WorldWideScience

Sample records for auto exposure control

  1. Clementine auto exposure control software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The primary mission of the Clementine program was to test technology developed under the auspices of BMDO (the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization). A secondary goal of the program was to provide astronomical data to the scientific and educational community. The mission plan developed to accomplish these goals included complete mapping of the lunar surface and a close fly-by of a near-Earth asteroid, 1620 Geographos. Exposure control for the Clementine mission was driven by mission phase requirements and sensor characteristics. Thus, there were a total of twelve algorithms developed for three primary mission phases and the four imaging sensors (two additional sensors operated as star trackers). The three mission phases in question were lunar mapping, distant observation of the asteroid for the purpose of tracking, and close-up viewing (as close as 100 Km) of Geographos. The four non-star tracker sensors consisted of an Ultra Violet/Visible (UV/Vis) camera, a High Resolution (HiRes) camera with a built-in LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) unit, a Near Infrared (NIR) camera, and a Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR) camera. Due to lack of test time and uncertainties about the imaging environment, numerous input parameters were provided in the algorithms to allow extensive tuning of the exposure control during the mission.

  2. Reducing methods of patients exposed dose using auto exposure control system in digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seong Gyu [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dong A University Medical Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    This study was carried out to reduce patient dose through focus-detector distance, kilovoltage, and a combination of copper filters. In the C, L-spine lateral, Skull AP views were obtained by making changes of 60-100 kV in tube voltage and of 100-200 cm in focus-detector distance and by adding a copper filter when using an auto exposure control device in the digital radiography equipment. The incident dose showed 90 kV, 0.3 mmCu in C-spine lateral with 0.06 mGy under the condition of 200 cm; 100 kV, 0.3 mmCu with 0.40 mGy under the condition of 200 cm and 90 kV 0.3 mmCu in Skull AP with the lowest value of 0.24 mGy under the condition of 140 cm. It was observed that entrance surface dose decreased the most when was increased by 150 cm, 70 kV (C-spine lateral), 81 kV (L-spine lateral). It was also found out that as the between the focus-detector increased in the expansion of the video decreased but the difference was not significant when the distance was 180 cm or more. Skull AP showed the most reduction in the entrance surface dose when the tube voltage was changed by 80 kV, 0.1 mmCu, and 120 cm. Therefore, when using the automatic exposure control device, it is recommended to use the highest tube voltage if possible and to increase focus-detector distance at least by 150-200 cm in wall and 120-140 cm in table in consideration of the radiotechnologist's physical conditions, and to combine 0.1-0.3 mmCu and higher filters. It is thus expected to reduce patient dose by avoiding distortion of images and reducing the entrance surface dose.

  3. AUTO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders; Aagaard, Tine; Diaz, pauline

    2011-01-01

    AUTO is the first assignment that the students of Architecture are introduced to at the Aarhus school of Architecture. The aim is to give students an understanding of design through a generic working method. This by disassembling a car engine and staging its components through a series of castings...

  4. AutoCAD electrical 2013 for electrical control designers

    CERN Document Server

    Tickoo, Sham; CADCIM Technologies

    2013-01-01

    The AutoCAD Electrical 2013 for Electrical Control Designers textbook has been written to assist the engineering students and the practicing designers learn the application of various AutoCAD Electrical tools and options for creating electrical control designs. After reading this textbook, the users will be able to create professional electrical-control drawings easily and effectively. Moreover, the users will be able to automate various control engineering tasks such as building circuits, numbering wires, creating bills of materials, and many more. The textbook takes the users across a wide spectrum of electrical control drawings through progressive examples and numerous illustrations and exercises, thereby making it an ideal guide for both the novice and the advanced users. Salient Features of the Textbook Consists of 14 chapters that are organized in a pedagogical sequence covering various tools and features of AutoCAD Electrical such as schematic drawings, parametric and non-parametric PLC modules, Circu...

  5. Assessment of heavy metal exposure around auto body refinishing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant number of occupations are present in our society which involves metal pollution. These small operational occupations which are always neglected by governments and other occupational health services are another major factor of metal flow in urban soil. The local auto body refinishing shops are one of these ...

  6. AutoCAD electrical 2016 for electrical control designers

    CERN Document Server

    Tickoo, Sham

    2016-01-01

    The AutoCAD Electrical 2016 for Electrical Control Designers textbook has been written to assist the engineering students and the practicing designers who are new to AutoCAD Electrical. Using this textbook, the readers can learn the application of basic tools required for creating professional electrical control drawings with the help of AutoCAD Electrical. Keeping in view the varied requirements of the users, this textbook covers a wide range of tools and features such as schematic drawings, Circuit Builder, panel drawings, parametric and nonparametric PLC modules, stand-alone PLC I/O points, ladder diagrams, point-to-point wiring diagrams, report generation, creation of symbols, and so on. This will help the readers to create electrical drawings easily and effectively. Special emphasis has been laid on the introduction of concepts, which have been explained using text and supported with graphical examples. The examples and tutorials used in this book ensure that the users can relate the information provided...

  7. Auto-control experiments on DIDO using discontinuous feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, L.A.J.

    1959-12-01

    Experiments on auto-controlling the reactor DIDO are described and the equipment design discussed in some detail. The experiments are carried out to show the suitability of an on/off type of control for the maintenance of: (a) a constant flux level in the presence of noise. (b) constant period during power change. The controlling signals stem from measurement of neutron flux computed to give deviation from demanded power, and period respectively. These signals are fed to a D.C. amplifier with variable deadbang whose output is used to control relays, these in turn control the coarse control arms by means of three-phase motors. The system is designed on the basis of locus diagrams, a conventional non-linear technique being used to handle the relay performance. Calculation of the reactor transfer function at high and low power respectively shows that the stability margin is not appreciably affected by the inherent thermodynamic feedback in the reactor core. (author)

  8. Personal exposure control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Ken-ichi; Akashi, Michio

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power stations are under strict radiation control. Exposure control for nuclear workers is the most important operation, and so carefully thought out measures are taken. This paper introduces Fuji Electric's personal exposure control system that meets strict exposure control and rationalizes control operations. The system has a merit that it can provide required information in an optimum form using the interconnection of a super minicomputer and exposure control facilities and realizes sophisticated exposure control operations. (author)

  9. Fault tolerant control of multivariable processes using auto-tuning PID controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ding-Li; Chang, T K; Yu, Ding-Wen

    2005-02-01

    Fault tolerant control of dynamic processes is investigated in this paper using an auto-tuning PID controller. A fault tolerant control scheme is proposed composing an auto-tuning PID controller based on an adaptive neural network model. The model is trained online using the extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm to learn system post-fault dynamics. Based on this model, the PID controller adjusts its parameters to compensate the effects of the faults, so that the control performance is recovered from degradation. The auto-tuning algorithm for the PID controller is derived with the Lyapunov method and therefore, the model predicted tracking error is guaranteed to converge asymptotically. The method is applied to a simulated two-input two-output continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with various faults, which demonstrate the applicability of the developed scheme to industrial processes.

  10. Image registration with auto-mapped control volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreibmann, Eduard; Xing Lei

    2006-01-01

    Many image registration algorithms rely on the use of homologous control points on the two input image sets to be registered. In reality, the interactive identification of the control points on both images is tedious, difficult, and often a source of error. We propose a two-step algorithm to automatically identify homologous regions that are used as a priori information during the image registration procedure. First, a number of small control volumes having distinct anatomical features are identified on the model image in a somewhat arbitrary fashion. Instead of attempting to find their correspondences in the reference image through user interaction, in the proposed method, each of the control regions is mapped to the corresponding part of the reference image by using an automated image registration algorithm. A normalized cross-correlation (NCC) function or mutual information was used as the auto-mapping metric and a limited memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm (L-BFGS) was employed to optimize the function to find the optimal mapping. For rigid registration, the transformation parameters of the system are obtained by averaging that derived from the individual control volumes. In our deformable calculation, the mapped control volumes are treated as the nodes or control points with known positions on the two images. If the number of control volumes is not enough to cover the whole image to be registered, additional nodes are placed on the model image and then located on the reference image in a manner similar to the conventional BSpline deformable calculation. For deformable registration, the established correspondence by the auto-mapped control volumes provides valuable guidance for the registration calculation and greatly reduces the dimensionality of the problem. The performance of the two-step registrations was applied to three rigid registration cases (two PET-CT registrations and a brain MRI-CT registration) and one deformable registration of

  11. Automatic detection of AutoPEEP during controlled mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang-Thang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dynamic hyperinflation, hereafter called AutoPEEP (auto-positive end expiratory pressure with some slight language abuse, is a frequent deleterious phenomenon in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Although not readily quantifiable, AutoPEEP can be recognized on the expiratory portion of the flow waveform. If expiratory flow does not return to zero before the next inspiration, AutoPEEP is present. This simple detection however requires the eye of an expert clinician at the patient’s bedside. An automatic detection of AutoPEEP should be helpful to optimize care. Methods In this paper, a platform for automatic detection of AutoPEEP based on the flow signal available on most of recent mechanical ventilators is introduced. The detection algorithms are developed on the basis of robust non-parametric hypothesis testings that require no prior information on the signal distribution. In particular, two detectors are proposed: one is based on SNT (Signal Norm Testing and the other is an extension of SNT in the sequential framework. The performance assessment was carried out on a respiratory system analog and ex-vivo on various retrospectively acquired patient curves. Results The experiment results have shown that the proposed algorithm provides relevant AutoPEEP detection on both simulated and real data. The analysis of clinical data has shown that the proposed detectors can be used to automatically detect AutoPEEP with an accuracy of 93% and a recall (sensitivity of 90%. Conclusions The proposed platform provides an automatic early detection of AutoPEEP. Such functionality can be integrated in the currently used mechanical ventilator for continuous monitoring of the patient-ventilator interface and, therefore, alleviate the clinician task.

  12. Comprehensive Auto CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Taekju

    1993-06-01

    This book starts introduction of conception, application system, software for CAD, function of Auto CAD, kinds and function of Auto CAD files. It deals with starting of Auto CAD, dialogue box and Auto CAD interface, utility command, 2D drawing command, check command, control system, dimension, hatching command, layer command, block, 3D drawing, plotting and printing, auto CAD and application of data, supply program of auto CAD, AME and region modeler, EDLIN, script optimization of Auto CAD and composition on demand.

  13. Estimates of Average Glandular Dose with Auto-modes of X-ray Exposures in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izdihar Kamal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this research was to examine the average glandular dose (AGD of radiation among different breast compositions of glandular and adipose tissue with auto-modes of exposure factor selection in digital breast tomosynthesis. Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the National Cancer Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between February 2012 and February 2013 using a tomosynthesis digital mammography X-ray machine. The entrance surface air kerma and the half-value layer were determined using a 100H thermoluminescent dosimeter on 50% glandular and 50% adipose tissue (50/50 and 20% glandular and 80% adipose tissue (20/80 commercially available breast phantoms (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc., Norfolk, Virginia, USA with auto-time, auto-filter and auto-kilovolt modes. Results: The lowest AGD for the 20/80 phantom with auto-time was 2.28 milliGray (mGy for two dimension (2D and 2.48 mGy for three dimensional (3D images. The lowest AGD for the 50/50 phantom with auto-time was 0.97 mGy for 2D and 1.0 mGy for 3D. Conclusion: The AGD values for both phantoms were lower against a high kilovolt peak and the use of auto-filter mode was more practical for quick acquisition while limiting the probability of operator error.

  14. Design of auto-control high-voltage control system of pulsed neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Juntao

    2008-01-01

    It is difficult to produce multiple anode controlling time sequences under different logging mode for the high-voltage control system of the conventional pulsed neutron generator. It is also difficult realize sequential control among anode high-voltage, filament power supply and target voltage to make neutron yield stable. To these problems, an auto-control high-voltage system of neutron pulsed generator was designed. It not only can achieve anode high-voltage double blast time sequences, which can measure multiple neutron blast time sequences such as Σ, activated spectrum, etc. under inelastic scattering mode, but also can realize neutron generator real-time measurement of multi-state parameters and auto-control such as target voltage pulse width modulation (PWM), filament current, anode current, etc., there by it can produce stable neutron yield and realize stable and accurate measurement of the pulsed neutron full spectral loging tool. (authors)

  15. An Auto Tuning Substation Peak Shaving Controller for Congestion Management Using Flexible Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Marinelli, Mattia

    2013-01-01

    A closed loop substation peak shaving/congestion management controller for radial distribution networks is presented. The controller it uses an individual control signal in order to shift the consumption of a population of demand side resources, DSRs. The controller auto tunes its parameters on...

  16. Design of an adaptive backstepping controller for auto-berthing a cruise ship under wind loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jong-Yong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The auto-berthing of a ship requires excellent control for safe accomplishment. Crabbing, which is the pure sway motion of a ship without surge velocity, can be used for this purpose. Crabbing is induced by a peculiar operation procedure known as the push-pull mode. When a ship is in the push-pull mode, an interacting force is induced by complex turbulent flow around the ship generated by the propellers and side thrusters. In this paper, three degrees of freedom equations of the motions of crabbing are derived. The equations are used to apply the adaptive backstepping control method to the auto-berthing controller of a cruise ship. The controller is capable of handling the system nonlinearity and uncertainty of the berthing process. A control allocation algorithm for a ship equipped with two propellers and two side thrusters is also developed, the performance of which is validated by simulation of auto-berthing.

  17. Auto-ignition control in turbocharged internal combustion engines operating with gaseous fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Jorge; Amador, Germán; Garcia, Jesus; Fontalvo, Armando; Vasquez Padilla, Ricardo; Sanjuan, Marco; Gonzalez Quiroga, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Control strategies for auto-ignition control in turbocharged internal combustion engines operating with gaseous fuels are presented. Ambient temperature and ambient pressure are considered as the disturbing variables. A thermodynamic model for predicting temperature at the ignition point is developed, adjusted and validated with a large experimental data-set from high power turbocharged engines. Based on this model, the performance of feedback and feedforward auto-ignition control strategies is explored. A robustness and fragility analysis for the Feedback control strategies is presented. The feedforward control strategy showed the best performance however its implementation entails adding a sensor and new control logic. The proposed control strategies and the proposed thermodynamic model are useful tools for increasing the range of application of gaseous fuels with low methane number while ensuring a safe running in internal combustion engines. - Highlights: • A model for predicting temperature at the ignition point. • Robust PID, modified PID, and feedforward strategies for auto-ignition control. • λ′ were the best set of tuning equations for calculating controller parameters. • Robust PID showed significant improvements in auto-ignition control. • Feedforward control showed the best performance

  18. Engine Performance (Section C: Emission Control Systems). Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Larry

    This engine performance (emission control systems) module is one of a series of competency-based modules in the Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Topics of this module's five units are: positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) and evaporative emission control systems; exhaust gas recirculation (EGR); air injection and catalytic converters;…

  19. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF AUTO DEPTH CONTROL OF REMOTELY OPERATED VEHICLE USING THRUSTER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Remotely Operated Vehicles are underwater robots designed specifically for surveillance, monitoring and collecting data for underwater activities. In the underwater vehicle industries, the thruster is an important part in controlling the direction, depth and speed of the ROV. However, there are some ROVs that cannot be maintained at the specified depth for a long time because of disturbance. This paper proposes an auto depth control using a thruster system. A prototype of a thruster with an auto depth control is developed and attached to the previously fabricated UTeM ROV. This paper presents the operation of auto depth control as well as thrusters for submerging and emerging purposes and maintaining the specified depth. The thruster system utilizes a microcontroller as its brain, a piezoresistive strain gauge pressure sensor and a DC brushless motor to run the propeller. Performance analysis of the auto depth control system is conducted to identify the sensitivity of the pressure sensor, and the accuracy and stability of the system. The results show that the thruster system performs well in maintaining a specified depth as well as stabilizing itself when a disturbanceoccurs even with a simple proportional controller used to control the thruster, where the thruster is an important component of the ROV.

  20. Benzene exposure among auto-repair workers from workplace ambience: A pioneer study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Kamal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In Pakistan, the reports on benzene exposure among workers in chemical industries are almost non-existing due to limited research work in the field of exposure science. This study aimed to investigate such exposure in a widely adopted occupation in Rawalpindi city. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 blood samples (N = 20/group of mechanics (MCs, spray painters (PNs and control participants (CN were analyzed. The socio-economic and demographic information of workers and that of workplaces was documented using a short questionnaire. Results: We identified that the workers in spray-painting occupation are highly at risk of benzene exposure. The results showed that PNs were more at risk of exposure to benzene than MCs, and this exposure was significantly correlated with long working hours (r = 0.68, p < 0.001. Moreover, there are several limitations in workplace setups, which need to be addressed in order to mitigate workers health risk in this occupation. In addition to the reckless use of chemicals, other identified predictors of exposure included active and passive smoking, poor workplace hygiene and substandard ventilation. Conclusions: To mitigate workplace exposure, it is necessary to reduce working hours and encourage regular use of self-protective equipments and adoption of proper hygiene in chemical workplaces.

  1. Model Development for Auto Spare Parts Inventory Control and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... essential motivating factors for providing control in manufacturing companies has never showed any sign ... The management of these parts can only be done with the aid of a computer; ... perform a discrete event simulation of.

  2. PID controller auto-tuning based on process step response and damping optimum criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavković, Danijel; Polak, Siniša; Zorc, Davor

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method of PID controller tuning suitable for higher-order aperiodic processes and aimed at step response-based auto-tuning applications. The PID controller tuning is based on the identification of so-called n-th order lag (PTn) process model and application of damping optimum criterion, thus facilitating straightforward algebraic rules for the adjustment of both the closed-loop response speed and damping. The PTn model identification is based on the process step response, wherein the PTn model parameters are evaluated in a novel manner from the process step response equivalent dead-time and lag time constant. The effectiveness of the proposed PTn model parameter estimation procedure and the related damping optimum-based PID controller auto-tuning have been verified by means of extensive computer simulations. © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Closed loop auto control system software for Miniature Neutron Source Reactors (MNSRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Masood; Qadir, Javed

    2009-01-01

    A closed loop auto control system has been developed and implemented at the Pakistan Research Reactor-2 (PARR-2). For interfacing of the site signals with a computer, a data acquisition card was employed. The system utilizes nine signals and, on their basis, carries out continuous on-line analysis, maintaining safe operation. On-line reactivity measurement is included in this software. Also, it generates control signals for keeping the reactor at the desired power level in auto-mode round-the-clock without human intervention. In case of abnormal conditions for either power or temperature or radiation level, alarms are initiated and if their levels reach beyond prescribed safe operation regime, automatic shutdown sequence is initiated. The control system has been thoroughly tested for various postulated scenarios. The test results have been in good agreement with the expected response. (orig.)

  4. Auto Code Generation for Simulink-Based Attitude Determination Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    MolinaFraticelli, Jose Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This paper details the work done to auto generate C code from a Simulink-Based Attitude Determination Control System (ADCS) to be used in target platforms. NASA Marshall Engineers have developed an ADCS Simulink simulation to be used as a component for the flight software of a satellite. This generated code can be used for carrying out Hardware in the loop testing of components for a satellite in a convenient manner with easily tunable parameters. Due to the nature of the embedded hardware components such as microcontrollers, this simulation code cannot be used directly, as it is, on the target platform and must first be converted into C code; this process is known as auto code generation. In order to generate C code from this simulation; it must be modified to follow specific standards set in place by the auto code generation process. Some of these modifications include changing certain simulation models into their atomic representations which can bring new complications into the simulation. The execution order of these models can change based on these modifications. Great care must be taken in order to maintain a working simulation that can also be used for auto code generation. After modifying the ADCS simulation for the auto code generation process, it is shown that the difference between the output data of the former and that of the latter is between acceptable bounds. Thus, it can be said that the process is a success since all the output requirements are met. Based on these results, it can be argued that this generated C code can be effectively used by any desired platform as long as it follows the specific memory requirements established in the Simulink Model.

  5. Study of exposure to cold stress and body physiological responses in auto mechanic employees in Hamadan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivan Saedpanah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Continuous exposure to cold air is considered to be a hazardous agent in the workplace in cold seasons. This study aimed to determine the level of cold stress and relation with physiological responses in auto mechanic employees. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the winter of 1395 on auto mechanic employees in Hamadan city. Physiological responses during daily activity were measured in accordance with ISO 9886 standard method. Environmental air measures like air temperature and air velocity were measured simultaneously and cold stress indexes were also determined. Data was analyzed using SPSS 21 software. Result: The result showed that mean wind chill index, equivalent chill temperature and required clothing insulation were 489.97±47.679 kcal/m2.h, 13.78± 1.869 0c and 2.04 ± 0.246 clo, respectively. According to the results of cold stress indexes, the studied employees are exposed to cold stress. Pearson correlation test showed that there are significant relationship between cold stress indexes with physiological responses (p<0.05, however, IREQ min showed more correlation than the others.  There is also a significant relationship between body fat percentage and deep temperature (p<0.05, r=0.314. Conclusion: The result confirmed that IREQ min index has high validity for estimation of cold stress among auto mechanic employees. Moreover, the increase of body fat percentage leads to an increase of cold tolerance power of employees.

  6. Parking Space Detection and Trajectory Tracking Control for Vehicle Auto-Parking

    OpenAIRE

    Shiuh-Jer Huang; Yu-Sheng Hsu

    2017-01-01

    On-board available parking space detecting system, parking trajectory planning and tracking control mechanism are the key components of vehicle backward auto-parking system. Firstly, pair of ultrasonic sensors is installed on each side of vehicle body surface to detect the relative distance between ego-car and surrounding obstacle. The dimension of a found empty space can be calculated based on vehicle speed and the time history of ultrasonic sensor detecting information. This result can be u...

  7. Distributed Fair Auto Rate Medium Access Control for IEEE 802.11 Based WLANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanfeng; Niu, Zhisheng

    Much research has shown that a carefully designed auto rate medium access control can utilize the underlying physical multi-rate capability to exploit the time-variation of the channel. In this paper, we develop a simple analytical model to elucidate the rule that maximizes the throughput of RTS/CTS based multi-rate wireless local area networks. Based on the discovered rule, we propose two distributed fair auto rate medium access control schemes called FARM and FARM+ from the view-point of throughput fairness and time-share fairness, respectively. With the proposed schemes, after receiving a RTS frame, the receiver selectively returns the CTS frame to inform the transmitter the maximum feasible rate probed by the signal-to-noise ratio of the received RTS frame. The key feature of the proposed schemes is that they are capable of maintaining throughput/time-share fairness in asymmetric situation where the distribution of SNR varies with stations. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed schemes outperform the existing throughput/time-share fair auto rate schemes in time-varying channel conditions.

  8. Design of power auto-regulating system's high reliability controller for 200 MW nuclear heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Zhencai; Liu Longzhi; Chen Yuan

    1996-01-01

    The paper mainly introduces power auto-regulating system's high reliability controller for 200 MW Nuclear Heating Reactor. The controller is implemented with excellent performance 16 bit single chip microcomputer 8097. Master controller and 10 digit samplers are blocked. Each and every block's hardware is identical. These blocks communicate each other through 8 bit BUS and operate synchronously by united clock and reset signal and are designed with three redundancies. The identity comparison principle through two-out-of three is also introduced. The test proves that designing scheme is feasible

  9. Analysis of cyclic variations during mode switching between spark ignition and controlled auto-ignition combustion operations

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, T; Zhao, H; Xie, H; He, B

    2014-01-01

    © IMechE 2014. Controlled auto-ignition, also known as homogeneous charge compression ignition, has been the subject of extensive research because of their ability to provide simultaneous reductions in fuel consumption and NOx emissions from a gasoline engine. However, due to its limited operation range, switching between controlled auto-ignition and spark ignition combustion is needed to cover the complete operating range of a gasoline engine for passenger car applications. Previous research...

  10. Computer-controlled system for plasma ion energy auto-analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xianqiu; Chen Junfang; Jiang Zhenmei; Zhong Qinghua; Xiong Yuying; Wu Kaihua

    2003-01-01

    A computer-controlled system for plasma ion energy auto-analyzer was technically studied for rapid and online measurement of plasma ion energy distribution. The system intelligently controls all the equipments via a RS-232 port, a printer port and a home-built circuit. The software designed by LabVIEW G language automatically fulfils all of the tasks such as system initializing, adjustment of scanning-voltage, measurement of weak-current, data processing, graphic export, etc. By using the system, a few minutes are taken to acquire the whole ion energy distribution, which rapidly provide important parameters of plasma process techniques based on semiconductor devices and microelectronics

  11. The Signal Detection and Control Circuit Design for Confocal Auto-Focus System

    OpenAIRE

    Yin Liu; Jin Yu; Zeqiang Mo

    2016-01-01

    Based on the demands of Confocal Auto-Focus system, the implementation method of signal measurement circuit and control circuit is given. Using the high performance instrumental amplifier AD620BN, low noise precision FET Op amplifier AD795JRZ and ultralow offset voltage Op amplifier OP07EP, a signal measurement circuit used to converse the two differential light intensity signal to electric signal is designed. And a control circuit which takes MCU MSP430F149 as core processes the former signa...

  12. Controlled auto-ignition characteristics of methane-air mixture in a rapid intake compression and expansion machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Gyubaek; Jeong, Dongsoo [Engine Research Team, Eco-Machinery Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 104 Sinseongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea); Moon, Gunfeel [Department of Clean Environmental system, University of Science and Technology, 52 Eoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea); Bae, Choongsik [Engine Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 GuSeong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea)

    2010-10-15

    The characteristics of controlled auto-ignition (CAI) were investigated with a methane-air mixture and simulated residual gas, that represents internal exhaust gas recirculation (IEGR). Supply systems were additionally installed on the conventional rapid compression machine (RCM), and this modified machine - a rapid intake compression and expansion machine (RICEM) - was able to simulate an intake stroke for the evaluation of controlled auto-ignition with fuel-air mixture. The fuel-air mixture and the simulated residual gas were introduced separately into the combustion chamber through the spool valves. Various IEGR rates and temperatures of the IEGR gas were tested. The initial reaction and the development in controlled auto-ignition combustion were compared with spark-ignited combustion by visualization with a high-speed digital camera. Under the controlled auto-ignition operation, multi-point ignition and faster combustion were observed. With increasing the temperature of IEGR gas, the auto-ignition timing was advanced and burning duration was shortened. The higher rate of IEGR had the same effects on the combustion of the controlled auto-ignition. However, this trend was reversed with more than 47 per cent of IEGR. (author)

  13. Radiation camera exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martone, R.J.; Yarsawich, M.; Wolczek, W.

    1976-01-01

    A system and method for governing the exposure of an image generated by a radiation camera to an image sensing camera is disclosed. The exposure is terminated in response to the accumulation of a predetermined quantity of radiation, defining a radiation density, occurring in a predetermined area. An index is produced which represents the value of that quantity of radiation whose accumulation causes the exposure termination. The value of the predetermined radiation quantity represented by the index is sensed so that the radiation camera image intensity can be calibrated to compensate for changes in exposure amounts due to desired variations in radiation density of the exposure, to maintain the detectability of the image by the image sensing camera notwithstanding such variations. Provision is also made for calibrating the image intensity in accordance with the sensitivity of the image sensing camera, and for locating the index for maintaining its detectability and causing the proper centering of the radiation camera image

  14. Skin exposure to aliphatic polyisocyanates in the auto body repair and refinishing industry: II. A quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Dhimiter; Redlich, Carrie A; Stowe, Meredith H; Sparer, Judy; Woskie, Susan R; Streicher, Robert P; Hosgood, H Dean; Liu, Youcheng

    2008-03-01

    Skin exposure to isocyanates, in addition to respiratory exposures, may contribute to sensitization and asthma. Quantitative skin exposure data are scarce and quantitative methods limited. As part of the Survey of Painters and Repairers of Autobodies by Yale study, a method to sample and quantify human isocyanate skin exposure was developed (based on NIOSH 5525 method) and used to evaluate aliphatic isocyanate skin exposure in 81 auto body shop painters and body technicians. Wipe samples were collected from unprotected skin and from under PPE (gloves, clothing and respirator) using a polypropylene glycol-impregnated wipe. Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), its polyisocyanates [HDI-derived polyisocyanates (pHDI)], isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and its polyisocyanates and IPDI-derived polyisocyanates (pIPDI) were quantified separately and also expressed as the total free isocyanate groups (total NCO). For unprotected skin areas, 49 samples were collected for spray painting, 13 for mixing, 27 for paint-related tasks (e.g. sanding and compounding) and 53 for non-paint-related tasks. Forty-three samples were also collected under PPE. The geometric mean (GM) [geometric standard deviation (GSD)] total NCO concentrations (ng NCO cm(-2)) for unprotected skin (hands, face and forearms) was 1.9 (10.9) and range 0.0-64.4. pHDI species were the major contributor to the total NCO content. Levels were very variable, with the highest concentrations measured for clear coating and paint mixing tasks. Isocyanate skin exposure was also commonly detected under PPE, with 92% of samples above the limit of detection. Levels were very variable with the overall GM (GSD) total NCO (ng NCO cm(-2)) under PPE 1.0 (5.2) and range (0.0-47.0) and similar under the different PPE (glove, respirator and clothing). The highest concentrations were detected for mixing and spraying tasks, 6.9 (5.3) and 1.0 (5.2), respectively. Levels under PPE were generally lower than unpaired samples obtained with no

  15. Effects of Mixture Stratification on Combustion and Emissions of Boosted Controlled Auto-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hunicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The stratification of in-cylinder mixtures appears to be an effective method for managing the combustion process in controlled auto-ignition (CAI engines. Stratification can be achieved and controlled using various injection strategies such as split fuel injection and the introduction of a portion of fuel directly before the start of combustion. This study investigates the effect of injection timing and the amount of fuel injected for stratification on the combustion and emissions in CAI engine. The experimental research was performed on a single cylinder engine with direct gasoline injection. CAI combustion was achieved using negative valve overlap and exhaust gas trapping. The experiments were performed at constant engine fueling. Intake boost was applied to control the excess air ratio. The results show that the application of the late injection strategy has a significant effect on the heat release process. In general, the later the injection is and the more fuel is injected for stratification, the earlier the auto-ignition occurs. However, the experimental findings reveal that the effect of stratification on combustion duration is much more complex. Changes in combustion are reflected in NOX emissions. The attainable level of stratification is limited by the excessive emission of unburned hydrocarbons, CO and soot.

  16. Genotoxic damage in auto body shop workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebel, Anna Maria; Basso da Silva, Luciano

    2010-10-01

    Some studies have shown increased DNA damage among car painters, but other professionals working in auto body and paint shops have not been extensively assessed. The aim of this study was to assess DNA damage in different types of auto body shop workers by measuring micronucleus (MN) levels in exfoliated buccal cells. The mean number of cells with MN per 2000 exfoliated buccal cells was analyzed in three groups of male workers: auto body repair technicians, painters, and office workers (control group). All participants answered a questionnaire inquiring about age, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, work practices, occupational exposure time, job activities, and use of protective equipment. The mean number of cells with MN was 3.50 ± 1.50 in auto body painters, 3.91 ± 2.10 in auto body repair technicians, and 0.80 ± 0.78 in office workers, with a significant difference between the control group and the two other groups (p = 0.0001). Age, occupational exposure time, use of protective masks, alcohol consumption, and smoking habit did not affect MN results. The findings indicate that technicians and painters working in auto body shops are at risk for genotoxic damage, while office workers seem to be protected.

  17. Exposure of Petrol Station Attendants and Auto Mechanics to Premium Motor Sprit Fumes in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Udonwa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM, Petrol Station Attendants (PSA and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure to PMS. Duration of exposure was taken as the length of work in their various occupations. Venous blood was taken for methaemoglobin (MetHb and packed cells volume (PCV. Mean MetHb value was higher in AM (7.3% and PSA (5.8% than in the subjects from the general population (2.7%. PCV was lower in PSA (30.8%, than AM (33.3% and the subjects from the general population (40.8%. MetHb level was directly proportional, and PCV inversely related, to the duration of exposure. The study suggested increased exposure to petrol fumes among AM, PSA, and MetHb as a useful biomarker in determining the level of exposure to benzene in petrol vapour.

  18. Auto Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Auto Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Auto Safety What's in this ... by teaching some basic rules. Importance of Child Safety Seats Using a child safety seat (car seat) ...

  19. Control of external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Control of external radiation exposure: working time, working distance, shielding: Total Linear Attenuation Coefficient, Half-Value Layer (HVL), Tenth-Value Layer (TVL); Build-up Factor

  20. [Prevention of intrauterine adhesion with auto-crosslinked hyaluronic acid gel: a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Songshu; Wan, Yajun; Zou, Fangjun; Ye, Mingzhu; Deng, Henan; Ma, Jiezhi; Wei, Yingying; Tan, Chen; Xue, Min

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of auto-crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA) gel for preventing intrauterine adhesion (IUA) after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis. A prospective, randomized, double blinded and controlled clinical trial (level I) was performed. According to American Fertility Society (AFS) scoring system, 120 patients (treatment group: 60 cases, control group: 60 cases) with moderate to severe IUA were enrolled. Upon completion of adhesiolysis, a Foley balloon catheter was first introduced into the uterine cavity and then 3 ml of auto-crosslinked HA gel for patients in the treatment group; patients in the control group, however, only received Foley balloon catheter. Second-look hysteroscopic examination was performed to all patients at 3 months postoperatively for evaluation of IUA. Primary endpoint was the reduction rate of IUA at 3 months after surgery. The secondary endpoints include total AFS score, score of each individual AFS category. At 3 months after surgery, auto-crosslinked HA gel resulted in significantly higher effective rate for reduction of adhesion, the effective rate were 76% (42/55) and 48% (27/56) respectively (P = 0.000 9); the total AFS score of treatment group was 2.1 ± 1.1, and significantly lower than that of control group (3.7 ± 2.5, P = 0.000 8). Application of auto-crosslinked HA gel after surgery significantly enhanced the improvement for each individual patient with regard to their adhesive type and menstrual pattern (P = 0.037 8, P = 0.000 4). The treatment group had significantly lower proportion of patients with moderate to severe adhesive stages than that of control group [13% (7/55) versus 38% (21/56), P = 0.000 6]. No adverse events and complications were observed. Auto-crosslinked HA gel coule be able to reduce IUA, decrease adhesion severity, and improve menopause postoperatively. This absorbable auto-crosslinked HA gel is proposed as a barrier for preventing IUA after intrauterine procedures.

  1. A novel auto-tuning PID control mechanism for nonlinear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Meric; Iplikci, Serdar

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a novel Runge-Kutta (RK) discretization-based model-predictive auto-tuning proportional-integral-derivative controller (RK-PID) is introduced for the control of continuous-time nonlinear systems. The parameters of the PID controller are tuned using RK model of the system through prediction error-square minimization where the predicted information of tracking error provides an enhanced tuning of the parameters. Based on the model-predictive control (MPC) approach, the proposed mechanism provides necessary PID parameter adaptations while generating additive correction terms to assist the initially inadequate PID controller. Efficiency of the proposed mechanism has been tested on two experimental real-time systems: an unstable single-input single-output (SISO) nonlinear magnetic-levitation system and a nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) liquid-level system. RK-PID has been compared to standard PID, standard nonlinear MPC (NMPC), RK-MPC and conventional sliding-mode control (SMC) methods in terms of control performance, robustness, computational complexity and design issue. The proposed mechanism exhibits acceptable tuning and control performance with very small steady-state tracking errors, and provides very short settling time for parameter convergence. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fractional order sliding-mode control based on parameters auto-tuning for velocity control of permanent magnet synchronous motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, BiTao; Pi, YouGuo; Luo, Ying

    2012-09-01

    A fractional order sliding mode control (FROSMC) scheme based on parameters auto-tuning for the velocity control of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is proposed in this paper. The control law of the proposed F(R)OSMC scheme is designed according to Lyapunov stability theorem. Based on the property of transferring energy with adjustable type in F(R)OSMC, this paper analyzes the chattering phenomenon in classic sliding mode control (SMC) is attenuated with F(R)OSMC system. A fuzzy logic inference scheme (FLIS) is utilized to obtain the gain of switching control. Simulations and experiments demonstrate that the proposed FROSMC not only achieve better control performance with smaller chatting than that with integer order sliding mode control, but also is robust to external load disturbance and parameter variations. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative measurements of in-cylinder gas composition in a controlled auto-ignition combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H.; Zhang, S.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most effective means to achieve controlled auto-ignition (CAI) combustion in a gasoline engine is by the residual gas trapping method. The amount of residual gas and mixture composition have significant effects on the subsequent combustion process and engine emissions. In order to obtain quantitative measurements of in-cylinder residual gas concentration and air/fuel ratio, a spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) system has been developed recently. The optimized optical SRS setups are presented and discussed. The temperature effect on the SRS measurement is considered and a method has been developed to correct for the overestimated values due to the temperature effect. Simultaneous measurements of O2, H2O, CO2 and fuel were obtained throughout the intake, compression, combustion and expansion strokes. It shows that the SRS can provide valuable data on this process in a CAI combustion engine.

  4. Quantitative measurements of in-cylinder gas composition in a controlled auto-ignition combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H; Zhang, S

    2008-01-01

    One of the most effective means to achieve controlled auto-ignition (CAI) combustion in a gasoline engine is by the residual gas trapping method. The amount of residual gas and mixture composition have significant effects on the subsequent combustion process and engine emissions. In order to obtain quantitative measurements of in-cylinder residual gas concentration and air/fuel ratio, a spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) system has been developed recently. The optimized optical SRS setups are presented and discussed. The temperature effect on the SRS measurement is considered and a method has been developed to correct for the overestimated values due to the temperature effect. Simultaneous measurements of O 2 , H 2 O, CO 2 and fuel were obtained throughout the intake, compression, combustion and expansion strokes. It shows that the SRS can provide valuable data on this process in a CAI combustion engine

  5. MPC-based auto-tuned PID controller for the steam generator water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun

    2001-01-01

    In this work, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control gains are automatically tuned by using a model predictive control (MPC) method. The MPC has received much attention as a powerful tool for the control of industrial process systems. An MPC-based PID controller can be derived from the second order linear model of a process. The steam generator is usually described by the well-known 4 th order linear model which consists of the mass capacity, reverse dynamics and mechanical oscillations terms. But the important terms in this linear model are the mass capacity and reverse dynamics terms, both of which can be described by a 2 nd order linear system. The proposed auto-tuned PID controller was applied to a linear model of steam generators. The parameters of a linear model for steam generators are very different according to the power levels. The proposed controller showed good performance for the water level deviation and sudden steam flow disturbances that are typical in the existing power plants by changing only the input-weighting factor according to the power level

  6. On-line Auto-Tuning of PI Control of the Superheat for a Supermarket Refrigeration System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Andersen, Casper; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2011-01-01

    An online PI auto-tuning method is proposed for superheat control for a type of supermarket refrigeration systems. The proposed procedure consists of three serial steps: Step-One uses one of the two proposed empirical methods, namely multi-step method and relay method, for modeling initialization...

  7. Personal exposure control using TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Hideharu; Takeda, Shinso

    1979-01-01

    In the Tokai Works of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), for personal exposure control, the switching from film badges to TLD badges (and also finger-ring type local dosimeters) was made in fiscal 1974. The facilities involved are a fuel reprocessing plant, a PuO 2 -UO 2 mixed fuel production facility, and a centrifugal uranium enrichment development facility. The types of radiation concerned are various, such as γ(x), β and n. The situation of personal exposure control with TLD and the dose evaluation methods for respective radiations are explained. The number of personnel subject to exposure control, including transient people, is about 2500 - 3000 per three months. The TLD badges used are a special PNC type with TLDs to measure separately γ(x), β and n. With casings made of ABS resin, the external dimensions are 76 mm x 46 mm. (J.P.N.)

  8. Grand Theft Auto IV comes to Singapore: effects of repeated exposure to violent video games on aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Scott Kie Zin; Chong, Gabriel Yew Mun; Siew, Amy Sok Cheng; Skoric, Marko M

    2011-10-01

    Given the increasingly dominant role of video games in the mainstream entertainment industry, it is no surprise that the scholarly debate about their impact has been lively and well attended. Although >100 studies have been conducted to examine the impact of violent video games on aggression, no clear consensus has been reached, particularly in terms of their long-term impact on violent behavior and aggressive cognitions. This study employs a first-ever longitudinal laboratory-based experiment to examine longer-term effects of playing a violent video game. One hundred thirty-five participants were assigned either to the treatment condition where they played a violent video game in a controlled laboratory setting for a total of 12 hours or to the control group where they did not play a game. Participants in the treatment group played Grand Theft Auto IV over a period of 3 weeks and were compared with a control group on the posttest measures of trait aggression, attitudes toward violence, and empathy. The findings do not support the assertion that playing a violent video game for a period of 3 weeks increases aggression or reduces empathy, but they suggest a small increase in proviolence attitudes. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  9. Controllable frequency entanglement via auto-phase-matched spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergienko, A.V.; Walton, Z.D.; Booth, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.; Teich, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A new method for generating entangled photons with controllable frequency correlation via spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) is presented. The method entails initiating counter-propagating SPDC in a single-mode nonlinear waveguide by pumping with a pulsed beam perpendicular to the waveguide. In a typical spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) experiment, a photon from a monochromatic pump beam decays into two photons (often referred to as signal and idler) via interaction with a nonlinear optical crystal. While the signal and idler may be broadband individually, conservation of energy requires that the sum of their respective frequencies equals the single frequency of the monochromatic pump. This engenders frequency anti-correlation in the down-converted beams. Two developments in quantum information theory have renewed interest in the generalized states of frequency correlation. First, quantum information processes requiring the synchronized creation of multiple photon pairs have been devised, such as quantum teleportation. The requisite temporal control can be achieved by pumping the crystal with a brief pulse. The availability of pump photons of differing frequencies relaxes the strict frequency anti-correlation in the down-converted beams. Second, applications such as entanglement-enhanced clock synchronization and one-way auto-compensating quantum cryptography have been introduced that specifically require frequency correlation, as opposed to the usual frequency anticorrelation. Our method for obtaining controllable frequency entanglement entails initiating type-I SPDC (signal and idler identically polarized) in a single-mode nonlinear waveguide by pumping with a pulsed beam perpendicular to the waveguide. The down-converted photons emerge from opposite ends of the waveguide with a joint spectrum that can be varied from frequency anti-correlated to frequency correlated by adjusting the temporal and spatial characteristics of the

  10. PID-controller with predictor and auto-tuning algorithm: study of efficiency for thermal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzishchin, V. F.; Merzlikina, E. I.; Hoang, Van Va

    2017-09-01

    The problem of efficiency estimation of an automatic control system (ACS) with a Smith predictor and PID-algorithm for thermal plants is considered. In order to use the predictor, it is proposed to include an auto-tuning module (ATC) into the controller; the module calculates parameters for a second-order plant module with a time delay. The study was conducted using programmable logical controllers (PLC), one of which performed control, ATC, and predictor functions. A simulation model was used as a control plant, and there were two variants of the model: one of them was built on the basis of a separate PLC, and the other was a physical model of a thermal plant in the form of an electrical heater. Analysis of the efficiency of the ACS with the predictor was carried out for several variants of the second order plant model with time delay, and the analysis was performed on the basis of the comparison of transient processes in the system when the set point was changed and when a disturbance influenced the control plant. The recommendations are given on correction of the PID-algorithm parameters when the predictor is used by means of using the correcting coefficient k for the PID parameters. It is shown that, when the set point is changed, the use of the predictor is effective taking into account the parameters correction with k = 2. When the disturbances influence the plant, the use of the predictor is doubtful, because the transient process is too long. The reason for this is that, in the neighborhood of the zero frequency, the amplitude-frequency characteristic (AFC) of the system with the predictor has an ascent in comparison with the AFC of the system without the predictor.

  11. Dose budget for exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    Dose budget is an important management tool to effectively control the collective dose incurred in a nuclear facility. The budget represents a set of yardsticks or guidelines for use in controlling the internal activities, involving radiation exposure in the organisation. The management, through budget can evaluate the radiation protection performance at every level of the organisation where a number of independent functional groups work on routine and non-routine jobs. The discrepancy between the plan and the actual performance is high lighted through the budgets. The organisation may have to change the course of its operation in a particular area or revise its plan with due focus on appropriate protective measures. (author)

  12. [Advances in research on automatic exposure control of mammography system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoyi; Ye, Chengfu; Wu, Haiming; Wang, Tainfu; Zhang, Hong

    2014-12-01

    Mammography imaging is one of the most demanding imaging modalities from the point of view of the bal- ance between image quality (the visibility of small size and/or low contrast structures) and dose (screening of many asymptomatic people). Therefore, since the introduction of the first dedicated mammographic units, many efforts have been directed to seek the best possible image quality while minimizing patient dose. The performance of auto- matic exposure control (AEC) is the manifestation of this demand. The theory of AEC includes exposure detection and optimization and also involves some accomplished methodology. This review presents the development and present situa- tion of spectrum optimization, detector evolution, and the way how to accomplish and evaluate AEC methods.

  13. Application of Auto CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Un; Kim, Geun Ho

    1989-05-01

    This book has introduction to use this book and explanation of application on Auto CAD, which includes, sub directories, batch files, robot wrist, design of standard paper, title block, robort weld room, robert wrist joint, PC board, plant sym, electro, PID, machines, robots, bubbles, plant, schema, Pid, plant assembly, robots, dim plant, PL-ASSM, plotting line weight control, symbol drawing joint, Auto CAD using script file, set up of workout · MNU, workout MNU, ACAD, LSP and workout · MNU.

  14. Trends in occupational exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection were agreed in 1990. A major component was the revision of its recommended dose limits, prompted by the revised risk factors relating to exposure to ionising radiation that became available in the second half of the 1980s. But other changes were introduced which necessitated development. In particular a Task Group has been developing guidance on the implementation of the recommendations relating to the protection of workers. This guidance is intended to replace that given in Publication 35. The proposed guidance will be considered by ICRP at its meeting in Paris in November 1996. A guide on occupational radiation protection is also being prepared by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The intention is to develop the principles given in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, account being taken of the work of the ICRP Task Group. Members States of the European Communities are obliged to comply with the requirements of a Directive dealing with the basic standards for radiation protection. This Directive has recently been revised in the light of the ICRP recommendations. This paper will discuss these developments and their possible impact on the control of occupational exposure in the UK. (author)

  15. Program auto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; Plagnol, E.

    1990-01-01

    The program AUTO was developed to be used in the analysis of dE vs E type spectra. This program is written in FORTRAN and calculates dE vs E lines in MeV. The provision is also made in the program to convert these lines from MeV to ADC channel numbers to facilitate the comparison with the raw data from the experiments. Currently the output of this program can be plotted with the display program, called VISU, but it can also be used independent of the program VISU, with little or no modification in the actual fortran code. The program AUTO has many useful applications. In this article the program AUTO is described along with its applications

  16. Automatic Exposure Control Devices for Digital Mammography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fajardo, Laurie

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The broad, long-term objective of this IDEA proposal is to achieve optimized image quality for DM within acceptable limits of radiation exposure by developing innovative approaches for controlling DM exposures. Scope...

  17. Detection of combustion start in the controlled auto ignition engine by wavelet transform of the engine block vibration signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seonguk; Min, Kyoungdoug

    2008-01-01

    The CAI (controlled auto ignition) engine ignites fuel and air mixture by trapping high temperature burnt gas using a negative valve overlap. Due to auto ignition in CAI combustion, efficiency improvements and low level NO x emission can be obtained. Meanwhile, the CAI combustion regime is restricted and control parameters are limited. The start of combustion data in the compressed ignition engine are most critical for controlling the overall combustion. In this research, the engine block vibration signal is transformed by the Meyer wavelet to analyze CAI combustion more easily and accurately. Signal acquisition of the engine block vibration is a more suitable method for practical use than measurement of in-cylinder pressure. A new method for detecting combustion start in CAI engines through wavelet transformation of the engine block vibration signal was developed and results indicate that it is accurate enough to analyze the start of combustion. Experimental results show that wavelet transformation of engine block vibration can track the start of combustion in each cycle. From this newly developed method, the start of combustion data in CAI engines can be detected more easily and used as input data for controlling CAI combustion

  18. Detection of combustion start in the controlled auto ignition engine by wavelet transform of the engine block vibration signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonguk; Min, Kyoungdoug

    2008-08-01

    The CAI (controlled auto ignition) engine ignites fuel and air mixture by trapping high temperature burnt gas using a negative valve overlap. Due to auto ignition in CAI combustion, efficiency improvements and low level NOx emission can be obtained. Meanwhile, the CAI combustion regime is restricted and control parameters are limited. The start of combustion data in the compressed ignition engine are most critical for controlling the overall combustion. In this research, the engine block vibration signal is transformed by the Meyer wavelet to analyze CAI combustion more easily and accurately. Signal acquisition of the engine block vibration is a more suitable method for practical use than measurement of in-cylinder pressure. A new method for detecting combustion start in CAI engines through wavelet transformation of the engine block vibration signal was developed and results indicate that it is accurate enough to analyze the start of combustion. Experimental results show that wavelet transformation of engine block vibration can track the start of combustion in each cycle. From this newly developed method, the start of combustion data in CAI engines can be detected more easily and used as input data for controlling CAI combustion.

  19. Easy Korean Auto CAD 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Cheol

    1997-10-01

    This book introduces Auto CAD 14, which includes summary of basic things of Auto CAD 14, user interface for Auto CAD, basic drawing and advice, layer and set-up drawing, drawing with Auto CAD tools exactly, basic drawing of every thing, edit command, control of display, modeling and view ports of drawing space, various things drawing, writing letters, modification of floor plan, and check, block, X ref, lines and hatch, writing measurement, floor plan and OLE exchange of data, 3D floor plan, and rendering and presentation.

  20. Auto Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    <正> Editor’s notes: the "online investigation of the updated condition of auto market in China", organized by BAGAE together with 7 websites, ended recently. The participants were from 32 provinces, cities and autonomous regions throughout China. Diplomas of the 4,657 participants were generally high, of which college or/over accounted for 80.7%; the participants were mainly middle-aged and young people in which 92.1% were below 40 years old.

  1. Experimental investigation of the influence of internal and external EGR on the combustion characteristics of a controlled auto-ignition two-stroke cycle engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andwari, Amin Mahmoudzadeh; Aziz, Azhar Abdul; Said, Mohd Farid Muhamad; Latiff, Zulkarnain Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigate the effect of In-EGR, Ex-EGR and octane number on a CAI 2-stroke engine. • Effect of In-EGR, Ex-EGR and octane number on combustion phasing of the engine. • Effect of In-EGR, Ex-EGR and octane number on cyclic variability of the engine. • Identify the CAI combustion upper and lower boundary for operating regions. - Abstract: A two-stroke cycle engine incorporated with a controlled auto-ignition combustion approach presents a high thermodynamic efficiency, ultra-low exhaust emissions and high power-to-weight ratio features for future demand of prime movers. The start of auto-ignition, control of the auto-ignition and its cyclic variability, are major concerns that should be addressed in the combustion timing control of controlled auto-ignition engines. Several studies have been performed to examine the effect of internal exhaust gas recirculation utilization on auto-ignited two-stroke cycle engines. However, far too little attention has been devoted to study on the influence of external exhaust gas recirculation on the cyclic variation and the combustion characteristics of controlled auto-ignition two-stroke cycle engines. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of external exhaust gas recirculation in combination with internal exhaust gas recirculation on the combustion characteristics and the cyclic variability of a controlled auto-ignition two-stroke engine using fuel with different octane numbers. In a detailed experimental investigation, the combustion-related and pressure-related parameters of the engine are examined and statistically associated with the coefficient of variation and the standard deviation. The outcomes of the investigation indicates that the most influential controlled auto-ignition combustion phasing parameters can be managed appropriately via regulating the internal and external exhaust gas recirculation and fuel octane number. In general, start of auto-ignition and its cyclic variability are

  2. A Novel Therapy for Chronic Sleep-Onset Insomnia: A Retrospective, Nonrandomized Controlled Study of Auto-Adjusting, Dual-Level, Positive Airway Pressure Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Barry; Ulibarri, Victor A; McIver, Natalia D; Nadorff, Michael R

    2016-09-29

    Evidence indicates that behavioral or drug therapy may not target underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms for chronic insomnia, possibly due to previously unrecognized high rates (30%-90%) of sleep apnea in chronic insomnia patients. Although treatment studies with positive airway pressure (PAP) demonstrate decreased severity of chronic sleep maintenance insomnia in patients with co-occurring sleep apnea, sleep-onset insomnia has not shown similar results. We hypothesized advanced PAP technology would be associated with decreased sleep-onset insomnia severity in a sample of predominantly psychiatric patients with comorbid sleep apnea. We reviewed charts of 74 severe sleep-onset insomnia patients seen from March 2011 to August 2015, all meeting American Academy of Sleep Medicine Work Group criteria for a chronic insomnia disorder and all affirming behavioral and psychological origins for insomnia (averaging 10 of 18 indicators/patient), as well as averaging 2 or more psychiatric symptoms or conditions: depression (65.2%), anxiety (41.9%), traumatic exposure (35.1%), claustrophobia (29.7%), panic attacks (28.4%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (20.3%). All patients failed continuous or bilevel PAP and were manually titrated with auto-adjusting PAP modes (auto-bilevel and adaptive-servo ventilation). At 1-year follow-up, patients were compared through nonrandom assignment on the basis of a PAP compliance metric of > 20 h/wk (56 PAP users) versus insomnia severity (Hedges' g = 1.72) and sleep-onset insomnia (g = 2.07) compared to partial users (g = 1.04 and 0.91, respectively). Both global and sleep-onset insomnia severity decreased below moderate levels in PAP users compared to partial users whose outcomes persisted at moderately severe levels. In a nonrandomized controlled retrospective study, advanced PAP technology (both auto-bilevel and adaptive servo-ventilation) were associated with large decreases in insomnia severity for sleep-onset insomnia patients who

  3. First industrial application of MAG STT welding with auto adaptative joint control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Tien, Thong

    2006-01-01

    The Welding Institute has participated to an extraordinary plan: the manufacture of the new LHC (Large Hadron Collider) particles accelerator in a circular tunnel of 27 km of circumference, at the European laboratory for particles physics (CERN) located at the Franco-Swiss frontier. The LHC dipolar magnets wires constituted in semi-cylinders of 15 m length in 316 LN, thickness 10 mm, are assembled in horizontal-vertical position. The Welding Institute has developed a software allowing to implement the auto-adaptative welding with follow of laser joint, using the MAG STT (Surface Tension Transfer) process. The modeling of welding laws connected with the strategy of joints filling runs (in multi-passes), absorb the physical tolerances of the preparation (clearance, poor alignment, root of joint...) and this in welding dynamical condition. (O.M.)

  4. Double blind placebo controlled exposure to molds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, H W; Jensen, K A; Nielsen, K F

    2005-01-01

    non-significant, and at the same level as after placebo exposure. The developed exposure system based on the Particle-Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (P-FLEC) makes it possible to deliver a precise and highly controlled dose of mold spores from water-damaged building materials, imitating realistic......The objective was to develop an experimental setup for human exposure to mold spores, and to study the clinical effect of this exposure in sensitive subjects who had previously experienced potentially building-related symptoms (BRS) at work. From three water-damaged schools eight employees....... In conclusion this is, to our knowledge, the first study to successfully conduct a human exposure to a highly controlled dose of fungal material aerosolized directly from wet building materials. This short-term exposure to high concentrations of two different molds induced no more reactions than exposure...

  5. Dual-harmonic auto voltage control for the rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Tamura

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The dual-harmonic operation, in which the accelerating cavities are driven by the superposition of the fundamental and the second harmonic rf voltage, is useful for acceleration of the ultrahigh intensity proton beam in the rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC. However, the precise and fast voltage control of the harmonics is necessary to realize the dual-harmonic acceleration. We developed the dual-harmonic auto voltage control system for the J-PARC RCS. We describe details of the design and the implementation. Various tests of the system are performed with the RCS rf system. Also, a preliminary beam test has been done. We report the test results.

  6. AutoCAD platform customization user interface, AutoLISP, VBA, and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosius, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Take control of AutoCAD to boost the speed, quality, and precision of your work Senior drafters and savvy users are increasingly taking AutoCAD customization out of the hands of system administrators, and taking control of their own workflow. In AutoCAD Platform Customization, Autodesk customization guru Lee Ambrosius walks you through a multitude of customization options using detailed tutorials and real-world examples applicable to AutoCAD, AutoCAD LT, Civil 3D, Plant 3D, and other programs built on the AutoCAD platform. By unleashing the full power of the software, you'll simplify and str

  7. Techniques for controlling radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocken, H.; Wood, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The US nuclear power industry has been remarkably successful in reducing worker radiation exposure over the past 10 years. There has been more than a fourfold reduction in person-rem per MW-year of electric power generated: from 1.8 person-rems in 1980 to only 0.4 person-rems in 1991. Despite this substantial improvement, challenges for the industry remain. Individual exposure limits have been tightened in the 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP Publication 60, and there will be more requirements for special maintenance work as plants age, suggesting that vigorous efforts will be required to meet the 1995 industry goals for unit median collective exposure. No one method will suffice, but implementing suitable combinations from this compendium will help utilities to achieve their exposure goals. Radiation reduction is generally cost-effective: Outages are shorter, staffing requirements are reduced, and work quality is improved. Despite up-front costs, the benefits over the following one to three years typically outweigh the expenses

  8. Adaptive threshold control for auto-rate fallback algorithm in IEEE 802.11 multi-rate WLANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qilin; Lu, Yang; Zhu, Xiaolin; Ge, Fangzhen

    2012-03-01

    The IEEE 802.11 standard supports multiple rates for data transmission in the physical layer. Nowadays, to improve network performance, a rate adaptation scheme called auto-rate fallback (ARF) is widely adopted in practice. However, ARF scheme suffers performance degradation in multiple contending nodes environments. In this article, we propose a novel rate adaptation scheme called ARF with adaptive threshold control. In multiple contending nodes environment, the proposed scheme can effectively mitigate the frame collision effect on rate adaptation decision by adaptively adjusting rate-up and rate-down threshold according to the current collision level. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve significantly higher throughput than the other existing rate adaptation schemes. Furthermore, the simulation results also demonstrate that the proposed scheme can effectively respond to the varying channel condition.

  9. PET radiation exposure control for nurses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yumiko; Kikuta, Daisuke; Anzai, Taku

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the number of clinical PET centers is increasing all over Japan. For this reason, the monitoring and control of radiation exposure of employees, especially nurses, in PET-dedicated clinics and institutions are becoming very important issues for their health. We measured the radiation exposure doses of the nurses working at Nishidai Diagnostic Imaging Center, and analyzed the exposure data obtained from them. The exposure doses of the nurses were found to be 4.8 to 7.1 mSv between April 2003 and March 2004. We found that the nurses were mostly exposed to radiation when they had to have contact with patients received an FDG injection or they had trouble with the FDG automatic injection system. To keep radiation exposure of nurses to a minimum we reconfirmed that a proper application of the three principles of protection against radiation exposure was vital. (author)

  10. The simulation study on the Nuclear Heating Reactor's power auto-control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhijun; Liu Longzhi; Hu Guifen

    2000-01-01

    The power automatic control system on nuclear heating reactor (NHR) is a multi-input and multi-output non-linear system. The power automatic control system on NHR is studied by modern control theory. Through the simulation experiments, it is clear that adopting μ outer-loop and LQR inner-loop feedback, the best control results are obtained

  11. OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standards Exposure Control Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhrs, Caro Elise; Teitelbaum, Rita

    1993-01-01

    The Hummer Associates Exposure Control Plan is designed to reduce significant occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens and infectious materials for Hummer Associates health care personnel. Under universal precautions, all patients and all body fluids are considered potentially infectious for bloodborne pathogens. Medical personnel need not be at increased risk if universal precautions are correctly understood and followed. This program covers all employees who could reasonably anticipate contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials during the performance of their job responsibilities. Although HIV and hepatitis B are mentioned most often, this program applies to all bloodborne diseases. The two main components needed to implement this program are universal precautions and engineering/work practice controls. This program covers all employees who may have occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials. Other aspects of this program are discussed.

