credible comparison intervention, is associated with better caloric intake in a laboratory meal over time in AN. Additional studies are required to determine whether incorporation of these techniques into a longer treatment program leads to enduring and clinically significant change. PMID:24488838

  7. Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for the Treatment of Dental Phobia: A Controlled Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjar, Kumar Raghav; van Wijk, Arjen; Sharma, Ratika; de Jongh, Ad

    2017-09-14

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has been used to treat a variety of fears and phobias. To determine the feasibility (i.e. safety and efficacy) of using VRET to treat dental phobia. Safety was evaluated by determining any adverse events or symptom exacerbation. Efficacy of VRET was evaluated by comparing the reduction in dental anxiety scores (measured 16 times within a 14-week study period, and at 6-month follow-up), and its behavioural effects with that of an informational pamphlet (IP) on ten randomized patients with dental phobia using a controlled multiple baseline design. Participants' heart rate response during VRET, and their experience post-VRET, were indexed. No personal adverse events or symptom exacerbation occurred. Visual analysis and post-hoc intention-to-treat analysis showed a significantly greater decrease in dental anxiety scores [higher PND (percentage of non-overlap data) scores of 100% and lower POD (percentage of overlap data) of 0%, Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, F (1,8) = 8.61, p = 0.019, and Dental Fear Scale, F (1,8) = 10.53, p = 0.012], and behavioural avoidance in the VRET compared with the IP group [d = 4.2 and -1.4, respectively). There was no increase in average heart rate during VRET. Of the nine treatment completers, six (four from the VRET group and two from the IP group) no longer had dental phobia at 6-month follow-up. Four of the five VRET participants, but none of the IP participants, scheduled a dental treatment appointment following the intervention. VRET is a feasible alternative for patients with dental phobia.

  8. A routine quality assurance test for CT automatic exposure control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iball, Gareth R; Moore, Alexis C; Crawford, Elizabeth J

    2016-07-08

    The study purpose was to develop and validate a quality assurance test for CT automatic exposure control (AEC) systems based on a set of nested polymethylmethacrylate CTDI phantoms. The test phantom was created by offsetting the 16 cm head phantom within the 32 cm body annulus, thus creating a three part phantom. This was scanned at all acceptance, routine, and some nonroutine quality assurance visits over a period of 45 months, resulting in 115 separate AEC tests on scanners from four manufacturers. For each scan the longitudinal mA modulation pattern was generated and measurements of image noise were made in two annular regions of interest. The scanner displayed CTDIvol and DLP were also recorded. The impact of a range of AEC configurations on dose and image quality were assessed at acceptance testing. For systems that were tested more than once, the percentage of CTDIvol values exceeding 5%, 10%, and 15% deviation from baseline was 23.4%, 12.6%, and 8.1% respectively. Similarly, for the image noise data, deviations greater than 2%, 5%, and 10% from baseline were 26.5%, 5.9%, and 2%, respectively. The majority of CTDIvol and noise deviations greater than 15% and 5%, respectively, could be explained by incorrect phantom setup or protocol selection. Barring these results, CTDIvol deviations of greater than 15% from baseline were found in 0.9% of tests and noise deviations greater than 5% from baseline were found in 1% of tests. The phantom was shown to be sensitive to changes in AEC setup, including the use of 3D, longitudinal or rotational tube current modulation. This test methodology allows for continuing performance assessment of CT AEC systems, and we recommend that this test should become part of routine CT quality assurance programs. Tolerances of ± 15% for CTDIvol and ± 5% for image noise relative to baseline values should be used.

  9. An investigation of automatic exposure control calibration for chest imaging with a computed radiography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C S; Wood, T J; Avery, G; Balcam, S; Needler, L; Beavis, A W; Saunderson, J R

    2014-05-07

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of three physical image quality metrics in the calibration of an automatic exposure control (AEC) device for chest radiography with a computed radiography (CR) imaging system. The metrics assessed were signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean effective noise equivalent quanta (eNEQm), all measured using a uniform chest phantom. Subsequent calibration curves were derived to ensure each metric was held constant across the tube voltage range. Each curve was assessed for its clinical appropriateness by generating computer simulated chest images with correct detector air kermas for each tube voltage, and grading these against reference images which were reconstructed at detector air kermas correct for the constant detector dose indicator (DDI) curve currently programmed into the AEC device. All simulated chest images contained clinically realistic projected anatomy and anatomical noise and were scored by experienced image evaluators. Constant DDI and CNR curves do not appear to provide optimized performance across the diagnostic energy range. Conversely, constant eNEQm and SNR do appear to provide optimized performance, with the latter being the preferred calibration metric given as it is easier to measure in practice. Medical physicists may use the SNR image quality metric described here when setting up and optimizing AEC devices for chest radiography CR systems with a degree of confidence that resulting clinical image quality will be adequate for the required clinical task. However, this must be done with close cooperation of expert image evaluators, to ensure appropriate levels of detector air kerma.