  12. Control voltage of the generator of auto-excited induction for applications on micro/mini generation o electric power; Control de voltaje del generador de induccion auto-excitado para aplicaciones de micro/mini generacion de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Montalvo, Emmanuel

    2006-09-15

    Although only one part of the mini/micro hydraulic power has been exploited in our country, this type of electric energy generation can be considered as a visible way of electricity generation, mainly related to the ecological, economical and social aspects. The impact that these power plants can have in the regions in which they are installed is always positive: cost energy cost reduction, economical spills and mainly a social welfare. The electric energy is one of the pillars for the economical development of a country and provides a better life quality. Nowadays the research and the technology oriented to the operation and control of the micro/mini power plants has awaken the interest of many researchers in several countries of the world as China, India, Canada, and USA to mention some of them. The induction generator plays a crucial role in the uses of these technologies. The work of Basset and Potter in 1935 is the angular stone over the possibility of generating energy making use of the induction machine and a capacitors bank connected to the machine terminals. This configuration is known as induction auto-excited generator (GIAE). Several investigations have been realized that deal about the functioning principle and the dynamic behavior a GIAE, which can supply electric power in remote isolated regions. In the existing literature have been proposed control strategies to offer voltage regulations and/or frequency into the acceptable range. Some of these control strategies present problems such a demand of a reactive power, harmonics injections in the system, the control circuits are complicated, expensive and voluminous and prone to fail. This paper realizes an analysis of the necessary and sufficient conditions so that an induction machine can operate as GIAE. The corresponding curves are presented for each studied case. The dynamic behavior of the voltage and the frequency generated by the GIAE are studied in detail, which is a contribution to the existing

  13. Controlling exposure to radon, France, December 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godet, J.L.; Perrin, M.L.; Dechaux, E.; Pineau, C.

    2007-01-01

    Controlling exposure to radon, France, December 2006 Exposure to radon, along with medical exposure, is the leading source of the French population exposure to ionizing radiation. Radon is a confirmed cause of lung cancer in man (classified in group I by the international Agency for research on Cancer (I.A.R.C.)). According to available estimates, the numbers of lung cancers attributable to radon exposure in France are far fewer than those caused by tobacco. However, according to a recent European study, around 9% of lung cancers in Europe may be caused by radon. Thus, due to the number of people exposed, radon has become a public health issue which calls for action, considering that exposure can be significantly reduced by implementing measures which are often simple. Since 2002, the Nuclear Safety Authority (Asn) has proceeded in implementing a new regulatory framework for the risk management related to the presence of radon in public places. The new system is now fully operational. In addition, based on the initiatives adopted by the government in June 2004 in the context of the National Health and Environment Plan (P.N.S.E.), the Asn drew up a plan in 2005, in collaboration with the Ministry for Urban Planning and Construction, to coordinate the actions of various national bodies involved in this field. This three-pronged strategy is as follows: - Creation of a new risk management policy related to the presence of radon in existing homes and in new buildings; - Supporting and controlling the implementation of regulations for managing radon related risks in public places; - Improvement and dissemination of knowledge on radon exposure and its related risks. (author)

  14. Knowledge of allergies and performance in epinephrine auto-injector use: a controlled intervention in preschool teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumeier, Henriette Karoline; Richter, Luca Anne; Neininger, Martina Patrizia; Prenzel, Freerk; Kiess, Wieland; Bertsche, Astrid; Bertsche, Thilo

    2018-04-01

    Epinephrine auto-injectors are used for first aid in anaphylactic emergencies by non-healthcare professionals, e.g., (pre-)school teachers. We developed an education session for preschool teachers addressing allergies, anaphylactic emergencies, and administering auto-injectors. We assessed their attitudes and knowledge in allergies and anaphylactic emergency by a questionnaire and monitored their practical performance in administering auto-injectors before the education session, directly after, and 4-12 weeks after the session. From 75 teachers giving their consent to participate, 81% had children with allergies under their supervision and 3% had already administered medication from an available rescue kit. The knowledge of triggers of allergies increased from 9 to 55% directly and to 33% 4-12 weeks after the session (both p < 0.001, compared to baseline). Directly after the session, the number of teachers who felt well-prepared for an anaphylactic emergency rose from 11 to 88%, which decreased to 79% 4-12 weeks thereafter (each p < 0.001). The number of auto-injector administrations without any drug-related problems increased from 3 to 35% directly after the session and shrunk to 16% 4-12 weeks afterwards (both p < 0.025). A single education session substantially improved preschool teachers' attitudes and knowledge in allergies and anaphylactic emergencies. Additionally, their practical performance in auto-injector administration increased. What is Known: • Food allergies are increasing among children. • The knowledge about allergies and anaphylactic emergencies is poor. What is New: • The proportion of teachers who felt well-prepared for an anaphylactic emergency increased after a single education session. • The proportion of auto-injector administrations without any drug-related problems additionally increased due to an education session.

  15. Enzyme controlled glucose auto-delivery for high cell density cultivations in microplates and shake flasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casteleijn Marco G

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Here we describe a novel cultivation method, called EnBase™, or enzyme-based-substrate-delivery, for the growth of microorganisms in millilitre and sub-millilitre scale which yields 5 to 20 times higher cell densities compared to standard methods. The novel method can be directly applied in microwell plates and shake flasks without any requirements for additional sensors or liquid supply systems. EnBase is therefore readily applicable for many high throughput applications, such as DNA production for genome sequencing, optimisation of protein expression, production of proteins for structural genomics, bioprocess development, and screening of enzyme and metagenomic libraries. Results High cell densities with EnBase are obtained by applying the concept of glucose-limited fed-batch cultivation which is commonly used in industrial processes. The major difference of the novel method is that no external glucose feed is required, but glucose is released into the growth medium by enzymatic degradation of starch. To cope with the high levels of starch necessary for high cell density cultivation, starch is supplied to the growing culture suspension by continuous diffusion from a storage gel. Our results show that the controlled enzyme-based supply of glucose allows a glucose-limited growth to high cell densities of OD600 = 20 to 30 (corresponding to 6 to 9 g l-1 cell dry weight without the external feed of additional compounds in shake flasks and 96-well plates. The final cell density can be further increased by addition of extra nitrogen during the cultivation. Production of a heterologous triosphosphate isomerase in E. coli BL21(DE3 resulted in 10 times higher volumetric product yield and a higher ratio of soluble to insoluble product when compared to the conventional production method. Conclusion The novel EnBase method is robust and simple-to-apply for high cell density cultivation in shake flasks and microwell plates. The

  16. Auto-control of pumping operations in sewerage systems by rule-based fuzzy neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-M. Chiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pumping stations play an important role in flood mitigation in metropolitan areas. The existing sewerage systems, however, are facing a great challenge of fast rising peak flow resulting from urbanization and climate change. It is imperative to construct an efficient and accurate operating prediction model for pumping stations to simulate the drainage mechanism for discharging the rainwater in advance. In this study, we propose two rule-based fuzzy neural networks, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS and counterpropagation fuzzy neural network for on-line predicting of the number of open and closed pumps of a pivotal pumping station in Taipei city up to a lead time of 20 min. The performance of ANFIS outperforms that of CFNN in terms of model efficiency, accuracy, and correctness. Furthermore, the results not only show the predictive water levels do contribute to the successfully operating pumping stations but also demonstrate the applicability and reliability of ANFIS in automatically controlling the urban sewerage systems.

  17. La auditoría de control de la calidad y los niveles de auto-evaluación y acreditación universitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas García, José Domingo

    2014-01-01

    Determina de qué manera la auditoria de calidad influye en los niveles de evaluación y acreditación universitaria. Se investigaron temas muy puntuales relacionados con la calidad de la educación superior, por ejemplo: el control de calidad como herramienta de la auditoría, las acciones y recomendaciones de auditoría de calidad relacionadas con los niveles de auto-evaluación y acreditación universitaria. Durante la investigación, se consultó bibliografía vinculada con la auditoría de control d...

  18. Controlling occupational radiation exposure. Alternatives to regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, L.A.; Squitieri, R.; Wildman, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    The principal strategy adopted for the control of occupational radiation exposure has been the establishment of standards expressed as maximum permissible exposures. The use of such standards is subject to a number of defects, among which is the neglect of the economic impact of imposing such standards. Furthermore, such standards carry the implication of a threshold for radiation effects, a concept now widely challenged. Lastly, the use of standards makes it impossible to evaluate the efficiency of the regulatory agency or to compare its performance with other similar agencies. An alternative to the use of standards, i.e. cost-benefit analysis, is discussed. The advantages of this technique meet many of the objections to the use of standards alone and allow health and safety resources to be allocated in a manner most likely to save the most lives. The greatest disadvantage of cost-benefit analysis has been the difficulty in evaluating the benefit side of the equation. Although the risks of radiation exposure are not known with precision, they are nevertheless well understood. Therefore, the application of cost-benefit analysis to occupational radiation exposure is rational. There are a number of barriers to reform in the use of standards and the adoption of cost-benefit analysis. These attitudinal and institutional constraints are discussed. The nature of private or market systems of control are discussed, i.e. the use of liability and insurance mechanisms. These also have shortcomings that require further development but are seen as potentially more efficient for both employer and employee than is the use of regulatory standards. (author)

  19. Instant AutoIt scripting

    CERN Document Server

    Laso, Emilio Aristides de Fez

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This is a Packt Instant How-to guide, which provides concise and clear recipes for getting started with AutoIt.Instant AutoIt Scripting Essentials How-to is for beginners who wish to know more about automation and programming, system administration developers who intent to automate/manage clusters and servers, and for computer programmers who want to control any PC to create seamless automation apps.

  20. Operation control device under radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kiichi; Murakami, Toichi.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention performs smooth progress of operation by remote control for a plurality of operations in periodical inspections in controlled areas of a nuclear power plant, thereby reducing the operator's exposure dose. Namely, the device monitors the progressing state of the operation by displaying the progress of operation on a CRT of a centralized control device present in a low dose area remote from an operation field through an ITV camera disposed in the vicinity of the operation field. Further, operation sequence and operation instruction procedures previously inputted in the device are indicated to the operation field through an operation instruction outputting device (field CRT) in accordance with the progress of the operation steps. On the other hand, the operation progress can be aided by inputting information from the operation field such as start or completion of the operation steps. Further, the device of the present invention can monitor the change of operation circumstances and exposure dose of operators based on the information from a radiation dose measuring device disposed in the operation circumstance and to individual operators. (I.S.)

  1. High signal-to-noise ratio sensing with Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor based on auto gain control of electron multiplying CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhao-Yi; Li Da-Yu; Hu Li-Fa; Mu Quan-Quan; Yang Cheng-Liang; Cao Zhao-Liang; Xuan Li

    2016-01-01

    High signal-to-noise ratio can be achieved with the electron multiplying charge-coupled-device (EMCCD) applied in the Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor (S–H WFS) in adaptive optics (AO). However, when the brightness of the target changes in a large scale, the fixed electron multiplying (EM) gain will not be suited to the sensing limitation. Therefore an auto-gain-control method based on the brightness of light-spots array in S–H WFS is proposed in this paper. The control value is the average of the maximum signals of every light spot in an array, which has been demonstrated to be kept stable even under the influence of some noise and turbulence, and sensitive enough to the change of target brightness. A goal value is needed in the control process and it is predetermined based on the characters of EMCCD. Simulations and experiments have demonstrated that this auto-gain-control method is valid and robust, the sensing SNR reaches the maximum for the corresponding signal level, and especially is greatly improved for those dim targets from 6 to 4 magnitude in the visual band. (special topic)

  2. Learning Auto CAD 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Gyeong Su; Song, Chun Dong; Park, Hyeong Jin; Kim, Yeong Min

    2004-02-15

    This book introduces basic knowledge of AutoCAD, practice method of command of AutoCAD like poly line, rotate, copy, break, trim, stretch, lengthen, chamfer, grips, extend, array polygon, spline, hatch, and image, writing letters, making library, application of design center and tool palette, drawing floor plan elevation, cross-sectional diagram, presentation materials, effective application of AutoCAD, and construction design using CAD POWER 2004.

  3. Easy Auto CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyeon Jun

    1996-02-01

    This book explains Auto CAD easily, which introduces improved function in Auto CAD R 13, such as direct import and export of 3 DS pile, revised render order structure, and explanations of assist, view Draw, construct and modify. Next it gives descriptions of Auto CAD conception, application and system. The last part deals with line, arc, circle, ellipse, erase, undo, redo, redraw, line type, multi line, limits, zoom, move, copy, rotate, array, mirror, grid, snap, units, offset and poly line.

  4. Learning Auto CAD 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Gyeong Su; Song, Chun Dong; Park, Hyeong Jin; Kim, Yeong Min

    2004-02-01

    This book introduces basic knowledge of AutoCAD, practice method of command of AutoCAD like poly line, rotate, copy, break, trim, stretch, lengthen, chamfer, grips, extend, array polygon, spline, hatch, and image, writing letters, making library, application of design center and tool palette, drawing floor plan elevation, cross-sectional diagram, presentation materials, effective application of AutoCAD, and construction design using CAD POWER 2004.

  5. Effect of automatic exposure control marker with chest radiography in radiation reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ji Sang; Choi, Byoung Wook; Shim, Ji Na; Ahn, Ho Sik; Jin, Duk Eun; Liml, Jae Sik; Kang, Sung Ho; Kim, Sung Ho; Kim, Young Mo

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on effects of patient exposure dose reduction with AEC (Auto Exposure Control) marker that is designed for showing location of AEC in X-ray Chest radiography. It included 880 adults who have to use Chest X-ray Digital Radiography system (DRS, LISTEM, Korea). AEC (Ion chambers are posited in top of both sides) are used to every adult and set X-ray system as Field size 17 x 17 inch, 120 kVp, FFD 180 cm. 440 people of control group are posited on detector to include both sides of lung field and the other 440 people of experimental group are set to contact their lung directly to Ion chamber (making marker to shows location). Then, measured every DAP and, estimated patient effective dose by using PCXMC 2.0. The average age of control group (M:F=245:195) is 53.9 and the average BMI is 23.4. BMI ranges from under weight: 35, normal range: 279, over weight: 106 to obese: 20 and average DAP is 223.56 mGycm2, Mean effective dose is 0.045 mSv. The average age of experimental group (M:F=197:243) is 53.7 and the average BMI is 22.7. BMI ranges from under weight: 34, normal range: 315, over weight: 85 to obese: 6 and average DAP is 207.36 mGycm2, Mean effective dose is 0.041 mSv. Experimental group shows less Mean effective dose as 0.004mSv (9.7%) than control group. Also, patient numbers who got over exposure more than 0.056 mSv (limit point to know efficiency of AEC marker) is 65 in control group(14.7%), 19 in experimental group (4.3%) and take statistics with t-Test. The statistical difference between two groups is 0.006. In order to use proper amount of X-ray in auto exposure controlled chest X-ray system, matching location between ion chamber and body part is needed, and using AEC marker (designed for showing location of ion chamber) is a way to reduce unnecessary patient exposure dose

  6. Effect of automatic exposure control marker with chest radiography in radiation reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ji Sang; Choi, Byoung Wook; Shim, Ji Na; Ahn, Ho Sik; Jin, Duk Eun; Liml, Jae Sik; Kang, Sung Ho [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ho [LISTEM, Woonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Mo [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Konyang University, Nonsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    This study focused on effects of patient exposure dose reduction with AEC (Auto Exposure Control) marker that is designed for showing location of AEC in X-ray Chest radiography. It included 880 adults who have to use Chest X-ray Digital Radiography system (DRS, LISTEM, Korea). AEC (Ion chambers are posited in top of both sides) are used to every adult and set X-ray system as Field size 17 x 17 inch, 120 kVp, FFD 180 cm. 440 people of control group are posited on detector to include both sides of lung field and the other 440 people of experimental group are set to contact their lung directly to Ion chamber (making marker to shows location). Then, measured every DAP and, estimated patient effective dose by using PCXMC 2.0. The average age of control group (M:F=245:195) is 53.9 and the average BMI is 23.4. BMI ranges from under weight: 35, normal range: 279, over weight: 106 to obese: 20 and average DAP is 223.56 mGycm2, Mean effective dose is 0.045 mSv. The average age of experimental group (M:F=197:243) is 53.7 and the average BMI is 22.7. BMI ranges from under weight: 34, normal range: 315, over weight: 85 to obese: 6 and average DAP is 207.36 mGycm2, Mean effective dose is 0.041 mSv. Experimental group shows less Mean effective dose as 0.004mSv (9.7%) than control group. Also, patient numbers who got over exposure more than 0.056 mSv (limit point to know efficiency of AEC marker) is 65 in control group(14.7%), 19 in experimental group (4.3%) and take statistics with t-Test. The statistical difference between two groups is 0.006. In order to use proper amount of X-ray in auto exposure controlled chest X-ray system, matching location between ion chamber and body part is needed, and using AEC marker (designed for showing location of ion chamber) is a way to reduce unnecessary patient exposure dose.

  7. Monitoring and control of occupational radiation exposure in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, M.

    1997-01-01

    Occupational exposure is the most prominent example for the prolonged exposure to low level ionizing radiation characterized by low doses and dose rates. In this paper the occupational exposure in Switzerland is presented and the regulatory control of this exposure in the framework of the new radiation protection regulations is discussed. (author)

  8. The possibility of controlled auto-ignition (CAI) in gasoline engine and gas to liquid (GTL) as a fuel of diesel engine in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, D. [Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Daejou (Korea)

    2005-07-01

    A significant challenge grows from the ever-increasing demands for the optimization of performance, emissions, fuel economy and drivability. The most powerful technologies in the near future to improve these factors are believed Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) in gasoline engine and Gas to Liquid (GTL) as a fuel of Diesel engine. In recent years there has been an increasing trend to use more complex valvetrain designs from traditional camshaft driven mechanical systems to camless electromagnetic or electrohydraulic solutions. Comparing to fixed valve actuation systems, variable valve actuation (VVA) should be powerful to optimize the engine cycle. The matching of valve events to the engine performance and to emission requirements at a given engine or vehicle operating condition can be further optimized to the Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) in gasoline engine, which has benefits in NOx emission, fuel consumption, combustion stability and intake throttle load. In case of Diesel engine, the increasing demands for NOx and soot emission reduction have introduced aftertreatment technologies recently, but been in need of basic solution for the future, such as a super clean fuel like Gas to Liquid (GTL), which has benefits in comparability to diesel fuel, independency from crude oil and reduction of CO, THC and soot emissions. Korea looks to the future with these kinds of technologies, and tries to find the possibility for reaching the future targets in the internal combustion engine. (orig.)

  9. Experimental validation of concentration profiles in an HCCI engine, modelled by a multi-component kinetic mechanism: Outline for auto-ignition and emission control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machrafi, Hatim, E-mail: hatim-machrafi@enscp.f [UPMC Universite Paris 06, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Universite de Liege, Thermodynamique des Phenomenes Irreversibles, 17, Allee du Six-Aout, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    In order to contribute to the auto-ignition and emission control for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), a kinetic multi-component mechanism, containing 62 reactions and 49 species for mixtures of n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene is validated in this work, comparing for the concentration profiles of the fuel, the total hydrocarbons, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, acetaldehyde and iso-butene. These species are sampled during the combustion and quantified. For these measurements an automotive exhaust analyser, a gas chromatograph, coupled to a mass spectrometer and a flame ionisation detector are used, depending on the species to be measured. The fuel, total hydrocarbons, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, iso-butene and acetaldehyde showed a satisfactory quantitative agreement between the mechanism and the experiments. Both the experiments and the modelling results showed the same formation behaviour of the different species. An example is shown of how such a validated mechanism can provide for a set of information of the behaviour of the auto-ignition process and the emission control as a function of engine parameters.

  10. Experimental validation of concentration profiles in an HCCI engine, modelled by a multi-component kinetic mechanism: Outline for auto-ignition and emission control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machrafi, Hatim

    2010-01-01

    In order to contribute to the auto-ignition and emission control for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), a kinetic multi-component mechanism, containing 62 reactions and 49 species for mixtures of n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene is validated in this work, comparing for the concentration profiles of the fuel, the total hydrocarbons, O 2 , CO 2 , CO, acetaldehyde and iso-butene. These species are sampled during the combustion and quantified. For these measurements an automotive exhaust analyser, a gas chromatograph, coupled to a mass spectrometer and a flame ionisation detector are used, depending on the species to be measured. The fuel, total hydrocarbons, O 2 , CO 2 , iso-butene and acetaldehyde showed a satisfactory quantitative agreement between the mechanism and the experiments. Both the experiments and the modelling results showed the same formation behaviour of the different species. An example is shown of how such a validated mechanism can provide for a set of information of the behaviour of the auto-ignition process and the emission control as a function of engine parameters.

  11. Assessment and control of fetal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.; Swinth, K.L.; Traub, R.J.

    1991-10-01

    The assessment and control of fetal exposure to radiation in the workplace is an issue that is complicated by both biological and political/social ramifications. As a result of the dramatic increase in the number of women employed as radiation workers during the past 10 years, many facilities using radioactive materials have instituted fetal protection programs with special requirements for female radiation workers. It is necessary, however, to ensure that any fetal protection program be developed in such a way as to be nondiscriminatory. A study has been initiated whose purpose is to balance the political/social and the biological ramifications associated with occupational protection of the developing embryo/fetus. Several considerations are involved in properly balancing these factors. These considerations include appropriate methods of declaring the pregnancy, training workers, controlling the dose to the embryo/fetus, measuring and calculating the dose to the embryo/fetus, and recording the pertinent information. Alternative strategies for handling these factors while ensuring maximum protection of the embryo/fetus and the rights and responsibilities of employees and employers are discussed

  12. AutoCAD workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Metherell, Phil

    1989-01-01

    AutoCAD Workbook helps new users learn the basics of AutoCad, providing guidance on most of the commonly used functions in which the program operates.This book discusses loading AutoCad and starting a drawing; drawing and erasing lines, circles, and arcs; and setting up the drawing environment. The topics on drawing and editing polylines; entering text and text styles; and layers, linetype, and color are also considered. This publication likewise covers creating and using blocks, hatching and extracting information, dimensioning drawings, 3D visualization, and plotting a drawing. Other

  13. Practical methods for exposure control/management at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twiggs, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Exposure management/reduction is very important to Duke Power Company. Practical exposure control/reduction techniques applied to their reactor vessel head disassembly outage activity have consistently reduced personnel exposure for this task. The following exposure control methods have worked for use and will be the industry's direction for the 1990's. A summary of these methods includes: (a) move the responsibility of exposure management from the Radiation Protection group to the Maintenance group; (b) reduce area source term by removal of source; (c) improve working environments in radiation areas by minimizing protective clothing usage; and (d) maximize the use of electronic instruments to allow remote monitoring

  14. Tagaotsitav "Auto" / Kristiina Vaarik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarik, Kristiina

    2001-01-01

    Chris O'Connelli "Auto" Vanemuises, lavastaja Mark Babych. Etendusele tegid muusika ansamblist Bizarre tuntud muusikud Tristan Priimägi ja Lauri Liivak, kes artiklis sellest räägivad. Esietendus 2. detsembril 2000

  15. Spike frequency adaptation is a possible mechanism for control of attractor preference in auto-associative neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, James; Sander, Leonard; Zochowski, Michal

    Auto-associative memory is the ability to retrieve a pattern from a small fraction of the pattern and is an important function of neural networks. Within this context, memories that are stored within the synaptic strengths of networks act as dynamical attractors for network firing patterns. In networks with many encoded memories, some attractors will be stronger than others. This presents the problem of how networks switch between attractors depending on the situation. We suggest that regulation of neuronal spike-frequency adaptation (SFA) provides a universal mechanism for network-wide attractor selectivity. Here we demonstrate in a Hopfield type attractor network that neurons minimal SFA will reliably activate in the pattern corresponding to a local attractor and that a moderate increase in SFA leads to the network to converge to the strongest attractor state. Furthermore, we show that on long time scales SFA allows for temporal sequences of activation to emerge. Finally, using a model of cholinergic modulation within the cortex we argue that dynamic regulation of attractor preference by SFA could be critical for the role of acetylcholine in attention or for arousal states in general. This work was supported by: NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. DGE 1256260 (JPR), NSF CMMI 1029388 (MRZ) and NSF PoLS 1058034 (MRZ & LMS).

  16. Exposure Control--OSHA's Bloodborne Pathogens Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granville, Mark F.

    1993-01-01

    Explains schools' responsibilities in complying with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Bloodborne Pathogens Standard. Describes exposure determination plan, protective equipment, housekeeping practices, labeling of waste, training employees, hepatitis B vaccinations, postexposure evaluation and medical follow-up, and…

  17. Control of radiation exposure (principles and methods)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agwimah, R. I.

    1999-01-01

    Biological risks are directly related to the tissue radiation dose, so it is very important to maintain personnel doses as low as realistically possible. This goal can be achieved by minimizing internal contamination and external exposure to radioactive sources

  18. Development of ATSR (Auto Thermal Steam Reformer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, J.; Yoshino, Y.; Kuwabara, T.; Fujisima, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Maruko, S.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Auto-thermal reformers are used popularly for fuel cell vehicle because they are compact and can start up quickly. On the other hand, steam reformers are used for stationary fuel cell power plant because they are good thermal efficiency. While, there are many cases using the auto- thermal reformer for stationary use with expectation of cost reduction in USA, as well. However, they are still insufficient for its durability, compactness and cost. We have been developing the new type of fuel processing system that is auto-thermal steam reformer (ATSR), which is hybrid of a conventional steam reformer (STR) and a conventional auto-thermal reformer (ATR). In this study, some proto-type of ATSR for field test were designed, tried manufacturing and tested performance and durability. And we have tried to operate with fuel cell stack to evaluate the system interface performance, that is, operability and controllability. (author)

  19. Application of Auto CAD 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeong Jun

    1999-11-01

    This book deals with basic of AutoCAD, beginning AutoCAD 2000, using design center of AutoCAD 2000, adding drawing element with design center, drawing lines, using 2D edit command, making layer, hatching, dimensioning, entering letters on the floor plan, making 3D object, practice of 3D command, edition of 3D object, making solid, rendering object, and using internet in AutoCAD 2000. This book is introduction of AutoCAD 2000 for beginner.

  20. Development and evaluation of an Exposure Control Efficacy Library (ECEL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransman, W.; Schinkel, J.; Meijster, T.; Hemmen, J. van; Tielemans, E.; Goede, H.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This paper describes the development and evaluation of an evidence database on the effectiveness of risk management measures (RMMs) to control inhalation exposure. This database is referred to as Exposure Control Efficacy Library (ECEL). Methods: A comprehensive review of scientific

  1. Control of radiation exposures by decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeSurf, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    The radiation exposures of workers at light water and heavy water cooled reactors can be reduced by dilute chemical decontamination as exemplified by the CAN-DECON process. The cost effectiveness of the CAN-DECON process is illustrated by actual service experience and by hypothetical cases

  2. The Auto control System Based on InTouch Configuration software for High-gravity Oil Railway Tank Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu De-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides automatic design for high-gravity oil railway tank feeding system of some refinery uses distributive control system. The system adopts the automatic system of Modicon TSX Quantum or PLC as monitor and control level and uses a PC-based plat form as principal computer running on the Microsoft Windows2000. An automatic control system is developed in the environment of InTouch configuration software. This system implements automatic high-gravity oil tank feeding with pump controlling function. And it combines automatic oil feeding controlling, pump controlling and tank monitoring function to implement the automation of oil feeding with rations and automatic control.

  3. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Mølhave, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung...... function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m3 (low) and 400 µg/m3 (high) under controlled environmental conditions.......0007), “irritative body perceptions” (p = 0.0127), “psychological/neurological effects” (p = 0.0075) and “weak inflammatory responses” (p = 0.0003). Furthermore, significant effects (p = 0.0192) on self-reported general mucosa irritation were found. In conclusion, exposure to wood smoke affected symptom rating...

  4. AutoCAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    I 1998 var AutoCAD Arkitektskolens basale CAD-tilbud til de studerende. Kursets vægt ligger på konstruktion og strukturering af 3d-modeller og med udgangspunkt i dette, 2d-tegning. Kurset er opbygget over CAD Clasic skabelonen (se min forskning). Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudium.......I 1998 var AutoCAD Arkitektskolens basale CAD-tilbud til de studerende. Kursets vægt ligger på konstruktion og strukturering af 3d-modeller og med udgangspunkt i dette, 2d-tegning. Kurset er opbygget over CAD Clasic skabelonen (se min forskning). Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudium....

  5. PERI auto-tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, D H; Williams, S [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chame, J; Chen, C; Hall, M [USC/ISI, Marina del Rey, CA 90292 (United States); Dongarra, J; Moore, S; Seymour, K; You, H [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Hollingsworth, J K; Tiwari, A [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Hovland, P; Shin, J [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: mhall@isi.edu

    2008-07-15

    The enormous and growing complexity of today's high-end systems has increased the already significant challenges of obtaining high performance on equally complex scientific applications. Application scientists are faced with a daunting challenge in tuning their codes to exploit performance-enhancing architectural features. The Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI) is working toward the goal of automating portions of the performance tuning process. This paper describes PERI's overall strategy for auto-tuning tools and recent progress in both building auto-tuning tools and demonstrating their success on kernels, some taken from large-scale applications.

  6. Realtime radiation exposure monitor and control apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowart, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    This patent application relates to an apparatus and methods used to obtain image information from modulation of a uniform flux. An exposure measuring apparatus is disclosed which comprises a multilayered detector structure having an external circuit connected to a transparent insulating layer and to a conductive plate a radiation source adapted to irradiate the detector structure with radiation capable of producing electron-hole pairs in a photoconductive layer of the detector wherein the flow of current within the external circuit is measured when the detector is irradiated by the radiation source. (author)

  7. Effects of auto-servo ventilation on patients with sleep-disordered breathing, stable systolic heart failure and concomitant diastolic dysfunction: subanalysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birner, Christoph; Series, Frederic; Lewis, Keir; Benjamin, Amit; Wunderlich, Silke; Escourrou, Pierre; Zeman, Florian; Luigart, Ruth; Pfeifer, Michael; Arzt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Systolic heart failure (HF) is frequently accompanied by diastolic dysfunction and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). The objective of this subset analysis was to determine effect sizes of auto-servo ventilation (ASV and biphasic positive airway pressure ASV) on echocardiographic measures of diastolic function in patients with systolic HF and SDB. Thirty-two patients with stable systolic HF, concomitant diastolic dysfunction [age 66 ± 9 years old, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction: 30 ± 7% and New York Heart Association class II: 72%] and SDB (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI: 48 ± 19/h; 53% had predominantly obstructive sleep apnea) receiving either ASV (n = 19) or optimal medical treatment (control, n = 13) were analyzed in a randomized controlled clinical trial. Polysomnographic and echocardiographic measurements were obtained at baseline and after 12 weeks. AHI significantly improved in the ASV group compared to the control group (-39 ± 18 vs. -0.2 ± 13.2/h, p control visit, diastolic function assessed by the isovolumetric relaxation time (-10.3 ± 26.1 vs. 9.3 ± 49.1, p = 0.48) and deceleration time (-43.9 ± 88.8 vs. 12.4 ± 68.8, p = 0.40) tended to improve after ASV treatment, but did not reach statistical significance. Likewise, the proportion of patients whose diastolic dysfunction improved was nonsignificantly higher in the ASV than in the control group, respectively (37 vs. 15%, p = 0.25). ASV treatment efficiently abolishes SDB in patients with stable systolic HF and concomitant diastolic dysfunction, and was associated with a statistically nonsignificant improvement in measures of diastolic dysfunction. Thus, these data provide estimates of effect size and justify the evaluation of the effects of ASV on diastolic function in larger randomized controlled trials. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The Durban Auto Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jochen; Robbins, Glen; Barnes, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the formation of the Durban Auto Cluster in the context of trade liberalization. It argues that the improvement of operational competitiveness of firms in the cluster is prominently due to joint action. It tests this proposition by comparing the gains from cluster activities...

  9. AUTO-EXPANSIVE FLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics suggests that the interplay of momentum, continuity, and geometry in outward radial flow must produce density and concomitant pressure reductions. In other words, this flow is intrinsically auto-expansive. It has been proposed that this process is the key to understanding...

  10. Exposure parameters in fluoroscopy equipment. Quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.; Castaneda, M.J.; Matorras, P.; Diaz-Caneja, N.; Gutierrez, I.

    1992-01-01

    Within the quality control program in Diagnostic Radiology currently being undertaken at the 'Marques de Valdecilla' University Hospital, the corresponding specification and procedure prototypes for the control of conventional radioscopy equipment have been elaborated and applied. This paper presents the values proposed in the specifications and those obtained for the following radioscopy equipment parameters: reference kerma, and its reproducibility, kerma linearity, maximum kerma at the skin, and total filtration. The results obtained indicate that the equipment studied could comply with specified requirements if a Maintenance Program were to be implemented in coordination with the Quality Control Program. (author)

  11. AutoCAD 2014 and AutoCAD LT 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gladfelter, Donnie

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial introduction to AutoCAD As the only book to teach AutoCAD using a continuous tutorial which allows you to follow along sequentially or jump in at any exercise by downloading the drawing files, this Autodesk Official Press book is ideal for the AutoCAD novice. Industry expert and AutoCAD guru Donnie Gladfelter walks you through the powerful features of AutoCAD, provides you with a solid foundation of the basics, and shares the latest industry standards and techniques. The hands-on tutorial project inspired by real-world workflows that runs throughout the book

  12. Is cosmic radiation exposure of air crew amenable to control?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    ICRP Committee 4 currently has a Working Party on Cosmic Ray Exposure in Aircraft and Space Flight. It has assembled information on doses arising in aircraft and space flight and considered the appropriateness of the Commission's recommendations relating to air crew. A central issue is whether the exposures received should be considered amenable to control. Factors of relevance to the enhanced cosmic radiation exposure of air crew, and frequent fliers such as couriers, are doses to pregnant staff, the issue of controllability of doses, and the implementation of regulatory controls. It is concluded that while air crew in the current range of subsonic jet aircraft are exposed to enhanced levels of cosmic radiation, these exposures are not readily controllable nor likely to exceed about 6 mSv/y. The revised ICRP Recommendations in 1991 (ICRP 60) propose air crew be designated as occupationally exposed. However, none of the usual optimisation of dose actions associated with regulation of practices, such as classification of work areas and rules governing working procedures, can be implemented, and in practice the doses are not amenable to control. The International Basic Safety Standards therefore leave this designation to the judgement of national regulatory authorities. One requirement that stems from designation as occupational exposure is that of restriction of doses to pregnant women. Both from the points of view that it is questionable whether exposure of air crew can reasonably be considered to be amenable to control, and the magnitude of the risks from exposures incurred, there is little reason to invoke additional restrictions to limit exposures of pregnant air crew. Copyright (1999) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  13. An Instructional Method for the AutoCAD Modeling Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a command organizer for AutoCAD to aid new uses in operating within the 3-D modeling environment. Addresses analyzing the problem, visualization skills, nonlinear tools, a static view of a dynamic model, the AutoCAD organizer, environment attributes, and control of the environment. Contains 11 references. (JRH)

  14. An iterative learning strategy for the auto-tuning of the feedforward and feedback controller in type-1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fravolini, M L; Fabietti, P G

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a scheme for the control of the blood glucose in subjects with type-1 diabetes mellitus based on the subcutaneous (s.c.) glucose measurement and s.c. insulin administration. The tuning of the controller is based on an iterative learning strategy that exploits the repetitiveness of the daily feeding habit of a patient. The control consists of a mixed feedback and feedforward contribution whose parameters are tuned through an iterative learning process that is based on the day-by-day automated analysis of the glucose response to the infusion of exogenous insulin. The scheme does not require any a priori information on the patient insulin/glucose response, on the meal times and on the amount of ingested carbohydrates (CHOs). Thanks to the learning mechanism the scheme is able to improve its performance over time. A specific logic is also introduced for the detection and prevention of possible hypoglycaemia events. The effectiveness of the methodology has been validated using long-term simulation studies applied to a set of nine in silico patients considering realistic uncertainties on the meal times and on the quantities of ingested CHOs.

  15. MS AutoCad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Rye; Heinicke, Hugo

    1996-01-01

    Formålet med dette notat er at give en introduktion til tegning af et generalarrangement ved anvendelse af CAD-programmet AutoCAD. Generalarrangementets formål er at skabe en overskuelig præsentation af et skibsprojekt. Det skal gøres indenfor de rammer, som ligger til grund for praktiskprojekter......Formålet med dette notat er at give en introduktion til tegning af et generalarrangement ved anvendelse af CAD-programmet AutoCAD. Generalarrangementets formål er at skabe en overskuelig præsentation af et skibsprojekt. Det skal gøres indenfor de rammer, som ligger til grund...

  16. Presença de auto-anticorpos não-tireóide-específicos no soro de pacientes com hipotireoidismo auto-imune

    OpenAIRE

    Soares Débora Vieira; Vanderborght Bart O. M.; Vaisman Mário

    2003-01-01

    Auto-anticorpos contra componentes não-específicos da tireóide foram encontrados no soro de pacientes com doença auto-imune da tireóide. Neste estudo avaliamos a presença de auto-anticorpos antinucleares (ANA), antimúsculo liso (anti-ML) e antimitocôndria (anti-Mc) no soro de pacientes com hipotireoidismo auto-imune (HA), comparando-os a controles saudáveis. Estudamos 70 pacientes com hipotireoidismo auto-imune (tireoidite de Hashimoto ou tireoidite atrófica ) e 70 controles saudáveis (sem di...

  17. Treatment of sleep apnea in chronic heart failure patients with auto-servo ventilation improves sleep fragmentation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzenecker, Andrea; Escourrou, Pierre; Kuna, Samuel T; Series, Frederic; Lewis, Keir; Birner, Christoph; Pfeifer, Michael; Arzt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Impaired sleep efficiency is independently associated with worse prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Therefore, a test was conducted on whether auto-servo ventilation (ASV, biphasic positive airway pressure [BiPAP]-ASV, Philips Respironics) reduces sleep fragmentation and improves sleep efficiency in CHF patients with central sleep apnea (CSA) or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In this multicenter, randomized, parallel group trial, a study was conducted on 63 CHF patients (age 64 ± 10 years; left ventricular ejection fraction 29 ± 7%) with CSA or OSA (apnea-hypopnea Index, AHI 47 ± 18/h; 46% CSA) referred to sleep laboratories of the four participating centers. Participants were randomized to either ASV (n = 32) or optimal medical treatment alone (control, n = 31). Polysomnography (PSG) and actigraphy at home (home) with centralized blinded scoring were obtained at baseline and 12 weeks. ASV significantly reduced sleep fragmentation (total arousal indexPSG: -16.4 ± 20.6 vs. -0.6 ± 13.2/h, p = 0.001; sleep fragmentation indexhome: -7.6 ± 15.6 versus 4.3 ± 13.9/h, p = 0.003, respectively) and significantly increased sleep efficiency assessed by actigraphy (SEhome) compared to controls (2.3 ± 10.1 vs. -2.1 ± 6.9%, p = 0.002). Effects of ASV on sleep fragmentation and efficiency were similar in patients suffering from OSA and CSA. At home, ASV treatment modestly improves sleep fragmentation as well as sleep efficiency in CHF patients having either CSA or OSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of Automatic Remote Exposure Controller for Gamma Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Gwang Tae; Shin, Jin Seong; Kim, Dong Eun; Song, Jung Ho; Choo, Seung Hwan; Chang, Hong Keun

    2002-01-01

    Recently, gamma radiographic equipment have been used about 1,000 sets manually and operated by about 2,500 persons in Korea. In order for a radiography to work effectively with avoiding any hazard of the high level radiation from the source, many field workers have expected developing a wireless automatic remote exposure controller. The KlTCO research team has developed an automatic remote exposure controller that can regulate the speed of 0.4∼1.2m/s by BLDC motor of 24V 200W which has output of 54 kgf·, suitable torque and safety factor for the work. And the developed automatic remote exposure controller can control rpm of motor, pigtail position by photo-sensor and exposure time by timer to RF sensor. Thus, the developed equipment is expected that the unit can be used in many practical applications with benefits in economical advantage to combine the use of both automatic and manual type because attachment is possible existent manual remote exposure controller, AC and DC combined use

  19. The mere exposure effect for consumer products as a consequence of existing familiarity and controlled exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekkert, Paul; Thurgood, Clementine; Whitfield, T W Allan

    2013-10-01

    The finding that repeated exposure to a stimulus enhances attitudes directed towards it is a well-established phenomenon. Despite this, the effects of exposure to products are difficult to determine given that they could have previously been exposed to participants any number of times. Furthermore, factors other than simple repeated exposure can influence affective evaluations for stimuli that are meaningful. In our first study, we examined the influence of existing familiarity with common objects and showed that the attractiveness of shapes representing common objects increases with their rated commonness. In our second study, we eliminated the effects of prior exposure by creating fictitious yet plausible products; thus, exposure frequency was under complete experimental control. We also manipulated the attention to be drawn to the products' designs by placing them in contexts where their visual appearance was stressed to be important versus contexts in which it was indicated that little attention had been paid to their design. Following mere exposure, attractiveness ratings increased linearly with exposure frequency, with the slope of the function being steeper for stimuli presented in an inconspicuous context-indicating that individuals engage in more deliberate processing of the stimuli when attention is drawn to their visual appearance. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Myocarditis in auto-immune or auto-inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comarmond, Cloé; Cacoub, Patrice

    2017-08-01

    Myocarditis is a major cause of heart disease in young patients and a common precursor of heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy. Some auto-immune and/or auto-inflammatory diseases may be accompanied by myocarditis, such as sarcoidosis, Behçet's disease, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, myositis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. However, data concerning myocarditis in such auto-immune and/or auto-inflammatory diseases are sparse. New therapeutic strategies should better target the modulation of the immune system, depending on the phase of the disease and the type of underlying auto-immune and/or auto-inflammatory disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. AutoCAD / AutoCAD LT 2014 fundamentals metric

    CERN Document Server

    ASCENT center for technical knowledge

    2014-01-01

    The objective of AutoCAD/AutoCAD LT 2014 Fundamentals is to enable students to create a basic 2D drawing in the AutoCAD software. Even at this fundamental level, the AutoCAD software is one of the most sophisticated computer applications that you are likely to encounter. Therefore learning to use it can be challenging. To make the process easier and provide flexibility for instructors and students, the training guide is divided into two parts that can be taken independently.

  2. Sticky situations: cyanoacrylate exposures reported to a poison control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstairs, Shaun D; Koh, Cynthia; Qian, Lily; Qozi, Mariam; Seivard, Grant; Cantrell, F Lee

    2017-11-01

    Cyanoacrylate (Super Glue ® ) exposures are commonly reported to poison control centers, but little has been published in the medical literature regarding these exposures. We sought to characterize cyanoacrylate exposures reported to a poison control system. We performed a retrospective review of a poison system's database for all cases of single-substance human exposure to cyanoacrylate-containing products from 2005 to 2015. Data collected included age, gender, route of exposure, clinical effects, treatments recommended and medical outcome. There were a total of 893 patients, 505 (56.6%) of which were female. Patient ages ranged from 6 months to 88 years with a median of 11 years. The vast majority of exposures (n = 871, 97.5%) were unintentional, but a small number of exposures (n = 22, 2.5%) were due to intentional misuse (such as trying to stop a bleeding cut) or malicious intent (such as purposefully gluing a person's eyes shut as a prank). Routes of exposure included: ingestion, n = 337 (37.7%); ocular, n = 322 (36.1%); dermatologic, n = 285 (31.9%); inhalation, n = 16 (1.8%); nasal, n = 1 (0.1%); and otic, n = 1 (0.1%); some patients had multiple routes of exposure. Treatments recommended by the poison center included irrigation (n = 411), petroleum jelly (n = 143), mineral oil (n = 131), topical antibiotic ointment (n = 82), peanut butter (n = 6), acetone (n = 4) and WD-40 ® (n = 2). A total of 657 patients (73.6%) were managed on-site, while 236 (26.4%) were seen in a health care facility. Among all exposures, effects were classified as none (n = 287), minor (n = 529) and moderate (n = 77). No major effects or deaths were reported. In this case series, the majority of cases occurred in children and most exposures did not result in significant morbidity. Notably, there was wide variation in terms of recommended treatments; further study is needed to determine the optimal treatment

  3. Laboratory electron exposure of TSS-1 thermal control coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, J. A.; Mccollum, M.; Carruth, M. R., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    RM400, a conductive thermal control coating, was developed for use on the exterior shell of the tethered satellite. Testing was performed by the Engineering Physics Division to quantify effects of the space environment on this coating and its conductive and optical properties. Included in this testing was exposure of RM400 to electrons with energies ranging from 0.1 to 1 keV, to simulate electrons accelerated from the ambient space plasma when the tethered satellite is fully deployed. During this testing, the coating was found to luminesce, and a prolonged exposure of the coating to high-energy electrons caused the coating to darken. This report describes the tests done to quantify the degradation of the thermal control properties caused by electron exposure and to measure the luminescence as a function of electron energy and current density to the satellite.

  4. Assessment of arsenic exposures and controls in gallium arsenide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, J W; Jones, J H

    1993-02-01

    The electronics industry is expanding the use of gallium arsenide in the production of optoelectronic devices and integrated circuits. Workers in the electronics industry using gallium arsenide are exposed to hazardous substances such as arsenic, arsine, and various acids. Arsenic requires stringent controls to minimize exposures (the current OSHA PEL for arsenic is 10 micrograms/m3 and the NIOSH REL is 2 micrograms/m3 ceiling). Inorganic arsenic is strongly implicated in respiratory tract and skin cancer. For these reasons, NIOSH researchers conducted a study of control systems for facilities using gallium arsenide. Seven walk-through surveys were performed to identify locations for detailed study which appeared to have effective controls; three facilities were chosen for in-depth evaluation. The controls were evaluated by industrial hygiene sampling. Including personal breathing zone and area air sampling for arsenic and arsine; wipe samples for arsenic also were collected. Work practices and the use of personal protective equipment were documented. This paper reports on the controls and the arsenic exposure results from the evaluation of the following gallium arsenide processes: Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) and Horizontal Bridgeman (HB) crystal growing, LEC cleaning operations, ingot grinding/wafer sawing, and epitaxy. Results at one plant showed that in all processes except epitaxy, average arsenic exposures were at or above the OSHA action level of 5 micrograms/m3. While cleaning the LEC crystal pullers, the average potential arsenic exposure of the cleaning operators was 100 times the OSHA PEL. At the other two plants, personal exposures for arsenic were well controlled in LEC, LEC cleaning, grinding/sawing, and epitaxy operations.

  5. Occupational noise-induced hearing loss in auto part factory workers in welding units in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriopas, Apiradee; Chapman, Robert S; Sutammasa, Saravudh; Siriwong, Wattasit

    2017-01-24

    Most workers in auto part factories in Thailand are usually exposed to excessive noise in their workplace. This study aimed to assess the level of occupational noise-induced hearing loss and investigate risk factors causing hearing loss in auto part factory workers in the welding units in Thailand. This was a cross-sectional study. One hundred eighty subjects were recruited from 356 workers in the welding unit of three factories. Sixty eligible subjects in each factory were selected by systemic random sampling. The subjects were interviewed using a face-to-face questionnaire. Noise exposure levels and audiograms were measured by a noise dosimeter and an audiometer, respectively. The findings confirmed that noise exposure levels of 86-90 dB (A) and exceeding 90 dB (A) significantly increased the risk of hearing loss in either ear. A noise exposure level exceeding 90 dB (A) significantly increased the prevalence of hearing loss in both ears. Regarding, a 10-pack-year smoking history increased the prevalence of hearing loss in either ear or both ears. In addition, subjects with employment duration exceeding 10 years significantly developed hearing loss in either ear. The engineering control or personal control by wearing hearing protection device should be used to decrease noise exposure levels lower than 85 dB (A) for 8 h. Moreover, if the exposure level reaches 85 dB (A) for 8 h, the employer needs to implement a hearing conservation program in the workplace.

  6. Obtenção de concretos auto-escoantes zero-cimento a partir do controle reológico da matriz Production of self-flow zero-cement castables based on matrix rheological control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Studart

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Os concretos refratários auto-escoantes com reduzido teor de cimento têm se destacado pelo fato de associarem a facilidade de aplicação dos concretos de elevada fluidez, com o bom desempenho termomecânico dos refratários contendo baixo teor de CaO. Através do controle simultâneo da distribuição granulométrica e do estado de dispersão da matriz, é possível eliminar o cimento aluminoso (fonte de CaO e quaisquer outros ligantes hidráulicos do concreto, mantendo sua auto-escoabilidade. Os concretos obtidos, denominados zero-cimento, apresentam resistência mecânica a verde compatível com aplicações industriais e excelentes propriedades a altas temperaturas. Neste trabalho, são apresentadas as condições de dispersão da matriz necessárias para a obtenção dos concretos zero-cimento, após um ajuste granulométrico prévio. As faixas de pH e de teor de dispersante ideais para a otimização da reologia da matriz são apresentadas graficamente em um mapa de estabilidade, o qual mostrou-se uma ferramenta bastante útil para a formulação dos concretos auto-escoantes zero-cimento.Self-flow low-cement refractory castables have attracted much attention in the latest years because they combine the installation benefits of high-flowability castables with the good thermomechanical behaviour of low CaO-content refractories. By simultaneously controlling the castable particle size distribution and the matrix dispersion state, it becomes possible to eliminate the aluminous cement (CaO source or any other hydraulic binder in the castable, keeping its self-flow ability. Such castables, named self-flow zero-cement castables, exhibit pre-firing mechanical strength compatible with industrial applications and outstanding high temperature properties. The matrix dispersion conditions necessary to obtain these castables are presented in this work. The optimum range of pH and dispersant amount for the matrix rheological optimisation are

  7. Leptospira Exposure and Gardeners: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospira can be found in soil. However, it is unclear whether occupational exposure to soil may represent a risk for Leptospira infection in humans. Therefore, we sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence with the occupation of gardener, and to determine the epidemiological characteristics of gardeners associated with Leptospira exposure. Methods We performed a case-control study in 168 gardeners and 168 age- and gender-matched control subjects without gardening occupation in Durango City, Mexico. The seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies in cases and controls was determined using an enzyme immunoassay. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of Leptospira exposure and the characteristics of the gardeners. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6%) of 168 gardeners and in 15 (8.9%) of 168 control subjects (odds ratio (OR): 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28 - 1.48; P = 0.40). Multivariate analysis showed that Leptospira seropositivity was positively associated with female gender (OR: 5.82; 95% CI: 1.11 - 30.46; P = 0.03), and negatively associated with eating while working (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05 - 0.87; P = 0.03). In addition, multivariate analysis showed that high anti-Leptospira levels were associated with consumption of boar meat (OR: 28.00; 95% CI: 1.20 - 648.80; P = 0.03). Conclusions This is the first case-control study of Leptospira exposure in gardeners. Results do not support an association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of gardener. However, further studies to confirm the lack of this association are needed. The potential role of consumption of boar meat in Leptospira infection deserves further investigation. PMID:26668679

  8. Development of simulation technology on full auto air conditioning system; Auto eakon no simulation gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, N; Otsubo, Y; Matsumura, K; Sako, H [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Mazda has developed simulation technology on control of full auto air conditioning system. We have developed the development tool based on the technology, aiming at higher controllability of full auto air conditioning system and shorter development period. The tool performs simulation on control, on-vehicle evaluation of actual load operation, collecting data and analyzing them by personal computer. This paper reports our verification results on effectiveness of the technology/ and the tool. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  9. The radiation exposure control programme - its effect on design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, R.B.V.

    1975-01-01

    The paper discusses how the Power Projects design organization has responded to the problem of operational exposure. This response took the form of an organized formal Programme developed during the Bruce G.S. design phase. This Radiation Exposure Control Programme considered: radiation conditions, number of items requiring attention, number of occasions item requires attention and manhours involved on each occasion. Analysis of these factors and comparison with target values enabled worthwhile reductions to be made in estimated operating exposure. Activity transport studies, reliability and design detail improvements have all received an impetus from the Programme. The Programme which has value both from the economic and the health physics points of view is now a continuing feature of the CANDU plant design process. (author)

  10. Electronic device for automatic control of exposure in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendharkar, A.S.; Jayakumar, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    An electronic instrument for calculating and controlling exposure in radiography practice using radioisotopes is described. When using this equipment, only factor to be known is the dose required by the film for a given density and the thickness of material inspected. It eliminates all the problems arising out of various parameters such as source decay etc in the conventional procedure for calculating exposure time. Principle of operation, the electronic circuitry adopted and the functional aspects of the system are described in detail. Exposure doses for different industrial films have been related to the instrumental readouts. The system reproducibility and reliability have been evaluated. The advantages and limitations of the present system and the future development to overcome the problems are indicated. (author)

  11. Auto-titrating continuous positive airway pressure treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea after acute quadriplegia (COSAQ): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlowitz, David J; Ayas, Najib; Barnes, Maree; Brown, Douglas J; Cistulli, Peter A; Geraghty, Tim; Graham, Alison; Lee, Bonsan Bonne; Morris, Meg; O'Donoghue, Fergal; Rochford, Peter D; Ross, Jack; Singhal, Balraj; Spong, Jo; Wadsworth, Brooke; Pierce, Robert J

    2013-06-19

    Quadriplegia is a severe, catastrophic injury that predominantly affects people early in life, resulting in lifelong physical disability. Obstructive sleep apnoea is a direct consequence of quadriplegia and is associated with neurocognitive deficits, sleepiness and reduced quality of life. The usual treatment for sleep apnoea is nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP); however, this is poorly tolerated in quadriplegia. To encourage patients to use this therapy, we have to demonstrate that the benefits outweigh the inconvenience. We therefore propose a prospective, multinational randomized controlled trial of three months of CPAP for obstructive sleep apnoea after acute quadriplegia. Specialist spinal cord injury centres across Australia, New Zealand, the UK and Canada will recruit medically stable individuals who have sustained a (new) traumatic quadriplegia (complete or incomplete second cervical to first thoracic level lesions). Participants will be screened for obstructive sleep apnoea using full, portable sleep studies. Those with an apnoea hypopnoea index greater than 10 per hour will proceed to an initial three-night trial of CPAP. Those who can tolerate CPAP for at least 4 hours on at least one night of the initial trial will be randomized to either usual care or a 3-month period of auto-titrating CPAP. The primary hypothesis is that nocturnal CPAP will improve neuropsychological functioning more than usual care alone. The secondary hypothesis is that the magnitude of improvement of neuropsychological function will be predicted by the severity of baseline sleepiness measures, sleep fragmentation and sleep apnoea. Neuropsychological tests and full polysomnography will be performed at baseline and 3 months with interim measures of sleepiness and symptoms of autonomic dysfunction measured weekly. Spirometry will be performed monthly. Neuropsychological tests will be administered by blinded assessors. Recruitment commenced in July 2009. The results of

  12. Auto-fotografi som metode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen sætter fokus på auto-fotografi som metode i arbejdsmiljøforskningen. Den organisationsæstetiske tilgang, som metoden ofte forbindes med, udfordres med afsæt i en performativ og aktørnetværks-teoretisk position. Gennem en analyse af et enkelt auto-fotografi vises hvordan en artikulation af...

  13. Nano-metal oxides: Exposure and engineering control assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alberto; Eastlake, Adrienne; Topmiller, Jennifer L; Sparks, Christopher; Martinez, Kenneth; Geraci, Charles L

    2017-09-01

    In January 2007, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a field study to evaluate process specific emissions during the production of ENMs. This study was performed using the nanoparticle emission assessment technique (NEAT). During this study, it was determined that ENMs were released during production and cleaning of the process reactor. Airborne concentrations of silver, nickel, and iron were found both in the employee's personal breathing zone and area samples during reactor cleaning. At the completion of this initial survey, it was suggested that a flanged attachment be added to the local exhaust ventilation system.  NIOSH re-evaluated the facility in December 2011 to assess worker exposures following an increase in production rates. This study included a fully comprehensive emissions, exposure, and engineering control evaluation of the entire process. This study made use of the nanoparticle exposure assessment technique (NEAT 2.0). Data obtained from filter-based samples and direct reading instruments indicate that reactor cleanout increased the overall particle concentration in the immediate area. However, it does not appear that these concentrations affect areas outside of the production floor. As the distance between the reactor and the sample location increased, the observed particle number concentration decreased, creating a concentration gradient with respect to the reactor. The results of this study confirm that the flanged attachment on the local exhaust ventilation system served to decrease exposure potential.  Given the available toxicological data of the metals evaluated, caution is warranted. One should always keep in mind that occupational exposure levels were not developed specifically for nanoscale particles. With data suggesting that certain nanoparticles may be more toxic than the larger counterparts of the same material; employers should attempt to control emissions of these particles at the source

  14. Controlling criteria for radiation exposure of astronauts and space workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Kazuaki

    1989-01-01

    Space workers likely to suffer from radiation exposure in the outer space are currently limited to the U.S. and Soviet Union, and only a small amount of data and information is available concerning the techniques and criteria for control of radiation exposure in this field. Criteria used in the Soviet Union are described first. The criteria (TRS-75), called the Radiation Safety Criteria for Space Navigation, are tentative ones set up in 1975. They are based on risk assessment. The standard radiation levels are established based on unit flight time: 50rem for 1 month, 80rem for 3 months, 110rem for 6 months and 150rem for 12 months. These are largely different from the emergency exposure limit of 100mSv (10rem) specified in a Japanese law, and the standard annual exposure value of 50mSv (5rem) for workers in nuclear power plants at normal times. For the U.S., J.A. Angelo, Jr., presented a paper titled 'Radiation Protection Issues and Techniques concerning Extended Manned Space Missions' at an IAEA meeting held in 1988. Though the criteria shown in the paper are not formal ones at the national level, similar criteria are expected to be adopted by the nation in the near future. The exposure limits recommended in the paper include a depth dose of 1-4Sv for the whole life span of a worker. (Nogami, K.)

  15. Radiation exposure control during EMCCR campaign at MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawahar, S.; Singha Roy, S.

    2003-01-01

    Enmasse Coolant Channel Replacement (EMCCR) work is second of its kind for Indian PHWR- next to RAPS - 2 campaign- after successful demonstration of ability by NPCIL to carry out such major core component maintenance. The Challenges posed during such campaign are mainly attributed to the radiation field, continuous occupancy, and large quantity of material handling for execution as well as preparing infrastructure, exposure control for large number of workmen. Extensive planning was carried out to address all these issues in order to reduce the downtime of the station keeping the collective dose as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA). This paper highlights the strategy adopted, logistics involved in execution of work and the efforts taken to control radiation exposure during this major campaign. (author)

  16. External radiation exposure control system in accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iimoto, Takeshi; Kosako, Toshiso

    2011-01-01

    The external exposure control systems in KEK and CERN are discussed to find out good practices and unreasonableness of radiation control in accelerator facilities, which plays an important role in optimizing national and/or site specific radiological regulations, referring to relevant ICRP publications. Personal dose limits and radiation area classifications were analyzed and their reasonableness were explored. Good example of supervised areas, area classification based on realistic assumptions on working time etc are found. On the other hand, unreasonable systems, that are often attributed to the national regulation or ideas presented in the old publications are also found. (author)

  17. AutoCAD 2014 essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Onstott, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Learn crucial AutoCAD tools and techniques with this Autodesk Official Press Book Quickly become productive using AutoCAD 2014 and AutoCAD LT 2014 with this full color Autodesk Official Press guide. This unique learning resource features concise, straightforward explanations and real-world, hands-on exercises and tutorials. Following a quick discussion of concepts and goals, each chapter moves on to an approachable hands-on exercise designed to reinforce real-world tactics and techniques. Compelling, full-color screenshots illustrate tutorial steps, and chapters conclude with relat

  18. Control of internal exposure doses of Belarus population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minenko, V.; Drozdovich, V.; Ulanovski, A.; Ternov, V.I.; Vasilyeva, I.

    1997-01-01

    Starting from May 1986 instrumental control of internal exposure is being carried out in Belarus using different equipment. In earlier, iodine period, the basic aim of the control was a mass screening of the population for defining of iodine content in thyroid. After the iodine period attention of the radiological control was focused on monitoring of caesium radionuclides content in human bodies of the inhabitants of radioactively contaminated territories. Goals of the control were changing, depending on the time that passed since the day of the accident. Nowadays the National Commission of Belarus recognizes entering of the, Republic into rehabilitation period of the accident of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Developed Conception of Protection Measures for the rehabilitation period for the population living at the territories affected by the radioactive contamination in the result of the Chernobyl catastrophe

  19. Perinatal taurine exposure affects adult arterial pressure control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Wyss, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is an abundant free amino acid found in mammalian cells that contributes to many physiologic functions from that of a simple cell osmolyte to a programmer of adult health and disease. Taurine’s contribution extends from conception throughout life, but its most critical exposure period is during perinatal life. In adults, taurine supplementation prevents or alleviates cardiovascular disease and related complications. In contrast, low taurine consumption coincides with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity and type II diabetes. This review focuses on the effects that altered perinatal taurine exposure has on long-term mechanisms that control adult arterial blood pressure and could thereby contribute to arterial hypertension through its ability to program these cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms very early in life. The modifications of these mechanisms can last a lifetime and transfer to the next generation, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms underlie the changes. The ability of perinatal taurine exposure to influence arterial pressure control mechanisms and hypertension in adult life appears to involve the regulation of growth and development, the central and autonomic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin system, glucose-insulin interaction and changes to heart, blood vessels and kidney function. PMID:23070226

  20. Negative control exposure studies in the presence of measurement error: implications for attempted effect estimate calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Eleanor; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Davey Smith, George

    2018-04-01

    Negative control exposure studies are increasingly being used in epidemiological studies to strengthen causal inference regarding an exposure-outcome association when unobserved confounding is thought to be present. Negative control exposure studies contrast the magnitude of association of the negative control, which has no causal effect on the outcome but is associated with the unmeasured confounders in the same way as the exposure, with the magnitude of the association of the exposure with the outcome. A markedly larger effect of the exposure on the outcome than the negative control on the outcome strengthens inference that the exposure has a causal effect on the outcome. We investigate the effect of measurement error in the exposure and negative control variables on the results obtained from a negative control exposure study. We do this in models with continuous and binary exposure and negative control variables using analysis of the bias of the estimated coefficients and Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that measurement error in either the exposure or negative control variables can bias the estimated results from the negative control exposure study. Measurement error is common in the variables used in epidemiological studies; these results show that negative control exposure studies cannot be used to precisely determine the size of the effect of the exposure variable, or adequately adjust for unobserved confounding; however, they can be used as part of a body of evidence to aid inference as to whether a causal effect of the exposure on the outcome is present.

  1. [Design of blood-pressure parameter auto-acquisition circuit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y P; Zhang, D L; Bai, H W; Zhang, D A

    2000-02-01

    This paper presents the realization and design of a kind of blood-pressure parameter auto-acquisition circuit. The auto-acquisition of blood-pressure parameter controlled by 89C2051 single chip microcomputer is accomplished by collecting and processing the driving signal of LCD. The circuit that is successfully applied in the home unit of telemedicine system has the simple and reliable properties.

  2. Esma Auto ja Mazda on loodud kestma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Ülevaade olulisematest sündmustest Esma Auto kümne tegevusaasta jooksul. Kommenteerivad Tarmo Järvoja, Mart Laar ja Enn Sau. Diagrammid ja skeemid: AS Esma Auto müügi statistika läbi aastate; AS Esma Auto kasum ja klientide arv aastate lõikes; Esma Auto esindused Eestis ja pakutavad teenused

  3. Quality control for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornkessel, C; Blettner, M; Breckenkamp, J

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of an epidemiological study, dosemeters were used for the assessment of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. To check the correct dosemeter's performance in terms of consistency of recorded field values over the entire study period, a quality control strategy...... was developed. In this paper, the concept of quality control and its results is described. From the 20 dosemeters used, 19 were very stable and reproducible, with deviations of a maximum of +/-1 dB compared with their initial state. One device was found to be faulty and its measurement data had to be excluded...... from the analysis. As a result of continuous quality control procedures, the confidence in the measurements obtained during the field work was strengthened significantly....

  4. Retrospective exposure assessment and quality control in an international multi-centre case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinnerberg, H; Heikkilä, P; Huici-Montagud, A

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the exposure assessment method and quality control procedure used in an international, multi-centre case-control study within a joint Nordic and Italian cohort. This study was conducted to evaluate whether occupational exposure to carcinogens influenced the predictivity of high...... was higher among the original assessors (the assessor from the same country as the subject) than the average prevalence assessed by the other four in the quality control round. The original assessors classified more job situations as exposed than the others. Several reasons for this are plausible: real...... country-specific differences, differences in information available to the home assessor and the others and misunderstandings or difficulties in translation of information. To ensure the consistency of exposure assessments in international retrospective case-control studies it is important to have a well...

  5. Control of occupational exposure to cosmic radiation outside the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Kazuaki; Kaneko, Masahito

    2000-01-01

    Japan is participating in the project of constructing ISS, International Space Station, and taking part of constructing JEM, Japan Experimental Module. It is expected that people working in this module upon completion should be controlled their exposure to cosmic radiation according to Japanese laws. Hence, the issue has been studied by a committee in NASDA, National Space Development Agency of Japan. In 1999, its interim report was released and public comments had been invited. In this presentation, following the introduction of the gist of the interim report as well as comments by the authors, countermeasures are proposed. (author)

  6. Exposure to tobacco marketing and support for tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Costello, Mary-Jean; Fong, Geoffrey T; Topham, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    To examine the salience of tobacco marketing on postsecondary campuses and student support for tobacco control policies. Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 1690 students at 3 universities in southwestern Ontario. Virtually all (97%) students reported noticing tobacco marketing in the past year, and 35% reported noticing marketing on campus. There was strong support for smoke-free restrictions on campus, including restaurants and bars (82%), and for prohibitions on campus marketing. The presence of campus policies was associated with reduced exposure to marketing and increased policy support. There is strong support among students to remove tobacco marketing from campus and to introduce comprehensive smoke-free restrictions.

  7. Optimization of radiation protection for the control of occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esseyin, S.S.

    2012-04-01

    This project work provides practical information on how to apply the optimization of protection in the workplace. The principle of optimization states that, all reasonable efforts be made to reduce doses, social and economic factors being taken into account. The main objectives of this project work is to limit the risk to health arising from exposure to ionizing radiation in the workplace and to optimize radiation protection was achieved by setting common essential requirements for the control of exposure to radiation, including the specification of employer and employee duties. The acronym ALARA has been used in this project work as it brings to mind the twin concepts of dose reduction and reasonableness. The other main component of this project work is a general review of the means that are likely to be available in most workplaces to reduce exposure. These are divided into global means, which can be applied throughout an organization and those that are more jobs specific. Some of these global means are no more than would be expected in any well managed organization, such as an application of effective and efficient procedures for the management of work and provision for the education and training of workers. (author)

  8. 30 CFR 57.5005 - Control of exposure to airborne contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of exposure to airborne contaminants... Underground § 57.5005 Control of exposure to airborne contaminants. Control of employee exposure to harmful airborne contaminants shall be, insofar as feasible, by prevention of contamination, removal by exhaust...

  9. 30 CFR 56.5005 - Control of exposure to airborne contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of exposure to airborne contaminants... Air Quality and Physical Agents Air Quality § 56.5005 Control of exposure to airborne contaminants. Control of employee exposure to harmful airborne contaminants shall be, insofar as feasible, by prevention...

  10. Strategies for Controlling Item Exposure in Computerized Adaptive Testing with the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Laurie Laughlin

    2004-01-01

    Choosing a strategy for controlling item exposure has become an integral part of test development for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). This study investigated the performance of six procedures for controlling item exposure in a series of simulated CATs under the generalized partial credit model. In addition to a no-exposure control baseline…

  11. Identification of Sources of Endotoxin Exposure as Input for Effective Exposure Control Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duuren-Stuurman, Birgit; Gröllers-Mulderij, Mariska; van de Runstraat, Annemieke; Duisterwinkel, Anton; Terwoert, Jeroen; Spaan, Suzanne

    2018-02-13

    Aim of the present study is to investigate the levels of endotoxins on product samples from potatoes, onions, and seeds, representing a relevant part of the agro-food industry in the Netherlands, to gather valuable insights in possibilities for exposure control measures early in the process of industrial processing of these products. Endotoxin levels on 330 products samples from companies representing the potato, onion, and seed (processing) industry (four potato-packaging companies, five potato-processing companies, five onion-packaging companies, and four seed-processing companies) were assessed using the Limulus Amboecyte Lysate (LAL) assay. As variation in growth conditions (type of soil, growth type) and product characteristics (surface roughness, dustiness, size, species) are assumed to influence the level of endotoxin on products, different types, and growth conditions were considered when collecting the samples. Additionally, waste material, rotten products, felt material (used for drying), and process water were collected. A large variation in the endotoxin levels was found on samples of potatoes, onions, and seeds (overall geometric standard deviation 17), in the range between 0.7 EU g-1 to 16400000 EU g-1. The highest geometric mean endotoxin levels were found in plant material (319600 EU g-1), followed by soil material (49100 EU g-1) and the outer side of products (9300 EU g-1), indicating that removal of plant and soil material early in the process would be an effective exposure control strategy. The high levels of endotoxins found in the limited number of samples from rotten onions indicate that these rotten onions should also be removed early in the process. Mean endotoxin levels found in waste material (only available for seed processing) is similar to the level found in soil material, although the range is much larger. On uncleaned seeds, higher endotoxin levels were found than on cleaned seeds, indicating that cleaning processes are important

  12. Auto-adaptative Robot-aided Therapy based in 3D Virtual Tasks controlled by a Supervised and Dynamic Neuro-Fuzzy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel Lledó

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application formed by a classification method based on the architecture of ART neural network (Adaptive Resonance Theory and the Fuzzy Set Theory to classify physiological reactions in order to automatically and dynamically adapt a robot-assisted rehabilitation therapy to the patient needs, using a three-dimensional task in a virtual reality system. Firstly, the mathematical and structural model of the neuro-fuzzy classification method is described together with the signal and training data acquisition. Then, the virtual designed task with physics behavior and its development procedure are explained. Finally, the general architecture of the experimentation for the auto-adaptive therapy is presented using the classification method with the virtual reality exercise.

  13. Assessment of Factors Related to Auto-PEEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalini, Giuseppe; Tuzzo, Daniele; Rosano, Antonio; Testa, Marco; Grazioli, Michele; Pennestrì, Vincenzo; Amodeo, Guido; Marsilia, Paolo F; Tinnirello, Andrea; Berruto, Francesco; Fiorillo, Marialinda; Filippini, Matteo; Peratoner, Alberto; Minelli, Cosetta; Bernardini, Achille

    2016-02-01

    Previous physiological studies have identified factors that are involved in auto-PEEP generation. In our study, we examined how much auto-PEEP is generated from factors that are involved in its development. One hundred eighty-six subjects undergoing controlled mechanical ventilation with persistent expiratory flow at the beginning of each inspiration were enrolled in the study. Volume-controlled continuous mandatory ventilation with PEEP of 0 cm H2O was applied while maintaining the ventilator setting as chosen by the attending physician. End-expiratory and end-inspiratory airway occlusion maneuvers were performed to calculate respiratory mechanics, and tidal flow limitation was assessed by a maneuver of manual compression of the abdomen. The variable with the strongest effect on auto-PEEP was flow limitation, which was associated with an increase of 2.4 cm H2O in auto-PEEP values. Moreover, auto-PEEP values were directly related to resistance of the respiratory system and body mass index and inversely related to expiratory time/time constant. Variables that were associated with the breathing pattern (tidal volume, frequency minute ventilation, and expiratory time) did not show any relationship with auto-PEEP values. The risk of auto-PEEP ≥5 cm H2O was increased by flow limitation (adjusted odds ratio 17; 95% CI: 6-56.2), expiratory time/time constant ratio 15 cm H2O/L s (3; 1.3-6.9), age >65 y (2.8; 1.2-6.5), and body mass index >26 kg/m(2) (2.6; 1.1-6.1). Flow limitation, expiratory time/time constant, resistance of the respiratory system, and obesity are the most important variables that affect auto-PEEP values. Frequency expiratory time, tidal volume, and minute ventilation were not independently associated with auto-PEEP. Therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing auto-PEEP and its adverse effects should be primarily oriented to the variables that mainly affect auto-PEEP values. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  14. AutoCAD 2015 and AutoCAD LT 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Gladfelter, Donnie

    2014-01-01

    Learn AutoCAD by example with this tutorial-based guide from Autodesk Official Press Whether you are just starting out or an experienced user wanting to brush up on your skills, this Autodesk Official Press book provides you with concise explanations, focused examples, and step-by-step instructions through a hands-on tutorial project that runs throughout the book. As you progress through the project, the book introduces you to the Microsoft Windows-based AutoCAD interface and then guides you through basic commands and creating drawings. A downloadable file is available from the website so that

  15. CT-automatic exposure control devices: What are their performances?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Daniel [University Institute for Radiation Physics (IRA-DUMSC), Grand-Pre 1, CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Schmidt, Sabine; Denys, Alban; Schnyder, Pierre [Radiology Department, University Hospital of Lausanne, CHUV, CH-1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Bochud, Francois O. [University Institute for Radiation Physics (IRA-DUMSC), Grand-Pre 1, CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Verdun, Francis R. [University Institute for Radiation Physics (IRA-DUMSC), Grand-Pre 1, CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: francis.verdun@chuv.ch

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To avoid unnecessary exposure to the patients, constructors have developed tube current modulation algorithms. The purpose of this work is to assess the performance of computed tomography (CT) tube current modulation concerning patient dose and image noise in MSCT scanners. Material and methods: A conical PMMA phantom with elliptical cross-section, to vary the thickness of the irradiated object in a monotonous way, and an anthropomorphic chest phantom were scanned under similar conditions on a general electrics (GE) LightSpeed VCT (64 slices) scanner. Noise measurements were made by calculating the standard deviation of the CT-number on a homogeneous ROI in both phantoms. The dose was estimated with the parameters read in the DICOM header of each studied image. Results: The study has shown that most of the time, constant noise levels (noise index) can be obtained by a variation of the mA. Nevertheless, this adaptation can be not fast enough when the variation of the attenuation changes is rapid. Thus, an adaptation length up to 5 cm was obtained. A 18% dose reduction can be achieved (mean of 9.9%) by switching from z-axis modulation algorithm to xyz-axis modulation option. However, exposure in the chest area can be higher with current modulation than without, when trying to keep an image noise level constant in thoraco-abdominal investigations. Conclusion: Current modulation algorithms can produce inadequate quality images due to problems with tube current stabilization when a sudden attenuation variation takes place as at the start of a scanning sequence. As expected, rotational (xyz-axis) modulation performs better than only z-axis modulation algorithm. The use of automatic exposure control (AEC) can lead to an increase of the dose if the maximum allowed current is not properly set in thoraco-abdominal acquisitions.

  16. Controlling exposure to DPM : diesel particulate filters vs. biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugarski, A.D.; Shi, X.C.

    2009-01-01

    In order to comply with Mine Safety and Health Administration regulations, mining companies are required to reduce miners exposures to diesel particulate matter (DPM) to 160 μg/m 3 of total carbon. Diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems, disposable filter elements (DFEs), and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) are among the most effective strategies and technologies for curtailing DPM at its source. Substituting diesel fuel with biodiesel blends is also considered to be a plausible solution by many underground mine operators. Studies were conducted at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Diesel Laboratory at Lake Lynn Experimental Mine to evaluate various control technologies and strategies available to the underground mining industry to reduce exposure to DPM. The physical, chemical and toxicological properties of diesel aerosols (DPM) emitted by engines in an underground mine were also evaluated. The DPF and DFE systems were found to be highly effective in reducing total particulate and elemental carbon mass concentrations, total aerosol surface concentrations and, in most cases, concentrations of diesel aerosols in occupational settings such as underground mines. Soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel fuels had the potential to reduce the mine air concentrations of total DPM, although the rate of reduction varied depending on engine operating conditions. The disadvantage of using biodiesel fuels was an increase in the fraction of particle-bound volatile organics and concentration of aerosols for light-load engine operating conditions.

  17. AutoCAD 2010 For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Byrnes, David

    2009-01-01

    AutoCAD is the hot computer-aided design software known for both its powerful tools and its complexity. AutoCAD 2010 for Dummies is the bestselling guide that walks you through this complicated program so you can build complex 3D technical drawings, edit like a pro, enter new dimensions, and plot with style. AutoCAD 2010 for Dummies helps you navigate the program, use the AutoCAD Design Center, create a basic layout and work with dimension, and put your drawings on the Internet. You'll soon be setting up the AutoCAD environment, using the AutoCAD Ribbon, creating annotation and dimension drawi

  18. To describe and control exposure in nanoecotoxicology tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders

    are fulfilling the purpose they originally were intended for (ranking and classification). The validity of extrapolations made from these data (e.g. predicted no-effect concentrations for environmental risk assessments) is therefore further questionable. Based on own experiences these fundamental problems......There is an urgent need for reliable and reproducible results of ecotoxicological experiments in order to identify, rank, and classify the environmental hazards of nanomaterials. Standardized methods and guideline tests traditionally used for chemicals are today recommended for the testing...... of nanomaterials. While the database of results from these tests is rapidly expanding, problems with controlling the exposure are often reported, e.g. due to the particle behavior in the test media used. Problems encountered include uncontrollable aggregation, agglomeration, sedimentation, or dissolution...

  19. New perspectives on auto propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    In spite of the high level of propane use in vehicles in North America (relative to the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) or methanol), the alternate-fuel research and development activities of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are focusing on methanol, CNG, and electric vehicles. If OEM indifference to propane continues, propane vehicles will continue to be available only in after-market conversions, denying propane the benefits of OEM mass-production economics, quality control, retail distribution, and other factors. Recent developments in auto propane are reported which should be considered by OEMs and policymakers to allow propane to enter the mass-scale motor vehicle market. Propane and the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) mix used as a motor vehicle fuel are often regarded as just a byproduct of natural gas production and oil refining, giving the impression that propane/LPG will not be available in sufficient quantities to support a mass market. It is shown that LPG supply is market-responsive and that over 20 billion gal of new supply could be made available from North American sources by the year 2000 and over 27 billion gal by 2005, sufficient to supply 12.5% of the projected North American vehicle fleet in 2005. The new supply would come from incremental expansion of existing production, displacement of LPG from lower-value uses, and LPG synthesis. The environmental performance of propane/LPG engines is also compared to that of engines running on gasoline, natural gas, and methanol. Advantages of LPG over gasoline include lower carbon content and lower CO emissions, and advantages over CNG arise from the high greenhouse gas activity and long life of methane. 12 figs

  20. Microprocessor-controlled inhalation system for repeated exposure of animals to aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.L.; Barr, F.P.; Leydig, R.L.; Rajala, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled inhalation exposure system (MCIES) has been built to automate aerosol generation and sampling while controlling exposure time for animal toxicity studies. The system has a time resolution of 0.1 s and automatically sequences the exposure events from initiation to temination of the exposure. The operator is required to preset all airflows, read in a paper tape containing the time sequence of events, and initiate the automatic sequence by closing a switch

  1. Shape Analysis Using the Auto Diffusion Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebal, Katarzyna; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Scalar functions defined on manifold triangle meshes is a starting point for many geometry processing algorithms such as mesh parametrization, skeletonization, and segmentation. In this paper, we propose the Auto Diffusion Function (ADF) which is a linear combination of the eigenfunctions......, it is controlled by a single parameter which can be interpreted as feature scale, and, finally, the ADF is invariant to rigid and isometric deformations. We describe the ADF and its properties in detail and compare it to other choices of scalar functions on manifolds. As an example of an application, we present...

  2. Regulatory Strategy to Control Radon Exposure in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younus, Irfan; Cho, Kun Woo

    2012-01-01

    Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) was established in 2001 with one of the objectives to ensure the protection of workers, general public and the environment from the harmful effects of naturally occurring and artificially produced ionizing radiations by formulating and implementing the effective regulations. Radon is a naturally occurring odorless, colorless, tasteless, imperceptible to senses and chemically inert radioactive gas which is produced continuously from the natural decay of U-238, U-235 and Th-232 in most soils, rocks and water all over the earth. High levels of radon in the soil and rock are primarily responsible for indoor radon problems. Therefore when inhaled with air, there much probability that radon decay products will stay and decay in the lungs. If stayed in the lungs, the radiation may damage the cells causing lung cancer. Hence the radon problems have been taken seriously in most of the developed countries of the world. Radon reference levels for dwellings and workplaces have been set and the general public has been made alert of radon through newspapers and electronic media. In Pakistan, neither publicity campaign nor radon measurement and control programmes have been started countrywide. Rather small individual efforts for the sake of interest have been done to investigate the radon in some specific area or institution. This paper presents the regulatory strategy to control radon exposure for the sake of radiation protection of public and workers in Pakistan

  3. Hexavalent chromium exposures and exposure-control technologies in American enterprise: results of a NIOSH field research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blade, L M; Yencken, M Story; Wallace, M E; Catalano, J D; Khan, A; Topmiller, J L; Shulman, S A; Martinez, A; Crouch, K G; Bennett, J S

    2007-08-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted 21 field surveys in selected industries to characterize workers' exposures to hexavalent chromium-containing airborne particulate and to evaluate existing technologies for controlling these exposures. Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is a respiratory irritant and chronic inhalation may cause lung cancer. Primary evaluation methods included collection of full work shift, personal breathing-zone (PBZ) air samples for Cr(VI), measurement of ventilation system parameters, and documentation of processes and work practices. This study emphasized evaluation of engineering exposure control measures, so PBZ exposures were measured on the outside of personal protective equipment, for example, respirators. Field surveys were conducted in two chromium electroplating facilities, including one where full-shift PBZ exposures to Cr(VI) ranged from 3.0 to 16 times the 1 micro g/m(3)NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) despite several engineering controls on the plating tanks. At a painting and coating facility that used Cr(VI)-containing products, full-shift exposures of painters and helpers (2.4 to 55 micro g/m(3)) exceeded the REL, but LEV effectiveness was limited. Other operations evaluated included welding in construction; metal cutting operations on chromium-containing materials in ship breaking; chromate-paint removal with abrasive blasting; atomized alloy-spray coating; foundry operations; printing; and the manufacture of refractory brick, colored glass, prefabricated concrete products, and treated wood products. NIOSH researchers concluded that, in many of the evaluated processes, Cr(VI) exposures at or below the current NIOSH REL are achievable. However, for some processes, it is unclear whether controlling exposures to this range is consistently achievable without respirator use. Some operations involving the application of coatings and finishes may be among those most difficult to control to this

  4. Application of a pilot control banding tool for risk level assessment and control of nanoparticle exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Samuel Y; Zalk, David M; Swuste, Paul

    2008-08-01

    Control banding (CB) strategies offer simplified solutions for controlling worker exposures to constituents that are found in the workplace in the absence of firm toxicological and exposure data. These strategies may be particularly useful in nanotechnology applications, considering the overwhelming level of uncertainty over what nanomaterials and nanotechnologies present as potential work-related health risks, what about these materials might lead to adverse toxicological activity, how risk related to these might be assessed and how to manage these issues in the absence of this information. This study introduces a pilot CB tool or 'CB Nanotool' that was developed specifically for characterizing the health aspects of working with engineered nanoparticles and determining the level of risk and associated controls for five ongoing nanotechnology-related operations being conducted at two Department of Energy research laboratories. Based on the application of the CB Nanotool, four of the five operations evaluated in this study were found to have implemented controls consistent with what was recommended by the CB Nanotool, with one operation even exceeding the required controls for that activity. The one remaining operation was determined to require an upgrade in controls. By developing this dynamic CB Nanotool within the realm of the scientific information available, this application of CB appears to be a useful approach for assessing the risk of nanomaterial operations, providing recommendations for appropriate engineering controls and facilitating the allocation of resources to the activities that most need them.

  5. Impact of Smoke Exposure on Digital Instrumentation and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tina J.; Nowlen, Steven P.; Korsah, Kofi; Wood, Richard T.; Antonescu, Christina E.

    2003-01-01

    Smoke can cause interruptions and upsets in active electronics. Because nuclear power plants are replacing analog with digital instrumentation and control systems, qualification guidelines for new systems are being reviewed for severe environments such as smoke and electromagnetic interference. Active digital systems, individual components, and active circuits have been exposed to smoke in a program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The circuits and systems were all monitored during the smoke exposure, indicating any immediate effects of the smoke. The results of previous smoke exposure studies have been reported in various publications. The major immediate effect of smoke has been to increase leakage currents and to cause momentary upsets and failures in digital systems. This paper presents new results from conformal coatings, memory chips, and hard drive tests.The best conformal coatings were found to be polyurethane, parylene, and acrylic (when applied by dipping). Conformal coatings can reduce smoke-induced leakage currents and protect against metal loss through corrosion. However conformal coatings are typically flammable, so they do increase material flammability. Some of the low-voltage biased memory chips failed during a combination of high smoke and high humidity. Typically, smoke along with heat and humidity is expected during fire, rather than smoke alone. Thus, due to high sensitivity of digital circuits to heat and humidity, it is hypothesized that the impact of smoke may be secondary.Low-voltage (3.3-V) static random-access memory (SRAMs) were found to be the most vulnerable to smoke. Higher bias voltages decrease the likelihood of failure. Erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROMs) and nonvolatile SRAMs were very smoke tolerant. Failures of the SRAMs occurred when two conditions were present: high density of smoke and high humidity. As the high humidity was present for only part of the test, the failures were intermittent. All

  6. Lead concentrations and risk exposure assessment in surface soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead concentrations and risk exposure assessment in surface soils at residential lands previously used for auto-mechanic and auto-welding activities in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management.

  7. Female gonadal shielding with automatic exposure control increases radiation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Summer L.; Zhu, Xiaowei [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Magill, Dennise; Felice, Marc A. [University of Pennsylvania, Environmental Health and Radiation Safety, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Xiao, Rui [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ali, Sayed [Temple University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2018-02-15

    Gonadal shielding remains common, but current estimates of gonadal radiation risk are lower than estimated risks to colon and stomach. A female gonadal shield may attenuate active automatic exposure control (AEC) sensors, resulting in increased dose to colon and stomach as well as to ovaries outside the shielded area. We assess changes in dose-area product (DAP) and absorbed organ dose when female gonadal shielding is used with AEC for pelvis radiography. We imaged adult and 5-year-old equivalent dosimetry phantoms using pelvis radiograph technique with AEC in the presence and absence of a female gonadal shield. We recorded DAP and mAs and measured organ absorbed dose at six internal sites using film dosimetry. Female gonadal shielding with AEC increased DAP 63% for the 5-year-old phantom and 147% for the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose at unshielded locations of colon, stomach and ovaries increased 21-51% in the 5-year-old phantom and 17-100% in the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose sampled under the shield decreased 67% in the 5-year-old phantom and 16% in the adult phantom. Female gonadal shielding combined with AEC during pelvic radiography increases absorbed dose to organs with greater radiation sensitivity and to unshielded ovaries. Difficulty in proper use of gonadal shields has been well described, and use of female gonadal shielding may be inadvisable given the risks of increasing radiation. (orig.)

  8. Female gonadal shielding with automatic exposure control increases radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, Summer L.; Zhu, Xiaowei; Magill, Dennise; Felice, Marc A.; Xiao, Rui; Ali, Sayed

    2018-01-01

    Gonadal shielding remains common, but current estimates of gonadal radiation risk are lower than estimated risks to colon and stomach. A female gonadal shield may attenuate active automatic exposure control (AEC) sensors, resulting in increased dose to colon and stomach as well as to ovaries outside the shielded area. We assess changes in dose-area product (DAP) and absorbed organ dose when female gonadal shielding is used with AEC for pelvis radiography. We imaged adult and 5-year-old equivalent dosimetry phantoms using pelvis radiograph technique with AEC in the presence and absence of a female gonadal shield. We recorded DAP and mAs and measured organ absorbed dose at six internal sites using film dosimetry. Female gonadal shielding with AEC increased DAP 63% for the 5-year-old phantom and 147% for the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose at unshielded locations of colon, stomach and ovaries increased 21-51% in the 5-year-old phantom and 17-100% in the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose sampled under the shield decreased 67% in the 5-year-old phantom and 16% in the adult phantom. Female gonadal shielding combined with AEC during pelvic radiography increases absorbed dose to organs with greater radiation sensitivity and to unshielded ovaries. Difficulty in proper use of gonadal shields has been well described, and use of female gonadal shielding may be inadvisable given the risks of increasing radiation. (orig.)

  9. Female gonadal shielding with automatic exposure control increases radiation risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Summer L; Magill, Dennise; Felice, Marc A; Xiao, Rui; Ali, Sayed; Zhu, Xiaowei

    2018-02-01

    Gonadal shielding remains common, but current estimates of gonadal radiation risk are lower than estimated risks to colon and stomach. A female gonadal shield may attenuate active automatic exposure control (AEC) sensors, resulting in increased dose to colon and stomach as well as to ovaries outside the shielded area. We assess changes in dose-area product (DAP) and absorbed organ dose when female gonadal shielding is used with AEC for pelvis radiography. We imaged adult and 5-year-old equivalent dosimetry phantoms using pelvis radiograph technique with AEC in the presence and absence of a female gonadal shield. We recorded DAP and mAs and measured organ absorbed dose at six internal sites using film dosimetry. Female gonadal shielding with AEC increased DAP 63% for the 5-year-old phantom and 147% for the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose at unshielded locations of colon, stomach and ovaries increased 21-51% in the 5-year-old phantom and 17-100% in the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose sampled under the shield decreased 67% in the 5-year-old phantom and 16% in the adult phantom. Female gonadal shielding combined with AEC during pelvic radiography increases absorbed dose to organs with greater radiation sensitivity and to unshielded ovaries. Difficulty in proper use of gonadal shields has been well described, and use of female gonadal shielding may be inadvisable given the risks of increasing radiation.

  10. 78 FR 68447 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Exposure Draft--Standards for Internal Control in the Federal... revisions to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government, known as the ``Green Book,'' to... proposed changes contained in the 2013 Exposure Draft update to the Standards for Internal Control in the...

  11. AutoCAD platform customization VBA

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosius, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Boost productivity and streamline your workflow with expert AutoCAD: VBA programming instruction AutoCAD Platform Customization: VBA is the definitive guide to personalizing AutoCAD and the various programs that run on the AutoCAD platform, including AutoCAD Architecture, Civil 3D, Plant 3D, and more. Written by an Autodesk insider with years of customization and programming experience, this book features detailed discussions backed by real-world examples and easy-to-follow tutorials that illustrate each step in the personalization process. Readers gain expert guidance toward managing layout

  12. AutoCAD 2014 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Fane, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Find your way around AutoCAD 2014 with this full-color, For Dummies guide!Put away that pencil and paper and start putting the power of AutoCAD 2014 to work in your CAD projects and designs. From setting up your drawing environment to using text, dimensions, hatching, and more, this guide walks you through AutoCAD basics and provides you with a solid understanding of the latest CAD tools and techniques. You'll also benefit from the full-color illustrations that mirror exactly what you'll see on your AutoCAD 2014 screen and highlight the importance of AutoCAD's Mode

  13. AutoCAD 2008 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Byrnes, David

    2007-01-01

    A gentle, humorous introduction to this fearsomely complex software that helps new users start creating 2D and 3D technical drawings right awayCovers the new features and enhancements in the latest AutoCAD version and provides coverage of AutoCAD LT, AutoCAD''s lower-cost siblingTopics covered include creating a basic layout, using AutoCAD DesignCenter, drawing and editing, working with dimensions, plotting, using blocks, adding text to drawings, and drawing on the InternetAutoCAD is the leading CAD software for architects, engineers, and draftspeople who need to create detailed 2D and 3D tech

  14. AutoCAD platform customization autolisp

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosius, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Customize and personalize programs built on the AutoCAD platform AutoLISP is the key to unlocking the secrets of a more streamlined experience using industry leading software programs like AutoCAD, Civil 3D, Plant 3D, and more. AutoCAD Platform Customization: AutoLISP provides real-world examples that show you how to do everything from modifying graphical objects and reading and setting system variables to communicating with external programs. It also features a resources appendix and downloadable datasets and customization examples-tools that ensure swift and easy adoption. Find out how to r

  15. The Application of Auto-Disturbance Rejection Control Optimized by Least Squares Support Vector Machines Method and Time-Frequency Representation in Voltage Source Converter-High Voltage Direct Current System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying-Pei; Liang, Hai-Ping; Gao, Zhong-Ke

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of voltage source converter-high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) system, we propose an improved auto-disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method based on least squares support vector machines (LSSVM) in the rectifier side. Firstly, we deduce the high frequency transient mathematical model of VSC-HVDC system. Then we investigate the ADRC and LSSVM principles. We ignore the tracking differentiator in the ADRC controller aiming to improve the system dynamic response speed. On this basis, we derive the mathematical model of ADRC controller optimized by LSSVM for direct current voltage loop. Finally we carry out simulations to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed control method. In addition, we employ the time-frequency representation methods, i.e., Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) and adaptive optimal kernel (AOK) time-frequency representation, to demonstrate our proposed method performs better than the traditional method from the perspective of energy distribution in time and frequency plane.

  16. The Application of Auto-Disturbance Rejection Control Optimized by Least Squares Support Vector Machines Method and Time-Frequency Representation in Voltage Source Converter-High Voltage Direct Current System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Pei Liu

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of voltage source converter-high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC system, we propose an improved auto-disturbance rejection control (ADRC method based on least squares support vector machines (LSSVM in the rectifier side. Firstly, we deduce the high frequency transient mathematical model of VSC-HVDC system. Then we investigate the ADRC and LSSVM principles. We ignore the tracking differentiator in the ADRC controller aiming to improve the system dynamic response speed. On this basis, we derive the mathematical model of ADRC controller optimized by LSSVM for direct current voltage loop. Finally we carry out simulations to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed control method. In addition, we employ the time-frequency representation methods, i.e., Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD and adaptive optimal kernel (AOK time-frequency representation, to demonstrate our proposed method performs better than the traditional method from the perspective of energy distribution in time and frequency plane.

  17. Simultaneous Control of Phenanthrene and Drought by Dual Exposure System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine N.; Holmstrup, Martin; Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Organisms in the environment are exposed to multiple stressors. However, for terrestrial invertebrates, it remains difficult to study the effects of combined stressors under well-defined exposure conditions. Thus, the current study develops a new dual exposure system for the simultaneous...... set revealed statistically significant synergy between phenanthrene and drought (p account when...

  18. A review of automatic exposure control of conventional and digital systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workman, A.; Cowen, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    The desirable properties and methods of achieving automatic exposure control in film-screen radiography, fluoroscopy, spot-film fluorography and cinefluorography are discussed. Advantages of certain methods in achieving optimum image quality for minimal patient exposure are considered. In digital subtraction fluorography (DSF) where relatively large exposure levels per image are used, proper set-up of exposure conditions is of particular importance. These systems require a high degree of stability in exposure to maintain a high level of image quality. We have developed test methods for monitoring the set-up and reproducibility of exposure levels in DSF. (author)

  19. [Stress and auto-immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delévaux, I; Chamoux, A; Aumaître, O

    2013-08-01

    The etiology of auto-immune disorders is multifactorial. Stress is probably a participating factor. Indeed, a high proportion of patients with auto-immune diseases report uncommon stress before disease onset or disease flare. The biological consequences of stress are increasingly well understood. Glucocorticoids and catecholamines released by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during stress will alter the balance Th1/Th2 and the balance Th17/Treg. Stress impairs cellular immunity, decreases immune tolerance and stimulates humoral immunity exposing individuals to autoimmune disease among others. The treatment for autoimmune disease should include stress management. Copyright © 2012 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Controlling radiation exposure during interventional procedures in childhood cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racadio, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Many pediatric cancer patients undergo multiple diagnostic and therapeutic radiologic procedures over the course of their illnesses and are therefore at high risk for radiation exposure. There are a variety of measures that radiologists can employ to reduce this risk. These include limiting the use of radiation whenever possible, using specific strategies to reduce radiation exposure during interventional procedures, using quality assurance programs to ensure compliance, and maintaining continuing staff radiation safety educational programs. Some of the diagnostic and therapeutic interventional radiologic procedures that are performed in pediatric oncology patients are discussed here, along with specific tips for managing radiation exposure. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of automatic exposure control systems in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reina, Thamiris Rosado

    2014-07-01

    The development of the computed tomography (CT) technology has brought wider possibilities on diagnostic medicine. It is a non-invasive method to see the human body in details. As the CT application increases, it raises the concern about patient dose, because the higher dose levels imparted compared to other diagnostic imaging modalities. The radiology community (radiologists, medical physicists and manufacturer) are working together to find the lowest dose level possible, without compromising the diagnostic image quality. The greatest and relatively new advance to lower the patient dose is the automatic exposure control (AEC) systems in CT. These systems are designed to ponder the dose distribution along the patient scanning and between patients taking into account their sizes and irradiated tissue densities. Based on the CT scanning geometry, the AEC-systems are very complex and their functioning is yet not fully understood. This work aims to evaluate the clinical performance of AEC-systems and their susceptibilities to assist on possible patient dose optimizations. The approach to evaluate the AEC-systems of three of the leading CT manufacturers in Brazil, General Electric, Philips and Toshiba, was the extraction of tube current modulation data from the DICOM standard image sequences, measurement and analysis of the image noise of those image sequences and measurement of the dose distribution along the scan length on the surface and inside of two different phantoms configurations. The tube current modulation of each CT scanner associated to the resulted image quality provides the performance of the AECsystem. The dose distribution measurements provide the dose profile due to the tube current modulation. Dose measurements with the AEC-system ON and OFF were made to quantify the impact of these systems regarding patient dose. The results attained give rise to optimizations on the AEC-systems applications and, by consequence, decreases the patient dose without

  2. Evaluation of automatic exposure control systems in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reina, Thamiris Rosado

    2014-01-01

    The development of the computed tomography (CT) technology has brought wider possibilities on diagnostic medicine. It is a non-invasive method to see the human body in details. As the CT application increases, it raises the concern about patient dose, because the higher dose levels imparted compared to other diagnostic imaging modalities. The radiology community (radiologists, medical physicists and manufacturer) are working together to find the lowest dose level possible, without compromising the diagnostic image quality. The greatest and relatively new advance to lower the patient dose is the automatic exposure control (AEC) systems in CT. These systems are designed to ponder the dose distribution along the patient scanning and between patients taking into account their sizes and irradiated tissue densities. Based on the CT scanning geometry, the AEC-systems are very complex and their functioning is yet not fully understood. This work aims to evaluate the clinical performance of AEC-systems and their susceptibilities to assist on possible patient dose optimizations. The approach to evaluate the AEC-systems of three of the leading CT manufacturers in Brazil, General Electric, Philips and Toshiba, was the extraction of tube current modulation data from the DICOM standard image sequences, measurement and analysis of the image noise of those image sequences and measurement of the dose distribution along the scan length on the surface and inside of two different phantoms configurations. The tube current modulation of each CT scanner associated to the resulted image quality provides the performance of the AECsystem. The dose distribution measurements provide the dose profile due to the tube current modulation. Dose measurements with the AEC-system ON and OFF were made to quantify the impact of these systems regarding patient dose. The results attained give rise to optimizations on the AEC-systems applications and, by consequence, decreases the patient dose without

  3. Effects of Lifetime Occupational Pesticide Exposure on Postural Control Among Farmworkers and Non-Farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwook, Kim; Nussbaum, Maury A; Quandt, Sara A; Laurienti, Paul J; Arcury, Thomas A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess potential chronic effects of pesticide exposure on postural control, by examining postural balance of farmworkers and non-farmworkers diverse self-reported lifetime exposures. Balance was assessed during quiet upright stance under four experimental conditions (2 visual × 2 cognitive difficulty). Significant differences in baseline balance performance (eyes open without cognitive task) between occupational groups were apparent in postural sway complexity. When adding a cognitive task to the eyes open condition, the influence of lifetime exposure on complexity ratios appeared different between occupational groups. Removing visual information revealed a negative association of lifetime exposure with complexity ratios. Farmworkers and non-farmworkers may use different postural control strategies even when controlling for the level of lifetime pesticide exposure. Long-term exposure can affect somatosensory/vestibular sensory systems and the central processing of sensory information for postural control.

  4. Nano-metal Oxides: Exposure and Engineering Control Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Alberto; Sparks, Christopher; Martinez, Kenneth; Topmiller, Jennifer L.; Eastlake, Adrienne; Geraci, Charles L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the evaluation of a facility that produces high quality engineered nanomaterials. These ENMs consist of various metals including iron, nickel, silver, manganese, and palladium. Although occupational exposure levels are not available for these metals, studies have indicated that it may be prudent to keep exposures to the nano-scale metal as low as possible. Previous In vitro studies indicated that in comparison with a material’s larger (parent) counterpart, nanomaterials c...

  5. Health effects of laser printer emissions: a controlled exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrasch, S; Simon, M; Herbig, B; Langner, J; Seeger, S; Kronseder, A; Peters, S; Dietrich-Gümperlein, G; Schierl, R; Nowak, D; Jörres, R A

    2017-07-01

    Ultrafine particles emitted from laser printers are suspected to elicit adverse health effects. We performed 75-minute exposures to emissions of laser printing devices (LPDs) in a standardized, randomized, cross-over manner in 23 healthy subjects, 14 mild, stable asthmatics, and 15 persons reporting symptoms associated with LPD emissions. Low-level exposures (LLE) ranged at the particle background (3000 cm -3 ) and high-level exposures (HLE) at 100 000 cm -3 . Examinations before and after exposures included spirometry, body plethysmography, transfer factors for CO and NO (TLCO, TLNO), bronchial and alveolar NO, cytokines in serum and nasal secretions (IL-1β, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, IFNγ, TNFα), serum ECP, and IgE. Across all participants, no statistically significant changes occurred for lung mechanics and NO. There was a decrease in volume-related TLNO that was more pronounced in HLE, but the difference to LLE was not significant. ECP and IgE increased in the same way after exposures. Nasal IL-6 showed a higher increase after LLE. There was no coherent pattern regarding the responses in the participant subgroups or single sets of variables. In conclusion, the experimental acute responses to short but very high-level LPD exposures were small and did not indicate clinically relevant effects compared to low particle number concentrations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. High speed auto-charging system for condenser bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Yasunori; Bito, Fumio; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Sometani, Taro

    1987-01-01

    A current-control type high-speed charging system, which is intended for auto-charging of the condenser bank, is developed. Moreover, the system can also serve to compensate the current leakage from the condenser bank so that the charged voltage can be kept constant. The system consists of a sequence circuit, a charging current control circuit (or auto-charging circuit) and a charging circuit. The auto-charging circuit is characterized by the use of a triac to control the current. The current, controlled by the circuit, is supplied to the condenser bank through a step-up transformer and voltage doubler rectifier circuit. It is demonstrated that the use of the high-speed auto-charging circuit can largely decrease the required charging time, compared to constant voltage charging. In addition, the compensation function is shown to serve effectively for maintaining a constant voltage after the completion of charging. The required charging time is decreases as the charging current increases. The maximum charging current is decided by the rating of the traic and the current rating of the rectifier diode in the secondary circuit. Major components of these circuits have decreased impedances to minimize the effect of noise, so that the possibility of an accident can be eliminated. Other various improvements are made in the grounding circuit and the charging protection circuit in order to ensure safety. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Control of occupational exposure in nuclear facilities for terrestrial support to marine vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, E.G.; Pinheiro, A.R.M.; Borsoi, S.S.; Silva, T.P.; Baroni, D.B.; Santos, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses some basic requirements for exposure control of occupational exposure during the design phase of ground-based nuclear facilities for marine vessels. US regulatory guidelines, CNEN standards and experiences acquired in conventional nuclear installations were used. The installation design should consider the provision of mobile devices for monitoring and decontamination. Finally, it is observed that the establishment of additional exposure control criteria can directly impact the civil, architectural and electromechanical projects of the facility, from the conceptual phase

  8. Results of verifications of the control automatic exposure in equipment of RX with CR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Manzano, P.; Rivas Ballarin, M. A.; Ortega Pardina, P.; Villa Gazulla, D.; Calvo Carrillo, S.; Canellas Anoz, M.; Millan Cebrian, E.

    2013-01-01

    After the entry into force in 2012, the new Spanish Radiology quality control protocol lists and discusses the results obtained after verification of the automatic control of exposure in computed radiography systems. (Author)

  9. A Comparison of Item Exposure Control Procedures with the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Edgar Isaac

    2008-01-01

    To enhance test security of high stakes tests, it is vital to understand the way various exposure control strategies function under various IRT models. To that end the present dissertation focused on the performance of several exposure control strategies under the generalized partial credit model with an item pool of 100 and 200 items. These…

  10. A Comparison of Exposure Control Procedures in CAT Systems Based on Different Measurement Models for Testlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Aimee M.; Dodd, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This study compared several exposure control procedures for CAT systems based on the three-parameter logistic testlet response theory model (Wang, Bradlow, & Wainer, 2002) and Masters' (1982) partial credit model when applied to a pool consisting entirely of testlets. The exposure control procedures studied were the modified within 0.10 logits…

  11. Exposure to crystalline silica at Alberta work sites: review of controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radnoff, Diane; Todor, Maria S; Beach, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    From 2009 to 2013, Alberta Jobs, Skills, Training, and Labour (JSTL) conducted a project to evaluate exposure to crystalline silica and assess controls to protect workers. Information on exposure results has been previously reported; this article discusses the data collected on workplace controls. Information on work site controls was collected during exposure assessments consisting of qualitative information on controls in place and used by workers at the time of the assessments. Where there was sufficient data, the information was further analyzed to evaluate the impact of a particular control. While many types of controls were observed, they were not always effective or in use. The control available most often was respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Generally, when respirators were used, they were correctly selected for the level of measured exposure. However, not all workers who were potentially overexposed wore respirators at the time of the assessments. When the use of respirators was taken into account, about one-third of workers were still potentially exposed over the Alberta occupational exposure limit. The industries with the highest levels of exposure tended to be those with the most unprotected workers. Issues were identified with the use of improper work practices such as dry cleaning methods, lack of documented work procedures, poor housekeeping, and lack of training which may have contributed to worker exposure levels. There is a wide range in the efficacy of controls, particularly engineering controls. Most of the literature focuses on engineering controls; however administrative controls also play a role in reducing worker exposure. Data collected in this work indicated that simple changes to work procedures and behavior (such as improved housekeeping) may be effective, low-cost ways to reduce workplace exposure. More study is required to evaluate the impact and efficacy of administrative controls such as housekeeping and training. Employers

  12. Tuning of automatic exposure control strength in lumbar spine CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, A; Cornil, A; Bohy, P; De Maertelaer, V; Gevenois, P A; Tack, D

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the impact of tuning the automatic exposure control (AEC) strength curve (specific to Care Dose 4D®; Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) from "average" to "strong" on image quality, radiation dose and operator dependency during lumbar spine CT examinations. Two hospitals (H1, H2), both using the same scanners, were considered for two time periods (P1 and P2). During P1, the AEC curve was "average" and radiographers had to select one of two protocols according to the body mass index (BMI): "standard" if BMI 30.0 kg m(-2) (140 kV-280 mAs). During P2, the AEC curve was changed to "strong", and all acquisitions were obtained with one protocol (120 kV and 270 mAs). Image quality was scored and patients' diameters calculated for both periods. 497 examinations were analysed. There was no significant difference in mean diameters according to hospitals and periods (p > 0.801) and in quality scores between periods (p > 0.172). There was a significant difference between hospitals regarding how often the "large" protocol was assigned [13 (10%)/132 patients in H1 vs 37 (28%)/133 in H2] (p < 0.001). During P1, volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) was higher in H2 (+13%; p = 0.050). In both hospitals, CTDIvol was reduced between periods (-19.2% in H1 and -29.4% in H2; p < 0.001). An operator dependency in protocol selection, unexplained by patient diameters or highlighted by image quality scores, has been observed. Tuning the AEC curve from average to strong enables suppression of the operator dependency in protocol selection and related dose increase, while preserving image quality. CT acquisition protocols based on weight are responsible for biases in protocol selection. Using an appropriate AEC strength curve reduces the number of protocols to one. Operator dependency of protocol selection is thereby eliminated.

  13. CONTROLLED EXPOSURES OF HUMAN VOLUNTEERS TO DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST: BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE AND HEALTH OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combustion of diesel fuel contributes to ambient air pollutant fine particulate matter (PM) and gases. Fine PM exposure has been associated with increased mortality due to adverse cardiac events, and morbidity, such as increased hospitalization for asthma symptoms and lung infect...

  14. Controlling occupational radiation exposure at operating nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, H.W.; Oakes, T.W.; Shank, K.E.

    1977-01-01

    The historical development of the philosophy of keeping the radiation exposure of workers at light-water reactors as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is presented. A review is made of some of the ALARA activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Energy Research and Development Administration, and various nuclear installations. Data compiled by the NRC show that routine and special maintenance at light-water reactors accounts for 72 percent of all occupational exposure at these sites. The role that Oak Ridge National Laboratory has taken in ALARA research is presented, with emphasis placed on a study of valve malfunctions at light-water reactors. The valve study indicates a trend toward decreasing valve reliability over the past few years. Finally a cost--benefit analysis of radiation dose reduction is discussed. The rationale for assigning a cost per man-rem based on the radiation exposure level that is encountered is presented

  15. Occupational Exposure Assessment of Nanomaterials using Control Banding Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liguori, Biase

    , are relatively advanced, and they are good foundations for an advanced exposure assessment. Considering the tiered approach for workplace assessment proposed by the OECD, these two tools could be situated, between Tier 1 (Information gathering) and Tier 2 (Basic exposure assessment). Moreover, the thesis......Nanotechnology can be termed as the “new industrial revolution”. A broad range of potential benefits in various applications for the environment and everyday life of humans can be related to the use of nanotechnology. Nanomaterials are used in a large variety of products already in the market......, and because of their novel physical and chemical characteristics, the application of nanomaterials is projected to increase further. This will inevitably increase the production of nanomaterials with potential increase of exposure for the workers which are the first in line expected to become exposed...

  16. An Auto-Tuning PI Control System for an Open-Circuit Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Designed for Greenhouse Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Karlos; Valera, Diego L; Torres, José A; López, Alejandro; Molina-Aiz, Francisco D

    2015-08-12

    Wind tunnels are a key experimental tool for the analysis of airflow parameters in many fields of application. Despite their great potential impact on agricultural research, few contributions have dealt with the development of automatic control systems for wind tunnels in the field of greenhouse technology. The objective of this paper is to present an automatic control system that provides precision and speed of measurement, as well as efficient data processing in low-speed wind tunnel experiments for greenhouse engineering applications. The system is based on an algorithm that identifies the system model and calculates the optimum PI controller. The validation of the system was performed on a cellulose evaporative cooling pad and on insect-proof screens to assess its response to perturbations. The control system provided an accuracy of integrated software unit that manages the tests in terms of airflow speed and pressure drop set points.

  17. Exposure Control Using Adaptive Multi-Stage Item Bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecht, Richard M.

    This paper presents a multistage adaptive testing test development paradigm that promises to handle content balancing and other test development needs, psychometric reliability concerns, and item exposure. The bundled multistage adaptive testing (BMAT) framework is a modification of the computer-adaptive sequential testing framework introduced by…

  18. An Auto-Tuning PI Control System for an Open-Circuit Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Designed for Greenhouse Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlos Espinoza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind tunnels are a key experimental tool for the analysis of airflow parameters in many fields of application. Despite their great potential impact on agricultural research, few contributions have dealt with the development of automatic control systems for wind tunnels in the field of greenhouse technology. The objective of this paper is to present an automatic control system that provides precision and speed of measurement, as well as efficient data processing in low-speed wind tunnel experiments for greenhouse engineering applications. The system is based on an algorithm that identifies the system model and calculates the optimum PI controller. The validation of the system was performed on a cellulose evaporative cooling pad and on insect-proof screens to assess its response to perturbations. The control system provided an accuracy of <0.06 m·s‾1 for airflow speed and <0.50 Pa for pressure drop, thus permitting the reproducibility and standardization of the tests. The proposed control system also incorporates a fully-integrated software unit that manages the tests in terms of airflow speed and pressure drop set points.

  19. Tailoring automatic exposure control toward constant detectability in digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvagnini, Elena; Bosmans, Hilde; Struelens, Lara; Marshall, Nicholas W

    2015-07-01

    The automatic exposure control (AEC) modes of most full field digital mammography (FFDM) systems are set up to hold pixel value (PV) constant as breast thickness changes. This paper proposes an alternative AEC mode, set up to maintain some minimum detectability level, with the ultimate goal of improving object detectability at larger breast thicknesses. The default "opdose" AEC mode of a Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration FFDM system was assessed using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) of thickness 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 mm to find the tube voltage and anode/filter combination programmed for each thickness; these beam quality settings were used for the modified AEC mode. Detectability index (d'), in terms of a non-prewhitened model observer with eye filter, was then calculated as a function of tube current-time product (mAs) for each thickness. A modified AEC could then be designed in which detectability never fell below some minimum setting for any thickness in the operating range. In this study, the value was chosen such that the system met the achievable threshold gold thickness (Tt) in the European guidelines for the 0.1 mm diameter disc (i.e., Tt ≤ 1.10 μm gold). The default and modified AEC modes were compared in terms of contrast-detail performance (Tt), calculated detectability (d'), signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), and mean glandular dose (MGD). The influence of a structured background on object detectability for both AEC modes was examined using a CIRS BR3D phantom. Computer-based CDMAM reading was used for the homogeneous case, while the images with the BR3D background were scored by human observers. The default opdose AEC mode maintained PV constant as PMMA thickness increased, leading to a reduction in SDNR for the homogeneous background 39% and d' 37% in going from 20 to 70 mm; introduction of the structured BR3D plate changed these figures to 22% (SDNR) and 6% (d'), respectively. Threshold gold thickness (0.1 mm diameter disc) for the default

  20. Tailoring automatic exposure control toward constant detectability in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvagnini, Elena, E-mail: elena.salvagnini@uzleuven.be [Department of Imaging and Pathology, Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, KUL, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000, Belgium and SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, Mol 2400 (Belgium); Bosmans, Hilde [Department of Imaging and Pathology, Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, KUL, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000, Belgium and Department of Radiology, UZ Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000 (Belgium); Struelens, Lara [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, Mol 2400 (Belgium); Marshall, Nicholas W. [Department of Radiology, UZ Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000 (Belgium)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The automatic exposure control (AEC) modes of most full field digital mammography (FFDM) systems are set up to hold pixel value (PV) constant as breast thickness changes. This paper proposes an alternative AEC mode, set up to maintain some minimum detectability level, with the ultimate goal of improving object detectability at larger breast thicknesses. Methods: The default “OPDOSE” AEC mode of a Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration FFDM system was assessed using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) of thickness 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 mm to find the tube voltage and anode/filter combination programmed for each thickness; these beam quality settings were used for the modified AEC mode. Detectability index (d′), in terms of a non-prewhitened model observer with eye filter, was then calculated as a function of tube current-time product (mAs) for each thickness. A modified AEC could then be designed in which detectability never fell below some minimum setting for any thickness in the operating range. In this study, the value was chosen such that the system met the achievable threshold gold thickness (T{sub t}) in the European guidelines for the 0.1 mm diameter disc (i.e., T{sub t} ≤ 1.10 μm gold). The default and modified AEC modes were compared in terms of contrast-detail performance (T{sub t}), calculated detectability (d′), signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), and mean glandular dose (MGD). The influence of a structured background on object detectability for both AEC modes was examined using a CIRS BR3D phantom. Computer-based CDMAM reading was used for the homogeneous case, while the images with the BR3D background were scored by human observers. Results: The default OPDOSE AEC mode maintained PV constant as PMMA thickness increased, leading to a reduction in SDNR for the homogeneous background 39% and d′ 37% in going from 20 to 70 mm; introduction of the structured BR3D plate changed these figures to 22% (SDNR) and 6% (d′), respectively

  1. Exposure of eyes to perfume: a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, J; Duus Johansen, J; Dirksen, A; Mosbech, H

    2006-08-01

    Environmental perfume exposure can elicit bothersome respiratory symptoms. Symptoms are induced at exposure levels which most people find tolerable, and the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate patients with eye and respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume, by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Twenty-one eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case-control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire, and underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled exposure to perfume. Of the 42 individuals tested, 10 had more eye symptoms (irritation, itching, and tears) during perfume exposure than during placebo exposures, and eight of these individuals (P = 0.07, Fisher's exact test) belonged to the patient group. A true positive eye reaction to perfume was significantly associated with identification of perfume as an active exposure (P perfume elicited irritation in the eyes independently of olfaction, but the relative importance of ocular chemoperception in relation to elicitation of respiratory symptoms from common environmental exposures to perfume remains unclear. We investigated the hypothesis of an association between respiratory symptoms related to perfume and ocular perfume sensitivity by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double blind, placebo-controlled experiment. Vapors of perfume provoked symptoms in the relevant eye in some patients and healthy control persons, but under our exposure conditions, ocular chemesthesis failed to elicit respiratory symptoms.

  2. Controlled human exposure to indoor air, dust, and ozone; XDOZ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, Grethe; Bønløkke, Jakob; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2017-01-01

    . All participants were subjected to four different exposure scenarios in the climate chamber.Exp. 1: Dust (250 – 300 µg/m3)Exp. 2: Ozone (100 ppb)Exp. 3: Dust (250 – 300 µg/m3) + ozone (100 ppb)Exp. 4: Filtered air (<20µg/m3)The exposure time was 5½ hours for each session.The health effects were...... evaluated at baseline and specific follow-up times in relation to selected respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes, such as; nasal volume, exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), spirometry (FEV1 and FVC), exhaled breath condensate (EBC), nasal lavage, blood samples, EndoPat. Questionnaires were used for assessment...

  3. The control and monitoring of exposures at AWRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.W.; Taylor, N.A.; Woodville, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    If attempts are to be made to learn about the health effects of low doses of radiation by epidemiological study of ''radiation workers'' it is desirable to understand something of such a population, the conditions under which occupational exposures occur, the statistical distribution of doses and the quality of the recorded dosimetric data. These points are illustrated by reference to the monitored workers at a large nuclear establishment with particular examples from plutonium work. (author)

  4. Acute effects of acrolein in human volunteers during controlled exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Aishwarya M; Johanson, Gunnar; Lorentzen, Johnny C; Palmberg, Lena; Sjögren, Bengt; Ernstgård, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde mainly formed by combustion. The critical effect is considered to be irritation of the eyes and airways; however, the scarce data available make it difficult to assess effect levels. The aim of the study was to determine thresholds for acute irritation for acrolein. Nine healthy volunteers of each sex were exposed at six occasions for 2 h at rest to: clean air, 15 ppm ethyl acetate (EA), and 0.05 ppm and 0.1 ppm acrolein with and without EA (15 ppm) to mask the potential influence of odor. Symptoms related to irritation and central nervous system effects were rated on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. The ratings of eye irritation were slightly but significantly increased during exposure to acrolein in a dose-dependent manner (p acrolein alone but not during any of the other five exposure conditions. Based on subjective ratings, the present study showed minor eye irritation by exposure to 0.1 ppm acrolein.

  5. 基于环境因素与模糊识别的太阳自动跟踪控制策略%Solar auto-tracking control strategy based on environmental factors and fuzzy identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林军; 门静; 许立晓; 张东; 邓煜; 吕耀平; 陈艳娟

    2015-01-01

    . Considering that the disadvantages of solar energy are ever-changing solar radiation direction and unstable solar energy, dish solar thermal power generation uses an auto-tracking system to improve the utilization ratio of solar energy for an solar automatic tracking system can keep the incident sunlight parallel to the collector. A dish solar thermal power generation system works out of doors, environmental factors have a great influence on the system’s running stability and tracking accuracy, and affects the choice of tracking mode. The auto-tracking modes can be classified into:program tracking mode, photoelectric tracking mode, and hybrid tracking mode. Program tracking mode uses a computer to calculate the sun’s azimuth and latitude, can work under all-weather condition, and has high adaptability, but it has a cumulative error in the tracking process. The photoelectric mode has higher tracking accuracy for it has feedback information. It works well in the sunny day, but bad weather (especially the rainy and cloudy day) has a serious effect on it. A solar auto-tracking system usually adopts a hybrid tracking mode which is a combination of the program tracking mode and the photoelectric mode. A photoelectric sensor, as the information feedback component of a control system, can modify the cumulative error of the procedure, the tracking system would track reliably in the complicated and changeable weather. These two tracking modes make up for each other, as a result, the tracking system’s precision and stability would be further improved and guaranteed. As an auto-tracking system works, the tracking mode changes as the intensity value reaches the intensity threshold, then the controller will choose a tracking mode automatically. Considering that the environmental factors affect the tracking system, this paper mainly analyses intensity, intensity change, and wind speed which have a serious effect on the system’s operational stability and tracking accuracy. It uses

  6. Electronic Cigarette Exposure: Calls to Wisconsin Poison Control Centers, 2010–2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Debora; Tomasallo, Carrie D; Meiman, Jon G; Creswell, Paul D; Melstrom, Paul C; Gummin, David D; Patel, Disa J; Michaud, Nancy T; Sebero, Heather A; Anderson, Henry A

    2016-12-01

    E-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine and flavorings by aerosol and have been marketed in the United States since 2007. Because e-cigarettes have increased in popularity, toxicity potential from device misuse and malfunction also has increased. National data indicate that during 2010–2014, exposure calls to US poison control centers increased only 0.3% for conventional cigarette exposures, whereas calls increased 41.7% for e-cigarette exposures. We characterized cigarette and e-cigarette exposure calls to the Wisconsin Poison Center January 1, 2010 through October 10, 2015. We compared cigarette and e-cigarette exposure calls by exposure year, demographic characteristics, caller site, exposure site, exposure route, exposure reason, medical outcome, management site, and level of care at a health care facility. During January 2010 to October 2015, a total of 98 e-cigarette exposure calls were reported, and annual exposure calls increased approximately 17-fold, from 2 to 35. During the same period, 671 single-exposure cigarette calls with stable annual call volumes were reported. E-cigarette exposure calls were associated with children aged ≤5 years (57/98, 58.2%) and adults aged ≥20 years (30/98, 30.6%). Cigarette exposure calls predominated among children aged ≤5 years (643/671, 95.8%). The frequency of e-cigarette exposure calls to the Wisconsin Poison Center has increased and is highest among children aged ≤5 years and adults. Strategies are warranted to prevent future poisonings from these devices, including nicotine warning labels and public advisories to keep e-cigarettes away from children.