  10. Assessing transferable residues from intermittent exposure to flea control collars containing the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Janice E; Boone, J Scott; Davis, M Keith; Moran, John E; Tyler, John W

    2007-11-01

    Children can be exposed to pesticides from numerous residential sources such as carpet, house dust, toys and clothing from treated homes, and flea control remedies on pets. In the present studies, 48 pet dogs (24 in each of two studies) of different breeds and weights were treated with over-the-counter flea collars containing chlorpyrifos (CP), an organophosphorus insecticide. Transferable insecticide residues were quantified on cotton gloves used to rub the dogs for 5 min and on cotton tee shirts worn by a child (Study 2 only). First morning urine samples were also obtained from adults and children in both studies for metabolite (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) quantification. Blood samples were obtained from treated dogs in Study 1 and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity was monitored. Transferable residues on gloves for all compounds were highest near the neck of the dogs and were lowest in areas most distant from the neck. Rubbing samples (over the collar) at two weeks post-collar application contained 447+/-57 microg CP/glove while samples from the fur of the back contained 8+/-2 microg CP/glove. In Study 2, cotton tee shirts worn by children at 15 days post-collar application for 4 h showed CP levels of 134+/-66 ng/g shirt. There were significant differences between adults and children in the levels of urinary metabolites with children generally having higher urinary levels of metabolites than adults (grand mean+/-SE; 11.6+/-1.1 and 7.9+/-0.74 ng/mg creatinine for children and adults, respectively, compared to 9.4+/-0.8 and 6.9+/-0.5 ng/mg creatinine before collar placement). Therefore, there was little evidence that the use of this flea collar contributed to enhanced CP exposure of either children or adults.

  11. Auto-Regulatory RNA Editing Fine-Tunes mRNA Re-Coding and Complex Behaviour in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, Yiannis A.; Jepson, James E.C; Sahin, Asli; Sugden, Arthur U.; Dorsky, Jacquelyn S.; Alpert, Lauren; Lawrence, Charles; Reenan, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Auto-regulatory feedback loops are a common molecular strategy used to optimize protein function. In Drosophila many mRNAs involved in neuro-transmission are re-coded at the RNA level by the RNA editing enzyme dADAR, leading to the incorporation of amino acids that are not directly encoded by the genome. dADAR also re-codes its own transcript, but the consequences of this auto-regulation in vivo are unclear. Here we show that hard-wiring or abolishing endogenous dADAR auto-regulation dramatically remodels the landscape of re-coding events in a site-specific manner. These molecular phenotypes correlate with altered localization of dADAR within the nuclear compartment. Furthermore, auto-editing exhibits sexually dimorphic patterns of spatial regulation and can be modified by abiotic environmental factors. Finally, we demonstrate that modifying dAdar auto-editing affects adaptive complex behaviors. Our results reveal the in vivo relevance of auto-regulatory control over post-transcriptional mRNA re-coding events in fine-tuning brain function and organismal behavior. PMID:22531175

  12. A randomized controlled study of power posing before public speaking exposure for social anxiety disorder: No evidence for augmentative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michelle L; Papini, Santiago; Rosenfield, David; Roelofs, Karin; Kolb, Sarah; Powers, Mark B; Smits, Jasper A J

    2017-09-18

    This manuscript details a randomized controlled study designed to test the efficacy of power posing (i.e., briefly holding postures associated with dominance and power) as an augmentative strategy for exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Seventy-three individuals diagnosed with SAD were assigned to one of three conditions: power posing, submissive posing, or rest (no posing) prior to participating in an exposure therapy session. Participants were assessed for between-group differences in pre- and post-manipulation salivary hormone levels, within-session subjective experiences of fear, and pre- and 1-week post-treatment SAD severity outcome measures. Though the intervention resulted in decreased SAD symptom severity one week later, analyses revealed no significant between-group differences on any tested variables. Accordingly, this study provides no evidence to suggest that power posing impacts hormone levels or exposure therapy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid microRNA changes in airways of human volunteers after controlled exposure to air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction/Rationale: Exposure to air pollutants, including ozone and diesel exhaust (DE) are known to cause acute cardiopulmonary dysfunction; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes remain elusive. One mechanism for rapid regulation of multiple genes is a...

  14. FOTON Auto: Fish Pound Generates Successful Overseas Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      The rapid development of Chinese auto industry has led to an escalated boom of the independent brands of Chinese auto industry, as well as a success in the overseas market. Especially in the fields of the business cars, thanks to the abundant experiences accumulated during the past 50 years and the mature products, Chinese auto industry has won some comparative advantages in the international market.……

  15. FOTON Auto: Fish Pound Generates Successful Overseas Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The rapid development of Chinese auto industry has led to an escalated boom of the independent brands of Chinese auto industry, as well as a success in the overseas market. Especially in the fields of the business cars, thanks to the abundant experiences accumulated during the past 50 years and the mature products, Chinese auto industry has won some comparative advantages in the international market.