  7. A suggested guideline for exposure control from natural radioactivity in future buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambi, K.S.V.; Shukla, V.K.

    1991-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials are one of the sources of radiation exposure to the population. Their concentrations vary by about 2 to 3 orders of magnitude at different geographical locations. This paper proposes three control methodologies for keeping the population exposure as low as reasonably achievable. Tentative recommendations are also included. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs., 2 appendixes

  8. Optimization of radiation protection in the control of occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the three main principles on which protection against ionizing radiation is based is the principle of the optimization of radiological protection. The principle of the optimization of protection was first enunciated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in the 1960s. A principal requirement for the optimization of protection and safety has been incorporated into the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (Basic Safety Standards) from the first edition in 1962 up to the current (1996) edition. The principle of optimization, that all reasonable efforts be made to reduce doses (social and economic factors being taken into account), necessitates considerable effort to apply in practice. The requirement of the Basic Safety Standards to apply the principle of optimization applies to all categories of exposure: occupational, public and medical. The categories of public and medical exposure are rather specific and are covered in other publications; this Safety Report concentrates on the application of the principle to what is probably the largest category, that of occupational exposure. This Safety Report provides practical information on how to apply the optimization of protection in the workplace. The emphasis throughout is on the integration of radiation protection into the more general system of work management, and on the involvement of management and workers in setting up a system of radiation protection and in its implementation. This Safety Report was drafted and finalized in three consultants meetings held in 1999 and 2000. The draft was sent for review and comment to a number of experts, which yielded valuable comments from a number of reviewers whose names are included in the list of contributors to drafting and review

  9. Optimization of radiation protection in the control of occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    One of the three main principles on which protection against ionizing radiation is based is the principle of the optimization of radiological protection. The principle of the optimization of protection was first enunciated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in the 1960s. A principal requirement for the optimization of protection and safety has been incorporated into the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (Basic Safety Standards) from the first edition in 1962 up to the current (1996) edition. The principle of optimization, that all reasonable efforts be made to reduce doses (social and economic factors being taken into account), necessitates considerable effort to apply in practice. The requirement of the Basic Safety Standards to apply the principle of optimization applies to all categories of exposure: occupational, public and medical. The categories of public and medical exposure are rather specific and are covered in other publications. This Safety Report concentrates on the application of the principle to what is probably the largest category, that of occupational exposure. This Safety Report provides practical information on how to apply the optimization of protection in the workplace. The emphasis throughout is on the integration of radiation protection into the more general system of work management, and on the involvement of management and workers in setting up a system of radiation protection and in its implementation. This Safety Report was drafted and finalized in three consultants meetings held in 1999 and 2000. The draft was sent for review and comment to a number of experts, which yielded valuable comments from a number of reviewers whose names are included in the list of contributors to drafting and review

  10. Optimization of radiation protection in the control of occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    One of the three main principles on which protection against ionizing radiation is based is the principle of the optimization of radiological protection. The principle of the optimization of protection was first enunciated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in the 1960s. A principal requirement for the optimization of protection and safety has been incorporated into the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (Basic Safety Standards) from the first edition in 1962 up to the current (1996) edition. The principle of optimization, that all reasonable efforts be made to reduce doses (social and economic factors being taken into account), necessitates considerable effort to apply in practice. The requirement of the Basic Safety Standards to apply the principle of optimization applies to all categories of exposure: occupational, public and medical. The categories of public and medical exposure are rather specific and are covered in other publications. This Safety Report concentrates on the application of the principle to what is probably the largest category, that of occupational exposure. This Safety Report provides practical information on how to apply the optimization of protection in the workplace. The emphasis throughout is on the integration of radiation protection into the more general system of work management, and on the involvement of management and workers in setting up a system of radiation protection and in its implementation. This Safety Report was drafted and finalized in three consultants meetings held in 1999 and 2000. The draft was sent for review and comment to a number of experts, which yielded valuable comments from a number of reviewers whose names are included in the list of contributors to drafting and review

  11. AutoCAD 2015 and AutoCAD LT 2015 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The perfect reference for all AutoCAD users AutoCAD 2015 and AutoCAD LT 2015 Bible is the book you want to have close at hand to answer those day-to-day questions about this industry-leading software. Author and Autodesk University instructor Ellen Finkelstein guides readers through AutoCAD 2015 and AutoCAD LT 2015 with clear, easy-to-understand instruction and hands-on tutorials that allow even total beginners to create a design on their very first day. Although simple and fundamental enough to be used by those new to CAD, the book is so comprehensive that even Autodesk power u

  12. Auto-immune Haemolytic Anaemia and Paroxys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    who presented with an acute auto-immune haemolytic anaemia. In addition to a persistently positive Coombs test, with specific red cell auto-antibodies, the acidified serum test and the sucrose haemolysis test were repeatedly positive. CASE REPORT. A 24-year-old Indian woman was admitted to hospital in. July 1969.

  13. Auto-immune hepatitis following delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Vandana; Gupta, Mamta; Mishra, S K

    2013-05-01

    Auto-immune hepatitis first presenting in the early postpartum period is rare. Immunosuppressive effects of pregnancy result in delayed manifestation of auto-immune hepatitis, and in established cases, the spontaneous improvements are there. Auto-immune hepatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of liver dysfunction first presenting in the early postpartum period. A case of postpartum hepatitis of auto-immune aetiology is being presented here. It is disease of unknown aetiology, characterised by inflammation of liver (as evidenced by raised serum transaminases, presence of interface hepatitis on histological examination), hypergammaglobulinaemia (> 1.5 times normal), presence of auto-antibodies [(antinuclear antibodies (ANA)], smooth muscle antibody (SMA) and antibody to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (LKM1) in the absence of viral markers ie, hepatitis B (HBsAg) and C (AntiHCV) and excellent response to corticosteroid therapy.

  14. AutoCAD 2008 and AutoCAD LT 2008 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    "Whether you're new to AutoCAD or a veteran, you will undoubtedly find this book to be an excellent resource."-- Abhi Singh, AutoCAD Product Manager, Autodesk, Inc.Here's the book that makes AutoCAD approachableEven the people at Autodesk look to Ellen Finkelstein for AutoCAD training, so who better to teach you about AutoCAD 2008? This comprehensive guide brings veterans up to speed on AutoCAD updates and takes novices from the basics to programming in AutoLISP(r) and VBA. Every feature is covered in a logical order, and with the Quick Start chapter, you'll be creating drawings on your very f

  15. A case control study of breast cancer risk and exposure to injectable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case control study of breast cancer risk and exposure to injectable progestogen contraceptives. R. Bailie, J Katzenellenbogen, M. Hoffman, G Schierhout, H Truter, D Dent, A Gudgeon, J van Zyl, L Rosenberg, S Shapiro ...

  16. Development and evaluation of a self-cleaning custom-built auto sampler controlled by a low-cost RaspberryPi microcomputer for online enzymatic activity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Zessner, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    A fully automated on-site device (SAMP-FIL) that enables water sampling with simultaneous filtration and effective cleaning procedures of the device's components was developed and field-tested. The SAMP-FIL was custom-built using commercially available components and was controlled by a RaspberryPi single-board computer operating open-source software. SAMP-FIL was designed for sample pre-treatment with minimal sample alteration to meet the requirements of on-site measurement devices that cannot handle coarse suspended solids within the measurement procedure or cycle. A highly effective cleaning procedure provides a fresh and minimally altered sample for the connected measurement device. The construction and programmed software facilitates the use of SAMP-FIL for different connected measurement devices. The SAMP-FIL sample pretreatment was tested for over one year for rapid and on-site enzymatic activity (beta-d-glucuronidase, GLUC) determination (BACTcontrol) in sediment-laden stream water. The formerly used proprietary sampling set-up was assumed to lead to significant damping of the measurement signal due to its susceptibility to clogging, debris accumulation and bio-film accumulation. The implementation of SAMP-FIL considerably increased the error-free running time and measurement accuracy of BACTcontrol devices. This paper describes how low-cost microcomputers, such as the RaspberryPi, can be used by operators to substantially improve established measuring systems via effective sampling devices. Furthermore, the results of this study highlight the importance of adequate sample pretreatment for the quality of on-site measurements. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental radioactivity: the importance of controlling exposure of the public: some experiences in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear power is offering considerable advantages, it is considering the option to produce energy and the economy has moved in favour of the nuclear power. Therefore, the security is important within of the industry because ensures the control of public exposure and the environment and it plays a crucial role. Public exposure refers to exposure that is not of the direct work with ionizing radiation or the application of nuclear techniques in medical treatment and diagnosis. There are potential sources of discharges into the environment as the spent fuel and the waste disposal. Some of the routes of exposure are atmospheric discharge, liquid discharge, irrigation, environment, decomposition of the rain, food chains, etc. International regulations on subject of radiological safety are set by the IAEA and have a hierarchical order: fundamentals, requirements and guidelines. The International Commission of Radiological Protection and the Committee of the General Assembly of the United Nations are described in the research. The action is exposed in Cuba with regard to nuclear programs that have been realized or that are executed in relation to the control of the exposure of the public in existing applications. It mentions the centralized management of radioactive rights generated, the control of other sources of exposure, and the Red Nacional de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental. It also includes numerical data of studies realized on the extent of the sources of public exposure, the external doses received by the Cuban population product of environmental sources of radiation, the estimating of the doses received by the Cuban population by the incorporation of radionuclides present in the water and food. Likewise, the radioactive environmental funds; the phosphate mining; the protection and extraction of oil and the presence of radon inside the house are shown. The exposure to gamma radiation in thermal spas; the exposure to environmental sources of radiation

  18. Polarization Imaging Apparatus with Auto-Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yingyin Kevin (Inventor); Zhao, Hongzhi (Inventor); Chen, Qiushui (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A polarization imaging apparatus measures the Stokes image of a sample. The apparatus consists of an optical lens set, a first variable phase retarder (VPR) with its optical axis aligned 22.5 deg, a second variable phase retarder with its optical axis aligned 45 deg, a linear polarizer, a imaging sensor for sensing the intensity images of the sample, a controller and a computer. Two variable phase retarders were controlled independently by a computer through a controller unit which generates a sequential of voltages to control the phase retardations of the first and second variable phase retarders. A auto-calibration procedure was incorporated into the polarization imaging apparatus to correct the misalignment of first and second VPRs, as well as the half-wave voltage of the VPRs. A set of four intensity images, I(sub 0), I(sub 1), I(sub 2) and I(sub 3) of the sample were captured by imaging sensor when the phase retardations of VPRs were set at (0,0), (pi,0), (pi,pi) and (pi/2,pi), respectively. Then four Stokes components of a Stokes image, S(sub 0), S(sub 1), S(sub 2) and S(sub 3) were calculated using the four intensity images.

  19. Analytical quality control in studies of environmental exposure to mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Prosenc, N.; Smerke, J.; Horvat, M.

    1995-01-01

    The work of the laboratory for quality control in this co-ordinated project for the period from November 1993 to June 1994 is presented. The major effort was devoted to assisting in establishing the homogeneity and total methylmercury levels in two new hair reference materials prepared as control materials for the project, numbered 085 (spiked) and 086 (natural level). Results for some hair materials from participants are also given. (author)

  20. Trends in Teenagers' Nonopiod Substance Exposures Reported to Poison Control Centers, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Brad; Mestan, Samantha; Ahrens, Monica; Bottei, Edward

    2018-05-01

    To describe current trends in nonopioid substance exposures and associated outcomes among teenagers nationwide. In this cross-sectional study, we used 2010-2015 data from the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System and Poisson tests to document trends in the rate of calls to poison control centers involving adolescents stratified by sex, exposures by substance category, proportion of intentional exposures, and severity of exposures. The number of calls per 1000 persons increased from 5.7 to 6.8 for teenage girls and decreased from 4.7 to 4.3 for boys. Reported exposures to prescription and over-the-counter medications and illicit street drugs increased between 24% and 73%, and reported opioid exposures decreased by 16%. Among teenage girls, intentional exposures increased from 57% to 68%, with cases increasingly managed in health care facilities and more likely to result in worse health outcomes. The increase in intentional nonopioid substance exposures among teenage girls, with serious and potentially life-threatening consequences, is a matter of serious concern. Similar trends were not observed among teenage boys. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Initial experience of tritium exposure control at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.; Campling, D.C.; Schofield, P.A.; Macheta, P.; Sandland, K.

    1998-01-01

    Some of the safety procedures and controls in place for work with tritium are described, and initial operational experience of handling tritium is discussed. A description is given of work to rectify a water leak in a JET neutral beam heating component, which involved man-access to a confined volume to perform repairs, at tritium levels about 100 DAC (80 MBq/m 3 . HTO). Control measures involving use of purge and extract ventilation, and of personal protection using air-fed pressurized suits are described. Results are given of the internal doses to project staff and of atmospheric discharges of tritium during the repair outage. (P.A.)

  2. Virtual reality exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Page L; Price, Matthew; Edwards, Shannan M; Obasaju, Mayowa A; Schmertz, Stefan K; Zimand, Elana; Calamaras, Martha R

    2013-10-01

    This is the first randomized trial comparing virtual reality exposure therapy to in vivo exposure for social anxiety disorder. Participants with a principal diagnosis of social anxiety disorder who identified public speaking as their primary fear (N = 97) were recruited from the community, resulting in an ethnically diverse sample (M age = 39 years) of mostly women (62%). Participants were randomly assigned to and completed 8 sessions of manualized virtual reality exposure therapy, exposure group therapy, or wait list. Standardized self-report measures were collected at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 12-month follow-up, and process measures were collected during treatment. A standardized speech task was delivered at pre- and posttreatment, and diagnostic status was reassessed at 3-month follow-up. Analysis of covariance showed that, relative to wait list, people completing either active treatment significantly improved on all but one measure (length of speech for exposure group therapy and self-reported fear of negative evaluation for virtual reality exposure therapy). At 12-month follow-up, people showed significant improvement from pretreatment on all measures. There were no differences between the active treatments on any process or outcome measure at any time, nor differences on achieving partial or full remission. Virtual reality exposure therapy is effective for treating social fears, and improvement is maintained for 1 year. Virtual reality exposure therapy is equally effective as exposure group therapy; further research with a larger sample is needed, however, to better control and statistically test differences between the treatments.

  3. Processos de auto-regulação no curso de vida: controle primário e controle secundário Self-regulation processes in the life-course: primary and secondary control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilma Tereza Tôrres Khoury

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute conceitos relevantes à perspectiva do curso de vida, porém pouco difundidos no Brasil: controle primário e controle secundário. O primeiro se refere aos esforços que o indivíduo empreende para adaptar o ambiente às suas necessidades; o segundo, para se adaptar ao ambiente. Apresenta-se a formulação original dos conceitos como modelo de dois processos de controle, em oposição a modelos de processo único, como o do desamparo aprendido. Em seguida, discute-se revisão conceitual que trouxe modificação e ampliação para estes construtos, concebendo-os em um modelo bidimensional que articula controle primário e secundário com os conceitos de seleção e compensação. Nesse processo, apresentam-se contribuições no intuito de estimular a reflexão e expandir a discussão teórico-conceitual que envolve estes construtos.This article discusses relevant concepts of life course perspective which are not very much diffused in Brazil: primary and secondary control. The former refers to efforts to change the environment so that it fits individual's needs. The latter involves efforts to fit in with the environment. The original definitions are presented as a two-process model of control in contrast to one-process models such as learned helplessness. Furthermore, it discusses a conceptual revision, which modified and expanded these constructs as a bi-dimensional model that relates primary and secondary control to the concepts of selection and compensation. In process of arguing about those, suggestions are presented for thinking and expanding the theoretical and conceptual discussion of these constructs.

  4. A multiple objective test assembly approach for exposure control problems in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo J.H.M. Eggen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexposure and underexposure of items in the bank are serious problems in operational computerized adaptive testing (CAT systems. These exposure problems might result in item compromise, or point at a waste of investments. The exposure control problem can be viewed as a test assembly problem with multiple objectives. Information in the test has to be maximized, item compromise has to be minimized, and pool usage has to be optimized. In this paper, a multiple objectives method is developed to deal with both types of exposure problems. In this method, exposure control parameters based on observed exposure rates are implemented as weights for the information in the item selection procedure. The method does not need time consuming simulation studies, and it can be implemented conditional on ability level. The method is compared with Sympson Hetter method for exposure control, with the Progressive method and with alphastratified testing. The results show that the method is successful in dealing with both kinds of exposure problems.

  5. Second auto-SCT for treatment of relapsed multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, W I; Gertz, M A; Lacy, M Q; Dispenzieri, A; Hayman, S R; Buadi, F K; Dingli, D; Hogan, W J; Kumar, S K

    2013-04-01

    High-dose therapy and auto-SCT remain integral in the initial treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), and are increasingly being applied for management of relapsed disease. We examined the outcomes in 98 patients undergoing salvage auto-SCT (auto-SCT2) for relapsed MM after receiving an initial transplant (auto-SCT1) between 1994 and 2009. The median age at auto-SCT2 was 60 years (range: 35-74). The median time between auto-SCT1 and auto-SCT2 was 46 months (range: 10-130). Treatment-related mortality was seen in 4%. The median PFS from auto-SCT2 was 10.3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 7-14) months and the median OS from auto-SCT2 was 33 months (95% CI: 28-51). In a multivariable analysis, shorter time to progression (TTP) after auto-SCT1, not achieving a CR after auto-SCT2, higher number of treatment regimens before auto-SCT2 and a higher plasma cell labeling index at auto-SCT2 predicted for shorter PFS. However, only a shorter TTP after auto-SCT1 predicted for a shorter OS post auto-SCT2. Hence, auto-SCT2 is an effective and feasible therapeutic option for MM patients relapsing after other treatments, especially in patients who had a TTP of at least 12 months after their auto-SCT1.

  6. Self-regulation processes in the life-course: primary and secondary control / Processos de auto-regulação no curso de vida: controle primário e controle secundário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilma Tereza Tôrres Khoury

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses relevant concepts of life course perspective which are not very much diffused in Brazil: primary and secondary control. The former refers to efforts to change the environment so that it fits individual's needs. The latter involves efforts to fit in with the environment. The original definitions are presented as a two-process model of control in contrast to one-process models such as learned helplessness. Furthermore, it discusses a conceptual revision, which modified and expanded these constructs as a bi-dimensional model that relates primary and secondary control to the concepts of selection and compensation. In process of arguing about those, suggestions are presented for thinking and expanding the theoretical and conceptual discussion of these constructs.

  7. Human bromethalin exposures reported to a U.S. Statewide Poison Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Serena; Fenik, Yelena; Vohra, Rais; Geller, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    Bromethalin is an increasingly used alternative to long-acting anticoagulant and cholecalciferol rodenticides. There are few reports of human exposures, and no existing professional society guidelines on medical management of bromethalin ingestions. The aim of this retrospective data review is to characterize bromethalin exposures reported to the California Poison Control System (CPCS) between 1997 and 2014. This is an observational retrospective case review of our statewide poison control system's electronic medical records. Following Institutional Board Review and Research Committee approvals, poison center exposures related to bromethalin were extracted using substance code and free text search strategies. Case notes of bromethalin exposures were reviewed for demographic, clinical, laboratory, and outcome information; inclusion criteria for the study was single-substance, human exposure to bromethalin. There were 129 calls related to human bromethalin exposures (three cases met exclusion criteria). The age range of cases was 7 months-90 years old, with the majority of exposures (89 cases; 70.6%), occurring in children younger than 5 years of age (median age of 2 years). Most exposures occurred in the pediatric population as a result of exploratory oral exposure. One hundred and thirteen patients (89.7%) had no effects post exposure, while 10 patients (7.9%) had a minor outcome. Adverse effects were minor, self-limited, and mostly gastrointestinal upset. There were no moderate, major, or fatal effects in our study population. The approximate ingested dose, available in six cases, ranged from 0.067 mg/kg to 0.3 mg/kg (milligrams of bromethalin ingested per kilogram of body weight), and no dose-symptom threshold could be established from this series. Exposures were not confirmed through urine or serum laboratory testing. The prognosis for most accidental ingestions appears to be excellent. However, bromethalin exposures may result in a higher number of

  8. Regulatory control of low level radiation exposure in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyanda, A.M.; Muhogora, W.E.

    1997-01-01

    In Tanzania, the radiation protection law was issued in 1983. Under this law, the National Radiation Commission is responsible for safe uses of ionizing radiation. The regulatory control of the resulting doses from the uses of radiation sources in medicine, industry, research and teaching is presented. The system of control reflects the existing interactions between the National Radiation Commission and users through the established radiation protection infrastructure. From the national dose registry data, it is found that the highest annual individual doses over 10 years ago, came from less than 5% of total monitored workers and were in the range 10 - 15 mSv y -1 . The experienced radiation levels in uncontrolled areas of potential workplaces is less than 1 μSv h -1 . The possibility for associating such low dose levels to the effectiveness of the existing regulatory dose control framework is discussed. Despite of this achievement, the need to improve further the radiation protection and safety programs is found necessary. (author)

  9. Important exposure controls for protection against antineoplastic agents: Highlights for oncology health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alehashem, Maryam; Baniasadi, Shadi

    2018-01-01

    A great number of antineoplastic drugs (ANPDs) are used globally in cancer treatment. Due to their adverse health effects, occupational exposure to ANPDs is considered a potential health risk to health care workers. The current study aimed to evaluate safe-handling practices of ANPDs, exposure controls, and adverse health implications for health care providers exposed to ANDPs. Prevention measures, including engineering, administrative, and work practice controls, as well as personal protective equipment (PPE), were recorded daily through a questionnaire for six weeks. Acute adverse health effects experienced by health care workers were also documented. The implemented exposure controls for preparation, administration, cleaning, and waste disposal were not in accordance with the safe handling guidelines. Central nervous system disorders (26.33%) were the most frequent acute adverse effects reported by health care workers. A significant correlation was found between the number of experienced adverse effects and handling characteristics, including the number of preparations (r = 0.38, p health care workers were in danger of exposure to ANPDs and experienced acute adverse health effects. Implementation of appropriate exposure controls is required to prevent occupational exposure to ANPDs.

  10. Occupational and public field exposure from communication, navigation, and radar systems used for air traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc

    2012-12-01

    Electromagnetic exposure (occupational and general public) to 14 types of air traffic control (ATC) systems is assessed. Measurement methods are proposed for in situ exposure assessment of these ATC systems. In total, 50 sites are investigated at 1,073 locations in the frequency range of 255 kHz to 24 GHz. For all installations, typical and maximal exposure values for workers and the general public are provided. Two of the 14 types of systems, Non-Directional Beacons (NDB) (up to 881.6 V m) and Doppler Very High Frequency (VHF) Omni-directional Range (DVOR) (up to 92.3 V m), exhibited levels requiring recommended minimum distances such that the ICNIRP reference levels are not exceeded. Cumulative exposure of all present radiofrequency (RF) sources is investigated, and it is concluded that the ATC source dominates the total exposure in its neighborhood.

  11. Management and control aimed at reducing potential exposure of cobalt irradiation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yukui

    2003-01-01

    This paper is intended to address the problems of the management and control of potential exposure of cobalt irradiation units and analyze both the current situation and the resultant accident reasons associated with irradiation units, with the necessary control measures provided to reduce potential exposure. The concepts of defense in depth and excellent engineering practice are introduced in design to provide the units with sufficient redundancy. In the course of scientific management, the qualified applicants or registers devoted, strictly and effectively, their oversight, monitoring and regulation to the irradiation units. The effective management and control are achieved through safety analysis and assessment, reasonable regulatory system and source decommissioning system. (authors)

  12. Control banding tools for occupational exposure assessment of nanomaterials - Ready for use in a regulatory context?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liguori, Biase; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2016-01-01

    area of concern. Therefore, a number of Control Banding (CB)-based tools have been developed in order to assess and manage the potential risks associated with occupational exposure to nanomaterials. In this paper we provide a comparative analysis of different nanomaterial-specific types of control-banding/risk...... developed for different purposes, with different application domains and inclusion criteria. The exposure assessments and derived risk levels are based on different concepts and assumptions and outputs in different formats. The use of requested input parameters for exposure assessment differ greatly among...... the tools. Therefore, direct inter-comparison and combination of the different models into a larger holistic framework is not immediately possible. Harmonization of input parameters and output could allow establishment of an exposure assessment framework with different levels of information requirements....

  13. A controlled study of virtual reality exposure therapy for the fear of flying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbaum, B O; Hodges, L; Smith, S; Lee, J H; Price, L

    2000-12-01

    Fear of flying (FOF) affects an estimated 10-25% of the population. Patients with FOF (N = 49) were randomly assigned to virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy, standard exposure (SE) therapy, or a wait-list (WL) control. Treatment consisted of 8 sessions over 6 weeks, with 4 sessions of anxiety management training followed by either exposure to a virtual airplane (VRE) or exposure to an actual airplane at the airport (SE). A posttreatment flight on a commercial airline measured participants' willingness to fly and anxiety during flight immediately after treatment. The results indicated that VRE and SE were both superior to WL, with no differences between VRE and SE. The gains observed in treatment were maintained at a 6-month follow up. By 6 months posttreatment, 93% of VRE participants and 93% of SE participants had flown. VRE therapy and SE therapy for treatment of FOF were unequivocally supported in this controlled study.

  14. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multiple waste types in a 7-day period at the Kilauea Military Camp in Hawai’i. The emissions characterized were chosen based on regulatory emissions limits as well as their ability to cause adverse health effects on humans: particulate matter (PM), mercury, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Three military waste feedstock compositions reflecting the variety of wastes to be encountered in theatre were investigated: standard waste (SW), standard waste with increased plastic content (HP), standard waste without SW food components but added first strike ration (FSR) food and packaging material (termed FSR). A fourth waste was collected from the Kilauea dumpster that served the dining facility and room lodging (KMC). Limited scrubber water and solid ash residue samples were collected to obtain a preliminary characterization of these effluents/residues.Gasifying SW, HP, and KMC resulted in similar PCDD/PCDF stack concentrations, 0.26-0.27 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2, while FSR waste generated a notably higher stack concentration of 0.68 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2. The PM emission

  15. Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

  16. Risk Communication in EPA's Controlled Inhalation Exposure Studies and in Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David

    2017-01-01

    On March 28, 2017, the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) released a much-anticipated report on the Environmental Protection Agency's controlled human inhalation exposure studies. This essay reviews the ethical controversies that led to the genesis of the report, summarizes its key findings, and comments on its approach to informing human subjects about the risks of inhalation exposure studies. NASEM's report makes a valuable contribution to our understanding of the scientific and ethical issues involved in conducting human inhalation exposure studies. Its definition of "reasonably foreseeable risks" provides useful guidance to investigators, research participants, and institutional review board members.

  17. In situ exposure to non-directional beacons for air traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc

    2012-04-01

    In situ electromagnetic field exposure of workers and the general public due to non-directional beacons (NDB) for air traffic control is assessed and characterized. For occupational exposure, the maximal measured electric field value is 881.6 V/m and the maximal magnetic field value is 9.1 A/m. The maximum electric fields exceed the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels at all seven NDB sites, and the magnetic fields at two of the seven NDB sites (occupational exposure). Recommendations and compliance distances for workers and the general public are provided. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Auto Carrier Transporter Loading and Unloading Improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Brian

    2003-01-01

    .... Any reduction in time and energy will result in a significant savings of money. The intent of this research is to develop an algorithm to solve the Auto Carrier Transport Pickup and Delivery Problem...

  19. Line Generalization and AutoCAD Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Vučetić

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers the results of original research made on the application of AutoCAD Map in line generalisation. The differences and similarities have been found out between the Douglas-Peucker method and the method of line simplification that is incorporated in AutoCAD Map. There have been also the inaccuracies found out in AutoCAD Map manual relating to the issues of buffer width and tolerance, and the line width before and after simplification. The paper gives recommendations about pseudo nodes dissolving. It has been noticed that AutoCAD Map simplification method is not independent of the order of points. The application of the method is illustrated by an example of coastal line of Istria.

  20. Control of occupational exposure using remote monitoring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunn, M. P. [British Energy Generation Ltd. Sizewell B Power Station, Leiston, Suffolk (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Advances in electronic dosimetry, portable radio technology and digital video have enabled the development of Remote Monitoring Systems (RMS) that provide a powerful dose control tool for the Operational Health Physicist. North American utilities have led the implementation of these systems, often with coverage of the entire plant, feeding back to a centralized control room. These large-scale systems typically cost around EURO 500,000. In Europe, and especially the UK, implementation of RMS technology has been slower and on a smaller scale. US utilities have justified the high capital cost of their systems by significantly reducing the number of contract RP technicians required during refuelling outages, saving up to EURO 1,000,000. In the UK, the number of contract RP technicians employed during outages is already minimal, and with the generally low dose rates found on Gas-Cooled Reactors, RP engineers have traditionally considered RMS to be an extravagance. However, the commissioning of the UK's first PWR and a significant increase in the number of AGR Vessel entries, have increased the radiological protection challenges facing the British Health Physicist, thus prompting a re-evaluation of this view. The benefit derived from a system that combines telemetry, video and voice communications is synergistic. We found that the system can be used in a variety of ways to significantly enhance radiological protection control in high radiation areas and to significantly reduce the dose received by RP staff covering such jobs. Indeed, it is estimated that the use of RMS saved at least 10 man.mSv of Radiological Protection dose during RF06 However, it is important to note that RMS is a monitoring tool to support existing monitoring techniques and arrangements. Suitably qualified and experienced staff are required to interpret the data and provide suitable advice to the work party. In addition, detailed training on the limitations of RMS, explicit procedures for

  1. A Comparison of Item Selection Techniques and Exposure Control Mechanisms in CATs Using the Generalized Partial Credit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Dena A.; Dodd, Barbara G.; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2002-01-01

    Studied the impact of using five different exposure control algorithms in two sizes of item pool calibrated using the generalized partial credit model. Simulation results show that the a-stratified design, in comparison to a no-exposure control condition, could be used to reduce item exposure and overlap and increase pool use, while degrading…

  2. Development of risk-based nanomaterial groups for occupational exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuempel, E. D.; Castranova, V.; Geraci, C. L.; Schulte, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Given the almost limitless variety of nanomaterials, it will be virtually impossible to assess the possible occupational health hazard of each nanomaterial individually. The development of science-based hazard and risk categories for nanomaterials is needed for decision-making about exposure control practices in the workplace. A possible strategy would be to select representative (benchmark) materials from various mode of action (MOA) classes, evaluate the hazard and develop risk estimates, and then apply a systematic comparison of new nanomaterials with the benchmark materials in the same MOA class. Poorly soluble particles are used here as an example to illustrate quantitative risk assessment methods for possible benchmark particles and occupational exposure control groups, given mode of action and relative toxicity. Linking such benchmark particles to specific exposure control bands would facilitate the translation of health hazard and quantitative risk information to the development of effective exposure control practices in the workplace. A key challenge is obtaining sufficient dose–response data, based on standard testing, to systematically evaluate the nanomaterials’ physical–chemical factors influencing their biological activity. Categorization processes involve both science-based analyses and default assumptions in the absence of substance-specific information. Utilizing data and information from related materials may facilitate initial determinations of exposure control systems for nanomaterials.

  3. Development of risk-based nanomaterial groups for occupational exposure control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuempel, E. D.; Castranova, V.; Geraci, C. L.; Schulte, P. A.

    2012-09-01

    Given the almost limitless variety of nanomaterials, it will be virtually impossible to assess the possible occupational health hazard of each nanomaterial individually. The development of science-based hazard and risk categories for nanomaterials is needed for decision-making about exposure control practices in the workplace. A possible strategy would be to select representative (benchmark) materials from various mode of action (MOA) classes, evaluate the hazard and develop risk estimates, and then apply a systematic comparison of new nanomaterials with the benchmark materials in the same MOA class. Poorly soluble particles are used here as an example to illustrate quantitative risk assessment methods for possible benchmark particles and occupational exposure control groups, given mode of action and relative toxicity. Linking such benchmark particles to specific exposure control bands would facilitate the translation of health hazard and quantitative risk information to the development of effective exposure control practices in the workplace. A key challenge is obtaining sufficient dose-response data, based on standard testing, to systematically evaluate the nanomaterials' physical-chemical factors influencing their biological activity. Categorization processes involve both science-based analyses and default assumptions in the absence of substance-specific information. Utilizing data and information from related materials may facilitate initial determinations of exposure control systems for nanomaterials.

  4. AutoCAD-To-NASTRAN Translator Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.

    1989-01-01

    Program facilitates creation of finite-element mathematical models from geometric entities. AutoCAD to NASTRAN translator (ACTON) computer program developed to facilitate quick generation of small finite-element mathematical models for use with NASTRAN finite-element modeling program. Reads geometric data of drawing from Data Exchange File (DXF) used in AutoCAD and other PC-based drafting programs. Written in Microsoft Quick-Basic (Version 2.0).

  5. Computing Mass Properties From AutoCAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.

    1990-01-01

    Mass properties of structures computed from data in drawings. AutoCAD to Mass Properties (ACTOMP) computer program developed to facilitate quick calculations of mass properties of structures containing many simple elements in such complex configurations as trusses or sheet-metal containers. Mathematically modeled in AutoCAD or compatible computer-aided design (CAD) system in minutes by use of three-dimensional elements. Written in Microsoft Quick-Basic (Version 2.0).

  6. Association of GSTM1 and GSTT1 with ageing in auto repair shop workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshkoor, S A; Marashi, S J; Ismail, P; Rahman, S A; Mirinargesi, M; Adon, M Y; Devan, R V

    2012-05-21

    We evaluated the possible influence of glutathione S-transferase mu (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase theta (GSTT1) genes on genetic damage due to occupational exposure, which contributes to accelerate ageing. This study was conducted on 120 car auto repair workshop workers exposed to occupational hazards and 120 controls without this kind of exposure. The null and non-null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes were determined by multiplex PCR. Micronucleus frequency, Comet tail length and relative telomere length differences between the null and non-null genotypes of the GSTM1 gene were significantly greater in the exposed group. Lack of GSTT1 did not affect the damage biomarkers significantly (P > 0.05), while lack of GSTM1 was associated with greater susceptibility to genomic damage due to occupational exposure. It was concluded that early ageing is under the influence of these genes and the environmental and socio-demographic factors. Duration of working time was significantly associated with micronucleus frequency, Comet tail length and relative telomere length.

  7. Water Chemistry Control in Reducing Corrosion and Radiation Exposure at PWR Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Febrianto

    2006-01-01

    Water chemistry control plays an important role in relation to plant availability, reliability and occupational radiation exposures. Radiation exposures of nuclear plant workers are determined by the radiation rate dose and by the amount maintenance and repair work time Water chemistry has always been, from beginning of operation of power Pressurized Water Reactor, an important factor in determining the integrity of reactor components, fuel cladding integrity and minimize out of core radiation exposures. For primary system, the parameters to control the quality of water chemistry have been subject to change in time. Reactor water coolant pH need to be optimally controlled and be operated in range pH 6.9 to 7.4. At pH lower than 6.9, cause increasing the radiation exposure level and increasing coolant water pH higher than 7.4 will decrease radiation exposure level but increasing risk to fuel cladding and steam generator tube. Since beginning 90 decade, PWR water coolant pH tend to be operated at pH 7.4. This paper will discuss concerning water chemistry development in reducing corrosion and radiation exposure dose in PWR reactor. (author)

  8. Control in personnel exposure at HIRUP facility during the period 2006-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojha, Shashikala; Suman, Santosh Kumar; Murali, S.

    2012-01-01

    HIRUP facility is designed to handle MCi of 60 Co, fabrication of sealed source, is carried out in hot cell. The design safety features allow the handling of sealed sources and other gamma emitters under suitable containment systems. The NP Unit of the facility provides personnel monitoring programmes viz., TLD/DRD monitoring for the radiation workers. 60 Co and other gamma emitters pose mainly external hazard during the handling of sealed source in hot cell. TLD is processed to assess the external exposure of personnel. Air activity and gross bg contamination at the work place is periodically monitored and reported. The TLD users of HIRUP are periodically referred for internal monitoring - whole body counting and bio-assay to estimate internal exposure. There is no reported internal exposure so far. Personnel from IAD and BRIT facility are provided with personnel monitoring coverage by HP Unit; the TLD is issued with respective institution no. as - 0283, 4288. Each person gets identified by individual TLD number, renewed TLD issue on quarterly service period. Based on job requirement such as handling of high activity, additional Wrist TLDs are provided. The used TLD of IAD and BRIT are sent for processing. The dose report obtained, enlists personnel exposure details. HP Unit does the report making to the concerned agencies enlisting the operational status, total occupational exposure of the facility (person mSv), average exposure (mSv) and few other details. Details of exposure for 2006 - 2010 (non-zero exposure cases), indicate that for IAD collective exposure got reduced by 78.5 %, average exposure got reduced by 62.6 %; for BRIT collective exposure got reduced by 58.2 %, average exposure got reduced by 46.8 %, at HIRUP facility. There is a decreasing trend in personnel exposure over the period 2006-2010, is due to HP safety protocol, on job HP surveillance and related safety measures. The personnel exposure is controlled as per ALARA, decreasing trend in the

  9. AutoCAD 2014 review for certification official certification preparation

    CERN Document Server

    ASCENT center for technical knowledge

    2014-01-01

    The AutoCAD® 2014 Review for Certification book is intended for users of AutoCAD® preparing to complete the AutoCAD 2014 Certified Professional exam. This book contains a collection of relevant instructional topics, practice exercises, and review questions from the Autodesk Official Training Guides (AOTG) from ASCENT - Center for Technical Knowledge pertaining specifically to the Certified Professional exam topics and objectives. This book is intended for experienced users of AutoCAD in preparation for certification. New users of AutoCAD should refer to the AOTG training guides from ASCENT, such as AutoCAD/AutoCAD LT 2014 Fundamentals, for more comprehensive instruction.

  10. Exposure control practices for administering nitrous oxide: A survey of dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L; Sweeney, Marie H

    2017-06-01

    Engineering, administrative, and work practice controls have been recommended for many years to minimize exposure to nitrous oxide during dental procedures. To better understand the extent to which these exposure controls are used, the NIOSH Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers was conducted among members of professional practice organizations representing dentists, dental hygienists and dental assistants. The anonymous, modular, web-based survey was completed by 284 dental professionals in private practice who administered nitrous oxide to adult and/or pediatric patients in the seven days prior to the survey. Use of primary engineering controls (i.e., nasal scavenging mask and/or local exhaust ventilation (LEV) near the patient's mouth) was nearly universal, reported by 93% and 96% of respondents who administered to adult (A) and pediatric (P) patients, respectively. However, adherence to other recommended precautionary practices were lacking to varying degrees, and were essentially no different among those administering nitrous oxide to adult or pediatric patients. Examples of work practices which increase exposure risk, expressed as percent of respondents, included: not checking nitrous oxide equipment for leaks (41% A; 48% P); starting nitrous oxide gas flow before delivery mask or airway mask was applied to patient (13% A; 12% P); and not turning off nitrous oxide gas flow before turning off oxygen flow to the patient (8% A; 7% P). Absence of standard procedures to minimize worker exposure to nitrous oxide (13% of all respondents) and not being trained on safe handling and administration of nitrous oxide (3%) were examples of breaches of administrative controls which may also increase exposure risk. Successful management of nitrous oxide emissions should include properly fitted nasal scavenging masks, supplemental LEV (when nitrous oxide levels cannot be adequately controlled using nasal masks alone), adequate general ventilation, regular

  11. Uncertainties of exposure-related quantities in mammographic x-ray unit quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Kent J.; Pattison, John E.; Bibbo, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Breast screening programs operate in many countries with mammographic x-ray units subject to stringent quality control tests. These tests include the evaluation of quantities based on exposure measurements, such as half value layer, automatic exposure control reproducibility, average glandular dose, and radiation output rate. There are numerous error sources that contribute to the uncertainty of these exposure-related quantities, some of which are unique to the low energy x-ray spectrum produced by mammographic x-ray units. For each of these exposure-related quantities, the applicable error sources and their magnitudes vary, depending on the test equipment used to make the measurement, and whether or not relevant corrections have been applied. This study has identified and quantified a range of error sources that may be used to estimate the combined uncertainty of these exposure-related quantities, given the test equipment used and corrections applied. The uncertainty analysis uses methods described by the International Standards Organization's Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. Examples of how these error sources combine to give the uncertainty of the exposure-related quantities are presented. Using the best test equipment evaluated in this study, uncertainties of the four exposure-related quantities at the 95% confidence interval were found to be ±1.6% (half value layer), ±0.0008 (automatic exposure control reproducibility), ±2.3% (average glandular dose), and ±2.1% (radiation output rate). In some cases, using less precise test equipment or failing to apply corrections, resulted in uncertainties more than double in magnitude

  12. Analysis on the workspace of palletizing robot based on AutoCAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-quan; Zhang, Rui; Guan, Qi; Cui, Fang; Chen, Kuan

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a four-degree-of-freedom articulated palletizing robot is used as the object of research. Based on the analysis of the overall configuration of the robot, the kinematic mathematical model is established by D-H method to figure out the workspace of the robot. In order to meet the needs of design and analysis, using AutoCAD secondary development technology and AutoLisp language to develop AutoCAD-based 2D and 3D workspace simulation interface program of palletizing robot. At last, using AutoCAD plugin, the influence of structural parameters on the shape and position of the working space is analyzed when the structure parameters of the robot are changed separately. This study laid the foundation for the design, control and planning of palletizing robots.

  13. Engineering control technologies to reduce occupational silica exposures in masonry cutting and tuckpointing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D; Cooper, Michael R; Lefkowitz, Daniel; Susi, Pam

    2009-01-01

    A number of tasks in construction generate worker overexposures to respirable crystalline silica dust, which is a significant contributor to occupational mortality and morbidity. This study evaluated the performance of commercially available engineering controls used in dusty construction tasks commonly performed by bricklayers. Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) controls for a portable abrasive cutter and for tuckpointing grinders were examined at a bricklayers' training center, as were two stationary wet saws. Personal breathing zone air samples were collected with and without the use of LEV or water suppression during simulated concrete block cutting, brick cutting, and tuckpointing. Compared with the use of no exposure control during block and brick cutting, the portable LEV unit significantly reduced mean respirable quartz exposures by 96% for block cutting and 91% for brick cutting (p controls (p control and no-control scenarios. These reductions with commercially available off-the-shelf tools demonstrate the effectiveness of engineering control interventions to reduce crystalline silica exposures in construction. Strategies to further improve control performance and approaches for increasing control interventions in construction are needed.

  14. Respiratory and cardiovascular response during electronic control device (ECD exposure in law enforcement trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. VanMeenen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Law enforcement represents a large population of workers who may be exposed to electronic control devices (ECDs. Little is known about the potential effect of exposure to these devices on respiration or cardiovascular response during current discharge. Methods: Participants (N=23 were trainees exposed to 5 seconds of an ECD (Taser X26® as a component of training. Trainees were asked to volitionally inhale during exposure. Respiratory recordings involved a continuous waveform recorded throughout the session including during the exposure period. Heart rate was calculated from a continuous pulse oximetry recording. Results: The exposure period resulted in the cessation of normal breathing patterns in all participants and in particular a decrease in inspiratory activity. No significant changes in heart rate during ECD exposure were found. Conclusions: This is the first study to examine breathing patterns during ECD exposure with the resolution to detect changes over this discrete period of time. In contrast to reports suggesting respiration is unaffected by ECDs, present evidence suggests that voluntary inspiration is severely compromised. There is no evidence of cardiac disruption during ECD exposure.

  15. Occupational exposure to radon progeny: Importance, experience with control, regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.; Schwedt, J.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of possible occupational exposures to enhanced natural radiation in Germany is given, based on an analysis of the German Radiological Protection Commission. So far, the most significant exposure source is radon at underground and above ground workplaces. As a result of relevant regulations, in East Germany since the 70's a systematic monitoring of exposures to radon progeny has been introduced step by step in the uranium industry, in conventional ore mining, in show caves and mines, in enterprises for securing mining areas against subsidence, in radon spas and in water works in radon affected areas. Individual exposures have been assessed. The monitoring results for the period 1975-1998 are presented. Successful protection measures leading to a significant reduction of the exposures are discussed. using workplace monitoring results and registered occupancy times. In West Germany no regulations in this area were in force. Nevertheless, voluntary measuring programmes at similar workplaces were carried out. In case of unacceptable exposures successful protection measures were implemented. At present a systematic approach to control occupational exposures to radon is laid down in the European Directive 96/29/Euratom which has to be taken over in the national legislation to come. The expected number of workplaces to be included in the radiation protection system in Germany, the recommendable way of including different workplace types taking into account appropriate reference levels, and possible approaches to a graded system of workplace and individual monitoring are discussed in detail. (author)

  16. Individual external exposures from Nevada Test Site fallout for Utah leukemia cases and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Gren, D.C.; Simon, S.L.; Wrenn, M.E.; Hawthorne, H.A.; Lotz, T.M.; Stevens, W.; Till, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    External gamma-ray exposures from fallout originating at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been assigned to 6,507 individual subjects (1,177 leukemia cases and 5,330 control subjects) who died as Utah residents between 1952 and 1981. Leukemia cases were identified, confirmed, and classified by cell type from the Utah Cancer Registry, Utah State vital records, and medical records. Residential histories were obtained from the Deceased Membership File (DMF) of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), supplemented by information from the LDS Church Census Records that were taken in 1950, 1955, and 1960-62. Control subjects were selected randomly within age strata from the DMF and were frequency-matched to the cases by age at death and for sex. Individual radiation exposures were assigned as a function of residence location and time interval for each residence during the fallout period (1951-1958) using geographic exposure data taken from the literature. Temporal distribution of exposure for subjects who resided in more than one locality or who were born or died during the fallout period was determined from data of other investigators. Calculated gamma-ray exposures for each place of residence were summed for each subject to yield the exposure to fallout from the NTS

  17. Administrative and research needs associated with the control of occupational exposures in commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    This review of occupational exposures in commercial nuclear power plants in the United States of America has revealed that, although many problem areas are being adequately addressed, there is a need for additional work. Areas relative to exposure evaluation that need attention include better data collection and analysis as to when and where exposures occur, improved information on exposures from internally deposited radionuclides, improved techniques for monitoring occupational neutron exposures, and an upgrading in quality control procedures in the manufacture, calibration, use and maintenance of monitoring instruments. Areas relative to exposure control that need attention include the development of additional design and manufacturing approaches for preventing the production and build-up of key radionuclides within reactor cooling systems, the development and testing of techniques for removing those radionuclides that do accumulate in such systems, the application of risk/benefit assessments to procedures for the maintenance, repair, modification, replacement and disposal of major nuclear power plant components, such as steam generators, and the development of design features to facilitate the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Professional radiation workers also have to be aware of the impact that the proposed major reductions in occupational dose limits would have on their operations. This impact is compounded by the fact that the number of people receiving graduate education in radiation protection in the USA is decreasing. (author)

  18. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cochet, C.; Fernandes, E.O.; Jantunen, M.

    ECA-IAQ (European Collaborative Action, Urban Air, Indoor Environment and Human Exposure), 2006. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX), Report No 25. EUR 22503 EN. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications...... of the European Communities It is now well established that indoor air pollution contributes significantly to the global burden of disease of the population. Therefore, the knowledge of this contribution is essential in view of risk assessment and management. The ECA STRATEX report collates the respective...... information and describes the strategies to determine population exposure to indoor air pollutants. Its major goal is to emphasise the importance of the contribution of indoor air to total air exposure. Taking this contribution into account is a prerequisite for sound risk assessment of air pollution...

  19. High Seroprevalence of Leptospira Exposure in Meat Workers in Northern Mexico: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in workers occupationally exposed to raw meat has been poorly studied. This work aimed to determine the association between Leptospira exposure and the occupation of meat worker, and to determine the seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the meat workers studied. Methods We performed a case-control study in 124 meat workers and 124 age- and gender-matched control subjects in Durango City, Mexico. Sera of cases and controls were analyzed for anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Data of meat workers were obtained with the aid of a questionnaire. The association of Leptospira exposure with the characteristics of meat workers was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 22 (17.7%) of 124 meat workers and in eight (6.5%) of 124 controls (OR = 3.12; 95% CI: 1.33 - 7.33; P = 0.006). Seroprevalence of Leptospira infection was similar between male butchers (17.6%) and female butchers (18.2%) (P = 1.00). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, work and behavioral variables showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with duration in the activity, rural residence, and consumption of snake meat and unwashed raw fruits. Conclusions This is the first case-control study of the association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of meat worker. Results indicate that meat workers represent a risk group for Leptospira exposure. Risk factors for Leptospira exposure found in this study may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Leptospira infection. PMID:26858797

  20. Neospora caninum versus Brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in Ethiopia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun

    2014-08-01

    This case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of Neospora caninum and Brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. The study was carried out between October 2011 and June 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of Ethiopia. Two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. The presence of antibody to N. caninum was screened using indirect ELISA, while Brucella spp. exposure was assayed serially using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test. Exposure to N. caninum was more frequently observed among cases (23.8%) than controls (12.7%), while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted for Brucella exposure between the two groups. Moreover, the proportion of cows with disorders like retention of fetal membrane, endometritis and increased inter-calving period were significantly higher (p Brucella spp. exposure. However, neither N. caninum nor Brucella spp. could explain the majority (73.2%) of the reported abortions and stillbirths in cattle. Hence, this observation underscores the need for more intensive investigation on the identification of causes of the aforementioned disorders in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.

  1. Projecting pipeline construction by AutoDesk Map; Projektierung von Rohrleitungsbaumassnahmen mit AutoDesk Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taschendorf, M.; Voigtlaender, M. [Hamburger Wasserwerke GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-12-15

    Presented is AutoDesk Map, which enables the construction and planning of big grids for water- and gas supply. In this example industrial equipment is driven as objects in AutoDesk Map. Therefore the consistence of the data is guaranted and comprehensive CAD functions are available for industrial equipment and topologies. (GL)

  2. Testing First-Order Logic Axioms in AutoCert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ki Yung; Denney, Ewen

    2009-01-01

    AutoCert [2] is a formal verification tool for machine generated code in safety critical domains, such as aerospace control code generated from MathWorks Real-Time Workshop. AutoCert uses Automated Theorem Provers (ATPs) [5] based on First-Order Logic (FOL) to formally verify safety and functional correctness properties of the code. These ATPs try to build proofs based on user provided domain-specific axioms, which can be arbitrary First-Order Formulas (FOFs). These axioms are the most crucial part of the trusted base, since proofs can be submitted to a proof checker removing the need to trust the prover and AutoCert itself plays the part of checking the code generator. However, formulating axioms correctly (i.e. precisely as the user had really intended) is non-trivial in practice. The challenge of axiomatization arise from several dimensions. First, the domain knowledge has its own complexity. AutoCert has been used to verify mathematical requirements on navigation software that carries out various geometric coordinate transformations involving matrices and quaternions. Axiomatic theories for such constructs are complex enough that mistakes are not uncommon. Second, adjusting axioms for ATPs can add even more complexity. The axioms frequently need to be modified in order to have them in a form suitable for use with ATPs. Such modifications tend to obscure the axioms further. Thirdly, speculating validity of the axioms from the output of existing ATPs is very hard since theorem provers typically do not give any examples or counterexamples.

  3. AutoCAD 2012 and AutoCAD LT 2012 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    The latest version of this perennial favorite, in-depth, reference-tutorial This top-selling book has been updated by AutoCAD guru and author Ellen Finkelstein to provide you with the very latest coverage of both AutoCAD 2012 and AutoCAD LT 2012. It begins with a Quick Start tutorial, so you start creating right away. From there, the book covers so much in-depth material on AutoCAD that it is said that even Autodesk employees keep this comprehensive book at their desks. A DVD is included that features before-and-after drawings of all the tutorials and plenty of great examples from AutoCAD prof

  4. Self-Programmed Counseling and Self-Programmed Control Manual. A Guide to Self-Image Development with Emphasis on the Chicano Student. Student's Guide = Manual de Sistema de Consejo Auto Programado y Control Auto Programado. Una Guia Para el Desarrollo de La Imagen Propia Con un Enfasis en el Estudiante Chicano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, S. Raymond

    Self-Programmed Counseling, the instructor's guidance, and Self-Programmed Control (SPC), the student's response, was initially developed by Title III Project USTED (United Students and Teachers for Educational Development) for Mexican American college students on academic probation to use on a non-credit, special group counseling basis. As part…

  5. Increase in oxidative stress levels following welding fume inhalation: a controlled human exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Halshka; Lewinski, Nastassja; Zhao, Jiayuan; Sauvain, Jean-Jacques; Suarez, Guillaume; Wild, Pascal; Danuser, Brigitta; Riediker, Michael

    2016-06-10

    Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding represents one of the most widely used metal joining processes in industry. It has been shown to generate a large majority of particles at the nanoscale and to have low mass emission rates when compared to other types of welding. Despite evidence that TIG fume particles may produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), limited data is available for the time course changes of particle-associated oxidative stress in exposed TIG welders. Twenty non-smoking male welding apprentices were exposed to TIG welding fumes for 60 min under controlled, well-ventilated settings. Exhaled breathe condensate (EBC), blood and urine were collected before exposure, immediately after exposure, 1 h and 3 h post exposure. Volunteers participated in a control day to account for oxidative stress fluctuations due to circadian rhythm. Biological liquids were assessed for total reducing capacity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations at each time point. A linear mixed model was used to assess within day and between day differences. Significant increases in the measured biomarkers were found at 3 h post exposure. At 3 h post exposure, we found a 24 % increase in plasma-H2O2 concentrations ([95%CI: 4 % to 46 %], p = 0.01); a 91 % increase in urinary-H2O2 ([2 % to 258 %], p = 0.04); a 14 % increase in plasma-8-OHdG ([0 % to 31 %], p = 0.049); and a 45 % increase in urinary-8-OHdG ([3 % to 105 %], p = 0.03). Doubling particle number concentration (PNC) exposure was associated with a 22 % increase of plasma-8-OHdG at 3 h post exposure (p = 0.01). A 60-min exposure to TIG welding fume in a controlled, well-ventilated setting induced acute oxidative stress at 3 h post exposure in healthy, non-smoking apprentice welders not chronically exposed to welding fumes. As mass concentration of TIG welding fume particles is very low when compared to other types of welding, it is

  6. Sensitivity to external signals and synchronization properties of a non-isochronous auto-oscillator with delayed feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiberkevich, Vasil S.; Khymyn, Roman S.; Tang, Hong X.; Slavin, Andrei N.

    2014-01-01

    For auto-oscillators of different nature (e.g. active cells in a human heart under the action of a pacemaker, neurons in brain, spin-torque nano-oscillators, micro and nano-mechanical oscillators, or generating Josephson junctions) a critically important property is their ability to synchronize with each other. The synchronization properties of an auto oscillator are directly related to its sensitivity to external signals. Here we demonstrate that a non-isochronous (having generation frequency dependent on the amplitude) auto-oscillator with delayed feedback can have an extremely high sensitivity to external signals and unusually large width of the phase-locking band near the boundary of the stable auto-oscillation regime. This property could be used for the development of synchronized arrays of non-isochronous auto-oscillators in physics and engineering, and, for instance, might bring a better fundamental understanding of ways to control a heart arrythmia in medicine.

  7. [Clinical overview of auto-inflammatory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgin-Lavialle, S; Rodrigues, F; Hentgen, V; Fayand, A; Quartier, P; Bader-Meunier, B; Bachmeyer, C; Savey, L; Louvrier, C; Sarrabay, G; Melki, I; Belot, A; Koné-Paut, I; Grateau, G

    2018-04-01

    Monogenic auto-inflammatory diseases are characterized by genetic abnormalities coding for proteins involved in innate immunity. They were initially described in mirror with auto-immune diseases because of the absence of circulating autoantibodies. Their main feature is the presence of peripheral blood inflammation in crisis without infection. The best-known auto-inflammatory diseases are mediated by interleukines that consisted in the 4 following diseases familial Mediterranean fever, cryopyrinopathies, TNFRSF1A-related intermittent fever, and mevalonate kinase deficiency. Since 10 years, many other diseases have been discovered, especially thanks to the progress in genetics. In this review, we propose the actual panorama of the main known auto-inflammatory diseases. Some of them are recurrent fevers with crisis and remission; some others evaluate more chronically; some are associated with immunodeficiency. From a physiopathological point of view, we can separate diseases mediated by interleukine-1 and diseases mediated by interferon. Then some polygenic inflammatory diseases will be shortly described: Still disease, Schnitzler syndrome, aseptic abscesses syndrome. The diagnosis of auto-inflammatory disease is largely based on anamnesis, the presence of peripheral inflammation during attacks and genetic analysis, which are more and more performant. Copyright © 2018 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Renal effects of acute exposure to toluene. A controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H K; Krusell, Lars Romer; Bælum, Jesper

    1985-01-01

    Urinary excretion rates of beta 2-microglobulin and albumin were measured in 43 male printing trade workers and 43 age-matched male controls before and during exposure to toluene, 382 mg/m3, for 6 1/2 hours in a climate chamber. There were no significant changes in renal excretion rates of albumin...

  9. Enforcement of radiation safety standards and experience in the regulatory control of exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthi, T N [Health and Safety Div., Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai (India)

    1997-11-01

    Regulatory provisions for radiation protection and their enforcement in India are discussed in this paper. The rules and regulations framed for radiation safety cover all the nuclear fuel cycle activities as well as the application of radiation sources in industrial, medical and research institutions. The enforcement aspects and experience in the control of exposures are presented. (author). 3 refs, 2 tabs.

  10. Enforcement of radiation safety standards and experience in the regulatory control of exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthi, T.N.

    1997-01-01

    Regulatory provisions for radiation protection and their enforcement in India are discussed in this paper. The rules and regulations framed for radiation safety cover all the nuclear fuel cycle activities as well as the application of radiation sources in industrial, medical and research institutions. The enforcement aspects and experience in the control of exposures are presented. (author)

  11. A VIRTUAL REALITY EXPOSURE THERAPY FOR PTSD PATIENTS CONTROLLED BY A FUZZY LOGIC SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Maria Esteves Moreira da Costa; Fernando Moraes de Oliveira; Regina Serrão Lanzillotti; Raquel Gonçalves; Luis Alfredo Vidal de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the main characteristics of two integrated systems that explore Virtual Reality technology and Fuzzy Logic to support and to control the assessment of people with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder during the Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy. The integration of different technologies, the development methodology and the test procedures are described throughout the paper.

  12. A VIRTUAL REALITY EXPOSURE THERAPY FOR PTSD PATIENTS CONTROLLED BY A FUZZY LOGIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Esteves Moreira da Costa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the main characteristics of two integrated systems that explore Virtual Reality technology and Fuzzy Logic to support and to control the assessment of people with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder during the Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy. The integration of different technologies, the development methodology and the test procedures are described throughout the paper.

  13. A virtual reality exposure therapy for PTSD patients controlled by a fuzzy logic system

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, F. M.; Lanzillotti, R. S.; Da Costa, R. M. E. M.; Gonçalves, R.; Ventura, P.; Carvalho, L. A. V. de

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the main characteristics of two integrated systems that explore Virtual Reality technology and Fuzzy Logic to support and to control the assessment of people with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder during the Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy. The integration of different technologies, the development methodology and the test procedures are described throughout the paper. Peer Reviewed

  14. Occupational exposures and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Canadian case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli John J

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to study the association between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposures related to long held occupations among males in six provinces of Canada. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Males with newly diagnosed NHL (ICD-10 were stratified by province of residence and age group. A total of 513 incident cases and 1506 population based controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to fit statistical models. Results Based on conditional logistic regression modeling, the following factors independently increased the risk of NHL: farmer and machinist as long held occupations; constant exposure to diesel exhaust fumes; constant exposure to ionizing radiation (radium; and personal history of another cancer. Men who had worked for 20 years or more as farmer and machinist were the most likely to develop NHL. Conclusion An increased risk of developing NHL is associated with the following: long held occupations of faer and machinist; exposure to diesel fumes; and exposure to ionizing radiation (radium. The risk of NHL increased with the duration of employment as a farmer or machinist.

  15. Residential traffic noise exposure and vestibular schwannoma - a Danish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Schüz, Joachim; Johansen, Christoffer; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-10-01

    Few risk factors for sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) are known. Several studies have proposed an increased risk with occupational noise exposure, whereas no studies have investigated residential traffic noise exposure as a risk factor. The present study investigated if residential traffic noise was associated with vestibular schwannoma in a large, population-based Danish case-control study. We identified 1454 VS cases, age above 30 years at diagnosis, between 1990 and 2007. For each case, we selected two random population controls, matched on sex and year of birth. Road and railway traffic noise at the residence was calculated for all present and historical addresses between 1987 and index date. Associations between traffic noise and risk for VS were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for education, disposable personal income, cohabitation status, railway noise exposure, municipal population density, and municipal income. A two-year time-weighted mean road traffic noise exposure was associated with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.92 (0.82-1.03) for developing VS, per 10 dB increment. There was no clear trend in categorical analyses. Similarly, linear and categorical analyses of residential railway noise did not suggest an association. We found no interaction with demographics, year of diagnosis, individual and municipal socioeconomic variables, and railway noise exposure. The results did not differ by tumor side, spread or size. The present study does not suggest an association between residential traffic noise and VS.

  16. Effects of prenatal substance exposure on neurocognitive correlates of inhibitory control success and failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Leslie E; Beauchamp, Kathryn G; Pears, Katherine C; Fisher, Philip A; Berkman, Elliot T; Capaldi, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents with prenatal substance (drug and alcohol) exposure exhibit inhibitory control (IC) deficits and aberrations in associated neural function. Nearly all research to date examines exposure to individual substances, and a minimal amount is known about the effects of heterogeneous exposure-which is more representative of population exposure levels. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated IC (Go/NoGo) in heterogeneously exposed (n = 7) vs. control (n = 7) at-risk adolescents (ages 13-17). The fMRI results indicated multiple IC processing differences consistent with a more immature developmental profile for exposed adolescents (Exposed  >  Nonexposed: NoGo > Go: right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, right cuneus, and left inferior parietal lobe; NoGo > false alarm: occipital lobe; Go > false alarm: right anterior prefrontal cortex). Simple effects suggest exposed adolescents exhibited exaggerated correct trial but decreased incorrect trial activation. Results provide initial evidence that prenatal exposure across substances creates similar patterns of atypical brain activation to IC success and failure.

  17. Assessment of heavy metal contamination, levels in topsoil at selected auto-workshops in Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziblim, M. Y.

    2015-07-01

    The research was conducted to assess the levels of contamination of heavy metals in the topsoil at selected auto-workshops in Accra to determine the anthropogenic and crustal contributions and the human heath risk associated with them. Soil samples collected from four auto-workshops were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Eleven (11) elements: Co, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, As, Hg, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd were identified in each sample collected from the auto-workshops. Pollution indices; contamintion factor (Cf) index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) and pollution load index (PLI) were used to assess the contamination levels. It revealed the extent of contamination at the auto-workshops for most of the elements which range from low to considerate contamintion. Lead (Pb) recorded the greatest contamination levels at the auto-electrical location. The results from the index of geoccumulation showed no pollution to highly pollution indicting high variations of pollution levels at different locations. The results of the PLI in almost all locations ranged from moderately to extremely polluted. Noncancer effect on children and adults due to exposure to the topsoil were also estimated with some selected metal elements. The hazard quotient (HQ) evaluation, showed ingestion to be the route of exposure to soil dust that results in a higher risk for heavy metals, followed by dermal contact. The effect due to inhalation of resuspended dust particles through the mouth and nose is relatively low. It was observed that, the auto-workshops are generally polluted with heavy metals and therefore posing ill-health effect to the humans and the environment. (au)

  18. Pediatric Exposures to Topical Benzocaine Preparations Reported to a Statewide Poison Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rais Vohra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Topical benzocaine is a local anesthetic commonly used to relieve pain caused by teething, periodontal irritation, burns, wounds, and insect bites. Oral preparations may contain benzocaine concentrations ranging from 7.5% to 20%. Pediatric exposure to such large concentrations may result in methemoglobinemia and secondarily cause anemia, cyanosis, and hypoxia. Methods: This is a retrospective study of exposures reported to a statewide poison control system. The electronic health records were queried for pediatric exposures to topical benzocaine treated at a healthcare facility from 2004 to 2014. Cases of benzocaine exposure were reviewed for demographic and clinical information, and descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: The query resulted in 157 cases; 58 were excluded due to co-ingestants, or miscoding of non-benzocaine exposures. Children four years of age and younger represented the majority of cases (93% with a median age of 1 year. There were 88 cases of accidental/ exploratory exposure, while 6 cases resulted from therapeutic application or error, 4 cases from adverse reactions, and 1 case from an unknown cause. Asymptomatic children accounted for 75.5% of cases, but major clinical effects were observed in 5 patients. Those with serious effects were exposed to a range of benzocaine concentrations (7.5–20%, with 4 cases reporting methemoglobin levels between 20.2%–55%. Methylene blue was administered in 4 of the cases exhibiting major effects. Conclusion: The majority of exposures were accidental ingestions by young children. Most exposures resulted in minor to no effects. However, some patients required treatment with methylene blue and admission to a critical care unit. Therapeutic application by parents or caregivers may lead to adverse effects from these commonly available products.

  19. Pediatric Exposures to Topical Benzocaine Preparations Reported to a Statewide Poison Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Rais; Huntington, Serena; Koike, Jennifer; Le, Kevin; Geller, Richard J

    2017-08-01

    Topical benzocaine is a local anesthetic commonly used to relieve pain caused by teething, periodontal irritation, burns, wounds, and insect bites. Oral preparations may contain benzocaine concentrations ranging from 7.5% to 20%. Pediatric exposure to such large concentrations may result in methemoglobinemia and secondarily cause anemia, cyanosis, and hypoxia. This is a retrospective study of exposures reported to a statewide poison control system. The electronic health records were queried for pediatric exposures to topical benzocaine treated at a healthcare facility from 2004 to 2014. Cases of benzocaine exposure were reviewed for demographic and clinical information, and descriptive statistical analysis was performed. The query resulted in 157 cases; 58 were excluded due to co-ingestants, or miscoding of non-benzocaine exposures. Children four years of age and younger represented the majority of cases (93%) with a median age of 1 year. There were 88 cases of accidental/ exploratory exposure, while 6 cases resulted from therapeutic application or error, 4 cases from adverse reactions, and 1 case from an unknown cause. Asymptomatic children accounted for 75.5% of cases, but major clinical effects were observed in 5 patients. Those with serious effects were exposed to a range of benzocaine concentrations (7.5-20%), with 4 cases reporting methemoglobin levels between 20.2%-55%. Methylene blue was administered in 4 of the cases exhibiting major effects. The majority of exposures were accidental ingestions by young children. Most exposures resulted in minor to no effects. However, some patients required treatment with methylene blue and admission to a critical care unit. Therapeutic application by parents or caregivers may lead to adverse effects from these commonly available products.

  20. Compatibility of automatic exposure control with new screen phosphors in diagnostic roentgenography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvaney, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Automatic exposure control systems are used in diagnostic roentgenography to obtain proper film density for a variety of patient examinations and roentgenographic techniques. Most automatic exposure control systems have been designed for use with par speed, calcium tungstate intensifying screens. The use of screens with faster speeds and new phosphor materials has put extreme demands on present systems. The performance of a representative automatic exposure control system is investigated to determine its ability to maintain constant film density over a wide range of x-ray tube voltages and acrylic phantom thicknesses with four different intensifying screen phosphors. The effects of x-ray energy dependence, generator switching time and stored change are investigated. The system is able to maintain film density to within plus or minus 0.2 optical density units for techniques representing adult patients. A single nonadjustable tube voltage compensation circuit is adequate for the four different screen phosphors for x-ray tube voltages above sixty peak kilovolts. For techniques representing pediatric patients at high x-ray tube voltages, excess film density occurs due to stored charge in the transformer and high-voltage cables. An anticipation circuit in the automatic exposure control circuit can be modified to correct for stored charge effects. In a seperate experiment the energy dependence of three different ionization chamber detectors used in automatic exposure control systems is compared directly with the energy dependence of three different screen phosphors. The data on detector sensitivity and screen speed are combined to predict the best tube voltage compensation for each combination of screen and detector

  1. Pesticide Exposure and Head and Neck Cancers: A Case-Control Study in an Agricultural Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amizadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Causes of head and neck cancers (HNCs are multifactorial, and few studies have investigated the association between chemical exposure and HNCs. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between HNCs, agricultural occupations, and pesticide exposure. The potential for the accumulation of pesticides in the adipose tissue of patients was also investigated.   Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, occupation, and exposure to pesticides in a hospital-based case-control study. Pesticide residue in the adipose tissue of the neck in both cases and controls was also monitored via gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy.   Results: Thirty-one HNC cases were included in this study as well as 32 gender-, age-, and smoking-matched controls. An agricultural occupation was associated with HNC (odds ratio [OR], 3.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–9.43 after controlling for age, sex, and smoking. Pesticide exposure was associated with total HNC cases (OR, 7.45; 95% CI, 1.78–3.07 and larynx cancer (OR, 9.33; 95% CI, 1.65–52.68. A dose-response pattern was observed for HNC cases (P=0.06 and larynx cancer (P=0.01. In tracing the pesticide residue, five chlorinated pesticides, namely dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, dichlorodipheny-ldichloroethane (DDD, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, dieldrin, and lindane, were identified in the adipose tissue. Chlorinated pesticide detection was significantly associated with HNC (OR, 3.91; 95% CI 0.9–0.16.9.   Conclusion: HNCs were found to be associated with pesticide exposure after controlling for confounders. A high education level was identified as a modifying factor decreasing the risk of HNCs. Further studies with larger number of subjects are recommended to assess these relationships in greater detail.

  2. Leptospira Exposure and Waste Pickers: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study in Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2015-08-01

    Infection with Leptospira may occur by contact with Leptospira-infected animals. Waste pickers are in contact with rodents and dogs while picking in the garbage. Whether waste pickers are at risk for Leptospira infection is largely unknown. This study was aimed to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence with the occupation of waste picking, and to determine the epidemiological characteristics of the waste pickers with Leptospira exposure. Through a case-control study, we determined the seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies in 90 waste pickers and 90 age- and gender-matched control subjects in Durango City, Mexico using an enzyme immunoassay. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. The prevalence of anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies was similar in waste pickers (4/90: 4.4%) to that in control subjects (5/90: 5.6%) (P = 1.00). Bivariate analysis showed that Leptospira exposure in waste pickers was associated with increasing age (P = 0.009), no education (P = 0.008), and consumption of rat meat (P = 0.04). However, these associations were no longer found by multivariate analysis. Leptospira exposure in waste pickers was not associated with health status, duration in the activity, wearing hand gloves and facemasks, history of injuries with sharp material of the garbage, or contact with animals or soil. This is the first study about Leptospira exposure in waste pickers. Results suggest that waste pickers are not at increasing risk for Leptospira exposure in Durango City, Mexico. Further research with a larger sample size to elucidate the association of Leptospira exposure with waste picking activity is needed.

  3. Leptospira Exposure and Waste Pickers: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study in Durango, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Infection with Leptospira may occur by contact with Leptospira-infected animals. Waste pickers are in contact with rodents and dogs while picking in the garbage. Whether waste pickers are at risk for Leptospira infection is largely unknown. This study was aimed to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence with the occupation of waste picking, and to determine the epidemiological characteristics of the waste pickers with Leptospira exposure. Methods Through a case-control study, we determined the seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies in 90 waste pickers and 90 age- and gender-matched control subjects in Durango City, Mexico using an enzyme immunoassay. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results The prevalence of anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies was similar in waste pickers (4/90: 4.4%) to that in control subjects (5/90: 5.6%) (P = 1.00). Bivariate analysis showed that Leptospira exposure in waste pickers was associated with increasing age (P = 0.009), no education (P = 0.008), and consumption of rat meat (P = 0.04). However, these associations were no longer found by multivariate analysis. Leptospira exposure in waste pickers was not associated with health status, duration in the activity, wearing hand gloves and facemasks, history of injuries with sharp material of the garbage, or contact with animals or soil. Conclusions This is the first study about Leptospira exposure in waste pickers. Results suggest that waste pickers are not at increasing risk for Leptospira exposure in Durango City, Mexico. Further research with a larger sample size to elucidate the association of Leptospira exposure with waste picking activity is needed. PMID:26124911

  4. Case-control study of congenital malformations and occupational exposure to low-level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sever, L.E.; Gilbert, E.S.; Hessol, N.A.; McIntyre, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    In a case-control study, the authors investigated the association of parental occupational exposure to low-level external whole-body penetrating ionizing radiation and risk of congenital malformations in their offspring. Cases and controls were ascertained from births in two counties in southeastern Washington State, where the Hanford Site has been a major employer. A unique feature of this study was the linking of quantitative individual measurement of external whole-body penetrating ionizing radiation exposure of employees at the Hanford Site, using personal dosimeters, and the disease outcome, congenital malformations. The study population included 672 malformation cases and 977 matched controls from births occurring from 1957 through 1980. Twelve specific malformation types were analyzed for evidence of association with employment of the parents at Hanford and with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Two defects, congenital dislocation of the hip and tracheoesophageal fistula, showed statistically significant associations with employment of the parents at Hanford, but not with parental radiation exposure. Neural tube defects showed a significant association with parental preconception exposure, on the basis of a small number of cases. Eleven other defects, including Down syndrome, for which an association with radiation was considered most likely, showed no evidence of such an association. When all malformations were analyzed as a group, there was no evidence of an association with employment of the parents at Hanford, but the relation of parental exposure to radiation before conception was in the positive direction (one-tailed p value between 0.05 and 0.10). Given the number of statistical tests conducted, some or all of the observed positive correlations are likely to represent false positive findings. 30 references

  5. AutoCAD platform customization user interface and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosius, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Make AutoCAD your own with powerful personalization options Options for AutoCAD customization are typically the domain of administrators, but savvy users can perform their own customizations to personalize AutoCAD. Until recently, most users never thought to customize the AutoCAD platform to meet their specific needs, instead leaving it to administrators. If you are an AutoCAD user who wants to ramp up personalization options in your favorite software, AutoCAD Platform Customization: User Interface and Beyond is the perfect resource for you. Author Lee Ambrosius is recognized as a leader in Au

  6. Human neutrophils in auto-immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieblemont, Nathalie; Wright, Helen L; Edwards, Steven W; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    Human neutrophils have great capacity to cause tissue damage in inflammatory diseases via their inappropriate activation to release reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteases and other tissue-damaging molecules. Furthermore, activated neutrophils can release a wide variety of cytokines and chemokines that can regulate almost every element of the immune system. In addition to these important immuno-regulatory processes, activated neutrophils can also release, expose or generate neoepitopes that have the potential to break immune tolerance and result in the generation of autoantibodies, that characterise a number of human auto-immune diseases. For example, in vasculitis, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) that are directed against proteinase 3 or myeloperoxidase are neutrophil-derived autoantigens and activated neutrophils are the main effector cells of vascular damage. In other auto-immune diseases, these neutrophil-derived neoepitopes may arise from a number of processes that include release of granule enzymes and ROS, changes in the properties of components of their plasma membrane as a result of activation or apoptosis, and via the release of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs). NETs are extracellular structures that contain chromatin that is decorated with granule enzymes (including citrullinated proteins) that can act as neo-epitopes to generate auto-immunity. This review therefore describes the processes that can result in neutrophil-mediated auto-immunity, and the role of neutrophils in the molecular pathologies of auto-immune diseases such as vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We discuss the potential role of NETs in these processes and some of the debate in the literature regarding the role of this phenomenon in microbial killing, cell death and auto-immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ayahuasca Exposure: Descriptive Analysis of Calls to US Poison Control Centers from 2005 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, C William; Brooks, Daniel E

    2017-09-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic plant preparation which usually contains the vine Banisteriopsis caapi and the shrub Psychotria viridis. This tea originates from the Amazon Basin where it is used in religious ceremonies. Because interest in these religious groups spreading as well as awareness of use of ayahuasca for therapeutic and recreational purposes, its use is increasing. Banisteriopsis caapi is rich in β-carbolines, especially harmine, tetrahydroharmine and harmaline, which have monoamine oxidase inhibiting (MAOI) activity. Psychotria viridis contains the 5HT2A/2C/1A receptor agonist hallucinogen N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Usual desired effects include hallucination, dissociation, mood alteration and perception change. Undesired findings previously reported are nausea, vomiting, hypertension, and tachycardia. All human exposure calls reported to the American Association of Poison Controls Centers' (AAPCC) National Poison Data System (NPDS) between September 1, 2005 and September 1, 2015 were reviewed. Cases were filtered for specific plant derived ayahuasca-related product codes. Abstracted data included the following: case age and gender, exposure reason, exposure route, clinical manifestations, treatments given, medical outcomes and fatality. Five hundred and thirty-eight exposures to ayahuasca botanical products were reported. The majority of the calls to poison control centers came from healthcare facilities (83%). The most common route of exposure was ingestion. Most cases were men (437, 81%, 95% CI 77.7% - 84.3%). The median age was 21 (IQR 18-29). Most exposures were acute. Three hundred thirty-seven (63%) were reported to have a major or moderate clinical effect. The most common clinical manifestations reported were hallucinations (35%), tachycardia (34%), agitation (34%), hypertension (16%), mydriasis (13%) and vomiting (6%). Benzodiazepines were commonly given (30%). There were 28 cases in the series who required endotracheal intubation (5

  8. Exposure to lateral collision in signalized intersections with protected left turn under different traffic control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midenet, Sophie; Saunier, Nicolas; Boillot, Florence

    2011-11-01

    This paper proposes an original definition of the exposure to lateral collision in signalized intersections and discusses the results of a real world experiment. This exposure is defined as the duration of situations where the stream that is given the right-of-way goes through the conflict zone while road users are waiting in the cross-traffic approach. This measure, obtained from video sensors, makes it possible to compare different operating conditions such as different traffic signal strategies. The data from a real world experiment is used, where the adaptive real-time strategy CRONOS (ContRol Of Networks by Optimization of Switchovers) and a time-plan strategy with vehicle-actuated ranges alternately controlled an isolated intersection near Paris. Hourly samples with similar traffic volumes are compared and the exposure to lateral collision is different in various areas of the intersection and various traffic conditions for the two strategies. The total exposure under peak hour traffic conditions drops by roughly 5 min/h with the CRONOS strategy compared to the time-plan strategy, which occurs mostly on entry streams. The results are analyzed through the decomposition of cycles in phase sequences and recommendations are made for traffic control strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Parallel auto-correlative statistics with VTK.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pebay, Philippe Pierre; Bennett, Janine Camille

    2013-08-01

    This report summarizes existing statistical engines in VTK and presents both the serial and parallel auto-correlative statistics engines. It is a sequel to [PT08, BPRT09b, PT09, BPT09, PT10] which studied the parallel descriptive, correlative, multi-correlative, principal component analysis, contingency, k-means, and order statistics engines. The ease of use of the new parallel auto-correlative statistics engine is illustrated by the means of C++ code snippets and algorithm verification is provided. This report justifies the design of the statistics engines with parallel scalability in mind, and provides scalability and speed-up analysis results for the autocorrelative statistics engine.

  10. Long-term exposure to noise impairs cortical sound processing and attention control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury; Winkler, Istvan; Saher, Marieke; Tervaniemi, Mari; Sallinen, Mikael; Teder-Sälejärvi, Wolfgang; Alho, Kimmo; Reinikainen, Kalevi; Näätänen, Risto

    2004-11-01

    Long-term exposure to noise impairs human health, causing pathological changes in the inner ear as well as other anatomical and physiological deficits. Numerous individuals are daily exposed to excessive noise. However, there is a lack of systematic research on the effects of noise on cortical function. Here we report data showing that long-term exposure to noise has a persistent effect on central auditory processing and leads to concurrent behavioral deficits. We found that speech-sound discrimination was impaired in noise-exposed individuals, as indicated by behavioral responses and the mismatch negativity brain response. Furthermore, irrelevant sounds increased the distractibility of the noise-exposed subjects, which was shown by increased interference in task performance and aberrant brain responses. These results demonstrate that long-term exposure to noise has long-lasting detrimental effects on central auditory processing and attention control.

  11. AutoCAD 2015 and AutoCAD LT 2015 essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Onstott, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for the AutoCAD fundamentals AutoCAD 2015 Essentials contains 400 pages of full-color, comprehensive instruction on the world's top drafting and architecture software. This 2015 edition features architectural, manufacturing, and landscape architecture examples. And like previous editions, the detailed guide introduces core concepts using interactive tutorials and open-ended projects, which can be completed in any order, thanks to downloadable data sets (an especially useful feature for students and professionals studying for Autodesk AutoCAD certification). Unlike man

  12. AutoCAD 2012 and AutoCAD LT 2012 No Experience Required

    CERN Document Server

    Gladfelter, Donnie

    2011-01-01

    The perfect step-by-step introduction to Autodesk's powerful architectural design software With this essential guide, you'll learn how to plan, develop, document, and present a complete AutoCAD project by building a summer cabin from start to finish. You can follow each step sequentially or jump in at any point by downloading the drawing files from the book's companion web site. You'll also master all essential AutoCAD features, get a thorough grounding in the basics, learn the very latest industry standards and techniques, and quickly become productive with AutoCAD 2012.Features concise expla

  13. An evaluation of retrofit engineering control interventions to reduce perchloroethylene exposures in commercial dry-cleaning shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, G Scott; Ewers, Lynda M; Ruder, Avima M; Petersen, Martin R; Kovein, Ronald J

    2002-02-01

    Real-time monitoring was used to evaluate the ability of engineering control devices retrofitted on two existing dry-cleaning machines to reduce worker exposures to perchloroethylene. In one dry-cleaning shop, a refrigerated condenser was installed on a machine that had a water-cooled condenser to reduce the air temperature, improve vapor recovery, and lower exposures. In a second shop, a carbon adsorber was retrofitted on a machine to adsorb residual perchloroethylene not collected by the existing refrigerated condenser to improve vapor recovery and reduce exposures. Both controls were successful at reducing the perchloroethylene exposures of the dry-cleaning machine operator. Real-time monitoring was performed to evaluate how the engineering controls affected exposures during loading and unloading the dry-cleaning machine, a task generally considered to account for the highest exposures. The real-time monitoring showed that dramatic reductions occurred in exposures during loading and unloading of the dry-cleaning machine due to the engineering controls. Peak operator exposures during loading and unloading were reduced by 60 percent in the shop that had a refrigerated condenser installed on the dry-cleaning machine and 92 percent in the shop that had a carbon adsorber installed. Although loading and unloading exposures were dramatically reduced, drops in full-shift time-weighted average (TWA) exposures were less dramatic. TWA exposures to perchloroethylene, as measured by conventional air sampling, showed smaller reductions in operator exposures of 28 percent or less. Differences between exposure results from real-time and conventional air sampling very likely resulted from other uncontrolled sources of exposure, differences in shop general ventilation before and after the control was installed, relatively small sample sizes, and experimental variability inherent in field research. Although there were some difficulties and complications with installation and

  14. Evaluation of exposure limits to toxic gases for nuclear reactor control room operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlum, D.D.; Sasser, L.B.

    1991-07-01

    We have evaluated ammonia, chlorine, Halon (actually a generic name for several halogenated hydro-carbons), and sulfur dioxide for their possible effects during an acute two-minute exposure in order to derive recommendations for maximum exposure levels. To perform this evaluation, we conducted a search to find the most pertinent literature regarding toxicity in humans and in experimental animals. Much of the literature is at least a decade old, not an unexpected finding since acute exposures are less often performed now than they were a few years ago. In most cases, the studies did not specifically examine the effects of two-minute exposures; thus, extrapolations had to be made from studies of longer-exposure periods. Whenever possible, we gave the greatest weight to human data, with experimental animal data serving to strengthen the conclusion arrived at from consideration of the human data. Although certain individuals show hypersensitivity to materials like sulfur dioxide, we have not attempted to factor this information into the recommendations. After our evaluation of the data in the literature, we held a small workshop. Major participants in this workshop were three consultants, all of whom were Diplomates of the American Board of Toxicology, and staff from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Our preliminary recommendations for two-minute exposure limits and the rationale for them were discussed and consensus reached on final recommendations. These recommendations are: (1) ammonia-300 to 400-ppm; (2) chlorine-30 ppm; (3) Halon 1301-5%; Halon 1211-2%; and (4) sulfur dioxide-100 ppm. Control room operators should be able to tolerate two-minute exposures to these levels, don fresh-air masks, and continue to operate the reactor if the toxic material is eliminated, or safely shut down the reactor if the toxic gas remains. 96 refs., 9 tabs

  15. Repeated cocaine exposure facilitates the expression of incentive motivation and induces habitual control in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly H LeBlanc

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that mere exposure to drugs can induce long-term alterations in the neural systems that mediate reward processing, motivation, and behavioral control, potentially causing the pathological pursuit of drugs that characterizes the addicted state. The incentive sensitization theory proposes that drug exposure potentiates the influence of reward-paired cues on behavior. It has also been suggested that drug exposure biases action selection towards the automatic execution of habits and away from more deliberate goal-directed control. The current study investigated whether rats given repeated exposure to peripherally administered cocaine would show alterations in incentive motivation (assayed using the Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT paradigm or habit formation (assayed using sensitivity to reward devaluation. After instrumental and Pavlovian training for food pellet rewards, rats were given 6 daily injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg, IP or saline, followed by a 10-d period of rest. Consistent with the incentive sensitization theory, cocaine-treated rats showed stronger cue-evoked lever pressing than saline-treated rats during the PIT test. The same rats were then trained on a new instrumental action with a new food pellet reward before undergoing a reward devaluation testing. Although saline-treated rats exhibited sensitivity to reward devaluation, indicative of goal-directed performance, cocaine-treated rats were insensitive to this treatment, suggesting a reliance on habitual processes. These findings, when taken together, indicate that repeated exposure to cocaine can cause broad alterations in behavioral control, spanning both motivational and action selection processes, and could therefore help explain aberrations of decision-making that underlie drug addiction.

  16. Repeated cocaine exposure facilitates the expression of incentive motivation and induces habitual control in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Kimberly H; Maidment, Nigel T; Ostlund, Sean B

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that mere exposure to drugs can induce long-term alterations in the neural systems that mediate reward processing, motivation, and behavioral control, potentially causing the pathological pursuit of drugs that characterizes the addicted state. The incentive sensitization theory proposes that drug exposure potentiates the influence of reward-paired cues on behavior. It has also been suggested that drug exposure biases action selection towards the automatic execution of habits and away from more deliberate goal-directed control. The current study investigated whether rats given repeated exposure to peripherally administered cocaine would show alterations in incentive motivation (assayed using the Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm) or habit formation (assayed using sensitivity to reward devaluation). After instrumental and Pavlovian training for food pellet rewards, rats were given 6 daily injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg, IP) or saline, followed by a 10-d period of rest. Consistent with the incentive sensitization theory, cocaine-treated rats showed stronger cue-evoked lever pressing than saline-treated rats during the PIT test. The same rats were then trained on a new instrumental action with a new food pellet reward before undergoing a reward devaluation testing. Although saline-treated rats exhibited sensitivity to reward devaluation, indicative of goal-directed performance, cocaine-treated rats were insensitive to this treatment, suggesting a reliance on habitual processes. These findings, when taken together, indicate that repeated exposure to cocaine can cause broad alterations in behavioral control, spanning both motivational and action selection processes, and could therefore help explain aberrations of decision-making that underlie drug addiction.

  17. Auto Body Repair 103, 203, 303.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    As part of the high school vocational industrial program in Manitoba, this course has been designed to provide students with the foundation for a career in auto-body repair. The program introduces and provides opportunities for student skill development in the theories and techniques of tool and equipment operation, metallurgy and welding, damage…

  18. Mathematical model of three winding auto transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volcko, V.; Eleschova, Z.; Belan, A.; Janiga, P.

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the design of mathematical model of three-winding auto transformer for steady state analyses. The article is focused on model simplicity for the purposes of the use in complex transmission systems and authenticity of the model taking into account different types of step-voltage regulator. (Authors)

  19. Auto Euroopa Liidus kallim / Sulev Oll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oll, Sulev, 1964-

    2001-01-01

    Euroopa Liiduga liitumisel tuleb uue auto eest välja käia vähemalt 10 000 krooni rohkem, kuna plaanide kohaselt ei tohi liikmesriikides autode hinnaerinevused ületada 12%. Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti, 28. märts 2001, lk. 7

  20. A Primary Talkk about Chinese Auto Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    <正> Along with the completion of the second phase of the socialist modernization construction in 2000, China is starting to initiate the Tenth Five-Year Plan. 2001-2005 will be a key period during which China is supposed to build the third strategic objective It is also an extraordinary period for Chinese auto industry to bring in line with international practice.

  1. The Marketing Channels of China Auto Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    our reporter

    2001-01-01

    <正> After the 1990’s, the multi-channel structure of sales has still existed although the market mechanism is playing a main role in Chinese auto marketing circulation. Now, the channels of automobile marketing in China are as follows: 1. Manufacturer-established marketing channels

  2. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multipl...

  3. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Meditation Compared to Exposure Therapy and Education Control on PTSD in Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    score >45. Exclusion criteria: Service related trauma within last 3 months, history of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder , dementia, moderate or severe...7.7% 0.0% 8.3% 0.191 Bipolar disorder , % 7.7% 10.3% 13.9% 0.681 Substance use disorder , % 30.8% 43.6% 41.7% 0.458 Major depressive disorder ...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0576 TITLE: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Meditation Compared to Exposure Therapy and Education Control on PTSD in

  4. Auto-correlograms and auto-regressive models of trace metal distributions in Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Auto-correlation technique has been applied to study fluctuations in concentration profiles of chemical species in Cochin Backwaters (Kerala, India). No stability in time can be detected for particulate Mn at all stations, for Fe at stations 1...

  5. Phototimer for automatic control of x-ray exposure, PT-20A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, H; Itoh, K; Ogura, I; Yasuhara, H; Sugimoto, H [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1979-02-01

    The phototimer as an exposure control device is now required to have higher accuracy and wider range of control to comply with the recent trends of x-ray diagnosis, such as toward short-time exposure due to increased output power of x-ray apparatus and toward one-man operation. In order to meet the requirement, the x-ray characteristics of the components of the phototimer have been examined, and computer simulation of x-ray spectra and dynamic characteristics of every component have been investigated, in pursuit of the essential characters of phototimers. On the basis of these analytical investigations, the phototimer PT-20A is so designed as to compensate for density deviation under various kVp and object thickness: uniform density has been obtained under practical radiographic conditions.

  6. Rational Thoughts on the Development of Chinese Auto Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Qihui

    2004-01-01

    @@ In order to keep the steady, fast and sustainable development of auto industry, we should have an overall knowledge of the history and current situation of the world auto industry, and have a correct strategic planning and scientific measures towards the Chinese auto industry.

  7. 46 CFR 78.19-1 - Use of auto pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of auto pilot. 78.19-1 Section 78.19-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Auto Pilot § 78.19-1 Use of auto pilot. Except as provided in 33 CFR 164.15, when the automatic pilot is used in— (a...

  8. 46 CFR 97.16-1 - Use of auto pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of auto pilot. 97.16-1 Section 97.16-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Auto Pilot § 97.16-1 Use of auto pilot. Except as provided in 33 CFR 164.15, when the automatic pilot is used...

  9. Efficiency calibration of solid track spark auto counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mei; Wen Zhongwei; Lin Jufang; Liu Rong; Jiang Li; Lu Xinxin; Zhu Tonghua

    2008-01-01

    The factors influencing detection efficiency of solid track spark auto counter were analyzed, and the best etch condition and parameters of charge were also reconfirmed. With small plate fission ionization chamber, the efficiency of solid track spark auto counter at various experiment assemblies was re-calibrated. The efficiency of solid track spark auto counter at various experimental conditions was obtained. (authors)

  10. Common sole larvae survive high levels of pile-driving sound in controlled exposure experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes J Bolle

    Full Text Available In view of the rapid extension of offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge on possible adverse effects of underwater sound generated by pile-driving. Mortality and injuries have been observed in fish exposed to loud impulse sounds, but knowledge on the sound levels at which (sub-lethal effects occur is limited for juvenile and adult fish, and virtually non-existent for fish eggs and larvae. A device was developed in which fish larvae can be exposed to underwater sound. It consists of a rigid-walled cylindrical chamber driven by an electro-dynamical sound projector. Samples of up to 100 larvae can be exposed simultaneously to a homogeneously distributed sound pressure and particle velocity field. Recorded pile-driving sounds could be reproduced accurately in the frequency range between 50 and 1000 Hz, at zero to peak pressure levels up to 210 dB re 1µPa(2 (zero to peak pressures up to 32 kPa and single pulse sound exposure levels up to 186 dB re 1µPa(2s. The device was used to examine lethal effects of sound exposure in common sole (Solea solea larvae. Different developmental stages were exposed to various levels and durations of pile-driving sound. The highest cumulative sound exposure level applied was 206 dB re 1µPa(2s, which corresponds to 100 strikes at a distance of 100 m from a typical North Sea pile-driving site. The results showed no statistically significant differences in mortality between exposure and control groups at sound exposure levels which were well above the US interim criteria for non-auditory tissue damage in fish. Although our findings cannot be extrapolated to fish larvae in general, as interspecific differences in vulnerability to sound exposure may occur, they do indicate that previous assumptions and criteria may need to be revised.

  11. Models for retrospective quantification of indoor radon exposure in case-control studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerken, M.; Kreienbrock, L.; Wellmann, J.; Kreuzer, M.; Wichmann, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    In epidemiologic studies on lung cancer risk due to indoor radon the quantification of individual radon exposure over a long time period is one of the main issues. Therefore, radon measurements in one or more dwellings, which in total have been inhabited by the participants for a sufficient time-period, are necessary as well as consideration of changes of building characteristics and ventilation habits, which influence radon concentration. Given data on 1-y alpha-track measurements and personal information from 6,000 participants of case-control studies in West and East Germany, and improved method is developed to assess individual radon exposure histories. Times spent in different rooms of the dwelling, which are known from a personal questionnaire, are taken into account. The time spent outside the house varies substantially among the participants. Therefore, assuming a substantially lower radon exposure outside the dwelling, the residence time constitutes an important aspect of total radon exposure. By means of an analysis of variance, important determinants of indoor radon are identified, namely constant conditions such as type of house, type of construction, year of construction, floor and type of basement, and changeable conditions such as heating system, window insulation, and airing habits. A correction of measurements in former dwellings by factors derived from the analysis is applied if current living conditions differ from those of the participants at the time when they were living in the particular dwellings. In rare cases the adjustment for changes leads to a correction of the measurements with a factor of about 1.4, but a reduction of 5% on average only. Exposure assessment can be improved by considering time at home and changes of building and ventilation conditions that affect radon concentration. The major concern that changes in ventilation habits and building conditions lead to substantial errors in exposure assessment cannot be confirmed in the

  12. System composition and operation of exposure dose registration and control system (Final report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Since November, 1976, the committee concerning the investigation of exposure dose registration and control system for employees in nuclear industries has discussed on the exposure dose registration and control system, issued the interim report (outline) in April, 1977, and continued to investigate the details organizing the working group. Here, the final report is presented. It describes first on the definition of the terms used and the basic concept of the exposure dose registration and control system, in which the name of that organization is decided as ''Central Registration Office for Radiation Works'', Radiation Influence Association, the foundational juridical person. Next, the works to be performed in the Center and nuclear energy enterprises are explained. The items concerning the business management at the time of practical execution are the major part of the report, and are over 22 items. These include the registration business, the official reporting business, inquiry and answer business about career, change and revision, and computer processing system. As the temporary measures for transfer ring to the new system, 10 items are also provided. Supplementary explanation of 9 important items is given in the appendix. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  13. Internet-Delivered Exposure Therapy for Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman-Lagerlöf, Maria; Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik; Axelsson, Erland; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Engelbrektsson, Johanna; Hultkrantz, Sofia; Lundbäck, Karolina; Björkander, Daniel; Wicksell, Rikard K; Flink, Ida; Andersson, Erik

    2018-06-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common and disabling chronic pain disorder, for which existing pharmacological and psychological treatments have yet yielded insufficient effects. Previous literature has shown that exposure therapy may be an effective treatment for chronic pain. This study constitutes the first randomized controlled trial evaluating exposure therapy for FM. A total of 140 participants with diagnosed FM were randomized to a 10-week Internet-delivered exposure treatment (iExp; n=70) or a waitlist control condition (WLC; n=70). Primary outcome measure were FM symptoms and impact, and secondary outcome measures were fatigue, disability, quality of life, pain-related distress and avoidance behaviors, insomnia, depression, and anxiety. Data retention was high (100% data completion at posttreatment for primary outcome, 96% at 6-month follow-up and 94% at 12-month follow-up). Results showed that participants in the iExp group made large and superior improvements compared with WLC on FM symptoms and impact (B, -1.93; z, -10.14; P<0.001, between-group Cohen d=0.90), as well as all secondary outcomes (between-group Cohen d ranging from 0.44 to 1.38) with sustained results. We conclude that iExp seems to be an efficacious treatment for FM compared with no treatment, and the results also highlight the potential increase of accessibility by using the Internet format to deliver psychological treatments for these patients. Future trials with active control conditions are warranted.

  14. Self-Image Development: A Chicano Enfasis. Self-Programmed Counseling and Self-Programmed Control. Instructor's Guide = Desarrollo de la Imagen Propia: Enfasis en el Chicano. Sistema de Consejo y Control Auto-Programado. Manuel del Profesor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, S. Raymond

    Self-Programmed Counseling, the instructor's guidance, and Self-Programmed Control (SPC), the student's response, was initially developed by Title III Project USTED (United Students and Teachers for Educational Development) for Mexican American students on academic probation to use on a non-credit, special group counseling basis. As part of a…

  15. Parenteral exposure to pesticides and occurence of congenital malformations: hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueker, Marly Eliane; Silva, Vivianne Monteiro; Moi, Gisele Pedroso; Pignati, Wanderley Antonio; Mattos, Ines Echenique; Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido

    2016-08-12

    Most fetal defects are associated with genetic and environmental causes, among them, exposure of pregnant women to intensive pesticide use. Agribusiness is the economic basis of the state of Mato Grosso, the largest consumer of pesticides of all Brazilian states. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between past parental exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of congenital malformations in children in Mato Grosso, Brazil. This hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Cuiabá, the capital of Mato Grosso, from March to October 2011. Data was collected in all public, private, and health plan referral hospitals that provide care for pregnant women in the state of Mato Grosso and were situated in Cuiabá. Cases were children under 5 years of age with congenital malformations classified in Chapter XVIII of the International Classification of Diseases-10 and controls were children within the same age range, without congenital malformations, treated at the same hospitals. Malformation-related data was obtained from the patients' medical records. Socioeconomic data and information about parental exposure to pesticides were obtained in an interview with the mother using a standardized questionnaire. We conducted multivariate logistic regression to assess the relation between parent report of past pesticide use and congenital malformations. We also assessed effect modification to verify whether low maternal education level modified the association between exposure and our outcome. We observed positive effect modification of the association of paternal past exposure to pesticide and congenital malformation in the offspring by maternal education for mothers with low educational level (OR = 8.40, 95 % CI 2.17-32.52), father's work related to farming (OR = 4.65, 95 % CI 1.03-20.98) and paternal past exposure to pesticides (OR = 4.15, 95 % CI 1.24-13.66). These findings provide further evidence that paternal exposure to

  16. Control in personnel exposure of RCD/FCD facility RLG during the period 2005 - 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murali, S.; Thanamani, S.; Sapkal, J.A.; Bairwa, Satya Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Radio Chemistry Wing, RLG, houses Radio Chemistry Division and Fuel Chemistry Division and certain common utility services. The personnel in the facility carry out radiochemical operations involving isotopes of Pu and other actinides. The HP Unit, Radio Chemistry Wing provides essential safety coverage to the personnel of the facility. The lab personnel of RCD/FCD facility at RLG carry out active operations, such operations held in suitable containment systems, under the HP supervision by RHC Unit advising safe work practices. The lab personnel are provided with monitoring programmes viz. TLD, Bio-assay and Lung counting periodically. Presently the dose limit for occupational exposure is 20 mSv per annum with 100 mSv for 5 consecutive calendar years. The present paper on TLD dose report enlists the details of the personnel exposure year wise and highlights the control in personnel exposure due to the safe procedures followed. The decreasing trend in the average personnel exposure over the period 2005 - 2008 validates the practice of adherence to safety procedures, though the amount of activity handled in the facility has increased by a few folds

  17. Metabolic syndrome and occupation: Any association? Prevalence among auto technicians and school teachers in South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintunde, Adeseye A; Oloyede, Taiwo W

    2017-11-01

    To determine occupational association with metabolic syndrome among auto technicians and school teachers. One hundred and sixty six subjects were selected for this study. Clinical data was obtained while laboratory investigations including plasma glucose and lipid profile were performed. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS 20.0. Pauto technicians. Mean serum triglycerides was significantly higher among auto-technicians compared to school teachers in this study. The prevalence of some conventional cardiovascular risk factors was significantly higher among auto-technicians compared to school teachers: Impaired blood glucose (9.6% vs. 1.2%, pauto-technicians. Based on the WHO and the Harmonized criteria, metabolic syndrome was more frequent among auto-technicians compared to school teachers. (8.4% vs. 1.2% and 19.3% vs. 7.2% respectively, pauto technicians despite their high level of physical activity, exertion and education compared to teachers. This may be related to the increased occupational exposure to organic and inorganic materials from dust particles, oil and oil related matter and particulate matter among auto technicians. Prompt definitive evaluation of this concept and appropriate health education to encourage safety mechanism can reduce this burden of metabolic syndrome among auto technicians in Nigeria. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. What are the 'ideal' features of an adrenaline (epinephrine) auto-injector in the treatment of anaphylaxis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, A J

    2011-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a systemic allergic reaction that often involves respiratory symptoms and cardiovascular collapse, which are potentially life-threatening if not treated promptly with intramuscular adrenaline. Owing to the unpredictable nature of anaphylaxis and accidental exposure to allergens (such as peanuts and shellfish), patients should be prescribed intramuscular adrenaline auto-injectors and carry these with them at all times. Patients also need to be able to use their auto-injectors correctly while under high stress, when an anaphylactic attack occurs. Despite this, an alarming number of patients fail to carry their auto-injectors and many patients, carers of children with known anaphylaxis and healthcare professionals do not know how to use the device correctly, despite having had training. Currently available auto-injector devices have various limitations that may impede their use in the management of anaphylaxis. There is also a lack of validated assessment criteria and regulatory requirements for new devices. This review describes the different delivery systems used in currently available auto-injectors and discusses the key barriers to the use of adrenaline auto-injectors, with the goal of identifying the 'ideal' features/characteristics of such devices in the emergency treatment of anaphylaxis that will ensure ease of use, portability and accurate delivery of a life-saving drug. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Exposure to and recall of violence reduce short-term memory and cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogliacino, Francesco; Grimalda, Gianluca; Ortoleva, Pietro; Ring, Patrick

    2017-08-08

    Previous research has investigated the effects of violence and warfare on individuals' well-being, mental health, and individual prosociality and risk aversion. This study establishes the short- and long-term effects of exposure to violence on short-term memory and aspects of cognitive control. Short-term memory is the ability to store information. Cognitive control is the capacity to exert inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Both have been shown to affect positively individual well-being and societal development. We sampled Colombian civilians who were exposed either to urban violence or to warfare more than a decade earlier. We assessed exposure to violence through either the urban district-level homicide rate or self-reported measures. Before undertaking cognitive tests, a randomly selected subset of our sample was asked to recall emotions of anxiety and fear connected to experiences of violence, whereas the rest recalled joyful or emotionally neutral experiences. We found that higher exposure to violence was associated with lower short-term memory abilities and lower cognitive control in the group recalling experiences of violence, whereas it had no effect in the other group. This finding demonstrates that exposure to violence, even if a decade earlier, can hamper cognitive functions, but only among individuals actively recalling emotional states linked with such experiences. A laboratory experiment conducted in Germany aimed to separate the effect of recalling violent events from the effect of emotions of fear and anxiety. Both factors had significant negative effects on cognitive functions and appeared to be independent from each other.

  20. Bone marrow function. I. Peripheral T cells are responsible for the increased auto-antiidiotype response of older mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.T.; Goidl, E.A.; Samarut, C.; Weksler, M.E.; Thorbecke, G.J.; Siskind, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    After immunization with trinitrophenyl (TNP)-Ficoll, mice produced both anti-TNP antibodies and auto-anti-idiotype (auto-anti-Id) antibodies specific for the anti-TNP antibody. Older animals produced more auto-anti-Id than did young animals. When mice were exposed to a normally lethal dose of irradiation while their bone marrow (BM) was partially shielded, they survived and slowly (6 wk) regained immune function, as indicated by the number of nucleated cells in their spleen and the in vitro primary plaque-forming cell (PFC) response of their spleen cells to TNP-treated aminoethylated polyacrylamide beads. Recovery is presumably the result of repopulation of the peripheral lymphoid system by cells originating in the BM. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and by hapten-augmentable PFC assay, the authors show that, after recovery from irradiation with their BM shielded, old animals produce low auto-anti-Id responses, like those of young animals. The transfer of splenic T cells into mice irradiated with their BM shielded provided evidence that the magnitude of the auto-anti-Id response is controlled by the peripheral T cells. Thus, mice that received splenic T cells from aged donors produced high levels of auto-anti-Id while those that received splenic T cells from young donors produce low levels of auto-anti-Id

  1. Dialogical Exposure with Traumatically Bereaved Bosnian Women: Findings from a Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagl, Maria; Powell, Steve; Rosner, Rita; Butollo, Willi

    2015-01-01

    In this trial, we compared the relative efficacy of dialogical exposure group treatment using Gestalt empty-chair method with a supportive group in the treatment of symptoms stemming from traumatic loss in a post-war society. One-hundred and nineteen women whose husbands were either killed or registered as missing during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina were quasi-randomized to seven sessions of group treatment with dialogical exposure or to an active control condition. Both interventions resulted in significant improvement from baseline to post-treatment for both kinds of loss, in terms of post-traumatic symptoms, general mental health and grief reactions, with the exception of depression and traumatic grief in the control condition. Regarding mean effect sizes (Cohen's d), pre-treatment to post-treatment improvements were moderate (d = 0.56) for the dialogical exposure group and small (d = 0.34) for the supportive group. Treatment gains were maintained at least until the 1-year follow-up. In controlled comparisons, dialogical exposure was superior concerning traumatic grief (Cohen's d = 0.37) and post-traumatic avoidance (d = 0.73) at post-treatment. Results show that short-term dialogical exposure group treatment was moderately effective in treating traumatically bereaved women. Research attests to high levels of symptoms among post-war civil populations, in particular, when a loved one was killed, which can lead not only to trauma reactions but also to severe separation distress. Grieving the loss of a loved one is hampered if the death remains unconfirmed. Unconfirmed loss could be conceptualized as unfinished business in terms of Gestalt therapy, which offers empty-chair dialogue for resolving unfinished business and grief. Dialogical exposure therapy (DET) supports the client in gaining awareness of and expressing his or her inner dialogues concerning the traumatic event, using Gestalt empty-chair method. Short-term DET was effective in

  2. Berkson error adjustment and other exposure surrogates in occupational case-control studies, with application to the Canadian INTEROCC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraby, Tamer; Sivaganesan, Siva; Bowman, Joseph D; Kincl, Laurel; Richardson, Lesley; McBride, Mary; Siemiatycki, Jack; Cardis, Elisabeth; Krewski, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    Many epidemiological studies assessing the relationship between exposure and disease are carried out without data on individual exposures. When this barrier is encountered in occupational studies, the subject exposures are often evaluated with a job-exposure matrix (JEM), which consists of mean exposure for occupational categories measured on a comparable group of workers. One of the objectives of the seven-country case-control study of occupational exposure and brain cancer risk, INTEROCC, was to investigate the relationship of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in different frequency ranges and brain cancer risk. In this paper, we use the Canadian data from INTEROCC to estimate the odds of developing brain tumours due to occupational exposure to EMF. The first step was to find the best EMF exposure surrogate among the arithmetic mean, the geometric mean, and the mean of log-normal exposure distribution for each occupation in the JEM, in comparison to Berkson error adjustments via numerical approximation of the likelihood function. Contrary to previous studies of Berkson errors in JEMs, we found that the geometric mean was the best exposure surrogate. This analysis provided no evidence that cumulative lifetime exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields increases brain cancer risk, a finding consistent with other recent epidemiological studies.

  3. Exposure and non-fear emotions: A randomized controlled study of exposure-based and rescripting-based imagery in PTSD treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkaas, Tomas Formo; Hoffart, Asle; Øktedalen, Tuva; Ulvenes, Pål G; Hembree, Elizabeth A; Smucker, Mervin

    2017-10-01

    Interventions involving rescripting-based imagery have been proposed as a better approach than exposure-based imagery when posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with emotions other than fear. Prior research led to the study's hypotheses that (a) higher pretreatment non-fear emotions would predict relatively better response to rescripting as compared to exposure, (b) rescripting would be associated with greater reduction in non-fear emotions, and (c) pretreatment non-fear emotions would predict poor response to exposure. A clinically representative sample of 65 patients presenting a wide range of traumas was recruited from patients seeking and being offered PTSD treatment in an inpatient setting. Subjects were randomly assigned to 10 weeks of treatment involving either rescripting-based imagery (Imagery Rescripting; IR) or exposure-based imagery (Prolonged Exposure; PE). Patients were assessed on outcome and emotion measures at pretreatment, posttreatment and 12 months follow-up. Comparison to control benchmarks indicated that both treatments were effective, but no outcome differences between them appeared. None of the initial hypotheses were supported. The results from this study challenge previous observations and hypotheses about exposure mainly being effective for fear-based PTSD and strengthen the notion that exposure-based treatment is a generally effective treatment for all types of PTSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimization (Alara) and probabilistic exposures: the application of optimization criteria to the control of risks due to exposures of a probabilistic nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The paper described the application of the principles of optimization recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to the restrain of radiation risks due to exposures that may or may not be incurred and to which a probability of occurrence can be assigned. After describing the concept of probabilistic exposures, it proposes a basis for a converging policy of control for both certain and probabilistic exposures, namely the dose-risk relationship adopted for radiation protection purposes. On that basis some coherent approaches for dealing with probabilistic exposures, such as the limitation of individual risks, are discussed. The optimization of safety for reducing all risks from probabilistic exposures to as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) levels is reviewed in full. The principles of optimization of protection are used as a basic framework and the relevant factors to be taken into account when moving to probabilistic exposures are presented. The paper also reviews the decision-aiding techniques suitable for performing optimization with particular emphasis to the multi-attribute utility-analysis technique. Finally, there is a discussion on some practical application of decision-aiding multi-attribute utility analysis to probabilistic exposures including the use of probabilistic utilities. In its final outlook, the paper emphasizes the need for standardization and solutions to generic problems, if optimization of safety is to be successful

  5. Evaluation of exposure to pioglitazone and risk of prostate cancer: a nested case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, Naomi; Bennett, Dimitri; Hunger, Matthias; Dolin, Paul; Thompson, Paula L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Investigate potential association between pioglitazone exposure and risk of prostate cancer. Research design and methods Nested, matched case–control study. UK primary care data (Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) GOLD) linked to inpatient (Hospital Episode Statistics (HES)) and cancer registry (National Cancer Information Network (NCIN)) data. English men aged ≥40 years diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, January 1, 2001 to January 5, 2015. Cases, with prostate cancer diagnosis, matched with up to 4 controls by age, cohort entry date and region. ORs for association of exposure to pioglitazone to incident prostate cancer, adjusted for potential confounders. Results From a cohort of 47 772 men with 243 923 person-years follow-up, 756 definite cases of prostate cancer were identified. Incidence was 309.9/100 000 person-years (95% CI 288.6 to 332.8). Pioglitazone use was not associated with prostate cancer risk; adjusted OR 0.759, 95% CI 0.502 to 1.148. Analyses showed no difference when possible cases, prostate cancer in CPRD GOLD only, included (adjusted OR 0.726, 95% CI 0.510 to 1.034). No association when adjusted for channeling bias (OR 0.778, 95% CI 0.511 to 1.184) or limited to an index date prior to July 1, 2011 (adjusted OR 0.508, 95% CI 0.294 to 0.879), despite prostate-specific antigen screening occurring more frequently among cases than controls (81.6% of 756 definite cases cf. 24.2% of 2942 controls (pworld, nested matched case–control study, exposure to pioglitazone was not associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. PMID:28074141

  6. Radiation exposure monitoring and control in front-end fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    The front end nuclear fuel cycle facilities presently operational in India are the mining and processing of beach mineral sands along the southern coast of Kerala, Tamilnadu and Orissa, mining and processing of uranium ore in Singhbhum-East in Jharkhand and refining and fuel fabrication at Hyderabad and Trombay. Dedicated Health Physics Units set up at each site regularly carry out in-plant and personnel monitoring to ensure safe working conditions and evaluate radiation exposure of workers and advise appropriate control measures. External gamma radiation, radon, thoron, their progeny and airborne long-lived activity due to radioactive dust are monitored. Personal dosimeters are also issued to workers. The total radiation exposure of workers from external and internal sources is evaluated from the plant and personal monitoring data. Provision of adequate ventilation, control of dust and spillage of active solutions, prompt decontamination, use of personal protective appliances and worker education are the key factors in keeping the doses to the workers well within the regulatory limits. It has been observed that the total radiation dose to workers has been well below 20 mSv.y - 1 at all stages of operations. The monitoring methodologies and summary of radiation exposure data for different facilities during the last few years are presented in the paper. (author)

  7. Case-control study of tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Delaware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathcock H Leroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the evidence supporting the association is inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study in Delaware, incorporating detailed exposure assessment for active and secondhand smoke at home and in the workplace. Methods Primary invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed among female Delaware residents, ages 40–79, in 2000–2002 were identified through the Delaware cancer registry (n = 287. Delaware drivers license and Health Care Finance Administration records were used to select age frequency-matched controls for women Results A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was observed for ever having smoked cigarettes (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–1.99. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between breast cancer risk and total years smoked, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Neither residential nor workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with breast cancer. Recalculations of active smoking risks using a purely unexposed reference group of women who were not exposed to active or secondhand smoking did not indicate increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusion These findings do not support an association between smoking and breast cancer.

  8. A Case–Control Study of Prenatal Thallium Exposure and Low Birth Weight in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Du, Xiaofu; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Bin; Li, Yuanyuan; Bassig, Bryan A.; Zhou, Aifen; Wang, Youjie; Xiong, Chao; Li, Zhengkuan; Yao, Yuanxiang; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Yanqiu; Liu, Juan; Xue, Weiyan; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xinyun; Peng, Yang; Xu, Shunqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal widely present in the environment. Case reports have suggested that maternal exposure to high levels of Tl during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight (LBW), but epidemiological data are limited. Objectives This study was designed to evaluate whether prenatal Tl exposure is associated with an increased risk of LBW. Methods This case–control study involving 816 study participants (204 LBW cases and 612 matched controls) was conducted in Hubei Province, China, in 2012–2014. Tl concentrations were measured in maternal urine collected at delivery, and associations with LBW were evaluated using conditional logistic regression. Results Higher maternal urinary Tl levels were significantly associated with increased risk of LBW [crude odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.30 for the highest vs. lowest tertile], and the association was similarly elevated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.58 for the highest vs. lowest tertile). Stratified analyses showed slightly higher risk estimates for LBW associated with higher Tl levels for mothers thallium exposure and low birth weight in China. Environ Health Perspect 124:164–169; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409202 PMID:26009470

  9. A Case-Control Study of Prenatal Thallium Exposure and Low Birth Weight in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Du, Xiaofu; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Bin; Li, Yuanyuan; Bassig, Bryan A; Zhou, Aifen; Wang, Youjie; Xiong, Chao; Li, Zhengkuan; Yao, Yuanxiang; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Yanqiu; Liu, Juan; Xue, Weiyan; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xinyun; Peng, Yang; Xu, Shunqing

    2016-01-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal widely present in the environment. Case reports have suggested that maternal exposure to high levels of Tl during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight (LBW), but epidemiological data are limited. This study was designed to evaluate whether prenatal Tl exposure is associated with an increased risk of LBW. This case-control study involving 816 study participants (204 LBW cases and 612 matched controls) was conducted in Hubei Province, China, in 2012-2014. Tl concentrations were measured in maternal urine collected at delivery, and associations with LBW were evaluated using conditional logistic regression. Higher maternal urinary Tl levels were significantly associated with increased risk of LBW [crude odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.30 for the highest vs. lowest tertile], and the association was similarly elevated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.58 for the highest vs. lowest tertile). Stratified analyses showed slightly higher risk estimates for LBW associated with higher Tl levels for mothers thallium exposure and low birth weight in China. Environ Health Perspect 124:164-169; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409202.

  10. Auto-optimisation for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, V.W.C.; Kwong, D.W.L.; Sham, J.S.T.; Mui, A.W.L.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of auto-optimisation in the treatment planning of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Twenty-nine NPC patients were planned by both forward planning and auto-optimisation methods. The forward plans, which consisted of three coplanar facial fields, were produced according to the routine planning criteria. The auto-optimised plans, which consisted of 5-15 (median 9) fields, were generated by the planning system after prescribing the dose requirements and the importance weightings of the planning target volume and organs at risk. Plans produced by the two planning methods were compared by the dose volume histogram, tumour control probability (TCP), conformity index and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: The auto-optimised plans reduced the average planner's time by over 35 min. It demonstrated better TCP and conformity index than the forward plans (P=0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Besides, the parotid gland and temporo-mandibular (TM) joint were better spared with the mean dose reduction of 31.8 and 17.7%, respectively. The slight trade off was the mild dose increase in spinal cord and brain stem with their maximum doses remaining within the tolerance limits. Conclusions: The findings demonstrated the potentials of auto-optimisation for improving target dose and parotid sparing in the 3DCRT of NPC with saving of the planner's time

  11. Auto-optimisation for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, V.W.C. E-mail: orvinwu@polyu.edu.hk; Kwong, D.W.L.; Sham, J.S.T.; Mui, A.W.L

    2003-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of auto-optimisation in the treatment planning of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Twenty-nine NPC patients were planned by both forward planning and auto-optimisation methods. The forward plans, which consisted of three coplanar facial fields, were produced according to the routine planning criteria. The auto-optimised plans, which consisted of 5-15 (median 9) fields, were generated by the planning system after prescribing the dose requirements and the importance weightings of the planning target volume and organs at risk. Plans produced by the two planning methods were compared by the dose volume histogram, tumour control probability (TCP), conformity index and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: The auto-optimised plans reduced the average planner's time by over 35 min. It demonstrated better TCP and conformity index than the forward plans (P=0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Besides, the parotid gland and temporo-mandibular (TM) joint were better spared with the mean dose reduction of 31.8 and 17.7%, respectively. The slight trade off was the mild dose increase in spinal cord and brain stem with their maximum doses remaining within the tolerance limits. Conclusions: The findings demonstrated the potentials of auto-optimisation for improving target dose and parotid sparing in the 3DCRT of NPC with saving of the planner's time.