  16. AutoCAD教学思考与探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊

    2013-01-01

    本文浅析了AutoCAD教学现状,提出对于高职院校AutoCAD课程,教师要积极针对课程的特点,改革AutoCAD的课程体系,探索有效教学方法,激发学生的学习热情,培养学生的专业能力.

  17. [Prenatal exposure to birth control pills: risk of fetal death and congenital malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellesen, Rikke; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2006-06-19

    About 1% of pregnant women uses oral contraceptives during the first part of their pregnancy and thereby exposes their offspring to artificial estrogens. Artificial estrogens, such as oral contraceptives, accidentally used during pregnancy may have a negative impact on the fetus. This article reviews the literature on prenatal exposure to oral contraceptives and the risk of congenital malformations and fetal death. The conclusion is that prenatal exposure to oral contraceptives may be associated with a slightly elevated risk of certain specific congenital malformations.

  18. Exposures and reactions to allergens among hairdressing apprentices and matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnhøj, Anne; Søsted, Heidi; Menné, Torkil;

    2011-01-01

    Early and extensive exposures to chemical substances such as are found in hair dyes, perfumes and nickel are known risk factors for allergic reactions. Hairdressing apprentices belong to a high-risk group, as they are exposed both occupationally and personally.......Early and extensive exposures to chemical substances such as are found in hair dyes, perfumes and nickel are known risk factors for allergic reactions. Hairdressing apprentices belong to a high-risk group, as they are exposed both occupationally and personally....

  19. County-level hurricane exposure and birth rates: application of difference-in-differences analysis for confounding control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabich, Shannon C; Robinson, Whitney R; Engel, Stephanie M; Konrad, Charles E; Richardson, David B; Horney, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological analyses of aggregated data are often used to evaluate theoretical health effects of natural disasters. Such analyses are susceptible to confounding by unmeasured differences between the exposed and unexposed populations. To demonstrate the difference-in-difference method our population included all recorded Florida live births that reached 20 weeks gestation and conceived after the first hurricane of 2004 or in 2003 (when no hurricanes made landfall). Hurricane exposure was categorized using ≥74 mile per hour hurricane wind speed as well as a 60 km spatial buffer based on weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The effect of exposure was quantified as live birth rate differences and 95 % confidence intervals [RD (95 % CI)]. To illustrate sensitivity of the results, the difference-in-differences estimates were compared to general linear models adjusted for census-level covariates. This analysis demonstrates difference-in-differences as a method to control for time-invariant confounders investigating hurricane exposure on live birth rates. Difference-in-differences analysis yielded consistently null associations across exposure metrics and hurricanes for the post hurricane rate difference between exposed and unexposed areas (e.g., Hurricane Ivan for 60 km spatial buffer [-0.02 births/1000 individuals (-0.51, 0.47)]. In contrast, general linear models suggested a positive association between hurricane exposure and birth rate [Hurricane Ivan for 60 km spatial buffer (2.80 births/1000 individuals (1.94, 3.67)] but not all models. Ecological studies of associations between environmental exposures and health are susceptible to confounding due to unmeasured population attributes. Here we demonstrate an accessible method of control for time-invariant confounders for future research.

  20. Assessing intermittent pesticide exposure from flea control collars containing the organophosphorus insecticide tetrachlorvinphos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M Keith; Boone, J Scott; Moran, John E; Tyler, John W; Chambers, Janice E

    2008-11-01

    Fleas are a persistent problem for pets that require implementation of control measures. Consequently, pesticide use by homeowners for flea control is common and may increase pesticide exposure for adults and children. Fifty-five pet dogs (23 in study 1; 22 in study 2) of different breeds and weights were treated with over-the-counter flea collars containing tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP). During study 1, fur of treated dogs was monitored for transferable TCVP residues using cotton gloves to pet the dogs during 5-min rubbings post-collar application. Plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity was also measured in treated dogs. Average amounts of TCVP transferred from the fur of the neck (rubbing over the collar) and from the back to gloves at 3 days post-collar application were 23,700+/-2100 and 260+/-50 microg/glove, respectively. No inhibition of plasma ChE was observed. During study 2, transferable TCVP residues to cotton gloves were monitored during 5-min rubbings post-collar application. Transferable residues were also monitored on cotton tee shirts worn by children and in the first morning urine samples obtained from adults and children. Average amounts of TCVP transferred to gloves at 5 days post-collar application from the neck (over the collar) and from the back were 22,400+/-2900 and 80+/-20 microg/glove, respectively. Tee shirts worn by children on days 7-11 contained 1.8+/-0.8 microg TCVP/g shirt. No significant differences were observed between adults and children in urinary 2,4,5-trichloromandelic acid (TCMA) levels; however, all TCMA residues (adults and children) were significantly greater than pretreatment concentrations (alpha=0.05). The lack of ChE inhibition in dogs and the low acute toxicity level of TCVP (rat oral LD(50) of 4-5 g/kg) strongly suggest that TCVP is rapidly detoxified and excreted and therefore poses a very low toxicological risk, despite these high residues.