  12. [Investigation of radiation dose for lower tube voltage CT using automatic exposure control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Mitsuo; Matsubara, Kousuke; Koshida, Kichirou; Tarohda, Tohru

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate radiation dose for lower tube voltage CT using automatic exposure control (AEC). An acrylic body phantom was used, and volume CT dose indices (CTDIvol) for tube voltages of 80, 100, 120, and 135 kV were investigated with combination of AEC. Average absorbed dose in the abdomen for 100 and 120 kV were also measured using thermoluminescence dosimeters. In addition, we examined noise characteristics under the same absorbed doses. As a result, the exposure dose was not decreased even when the tube voltage was lowered, and the organ absorbed dose value became approximately 30% high. And the noise was increased under the radiographic condition to be an equal absorbed dose. Therefore, radiation dose increases when AEC is used for lower tube voltage CT under the same standard deviation (SD) setting with 120 kV, and the optimization of SD setting is crucial.

  13. Postural Control Disturbances Produced By Exposure to HMD and Dome Vr Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, D. L.; Taylor, L. C.

    2005-01-01

    Two critical and unresolved human factors issues in VR systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", a form of motion sickness which is experienced in virtual worlds, and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Most astronauts and cosmonauts experience perceptual and sensorimotor disturbances during and following space flight. All astronauts exhibit decrements in postural control following space flight. It has been suggested that training in virtual reality (VR) may be an effective countermeasure for minimizing perceptual and/or sensorimotor disturbances. People adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity, and experimentally-produced stimulus rearrangements (e.g., reversing prisms, magnifying lenses, flight simulators, and VR systems). Adaptation is revealed by aftereffects including perceptual disturbances and sensorimotor control disturbances. The purpose of the current study was to compare disturbances in postural control produced by dome and head-mounted virtual environment displays. Individuals recovered from motion sickness and the detrimental effects of exposure to virtual reality on postural control within one hour. Sickness severity and initial decrements in postural equilibrium decreases over days, which suggests that subjects become dual-adapted over time. These findings provide some direction for developing training schedules for VR users that facilitate adaptation, and address safety concerns about aftereffects.

  14. Exposure to pistachio pesticides and stillbirth: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Saeid; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Dehkordi, Fatemeh Ghani; Manshoori, Azita; Goujani, Reza; Vazirinejad, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Stillbirth is an undesirable outcome of pregnancy. In light of the increasing use of pesticides and growing concerns about the possible health effects of agricultural pesticides, we investigated the effect of exposure to pistachio pesticides on stillbirth in pregnant mothers. This case-control study was conducted in Rafsanjan, Iran from 2011 to 2012. A total of 125 females who had a recent stillbirth were included as the case group, and 250 controls were selected from females who had a recent live birth. For each case, two controls with the nearest propensity score to the case were selected. Data were collected using a protocol developed by the researcher that involved interviewing respondents and reviewing their medical records. Conditional multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis were performed and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The ORs of stillbirth in mothers living in pistachio gardens and those who were exposed to sprayed pesticides, in comparison to the controls, were 14.1 (95% CI, 3.3 to 63.4) and 5.0 (95% CI, 1.2 to 28.6), respectively. No significant differences were found in stillbirth rates according to the distance between the mother's residence and a pistachio garden or involvement in agricultural activities. The results of our study showed that exposure to pistachio pesticides during pregnancy may increase the likelihood of stillbirth in mothers.

  15. Leptospira Exposure and Patients with Liver Diseases: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Margarita Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra; Alberto Guido-Arreola, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in patients suffering from liver disease has been poorly studied. Information about risk factors associated with infection in liver disease patients may help in the optimal planning of preventive measures. We sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence and patients with liver diseases, and to determine the characteristics of the patients with Leptospira exposure. We performed a case-control study of 75 patients suffering from liver diseases and 150 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Diagnoses of liver disease included liver cirrhosis, steatosis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, and amoebic liver abscess. Sera of participants were analyzed for the presence of anti- Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 17 (22.7%) of 75 patients and in 15 (10.0%) of 150 control subjects (OR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.09-4.94; P=0.03). This is the first age- and gender-matched case control study about Leptospira seroprevalence in patients with liver diseases. Results indicate that Leptospira infection is associated with chronic and acute liver diseases. Results warrants for additional studies on the role of Leptospira exposure in chronic liver disease. PMID:27493589

  16. Exposure to pistachio pesticides and stillbirth: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Razi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Stillbirth is an undesirable outcome of pregnancy. In light of the increasing use of pesticides and growing concerns about the possible health effects of agricultural pesticides, we investigated the effect of exposure to pistachio pesticides on stillbirth in pregnant mothers. METHODS This case-control study was conducted in Rafsanjan, Iran from 2011 to 2012. A total of 125 females who had a recent stillbirth were included as the case group, and 250 controls were selected from females who had a recent live birth. For each case, two controls with the nearest propensity score to the case were selected. Data were collected using a protocol developed by the researcher that involved interviewing respondents and reviewing their medical records. Conditional multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis were performed and odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. RESULTS The ORs of stillbirth in mothers living in pistachio gardens and those who were exposed to sprayed pesticides, in comparison to the controls, were 14.1 (95% CI, 3.3 to 63.4 and 5.0 (95% CI, 1.2 to 28.6, respectively. No significant differences were found in stillbirth rates according to the distance between the mother’s residence and a pistachio garden or involvement in agricultural activities. CONCLUSIONS The results of our study showed that exposure to pistachio pesticides during pregnancy may increase the likelihood of stillbirth in mothers.

  17. Adrenaline auto-injectors for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without cardiovascular collapse in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Aziz; Simons, F Estelle R; Barbour, Victoria; Worth, Allison

    2012-08-15

    Anaphylaxis is a serious hypersensitivity reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death. Adrenaline (epinephrine) auto-injectors are recommended as the initial, potentially life-saving treatment of choice for anaphylaxis in the community, but they are not universally available and have limitations in their use. To assess the effectiveness of adrenaline (epinephrine) auto-injectors in relieving respiratory, cardiovascular, and other symptoms during episodes of anaphylaxis that occur in the community. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE (Ovid SP) (1950 to January 2012), EMBASE (Ovid SP) (1980 to January 2012 ), CINAHL (EBSCO host) (1982 to January 2012 ), AMED (EBSCO host) (1985 to January 2012 ), LILACS, (BIREME) (1980 to January 2012 ), ISI Web of Science (1950 to January 2012 ). We adapted our search terms for other databases. We also searched websites listing on-going trials: the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, the UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio, and the meta Register of Controlled Trials; and contacted pharmaceutical companies who manufacture adrenaline auto-injectors in an attempt to locate unpublished material. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing auto-injector administration of adrenaline with any control including no intervention, placebo, or other adrenergic agonists were eligible for inclusion. Two authors independently assessed articles for inclusion. None of the 1328 studies that were identified satisfied the inclusion criteria. Based on this review, we cannot make any new recommendations on the effectiveness of adrenaline auto-injectors for the treatment of anaphylaxis. Although randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of high methodological quality are necessary to define the true extent of benefits from the administration of adrenaline in anaphylaxis via an auto

  18. AutoCAD-To-GIFTS Translator Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew

    1989-01-01

    AutoCAD-to-GIFTS translator program, ACTOG, developed to facilitate quick generation of small finite-element models using CASA/GIFTS finite-element modeling program. Reads geometric data of drawing from Data Exchange File (DXF) used in AutoCAD and other PC-based drafting programs. Geometric entities recognized by ACTOG include points, lines, arcs, solids, three-dimensional lines, and three-dimensional faces. From this information, ACTOG creates GIFTS SRC file, which then reads into GIFTS preprocessor BULKM or modified and reads into EDITM to create finite-element model. SRC file used as is or edited for any number of uses. Written in Microsoft Quick-Basic (Version 2.0).

  19. Gamma ray auto absorption correction evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugiu, Daniela; Roth, Csaba; Ghinescu, Alecse

    2010-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a well established nuclear technique, suited to investigate the microstructural or elemental composition and can be applied to studies of a large variety of samples. The work with large samples involves, beside the development of large irradiation devices with well know neutron field characteristics, the knowledge of perturbing phenomena and adequate evaluation of correction factors like: neutron self shielding, extended source correction, gamma ray auto absorption. The objective of the works presented in this paper is to validate an appropriate methodology for gamma ray auto absorption correction evaluation for large inhomogeneous samples. For this purpose a benchmark experiment has been defined - a simple gamma ray transmission experiment, easy to be reproduced. The gamma ray attenuation in pottery samples has been measured and computed using MCNP5 code. The results show a good agreement between the computed and measured values, proving that the proposed methodology is able to evaluate the correction factors. (authors)

  20. Controlled patterns of daytime light exposure improve circadian adjustment in simulated night work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Marie; Blais, Hélène; Roy, Joanie; Paquet, Jean

    2009-10-01

    Circadian misalignment between the endogenous circadian signal and the imposed rest-activity cycle is one of the main sources of sleep and health troubles in night shift workers. Timed bright light exposure during night work can reduce circadian misalignment in night workers, but this approach is limited by difficulties in incorporating bright light treatment into most workplaces. Controlled light and dark exposure during the daytime also has a significant impact on circadian phase and could be easier to implement in real-life situations. The authors previously described distinctive light exposure patterns in night nurses with and without circadian adaptation. In the present study, the main features of these patterns were used to design daytime light exposure profiles. Profiles were then tested in a laboratory simulation of night work to evaluate their efficacy in reducing circadian misalignment in night workers. The simulation included 2 day shifts followed by 4 consecutive night shifts (2400-0800 h). Healthy subjects (15 men and 23 women; 20-35 years old) were divided into 3 groups to test 3 daytime light exposure profiles designed to produce respectively a phase delay (delay group, n=12), a phase advance (advance group, n=13), or an unchanged circadian phase (stable group, n=13). In all 3 groups, light intensity was set at 50 lux during the nights of simulated night work. Salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) showed a significant phase advance of 2.3 h (+/-1.3 h) in the advance group and a significant phase delay of 4.1 h (+/-1.3 h) in the delay group. The stable group showed a smaller but significant phase delay of 1.7 h (+/-1.6 h). Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) acrophases were highly correlated to salivary DLMOs. Urinary aMT6s acrophases were used to track daily phase shifts. They showed that phase shifts occurred rapidly and differed between the 3 groups by the 3rd night of simulated night work. These results show that significant phase shifts can

  1. Anti-pentraxin 3 auto-antibodies might be protective in lupus nephritis: a large cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mo; Tan, Ying; Pang, Yun; Li, Yong-Zhe; Song, Yan; Yu, Feng; Zhao, Ming-Hui

    2017-11-01

    Anti-pentraxin 3 (PTX3) auto-antibodies were found to be associated with the absence of renal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study is to investigate the prevalence of anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies and their clinical significance based on a large Chinese lupus nephritis cohort. One hundred and ninety-six active lupus nephritis patients, 150 SLE patients without clinical renal involvement, and 100 healthy controls were enrolled. Serum anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies and PTX3 levels were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The associations between anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies and clinicopathological parameters in lupus nephritis were further analyzed. Anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies were less prevalent in active lupus nephritis patients compared with SLE without renal involvement (19.4% (38/196) versus 40.7% (61/150), p auto-antibodies were negatively correlated with proteinuria in lupus nephritis (r = -.143, p = .047). The levels of proteinuria, serum creatinine, and the prevalence of thrombotic microangiopathy were significantly higher in patients with higher PTX3 levels (≥3.207 ng/ml) and without anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies compared with patients with lower PTX3 levels (auto-antibodies (4.79 (3.39-8.28) versus 3.95 (1.78-7.0), p = .03; 168.84 ± 153.63 versus 101.44 ± 47.36, p = .01; 34.1% (14/41) versus 0% (0/9), p = .04; respectively). Anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies were less prevalent in active lupus nephritis patients compared with SLE without renal involvement and associated with less severe renal damage, especially with the combined evaluation of serum PTX3 levels.

  2. Chronic alcohol exposure disrupts top-down control over basal ganglia action selection to produce habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Rafael; Baltz, Emily T; Gremel, Christina M

    2018-01-15

    Addiction involves a predominance of habitual control mediated through action selection processes in dorsal striatum. Research has largely focused on neural mechanisms mediating a proposed progression from ventral to dorsal lateral striatal control in addiction. However, over reliance on habit striatal processes may also arise from reduced cortical input to striatum, thereby disrupting executive control over action selection. Here, we identify novel mechanisms through which chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and withdrawal (CIE) disrupts top-down control over goal-directed action selection processes to produce habits. We find CIE results in decreased excitability of orbital frontal cortex (OFC) excitatory circuits supporting goal-directed control, and, strikingly, selectively reduces OFC output to the direct output pathway in dorsal medial striatum. Increasing the activity of OFC circuits restores goal-directed control in CIE-exposed mice. Our findings show habitual control in alcohol dependence can arise through disrupted communication between top-down, goal-directed processes onto basal ganglia pathways controlling action selection.

  3. Differential effects of controllable stress exposure on subsequent extinction learning in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osnat eHadad-Ophir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in fear extinction are thought to be related to various anxiety disorders. While failure to extinguish conditioned fear may result in pathological anxiety levels, the ability to quickly and efficiently attenuate learned fear through extinction processes can be extremely beneficial for the individual. One of the factors that may affect the efficiency of the extinction process is prior experience of stressful situations. In the current study, we examined whether exposure to controllable stress, which is suggested to induce stress resilience, can affect subsequent fear extinction. Here, following prolonged two-way shuttle (TWS avoidance training and a validation of acquired stress controllability, adult rats underwent either cued or contextual fear-conditioning (FC, followed by an extinction session. We further evaluated long lasting alterations of GABAergic targets in the medial pre-frontal cortex (mPFC, as these were implicated in FC and extinction and stress controllability. In cued, but not in contextual fear extinction, within-session extinction was enhanced following controllable stress compared to a control group. Interestingly, impaired extinction recall was detected in both extinction types following the stress procedure. Additionally, stress controllability-dependent alterations in GABAergic markers expression in infralimbic (IL, but not prelimbic (PL cortex, were detected. These alterations are proposed to be related to the within-session effect, but not the recall impairment. The results emphasize the contribution of prior experience on coping with subsequent stressful experiences. Moreover, the results emphasize that exposure to controllable stress does not generally facilitate future stress coping as previously claimed, but its effects are dependent on specific features of the events taking place.

  4. Flipped-Adversarial AutoEncoders

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiyi; Dang, Hung; Lee, Hwee Kuan; Chang, Ee-Chien

    2018-01-01

    We propose a flipped-Adversarial AutoEncoder (FAAE) that simultaneously trains a generative model G that maps an arbitrary latent code distribution to a data distribution and an encoder E that embodies an "inverse mapping" that encodes a data sample into a latent code vector. Unlike previous hybrid approaches that leverage adversarial training criterion in constructing autoencoders, FAAE minimizes re-encoding errors in the latent space and exploits adversarial criterion in the data space. Exp...

  5. El auto de fe de 1606

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Pérez de Colosía Rodríguez

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available La relación del auto de fe de 1606, está dividida en los siguientes siete apartados: Relajados en persona, Relajados en estatua, Reconciliados por la secta de Mahoma, Reconciliados por la ley de Moisés, Reconciliados por la secta Luterana, Penintenciados con abjuración de behementi y Penitenciados con abjuración de levi.

  6. A study experiment of auto idle application in the excavator engine performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purwanto, Wawan, E-mail: wawan5527@gmail.com; Maksum, Hasan; Putra, Dwi Sudarno, E-mail: dwisudarnoputra@ft.unp.ac.id; Wahyudi, Retno [State University of Padang, West Sumatera (Indonesia); Azmi, Meri, E-mail: meriazmi@gmail.com [State Polytechnic of Padang, West Sumatera (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of applying auto idle to excavator engine performance, such as machine unitization and fuel consumption in Excavator. Steps to be done are to modify the system JA 44 and 67 in Vehicle Electronic Control Unit (V-ECU). The modifications will be obtained from the pattern of the engine speed. If the excavator attachment is not operated, the engine speed will return to the idle speed automatically. From the experiment results the auto idle reduces fuel consumption in excavator engine.

  7. Container code recognition in information auto collection system of container inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jianping; Chen Zhiqiang; Zhang Li; Gao Wenhuan; Kang Kejun

    2003-01-01

    Now custom needs electrical application and automatic detection. Container inspection should not only give the image of the goods, but also auto-attain container's code and weight. Its function and track control, information transfer make up the Information Auto Collection system of Container Inspection. Code Recognition is the point. The article is based on model match, the close property of character, and uses it to recognize. Base on checkout rule, design the adjustment arithmetic, form the whole recognition strategy. This strategy can achieve high recognition ratio and robust property

  8. Vulnerability and self-perceived health status among light and heavy smokers: the relationship to short-term fear appeal tobacco control messages Vulnerabilidade e percepção de saúde auto-referida entre fumantes leves e pesados: a relação com mensagens anti-fumo voltadas para o apelo ao medo imediato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Salem Szklo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important to stimulate smokers to acquire some level of risk perception associated with their current behavior in order to motivate smoking cessation. The present article attempts to understand how the content of short-term fear appeal government tobacco messages may interact with different levels of daily cigarette consumption in order to affect smokers' vulnerabilities, expressed by self-perceived health status. A Poisson model was used to estimate the prevalence ratio of fair or poor self-perceived health status (FPHS according to daily cigarette consumption. We also calculated the proportions of smokers who stated that selected health warning pictures on cigarette packets encourage people to quit smoking, stratified by self-perceived health status and daily cigarette consumption. The proportion of smokers with FPHS was 25% higher among those who smoked > 20 cigarettes/day (p = 0.01. Among smokers with FPHS, heavy smokers showed the highest proportions of responses in favor of selected warning pictures most closely related to losses in ordinary daily living, such as shortness of breath and being bothered by cigarette addiction. Short-term loss-framed tobacco control messages seem to have raised awareness of vulnerability among heavier smokers.É importante incentivar os fumantes a adquirir algum nível de percepção do risco associado ao seu comportamento atual, para motivá-los a parar de fumar. O artigo procura elucidar em que medida o conteúdo do apelo ao medo imediato contido em mensagens anti-fumo nas campanhas governamentais pode interagir com o consumo diário de cigarros, no sentido de afetar as vulnerabilidades dos fumantes, expressas pela percepção de saúde auto-referida. Um modelo de Poisson foi utilizado para estimar a razão de prevalências de percepção de saúde auto-referida regular ou ruim, segundo consumo diário de cigarros. Calculou-se também a proporção de fumantes que afirmou que mensagens anti

  9. The Relative Effects of Manual Versus Automatic Exposure Control on Radiation Dose to Vital Organs in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Katharine D; Li, Shidong; Jennings, Rachel; Amer, Kamil M; Haydel, Christopher; Ali, Sayed

    2018-01-01

    Technologic advances have reduced medical radiation exposure while maintaining image quality. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the presence of total hip arthroplasty implants, compared with native hips, on radiation exposure of the most radiosensitive organs when manual and automatic exposure control settings are used. Detection probes were placed at six locations (stomach, sigmoid colon, right pelvic wall, left pelvic wall, pubic symphysis, and anterior pubic skin) in a cadaver. Radiographs were obtained with the use of manual and automatic exposure control protocols, with exposures recorded. A total hip arthroplasty implant was placed in the cadaver, probe positioning was confirmed, and the radiographs were repeated, with exposure values recorded. The control probe placed at the stomach had values ranging from 0.00 mSv to 0.01 mSv in protocols with and without implants. With the manual protocol, exposures in the pelvis ranged from 0.36 mSv to 2.74 mSv in the native hip and from 0.33 mSv to 2.24 mSv after implant placement. The increases in exposure after implant placement, represented as relative risk, were as follows: stomach, 1.000; pubic symphysis, 0.818; left pelvic wall, 1.381; sigmoid colon, 1.550; right pelvic wall, 0.917; and anterior pubic skin, 1.015. With automatic exposure control, exposures in the pelvis ranged from 0.07 mSv to 0.89 mSv in the native hip and from 0.21 mSv to 1.15 mSv after implant placement. With automatic exposure control, the increases in exposure after implant placement, represented as relative risk, were as follows: stomach, 1.000; pubic symphysis, 1.292; left pelvic wall, 1.476; sigmoid colon, 2.182; right pelvic wall, 3.000; and anterior pubic skin, 1.378. The amount of radiation to which patients are exposed as a result of medical procedures or imaging, and whether exposure is associated with an increased risk of malignant transformation, are the subject of ongoing debate. We found that after insertion

  10. Measurements of auto-antibodies to α-synuclein in the serum and cerebral spinal fluids of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Rizwan S; Licata, Joseph P; Luk, Kelvin C; Shaw, Leslie M; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y

    2018-03-03

    Biomarkers for α-synuclein are needed for diagnosis and prognosis in Parkinson's disease (PD). Endogenous auto-antibodies to α-synuclein could serve as biomarkers for underlying synucleinopathy, but previous assessments of auto-antibodies have shown variability and inconsistent clinical correlations. We hypothesized that auto-antibodies to α-synuclein could be diagnostic for PD and explain its clinical heterogeneity. To test this hypothesis, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measuring α-synuclein auto-antibodies in human samples. We evaluated 69 serum samples (16 healthy controls (HC) and 53 PD patients) and 145 CSF samples (52 HC and 93 PD patients) from our Institution. Both serum and CSF were available for 24 participants. Males had higher auto-antibody levels than females in both fluids. CSF auto-antibody levels were significantly higher in PD patients as compared to HC, whereas serum levels were not significantly different. CSF auto-antibody levels did not associate with amyloid-β 1-42 , total tau, or phosphorylated tau. CSF auto-antibody levels correlated with performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, even when controlled for CSF amyloidβ 1-42 . CSF hemoglobin levels, as a proxy for contamination of CSF by blood during lumbar puncture, did not influence these observations. Using recombinant α-synuclein with N- and C-terminal truncations, we found that CSF auto-antibodies target amino acids 100 through 120 of α-synuclein. We conclude that endogenous CSF auto-antibodies are significantly higher in PD patients as compared to HC, suggesting that they could indicate the presence of underlying synucleinopathy. These auto-antibodies associate with poor cognition, independently of CSF amyloidβ 1-42 ., and target a select C-terminal region of α-synuclein. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of occupational exposure to malathion and bifenthrin in mosquito control sprayers through dermal contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Sasrisuk, Somnuek; Preklang, Smart; Yoosook, Witaya; Sujirarat, Dusit

    2013-12-01

    To assess occupational exposure of malathion and bifenthrin concentrations by dermal contact and urinary 3-(2-chloro-3, 3, 3-trifluoro-1-propenyl)-2, 2-dimethyl-cyclopropanecarboxylic (TFP) acid, health symptoms developed and the relationship between bifenthrin concentrations and TFP acid in urine of the mosquito control sprayers. The aerosols of these two pesticides were collected using 100 cm2 cotton patches attached on the skin of upper legs of 54 volunteer of mosquito control sprayers. Their urine samples were also collected before and after application. These subjects exposed to average malathion and bifenthrin concentrations of 0.18 and 0.32 microg/cm2, respectively After application, the average concentration of urinary TFP acid in the sprayers was 39.22 +/- 0.77 mg/g creatinine ranging from 0.58 to 261.19 mg/g creatinine. A significant difference was found between urinary TFP acid levels before and after application (p bifenthrin concentrations through dermal contact and urinary TFP acid levels were not significantly correlated (p > 0.05). The mosquito control sprayers had dermal contact with smoke of malathion and bifenthrin and some sprayers developed health symptoms after exposure. They should use protective clothing made ofplastic, nylon or polyester to protect sprayers from skin contact.

  12. Residential radon exposure and lung cancer risk in Misasa, Japan. A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobue, Tomotaka; Lee, Valerie S.; Ye, Weimin; Tanooka, Hiroshi; Mifune, Masaaki; Suyama, Akihiko; Koga, Taeko; Morishima, Hiroshige; Kondo, Sohei

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate an association between residential radon exposure and risk of lung cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Misasa Town, Tottori Prefecture, Japan. The case series consisted of 28 people who had died of lung cancer in the years 1976-96 and 36 controls chosen randomly from the residents in 1976, matched by sex and year of birth. Individual residential radon concentrations were measured for 1 year with alpha track detectors. The average radon concentration was 46 Bq/m 3 for cases and 51 Bq/m 3 for controls. Compared to the level of 24 or less Bq/m 3 , the adjusted odds ratios of lung cancer associated with radon levels of 25-49, 50-99 and 100 or more Bq/m 3 , were 1.13 (95% confidence interval; 0.29-4.40), 1.23 (0.16-9.39) and 0.25 (0.03-2.33), respectively. None of the estimates showed statistical significance, due to small sample size. When the subjects were limited to only include residents of more than 30 years, the estimates did not change substantially. This study did not find that the risk pattern of lung cancer, possibly associated with residential radon exposure, in Misasa Town differed from patterns observed in other countries. (author)

  13. Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles. Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 8. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevel, David; Tannehill, Dana, Ed.

    This module is the eighth of nine modules in the competency-based Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Six units cover: introduction to automatic transmission/transaxle; hydraulic control systems; transmission/transaxle diagnosis; automatic transmission/transaxle maintenance and adjustment; in-vehicle transmission repair; and off-car…

  14. AUTO-LAY: automatic layout generation for procedure flow diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forzano, P.; Castagna, P.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant Procedures can be seen from essentially two viewpoints: the process and the information management. From the first point of view, it is important to supply the knowledge apt to solve problems connected with the control of the process, from the second one the focus of attention is on the knowledge representation, its structure, elicitation and maintenance, formal quality assurance. These two aspects of procedure representation can be considered and solved separately. In particular, methodological, formal and management issues require long and tedious activities, that in most cases constitute a great barrier for procedures development and upgrade. To solve these problems, Ansaldo is developing DIAM, a wide integrated tool for procedure management to support in procedure writing, updating, usage and documentation. One of the most challenging features of DIAM is AUTO-LAY, a CASE sub-tool that, in a complete automatical way, structures parts or complete flow diagrams. This is a feature that is partially present in some other CASE products, that, anyway, do not allow complex graph handling and isomorphism between video and paper representation AUTO-LAY has the unique prerogative to draw graphs of any complexity, to section them in pages, and to automatically compose a document. This has been recognized in the literature as the most important second-generation CASE improvement. (author). 5 refs., 9 figs

  15. AUTO-LAY: automatic layout generation for procedure flow diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forzano, P; Castagna, P [Ansaldo SpA, Genoa (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear Power Plant Procedures can be seen from essentially two viewpoints: the process and the information management. From the first point of view, it is important to supply the knowledge apt to solve problems connected with the control of the process, from the second one the focus of attention is on the knowledge representation, its structure, elicitation and maintenance, formal quality assurance. These two aspects of procedure representation can be considered and solved separately. In particular, methodological, formal and management issues require long and tedious activities, that in most cases constitute a great barrier for procedures development and upgrade. To solve these problems, Ansaldo is developing DIAM, a wide integrated tool for procedure management to support in procedure writing, updating, usage and documentation. One of the most challenging features of DIAM is AUTO-LAY, a CASE sub-tool that, in a complete automatical way, structures parts or complete flow diagrams. This is a feature that is partially present in some other CASE products, that, anyway, do not allow complex graph handling and isomorphism between video and paper representation AUTO-LAY has the unique prerogative to draw graphs of any complexity, to section them in pages, and to automatically compose a document. This has been recognized in the literature as the most important second-generation CASE improvement. (author). 5 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Characterization, Exposure Measurement and Control for Nanoscale Particles in Workplaces and on the Road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Pui, David Y H

    2011-01-01

    The amount of engineered nanoparticles is increasing at a rapid rate and more concerns are being raised about the occupational health and safety of nanoparticles in the workplace, and implications of nanotechnology on the environment and living systems. At the same time, diesel engine emissions are one of the serious air pollution sources in urban area. Ultrafine particles on the road can result in harmful effects on the health of drivers and passengers. Research on characterization, exposure measurement and control is needed to address the environmental, health and safety issues of nanoscale particles. We present results of our studies on airborne particles in workplaces and on the road.

  17. X-ray detector for automatic exposure control using ionization chamber filled with xenon gas

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, A; Yoshida, T

    2003-01-01

    This report refers to our newly developed X-ray detector for reliable automatic X-ray exposure control, which is to be widely used for X-ray diagnoses in various clinical fields. This new detector utilizes an ionization chamber filled with xenon gas, in contrast to conventional X-ray detectors which use ionization chambers filled with air. Use of xenon gas ensures higher sensitivity and thinner design of the detector. The xenon gas is completely sealed in the chamber, so that the influence of the changes in ambient environments is minimized. (author)

  18. Characterization, Exposure Measurement and Control for Nanoscale Particles in Workplaces and on the Road

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jing [Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zuerich, 8093 (Switzerland); Pui, David Y H, E-mail: jing.wang@ifu.baug.ethz.ch [Particle Technology Laboratory, University of Minnesota, 55414 (United States)

    2011-07-06

    The amount of engineered nanoparticles is increasing at a rapid rate and more concerns are being raised about the occupational health and safety of nanoparticles in the workplace, and implications of nanotechnology on the environment and living systems. At the same time, diesel engine emissions are one of the serious air pollution sources in urban area. Ultrafine particles on the road can result in harmful effects on the health of drivers and passengers. Research on characterization, exposure measurement and control is needed to address the environmental, health and safety issues of nanoscale particles. We present results of our studies on airborne particles in workplaces and on the road.

  19. Exposure to virtual social interactions in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, Isabel L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Hartanto, Dwi; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Zijlstra, Bonne J H; Morina, Nexhmedin

    2016-02-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a stand-alone virtual reality exposure intervention comprising verbal interaction with virtual humans to target heterogeneous social fears in participants with social anxiety disorder. Sixty participants (Mage = 36.9 years; 63.3% women) diagnosed with social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to individual virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), individual in vivo exposure therapy (iVET), or waiting-list. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that both treatment groups improved from pre-to postassessment on social anxiety symptoms, speech duration, perceived stress, and avoidant personality disorder related beliefs when compared to the waiting-list. Participants receiving iVET, but not VRET, improved on fear of negative evaluation, speech performance, general anxiety, depression, and quality of life relative to those on waiting-list. The iVET condition was further superior to the VRET condition regarding decreases in social anxiety symptoms at post- and follow-up assessments, and avoidant personality disorder related beliefs at follow-up. At follow-up, all improvements were significant for iVET. For VRET, only the effect for perceived stress was significant. VRET containing extensive verbal interaction without any cognitive components can effectively reduce complaints of generalized social anxiety disorder. Future technological and psychological improvements of virtual social interactions might further enhance the efficacy of VRET for social anxiety disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Auto-recognition of surfaces and auto-generation of material removal volume for finishing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataraki, Pramod S.; Salman Abu Mansor, Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Auto-recognition of a surface and auto-generation of material removal volumes for the so recognised surfaces has become a need to achieve successful downstream manufacturing activities like automated process planning and scheduling. Few researchers have contributed to generation of material removal volume for a product but resulted in material removal volume discontinuity between two adjacent material removal volumes generated from two adjacent faces that form convex geometry. The need for limitation free material removal volume generation was attempted and an algorithm that automatically recognises computer aided design (CAD) model’s surface and also auto-generate material removal volume for finishing process of the recognised surfaces was developed. The surfaces of CAD model are successfully recognised by the developed algorithm and required material removal volume is obtained. The material removal volume discontinuity limitation that occurred in fewer studies is eliminated.

  1. Secondhand Smoke Exposure Reduction Intervention in Chinese Households of Young Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abu S; Hua, Fu; Khan, Hafiz; Xia, Xiao; Bing, Qi; Tarang, Kheradia; Winickoff, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    To assess whether a theory-based, community health worker-delivered intervention for household smokers will lead to reduced secondhand smoke exposure to children in Chinese families. Smoking parents or caregivers who had a child aged 5 years or younger at home were randomized to the intervention group (n = 164) to receive smoking hygiene intervention or to the comparison group (n = 154). The intervention was delivered by trained community health workers. Outcomes were assessed at 2- and 6- month follow-up. Of the 318 families randomized, 98 (60%) of 164 intervention group and 82 (53%) of 154 of controls completed 6-month follow-up assessment. At the 6-month follow-up, 62% of intervention and 45% of comparison group households adopted complete smoking restrictions at home (P = .022); total exposure (mean number of cigarettes per week ± standard deviation) from all smokers at home in the past 7 days was significantly lower among children in the intervention (3.29 ± 9.06) than the comparison (7.41 ± 14.63) group (P = .021); and mean urine cotinine level (ng/mL) was significantly lower in the intervention (0.030 ± .065) than the comparison (0.087 ± .027) group, P exposure to secondhand smoke. These findings have implications for the development of primary health care-based secondhand smoke exposure reduction and family oriented smoking cessation interventions as China moves toward a smoke-free society. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Automatic exposure control in computed tomography - an evaluation of systems from different manufacturers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederberg, Marcus; Gunnarsson, Mikael (Dept. of Medical Radiation Physics, Skaane Univ. Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden)), e-mail: marcus.soderberg@med.lu.se

    2010-07-15

    Background: Today, practically all computed tomography (CT) systems are delivered with automatic exposure control (AEC) systems operating with tube current modulation in three dimensions. Each of these systems has different specifications and operates somewhat differently. Purpose: To evaluate AEC systems from four different CT scanner manufacturers: General Electric (GE), Philips, Siemens, and Toshiba, considering their potential for reducing radiation exposure to the patient while maintaining adequate image quality. Material and Methods: The dynamics (adaptation along the longitudinal axis) of tube current modulation of each AEC system were investigated by scanning an anthropomorphic chest phantom using both 16- and 64-slice CT scanners from each manufacturer with the AEC systems activated and inactivated. The radiation dose was estimated using the parameters in the DICOM image information and image quality was evaluated based on image noise (standard deviation of CT numbers) calculated in 0.5 cm2 circular regions of interest situated throughout the spine region of the chest phantom. Results: We found that tube current modulation dynamics were similar among the different AEC systems, especially between GE and Toshiba systems and between Philips and Siemens systems. Furthermore, the magnitude of the reduction in the exposure dose was considerable, in the range of 35-60%. However, in general the image noise increased when the AEC systems were used, especially in regions where the tube current was greatly decreased, such as the lung region. However, the variation in image noise among images obtained along the scanning direction was lower when using the AEC systems compared with fixed mAs. Conclusion: The AEC systems available in modern CT scanners can contribute to a significant reduction in radiation exposure to the patient and the image noise becomes more uniform within any given scan.

  3. Gene expression profiling in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity before and after a controlled n-butanol exposure session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Skovbjerg, Sine; Andersson, Linus

    2017-01-01

    was that unexposed and symptom-free MCS participants have similar gene expression patterns to controls and a second hypothesis that MCS participants can be separated from controls based on differential gene expression upon a controlled n-butanol exposure. Participants were exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol while seated...... min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure. Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper. 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons...... displayed similar gene expression levels both at baseline and after the exposure and the computed AUC values were likewise comparable between the 2 groups. The intragroup variation in expression levels among MCS participants was noticeably greater than the controls. MCS participants and controls have...

  4. Set up and operation for medical radiation exposure quality control system of health promotion center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Su; Kim, Jung Min; Jung, Hae Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    In this study, standard model of medical radiation dosage quality control system will be suggested and the useful of this system in clinical field will be reviewed. Radiation dosage information of modalities are gathered from digital imaging and communications in medicine(DICOM) standard data(such as DICOM dose SR and DICOM header) and stored in database. One CT scan, two digital radiography modalities and two mammography modalities in one health promotion center in Seoul are used to derive clinical data for one month. After 1 months research with 703 CT scans, the study shows CT 357.9 mGy·cm in abdomen and pelvic CT, 572.4 mGy·cm in brain without CT, 55.9 mGy·cm in calcium score/heart CT, screening CT at 54 mGy·cm in chest screening CT(low dose screening CT scan), 284.99 mGy·cm in C-spine CT and 341.85 mGy·cm in L-spine CT as health promotion center reference level of each exam. And with 1955 digital radiography cases, it shows 274.0 mGy·cm"2 and for mammography 6.09 mGy is shown based on 536 cases. The use of medical radiation shall comply with the principles of justification and optimization. This quality management of medical radiation exposure must be performed in order to follow the principle. And the procedure to reduce the radiation exposure of patients and staff can be achieved through this. The results of this study can be applied as a useful tool to perform the quality control of medical radiation exposure

  5. Pesticide exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease: A family-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Burton L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticides and correlated lifestyle factors (e.g., exposure to well-water and farming are repeatedly reported risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD, but few family-based studies have examined these relationships. Methods Using 319 cases and 296 relative and other controls, associations of direct pesticide application, well-water consumption, and farming residences/occupations with PD were examined using generalized estimating equations while controlling for age-at-examination, sex, cigarette smoking, and caffeine consumption. Results Overall, individuals with PD were significantly more likely to report direct pesticide application than their unaffected relatives (odds ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.29. Frequency, duration, and cumulative exposure were also significantly associated with PD in a dose-response pattern (p ≤ 0.013. Associations of direct pesticide application did not vary by sex but were modified by family history of PD, as significant associations were restricted to individuals with no family history. When classifying pesticides by functional type, both insecticides and herbicides were found to significantly increase risk of PD. Two specific insecticide classes, organochlorines and organophosphorus compounds, were significantly associated with PD. Consuming well-water and living/working on a farm were not associated with PD. Conclusion These data corroborate positive associations of broadly defined pesticide exposure with PD in families, particularly for sporadic PD. These data also implicate a few specific classes of pesticides in PD and thus emphasize the need to consider a more narrow definition of pesticides in future studies.

  6. Set up and operation for medical radiation exposure quality control system of health promotion center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Su; Kim, Jung Min [Korea University,Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Kyoung [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    In this study, standard model of medical radiation dosage quality control system will be suggested and the useful of this system in clinical field will be reviewed. Radiation dosage information of modalities are gathered from digital imaging and communications in medicine(DICOM) standard data(such as DICOM dose SR and DICOM header) and stored in database. One CT scan, two digital radiography modalities and two mammography modalities in one health promotion center in Seoul are used to derive clinical data for one month. After 1 months research with 703 CT scans, the study shows CT 357.9 mGy·cm in abdomen and pelvic CT, 572.4 mGy·cm in brain without CT, 55.9 mGy·cm in calcium score/heart CT, screening CT at 54 mGy·cm in chest screening CT(low dose screening CT scan), 284.99 mGy·cm in C-spine CT and 341.85 mGy·cm in L-spine CT as health promotion center reference level of each exam. And with 1955 digital radiography cases, it shows 274.0 mGy·cm{sup 2} and for mammography 6.09 mGy is shown based on 536 cases. The use of medical radiation shall comply with the principles of justification and optimization. This quality management of medical radiation exposure must be performed in order to follow the principle. And the procedure to reduce the radiation exposure of patients and staff can be achieved through this. The results of this study can be applied as a useful tool to perform the quality control of medical radiation exposure.

  7. Response of solvent-exposed printers and unexposed controls to six-hour toluene exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Andersen, I B; Lundqvist, G R

    1985-01-01

    of intoxication, and irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. Furthermore, the subjects exposed to toluene showed decreased manual dexterity, decreased color discrimination, and decreased accuracy in visual perception. There was no significant difference in the effects of toluene on printers compared to those......The acute effects of toluene were studied in 43 male printers and 43 control subjects matched according to sex, age, educational level, and smoking habits. The mean age of the subjects was 36 (range 29-50) years. The printers had been exposed to solvents for 9 to 25 years during employment at flexo...... and rotogravure printing plants, while the controls had no history of solvent exposure. Each subject was exposed once in a climate chamber to either 100 ppm of toluene or clean air for 6.5 h preceded by a 1-h acclimatization period. The effects of toluene were measured from subjective votes with linear analogue...

  8. Case Control Study of Impulsivity, Aggression, Pesticide Exposure and Suicide Attempts Using Pesticides among Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Chun Ping; Pei, Jian Ru; Beseler, L Cheryl; Li, Yu Ling; Li, Jian Hui; Ren, Ming; Stallones, Lorann; Ren, Shu Ping

    2018-03-01

    A case-control study was conducted to investigate associations between organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure, aggression, impulsivity, and attempted suicide. Questionnaires were used to collect information; impulsivity and aggression were measured by the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) and the Aggression Inventory (AI). A greater number of OP symptoms was associated with an increased odds of a suicide attempt after adjusting for marital status and income (OR = 1.45; CI 1.14-1.86). Attempted suicide was significantly associated with high impulsivity scores (means: 72.4 vs. 60.6, P controls and scored higher on scales of impulsivity and aggression. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  9. The effectiveness of Narrative Exposure Therapy with traumatised firefighters in Saudi Arabia: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Mohammed; Hunt, Nigel; Thomas, Shirley

    2015-03-01

    Firefighters are exposed to many traumatic events. The psychological costs of this exposure increase the risk of Post-Traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. This study examined the effectiveness of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) as a short-term treatment for reducing PTSD symptoms among Saudi firefighters. A randomized waiting-list control study was conducted with 34 traumatized firefighters were randomly allocated to NET or Waiting-list Control (WLC). The NET group received four therapy sessions of 60-90 min over a three-week period; those in the WLC condition received the same sessions after a three-week waiting period. Participants in both groups were assessed at baseline, immediately post-intervention and at 3 and 6 month follow ups. NET led to significant reductions in PTSD symptoms, anxiety and depression compared with WLC. After the WLC group received treatment, it showed the same improvements as the NET group. This occurred immediately post-treatment in both groups, but was not sustained at 3 and 6 month follow ups. Coping strategies and social support led to significant changes only in follow up times. NET was effective in reducing PTSD symptoms in traumatised Saudi firefighters. This finding could be helpful in the management of PTSD among people who work as first responders such as firefighters, police officers and emergency medical personal, as well as security officers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Continuous improvement of the regulatory framework for the control of medical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larcher, Ana M.; Ortiz Lopez, Pedro; Arias, Cesar; Marechal, Maria H.; Hernandez Alvarez, Ramon; Ferrer Garcia, Natividad; Castaneda Mucino, Antonia; Faller, Blanca

    2008-01-01

    One of the key elements to guide the improvement of the regulatory control is the availability of a self-assessment tool for regulatory performance. Although there is general guidance on self-assessment for regulators and users (IAEA), there is a need for more specific advice on how to address challenges and difficulties faced by regulatory bodies, when regulating radiation protection of patients. Examples of these challenges are the need for regulatory initiatives, in cooperation with health and education authorities, professional bodies and equipment suppliers, and to put in place necessary elements that are beyond responsibility of individual user of radiation, to enable them compliance with safety standards. Purpose: Within the programme of the Ibero American Forum of Nuclear and Radiation Safety Regulatory Organizations, a project to develop such a self-assessment tool for the regulatory control of medical exposure has been designed. Method: National experiences in transposing and enforcing the international radiation safety standards, as to how the requirements are included in national regulations are reviewed. Further, difficulties to the implementation of safety requirements are analyzed and a self-assessment approach and possible regulatory solutions a are presented. Results and discussion: In this study the following documents are being produced: 1) transposition of international requirements into national regulations in the six countries of the Forum, 2) difficulties to implement and enforce the requirements, 3) guidance on self-assessment of regulatory framework for medical exposure, 4) suggested contribution to the revision of international radiation safety standards. (author)

  11. Continuous Improvement of the Regulatory Framework for the Control of Medical Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larcher, A.M.; Ortiz lopez, Pedro; Arias, Cesar; Marechal, Maria H.; Hernandez Alvarez, Ramon; Ferrer Garcia, Natividad; Castaneda Mucino, Antonia; Faller, Blanca

    2011-01-01

    Background: One of the key elements to guide the improvement of the regulatory control is the availability of a self-assessment tool for regulatory performance. Although there is general guidance on self-assessment for regulators and users (IAEA), there is a need for specific advice on how to address challenges and difficulties faced by regulatory bodies, when regulating radiation protection of patients. Examples of these challenges are the need of regulatory initiatives, in cooperation with health and education authorities, professional bodies and equipment suppliers, and to put in place necessary elements that are beyond responsibility of individual users of radiation, to enable them compliance with safety standards. Purpose: within the programme of the Ibero American Forum of Nuclear and Radiation Safety Regulatory Organizations, a project to develop such a self assessment tool for the regulatory control of medical exposure has been designed. Method: national experiences in transposing and enforcing the international radiation safety standards, as to how the requirements are included in national regulations are reviewed. Further, difficulties to the implementation of safety requirements are included in national regulations are analyzed and a self assessment approach and possible regulatory solutions are presented. Results and discussion: in tis study the following documents are being produced: 1) Transposition of international requirements into national regulations in the six countries of the Forum, 2) difficulties to implement and enforce the requirements, 3) guidance on self assessment of regulatory framework for medical exposure, 4) suggested contribution to the revision of international radiation safety standards. (authors)

  12. Dose to population as a metric in the design of optimised exposure control in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klausz, R.; Shramchenko, N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a methods for automatic optimisation of parameter (AOP) in digital mammography systems. Using a model of the image chain, contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and average glandular dose (AGD) are computed for possible X-ray parameters and breast types. The optimisation process consists of the determination of the operating points providing the lowest possible AGD for each CNR level and breast type. The proposed metric for the dose used in the design of an AOP mode is the resulting dose to the population, computed by averaging the AGD values over the distribution of breast types in the population. This method has been applied to the automatic exposure control of new digital mammography equipment. Breast thickness and composition are estimated from a low dose pre-exposure and used to index tables containing sets of optimised operating points. The resulting average dose to the population ranges from a level comparable to state-of-the-art screen/film mammography to a reduction by a factor of two. Using this method, both CNR and dose are kept under control for all breast types, taking into consideration both individual and collective risk. (authors)

  13. Father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and childhood acute leukemia: a new method to assess exposure (a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Rivera Maria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical research has not been able to establish whether a father's occupational exposures are associated with the development of acute leukemia (AL in their offspring. The studies conducted have weaknesses that have generated a misclassification of such exposure. Occupations and exposures to substances associated with childhood cancer are not very frequently encountered in the general population; thus, the reported risks are both inconsistent and inaccurate. In this study, to assess exposure we used a new method, an exposure index, which took into consideration the industrial branch, specific position, use of protective equipment, substances at work, degree of contact with such substances, and time of exposure. This index allowed us to obtain a grade, which permitted the identification of individuals according to their level of exposure to known or potentially carcinogenic agents that are not necessarily specifically identified as risk factors for leukemia. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and the presence of AL in their offspring. Methods From 1999 to 2000, a case-control study was performed with 193 children who reside in Mexico City and had been diagnosed with AL. The initial sample-size calculation was 150 children per group, assessed with an expected odds ratio (OR of three and a minimum exposure frequency of 15.8%. These children were matched by age, sex, and institution with 193 pediatric surgical patients at secondary-care hospitals. A questionnaire was used to determine each child's background and the characteristics of the father's occupation(s. In order to determine the level of exposure to carcinogenic agents, a previously validated exposure index (occupational exposure index, OEI was used. The consistency and validity of the index were assessed by a questionnaire comparison, the sensory recognition of the work area, and an

  14. Adolescents with and without gestational cocaine exposure: Longitudinal analysis of inhibitory control, memory and receptive language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Laura M; Yang, Wei; Brodsky, Nancy L; Gallagher, Paul R; Malmud, Elsa K; Giannetta, Joan M; Farah, Martha J; Hurt, Hallam

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies of gestational cocaine exposure (GCE) show evidence of changes in brain function at the anatomical, physiological, and behavioral levels, to include effects on developing dopaminergic systems. In contrast, human studies have produced less consistent results, with most showing small effects or no effects on developmental outcomes. Important changes in brain structure and function occur through adolescence, therefore it is possible that prenatal cocaine exposure has latent effects on neurocognitive (NC) outcome that do not manifest until adolescence or young adulthood. We examined NC function using a set of 5 tasks designed to tap 4 different systems: inhibitory control, working memory, receptive language, and incidental memory. For each NC task, data were collected longitudinally at ages 12, 14.5 and 17 years and examined using generalized estimating equations. One hundred and nine children completed at least two of the three evaluations. Covariates included in the final model were assessment number, gender, participant age at first assessment, caregiver depression, and two composites from the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME), Environmental Stimulation and Parental Nurturance. We found no cocaine effects on inhibitory control, working memory, or receptive language (p=0.18). GCE effects were observed on incidental face memory task (p=0.055), and GCE by assessment number interaction effects were seen on the incidental word memory task (p=0.031). Participant performance on inhibitory control, working memory, and receptive language tasks improved over time. HOME Environmental Stimulation composite was associated with better receptive language functioning. With a larger sample size smaller differences between groups may have been detected. This report shows no evidence of latent effects of GCE on inhibitory control, working memory, or receptive language. GCE effects were observed on the incidental face memory task, and GCE by

  15. Exposure to professional pest control treatments and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Helen D; Armstrong, Bruce K; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Fritschi, Lin; Attia, John; Scott, Rodney J; Smibert, Elizabeth; Milne, Elizabeth

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies suggest that exposure to pesticides increases the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aim of this analysis was to investigate whether professional pest treatments in or around the home before birth or during childhood increased the risk of childhood ALL. Data from 388 cases and 870 frequency-matched controls were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for study matching variables and potential confounders, to calculate odds ratios (ORs). A meta-analysis of our findings with the published findings of previous studies was also conducted. The ORs for any professional pest control treatments were 1.19 (95% CI 0.83, 1.69) in the year before pregnancy, 1.30 (95% CI 0.86, 1.97) during pregnancy and 1.24 (95% CI 0.93, 1.65) for those done after the child's birth. The ORs for exposure after birth were highest when it occurred between the ages of two and three years. ORs were elevated for termite treatments before birth. ORs were higher for pre-B than T cell ALL and for t(12;21) (ETV6-Runx-1) than other cytogenetic sub-types. The pooled OR from a meta-analysis of our study with three previous studies of professional pest control treatments during pregnancy was 1.37 (95% CI 1.00, 1.88). Our results, and those of our meta-analysis, provide some evidence of a modestly increased risk of ALL for professional pest control treatments done during the index pregnancy and possibly in the child's early years. The analysis of pooled data from international collaborations may provide more certainty regarding these potentially important associations. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  16. Impacts of Mercury Pollution Controls on Atmospheric Mercury Concentration and Occupational Mercury Exposure in a Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Yang, Yan; Xiong, Wuyan

    2015-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) and Hg-containing products are used in a wide range of settings in hospitals. Hg pollution control measures were carried out in the pediatric ward of a hospital to decrease the possibility of Hg pollution occurring and to decrease occupational Hg exposure. Total gaseous Hg (TGM) concentrations in the pediatric ward and hair and urine Hg concentrations for the pediatric staff were determined before and after the Hg pollution control measures had been implemented. A questionnaire survey performed indicated that the pediatric staff had little understanding of Hg pollution and that appropriate disposal techniques were not always used after Hg leakage. TGM concentrations in the pediatric ward and urine Hg (UHg) concentrations for the pediatric staff were 25.7 and 22.2% lower, respectively, after the Hg pollution control measures had been implemented than before, which indicated that the control measures were effective. However, TGM concentrations in the pediatric ward remained significantly higher than background concentrations and UHg concentrations for the pediatric staff were remained significantly higher than the concentrations in control group, indicating continued existence of certain Hg pollution.

  17. Anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity to non-target wildlife under controlled exposure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Mastrota, F. Nicholas; van den Brink, Nico; Elliott, J.; Shore, R.; Rattner, B.

    2018-01-01

    Much of our understanding of anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity to non-target wildlife has been derived from molecular through whole animal research and registration studies in domesticated birds and mammals, and to a lesser degree from trials with captive wildlife. Using these data, an adverse outcome pathway identifying molecular initiating and anchoring events (inhibition of vitamin K epoxide reductase, failure to activate clotting factors), and established and plausible linkages (coagulopathy, hemorrhage, anemia, reduced fitness) associated with toxicity, is presented. Controlled exposure studies have demonstrated that second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (e.g., brodifacoum) are more toxic than first- and intermediate-generation compounds (e.g., warfarin, diphacinone), however the difference in potency is diminished when first- and intermediate-generation compounds are administered on multiple days. Differences in species sensitivity are inconsistent among compounds. Numerous studies have compared mortality rate of predators fed prey or tissue containing anticoagulant rodenticides. In secondary exposure studies in birds, brodifacoum appears to pose the greatest risk, with bromadiolone, difenacoum, flocoumafen and difethialone being less hazardous than brodifacoum, and warfarin, coumatetralyl, coumafuryl, chlorophacinone and diphacinone being even less hazardous. In contrast, substantial mortality was noted in secondary exposure studies in mammals ingesting prey or tissue diets containing either second- or intermediate-generation compounds. Sublethal responses (e.g., prolonged clotting time, reduced hematocrit and anemia) have been used to study the sequelae of anticoagulant intoxication, and to some degree in the establishment of toxicity thresholds or toxicity reference values. Surprisingly few studies have undertaken histopathological evaluations to identify cellular lesions and hemorrhage associated with anticoagulant rodenticide exposure in non

  18. Association of prenatal exposure to benzodiazepines and child internalizing problems: A sibling-controlled cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild E Brandlistuen

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, many women experience sleep problems and anxiety that require treatment. The long-term safety for the child of maternal benzodiazepine (BZD and z-hypnotic use during pregnancy remains controversial.We conducted a cohort and a sibling control study using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Data on use of BZD and z-hypnotics, internalizing and externalizing outcomes, and covariates were collected from mothers at gestational weeks 17 and 30 and when children were 0.5, 1.5, and 3 years of age. The total sample consisted of 71,996 children (19,297 siblings at 1.5 years and 55,081 children (13,779 siblings at 3 years. Short-term use was defined as use in one pregnancy period only. Long-term use was defined as use in two or more pregnancy periods. Linear full cohort random-effect and sibling-matched fixed-effect regression models were used to compare internalizing and externalizing behavior in children prenatally exposed compared to those unexposed in the full cohort of pregnancies accounting for family clusters, as well as within sibling clusters comparing pregnancies with discordant exposures. Propensity score (PS adjustment included variables on indication for use (sleep problems, symptoms of anxiety and depression and other potential confounding factors.Long-term prenatal exposure to BZD or z-hypnotics was associated with increased internalizing behavior in crude cohort analyses and at age 1.5 years after PS adjustment in sibling-matched fixed-effect models [β 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.17-0.95]. Analyses on specific drug groups showed that prenatal exposure to BZD-anxiolytics was associated with increased internalizing problems at both 1.5 years [β 0.25, 0.01-0.49] and 3 years [β 0.26, 0.002-0.52] while exposure to z-hypnotics was not associated with any adverse outcomes after adjustment.The findings suggest a moderate association between BZD-anxiolytic exposure and child internalizing problems that is

  19. Theory and practice of Auto CAD, computer graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Si Won; Choe, Hong Yeong; Shin, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ryong Cheol

    1990-08-01

    This book describes theory and practice of Auto CAD, computer graphics, which deals with peripheral of computer, occurrence of digital line by DDA, BRM, theory of conversion, data base and display and shape modeling. This book gives descriptions of outline of CAD system, Auto CAD, basic function practice, simple figure practice, the third angle projection drawing a little complex single object, machine drawing I, function practice of improved Auto CAD, edit, set up layer, and 3D, and 3D display function.

  20. AutoRoute Rapid Flood Inundation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    cross-section data does not exist. As such, the AutoRoute model is not meant to be as accurate as models such as HEC - RAS (U.S. Army Engineer...such as HEC - RAS assume that the defined low point of cross sections must be connected. However, in this approach the channel is assumed to be defined...Res. 33(2): 309-319. U.S. Army Engineer Hydrologic Engineering Center. 2010. “ HEC - RAS : River Analysis System, User’s Manual, Version 4.1.” Davis

  1. Eco-Material Selection for Auto Bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayyas, Ahmad T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Omar, Mohammed [Masdar Institute of Science & Technology; Hayajneh, Mohammed T. [Jordan University of Science and Technology

    2017-09-25

    In the last decades, majority of automakers started to include lightweight materials in their vehicles to meet hard environmental regulations and to improve fuel efficiency of their vehicles. As a result, eco-material selection for vehicles emerged as a new discipline under design for environment. This chapter will summarize methods of eco-material selections for automotive applications with more emphasis into auto-bodies. A set of metrics for eco-material selection that takes into account all economic, environmental and social factors will be developed using numerical and qualitative methods. These metrics cover products' environmental impact, functionality and manufacturability, in addition to the economic and societal factors.

  2. Baseline repeated measures from controlled human exposure studies: associations between ambient air pollution exposure and the systemic inflammatory biomarkers IL-6 and fibrinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aaron M S; Zanobetti, Antonella; Silverman, Frances; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent; Urch, Bruce; Speck, Mary; Brook, Jeffrey R; Manno, Michael; Gold, Diane R

    2010-01-01

    Systemic inflammation may be one of the mechanisms mediating the association between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and fibrinogen are biomarkers of systemic inflammation that are independent risk factors for cardio-vascular disease. We investigated the association between ambient air pollution and systemic inflammation using baseline measurements of IL-6 and fibrinogen from controlled human exposure studies. In this retrospective analysis we used repeated-measures data in 45 nonsmoking subjects. Hourly and daily moving averages were calculated for ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter pollutants on systemic IL-6 and fibrinogen. Effect modification by season was considered. We observed a positive association between IL-6 and O3 [0.31 SD per O3 interquartile range (IQR); 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.080.54] and between IL-6 and SO2 (0.25 SD per SO2 IQR; 95% CI, 0.060.43). We observed the strongest effects using 4-day moving averages. Responses to pollutants varied by season and tended to be higher in the summer, particularly for O3 and PM2.5. Fibrinogen was not associated with pollution. This study demonstrates a significant association between ambient pollutant levels and baseline levels of systemic IL-6. These findings have potential implications for controlled human exposure studies. Future research should consider whether ambient pollution exposure before chamber exposure modifies IL-6 response.

  3. In Vivo versus Augmented Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Small Animal Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Botella

    Full Text Available Although in vivo exposure is the treatment of choice for specific phobias, some acceptability problems have been associated with it. Virtual Reality exposure has been shown to be as effective as in vivo exposure, and it is widely accepted for the treatment of specific phobias, but only preliminary data are available in the literature about the efficacy of Augmented Reality. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy and acceptance of two treatment conditions for specific phobias in which the exposure component was applied in different ways: In vivo exposure (N = 31 versus an Augmented Reality system (N = 32 in a randomized controlled trial. "One-session treatment" guidelines were followed. Participants in the Augmented Reality condition significantly improved on all the outcome measures at post-treatment and follow-ups. When the two treatment conditions were compared, some differences were found at post-treatment, favoring the participants who received in vivo exposure. However, these differences disappeared at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Regarding participants' expectations and satisfaction with the treatment, very positive ratings were reported in both conditions. In addition, participants from in vivo exposure condition considered the treatment more useful for their problem whereas participants from Augmented Reality exposure considered the treatment less aversive. Results obtained in this study indicate that Augmented Reality exposure is an effective treatment for specific phobias and well accepted by the participants.

  4. In Vivo versus Augmented Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Small Animal Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Cristina; Pérez-Ara, M Ángeles; Bretón-López, Juana; Quero, Soledad; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Although in vivo exposure is the treatment of choice for specific phobias, some acceptability problems have been associated with it. Virtual Reality exposure has been shown to be as effective as in vivo exposure, and it is widely accepted for the treatment of specific phobias, but only preliminary data are available in the literature about the efficacy of Augmented Reality. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy and acceptance of two treatment conditions for specific phobias in which the exposure component was applied in different ways: In vivo exposure (N = 31) versus an Augmented Reality system (N = 32) in a randomized controlled trial. "One-session treatment" guidelines were followed. Participants in the Augmented Reality condition significantly improved on all the outcome measures at post-treatment and follow-ups. When the two treatment conditions were compared, some differences were found at post-treatment, favoring the participants who received in vivo exposure. However, these differences disappeared at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Regarding participants' expectations and satisfaction with the treatment, very positive ratings were reported in both conditions. In addition, participants from in vivo exposure condition considered the treatment more useful for their problem whereas participants from Augmented Reality exposure considered the treatment less aversive. Results obtained in this study indicate that Augmented Reality exposure is an effective treatment for specific phobias and well accepted by the participants.

  5. On the road again: traffic fatalities and auto insurance minimums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Yakovlev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior research on policy-induced moral hazard effects in the auto insurance market has focused on the impact of compulsory insurance, no-fault liability, and tort liability laws on traffic fatalities. In contrast, this paper examines the moral hazard effect of a previously overlooked policy variable: minimum auto insurance coverage. We hypothesize that state-mandated auto insurance minimums may “over-insure” some drivers, lowering their incentives to drive carefully. Using a longitudinal panel of American states from 1982 to 2006, we find that policy-induced increases in auto insurance minimums are associated with higher traffic fatality rates, ceteris paribus.

  6. Auto-Regulatory RNA Editing Fine-Tunes mRNA Re-Coding and Complex Behaviour in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, Yiannis A.; Jepson, James E.C; Sahin, Asli; Sugden, Arthur U.; Dorsky, Jacquelyn S.; Alpert, Lauren; Lawrence, Charles; Reenan, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Auto-regulatory feedback loops are a common molecular strategy used to optimize protein function. In Drosophila many mRNAs involved in neuro-transmission are re-coded at the RNA level by the RNA editing enzyme dADAR, leading to the incorporation of amino acids that are not directly encoded by the genome. dADAR also re-codes its own transcript, but the consequences of this auto-regulation in vivo are unclear. Here we show that hard-wiring or abolishing endogenous dADAR auto-regulation dramatically remodels the landscape of re-coding events in a site-specific manner. These molecular phenotypes correlate with altered localization of dADAR within the nuclear compartment. Furthermore, auto-editing exhibits sexually dimorphic patterns of spatial regulation and can be modified by abiotic environmental factors. Finally, we demonstrate that modifying dAdar auto-editing affects adaptive complex behaviors. Our results reveal the in vivo relevance of auto-regulatory control over post-transcriptional mRNA re-coding events in fine-tuning brain function and organismal behavior. PMID:22531175

  7. Exposure rate measurements and radiation control in post therapy with I131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez A, M.; Castillo D, C.; Flores U, H.; Cespedes C, L.; Morgan N, C.; Sifuentes D, Y.; Marin R, K.

    2015-10-01

    During hyperthyroidism treatment, 131 I activities from 111 MBq up to 296 MBq are used. In the aim to determine if the 131 I uptake by the patient is a radiological risk to family members and public around the patient exposure rate measurements were carried out, using a limit 1.8 m R/h. Measurements were carried out in the Nuclear Medicine department of Almenara hospital in Lima, Peru. The exposure rate was measured to 0.3, 0.6, and 1.0 m from the patient from 0 to 11 days after post-administrated dose (Pda). In this study measurements were carried out in 21 hyperthyroid patients. Measurements to 1 meter, along 2-4 (16/16), 5-7 (15/15), and 8-11 (14/14) days after Pda, indicate the dose rate around 100% of patients is ≤ 1.8 m R /h. Measurements to 0.6 meters along 2-4 (16/16), 5 -7 (15/15), and 8-11 (14/14) days after Pda, indicate that the dose rate around 44% (7/16), 93% (14/15), and 100% (14/14) of patients is ≤ 1.8 m R h. On the other hand, dose rate measurements to 0.3 meters, along 2-4 (16/16), 5-7 (15/15), and 8 -11 (14/14) days after Pda, indicate that de dose rate is 13% (2/16), 6% (1/15), and 43% (6/14) of patients is ≤ 1.8 m R/h. Measured exposure rates are alike to values reported in the literature, and were used to define radiation control recommendations. (Author)

  8. Prenatal paracetamol exposure and child neurodevelopment: a sibling-controlled cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek; Ystrom, Eivind; Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2013-01-01

    Background Paracetamol is used extensively during pregnancy, but studies regarding the potential neurodevelopmental sequelae of foetal paracetamol exposure are lacking. Method Between 1999 and 2008 all pregnant Norwegian women were eligible for recruitment into the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. The mothers were asked to report on their use of paracetamol at gestational weeks 17 and 30 and at 6 months postpartum. We used data on 48 631 children whose mothers returned the 3-year follow-up questionnaire by May 2011. Within this sample were 2919 same-sex sibling pairs who were used to adjust for familial and genetic factors. We modelled psychomotor development (communication, fine and gross motor development), externalizing and internalizing behaviour problems, and temperament (emotionality, activity, sociability and shyness) based on prenatal paracetamol exposure using generalized linear regression, adjusting for a number of factors, including febrile illness, infections and co-medication use during pregnancy. Results The sibling-control analysis revealed that children exposed to prenatal paracetamol for more than 28 days had poorer gross motor development [β 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12–0.51], communication (β 0.20, 95% CI 0.01–0.39), externalizing behaviour (β 0.28, 95% CI 0.15–0.42), internalizing behaviour (β 0.14, 95% CI 0.01–0.28), and higher activity levels (β 0.24, 95% CI 0.11–0.38). Children exposed prenatally to short-term use of paracetamol (1–27 days) also had poorer gross motor outcomes (β 0.10, 95% CI 0.02–0.19), but the effects were smaller than with long-term use. Ibuprofen exposure was not associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes. Conclusion Children exposed to long-term use of paracetamol during pregnancy had substantially adverse developmental outcomes at 3 years of age. PMID:24163279

  9. Investigating the Simulink Auto-Coding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdoni, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Model based program design is the most clear and direct way to develop algorithms and programs for interfacing with hardware. While coding "by hand" results in a more tailored product, the ever-growing size and complexity of modern-day applications can cause the project work load to quickly become unreasonable for one programmer. This has generally been addressed by splitting the product into separate modules to allow multiple developers to work in parallel on the same project, however this introduces new potentials for errors in the process. The fluidity, reliability and robustness of the code relies on the abilities of the programmers to communicate their methods to one another; furthermore, multiple programmers invites multiple potentially differing coding styles into the same product, which can cause a loss of readability or even module incompatibility. Fortunately, Mathworks has implemented an auto-coding feature that allows programmers to design their algorithms through the use of models and diagrams in the graphical programming environment Simulink, allowing the designer to visually determine what the hardware is to do. From here, the auto-coding feature handles converting the project into another programming language. This type of approach allows the designer to clearly see how the software will be directing the hardware without the need to try and interpret large amounts of code. In addition, it speeds up the programming process, minimizing the amount of man-hours spent on a single project, thus reducing the chance of human error as well as project turnover time. One such project that has benefited from the auto-coding procedure is Ramses, a portion of the GNC flight software on-board Orion that has been implemented primarily in Simulink. Currently, however, auto-coding Ramses into C++ requires 5 hours of code generation time. This causes issues if the tool ever needs to be debugged, as this code generation will need to occur with each edit to any part of

  10. Solvent exposure and malignant lymphoma: a population-based case-control study in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeg Evelin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To analyze the relationship between exposure to chlorinated and aromatic organic solvents and malignant lymphoma in a multi-centre, population-based case-control study. Methods Male and female patients with malignant lymphoma (n = 710 between 18 and 80 years of age were prospectively recruited in six study regions in Germany (Ludwigshafen/Upper Palatinate, Heidelberg/Rhine-Neckar-County, Würzburg/Lower Frankonia, Hamburg, Bielefeld/Gütersloh, and Munich. For each newly recruited lymphoma case, a gender, region and age-matched (± 1 year of birth population control was drawn from the population registers. In a structured personal interview, we elicited a complete occupational history, including every occupational period that lasted at least one year. On the basis of job task-specific supplementary questionnaires, a trained occupational physician assessed the exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride and aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene, styrene. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking (in pack years and alcohol consumption. To increase the statistical power, patients with specific lymphoma subentities were additionally compared with the entire control group using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results We observed a statistically significant association between high exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons and malignant lymphoma (Odds ratio = 2.1; 95% confidence interval 1.1–4.3. In the analysis of lymphoma subentities, a pronounced risk elevation was found for follicular lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma. When specific substances were considered, the association between trichloroethylene and malignant lymphoma was of borderline statistical significance. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not significantly associated with the lymphoma diagnosis

  11. Optimal Recovery Trajectories for Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance Systems (Auto GCAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplisson, Angela W.

    The US Air Force recently fielded the F-16 Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto GCAS). This system meets the operational requirements of being both aggressive and timely, meaning that extremely agile avoidance maneuvers will be executed at the last second to avoid the ground. This small window of automatic operation maneuvering in close proximity to the ground makes the problem challenging. There currently exists no similar Auto GCAS for manned military 'heavy' aircraft with lower climb performance such as transport, tanker, or bomber aircraft. The F-16 Auto GCAS recovery is a single pre-planned roll to wings-level and 5-g pull-up which is very effective for fighters due to their high g and climb performance, but it is not suitable for military heavy aircraft. This research proposes a new optimal control approach to the ground collision avoidance problem for heavy aircraft by mapping the aggressive and timely requirements of the automatic recovery to the optimal control formulation which includes lateral maneuvers around terrain. This novel mapping creates two ways to pose the optimal control problem for Auto GCAS; one as a Max Distance with a Timely Trigger formulation and the other as a Min Control with an Aggressive Trigger formulation. Further, the optimal path and optimal control admitted by these two formulations are demonstrated to be equivalent at the point the automatic recovery is initiated for the simplified 2-D case. The Min Control formulation was demonstrated to have faster computational speed and was chosen for the 3-D case. Results are presented for representative heavy aircraft scenarios against 3-D digital terrain. The Min Control formulation was then compared to a Multi-Trajectory Auto GCAS with five pre-planned maneuvers. Metrics were developed to quantify the improvement from using an optimal approach versus the pre-planned maneuvers. The proposed optimal Min Control method was demonstrated to require less control or trigger later

  12. Shape matters: improved flight in tapered auto-rotating wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yucen; Vincent, Lionel; Kanso, Eva

    2017-11-01

    Many plants use gravity and wind to disperse their seeds. The shape of seed pods influence their aerodynamics. For example, Liana seeds form aerodynamic gliders and Sycamore trees release airborne ``helicopters.'' Here, we use carefully-controlled experiments and high-speed photography to examine dispersion by tumbling (auto-rotation) and we focus on the effect of geometry on flight characteristics. We consider four families of shapes: rectangular, elliptic, tapered, and sharp-tip wings, and we vary the span-to-chord ratio. We find that tapered wings exhibit extended flight time and range, that is, better performance. A quasi-steady two-dimensional model is used to highlight the mechanisms by which shape affects flight performance. These findings could have significant implications on linking seedpod designs to seed dispersion patterns as well as on optimizing wing design in active flight problems.

  13. Single-session gamified virtual reality exposure therapy for spider phobia vs. traditional exposure therapy: study protocol for a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloff, Alexander; Lindner, Philip; Hamilton, William; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-02-02

    Traditional one-session exposure therapy (OST) in which a patient is gradually exposed to feared stimuli for up to 3 h in a one-session format has been found effective for the treatment of specific phobias. However, many individuals with specific phobia are reluctant to seek help, and access to care is lacking due to logistic challenges of accessing, collecting, storing, and/or maintaining stimuli. Virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy may improve upon existing techniques by facilitating access, decreasing cost, and increasing acceptability and effectiveness. The aim of this study is to compare traditional OST with in vivo spiders and a human therapist with a newly developed single-session gamified VR exposure therapy application with modern VR hardware, virtual spiders, and a virtual therapist. Participants with specific phobia to spiders (N = 100) will be recruited from the general public, screened, and randomized to either VR exposure therapy (n = 50) or traditional OST (n = 50). A behavioral approach test using in vivo spiders will serve as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures will include spider phobia questionnaires and self-reported anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Outcomes will be assessed using a non-inferiority design at baseline and at 1, 12, and 52 weeks after treatment. VR exposure therapy has previously been evaluated as a treatment for specific phobias, but there has been a lack of high-quality randomized controlled trials. A new generation of modern, consumer-ready VR devices is being released that are advancing existing technology and have the potential to improve clinical availability and treatment effectiveness. The VR medium is also particularly suitable for taking advantage of recent phobia treatment research emphasizing engagement and new learning, as opposed to physiological habituation. This study compares a market-ready, gamified VR spider phobia exposure application, delivered using consumer VR hardware, with

  14. Auto-Generated Semantic Processing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rodney; Hupf, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Auto-Generated Semantic Processing (AGSP) Services is a suite of software tools for automated generation of other computer programs, denoted cross-platform semantic adapters, that support interoperability of computer-based communication systems that utilize a variety of both new and legacy communication software running in a variety of operating- system/computer-hardware combinations. AGSP has numerous potential uses in military, space-exploration, and other government applications as well as in commercial telecommunications. The cross-platform semantic adapters take advantage of common features of computer- based communication systems to enforce semantics, messaging protocols, and standards of processing of streams of binary data to ensure integrity of data and consistency of meaning among interoperating systems. The auto-generation aspect of AGSP Services reduces development time and effort by emphasizing specification and minimizing implementation: In effect, the design, building, and debugging of software for effecting conversions among complex communication protocols, custom device mappings, and unique data-manipulation algorithms is replaced with metadata specifications that map to an abstract platform-independent communications model. AGSP Services is modular and has been shown to be easily integrable into new and legacy NASA flight and ground communication systems.

  15. Web proxy auto discovery for the WLCG

    CERN Document Server

    Dykstra, D; Blumenfeld, B; De Salvo, A; Dewhurst, A; Verguilov, V

    2017-01-01

    All four of the LHC experiments depend on web proxies (that is, squids) at each grid site to support software distribution by the CernVM FileSystem (CVMFS). CMS and ATLAS also use web proxies for conditions data distributed through the Frontier Distributed Database caching system. ATLAS & CMS each have their own methods for their grid jobs to find out which web proxies to use for Frontier at each site, and CVMFS has a third method. Those diverse methods limit usability and flexibility, particularly for opportunistic use cases, where an experiment’s jobs are run at sites that do not primarily support that experiment. This paper describes a new Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) system for discovering the addresses of web proxies. The system is based on an internet standard called Web Proxy Auto Discovery (WPAD). WPAD is in turn based on another standard called Proxy Auto Configuration (PAC). Both the Frontier and CVMFS clients support this standard. The input into the WLCG system comes from squids regis...

  16. TH-AB-202-04: Auto-Adaptive Margin Generation for MLC-Tracked Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glitzner, M; Lagendijk, J; Raaymakers, B; Crijns, S; Fast, M; Nill, S; Oelfke, U; Denis de Senneville, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an auto-adaptive margin generator for MLC tracking. The generator is able to estimate errors arising in image guided radiotherapy, particularly on an MR-Linac, which depend on the latencies of machine and image processing, as well as on patient motion characteristics. From the estimated error distribution, a segment margin is generated, able to compensate errors up to a user-defined confidence. Method: In every tracking control cycle (TCC, 40ms), the desired aperture D(t) is compared to the actual aperture A(t), a delayed and imperfect representation of D(t). Thus an error e(t)=A(T)-D(T) is measured every TCC. Applying kernel-density-estimation (KDE), the cumulative distribution (CDF) of e(t) is estimated. With CDF-confidence limits, upper and lower error limits are extracted for motion axes along and perpendicular leaf-travel direction and applied as margins. To test the dosimetric impact, two representative motion traces were extracted from fast liver-MRI (10Hz). The traces were applied onto a 4D-motion platform and continuously tracked by an Elekta Agility 160 MLC using an artificially imposed tracking delay. Gafchromic film was used to detect dose exposition for static, tracked, and error-compensated tracking cases. The margin generator was parameterized to cover 90% of all tracking errors. Dosimetric impact was rated by calculating the ratio between underexposed points (>5% underdosage) to the total number of points inside FWHM of static exposure. Results: Without imposing adaptive margins, tracking experiments showed a ratio of underexposed points of 17.5% and 14.3% for two motion cases with imaging delays of 200ms and 300ms, respectively. Activating the margin generated yielded total suppression (<1%) of underdosed points. Conclusion: We showed that auto-adaptive error compensation using machine error statistics is possible for MLC tracking. The error compensation margins are calculated on-line, without the need of assuming motion or

  17. TH-AB-202-04: Auto-Adaptive Margin Generation for MLC-Tracked Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glitzner, M; Lagendijk, J; Raaymakers, B; Crijns, S [University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Fast, M; Nill, S; Oelfke, U [The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Denis de Senneville, B [University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); IMB, UMR 5251 CNRS/University of Bordeaux, Talence, FR (France)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an auto-adaptive margin generator for MLC tracking. The generator is able to estimate errors arising in image guided radiotherapy, particularly on an MR-Linac, which depend on the latencies of machine and image processing, as well as on patient motion characteristics. From the estimated error distribution, a segment margin is generated, able to compensate errors up to a user-defined confidence. Method: In every tracking control cycle (TCC, 40ms), the desired aperture D(t) is compared to the actual aperture A(t), a delayed and imperfect representation of D(t). Thus an error e(t)=A(T)-D(T) is measured every TCC. Applying kernel-density-estimation (KDE), the cumulative distribution (CDF) of e(t) is estimated. With CDF-confidence limits, upper and lower error limits are extracted for motion axes along and perpendicular leaf-travel direction and applied as margins. To test the dosimetric impact, two representative motion traces were extracted from fast liver-MRI (10Hz). The traces were applied onto a 4D-motion platform and continuously tracked by an Elekta Agility 160 MLC using an artificially imposed tracking delay. Gafchromic film was used to detect dose exposition for static, tracked, and error-compensated tracking cases. The margin generator was parameterized to cover 90% of all tracking errors. Dosimetric impact was rated by calculating the ratio between underexposed points (>5% underdosage) to the total number of points inside FWHM of static exposure. Results: Without imposing adaptive margins, tracking experiments showed a ratio of underexposed points of 17.5% and 14.3% for two motion cases with imaging delays of 200ms and 300ms, respectively. Activating the margin generated yielded total suppression (<1%) of underdosed points. Conclusion: We showed that auto-adaptive error compensation using machine error statistics is possible for MLC tracking. The error compensation margins are calculated on-line, without the need of assuming motion or

  18. In-car nocturnal blue light exposure improves motorway driving: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Taillard

    Full Text Available Prolonged wakefulness greatly decreases nocturnal driving performance. The development of in-car countermeasures is a future challenge to prevent sleep-related accidents. The aim of this study is to determine whether continuous exposure to monochromatic light in the short wavelengths (blue light, placed on the dashboard, improves night-time driving performance. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 48 healthy male participants (aged 20-50 years drove 400 km (250 miles on motorway during night-time. They randomly and consecutively received either continuous blue light exposure (GOLite, Philips, 468 nm during driving or 2*200 mg of caffeine or placebo of caffeine before and during the break. Treatments were separated by at least 1 week. The outcomes were number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC and mean standard deviation of the lateral position (SDLP. Eight participants (17% complained about dazzle during blue light exposure and were removed from the analysis. Results from the 40 remaining participants (mean age ± SD: 32.9±11.1 showed that countermeasures reduced the number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC (F(2,91.11 = 6.64; p<0.05. Indeed, ILC were lower with coffee (12.51 [95% CI, 5.86 to 19.66], p = 0.001 and blue light (14.58 [CI, 8.75 to 22.58], p = 0.003 than with placebo (26.42 [CI, 19.90 to 33.71]. Similar results were found for SDLP. Treatments did not modify the quality, quantity and timing of 3 subsequent nocturnal sleep episodes. Despite a lesser tolerance, a non-inferior efficacy of continuous nocturnal blue light exposure compared with caffeine suggests that this in-car countermeasure, used occasionally, could be used to fight nocturnal sleepiness at the wheel in blue light-tolerant drivers, whatever their age. More studies are needed to determine the reproducibility of data and to verify if it can be generalized to women.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01070004.

  19. A novel application of capnography during controlled human exposure to air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fila Michael

    2006-10-01

    waves in controlled human air pollution exposure studies is a feasible tool for characterization of cardio-pulmonary effects of such exposures.

  20. Lead levels in some biological samples of auto-mechanics in Abeokuta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, O O; Ojo, L O; Aderemi, M O

    2005-12-01

    Lead levels were determined in the blood, scalp hair and fingernails of 38, all male auto-mechanics (aged 18-45 years) from Abeokuta, South-western Nigeria. The subjects were classified into four sub-groups based on the period of exposure namely: 1-5, 6-10, 11-15, and >16 years. Thirty-two occupationally unexposed subjects (mainly office workers) served as the control. The weight, height and body mass indexes of all subjects were noted, in addition to other information obtained through structured questionnaire. The mean values of blood lead (BPb), hair lead (HPb) and fingernail lead (NPb) of the occupationally exposed subjects (n=38) were 48.50 +/- 9.08 microg/dL, 17.75 +/- 5.16 microg/g, and 5.92 +/- 3.30 microg/g respectively, while the corresponding mean values for these parameters in the control subjects (n = 32) were 33.(,5 +/- 10.09 microg/dL, 14.30 +/- 5.90 microg/g and 5.31 +/- 2.77 microg/g respectively. The differences in BPb and HPb levels of the two groups were statistically significant (P <0.05 and P <0.01 respectively), while that of NPb was not significant. The levels of lead in the biological samples appeared to have no relationship with the number of years on the job. From these results, it was obvious that the higher levels of lead in the biological samples of test subjects, compared with those of the controls were from environmental sources.

  1. Control of occupational exposure to nitrous oxide in the dental operatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitcher, C.E.; Zimmerman, D.C.; Tonn, E.M.; Piziali, R.L.

    1977-10-01

    Methods were developed for controlling the dental team's occupational exposure to nitrous oxide. The most applicable and effective use of these methods included the use of properly maintained gas delivery equipment, a double-walled scavenging nosepiece and vented suction machine, and minimizing speech by the patient. These methods were evaluated by measuring concentrations of nitrous oxide present in the air inspired by dental personnel. Before their use, the dentist inhaled 900 ppM nitrous oxide; their application reduced his inhaled concentration to 31 ppM, representing a 97% reduction. These methods were well accepted during 157 procedures completed by a group of eight dentists engaged in private practice (four general practitioners, two pedodontists, and two oral surgeons).

  2. Estimation of effectiveness of automatic exposure control in computed tomograph scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhilesh, Philomina; Sharma, S.D.; Datta, D.; Kulkarni, Arti

    2018-01-01

    With the advent of multiple detector array technology, the use of Computed Tomography (CT) scanning has increase tremendously. Computed Tomography examinations deliver relatively high radiation dose to patients in comparison with conventional radiography. It is therefore required to reduce the dose delivered in CT scans without compromising the image quality. Several parameters like applied potential, tube current, scan length, pitch etc. influence the dose delivered in CT scans. For optimization of patient dose and image quality, all modern CT scanners are enabled with Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) systems. The aim of this work is to compare the dose delivered during CT scans performed with and without AEC in order to estimate the effectiveness of AEC techniques used in CT scanners of various manufacturer

  3. Renal effects of chronic exposure to organic solvents. A clinical controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krusell, L.; Nielsen, H.K.; Baelum, J.; Lundqvist, G.; Omland, O.; Vaeth, M.; Husted, S.E.; Mogensen, C.E.; Geday, E.

    1985-01-01

    Chronic effects of organic solvents on renal function were measured by creatinine clearances and urinary excretion rates of beta 2-microglobulin and albumin. Forty-three male printing trade workers occupationally exposed to different organic solvents for 9-25 years were compared with 43 age-matched male controls. No differences were found either in creatinine clearances or average basal levels of beta 2-microglobulin and albumin excretion rates, whereas a positive relation could be demonstrated between alcohol consumption on the day before the trial and urinary excretion rate of albumin. This investigation did not reveal any adverse renal effects of moderate chronic exposure to organic solvents in a group of active trade workers.

  4. Renal effects of chronic exposure to organic solvents. A clinical controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krusell, Lars Romer; Nielsen, H K; Bælum, Jesper

    1985-01-01

    Chronic effects of organic solvents on renal function were measured by creatinine clearances and urinary excretion rates of beta 2-microglobulin and albumin. Forty-three male printing trade workers occupationally exposed to different organic solvents for 9-25 years were compared with 43 age......-matched male controls. No differences were found either in creatinine clearances or average basal levels of beta 2-microglobulin and albumin excretion rates, whereas a positive relation could be demonstrated between alcohol consumption on the day before the trial and urinary excretion rate of albumin....... This investigation did not reveal any adverse renal effects of moderate chronic exposure to organic solvents in a group of active trade workers....

  5. Economic evaluation of epinephrine auto-injectors for peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Marcus; Bean, Katherine; Verdi, Marylee

    2017-08-01

    Three commercial epinephrine auto-injectors were available in the United States in the summer of 2016: EpiPen, Adrenaclick, and epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector. To describe the variation in pharmacy costs among epinephrine auto-injector devices in New England and evaluate the additional expense associated with incremental auto-injector costs. Decision analysis software was used to evaluate costs of the most and least expensive epinephrine auto-injector devices for children with peanut allergy. To evaluate regional variation in epinephrine auto-injector costs, a random sample of New England national and corporate pharmacies was compared with a convenience sample of pharmacies from 10 Canadian provinces. Assuming prescriptions written for 2 double epinephrine packs each year (home and school), the mean costs of food allergy over the 20-year model horizon totaled $58,667 (95% confidence interval [CI] $57,745-$59,588) when EpiPen was prescribed and $45,588 (95% CI $44,873-$46,304) when epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector was prescribed. No effectiveness differences were evident between groups, with 17.19 (95% CI 17.11-17.27) quality-adjusted life years accruing for each subject. The incremental cost per episode of anaphylaxis treated with epinephrine over the model horizon was $12,576 for EpiPen vs epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector. EpiPen costs were lowest at Canadian pharmacies ($96, 95% CI $85-$107). There was price consistency between corporate and independent pharmacies throughout New England by device brand, with the epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector being the most affordable device. Cost differences among epinephrine auto-injectors were significant. More expensive auto-injector brands did not appear to provide incremental benefit. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimating time-varying exposure-outcome associations using case-control data: logistic and case-cohort analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Ruth H; Mangtani, Punam; Rodrigues, Laura; Nguipdop Djomo, Patrick

    2016-01-05

    Traditional analyses of standard case-control studies using logistic regression do not allow estimation of time-varying associations between exposures and the outcome. We present two approaches which allow this. The motivation is a study of vaccine efficacy as a function of time since vaccination. Our first approach is to estimate time-varying exposure-outcome associations by fitting a series of logistic regressions within successive time periods, reusing controls across periods. Our second approach treats the case-control sample as a case-cohort study, with the controls forming the subcohort. In the case-cohort analysis, controls contribute information at all times they are at risk. Extensions allow left truncation, frequency matching and, using the case-cohort analysis, time-varying exposures. Simulations are used to investigate the methods. The simulation results show that both methods give correct estimates of time-varying effects of exposures using standard case-control data. Using the logistic approach there are efficiency gains by reusing controls over time and care should be taken over the definition of controls within time periods. However, using the case-cohort analysis there is no ambiguity over the definition of controls. The performance of the two analyses is very similar when controls are used most efficiently under the logistic approach. Using our methods, case-control studies can be used to estimate time-varying exposure-outcome associations where they may not previously have been considered. The case-cohort analysis has several advantages, including that it allows estimation of time-varying associations as a continuous function of time, while the logistic regression approach is restricted to assuming a step function form for the time-varying association.

  7. Estimating time-varying exposure-outcome associations using case-control data: logistic and case-cohort analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth H. Keogh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional analyses of standard case-control studies using logistic regression do not allow estimation of time-varying associations between exposures and the outcome. We present two approaches which allow this. The motivation is a study of vaccine efficacy as a function of time since vaccination. Methods Our first approach is to estimate time-varying exposure-outcome associations by fitting a series of logistic regressions within successive time periods, reusing controls across periods. Our second approach treats the case-control sample as a case-cohort study, with the controls forming the subcohort. In the case-cohort analysis, controls contribute information at all times they are at risk. Extensions allow left truncation, frequency matching and, using the case-cohort analysis, time-varying exposures. Simulations are used to investigate the methods. Results The simulation results show that both methods give correct estimates of time-varying effects of exposures using standard case-control data. Using the logistic approach there are efficiency gains by reusing controls over time and care should be taken over the definition of controls within time periods. However, using the case-cohort analysis there is no ambiguity over the definition of controls. The performance of the two analyses is very similar when controls are used most efficiently under the logistic approach. Conclusions Using our methods, case-control studies can be used to estimate time-varying exposure-outcome associations where they may not previously have been considered. The case-cohort analysis has several advantages, including that it allows estimation of time-varying associations as a continuous function of time, while the logistic regression approach is restricted to assuming a step function form for the time-varying association.

  8. Efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy for treatment of dental phobia: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Kumar; Van Wijk, A J; Abdullah, Fawzia; Islam, Md Nurul; Bernatchez, Marc; De Jongh, Ad

    2016-02-27

    Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) is found to be a promising and a viable alternative for in vivo exposure in the treatment of specific phobias. However, its usefulness for treating dental phobia is unexplored. The aims of the present study are to determine: (a) the efficacy of VRET versus informational pamphlet (IP) control group in terms of dental trait and state anxiety reductions at 1 week, 3 months and 6 months follow-up (b) the real-time physiological arousal [heart rate (HR)] of VRET group participants during and following therapy (c) the relation between subjective (presence) and objective (HR) measures during VRET. This study is a single blind, randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms in which participants will be allocated to VRET or IP with a ratio of 1:1. Thirty participants (18-50 years) meeting the Phobia Checklist criteria of dental phobia will undergo block randomization with allocation concealment. The primary outcome measures include participants' dental trait anxiety (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale and Dental Fear Survey) and state anxiety (Visual Analogue Scale) measured at baseline (T0), at intervention (T1), 1-week (T2), 3 months (T3) and 6 months (T4) follow-up. A behavior test will be conducted before and after the intervention. The secondary outcome measures are real-time evaluation of HR and VR (Virtual Reality) experience (presence, realism, nausea) during and following the VRET intervention respectively. The data will be analyzed using intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis. This study uses novel non-invasive VRET, which may provide a possible alternative treatment for dental anxiety and phobia. ISRCTN25824611 , Date of registration: 26 October 2015.

  9. [Risk assessment and risk control for occupational exposure to chemical toxicants from an isophorone nitrile device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dejun; Fu, Xiaokuan; Kong, Fanling; Sui, Shaofeng; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Du, Yinglin; Zhou, Jingyang

    2014-06-01

    Risk assessment and risk control for occupational exposure to chemical toxicants were performed on an isophorone nitrile device with an annual production of 5,000 tons, based on improved Singaporean semi-quantitative risk assessment method, with consideration of actual situation in China and in the present project. With the use of engineering analysis and identification of occupational hazards in the improved Singaporean semi-quantitative risk assessment method, hazard rating (HR) and risk assessment were performed on chemical toxicants from an isophorone nitrile device with an annual production of 5,000 tons. The chemical toxicants in the isophorone nitrile device were mainly isophorone, hydrocyanic acid, methanol, phosphoric acid, sodium hydroxide, and sodium cyanide; the HR values were mild hazard (2), extreme hazard (5), mild hazard (2), mild hazard (2), moderate hazard (3), and extreme hazard (5), respectively, and the corresponding exposure rating (ER) values were 2.09, 2.72, 2.76, 1.68, 2.0, and 1.59, respectively. The risk of chemical toxicants in this project was assessed according to the formula Risk = [HR×ER](1/2). Hydrocyanic acid was determined as high risk, sodium hydroxide and sodium cyanide as medium risk, and isophorone, methanol, and phosphoric acid as low risk. Priority in handling of risks was determined by risk rating. The table of risk control measure was established for pre-assessment of occupational hazards. With risk assessment in this study, we concluded that the isophorone nitrile device with 5,000 ton annual production was a high-occupational hazard device. This device is a project of extreme occupational hazard. The improved Singaporean semi-quantitative risk assessment method is a scientific and applicable method, and is especially suitable for pre-evaluation of on-site project with no analogy.

  10. Risk Assessment and Control through Countermeasure System Iplementation for Long-term Crew Exposure to Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Jeremy M.

    2004-01-01

    Experience with the International Space Station (ISS) program demonstrates the degree to which engineering design and operational solutions must protect crewmembers from health risks due to long-term exposure to the microgravity environment. Risks to safety and health due to degradation in the microgravity environment include crew inability to complete emergency or nominal activities, increased risk of injury, and inability to complete safe return to the ground due to reduced strength or embrittled bones. These risks without controls slowly increase in probability for the length of the mission and become more significant for increasing mission durations. Countermeasures to microgravity include hardware systems that place a crewmember s body under elevated stress to produce an effect similar to daily exposure to gravity. The ISS countermeasure system is predominately composed of customized exercise machines. Historical treatment of microgravity countermeasure systems as medical research experiments unintentionally reduced the foreseen importance and therefore the capability of the systems to function in a long-term operational role. Long-term hazardous effects and steadily increasing operational risks due to non-functional countermeasure equipment require a more rigorous design approach and incorporation of redundancy into seemingly non- mission-critical hardware systems. Variations in the rate of health degradation and responsiveness to countermeasures among the crew population drastically increase the challenge for design requirements development and verification of the appropriate risk control strategy. The long-term nature of the hazards and severe limits on logistical re-supply mass, volume and frequency complicates assessment of hardware availability and verification of an adequate maintenance and sparing plan. Design achievement of medically defined performance requirements by microgravity countermeasure systems and incorporation of adequate failure tolerance

  11. Simultaneous exposure of nematophagous fungi, entomopathogenic nematodes and entomopathogenic fungi can modulate belowground insect pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-Pallero, Francisco Ángel; Blanco-Pérez, Rubén; Dionísio, Lídia; Campos-Herrera, Raquel

    2018-05-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) and fungi (EPF) are well known biological control agents (BCAs) against insect pests. Similarly, the nematophagous fungi (NF) are considered good BCA candidates for controlling plant parasitic nematodes. Because NF can employ EPNs as food and interact with EPF, we speculate that the simultaneous application of EPNs and EPF might result in higher insect mortality, whereas the triple species combination with NF will reduce the EPN and EPF activity by predation or inhibition. Here we evaluated single, dual (EPN + EPF, EPF + NF, EPN + NF) and triple (EPN + EPF + NF) combinations of one EPN, Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), one EPF, Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), and two NF, Arthrobotrys musiformis (Orbiliales: Orbiliaceae) and Purpureocillium lilacinum (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) under laboratory conditions. First, we showed that EPF reduced the growth rate of NF and vice versa when combined in both rich and limiting media, suggesting a negative interaction when combining both fungi. Three different fungal applications (contact with mycelia-conidia, immersion in conidial suspension, and injection of conidial suspension) were tested in single, dual and triple species combinations, evaluating Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larval mortality and time to kill. When mycelia was presented, the EPF appeared to be the dominant in combined treatments, whereas in immersion exposure was the EPN. In both types of exposure, NF alone did not produce any effect on larvae. However, when A. musiformis was injected, it produced larval mortalities >70% in the same time span as EPN. Overall, additive effects dominated the dual and triple combinations, with the exception of injection method, where synergisms occurred for both NF species combined with EPN + EPF. This study illustrates how differences in species combination and timing of fungal arrival can modulate the action

  12. Cancer incidence and specific occupational exposures in the Swedish leather tanning industry: a cohort based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikoczy, Z; Schütz, A; Strömberg, U; Hagmar, L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the effect on the incidence of cancer of exposure to chemicals handled in the leather tanning industry. MATERIALS AND METHODS--A case-control study was performed within a cohort of 2487 workers employed for at least six months during the period 1900-89 in three Swedish leather tanneries. 68 cancer cases (lung, stomach, bladder, kidney, nasal, and pancreatic cancers and soft tissue sarcomas) and 178 matched controls were studied. Effects of chemical exposures on cancer incidence, adjusted for age at risk, sex, and plant were estimated with a conditional logistic regression model. RESULTS--A significant association was found between exposure to leather dust and pancreatic cancer (odds ratio (OR) 7.19, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.44 to 35-89). An association was indicated between leather dust from vegetable tanning and lung cancer. After adjustment for smoking habits a tentative association between organic solvents and lung cancer lost its significance. No association was found between exposure to chlorophenols and soft tissue sarcomas. CONCLUSIONS--The significant association between leather tanning and soft tissue sarcomas that was found in our previous cohort analysis could not be explained by exposure to chlorophenols. On the other hand a significant association was found between exposure to leather dust and pancreatic cancer, and exposure to leather dust from vegetable tanning was often present in cases with lung cancer. Due to the small numbers of cases, the results can, however, only lead to tentative conclusions. PMID:8704870

  13. Longitudinal study of Thai people media exposure, knowledge, and behavior on dengue fever prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonchutima, Smith; Kachentawa, Kirati; Limpavithayakul, Manasanun; Prachansri, Anan

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever is transmitted through a bite by a dengue -infected Aedes aegypti mosquito. It was first reported in the mid -20th century in Thailand, and since then its epidemiology has been of great concern and has spread all across the country. The alarming incidence of dengue posed a serious threat to human health in all major cities of Thailand. This study was aimed at identifying the level of awareness of dengue fever in Thai population knowledge for prevention and control, and most importantly contribution of media in educating masses for dengue control measures. It is longitudinal in nature and was conducted in 25 provinces of Thailand during 2013-2015. Approximately 7772 respondents participated in this study, with the selection of provinces based on considerations like population, prevalence and demography. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect information relevant to study participants' demographic profile, pre-existing knowledge about dengue fever and its reinforcement through media, and population attitudes toward prevention and control. Over the period of three years, a positive trend was revealed relevant to the contribution of media in educating and reminding the Thai population of dengue, without any uniformity or powerful campaigns. Based on the results drawn from this study, we conclude that despite the measures undertaken to prevent dengue fever, there is insufficient media exposure. An interdisciplinary approach involving the community participation, media, and government is needed to overcome dengue threat in Thailand. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde exposure mitigation in US residences: In-home measurements of ventilation control and source control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Erin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Russell, Marion L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Measurements were taken in new US residences to assess the extent to which ventilation and source control can mitigate formaldehyde exposure. Increasing ventilation consistently lowered indoor formaldehyde concentrations. However, at a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h-1, increasing ventilation was up to 60% less effective than would be predicted if the emission rate were constant. This is consistent with formaldehyde emission rates decreasing as air concentrations increase, as observed in chamber studies. In contrast, measurements suggest acetaldehyde emission was independent of ventilation rate. To evaluate the effectiveness of source control, formaldehyde concentrations were measured in Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified/Indoor airPLUS homes constructed with materials certified to have low emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOC). At a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h-1, and adjusting for home age, temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde concentrations in homes built with low-VOC materials were 42% lower on average than in reference new homes with conventional building materials. Without adjustment, concentrations were 27% lower in the low-VOC homes. The mean and standard deviation of formaldehyde concentration were 33 μg m-3 and 22 μg m-3 for low-VOC homes and 45 μg m-3 and 30 μg m-3 for conventional.

  15. Case-Control Study on Occupational Exposure to Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and the Association with Meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Carlberg

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF was in 2002 classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO based on an increased risk for childhood leukemia. In case-control studies on brain tumors during 1997–2003 and 2007–2009 we assessed lifetime occupations in addition to exposure to different agents. The INTEROCC ELF-EMF Job-Exposure Matrix was used for associating occupations with ELF-EMF exposure (μT with meningioma. Cumulative exposure (μT-years, average exposure (μT, and maximum exposed job (μT were calculated. Results. No increased risk for meningioma was found in any category. For cumulative exposure in the highest exposure category 8.52+ μT years odds ratio (OR = 0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.7–1.2, and p linear trend = 0.45 were calculated. No statistically significant risks were found in different time windows. Conclusion. In conclusion occupational ELF-EMF was not associated with an increased risk for meningioma.

  16. Responses of sympathetic nervous system to cold exposure in vibration syndrome subjects and age-matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, M

    1990-01-01

    Plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine in vibration syndrome subjects and age-matched healthy controls were measured for the purpose of estimating the responsibility of the sympathetic nervous system to cold exposure. In preliminary experiment, it was confirmed that cold air exposure of the whole body was more suitable than one-hand immersion in cold water. In the main experiment, 195 subjects were examined. Sixty-five subjects had vibration syndrome with vibration-induced white finger (VWF + group) and 65 subjects had vibration syndrome without VWF (VWF- group) and 65 controls had no symptoms (control group). In the three groups, plasma norepinephrine levels increased during cold air exposure of whole body at 7 degrees +/- 1.5 degrees C. Blood pressure increased and skin temperature decreased during cold exposure. Percent increase of norepinephrine in the VWF+ group was the highest while that in VWF- group followed and that in the control group was the lowest. This whole-body response of the sympathetic nervous system to cold conditions reflected the VWF which are characteristic symptoms of vibration syndrome. Excluding the effects of shivering and a cold feeling under cold conditions, it was confirmed that the sympathetic nervous system in vibration syndrome is activated more than in the controls. These results suggest that vibration exposure to hand and arm affects the sympathetic nervous system.

  17. A Case control study of cardiovascular disease and arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Millions of people are at risk from the adverse effects of waterborne arsenic. Although the cardiovascular effects of high exposures to arsenic have been well documented, few individual level prospective studies have assessed cardiovascular risk at moderate exposures....

  18. Commentary: variability in workplace exposures and the design of efficient measurement and control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Burdorf (Alex); M. van Tongeren

    2003-01-01

    textabstractKromhout et al.'s (1993) well-cited publication presented detailed information on statistical procedures to estimate the magnitude of exposure variability within and between workers, drawing from a large database on chemical exposures throughout industry. It

  19. Empiric auto-titrating CPAP in people with suspected obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Fitzgerald; Doelken, Peter; Ahmed, Qanta A; Gilbert, Gregory E; Strange, Charlie; Herpel, Laura; Frye, Michael D

    2010-04-15

    Efficient diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can be difficult because of time delays imposed by clinic visits and serial overnight polysomnography. In some cases, it may be desirable to initiate treatment for suspected OSA prior to polysomnography. Our objective was to compare the improvement of daytime sleepiness and sleep-related quality of life of patients with high clinical likelihood of having OSA who were randomly assigned to receive empiric auto-titrating continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) while awaiting polysomnogram versus current usual care. Serial patients referred for overnight polysomnography who had high clinical likelihood of having OSA were randomly assigned to usual care or immediate initiation of auto-titrating CPAP. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) scores and the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ) scores were obtained at baseline, 1 month after randomization, and again after initiation of fixed CPAP in control subjects and after the sleep study in auto-CPAP patients. One hundred nine patients were randomized. Baseline demographics, daytime sleepiness, and sleep-related quality of life scores were similar between groups. One-month ESS and FOSQ scores were improved in the group empirically treated with auto-titrating CPAP. ESS scores improved in the first month by a mean of -3.2 (confidence interval -1.6 to -4.8, p life in a cohort of patients awaiting polysomnography who had a high pretest probability of having OSA. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the applicability of empiric treatment to other populations.

  20. Open loop, auto reversing liquid nitrogen circulation thermal system for thermo vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, M C A; Nolakha, Dinesh; Saharkar, B S; Kavani, K M; Patel, D R

    2012-01-01

    In a thermo vacuum chamber, attaining and controlling low and high temperatures (-100 Deg. C to +120 Deg. C) is a very important task. This paper describes the development of 'Open loop, auto reversing liquid nitrogen based thermal system'. System specifications, features, open loop auto reversing system, liquid nitrogen flow paths etc. are discussed in this paper. This thermal system consists of solenoid operated cryogenic valves, double embossed thermal plate (shroud), heating elements, temperature sensors and PLC. Bulky items like blowers, heating chambers, liquid nitrogen injection chambers, huge pipe lines and valves were not used. This entire thermal system is very simple to operate and PLC based, fully auto system with auto tuned to given set temperatures. This system requires a very nominal amount of liquid nitrogen (approx. 80 liters / hour) while conducting thermo vacuum tests. This system was integrated to 1.2m dia thermo vacuum chamber, as a part of its augmentation, to conduct extreme temperature cycling tests on passive antenna reflectors of satellites.

  1. [PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC INTERVENTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH AUTO-AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR DURING THE FIRST PSYCHOTIC EPISODE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrenko, I; Potapov, A; Sotnikov, D; Kolenko, O; Kmyta, A

    2017-09-01

    In this article the formation of psychopathological predictors auto-aggressive behavior in patients with a first psychotic episode were identified, which became "targets" in the framework of a comprehensive emergency suicide assistance to conduct the crisis psychotherapy. The work was done on the basis of the Sumy regional psychoneurologic dispensary, where 100 patients with a first psychotic episode were examined: 52 of them (core group) had suicidal symptoms and 48 (control group) had not. According to the test results of severity of auto-aggressive predictors (pre-suicidal syndrome) to clinicopsychopathological predictors of auto-aggressive behavior include: the narrowing of the cognitive function (p≤0,001), the avoidance of interpersonal contact (r≤0,001), the presence of affective (p≤0,001) and vegetative (p≤0,01) violations, the autoaggression of moderate severity (p≤0,001) and impulsivity (p≤0,001). Patients of the core group with the auto-aggressive behavior (n=58) completed a course of a crisis psychotherapy comprising the stages of crisis support, crisis intervention and increase the adaptation layer. After a psychotherapy course levels of aggression (6,45±0,41), auto-aggression (of 9,68±0,67), disorders in the affective sphere (18,58±0,66) and impulsivity (of 4,23±0,30) decreased, which was manifested in increasing tolerance to emotional stress factors, control over their emotions and reduce their affective valence (p≤0,001). The expansion of interpersonal interaction, the increase of patients social activity, the blood relationships establishment (of 9,23±0,40) was observed.

  2. Case-control study on radon exposure and lung cancer in an Italian region. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochicchio, F; Nuccetelli, C.; Forastiere, F.; Mallone, S.; Sera, F.

    2000-01-01

    The present estimates of the lung cancer risk for the general population due to radon exposure in dwellings are generally obtained by extrapolating the risk estimates derived from epidemiologic studies on miner cohorts. However, due to uncertainties related to this extrapolation, numerous case-control studies in Europe and North America were planned to estimate directly the risk in dwellings. Most of these studies are still underway and, thanks to their similar design and compatible protocols, it will be possible to perform a pooled analysis in order to improve statistical power. One of these projects is being conducted in the Lazio region of Italy, which is one of the Italian regions with the highest levels of radon indoors. A total of 408 cases and 424 controls older than 34 years, who lived for 25 years or longer in the Lazio Region, were recruited in a hospital of Rome. Detailed information regarding smoking, and occupational exposure of the subjects were collected by interviews in hospital. Residential histories (periods and addresses) during the 35 years preceding the enrolment were ascertained for all study members from the local Register and from a short questionnaire to the subjects or to the next-of-kin, resulting in 2068 dwellings to be monitored within the Lazio region. The distribution of the number of dwellings among cases and controls was the following: 25.7% of the cases and 27.3% of the controls had lived all the preceding 35 years in a single dwelling, whereas only a minority (7.9%) changed five addresses or more. The mean number of dwellings was very similar among cases (2.47) and controls (2.50). In each dwelling, radon dosemeters were placed in both the main bedroom and living room for two consecutive six-month periods. In the second six-month period, two thermoluminescent dosemeters were also collocated in each monitored room to measure gamma radiation emitted by the building materials, in order to evaluate more comprehensively the exposure of

  3. Sarri võttis Talleksiga taanlastelt Saksa Auto / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    Andres Sarri poolt kontrollitav AS Talleks ostis Taani partnerilt Semler Holding välja 50-protsendilise osaluse AS-is Saksa Auto. Lisa: Viimastel aastatel eestlaste poolt välja ostetud ettevõtted. Diagramm: Saksa Auto tulemused paranesid mullu märgatavalt. Vt. samas: Sarri: me ei tee halbu tehinguid; Peeter Raidla. Tuleristsed 90ndate alguse võimuvõitlusest

  4. 46 CFR 167.65-35 - Use of auto pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of auto pilot. 167.65-35 Section 167.65-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-35 Use of auto pilot. Except as provided in 33 CFR 164.15, when...

  5. 46 CFR 109.585 - Use of auto pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of auto pilot. 109.585 Section 109.585 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.585 Use of auto pilot. Except as provided in 33 CFR 164.15, when the automatic pilot is used...

  6. 46 CFR 122.360 - Use of auto pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of auto pilot. 122.360 Section 122.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... Requirements § 122.360 Use of auto pilot. Whenever an automatic pilot is used the master shall ensure that: (a...

  7. 46 CFR 131.960 - Use of auto-pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of auto-pilot. 131.960 Section 131.960 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 131.960 Use of auto-pilot. When the automatic pilot is used in areas of high traffic density...

  8. 46 CFR 185.360 - Use of auto pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of auto pilot. 185.360 Section 185.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.360 Use of auto pilot. Whenever an automatic pilot is...

  9. Auto concept y rasgos de personalidad: Un estudio correlacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Cecílio Fernandes

    Full Text Available Este estudio ha investigado las relaciones entre los rasgos de personalidad y auto concepto. Fueron aplicadas la Escala de Traços de Personalidade para Crianças y la Escala de Autoconceito Infanto-Juvenil en 389 niños, con edad de 8 a 10 años de escuelas públicas y particulares. Se han hallado diferencias de sexo para casi todas las medidas hechas. Para los varones, ha sido observado correlaciones positivas entre extroversión y auto conceptos escolar y familiar, neuroticismo y psicoticismo con auto conceptos personal y social, y sociabilidad con auto concepto familiar; y correlaciones negativas entre extroversión y auto concepto social, psicoticismo y auto concepto familiar, y sociabilidad y auto concepto personal. Para las niñas, fueron observadas correlaciones positivas entre el auto concepto social y psicoticismo y sociabilidad con el familiar; y correlaciones negativas entre extroversión y el social, psicoticismo y neuroticismo con el familiar. Los análisis de los grupos extremos confirmaron los datos encontrados.

  10. Measurement of anti- acetylcholine receptor auto-antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    auto-antibodies in myasthenia gravis. K. J. Steenkamp, W. Duim, M. s. Myer,. S. C. K. Malfeld, R. Anderson. Two different acetylcholine receptor (AChR) preparations derived from ... the detection of AChR auto-antibodies in serum specimens from 20 ... 4°C. Thereafter, 1 ml of washing solution (phosphate- buffered saline ...

  11. Rüütmann taandub Kommest Auto juhtimisest / Kaisa Tahlfeld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tahlfeld, Kaisa

    2007-01-01

    AS-i Kommest Auto asutaja ja omanik Toomas Rüütmann loobub ettevõtte juhtimisest, kuid jätkab juhatuse liikmena ning keskendub eksportturgudele ja koostööle edasimüüjatega. Kommest Auto uueks juhiks saab Raido Toonekurg. Lisa: Mis on mis; Taust

  12. Kommest Auto ostmisest huvitub ka Hillar Teder / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2008-01-01

    Kommest Auto ostmise vastu tunnevad huvi suurärimees Andres Sarri, Rootsis Peugeot' sõidukeid müüv Taani päritolu K. W. Bruun Import ja multimiljonär Hillar Teder, kellele kuulub Audisid müüv Reval Auto

  13. Differential Immuno-Reactivity to Genomic DNA, RNA and Mitochondrial DNA is Associated with Auto-Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilena V. Ivanova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Circulating auto-reactive antibodies are hallmark features of auto-immune diseases, however little is known with respect to the specificity of such bio-markers. In the present study, we investigated the specificity of anti-nucleic acid antibodies in the blood of subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and healthy controls. Methods: Sera from 12 SLE cases and 8 controls were evaluated for immuno-reactivity to purified RNA, DNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA. Results: As expected, immuno-reactivity to total nucleic acids was significantly higher in subjects with SLE when compared to healthy controls, however a clear distinction was observed among the various nucleic acid sub-types, with sera from SLE subjects displaying the greatest immuno-reactivity to RNA followed by mtDNA and then total DNA. Conclusion: The identification of auto-reactive antibodies can serve as highly sensitive biomarkers, although their specificity may not always allow diagnostic certainty. The knowledge that auto-antibodies in subjects with SLE display differential immuno-reactivity may help to improve existing diagnostics and may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of auto-immune disorders.

  14. Low auto-fluorescence fabrication methods for plastic nanoslits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhifu; Qi, Liping; Zou, Helin; Sun, Lei; Xu, Shenbo

    2016-04-01

    Plastic nanofluidic devices are becoming increasingly important for biological and chemical applications. However, they suffer from high auto-fluorescence when used for on-chip optical detection. In this study, the auto-fluorescence problem of plastic nanofluidic devices was remedied by newly developed fabrication methods that minimise their auto-fluorescence: one by depositing a gold (Au) layer on them, the other by making them ultra-thin. In the first method, the Au layer [minimum thickness is 40 nm on 150 μm SU-8, 50 nm on 1 mm polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and 40 on 2 nm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)] blocks the auto-fluorescence of the polymer; in the second method, auto-fluorescence is minimised by making the chips ultra-thin, selected operating thickness of SU-8 is 20 μm, for PET it is 150 μm, and for PMMA it is 0.8 mm.

  15. Data processing and analysis with the autoPROC toolbox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonrhein, Clemens, E-mail: vonrhein@globalphasing.com; Flensburg, Claus; Keller, Peter; Sharff, Andrew; Smart, Oliver; Paciorek, Wlodek; Womack, Thomas; Bricogne, Gérard [Global Phasing Ltd, Sheraton House, Castle Park, Cambridge CB3 0AX (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-01

    Typical topics and problems encountered during data processing of diffraction experiments are discussed and the tools provided in the autoPROC software are described. A typical diffraction experiment will generate many images and data sets from different crystals in a very short time. This creates a challenge for the high-throughput operation of modern synchrotron beamlines as well as for the subsequent data processing. Novice users in particular may feel overwhelmed by the tables, plots and numbers that the different data-processing programs and software packages present to them. Here, some of the more common problems that a user has to deal with when processing a set of images that will finally make up a processed data set are shown, concentrating on difficulties that may often show up during the first steps along the path of turning the experiment (i.e. data collection) into a model (i.e. interpreted electron density). Difficulties such as unexpected crystal forms, issues in crystal handling and suboptimal choices of data-collection strategies can often be dealt with, or at least diagnosed, by analysing specific data characteristics during processing. In the end, one wants to distinguish problems over which one has no immediate control once the experiment is finished from problems that can be remedied a posteriori. A new software package, autoPROC, is also presented that combines third-party processing programs with new tools and an automated workflow script that is intended to provide users with both guidance and insight into the offline processing of data affected by the difficulties mentioned above, with particular emphasis on the automated treatment of multi-sweep data sets collected on multi-axis goniostats.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii exposure and Parkinson's disease: a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Méndez-Hernández, Edna Madai; Salas-Pacheco, José Manuel; Ruano-Calderón, Luis Ángel; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Castellanos-Juárez, Francisco Xavier; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada Agustina; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and Parkinson's disease and to investigate whether T. gondii seropositivity is associated with the general characteristics of patients with Parkinson's disease. Design Case–control study. Setting Cases and controls were enrolled in Durango City, Mexico. Participants 65 patients with Parkinson's disease and 195 age- and gender-matched control subjects without Parkinson's disease. Primary and secondary outcome measures Serum samples of participants were analysed for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassays. Prevalence of T. gondii DNA was determined in seropositive subjects using PCR. The association between clinical data and infection was examined by bivariate analysis. Results Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 6/65 cases (9.2%) and in 21/195 controls (10.8%) (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.32 to 2.18; p=0.81). The frequency of high (>150 IU/mL) antibody levels was similar among cases and controls (p=0.34). None of the anti-T. gondii IgG positive cases and four of the anti-T. gondii IgG positive controls had anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies (p=0.54). The prevalence of T. gondii DNA was comparable in seropositive cases and controls (16.7% and 25%, respectively; p=1.0). Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was associated with a young age onset of disease (p=0.03), high Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale scores (p=0.04) and depression (p=0.02). Seropositivity to T. gondii infection was lower in patients treated with pramipexole than in patients without this treatment (p=0.01). However, none of the associations remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Conclusions The results do not support an association between T. gondii infection and Parkinson's disease. However, T. gondii infection might have an influence on certain symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Further research to elucidate the role of T. gondii exposure on Parkinson's disease

  17. The use of the ICRP principles for controlling risks from potential exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.; Gonzalez, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    Heretofore, ICRP recommendations for radiation protection mainly apply to radiation exposures that are expected to occur with near certainty during normal operation of radiation sources. It is anticipated that the new ICRP recommendations will deal more comprehensively with radiation safety by including consideration of exposure which might or might not occur, but for which a probability of occurrence can be assigned (potential exposure). This paper discusses issues and principles for a system of radiation safety which accommodates both radiation protection and nuclear safety standards and covers both normal and potential exposures. The principles are formulated by interpreting and extrapolating the principles of justification, optimization and dose limitation currently employed for normal exposure

  18. Community Violence Exposure and Conduct Problems in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Linda; Vriends, Noortje; Steppan, Martin; Raschle, Nora M; Praetzlich, Martin; Oldenhof, Helena; Vermeiren, Robert; Jansen, Lucres; Ackermann, Katharina; Bernhard, Anka; Martinelli, Anne; Gonzalez-Madruga, Karen; Puzzo, Ignazio; Wells, Amy; Rogers, Jack C; Clanton, Roberta; Baker, Rosalind H; Grisley, Liam; Baumann, Sarah; Gundlach, Malou; Kohls, Gregor; Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel A; Sesma-Pardo, Eva; Dochnal, Roberta; Lazaratou, Helen; Kalogerakis, Zacharias; Bigorra Gualba, Aitana; Smaragdi, Areti; Siklósi, Réka; Dikeos, Dimitris; Hervás, Amaia; Fernández-Rivas, Aranzazu; De Brito, Stephane A; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Fairchild, Graeme; Freitag, Christine M; Popma, Arne; Kieser, Meinhard; Stadler, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD). Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also tend to live in more violent neighborhoods, i.e., an ecological fallacy. Hence, the aim of the present study was: (1) to investigate whether the association between recent CVE and current conduct problems holds true for healthy controls as well as adolescents with a diagnosis of CD; (2) to examine whether the association is stable in both groups when including effects of aggression subtypes (proactive/reactive aggression), age, gender, site and socioeconomic status (SES); and (3) to test whether proactive or reactive aggression mediate the link between CVE and conduct problems. Data from 1178 children and adolescents (62% female; 44% CD) aged between 9 years and 18 years from seven European countries were analyzed. Conduct problems were assessed using the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia diagnostic interview. Information about CVE and aggression subtypes was obtained using self-report questionnaires (Social and Health Assessment and Reactive-Proactive aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), respectively). The association between witnessing community violence and conduct problems was significant in both groups (adolescents with CD and healthy controls). The association was also stable after examining the mediating effects of aggression subtypes while including moderating effects of age, gender and SES and controlling for effects of site in both groups. There were no clear differences between the groups in the strength of the association between witnessing violence

  19. Community Violence Exposure and Conduct Problems in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Kersten

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD. Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also tend to live in more violent neighborhoods, i.e., an ecological fallacy. Hence, the aim of the present study was: (1 to investigate whether the association between recent CVE and current conduct problems holds true for healthy controls as well as adolescents with a diagnosis of CD; (2 to examine whether the association is stable in both groups when including effects of aggression subtypes (proactive/reactive aggression, age, gender, site and socioeconomic status (SES; and (3 to test whether proactive or reactive aggression mediate the link between CVE and conduct problems. Data from 1178 children and adolescents (62% female; 44% CD aged between 9 years and 18 years from seven European countries were analyzed. Conduct problems were assessed using the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia diagnostic interview. Information about CVE and aggression subtypes was obtained using self-report questionnaires (Social and Health Assessment and Reactive-Proactive aggression Questionnaire (RPQ, respectively. The association between witnessing community violence and conduct problems was significant in both groups (adolescents with CD and healthy controls. The association was also stable after examining the mediating effects of aggression subtypes while including moderating effects of age, gender and SES and controlling for effects of site in both groups. There were no clear differences between the groups in the strength of the association between witnessing

  20. Does oxygen exposure time control the extent of organic matter decomposition in peatlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philben, Michael; Kaiser, Karl; Benner, Ronald

    2014-05-01

    The extent of peat decomposition was investigated in four cores collected along a latitudinal gradient from 56°N to 66°N in the West Siberian Lowland. The acid:aldehyde ratios of lignin phenols were significantly higher in the two northern cores compared with the two southern cores, indicating peats at the northern sites were more highly decomposed. Yields of hydroxyproline, an amino acid found in plant structural glycoproteins, were also significantly higher in northern cores compared with southern cores. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins are not synthesized by microbes and are generally less reactive than bulk plant carbon, so elevated yields indicated that northern cores were more extensively decomposed than the southern cores. The southern cores experienced warmer temperatures, but were less decomposed, indicating that temperature was not the primary control of peat decomposition. The plant community oscillated between Sphagnum and vascular plant dominance in the southern cores, but vegetation type did not appear to affect the extent of decomposition. Oxygen exposure time appeared to be the strongest control of the extent of peat decomposition. The northern cores had lower accumulation rates and drier conditions, so these peats were exposed to oxic conditions for a longer time before burial in the catotelm, where anoxic conditions prevail and rates of decomposition are generally lower by an order of magnitude.

  1. Control of occupational radiation exposures in TVA nuclear power plants - design and operating philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belvin, E.A.; Lyon, M.; Beasley, E.G. Jr.; Zobel, W.; Stone, G.F.

    1976-01-01

    TVA has some 21,000 MWe of nuclear generation in various phases of design, construction, or operation. When Browns Ferry was designed in the late 1960's, there were no guidelines available regarding implant radiation control features, so TVA relied on good engineering and health physics judgement in developing its design and operating criteria for radiation protection. After two years of operation at Browns Ferry, the authors experience shows that their design criteria were in most cases adequate or more than adequate. However, several areas present continuing problems relative to radiation and contamination control. In view of the recent NRC ALARA guidelines, they have instituted a program to ensure that the ALARA concept is made an integral part of their design and operating plans. Administrative documents were issued giving management support to the ALARA concept. A 4-member management audit team consisting of representatives from their design, operating, and radiation protection groups was established to review the effectiveness of radiation protection design features and operating activities on a plant-by-plant basis. Reports and recommendations from these audits are sent to top-level management staff. Their goal is to maintain an audit-appraisal system consisting of in-plant awareness of radiation and contamination conditions, assessment of trends in occupational radiation exposures, and feedback to their designers regarding problems encountered during operation and maintenance activities

  2. Auto-choreography: Animating Sentient Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Satchell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The stories lives tell, the narratives they follow and the spaces they embody are critical to articulating the conditions of everyday life. This resonates in the fraught relations within and between surf cultures, affluent societies and economic development. In the context of Rural Cultural Studies the analysis of coastal place allows for a combination of self-reflexive, critical and transformative modes of inquiry. This pedagogy of the coast offers innovative approaches to contemporary anthropogenic and existential challenges. For the Ecological Humanities, adjusting to living synergistically requires dialogue, ethical frameworks and care. This includes attention to the more-than human world and the non-human inhabitants with whose lives people become entangled in the mutuality of wandering paths and shared haunts. The imaginary-material architectures and geographies of these samples of coastal life, are topographies woven of spatiality and contemporary coastal writing. These contemplations attempt to sketch performative interactions from the auto-choreography animating sentient archives.

  3. Gasification characteristics of auto shredder residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navee, S.; Ramzan, N.

    2011-01-01

    Given the large volume of used tyre waste generated each year it is imperative that suitable re-use and disposal techniques are developed for dealing with this problem; presently these include rethreading, reprocessing for use as safe playground and sports surfaces, use as noise reduction barriers and utilisation as a fuel source. This paper reports on pilot scale studies designed to investigate the suitability of automotive waste for energy recovery via gasification. The study was carried out into auto shredder residue, which is a mixture of three distinct waste streams: tyres, rubber/plastic and general automotive waste. The tests included proximate, ultimate and elemental analysis, TGA, as well as calorific value determinations. In addition, the waste was tested in a desktop gasifier, and analysis was carried out to determine the presence and type of combustible gases. It was concluded that tyre waste and rubber/plastic waste are quite suitable fuels for gasification. (author)

  4. Auto-Gerontology: A Personal Odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, Erdman B

    2017-11-01

    The four leading theories of optimal aging are activity, continuity, successful aging, and selective optimization with adaptation. All tend to support the slogan, "Use it or lose it." I have tried to continue using my abilities in four key areas: professional, volunteer, personal relationships, and physical fitness. Ageism also has become personal for me because I have made it a personal priority to do what I can to reduce ageism. This includes research and writing, developing a list of 45 advantages to aging, avoiding ageist jokes and language, developing positive slogans about aging, maintaining personal fitness, going on birthday adventures, and being proud of my age (85). I close with answers to some questions about auto-gerontology.

  5. Development of Auto-Stacking Warehouse Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsien Hsia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Warehouse automation is a very important issue for the promotion of traditional industries. For the production of larger and stackable products, it is usually necessary to operate a fork-lifter for the stacking and storage of the products by a skilled person. The general autonomous warehouse-truck does not have the ability of stacking objects. In this paper, we develop a prototype of auto-stacking warehouse-truck that can work without direct operation by a skill person. With command made by an RFID card, the stacker truck can take the packaged product to the warehouse on the prior-planned route and store it in a stacking way in the designated storage area, or deliver the product to the shipping area or into the container from the storage area. It can significantly reduce the manpower requirements of the skilled-person of forklift technician and improve the safety of the warehousing area.

  6. Female Infertility and Serum Auto-antibodies: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroux, Alban; Dumestre-Perard, Chantal; Dunand-Faure, Camille; Bouillet, Laurence; Hoffmann, Pascale

    2017-08-01

    On average, 10 % of infertile couples have unexplained infertility. Auto-immune disease (systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-phospholipid syndrome) accounts for a part of these cases. In the last 20 years, aspecific auto-immunity, defined as positivity of auto-antibodies in blood sample without clinical or biological criteria for defined diseases, has been evoked in a subpopulation of infertile women. A systematic review was performed (PUBMED) using the MESH search terms "infertility" and "auto-immunity" or "reproductive technique" or "assisted reproduction" or "in vitro fertilization" and "auto-immunity." We retained clinical and physiopathological studies that were applicable to the clinician in assuming joint management of both infertility associated with serum auto-antibodies in women. Thyroid auto-immunity which affects thyroid function could be a cause of infertility; even in euthyroidia, the presence of anti-thyroperoxydase antibodies and/or thyroglobulin are related to infertility. The presence of anti-phospholipid (APL) and/or anti-nuclear (ANA) antibodies seems to be more frequent in the population of infertile women; serum auto-antibodies are associated with early ovarian failure, itself responsible for fertility disorders. However, there exist few publications on this topic. The methods of dosage, as well as the clinical criteria of unexplained infertility deserve to be standardized to allow a precise response to the question of the role of serum auto-antibodies in these women. The direct pathogenesis of this auto-immunity is unknown, but therapeutic immunomodulators, prescribed on a case-by-case basis, could favor pregnancy even in cases of unexplained primary or secondary infertility.

  7. Positive enteric contrast material for abdominal and pelvic CT with automatic exposure control: What is the effect on patient radiation exposure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhen J., E-mail: jane.wang@radiology.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Chen, Katherine S.; Gould, Robert; Coakley, Fergus V.; Fu Yanjun; Yeh, Benjamin M. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Objective: To assess the effect of positive enteric contrast administration on automatic exposure control (AEC) CT radiation exposure in (1) a CT phantom, and (2) a retrospective review of patients. Materials and methods: We scanned a CT phantom containing simulated bowel that was sequentially filled with water and positive enteric contrast, and recorded the mean volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). We also identified 17 patients who had undergone 2 technically comparable CT scans of the abdomen and pelvis, one with positive enteric contrast and the other with oral water. Paired Student's t-tests were used to compare the mean CTDIvol between scans performed with and without positive enteric contrast. Both the phantom and patient CT scans were performed using AEC with a fixed noise index. Results: The mean CTDIvol for the phantom with simulated bowel containing water and positive enteric contrast were 8.2 {+-} 0.2 mGy, and 8.7 {+-} 0.1 mGy (6.1% higher than water, p = 0.02), respectively. The mean CTDIvol for patients scanned with oral water and with positive enteric contrast were 11.8 mGy and 13.1 mGy, respectively (p = 0.003). This corresponded to a mean CTDIvol which was 11.0% higher (range: 0.0-20.7% higher) in scans with positive enteric contrast than those with oral water in patients. Conclusions: When automatic exposure control is utilized for abdominopelvic CT, the radiation exposure, as measured by CTDIvol, is higher for scans performed with positive enteric contrast than those with oral water.

  8. Radiation exposure control of nuclear power plant personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehl, J.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis of exposure records of all persons engaged in radiation work at nuclear power plants of the Federal Republic of Germany has shown that annual collective doses increase rapidly with time. The annual gross electrical energy generated from nuclear power also increases rapidly with time, corresponding to about 11% of the total gross electrical energy produced in 1977/78. Therefore, it is obvious that there is an increase of both the risk and the benefit from nuclear power production. Whether in the course of time the situation develops more towards the risk or the benefit side is learned from the history of the annual ratio of the collective dose per gross electrical energy generated. This ratio shows a significant decrease since 1972. The decrease is due to the experience gained from operation of the first-generation plants, which led to several administrative measures aimed at an improved control of the collective doses of power plant personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany. The administrative measures include, among others, the introduction of the following requirements: (a) Everyone who applies for a nuclear power plant construction licence has to provide evidence that, in the design of the plant, full use is made of the experience gained from plants in operation with respect to reduction of collective doses of the power plant personnel. (b) Everyone who engages his employees on radiation work within operations for which an operation licence is required, but which is held by others, requires a special 'contractor licence'. (c) Every person engaged in radiation work on the basis of a contractor licence must carry a special exposure record book which is registered by the competent national authority. (author)

  9. Association between aflatoxin B1 occupational airway exposure and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hao; Mo, Xianwei; Yang, Yang; He, Ke; Xiao, Jun; Liu, Chao; Chen, Jiansi; Lin, Yuan

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the airway exposure of sugar and papermaking factory workers to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and to explore the potential association between AFB1 airway exposure and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a case-control study. Dust samples were collected from the sugarcane bagasse warehouse, and presser and paper production workshops. Blood samples were collected from 181 workshop employees and 203 controls who worked outside the workshop. AFB1 albumin adducts were detected using a double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To explore the association between AFB1 airway exposure and the risk of HCC, the medical records of 68 HCC patients who worked in a sugar and papermaking factory between January 1994 and December 2013 were analyzed. A questionnaire was used to collect information from 150 healthy controls who worked for the same company and lived near the factory. AFB1 was detected in the dust samples, but could not be detected in any of the rice samples. An analysis of serum samples revealed serum AFB1 albumin adducts in 102 (56.35 %) of the study participants. However, in the control group, only 12 (5.9 %) individuals had detectable levels of AFB1 albumin adducts. Those with airway exposure to Aspergillus flavus-contaminated dust had an elevated risk of HCC compared to those without exposure (odds ratio, 5.24; 95 % confidence interval, 2.77-9.88; P = 0.00). The findings of this study indicate that occupational AFB1 airway exposure might be associated with the risk of AFB1-related HCC among the population that was used in this study. Intervention programs aimed at reducing exposure to inhalational AFB1 are needed urgently. Additional suitably designed, multicenter, prospective studies using large samples are needed to further confirm the results.

  10. Allergy arising from exposure to airborne contaminants in an insect rearing facility: Health effects and exposure control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, D.

    1994-06-01

    In agricultural crop improvement, yield under various stress conditions and limiting factors is assessed experimentally. Of the stresses on plants which affect yield are those due to insects. Ostrinia nubilalis, the European corn borer (corn borer) is a major pest in sweet and field corn in the U.S. There are many ways to fight crop pests such as the corn borer, including (1) application of chemical insecticides, (2) application of natural predators and, (3) improving crop resistance through plant genetics programs. Randomized field trials are used to determine the effectiveness of pest management programs. These trials frequently consist of randomly selected crop plots to which well-defined input regimes are instituted. For example, corn borers might be released onto crop plots in several densities at various stages of crop development, then sprayed with different levels of pesticide. These experiments are duplicated across regions and, in some cases across the country, to determine, in this instance for example, the best pesticide application rate for a given pest density and crop development stage. In order to release these pests onto crop plots, one must have an adequate supply of the insect pest. In winter months studies are carried out in the laboratory to examine chemical and natural pesticide effectiveness, as well as such things as the role of pheromones in moth behavior. The advantage in field trials is that yield data can be garnered directly. In this country, insects are raised for crop research primarily through the US Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with public Land Grant Universities and, by the private sector agricultural concerns - seed companies and others. This study quantifies the airborne allergen exposure of persons working in a Land Grant University entomology lab were allergy to European corn borer was suspected.

  11. Childhood physical abnormalities following paternal exposure to sulfur mustard gas in Iran: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khademolhosseini Seyyed M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mustard gas, a known chemical weapon, was used during the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-1988. We aimed to determine if exposure to mustard gas among men was significantly associated with abnormalities and disorders among progenies. Methods Using a case-control design, we identified all progenies of Sardasht men (exposed group, n = 498, who were born at least nine months after the exposure, compared to age-matched controls in Rabat, a nearby city (non-exposed group, n = 689. We conducted a thorough medical history, physical examination, and appropriate paraclinical studies to detect any physical abnormality and/or disorder. Given the presence of correlated data, we applied Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE multivariable models to determine associations. Results The overall frequency of detected physical abnormalities and disorders was significantly higher in the exposed group (19% vs. 11%, Odds Ratio [OR] 1.93, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.37-2.72, P = 0.0002. This was consistent across sexes. Congenital anomalies (OR 3.54, 95% CI, 1.58-7.93, P = 0.002 and asthma (OR, 3.12, 95% CI, 1.43-6.80, P = 0.004 were most commonly associated with exposure. No single abnormality was associated with paternal exposure to mustard gas. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a generational effect of exposure to mustard gas. The lasting effects of mustard gas exposure in parents effects fertility and may impact child health and development in the long-term.

  12. A Sepic Type Switched Mode Power Supply System For Battery Charging In An Electric Tricycle Auto-Rickshaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kureve

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the plug-in electric tricycle Auto rickshaw battery charging system using a non-isolated DC-DC SEPIC converter which operates as a switched mode power supply SMPS. The control of dc voltage output is by varying the gating pulses duty cycle of the switch in the dc-dc converter using PID controller based PWM technique. The 60 V 30 A DC-DC SEPIC converter is designed to provide non-inverting voltage buck from the rectified AC mains for charging deep cycle battery bank in an electric auto rickshaw. The charger system is implemented using MATLABSimulink.

  13. Occupational exposures to engine exhausts and other PAHs and breast cancer risk: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rajni; Glass, Deborah C; Heyworth, Jane S; Saunders, Christobel; Fritschi, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Some previous studies have suggested that exposure to engine exhausts may increase risk of breast cancer. In a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Western Australia we assessed occupational exposure to engine exhausts using questionnaires and telephone interviews. Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression. We found no association between risk of breast cancer and occupational exposure to diesel exhaust (OR 1.07, 95%CI: 0.81-1.41), gasoline exhaust (OR 0.98, 95%CI: 0.74-1.28), or other exhausts (OR 1.08, 95%CI: 0.29-4.08). There were also no significant dose- or duration-response relationships. This study did not find evidence supporting the association between occupational exposures to engine exhausts and breast cancer risk. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:437-444, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Preferential recognition of auto-antibodies against 4-hydroxynonenal modified DNA in the cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Mohammad; Shahab, Uzma; Alatar, Abdulrahman A; Ahmad, Saheem

    2017-11-01

    The structural perturbations in DNA molecule may be caused by a break in a strand, a missing base from the backbone, or a chemically changed base. These alterations in DNA that occurs naturally can result from metabolic or hydrolytic processes. DNA damage plays a major role in the mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, aging and various other patho-physiological conditions. DNA damage can be induced through hydrolysis, exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other reactive carbonyl metabolites including 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). 4-HNE is an important lipid peroxidation product which has been implicated in the mutagenesis and carcinogenesis processes. The present study examines to probe the presence of auto-antibodies against 4-hydroxynonenal damaged DNA (HNE-DNA) in various cancer subjects. In this study, the purified calf thymus DNA was damaged by the action of 4-HNE. The DNA was incubated with 4-HNE for 24 h at 37°C temperature. The binding characteristics of cancer auto-antibodies were assessed by direct binding and competitive inhibition ELISA. DNA modifications produced hyperchromicity in UV spectrum and decreased fluorescence intensity. Cancer sera exhibited enhanced binding with the 4-HNE modified calf thymus DNA as compared to its native conformer. The 4-HNE modified DNA presents unique epitopes which may be one of the factors for the auto-antibody induction in cancer patients. The HNE modified DNA presents unique epitopes which may be one of the factors for the autoantibody induction in cancer patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Mortality studies of metalworking fluid exposure in the automobile industry: VI. A case-control study of esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, P A; Eisen, E A; Woskie, S R; Kriebel, D; Wegman, D H; Hallock, M F; Hammond, S K; Tolbert, P E; Smith, T J; Monson, R R

    1998-07-01

    Results are reported from a nested case-control study of 60 esophageal cancer deaths among 46,384 automobile manufacturing workers potentially exposed to metalworking fluids (MWF) in machining and grinding operations. By using incidence-density sampling, controls were selected with a sampling ratio of 20:1 from among co-workers who remained at risk by the age of death of the case, matched on race, gender, plant, and year of birth. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk associated with cumulative exposure (mg/m3-years) to each of three types of metalworking fluid (straight, soluble, and synthetic MWF), as well as with years of exposure to selected components of MWF, including nitrosamines, sulfur, biocides, and several metals. Esophageal cancer was found to be significantly associated with exposure to both soluble and synthetic MWF in grinding operations. The odds ratios (ORs) for grinding with soluble MWF were elevated at 2.5 or greater in all categories of cumulative exposure, although the exposure-response trend was statistically significant only when exposure was measured as duration. Those with 12 or more years exposure to soluble MWF in grinding operations experienced a 9.3-fold relative risk of esophageal cancer mortality (95% CI = 2.1-42.1). The OR for ever grinding with synthetic MWF was 4.1 (95% CI = 1.1-15.0). Elevated risk was also associated with two agents found in both synthetic and soluble fluids, nitrosamines, and biocides. For exposure to nitrosamines, the OR was 5.4 (95% CI = 1.5-19.9); for biocides the OR was 3.8 (95% CI = 0.8-18.9). However, because the same workers were exposed to grinding with synthetics, nitrosamines and biocides, it was not possible to separate the specific risks associated with these components.

  16. Auto-tuning systems for J-PARC LINAC RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Z.; Kobayashi, T.; Fukui, Y.; Futatsukawa, K.; Michizono, S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Anami, S.; Suzuki, H.; Sato, F.; Shinozaki, S.; Chishiro, E.

    2014-01-01

    The 400-MeV proton linear accelerator (LINAC) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) consists of 324-MHz low-β and 972-MHz high-β accelerator sections. From October 2006 to May 2013, only the 324-MHz low-β accelerator section was in operation. From the summer of 2013 the J-PARC LINAC was upgraded by installing the 972-MHz high-β accelerator section, and the proton beam was successfully accelerated to 400 MeV in January 2014. Auto-tuning systems for the J-PARC LINAC RF cavities have been successfully developed. A first generation design, an auto-tuning system using a mechanical tuner controller, was developed and operated for the first 3 years. Then the second-generation auto-tuning system was developed using a new approach to the RF cavity warm-up process, and this was applied to the accelerator operation for the subsequent 4 years. During the RF cavity warm-up process in this system, the mechanical tuner is constantly fixed and the input RF frequency is automatically tuned to the cavity resonance frequency using the FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) of the digital feedback RF control system. After the input power level reaches the required value, input RF frequency tuning is stopped and it is switched to the operation frequency. Then, the mechanical tuner control begins operation. This second-generation auto-tuning system was extremely effective for the 324-MHz cavity operation. However, if we apply this approach to the 972-MHz RF cavities, an interlock due to the RF cavity reflection amplitude occasionally occurs at the end of the warm-up process. In order to solve this problem a third generation novel auto-tuning system was successfully developed in December 2013 and applied to the operation of the J-PARC LINAC, including the 972-MHz ACS RF cavities. During the warm-up process both the mechanical tuner controller and the input RF frequency tuning are in operation, and good matching between the input RF frequency and the RF cavity is

  17. Auto-tuning systems for J-PARC LINAC RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z., E-mail: fang@post.kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kobayashi, T.; Fukui, Y.; Futatsukawa, K.; Michizono, S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Anami, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Suzuki, H.; Sato, F.; Shinozaki, S.; Chishiro, E. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2014-12-11

    The 400-MeV proton linear accelerator (LINAC) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) consists of 324-MHz low-β and 972-MHz high-β accelerator sections. From October 2006 to May 2013, only the 324-MHz low-β accelerator section was in operation. From the summer of 2013 the J-PARC LINAC was upgraded by installing the 972-MHz high-β accelerator section, and the proton beam was successfully accelerated to 400 MeV in January 2014. Auto-tuning systems for the J-PARC LINAC RF cavities have been successfully developed. A first generation design, an auto-tuning system using a mechanical tuner controller, was developed and operated for the first 3 years. Then the second-generation auto-tuning system was developed using a new approach to the RF cavity warm-up process, and this was applied to the accelerator operation for the subsequent 4 years. During the RF cavity warm-up process in this system, the mechanical tuner is constantly fixed and the input RF frequency is automatically tuned to the cavity resonance frequency using the FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) of the digital feedback RF control system. After the input power level reaches the required value, input RF frequency tuning is stopped and it is switched to the operation frequency. Then, the mechanical tuner control begins operation. This second-generation auto-tuning system was extremely effective for the 324-MHz cavity operation. However, if we apply this approach to the 972-MHz RF cavities, an interlock due to the RF cavity reflection amplitude occasionally occurs at the end of the warm-up process. In order to solve this problem a third generation novel auto-tuning system was successfully developed in December 2013 and applied to the operation of the J-PARC LINAC, including the 972-MHz ACS RF cavities. During the warm-up process both the mechanical tuner controller and the input RF frequency tuning are in operation, and good matching between the input RF frequency and the RF cavity is

  18. Changes in the α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine system during chronic controlled alcohol exposure in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmer, Ansel T; Tudorascu, Dana L; Wooten, Dustin W; Lao, Patrick J; Barnhart, Todd E; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Resch, Leslie M; Larson, Julie A; Converse, Alexander K; Moore, Colleen F; Schneider, Mary L; Christian, Bradley T

    2014-05-01

    The precise nature of modifications to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) system in response to chronic ethanol exposure is poorly understood. The present work used PET imaging to assay α4β2* nAChR binding levels of eight rhesus monkeys before and during controlled chronic ethanol intake. [(18)F]Nifene PET scans were conducted prior to alcohol exposure, and then again after at least 8 months controlled ethanol exposure, including 6 months at 1.5 g/kg/day following a dose escalation period. Receptor binding levels were quantified with binding potentials (BPND) using the cerebellum as a reference region. Alcohol self-administration was assessed as average daily alcohol intake during a 2 month free drinking period immediately following controlled alcohol. Significant decreases in α4β2* nAChR binding were observed in both frontal and insular cortex in response to chronic ethanol exposure. During chronic alcohol exposure, BPND in the lateral geniculate region correlated positively with the amount of alcohol consumed during free drinking. The observed decreases in nAChR availability following chronic alcohol consumption suggest alterations to this receptor system in response to repeated alcohol administration, making this an important target for further study in alcohol abuse and alcohol and nicotine codependence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis on the Workspace of Six-degrees-of-freedom Industrial Robot Based on AutoCAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jin-quan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses the workspace of the industrial robot with six degrees of freedom(6-DOF based on AutoCAD platform. Based on the analysis of the overall configuration of the robot, this research establishes the kinematic mathematical model of the industrial robot by using DH parameters, and then solves the workspace of the robot consequently. In the AutoCAD, Auto Lisp language program is adopted to simulate the two-dimensional(2D and three-dimensional(3D space of the robot. Software user interface is written by using the dialog box control language of Visual LISP. At last, the research analyzes the trend of the shape and direction of the workspace when the length and angle range of the robot are changed. This research lays the foundation for the design, control and planning of industrial robots.

  20. Assessing the risk to green sturgeon from application of imidacloprid to control burrowing shrimp in Willapa Bay, Washington--Part II: controlled exposure studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, John A; Grue, Christian E

    2015-11-01

    The activities of 2 species of burrowing shrimp have a negative impact on the growth and survival of oysters reared on intertidal mudflats in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington (USA). To maintain viable harvests, oyster growers proposed the application of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid onto harvested beds for the control of burrowing shrimp. In test applications, water column concentrations of imidacloprid were relatively low and dissipated rapidly. The foraging activities of the green sturgeon (listed in the US Endangered Species Act) could result in exposure to higher, more sustained imidacloprid concentrations within sediment porewater and from the consumption of contaminated shrimp. Controlled experiments were conducted using surrogate white sturgeon to determine acute and chronic effect concentrations, to examine overt effects at more environmentally realistic concentrations and durations of exposure, and to assess chemical depuration. The 96-h median lethal concentration was 124 mg L(-1) , and the predicted 35-d no-observed-adverse-effect concentration was 0.7 mg L(-1) . No overt effects were observed following environmentally relevant exposures. Imidacloprid half-life in plasma was greater than 32 h. Measured concentrations of imidacloprid in porewater were significantly lower than the derived acute and chronic effect concentrations for white sturgeon. Exposure risk quotients were calculated using the effect concentrations and estimated environmental exposure. The resulting values were considerably below the level of concern for direct effects from either acute or chronic exposure to an endangered species. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. Assessment of gamma radiation exposure inside a newly constructed building and a proposed regulatory guideline for exposure control from natural radioactivity in future buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, V.K.; Sadasivan, S.; Sundaram, V.K.; Nambi, K.S.V.

    1995-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials are one of the sources of radiation exposure of the population. The various materials used for constructing a new building were assessed for 40 K, 232 Th and 238 U radioactivity and the external gamma dose rate inside the building was predicted by using the computer code QAD-CGGP. The external dose rate was also measured by a scintillation gamma monitor after the construction of the building. In the building studied, the floor and the ceilings are seen to contribute about 35% each of the total radiation dose inside the building from the natural radioactivity present in the construction materials and the underlying soil; the walls contributed about 15%. A sensitivity analysis assuming extreme conditions of radioactivity concentrations as are normally observed in the Indian context, indicates the possibility of indoor gamma radiation fields varying by two orders of magnitude. The possible control methodologies and recommendations are also discussed for keeping the population exposure as low as reasonable achievable. It is evaluated that radioactivity limits of 370 Bq.kg -1 of radium equivalent and 85 Bq.kg -1 of 226 Ra when applied concurrently, might limit the indoor exposure to reasonably accepted low levels of health risks. (author)

  2. Study of the examination times using radiation equipments and the radiation exposure control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshida, Kichiro; Orito, Takeo; Maekawa, Ryuichi; Hiraki, Tatsunosuke [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine; Koga, Sukehiko

    1985-01-01

    The relation between the examination time and the exposure to the personnel was investigated. In order to minimize radiation injury, special exposure dose-rate distribution curves were performed at the maximum exposure condition setting the phantom, and the examination times could be limited from the exprosure dose for the place where the personnel presented. The examination times are possible to be ten times by those with the Medical X-ray Protective Aprons.

  3. Study of the examination times using radiation equipments and the radiation exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshida, Kichiro; Orito, Takeo; Maekawa, Ryuichi; Hiraki, Tatsunosuke; Koga, Sukehiko.

    1985-01-01

    It was investigated for the relation between the examination times and the exposure to the personnel. At the purpose to minimize the radiation injury, the special exposure dose-rate distribution curves were performed at the maximum exposure condition setting the phantom, and the examination times could be limited from the exprosure dose for the place where the personnel presented. The examination times are possible to be ten times by those with the Medical X-ray Protective Aprons. (author)

  4. Utilização do AutoCAD 2004 para quantificação de pesquisas usando fotomicrografias eletrônicas AutoCAD 2004 to quantify electron-photomicrography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Albertina Martins Almeida

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o uso do programa AutoCAD 2004 para estudos quantitativos em microscopia eletrônica. MÉTODOS: A demonstração da utilização do AutoCAD 2004 foi feita em um modelo experimental de diabetes induzido em ratos, divididos em Grupo Controle (GC-10 animais e Grupo Diabético (GD - 10 animais, avaliados 1 mês depois da indução do diabetes. Os olhos foram removidos após o sacrifício dos animais e preparados para exame em microscópio eletrônico, tendo sido feitas fotografias dos vasos retinianos. Foi utilizado o programa AutoCAD2004 para avaliar a espessura da membrana basal dos vasos. Os resultados foram avaliados estatisticamente. RESULTADOS: Usando o método proposto foi possível realizar medidas quantitativas na membrana basal de vasos retinianos de ratos diabéticos. CONCLUSÃO: O AutoCAD 2004 se mostrou efetivo, seguro e de fácil utilização para a quantificação de fenômenos biológicos, sendo possível sugerir este meio para a realização de avaliações quantitativas em experimentos biológicos.OBJECTIVE: To determine if the AutoCAD 2004 program is available to be used in quantitative research on electron microscopy. METHODS: A demonstrative of the AutoCAD2004 was done in an experimental model of diabetes induced in rats. The animals were divided by lot in control group animals (GC-10 animals and diabetic group (GD - 10 animals, evaluated 1 month after the diabetes induction. The eyes were removed after sacrifice and prepared to electron microscopy. The retina was photographed and the AutoCAD2004 program was used to measure the basal membrane of retina vessels. The results were submitted to statistical analysis. RESULTS: The AutoCAD2004 was effective to obtain quantitative measures from the basal membrane of retina vessels and there were no difference between the studied groups. CONCLUSION: The AutoCAD2004 was effective, safe and easy to apply to quantify biological parameters, which allowed suggest it to

  5. High density growth of T7 expression strains with auto-induction option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studier, F. William (Stony Brook, NY)

    2010-07-20

    A bacterial growth medium for promoting auto-induction of transcription of cloned DNA in cultures of bacterial cells grown batchwise is disclosed. The transcription is under the control of a lac repressor. Also disclosed is a bacterial growth medium for improving the production of a selenomethionine-containing protein or polypeptide in a bacterial cell, the protein or polypeptide being produced by recombinant DNA techniques from a lac or T7lac promoter, the bacterial cell encoding a vitamin B12-dependent homocysteine methylase. Finally, disclosed is a bacterial growth medium for suppressing auto-induction of expression in cultures of bacterial cells grown batchwise, said transcription being under the control of lac repressor.

  6. Cue exposure therapy for the treatment of opiate addiction: results of a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marissen, Marlies A E; Franken, Ingmar H A; Blanken, Peter; van den Brink, Wim; Hendriks, Vincent M

    2007-01-01

    Persistent cue reactivity to drug-related stimuli is a well-known phenomenon among abstinent drug users and has been found to be a predictor of relapse. Cue exposure therapy (CET) aims to reduce this cue reactivity by exposing abstinent drug users to conditioned drug-related stimuli while preventing their habitual response, i.e. drug use. 127 abstinent heroin-dependent Dutch inpatients were randomized to CET (n = 65; 55 completers) and placebo psychotherapy treatment (PPT) (n = 62; 59 completers). It was examined whether CET would lead to a decrease in drug-related cue reactivity (using mixed-design ANOVA) and subsequently to lower dropout and relapse rates (using logistic regression) compared to PPT. Both groups responded with a similar decrease in self-reported cue reactivity (craving, mood). The CET group did show a significant decrease in physiological reactivity (skin conductance) compared to PPT. However, dropout and relapse rates were, contrary to our expectations, significantly higher in the CET group. This is the first randomized controlled trial showing that CET, compared to a non-specific psychotherapy, might increase dropout and relapse rates among abstinent heroin-dependent clients in a drug-free setting. Caution is warranted when applying CET in this specific context. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Transfer shuttle for vitrified residue canisters control of risks associated with external exposure and heat release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BIndel, L.; Gamess, A.; Lejeune, E.; Cellier, P.; Maillard, A. [SGN Reseau Eurisys, 78 - Saint Quentin (France)

    1998-07-01

    In the La Hague COGEMA's plant area, nuclear residue isolated by reprocessing are transported by means of specific transfer shuttles between the different processing and/or conditioning facilities and the storage ones. These shuttles are designed by reference to the applicable dose equivalent rate (DER) limits for transport on the site and the thermal behavior limitations of certain mechanical components which guarantee the containment of the transported waste. This paper describes and example of a study conducted on a transfer shuttle for vitrified residue canisters. Concerning the control of risks associated with external exposure and with heat releases, these were handled by the 'Shielding-Criticality-Dispersion' and 'process Modelling and Simulation' Sections of the Technical Division of SGN. The dose profiles around the shuttle, as a function of the shielding heterogeneities and possible radiation leakage, as well as the thermal fields within the shuttle, were calculated using 3D models. These design studies ultimately helped to select and validate the optimal solutions. (authors)

  8. Self-reported exposure to pesticides in residential settings and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graber Nora J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticides are widely used in households to control insects and weeds. Several studies, over the past decades, have examined the possible relationship of serum concentration of organochlorine pesticides and the development of breast cancer. However, little data exists regarding an association between self-reported, residential exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. We, therefore, present a case-control study examining self-reported exposure to household pesticides with regard to associated risk of breast cancer. Methods This study was conducted in the area in and around New York City, NY and included 1205 patients (447 cases and 758 controls. Cases were defined as women with newly diagnosed breast cancer or carcinoma in-situ, while controls included women with benign breast diseases or those undergoing non-breast related surgery. All patients were asked a series of questions to determine their pesticide exposure, including the type of pesticide, location of exposure (inside vs. outside the home, who applied the pesticide (self vs. a professional and duration of pesticide use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results The most common pests encountered in participants' homes were ants, carpenter ants, and cockroaches. The calculated adjusted odds ratios for both self and professionally applied pesticides, specifically against the above mentioned insects, with regard to breast cancer risk were 1.25 (95% CI: 0.79-1.98 and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.65-1.73, respectively. Similarly, odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated for other types of pesticides. Conclusions Overall, the results of our study did not show an association between self-reported exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. Future studies, utilizing a larger sample size and more specific detail on time frame of pesticide exposure, are needed to

  9. Host outdoor exposure variability affects the transmission and spread of Zika virus: Insights for epidemic control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ajelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus transmission dynamics in urban environments follow a complex spatiotemporal pattern that appears unpredictable and barely related to high mosquito density areas. In this context, human activity patterns likely have a major role in Zika transmission dynamics. This paper examines the effect of host variability in the amount of time spent outdoors on Zika epidemiology in an urban environment.First, we performed a survey on time spent outdoors by residents of Miami-Dade County, Florida. Second, we analyzed both the survey and previously published national data on outdoors time in the U.S. to provide estimates of the distribution of the time spent outdoors. Third, we performed a computational modeling evaluation of Zika transmission dynamics, based on the time spent outdoors by each person. Our analysis reveals a strong heterogeneity of the host population in terms of time spent outdoors-data are well captured by skewed gamma distributions. Our model-based evaluation shows that in a heterogeneous population, Zika would cause a lower number of infections than in a more homogenous host population (up to 4-fold differences, but, at the same time, the epidemic would spread much faster. We estimated that in highly heterogeneous host populations the timing of the implementation of vector control measures is the major factor for limiting the number of Zika infections.Our findings highlight the need of considering host variability in exposure time for managing mosquito-borne infections and call for the revision of the triggers for vector control strategies, which should integrate mosquito density data and human outdoor activity patterns in specific areas.

  10. Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Salameh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Lebanon is a highly polluted country, so far no study has specifically been designed to assess the association between outdoor air pollution and chronic bronchitis in this country. Objective: To assess the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and chronic bronchitis in Lebanon. Methods: A pilot case-control study was conducted in two tertiary care hospitals. Cases consisted of patients diagnosed with chronic bronchitis by a pulmonologist and those epidemiologically confirmed. Controls included individuals free of any respiratory signs or symptoms. After obtaining informed consent, a standardized questionnaire was administered. Results: Bivariate, stratified (over smoking status and gender and multivariate analyses revealed that passive smoking at home (ORa: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.73–3.80 and at work (ORa: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.13–3.17; older age (ORa: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.55–2.39; lower education (ORa: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.21–1.72; living close to a busy road (ORa: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.31– 2.89 and to a local power plant (ORa: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.07–2.45; and heating home by hot air conditioning (ORa: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.00–3.43 were moderately associated with chronic bronchitis; an inverse association was found with heating home electrically (ORa: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.39–0.85. A positive dose-effect relationship was observed in those living close to a busy road and to a local diesel exhaust source. Conclusion: Chronic bronchitis is associated with outdoor air pollution.

  11. An Increase in Dietary Supplement Exposures Reported to US Poison Control Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nisha; Spiller, Henry A; Hodges, Nichole L; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Casavant, Marcel J; Kamboj, Amrit K; Smith, Gary A

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of dietary supplement exposures in the USA. A retrospective analysis was conducted of out-of-hospital dietary supplement exposures reported to the National Poison Data System from 2000 through 2012. There were 274,998 dietary supplement exposures from 2000 through 2012. The annual rate of dietary supplement exposures per 100,000 population increased by 46.1% during 2000-2002, decreased 8.8% during 2002-2005, and then increased again by 49.3% from 2005 to 2012. These trends were influenced by the decrease in ma huang exposures starting in 2002. Miscellaneous dietary supplements accounted for 43.9% of all exposures, followed by botanicals (31.9%), hormonal products (15.1%), and other supplements (5.1%). The majority of dietary supplement exposures (70.0%) occurred among children younger than 6 years old and were acute (94.0%) and unintentional (82.9%). Serious medical outcomes accounted for 4.5% of exposures and most (95.0%) occurred among individuals 6 years and older. Ma huang products, yohimbe, and energy products were the categories associated with the greatest toxicity. There was an overall increase in the rate of dietary supplement exposures from 2000 through 2012. Although the majority of these exposures did not require treatment at a health care facility or result in serious medical outcomes, exposures to yohimbe and energy products were associated with considerable toxicity. Our results demonstrate the success of the FDA ban on ma huang products and the need for FDA regulation of yohimbe and energy products in the USA.

  12. A rule-based expert system for control rod pattern of boiling water reactors by hovering around haling exposure shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, P.-W.; Lin, L.-S.; Yang, J.-T.

    2004-01-01

    Feasible strategies for automatic BWR control rod pattern generation have been implemented in a rule-based expert system. These strategies are majorly based on a concept for which exposure distributions are hovering around the Haling exposure distribution through a cycle while radial and axial power distributions are dominantly controlled by some abstracted factors indicating the desired distributions. The system can either automatically generate expert-level control rod patterns or search for criteria-satisfied patterns originated from user's input. It has successfully been demonstrated by generating control rod patterns for the the 1775 MWth Chinshan plant in Unit I Cycle 13 alternate loading pattern and Unit 2 Cycle 8 but with longer cycle length. All rod patterns for two cycles result in all-rod-out at EOC and no violation against the four criteria. The demonstrations show that the system is considerably good in choosing initial trial rod patterns and adjusting rod patterns to satisfy the design criteria. (author)

  13. A case-control study of hormonal exposures as etiologic factors for ALS in women : Euro-MOTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooney, James P K; Visser, Anne E; D'Ovidio, Fabrizio; Vermeulen, Roel; Beghi, Ettore; Chio, Adriano; Veldink, Jan H.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Hardiman, Orla

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of hormonal risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) among women from 3 European countries. METHODS: ALS cases and matched controls were recruited over 4 years in Ireland, Italy, and the Netherlands. Hormonal exposures, including reproductive history,

  14. Effectiveness of personal protective equipment: Relevance of dermal and inhalation exposure to chlorpyrifos among pest control operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, K. van der; Tielemans, E.; Links, I.; Brouwer, D.; Hemmen, J. van

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a custom fit personal protective equipment (PPE) program aimed at reducing occupational exposure to pesticides. The intervention study was carried out on 15 pest control operators (PCOs) during mixing/loading and application of chlorpyrifos. Each worker was

  15. An Examination of Exposure Control and Content Balancing Restrictions on Item Selection in CATs Using the Partial Credit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Laurie Laughlin; Pastor, Dena A.; Dodd, Barbara G.; Chiang, Claire; Fitzpatrick, Steven J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of the Sympson-Hetter technique and rotated content balancing relative to no exposure control and no content rotation conditions in a computerized adaptive testing system based on the partial credit model. Simulation results show the Sympson-Hetter technique can be used with minimal impact on measurement precision,…

  16. Comparison of Exposure Controls, Item Pool Characteristics, and Population Distributions for CAT Using the Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HwaYoung; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated item exposure control procedures under various combinations of item pool characteristics and ability distributions in computerized adaptive testing based on the partial credit model. Three variables were manipulated: item pool characteristics (120 items for each of easy, medium, and hard item pools), two ability…

  17. Hurricane exposure and county fetal death rates, utilization of a county environmental quality index for confounding control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of natural disasters on public health are a rising concern, with increasing severity of disaster events. Many disaster studies utilize county-level analysis, however most do not control for county level environmental factors. Hurricane exposure during pregnancy could ...

  18. THE EFFECTS OF CONTROLLED SKIDDING TECHNIQUE ON RESIDUAL STAND DAMAGE AND GROUND EXPOSURE IN SWAMP FOREST LOGGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Suhartana

    2004-11-01

    • The  average of ground  exposure  caused by controlled  skidding  technique  and conventionalskidding technique was respectively   16.06% and 18.4%.  The difference of 2.34%  was significant at 95%.

  19. The Status and Trend of Chinese Auto EC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    <正> As a new information industry, E-commerce is becoming a new growth point of economy, and changing the development of traditional industries such as the auto industry. E-commerce would ultimately bring it profound changes. Therefore, many countries are employing E-commerce to impel the development of the auto industry rapidly. As the final large market, China has to keep up with the trend of global auto development. If we did not explore and establish E-commerce actively, with WTO coming, we

  20. Some advice for Skoda Auto on the Chinese Market

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Auto industry is an eternal topic. The development of auto industry can be considered as a vital part of GDP in a country. Meanwhile it is a standard to measure technology in a country. Therefore Czech made Skoda Auto Company. Then Volkswagen Group purchased it. It is means Skoda is also a mem-ber of Volkswagen. The quality of the car is really great. The cars of Skoda are entering into Chinese market. Chinese accepts them, however, compare with some old brands, which are Mercedes-Benz, BMW, ...

  1. Prenatal Cigarette Exposure and Infant Learning Stimulation as Predictors of Cognitive Control in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacappa, Enrico; Buckner, John C.; Earls, Felton

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal exposures to neurotoxins and postnatal parenting practices have been shown to independently predict variations in the cognitive development and emotional-behavioral well-being of infants and children. We examined the independent contributions of prenatal cigarette exposure and infant learning stimulation, as well as their…

  2. Cardiovascular disease and arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, China: a case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Millions of people are at risk from the adverse effects of arsenic exposure through drinking water. Increasingly, non-cancer effects such as cardiovascular disease have been associated with drinking water arsenic exposures. However, most studies have been conducted in...

  3. Overcoming Barriers to Disseminating Exposure Therapies for Anxiety Disorders: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Training Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Harned, Melanie S.; Dimeff, Linda A.; Woodcock, Eric A.; Skutch, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated methods for training mental health providers (N=46) in exposure therapies (ETs) for anxiety disorders. A pilot randomized controlled trial compared: 1) an interactive, multimedia online training (ET OLT), 2) the ET OLT plus a brief Motivational Interviewing-based intervention (ET OLT + MI), and 3) a placebo control OLT. Assessments were completed at baseline, post-training, and one week following training. Both ET OLT and ET OLT + MI received high satisfaction rati...

  4. TU-CD-207-11: Patient-Driven Automatic Exposure Control for Dedicated Breast CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, A; Gazi, P; Seibert, J; Boone, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To implement automatic exposure control (AEC) in dedicated breast CT (bCT) on a patient-specific basis using only the pre-scan scout views. Methods: Using a large cohort (N=153) of bCT data sets, the breast effective diameter (D) and width in orthogonal planes (Wa,Wb) were calculated from the reconstructed bCT image and pre-scan scout views, respectively. D, Wa, and Wb were measured at the breast center-of-mass (COM), making use of the known geometry of our bCT system. These data were then fit to a second-order polynomial “D=F(Wa,Wb)” in a least squares sense in order to provide a functional form for determining the breast diameter. The coefficient of determination (R 2 ) and mean percent error between the measured breast diameter and fit breast diameter were used to evaluate the overall robustness of the polynomial fit. Lastly, previously-reported bCT technique factors derived from Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the tube current required for each breast diameter in order to match two-view mammographic dose levels. Results: F(Wa,Wb) provided fitted breast diameters in agreement with the measured breast diameters resulting in R 2 values ranging from 0.908 to 0.929 and mean percent errors ranging from 3.2% to 3.7%. For all 153 bCT data sets used in this study, the fitted breast diameters ranged from 7.9 cm to 15.7 cm corresponding to tube current values ranging from 0.6 mA to 4.9 mA in order to deliver the same dose as two-view mammography in a 50% glandular breast with a 80 kV x-ray beam and 16.6 second scan time. Conclusion: The present work provides a robust framework for AEC in dedicated bCT using only the width measurements derived from the two orthogonal pre-scan scout views. Future work will investigate how these automatically chosen exposure levels affect the quality of the reconstructed image

  5. TU-CD-207-11: Patient-Driven Automatic Exposure Control for Dedicated Breast CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, A; Gazi, P [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Department of Radiology, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Seibert, J; Boone, J [Department of Radiology, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To implement automatic exposure control (AEC) in dedicated breast CT (bCT) on a patient-specific basis using only the pre-scan scout views. Methods: Using a large cohort (N=153) of bCT data sets, the breast effective diameter (D) and width in orthogonal planes (Wa,Wb) were calculated from the reconstructed bCT image and pre-scan scout views, respectively. D, Wa, and Wb were measured at the breast center-of-mass (COM), making use of the known geometry of our bCT system. These data were then fit to a second-order polynomial “D=F(Wa,Wb)” in a least squares sense in order to provide a functional form for determining the breast diameter. The coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) and mean percent error between the measured breast diameter and fit breast diameter were used to evaluate the overall robustness of the polynomial fit. Lastly, previously-reported bCT technique factors derived from Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the tube current required for each breast diameter in order to match two-view mammographic dose levels. Results: F(Wa,Wb) provided fitted breast diameters in agreement with the measured breast diameters resulting in R{sup 2} values ranging from 0.908 to 0.929 and mean percent errors ranging from 3.2% to 3.7%. For all 153 bCT data sets used in this study, the fitted breast diameters ranged from 7.9 cm to 15.7 cm corresponding to tube current values ranging from 0.6 mA to 4.9 mA in order to deliver the same dose as two-view mammography in a 50% glandular breast with a 80 kV x-ray beam and 16.6 second scan time. Conclusion: The present work provides a robust framework for AEC in dedicated bCT using only the width measurements derived from the two orthogonal pre-scan scout views. Future work will investigate how these automatically chosen exposure levels affect the quality of the reconstructed image.

  6. Inside the black box: Starting to uncover the underlying decision rules used in a one-by-one expert assessment of occupational exposure in case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wheeler, D.C.; Burstyn, I.; Vermeulen, R.; Yu, K.; Shortreed, S.M.; Pronk, A.; Stewart, P.A.; Colt, J.S.; Baris, D.; Karagas, M.R.; Schwenn, M.; Johnson, A.; Silverman, D.T.; Friesen, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Evaluating occupational exposures in population-based case-control studies often requires exposure assessors to review each study participant's reported occupational information job-by-job to derive exposure estimates. Although such assessments likely have underlying decision rules, they

  7. Web Proxy Auto Discovery for the WLCG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, D.; Blomer, J.; Blumenfeld, B.; De Salvo, A.; Dewhurst, A.; Verguilov, V.

    2017-10-01

    All four of the LHC experiments depend on web proxies (that is, squids) at each grid site to support software distribution by the CernVM FileSystem (CVMFS). CMS and ATLAS also use web proxies for conditions data distributed through the Frontier Distributed Database caching system. ATLAS & CMS each have their own methods for their grid jobs to find out which web proxies to use for Frontier at each site, and CVMFS has a third method. Those diverse methods limit usability and flexibility, particularly for opportunistic use cases, where an experiment’s jobs are run at sites that do not primarily support that experiment. This paper describes a new Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) system for discovering the addresses of web proxies. The system is based on an internet standard called Web Proxy Auto Discovery (WPAD). WPAD is in turn based on another standard called Proxy Auto Configuration (PAC). Both the Frontier and CVMFS clients support this standard. The input into the WLCG system comes from squids registered in the ATLAS Grid Information System (AGIS) and CMS SITECONF files, cross-checked with squids registered by sites in the Grid Configuration Database (GOCDB) and the OSG Information Management (OIM) system, and combined with some exceptions manually configured by people from ATLAS and CMS who operate WLCG Squid monitoring. WPAD servers at CERN respond to http requests from grid nodes all over the world with a PAC file that lists available web proxies, based on IP addresses matched from a database that contains the IP address ranges registered to organizations. Large grid sites are encouraged to supply their own WPAD web servers for more flexibility, to avoid being affected by short term long distance network outages, and to offload the WLCG WPAD servers at CERN. The CERN WPAD servers additionally support requests from jobs running at non-grid sites (particularly for LHC@Home) which they direct to the nearest publicly accessible web proxy servers. The responses

  8. Risks of exposure to occupational asthmogens in atopic and nonatopic asthma: a case-control study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsu-Nai; Lin, Meng-Chih; Wu, Chao-Chien; Leung, Sum-Yee; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Lee, Chien-Hung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Ho, Pei-Shan; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Chang, Po-Ya; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2010-12-01

    Asthma is often work-related and can be classified as atopic or nonatopic on the basis of its pathogenesis. Few studies have reported an association between exposure to occupational asthmogens and asthma with and without atopy. We investigated, in adults with asthma, whether occupational exposure to asthmogens influenced the risk of having atopic or nonatopic asthma, and their level of lung function. We recruited 504 hospital-based adults with current asthma, 504 community-based control subjects, and 504 hospital-based control subjects in southern Taiwan. Asthma with atopy was defined as having asthma in combination with an increase in total IgE (≥100 U/ml) or a positive Phadiatop test (≥0.35 Pharmacia arbitrary unit/L) (Pharmacia ImmunoCAP; Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden). Occupational exposure to asthmogens was assessed with an asthma-specific job exposure matrix. We found a significant association between atopic asthma and exposure to high molecular weight asthmogens (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-8.9). Nonatopic asthma was significantly associated with exposure to low molecular weight asthmogens (AOR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.6-4.3), including industrial cleaning agents and metal sensitizers. Agriculture was associated with both atopic and nonatopic asthma (AOR, 7.8; 95% CI, 2.8-21.8; and AOR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.3-13.0, respectively). The ratio of FEV₁ to FVC in the high-risk group was significantly lower than in the no-risk group (P = 0.026) in currently employed patients with asthma. In adults with asthma, occupational exposure to high and low molecular weight asthmogens appears to produce differential risks for atopic and nonatopic asthma.

  9. [Trial digitalization of analog-data obtained from the AutoAnalyzer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, S

    2000-10-01

    The AutoAnalzer(Basic Model) manufactured on Technicon corporation was a very useful instrument for clinical laboratory automation, but it was necessary to convert the data obtained from the instrument to digital values used the chart reader. This was very troublesome and there was apprehension that there would be errors in A-D conversion. We tried converting data obtained from the AutoAnalzer to a digital value by on-line connection of the instruments with minicomputers(LINC-8 and FACOM-R). The output of the recorder was converted to voltage(0 to 100 V) using a potentiometer, quantitated(0 to 1.000) by the A-D converter attached to LINC-8, and processed by the minicomputer. The control-box was an experimental device mainly designed for the convenience of users. The functions of the control-box were designated analytical items, No. of A-D converters, start and stop of the AutoAnalzer operation to the minicomputer. Employing the control-box, a technician operated this system freely, without direct computer operation. We established a generally satisfactory system for clinical laboratory automation using the minicomputer.

  10. Residential radon exposure, diet and lung cancer: a case-control study in a Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, Francesco; Forastiere, Francesco; Farchi, Sara; Quarto, Maria; Axelson, Olav

    2005-05-10

    We performed a case-control study in Lazio, a region in central Italy characterized by high levels of indoor radon, Mediterranean climate and diet. Cases (384) and controls (404) aged 35-90 years were recruited in the hospital. Detailed information regarding smoking, diet and other risk factors were collected by direct interview. Residential history during the 30-year period ending 5 years before enrollment was ascertained. In each dwelling, radon detectors were placed in both the main bedroom and the living room for 2 consecutive 6-month periods. We computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for time-weighted radon concentrations using both categorical and continuous unconditional logistic regression analysis and adjusting for smoking, diet and other variables. Radon measurements were available from 89% and 91% of the time period for cases and controls, respectively. The adjusted ORs were 1.30 (1.03-1.64), 1.48 (1.08-2.02), 1.49 (0.82-2.71) and 2.89 (0.45-18.6) for 50-99, 100-199, 200-399 and 400+ Bq/m(3), respectively, compared with 0-49 Bq/m(3) (OR = 1; 0.56-1.79). The excess odds ratio (EOR) per 100 Bq/m(3) was 0.14 (-0.11, 0.46) for all subjects, 0.24 (-0.09, 0.70) for subjects with complete radon measurements and 0.30 (-0.08, 0.82) for subjects who had lived in 1 or 2 dwellings. There was a tendency of higher risk estimates among subjects with low-medium consumption of dietary antioxidants (EOR = 0.32; -0.19, 1.16) and for adenocarcinoma, small cell and epidermoid cancers. This study indicates an association, although generally not statistically significant, between residential radon and lung cancer with both categorical and continuous analyses. Subjects with presumably lower uncertainty in the exposure assessment showed a higher risk. Dietary antioxidants may act as an effect modifier.

  11. AutoDrug: fully automated macromolecular crystallography workflows for fragment-based drug discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Yingssu; McPhillips, Scott E.; González, Ana; McPhillips, Timothy M.; Zinn, Daniel; Cohen, Aina E.; Feese, Michael D.; Bushnell, David; Tiefenbrunn, Theresa; Stout, C. David; Ludaescher, Bertram; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O.; Soltis, S. Michael

    2013-01-01

    New software has been developed for automating the experimental and data-processing stages of fragment-based drug discovery at a macromolecular crystallography beamline. A new workflow-automation framework orchestrates beamline-control and data-analysis software while organizing results from multiple samples. AutoDrug is software based upon the scientific workflow paradigm that integrates the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource macromolecular crystallography beamlines and third-party processing software to automate the crystallography steps of the fragment-based drug-discovery process. AutoDrug screens a cassette of fragment-soaked crystals, selects crystals for data collection based on screening results and user-specified criteria and determines optimal data-collection strategies. It then collects and processes diffraction data, performs molecular replacement using provided models and detects electron density that is likely to arise from bound fragments. All processes are fully automated, i.e. are performed without user interaction or supervision. Samples can be screened in groups corresponding to particular proteins, crystal forms and/or soaking conditions. A single AutoDrug run is only limited by the capacity of the sample-storage dewar at the beamline: currently 288 samples. AutoDrug was developed in conjunction with RestFlow, a new scientific workflow-automation framework. RestFlow simplifies the design of AutoDrug by managing the flow of data and the organization of results and by orchestrating the execution of computational pipeline steps. It also simplifies the execution and interaction of third-party programs and the beamline-control system. Modeling AutoDrug as a scientific workflow enables multiple variants that meet the requirements of different user groups to be developed and supported. A workflow tailored to mimic the crystallography stages comprising the drug-discovery pipeline of CoCrystal Discovery Inc. has been deployed and successfully

  12. Information Processing in Auto-regulated Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Javorszky

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We present a model of information processing which is based on two concurrent ways of describing the world, where a description in one of the languages limits the possibilities for realisations in the other language. The two describing dimensions appear in our common sense as dichotomies of perspectives: subjective - objective; diversity - similarity; individual - collective. We abstract from the subjective connotations and treat the test theoretical case of an interval on which several concurrent categories can be introduced. We investigate multidimensional partitions as potential carriers of information and compare their efficiency to that of sequenced carriers. We regard the same assembly once as a contemporary collection, once as a longitudinal sequence and find promising inroads towards understanding information processing by auto-regulated systems. Information is understood to point out that what is the case from among alternatives, which could be the case. We have translated these ideas into logical operations on the set of natural numbers and have found two equivalence points on N where matches between sequential and commutative ways of presenting a state of the world can agree in a stable fashion: a flip-flop mechanism is envisioned. By following this new approach, a mathematical treatment of some poignant biomathematical problems is allowed. Also, the concepts presented in this treatise may well have relevance and applications within the information processing and the theory of language fields.

  13. Auto-identification fiberoptical seal verifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoichi; Mukaiyama, Takehiro

    1998-08-01

    An auto COBRA seal verifier was developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to provide more efficient and simpler inspection measures for IAEA safeguards. The verifier is designed to provide means of a simple, quantitative and objective judgment on in-situ verification for the COBRA seal. The equipment is a portable unit with hand-held weight and size. It can be operated by battery or AC power. The verifier reads a COBRA seal signature by using a built-in CCD camera and carries out the signature comparison procedure automatically on digital basis. The result of signature comparison is given as a YES/NO answer. The production model of the verifier was completed in July 1996. The development was carried out in collaboration with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. This report describes the design and functions of the COBRA seal verifier and the results of environmental and functional tests. The development of the COBRA seal verifier was carried out in the framework of Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) as a project, JD-4 since 1981. (author)

  14. Kepler AutoRegressive Planet Search (KARPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    One of the main obstacles in detecting faint planetary transits is the intrinsic stellar variability of the host star. The Kepler AutoRegressive Planet Search (KARPS) project implements statistical methodology associated with autoregressive processes (in particular, ARIMA and ARFIMA) to model stellar lightcurves in order to improve exoplanet transit detection. We also develop a novel Transit Comb Filter (TCF) applied to the AR residuals which provides a periodogram analogous to the standard Box-fitting Least Squares (BLS) periodogram. We train a random forest classifier on known Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) using select features from different stages of this analysis, and then use ROC curves to define and calibrate the criteria to recover the KOI planet candidates with high fidelity. These statistical methods are detailed in a contributed poster (Feigelson et al., this meeting).These procedures are applied to the full DR25 dataset of NASA’s Kepler mission. Using the classification criteria, a vast majority of known KOIs are recovered and dozens of new KARPS Candidate Planets (KCPs) discovered, including ultra-short period exoplanets. The KCPs will be briefly presented and discussed.

  15. The Auto-Gopher Deep Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface penetration by coring, drilling or abrading is of great importance for a large number of space and earth applications. An Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) has been in development at JPL's Nondestructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) lab as an adaptable tool for many of these applications. The USDC uses a novel drive mechanism to transform the high frequency ultrasonic or sonic vibrations of the tip of a horn into a lower frequency sonic hammering of a drill bit through an intermediate free-flying mass. The USDC device idea has been implemented at various scales from handheld drills to large diameter coring devices. A series of computer programs that model the function and performance of the USDC device were developed and were later integrated into an automated modeling package. The USDC has also evolved from a purely hammering drill to a rotary hammer drill as the design requirements increased form small diameter shallow drilling to large diameter deep coring. A synthesis of the Auto-Gopher development is presented in this paper.

  16. AutoCategorization for Customized Knowledge Portals, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An AutoCategorizing Knowledge Management Engine ("AKM") will automate key capabilities for both human-human and human-agent collaboration tools in aerospace...

  17. Auto industry : a framework for considering federal financial assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-05

    The current economic downturn has brought significant financial stress to the auto manufacturing industry. Recent deteriorating financial, real estate, and labor markets have reduced consumer confidence and available credit, and automobile purchases ...

  18. Auto-regenerative thermoluminescence dating using zircon inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templer, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Fired ceramics containing zircon inclusions have been dated by allowing the zircons to regenerate their own thermoluminescence (TL) signal, hence auto-regenerative TL dating. The technique is conceptually straightforward. One first measures the TL accrued since the last heating of the material. The zircon grains are then stored for six months and the TL signal regenerated through self-irradiation is measured. Since the internal dose-rate for zircon is dominated by the internal component the age of the sample is simply given by the ratio of the natural to auto-regenerated signal times the laboratory storage period. The technique, however, requires the measurement of a very small auto-regenerated signal, which introduces a number of experimental and physical complications. The methods for overcoming these problems and successfully dating zircons by auto-regeneration are described. (Author)

  19. Linking mileage to auto accident risk and urban form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Pricing auto insurance on a per-mile basis provides a beneficial, cost-based incentive to : reduce vehicle miles traveled compared with traditional rating plans that charge annual : premiums with little or no consideration of miles driven. : The rese...

  20. Auto-immune haematological complications occurring during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Auto-immune haematological complications occurring during treatment for malignant Iymphoproliferative diseases are described in 5 patients. There appeared to be a temporal relationship between the development of these complications and the administration of chemotherapeutic drugs or extensive radiotherapy.